WorldWideScience

Sample records for batu hijau porphyry

  1. Porphyry copper assessment of Southeast Asia and Melanesia: Chapter D in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Bookstrom, Arthur A.; Dicken, Connie L.; Drenth, Benjamin J.; Ludington, Steve; Robinson,, Gilpin R.; Setiabudi, Bambang Tjahjono; Sukserm, Wudhikarn; Sunuhadi, Dwi Nugroho; Wah, Alexander Yan Sze; Zientek, Michael L.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey collaborated with member countries of the Coordinating Committee for Geoscience Programmes in East and Southeast Asia (CCOP) on an assessment of the porphyry copper resources of Southeast Asia and Melanesia as part of a global mineral resource assessment. The region hosts world-class porphyry copper deposits and underexplored areas that are likely to contain undiscovered deposits. Examples of known porphyry copper deposits include Batu Hijau and Grasberg in Indonesia; Panguna, Frieda River, and Ok Tedi in Papua New Guinea; and Namosi in Fiji.

  2. PERGULATAN HIDUP PEREMPUAN PEMECAH BATU

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    Sri Suhartini

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Semakin terbatasnya lahan pertanian dan berkembangnya teknologi pertanian, mengakibatkan penurunan kesempatan kerja perempuan disektor pertanian di daerah pedesaan. Oleh karena itu muncul berbagai alternatif pekerjaan yang ditekuni perempuan di pedesaan. Bidang pekerjaan yang dipilih perempuan desa umumnya sebagai buruh, salah satunya adalah buruh pemecah batu. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui kehidupan sosial dan ekonomi perempuan pemecah batu, mengetahui pembagian waktu perempuan sebagai ibu rumah tangga dan sebagai pemecah batu dan mengetahui relasi antara pekerjaan menjadi pemecah batu dengan pola pengambilan keputusan dalam rumah tangga para perempuan pemecah batu. Metode yang digunakan adalah pendekatan deskriptif kualitatif dan dilakukan  pada para perempuan pemecah batu di Desa Kebondalem Kecamatan Gringsing Kabupaten Batang. Pengumpulan data menggunakan teknik wawancara mendalam dan observasi partisipasi terbatas. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa para perempuan mendapat keuntungan dengan bekerja sebagai pemecah batu dan dengan pekerjaan ini mereka dapat memperluas hubungan sosial dengan masyarakat luas. Akan tetapi kehidupan ekonomi para perempuan pemecah batu tidak mengalami perubahan karena pendapatan yang diperoleh belum mampu untuk memenuhi kebutuhan hidupnya. Alokasi waktu yang dicurahkan perempuan pemecah batu lebih banyak jika dibandingkan oleh para pekerja laki – laki dalam sehari-hari. Dengan demikian perempuan pemecah batu memiliki beban yang lebih berat jika dibandingkan dengan suami.The more limited agricultural land and the development of agricultural technology results in the decrease of female employment in the agricultural sector in rural areas. This condition is characterized by the emergence of alternative jobs for rural women. Such an alternative is stone-breaking labor. The objective of this study is to examine the social and economic life of breaking stones women, the distribution of time of

  3. PEMBERDAYAAN APARATUR UNTUK MENINGKATKAN KINERJA DI KECAMATAN BATU, KOTA BATU

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    ROBIQ - YUNIANTO

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK   Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk (1 Mendeskripsikan, menganalisa dan mengintepretasikan aspek-aspek yang berhubungan dengan bentuk dan teknik/cara-cara pemberdayaan aparatur; (2 Mendeskripsikan, menganalisa dan menginteprestasikan aspek-aspek yang berhubungan dengan upaya meningkatkan kinerja aparatur Kecamatan Batu. Penelitian yang dilakukan pada Kecamatan Batu Kota Batu ini menggunakan jenis Penelitian Diskriptif Kualitatif yang terbatas pada usaha mengungkapkan suatu masalah dan keadaan atau peristiwa sebagaimana adanya, sehingga bersifat sekedar untuk mengungkapkan fakta. Oleh sebab itu, penelitian ini lebih menekankan pada makna dari suatu proses daripada sekedar perhitungan statistik. Hasil penelitian menunjukan bahwa upaya pemberdayaan aparatur yang ditempuh melalui bentuk dan tehnik atau cara-cara pemberdayaan secara langsung maupun tidak langsung telah diselenggarakan kendati belum optimal. Berbagai bentuk pemberdayaan aparatur yang diselenggarakan antara lain: (a Pendidikan dan pelatihan, yang berfungsi meningkatkan kualitas manajerial dan profesionalisme aparatur; (b Penyelenggaraan motivasi secara umum yang terdiri atas peningkatan penghasilan dan kesejahteraan aparatur, penyediaan sarana dan prasarana kerja, penyediaan sumberdaya keuangan pendukung kinerja dan pemberian penghargaan dan hukuman menghendaki adanya komitmen, peranan dan tanggung jawab lebih dari unsur pimpinan organisasi.  Teknik pemberdayaan aparatur ditempuh melalui serangkaian aktivitas penetapan visi, misi dan hasil capaian yang dikehendaki bersama, pendelegasian wewenang dan pengelolaan  sumberdaya organisasi, serta evaluasi pertanggungjawaban atas hasil capaian. Semua ini menunjukkan isyarat kurangnya keseriusan/ ketidak sungguhan sebagian pihak aparatur dalam unit kerja. Proses penetapan visi, misi hanya sekedar memenuhi aspek formalitas saja. Kinerja aparatur yang merupakan potret indikasi keberhasilan maupun kegagalan dalam proses pencapaian tujuan

  4. Memaknai Potensi Lompat Batu (Hombo Batu) Bagi Masyarakat Bawomataluo Nias Selatan Dari Budaya Tradisional Menjadi Budaya Wisata

    OpenAIRE

    Zega, Syurman Jaya

    2016-01-01

    At first the stone jumping culture (hombo batu) is a traditional culture that is owned by the whole village joined in Maenamolo Ori. Hombo batu culture has a history laden with war, patriotism and heroic character. Bawomataluo village today is the only village which still keeps the results of South Nias culture complete with traditional cultural attributes typical of South Nias including hombo batu. Bawomataluo village also store the results of the South Nias culture other than hombo batu,...

  5. EVALUASI UNTUK MENGATASI BEBAN LEBIH PADA PENYULANG BATU BELIG

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    Kadek Hendra Priadi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Penyulang Batu Belig merupakan penyulang dengan konfigurasi tipe radial, dengan 109 trafo distribusi, total daya terpasang 19.175 KVA. Pada tahun 2013 beban puncak penyulang Batu Belig sebesar 284 A dan standar maksimal pembebanan suatu penyulang 240 A (80% dari 300 ampere. Mengatasi beban lebih pada penyulang Batu Belig, perlu dilakukan rekonfigurasi jaringan distribusi. Rekonfigurasi jaringan distribusi dapat dilakukan dengan dua skenario : skenario 1 dengan mengalihkan sebagian beban penyulang Batu Belig ke penyulang terdekat, yaitu penyulang Mertanadi dan Uma Alas. Skenario 2 dengan memotong beban penyulang Batu Belig menjadi dua, sehingga didapat penyulang Batu Belig 1 dan penyulang Batu Belig 2. Penyulang Batu Belig 2 akan dialihkan ke penyulang baru, yang ditarik dari gardu induk terdekat, yaitu Gardu Induk Padang Sambian dan Gardu Induk Pemecutan Kelod. Setelah dianalisis solusi terbaik untuk mengatasi beban yang sudah kritis pada penyulang Batu Belig dengan rekonfigurasi skenario 2, yaitu penyulang Batu Belig 2 dengan sumber gardu induk Pemecutan Kelod (trafo III/ 60 MVA mengunakan kabel tanam (AL XLPE 240 mm2. Menggunakan kabel tanam didapat persentase losses sebesar 2,5% dan persentase drop tegangan sebesar 1,63%, untuk standar losses yang diijinkanl adalah 5,24% [1], dan drop tegangan pada tipe radial yang diijinkan tidak boleh lebih dari 5% [2].

  6. Reptiles of Lata Bukit Hijau, Kedah, Malaysia

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    Shahriza Shahrudin

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Lata Bukit Hijau is located within the Banjaran Bintang Ranges on the west coast of northern Peninsular Malaysia. The reptile fauna in this pristine area was intensively investigated from 2008 to 2011 on 10 consecutive visits. A total 37 species of reptiles from 31 genera and 10 families were recorded to inhabit this area. Out of this number, 17 species were lizards (13 genera and four families, 17 species were snakes (15 genera and four families and three species were freshwater turtles (three genera and two families. These preliminary data increased the number of lizards, snakes and freshwater turtles reported from Banjaran Bintang from 31 to 41, 30 to 44 and three to five species, respectively

  7. PERBAIKAN PRODUKTIVITAS HIJAU PADA PROSES PRODUKSI SUSU BUBUK DEWASA

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    Rizal Bahara

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The goals of this research are to know the application of green productivity in PT.XYZ, to find the factors that influence the green productivity and to find the best solution and policy to improve the green productivity index. The analysis method was done by identifying waste that has environmental impact using Green Value Steam Mapping. The current green productivity index (GPI is 27,20. The increase of green productivity value index could be done by lowering production costs and lowering environmental impact. Strategies to increase the value of green productivity index involving the experts using ANP method. There are five alternatives solution to increase green productivity index, the solution are reusing water, using led lamp, using modulating heater, optimizing production process, and using automatic cartonner. Using led lamp increase green productivity index 3,21% (GPI: 28,07, using modulating heater can increase 15,38% (GPI: 31,38, using automatic cartonner can increase 8,25% (GPI: 29,44, reusing water can increase 2,63% (GPI: 27,91 and with optimizing production process can increase 5,43% (GPI: 28,67. The factors that influence the green productivity index are energy cost, labor cost, CO2 emission and water consumption. Keywords: green value stream mapping, green productivity index, led, green productivityABSTRAKPenelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui penerapan produktivitas hijau di PT.XYZ, mengetahui faktor-faktor yang memengaruhi dan menerapkan kebijakan-kebijakan solusi untuk meningkatkan produktivitas hijau yang dilihat dari perbaikan nilai indeks produktivitas hijaunya. Metode penelitian dilakukan dengan mengidentifikasi limbah yang terkait dengan dampak lingkungan dengan menggunakan Green Value Steam Mapping, dari nilai dampak lingkungan didapatkan nilai indeks produktivitas awal adalah 27,20. Peningkatan nilai indeks produktivitas hijau di lakukan dengan menurunkan biaya produksi dan menurunkan dampak terhadap lingkungan

  8. KAJIAN RISIKO KESEHATAN KONSUMEN KERANG HIJAU YANG MENGANDUNG SAKSITOKSIN DI CILINCING JAKARTA UTARA

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    Murdahayu Makmur

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Telah dilakukan kajian risiko kesehatan konsumen kerang hijau yang mengandung saksitoksin di perkampungan nelayan kerang hijau Cilincing Jakarta Utara.Penelitian ini dilakukan karena terdeteksinya saksitoksin yang termasuk dalam toksin PSP pada kerang yang berasal dari bagan kerang hijau setempat.Saksitoksin bisa memberikan dampak kelumpuhan terhadap konsumen kerang hijau dan berdampak ke kematian akut apabila dikonsumsi dalam jumlah besar. Sehingga diperlukan suatu penelitian untuk menghitung nilai kuasi risiko konsumen kerang hijau di wilayah pesisir Cilincing.Teknik pengumpulan data menggunakan sistem sampel purposive dengan kriteria inklusi dengan sistem drop. Jumlah sampel yang dibutuhkan dalam penelitian ini dihitung berdasarkan rumus Slovin. Dengan menggunakan ukuran porsi maksimum masyarakat Cilincing sebesar 650,70 g maka nilai pajanan saksitoksin sebesar 1,88 µg/kg b.b. nilai masih di bawah nilai pajanan yang disepakati oleh panel EFSA yaitu 5,3 µg/kg b.b. Berdasarkan nilai RQ untuk pajanan tertinggi yaitu sekitar 0,35, berarti nilai RQ<1, dapat dikatakan bahwa pola konsumsi dan konsentrasi toksin pada kerang hijau tidak memberikan risiko terhadap kesehatan masyarakat pesisir Cilincing.   Kata kunci: Kerang Hijau, Saksitoksin, Kajian risiko, Kesehatan masyarakat, Cilincing

  9. Proses Kreatif Teater Garasi Yogyakarta Dalam Lakon Waktu Batu

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    Nur Iswantara

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan penelitian ini memahami konsep dan proses kreatif Teater Garasi Yogyakarta (TGY. TGY merupakan salah satu kelompok teater kontemporer Indonesia yang cukup fenomenal. Puluhan karya TGY telah disajikan dihadapan penonton baik di tingkat lokal maupun nasional. Penelitian difokuskan pada faktor-faktor internal dan eksternal yang mempengaruhi situasi kondusif bagi pertumbuhan dan perkembangan kelompok TGY. Teori kreativitas, perbandingan seni, semiotika dan manajemen seni digunakan untuk membedah permasalahan yang diajukan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa TGY berada dalam lingkungan perteateran Yogyakarta yang syarat dengan teater tradisional melakukan ‘pemberontakan’ artistik. Sebagai organisasi seni teater kontemporer, TGY memiliki visi dan misi yang jelas. Melalui ‘laboratorium penciptaan teater’ TGY mampu menghasilkan satu maha karya pertunjukan lakon Waktu Batu (WB. Pertunjukan lakon WB terdiri tiga sub judul: ‘Waktu Batu 1, Kisah-kisah yang Bertemu di Ruang Tunggu’; ‘Waktu Batu 2, Ritus Seratus Kecemasan dan Wajah Siapa yang Terbelah’; dan ‘Waktu Batu 3, Deus ex Machina dan Perasaan-perasaan Padamu’. Karya ini inspiratif karena memakan waktu empat tahun proses kreatifnya, digerakkan oleh insan-insan muda dan dipentaskan road show di berbagai kota di Indonesia dan Singapura.Kata kunci: Teater Garasi, kesenian Yogyakarta, Waktu Batu.ABSTRACTThe Creative Process of Garasi Theater Yogyakarta for the Story of Waktu Batu. The aims of this research is to understand the creative concept and process of Garasi Theater Yogyakarta. It is one of the phenomenal Indonesian contemporary groups of theater. Some of its works have already been performed in front of local and national audiences as well. This research mainly focuses on the internal and external factors which have influnced the condusive situation towards the development and popularity of Garasi Theater Yogyakarta. In order to solve the problems formulated in the

  10. KAJIAN ALIH FUNGSI RUANG TERBUKA HIJAU DI KOTA DENPASAR

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    I Nengah Riana

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Denpasar city is both the capital as well as the major growth center in Bali. This growth however has caused problems for open space provision. Green open space in urban areas is a necessary part of spatial planning in order to maintain water catchment areas to improve urban environmental compatibility, creation of an urban environment that is safe, comfortable, fresh, beautiful and healthy, and to provide a balance between the natural environment, the built environment and the public realm. The transformation of open space to urban uses in cities is ubiquitous and impacts on spatial planning. This study aims to determine the extent of land conversion in Denpasar and the reasons for such change. Quantitative analysis is used to focus on the form of land use change and the logic behind it. The study concentrates on open space conversion. Data was collected by observation, questionnaires and interview. The final results of this research will hopefully enrich the field of regional development and urban spatial planning, and provide a useful stimulus in the forward planning of Denpasar. Preliminary results suggest that land conversion predominantly serves residential land use (94.12%. Dominant factors that affect its transfer are due to its strategic location (69.50% and blocked irrigation channels (30.1%. The analysis demonstrates that many open green spaces are located in strategic areas with a complete infrastructure that supports land conversion but are located beside irrigation channels than cannot function optimally. Keywords: land conversion, green open space, urban open space  Abstrak Denpasar merupakan ibu kota Provinsi dan pusat pertumbuhan di Bali. Pesatnya pertumbuhan kota memunculkan permasalahan terkait pengadaan ruang terbuka hijau. Ruang terbuka hijau pada kawasan perkotaan merupakan bagian dari penataan ruang kota dengan tujuan menjaga ketersediaan lahan, sebagai kawasan resapan air, menjaga keseimbangan antara lingkungan

  11. Kontaminasi senyawa poliklorobifenil (PCB pada kerang hijau, Perna viridis dari Teluk Jakarta

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    Edward .

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The objective of this research was to examine the contamination level of polychlorinated biphenyl compound in green mussels. Green mussels samples were collected in Jakarta Bay in March 2013. Polychlorinated biphenyl level were quantified by gas chromatography HP 5880 series II completely with Electron Capture Detector (ECD. The levels of polychlorinatedbiphenyl in small size mussels was 0.846 ppb, in medium size mussels was 0.854 ppb, and in biger size mussels was 2.018 ppb. These levels were lowercompared to the safe threshold value for seafood which in 2,000 ppb. Therefore the green mussels from Jakarta Bay is safe to consumpt. Keywords: Jakarta Bay; contamination; PCB; green Mussels Abstrak. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menentukan tingkat kontaminasi senyawa polikloro bifenil dalam kerang hijau. Contoh kerang hijau dikumpulkan di Teluk Jakarta pada bulan Maret 2013. Kadar polikloro bifenil diukur  dengan alat kromatografi gas HP 5880 series II, yang dilengkapi dengan detektor penangkap elektron (ECD. Kadar polikloro bifenil dalam kerang hijau ukuran kecil adalah 0,846 ppb, kerang ukuran sedang adalah 0,854 ppb dan kerang ukuran besar adalah 2,018 ppb. Kadar ini masih rendah bila dibandingkan dengan nilai ambang batas aman untuk makanan hasil laut yakni 2000 ppb. Hasil penelitian ini diharapkan dapat memberikan informasi kepada masyarakat apakah kerang hijau di Teluk Jakarta ini masih aman untuk dikonsumsi. Kata kunci: Teluk Jakarta; kontaminasi; PCB; kerang hijau

  12. Pengaruh Pertumbuhan Usaha Kecil Menengah (UKM terhadap Pertumbuhan Ekonomi Daerah(Studi di Pemerintah Kota Batu

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    Pradnya Paramita Hapsari

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Keberhasilan pembangunan nasional dapat ditempuh dengan menggunakan paradigma pembangunan yaitu pemberdayaan. Salah satu upaya pemberdayaan tersebut yaitu melalui pemberdayaan UKM. UKM adalah sektor usaha yang mampu bertahan di krisis multidimensi tahun 1998 dan krisis global pada tahun 2008. UKM merupakan penyumbang PDB terbesar nasional sampai saat ini. Oleh karena itu Pemberdayaan UKM mutlak diperlukan. Kota Batu merupakan salah satu kota yang menarik dan berpotensi untuk pengembangan Dunia Usaha dan Pariwisata. Pemberdayaan UKM dan sektor pariwisata di Kota Batu berpengaruh secara signifikan terhadap peningkatan perekonomian baik secara individu maupun keseluruhan (PAD Kota Batu. Untuk mengetahui signifikansi hubungan antara pemberdayaan UKM dan pertumbuhan ekonomi daerah di Kota Batu maka dilakukan pengujian secara bersama-sama dan parsial terhadap variabel-variabel pemberdayaan UKM yang meliputi jumlah UKM, tenaga kerja UKM, Modal UKM dan Laba UKM. Dari hasil pengujian regresi panel secara bersama-sama ditemukan bahwa Pemberdayaan UKM berpengaruh secara signifikan terhadap pertumbuhan ekonomi daerah di Kota Batu. Dan dari hasil pengujian secara parsial variabel jumlah UKM dan tenaga kerja UKM tidak ditemukan pengaruh yang signifikan terhadap pertumbuhan ekonomi di Kota Batu, sedangkan untuk variabel Modal UKM dan Laba UKM ditemukan pengaruh yang signifikan terhadap pertumbuhan Ekonomi di Kota Batu. Kata Kunci: Pembangunan, Pemberdayaan,  PDB, Pertumbuhan Ekonomi, UKM

  13. ANALISIS BEBAN KERJA OPERATOR MESIN PEMOTONG BATU BESAR (SIRKEL 160 CM DENGAN MENGGUNAKAN METODE 10 DENYUT

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    Andriyanto Andriyanto

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available PT. PAH merupakan sebuah industri pemotongan batu magma (magma stone yang terletak di jalan Magelang Km. 15 Yogyakarta. Di perusahaan pemotongan batu ini terdapat 3 ukuran pemotongan yaitu sirkel besar (diameter 160 cm, sirkel sedang (diameter 60 - 90 cm dan sirkel kecil (diameter 30 - 50 cm. Penelitian ini khususnya pada pemotongan batu besar, dimana terdapat keluhan kelelahan operator yang terdiri dari operator utama dan operator pembantu. Penelitian dilakukan dengan tujuan untuk mengetahui tingkat beban kerja fisik operator pemotong batu besar (sirkel 160 dengan metode 10 denyut. Dalam penelitian ini ditentukan lama waktu istirahat yang dibutuhkan operator utama maupun pembantu. Selanjutnya dilakukan implementasi waktu istirahat tersebut dan dilakukan pengukuran kembali untuk mengetahui penurunan denyut nadi kerja operator. Penerapan waktu istirahat tersebut membawa penurunan DNK operator masuk kategori ringan dan % CVL masuk kategori tidak terjadi kelelahan.

  14. PENGARUH PEMBERIAN PUPUK HIJAU CAIR KIHUJAN (Samanea saman) DAN AZOLLA (Azolla pinnata) TERHADAP KANDUNGAN SELULOSA DAN HEMISELULOSA RUMPUT GAJAH (Pennisetum purpureum)

    OpenAIRE

    KARIMUDDIN, KHAERUN NUR

    2016-01-01

    2016 KHAERUN NUR KARIMUDDIN (I11111018). Pengaruh Pemberian Pupuk Hijau Cair Ki hujan (Samanea saman) dan Azolla (Azolla pinnata) Terhadap Kandungan Selulosa dan Hemiselulosa Rumput Gajah (Pennisetum purpureum). Dibawah bimbingan SYAMSUDDIN NOMPO sebagai pembimbing utama dan MARHAMAH NADIR sebagai pembimbing anggota. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh pemberian pupuk hijau cair dari tanaman Ki hujan (Samanea saman), dan Azolla (Azolla pinnata) terhadap ...

  15. Implementasi Kebijakan Ekonomi Pariwisata dan Perwujudan Pemberdayaan Masyarakat di Kota Batu

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    Magistyo P Priambodo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This research was to describe the government implementation of economic tourism policy and its impact on community through empowerment program in Batu City. As one of new autonomus region in east java, Batu City use geographic advantages that is concern in tourism sector to raise region economic development. Using qualitative fenomenology approach to analize. There are two strategic policy in Batu City that implementing in tourism development, first is conventional paradigm policy and then sustainable paradigm policy. Each implementation of the policy has brought different consequences and impact on development in Batu City. As a result, emerging programs aimed at improving the development of tourism to reduce conflicts that can occur and to increase community participation as empowerment through community based tourism concept, increasing the role of local SMEs and creating city branding called "Shining Batu". Success in community development in the area of tourism is determined from the role of stakeholders, and therefore required a synergy mindset and active participation of all entity to realize the welfare of society in Batu City.

  16. Porphyry copper deposits of the world

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Information on porphyry copper deposits from around the world with grade and tonnage models, a general classification based on geologic setting, mineralogy, with...

  17. ANALISA POSISI KERJA PADA PROSES PENCETAKAN BATU BATA MENGGUNAKAN METODE NIOSH

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    Merry Siska

    2012-06-01

    Pabrik pencetakan batu bata milik Bapak Miri mengerjakan pencetakan batu bata dengan proses manual. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk memberikan posisi kerja usulan pada operator. Dari perhitungan dengan menggunakan metode NIOSH dapat disimpulkan bahwa telah diperhitungkan nilai Recommended Weight Limit (RWL, nilai Lifting Index (LI, nilai Torque dan nilai konsumsi energi dari posisi usulan pada semua bagian tubuh dan dibandingkan pada posisi awal operator bekerja, maka pengangkatan beban tidak lagi bertumpu di bagian back dan sudah berubah dari posisi awal bekerja serta mengurangi keluhan bekerja pada bagian back. Bekerja tidak perlu terburu-buru, karena akan mengeluarkan energi yang dikeluarkan banyak dan akan mengakibatkan resiko cedera pada bagian tubuh.

  18. Porphyry of Russian Empires in Paris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulakh, Andrey

    2014-05-01

    Porphyry of Russian Empires in Paris A. G. Bulakh (St Petersburg State University, Russia) So called "Schokhan porphyry" from Lake Onega, Russia, belongs surely to stones of World cultural heritage. One can see this "porphyry" at facades of a lovely palace of Pavel I and in pedestal of the monument after Nicolas I in St Petersburg. There are many other cases of using this stone in Russia. In Paris, sarcophagus of Napoleon I Bonaparte is constructed of blocks of this stone. Really, it is Proterozoic quartzite. Geology situation, petrography and mineralogical characteristic will be reported too. Comparison with antique porphyre from the Egyptian Province of the Roma Empire is given. References: 1) A.G.Bulakh, N.B.Abakumova, J.V.Romanovsky. St Petersburg: a History in Stone. 2010. Print House of St Petersburg State University. 173 p.

  19. Preliminary Model of Porphyry Copper Deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Byron R.; Ayuso, Robert A.; Wynn, Jeffrey C.; Seal, Robert R., II

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Mineral Resources Program develops mineral-deposit models for application in USGS mineral-resource assessments and other mineral resource-related activities within the USGS as well as for nongovernmental applications. Periodic updates of models are published in order to incorporate new concepts and findings on the occurrence, nature, and origin of specific mineral deposit types. This update is a preliminary model of porphyry copper deposits that begins an update process of porphyry copper models published in USGS Bulletin 1693 in 1986. This update includes a greater variety of deposit attributes than were included in the 1986 model as well as more information about each attribute. It also includes an expanded discussion of geophysical and remote sensing attributes and tools useful in resource evaluations, a summary of current theoretical concepts of porphyry copper deposit genesis, and a summary of the environmental attributes of unmined and mined deposits.

  20. AT3 (Acyltransferase Gene Isolated From Capsicum frutescens cv. Cakra Hijau

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    Mohamad Habibi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Chili pepper is widely used and cultivated by Indonesian people. There are three species of chili pepper, i.e.: Capsicum annuum L., Capsicum frutescens L., and Capsicum violaceum HBK. Capsicum frutescens L. has a higher economic value due to its pungency and carotenoid content. C. frutescens has several cultivars, one of those is Capsicum frutescens cv. Cakra Hijau. This cultivar is resistant against pest and disease and has very high pungency. This special character of chili pepper is born by its secondary metabolic, Capsaicin. Moreover, capsaicin also serves as defense mechanism, antiarthritis, analgesic, and anticancer. This study aimed to isolate Acyltransferase (AT3 gene which encoding Capsaicin Synthase (CS enzyme. AT3 gene was isolated through PCR using forward primer 5’-ATG GCT TTT GCA TTA CCA TCA-3’ and reverse primer 5’-CCT TCA CAA TTA TTC GCC CA-3’. Data were analyzed using DNA Baser, BLAST, and ClustalX. This study has successfully isolated 404 bp fragments of AT3 gene. This fragments located at 1918-1434 bp referred to AT3 gene from Capsicum frutescens cv. Shuanla. Isolation of upstream and downstream fragments of AT3 gene from Capsicum frutescens cv. Cakra Hijau is undergoing.

  1. Birds Communities at Mangrove of Batu Ampar, Kubu Raya District, West Kalimantan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarwadi Budi Hernowo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Batu Ampar mangrove is an important bird habitat especially for birds which have relation to mangrove ecosystem in West Kalimantan. The research was conducted in February to March 2007, at mangrove Batu Ampar demo site. Sampling was done to get representative area for bird survey. The 19 transects were chosen as sampling site to collect bird data such as species and number of individual. Bird surveys were carried out using Reconnaissance method and index point of abundance (IPA count method. The length of each transect was approximately 500 m. The results showed that the bird community's structure dominated by insectivorous birds represented approximately 60 % of total bird's species at mangrove Batu Ampar demo site. The abundance numbers of the individual with the bird's species has relation pattern like J opposite. Percentage of dominant bird species was approximately 11%, those are such as stork billed kingfisher, white-collared kingfisher, common iora, chestnuts-rumped babbler, Strip-Tit Babbler, magpie robin, ashy tailorbird, mangrove blue flycatcher, pied fantail, mangrove whistler, Brown-throated Sunbird and Cooper-Throated Sunbird. Vertical structure of mangrove vegetation was used by birds at mangrove Batu Ampar demo site is mainly B stratum, and it used around 60% birds species. Based on dendrogram analysis there were 5 cluster birds species. The mangrove bird specialists found at sampling area were mangrove blue flycatcher and Cooper throated sunbird.

  2. Exotism of Batu Putih area in Samarinda, East Kalimantan as conservation area for ecotourism destination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutan, Syamsidar; Cahyani, Rina Wahyu; Alam, Fajar; Syuhada, Endy Mukhlis

    2017-02-01

    Batu Putih is a limestone hill complex in Air Putih area, Samarinda, East Kalimantan. The unique value of this region is a towering limestone ridge which easily recognizable at a distance, water catchment area in the city, great place to learn earth science as understanding the ancient marine deposition and hydrocarbon potential development, and the heritage of the region. The objective of this research is toreview the potential of Batu Putih area and surrounding as a green conservation area for ecotourism destination. Batu Putih area, geologically part of Kutai Basin, is controlled by tectonic event, resulted on Northeast-Southwest undulated trend known as Samarinda anticlinorium. Data collected cover several aspects: (1) geological aspects: various types of rocks, groundwater condition and other related data; (2) vegetation aspects; (3) cultural aspect: heritage and historical place. By results from evaluation of existing data, development plan will be commenced. Research found 2 spots for landscape viewing, 3 water resources, various marine fossils in some locations and mud volcano. Vegetations are dominated by "kersen" (Muntingia calabura L.), "aren" (Arenga pinnata) and "pletekan" (Ruellia tuberosa). Based on the findings of the existing kinds of uniqueness, conservation of the area are mandatories. Protection and preservation of the region in integrated manner and area development for ecotourism and education are things should be done in Batu Putih, as increasingly damaged and depleted by limestone mining activities using heavy equipment.

  3. Dynamics of strombolian eruptions at Batu Tara volcano (Indonesia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarlato, P.; Del Bello, E.; Gaudin, D.; Taddeucci, J.; Ricci, T.; Cesaroni, C.

    2015-12-01

    In September 2014, high-speed imaging and acoustic data were acquired during 3 days of almost continuous recording (04-06/09/2015) at Batu Tara Volcano, in the small isolated island of Pulau Komba, in the Flores Sea (about 50 km N of Lembata). This volcano is very similar to the Italian Stromboli Volcano in both eruptive style and edifice morphology. The field experiment aimed at investigating degassing and explosive dynamics using a combination of GPS synchronized devices deployed in direct view of the active vent: i) a high-speed visible camera acquiring images at 500 frames per second (fps),ii) a thermal infrared (FLIR) camera acquiring at 50-200 fps, iii) a visible time lapse camera (GO-PRO) acquiring at 0.2-0.5 Hz (2 - 5 s interval), iv) two broadband microphones (Freq. range of kHz to 0.1 Hz) sampled at 10 kHz. Explosions can be discriminated in type according to their visual, thermal and acoustic features.Some explosions are characterized by a first sudden radial ejection of large spatter and bombs (main pulse), eventually followed by other similar events (secondary pulses), with very little amount of ash involved. In these eruptions, infrasonic waveforms are characterized by a first, high amplitude transient, with a first positive peak pressure followed by rapid dampening, typical of a Strombolian eruption.Other explosions are characterized by the sustained ejection of a dense jet of ash, with abundant decimeter to meter sized spatter and hot blocks.These eruptions are not accompanied by a maximum peak pressure at the eruption onset. Spectrograms show a high frequency component propagating for the entire duration of the signal.These two distinct types are sometimes overlapping and eruptions show a high amplitude transient followed by a high frequency coda. These different evolutions suggest that there are at least two repeatable explosion dynamics occurring in the conduit, with comparable gas overpressure, source depth and amount of gas involved

  4. Pembuatan Pasta Gigi Katekin Teh Hijau dan Uji Daya Hambat terhadap Bakteri Streptococcus Mutans dan Lactobascillus Ascidopillus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fajriani Fajriani

    2015-06-01

    Peracikan formula dan pembuatan pasta gigi katekin teh hijau dilakukan sesuai hasil uji KHM (MIC. Pasta gigi katekin teh hijau ini dilakukan pengukuran kadar total flavonoid dan total polifenol, selanjutnya pengukuran uji daya hambat pasta gigi katekin teh hijau dilakukan dengan metode difusi menggunakan well (sumuran sebagai reservoar sampel uji terhadap bakteri streptococus mutans dan lactobacilus acidophilus. Hasil diperoleh prodak pasta gigi katekin teh hijau dengan kandungan kadar flavonoid 77% dan kadar polifenol 41%, sedangkan hasil uji diameter hambatan pasta gigi katekin teh hijau terhadap bakteri streptococcus mutans 17,2 mm dan bakteri lactobacillus acidophilus 19,6 mm. Hasil ini menunjukkan bahwa prodak katekin teh hijau ini sangat efektif digunakan sehari-hari sebagai perawatan gigi dan juga sebagai antibakteri kariogenik.   Making Green Tea Catechin Toothpaste and Inhibition Test Against Streptococcus Mutans and Acidophilus Lactobaccilus. The manufacture of this toothpaste is motivated by the desire of researchers to facilitate the public to use natural ingredients of green tea catechins whose result effectiveness against cariogenic bacteria was directly tested inhibition. This study is to find the right formula composition for greentea catechins toothpaste based on the result of the inhibition properties of greentea cathecins against tostreptococcus mutans dan lactobacillus acidophilus. The manufacture of greentea catechins toothpaste was after making catechins extracts and testing minimal inhibition concentration (MIC and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC using liquid dilution method. The toothpaste was then made according to the result of MIC. The toothpaste’s flavonoid and polyphenol total contain was measured; then the inhibition property of the toothpaste to was measured using diffusion method with wells as the sample reservoar for streptococus mutans dan lactobacilus acidophilus. It is found that the toothpaste contains

  5. Analysis of tectonic settings of global superlarge porphyry copper deposits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA; Bin(夏斌); CHEN; Genwen(陈根文); WANG; He(王核)

    2003-01-01

    About three quarters of superlarge porphyry copper deposits throughout the world occur along the eastern Pacific basin rim, most of which were formed during the Mesozoic-Cenozoic. Porphyry copper deposits often occur in the upper parts of a subduction zone and in a within-plate orogenic belt. Some porphyry copper deposits are inconsistent with plate subduction with respect to their formation time, and most of them in the world are associated with tensional environment. Metallogenic porphyries originated from the mantle, and the involvement of the lower-crust or oceanic crust materials have played an important role. Based on the geochemical characteristics and tectonic settings of the ore-bearing porphyries in the Gandise and Yulong metallogenic zones, it is proposed that delamination may be the important mechanism of formation of porphyry copper deposits.

  6. Duobaoshan Porphyry Copper Deposit and Its Associated Components

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@Duobaoshan porphyry copper deposit, situated in Nenjiang County of Heilongjiang Province, Northeast China, lies tectonically in the Mongolian-Okhotsk geosyncline.Duobaoshan porphyry copper ore field consisting of Duobaoshan copper deposit and Tongshan copper deposit contains rich copper associated with molybdenum, gold, silver and osmium (OsX87). In this sense, this porphyry copper ore field will turn into a large industrial base of copper, gold, silver and osmium. At present, in Duobaoshan porphyry copper deposit occurs a usable B+C+-D grade reserve of 3 276 630ton Cu, 122 920 ton Mo, 87 ton gold and 1 417 ton Ag.

  7. Valuing quality of vegetation in recharge area of Seruk Spring, Pesanggrahan Valley, Batu City, East Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SITI SOFIAH

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Yulistyarini T, Sofiah S (2011 Valuing quality of vegetation in recharge area of Seruk Spring, Pesanggrahan Valley, Batu City, East Java. Biodiversitas 12: 229-234. A Seruk spring is one of the springs in Batu city which has water debit less than 1 liter per second. Land use changes of Seruk spring recharge area was occured in 2001. Recharge area of Seruk Spring consists of anthropogenic forest, eucalypts plantation, bamboo forest, pines plantation, horticulture and housing. The aim of this research was to valuing the quality of vegetation which supported ground water recharge in Seruk spring. Quality of vegetation were determined by vegetation structure, diversity, the thickness of litter and C-stock of each land use systems. Forests, eucalypts plantation and bamboo forests had almost same quality of vegetation.

  8. Geology,Geochemistry and Genesis of Yinyan Porphyry Tin Deposit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱正书; 朱金初; 等

    1989-01-01

    The Yinyan porphyry tin deposit is a blind deposit associated with a small granite porphyry stock.The petrology and geochemistry of the Yinyan granite porphyry suggest that it is genetically of the transfor-mation type,emplaced at the late stage of fractional crystallization within a high-level magma chamber.Ore-forming fluids are derived predominantly from the granitic magma and they interact with the wall rocks intensely when finding their way upwards through the granite porphyry.From the lower part of the porphyry upwards the following alteration zones can be distinguished(a)slightly altered granite porphyry (with weak potash feldspathization),(b)protolithionite-quartz greisenization zone,(c)to-paz-quartz greisenization zone,(d)senicite-quartz sericitization zone,and (e)silicification zone (quartz core at the surface).Tin mineralization is related to greisenization,especially to topaz-quartz greisenization.Rock and ore-forming temperatures and oxygen fugacities are estimated,respectively.There are significant differences in many aspects between the Yinyan porphyry tin deposit and volcan-ic-subvolcanic porphyry tin deposits.

  9. Porphyry copper enrichment linked to excess aluminium in plagioclase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, B. J.; Herrington, R. J.; Morris, A.

    2016-03-01

    Porphyry copper deposits provide around 75%, 50% and 20% of world copper, molybdenum and gold, respectively. The deposits are mainly centred on calc-alkaline porphyry magmatic systems in subduction zone settings. Although calc-alkaline magmas are relatively common, large porphyry copper deposits are extremely rare and increasingly difficult to discover. Here, we compile existing geochemical data for magmatic plagioclase, a dominant mineral in calc-alkaline rocks, from fertile (porphyry-associated) and barren magmatic systems worldwide, barren examples having no associated porphyry deposit. We show that plagioclase from fertile systems is distinct in containing `excess’ aluminium. This signature is clearly demonstrated in a case study carried out on plagioclase from the fertile La Paloma and Los Sulfatos copper porphyry systems in Chile. Further, the presence of concentric zones of high excess aluminium suggests its incorporation as a result of magmatic processes. As excess aluminium has been linked to high melt water contents, the concentric zones may record injections of hydrous fluid or fluid-rich melts into the sub-porphyry magma chamber. We propose that excess aluminium may exclude copper from plagioclase, so enriching the remaining melts. Furthermore, this chemical signature can be used as an exploration indicator for copper porphyry deposits.

  10. PENGARUH KONSUMSI JANTUNG PISANG BATU TERHADAP PENINGKATAN PRODUKSI ASI DI WILAYAH PUSKESMAS SRIKUNCORO, KECAMATAN PONDOK KELAPA, BENGKULU TENGAH TAHUN 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elly Wahyuni

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Latar Belakang: Air susu ibu (ASI adalah makanan terbaik untuk bayi, jantung pisang batu merupakan jenis makananmengandung Laktogogum yaitu zat gizi yang dapat meningkatkan dan melancarkan produksi ASI terutama pada ibu yangmengalami masalah dalam produksi ASI. Adapun tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui pengaruh jantung pisangbatu terhadap peningkatan produksi ASI pada Ibu Menyusui di Wilayah Puskesmas Srikuncoro Kecamatan Pondok KelapaBengkulu Tengah Tahun 2012. Metode: Metode penelitian yang digunakan adalah metode one group before and afterintervention design, atau pre and post test design. Penelitian dilaksanakan di Puskesmas Srikuncoro Bengkulu Tengahmulai Tanggal 16–29 Juni 2012. Populasi adalah ibu post partum < 40 hari yang menyusui di wilayah Puskesmas Srikuncoroberjumlah 60 orang, dengan jumlah sampel sebanyak 20 orang. Hasil: Dari hasil penelitian ini diperoleh bahwa intensitasrata-rata frekuensi ASI sebelum konsumsi jantung pisang batu adalah 5,7 kali. Setelah mengkonsumsi jantung pisang batu,mengalami peningkatan menjadi 9,75 kali. Perbedaan nilai rata-rata peningkatan Produksi ASI adalah 5,458 dengan sig0,000. Karena < 0,05, kesimpulan Ha diterima yang berarti ada pengaruh konsumsi jantung batu terhadap peningkatan produksi ASI. Saran, diperlukan penyuluhan yang lebih intensif kepada masyarakat bahwa jantung pisang batu dapatmemengaruhi produksi ASI. Diharapkan agar peneliti lain dapat melanjutkan penelitian ini dengan faktor-faktor lain sepertimasalah psikologis, pelaksanaan Inisiasi Menyusui Dini (IMD, status gizi dan penggunaan kontrasepsi hormonal.

  11. Late Cretaceous porphyry copper mineralization in Sonora, Mexico: Implications for the evolution of the Southwest North America porphyry copper province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barra, Fernando; Valencia, Victor A.

    2014-10-01

    Two porphyry Cu-Mo prospects in northern Sonora, Mexico (Fortuna del Cobre and Los Humos) located within the southwestern North American porphyry province have been dated in order to constrain the timing of crystallization and mineralization of these ore deposits. In Fortuna del Cobre, the pre-mineralization granodiorite porphyry yielded an U-Pb zircon age of 76.5 ± 2.3 Ma, whereas two samples from the ore-bearing quartz feldespathic porphyry were dated at 74.6 ± 1.3 and 75.0 ± 1.4 Ma. Four molybdenite samples from Los Humos porphyry Cu prospect yielded a weighted average Re-Os age of 73.5 ± 0.2 Ma, whereas two samples from the ore-bearing quartz monzonite porphyry gave U-Pb zircon ages of 74.4 ± 1.1 and 74.5 ± 1.3 Ma, showing a Late Cretaceous age for the emplacement of this ore deposit. The results indicate that Laramide porphyry Cu mineralization of Late Cretaceous age is not restricted to northern Arizona as previously thought and provide evidence for the definition of NS trending metallogenic belts that are parallel to the paleo-trench. Porphyry copper mineralization follows the inland migration trend of the magmatic arc as a result of the Farallon slab flattening during the Laramide orogeny.

  12. Perbandingan Reaksi Zat Besi Terhadap Teh Hitam dan Teh Hijau Secara In Vitro dengan Menggunakan Spektrofotometer Uv-Vis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Husnil Wardiyah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakSalah satu permasalahan gizi yang dihadapi Indonesia adalah anemia defisiensi besi. Defesiensi besi ini dapat disebabkan oleh asupan dan serapan yang tidak adekuat, seperti kebiasaan mengonsumsi zat yang dapat menghambat penyerapan zat besi seperti minum teh pada saat makan. Hambatan penyerapan ini disebabkan oleh polifenol yang terkandung di dalam teh, terutama tanin. Penelitian ini dilakukan pada teh hitam dan teh hijau yang banyak dikonsumsi masyarakat. Larutan teh hitam dan teh hijau dijadikan sebagai kontrol, kemudian diberikan perlakuan dengan meneteskan FeCl3 1% sebanyak lima tetes. Larutan tersebut dibaca besar absorbannya dengan spektrofotometer UV-Vis. Prosedur ini dilakukan dengan pengulangan sebanyak lima kali. Data hasil penelitian diolah dengan menggunakan independent sample t test untuk melihat perbedaan rata-rata pada dua kelompok sampel tersebut. Dari hasil penelitian didapatkan rata-rata besar absorban teh hitam kontrol 0,539 dan setelah diteteskan zat besi 0,30640. Absorban teh hijau kontrol 0,961 dan setelah diteteskan zat besi 0,65020. Hal ini berarti bahwa terjadi penurunan konsentrasi larutan tersebut. Penurunan absorban pada kontrol teh hitam dengan perlakuan adalah 43,15%, sedangkan pada teh hijau adalah 32,34%. Berdasarkan uji statistik, disimpulkan bahwa terdapat perbedaan bermakna antara absorbansi teh hitam dan teh hijau.Kata kunci: Teh hitam, teh hijau, zat besi, absorban.AbstractOne of the nutritional problems faced by Indonesia is iron deficiency anemia. It is caused by inadequate intake and absorption. One of the causes of this inadequate absorption is eating habit to consume substances that can inhibit iron absorption like drinking tea while eating. This is caused by tea polyphenol compounds, especially tannins. Black tea and green tea were observed in this research since these are widely consumed by public. Solution of black tea and green tea were used as control and they were treated by giving five

  13. Climax-Type Porphyry Molybdenum Deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludington, Steve; Plumlee, Geoffrey S.

    2009-01-01

    Climax-type porphyry molybdenum deposits, as defined here, are extremely rare; thirteen deposits are known, all in western North America and ranging in age from Late Cretaceous to mainly Tertiary. They are consistently found in a postsubduction, extensional tectonic setting and are invariably associated with A-type granites that formed after peak activity of a magmatic cycle. The deposits consist of ore shells of quartz-molybdenite stockwork veins that lie above and surrounding the apices of cupola-like, highly evolved, calc-alkaline granite and subvolcanic rhyolite-porphyry bodies. These plutons are invariably enriched in fluorine (commonly >1 percent), rubidium (commonly >500 parts per million), and niobium-tantalum (Nb commonly >50 parts per million). The deposits are relatively high grade (typically 0.1-0.3 percent Mo) and may be very large (typically 100-1,000 million tons). Molybdenum, as MoS2, is the primary commodity in all known deposits. The effect on surface-water quality owing to natural influx of water or sediment from a Climax-type mineralized area can extend many kilometers downstream from the mineralized area. Waste piles composed of quartz-silica-pyrite altered rocks will likely produce acidic drainage waters. The potential exists for concentrations of fluorine or rare metals in surface water and groundwater to exceed recommended limits for human consumption near both mined and unmined Climax-type deposits.

  14. Application of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) in Analysing Rainfall Distribution Patterns in Batu Pahat District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadir, A. A.; Kaamin, M.; Azizan, N. S.; Sahat, S.; Bukari, S. M.; Mokhtar, M.; Ngadiman, N.; Hamid, N. B.

    2016-07-01

    Rainfall forecasting reports are crucial to provide information and warnings to the population in a particular location. The Malaysian Meteorology Department (MMD) is a department that plays an important role in monitoring the situation and issued the statement of changes in weather and provides services such as weather advisories and gives warnings when the situation requires. Uncertain weather situations normally have created panic situation, especially in big cities because of flash floods due to poor drainage management. Usually, local authorities provided rainfall data in tables, and it is difficult to analyse to acquire the rainfall trend. Therefore, Geographic Information System (GIS) applications are commonly used to generate rainfall patterns in visual formation with a combination of characteristics of rainfall data and then can be used by stakeholders to facilitate the process of analysis and forecasting rainfall. The objective of this study is to determine the pattern of rainfall distribution using GIS applications in Batu Pahat district to assist interested parties to understand and easy to analyse the rainfall data in visual form or mapping form. Rainfall data for a period of 10 years (2004-2013) and monthly data (Dec 2006 - Feb 2007) are provided by the Department of Irrigation and Drainage (DID) for 12 stations in the district of Batu Pahat, and rainfall maps in each year was obtained using the interpolation Inverse Distance Weighted (IDW) method was used in this research. The rainfall map was then analyzed to identify the highest rainfall that was received during the period of study. For the conclusion, this study has proved that rainfall analysis using GIS application is efficient to be used in gaining information of rainfall patterns as the results show that the highest rainfall occurred in 2006 and 2007, and it were the years of major floods occurrence in Batu Pahat district.

  15. OPTIMASI FORMULA DAN STRUKTUR MIKROSKOPIK PASTA BEBAS GLUTEN BERBAHAN DASAR PUREE UBI JALAR UNGU DAN TEPUNG KACANG HIJAU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ira Mulyawanti

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to optimize gluten free pasta formula made from purple sweet potato puree and mung bean flour. Aplication of a mixture design allowed to find the optimal composition to achieve the desirable characteristic. The results showed that the optimal formula was mixture of 45.25% purple sweet potato puree and 51.75% mung bean flour. The characteristics of the chosen formula were springiness of 2.29 mm, 0.38 cohesiveness, cooking loss 17.62%,333.48 ͼHue, Ie   20.59%, and 42.42 mg/L anthocyanin content. Microscopic structure showed that cooked pasta with purple sweet potato puree composition below 50% in the formula had a solid texture appearance.   Keywords: Pasta, purple sweet potatoes, gluten free food, formulation optimization   ABSTRAK Penelitian bertujuan untuk mengoptimasi formula pasta bebas gluten berbahan dasar puree ubi jalar ungu dan tepung kacang hijau. Aplikasi mixture design dalam optimasi formula dapat menghasilkan formula yang optimal dengan karakteristik produk sesuai dengan yang diinginkan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa komposisi optimal puree ubi jalar ungu dengan tepung kacang hijau dalam formula adalah 45,25% puree ubi jalar ungu dan 51,75% tepung kacang hijau. Pada komposisi tersebut dihasilkan pasta ubi jalar ungu dengan karakteristik yaitu kekenyalan 2,29 mm, cohesiveness 0,38, KKP 17,62%, warna 333,48, Ie   20,59%, dan kandungan antosianin 42,42 mg/L. Dari segi mikroskopik, pasta ubi jalar ungu matang dengan rasio puree ubi jalar ungu dengan formula di bawah 50% sudah menunjukkan adanya struktur yang kompak. Kata kunci: Pasta, ubi jalar ungu, pangan bebas gluten, optimasi formula

  16. MINERALOGICAL FEATURES OF ULTRAMAFIC HYPOXENOLITHS IN ALKALI-RICH PORPHYRY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xianfan; YANG Zhengxi; LIU Jiaduo; ZHANG Chengjiang; WU Dechao; LI Youguo

    2003-01-01

    Ultramafic hypoxenoliths found in the alkali-rich porphyry in the Liuhe Village, Heqing, Yunnan,China, are of great significance in understanding the origin and evolution of the porphyry. This paper discusses the mineralogical features of the hypoxenoliths. It shows that the xenoliths are characterized by the upper mantle rocks modified to certain extent by the enriched mantle fluid metasomatism in the mantle environment, with the enriched mantle property of Iow-degree partial melting. This constitutes the important mineralogical evidence for the petrogenesis and mineralization of alkali-rich porphyry.

  17. Isotope geology of the bakircay porphyry copper prospect, northern turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, R. P.

    1981-10-01

    Isotopic data for the Bakircay granodiorite porphyry, MediaObjects/126_2005_BF01798964_f1.tif give a Late Eocene age for the development of the porphyry copper system. They suggest a close temporal and genetic relationship between igneous and hydrothermal activity, and indicate that magmatic-hydrothermal fluids produced potassic alteration and that meteoric fluids enriched in radiogenic87Sr were responsible for propylitic alteration. The granodiorite porphyry is petrologically similar to porphyry copper-related intrusions from island arc and continental margin settings, which form a group with initial87Sr/86Sr ratios of less than 0. 7043, representing magmas produced in tectonic environments lacking any important component of old (i. e. Precambrian) continental material.

  18. The Dala (Älvdalen) Porphyries from Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wikström, Anders; Pereira, Lola; Lundqvist, Thomas; Cooper, Barry

    2014-05-01

    The Dala (Älvdalen) Porphyries from Sweden Anders Wikström (retired from Geological Survey of Sweden) Lola Pereira (University of Salamanca, Spain) Thomas Lundqvist (retired from Geological Survey of Sweden) Barry Cooper (University of South Australia) The commercial stone industry in Älvdalen, about 350 km northwest of Stockholm, commenced in the second half of the 18th century, as a consequence of social need. The region had been plagued by severe famine and there was an urgent need for additional wealth-generating industry. At that time it was already known that the porphyry in the area was similar to the "porfido rosso antico" from Egypt which had played an important role in the Roman culture. Many ups and downs followed. During one period in the 19th century, the Swedish Royal family owned the industry. At the same time, several "porphyry" objects were presented to different courts around Europe (e.g. a 4 metre tall vase to the Russian czar, although of a more granitic variety). Otherwise most products have been smaller objects like urns, vases, candelabras, etc. The very hard stone (with variable red or black colours) can be highly polished. Many of the porphyry varieties were sourced from glacial boulders. These had been "mechanically tested" by nature and were free from joints which otherwise was a problem in the associated quarries. Comagmatic granites also occur. The porphyries and granites have an age around 1700 Ma, and the former are amazingly well preserved with magnificent volcanic textures. The porphyries and granites occupy a vast area and are in part covered with red, continental sandstones (which are quarried to-day). In the middle of the 20th century, the ignimbritic character of the porphyry was discovered. Previously, the flattened "fiamme" (collapsed pumice) had been interpreted as some kind of flow structure in a lava. The porphyry manufacturing plants in Älvdalen are a part of the Swedish industrial history. Over a significant

  19. KOMPOSISI KIMIA MINYAK ATSIRI BUAH SIRIH HIJAU (PIPER BETLE L, KEMUKUS (PIPER CUBEBA L DAN CABE JAWA (PIPER RETROFRACTUM VAHL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Widyo Wartono

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Tumbuhan genus Piper mempunyai kandungan minyak atsiri hampir disemua bagiannya, namun komposisi kimianya belum semua dilaporkan. Pada laporan ini kami melakukan isolasi dan identifikasi senyawa kimia minyak atsiri pada bagian buah tumbuhan Piper. Isolasi minyak atsiri buah Piper dilakukan dengan destilasi air menggunakan destilasi Stahl dan analisis komposisi kimia dengan kromatografi gas-spektroskopi masa (GC-MS. Kandungan minyak atsiri buah sirih hijau (Piper betle 1,4% (v/b, cabe jawa (Piper retrofractum 1% (v/b, dan buah kemukus (Piper cubeba 1,7% (v/b. Hasil analisis GC-MS menunjukan kandungan utama minyak atsiri adalah senyawa golongan monoterpen, seskuiterpen dan fenil propanoid. Kandungan utama minyak atsiri buah sirih hijau (P. betle adalah eugenol (12,36%, isokaryofillena (9,55% dan β-selinena (8,09%, sedangkan komponen utama buah cabe jawa (Piper retrofractum adalah isokaryofilen (8,88%, β-bisabolen (7,01% dan zingiberen (6,32%, dan minyak atsiri buah kemukus (Piper cubeba adalah spathulanol (27,05%, sativen (8,73% dan germakren D (7,50%.

  20. Spatial Planning in Perspective of Good Governance (A Study on Analysis of Spatial Planning in Batu City as a Tourism City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Retno Wulan Sekarsari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Spatial planning is an effort to improve the welfare of the community and to ensure environmental sustainability by taking into account the comparative advantages in an area and minimizing the development gap by reducing slums, and poor and underdeveloped areas. Regional Spatial Planning Policy is a kind of policy product to control the level of environmental damage and the disorganized development and growth in a city or regency. The role of Batu City Government is to realize Batu City space that is safe, comfortable, productive and sustainable as a superior agropolitan city and tourism city in East Java Province. This article utilized Good Governance Perspective and System Theory to analyze the formulation of Regional Spatial Planning Policy in Batu City. This article firstly explained about tourism development, and secondly described the authority and responsibility of stakeholders in spatial planning formulation. The third part clarified good governance perspective on spatial planning in Batu City and analyzed supporting and inhibiting factors in spatial planning formulation in Batu City. The findings showed that only some actors and factors had strong influence over the formulation of Regional Spatial Planning Policy. Keywords: Good Governace, Governace Perspective, Spatial Planning, Tourism City, Batu City

  1. The geology and geochemistry of Philippine Porphyry copper deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divis, Allan F.

    Porphyry copper deposits and their relationship to felsic intrusions are of considerable economic as well as academic interest. They generally occur near continental margins and in island arcs. Although some conjecture exists as to the ultimate source of transition metals associated with the deposits, a growing body of evidence suggests the metals are principally derived from a magmatic source: the porphyry intrusions. These intrusions may also give rise to adjacent vein and precious metal deposits. Over 40 potential deposits have been reported in the Philippine island arc and approximately nine are or have been in production. The known and inferred reserves from these deposits exceed three billion metric tons of ore— approximately 10 to 20 million tons of metallic copper. Several deposits may ultimately have more than a billion tons of ore reserves. There appears to be a remarkable correlation between the timing of porphyry intrusions in the Philippines and that in other areas, particularly New Guinea and the Solomon Islands. These intrusions also show a close relationship to the timing of oceanic plate tectonic processes. Periods of increased subduction rate and accompanying dilation and/or shearing within the arc may be conducive to the generation of porphyry magmas on an episodic rather than continuous basis. Ultimately, the development of an economically significant ore body requires the presence of a hydrous magma and may be associated with other primary compositional characteristics. However, anomalous high primary magmatic concentrations of copper do not appear to be required for the formation of the porphyry deposits. The Philippine porphyry intrusions differ somewhat from `continental' porphyries and are chemically similar to mineralized island arc intrusions of the Carribean and the southwest Pacific. The Philippine intrusions generally range from diorites and quartz diorites to low potassium granodiorites. Initial 87-Sr/86-Sr ratios are low, ranging

  2. Timescales of Porphyry Cu Formation: Bajo de la Alumbrera, NW Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buret, Y.; Von Quadt, A.; Heinrich, C. A.; Peytcheva, I.

    2014-12-01

    Using high-precision U-Pb dating we are potentially able to determine timescales of porphyry emplacement and ore formation. Previous studies have suggested timescales of porphyry Cu formation ranging from Bajo de la Alumbrera Cu-Au deposit, NW Argentina. The deposit consists of a composite stock of dacitic porphyries. The relative timing of each porphyry intrusion is established based on clear cross-cutting relationships between different porphyry intrusions, which include the pre-mineralisation P2 porphyry, pre-syn-minerlisation EP3 porphyry, and the post-mineralisation LP3 and P4 porphyries.Single zircon crystals from individual porphyry intrusions (P2, EP3, LP3, P4) in the Alumbrera deposit have been dated using CA-ID-TIMS, employing the ET2535 tracer solution for maximum precision and accuracy. All porphyries display protracted zircon crystal growth over 100-200 ka timescales. Using the youngest zircons from each of the porphyry intrusions, Cu mineralisation occurred on 10 ka timescales, similar to those proposed by recent numerical predictions [4]. Trace element and Hf isotopic analyses may reveal geochemical distinctions within the porphyry intrusions and record temporal changes in the magmatic evolution. References: [1] Cathles and Shannon (2007) EPSL 262:92-108; [2] Ballard et al. (2001) Geology 29:383-386; [3] Harris et al. (2008) Min Dep 43: 295-314; [4] Weis et al. (2012) Science 338: 1613-1616; [5] von Quadt et al. (2011) Geology 39: 731-734.

  3. PENGARUH PEMBERIAN PUPUK HIJAU CAIR KIHUJAN (Samanea saman) DAN AZOLLA (Azolla pinnata) TERHADAP KANDUNGAN NDF DAN ADF PADA RUMPUT SIGNAL (Brachiaria decumbens)

    OpenAIRE

    SYAM, NURFAJRI

    2016-01-01

    2016 Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh pemberian pupuk hijau cair dari tanaman Kihujan (Samanea saman), dan Azolla (Azolla pinnata) terhadap kandungan NDF dan ADF rumput signal.Penelitian ini disusun berdasarkan Rancangan Acak Lengkap (RAL) dengan 3 perlakuan dan 5 kali ulangan sehingga di peroleh 15 unit percobaan. Perlakuan penelitian ini yaitu P0 (Kontrol), P1 (azolla), P2 (kihujan). Parameter yaitu kandungan NDF dan ADF. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan b...

  4. PENGARUH PEMBERIAN PUPUK HIJAU CAIR KIHUJAN (Samanea saman) DAN AZOLLA (Azolla pinnata) TERHADAP KANDUNGAN NDF DAN ADF PADA RUMPUT GAJAH (Pennisetum purpureum)

    OpenAIRE

    -, SUCI RAMADANI

    2016-01-01

    2016 ABSTRAK Suci Ramadani (I111 11 006). Pengaruh Pemberian Pupuk Hijau Cair Kihujan (Samanea saman) dan Azolla (Azolla pinnata) Terhadap Kandungan NDF dan ADF Pada Rumput Gajah (Pennisetum purpureum). Dibawah bimbingan Dr. Ir Syamsuddin Nompo, MP sebagai Pembimbing Utama dan Dr Ir Budiman Nohong,MP sebagai Pembimbing Anggota. Hijauan merupakan sumber makanan utama bagi ternak ruminansia untuk dapat bertahan hidup, berproduksi serta berkembangbiak. Produksi ternak...

  5. Pengaruh Analisis Rasio Keuangan Terhadap Pemberian Kredit Modal Kerja Jangka Menengah Pada PT Bank Rakyat Indonesia, Tbk Cabang Puteri Hijau, Medan

    OpenAIRE

    Purba, Rosani

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to analyss and explain the influence of debtor financial analysis ratio in individual (partial) way to credit distribution in PT Bank Rakyat Indonesia, Tbk Cabang Puteri Hijau, Medan. This research is done to 30 sample which still received middle term of working capital credit from Januari 2006 until Januari 2008. The distribution credit in this case, through the calculation of debtor working capital needs, used as dependent variable. Debtor financial analys...

  6. Peat swamp forest types and their regeneration in Giam Siak Kecil-Bukit Batu Biosphere Reserve, Riau, East Sumatra, Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    H. Gunawan; Kobayashi, S.; Mizuno, K; Kono, Y

    2012-01-01

    Although the ecology of tropical peat swamp forests is only now becoming understood, they are already under severe threat of conversion and degradation. Based on studies of the peat swamp forest of the Giam Siak Kecil–Bukit Batu Biosphere Reserve carried out between 2009 and 2010, this paper discusses forest types and regeneration processes in terms of promoting biodiversity conservation and sustainable management of the remaining peat swamp forest. Permanent plots covering a total area of th...

  7. PENGARUH KONSUMSI JANTUNG PISANG BATU TERHADAP PENINGKATAN PRODUKSI ASI DI WILAYAH PUSKESMAS SRIKUNCORO, KECAMATAN PONDOK KELAPA, BENGKULU TENGAH TAHUN 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Elly Wahyuni; Sri Sumiati; Nurliani Nurliani

    2013-01-01

    Latar Belakang: Air susu ibu (ASI) adalah makanan terbaik untuk bayi, jantung pisang batu merupakan jenis makananmengandung Laktogogum yaitu zat gizi yang dapat meningkatkan dan melancarkan produksi ASI terutama pada ibu yangmengalami masalah dalam produksi ASI. Adapun tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui pengaruh jantung pisangbatu terhadap peningkatan produksi ASI pada Ibu Menyusui di Wilayah Puskesmas Srikuncoro Kecamatan Pondok KelapaBengkulu Tengah Tahun 2012. Metode: Metode pen...

  8. A Study of Geological Formation on Different Sites in Batu Pahat, Malaysia Based On HVSR Method Using Microtremor Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noor, M. A. M.; Madun, A.; Kamarudin, A. F.; Daud, M. E.

    2016-07-01

    Geological formation is a one of information need to know during site reconnaissance. Conventional method like borehole has been known is very accurate to identify the formation of geology of a site. However, the problem of this technique is very expensive and not economical for large area. In the last decade, microtremor measurement has been introduced as an alternative technique and widely used in the geological formation study. Therefore, the aim in this study is to determine the geological formation underneath of surface in Batu Pahat district using microtremor measurement. There are two parameters have been carried out from microtremor measurement in term of natural frequency and HVSR curves images. Microtremor measurements are done conducted at 15 sites surrounding of Batu Pahat. Horizontal to vertical spectral ratio (HVSR) method was used for analyzing microtermor measurement data, to determine the natural frequency and also HVSR curves image. In this study, values of natural frequencies are used to classify the soil types with range in the between 0.93 to 5.35 Hz, meanwhile the pattern of HVSR curve images has been shown exists a few groups of soil types surrounding Batu Pahat district. Hence, microtremor measurement indirectly can be used as a one technique to add value in the site reconnaissance in the future.

  9. PEMODELAN STRUKTUR BAWAH PERMUKAAN DAERAH SUMBER AIR PANAS SONGGORITI KOTA BATU BERDASARKAN DATA GEOMAGNETIK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dafiqiy Ya’lu Ulin Nuha, Novi Avisena

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Telah dilakukan penelitian dengan metode geomagnetik pada tanggal 26 -27 April 2011 di daerah Songgoriti Kota Batu dengan tujuan untuk mengetahui pola Anomali Magnet Total dan struktur geologi bawah permukaan. Setelah dilakukan koreksi data yang meliputi koreksi diurnal dan koreksi IGRF maka didapatkan nilai anomali magnet total serta kontinuasi ke atas dan reduksi ke kutub. Selanjutnya dilakukan interpretasi secara kualitatif dan kuantitatif. Interpretasi kuantitatif dilakukan dengan membaca pola kontur anomali magnet lokal dan reduksi ke kutub, sedangkan interpretasi kualitatif dilakukan dengan membuat penampang 2,5 D pada dua lintasan AB dan CD. Berdasarkan interpretasi kuantitatif pada kontur anomali  magnetik lokal didapatkan variasi nilai anomali antara -800 nT-600 nT dengan anomali tinggi terdapat pada arah timur dan barat daerah penelitian, anomali sedang terletak pada daerah tengah penelitian dan anomali rendah terdapat pada sedikit   daerah   tengah   penelitian.   Daerah   penelitian   didominasi   anomali   magnetik   sedang. Berdasarkan interpretasi kualitatif pada model penampang 2,5 D lintasan AB dan CD, didapatkan tujuh body yaitu batuan tufa, batuan tufa, batuan breksi vulkanik, batuan breksi tufaan, batuan lava, batuan basalt, dan batuan andesit. Berdasarkan sifat fisik dari tiap lapisan batuan, diduga batuan sarang dalam sistem geothermal yang berupa sumber air panas di daerah penelitian adalah batuan breksi vulkanik dengan batuan penutup (cap rock berupa batuan tufa. Kata Kunci : Anomali Magnet, Struktur Geologi, Air Panas.

  10. Arc-related porphyry molybdenum deposit model: Chapter D in Mineral deposit models for resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Ryan D.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Piatak, Nadine M.; Seal, Robert R., II

    2012-01-01

    This report provides a descriptive model for arc-related porphyry molybdenum deposits. Presented within are geological, geochemical, and mineralogical characteristics that differentiate this deposit type from porphyry copper and alkali-feldspar rhyolite-granite porphyry molybdenum deposits. The U.S. Geological Survey's effort to update existing mineral deposit models spurred this research, which is intended to supplement previously published models for this deposit type that help guide mineral-resource and mineral-environmental assessments.

  11. Porphyry copper assessment of the Tibetan Plateau, China: Chapter F in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludington, Steve; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Robinson,, Gilpin R.; Mars, John L.; Miller, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey collaborated with the China Geological Survey to conduct a mineral-resource assessment of resources in porphyry copper deposits on the Tibetan Plateau in western China. This area hosts several very large porphyry deposits, exemplified by the Yulong and Qulong deposits, each containing at least 7,000,000 metric tons (t) of copper. However, large parts of the area are underexplored and are likely to contain undiscovered porphyry copper deposits.

  12. Kajian Kesesuaian Ekowisata Mangrove di Pantai Bali Desa Mesjid Lama Kecamatan Talawi Kabupaten Batu Bara Provinsi Sumata Utara

    OpenAIRE

    Sitohang, Pesta Saulina

    2016-01-01

    Bali Beach is a beach located in Batu Bara with an area of approximately 637.22 ha which is a coastal area about 30.6% of the total area of its territory. This study aims to determine the potential of mangrove ecosystem ecotourism as an object, calculate the suitability and mangrove eco-tourism carrying capacity, inventory of facilities and supporting infrastructure in Bali Beach and create patterns of mangrove ecotourism management at Bali Beach. Potential of mangrove obtained by transect me...

  13. Perbedaan Daya Hambat Ekstrak Daun Sirih Hijau ( Piper betle L. dan Daun Sirih Merah ( Piper crocatum Ruiz & Pav terhadap Pertumbuhan Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tristika Aulia Syahrinastiti

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakSirih hijau (Piper betle L. dan sirih merah (Piper crocatum Ruiz & Pav dipercaya memiliki khasiat mencegah penyakit infeksi saluran kemih yang disebabkan oleh Escherichia coli. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk menjelaskan perbedaan daya hambat ekstrak daun sirih hijaudan daun sirih merah terhadap pertumbuhan Escherichia coli. Jenis penelitian ini adalah eksperimental dengan desain post test only control group. Penelitian dilakukan di laboratorium mikrobiologi Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Andalas. Hasil penelitian adalah: 1. Efek daya hambat ekstrak daun sirih merah pada konsentrasi 2,5%, 5%, 7,5%, dan 10%, yaitu 0,6cm, 1,1cm, 1,2cm, dan 1,2cm; 2. Ekstrak daun sirih hijau tidak memiliki efek daya hambat pada konsentrasi 2,5%, 5%, 7,5%, dan 10%. Kesimpulan eksperimen ini adalah ekstrak daun sirih merah memiliki efek daya hambat lebih baik daripada ekstrak daun sirih hijau.Kata kunci: ekstrak daun sirih hijau, ekstrak daun sirih merah, escherichia coli, daerah bebas hambat AbstractGreen betel (Piper betle L. and red betel (Piper crocatum Ruiz & Pav are trusted of possessing an efficacy of preventing urinary tract infection caused by Eschericia coli. The objective of this study was to explain the difference of inhibition zones between the green betel and the red betel towards the growth of Eschericia coli. The type of this research was experimental study with post test only control group design. This research was carried out in Microbiology Laboratory, Faculty of Medicine Andalas University.The results of this research were: 1.The inhibition zones of red betel extract in concentration of 2.5%, 5%, 7.5%, and 10% were 0.6 cm, 1.1 cm, 1.2 cm, and 1.2 cm; 2. The extract of green betel had none of inhibition zones in concentration of of 2.5%, 5%, 7.5%, and 10%. In conclusion, the red betel extract has better inhibition zones than the green betel extrac.Keywords: green betel extract, red betel extract, eschericia coli, inhibition zone

  14. Pengaruh Ergonomi Organisasi terhadap Motivasi Kerja Perawat Pelaksana di Ruang Rawat Inap Rumah Sakit Tk II Putri Hijau Kesdam I/BB Medan

    OpenAIRE

    Suharto

    2013-01-01

    The organization at workplace is a place where employees interact with others in doing their jobs. An ergonomic organizational design is needed to make the employees do their job properly. The aim of the research was to analyze the influence of organizational ergonomy on work motivation of the nurses on duty in the in-patient wards of Putri Hijau Kesdam I/BB Level II Hospital, Medan. The purpose of this explanatory study was to explain the influence of inter-variables through statistic an...

  15. Organic petrochemical and organic geochemical characterization of the Tertiary coal-bearing sequence of Batu Arang, Selangor, Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasiah, A.W.; Abolins, P. [University of Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia). Dept. of Geology

    1998-08-01

    The Tertiary coal-bearing sequence at Batu Arang in Selangor, Peninsular Malaysia consists of a sandstone-coal-oil shale facies assemblage. A detailed organic petrological and organic geochemical study was carried out on several organic-rich sediments from this sequence. The coals, hypautochthonous in origin, are mainly duroclarite-type, although other minor microlithotypes also occur. Alginite is not observed in the coals, but other liptinitic constituents are common, particularly thin-walled cutinite and sporinite. The oil shales and the coals are thermally immature. This immaturity has a considerable influence on the biomarker distributions. Interestingly, for Tertiary age sediments of continental origin, the diagnostic biomarker compounds such as 18 alpha (H)-oleanane and bicadinanes, normally linked to the higher land plant group of angiosperms, are not observed in the samples analysed. A clear distinction, however, in the biomarker distributions of the shales and the coals/carbargilite can be made based upon the distribution of C-27-C-29 regular steranes. The depositional environment of the Batu Arang coal-bearing sequence is interpreted as varying from an alluvial flood plain peat-swamp to fluvio-lacustrine depositional setting.

  16. Characteristics and land suitability of newly establish rice field in Lesung Batu Muda, Rawas Ulu, Musi Rawas, South Sumatera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Sudaryanto

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Rice field has a strategic function because it is the main provider of food for the population of Indonesia. The data of the land use for the rice field in Indonesia showed that around 41% in Java Island. Agricultural technology at the level of industry experienced rapid progress, but the technology implementation at the level by farmer is relatively slow. Increased production of rice in Indonesia was reported of less than 1% per year. The research aimed to study the characteristics and land suitability of newly established rice field in Lesung Batu Muda, Rawas Ulu, Musi Rawas, South Sumatera. There were two soil land units that were tested included water availability, rooting medium, level of erosion, soil chemical properties and land preparation. The results of the study showed that newly established rice fields in Lesung Batu Muda, Rawas Ulu, Musi Rawas, South Sumatera could be used to open new rice fields by planting twice a year. In opening new rice fields, the application of organic matter and creation of terracing on sloping areas were needed.

  17. Cross and Adu: A Socio-Historical Study on the Encounter between Christianity and the Indigenous Culture on Nias and the Batu Islands, Indonesia (1865-1965)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hummel, U.; Telaumbanua, T.

    2007-01-01

    This study is a fruit of joined intercultural research. The authors, an Asian and a European, look at the encounter between Christianity and the realm of the indigenous people of Nias and the Batu Islands (the Ono Niha) and their culture. During the course of one century (1865-1965), two missionary

  18. PEMISAHAN ION KROM(III DAN KROM(IV DALAM LARUTAN DENGAN MENGGUNAKAN BIOMASSA ALGA HIJAU SPIROGYRA SUBSALSA SEBAGAI BIOSORBEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Mawardi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Karakteristik pemisahan ion Cr3+ dan Cr6+ dalam larutan melalui proses biosorpsi menggunakan biomassa alga hijau Spirogyra subsalsa dengan sistem batch telah diteliti. Dalam pelaksanaannya diawali dengan melakukan analisis kualitatif gugus fungsi dalam biomassa menggunakan instrumen FTIR, kemudian dipelajari karakteristik pengaruh variabel pH awal larutan, ukuran partikel biosorben, kecepatan pengadukan, pengaruh pemanasan biosorben, laju penyerapan, pengaruh konsentrasi larutan ion logam terhadap kapasitas serapan biomassa alga. Berdasarkan spektra spektroskopi FTIR dapat disimpulkan bahwa  biomassa alga hijau S. Subsalsa mengandung gugus-gugus karboksilat, amina, amida, amino, karbonil dan hidroksil, disamping adanya senyawa silikon, belerang dan fosfor. Hasil penelitian yang diperoleh  memperlihatkan bahwa kapasitas biosorpsi sangat dipengaruhi oleh pH larutan, waktu kontak dan konsentrasi awal larutan. Biosorpsi optimum kation Cr3+ terjadi pada pH 4,0 sedangkan ion Cr6+ terjadi pada pH 2,0 kemudian berkurang dejalan dengan naiknya pH larutan. Perhitungan dengan persamaan Isoterm Langmuir diperoleh data kapasitas serapan maksimum biomassa alga S. subsalsa untuk masing-masing ion Cr3+ dan Cr6+ adalah 1,82 mg (0,035 mmol dan 1,51 mg (0,029 mmol per gram biomassa kering. Kinetika biosorpsi berlangsung relatif cepat, dimana selama selang waktu 30 menit, masing-masing ion terserap sekitar 95,7%; dan 86,5%. Daya serap biomassa juga dipengaruhi kecepatan pengadukan, sedangkan faktor ukuran partikel dan pemanasan biosorben kurang mempengaruhi daya serap biomassa. Key Word : biosorpsi, spirogyra subsalsa, krom(III, krom(VI, sistem batchAbstract Separation of Ion Chromium(III and Chromium(IV In Solution Using Green Algae Biomass Spirogyra subsalsa as Biosorbent. The characteristics of Cr3+andCr6+ ion separation in solution through biosorption process using green algal biomass Spirogyrasubsalsa with batch systems have been investigated. The study

  19. PEMBUATAN BIOETANOL DARI ALGA Codium geppiorum DAN PEMANFAATAN BATU KAPUR NUSA PENIDA TERAKTIVASI UNTUK MENINGKATKAN KUALITAS BIOETANOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Wayan Karta

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available  ABSTRAK: Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh variasi konsentrasi penambahan ragi tape dan waktu fermentasi terhadap kadar etanol dalam pembuatan bioetanol berbahan alga Codium geppiorum, dan pengaruh variasi suhu aktivasi dan massa batu kapur Nusa Penida dalam meningkatkan kadar etanol. Penelitian adalah True Experiment dengan Rancangan Acak Lengkap (RAL pola faktorial 3 x 4 yang terdiri dari dua faktor. Kadar etanol diukur dengan Gas Chromatography Varian 3300 dan dianalisis dengan Anava dua jalur menggunakan software SPSS 17.0. Hasil penelitian pada kadar etanol hasil fermentasi menunjukkan nilai Fhitung > Ftabel (38,212 > 2,51 dengan probabilitas 0,000 yang berarti adanya interaksi antara variasi konsentrasi ragi dan waktu fermentasi. Perlakuan yang optimum diperoleh pada W3D3 (waktu 7 hari dan konsentrasi 20% yaitu dengan rata-rata 3,03% dari massa sampel alga 25 gram. Hasil penelitian dehidrasi etanol menunjukkan nilai Fhitung > Ftabel (3,082 > 2,51 dengan probabilitas 0,022 yang berarti terdapat interaksi antara suhu aktivasi dan massa batu kapur dalam dehidrasi etanol. Perlakuan yang optimum adalah M1T1 (massa 50 gram dan suhu 800oC dengan rata-rata kadar etanol 99,15 %. Aplikasi batu kapur dengan dehidrasi optimum mampu meningkatkan kadar bioetanol dari 28,92% menjadi 83,78%. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian disimpulkan bahwa variasi konsentrasi ragi tape dan waktu fermentasi berpengaruh signifikan terhadap kadar etanol yang dihasilkan pada pembuatan bioetanol berbahan alga Codium geppiorum; dan variasi suhu aktivasi dan massa batu kapur berpengaruh signifikan dalam meningkatkan kadar etanol.  ABSTRACT: The aims of this research are to determine the effect of the concentration of yeast addition and length of fermentation on the amount of ethanol produced in the fermentation of algae Codium geppiorum and the effect of activation temperature and the amount of Nusa Penida’s limestone on the concentration of ethanol in the

  20. Re-Thinking Kebijakan Pembangunan dalam Perspektif Ekonomi Lokal: Studi Kasus Tambang Emas Batu Gosok – Labuan Bajo – NTT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doddy Setiawan

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a practical-theoretical study towards economic development policy. Unrealistic policy and planning approach, government management close and uncooperative system which considered intervening political interest rather than economic development are as one cause of stagnating economic development in several areas. Economic development that has been established by central government has not able to give velocity acceleration solution in economic development; it is the authority and power divergence that affecting local economic development. Economic policy through mining investment as one strategy development has been approved by district government and investors had affected long polemic. It needs further thought and study related to the policy so it could get the expected result and local economic development. This paper is purposed to give contributed thought of re-thinking policy economic development especially about gold mining investment decision in conservation area of Batu Gosok-Labuan Bajo-NTT. 

  1. Re-Thinking Kebijakan Pembangunan dalam Perspektif Ekonomi Lokal: Studi Kasus Tambang Emas Batu Gosok Labuan Bajo NTT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doddy Setiawan

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a practical-theoretical study towards economic development policy. Unrealistic policy and planning approach, government management close and uncooperative system which considered intervening political interest rather than economic development are as one cause of stagnating economic development in several areas. Economic development that has been established by central government has not able to give velocity acceleration solution in economic development; it is the authority and power divergence that affecting local economic development. Economic policy through mining investment as one strategy development has been approved by district government and investors had affected long polemic. It needs further thought and study related to the policy so it could get the expected result and local economic development. This paper is purposed to give contributed thought of re-thinking policy economic development especially about gold mining investment decision in conservation area of Batu Gosok-Labuan Bajo-NTT.

  2. Re-Os Dating of the Pulang Porphyry Copper Deposit in Zhongdian, NW Yunnan, and Its Geological Significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Pusheng; HOU Zengqian; WANG Haiping; QU Wenjun; MENG Yifeng; YANG Zhusen; LI Wenchang

    2004-01-01

    The Pulang porphyry copper deposit is located in the Zhongdian island arc belt, NW Yunnan, in the central part of the Sanjiang area, SW China, belonging to the southern segment of the Yidun island arc belt on the western margin of the Yangtze Platform. In the Yidun island arc, there occur well-known "Gacun-style" massive sulfide deposits in the northern segment and plenty of porphyry copper deposits in the southern segment, of which the Pulang porphyry copper deposit is one of the representatives. Like the Yulong porphyry copper deposit, this porphyry copper deposit is also one of the most important porphyry copper deposits in the eastern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. But it is different from other porphyry copper deposits in the eastern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (e.g. those in the Gangdise porphyry copper belt and Yulong porphyry copper belt) in that it formed in the Indosinian period, while others in the Himalayan period. Because of its particularity among the porphyry copper deposits of China, this porphyry copper deposit is of great significance for the study of the basic geology and the evaluation and prediction of mineral resources in the Zhongdian island arc belt.However, no accurate chronological data are available for determining the timing of mineralization of the porphyry copper deposit. By field observation in the study area and Re-Os dating of molybdenite and K-Ar dating of hydrothermal minerals and whole rock from the typical geological bodies, the timing of mineralization of the porphyry copper deposit has systematically been determined for the first time. The K-Ar age for the hydrothermal mineralization of biotite-quartz monzonitic porphyry that has undergone patassic silicate (biotite and K-feldspar) alteration ranges from 235.4±2.4 to 221.5±2.0 Ma and the Re-Os age for molybdenite in the quartz-molybdenite stage is ~213±3.8 Ma. These data are very close to each other, suggesting that the ore-forming processes of the Pulang porphyry copper deposit was

  3. Porphyry-copper mineralisation in the central Srednogorie zone, Bulgaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strashimirov, Strashimir; Petrunov, Rumen; Kanazirski, Milko

    2002-08-01

    The porphyry-copper systems in the central part of the Srednogorie zone (Bulgaria) are represented by three major deposits (Elatsite, Medet and Assarel) and several smaller deposits and occurrences, all of them within the Panagyurishte ore district. The hydrothermal systems are related to Late Cretaceous calc-alkaline igneous complexes. Ore mineralisation is developed predominantly in the apical parts of subvolcanic and intrusive bodies as well as within the volcanic and basement metamorphic rocks. Several of the porphyry systems are spatially associated with shallow-level intermediate and high-sulphidation volcanic-hosted epithermal deposits of economic importance, such as the major gold-copper mine at Chelopech located 10 km from the Elatsite porphyry-copper deposit. Mineralisation processes in the porphyry deposits start with intensive hydrothermal alteration of the wall rocks. K-silicate alteration is characteristic for pre-ore hydrothermal activity in all of them, and it is located mostly in their central parts. Propylitic alteration is prominent in the Medet and Assarel deposits. The Assarel deposit is located in the central part of a palaeovolcanic structure and shows a large spectrum of pre-ore alterations, including propylitic, sericitic, and advanced argillic assemblages. The initial stages of the hydrothermal systems are characterised by high temperatures (>550-500 °C) and highly saline (50-20 wt% NaCl equiv.) and vapour-rich fluids of likely magmatic origin. The composition of the fluids gradually changes from H2O-NaCl±FeCl2 to H2O-NaCl-KCl and H2O-NaCl-dominated as the fluids cool, react with wall rocks, and may become diluted with meteoric water. Fe-Ti-oxide mineral associations were formed early in all deposits, later followed, in the Elatsite deposit, by an assemblage of bornite, chalcopyrite, platinum group element (PGE) phases, Co-Ni thiospinels, Ag- and Bi-tellurides, and selenides. The main ore stage in all deposits is dominated by

  4. Zircon U-Pb dating of Maherabad porphyry copper-gold prospect area: evidence for a late Eocene porphyry-related metallogenic epoch in east of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azadeh Malekzadeh Shafaroudi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Eastern Iran has great potential for porphyry copper deposits, as a result of its past subduction zone tectonic setting that lead to extensive alkaline to calc-alkaline magmatic activity in Tertiary time. Maherabad is the first porphyry Cu-Au prospecting area which is discovered in eastern Iran. This is related to a succession o f monzonitic to dioritic porphyries stocks that were emplaced within volcanic rocks. Monzonitic porphyries have basic role in mineralization. Hydrothermal alteration zones are well developed including potassic, sericitic-potassic, quartz-sericite-carbonate-pyrite, quartz-carbonate-pyrite, silicified-propylitic, propylitic, carbonate and silicified zones. Mineralization occurs as Disseminated, stockwork and hydrothermal breccia. Based on early stage of exploration, Cu is between 179- 6830 ppm (ave. 3200 ppm and Au is up to 1000 ppb (ave. 570 ppb. This prospect is gold- rich porphyry copper deposit. Laser-ablation U-Pb dating of two samples from ore-related intrusive rocks indicate that these two monzonitic porphyries crystallized at 39.0 ± 0.8 Ma to 38.2 ± 0.8 Ma, within a short time span of less than ca. 1 Ma during the middle Eocene. This provides the first precise ages for metallogenic episode of porphyry-type mineralization. Also, the initial 87Sr/86Sr and (143Nd/144Ndi was recalculated to an age of 39 Ma. Initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios for monzonitic rocks are 0.7047-0.7048. The (143Nd/144Ndi isotope composition are 0.512694-0.512713. Initial ε Nd isotope values 1.45-1.81. Based on isotopic data the magma had originated beyond the continental crust. The study will be used for tectonic-magmatic setting and evolution of eastern Iran. Keywords: Lut block, Middle Eocene, Zircon, Geochronology, Laser ablation ICP-MS,

  5. Porphyry copper assessment of western Central Asia: Chapter N in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Byron R.; Mars, John L.; Denning, Paul D.; Phillips, Jeffrey D.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Zientek, Michael L.; Dicken, Connie L.; Drew, Lawrence J.; with contributions from Alexeiev, Dmitriy; Seltmann, Reimar; Herrington, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey conducted an assessment of resources associated with porphyry copper deposits in the western Central Asia countries of Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, and Tajikistan and the southern Urals of Kazakhstan and Russia as part of a global mineral resource assessment. The purpose of the study was to (1) delineate permissive areas (tracts) for undiscovered porphyry copper deposits; (2) compile a database of known porphyry copper deposits and significant prospects; (3) where data permit, estimate numbers of undiscovered deposits within those permissive tracts; and (4) provide probabilistic estimates the amounts of copper (Cu), molybdenum (Mo), gold (Au), and silver (Ag) that could be contained in those undiscovered deposits.

  6. Mo isotope fractionation during hydrothermal evolution of porphyry Cu systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafiei, Behnam; Shamanian, GholamHossein; Mathur, Ryan; Mirnejad, Hassan

    2015-03-01

    We present Mo isotope compositions of molybdenite types from three successive stages of ore deposition in several porphyry copper deposits of the Kerman region, Iran. The data provide new insights into controlling processes on Mo isotope fractionation during the hydrothermal evolution of porphyry systems. The Mo isotope compositions of 27 molybdenite samples show wide variations in δ97Mo ranging from -0.37 to +0.92 ‰. The data reveal that molybdenites in the early and transitional stages of mineralization (preferentially 2H polytypes; δ97Mo mean = 0.35 ‰) have higher δ97Mo values than late stage (mainly 3R polytypes; δ97Mo mean = 0.02 ‰) molybdenites. This trend suggests that fractionation of Mo isotopes occurred in high-temperature stages of mineralization and that hydrothermal systems generally evolve towards precipitation of molybdenite with lower δ97Mo values. Taking into account the genetic models proposed for porphyry Cu deposits along with the temperature-dependent fractionation of Mo isotope ratios, it is proposed that large variations of Mo isotopes in the early and the transitional stages of ore deposition could be controlled by the separation of the immiscible ore-forming fluid phases with different density, pH, and ƒO2 properties (i.e., brine and vapor). The fractionation of Mo isotopes during fluid boiling and Rayleigh distillation processes likely dominates the Mo isotope budget of the remaining ore-forming fluids for the late stage of mineralization. The lower δ97Mo values in the late stage of mineralization can be explained by depletion of the late ore-forming hydrothermal solutions in 97Mo, as these fluids have moved to considerable distance from the source. Finally, the relationship observed between MoS2 polytypes (2H and 3R) and their Mo isotopic compositions can be explained by the molecular vibration theory, in which heavier isotopes are preferentially partitioned into denser primary 2H MoS2 crystals.

  7. PENGARUH BUDAYA ORGANISASI DAN LINGKUNGAN KERJA TERHADAP ORGANIZATIONAL CITIZENSHIP BEHAVIOR, MOTIVASI DAN KINERJA (Survey Pada Karyawan Hotel Berbintang di Kota Malang dan Batu)

    OpenAIRE

    Bambang Warsito

    2009-01-01

    This research seeks to investigate the relationship between organizational culture variables, work environment, organizational citizenship behavior, motivation and performance in the star-typed hotel industry at Malang and Batu. This research was purposed to assess the differences of organizational culture, work environment, organizational citizenship behavior, motivation and performance based on the characteristic of respondents. This research was categorized as survey one using cross-sectio...

  8. Deteksi Non-RTH(Ruang Terbuka Hijau Kota Malang Berbasis Citra Google Earth Dengan Menggunakan Naïve Bayes Classifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irwan Budi Santoso

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Banjir, polusi udara dan naiknya temperatur udara di perkotaan, dewasa ini semakin marak persoalan tersebut tidak lain bersumber dari aktifitas manusia yang tidak terkendali sehingga mengakibatkan kerusakan. Salah satu upaya yang bisa dilakukan untuk membantu menyelesaikan persoalan tersebut adalah adanya fasilitas yang dapat memantau kondisi lingkungan secara riil berupa non-Ruang Terbuka Hijau (non-RTH, melalui komputer. Penyediaan fasilitas tersebut sangatlah mungkin dilakukan dengan memanfaatkan foto satelit seperti yang disediakan oleh Google Earth. Studi kasus dalam penelitian ini adalah kota Malang, dengan metode yang digunakan untuk mendeteksi objek non-RTH dipermukaan bumi kota Malang berdasarkan image atau citra satelit adalah Naïve Bayes Classifier (NBC.Hasil uji coba dengan menggunakan sampel pengujian, menunjukkan tingkat akurasi metode tersebut dalam mendeteksi objek non-RTH kota Malang adalah 81%.

  9. El Salvador, Chile porphyry copper deposit revisited: Geologic and geochronologic framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornejo, P.; Tosdal, R.M.; Mpodozis, C.; Tomlinson, A.J.; Rivera, O.; Fanning, C.M.

    1997-01-01

    The Eocene (42 to 41 Ma) El Salvador porphyry copper deposit in the Indio Muerto district, northern Chile (26?? 15??? S Lat.), formerly thought to have formed at the culmination of a 9-m.y. period of episodic magmatism, is shown by new mapping, U-Pb and K-Ar geochronology, and petrologic data to have formed during the younger of two distinct but superposed magmatic events - a Paleocene (???63 to 58 Ma) and an Eocene (44 to 41 Ma) event. In the district, high-K Paleocene volcano-plutonic activity was characterized by a variety of eruptive styles and magmatic compositions, including a collapse caldera associated with explosive rhyolitic magmatism (El Salvador trap-door caldera), a post-collapse rhyolite dome field (Cerro Indio Muerto), and andesitic-trachyandesitic stratovolcanos (Kilo??metro Catorce-Los Amarillos sequence). Precaldera basement faults were reactivated during Paleocene volcanism as part of the collapse margin of the caldera. Beneath Cerro Indio Muerto, where the porphyry Cu deposit subsequently formed, the intersection of two major basement faults and the NNE-striking rotational axis of tilted ignimbrites of the Paleocene El Salvador caldera localized emplacement of post-collapse rhyolite domes and peripheral dikes and sills. Subsequent Eocene rhyolitic and granodioritic-dacitic porphyries intruded ???14 m.y. after cessation of Paleocene magmatism along the same NNE-striking structural belt through Cerro Indio Muerto as did the post-collapse Paleocene rhyolite domes. Eocene plutonism over a 3-m.y. period was contemporaneous with NW-SE-directed shortening associated with regional sinistral transpression along the Sierra Castillo fault, lying ???10 km to the east. Older Eocene rhyolitic porphyries in the Indio Muerto district were emplaced between 44 and 43 Ma, and have a small uneconomic Cu center associated with a porphyry at Old Camp. The oldest granodioritic-dacitic porphyries also were emplaced at ???44 to 43 Ma, but their petrogenetic relation to

  10. Porphyry copper assessment of eastern Australia: Chapter L in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bookstrom, Arthur A.; Len, Richard A.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Robinson,, Gilpin R.; Zientek, Michael L.; Drenth, Benjamin J.; Jaireth, Subhash; Cossette, Pamela M.; Wallis, John C.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducts national and global assessments of resources (mineral, energy, water, and biologic) to provide science in support of decision making. Mineral resource assessments provide syntheses of available information about where mineral deposits are known and suspected to occur in the Earth’s crust and which commodities may be present, together with estimates of amounts of resources that may be present in undiscovered deposits. The USGS collaborated with geologists of the Geological Survey of New South Wales and Geoscience Australia (formerly the Australian Geological Survey Organisation) on an assessment of Phanerozoic-age porphyry copper resources in Australia. Porphyry copper deposits contain about 11 percent of the identified copper resources in Australia. This study addresses resources of known porphyry copper deposits and expected resources of undiscovered porphyry copper deposits in eastern Australia.

  11. Palladium, Platinum and Gold Concentrations in Fengshan Porphyry Cu-Mo Deposit, Hubei Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Minfang; DENG Xiaodong; BI Shijian; LI Zhanke

    2009-01-01

    The Fengshan porphyry-skarn copper-molybdenum (Cu-Mo) deposit is located in the south-eastern Hubei Province in east China. Cu-Mo mineralization is hosted in the Fengshan granodiorite porphyry stock that intruded the Triassic Daye Formation carbonate rocks in the early Cretaceous (~140 Ma), as well as the contact zone between granodiorite porphyry stock and carbonate rocks, forming the porphyry-type and skarn-type association. The Fengshan granodiorite stock and the immediate country rocks are strongly fractured and intensely altered by hydrothermal fluids. In addition to intense skarn alteration, the prominent alteration types are potassic, phyllic, and propylitic, whereas argillation is less common. Mineralization occurs as veins, stock works, and disseminations, and the main ore minerals are chalcopyrite, pyrite, molybdenite, bornite, and magnetite. The contents of palladium, platinum and gold (Pd, Pt and Au) are determined in nine samples from fresh and mineralized granodiorite and different types of altered rocks. The results show that the Pd content is systematically higher than Pt, which is typical for porphyry ore deposits worldwide. The Pt content ranges from 0.037 tul.765 ppb, and the Pd content ranges between 0.165and 17.979 ppb. Pd and Pt are more concentrated in porphyry mineralization than skarn mineralization, and have negative correlations with Au. The reconnaissance study presented here confirms the existence of Pd and Pt in the Fengshan porphyry-skarn Cu-Mo deposit. When compared with intracontinent and island arc geotectonic settings, the Pd, Pt, and Au contents in the Fengshan porphyry Cu-Mo deposit in the intracontinent is lower than the continental margin types and island are types. A combination of available data indicates that Pd and Pt were derived from oxidized alkaline magmas generated by the partial melting of an enriched mantle source.

  12. Time scales of porphyry Cu deposit formation: insights from titanium diffusion in quartz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, Celestine N.; Reed, Mark H.; Mercer, Cameron M.

    2015-01-01

    Porphyry dikes and hydrothermal veins from the porphyry Cu-Mo deposit at Butte, Montana, contain multiple generations of quartz that are distinct in scanning electron microscope-cathodoluminescence (SEM-CL) images and in Ti concentrations. A comparison of microprobe trace element profiles and maps to SEM-CL images shows that the concentration of Ti in quartz correlates positively with CL brightness but Al, K, and Fe do not. After calibrating CL brightness in relation to Ti concentration, we use the brightness gradient between different quartz generations as a proxy for Ti gradients that we model to determine time scales of quartz formation and cooling. Model results indicate that time scales of porphyry magma residence are ~1,000s of years and time scales from porphyry quartz phenocryst rim formation to porphyry dike injection and cooling are ~10s of years. Time scales for the formation and cooling of various generations of hydrothermal vein quartz range from 10s to 10,000s of years. These time scales are considerably shorter than the ~0.6 m.y. overall time frame for each porphyry-style mineralization pulse determined from isotopic studies at Butte, Montana. Simple heat conduction models provide a temporal reference point to compare chemical diffusion time scales, and we find that they support short dike and vein formation time scales. We interpret these relatively short time scales to indicate that the Butte porphyry deposit formed by short-lived episodes of hydrofracturing, dike injection, and vein formation, each with discrete thermal pulses, which repeated over the ~3 m.y. generation of the deposit.

  13. ANALISIS PENGELOLAAN LINGKUNGAN PABRIK KELAPA SAWIT BATU AMPAR - PT. SMART Tbk. DALAM IMPLEMENTASI INDONESIAN SUSTAINABLE PALM OIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendra Septiawan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Indonesian Sustainable Palm Oil (ISPO is a standard system of sustainable palm oil plantations in Indonesia are economically viable, socially viable and environmentally friendly which is compulsory in accordance with the regulations. This study aims to analyze the environmental management performance in palm oil mill Batu Ampar and formulate the performance optimization based on the ISPO requirements. The evaluation shows that the company can meet the 38 indicators related to environmental management with some of the achievements include utilization of renewable energy sources that generate energy by 5.0664 million KWh, amounting to 1,677,615.89 liters of diesel fuel savings, reduction in CO2 emissions by 70.63 Kg / ton CPO, chemical fertilizers worth saving Rp.5.750.080,00 / ha / year. The optimization strategy for continuous improvement which is based on the SWOT analysis include: the selection of accredited laboratories, improve the performance of Waste Water Treatment Plant, planned to construct methane capture, optimizing the utilization of solid waste, optimizing the reduction of hazardous waste, provide input in determining government policy, and training routine related to environmental management to improve the competence of personnel.Keywords: environmental management, optimization, performance, sustainable

  14. Investigation of Stabilised Batu Pahat Soft Soil Pertaining on its CBR and Permeability Properties for Road Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Idrus, M. M.; Singh, J. S. M.; Musbah, A. L. A.; Wijeyesekera, D. C.

    2016-07-01

    Soil stabilization by adding materials such as cement, lime and bitumen is one of the effective methods for improving the geotechnical properties of soils [11] Nano-particle is one of the newest additives and many studies about using nano-particle in soil improvement has been done but it was given less attention when soft clay soils stabilization is concerned. To evaluate the strength characteristics of stabilized Batu Pahat soft clay, laboratory investigation on early strength gained by the stabilized soil must be conducted to formulate a suitable and economical mix design [10]. To achieve such purpose, the study examined the effect of NanoClay on the California Bearing Ratio and the Permeability of soft clay. The results gained shows that the Nano-Clay is able to increase the strength of the soft clay [9]. The California Bearing Ratio of the soil is increase significantly where the results for the highest percentage of admixture is 14.4% while the permeability of the soil decreases significantly with increasing Nano-Clay whereby the results of the highest percentage of admixture is 2.0187x10-11 m/s. After doing this research, it is proven that Nano-clay can contribute towards better soil stabilization and enhance the quality of soil as subgrade and foundation at large.

  15. Genetic Model of an Aborted Porphyry-copper System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papp, D. C.; Nitoi, E.; Szakacs, A.

    2009-05-01

    The Neogene Sturzii shallow intrusion from the East Carpathians (Bargau Mts., Romania), hosted by Paleogene-Miocene sediments of the Transcarpatian Flysch, developed as an immature porphyry copper structure. It consists of small volumes of dacites, andesites and related contact breccias, having a surface exposure of a few km2. Hydrothermal alteration occurred in the inner part of the intrusive body. The related mineralization consists of pyrite and chalcopyrite either as small veins or disseminated within the rock. A genetic model of the intrusive structure has been developed based on an integrated petrographic, geochemical, isotopic, fluid inclusion and geophysical study. The rapidly ascending calc-alkaline magmas that generated the intrusion are mantle-derived and contaminated with lower-crustal material. Pressure estimations for amphibole reveal significant differences between values corresponding to the crystal cores and rims, suggesting that decompression occurred during its crystallization. The occurrence of exploded fluid inclusions, as well as of primary igneous garnet, also indicate decompression regime during magma uplift and/or storage. All fluid inclusions identified in dacites are aqueous; C-N-S species were not detected. The general evolution of the fluids is toward decreasing salinity with decreasing temperature. Early high-T, high salinity fluids, most likely of magmatic origin, were subjected to a boiling event, related to a change of fluid pressure from litho- to hydrostatic, and followed by dilution with meteoric fluids as indicated by low salinities. These characteristics of the fluids suggest the tendency of the intrusion to evolve towards a porphyry copper system. We estimate that the evolution stopped due to decompression that allowed cold and dilute external fluids to enter the system and because of the small size of the intrusion that cooled down rapidly and could not induce extensive and long-lasting fluid circulation. Since there is no

  16. Geochronologic constraints on magmatic intrusions and mineralization of the Zhunuo porphyry copper deposit in Gangdese, Tibet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In situ zircon U-Pb ages for the recently discovered Zhunuo porphyry copper deposit in the western part of the Gangdese metallogenic belt in Tibet were determined by sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe (SHRIMP). The ages can be divided into two separate groups, reflecting more than four major tectono-magmatic events in the area. The 62.5±2.5 Ma age of inherited zircons may be related to the volcanic eruption of the Linzizong Group formed shortly after the India-Asia continental collision. The 50.1±3.6 Ma age most likely corresponds to the time of underplating of mantle-derived mafic magma in Gangdese. The 15.6±0.6 Ma age obtained from magmatic zircons is interpreted as the age of crystallization of the Zhunuo ore-forming porphyry. Finally, a molybdenite Re-Os isochron age of 13.72±0.62 Ma is consistent with another zircon U-Pb age of 13.3 ±0.2 Ma, representing the time of copper mineralization. These ages, in combination with available literature data, indicate that magmatic crystallization and copper mineralization in the Gangdese metallogenic belt became gradually younger westward, and further suggest that the Zhunuo porphyry copper deposit was formed in the same tectonic stage as other porphyry copper deposits in the eastern and central Gangdese belt. This conclusion provides critical information for future exploration of porphyry copper deposits in western Gangdese.

  17. Tempo of magma degassing and the genesis of porphyry copper deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelle-Michou, Cyril; Rottier, Bertrand; Caricchi, Luca; Simpson, Guy

    2017-01-01

    Porphyry deposits are copper-rich orebodies formed by precipitation of metal sulphides from hydrothermal fluids released from magmatic intrusions that cooled at depth within the Earth’s crust. Finding new porphyry deposits is essential because they are our largest source of copper and they also contain other strategic metals including gold and molybdenum. However, the discovery of giant porphyry deposits is hindered by a lack of understanding of the factors governing their size. Here, we use thermal modelling and statistical simulations to quantify the tempo and the chemistry of fluids released from cooling magmatic systems. We confirm that typical arc magmas produce fluids similar in composition to those that form porphyry deposits and conclude that the volume and duration of magmatic activity exert a first order control on the endowment (total mass of deposited copper) of economic porphyry copper deposits. Therefore, initial magma enrichment in copper and sulphur, although adding to the metallogenic potential, is not necessary to form a giant deposit. Our results link the respective durations of magmatic and hydrothermal activity from well-known large to supergiant deposits to their metal endowment. This novel approach can readily be implemented as an additional exploration tool that can help assess the economic potential of magmatic-hydrothermal systems.

  18. Ore-forming fluid constraints on illite crystallinity (IC) at Dexing porphyry copper deposit, Jiangxi Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Illite, a distinctive kind of clay minerals of potassiumalteration within the hydrothermal alteration zone, frequently occurs at the Tongchang porphyry copper deposit ore field. The illite crystallinity (IC) value and expandability are mainly affected by water/rock ratio or fluid flux. It was formed by illitization of plagioclase and micas during hydrothermal fluid-rock interaction within the porphyry body and near the contact zone with wall rocks. Moreover, the negative correlation between illite index (IC) and copper grade indicates that within the alteration zone, the smaller the illite crystallinity value, the higher the alteration degree, and the higher the copper grade due to higher water/rock ratio. At lower levels of the porphyry body, however, the illite crystallinity (IC) values are mainly controlled by temperature and time duration.

  19. Peat swamp forest types and their regeneration in Giam Siak Kecil-Bukit Batu Biosphere Reserve, Riau, East Sumatra, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Gunawan

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Although the ecology of tropical peat swamp forests is only now becoming understood, they are already under severe threat of conversion and degradation. Based on studies of the peat swamp forest of the Giam Siak Kecil–Bukit Batu Biosphere Reserve carried out between 2009 and 2010, this paper discusses forest types and regeneration processes in terms of promoting biodiversity conservation and sustainable management of the remaining peat swamp forest. Permanent plots covering a total area of three hectares were established in natural and disturbed forest areas. Within these plots, 135 tree species belonging to 34 families were identified. Mixed peat swamp forest and bintangur forest, which have different dominant species, were identified as the main forest types. The greatest species richness was in logged-over forest, with 82 species and a density of 2,492 stems ha-1. The success of regeneration varied between typical main species in the logged-over forest and in forest disturbed by wind and fire. All of the forest stands had high densities of trees with diameters at breast height (DBH of 3–10 cm, which are a potential source of recruitment to ensure the sustained regeneration of the forest remaining in the Biosphere Reserve. Regeneration is very important for improving the condition of disturbed peat swamp forest areas in the reserve, but natural regeneration will not be sufficient to restore the forest vegetation and conserve the associated biodiversity. Some form of human-assisted accelerated regeneration will be needed, such as enrichment planting of typical canopy species that have problems with establishment. It is important for the remaining natural peat swamp forests to be conserved because of their unique forest-type formations which have distinct dominant species, floristic composition, diversity and local environment characteristics. Improved management of secondary forest must be achieved through rehabilitation, halted forest

  20. Analysis on the Long Term Effect of Trial Test Road Constructed on Batu Pahat Soft Clay (BPSC) at Recess UTHM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idrus, M. M. M.; Edayu, A. E.; Adnan, Z.; Ismail, B.

    2016-07-01

    The reinforcement used in soil for construction of roads on the soft clay is very important as it will determine the level of service of the road after it was built. Damage or defects on the road surface to be an indicator of the level of the road has dropped and shows the deformation of the road. For this research, an analysis has carried out on the long-term effect of trial test road constructed on Batu Pahat Soft Clay (BPSC) at RECESS UTHM. Through this research, the reinforcement using Rawell Geosynthetic Clay Liner (RGCL) was the best with the stability is 14964 N, a low flow is 2.69mm, stiffness modulus is 1766 MPa, the peak load is 739.4 N and a lower horizontal deformation which is 1.71 µm compared Woven Geotextile section and section without geotextile [1] [9]. In terms of deformation can be seen clearly from physical observations that section without geotextile suffered significant damage than others. Settlement of road can also be analyzed by a longitudinal section that plotted based on the result of leveling work. After that, settlements are more visible way on the right side of the road trial. Through lab tests conducted, it indicate that the coring samples obtained from sites of each section meets the specifications set by the Jabatan Kerja Raya (JKR) in terms of stability, flow and stiffness [1]. Through this study, a trial road built on soft soil can be used as a test site because of the uniqueness of these roads which has three different types of reinforcements.

  1. Magnetotelluric survey to characterize the Sunnyside porphyry copper system in the Patagonia Mountains, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Brian D.; Sampson, Jay A.

    2010-01-01

    The Sunnyside porphyry copper system is part of the concealed San Rafael Valley porphyry system located in the Patagonia Mountains of Arizona. The U.S. Geological Survey is conducting a series of multidisciplinary studies as part of the Assessment Techniques for Concealed Mineral Resources project. To help characterize the size and resistivity of the mineralized area beneath overburden, a regional east-west magnetotelluric sounding profile was acquired. This is a data release report of the magnetotelluric sounding data collected along the east-west profile; no interpretation of the data is included.

  2. Audio-magnetotelluric survey to characterize the Sunnyside porphyry copper system in the Patagonia Mountains, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampson, Jay A.; Rodriguez, Brian D.

    2010-01-01

    The Sunnyside porphyry copper system is part of the concealed San Rafael Valley porphyry system located in the Patagonia Mountains of Arizona. The U.S. Geological Survey is conducting a series of multidisciplinary studies as part of the Assessment Techniques for Concealed Mineral Resources project. To help characterize the size, resistivity, and skin depth of the polarizable mineral deposit concealed beneath thick overburden, a regional east-west audio-magnetotelluric sounding profile was acquired. The purpose of this report is to release the audio-magnetotelluric sounding data collected along that east-west profile. No interpretation of the data is included.

  3. PENGARUH BUDAYA ORGANISASI DAN LINGKUNGAN KERJA TERHADAP ORGANIZATIONAL CITIZENSHIP BEHAVIOR, MOTIVASI DAN KINERJA (Survey Pada Karyawan Hotel Berbintang di Kota Malang dan Batu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Warsito

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available This research seeks to investigate the relationship between organizational culture variables, work environment, organizational citizenship behavior, motivation and performance in the star-typed hotel industry at Malang and Batu. This research was purposed to assess the differences of organizational culture, work environment, organizational citizenship behavior, motivation and performance based on the characteristic of respondents. This research was categorized as survey one using cross-sectional study to 15 star-typed hotels at Batu and Malang. The result of investigation using SEM technique indicated that the model developed had moderate fit level. The result of Goodness of fit indices showed moderate result to all construct in the model. Partially, the construct developed showed good outcome in goodness of fit evaluation. Generally, all exogenous variables (organizational culture and work environment significantly affected the performance of employee. Some hypotheses expected on this research were supported, and some of these were not supported. Organizational culture significantly affected organizational citizenship behavior and employee performance, but insignificantly affected motivation. Work environment significantly influenced organizational citizenship behavior but insignificantly affected motivation. Organizational citizenship behavior insignificantly affected motivation, but motivation significantly affected the employee performance.

  4. Evaluation of the Permanent Deformations and Aging Conditions of Batu Pahat Soft Clay-Modified Asphalt Mixture by Using a Dynamic Creep Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Allam A. M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the permanent deformation and aging conditions of BatuPahat soft clay–modified asphalt mixture, also called BatuPahat soft clay (BPSC particles; these particles are used in powder form as an additive to hot-mix asphalt mixture. In this experiment, five percentage compositions of BPSC (0%, 2%, 4%, 6%, and 8% by weight of bitumen were used. A novel design was established to modify the hot-mix asphalt by using the Superpave method for each additive ratio. Several laboratory tests evaluating different properties, such as indirect tensile strength, resilient stiffness modulus, and dynamic creep, was conducted to assess the performance of the samples mixed through the Superpave method. In the resilient modulus test, fatigue and rutting resistance were reduced by the BPSC particles. The added BPSC particles increased the indirect tensile strength. Among the mixtures, 4% BPSC particles yielded the highest performance. In the dynamic creep test, 4% BPSC particles added to the unaged and short-term aged specimens also showed the highest performance. Based on these results, our conclusion is that the BPSC particles can alleviate the permanent deformation (rutting of roads.

  5. Origin of the Lengshuigou porphyry-skarn Cu deposit in the Zha-Shan district, South Qinling, central China, and implications for differences between porphyry Cu and Mo deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Guiqing; Mao, Jingwen; Wang, Ruiting; Meng, Deming; Sun, Jia; Dai, Junzhi; Ren, Tao; Li, Jianbi; Zhao, Haijie

    2016-10-01

    Porphyry Cu and Mo deposits are two economically important types of metal deposits worldwide, but factors controlling their difference remain enigmatic. Compared with the well-studied large porphyry Mo province in the south margin of the North China Block (S-NCB), the origin of newly discovered porphyry Cu deposits in the South Qinling (SQB) is poorly constrained. Integrated zircon LA-ICPMS U-Pb and molybdenite Re-Os ages and geological evidence indicate three stages of magmatism at Lengshuigou: (1) late Neoproterozoic (718 to 704 Ma) quartz diorite + albitite + granite association during the pre-ore stage, (2) 146 to 145 Ma granodiorite porphyry during the syn-ore stage, and (3) 145 Ma granite porphyry during the post-ore stage. Elemental and Sr-Nd isotopic evidence provide important constraints on their magma source. Pre-ore Neoproterozoic quartz diorite + albitite + granite was derived by re-melting of a mixture of crustal and juvenile mantle materials, and stronger fractional crystallization was involved in these ore-hosting intrusions than in contemporary granitoids hosted in the Douling Group. Syn-ore granodiorite porphyry was derived from mantle-derived magma with contributions from different proportions of crustal components. Post-ore granite porphyry was derived mainly from a crustal source. Nearly contemporaneous porphyry Cu and Mo systems were identified in Qinling Province, including the 147-139 Ma porphyry Mo systems in the S-NCB and 150-146 Ma porphyry Cu systems in the SQB. Granitic stocks related to porphyry Cu systems in the SQB are characterized by moderate SiO2 contents (58.01-69.07 %) and less radiogenic Nd-Hf isotopes (ɛNd(t) = -3.8 to -6.3, ɛHf(t) = -4.5 to +1.6), whereas the granitic stocks related to porphyry Mo deposits in the S-NCB have high SiO2 concentrations (64.00-76.00 %) and more radiogenic Nd-Hf isotopes (ɛNd(t) = -18.0 to -11.6, ɛHf(t) = -26.3 to -13.5). In addition, molybdenite from the Chigou and Lengshuigou porphyry Cu

  6. Stochastic modelling of deep magmatic controls on porphyry copper deposit endowment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiaradia, Massimo; Caricchi, Luca

    2017-03-01

    Porphyry deposits, our main source of copper and of significant amounts of Mo, Re and Au, form at convergent margins in association with intermediate-felsic magmas. Although it is accepted that copper is transported and precipitated by fluids released by these magmas, the magmatic processes leading to the formation of economic deposits remain elusive. Here we perform Monte Carlo petrological and geochemical modelling to quantitatively link crustal magmatic processes and the geochemical signatures of magmas (i.e., Sr/Y) to the formation of porphyry Cu deposits of different sizes. Our analysis shows that economic deposits (particularly the largest ones) may only form in association with magma accumulated in the lower-middle crust (P > ~0.5 GPa) during ≥2–3 Ma, and subsequently transferred to and degassed in the upper crust over periods of up to ~2.0 Ma. Magma accumulation and evolution at shallower depths (<~0.4 GPa) dramatically reduces the potential of magmatic systems to produce economic deposits. Our modelling also predicts the association of the largest porphyry deposits with a specific Sr/Y interval (~100 ± 50) of the associated magmatic rocks, which is virtually identical to the range measured in giant porphyry copper deposits.

  7. Ridge subduction and porphyry copper-gold mineralization:An overview

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Many large porphyry Cu-Au deposits are connected to adakitic rocks known to be closely associated with ridge subduction. For example, there are several subducting ridges along the east Pacific margin, e.g., in Chile, Peru, and South America, most of which are associated with large porphyry Cu-Au deposits. In contrast, there are much fewer ridge subductions on the west Pacific margin and porphyry Cu-Au deposits are much less there, both in terms of tonnage and the number of deposits. Given that Cu and Au are moderately incompatible elements, oceanic crust has much higher Cu-Au concentrations than the mantle and the continental crust, and thus slab melts with their diagnostic adakitic chemistry have systematically higher Cu and Au, which is favorable for mineralization. Considering the geotherm of subducting slabs in the Phanerozoic, ridge subduction is the most favorable tectonic setting for this. Therefore, slab melting is the likely link in the spatial association between ridge subduction and Cu-Au deposits. Geochemical signatures of slab melting and hence maybe ridge subduction in less eroded regions in eastern China, the central Asian orogenic belt etc. may indicate important exploration targets for large porphyry Cu-Au deposits.

  8. Imperial porphyry from Gebel Abu Dokhan, the Red Sea Mountains, Egypt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makovicky, Emil; Frei, Robert; Karup-Møller, Sven;

    2016-01-01

    grey to red and are characterized by abundant, weakly aligned white to pink feldspar phenocrysts. The magmatic phenocrysts – plagioclase, hornblende, pyroxene, opaque components and apatite – are always altered. The red colour of the porphyry stems from alteration of phenocrysts and groundmass which...

  9. Critical Factors Controlling Pd and Pt Potential in Porphyry Cu–Au Deposits: Evidence from the Balkan Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demetrios G. Eliopoulos

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Porphyry Cu–Au–Pd±Pt deposits are significant Au resources, but their Pd and Pt potential is still unknown. Elevated Pd, Pt (hundreds of ppb and Au contents are associated with typical stockwork magnetite-bornite-chalcopyrite assemblages, at the central parts of certain porphyry deposits. Unexpected high grade Cu–(Pd+Pt (up to 6 ppm mineralization with high Pd/Pt ratios at the Elatsite porphyry deposit, which is found in a spatial association with the Chelopech epithermal deposit (Bulgaria and the Skouries porphyry deposit, may have formed during late stages of an evolved hydrothermal system. Estimated Pd, Pt and Au potential for porphyry deposits is consistent with literature model calculations demonstrating the capacity of aqueous vapor and brine to scavenge sufficient quantities of Pt and Pd, and could contribute to the global platinum-group element (PGE production. Critical requirements controlling potential of porphyry deposits may be from the metals contained in magma (metasomatized asthenospheric mantle wedge as indicated by significant Cr, Co, Ni and Re contents. The Cr content may be an indicator for the mantle input.

  10. Geochronology of the Hongniu-Hongshan porphyry and skarn Cu deposit, northwestern Yunnan province, China: Implications for mineralization of the Zhongdian arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Hui-juan; Mao, Jing-wen; Pei, Rong-fu; Zhang, Chang-qing; Tian, Guang; Zhou, Yunman; Li, Jianxin; Hou, Lin

    2014-01-01

    The Hongniu-Hongshan porphyry and skarn copper deposit is located in the Triassic Zhongdian island arc, northwestern Yunnan province, China. Single-zircon laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry U-Pb dating suggests that the diorite porphyry and the quartz monzonite porphyry in the deposit area formed at 200 Ma and 77 Ma, respectively. A Re-Os isotopic date of molybdenite from the ore is 78.9 Ma, which indicates that in addition to the known Triassic Cu-(Au) porphyry systems, a Late Cretaceous porphyry Cu-Mo mineralization event also exists in the Zhongdian arc. The quartz monzonite porphyry shows characteristics of a magnetite series intrusion, with a high concentration of Al, K, Rb, Ba, and Pb, low amount of Ta, Ti, Y, and Yb, and a high ratio of Sr/Y (average 26.42). The Cretaceous porphyry also shows a strong fractionation between light and heavy rare earth elements (average (La/Yb)N 37.9), which is similar to those of the Triassic subduction-related diorite porphyry in the Hongniu-Hongshan deposit and the porphyry hosting the Pulang copper deposit. However, in contrast to the older intrusions, the quartz monzonite porphyry contains higher concentrations of large ion lithophile elements and Co, and lesser Sr and Zr. Therefore, whereas the Triassic porphyry Cu-(Au) mineralization is related to slab subduction slab in an arc setting, the quartz monzonite porphyry in the Hongniu-Hongshan deposit formed by the remelting of the residual oceanic slab combined with contributions from subduction-modified arc lithosphere and continental crust, which provided the metals for the Late Cretaceous mineralization.

  11. Isotopic tracing of ore-forming source materials for Dexing porphyry copper deposit of Jiangxi, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng QIAN; Jianjun LU

    2008-01-01

    Dexing copper deposit is the biggest porphyry copper deposit in China. By researching isotopes of C,Si and Cu from the samples of Tongchang and Fujiawu ore-field, the authors found that δ13CPDB values of siderite were close to the δ13CPDB value of original magma; δ30Si values of the samples at the ore-forming stage were close to the δ30Si value range of magma, δ30Si values of partial samples were far away from it; Cu isotopic compositions of massive chalcopyrite formed at the early ore-forming stage are higher than that of veinal chalcopyrite formed at the later ore-forming stage. The results show that ore-forming materials were mainly derived from the porphyry body, and part of them were from wall rock materials.

  12. Timing and duration of hydrothermal activity at the Los Bronces porphyry cluster: an update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deckart, K.; Silva, W.; Spröhnle, C.; Vela, I.

    2014-06-01

    New geochronological data from the Los Bronces cluster of the Río Blanco-Los Bronces mega-porphyry Cu-Mo district establish a wide range of magmatism, hydrothermal alteration, and mineralization ages, both in terms of areal extent and time. The northern El Plomo and southernmost Los Piches exploration areas contain the oldest barren porphyritic intrusions with U-Pb ages of 10.8 ± 0.1 Ma and 13.4 ± 0.1 Ma, respectively. A hypabyssal barren intrusion adjacent northwesterly to the main pit area yields a slightly younger age of 10.2 ± 0.3 Ma (San Manuel sector, U-Pb), whereas in the Los Bronces (LB) open-pit area, the present day mineral extraction zone, porphyries range from 8.49 to 6.02 Ma (U-Pb). Hydrothermal biotite and sericite ages are up to 0.5 Ma younger but consistent with the cooling of the corresponding intrusion events of each area. Two quartz-molybdenite B-type veins from the LB open pit have Re-Os molybdenite ages of 5.65 ± 0.03 Ma and 5.35 ± 0.03 Ma consistent with published data for the contiguous Río Blanco cluster. The San Manuel exploration area within the Los Bronces cluster, located about 1.5-2 km southeast of the open-pit extraction zone, shows both the oldest hydrothermal biotite (7.70 ± 0.07 Ma; 40Ar/39Ar) and breccia cement molybdenite ages (8.36 ± 0.06 Ma; Re-Os) registered in the entire Río Blanco-Los Bronces district. These are also older than those reported from the El Teniente porphyry Cu(-Mo) deposit, suggesting that mineralization in the late Miocene to early Pliocene porphyry belt of Central Chile commenced 2 Ma before the previously accepted age of 6.3 Ma.

  13. Tectonic environments of South American porphyry copper magmatism through time revealed by spatiotemporal data mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butterworth, N.; Steinberg, D.; Müller, R. D.; Williams, S.; Merdith, A. S.; Hardy, S.

    2016-12-01

    Porphyry ore deposits are known to be associated with arc magmatism on the overriding plate at subduction zones. While general mechanisms for driving magmatism are well established, specific subduction-related parameters linking episodes of ore deposit formation to specific tectonic environments have only been qualitatively inferred and have not been formally tested. We develop a four-dimensional approach to reconstruct age-dated ore deposits, with the aim of isolating the tectonomagmatic parameters leading to the formation of copper deposits during subduction. We use a plate tectonic model with continuously closing plate boundaries, combined with reconstructions of the spatiotemporal distribution of the ocean floor, including subducted portions of the Nazca/Farallon plates. The models compute convergence rates and directions, as well as the age of the downgoing plate through time. To identify and quantify tectonic parameters that are robust predictors of Andean porphyry copper magmatism and ore deposit formation, we test two alternative supervised machine learning methods; the "random forest" (RF) ensemble and "support vector machines" (SVM). We find that a combination of rapid convergence rates ( 100 km/Myr), subduction obliquity of 15°, a subducting plate age between 25-70 Myr old, and a location far from the subducting trench boundary (>2000 km) represents favorable conditions for porphyry magmatism and related ore deposits to occur. These parameters are linked to the availability of oceanic sediments, the changing small-scale convection around the subduction zone, and the availability of the partial melt in the mantle wedge. When coupled, these parameters could influence the genesis and exhumation of porphyry copper deposits.

  14. Global mineral resource assessment: porphyry copper assessment of Mexico: Chapter A in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Robinson,, Gilpin R.; Ludington, Steve; Gray, Floyd; Drenth, Benjamin J.; Cendejas-Cruz, Francisco; Espinosa, Enrique; Pérez-Segura, Efrén; Valencia-Moreno, Martín; Rodríguez-Castañeda, José Luis; Vásquez-Mendoza, Rigobert; Zürcher, Lukas

    2010-01-01

    Mineral resource assessments provide a synthesis of available information about distributions of mineral deposits in the Earth’s crust. A probabilistic mineral resource assessment of undiscovered resources in porphyry copper deposits in Mexico was done as part of a global mineral resource assessment. The purpose of the study was to (1) delineate permissive areas (tracts) for undiscovered porphyry copper deposits within 1 km of the surface at a scale of 1:1,000,000; (2) provide a database of known porphyry copper deposits and significant prospects; (3) estimate numbers of undiscovered deposits within those permissive tracts; and (4) provide probabilistic estimates of amounts of copper (Cu), molybdenum (Mo), gold (Au), and silver (Ag) that could be contained in undiscovered deposits for each permissive tract. The assessment was conducted using a three-part form of mineral resource assessment based on mineral deposit models (Singer, 1993). Delineation of permissive tracts primarily was based on distributions of mapped igneous rocks related to magmatic arcs that formed in tectonic settings associated with subduction boundary zones. Using a GIS, map units were selected from digital geologic maps based on lithology and age to delineate twelve permissive tracts associated with Jurassic, Laramide (~90 to 34 Ma), and younger Tertiary magmatic arcs. Stream-sediment geochemistry, mapped alteration, regional aeromagnetic data, and exploration history were considered in conjunction with descriptive deposit models and grade and tonnage models to guide estimates.

  15. Geology and porphyry copper-type alteration-mineralization of igneous rocks at the Christmas Mine, Gila County, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koski, Randolph A.

    1979-01-01

    The Christmas copper deposit, located in southern Gila County, Arizona, is part of the major porphyry copper province of southwestern North America. Although Christmas is known for skarn deposits in Paleozoic carbonate rocks, ore-grade porphyry-type copper mineralization also occurs in a composite granodioritic intrusive complex and adjacent mafic volcanic country rocks. This study considers the nature, distribution, and genesis of alteration-mineralization in the igneous rock environment at Christmas. At the southeast end of the Dripping Spring Mountains, the Pennsylvanian Naco Limestone is unconformably overlain by the Cretaceous Williamson Canyon Volcanics, a westward-thinning sequence of basaltic volcanic breccia and lava flows, and subordinate clastic sedimentary rocks. Paleozoic and Mesozoic strata are intruded by Laramide-age dikes, sills, and small stocks of hornblende andesite porphyry and hornblende rhyodacite porphyry, and the mineralized Christmas intrusive complex. Rocks of the elongate Christmas stock, intruded along an east-northeast-trending fracture zone, are grouped into early, veined quartz diorite (Dark Phase), biotite granodiorite porphyry (Light Phase), and granodiorite; and late, unveined dacite porphyry and granodiorite porphyry. Biotite rhyodacite porphyry dikes extending east and west from the vicinity of the stock are probably coeval with biotite granodiorite porphyry. Accumulated normal displacement of approximately 1 km along the northwest-trending Christmas-Joker fault system has juxtaposed contrasting levels (lower, intrusive-carbonate rock environment and upper, intrusive-volcanic rock environment) within the porphyry copper system. K-Ar age determinations and whole-rock chemical analyses of the major intrusive rock types indicate that Laramide calc-alkaline magmatism and ore deposition at Christmas evolved over an extended period from within the Late Cretaceous (~75-80 m.y. ago) to early Paleocene (~63-61 m.y. ago). The sequence of

  16. Ages and tectonic significance of the collision-related granite porphyries in the Lhunzhub Basin,Tibet,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG LiQuan; ZHU DiCheng; GENG QuanRu; LIAO ZhongLi; PAN GuiTang

    2007-01-01

    The Paleocene collision-related granite porphyries are identified for the first time along the western margin of the Lhunzhub Basin,Tibet.SHRIMP U-Pb zircon analysis indicates that the granite porphyries were emplaced at 58.7±1.1 Ma(MSWD=0.79)during the Indo-Asian continental collision.The granite porphyries are peraluminous and high in K,belonging to the calc-alkaline to high-K calc-alkaline series.They are relatively enriched in LILE,Th and LREE and depletion in Ba,Nb,P and Ti,characterized by LREE-enriched patterns with slightly to moderately negative Eu anomalies.These Paleocene granite porphyries are interpreted as the products generated by partial melting of the pre-existing arc crustal rocks caused by the increase of pressures and temperatures during the crustal shortening at the early stages of the Indo-Asian continental collision since 65 Ma.Despite inherited geochemical features and tectonic settings of the arc protoliths,they are significantly different from the volcanic rocks of the Dianzhong Formation within the Linzizong Group and the Miocene granite porphyries in the Gangdise belt.

  17. Porphyry copper assessment of Europe, exclusive of the Fennoscandian Shield: Chapter K in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutphin, David M.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Drew, Lawrence J.; Large, Duncan E.; Berger, Byron R.; Dicken, Connie L.; DeMarr, Michael W.; with contributions from Billa, Mario; Briskey, Joseph A.; Cassard, Daniel; Lips, Andor; Pertold, Zdeněk; Roşu, Emilian

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) collaborated with European geologists to assess resources in porphyry copper deposits in Europe, exclusive of Scandinavia (Sweden, Denmark, Norway, and Finland) and Russia. Porphyry copper deposits in Europe are Paleozoic and Late Cretaceous to Miocene in age. A number of the 31 known Phanerozoic deposits contain more than 1 million metric tons of contained copper, including the Majdanpek deposit, Serbia; Assarel, Bulgaria; Skouries, Greece; and Rosia Poeni, Romania. Five geographic areas were delineated as permissive tracts for post-Paleozoic porphyry copper deposits. Two additional tracts were delineated to show the extent of permissive igneous rocks associated with porphyry copper mineralization related to the Paleozoic Caledonian and Variscan orogenies. The tracts are based on mapped and inferred subsurface distributions of igneous rocks of specific age ranges that define areas where the occurrence of porphyry copper deposits within 1 kilometer of the Earth’s surface is possible. These tracts range in area from about 4,000 to 93,000 square kilometers. Although maps at a variety of different scales were used in the assessment, the final tract boundaries are intended for use at a scale of 1:1,000,000.

  18. Porphyry copper assessment of the Tethys region of western and southern Asia: Chapter V in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zürcher, Lukas; Bookstrom, Arthur A.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Mars, John C.; Ludington, Stephen; Zientek, Michael L.; Dunlap, Pamela; Wallis, John C.; Drew, Lawrence J.; Sutphin, David M.; Berger, Byron R.; Herrington, Richard J.; Billa, Mario; Kuşcu, Ilkay; Moon, Charles J.; Richards, Jeremy P.; Zientek, Michael L.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Johnson, Kathleen M.

    2015-11-18

    A probabilistic mineral resource assessment of undiscovered resources in porphyry copper deposits in the Tethys region of western and southern Asia was carried out as part of a global mineral resource assessment led by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The purpose of the study was to delineate geographic areas as permissive tracts for the occurrence of porphyry copper deposits at a scale of 1:1,000,000 and to provide probabilistic estimates of amounts of copper likely to be contained in undiscovered porphyry copper deposits in those tracts. The team did the assessment using the USGS three-part form of mineral resource assessment, which is based on (1) mineral deposit and grade-tonnage models constructed from known deposits as analogs for undiscovered deposits, (2) delineation of permissive tracts based on geoscientific information, and (3) estimation of numbers of undiscovered deposits.

  19. Geology and ore fluid geochemistry of the Jinduicheng porphyry molybdenum deposit, East Qinling, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongying; Ye, Huishou; Wang, Xiaoxia; Yang, Lei; Wang, Xiuyuan

    2014-01-01

    Jinduicheng deposit is a giant Mesozoic porphyry Mo system deposit in the East Qinling molybdenum belt, Shaanxi Province, China. The mineralization is associated with the I-type Jinduicheng granite porphyry. Both the porphyry stock and country rocks underwent intense hydrothermal alteration. The alteration, with increasing distance from the parent intrusion, changes from silicification, through potassic and phyllic assemblages, carbonation, to propylitic assemblages. Molybdenite, the dominant ore mineral, occurs in veinlets, most of which are hosted by the altered country rocks, with less than 25% of the ore in the porphyry body. The hydrothermal system comprises four stages, including pre-ore quartz and K-feldspar; two ore stages of quartz, K-feldspar, molybdenite, and Pb- And Zn-bearing sulfides; and post-ore quartz and carbonate. Six main types of primary fluid inclusions are present in hydrothermal quartz, including two-phase aqueous, one-phase aqueous, three-phase CO2-bearing, CO2-dominated fluid inclusions, gas inclusions, and melt inclusions. The homogenization temperatures of fluid inclusions range from 210 to 290 °C in the pre-ore stage, 150-310 °C in ore stage I, 150-360 °C in the ore stage II, and 195-325 °C in the post-ore stage quartz. Estimated salinities of the ore-forming fluids range from 6.9 to 13.5, 4.3 to 12.3, 6.2 to 12.4, and 3.4 to 9.9 wt.% NaCl equiv. in stages 1-4, respectively. The δ34S values of pyrite in the two ore stages range from 2.8‰ to 4.3‰, whereas the δ34S values of molybdenite range from 2.9‰ to 6.2‰. The data suggest both magmatic and crustal sources of sulfur. The δD and δ18O values for the hydrothermal fluids are -57.2‰ to -84.4‰ and 8.0‰ to -3.2‰, respectively. The fluid inclusion and stable data indicate that the pre-ore hydrothermal fluids were mostly of magmatic origin, but the fluids responsible for ore deposition were mixed magmatic and meteoric, and eventually meteoric water dominated the system

  20. Hydrothermal Fluid evolution in the Dalli porphyry Cu-Au Deposit: Fluid Inclusion microthermometry studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Zarasvandi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction A wide variety of world-class porphyry Cu deposits occur in the Urumieh-Dohktar magmatic arc (UDMA of Iran.The arc is composed of calc-alkaline granitoid rocks, and the ore-hosting porphyry intrusions are dominantly granodiorite to quartz-monzonite (Zarasvandi et al., 2015. It is believed that faults played an important role in the emplacement of intrusions and subsequentporphyry-copper type mineralization (Shahabpour, 1999. Three main centers host the porphyry copper mineralization in the UDMA: (1 Ardestan-SarCheshmeh-Kharestan zone, (2 Saveh-Ardestan district; in the central parts of the UDMA, hosting the Dalli porphyry Cu-Au deposit, and (3 Takab-Mianeh-Qharahdagh-Sabalan zone. Mineralized porphyry coppersystems in the UDMA are restricted to Oligocene to Mioceneintrusions and show potassic, sericitic, argillic, propylitic and locally skarn alteration (Zarasvandi et al., 2005; Zarasvandi et al., 2015. In the Dalli porphyry deposit, four hydrothermal alteration zones, includingpotassic, sericitic, propylitic, and argillic types have been described in the two discrete mineralized areas, namely, northern and southern stocks. Hypogenemineralization includes chalcopyrite, pyrite, and magnetite, with minor occurrences of bornite.Supergene activity has produced gossan, oxidized minerals and enrichment zones. The supergene enrichment zone contains chalcocite and covellite with a 10-20 m thickness. Mineralization in the northern stock is mainly composed of pyrite and chalcopyrite. The aim of this study is the investigation and classification of hydrothermal veins and the constraining of physicochemical compositions of ore-forming fluids using systematic investigation of fluid inclusions. Materials and methods Twenty samples were collected from drill holes. Thin and polished sections were prepared from hydrothermal veins of thepotassic, sericitic and propylitic alteration zones. Samples used for fluid inclusion measurements were collected

  1. Petrogenesis of skarn related Cu-porphyry intrusion deposit, Ali-Abad- Darreh Zereshk, Yazd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batoul Taghipour

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The study area is a part of Cenozoic magmatic belt of Central Iran, which is located in the West of Yazd porovince. Contact metamorphism and skarn occurred in conglomerate part of Sngestan Formation. The Oligocene intrusion bodies of Ali-Abad-Darreh Zereshk are leucocerate and have the chemical composition of granite to granodiorite with calc-alkaline affinity from volcanic arc geological setting. The main mineral assemblage of skarn in order of imprtance is as follow: Garnet + epidote + quartz + calcite + pyrite + iron oxides. Brown garnets are the skarn characteristic mineral. EPMA analysis has shown that the chemical composition with garnet belong to andradite-grossular solid-solution (And 65, Gross 30 with more andradite component. The high permeability and presence of carbonate pebbles in conglomerate are two important factors for fluid flow and genesis of garnets. Distinct oscillatory zoning in garnets is resulted from the change of fO2 in fluids. The evolution of Ali-Abad skarn is took place in the range of 380 to 530 ºC, 0.5 Kbar pressure and high fO2. Also close association of this skarn with Ali-Abad intrusive with Cu-porphyry mineralization shows that this skarn is a Cu-porphyry type skarn.

  2. REE characteristics and genesis of alkaline-rich porphyry, Yunnan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The Yunnan Himalayan alkaline-rich porphyry occurs as a compound rockbelt and consists of calca-alkalic, alkaline and peralkaline intrusions. Its origin is in debate. The paper deals with its origin by studying rock′s REE and Sr isotope. Although the rocks are different in their REE contents varying from 77.53 μg/g to 1 798.3 μg/g, they have very similar features in REE parameters. On the triangalar diagram of REEs, the sample dots are concentrated on the end area of light REEs, representing a product of low-degree melting of upper mantle or lower crust materials. The initial 87Sr/86Sr values of rocks vary between 0.706 4 and 0.709 8, showing a feature of mantle-crust mixed source. Moreover, REEs show a logarithmic linear positive correlation between them. This type of correlation strongly supports the fractional-partial melting model. The result of geochemistry inversion shows that the source rock of alkaline-rich porphyry is plagioclase-bearing harzburgite and of mantle-crust mixed type. At the early state of melting, some crust components of the source rock were partially melted into intermediate-acidic magma; with the crust components consumed, the magma evolved to basic.

  3. Iron concretions within a highly altered unit of the Berlins Porphyry, New Zealand: an abiotic or biotic story?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Toni L.; Oze, Christopher; Horton, Travis W.

    2016-09-01

    The Berlins Porphyry located on the South Island of New Zealand provides an opportunity to examine iron concretions formed in a subterranean system. Specifically, an alteration zone within the Berlins Porphyry contains iron concretions similar to sedimentary biologically-mediated iron concretions. Here, we provide evidence for two sources of dissolved Fe (II) that potentially aided in the formation of the iron concretions. Furthermore, we discuss the potential for microbial involvement in the anaerobic oxidation of Fe (II) to Fe (III) to form magnetite. Evidence in support of this hypothesis includes the low concentrations of iron and sulfur in the white hydrothermally altered porphyry outcrop and concretion cores; concentrated pyrite and magnetite mineralisation surrounding the cores; and δ13C values indicative of organic carbon (averaging -26 ‰ ± 4 ‰) within the iron cement, porphyry-core-boundary and outer weathered rinds of the concretions. Overall, these unusually preserved iron concretions could represent a new environmental niche for microorganisms and a potential analogue for microbially induced iron-oxidation. More importantly, this study illustrates the many obstacles involved in analysing and interpreting potential subterranean biosignatures.

  4. Paleomagnetism and the Alpine tectonics of Eurasia U the magnetism of the Permian porphyries near Lugano (Northern Italy, Switzerland)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilten, D. van; Zijderveld, J.D.A.

    1966-01-01

    The magnetic properties of 25 oriented samples of the Permian porphyries from the Lugano district are investigated. After a.c. demagnetization (up to 900 Oe peak value) eleven samples produce a characteristic direction of magnetization, declination (D) = N 143.5°E, inclination (I) = −17°. The other

  5. Geochemical Charactristics and Genesis of Topaz—Bearing Porphyries in Yangbin Area of Taishun County,Zhejiang Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王德滋; 刘昌实; 等

    1995-01-01

    The host rocks of the porphyry tin deposits in the Yangbin area are prince-pally topaz-bearing porphyry dikes about 2 km long and 2-20m wide.Three lithologic types are identified for the dikes:topaz-bearing potassium feldspar granitic porphyry,topaz-bearing monzonitic granitic porphyry and topaz-bearing quartz porphyry.The con-tent of topaz in the rocks ranges from 10 to 20 vol.%.Porphyritic texture is characteristic,with quartz,potassium feldspar and albite as main phenocryst minerals.The phenocryst occupies 10-20vol% of the rocks.The rock groundmass consists of subhedrak topaz,quartz and protolithionite.Topaz has a unit-cell parameter b=8.797(A)°,and F:OH=1.92:0.18, indicating a F-rich variety formed at high temperature .The topaz-bearing porphyries occurring in this area are strongly peraluminous (A/NKC=1.574-12.94),with high ra-tios of F/C1(146-303) and Rb/Sr(5-122).They are rich in incompatible elements (Sn,313×10-6-1042×10-6;W,6×10-6-218×10-6;Nb,27×10-6-54×10-6),but poor in compatible elements (Sr,10×10-6-28×10-6;Ba,58×10-6-73×10-6;V,3×10-6-10×10-6,Cl,150×10-6-226×10-6).The rocks are also characterized by high total REE amount (281.69×10-6-319.76×10-6);with strong Eu depletion (&Eu=0.01-0.03)and low ratio of LREE/HREE(0.78-0.84).In summary ,the authors propose propose an idea of S-type genesis for the topaz-bearing porphyries with tin mineralization,instead of I-type.

  6. A Long-Lived Porphyry Ore Deposit and Associated Upper Crustal Silicic Magma Body, Bajo de la Alumbrera, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, A. C.; Allen, C. M.; Reiners, P. W.; Dunlap, W. J.; Cooke, D. R.; Campbell, I. H.; White, N. C.

    2004-05-01

    Porphyry Cu deposits form within and adjacent to small porphyritic intrusions that are apophyses to larger silicic magma bodies that reside in the upper parts of the Earth's crusts. Centred on these intrusions are hydrothermal systems of exsolved magmatic fluid with a carapace of convectively circulating meteoric water. We have applied several different dating techniques to assess the longevity of the magmatic-hydrothermal system and to define the cooling history of porphyry intrusions at the Bajo de la Alumbrera porphyry Cu-Au deposit, Argentina. The closure temperatures of these techniques range from 800oC (zircon U-Pb) to ~70oC (apatite (U-Th)/He; Fig. 1). The resulting cooling history indicates that the magmatic-hydrothermal system cooled to ca. 200oC by ~1.5 m.y. after the last porphyry intrusion (i.e., 6.96±0.09 Ma; U-Pb zircon age). Based on (U-Th)/He apatite data (closure temperature ~60-70oC), exposure and cessation of the system occurred before 4 Ma. The longevity of the magmatic-hydrothermal system indicated by these results is inconsistent with accepted mechanisms for porphyry Cu deposit formation. Depending on wallrock permeability, depth and cooling method, a 2 km wide by 3 km high intrusion has been predicted to cool between 0.01 to 0.1 m.y. (marked as the grey interval; Cathles et al., 1997 Economic Geology). We have obtained numerous age determinations younger than the U-Pb zircon age of the last known intrusion at Bajo de la Alumbrera. These imply that simple cooling of the small, mineralized porphyries did not happen. For the magmatic-hydrothermal system to have been sustained for longer than 0.1 m.y., either 1) younger small intrusions have been episodically emplaced below the youngest known intrusions, thus prolonging heat flow, or 2) fluids derived from a deeper and larger parental intrusion have been episodically discharged through the ore deposit long after the porphyry intrusion had lost its available heat. In either case, the longevity of

  7. Porphyry copper assessment of East and Southeast Asia: Philippines, Taiwan (Republic of China), Republic of Korea (South Korea), and Japan: Chapter P in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Bookstrom, Arthur A.; Demarr, Michael W.; Dicken, Connie L.; Ludington, Stephen; Robinson,, Gilpin R.; Zientek, Michael L.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey collaborated with member countries of the Coordinating Committee for Geoscience Programmes in East and Southeast Asia (CCOP) on an assessment of the porphyry copper resources of East and Southeast Asia as part of a global mineral resource assessment. The assessment covers the Philippines in Southeast Asia, and the Republic of Korea (South Korea), Taiwan (Province of China), and Japan in East Asia. The Philippines host world class porphyry copper deposits, such as the Tampakan and Atlas deposits. No porphyry copper deposits have been discovered in the Republic of Korea (South Korea), Taiwan (Province of China), or Japan.

  8. Pemanfaatan Biogas (Gas Methan) Dari Hasil Pengolahan Palm Oil Mill Effluent (Pome) Secara Anaerobic Sebagai Bahan Bakar Unit Oil Refinery Dan Pencegah Pencemaran Lingkungan Di Pt.Multimas Nabati Asahan, Batu Bara

    OpenAIRE

    sitorus, Syaiful bahri

    2016-01-01

    Palm oil production in Indonesia continues to increase, thereby increasing the amount of waste therefore to decimate environmental pollution load in the waste in the processing of palm oil in the palm oil mills in PT.Multimas Nabati Asahan, Batu Bara has made Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) by using Anaerobic technology to produce biogas which can be utilized as fuel for burning palm oil mills in the refinery unit Multimas 200 palm oil mills, once the reduced pollutant load will be processed b...

  9. Geochemical and Sr-Pb-Nd isotopic characteristics of the Shakhtama porphyry Mo-Cu system (Eastern Transbaikalia, Russia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berzina, A. P.; Berzina, A. N.; Gimon, V. O.

    2014-01-01

    The Shakhtama Mo-Cu porphyry deposit is located within the eastern segment of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt, bordering the southern margin of the Mongol-Okhotsk suture zone. The deposit includes rocks of two magmatic complexes: the precursor plutonic (J2) and ore-bearing porphyry (J3) complexes. The plutonic complex was emplaced at the final stages of the collisional regime in the region; the formation of the porphyry complex may have overlapped with a transition to extension. The Shakhtama rocks are predominantly metaluminous, I-type high K calc-alkaline to shoshonitic in composition, with relatively high Mg#, Ni, Cr and V. They are characterized by crustal-like ISr (0.70741-0.70782), relatively radiogenic Pb isotopic compositions, ɛNd(T) values close to CHUR (-2.7 to +2.1) and Nd model ages from 0.8 to 1.2 Ga. Both complexes are composed of rocks with K-adakitic features and rocks without adakite trace element signatures. The regional geological setting together with geochemical and isotopic data indicate that both juvenile and old continental crust contributed to their origin. High-Mg# K-adakitic Shakhtama magmas were most likely generated by partial melting of thickened lower crust during delamination and interaction with mantle material, while magmas lacking adakite-like signatures were probably generated at shallower levels of lower crust. The derivation of melts, related to the formation of plutonic and porphyry complexes involved variable amounts of old Precambrian lower crust and juvenile Phanerozoic crust. Isotopic data imply stronger contribution of juvenile mantle-derived material to the fertile magmas of the porphyry complex. Juvenile crust is proposed as an important source of fluids and metals for the Shakhtama ore-magmatic system.

  10. Potential links between porphyry copper deposits and exhumed metamorphic basement complexes in northern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Frances; Docherty, Alistair; Perkins, Rebecca

    2014-05-01

    Porphyry copper deposits (PCDs) are typically associated with magmatic arcs in compressional subduction zone settings where thickened crust and fractionated calc-alkaline magmas produce favourable conditions for copper mineralisation. A classic example is the Eocene-Oligocene PCD belt of Chile, the world's leading copper producing country. In other parts of the world, older late Cretaceous to early Tertiary PCDs are found in regions of former subduction-related magmatism that have undergone subsequent post-orogenic crustal extension, such as the Basin and Range province of western North America, and the Eurasian Balkan-Carpathian-Dinaride belt. In the Basin and Range there is a striking correlation between the location of many PCDs and exhumed metamorphic core complexes (isolated remnants of the middle to lower crust exhumed during extensional normal faulting). This close spatial relationship raises questions about the links between the two. For example, are their exhumation histories related? Could the presence of impermeable metamorphic rocks at depth affect and localise mineralising fluids? In Chile there appears to be a similar spatial relationship between PCDs and isolated outcrops of exhumed metamorphic basement. In northern Chile, isolated exposures of high-grade metamorphic gneisses and amphibolites are thought to be exhumed remnants of the pre-subduction Proterozoic-Paleozoic continental margin of Gondwana [2], although little is known about when they were exhumed and by what mechanism. For example, the Limón Verde metamorphic complex, exhumed from a depth of ca. 50 km, is situated adjacent to Chuquicamata, the largest open pit copper mine in the world. In northernmost Chile, another metamorphic exposure, the Belén complex, sits close to the Dos Hermanos PCD, a small deposit that is not actively mined. Comprising garnet-bearing gneisses and amphibolites, the Belén is thought to have been exhumed from a depth of ca. 25 km, but when and how is unclear [3

  11. Geochemical Trace of Silicon Isotopes of Intrusions and Ore Veins Related to Alkali-rich Porphyry Deposits in Western Yunnan, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xianfan; YANG Zhengxi; LIU Jiaduo; WU Dechao; ZHANG Chenjiang; LI Youguo

    2004-01-01

    Western Yunnan is the well-known polymetallic province in China. It is characterized by copper-gold mineralization related to Cenozoic alkali-rich porphyry. This paper analyzes the silicon isotope data obtained from four typical alkali-rich porphyry deposits based on the dynamic fractionation principle of silicon isotope. The study shows that the ore materials should originate mainly from alkali-rich magmas, together with silicon-rich mineralizing fluids.The process of mineralization was completed by auto-metasomatism, i.e. silicon-rich mineralizing fluids (including alkali-rich porphyry and wall-rock strata) replaced and altered the country rocks and contaminated with crustal rocks during the crystallization of alkali-rich magmas. Such a process is essentially the continuance of the metasomatism of mantle fluids in crust's mineralization. This provides important evidence of silicon isotopic geochemistry for better understanding the mineralization of the Cenozoic alkali-rich porphyry polymetallic deposits

  12. 斑岩铜矿床研究进展%Review of Porphyry Copper Deposit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张云国; 周朝宪

    2011-01-01

    斑岩铜矿不但形成于环太平洋成矿域,还形成于特提斯成矿域和中亚成矿域(古亚洲洋成矿域)。成矿物质来源于深部,经过“洋壳一地幔熔岩流”、“原始岩浆”、“浅部富矿岩浆”和“岩浆结晶一成矿”4个阶段,其中在“原始弧岩浆”阶段,通过MASH过程,有大量成矿物质和能量的聚集。成矿流体为富H2O、高温、高压、高盐度、强氧化性、高氧逸度的富矿气液相流体,这些特点有利于成矿物质在岩浆一热液分离过程中向流体富集,并以氯络合物的形式运移。随着成矿流体的上侵,温度和压力的降低是成矿物质沉淀的主要影响因素。磁铁矿的结晶为成矿流体提供了大量的S2-离子,也是导致成矿物质沉淀的主要因素。斑岩型蚀变带从里向外为石英内核、钾化带、SCC带和泥化带,铜矿化主要发育在矿化带外围以及SCC带。目前,斑岩铜矿成矿模型主要有经典模型、系统模型和多阶段叠加模型。%Porphyry copper deposit as the largest source of Cu is one of the most important deposits in the world. Porphyry Copper Deposit not only occured in Circum-Pacific ore-forming region, but also oceured in Tethys ore-forming region and Middle-Asian(Paleo-Asian Oceanic) ore-forming region. The mineralization materials de- rived from the deep. Porphyry forms through four stages: "Oceanic Crust-Mantle Lava Flow"," Original Magma", "Shallow Ore Magma"," Crystallization of Magma-Minerali- zation". In the stage of "Original Magma", much met- allogenic materials and energy gather through the process of "MASH". Ore-forming fluids are high-grade fliuds of gas-liquid phase, which are of fluid-rich, high temperature, high pressure, high salinity, strong oxidizing, high ox- ygen fugacity. The characteristics of ore-torming fluids are favorable tbr metallogenic materials to gather from mag- mas to fluids in the

  13. Porphyry-copper ore shells form at stable pressure-temperature fronts within dynamic fluid plumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weis, P; Driesner, T; Heinrich, C A

    2012-12-21

    Porphyry-type ore deposits are major resources of copper and gold, precipitated from fluids expelled by crustal magma chambers. The metals are typically concentrated in confined ore shells within vertically extensive vein networks, formed through hydraulic fracturing of rock by ascending fluids. Numerical modeling shows that dynamic permeability responses to magmatic fluid expulsion can stabilize a front of metal precipitation at the boundary between lithostatically pressured up-flow of hot magmatic fluids and hydrostatically pressured convection of cooler meteoric fluids. The balance between focused heat advection and lateral cooling controls the most important economic characteristics, including size, shape, and ore grade. This self-sustaining process may extend to epithermal gold deposits, venting at active volcanoes, and regions with the potential for geothermal energy production.

  14. Porphyry copper deposit model: Chapter B in Mineral deposit models for resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayuso, Robert A.; Barton, Mark D.; Blakely, Richard J.; Bodnar, Robert J.; Dilles, John H.; Gray, Floyd; Graybeal, Fred T.; Mars, John L.; McPhee, Darcy K.; Seal, Robert R., II; Taylor, Ryan D.; Vikre, Peter G.; John, David A.

    2010-01-01

    This report contains a revised descriptive model of porphyry copper deposits (PCDs), the world's largest source (about 60 percent) and resource (about 65 percent) of copper and a major source of molybdenum, gold and silver. Despite relatively low grades (average 0.44 percent copper in 2008), PCDs have significant economic and societal impacts due to their large size (commonly hundreds of millions to billions of metric tons), long mine lives (decades), and high production rates (billions of kilograms of copper per year). The revised model describes the geotectonic setting of PCDs, and provides extensive regional- to deposit-scale descriptions and illustrations of geological, geochemical, geophysical, and geoenvironmental characteristics. Current genetic theories are reviewed and evaluated, knowledge gaps are identified, and a variety of exploration and assessment guides are presented. A summary is included for users seeking overviews of specific topics.

  15. A review of the geological characteristics and geodynamic setting of Late Paleozoic porphyry copper deposits in the Junggar region, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, Northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fuquan; Mao, Jingwen; Pirajno, Franco; Yan, Shenghao; Liu, Guoren; Zhou, Gang; Zhang, Zhixin; Liu, Feng; Geng, Xinxia; Guo, Chunli

    2012-04-01

    In this review, we describe the geological characteristics of porphyry copper deposits in Junggar region, Xinjiang, and place these into their metallogenic-tectonic context. These porphyry copper deposits are mainly found in four metallogenic belts: (1) a Late Silurian to Early Devonian Cu-Mo metallogenic belt in the Qiongheba area; (2) the Late Devonian Kalaxiange'er Cu metallogenic belt; (3) the Early Carboniferous Xilekuduke-Suoerkuduke porphyry-skarn Cu-Mo metallogenic belt; and (4) the Late Carboniferous Baogutu porphyry Cu metallogenic belt. The ages of mineralization can be divided into three broad intervals: copper deposits range mainly from 300 to 180 °C. Salinity ranges from 0.5 to 21.7 wt.% NaCl equiv and 28.9 to 66.76 wt.% NaCl equiv. Ore-forming fluids in the Baogutu and Yunyingshan deposits in the Baogutu and Qiongheba belts, were mainly derived from magmatic fluids, whereas those in the Halasu, Yulekenhalasu and Xilekuduke deposits in the Kalaxiange'er and Xilekuduke-Suoerkuduke belts were mainly derived from magmatic fluids, with some contributions from meteoric water. Sulfur isotope compositions of some porphyry copper deposits cluster around 0‰, indicating that the sulfur was probably derived from mantle-related magmas. The ore-forming processes in all porphyry copper deposits are closely related to the emplacement of intermediate, intermediate-felsic and felsic porphyry intrusions. Porphyry copper deposits in Junggar region developed in a range of tectonic regimes including continental arc, ocean island arc and post collisional settings.

  16. Geological and geochemical studies of the Shujiadian porphyry Cu deposit, Anhui Province, Eastern China: Implications for ore genesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shiwei; Zhou, Taofa; Yuan, Feng; Fan, Yu; White, Noel C.; Lin, Fengjie

    2015-05-01

    Most porphyry deposits in the world occur in magmatic arc settings and are related to subduction of oceanic plates. A small proportion of porphyry deposits occur in intracontinental settings, however they are still poorly understood. Shujiadian, a newly-discovered porphyry Cu deposit, is located in the Middle-Lower Yangtze River Valley metallogenic belt and belongs to the intracontinental class. The deposit has classic alteration zones defined by a core of potassic alteration and local Ca-silicate alteration, which is overprinted by a feldspar-destructive alteration zone and cut by veins containing epidote and chlorite. Wallrocks of the deposit are unreactive quartz-rich sedimentary rocks. Three main paragenetic stages have been recognized based on petrographic observations; silicate stage, quartz-sulfide stage, and sulfide-carbonate stage. Quartz + pyrite + chalcopyrite ± molybdenite veins, and quartz + chalcopyrite + pyrite veins of the quartz-sulfide stage contribute most of the copper, and chalcopyrite + chlorite ± pyrite ± pyrrhotite ± quartz ± illite veins of the sulfide-carbonate stage also contribute part of the copper; all the mineralized veins are associated with feldspar-destructive alteration. Investigations on the fluid inclusions in Shujiadian indicate that the ore-forming fluids had four evolutionary episodes: immiscibility and overpressure in the silicate stage, boiling in the quartz-sulfide stage and mixing with meteoric water in the sulfide-carbonate stage. Sulfur and strontium isotope studies suggest that ore metals were mainly derived from magmatic-hydrothermal fluids, and combined with our study of fluid inclusions, we infer that decompression, changes in oxygen fugacity and sulfur content were the main factors that caused Cu precipitation. Compared with porphyry deposits in magmatic arc settings, there are some differences in the ore-bearing rock, alteration, and the composition of ore-forming fluids.

  17. Porphyry copper assessment of Central America and the Caribbean Basin: Chapter I in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Floyd; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Ludington, Stephen; Zürcher, Lukas; Nelson, Carl E.; Robinson,, Gilpin R.; Miller, Robert J.; Moring, Barry C.

    2014-01-01

    Mineral resource assessments provide a synthesis of available information about distributions of mineral deposits in the Earth’s crust. The U.S. Geological Survey prepared a probabilistic mineral resource assessment of undiscovered resources in porphyry copper deposits in Central America and the Caribbean Basin in collaboration with geoscientists from academia and the minerals industry. The purpose of the study was to (1) delineate permissive areas (tracts) for undiscovered porphyry copper deposits within 1 kilometer of the surface at a scale of 1:1,000,000; (2) provide a database of known porphyry copper deposits and significant prospects; (3) estimate numbers of undiscovered deposits within the permissive tracts; and (4) provide probabilistic estimates of amounts of copper, molybdenum, gold, and silver that could be contained in undiscovered deposits. The assessment was done using a three-part mineral resource assessment based on established mineral deposit models. Permissive tracts were delineated based primarily on distributions of mapped igneous rocks related to magmatic arcs that formed in tectonic settings associated with convergent plate margins. Five permissive tracts were delineated: the Early Cretaceous through Eocene Santiago tract, the Late Cretaceous through Oligocene Chortis tract, the Paleocene through Oligocene Darién tract, the Miocene and Pliocene Cocos tract, and the Eocene to Holocene Lesser Antilles tract. These tracts range in size from about 3,000 to about 204,000 square kilometers.

  18. Re-Os and U-Pb geochronology of the Laochang Pb-Zn-Ag and concealed porphyry Mo mineralization along the Changning-Menglian suture, SW China: implications for ore genesis and porphyry Cu-Mo exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Xiao-Dong; Li, Jian-Wei; Zhao, Xin-Fu; Wang, Hong-Qiang; Qi, Liang

    2016-02-01

    Numerous polymetallic volcanogenic massive sulfide (VMS), vein, and replacement deposits are distributed along the Changning-Menglian suture zone in Sanjiang Tethyan metallogenic province, SW China. Laochang is the largest Pb-Zn-Ag vein and replacement deposit in this area, with a proven reserve of 0.51 Mt Pb, 0.34 Mt Zn, and 1,737 t Ag. Its age and relationship to magmatic events and VMS deposits in the region, however, have long been debated. In this paper, we present pyrite Re-Os and titanite U-Pb ages aiming to provide significant insights into the timing and genesis of the Pb-Zn-Ag mineralization. Pyrite grains in textural equilibrium with galena, sphalerite, and chalcopyrite from stratabound Pb-Zn-Ag and Cu-bearing Pb-Zn-Ag orebodies have a Re-Os isochron age of 45.7 ± 3.1 Ma (2 σ, mean square weighted deviation (MSWD) = 0.45), whereas titanite grains intergrown with sulfide minerals yield a weighted mean 206Pb/238U age of 43.4 ± 1.2 Ma (2 σ, n = 8). A Mo-mineralized granitic porphyry intersected by recent drilling below the Laochang Pb-Zn-Ag ores yields a zircon U-Pb age of 44.4 ± 0.4 Ma (2 σ, n = 12). Within analytical uncertainties, the ages of the Pb-Zn-Ag deposit and the concealed Mo-mineralized porphyry are indistinguishable, indicating that they are products of a single magmatic hydrothermal system. The results show that Laochang Pb-Zn-Ag deposit is significantly younger than the host mafic volcanic rock (zircon U-Pb age of 320.8 ± 2.7 Ma; 2 σ, n = 12) and Silurian VMS deposits along the Changning-Menglian suture zone, arguing against its origin as a Carboniferous VMS deposit as many researchers claimed. The initial 187Os/188Os ratio (0.540 ± 0.012) obtained from the pyrite Re-Os isochron suggests that metals were likely derived from the granitic porphyry that formed from a hybrid magma due to mixing of crustal- and mantle-derived melts, rather than from the mafic volcanic host rocks as previously thought. Our results favor that the Laochang

  19. Research on remote sensing assessment technology for porphyry copper in south of Arequipa province of Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Rihong; Li, Zhizhong; Cheng, Xiufa; Zhao, Yuling

    2014-05-01

    The study area is located in the middle section of Andean metallogenic zone. Excellent mineralization geological conditions make it the most principal Porphyry Copper Deposits (PCDs) distribution area in southern Peru and there are several super-large PCDs for hundreds of kilometers in every direction. The regional metallogenic regularity of this area is controlled by the NNW fault parallel to the trench on the west of the South American continent. Small porphyry rocks are very common in this area (circular structure pattern in remote sensing image) with typical zoned alteration of PCD - potassic alteration, argillic alteration, phyllic alteration and propylitization (most exposed) from inside to the outside on the surface. These geologic features can be recognized and extracted by using remote sensing image data. Accordingly, the reflectivity curve of main altered minerals of the typical alteration zones of PCD was rebuilt which was corresponded to B1-B9 of ASTER satellite data, based on the altered mineral assemblages and their spectral characteristics of the typical alteration zones of PCD, and ASTER data's ability of identifying minerals with argillic alteration and carbonatite alteration. Based on the standard spectral data of USGS, We found that the information of argillic-and phyllic- altered minerals assemblages in the typical alteration zones can be extracted in the principal components analysis pattern based on ASTER B1467 while the information of propylitization altered minerals in the principal components analysis pattern based on ASTER B1348 with larger reflectivity of B9 than B8, after comparing and analyzing comprehensively the spectral curve characteristics of main altered minerals. In this method, altered minerals assemblages of argillic-and phyllic- altered zone and propylitization altered zone in this study area was extracted, and the results agree well with the distribution of known PCD. Meanwhile, remote sensing geological interpretation has

  20. Temporal Evolution of Volcanic and Plutonic Magmas Related to Porphyry Copper Ores Based on Zircon Geochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilles, J. H.; Lee, R. G.; Wooden, J. L.; Koleszar, A. M.

    2015-12-01

    Porphyry Cu (Mo-Au) and epithermal Au-Ag ores are globally associated with shallow hydrous, strongly oxidized, and sulfur-rich arc intrusions. In many localities, long-lived magmatism includes evolution from early andesitic volcanic (v) and plutonic (p) rocks to later dacitic or rhyolitic compositions dominated by plutons. We compare zircon compositions from three igneous suites with different time spans: Yerington, USA (1 m.y., p>v), El Salvador, Chile (4 m.y., p>v), and Yanacocha, Peru (6 m.y., v>p). At Yerington granite dikes and ores formed in one event, at ES in 2 to 3 events spanning 3 m.y., and at Yanacocha in 6 events spanning 5 m.y. At both ES and Yanacocha, high-Al amphiboles likely crystallized at high temperature in the mid-crust and attest to deep magmas that periodically recharged the shallow chambers. At Yanacocha, these amphiboles contain anhydrite inclusions that require magmas were sulfur-rich and strongly oxidized (~NNO+2). The Ti-in-zircon geothermometer provides estimates of 920º to 620º C for zircon crystallization, and records both core to rim cooling and locally high temperature rim overgrowths. Ore-related silicic porphyries yield near-solidus crystallization temperatures of 750-650°C consistent with low zircon saturation temperatures. The latter zircons have large positive Ce/Ce* and small negative Eu/Eu*≥0.4 anomalies attesting to strongly oxidized conditions (Ballard et al., 2001), which we propose result from crystallization and SO2 loss to the magmatic-hydrothermal ore fluid (Dilles et al., 2015). The Hf, REE, Y, U, and Th contents of zircons are diverse in the magma suites, and Th/U vs Yb/Gd plots suggest a dominant role of crystal fractionation with lesser roles for both crustal contamination and mixing with high temperature deep-sourced mafic magma. Ce/Sm vs Yb/Gd plots suggest that magma REE contents at <900°C are dominated by early crystallization of hornblende and apatite, and late crystallization (~<780°C) of titanite

  1. Pressure gradients and boiling as mechanisms for localizing ore in porphyry systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Charles G.

    1978-01-01

    Fluid inclusions in ore zones of porphyry systems indicate that extensive boiling of hydrothermal fluids accompanies deposition of ore and gangue minerals. The boiling commonly accompanied a change from a lithostatic to a hydrostatic environment during evolution of an epizonal stock. Pressure gradients near the margin of the stock can determine whether ore or only a diffuse zone of mineralization is formed. A sharp drop in pressure in an epizonal environment is more likely to cause extensive boiling than a comparable change in a deeper environment, as the slope of the boiling curve steepens with an increase 'in pressure. The drop in pressure causes the hydrothermal fluids to boil and creates a crackle (stockwork) breccia, which hosts the veinlets of gangue quartz and ore minerals. The boiling selectively partitions CO2, H2S, and HCl into the vapor phase, changing the pH, composition, ionic strength, and thus the solubility product of metal complexes in the remaining liquid and causing the ore and gangue to come out of solution. Fluid inclusions trapped from boiling solutions can exhibit several forms, depending on the physical and chemical conditions of the hydrothermal fluid from which they were trapped. In one case, inclusions when heated can homogenize to either liquid or vapor at the same temperature, which is the true boiling temperature. In another case, homogenization of various inclusions can occur through a range of temperatures. The latter case results from the trapping of mixture of liquid and vapor. Variations in salinity can result from boiling of the hydrothermal fluid, or intermittent incorporation of high-salinity fluids from the magma, or trapping of fluids of varying densities at pressure-temperature conditions above the critical point of the fluid. In places, paleopressure-temperature transition zones can be recognized by fluid-inclusion homogenization temperatures and phase relationships and by the presence of anhydrite daughter minerals

  2. Generation of porphyry copper deposits by gas-brine reaction in volcanic arcs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blundy, Jon; Mavrogenes, John; Tattitch, Brian; Sparks, Steve; Gilmer, Amy

    2014-05-01

    Porphyry copper deposits (PCDs) are characterised by a close spatial and temporal association with small, hypabyssal intrusions of silicic magmas in volcanic arcs. PCD formation requires elevated chlorine and water to concentrate copper in magmatic hypersaline liquids (or brines), and elevated sulphur to precipitate copper-rich sulphides. These twin requirements are hard to reconcile with experimental and petrological evidence that voluminous chlorine-rich, hydrous silicic magmas, of the variety favourable to copper enrichment, lack sufficient sulphur to precipitate directly the requisite quantities of sulphides. These features are, however, consistent with observations of active volcanic arcs whereby PCDs can be viewed as roots of dome volcanoes above shallow reservoirs where silicic magmas accumulate over long time spans. During protracted periods of dormancy metal-enriched dense brines accumulate in and above the silicic reservoir through slow, low-pressure degassing. Meanwhile cogenetic volatile-rich mafic magmas and their exsolved, sulphur and CO2-rich fluids accumulate in deeper reservoirs. Periodic destabilisation of these reservoirs leads to short-lived bursts of volcanism liberating sulphurous gases, which react with the shallow-stored brines to form copper-rich sulphides and acidic vapours. We test this hypothesis with a novel set of 'porphyry in a capsule' experiments designed to simulate low-pressure (1-2 kbar) interaction of basalt-derived, sulphur-rich gases with brine-saturated, copper-bearing, but sulphur-free, granite. Experiments were run at 720-850 ° C in cold-seal apparatus with basaltic andesite, loaded with H2O and S, situated below dacite, loaded with H2O, Cl and Cu. At run conditions both compositions are substantially degassed and crystallized. S-rich gas from the basaltic andesite ascends to react with Cu-rich brines exsolved from the dacite, Our experiments reveal the direct precipitation of copper-sulphide minerals, in vugs and veins

  3. The formation of Luoboling porphyry Cu-Mo deposit: Constraints from zircon and apatite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cong-ying; Hao, Xi-luo; Liu, Ji-qiang; Ling, Ming-xing; Ding, Xing; Zhang, Hong; Sun, Wei-dong

    2017-02-01

    The Luobuling porphyry Cu-Mo deposit belongs to the Late Cretaceous Zijinshan Cu-Au-Mo mineralization field in southeastern China. Due to intensive hydrothermal alteration and weathering, it is very difficult to collect fresh whole rock samples for geochemical and isotopic studies in Luobuling. Zircon and apatite are accessory minerals that are resistant to hydrothermal alterations. In this study, we compared the trace element and isotope compositions of zircon and apatite from ore-bearing and barren samples to understand the formation of the Luoboling Cu-Mo deposit. Zircon U-Pb LA-ICP-MS dating shows that the Luoboling porphyries formed at 100 Ma (100.3 ± 1.2 Ma, 100.6 ± 1.5 Ma and 98.6 ± 1.2 Ma), which belongs to the late stage mineralization of the Zijinshan mineralization field. Zhongliao porphyritic granodiorite has the same age as the deposit (99.5 ± 1.6 Ma). The age of barren Sifang granodiorite is slightly older (109.7 ± 0.8 Ma). All these zircon grains have high Ce4+/Ce3+ ratios, indicating high oxygen fugacities. The ore-bearing samples show variable εHf(t) of - 7.3 to 0.2, suggesting either heterogeneous sources or mixing of two different magmas. Interestingly, the Hf isotope composition of barren samples is systematically higher (εHf(t) of - 3.6 to 5.5), implying a lower contribution of crustal materials. The OH mole percent of apatite grains from barren samples (LBL22-03 and SF09-05) is 0.5, which is higher than that of apatite from the ore-bearing samples (LBL20-01 LBL20-02 and LBL22-02), indicating lower F, Cl contents or higher water contents in the magma. In apatite from the ore-bearing samples, Sr is high, indicating the absence of plagioclase crystallization. In contrast, barren samples have varied and lower Sr, indicating that apatite crystallization was accompanied by plagioclase. These patterns were controlled by water contents because the crystallization of plagioclase is suppressed by high water contents in magmas. It also suggests

  4. From a long-lived upper-crustal magma chamber to rapid porphyry copper emplacement: Reading the geochemistry of zircon crystals at Bajo de la Alumbrera (NW Argentina)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buret, Yannick; von Quadt, Albrecht; Heinrich, Christoph; Selby, David; Wälle, Markus; Peytcheva, Irena

    2016-09-01

    The formation of world class porphyry copper deposits reflect magmatic processes that take place in a deeper and much larger underlying magmatic system, which provides the source of porphyry magmas, as well as metal and sulphur-charged mineralising fluids. Reading the geochemical record of this large magmatic source region, as well as constraining the time-scales for creating a much smaller porphyry copper deposit, are critical in order to fully understand and quantify the processes that lead to metal concentration within these valuable mineral deposits. This study focuses on the Bajo de la Alumbrera porphyry copper deposit in Northwest Argentina. The deposit is centred on a dacitic porphyry intrusive stock that was mineralised by several pulses of porphyry magma emplacement and hydrothermal fluid injections. To constrain the duration of ore formation, we dated zircons from four porphyry intrusions, including pre-, syn- and post-mineralisation porphyries based on intersection relations between successive intrusion and vein generations, using high precision CA-ID-TIMS. Based on the youngest assemblages of zircon grains, which overlap within analytical error, all four intrusions were emplaced within 29 ka, which places an upper limit on the total duration of hydrothermal mineralisation. Re/Os dating of hydrothermal molybdenite fully overlaps with this high-precision age bracket. However, all four porphyries contain zircon antecrysts which record protracted zircon crystallisation during the ∼200 ka preceding the emplacement of the porphyries. Zircon trace element variations, Ti-in-zircon temperatures, and Hf isotopic compositions indicate that the four porphyry magmas record a common geochemical and thermal history, and that the four intrusions were derived from the same upper-crustal magma chamber. Trace element zoning within single zircon crystals confirms a fractional crystallisation trend dominated by titanite and apatite crystallisation. However, zircon

  5. Special Xenoliths in an Aegirine--Augite Syenite Porphyry in Liuhe, Yunnan, China: Discovery and Implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xianfan; SONG Xiangfeng; LU Qiuxia; TAO Zhuan; LONG Xunrong; ZHAO Fufeng

    2009-01-01

    Three special types of xenoliths have recently been found in an aegirine-augite syenite porphyry in Liuhe, Yunnan, China. Petrographical, petrochemical, electron microprobe, and scanning electron microscopy studies indicate that pure calcite xenocrysts and quartz-bearing topaz pegmatite xenoliths result from the degassing of mantle fluids during their migration, and that black microcrystalline iron-rich silicate-melt xenoliths are the product of the extraction of mantle fluids accompanying degassing and are composed dominantly of quartz, chlorite, and iron-rich columnar and sheet silicate minerals with characteristic minerals, such as native iron, apatite, and zircon. According to the bulk-rock chemical and mineral compositions and crystallization states, the microcrystalline melt xenoliths are not the product of conventional magmatism, and especially the existence of native iron further proves that the xenoliths were mantle fluid materials under reduction or anoxic conditions. The study of the special xenoliths furnishes an important deep-process geochemical background of polymetalUc mineralization in different rocks and strata in the study area.

  6. Uplift and submarine formation of some Melanesian porphyry copper deposits: Stable isotope evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chivas, A.R.; O'Neil, J.R.; Katchan, G.

    1984-01-01

    Hydrogen and oxygen isotope analyses of sericites and kaolinites from four young porphyry copper deposits (Ok Tedi (1.2 Ma) and Yandera (6.5 Ma), Papua New Guinea; Koloula (1.5 Ma), Solomon Islands; and Waisoi (ocean water. For Ok Tedi, the non-magmatic component was a meteoric water with an isotopic composition different from that of the present meteoric water in the region. The isotopic signature of the former meteoric water is consistent with a surface elevation of 200 m a.s.l. or less at the time of mineralization. The deposit was later exposed and supergene kaolinitization commenced at approximately 1200 m a.s.l. Uplift and erosion has continued to the present at which time the elevation of the exposed deposit is 1800 m a.s.l. This rate of uplift is consistent with that known from other geological evidence. If the rate of uplift were approximately constant during the last 1.2 Ma, the age of supergene enrichment can be dated at approximately 0.4 Ma B.P. Similarly, influx of meteoric water at Yandera occurred when the ground surface above the deposit was at an elevation of approximately 600 m a.s.l. The deposit's present elevation is 1600 m a.s.l. In this case a total uplift of approximately 2.2 km is indicated, with removal of 1.2 km of overburden by erosion. ?? 1984.

  7. Lead and zinc geochemical behavior based on geological characteristics in Parkam Porphyry Copper System, Kerman, Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Seyyed; Saeed; Ghannadpour; Ardeshir; Hezarkhani

    2015-01-01

    Parkam(Sarah) porphyry system is located on the metallogenic belt of Kerman, Iran. Due to existence of some copper-rich resources in this region, finding out the exact statistical characteristics such as distribution of data population, mean, variance and data population behavior of elements like Cu, Mo, Pb and Zn is necessary for interpreting their geological behavior. For this reason, precise calculation of statistical characteristics of Pb and Zn grade datasets was performed and results were interpreted geologically. The natures of Pb and Zn distributions were initially identified and their distributions were normalized through statistical treatment. Subsequently, the variograms were calculated for each exploration borehole and show that both Pb and Zn geochemical variates are spatially correlated. According to the similarity of the behavior of Pb and Zn in these calculations, it is decided to measure their exact behavior applying K-means clustering method. K-means clustering results show that the Zn grade varies linearly relative to that of Pb values and their behavior is similar. Based on the geochemical behavior similarity of Pb and Zn, throughout the pervasive secondary hydrothermal activity, they are remobilized in the similar manner, from the deep to the shallow levels of the mineralization zones. However, statistical analysis suggests that hydrothermal activity associated with secondary waters in Parkam is effective in remobilizing and enriching both Pb and Zn since they have similar geochemical characteristics. However, the process does not result in generation of economic concentrations.

  8. Geologic and geochemical insights into the formation of the Taiyangshan porphyry copper–molybdenum deposit, Western Qinling Orogenic Belt, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kun-Feng Qiu,; Taylor, Ryan D.; Yao-Hui Song,; Hao-Cheng Yu,; Kai-Rui Song,; Nan Li,

    2016-01-01

    Taiyangshan is a poorly studied copper–molybdenum deposit located in the Triassic Western Qinling collisional belt of northwest China. The intrusions exposed in the vicinity of the Taiyangshan deposit record episodic magmatism over 20–30 million years. Pre-mineralization quartz diorite porphyries, which host some of the deposit, were emplaced at 226.6 ± 6.2 Ma. Syn-collisional monzonite and quartz monzonite porphyries, which also host mineralization, were emplaced at 218.0 ± 6.1 Ma and 215.0 ± 5.8 Ma, respectively. Mineralization occurred during the transition from a syn-collisional to a post-collisional setting at ca. 208 Ma. A barren post-mineralization granite porphyry marked the end of post-collisional magmatism at 200.7 ± 5.1 Ma. The ore-bearing monzonite and quartz monzonite porphyries have a εHf(t) range from − 2.0 to + 12.5, which is much more variable than that of the slightly older quartz diorite porphyries, with TDM2 of 1.15–1.23 Ga corresponding to the positive εHf(t) values and TDM1 of 0.62–0.90 Ga corresponding to the negative εHf(t) values. Molybdenite in the Taiyangshan deposit with 27.70 to 38.43 ppm Re suggests metal sourced from a mantle–crust mixture or from mafic and ultramafic rocks in the lower crust. The δ34S values obtained for pyrite, chalcopyrite, and molybdenite from the deposit range from + 1.3‰ to + 4.0‰, + 0.2‰ to + 1.1‰, and + 5.3‰ to + 5.9‰, respectively, suggesting a magmatic source for the sulfur. Calculated δ18Ofluid values for magmatic K-feldspar from porphyries (+ 13.3‰), hydrothermal K-feldspar from stockwork veins related to potassic alteration (+ 11.6‰), and hydrothermal sericite from quartz–pyrite veins (+ 8.6 to + 10.6‰) indicate the Taiyangshan deposit formed dominantly from magmatic water. Hydrogen isotope values for hydrothermal sericite ranging from − 85 to − 50‰ may indicate that magma degassing progressively depleted residual liquid in

  9. Re-Os isotopic and trace element compositions of pyrite and origin of the Cretaceous Jinchang porphyry Cu-Au deposit, Heilongjiang Province, NE China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng; Huang, Xiao-Wen; Cui, Bin; Wang, Bo-Chao; Yin, Yi-Fan; Wang, Jing-Rui

    2016-11-01

    The Jinchang Cu-Au deposit in Northeast China contains more than 76 tons of Au and 4683 tons of Cu with average ore grades of 11.34 g/t Au and 1.44% Cu. The deposit is typical of porphyry types and consists of gold orebodies mainly hosted in a ∼113 Ma granitic porphyry and breccia pipes within the porphyry intrusion. Mineralization is closely associated with early potassic alteration and late phyllic alteration. Pyrite is the main Au-bearing mineral and contains 1.48-18.9 ppb Re and 11.4-38 ppt common Os. Extremely low common Os concentrations and high Re/Os ratios are indicative of derivation of ore-forming materials from the crust. Low Re in pyrite from the Jinchang deposit may indicate a mixing source of mantle and crust or a crustal source. Five Re-Os isotopic analyses yield a model 1 isochron age of 114 ± 22 Ma (2σ, MSWD = 0.15), similar to the age of the host porphyry. Pyrite contains detectable Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Ag, Au, Sb, Pb and Bi. Pyrite has Co/Ni ratios similar to that of volcanogenic and hydrothermal sulfide deposits, indicating a magmatic-hydrothermal origin, and has Au and As contents similar to that of porphyry-epithermal systems. Pyrite grains from potassic and phyllic alteration stages have different trace element contents, reflecting the evolution of ore-forming fluids from magmatic dominated to magmatic mixed with meteoric water. In combination with regional geology, our new results are suggestive of origin of the Jinchang Cu-Au deposit from contemporary intrusions of granitic porphyries related to the Early Cretaceous subduction of the Paleo-Pacific plate.

  10. Methane origin and oxygen-fugacity evolution of the Baogutu reduced porphyry Cu deposit in the West Junggar terrain, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Ping; Pan, HongDi

    2015-12-01

    Most porphyry copper deposits worldwide contain magnetite, hematite, and anhydrite in equilibrium with hypogene copper-iron sulfides (chalcopyrite, bornite) and have fluid inclusions with CO2 >> CH4 that are indicative of high fO2. In contrast, the Baogutu porphyry Cu deposit in the West Junggar terrain (Xinjiang, China) lacks hematite and anhydrite, contains abundant pyrrhotite and ilmenite in equilibrium with copper-iron sulfides (chalcopyrite), and has fluid inclusions with CH4 >> CO2 that are indicative of low fO2. The mineralized intrusive phases at Baogutu include the main-stage diorite stock and minor late-stage diorite porphyry dikes. The main-stage stock underwent fractional crystallization and country-rock assimilation-contamination, and consists of dominant diorite and minor gabbro and tonalite porphyry. The country rocks contain organic carbons (0.21-0.79 wt.%). The δ13CvPDB values of the whole rocks (-23.1 to -25.8 ‰) in the wall rocks suggest a sedimentary organic carbon source. The δ13CvPDB values of CH4 (-28.2 to -36.0 ‰) and CO2 (-6.8 to -20.0 ‰) in fluid inclusions require an organic source of external carbon and equilibration of their Δ13CCO2-CH4 values (8.2-25.0 ‰) at elevated temperatures (294-830 °C) suggesting a significant contribution of thermogenic CH4. Mineral composition data on the main-stage intrusions, such as clinopyroxene, hornblende, biotite, magnetite, ilmenite, sphene, apatite, and pyrrhotite, suggest that the primary magma at Baogutu was oxidized and became reduced after emplacement by contamination with country rocks. Mineral compositions and fluid inclusion gas compositions suggest that the redox state of the system evolved from log fO2 > FMQ + 1 in the magma stage, to log fO2 country rocks assimilation-contamination, to log fO2 > FMQ in the hydrothermal stage. Though oxidized magma was emplaced initially, assimilation-contamination of carbonaceous country rocks decreased its fO2 such that exsolved fluids contained

  11. Geochemical element mobility during the hydrothermal alteration in the Tepeoba porphyry Cu-Mo-Au deposits at Balikesir, NW Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelnasser, Amr; Kiran Yildirim, Demet; Doner, Zeynep; Kumral, Mustafa

    2016-04-01

    The Tepeoba porphyry Cu-Mo-Au deposit represents one of the important copper source and mineral deposits in the Anatolian tectonic belt at Balikesir province, NW Turkey. It considered as a vein-type deposit locally associated with intense hydrothermal alteration within the brecciation, quartz stockwork veining, and brittle fracture zones in the main host rock that represented by hornfels, as well as generally related to the shallow intermediate to silicic intrusive Eybek pluton. Based on the field and geologic relationships and types of ore mineral assemblages and the accompanied alteration types, there are two mineralization zones; hypogene (primary) and oxidation/supergene zones are observed associated with three alteration zones; potassic, phyllic, and propylitic zones related to this porphyry deposit. The phyllic and propylitic alterations locally surrounded the potassic alteration. The ore minerals related to the hypogene zone represented by mostly chalcopyrite, Molybdenite, and pyrite with subordinate amount of marcasite, enargite, and gold. On the other hand they include mainly cuprite with chalcopyrite, pyrite and gold as well as hematite and goethite at the oxidation/supergene zone. This study deals with the quantitative calculations of the mass/volume changes (gains and losses) of the major and trace elements during the different episodes of alteration in this porphyry deposit. These mass balance data reveal that the potassic alteration zone that the main Cu- and Mo-enriched zone, has enrichment of K, Si, Fe, and Mg, and depletion of Na referring to replacement of plagioclase and amphibole by K-feldspar, sericite and biotite. While the propylitic alteration that is the main Mo- and Au-enriched zone is accompanied with K and Na depletion with enrichment of Si, Fe, Mg, and Ca forming chlorite, epidote, carbonate and pyrite. On the other hand the phyllic alteration that occurred in the outer part around the potassic alteration, characterized by less amount

  12. Remote sensing evaluation of the regional chemistry and element dispersion of porphyry copper deposits in the Silver Bell Mountains, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo-Nieves, Lorna G.

    Porphyry copper deposits in southeastern Arizona belong to a cluster of 38 mineralized centers covering a region extending from northern Mexico to western New Mexico and southern Arizona. Presently, some of these deposits are being actively mined and the rest are prospects or abandoned mining sites. As a result of the large number of porphyry copper deposits in this region, research on the interaction between mineralized centers and the environment is important; in particular, the dispersion characteristics of acid-generating metal-enriched materials at the shallow alluvial margins of these centers. The present research uses remote sensing techniques, groundwater chemistry, trace element, and mineralogical analysis to characterize dispersion chemistry surrounding porphyry copper deposits in the Silver Bell Mountains. Hyperspectral imagery obtained by the Airborne Visible/Infrared Spectrometer and HyMap are used to map supergene minerals by analyzing their spectral profiles in the visible and short wave infrared regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. Reflectance profiles are characteristic of each mineral and shifts in absorption features within one mineral are a result of differences in cation content. Image reflectance profiles are compared with stream sediment mineralogy and reflectance spectral profiles to better outline concentrations of Fe, S, K, Na, Ca, Mg, Cu, and Al. In addition, groundwater modeling in the Silver Bell Mountains is considered for various flow paths within shallow aquifers in the region and compared to actual groundwater chemistry and surface lithology. The Silver Bell Mountains serve as a case study for element mobility and concentration distribution in other areas where undisturbed deposits, historic and present-day excavation activity occurs, where semi-arid climate and a deep vadose zone are variables that influence element mobility and concentration. Results obtained from hyperspectral image processing indicate the possible enrichment

  13. The mass balance calculation of hydrothermal alteration in Sarcheshmeh porphyry copper deposit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Maanijou

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Sarcheshmeh porphyry copper deposit is located 65 km southwest of Rafsanjan in Kerman province. The Sarcheshmeh deposit belongs to the southeastern part of Urumieh-Dokhtar magmatic assemblage (i.e., Dehaj-Sarduyeh zone. Intrusion of Sarcheshmeh granodiorite stock in faulted and thrusted early-Tertiary volcano-sedimentary deposits, led to mineralization in Miocene. In this research, the mass changes and element mobilities during hydrothermal process of potassic alteration were studied relative to fresh rock from the deeper parts of the plutonic body, phyllic relative to potassic, argillic relative to phyllic and propylitic alteration relative to fresh andesites surrounding the deposit. In the potassic zone, enrichment in Fe2O3 and K2O is so clear, because of increasing Fe coming from biotite alteration and presence of K-feldspar, respectively. Copper and molybdenum enrichments resulted from presence of chalcopyrite, bornite and molybdenite mineralization in this zone. Enrichment of SiO2 and depletion of CaO, MgO, Na2O and K2O in the phyllic zone resulted from leaching of sodium, calcium and magnesium from the aluminosilicate rocks and alteration of K-feldspar to sericite and quartz. In the argillic zone, Al2O3, CaO, MgO, Na2O and MnO have also been enriched in which increasing Al2O3 may be from kaolinite and illite formation. Also, enrichment in SiO2, Al2O3 and CaO in propylitic alteration zone can be attributed to the formation of chlorite, epidote and calcite as indicative minerals of this zone.

  14. The transition from porphyry- to epithermal-style gold mineralization at Ladolam, Lihir Island, Papua New Guinea: a reconnaissance study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Daniel; Kaminski, Klaus; Uhlig, Stephan; Graupner, Torsten; Herzig, Peter M.; Hunt, Steve

    2002-02-01

    The exceptionally large gold resource at Ladolam (>1,300 metric tons of gold), Lihir Island, resulted from the transition of an early-stage, low-grade porphyry gold system to a low-sulfidation epithermal gold event. This transition was probably triggered by rapid decompression during the partial slope failure of Luise stratovolcano and accompanied by the ingress of seawater. The original porphyry stage is indicated by remnant hydrothermal breccia clasts of strongly biotite-magnetite altered monzodiorite with disseminated pyrite ± chalcopyrite and poorly developed pyrite ± quartz stockwork veins. The breccias are overprinted by biotite-magnetite alteration and their matrix is strongly mineralized with disseminated auriferous pyrite. The breccias are cut by late-stage epithermal quartz-chalcedony-illite-adularia-pyrite veins and associated illite-adularia alteration that locally contain bonanza gold grades of up to 120 g/t. Isotope data suggest a magmatic source of sulfur in the gold-bearing fluids at Ladolam. Electronic supplementary material to this paper can be obtained by using the Springer LINK server located at http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00126-001-0230-y

  15. Characteristics and evolution of ore-forming fluids of the Chongjiang copper deposit in the Gangdise porphyry copper belt, Tibet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuling Xie; Jiuhua Xu; Guangming Li; Zhiming Yang; Longsheng Yi

    2007-01-01

    Petrography, microthermometry, and scanning electron microscope/energy dispersive spectrometer (SEM/EDS) studies were performed on the fluid inclusions in the ore-bearing quartz veins and quartz phenocrysts in the porphyry of the Chongjiang porphyry copper deposit. The analyses of the fluid inclusions indicate that the ore-forming fluids were exsolved from magma. They are near-saturated, supercritical, rich in volatile constituents, and have the capture temperature of 362-389°C and salinities of 17.7wt%-18.9wt% NaCl eq. With the decreasing of temperature and pressure, the supercritical fluids were separated into a low salinity vapor phase and a high salinity liquid phase. During quartz-sericitization, the high salinity fluid boiled and separated into a low salinity vapor phase and a high salinity liquid phase. The high salinity inclusions that formed in the boiling process had daughter mineral melting temperatures higher than the homogenization temperatures of the vapor and liquid phases. The late fluids that are responsible for argillization are of lower temperature and salinity.

  16. Geochemical, microtextural and petrological studies of the Samba prospect in the Zambian Copperbelt basement: a metamorphosed Palaeoproterozoic porphyry Cu deposit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Master, Sharad; Mirrander Ndhlovu, N.

    2015-04-01

    Ever since Wakefield (1978, IMM Trans., B87, 43-52) described a porphyry-type meta-morphosed Cu prospect, the ca 50 Mt, 0.5% Cu Samba deposit (12.717°S, 27.833°E), hosted by porphyry-associated quartz-sericite-biotite schists in northern Zambia, there has been controversy about its origin and significance. This is because it is situated in the basement to the world's largest stratabound sediment-hosted copper province, the Central African Copperbelt, which is hosted by rocks of the Neoproterozoic Katanga Supergroup. Mineralization in the pre-Katangan basement has long played a prominent role in ore genetic models, with some authors suggesting that basement Cu mineralization may have been recycled into the Katangan basin through erosion and redeposition, while others have suggested that the circulation of fluids through Cu-rich basement may have leached out the metals which are found concentrated in the Katangan orebodies. On the basis of ca 490-460 Ma Ar-Ar ages, Hitzman et al. (2012, Sillitoe Vol., SEG Spec. Publ., 16, 487-514) suggested that Samba represents late-stage impregnation of copper mineralization into the basement, and that it was one of the youngest copper deposits known in the Central African Copperbelt. If the Samba deposit really is that young, then it would have post-dated regional deformation and metamorphism (560-510 Ma), and it ought to be undeformed and unmetamorphosed. The Samba mineralization consists of chalcopyrite and bornite, occurring as disseminations, stringers and veinlets, found in a zone >1 km along strike, in steeply-dipping lenses up to 10m thick and >150m deep. Our new major and trace element XRF geochemical data (14 samples) show that the host rocks are mainly calc-alkaline metadacites. Cu is correlated with Ag (Cu/Ag ~10,000:1) with no Au or Mo. Our study focused on the microtextures and petrology of the Samba ores. We confirm that there is alteration of similar style to that accompanying classical porphyry Cu mineralization

  17. Fluid inclusion evidence for hydrothermal fluid evolution in the Darreh-Zar porphyry copper deposit, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nateghi, Arash; Hezarkhani, Ardeshir

    2013-09-01

    The Darreh-Zar porphyry copper deposit is associated with a quartz monzonitic-granodioritic-porphyritic stock hosted by an Eocene volcanic sedimentary complex in which magmatic hydrothermal fluids were introduced and formed veins and alteration. Within the deepest quartz-rich and chalcopyrite-poor group A veins, LVHS2 inclusions trapped high salinity, high temperature aqueous fluids exsolved directly from a relatively shallow magma (0.5 kbar). These late fluids were enriched in NaCl and reached halite saturation as a result of the low pressure of magma crystallization and fluid exsolution. These fluids extracted Cu from the crystallizing melt and transported it to the hydrothermal system. As a result of ascent, the temperature and pressure of these fluids decreased from 600 to 415 °C, and approximately 500-315 bars. At these conditions, K-feldspar and biotite were stabilized. Type A veins were formed at a depth of ∼1.2 km under conditions of lithostatic pressure and abrupt cooling. Upon cooling and decompressing, the fluid intersected with the liquid-vapor field resulting in separation of immiscible liquid and vapor. This stage was recorded by formation of LVHS1, LVHS3 and VL inclusions. These immiscible fluids formed chalcopyrite-pyrite-quartz veins with sericitic alteration envelopes (B veins) under the lithostatic-hydrostatic pressure regime at temperatures between 415 and 355 °C at 1.3 km below the paleowater table. As the fluids ascended, copper contents decreased and these fluids were diluted by mixing with the low salinity-external fluid. Therefore, pyrite-dominated quartz veins were formed in purely hydrostatic conditions in which pressure decreased from 125 bars to 54 bars and temperature decreased from 355 to 298 °C. During the magmatic-hydrothermal evolution, the composition and P-T regime changed drastically and caused various types of veins and alterations. The abundance of chalcopyrite precipitation in group B veins suggests that boiling and

  18. Early Paleozoic magmatism and metallogeny in Northeast China: a record from the Tongshan porphyry Cu deposit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xinlu; Yao, Shuzhen; Ding, Zhenju; He, Mouchun

    2017-01-01

    The Tongshan Cu deposit is located in the northern segment of the Great Xing'an Range and represents one of the few early Paleozoic porphyry Cu deposits in northeastern China. The granitic rocks in the Tongshan Cu deposit include concealed granodiorite and exposed tonalite, which yield LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb ages of 478 ± 3 Ma and 214 ± 3 Ma, respectively. The granodiorite has relatively high SiO2 (60.5-63.5 wt%) and Sr (596-786 ppm) contents, low Yb (1.21-1.53 ppm) and Y (9.81-13.0 ppm) contents, and initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.7038-0.7040), suggesting adakitic affinity. Combined with its positive ɛNd( t) values (3.5-5.4), low Mg# values (41-50), and low contents of Cr (18.6-29.0 ppm) and Ni (7.3-9.1 ppm), we propose an origin by partial melting of a juvenile mafic lower crust in a post-collisional setting after the amalgamation of the Erguna and Xing'an Blocks. The tonalite is characterized by high SiO2 (63.1-65.9 wt%) and Al2O3 (16.0-16.3 wt%) contents, low (87Sr/86Sr) i ratios (0.7041-0.7042), positive ɛNd( t) values (2.6-3.0), along with LILE and LREE enrichments and Nb-Ta-Ti depletions, suggesting an origin by partial melting of juvenile mafic lower crust, coupled with fractional crystallization, in a post-orogenic setting after the collision between the Xing'an and Songnen Blocks. The δD values of ore-forming fluids range from -100 to -93 ‰, and the δ18O values calculated from hydrothermal quartz are between -3 and 10 ‰. The δ34S values of sulfides vary from -2.6 to -1.1 ‰. Field observations, as well as the geochronological and H-O-S isotopic data, suggest that the Cu mineralization at Tongshan was genetically linked with the granodiorite.

  19. THE METALLOGENIC ENVIRONMENT AND POTENTIAL OF THE PORPHYRY COPPER IN XINJIANG%新疆斑岩铜矿的成矿条件和远景

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘德权; 唐延龄; 周汝洪

    2001-01-01

    Through the study on the geology and metallogenic environment ofthe giant Tuwu porphyry copper deposit in Hami to Jueluotag porphyry copper meatllogenic belt, it is concluded that those deposits formed in the active continental margin during the middle to late convergent stage of the orogenesis. Comparing with Pacific Rim porphyry copper belt, the favorite tectonic environment is "Andean", i.e., the fan shaped structure. It is also recognized that Xinjiang has the similar geological and metallgenic environment with the porphyry copper belts in adjacent countries and/or districts, and then there is good potential for finding large and giant porphyry copper deposits, especially in Western Tianshan, Western Kunlun, Muzitag, Qimantag, south of Eastern Jungger, etc. areas.%对哈密土屋地区斑岩铜矿和觉罗塔格斑岩铜矿成矿带的成矿地质条件进行了研究,其形成于造山带汇聚阶段中-后期的活动陆缘环境。与环太平洋斑岩铜矿对比,有利成矿的构造类型为"安第斯型",即扇形形态构造;与新疆周边国家和地区斑岩铜矿成矿带对比,新疆具有相类似的成矿地质条件,找矿远景很大,特别是西天山、西昆仑、木孜塔格、祁漫塔格、东准噶尔南部等地区,具有斑岩铜矿成矿的广阔前景,有希望找到新的大型-超大型铜矿床。

  20. Geological analysis of aeromagnetic data from southwestern Alaska: implications for exploration in the area of the Pebble porphyry Cu-Au-Mo deposit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Eric D.; Hitzman, Murray W.; Monecke, Thomas; Bedrosian, Paul A.; Shah, Anjana K.; Kelley, Karen D.

    2013-01-01

    Aeromagnetic data are used to better understand the geology and mineral resources near the Late Cretaceous Pebble porphyry Cu-Au-Mo deposit in southwestern Alaska. The reduced-to-pole (RTP) transformation of regional-scale aeromagnetic data shows that the Pebble deposit is within a cluster of magnetic anomaly highs. Similar to Pebble, the Iliamna, Kijik, and Neacola porphyry copper occurrences are in magnetic highs that trend northeast along the crustal-scale Lake Clark fault. A high-amplitude, short- to moderate-wavelength anomaly is centered over the Kemuk occurrence, an Alaska-type ultramafic complex. Similar anomalies are found west and north of Kemuk. A moderate-amplitude, moderate-wavelength magnetic low surrounded by a moderate-amplitude, short-wavelength magnetic high is associated with the gold-bearing Shotgun intrusive complex. The RTP transformation of the district-scale aeromagnetic data acquired over Pebble permits differentiation of a variety of Jurassic to Tertiary magmatic rock suites. Jurassic-Cretaceous basalt and gabbro units and Late Cretaceous biotite pyroxenite and granodiorite rocks produce magnetic highs. Tertiary basalt units also produce magnetic highs, but appear to be volumetrically minor. Eocene monzonite units have associated magnetic lows. The RTP data do not suggest a magnetite-rich hydrothermal system at the Pebble deposit. The 10-km upward continuation transformation of the regional-scale data shows a linear northeast trend of magnetic anomaly highs. These anomalies are spatially correlated with Late Cretaceous igneous rocks and in the Pebble district are centered over the granodiorite rocks genetically related to porphyry copper systems. The spacing of these anomalies is similar to patterns shown by the numerous porphyry copper deposits in northern Chile. These anomalies are interpreted to reflect a Late Cretaceous magmatic arc that is favorable for additional discoveries of Late Cretaceous porphyry copper systems in southwestern

  1. Petrogenesis of Paleocene-Eocene porphyry deposit-related granitic rocks in the Yaguila-Sharang ore district, central Lhasa terrane, Tibet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Junxing; Li, Guangming; Evans, Noreen J.; Qin, Kezhang; Li, Jinxiang; Zhang, Xia'nan

    2016-11-01

    The Paleocene-Eocene ore deposits in the Gangdese Metallogenic Belt, Tibet, are thought to have been formed during the main period of India-Asia continental collision. This paper reports the whole-rock major element, trace element, and Sr-Nd-Hf isotopic compositions and zircon trace element contents of volcanic and intrusive rocks from the Paleocene Yaguila skarn Pb-Zn-Ag deposit and adjacent Eocene Sharang porphyry Mo deposit in the central Lhasa terrane, Tibet. Geochemical signatures and Nd-Hf isotopic compositions indicate that the Yaguila Cretaceous rhyolitic rocks were formed by the melting of ancient continental crust, whereas the Paleocene causative granite porphyry may have resulted from the interaction between mantle-derived and crustal-derived materials when continental collision was initiated. The dramatic increase of εNd(t) values between emplacement of the granite porphyry and later porphyritic biotite granite suggests a greater involvement of mantle materials during the crystallization of the barren biotite granite stock. The post-ore Miocene granodiorite porphyry has a similar geochemical signature to the Sharang Miocene dykes, suggesting they were both generated from melting of enriched lithospheric mantle. Nd-Hf mixing calculations indicate an increasing contribution of mantle materials in Paleocene to Eocene intrusions, consistent with the regional tectonic model of Neo-Tethyan oceanic slab roll-back and break-off. Zircons from both the Yaguila and Sharang ore-related porphyries have higher Ce anomalies than those from the barren granitoids, suggesting that Mo mineralization was closely related to highly oxidized and differentiated magma. The fertile intrusions in the Yaguila-Sharang district contain EuN/EuN∗ values from 0.3 to 0.6, higher than the non-mineralized intrusions. The processes of early crystallization of plagioclase and/or SO2-degassing from underlying magma can explain the observed negative Eu anomalies in zircon.

  2. The geology, structure and mineralisation of the Oyu Tolgoi porphyry copper-gold-molybdenum deposits, Mongolia:A review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    T.M. Mike Porter

    2016-01-01

    The Oyu Tolgoi cluster of seven porphyry Cu-Au-Mo deposits in southern Mongolia, define a narrow, linear, 12 km long, almost continuously mineralised trend, which contains in excess of 42 Mt of Cu and 1850 t of Au, and is among the largest high grade porphyry Cu-Au deposits in the world. These deposits lie within the Gurvansayhan island-arc terrane, a fault bounded segment of the broader Silurian to Carboniferous Kazakh-Mongol arc, located towards the southern margin of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt, a collage of magmatic arcs that were periodically active from the late Neoproterozoic to Permo-Triassic, extending from the Urals Mountains to the Pacific Ocean. Mineralisation at Oyu Tolgoi is associated with multiple, overlapping, intrusions of late Devonian (w372 to 370 Ma) quartz-monzodiorite intruding Devonian (or older) juvenile, probably intra-oceanic arc-related, basaltic lavas and lesser volcaniclastic rocks, unconformably overlain by late Devonian (w370 Ma) basaltic to dacitic pyroclastic and volcano sedimentary rocks. These quartz-monzodiorite intrusions range from early-mineral porphyritic dykes, to larger, linear, syn-, late- and post-mineral dykes and stocks. Ore was deposited within syn-mineral quartz-monzodiorites, but is dominantly hosted by augite basalts and to a lesser degree by overlying dacitic pyroclastic rocks. Following ore deposition, an allochthonous plate of older Devonian (or pre-Devonian) rocks was overthrust and a post-ore biotite granodiorite intruded at w365 Ma. Mineralisation is characterised by varying, telescoped stages of intrusion and alteration. Early A-type quartz veined dykes were followed by Cu-Au mineralisation associated with potassic alteration, mainly K-feldspar in quartz-monzodiorite and biotite-magnetite in basaltic hosts. Downward reflux of cooled, late-magmatic hydrothermal fluid resulted in intense quartz-sericite retrograde alteration in the upper parts of the main syn-mineral intrusions, and an equivalent chlorite

  3. Hydrothermal Evolution of the Giant Cenozoic Kadjaran porphyry Cu-Mo deposit, Tethyan metallogenic belt, Armenia, Lesser Caucasus: mineral paragenetic, cathodoluminescence and fluid inclusion constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovakimyan, Samvel; Moritz, Robert; Tayan, Rodrik; Rezeau, Hervé

    2016-04-01

    The Lesser Caucasus belongs to the Central segment of the Tethyan metallogenic belt and it is a key area to understand the metallogenic evolution between the Western & Central parts of the Tethyan belt and its extension into Iran. Zangezur is the most important mineral district in the southernmost Lesser Caucasus. It is a component of the South Armenian block, and it was generated during the convergence and collision of the southern margin of the Eurasian plate and the northern margin of the Arabian plate, and terranes of Gondwana origin (Moritz et al., in press). The Zangezur ore district consists of the Tertiary Meghri-Ordubad composite pluton, which is characterized by a long-lasting Eocene to Pliocene magmatic, tectonic and metallogenic evolution. It hosts major porphyries Cu-Mo and epithermal Au - polymetallic deposits and occurrences, including the giant world class Kadjaran porphyry Cu-Mo deposit (2244 Mt reserves, 0.3% Cu, 0.05% Mo and 0.02 g/t Au). The Kadjaran deposit is hosted by a monzonite intrusion (31.83±0.02Ma; Moritz et al., in press). Detailed field studies of the porphyry stockwork and veins of the different mineralization stages, their crosscutting and displacement relationships and the age relationship between different paragenetic mineral associations were the criteria for distinction of the main stages of porphyry mineralization at the Kadjaran deposit. The economic stages being: quartz- molybdenite, quartz-molybdenite-chalcopyrite, and quartz-chalcopyrite. The main paragenetic association of the Kadjaran porphyry deposit includes pyrite, molybdenite, chalcopyrite, bornite, chalcocite, pyrrhotite, covellite, sphalerite, and galena. Recent field observations in the Kadjaran open pit revealed the presence of epithermal veins with late vuggy silica and advanced argillic alteration in the north-eastern and eastern parts of the deposit. They are distributed as separate veins and have also been recognized in re-opened porphyry veins and in

  4. Petrochemistry of igneous rocks of the California-Vetas mining district, Santander, Colombia: Implications for northern Andean tectonics and porphyry Cu (-Mo, Au) metallogeny

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissig, Thomas; Mantilla Figueroa, Luis Carlos; Hart, Craig J. R.

    2014-07-01

    Porphyry Mo and Cu mineralization in the California-Vetas mining district is contemporaneous with 10.9 to 8.4 Ma granodiorite porphyry stocks and overprinted by Au-Ag mineralization of epithermal affinity. Mineralization is hosted by Grenvillian aged paragneisses (Bucaramanga Gneiss of the Santander Massif) and late Triassic to early Jurassic granitic rocks. All intrusive rocks are high-K calc-alkaline. Late Triassic to early Jurassic rocks include peraluminous granites with more than 70 wt.% SiO2 as well as metaluminous diorites, tonalites and granodiorites with SiO2 between 54.9 and 60.4 wt.%. Late Miocene rocks are weakly peraluminous granodiorite porphyries with SiO2 between 61 and 67 wt.% SiO2. Late Miocene rocks share some characteristics with adakite-like rocks which are widely associated with porphyry and epithermal style mineralization elsewhere in the Andes. They have high Ba (930 to 1500 ppm) and high Ba/La (28 to 50), high Sr (850 to 1100 ppm) and Sr/Y (48-78) and depleted middle rare earth elements (MREE) compared to the Mesozoic granites, which have 400 to 700 ppm Ba (Ba/La 14 to 25) and 80 to 150 ppm Sr (Sr/Y 2.5 to 14), and Mesozoic diorites and tonalites, which have ~ 900 to 1200 ppm Ba (Ba/La 20 to 32) and ~ 610 to 750 ppm Sr (Sr/Y 22 to 25). Miocene granodiorite porphyries, in contrast to Mesozoic intrusive rocks have only weak negative Eu anomalies. The Miocene rocks have 87Sr/86Sr ratios of 0.7052 to 0.7067 and εNd of - 1.9 to - 5.4 and are significantly more isotopically primitive than all other rocks in the study area including the Mesozoic diorites to tonalites (87Sr/86Sr = 0.7082 and 0.7092; εNd = - 6.7 and - 7.2), granites (87Sr/86Sr = 0.730 (n = 2); εNd = - 8.2 and - 8.3) and Bucaramanga Gneiss (0.718 to 0.743; εNd = - 10.8 to - 14.1). Lead isotope data are broadly consistent with the Sr and Nd isotope data and the Miocene porphyries have the lowest 207Pb/204Pb ratios but overlap with the Mesozoic diorites to tonalites in their 206Pb

  5. The geology, structure and mineralisation of the Oyu Tolgoi porphyry copper-gold-molybdenum deposits, Mongolia: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.M. (Mike Porter

    2016-05-01

    Mineralisation is characterised by varying, telescoped stages of intrusion and alteration. Early A-type quartz veined dykes were followed by Cu-Au mineralisation associated with potassic alteration, mainly K-feldspar in quartz-monzodiorite and biotite-magnetite in basaltic hosts. Downward reflux of cooled, late-magmatic hydrothermal fluid resulted in intense quartz-sericite retrograde alteration in the upper parts of the main syn-mineral intrusions, and an equivalent chlorite-muscovite/illite-hematite assemblage in basaltic host rocks. Uplift, facilitated by syn-mineral longitudinal faulting, brought sections of the porphyry deposit to shallower depths, to be overprinted and upgraded by late stage, shallower, advanced argillic alteration and high sulphidation mineralisation. Key controls on the location, size and grade of the deposit cluster include (i a long-lived, narrow faulted corridor; (ii multiple pulses of overlapping intrusion within the same structure; and (iii enclosing reactive, mafic dominated wall rocks, focussing ore.

  6. Geology and reconnaissance stable isotope study of the Oyu Tolgoi porphyry Cu-Au system, South Gobi, Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khashgerel, B.-E.; Rye, R.O.; Hedenquist, J.W.; Kavalieris, I.

    2006-01-01

    The Oyu Tolgoi porphyry Cu-Au system in the South Gobi desert, Mongolia, comprises five deposits that extend over 6 km in a north-northeast-oriented zone. They occur in a middle to late Paleozoic are terrane and are related to Late Devonian quartz monzodiorite intrusions. The Hugo Dummett deposits are the northernmost and deepest, with up to 1,000 m of premineral sedimentary and volcanic cover rock remaining. They are the largest deposits discovered to date and characterized by high-grade copper (>2.5% Cu) and gold (0.5-2 g/t) mineralization associated with intense quartz veining and several phases of quartz monzodiorite intruded into basaltic volcanic host rocks. Sulfide minerals in these deposits are zoned outward from a bornite-dominated core to chalcopyrite, upward to pyrite ?? enargite and covellite at shallower depth. The latter high-sulfidation-state sulfides are hosted by advanced argillic alteration mineral associations. This alteration is restricted mainly to dacitic ash-flow tuff that overlies the basaltic volcanic rock and includes ubiquitous quartz and pyrophyllite, kaolinite, plus late dickite veins, as well as K alunite, Al phosphate-sulfate minerals, zunyite, diaspore, topaz, corundum, and andalusite. A reconnaissance oxygen-hydrogen and sulfur isotope study was undertaken to investigate the origin of several characteristic alteration minerals in the Oyu Tolgoi system, with particular emphasis on the Hugo Dummett deposits. Based on the isotopic composition of O, H, and S (??18O(SO4) = 8.8-20.1???, ??D = -73 to -43???, ??34S = 9.8-17.9???), the alunite formed from condensation of magmatic vapor that ascended to the upper parts of the porphyry hydrothermal system, without involvement of significant amounts of meteoric water. The isotopic data indicate that pyrophyllite (??18O = 6.5-10.9???, ??D = -90 to -106???) formed from a magmatic fluid with a component of meteoric water. Muscovite associated with quartz monzodiorite intrusions occurs in the core

  7. Ore-forming fluid constraints on illite crystallinity (IC) at Dexing porphyry copper deposit, Jiangxi Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN; Zhangdong

    2001-01-01

    [1]uatier, M. D., Peacor, D. R., O’Neil, J. R., Smectite-illite transition in Barbados accretionary wedge sediments: TEM and AEM evidence for dissolution/crystallization at low temperature, Clays and Clay Minerals, 1992, 40(1): 65.[2]Eberl, D., Hower, J., Kinetics of illite formation, Geological Society of America Bulletin, 1976, 9: 1326[3]Elliott, W. C., Matisoff, G., Evaluation of kinetic models for smectite to illite transformation, Clays and Clay Minerals, 1996, 44(1): 77.[4]Ji Junfeng, Browne, P. R. L., Liu Yingjun et al., Kinetic model for the smectite to illite transformation in active geothermal system, Chinese Science Bulletin (in Chinese), 1997, 42 (21): 2313[5]Pollastro, R. M., Considerations and applications of the illite/smectite geothermometer in hydrocarbonbearing rocks of Miocene to Mississippian age, Clays and Clay Minerals, 1993, 41(1): 119[6]Harvey, C. C., Browne, P. R. L., Mixed-layer clay geothermometry in the Wairakei geothermal field, New Zealand, Clays and Clay Minerals, 1991, 39(3): 614[7]Whitney, G., Role of water in the smectite-to-illite reaction, Clays and Clay Minerals, 1990, 38 (2): 343.[8]Inoue, A., Kitagawa, R., Morphological characteristics of illitic clay minerals from a hydrothermal system, American Mineralogist, 1994, 79: 700.[9]Velde, B., Vasseur, G., Estimation of the diagenetic smectite to illite in time-temperature space, American Mineralogist, 1992, 77: 967.[10]hu Xun, Huang Chongke, Rui Zongyao et al., Dexing Porphyry Copper Deposit (in Chinese), Beijing: Geological Publishing House, 1983.[11]Kisch, H. J., Illite crystallinity: recommendation on sample preparation, X-ray diffraction settings and interlaboratory samples, Journal of Metamorphic Geology, 1991, 9: 665.[12]Eberl, D. D., Velde, B., Beyond the Kübler Index, Clay Minerals, 1989, 24(3): 571.[13]Srodon, J., Eberl, D. D., Illite. Micas, Reviews in Mineralogy (ed. Bailey, S. W.), 1984, 13: 495.[14]Yao, Y. C

  8. Devonian and carboniferous arcs of the oyu tolgoi porphyry Cu-Au district, South Gobi region, Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wainwright, A.J.; Tosdal, R.M.; Forster, C.N.; Kirwin, D.J.; Lewis, P.D.; Wooden, J.L.

    2011-01-01

    The Central Asian orogenic belt consists of microcontinental blocks and mobile belts positioned between the Siberian craton and the Tarim and North China cratons. Extending across Asia for 5000 km, the belt consists of terranes that decrease in age southward away from the Siberian craton. A time-stratigraphic-structural sequence for the rocks is critical to defining the tectonic evolution of the belt. In the Oyu Tolgoi area of the South Gobi Desert (Mongolia), Devonian and Carboniferous rocks record the construction of multiple arcs, formation of a giant porphyry Cu-Au system, exhumation, and polyphase deformation. The oldest rocks are basaltic volcanic and subvolcanic rocks of the Devonian Alagbayan Group intruded by Late Devonian quartz monzodiorite stocks and dikes, which host giant porphyry Cu-Au deposits. The rocks were exhumed, overlain by pyroclastic rocks, and then tectonically buried by marine mafic supracrustal rocks prior to the youngest Devonian granodiorite intrusions. The postmineral Carboniferous Gurvankharaat Group unconformably overlying the deformed terrane consists of effusive, pyroclastic, subvolcanic and volcaniclastic rocks, as well as sedimentary units. The supracrustal rocks underwent polyphase shortening after 330 Ma and prior to 290 Ma. Variations in stratigraphic sequences suggest that the region is underlain by a submarine arc that became emergent during the Upper Devonian and remained subaerial to shallow subaqueous through much of the Carboniferous. Xenocrystic zircons in igneous rocks suggest that the offshore arcs were sufficiently close to ancient crust to have interacted with detritus shed into marine basins, most likely from the Siberian craton and fringing early Paleozoic terranes. ?? 2011 Geological Society of America.

  9. Garnet-bearing tonalitic porphyry from East Kunlun, Northeast Tibetan Plateau: implications for adakite and magmas from the MASH Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Chao; Sun, Min; Xiao, Wenjiao; Wilde, Simon; Li, Xianhua; Liu, Xiaohan; Long, Xiaoping; Xia, Xiaoping; Ye, Kai; Li, Jiliang

    2009-09-01

    A garnet-bearing tonalitic porphyry from the Achiq Kol area, northeast Tibetan Plateau has been dated by SHRIMP U-Pb zircon techniques and gives a Late Triassic age of 213 ± 3 Ma. The porphyry contains phenocrysts of Ca-rich, Mn-poor garnet (CaO > 5 wt%; MnO 17 wt%) contents, and is metaluminous to slightly peraluminous (ACNK = 0.89-1.05). The rock samples are enriched in LILE and LREE but depleted in Nb and Ti, showing typical features of subduction-related magmas. The relatively high Sr/Y (~38) ratios and low HREE (Yb residual phase, while suppressed crystallization of plagioclase and lack of negative Eu anomalies indicate a high water fugacity in the magma. Nd-Sr isotope compositions of the rock (ɛNdT = -1.38 to -2.33; 87Sr/86Sri = 0.7065-0.7067) suggest that both mantle- and crust-derived materials were involved in the petrogenesis, which is consistent with the reverse compositional zoning of plagioclase, interpreted to indicate magma mixing. Both garnet phenocrysts and their ilmenite inclusions contain low MgO contents which, in combination with the oxygen isotope composition of garnet separates (+6.23‰), suggests that these minerals formed in a lower crust-derived felsic melt probably in the MASH zone. Although the rock samples are similar to adakitic rocks in many aspects, their moderate Sr contents (residual melt. It is suggested that extensive crystallization of apatite as an early phase may prevent some arc magmas from evolving into adakitic rocks even under high water fugacity.

  10. Sr-Nd-Pb-Hf isotope systematics of the Hugo Dummett Cu-Au porphyry deposit (Oyu Tolgoi, Mongolia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolgopolova, A.; Seltmann, R.; Armstrong, R.; Belousova, E.; Pankhurst, R. J.; Kavalieris, I.

    2013-04-01

    Major and trace element geochemistry including Sr-Nd-Pb-Hf isotopic data are presented for a representative sample suite of Late Devonian to Early Carboniferous plutonic and volcanic rocks from the Hugo Dummett deposit of the giant Oyu Tolgoi porphyry Cu-Au district in South Gobi, Mongolia. Sr and Nd isotopes (whole-rock) show restricted ranges of initial compositions, with positive ɛNdt mainly between + 3.4 and + 7.4 and (87Sr/86Sr)t predominantly between 0.7037 and 0.7045 reflecting magma generation from a relatively uniform juvenile lithophile-element depleted source. Previously dated zircons from the plutonic rocks exhibit a sample-averaged range of ɛHft values of + 11.6 to + 14.5. Depleted-mantle model ages of 420-830 (Nd) and 320-730 Ma (zircon Hf) limit the involvement of pre-Neoproterozoic crust in the petrogenesis of the intermediate to felsic calc-alkaline magmas to, at most, a minor role. Pb isotopes (whole-rock) show a narrow range of unradiogenic initial compositions: 206Pb/204Pb 17.40-17.94, 207Pb/204Pb 15.43-15.49 and 208Pb/204Pb 37.25-37.64, in agreement with Sr-Nd-Hf isotopes indicating the dominance of a mantle component. All four isotopic systems suggest that the magmas from which the large Oyu Tolgoi porphyry system was generated originated predominantly from juvenile material within the subduction-related setting of the Gurvansayhan terrane.

  11. Geological, geochronological, geochemical, and Sr-Nd-O-Hf isotopic constraints on origins of intrusions associated with the Baishan porphyry Mo deposit in eastern Tianshan, NW China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yinhong; Xue, Chunji; Liu, Jiajun; Zhang, Fangfang

    2016-10-01

    The Baishan porphyry Mo deposit (0.72 Mt; 0.06 % Mo) is located in the interior of the eastern Tianshan orogenic belt in Xinjiang, NW China. The deposit comprises 15 orebodies that are associated with monzogranite and granite porphyry stocks and are structurally controlled by roughly EW-trending faults. Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) zircon U-Pb dating of the monzogranite and granite porphyry yielded the Middle Triassic age (228 ± 2 to 227 ± 2 Ma), which coincide with the molybdenite Re-Os model ages ranging from 226 ± 3 to 228 ± 3 Ma. The Triassic monzogranite and granite porphyry belong to high-K calc-alkaline series and are characterized by high SiO2 and Al2O3 and low MgO, TiO2, and P2O5 concentrations, with negative Eu anomalies (δEu = 0.55-0.91). The least-altered monzogranite and granite porphyry yield uniform ɛ Nd( t) values from +1.6 to +3.6, and wide (87Sr/86Sr) i ratios ranging between 0.7035 and 0.7071, indicating that they were derived from the lower crust. In situ O-Hf isotopic analyses on zircon using SIMS and laser ablation multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-MC-ICP-MS) indicate that the δ18O and ɛ Hf( t) values of zircon from a monzogranite sample vary from 6.1 to 7.3 ‰ and +8.0 to +11.7, respectively, whereas zircon from a granite porphyry sample vary from 6.2 to 6.9 ‰ and +7.3 to +11.2, respectively. The geochemical and isotopic data imply that the primary magmas of the Baishan granite were likely derived from partial melts from the lower crust involving some mantle components. The Baishan Mo deposit and granitic emplacement were proposed to be most likely related to post-orogenic lithospheric extension and magmatic underplating. An extensional event coupled with the rising of hot mantle-derived melts triggered partial melting of the lower crust, as well as provided metals (Mo).

  12. U-Pb (zircon) and geochemical constraints on the age, origin, and evolution of Paleozoic arc magmas in the Oyu Tolgoi porphyry Cu-Au district, southern Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wainwright, A.J.; Tosdal, R.M.; Wooden, J.L.; Mazdab, F.K.; Friedman, R.M.

    2011-01-01

    Uranium-Pb (zircon) ages are linked with geochemical data for porphyry intrusions associated with giant porphyry Cu-Au systems at Oyu Tolgoi to place those rocks within the petrochemical framework of Devonian and Carboniferous rocks of southern Mongolia. In this part of the Gurvansayhan terrane within the Central Asian Orogenic Belt, the transition from Devonian tholeiitic marine rocks to unconformably overlying Carboniferous calc-alkaline subaerial to shallow marine volcanic rocks reflects volcanic arc thickening and maturation. Radiogenic Nd and Pb isotopic compositions (??Nd(t) range from +3.1 to +7.5 and 206Pb/204Pb values for feldspars range from 17.97 to 18.72), as well as low high-field strength element (HFSE) contents of most rocks (mafic rocks typically have rocks are dominantly medium- to high-K calc-alkaline and characterized by a decrease in Sr/Y ratios through time, with the Carboniferous rocks being more felsic than those of Devonian age. Porphyry Cu-Au related intrusions were emplaced in the Late Devonian during the transition from tholeiitic to calc-alkaline arc magmatism. Uranium-Pb (zircon) geochronology indicates that the Late Devonian pre- to syn-mineral quartz monzodiorite intrusions associated with the porphyry Cu-Au deposits are ~372Ma, whereas granodiorite intrusions that post-date major shortening and are associated with less well-developed porphyry Cu-Au mineralization are ~366Ma. Trace element geochemistry of zircons in the Late Devonian intrusions associated with the porphyry Cu-Au systems contain distinct Th/U and Yb/Gd ratios, as well as Hf and Y concentrations that reflect mixing of magma of distinct compositions. These characteristics are missing in the unmineralized Carboniferous intrusions. High Sr/Y and evidence for magma mixing in syn- to late-mineral intrusions distinguish the Late Devonian rocks associated with giant Cu-Au deposits from younger magmatic suites in the district. ?? 2010 Elsevier B.V.

  13. 东沟含钼斑岩由太山庙岩基派生?%Was Donggou porphyry Mo deposit derived from Taishanmiao batholith?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄凡; 罗照华; 卢欣祥; 高飞; 陈必河; 杨宗锋; 潘颖; 李德东

    2009-01-01

    The Donggou porphyry Mo deposit, located in Ruyang County of Henan Province, is a giant ore deposit discovered in recent years. The Donggou molybdenum-bearing porphyry is considered to be an apophysis or a fractionated product from the adjacent Tai-shanmiao batholith. Accordingly, the ore-forming process of this deposit seems to be relevant to the differentiation of Taishanmiao batholitic magma. Based on an analysis of geology, petrology, geochemistry and temperature field. the authors hold that the Donggou granite porphyry is a preduct of another magmatic activity independent of Taishanmiao batholitic magma, as shown by the following evidence: ① Acoording to the age data available, the Taishanmiao hatholith was generated earlier than the Donggou porphyry by 3 Ma, suggesting that the two intrusions were not contemporaneous. ② The thickness of the Taishanmiao batholith is about 3.5 km and the exposed elevation is higher than Donggou porphyry by 600 m, and there are no larger faults within the distance of about 7 km between the intrusions. Such a spatial relationship is not consistent with the differentiation model of a deep magma chamber. ③ The Donggou porphyry, containing high-temperature quartz phenocrysts, is a product consolidated from the high temperature magma. On the contrary, the Taishanmiao hatholith is a pluton with relatively low initial temperature. ④ There are Pb-Zn ore deposits or spots composing a relatively complete ring with the Donggou porphyry as the center, showing that there existed a temperature field around the Donggou porphyry and that the temperature fidd was not destroyed by the heat from the Taishanmiao intrusion during mineraliza-tion. Therefore, the Donggou porphyry should not be considered as an apophysis or a product fractionated from the adjacent Taishan-miao hatholith. In addition, based on the average Mo concentration of granotoid and the latest experimental data of molybdenum solu-bility in the ore-bearing fluid, the mass

  14. Re-Os geochronology of the El Salvador porphyry Cu-Mo deposit, Chile: Tracking analytical improvements in accuracy and precision over the past decade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Aaron; Stein, Holly J.; Morgan, John W.; Markey, Richard J.; Watanabe, Yasushi

    2014-04-01

    Sulfide minerals from the El Salvador porphyry Cu-Mo deposit, Chile, were dated by Re-Os geochronology to clarify the timing and duration of mineralization. As these data are collected over the past 10 years, they chronicle the evolution of Re-Os analytical procedures and improvements in spike-sample equilibration, mass spectrometry and data reduction. Included in the data is the first tennantite-pyrite Re-Os isochron along with tennantite-enargite-pyrite Os tracing of ore metals based on initial osmium systematics (187Os/188Osi). Porphyry-associated mineralization follows the traditional early (A), transitional (B), and late (D) stage classification of relative timing of vein formation. Most Cu- and Mo-bearing sulfides were deposited during stages A and B. Field relationships clearly show the B-stage veins are older than the D-stage veins. Samples analyzed with Carius tube digestion and mixed-double spike indicate B-stage molybdenite mineralization between 41.8 and 41.2 Ma. These ages best represent the timing of main-stage mineralization at El Salvador. A five-point 187Re-187Os isochron for pyrite-tennantite from the latest D-stage veins yields an age of 42.37 ± 0.45 Ma. The isochron age, while older, is within error of early analyses of molybdenite by alkaline fusion digestion using single Re and Os spikes (42.4-42.0 Ma). A separate pyrite and tennantite-enargite pair containing significant common Os yields an initial 187Os/188Os ratio of 0.134 ± 0.042, compatible with a predominantly mantle origin. We appreciate the early analyses for their historical significance while emphasize the geological implications of the 41.8-41.2 Ma molybdenite ages. Temperature estimates by sulfur thermometry and fluid inclusions are 390-510 °C for the B-stage molybdenites and 230-240 °C for the latest D-stage pyrite and tennantite. Analyses based on Carius tube digestion and updated spike calibrations suggest a ∼0.6 m.y. duration (∼41.8 to 41.2 Ma) in-line with published

  15. Remelting of Neoproterozoic relict volcanic arcs in the Middle Jurassic: Implication for the formation of the Dexing porphyry copper deposit, Southeastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xuan; Fan, Hong-Rui; Santosh, M.; Hu, Fang-Fang; Yang, Kui-Feng; Li, Qiu-Li; Yang, Yue-Heng; Liu, Yongsheng

    2012-10-01

    The Dexing copper deposit in southeastern China is a typical non-arc porphyry deposit, the origin of which has been a topic of debate for several decades. Here we present new results from U-Pb geochronology, whole-rock chemistry and Sr-Nd-Hf-O isotopic investigations on the ore-forming granodioritic porphyry. LA-ICPMS zircon U-Pb data suggest that the granodioritic porphyry was formed in the Middle Jurassic (ca. 172.5 Ma) probably associated with lithospheric thinning driven by either sub-continental lithospheric mantle delamination or asthenospheric upwelling. The porphyry displays both arc-like and adakitic trace element signatures. The adakitic features suggest that HREE (heavy rare earth elements)-rich minerals such as garnet and hornblende, in the absence of plagioclase resided in the source region. The arc-like signatures are broadly comparable with those of the proximal Neoproterozoic island arc rocks including the keratophyre from Shuangxiwu Group and associated granitoids indicating a potential genetic relationship. The porphyry has chondritic ɛNd(t) of - 0.28 to 0.25 and radiogenic ɛHf(t) of 2 to 7, and correspondingly, uniform two stage depleted mantle Nd model ages of 940-980 Ma and Hf model ages of 800-1100 Ma (mean ~ 920 Ma). On Nd and Hf isotopic evolution diagrams, these values are markedly similar to those of the adjacent Neoproterozoic arc rocks when calculated forward to the Mid-Jurassic. Zircons of the porphyry show mantle-like oxygen isotope characters with δ18O values clustering in the range of 4.7-5.9‰, similar to the values for the Neoproterozoic arc rocks mentioned above. The geochemical and isotopic features recorded in our study suggest mantle-derived magmas with no significant supracrustal input for the source of the porphyry. With regard to the source of the Cu ore, we consider a model involving the remelting of sulfide-bearing arc-related lower crustal source. Furthermore, the occurrence of a Neoproterozoic VMS (volcanic massive

  16. U-Pb zircon, geochemical and Sr-Nd-Hf-O isotopic constraints on age and origin of the ore-bearing intrusions from the Nurkazgan porphyry Cu-Au deposit in Kazakhstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Ping; Pan, Hongdi; Seitmuratova, Eleonora; Jakupova, Sholpan

    2016-02-01

    Nurkazgan, located in northeastern Kazakhstan, is a super-large porphyry Cu-Au deposit with 3.9 Mt metal copper and 229 tonnage gold. We report in situ zircon U-Pb age and Hf-O isotope data, whole rock geochemical and Sr-Nd isotopic data for the ore-bearing intrusions from the Nurkazgan deposit. The ore-bearing intrusions include the granodiorite porphyry, quartz diorite porphyry, quartz diorite, and diorite. Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) zircon U-Pb dating indicates that the granodiorite porphyry and quartz diorite porphyry emplaced at 440 ± 3 Ma and 437 ± 3 Ma, respectively. All host rocks have low initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.70338-0.70439), high whole-rock εNd(t) values (+5.9 to +6.3) and very high zircon εHf(t) values (+13.4 to +16.5), young whole-rock Nd and zircon Hf model ages, and consistent and slightly high zircon O values (+5.7 to +6.7), indicating that the ore-bearing magmas derived from the mantle without old continental crust involvement and without marked sediment contamination during magma emplacement. The granodiorite porphyry and quartz diorite porphyry are enriched in large ion lithophile elements (LILE) and light rare earth elements (LREE) and depleted in high-field strength elements (HFSE), Eu, Ba, Nb, Sr, P and Ti. The diorite and quartz diorite have also LILE and LREE enrichment and HFSE, Nb and Ti depletion, but have not negative Eu, Ba, Sr, and P anomalies. These features suggest that the parental magma of the granodiorite porphyry and quartz diorite porphyry originated from melting of a lithospheric mantle and experienced fractional crystallization, whereas the diorite and quartz diorite has a relatively deeper lithospheric mantle source region and has not experienced strong fractional crystallization. Based on these, together with the coeval ophiolites in the area, we propose that a subduction of the Balkhash-Junggar oceanic plate took place during the Early Silurian and the ore-bearing intrusions and associated Nurkazgan

  17. HRTEM/AEM study of trace metal behavior, sheet silicate reactions, and fluid/solid mass balances in porphyry copper hydrothermal systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veblen, D.R.; Ilton, E.S.

    1989-04-01

    Transmission electron microscopy has been used to investigate copper (Cu) incorporation into silicates and alteration reactions in porphyry copper deposits. High Cu in biotites results from submicroscopic inclusions of native Cu. The incorporation of Cu in low-temperature alteration lamellae suggests that Cu enrichment occurs during weathering, rather than during the hydrothermal event. Drill core from Cyprus Casa Grande, Arizona, shows systematic variation of Cu in sheet silicates as a function of depth in the weathering column. The aims of the present project are to apply the powerful techniques of transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution TEM (HRTEM), and analytical electron microscopy (AEM) to understanding the geochemical processes in porphyry copper systems at the near-atomic scale. Our primary goals are to characterize the structural state of anomalously high Cu in silicates, determine the timing and conditions of Cu enrichment in silicates such as biotite, and use these data to suggest how base metals are released and subsequently immobilized under hydrothermal or weathering conditions; and to determine the submicroscopic, atomic-level reaction mechanisms responsible for silicate alteration in porphyry-copper hydrothermal systems, which will allow us to determine reaction stoichiometries and hence mass balances between minerals and hydrothermal fluid. 19 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. Sr and O isotopic characteristics of porphyries in the Qinling molybdenum deposit belt and their implication to genetic mechanism and type

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈衍景; 李超; 张静; 李震; 王海华

    2000-01-01

    A great deal of Mesozoic hypobatholithic granites and hypabyssal porphyries develop in the Qinling Mountains. The former has long been regarded as transformation type (or S-type), and the latter associated with Mo-mineralization regarded as syntexis type (or l-type) granitoids. Statistics show that Sr, andδ18O of hypabyssal porphyries respectively range from 0.705 to 0.714, and from 7.2‰ to 12.1‰, agreeing with those of hypobatholithes (Sr1=0.705-0.710, δ18O = 6.1‰-10.4‰), which indicates that they share similar material sources and petrogenic mechanism. Based on analysis of lithological, mineralogical and geochemical characteristics of these granitoids and on study of their petrogenic tectonic background and regional geophysical data, we argue that both the shallow-seated porphyries and deep-seated batholithes were the products of Mesozoic collision between South China and North China paleocontinents. Subsequently, all these granti-toids should be attributed to collision type.

  19. Mineralogy, textures, and whole-rock geochemistry of advanced argillic alteration: Hugo Dummett porphyry Cu-Au deposit, Oyu Tolgoi mineral district, Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khashgerel, Bat-Erdene; Kavalieris, Imants; Hayashi, Ken-Ichiro

    2008-11-01

    Advanced argillic (AA) alteration is developed over a vertical interval of 500 m, above (and enclosing) Late Devonian quartz monzodiorite intrusions that accompany porphyry-style Cu-Au mineralization at the Hugo Dummett deposit. The AA alteration is mainly in basaltic rocks and locally extends into the overlying dacitic ash-flow tuff for about 100 m. The AA zone overprints porphyry-style quartz veins associated with quartz monzodiorite intrusions, but at least partly precedes high-grade porphyry-style bornite mineralization. Mineralogically, it consists of andalusite, corundum, residual quartz, titanium oxides, diaspore, alunite, aluminum phosphate-sulfate (APS) minerals, zunyite, pyrophyllite, topaz, kaolinite, and dickite, as well as anhydrite and gypsum, but is dominated by residual quartz and pyrophyllite. Alteration zonation is not apparent, except for an alunite-bearing zone that occurs approximately at the limit of strong quartz veining. Whole-rock geochemistry shows that the AA alteration removes most major elements except Si, Al, Ti, and P, and removes the trace elements Sc, Cs, and Rb. V, Zr, Hf, Nb, Ta, U, and Th are relatively immobile, whilst light REEs (La to Nd), Sr, Ba, and Ga can be enriched. Middle REEs (Sm to Gd) are moderately depleted; Y and heavy REEs (Tb to Lu) are strongly depleted except in two unusual samples where middle to heavy REEs are enriched.

  20. PEMETAAN POTENSI AIR-TANAH (AQUIFER BERDASARKAN INTERPRETASI DATA\tRESISTIVITAS WENNER SOUNDING (Studi kasus: Pengembangan kampus II Universitas Islam Negeri Maulana Malik Ibrahim Malang di Desa Tlekung Kecamatan Junrejo Kota Batu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irjan Irjan

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Telah dilakukan penelitian pemetaan potensi air-tanah (aquifer di daerah pengembangan kampus II UIN Maliki Malang di desa Tlekung kecamatan Junrejo wilayah kota Batu Jawa Timur. Urgensi dari penelitian ini adalah mencari sumber air-tanah dan melakukan pemetaan potensi air-tanah di bawah permukaan ke arah vertikal pada lokasi yang diduga setelah terlebih dahulu dilakukan survei permukaan. Dalam melakukan pemetaan potensi dan sebaran air-tanah di daerah survei, penulis menggunakan metode geolistrik resistivitas. Metode ini biasanya digunakan untuk menyelidiki lapisan bawah permukaan dangkal berdasarkan tingkat resistivitas batuannya dengan air-tanah yang menempati rongga-rongga dalam lapisan geologi (tanah. Survei ini dapat memetakan potensi air-tanah baik secara vertikal maupun horizontal. Survei geolistrik vertikal (sounding dimaksudkan untuk menduga ketebalan lapisan yang mengandung air-tanah atau aquifer. Sementara itu, untuk menduga persebaran air-tanah di bawah permukaan telah dilakukan  pengukuran  dibeberapa titik sounding pada daerah survei. Akuisisi data  metode geolistrik ini menggunakan sebuah alat Resistivity meter OYO Mc 2119. Secara prinsip pengukuran data dilakukan dengan cara menembakkan arus melalui elektroda arus (I dan mengamati beda potensial (  V pada setiap posisi jarak antara elektoda a, 2a, 3a, dan seterusnya. Titik sounding (titik datum pada penelitian ini berjumlah 3 (tiga buah dan terletak pada satu lintasan yang memanjang dari arah utara ke selatan. Untuk mengetahui posisi datum point, seperti   posisi lintang, bujur serta ketinggian dari permukaan laut digunakan GPS (Global Positioning System. Hasil pengukuran data-data lapangan, dengan menggunakan metode resistivitas wenner sounding mampu mendeteksi kehadiran lapisan zona aquifer serta mampu menduga lithologi batuan berdasarkan klasifikasi resistivitas sepanjang dinding sumur ke arah vertikal. Keyword:  Air-tanah  (aquifer,  metode  geolistrik resistivitas

  1. Geochronology and isotope geochemistry of the Baogutu porphyry copper deposit in the West Junggar region, Xinjiang, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Ping; Shen, Yuanchao; Pan, Hongdi; Li, Xian-hua; Dong, Lianhui; Wang, Jingbin; Zhu, Heping; Dai, Huawu; Guan, Weina

    2012-04-01

    The Baogutu copper deposit, a newly-discovered middle-sized porphyry copper deposit, is located in the West Junggar region of Xinjiang, NW China. Baogutu is associated with a Late Carboniferous intrusive complex that was emplaced into Lower Carboniferous volcano-sedimentary strata. The intrusive complex comprises main-stage diorites and minor late-stage diorite porphyries. Their intrusive activity occurred in 313.0 ± 2.2 Ma to 312.3 ± 2.2 Ma based on U-Pb zircon SIMS analyses. Molybdenite separated from ore-bearing quartz veins yields Re-Os model ages from 309.4 ± 4.4 Ma to 314.1 ± 4.5 Ma with a weighted mean age of 312.4 ± 1.8 Ma. Biotites, separated from fresh diorite and hydrothermal breccias in main-stage diorites, yield 40Ar/39Ar plateau ages of 308.26 ± 1.88 and 305.69 ± 1.76 Ma, respectively. These dates obtained from three independent dating techniques constrain the ore-forming age of the Baogutu deposit. Stable isotopes (H, O, S) and radiogenic isotope (Pb) have been used to discriminate the sources of the ore-forming fluid at Baogutu. The δ18O (1.14-1.74‰) and δD (-74‰ to -98‰) data indicate that the water of the ore-forming fluids was derived from magmatic water. The δ34S values (-0.24‰ to +0.4‰) show that the sulfur isotope composition of the ore fluids is characterized by magma sulfur. Lead isotope compositions (206Pb/204Pb = 17.92-18.89, 207Pb/204Pb = 15.45-15.62, 208Pb/204Pb = 37.68-38.36) indicate that the lead of the ore fluids is derived from the mantle. These data confirm the occurrence of a Cu-Au-Mo mineralizing event at Late Carboniferous in the Baogutu region and the ore-forming fluids are mainly derived from the mantle. The event is inferred to be associated with Late Carboniferous Junggar oceanic crust subduction.

  2. Natural or Artificial? Multi-Analytical Study of a Scagliola from Estoi Palace Simulating Imperial Red Porphyry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire, Maria Teresa; Santos Silva, António; Veiga, Maria do Rosário; Brito, Jorge de; Schlütter, Frank

    2016-12-01

    In this paper the characterization of a gypsum plaster sample from the end of the 19th century simulating imperial red porphyry using a multi-analytical approach is presented and discussed. The results of X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis (TGA-DTA), physical and mechanical properties are summarized. In order to have further insight into the microstructure, polarized light microscopy (PLM), scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (SEM-EDS), and micro Raman spectroscopy analyzes were also made. They helped to clarify the main issues raised by the other complementary analytical techniques and allowed the establishment of interrelations between the different properties, providing important information about the materials, the skills, and the technological development involved in the art of imitating noble stones with gypsum pastes. This study also contributes to our knowledge concerning the preservation of these types of elements that are important in the context of European decorative arts and rarely reported in the literature.

  3. Mineralization and Geochemical Exploration in Volcanic- Plotonic Area of Halakabad Village (Sabzevar, Regarding to Cu-Porphyry Deposits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panahi Shahri, M.

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The investigated area is located 30 Km south of Sabzevar in Halakabad village. Geological phenomenons in area follow a trend of NW-SE. Mineralization consists of metallic and non-metallic (kaolin mineralization. Disseminated and veinlet mineralization is generally associated with argillic alteration type. Pyrite is the most widespread type of sulfide mineralization in Halakabad occurrences. It usually displays a euhedral habit and have occurred at least in two generations. Calcopyrite is common in veinlets although in minor amounts. Secondary sulfuric acid weathering of the ore has generated huge surficial amounts of oxide and sulfate minerals which of hematite and jarosite are the most abundant. Geochemical exploration was conducted over both drainage geochemistry and rock geochemistry. Results show that some of the stream sediments have higher concentrations of Copper and Zinc than normal. This anomalies maches with monzonite outcrops in area. The chip rock geochemical data shows highest values in west of halakabad mine for Cu and Zn respectively 500 and 900 ppm. These data represents that all samples collected from surficial areas of east of area contain lower concentrations of Copper while sulfide mineralization is more than the other parts. Presence of favorable alteration system in region, presence of monzonite subvolcanic intrusions and regional geological criteria indicates a possible Cu-Au porphyry system in Halakabad area.

  4. Mapping hydrothermal alteration using aircraft VNIR scanners at the Rosemont porphyry copper deposit. [Visible-Near Infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadowski, R. M.; Abrams, M. J.

    1983-01-01

    Two Visible-Near Infrared (VNIR) scanners, the NS-001 and the M2S, were flown over the Rosemont porphyry copper deposit as part of the NASA/JPL/GEOSAT test site program. This program was established to determine the feasibility and limitations of mapping hydrothermal alteration with multispectral scanners. Data from the NS-001 at 0.83 and 2.2 microns were used to identify Fe(3+) and OH enriched outcrops. These areas were then correlated with three alteration assemblages. The first correlation, hematite-epidote, was the most obvious and appeared as a strong ferric iron signature associated with hematite stained Cretaceous arkoses and andesites. The second correlation, qtz-sericite, showed a combined ferric-hydroxyl signature for a phyllicly altered quartz monzonite. The third correlation, skarn, was identified only after a review of calc-silicate mineral VNIR spectra. Altered limestones that outcrop west of the deposit have a similar ferric iron-hydroxyl signature as the quartz-sericite altered quartz monzonite. This skarn signature has been interpreted to indicate the presence of andradite, hydro-grossularite and idocrase. Data from the second scanner, M2S, was used to search for variation in ferric iron mineral type. Resulting imagery data indicated that hematite was the dominant ferric iron mineral present in the Rosemont area.

  5. Geochemical Data for Samples Collected in 2008 Near the Concealed Pebble Porphyry Cu-Au-Mo Deposit, Southwest Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fey, David L.; Granitto, Matthew; Giles, Stuart A.; Smith, Steven M.; Eppinger, Robert G.; Kelley, Karen D.

    2009-01-01

    In the summer of 2007, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) began an exploration geochemical research study over the Pebble porphyry copper-gold-molybdenum deposit. This report presents the analytical data collected in 2008. The Pebble deposit is world class in size, and is almost entirely concealed by tundra, glacial deposits, and post-Cretaceous volcanic rocks. The Pebble deposit was chosen for this study because it is concealed by surficial cover rocks, is relatively undisturbed (except for exploration company drill holes), is a large mineral system, and is fairly well-constrained at depth by the drill hole geology and geochemistry. The goals of this study are to 1) determine whether the concealed deposit can be detected with surface samples, 2) better understand the processes of metal migration from the deposit to the surface, and 3) test and develop methods for assessing mineral resources in similar concealed terrains. The analytical data are presented as an integrated Microsoft Access 2003 database and as separate Excel files.

  6. Zircon U–Pb geochronology and geochemistry of rhyolitic tuff, granite porphyry and syenogranite in the Lengshuikeng ore district, SE China: Implications for a continental arc to intra-arc rift setting

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Changming Wang; Da Zhang; Ganguo Wu; Yigan Xu; Emmanuel John M Carranza; Yaoyao Zhang; Huaikun Li; Jianzhen Geng

    2013-06-01

    SE China is well known for its Mesozoic large-scale granitoid plutons and associated ore deposits. Here, zircon U–Pb geochronological and geochemical data have been used to better constrain the petrogenesis of the igneous rocks associated with porphyry Ag–Pb–Zn deposits in the Lengshuikeng ore district, SE China. The Lengshuikeng rhyolitic tuff, granite porphyry and syenogranite yielded zircon U–Pb ages of 161, 155 and 138 Ma, respectively. The Lengshuikeng granite porphyries belong to calc-alkaline series and show fractionated I-type affinities. The rhyolitic tuffs show almost similar characteristics as the granite porphyries. The engshuikeng syenogranites are all alkali-rich and show A-type affinities. The syenogranites have high contents of high field strength elements such as Nb, Ta, Zr, Hf; with Zr + Nb + Ce + Y contents of < 350 ppm. Chondrite-normalized REE patterns show relative enrichment of LREEs and strong negative Eu anomalies. The Lengshuikeng granite porphyries, syenogranites and tuffs were probably derived from partial melting of underlying Proterozoic metasedimentary rocks with minor addition of mantle-derived magmas, accompanied by fractional crystallization. Detailed petrologic and geochemical data for the Jurassic igneous rocks from the Lengshuikeng ore district imply that during the Late Jurassic, SE China on the southeast of the Shi-Hang zone was a continental arc associated with the subduction of the Palaeo-Pacific plate and that since the beginning of the Early Cretaceous an intra-arc rift has been formed along the Shi-Hang zone.

  7. Economic filters for evaluating porphyry copper deposit resource assessments using grade-tonnage deposit models, with examples from the U.S. Geological Survey global mineral resource assessment: Chapter H in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson,, Gilpin R.; Menzie, W. David

    2012-01-01

    An analysis of the amount and location of undiscovered mineral resources that are likely to be economically recoverable is important for assessing the long-term adequacy and availability of mineral supplies. This requires an economic evaluation of estimates of undiscovered resources generated by traditional resource assessments (Singer and Menzie, 2010). In this study, simplified engineering cost models were used to estimate the economic fraction of resources contained in undiscovered porphyry copper deposits, predicted in a global assessment of copper resources. The cost models of Camm (1991) were updated with a cost index to reflect increases in mining and milling costs since 1989. The updated cost models were used to perform an economic analysis of undiscovered resources estimated in porphyry copper deposits in six tracts located in North America. The assessment estimated undiscovered porphyry copper deposits within 1 kilometer of the land surface in three depth intervals.

  8. Age and geochemistry of host rocks of the Cobre Panama porphyry Cu-Au deposit, central Panama: Implications for the Paleogene evolution of the Panamanian magmatic arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Michael J.; Hollings, Peter; Thompson, Jennifer A.; Thompson, Jay M.; Burge, Colin

    2016-04-01

    The Cobre Panama porphyry Cu-Au deposit, located in the Petaquilla district of central Panama, is hosted by a sequence of medium- to high-K calc-alkaline volcanic and sub-volcanic rocks. New crystallisation ages obtained from a granodiorite Petaquilla batholith and associated mineralised diorite to granodiorite porphyry stocks and dikes at Cobre Panama indicate that the batholith was emplaced as a multi-phase intrusion, over a period of ~ 4 million years from 32.20 ± 0.76 Ma to 28.26 ± 0.61 Ma, while the porphyritic rocks were emplaced over a ~ 2 million year period from 28.96 ± 0.62 Ma to 27.48 ± 0.68 Ma. Both the volcanic to sub-volcanic host rocks and intrusive rocks of the Cobre Panama deposit evolved via fractional crystallisation processes, as demonstrated by the major elements (e.g. Al2O3, Fe2O3, TiO2 and MgO) displaying negative trends with increasing SiO2. The Petaquilla intrusive rocks, including the diorite-granodiorite porphyries and granodiorite batholith, are geochemically evolved and appear to have formed from more hydrous magmas than the preceding host volcanic rocks, as evidenced by the presence of hornblende phenocrysts, higher degrees of large-ion lithophile element (LILE) and light rare earth element (LREE) enrichment and heavy rare earth element (HREE) depletion, and higher Sr/Y and La/Yb values. However, the degree of LREE enrichment, HREE depletion and La/Yb values are insufficient for the intrusive rocks to be considered as adakites. Collectively, the volcanic and intrusive rocks have LILE, REE and mobile trace element concentrations similar to enriched Miocene-age Cordilleran arc magmatism found throughout central and western Panama. Both the Petaquilla and Cordilleran arc magmatic suites are geochemically more evolved than the late Cretaceous to Eocene Chagres-Bayano arc magmas from northeastern Panama, as they display higher degrees of LILE and LREE enrichment. The geochemical similarities between the Petaquilla and Cordilleran arc

  9. Porphyry copper assessment of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt and eastern Tethysides: China, Mongolia, Russia, Pakistan, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, and India: Chapter X in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihalasky, Mark J.; Ludington, Stephen; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Alexeiev, Dmitriy V.; Frost, Thomas P.; Light, Thomas D.; Robinson,, Gilpin R.; Briggs, Deborah A.; Wallis, John C.; Miller, Robert J.; Bookstrom, Arthur A.; Panteleyev, Andre; Chitalin, Andre; Seltmann, Reimar; Guangsheng, Yan; Changyun, Lian; Jingwen, Mao; Jinyi, Li; Keyan, Xiao; Ruizhao, Qiu; Jianbao, Shao; Gangyi, Shai; Yuliang, Du

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey collaborated with international colleagues to assess undiscovered resources in porphyry copper deposits in the Central Asian Orogenic Belt and eastern Tethysides. These areas host 20 known porphyry copper deposits, including the world class Oyu Tolgoi deposit in Mongolia that was discovered in the late 1990s. The study area covers major parts of the world’s largest orogenic systems. The Central Asian Orogenic Belt is a collage of amalgamated Precambrian through Mesozoic terranes that extends from the Ural Mountains in the west nearly to the Pacific Coast of Asia in the east and records the evolution and final closure of the Paleo-Asian Ocean in Permian time. The eastern Tethysides, the orogenic belt to the south of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt, records the evolution of another ancient ocean system, the Tethys Ocean. The evolution of these orogenic belts involved magmatism associated with a variety of geologic settings appropriate for formation of porphyry copper deposits, including subduction-related island arcs, continental arcs, and collisional and postconvergent settings. The original settings are difficult to trace because the arcs have been complexly deformed and dismembered by younger tectonic events. Twelve mineral resource assessment tracts were delineated to be permissive for the occurrence of porphyry copper deposits based on mapped and inferred subsurface distributions of igneous rocks of specific age ranges and compositions. These include (1) nine Paleozoic tracts in the Central Asian Orogenic Belt, which range in area from about 60,000 to 800,000 square kilometers (km2); (2) a complex area of about 400,000 km2 on the northern margin of the Tethysides, the Qinling-Dabie tract, which spans central China and areas to the west, encompassing Paleozoic through Triassic igneous rocks that formed in diverse settings; and (3) assemblages of late Paleozoic and Mesozoic rocks that define two other tracts in the Tethysides, the 100

  10. Sequence of Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous magmatic-hydrothermal events in the Xiong'ershan region, Central China: An overview with new zircon U-Pb geochronology data on quartz porphyries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Jun; Gong, Qingjie; Wang, Changming; Carranza, Emmanuel John M.; Santosh, M.

    2014-01-01

    Recent investigations have revealed several large Au and Mo deposits in the Xiong'ershan region, Central China. Most quartz porphyries associated with the mineralization occur as dikes and apophyses, or as rubbles cemented in mineralized breccia pipes. Three types of quartz porphyries were sampled from the Leimengou Mo deposit, the Qiyugou Au deposit, and the Niutougou Au deposit. LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb analysis was performed in zircons from two quartz porphyries; the results yielded ages of 125.4 ± 0.77 Ma for Leimengou Mo deposit and 150.1 ± 1.1 Ma for Qiyugou Au deposit. The magma source of Leimengou quartz porphyry is similar to that of the mineralized cementing material in breccia pipes of the Qiyugou Au deposit, whereas the magma source of Qiyugou quartz porphyry is the same as that of quartz porphyries in Niutougou Au deposit. Based on the new U-Pb isotopic ages of granitic plutons reported in this study, together with the age data in the literature, we identify distinct magmatic pulses in the Xiong'ershan region at ca.160, 150, 143, 133, 125, and 115 Ma during the Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous. The ages of Au and Mo mineralization coincide with the thermal events at about 115, 125, 133, and 143 Ma are considered to be co-eval with granitic magmatism. No mineralization ages of 150 and 160 Ma thermal events have been previously reported. Our study demonstrates Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous multiple magmatic pulses and mineralization in the Xiong'ershan region.

  11. Geochemical Characteristics and Significance of Major Elements, Trace Elements and REE in Mineralized Altered Rocks of Large-Scale Tsagaan Suvarga Cu-Mo Porphyry Deposit in Mongolia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The alteration types of the large-scale Tsagaan Suvarga Cu-Mo porphyry deposit mostly comprise stockwork silicification, argillization, quartz-sericite alteration, K-silicate alteration, and propylitization.The mineralized and altered zones from hydrothermal metallogenic center to the outside successively are Cu-bearing stockwork silicification zone, Cu-bearing argillized zone, Cu-Mo-bearing quartz-sericite alteration zone, Cu-Mo-bearing K-silicate alteration zone, and propylitization zone.The K-silicate alteration occurred in the early phase, quartz-sericite alteration in the medium phase, and argillization and carbonatization (calcite) in the later phase.Ore-bearing-altered rocks are significantly controlled by the structure and fissure zones of different scales, and NE- and NW-trending fissure zones could probably be the migration pathways of the porphyry hydrothermal system.Results in this study indicated that the less the concentrations of REE, LREE, and HREE and the more the extensive fractionation between LREE and HREE, the closer it is to the center circulatory hydrothermal ore-forming and the more extensive silicification.The exponential relationship between the fractionation of LREE and HREE and the intensity of silicification and K-silicate alteration was found in the Cu-Mo deposit studied.The negative Eu anomaly, normal Eu, positive Eu anomaly and obviously positive Eu anomaly are coincident with the enhancement of Na2O and K2O concentrations gradually, which indicated that Eu anomaly would be significantly controlled by the alkaline metasomatism of the circulatory hydrothermal ore-forming system.Therefore, such characteristics as the positive Eu anomaly, the obvious fractionation between LREE and HREE and their related special alteration lithofacies are suggested to be metallogenic prognostic and exploration indications for Tsagaan Suvarga-style porphyry Cu-Mo deposits in Mongolia and China.

  12. Using the concentration-volume (C-V) fractal model in the delineation of gold mineralized zones within the Tepeoba porphyry Cu-Mo-Au, Balikesir, NW Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumral, Mustafa; Abdelnasser, Amr; Karaman, Muhittin; Budakoglu, Murat

    2016-04-01

    The Tepeoba porphyry Cu-Mo-Au mineralization that located at the Biga peninsula (W Turkey) developed around the Eybek pluton concentrated at its southern contact. This mineralization that hosted in the hornfels rocks of Karakaya Complex is associated with three main alteration zones; potassic, phyllic and propylitic alterations along the fault controlled margins of the Eybek pluton and quartz stockwork veining as well as brecciation zones. As well as two mineralized zones were occurred in the mine area; hypogene and oxidation/supergene zone. The hypogene zone has differentiated alteration types; high potassic and low phyllic alteration, while the oxidation/supergene zone has high phyllic and propylitic alterations. This work deals with the delineation of gold mineralized zone within this porphyry deposit using the concentration-volume (C-V) fractal model. Five zones of gold were calculated using its power-law C-V relationship that revealed that the main phase of gold mineralization stated at 5.3083 ppm Au concentration. In addition, the C-V log-log plot shows that the highly and moderately Au mineralization zone developed in western part of deposit correlated with oxidation zone related to propylitic alteration. On the other hand, its weakly mineralization zone has a widespread in the hypogene zone related to potassic alteration. This refers to the enrichment of gold and depletion of copper at the oxidation/supergene zone is due to the oxidation/supergene alteration processes that enrich the deposits by the meteoric water. Keywords: Concentration-volume (C-V) fractal model; gold mineralized zone; Tepeoba porphyry Cu-Mo-Au; Balikesir; NW Turkey.

  13. The partitioning of copper among selected phases of geologic media of two porphyry copper districts, Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learned, R.E.; Chao, T.T.; Sanzolone, R.F.

    1981-01-01

    In experiments designed to determine the manner in which copper is partitioned among selected phases that constitute geologic media, we have applied the five-step sequential extraction procedure of Chao and Theobald to the analysis of drill core, soils, and stream sediments of the Rio Vivi and Rio Tanama porphyry copper districts of Puerto Rico. The extraction procedure affords a convenient means of determining the trace-metal content of the following fractions: (1) Mn oxides and "reactive" Fe oxides; (2) "amorphous" Fe oxides; (3) "crystalline" Fe oxides; (4) sulfides and magnetite; and (5) silicates. An additional extraction between steps (1) and (2) was performed to determine organic-related copper in stream sediments. The experimental results indicate that apportionment of copper among phases constituting geologic media is a function of geochemical environment. Distinctive partitioning patterns were derived from the analysis of drill core from each of three geochemical zones: (a) the supergene zone of oxidation; (b) the supergene zone of enrichment; and (c) the hypogene zone; and similarly, from the analysis of; (d) soils on a weakly leached capping; (e) soils on a strongly leached capping; and (f) active stream sediment. The experimental results also show that geochemical contrasts (anomaly-to-background ratios) vary widely among the five fractions of each sampling medium investigated, and that at least one fraction of each medium provides substantially stronger contrast than does the bulk medium. Fraction (1) provides optimal contrast for stream sediments of the district; fraction (2) provides optimal contrast for soils on a weakly leached capping; fraction (3) provides optimal contrast for soils on a strongly leached capping. Selective extraction procedures appear to have important applications to the orientation and interpretive stages of geochemical exploration. Further investigation and testing of a similar nature are recommended. ?? 1981.

  14. Bio-Remediation of Acid Mine Drainage in the Sarcheshmeh Porphyry Copper Mine by Fungi: Batch and Fixed Bed Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanieh Soleimanifar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Acid mine drainage (AMD containing high concentrations of iron and sulphate, low pH and variableconcentrations of heavy metals leads to many environmental problems. The concentrations of Cu and Mnare high in the AMD of the Sarcheshmeh porphyry copper mine, Kerman province, south of Iran. In thisstudy, the bio-remediation of Cu and Mn ions from acid mine drainage was investigated using two nativefungi called Aspergillus niger and Phanerochaete chrysosporium which were extracted from the soil andsediment samples of the Shour River at the Sarcheshmeh mine. The live fungi was first harvested andthen killed by boiling in 0.5 N NaOH solution. The biomass was finally dried at 60 C for 24 h andpowdered. The optimum biosorption parameters including pH, temperature, the amount of biosorbent andcontact time were determined in a batch system. The optimum pH varied between 5 and 6. It was foundthat the biosorption process increased with an increase in temperature and the amount of biosorbent.Biosorption data were attempted by Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models and showed a good match.Kinetic studies were also carried out in the present study. The results show that the second-order kineticsmodel fits well the experimental data. The biosorption experiments were further investigated with acontinuous system to compare the biosorption capacities of two systems. The results show thatbiosorption process using a continuous system increases efficiency up to 99%. A desorption process waseventually performed in order to recover Copper and Manganese ions. This process was successful andfungi could be used again.

  15. Extremely Re-Rich Molybdenite from Porphyry Cu-Mo-Au Prospects in Northeastern Greece: Mode of Occurrence, Causes of Enrichment, and Implications for Gold Exploration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Kartal

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Extremely Re-rich molybdenite occurs with pyrite in sodic–calcic, sodic–sericitic and sericitic-altered porphyritic stocks of granodioritic–tonalitic and granitic composition in the Sapes–Kirki–Esymi, Melitena and Maronia areas, northeastern Greece. Molybdenite in the Pagoni Rachi and Sapes deposits is spatially associated with rheniite, as well as with intermediate (Mo,ReS2 and (Re,MoS2 phases, with up to 46 wt % Re. Nanodomains and/or microinclusions of rheniite may produce the observed Re enrichment in the intermediate molybdenite–rheniite phases. The extreme Re content in molybdenite and the unique presence of rheniite in porphyry-type mineralization, combined with preliminary geochemical data (Cu/Mo ratio, Au grades may indicate that these deposits have affinities with Cu–Au deposits, and should be considered potential targets for gold mineralization in the porphyry environment. In the post-subduction tectonic regime of northern Greece, the extreme Re and Te enrichments in the magmatic-hydrothermal systems over a large areal extent are attributed to an anomalous source (e.g., chemical inhomogenities in the mantle-wedge triggered magmatism, although local scale processes cannot be underestimated.

  16. The possible contribution of a mantle-derived fluid to the Ningwu porphyry iron deposits- Evidence from carbon and strontium isotopes of apatites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinjie Yu; Jingwen Mao; Changqing Zhang

    2008-01-01

    Apatite is a characteristic mineral for the iron deposits in the Ningwu region. Apatite shows a range of δ13CPDB values from -9.6‰ to-0.6‰, and most of them with the δ13CPDB values distributed in a range of mantle carbon (I.e., -2%0 to -9%0), except for samples T-06-1and J-06-3. Apatites in the Ningwu porphyry iron deposits yield a narrow variation range of 87Sr/86Sr values from 0.706326 to 0.707577,similar to those of the volcanic and subvolcanic rocks and higher than that of a typical mantle-derived magmatic apatite (I.e., about0.7040), indicating that formation of the apatites was involved with crust material contamination. δ13CPDB and 87Sr/86Sr values of the apatite indicate a possible contribution of mantle-derived fluid and material to formation of the Ningwu porphyry iron deposits,supported by regional geology, regional gravities and geochemistry of the volcanic and subvolcanic rocks in the Ningwu region.

  17. Geological and geochemical characteristics of the Aksug porphyry Cu-Mo system, Altay-Sayan region, Russia%俄罗斯阿尔泰-Sayan地区Aksug斑岩Cu-Mo体系的地质与地球化学特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Berzina AN; Berzina AP

    2008-01-01

    The Aksug deposit, located in Ahay-Sayan region of Russia, is one of the largest porphyry Cu-Mo deposits in Southern Siberia. The ore-bearing porphyries of the Aksug porphyry Cu-Mo system were formed in post-collisional environment. Geochemically they belong to calk-alkaline and high K-calk-alkaline series. Rocks are characterized by enrichment of LILE and depletion of HSFE and HREE, showing the importance of subduction-related components in magma generation. Large plutonic intrusions that host porphyry systems have been formed during collision. The origin of porphyritic rocks is dominantly the mantle with lower crustal contribution. The mainly economically important Cu-Mo mineralization is closely related to a porphyry series in time and space, being emplaced towards the end of magmatic activity. Though the emplacement of plutonic and ore-bearing porphyry complexes took place in different geodynamic environments, both complexes are characterized by certain similarity in geochemical composition, alkalinity, trace element content, Sr isotopic composition. This fact evidently indicates a common deep-seated magmatic source (at the lower crust-upper mantle level), Low initial 87Sr/86Sr, sulfur isotopic characteristics and presence of PGE-Co-Ni mineralization in associated pyrite-chalcopyrite ores suggest that mantle source of chalcophile elements was of high importance in porphyry Cu-Mo mineralization of the Aksug deposit.

  18. Late Cretaceous porphyry Cu and epithermal Cu-Au association in the Southern Panagyurishte District, Bulgaria: the paired Vlaykov Vruh and Elshitsa deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouzmanov, Kalin; Moritz, Robert; von Quadt, Albrecht; Chiaradia, Massimo; Peytcheva, Irena; Fontignie, Denis; Ramboz, Claire; Bogdanov, Kamen

    2009-08-01

    Vlaykov Vruh-Elshitsa represents the best example of paired porphyry Cu and epithermal Cu-Au deposits within the Late Cretaceous Apuseni-Banat-Timok-Srednogorie magmatic and metallogenic belt of Eastern Europe. The two deposits are part of the NW trending Panagyurishte magmato-tectonic corridor of central Bulgaria. The deposits were formed along the SW flank of the Elshitsa volcano-intrusive complex and are spatially associated with N110-120-trending hypabyssal and subvolcanic bodies of granodioritic composition. At Elshitsa, more than ten lenticular to columnar massive ore bodies are discordant with respect to the host rock and are structurally controlled. A particular feature of the mineralization is the overprinting of an early stage high-sulfidation mineral assemblage (pyrite ± enargite ± covellite ± goldfieldite) by an intermediate-sulfidation paragenesis with a characteristic Cu-Bi-Te-Pb-Zn signature forming the main economic parts of the ore bodies. The two stages of mineralization produced two compositionally different types of ores—massive pyrite and copper-pyrite bodies. Vlaykov Vruh shares features with typical porphyry Cu systems. Their common geological and structural setting, ore-forming processes, and paragenesis, as well as the observed alteration and geochemical lateral and vertical zonation, allow us to interpret the Elshitsa and Vlaykov Vruh deposits as the deep part of a high-sulfidation epithermal system and its spatially and genetically related porphyry Cu counterpart, respectively. The magmatic-hydrothermal system at Vlaykov Vruh-Elshitsa produced much smaller deposits than similar complexes in the northern part of the Panagyurishte district (Chelopech, Elatsite, Assarel). Magma chemistry and isotopic signature are some of the main differences between the northern and southern parts of the district. Major and trace element geochemistry of the Elshitsa magmatic complex are indicative for the medium- to high-K calc-alkaline character of

  19. Zircon U–Pb geochronology and geochemistry of rhyolitic tuff, granite porphyry and syenogranite in the Lengshuikeng ore district, SE China: Implications for a continental arc to intra-arc rift setting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Changming; Zhang, Da; Wu, Gangguo; Xu, Yigan; Carranza, Emmanuel John M.; Zhang, Yaoyao; Li, Haikun; Geng, Jianzhen

    2013-01-01

    SE China is well known for its Mesozoic large-scale granitoid plutons and associated ore deposits. Here, zircon U–Pb geochronological and geochemical data have been used to better constrain the petrogenesis of the igneous rocks associated with porphyry Ag–Pb–Zn deposits in the Lengshuikeng ore distr

  20. Formation of the adakite-like granitoid complex and porphyry copper-gold deposit in Shaxi from southern Tancheng-Lujiang fault belt: A clue to the West Pacific plate subduction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LAN Xianghua; YANG Xiaoyong; YU Liangfan; ZHANG Qianming

    2009-01-01

    On the basis of the geological and geochemical studies, including chemical analysis of bulk rocks, rare-earth and trace element studies, fluid inclusion, and S and O isotopic analyses, the authors described the geo-logical background of the deposit in detail and presented significant proofs for the conditions of formation of the Shaxi porphyry copper-gold deposit. Compared with other large and supper-large porphyry copper deposits in China and the adjacent Cu-Au mineralized areas, the ore-forming processes and conditions were analyzed; and the possibil-ity of forming large porphyry copper deposits in the Shaxi area was discussed. The present study indicated that the ore-forming fluid and material were mainly of magmatic origin, while meteoric water played a certain role in the ore-forming processes. Interactions between subducting and overriding plates provided a major driving force for the formation of igneous rocks and the deposition of metal elements in East China since Jurassic. Based on the geo-chemical data of the Shaxi intrusive, it is found that the copper (gold) mineralization is closely related to the genesis of adakite-like intrusive in the Shaxi area. This adakite-like intrusive was formed in the subduction environment as a result of the subduction of the West Pacific plate toward the East China continent, where there is a great potential-ity to form a large porphyry copper deposit.

  1. Geochemical characteristics of the Shujiadian Cu deposit related intrusion in Tongling: Petrogenesis and implications for the formation of porphyry Cu systems in the Middle-Lower Yangtze River Valley metallogenic belt, eastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shiwei; Zhou, Taofa; Yuan, Feng; Fan, Yu; Cooke, David R.; Zhang, Lejun; Fu, Bin; White, Noel C.

    2016-05-01

    Porphyry Cu deposits can form in intracontinental or post-collision settings; however, both the genesis of fertile magmas and the mechanism of metal enrichment remain controversial. The Shujiadian porphyry Cu deposit is located in the Tongling area of the Middle-Lower Yangtze River Valley metallogenic belt. It is hosted by the Shujiadian complex, which mainly consists of quartz diorite porphyry (143.7 ± 1.7 Ma) and pyroxene diorite (139.8 ± 1.6 Ma). They both belong to the calc-alkaline series, with enrichment in large-ion lithophile elements (LILE) and light rare earth elements (LREE), depletion in high field-strength elements (HFSE) and heavy rare earth elements (HREE), and slightly negative Eu anomalies. Both quartz diorite porphyry and pyroxene diorite have geochemical affinities with adakite, and their low MgO (1.5-3.7 wt%), and Ni (3.7-6.9 ppm), Cr (2.0-44 ppm), and Th/Ce contents (0.06-0.11) indicate that the intrusive rocks have some characteristics of adakite-like rocks derived from thickened lower crust and melts from metabasaltic rocks and eclogites. Plagioclases from the quartz diorite porphyry are andesine (An value = 31.8-40.5) and from the pyroxene diorite are felsic albite and oligoclase with large-scale zones and variable An value (An value = 8.9-18.3), Fe and Sr contents, which indicate that mixing of mafic and felsic magma may have occurred in the shallow magma chamber. Compared to the barren quartz diorite porphyry, relatively lower SiO2 contents (49.5-55.2 wt.%), higher εNd(t) values (- 7.4 to - 6.9), εHf(t) values (- 11.0 to - 9.1) compositions, Ti-in-zircon temperatures (714-785 °C), and variations of HREE contents of the mineralization-related pyroxene diorite suggest mixing with high-temperature mafic magma. Calculated Ce4 +/Ce3 + values of pyroxene diorite plot between the Ni-NiO buffer (NNO) and magnetite-hematite buffer (MH), and barren quartz diorite porphyry samples plot below the Ni-NiO buffer (NNO). Geochemical features of

  2. Microgranular enclaves in island-arc andesites: A possible link between known epithermal Au and potential porphyry Cu-Au deposits in the Tulasu ore cluster, western Tianshan, Xinjiang, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaobo; Xue, Chunji; Symons, David T. A.; Zhang, Zhaochong; Wang, Honggang

    2014-05-01

    The successful exploration for porphyry copper deposit in western Tianshan, Xinjiang, faces great challenge. Tulasu basin is an important epithermal gold ore cluster in western Tianshan, which was formed in a southwest-Pacific-type island-arc setting during the late Paleozoic by the southward subduction of the North Tianshan ocean beneath the Yili plate. Porphyry Cu-Au deposits are possibly to be found at depth or adjacent to these epithermal gold deposits. Some sulfide-mineralized microgranular enclaves of monzonite porphyry and microdiorite were found in andesites of the Tawuerbieke gold district, Tulasu basin. The enclaves are randomly distributed, with generally round or subangular shape and commonly clearly defined within their host andesite, and have a chilled surrounding margin of andesite. The monzonite porphyry enclaves (MPE) exhibit porphyritic texture with the phenocrysts of plagioclase and K-feldspar. The microdiorite enclaves (MDE) are mainly composed of plagioclase and hornblende with an aplitic texture and massive structure. The host andesites show porphyritic texture, with the phenocrysts major of plagioclase, minor of hornblende and clinopyroxene. The groundmass consists of short-column plagioclase and minor clinopyroxene with a hyalopilitic texture. Zircon grains from a MPE sample yield a weighted 206Pb/238U age of 356.2 ± 4.3 Ma (n = 13, MSWD = 1.11), which is effectively coincident with the 360.5 ± 3.4 Ma (n = 20, MSWD = 0.61) of an andesite sample within analytical error, indicating that they were coeval. In addition, the MPE, MDE and the andesite samples share similar normalized incompatible element and rare earth element patterns that are characterized by a pronounced enrichment of large ion lithophile elements and a deficit of high field strength elements. Moreover, the samples show similar Nd isotope compositions to the contemporary andesites and basaltic andesites. Detailed petrology, geochronology and geochemistry studies suggest that

  3. Zircon U-Pb and molybdenite Re-Os geochronology and Sr-Nd-Pb-Hf isotopic constraints on the genesis of the Xuejiping porphyry copper deposit in Zhongdian, Northwest Yunnan, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Cheng-Biao; Zhang, Xing-Chun; Hu, Rui-Zhong; Wang, Shou-Xu; Zhong, Hong; Wang, Wai-Quan; Bi, Xian-Wu

    2012-10-01

    The Xuejiping porphyry copper deposit is located in northwestern Yunnan Province, China. Tectonically, it lies in the southern part of the Triassic Yidun island arc. The copper mineralization is mainly hosted in quartz-dioritic and quartz-monzonitic porphyries which intruded into clastic-volcanic rocks of the Late Triassic Tumugou Formation. There are several alteration zones including potassic, strong silicific and phyllic, argillic, and propylitic alteration zones from inner to outer of the mineralized porphyry bodies. The ages of ore-bearing quartz-monzonitic porphyry and its host andesite are obtained by using the zircon SIMS U-Pb dating method, with results of 218.3 ± 1.6 Ma (MSWD = 0.31, N = 15) and 218.5 ± 1.6 Ma (MSWD = 0.91, N = 16), respectively. Meanwhile, the molybdenite Re-Os dating yields a Re-Os isochronal age of 221.4 ± 2.3 Ma (MSWD = 0.54, N = 5) and a weighted mean age of 219.9 ± 0.7 Ma (MSWD = 0.88). They are quite in accordance with the zircon U-Pb ages within errors. Furthermore, all of them are contemporary with the timing of the Garzê-Litang oceanic crust subduction in the Yidun arc. Therefore, the Xuejiping deposit could be formed in a continental margin setting. There are negative ɛNd(t) values ranging from -3.8 to -2.1 and relatively high initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios from 0.7051 to 0.7059 for the Xuejiping porphyries and host andesites. The (206Pb/204Pb)t, (207Pb/204Pb)t and (208Pb/204Pb)t values of the Xuejiping porphyries and host andesites vary from 17.899 to 18.654, from 15.529 to 15.626, and from 37.864 to 38.52, respectively, indicative of high radiogenic Pb isotopic features. In situ Hf isotopic analyses on zircons by using LA-MC-ICP-MS exhibit that there are quite uniform and slightly positive ɛHf(t) values ranging from -0.2 to +3.2 (mostly between 0 and +2), corresponding to relatively young single-stage Hf model ages from 735 Ma to 871 Ma. These isotopic features suggest that the primary magmas of the Xuejiping porphyries and

  4. Two-types of Early Cretaceous adakitic porphyries from the Luxi terrane, eastern North China Block: Melting of subducted Paleo-Pacific slab and delaminated newly underplated lower crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hao; Xu, Zhaowen; Lu, Xiancai; Fu, Bin; Lu, Jianjun; Yang, Xiaonan; Zhao, Zengxia

    2016-01-01

    The origin and tectonic setting of Early Cretaceous adakitic rocks from the Luxi terrane in the eastern North China Block (NCB) remain debated. To resolve this issue, we determined whole-rock geochemistry, zircon U-Pb ages, and in situ Hf-O isotopes of the Mengyin and Liujing adakitic porphyries from the Luxi terrane. Zircon U-Pb dating results reveal that both the Mengyin and Liujing plutons were emplaced during the Early Cretaceous, with weighted mean 206Pb/238U ages of 130 ± 1 Ma (2σ) and 131 ± 2 Ma (2σ), respectively. In addition, abundant Neoarchean-Paleoproterozoic inherited zircon cores are identified in the Mengyin adakitic porphyry with 207Pb/206Pb ages ranging from 2.53 to 2.42 Ga. Rocks of both plutons are silicic (SiO2 = 65.4-70.2 wt.%), metaluminous, and alkaline in composition, comprising mainly quartz syenite porphyries. Samples from both plutons are enriched in large ion lithophile elements (LILEs) (e.g., Rb, Sr, and Ba), and light rare earth elements (LREEs), depleted in high field strength elements (HFSEs) (e.g., Nb, Ta, and Ti), and heavy rare earth elements (HREEs), and have either positive or no Eu anomalies. In addition, both adakitic porphyries have high Mg# values (51-64), high Sr and La contents, low Y and Yb contents, and high Sr/Y (Mengyin = 149-264; Liujing = 58-110) and (La/Yb)N (Mengyin = 32.4-45.3; Liujing = 43.8-53.1) ratios, similar to adakitic rocks worldwide. The Mengyin adakitic porphyry has higher whole-rock εNd(t) values (-5.8 to - 4.1), more radiogenic Pb [(206Pb/204Pb)i = 18.35-18.39, (207Pb/204Pb)i = 15.55-15.56, (208Pb/204Pb)i = 38.20-38.23], higher zircon rim εHf(t) values (+ 3.3 to + 8.8) and δ18O values (+ 6.5‰ to + 7.9‰), and lower (87Sr/86Sr)i ratios (0.7049-0.7050) than the Liujing adakitic porphyry [εNd(t) = - 12.4 to - 12.2, (206Pb/204Pb)i = 17.63-17.72, (207Pb/204Pb)i = 15.56-15.58, (208Pb/204Pb)i = 37.76-37.94, εHf(t) = - 14.8 to - 11.2, δ18O = + 5.9‰ to + 7.1‰, (87Sr/86Sr)i = 0.7090-0.7091]. The

  5. Production of sulfur gases and carbon dioxide by synthetic weathering of crushed drill cores from the Santa Cruz porphyry copper deposit near Casa Grande, Pinal County, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinkle, M.E.; Ryder, J.L.; Sutley, S.J.; Botinelly, T.

    1990-01-01

    Samples of ground drill cores from the southern part of the Santa Cruz porphyry copper deposit, Casa Grande, Arizona, were oxidized in simulated weathering experiments. The samples were also separated into various mineral fractions and analyzed for contents of metals and sulfide minerals. The principal sulfide mineral present was pyrite. Gases produced in the weathering experiments were measured by gas chromatography. Carbon dioxide, oxygen, carbonyl sulfide, sulfur dioxide and carbon disulfide were found in the gases; no hydrogen sulfide, organic sulfides, or mercaptans were detected. Oxygen concentration was very important for production of the volatiles measured; in general, oxygen concentration was more important to gas production than were metallic element content, sulfide mineral content, or mineral fraction (oxide or sulfide) of the sample. The various volatile species also appeared to be interactive; some of the volatiles measured may have been formed through gas reactions. ?? 1990.

  6. Three-dimensional distribution of igneous rocks near the Pebble porphyry Cu-Au-Mo deposit in southwestern Alaska: constraints from regional-scale aeromagnetic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Eric D.; Zhou, Wei; Li, Yaoguo; Hitzman, Murray W.; Monecke, Thomas; Lang, James R.; Kelley, Karen D.

    2014-01-01

    Aeromagnetic data helped us to understand the 3D distribution of plutonic rocks near the Pebble porphyry copper deposit in southwestern Alaska, USA. Magnetic susceptibility measurements showed that rocks in the Pebble district are more magnetic than rocks of comparable compositions in the Pike Creek–Stuyahok Hills volcano-plutonic complex. The reduced-to-pole transformation of the aeromagnetic data demonstrated that the older rocks in the Pebble district produce strong magnetic anomaly highs. The tilt derivative transformation highlighted northeast-trending lineaments attributed to Tertiary volcanic rocks. Multiscale edge detection delineated near-surface magnetic sources that are mostly outward dipping and coalesce at depth in the Pebble district. The total horizontal gradient of the 10-km upward-continued magnetic data showed an oval, deep magnetic contact along which porphyry deposits occur. Forward and inverse magnetic modeling showed that the magnetic rocks in the Pebble district extend to depths greater than 9 km. Magnetic inversion was constrained by a near-surface, 3D geologic model that is attributed with measured magnetic susceptibilities from various rock types in the region. The inversion results indicated that several near-surface magnetic sources with moderate susceptibilities converge with depth into magnetic bodies with higher susceptibilities. This deep magnetic source appeared to rise toward the surface in several areas. An isosurface value of 0.02 SI was used to depict the magnetic contact between outcropping granodiorite and nonmagnetic sedimentary host rocks. The contact was shown to be outward dipping. At depths around 5 km, nearly the entire model exceeded the isosurface value indicating the limits of nonmagnetic host material. The inversion results showed the presence of a relatively deep, northeast-trending magnetic low that parallels lineaments mapped by the tilt derivative. This deep low represents a strand of the Lake Clark fault.

  7. Caldera complex, hosted rocks and alteration of the Yandong porphyry copper deposit in Eastern Tianshan, Xinjiang%新疆延东斑岩铜矿床火山机构、容矿岩石及热液蚀变

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申萍; 潘鸿迪; 董连慧; 杨俊弢; 沈远超; 代华五; 关维娜; 赵云江

    2012-01-01

    延东斑岩铜矿床位于新疆东天山晚古生代大南湖岛弧中.延东矿区出露地层是石炭纪企鹅山组火山-沉积岩,我们研究提出延东矿区出露的火山-沉积岩以及浅成侵入岩为石炭纪火山喷发-岩浆侵入产物,并将其划分成两个旋回五个岩相:第一旋回包括溢流相(玄武岩和安山岩)、爆发相(集块角砾熔岩)和爆发-沉积相(凝灰岩);第二旋回包括次火山相(闪长玢岩和闪长岩)和浅成侵入相(斜长花岗斑岩).容矿岩石是次火山相的闪长玢岩和闪长岩以及浅成侵入相的斜长花岗斑岩.闪长玢岩发育中性斑岩蚀变系统,包括内部的绢云母-绿泥石蚀变带和绿泥石-绢云母蚀变带和外围的青磐岩化带,其中绢云母-绿泥石蚀变带控制本区部分富矿体的形成和分布;斜长花岗斑岩发育酸性斑岩蚀变系统,从中心向外依次为黄铁绢英岩化带、强绢云母化带和弱绢云母化带,黄铁绢英岩化带控制本区部分富矿体的形成和分布.这两个蚀变系统以钾硅酸盐化蚀变不发育和绢云母化广泛发育为特点.%Yandong large-size porphyry copper deposit is located in the Late Paleozoic Dananhu island arc in Eastern Tianshan, Xinjiang. Lower Carboniferous Qi'eshan Group occurred in the Yandong region. New results recognize a volcanic apparatus at Yandong that includes two cycles comprising five lithofacies. The first cycle consists of the effusive ( basalt and andesite), explosive (auto-brecciated lava) and pyroclasrie phases (tuff). The second cycle is characterized by the intermediate and felsic intrusions. The intrusions, including the diorite porphyry, aplite diorite and plagiogranite porphyry, are ore-bearing intrusions. Both diorite porphyry (including aplite diorite)and plagiogranite porphyry host the bulk of the copper mineralization at Yandong and have been overprinted by the two distinct alteration systems. Diorite porphyry has been overprinted by three

  8. 东秦岭尚古寺斑岩钼矿地质特征及成矿潜力分析%Geological Characteristics and Prospecting Potential of the Shanggusi Porphyry Molybdenum Deposit in the East Qinling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨宗锋; 罗照华; 卢欣祥; 黄凡; 陈必河

    2011-01-01

    尚古寺斑岩钼矿位于东秦岭,为东秦岭地区已知钼矿区的最东部端元。出露面积约1.5km^2,围岩主要为元古代片麻岩和碱流岩。辉钼矿化主要发育在花岗斑岩体的东部和南部区域,花岗斑岩顶部细粒花岗斑岩和其上覆花岗质伟晶岩均呈浸染状矿化,南部角岩发育裂隙矿化。花岗斑岩主体岩性主要矿物组合为石英、钾长石和斜长石,显示具有富硅、富碱和贫铁、贫镁的特征。花岗斑岩含有典型的圆粒状高温石英斑晶,其边部或整体呈现溶蚀吸回特征,溶蚀残余石英以港湾状、骨骸状和枝状为主,溶蚀部分被基质矿物充填或整体被钾长石和斜长石包裹,是高温花岗斑岩岩浆经历深部高温石英结晶后迅速就位浅部,发生快速不平衡结晶作用的产物。岩体内部发育中基性暗色微粒包体,呈球状、椭球状和塑性流动状态;富云母区域,呈不规则状和纹层状,暗示存在岩浆混合/混杂作用;蚀变晶洞构造、连通晶洞构造、空腔构造、硫化物蚀变突起和纵向蛇曲状云母富集区,记录了花岗斑岩内部流体出溶和运移的现象。花岗斑岩顶部过冷结晶形成的细粒花岗斑岩外壳,和其过冷前锋快速形成的花岗质伟晶岩圈闭了成矿流体,形成浸染状矿化。尚古寺斑岩钼矿是壳源岩浆和深部成矿流体耦合成矿的实例,对应于透岩浆流体成矿体系中的正岩浆成矿亚体系和边缘伟晶岩成矿亚体系,因而斑岩内部未出露部分可能依然具有巨大的成矿潜力。%The Shanggusi porphyry molybdenum deposit is located in the easternmost part of all the known molybdenum deposits in the East Qinling with an outcrop area about 1.5km^2. Disseminated molybdenite mineralization occurred in the marginal fine-grain porphyry granite and the periphery granitic pegmatite in the east and south part of the Shanggusi granite porphyry

  9. Characterization and zircon SHRIMP U-Pb geochronology of the subvolcanic rocks from Yarumalito Porphyry System, Marmato District, Colombia; Caracterizacao e geocronologia SHRIMP U-Pb em zircao das rochas subvulcanicas do sistema porfiro Yarumalito, Distrito de Marmato, Colombia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henrichs, Isadora A.; Frantz, Jose Carlos; Marques, Juliana C.; Castoldi, Marco S., E-mail: isahenrichs@gmail.com, E-mail: jose.frantz@ufrgs.br, E-mail: juliana.marques@ufrgs.br [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Instituto de Geociencias; Ordonez-Carmona, Oswaldo, E-mail: oswaldo.geologo@gmail.com [Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Medellin (Colombia). Facultad de Minas; Sato, Kei, E-mail: keisato@usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas Geocronologicas

    2014-09-15

    The mining District of Marmato, located in the Central Cordillera, is considered one of the oldest gold districts in Colombia and its exploration dates back to the Inca’s times, being exploited regularly for more than a thousand years. Inserted in this context lies the Yarumalito porphyry system (YPS), characterized to concentrate ore in structure related veins and stockworks. The YPS is related to the Miocene magmatism of the Combia Formation. In this paper, the subvolcanic rocks directly associated with the mineralized zones were described in order to obtain U-Pb ages in zircon to the intrusions. Selected samples from two fertile intrusions, one andesitic (more abundant in the area) and other dioritic (more restricted), were carefully described and dated by SHRIMP. The results points to a very restricted interval for the ages, with weighted average {sup 206}Pb/{sup 238}U varying from 7,00 ± 0,15 Ma for the andesitic porphyry and 6.95 ± 0.16 Ma for the dioritic porphyry. These results constrain the Yarumalito system to the final stages of the Combia magmatism and suggest a brief period for the crystallization of the mineralized subvolcanic rocks in the area and in the Marmato District. (author)

  10. Refinement of the time-space evolution of the giant Mio-Pliocene Río Blanco-Los Bronces porphyry Cu-Mo cluster, Central Chile: new U-Pb (SHRIMP II) and Re-Os geochronology and 40Ar/39Ar thermochronology data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deckart, Katja; Clark, Alan H.; Cuadra, Patricio; Fanning, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Representing one of the largest known (estimated >5 Gt at 1 % Cu and 0.02 % Mo) porphyry system, the Río Blanco-Los Bronces deposit incorporates at least five hypabyssal intrusive and hydrothermal centres, extending for about 5 km from the Río Blanco and Los Bronces mines in the north, through the Don Luis mine, to the Sur Sur mine, La Americana and Los Sulfatos in the south. The new geochronology data, which now include data on different molybdenite vein types, confirm the U-Pb ages of the pre-mineralisation intrusions but slightly increase their age range from 8.8 to 8.2 Ma. The distinct magmatic pulses of the mineralisation-associated porphyritic intrusives (Late Porphyries) indicate an age interval instead of the previously suggested individual ages: the quartz monzonite porphyry ranges from 7.7 to 6.1 Ma (Sur Sur 5.74 ± 0.13 Ma), the feldspar porphyry shows an interval from 5.8 to 5.2 Ma and the Don Luis porphyry from 5.2 to 5.0 Ma. The new Re-Os data on distinct molybdenite vein types confirm the protracted history of Cu(-Mo) mineralisation, inferred previously. The vein development occurred at least from 5.94 to 4.50 Ma, indicating a time-span of 1.5 Ma for the hydrothermal activity. Hydrothermal minerals dated by the 40Ar/39Ar method are generally too young to record the age of early, high-temperature mineralisation. The majority of the 40Ar/39Ar data in the Río Blanco porphyry cluster record reheating by either the youngest member of the Late Porphyry suite or the post-mineralisation dacite or rhyolite plug formations at around 4.9-4.7 Ma.

  11. Early Carboniferous adakitic rocks in the area of the Tuwu deposit, eastern Tianshan, NW China: Slab melting and implications for porphyry copper mineralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yin-Hong; Xue, Chun-Ji; Liu, Jia-Jun; Wang, Jian-Ping; Yang, Jun-Tao; Zhang, Fang-Fang; Zhao, Ze-Nan; Zhao, Yun-Jiang; Liu, Bin

    2015-05-01

    Existing geochronological and geochemical data for the Early Carboniferous magmatic rocks in the eastern Tianshan, Xinjiang, have been interpreted in a variety of theories regarding petrogenesis and geodynamic setting. The proposed settings include rift, back-arc basin, passive continental margin, island arc, ridge subduction, and post-collisional environment. To evaluate these possibilities, we present new SHRIMP zircon U-Pb geochronology and geochemical data, whole-rock geochemical, Hf isotope, and S isotope data for tonalitic rocks and ores associated with the Tuwu porphyry copper deposit located in the center of the late Paleozoic Dananhu-Tousuquan arc, eastern Tianshan. SHRIMP zircon U-Pb dating indicates that the magmatic activity and thus associated copper mineralization occurred ca.332 Ma. The tonalitic rocks are calc-alkaline granites with A/CNK values ranging from 1.16 to 1.58; are enriched in K, Rb, Sr, and Ba; and are markedly depleted in Nb, Ta, Ti, and Th. They show geochemical affinities similar to adakites, with high Sr, Al2O3, and Na2O contents and La/Yb ratios; low Y and Yb contents; and slight positive Eu anomalies. In situ Hf isotopic analyses of zircons yielded positive initial εHf(t) values ranging from 6.9 to 17.2. The δ34S values of the ore sulfides range from -3.0‰ to +1.7‰, reflecting a deep sulfur source. Our results indicate that the paleo-Tianshan oceanic slab was being simultaneously subducted northward beneath the Dananhu-Tousuquan arc, and southward beneath the Aqishan-Yamansu arc during the Early Carboniferous. The Tuwu adakitic tonalitic rocks were derived from the partial melting of the subducted paleo-Tianshan oceanic slab, which was subsequently hybridized by mantle wedge peridotites. The slab-derived magmas have considerably high copper contents and are highly oxidized, thus leading to porphyry copper mineralization. Such Early Carboniferous tonalitic rocks that are widespread in the eastern Tianshan define a province

  12. Naturally acidic surface and ground waters draining porphyry-related mineralized areas of the Southern Rocky Mountains, Colorado and New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verplanck, P.L.; Nordstrom, D.K.; Bove, D.J.; Plumlee, G.S.; Runkel, R.L.

    2009-01-01

    Acidic, metal-rich waters produced by the oxidative weathering and resulting leaching of major and trace elements from pyritic rocks can adversely affect water quality in receiving streams and riparian ecosystems. Five study areas in the southern Rocky Mountains with naturally acidic waters associated with porphyry mineralization were studied to document variations in water chemistry and processes that control the chemical variations. Study areas include the Upper Animas River watershed, East Alpine Gulch, Mount Emmons, and Handcart Gulch in Colorado and the Red River in New Mexico. Although host-rock lithologies in all these areas range from Precambrian gneisses to Cretaceous sedimentary units to Tertiary volcanic complexes, the mineralization is Tertiary in age and associated with intermediate to felsic composition, porphyritic plutons. Pyrite is ubiquitous, ranging from ???1 to >5 vol.%. Springs and headwater streams have pH values as low as 2.6, SO4 up to 3700 mg/L and high dissolved metal concentrations (for example: Fe up to 400 mg/L; Cu up to 3.5 mg/L; and Zn up to 14.4 mg/L). Intensity of hydrothermal alteration and presence of sulfides are the primary controls of water chemistry of these naturally acidic waters. Subbasins underlain by intensely hydrothermally altered lithologies are poorly vegetated and quite susceptible to storm-induced surface runoff. Within the Red River study area, results from a storm runoff study documented downstream changes in river chemistry: pH decreased from 7.80 to 4.83, alkalinity decreased from 49.4 to chemistry of naturally acidic waters tends to overlap but not reach the extreme concentrations of metals and acidity as some mine waters. The chemistry of waters draining these mineralized but unmined areas can be used to estimate premining conditions at sites with similar geologic and hydrologic conditions. For example, the US Geological Survey was asked to estimate premining ground-water chemistry at the Questa Mo mine, and

  13. Temporal and spatial distribution of alteration, mineralization and fluid inclusions in the transitional high-sulfidation epithermal-porphyry copper system at Red Mountain, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecumberri-Sanchez, Pilar; Newton, M. Claiborne; Westman, Erik C.; Kamilli, Robert J.; Canby, Vertrees M.; Bodnar, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    Red Mountain, Arizona, is a Laramide porphyry Cu system (PCD) that has experienced only a modest level of erosion compared to most other similar deposits in the southwestern United States. As a result, the upper portion of the magmatic–hydrothermal system, which represents the transition from shallower high-sulfidation epithermal mineralization to deeper porphyry Cu mineralization, is well preserved. Within the Red Mountain system, alteration, mineralization and fluid inclusion assemblages show a systematic distribution in both time and space. Early-potassic alteration (characterized by the minerals biotite and magnetite) is paragenetically earlier than late-potassic alteration (K-feldspar–anhydrite) and both are followed by later phyllic (sericite–pyrite) alteration. Advanced argillic alteration (pyrophyllite–alunite–other clay minerals) is thought to be coeval with or postdate phyllic alteration. Minerals characteristic of advanced argillic alteration are present in the near surface. Phyllic alteration extends to greater depths compared to advanced argillic alteration. Early-potassic and late-potassic alteration are only observed in the deepest part of the system. Considerable overlap of phyllic alteration with both early-potassic and late-potassic alteration zones is observed. The hypogene mineralization contains 0.4–1.2% Cu and is spatially and temporally related to the late-potassic alteration event. Molybdenum concentration is typically In the deepest part of the system, an early generation of low-to-moderate density and salinity liquid + vapor inclusions with opaque daughter minerals is followed in time by halite-bearing inclusions that also contain opaque daughter minerals indicating that an early intermediate-density magmatic fluid evolved to a high-density, high-salinity mineralizing fluid. The increase in density and salinity of fluids with time observed in the deeper parts of the system may be the result of immiscibility (“boiling”) of

  14. SEM-Cathodoluminescence and fluid inclusion study of quartz veins in Hugo Dummett porphyry Cu-Au deposit,South Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanjaa, M.; Fujimaki, H.; Ken-Ichiro, H.

    2010-12-01

    The Hugo Dummett porphyry copper-gold deposit in Oyu Tolgoi, South Mongolia is a high-sulfidation type deposit which consists of Cu-Au bearing quartz veins. Cathodoluminescence (CL) analysis using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and fluid inclusion microthermometer were performed to elucidate the relationship between CL structures, fluid inclusion microthermometer of different quartz generations, and ore forming process of the Hugo Dummett deposit. Hydrothermal quartz from quartz-sulfide veins in the porphyry Cu-Au deposit in Hugo Dummett, revealing the following textures: (1) euhedral growth zones (2) embayed and rounded CL-bright cores, with CL-dark and CL-gray overgrowths, (3) concentric and non concentric growth zones, and (4) CL dark/bright microfractures. These textures indicate that many veins have undergone fracturing, growth of quartz into fluid-filled space and quartz dissolution of quartz. SEM-CL imaging indicates vein quartz in the Hugo Dummett deposit, initially grew as individual CL-bright crystals 356 ± 10°C liquid-reservoir (average Th value for fluid inclusions in the crystal cores is 359°C). In contract, SEM-CL imaging shows the edges of the micron-scale growth zones of varying CL intensity, reflecting quartz precipitation at some later time, when the Hugo Dummett deposit hydrothermal system had cooled, when reservoir conditions were about 211 ± 25°C (average Th value of 212°C). Crystal growth is SEM-CL evidence of the vein quartz having been partly dissolved. Pressure change has a large effect on quartz solubility and may have been responsible for quartz dissolution and precipitation textures in the cooling hydrothermal system. CL-dark microfractures homogenization temperatures lower 169 ± 16°C (average Th value 170°C) than CL bright and CL gray. Temperature and pressure of the mineralized fluid estimates a pressure of formation of 0.3-0.5 kbar (lithostatic), was formed at approximately 2 km depth, as well as a formation temperature

  15. 新疆谢米斯台地区斑岩型铜矿化的发现及其意义%The Discovery of Porphyry Copper Mineralization in Xiemisitai Area of Xinjiang and Its Significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王居里; 王建其; 胡洋; 涂一安; 王敏; 令伟伟

    2014-01-01

    继在新疆谢米斯台地区玄武岩中发现自然铜矿化后,在谢米斯台地区中-酸性次火山岩中发现具有一定规模的斑岩型铜矿化。原生硫化物主要为黄铜矿、黄铁矿和斑铜矿。斑岩型铜矿化主要发育于蚀变的英安斑岩、流纹斑岩和安山玢岩中,矿化岩石中发育强烈的绿帘石化、绿泥石化、碳酸盐化、硅化,局部发育泥化。区内斑岩型铜矿化的发现,表明新疆谢米斯台地区存在两种类型铜矿化,有望取得铜矿找矿新突破。矿化次火山岩及其下部的浅成侵入体可能是区内斑岩型铜矿床找矿评价的重要目标。%The porphyry copper mineralization with a certain scale was found in intermediate-acidic subvolcanic rocks after the discovery of native copper mineralization in basalts of Xiemisitai area, Xinjiang. The primary sulfides are mainly chalcopyrite, pyrite and bornite. The porphyry copper mineralization occurs mainly in the altered rhyolitic porphyry, dacitic porphyry and andesitic porphyrite, and intense epidotization, chloritization, carbonation and silicification and weak argillation occur in the mineralized rocks. This discovery shows that there are two types of copper mineralization in Xiemisitai area, and it is expected that new breakthrough can be made in further copper prospecting. The mineralized subvolcanic rocks and the hypabyssal intrusive bodies beneath the subvolcanic rocks may be the important targets for the further porphyry copper prospecting in Xiemisitai area.

  16. Zircon U-Pb geochronology,Hf isotopic composition and geological implications of the rhyodacite and rhyodacitic porphyry in the Xiangshan uranium ore field,Jiangxi Province,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The Xiangshan uranium ore field is the largest volcanic rock hosted uranium deposit in China.The host rock is a volcanic intrusive complex,including rhyodacite,porphyroclastic lava and late stage sub-volcanic rocks.In this study,zircons from an early stage rhyodacite and a late stage rhyodacite porphyry were dated by SHRIMP and LA-ICP-MS U-Pb methods,and their Hf isotopic compositions were measured by LA-MC-ICP-MS.206Pb/238U ages of 135.1±1.7 and 134.8±1.1 Ma were obtained for the rhyodacite and rhyodacitic porphyry,respectively.These accurate ages indicate that the Xiangshan volcanic-intrusive complex formed in the Early Cretaceous rather than in the Late Jurassic,as concluded in some previous studies.By the Early Cretaceous,the tectonic setting of the area has evolved into a back-arc extensional setting,possibly related to subduction of the paleo-Pacific plate.The close ages of the(early) eruptive rhyodacite and the(late) hypabyssal rhyodacitic porphyry shows that the Xiangshan volcanism was intensive and concentrated in a short time.Zircons from the rhyodacite show negative εHf(t) values of-5.7 to-8.5,with Hf depleted mantle model ages between 1550 and 1720 Ma,whereas zircons from the rhyodacitic porphyry yield εHf(t) values of-6.9 to-10.1 and Hf model ages between 1621 and 1823 Ma.These zircon Hf model ages are similar to the whole rock Nd model ages(1486 to 1911 Ma).Combined with other geochemical characteristics,the Xiangshan rhyodacite and rhyodacitic porphyry may have been derived from partial melting of the Paleo-Mesoproterozoic metamorphic rocks from the Xiangshan basement,without any significant addition of mantle-derived magma.Contribution of basement of this age is also supported by finding a Paleoproterozoic xenocrystic zircon core in the rhyodacite sample.

  17. An approach to the metallogenic mechanism of porphyry copper (molybdenum) deposits and porphyry molybdenum (copper) deposits:Influence of evolving processes of ore-forming fluids and tectonic settings%斑岩型铜(钼)矿床和斑岩型钼(铜)矿床的形成机制探讨:流体演化及构造背景的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙燕; 刘建明; 曾庆栋

    2012-01-01

    斑岩型铜(钼)矿床和斑岩型钼(铜)矿床是世界钼资源最主要的来源,提供的钼金属量相当。对比发现,两类矿床在流体来源-演化以及铜和钼的相关性上较为相似,而在铜/钼比值、品位、矿物共生组合、蚀变类型等方面存在差异,特别是斑岩铜(钼)矿初始出溶流体中的Cl-/F-值、硫的总量、SO2/H2S以及H+/K+比斑岩钼(铜)矿高。流体演化过程中有两方面因素可能影响最终沉淀的铜和钼比值(1)铜和钼在流体中的性质差异,如铜以氯或硫络合物形式运移,沉淀受温度影响比较显著,钼以羟基或氯络合物形式存在,沉淀受压力控制比较明显;(2)流体自身氧逸度、pH、硫逸度的变化以及演化路径的改变。然而,和初始流体性质的差异相比,流体演化过程对最终形成矿床类型的影响是有限的,决定矿床形成斑岩铜(钼)矿化还是钼(铜)矿化的因素可能在流体出溶之前的岩浆起源-演化阶段就存在。斑岩铜(钼)矿常分布在偏挤压的陆缘弧和大陆碰撞造山带环境,基底多为新生或加厚的陆壳,斑岩钼(铜)矿多出现在偏伸展的陆内裂谷、弧后及造山后伸展环境,基底可以为老陆壳或新生的陆壳;上述特征反映物源区或岩浆的起源和演化方式不同可能是制约形成斑岩铜(钼)矿还是钼(铜)矿的主要机制。%Porphyry Cu-Mo deposits and porphyry Mo-Cu deposits are the most important sources of world's Mo resources,each providing comparable Mo reserves.Although sharing the same characteristics in fluid source and evolution pattern and Cu-Mo correlation,those two types of deposits demonstrate many differences in Cu/Mo ratio,ore grade,mineral association,hydrothermal alteration type,and especially in primitive fluid composition,with fluids from porphyry Cu-Mo deposits containing more sulfur and showing higher ratios of Cl-/F-,SO2/H2S,as well as H+/ K

  18. Application of fuzzy logic and fuzzy AHP to mineral prospectivity mapping of porphyry and hydrothermal vein copper deposits in the Dananhu-Tousuquan island arc, Xinjiang, NW China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Nannan; Zhou, Kefa; Du, Xishihui

    2017-04-01

    Mineral prospectivity mapping (MPM) is a multi-step process that ranks promising target areas for further exploration. Fuzzy logic and fuzzy analytical hierarchy process (AHP) are knowledge-driven MPM approaches. In this study, both approaches were used for data processing, based on which MPM was performed for porphyry and hydrothermal vein copper deposits in the Dananhu-Tousuquan island arc, Xinjiang. The results of the two methods were then compared. The two methods combined expert experience and the Studentized contrast (S(C)) values of the weights-of-evidence approach to calculate the weights of 15 layers, and these layers were then integrated by the gamma operator (γ). Through prediction-area (P-A) plot analysis, the optimal γ for fuzzy logic and fuzzy AHP was determined as 0.95 and 0.93, respectively. The thresholds corresponding to different levels of metallogenic probability were defined via concentration-area (C-A) fractal analysis. The prediction performances of the two methods were compared on this basis. The results showed that in MPM based on fuzzy logic, the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was 0.806 and 81.48% of the known deposits were predicted, whereas in MPM based on fuzzy AHP, the area under the ROC curve was 0.862 and 92.59% of the known deposits were predicted. Therefore, prediction based on fuzzy AHP is more accurate and can provide directions for future prospecting.

  19. Systematic sulfur stable isotope and fluid inclusion studies on veinlet groups in the Sarcheshmeh porphyry copper deposit: based on new data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Maanijou

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Mineralization occurred by intrusion of granodioritic stock of middle Miocene in volcano–sedimenrary rocks in Sarcheshmeh of early Tertiary age. This research is based on samples of new drilled boreholes and benches of 2500m elevation. Based on mineralogy and crosscutting relationships, at least four groups of veinlets pertaining to four stages of mineralization were recognized. Sulfur isotope studies in the Sarcheshmeh porphyry copper deposit were conducted on pyrite, chalcopyrite, molybdenite and anhydrites of four groups of veinlets. The δ34S values in the sulfides and sulfates range from -2.2 to 1.27‰ and from 10.2 to 14.5 ‰, respectively. The average δ34S value in the sulfides is 1‰ and that for the sulfates is about 13‰. Considering these results, it can be concluded that the sulfides made up of a fluid that its sulfur has a magmatic origin. Also, fluid inclusions of different veinlet groups were studied, showing high temperature, high salinity and the occurrence of boiling in the mineralizing fluids. Moreover, these studies indicate presence of three types of fluids including magmatic, meteoritic and mixture of these two fluids in alteration and mineralizion processes.

  20. Zircon U-Pb ages, Hf-O isotopes and trace elements of Mesozoic high Sr/Y porphyries from Ningzhen, eastern China: Constraints on their petrogenesis, tectonic implications and Cu mineralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fangyue; Liu, Sheng-Ao; Li, Shuguang; Akhtar, Shamim; He, Yongsheng

    2014-07-01

    The relationship between high Sr/Y (adakitic) rocks and Cu mineralization has been long recognized but the mechanism remains unclear. The Cretaceous high Sr/Y porphyries in the Ningzhen area host major Cu polymetallic deposits in the Lower Yangtze River Belt (LYRB) of eastern China. These rocks exhibit some geochemical characteristics (e.g., non-radiogenic Pb isotope ratios) that differ from adakitic rocks from adjacent locations in the LYRB. In this study, we present a study of the zircon U-Pb-Hf-O isotope and trace element compositions for five porphyries from Ningzhen to reveal their petrogenesis and how that correlates with Cu-Fe-Mo mineralization. Zircon U-Pb ages of Anjishan (Cu deposit), Tongshan (Cu-Mo deposit) and Xiangshan (Fe deposit) plutons in the Ningzhen area are 108.8 ± 1.5 Ma, 105-107 Ma and 100-105 Ma, respectively, which are significantly younger than the ore-bearing adakites (140 ± 5 Ma) in the western part of the LYRB. Zircon εHf(t) and δ18O values range from - 23.4 to - 10.6 and from 5.7 to 7.0‰, respectively, falling between subduction-related adakites from the other regions in the LYRB and delamination-related adakitic rocks from the adjacent South Tan-Lu Fault Zone. The similarities of Ce4 +/Ce3 + and Eu/Eu* ratios in zircons from Ningzhen and those from the western LYRB indicate higher oxygen fugacity in their magma sources. Ti-in-zircon thermometer yields magma temperatures of 550 to 700 °C (with an average of ~ 650 °C) for the Ningzhen porphyries, which are significantly lower than those of the South Tan-Lu Fault adakites (> 750 °C), but similar to those for the LYRB adakites ( 50), non-radiogenic Pb, enriched Sr-Nd isotopic compositions, negative zircon εHf(t), mantle-like δ18O values, high oxygen fugacities and low magma temperatures. Mafic rocks that co-exist with ore-bearing porphyries or occur as xenoliths in porphyries are widespread. We proposed that the Ningzhen high Sr/Y porphyries originated from mixing of magmas

  1. Examination of chloritization of biotite as a tool for reconstructing the physicochemical parameters of mineralization and associated alteration in the Zafarghand porphyry copper system, Ardestan, Central Iran: mineral-chemistry and stable isotope analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminroayaei Yamini, Maryam; Tutti, Faramarz; Aminoroayaei Yamini, Mohammad Reza; Ahmadian, Jamshid; Wan, Bo

    2016-12-01

    The chloritization of biotite and stable isotopes of silicate have been studied for the Zafarghand porphyry copper deposit, Ardestan, Iran. The studied area, in the central part of the Urumieh-Dokhtar magmatic belt, contains porphyry-style Cu mineralization and associated hydrothermal alteration within the Miocene (19-26 Ma, Zircon U-Pb age) granodioritc stock and adjacent andesitic to rhyodacitic volcanic rocks (ca. 56 Ma, zircon U-Pb age). The primary and secondary biotite that formed during potassic alteration in this porphyry and these volcanic host rocks are variably chloritized. Chloritization of biotite pseudomorphically is characterized by an increase in MgO, FeOt, and MnO, with decreasing in SiO2, K2O, and TiO2. Based on the Ti-in-biotite geothermometer of Henry et al. (Am Mineral 90:316-328, 2005) and Al-in-chlorite geothermometer of Cathelineau (Clay Miner 23:417-485, 1988), crystallization temperatures of primary biotite representative of magmatic conditions and later chloritization temperature range from 617° to 675 °C ± 24 °C and 177° to 346 °C, respectively. Calculated isotopic compositions of fluids that chloritized primary and secondary biotite display isotopic compositions of 1.1 to 1.7 per mil for δ18O and -19.9 to -20.5 per mil for δD consistent with meteoric water. Sericite, barren, and A-type-quartz veins from phyllic alteration were produced by mixed magmatic and meteoric water with δ18O values from -2.8 to 2.5 and δD values of ˜ -23 per mil; the narrow range of δD values of the propylitic epidote may be due to a meteoric water with δ18O values from 0.8 to 1.6 and δD values from -14.6 to -16.9 per mil.

  2. “三江”地区中旬弧普朗成矿斑岩地球化学特征及其成因%Geochemistry and petrogenesis of Pulang porphyries in Sanjiang region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任江波; 许继峰; 陈建林; 张世权; 梁华英

    2011-01-01

    Located in Zhongdian island arc belt in northwestern Yunnan Province, the Pulang super large porphyry copper deposit was formed in late Triassic during the westward subduction of the Ganzi-Litang ocean plate below Zhongdian microplate. The mineralized rocks of the Pulang porphyry copper deposit mainly include quartz dioritic porphyries and quartz monzonitic porphyries in a complex pluton, and economic ores are mainly preserved in the quartz monzonitic porphyries. The quartz dioritic porphyrites were intruded by later quartz monzonitic porphyries, but the two kinds of rocks display similar geochemical characteristics, such as similar REE patterns, incompatible trace element patterns and initial 87Sr/86Sr and Nd/144Nd ratios, suggesting that they were coge-netic products or were derived from similar sources. Geochemically, both kinds of rocks are akin to adakite, as evidenced by such characteristics as high Sr content (289×10-6~l 200×10-6), high La/Yb and Sr/Yb ratios, relatively high MgO and Mg# (>59), depleted Y and Yb, slightly negative Eu anomalies and positive Sranomalies Moreover, the radiogenic Sr [0.705 60 61.0%) and K2O (2.2%~4.4%), while the latter have high SiQ2(> 65.9%) and K2O (3.5%~8.1%). Therefore, the authors hold that the Pulang porphyry copper deposit was probably related to the westward subduction of Ganzhi-Litang oceanic plate during late Triassic. At the early stage of subduction, the quartz dioritic porphyries with subduction-related origin were formed firstly, then increasing adakitic magmas of slab melting were mixed with melts from subducted sediments or arc materials, producing more acid and high oxygen fugacity adakitic magmas, which finally intruded the upper crust below Pulang and promoted the mineralization of the Pulang porphyry copper deposit at the shallow level.%普朗斑岩铜矿床是中国西南“三江”地区新发现的具超大规模的印支期斑岩铜矿床,其成矿岩体的斑岩具有高的Sr含量(289×10-6~1 200

  3. Temporal evolution of bacterial communities associated with the in situ wetland-based remediation of a marine shore porphyry copper tailings deposit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaby, N; Dold, B; Rohrbach, E; Holliger, C; Rossi, P

    2015-11-15

    Mine tailings are a serious threat to the environment and public health. Remediation of these residues can be carried out effectively by the activation of specific microbial processes. This article presents detailed information about temporal changes in bacterial community composition during the remediation of a section of porphyry copper tailings deposited on the Bahía de Ite shoreline (Peru). An experimental remediation cell was flooded and transformed into a wetland in order to prevent oxidation processes, immobilizing metals. Initially, the top oxidation zone of the tailings deposit displayed a low pH (3.1) and high concentrations of metals, sulfate, and chloride, in a sandy grain size geological matrix. This habitat was dominated by sulfur- and iron-oxidizing bacteria, such as Leptospirillum spp., Acidithiobacillus spp., and Sulfobacillus spp., in a microbial community which structure resembled acid mine drainage environments. After wetland implementation, the cell was water-saturated, the acidity was consumed and metals dropped to a fraction of their initial respective concentrations. Bacterial communities analyzed by massive sequencing showed time-dependent changes both in composition and cell numbers. The final remediation stage was characterized by the highest bacterial diversity and evenness. Aside from classical sulfate reducers from the phyla δ-Proteobacteria and Firmicutes, community structure comprised taxa derived from very diverse habitats. The community was also characterized by an elevated proportion of rare phyla and unaffiliated sequences. Numerical ecology analysis confirmed that the temporal population evolution was driven by pH, redox, and K. Results of this study demonstrated the usefulness of a detailed follow-up of the remediation process, not only for the elucidation of the communities gradually switching from autotrophic, oxidizing to heterotrophic and reducing living conditions, but also for the long term management of the remediation

  4. Recycling of Proterozoic crust in Pleistocene juvenile magma and rapid formation of the Ok Tedi porphyry Cu-Au deposit, Papua New Guinea

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dongen, M.; Weinberg, R. F.; Tomkins, A. G.; Armstrong, R. A.; Woodhead, J. D.

    2010-02-01

    We present an investigation of the combined U-Pb, O and Hf isotope composition of zircons from a giant porphyry copper-gold deposit, hosted in a shoshonitic intermediate intrusive complex of the Ok Tedi area in Papua New Guinea. This area is part of a Late Miocene-Pliocene collisional fold-and-thrust belt related to island arc accretion to the Australian plate. Cathodoluminescence and transmitted light imaging reveal distinct zircon textures such as spongy rims and inherited zircon cores. Spongy textures, interpreted to result from corrosion of the surface by hydrothermal fluids, do not seem to affect the U-Pb, O and Hf isotope composition. Calculated SHRIMP U-Pb ages for the rims are 1.1-1.4 Ma whereas the inherited component is ~ 1.8 Ga. Our age results combined with existing K-Ar results, constrain the formation of the Ok Tedi deposit to Oxygen isotope composition (δ 18O), measured by SHRIMP, is ~ 6.5‰ for Pleistocene zircons but extend to values of ~ 8.3‰ or more for Proterozoic zircon cores. Likewise, corrected Hf isotope ratios from LA-ICP-MS analyses are centred on 0.2825 ( ɛHf(t) = - 6.5 ± 2) for Pleistocene zircons, compared to ~ 0.2815 ( ɛHf(t) = + 5 to - 3) for Proterozoic components. The Pleistocene zircon isotope signature is best explained by assimilation of Proterozoic crustal source material into asthenospheric mantle-derived magma similar to that of the Pliocene Porgera Au-only deposit in the same orogen.

  5. 青海纳日贡玛斑岩钼(铜)矿床:蚀变%THE NARIGONGMA PORPHYRY MOLYBDENUM (-COPPER) DEPOSIT IN QINGHAI PROVINCE: Alteration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卞雄飞

    2012-01-01

    The Narigongma porphyry molybdenum (-copper) deposit in Southern Qinghai Province is located in the northern part of Yulong metallogenic belt. Research on the deposit recognizes three types of alteration in the orefield, i.e. K-silicate alteration (biotite-K feldspar), propylitic alteration (chlorite-epidote ± calcite) and feldspar-destructive alteration (sericite ± kaolin ± calcite ± anhydrite). The metallogenesis is closely related to the quartz-molybdenite ± anhydrite ± chalcopyrite ± pyrite vein and molybdenite ± pyrite ± chalcopyrite vein.%通过对纳日贡玛斑岩钼(铜)矿床的蚀变类型的详细研究,识别了矿床蚀变的3种主要类型:钾硅酸盐化、青磐岩化和长石分解蚀变.前二者为矿区早期形成的蚀变,长石分解蚀变形成于晚期.钾硅酸盐化蚀变主要以黑云母化、钾长石化为特征,青磐岩化以脉状绿泥石、绿帘石、方解石等蚀变矿物的发育为基本特征,长石分解蚀变则发育绢云母、高岭土、方解石、硬石膏等矿物.研究认为矿化与石英-辉钼矿±硬石膏±黄铜矿±黄铁矿脉、辉钼矿±黄铁矿±黄铜矿脉有较为密切的联系.

  6. Pre-eruptive conditions of the Hideaway Park topaz rhyolite: Insights into metal source and evolution of magma parental to the Henderson porphyry molybdenum deposit, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, Celestine N.; Hofstra, Albert H.; Todorov, Todor I.; Roberge, Julie; Burgisser, Alain; Adams, David T.; Cosca, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    The Hideaway Park tuff is the only preserved extrusive volcanic unit related to the Red Mountain intrusive complex, which produced the world-class Henderson porphyry Mo deposit. Located within the Colorado Mineral Belt, USA, Henderson is the second largest Climax-type Mo deposit in the world, and is therefore an excellent location to investigate magmatic processes leading to Climax-type Mo mineralization. We combine an extensive dataset of major element, volatile, and trace element abundances in quartz-hosted melt inclusions and pumice matrix glass with major element geochemistry from phenocrysts to reconstruct the pre-eruptive conditions and the source and evolution of metals within the magma. Melt inclusions are slightly peraluminous topaz rhyolitic in composition and are volatile-charged (≤6 wt % H2O, ≤600 ppm CO2, ∼0·3–1·0 wt % F, ∼2300–3500 ppm Cl) and metal-rich (∼7–24 ppm Mo, ∼4–14 ppm W, ∼21–52 ppm Pb, ∼28–2700 ppm Zn, pluton measuring 3·1 km × 6·0 km) along with sparging of ∼6·8 × 105 t of S from ∼0·05 km3 of lamprophyre magma. Based on a weighted mean 40Ar/39Ar age of 27·58 ± 0·24 Ma, similar melt geochemistry, and characteristically F-rich biotite phenocrysts, we conclude that the Hideaway Park tuff was cogenetic with the intrusions at Red Mountain that formed the Henderson deposit.

  7. Pb-Sr-Nd isotopes in surficial materials at the Pebble Porphyry Cu-Au-Mo Deposit, Southwestern Alaska: can the mineralizing fingerprint be detected through cover?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayuso, Robert A.; Kelley, Karen D.; Eppinger, Robert G.; Forni, Francesca

    2013-01-01

    The Cretaceous Pebble porphyry Cu-Au-Mo deposit is covered by tundra and glacigenic sediments. Pb-Sr-Nd measurements were done on sediments and soils to establish baseline conditions prior to the onset of mining operations and contribute to the development of exploration methods for concealed base metal deposits of this type. Pebble rocks have a moderate range for 206Pb/204Pb = 18.574 to 18.874, 207Pb/204Pb = 15.484 to 15.526, and 208,Pb/204Pb = 38.053 to 38.266. Mineralized granodiorite shows a modest spread in 87Sr/86Sr (0.704354–0.707621) and 143Nd/144Nd (0.512639–0.512750). Age-corrected (89 Ma) values for the granodiorite yield relatively unradiogenic Pb (e.g., 207Pb/204Pb 87Sr/86Sr, and positive values of ɛNd (1.00–4.52) that attest to a major contribution of mantle-derived source rocks. Pond sediments and soils have similar Pb isotope signatures and 87Sr/86Sr and 143Nd/144Nd values that resemble the mineralized granodiorites. Glacial events have obscured the recognition of isotope signatures of mineralized rocks in the sediments and soils. Baseline radiogenic isotope compositions, prior to the onset of mining operations, reflect natural erosion, transport and deposition of heterogeneous till sheets that included debris from barren rocks, mineralized granodiorite and sulfides from the Pebble deposit, and other country rocks that pre- and postdate the mineralization events. Isotopic variations suggest that natural weathering of the deposit is generally reflected in these surficial materials. The isotope data provide geochemical constraints to glimpse through the extensive cover and together with other geochemical observations provide a vector to concealed mineralized rocks genetically linked with the Pebble deposit.

  8. Data integration modeling applied to drill hole planning through semi-supervised learning: A case study from the Dalli Cu-Au porphyry deposit in the central Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatehi, Moslem; Asadi, Hooshang H.

    2017-04-01

    In this study, the application of a transductive support vector machine (TSVM), an innovative semi-supervised learning algorithm, has been proposed for mapping the potential drill targets at a detailed exploration stage. The semi-supervised learning method is a hybrid of supervised and unsupervised learning approach that simultaneously uses both training and non-training data to design a classifier. By using the TSVM algorithm, exploration layers at the Dalli porphyry Cu-Au deposit in the central Iran were integrated to locate the boundary of the Cu-Au mineralization for further drilling. By applying this algorithm on the non-training (unlabeled) and limited training (labeled) Dalli exploration data, the study area was classified in two domains of Cu-Au ore and waste. Then, the results were validated by the earlier block models created, using the available borehole and trench data. In addition to TSVM, the support vector machine (SVM) algorithm was also implemented on the study area for comparison. Thirty percent of the labeled exploration data was used to evaluate the performance of these two algorithms. The results revealed 87 percent correct recognition accuracy for the TSVM algorithm and 82 percent for the SVM algorithm. The deepest inclined borehole, recently drilled in the western part of the Dalli deposit, indicated that the boundary of Cu-Au mineralization, as identified by the TSVM algorithm, was only 15 m off from the actual boundary intersected by this borehole. According to the results of the TSVM algorithm, six new boreholes were suggested for further drilling at the Dalli deposit. This study showed that the TSVM algorithm could be a useful tool for enhancing the mineralization zones and consequently, ensuring a more accurate drill hole planning.

  9. Metallogenetic epoch of the Almalyk porphyry copper ore field, Uzbekistan.and its geological significance%乌兹别克斯坦Almalyk斑岩铜矿田成矿时代及其地质意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛春纪; 段士刚; 柴凤梅; 木合塔尔·买买提; A.X.TypeceóekoB; 屈文俊

    2013-01-01

    The exploration of porphyry copper deposits in western Tianshan. Xinjiang, had attracted much attentions. The Almalyk copper deposit in western Tianshan. Uzbekistan, is one of the largest porphyry copper deposits in Asia, but has not well been dated. The Almalyk copper ore field is located in the southern part of Caledonian-Hercynian central I lanshan fold belt, and includes four copper deposits: Kalmakyr. Dalneye. Sarcheku and Kyzata. Copper mineralization occurred within the porphyries. The primary ores are characterized mainly by stockwork and disseminated structures, and the major metallic minerals are in assemblage of py-rite. chalcopyrite. molybdenite, hematite, magnetite, nature gold and bornite. The present paper obtains the weighted model age of 320. 1 ± 2. 3 Ma and an isochron age of 317.6±2. 5 Ma based on the Re-Os isotopic method by using the molybdenites from the Sarcheku copper-molybdenum ores. On the basis of the sequence of magmatic formation in this area, it is suggested that the tectonomagmatic hydrothermal process in Almalyk ore field started at the early Carboniferous, developed during the late Carboniferous, and finished at the early Permian, and the porphyry copper mineralization mainly occurred during the late Carboniferous. The world-class large and supper large porphyry copper mineralization including the Almalyk copper deposit in western Tianshan is closely related to the complex arc magmatic geological processes resulted from the sulxluction of paleo-Asia ocean crust under Kazakhstan-Yili plate, which happened mainly from the middle Devonian to the late Carboniferous (D2 - C2).%新疆西天山斑岩铜矿找矿勘查备受关注.乌兹别克斯坦Almalyk斑岩铜矿田处在西天山西段,铜矿规模属亚洲第二大,但其成矿时代还没有准确厘定.在区域地质构造中,Almalvk铜矿田位于中天山加里东 华力西褶皱带南部边缘,包括Kalmakyr、Dalneye、Sarcheku和Kyzata等4个铜矿床,铜成矿主要发生

  10. The Re-Os isotope system of the Xiongcun porphyry copper-gold deposit, Tibet%西藏雄村斑岩铜矿床辉钼矿Re-Os同位素体系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄勇; 唐菊兴; 丁俊; 张丽; 郎兴海

    2013-01-01

    辉钼矿Re-Os同位素测年是现今研究斑岩铜矿成矿时限最有效的手段.本文通过开展冈底斯成矿带雄村斑岩铜金矿辉钼矿Re-Os同位素年代学研究,并结合前人已发表的数据,认为雄村斑岩铜金矿床成矿时限为171~175Ma.Ⅰ号矿体可能受到始新世大规模的岩浆活动扰动,辉钼矿在经历过后期热事件影响,在辉钼矿中形成有极微量富Re的K-硅酸盐矿物,Ⅰ号矿体辉钼矿Re含量比Ⅱ号矿体以及Ⅲ号矿体中辉钼矿Re含量高出1~4倍,其Re-Os同位素年龄比真实年龄偏低,不能完全代表成矿年龄.同时通过与冈底斯成矿带斑岩-矽卡岩铜钼矿床,钼/钼铜矿床的对比研究后发现,雄村斑岩铜金矿中辉钼矿Re含量比同一成矿带上中新世斑岩铜钼矿床中辉钼矿Re含量高出一个数量级,比古新世—始新世斑岩钼矿/钼铜矿床中辉钼矿Re含量高出两个数量级.辉钼矿Re含量变化特征与成矿物质的来源、钼的浓度、成矿母岩组分以及成矿期间的物理/化学条件有关.%Re-Os dating of molybdenite is an efficient means to restrict the time of mineralization. The age of mineralization of the Xiongcun porphyry copper-gold deposit is confined between 171 Ma and 175 Ma based on this study and other data available. No. Ⅰ ore body of the Xiongcun deposit was affected by later magmtic thermal event. Molybdenite contains trace K-Si silicate enriched in Re. As a result of this event, the Re content of molybdenite is one to four times higher than that of molybdenite in No.Ⅱ ore body and No. Ⅲ ore body, and the age of molybdenite in No. Ⅰ ore body is younger than the real age. The authors also compared the Re content of molybdenite between this deposit and other porphyry-skarn deposits within this belt and found that the content of Re shows systematic variation. The Re content of the Xiongcun porphyry copper-gold deposit is one order of magnitude high than that of Miocene

  11. 甘肃龙尾沟斑岩型铜(钨)矿床成矿特征及形成环境%Geological Characteristics and Metallogenic Environment of the Longweigou Porphyry Copper(tungsten) Deposit,Gansu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾群子; 马云海; 全守村; 王建军; 肖朝阳; 李金超

    2012-01-01

    龙尾沟铜(钨)矿床是祁连山地区新近发现的一处斑岩型矿床,其评价及研究对祁连山地区铜矿勘查具有重要的指导和借鉴作用.本文通过对含矿斑岩年代学及地球化学、矿体产出特征及矿石物质组成、围岩蚀变等进行了系统研究,结果表明,花岗闪长斑岩形成年龄为358.7 Ma;矿体呈似层状、透镜状和脉状产出,主要产于高钾碱性系列斑岩体内,并受近南北向构造控制;矿石矿物主要为黄铜矿、黄铁矿、磁黄铁矿、白钨矿,呈细脉一浸染状、浸染状产出;矿化以富铜、钨、金贫钼为特征;与成矿关系密切的围岩蚀变主要为绢英岩化,次为钾硅酸盐化和硅化;矿床成矿时代为海西早期,形成于陆内造山伸展环境.从成矿背景分析认为祁连山地区陆内造山环境所形成的斑岩型铜矿具有良好的找矿前景.%The Longweigou porphyry copper( tungsten) deposit, a newly found deposit, lies in the Oulongbuluke uplift belt of the Qilian orogenic belt. The evaluation and research of the Longweigou copperCtungsten) ore deposit will present important guidance and reference for copper exploration in the Qilian Mountain area. The chronology and the geochemistry of the ore-bearing porphyry deposit were studied and the occurrence features of the deposit, the components of gold mineral and the alteration of the wall rock were investigated. Results showed that the formation age of the granodiorite porphyry is 358. 7Ma; and that the ore-body, which has occurrences of stratiform or lenticular or vein, occurs mainly in the high potassium alkali series porphyry and is controlled by NS structures; and that chalcopyrite, pyrite, pyrrhotite, and scheelite are main ore minerals, which have veinlet-disseminated and disseminated structures; and that mineralization is characterized by enriching copper, tungsten and gold and depleting molybdenum; and that the mineralization related wall-rock alterations are

  12. Mo-mineralized porphyries are relatively hydrous and differentiated: insights from the Permian-Triassic granitic complex in the Baituyingzi Mo-Cu district, eastern Inner Mongolia, NE China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yan; Liu, Jianming; Zeng, Qingdong; Wang, Jingbin; Wang, Yuwang; Hu, Ruizhong; Zhou, Lingli; Wu, Guanbin

    2016-12-01

    Mo-Cu mineralization in the Baituyingzi district of eastern Inner Mongolia occurs within a granitic complex. This paper presents and discusses zircon U-Pb ages and whole-rock geochemical and Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic data from the granitic complex as potential indicators for porphyry Mo fertility. The U-Pb ages indicate that five units of the granitic complex were emplaced between 265.2 ± 0.7 and 246.5 ± 1.0 Ma. Constrained by crosscutting dikes, Mo-Cu mineralization was probably related to the Baituyingzi monzogranite porphyry dated at 248.2 ± 0.64 Ma. The intrusions belong to high-K calc-alkaline to shoshonitic series that are characterized by highly fractionated rare earth element (REE) patterns and strong enrichments of large ion lithophile elements, relative to high-field strength elements. Apart from the ˜246-Ma dike that shows negative ɛNd (t) values (-14.9 to -13.1), the intrusions have ɛNd(t) values ranging from -3.9 to 1.0, relatively young depleted mantle model ages (811 to 1183 Ma), 206Pb/204Pb of 18.137-18.335, and 207Pb/204Pb of 15.591-15.625, which are consistent with a juvenile lower crustal origin. Among the intrusions, the ˜248-Ma porphyry and the ˜246-Ma dike show adakite-like characteristics (e.g., Sr/Y = 44.9-185) and listric-shaped REE patterns that indicate amphibole fractionation and a hydrous magma source. However, the porphyry exhibits a higher differentiation index (81.4-91.5) and a steeper REE profile (e.g., LaN/YbN = 25.6-87.0) than those of the ˜246-Ma dike, which suggests that it is highly differentiated. We propose that the complex was generated by the partial melting of juvenile mafic lower crust (containing minor old crustal relicts) that was triggered by collision between the North China Craton and Siberian Craton. As indicated by the Th/Nb, Th/Yb, Ba/Th, and Ba/La ratios of the intrusions, the crust may have been derived from the melting of the fertile mantle wedge that was metasomatized by various amounts of slab-derived fluids

  13. Multimillion year thermal history of a porphyry copper deposit: application of U-Pb, 40Ar/39Ar and (U-Th)/He chronometers, Bajo de la Alumbrera copper-gold deposit, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Anthony C.; Dunlap, W. James; Reiners, Peter W.; Allen, Charlotte M.; Cooke, David R.; White, Noel C.; Campbell, Ian H.; Golding, Suzanne D.

    2008-03-01

    Application of multiple chronometers (including U-Pb and 40Ar/39Ar geochronology and zircon and apatite (U-Th)/He thermochronology) to porphyry intrusions at the Bajo de la Alumbrera porphyry copper-gold deposit, Argentina, reveals a complex history of reheating that spans millions of years. Previous U-Pb geochronology, combined with our new 40Ar/39Ar data, shows that the multiple porphyritic intrusions at Bajo de la Alumbrera were emplaced during two episodes, the first at about 8.0 Ma (P2 and associated porphyries) and the second about a million years later (Early and Late P3 porphyries). Complex overprinting alteration events have obscured the earliest hydrothermal history of the deposit. By contrast, 40Ar/39Ar data reveal the close temporal relationship of ore-bearing potassic alteration assemblages (7.12 ± 0.13 Ma; biotite) to the emplacement of the P3 intrusions. Consistent with low closure temperatures, younger ages have been determined for associated hydrothermal alkali feldspar (6.82 ± 0.05 Ma and 6.64 ± 0.09 Ma). The temperature-sensitive Ar data also record an unexpected prolonged cooling history (to below 200°C) extending to 5.9 Ma. Our data suggest that the Bajo de la Alumbrera system underwent protracted cooling, after the collapse of the main hydrothermal system, or that one or more low-temperature (~100-200°C) reheating events occurred after emplacement of the porphyritic intrusions at Bajo de la Alumbrera. These have been constrained in part by our new 40Ar/39Ar data (including multidomain diffusion modeling) and (U-Th)/He ages. Single-grain (U-Th)/He ages ( n = 5) for phenocrystic zircon from P2 and P3 intrusive phases bracket these thermal events to between 6.9 (youngest crystallization of intrusion) and 5.1 Ma. Multidomain modeling of alkali feldspar data (from both igneous and hydrothermal crystals) is consistent with the deposit cooling rapidly from magmatic temperatures to below about 300°C, with a more protracted history down to 150

  14. Magmatic and structural controls on porphyry-style Cu-Au-Mo mineralization at Kemess South, Toodoggone District of British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duuring, Paul; Rowins, Stephen M.; McKinley, Bradley S. M.; Dickinson, Jenni M.; Diakow, Larry J.; Kim, Young-Seog; Creaser, Robert A.

    2009-05-01

    Kemess South is the only Cu-Au-Mo mine in the Toodoggone district and a major Cu and Au producer in British Columbia. Porphyry-style Cu-Au-Mo mineralization is mainly hosted by the tabular, SW-plunging, 199.6 ± 0.6-Ma Maple Leaf granodiorite, which intrudes tightly folded, SW-dipping, Permian Asitka Group siltstone and limestone and homogeneous Triassic Takla Group basalt. Southwest-dipping 194.0 ± 0.4-Ma Toodoggone Formation conglomerate, volcaniclastic, and epiclastic rocks overlie the granodiorite and Asitka Group rocks. Minor Cu-Au-Mo mineralization is hosted by the immediate Takla Group basalt country rock, whereas low-tonnage high-grade Cu zones occur beneath a 30-m-thick leached capping in supergene-altered granodiorite and in exotic positions in overlying Toodoggone Formation conglomerate. Granodiorite has an intrusive contact with mineralized and altered Takla Group basalt but displays a sheared contact with unmineralized and less altered Asitka Group siltstone. The North Block fault is a deposit-scale, E-striking, steeply S-dipping normal fault that juxtaposes the granodiorite/basalt ore body against unmineralized Asitka Group rocks. Younger NW- and NE-striking normal-dextral faults cut all rock types, orebodies, and the North Block fault with displacements of up to 100 m and result in the graben-and-horst-style block faulting of the stratigraphy and ore body. Both basalt and granodiorite host comparable vein sequence and alteration histories, with minor variations in hydrothermal mineral assemblages caused by differing protolith chemistry. Early potassic alteration (and associated early-stage Cu ± Au ± Mo mineralization) is partly replaced by phyllic and intermediate argillic alteration associated with main-stage Cu-Au-Mo mineralization. Two main-stage veins have Re-Os molybdenite ages of 201.3 ± 1.2 and 201.1 ± 1.2 Ma. These mineralization ages overlap the 199.6 ± 0.6-Ma U-Pb zircon crystallization age for the Maple Leaf granodiorite. Late

  15. Rapid transition to long-lived deep crustal magmatic maturation and the formation of giant porphyry-related mineralization (Yanacocha, Peru)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiaradia, Massimo; Merino, Daniel; Spikings, Richard

    2009-11-01

    needed to understand whether the association of adakite-like magmas with ore, which is typical of other giant porphyry-systems, is the result of the build-up of incompatible volatiles and metals in oxidized magmas that evolve under high-pressure conditions, of recycling of lower crustal sulfide-rich cumulates, and/or of a long-lived, focused transfer of magmas from deep to shallow crustal levels.

  16. A predictive model for the transport of copper by HCl-bearing water vapour in ore-forming magmatic-hydrothermal systems: Implications for copper porphyry ore formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migdisov, Art. A.; Bychkov, A. Yu.; Williams-Jones, A. E.; van Hinsberg, V. J.

    2014-03-01

    divalent copper dichloride (CuCl2). The model developed in this study was used to evaluate the solubility of chalcopyrite in HCl-bearing, low density aqueous fluids for temperatures ranging between 300 and 800 °C. This evaluation showed that, even for a relatively modest proportion of HCl (0.5 vol%), the concentration of copper in low-density fluids in equilibrium with this mineral can reach thousands of ppm at temperatures between 550 and 700 °C and fO2 conditions similar to those of porphyry copper ore-forming systems.

  17. Partial melting of subducted paleo-Pacific plate during the early Cretaceous: Constraint from adakitic rocks in the Shaxi porphyry Cu-Au deposit, Lower Yangtze River Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Jianghong; Yang, Xiaoyong; Li, Shuang; Gu, Huangling; Mastoi, Abdul Shakoor; Sun, Weidong

    2016-10-01

    A large porphyry Cu-Au deposit associated with early Cretaceous intrusive rocks has been discovered and explored in the Shaxi area, Lower Yangtze River Belt (LYRB), eastern China. We studied two types of intrusive rocks in the Shaxi area: Cu-Au mineralization related diorites and quartz-diorites (adakitic rocks), and newly found high Sr/Y ratio biotite-gabbros. They were formed almost simultaneously with crystallization ages of ca. 130 to 129 Ma, younger than the early stage shoshonitic rocks (Longmenyuan, Zhuanqiao and Shuangmiao Fm.) in the Luzong volcanic basin, ~ 10 km south of the Shaxi area. These intrusive rocks show similar distribution patterns of trace elements (enriched in LILEs and depleted in HFSEs) and REEs (enriched in LREEs and depleted in HREEs, no Eu negative anomaly, flat HREE patterns). The diorites and quartz-diorites are adakitic rocks with calc-alkaline affinity, distinguished from other adakitic rocks in the LYRB which are high-K calc-alkaline series. The biotite-gabbros are not adakitic rocks, although they are characterized by high Sr/Y ratios. Shaxi adakitic rocks show positive zircon εHf(t) values, which may be attributed to the contribution of subducted oceanic crust, while the εHf(t) values of the biotite-gabbros are mostly negative, indicating the involvement of old crustal materials. Although Sr-Nd-Pb isotopes of Shaxi adakitic rocks are more depleted than those of other adakitic rocks in the LYRB, they are still slightly enriched, similar to continental arc adakites in the Andean Austral Volcanic Zone. The Shaxi adakitic rocks are characterized by high Sr contents and Sr/Y ratios, medium (La/Yb)N, MgO contents and Mg#, and low K2O/Na2O ratios, decoupling of Sr/Y and (La/Yb)N, low Th/U values, exhibiting characteristics of slab-derived adakitic rocks. They were not produced by fractional crystallization of basaltic magmas like adakitic rocks in Edong-Jiurui and Tongling but originally generated from partial melting of subducted

  18. 广西龙头山斑岩金矿成矿岩体的岩石学、岩石地球化学及热液蚀变作用特征%Petrologic, Petro-Chemical and Hydrothermal Alteration Characteristics of Porphyry Pipe in Longtoushan Gold Deposit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾南石; 张春鹏; 徐文炘; 朱文风; 邱桂龙

    2011-01-01

    The Longtoushan porphyry related to gold mineralization is reconfirmed with granodiorite porphyry based on SiO2 contents and residual hornblende. Hydrothermal fluids from magmatic system formed sericite zone at lower part, and kaolinite zone at upper portion in the granodiorite porphyry. B-rich Au-bearing hydrothermal fluid which mixed meteoric water from the heat of magma intrusion filled in the fractures surrounded the porphyry pipe, replaced the altered porphyry rock, and formed the zone of gold mineralization and tourmaline alteration. Petro-chemical characteristics and isotope dating suggest that the Longtoushan porphyry pipe was formed by I type magma which has been contaminated by some materials from crust. The porphyry intrusion has the similar materials of rock-forming, structure setting, and timing with other intrusions found in the surrounding areas.%根据镜下特征及SiO2含量,将龙头山金矿成矿岩体的构成主体重新定名为花岗闪长斑岩.岩浆期后气液导致岩体上部发生弥散型绢云母化和高岭石化;受热流体的酸碱分离作用影响,形成高岭石化相对在上、绢云母化在下的垂直蚀变分带.侵入岩浆带来的热能,同时形成有大气降水加入的富硼含矿热液,并沿岩体接触带及顶部发育的碎裂构造等开放空间充填,交代已绢云母化、高岭石化的花岗闪长斑岩,形成围绕岩体的近环状含金隐爆角砾岩和电气石-硅化带.微量元素与同位素测年研究表明,成矿岩体的成岩物质来源于燕山晚期受混染的I型花岗岩浆;与周边岩体在成岩物质、侵位空间及成岩时代等方面表现出岩浆活动的一致性.

  19. 内蒙古苏尼特右旗毕力赫大型斑岩型金矿床辉钼矿Re-Os同位素年龄及其地质意义%Molybdnite Re-Os isotope age of Bilihe large-size porphyry gold deposit in Sunid Right Banner of Inner Mongolia and its geological significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卿敏; 葛良胜; 唐明国; 屈文俊; 袁士松; 赵玉锁

    2011-01-01

    内蒙古苏尼特右旗毕力赫大型斑岩型金矿的发现在华北板块北缘尚属首例.为了查明该斑岩型金(铜)矿化发生的时间,作者采集了斑岩体内6件辉钼矿样品进行铼-锇同位素测试,获得等时线年龄为(272.7±1.6)Ma(MSWD=0.57).毕力赫晚古生代金矿成矿地质事件的厘定,为华北板块北部晚古生代汇聚板块构造体系提供了新证据,促使对华北北部一些基础地质问题重新进行认识,对中亚造山带中东段晚古生代岩浆弧环境寻找浅成低温-斑岩型金多金属矿床具有启示意义.%Situated in Sonid Right Banner of Inner Mongolia, the Bilihe gold deposit lies within the Caledonian hyperplasia orogenic belt sandwiched between North China north margin (Kangbao-Chifeng) fault and WenduermiaoXilamulun fault in the middle-eastern section of the Central Asian orogenic belt. The host rock in the Bilihe gold deposit is a set of neutral-acidic volcanic rocks-sedimentary rocks, which can be divided into andesites in the lower part and rhyolites with related clastic rocks in the upper part. The concealed gold-bearing sub-volcanic intrusive complex composed mainly of granodiorite porphyry-monzogranite porphyry is closely related to the mineralization. Four types of mineralization have been identified, namely quartz vein type, tectonic fracture zone altered rock type, explosion breccia type and porphyry altered rock type. The first three mineralization types are controlled by faults, breccia pipes (veins) and volcanic bodies as well as their supporting structures. The gold deposit belongs to the (sub)volcanic hydrothermal type, which has been subjected to intense erosion and hence only partially preserved. The most important mineralization type is the porphyry alteration type, and the proven resources of this type of mineralization account for more than 90 % of the total resources of the mining area. The porphyry type mineralization occurs in the inner- and exo-contact zone

  20. ANALISIS SPASIAL FUNGSI EKOLOGI RUANG TERBUKA HIJAU DI KOTA CIBINONG

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    Ajat Rochmat Djatnika

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Green open space has a function to reduce the level of carbondioxide in the air. Carbondioxide levels are generally increased due to an increase in motor vehicle exhaust gas emissions and land use changes, such as changes in open land into industrial, or agricultural land turned into housing, etc.Cibinong City in this decade had increased levels of carbondioxide caused by the developmnet of a growing city. Research purposes are (1 analyze changes of green open space and its impact on the ability to absorb carbondioxide, (2 analyze the amount of carbondioxide produced by motor vehicle exhaust gas emissions for each road segment and provide direction spatially green open space. In this decade (from 2000 to 2010, Changes of unbuilt land to built land increased from 2.268,88 Ha (35,78 % to3.558,22 Ha (56,12 %, however, absorption of the green open spaces of the carbondioxide increases. Whereas, Carbondioxide emission strength on larger road on the Raya Bogor (City Center 498 gr/detik which has the function of arterial roads with the task of helping regional movement. The most amount of carbondioxide emissions generated by personal vehicles, motorcycles, and ligth public trasportation, while trucks and buses do not contribute. When the carbondioxide emission strength map is overlayed with the land use map then we have the conclusion that the roads that have a high volume of vehicle movement will have a high carbondioxide levels, but not mean low air quality because it depends on the existence of protective trees as green belt. Keywords: green open spaces, carbondioxide emission levels, landuse changes

  1. KUANTITAS DAN KUALITAS RUANG TERBUKA HIJAU DI PERMUKIMAN PERKOTAAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agung Dwiyanto

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Green Air-Gap management in area of settlement urban tend to to experience of the challenge which enough weightof effect about height of urbanization current. while on the other side, energy support the downhill existing socialand environment also, so that cannot make balance to the requirement of space of effect about human pressure .Other challenge go together the height mount the conversion or displace to utilize the farm from farm (especiallyagriculture farm become the area develop;builded generating impact to lowering environmental quality nyabecome green of urban. Evaluate the planology is exist in generally only study the aspect of accuracy or deviation ofspace according about zoning which already specified . Meanwhile its exploiting intensity change seldom debate, sothat need the new stages;steps to improve;repair the quality and existing amount green space.

  2. ANALISIS PERILAKU KONSUMEN KOTA BOGOR TERHADAP PRODUK KOSMETIK HIJAU

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    Nadya Tanaya Ardianti

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The exploding societal movement based upon environmental concerns and consumer awareness is spreading all over the globe. As a result, consumers concern about environmental issues is growing significantly and marketers have realized the importance of introducing green cosmetic products.However, there is doubt whether this awareness and concern is translated into the right behavior. In this study, consumers’ attitudes, behaviors, perception and demographic factor were manipulated to determine their relative influence on willingness to pay for green cosmetic products. The results showed consumer’s age, education, income and ecoliteracy to be the consistent explanatory factor in predicting their willingness to pay. The result also suggested that attitude toward firm’s responsibilities and buying behavior which’s consider environment factor to be the consistent explanatory factor in predicting their willingness to pay. This study also examined the relationships between consumer’s attitude, subjective norms, perceived behavior control and green cosmetic buying intentions using the Theory of PlannedBehavior (TPB. This study revealed that at significance level ten percent, attitude, subjective norm and perceived behavior control correlates positively with intention.

  3. IMPLEMENTASI TUGAS DAN WEWENANG PENYIDIK TERHADAP PERLINDUNGAN PENYU HIJAU

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    Budi Prasetyo

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The research of officer task and authority implementation towards green turtle conservation (study case of Marine Police Directorate Regional Bali aims to describing and analizing officer task and authority implementation in deep based on both KUHAP or Conservation Law. Besides, this research also aims to figure out the enabling and inhibiting factors in implementing officer task and authority towards green turtle conservation, also researching the steps taken by of Marine Police Directorate Regional Bali. The need for green turtle in Bali is rising up to this time. Although many criminal offensers got caught by of Marine Police Directorate Regional Bali officers but it is still going on. Based on this situation, a question arises how is the implementation of officer task and authority towards green turtle conservation and what are the enabling and inhibiting factors. The method used in this research is empirical legal research with descriptive research using prime and secondary data resouces with interview and also related available documents. This research uses non probability sampling technique which is purpose sampling with quota sampling that is a process of sample withdrawing by observing the easiest sample to take and the sample has special features that attracts the researcher. With all collected data, managed using qualitative analysis and the data presented descriptively and sistematically. Based on the research done before, it is noticed that the implementation of officer task and authority towards green turtle conservation based on KUHAP and Conservation Law has been going well. Granting rights for the suspects of green turtle trading during the investigation has been done by the officers based on KUHAP. The factors which becomes the enabling task for officer task and authority towards green turtle is the law factor, law enforcement, equipment and facilities, and culture. Meanwhile the society factor is the main inhibiting factor for implementing officer task and authority towards green turtle conservation. The habit of consuming turtle meat and guise of religious ceremony are mostly used as the reasons in trading this protected animal.

  4. AKTIVITAS ENZIM FITASE PADA PERKEMBANGAN KACANG HIJAU (Phaseolus radiatus L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woro Riyadina

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This is a study on the phytase enzyme activities on germination of Mung Beans (Phaseolus radiatus L. The activities and stability of phytase enzyme were observed under influence of various incubation temperature (27°C, 37°C and 55"C, and incubation time (1 hour, 2 hours and 3 hours of the Mung Beans (Phaseolus radiatus L in germinating for 1 to 5 days. The results showed that activities of phytase enzyme at the same temperature and incubation time are the same in Mung Beans seed germinating for 1 to 5 days. Phytase enzyme is one of the termostabile enzymes with optimal activities at high temperature.

  5. Post-collisional magmatism and ore-forming systems in the Menderes massif: new constraints from the Miocene porphyry Mo-Cu Pınarbaşı system, Gediz-Kütahya, western Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delibaş, Okan; Moritz, Robert; Chiaradia, Massimo; Selby, David; Ulianov, Alexey; Revan, Mustafa Kemal

    2017-01-01

    The Pınarbaşı Mo-Cu prospect is hosted within the Pınarbaşı intrusion, which is exposed together with the NW-SE-trending Koyunoba, Eğrigöz, and Baklan plutons along the northeastern border of the Menderes massif. The Pınarbaşı intrusion predominantly comprises monzonite, porphyritic granite, and monzodiorite. All units of the Pınarbaşı intrusion have sharp intrusive contacts with each other. The principal mineralization style at the Pınarbaşı prospect is a porphyry-type Mo-Cu mineralization hosted predominantly by monzonite and porphyritic granite. The porphyry type Mo-Cu mineralization consists mostly of stockwork and NE- and EW-striking sub-vertical quartz veins. Stockwork-type quartz veins hosted by the upper parts of the porphyritic granite within the monzonite, are typically enriched in chalcopyrite, molybdenite, pyrite, and limonite. The late NE- and EW-striking normal faults cut the stockwork vein system and control the quartz-molybdenite-chalcopyrite-sphalerite-fahlore-galena veins, as well as molybdenite-hematite-bearing silicified zones. Lithogeochemical and whole-rock radiogenic isotope data (Sr, Nd and Pb) of the host rocks, together with Re-Os molybdenite ages (18.3 ± 0.1 Ma - 18.2 ± 0.1 Ma) reveal that the monzonitic and granitic rocks of the Pınarbaşı intrusion were derived from an enriched lithospheric mantle-lower crust during Oligo-Miocene post-collisional magmatism. The lithospheric mantle was metasomatised by fluids and subducted sediments, and the mantle-derived melts interacted with lower crust at 35-40 km depth. This mechanism explains the Mo and Cu enrichments of the Pınarbaşı intrusion during back-arc magmatism. We conclude that the melt of the Pınarbaşı intrusion could have rapidly ascended to mid-crustal levels, with only limited crustal assimilation along major trans-lithospheric faults as a result of thinning of the middle to upper crust during regional extension, and resulted in the development of porphyry

  6. 云南香格里拉春都斑岩铜矿区围岩蚀变及矿化特征%Features of alteration and mineralization in the Chundu porphyry copper deposit, Xianggelila, Yunnan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜永果; 吴静; 李峰; 杨帆; 邹国富; 李建飞; 赵向东; 郭嵋

    2011-01-01

    春都斑岩铜矿床地处著名的印支期中甸-义敦岛弧成矿带南端。矿区出露闪长玢岩-花岗闪长斑岩复式岩体,成矿岩体为印支晚期的花岗闪长斑岩。围绕成矿岩体,围岩蚀变强烈,蚀变分带明显,由中心向外,依次出现硅化钾化带→绢英岩化带→硅化带→硅化黑云母化带→青磐岩化带→绢云母化及泥化带。区内蚀变与矿化关系密切,蚀变类型决定矿化程度,蚀变带的分布控制矿体产状。因此,围岩蚀变特征的研究将为矿区进一步找矿提供重要依据。%The Chundu porphyry copper deposit lies in the southernmost famous Zhongdian-Yidun island arc of the Indosinian Orogeny. There are cropping-out of multi-legs rock mass composed of diorite porphyrite and granodiorite-porphyly in the orefield. The granodiorite-porphyry is granodiorite -porphyry metallogenic rock mass in the orefield. There are fierce alteration of wall rock and visible zonality of alteration in the orefield sun'ounding the metallogenic rock mass. There exist kali silicification zone→sericitolite zone~silicification and biotitization zone→silification zone→propylitization zone→ sericitization and argillization zone ,from centre to outside surrounding the metallogenic rock mass. The alteration is closely related with mineralization in this area. The degree of mineralization depends on the types of alteration and the occurrence of orebody is controlled by the distribution of alteration zones. So the study of alteration of wall rock will provide important evidence for further prospecting in the orefield.

  7. U-Pb, Re-Os, and 40Ar/39Ar geochronology of the Nambija Au-skarn and Pangui porphyry Cu deposits, Ecuador: implications for the Jurassic metallogenic belt of the Northern Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiaradia, Massimo; Vallance, Jean; Fontboté, Lluis; Stein, Holly; Schaltegger, Urs; Coder, Joshua; Richards, Jeremy; Villeneuve, Mike; Gendall, Ian

    2009-05-01

    New U-Pb, Re-Os, and 40Ar/39Ar dates are presented for magmatic and hydrothermal mineral phases in skarn- and porphyry-related ores from the Nambija and Pangui districts of the Subandean zone, southeastern Ecuador. Nambija has been one of the main gold-producing centers of Ecuador since the 1980s due to exceptionally high-grade ores (average 15 g/t, but frequently up to 300 g/t Au). Pangui is a recently discovered porphyry Cu-Mo district. The geology of the Subandean zone in southeastern Ecuador is dominated by the I-type, subduction-related, Jurassic Zamora batholith, which intrudes Triassic volcanosedimentary rocks. The Zamora batholith is in turn cut by porphyritic stocks, which are commonly associated with skarn formation and/or porphyry-style mineralization. High precision U-Pb and Re-Os ages for porphyritic stocks (U-Pb, zircon), associated prograde skarn (U-Pb, hydrothermal titanite), and retrograde stage skarn (Re-Os, molybdenite from veins postdating gold deposition) of the Nambija district are all indistinguishable from each other within error (145 Ma) and indicate a Late Jurassic age for the gold mineralization. Previously, gold mineralization at Nambija was considered to be Early Tertiary based on K-Ar ages obtained on various hydrothermal minerals. The new Jurassic age for the Nambija district is slightly younger than the 40Ar/39Ar and Re-Os ages for magmatic-hydrothermal minerals from the Pangui district, which range between 157 and 152 Ma. Mineralization at Nambija and Pangui is associated with porphyritic stocks that represent the last known episodes of a long-lived Jurassic arc magmatism (˜190 to 145 Ma). A Jurassic age for mineralization at Nambija and Pangui suggests that the Northern Andean Jurassic metallogenic belt, which starts in Colombia at 3° N, extends down to 5° S in Ecuador. It also adds a new mineralization style (Au-skarn) to the metal endowment of this belt.

  8. 杂多地区喜山期花岗斑岩地球化学特征及地质意义%Geochemistry Characteristics and Geological Significance of the Himalayan Period Granit-Porphyry in the Zaduo Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付军; 保广普; 刘春娥; 王永文; 李建放; 马延景

    2012-01-01

    杂多地区花岗斑岩的麦多拉和纳日贡玛等岩体,测年结果显示年龄值分布为(40.8士0.4)Ma、(43.3士0.5)Ma,为喜山期的产物,杂多地区岩体是同一时代的产物.杂多地区多金属成矿带,包括纳日贡玛—麦多拉—乌葱察别—迪拉亿—哼赛青等斑岩型铜、铅、锌、钼、金、银等多金属矿床,微量元素(包括稀土元素),研究结果表明含矿斑岩和共生的钾质斑岩岩体在时空上具一致性,岩石化学成分均富碱(w(K2O)+w(Na2O)>5%),高K和w (K2O)/w(Na2O)值远大于1, 微量元素富集Sr、Ba等大离子亲石元素和轻稀土元素等,均显示出钾玄岩和高钾系列岩石的特征,暗示杂多地区多金属成矿带的含矿斑岩属于典型的钾玄岩和高钾系列的斑岩.%The age of Maiduola granit-porphyry and Narigongma lithsomes, is the value of (40. 86±0. 4) Ma, (43. 3±0. 5) Ma. and they are the product of the early Stage of Yanshan, through the LAICP-M S zircon U-Pb isotopic dating, which indicate that many parts of the complex product of the times is the same lithsomes, the multi-metallic deposits of Cu, Mo, Pb, Zn, Au and Ag etc. of the porphyry types and trace elements (include REE) are found from narigongma, maiduola, yucongeongchabie, dilayi and hengsaiqing copper ore belt in the Eastern Tibet. The analytical results show that the ore-bearing porphyry and coexisting potassic plutons rocks, volcanic rocks and plutons have the same temporal-spatial distribution, uniform in the petrochemical compositions with alkali-rich (a; (K2O+NazO) >5%), high potassium and w (KZO) /w (Na2O) >1, and a strong enrichment in LILE of Sr, Ba etc and LREE. This shows the characteristics of the shoshonitic series rocks, indicating the ore-bearing porphyry of the

  9. Study on Mixed Spectra of Alteration Zones in Porphyry Copper Deposits Based on the Hapke and Shkuratov Models%基于Hapke和Shkuratov模型的斑岩铜矿蚀变带混合波谱研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    代晶晶; 李庆亭

    2013-01-01

    Abstract:Spectral mixture models for minerals play an important role in extraction of alteration information.The Hapke and Shkuratov models are two important non-linear spectral mixture models.This paper analyzes the characteristics of these two models,and puts forward a new method for simulating mixed spectral of mineral assemblages and rocks based on them.And we simulate the spectra of typical mineral assemblages of the alteration zones (potassic,phyllic,argillic and propylitic zones),taking the alteration zones in porphyry copper deposits as examples.The results can provide a theoretical basis for studies of alteration zones in porphyry copper deposits.%矿物光谱混合模型研究对于蚀变带蚀变矿物的信息提取具有重要意义.本文基于目前两种主流的非线性光谱混合模型Hapke和Shkuratov模型,通过对两者特性的对比分析,提出了一种综合利用这两种模型进行矿物或岩石光谱混合模拟的思路,并针对斑岩型铜矿典型蚀变分带现象,进行钾化带、绢英岩化带、泥化带、青磐岩化带等典型蚀变带矿物组合光谱的模拟实验.本研究提取结果可以为斑岩铜矿蚀变带研究提供理论依据.

  10. 云南中旬岛弧带典型斑岩铜矿床围岩蚀变特征对比及其找矿意义%The comparison of the features of wall rock alteration and its prospecting significance in typical porphyry copper deposit in Zhongdian arc orogen, Yunnan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜永果; 吴静; 李峰; 崔银亮; 张亚辉

    2011-01-01

    中甸岛弧带是斑岩型铜矿的矿集区,区内的斑岩铜矿床围岩蚀变强烈,蚀变分带明显,围岩蚀变与矿化关系密切.文章对分别位于中甸岛弧东、西部成矿带的春都和普朗斑岩铜矿床围岩蚀变及矿化特征进行了对比分析.研究结果表明,2个斑岩铜矿床的围岩蚀变类型主要表现形式以及蚀变分带模式基本相同,研究还得出中旬岛弧带斑岩铜矿床钾硅化带以及绢英岩化带的蚀变强度及其规模共同决定斑岩铜矿床的规模.中旬岛弧带斑岩铜矿床中,青磐岩化玢岩为找矿的间接标志,绢英岩化或钾硅化斑岩(玢岩)为找矿的直接标志.%Zhongdian arc orogen is an important centralized zone of porphyry copper, where the wall rock alteration strongly related with mineralization is fierce and alteration zones are obivious. The characteristics of the wall rock alteration and mineralization of Pulang in the eastern matollgenic belts and Chundu porphyry copper deposit in the western matollgenic belts of Zhongdian arc were compared and analysised in this article. The studies show that the wall rock alteration types and zonality of alteration are roughly the same between Pulang and Chunduin porphyry copper deposits, and that the scale of porphyry copper deposit are controlled by thestrength and scale of kali silicification zone and sericitolite zone as well. In the porphyry copper deposit of Zhongdian arc orgen belts, the propyliti-zation porphyrite is an indirect prospecting sign, while sericitolite porphyry and kali silicification are the direct prospecting signs.

  11. 西藏雄村斑岩型铜金矿红柱石成因矿物学特征%Genetic Mineralogy of Andalusite in Xiongcun Porphyry Copper-Gold Oredeposit, Tibet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄勇; 丁俊; 唐菊兴; 张丽; 郎兴海

    2012-01-01

    雄村斑岩铜金矿中广泛分布有红柱石,红柱石主要呈三种产出状态:①石英-钾长石-白云母/绢云母-红柱石组合;②红柱石-石英-绢云母/白云母组合;③石英-红柱石-硫化物脉.矿物组合关系、红柱石结构和成分等特征均表明红柱石属热液成因.早期钾硅酸盐化带中的石英-钾长石-白云母/绢云母-红柱石组合形成于高温(大于550℃)、低+K/+H比值环境.随着热液体系温压降低,热液体系+K/+H比值升高,早期钾硅酸盐化被黄铁绢英岩化强烈交代,形成相对较低温环境的红柱石-石英-绢云母/白云母组合,黄铁绢英岩化交代早期钾硅酸盐化过程可能伴随有大量循环大气降水进入崩塌的热液体系.石英-红柱石-硫化物脉分布较少,且只分布在黄铁绢英岩化外围,硫化物以黄铁矿为主,脉体两侧见有较为宽广的绢云母蚀变晕,形成于相对低温环境的高+K/+H比值环境.雄村斑岩铜金矿中的热液成因红柱石特征与智利的El Salvador斑岩矿床中热液红柱石特征类似,富含Al2O3的火山岩/侵入岩为红柱石提供了良好的物质条件,同时广泛分布的热液红柱石重塑了岩浆-热液过程中的P-T条件.%There are abundant andalusites in the Xiongcun porphyry copper-gold deposit. Three major assemblages are recognized, i.e., quartz-K-feldspar-muscovite/sericite-andalusite assemblage, andalusite-quartz-sericite/ muscovite assemblage, and quartz - andalusite - sulfide veins. The mineral association, texture and composition of andalusites indicate that the andalusites are of hydrothermal type. The quartz-K-feldspar-muscovite/ sericite-andalusite assemblage in early K-silicate alteration zone was formed under the conditions of fairly high temperatures (above 550℃) and relatively low +K/+H ratios. Early K-silicate alteration was replaced by later phyllic/sericitic alteration under lower P-T and higher +K/+H conditions, and meteoric water probably

  12. Ultra-deep oxidation and exotic copper formation at the late pliocene boyongan and bayugo porphyry copper-gold deposits, surigao, philippines: Geology, mineralogy, paleoaltimetry, and their implications for Geologic, physiographic, and tectonic controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braxton, D.P.; Cooke, D.R.; Ignacio, A.M.; Rye, R.O.; Waters, P.J.

    2009-01-01

    The Boyongan and Bayugo porphyry copper-gold deposits are part of an emerging belt of intrusion-centered gold-rich deposits in the Surigao district of northeast Mindanao, Philippines. Exhumation and weathering of these Late Pliocene-age deposits has led to the development of the world's deepest known porphyry oxidation profile at Boyongan (600 m), and yet only a modest (30-70 m) oxidation profile at adjacent Bayugo. Debris flows, volcanic rocks, and fluviolacustrine sediments accumulating in the actively extending Mainit graben subsequently covered the deposits and preserved the supergene profiles. At Boyongan and Bayugo, there is a vertical transition from shallower supergene copper oxide minerals (malachite + azurite + cuprite) to deeper sulfide-stable assemblages (chalcocite ?? hypogene sulfides). This transition provides a time-integrated proxy for the position of the water table at the base of the saturated zone during supergene oxidation. Contours of the elevation of the paleopotentiometric surface based on this min- eralogical transition show that the thickest portions of the unsaturated zone coincided with a silt-sand matrix diatreme breccia complex at Boyongan. Within the breccia complex, the thickness of the unsaturated zone approached 600 in, whereas outside the breccia complex (e.g., at Bayugo), the thickness averaged 50 m. Contours of the paleopotentiometric surface suggest that during weathering, groundwater flowed into the breccia complex from the north, south, and east, and exited along a high permeability zone to the west. The high relief (>550 m) on the elevation of the paleopotentiometric surface is consistent with an environment of high topographic relief, and the outflow zone to the west of the breccia complex probably reflects proximity to a steep scarp intersecting the western breccia complex margin. Stable isotope paleoaltimetry has enabled estimation of the elevation of the land surface, which further constrains the physiographic setting

  13. 浙西北杜家东坞斑岩型钼矿床特征及找矿前景分析%Geological Characteristics and Prospecting Potential of the Dujiadongwu Porphyry Molybdeum Deposit in Northwestern Zhejiang Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张建芳; 解怀生; 龚瑞君; 许新苗; 高海发

    2012-01-01

    杜家东坞钼矿床位于钦杭成矿带北东端绍兴夏履桥-萧山浦阳火山构造洼地,成矿与青化山破火山口一龙角尖火山通道构造活动关系密切;钼矿化呈细脉浸染状赋存于火山通道周围的火山(角砾)岩裂隙及断裂中,成矿与钾化、硅化、黄铁矿化、磁铁矿化蚀变关系密切;矿床成因类型为斑岩型钼矿床。综合分析矿区成矿地质背景、矿化蚀变特征、地球物理特征及地球化学特征,认为在火山通道环形张性断裂与北西向断裂裂隙带、低阻带及中低阻过渡高极化带、磁异常零值区、负值区或正负值交界处等区域有望找到富矿体,龙角尖火山通道的深部有望找到小斑岩体,这说明在浙西北火山岩区具有寻找斑岩型矿床的良好前景。%The Dujiadongwu Cu-Mo deposit is located in the Xialvqiao-Xiaoshan Puyang volcanic- structure sag northeast of the Qinghang metallo- genic belt, Shoaxing, Zhejiang Province. Its mineralization is intimately related to the Qinghuashan caldera-Longjiaojian volcanic conduit structure. Based on the integrated analysis of geological setting, alteration, geophysical and geochemical characteristics, the regional metallogenic regularity and prospecting indicators are summarized as follows. The areas, including joint space of extension faults in the volcanic conduit, N-W faults, joints and crack belt, contact zone of low and moderate resistivity, zero-value aeromagnetic anomaly district, boundary district of negative and positive aemmagnetic anomalies, high gradient induced polarization district, are the potential places for finding high-concentration ore bodies or veins. Small porphyry intru- sions and porphyry deposits likely exist at depth in the Longjiaojian volcanic conduit.

  14. 浅析河南嵩县鱼池岭斑岩型钼矿床地质特征及找矿标志%Geological characteristics and clues for prospecting of Yuchiling porphyry Mo deposit in Songxian of Henan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周树峰; 陈庆良; 李耀武; 徐卫强; 宋向明

    2014-01-01

    鱼池岭斑岩型钼矿是东秦岭新发现的超大型钼矿床,矿体赋存于合峪岩体童子庄复式花岗岩体和隐爆角砾集块岩中。矿体呈似层状、不规则的穹丘体状。矿石类型以辉钼矿矿石、黄铁矿-辉钼矿矿石为主。钼矿化主要呈细脉浸染状、细脉状、浸染状产出;矿化与脉体发育程度呈正相关。围岩蚀变具有分带特点:从隐爆角砾岩体向外,蚀变表现为钾化-石英绢云母化-粘土化分带。成矿经历了岩浆期、透岩浆流体期。该区燕山期斑岩岩株、隐爆角砾集块岩体是主要的找矿标志;合峪岩体及相类似岩体是今后找矿方向。%Yuchiling porphyry Mo deposit is a newly discovered super large scale deposit in the East Qinling Mountains,and the ore-bodies occur in Tongzizhuang composite granite of Heyu rock body and crypto-explo-sive brecciated agglomerate.The ore-bodies are in stratoid structure or irregular dome structure.The ores are mainly composed of molybdenite and pyrite-molybdenite.The mineralization of molybdenum occurs in veinlet disseminated structure,veinlet structure,or disseminated structure.The mineralization is positively correlated with the growth of veins.The alteration of wall-rocks is characterized by zoning:from the crypto-explosive breccia outward,the alteration occurs in forms of potassic alteration,quartz-sericitization and argil-lation respectively.The ore-forming process includes magmatic stage and transmagmatic fluid stage.The oc-currence of Yanshanian porphyry-type stocks and crypto-explosive brecciated agglomerates are the primary clues for prospecting.Heyu rock bodies and similar rock bodies are the prospecting direction in the future.

  15. LA-ICP-MS Zircon U-Pb Dating of the Dacite Porphyry from Zijinshan Cu-Au Deposit and its Metallogenetic Implications%福建紫金山矿田晚中生代英安玢岩形成时代及其成矿意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡春杰; 黄文婷; 包志伟; 梁华英; 王春龙

    2012-01-01

    The dacite porphyry occurs in the volcanic caldera of Zijinshan ore field and closely associates with the Cu-Au mineralization.The LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb dating of two dacite porphyry samples yields weighted mean ages of ( 105.0 ±0.7) Ma and ( 105.0 ±2.2) Ma,respectively.These results suggest that the dacite porphyry was formed proximately contemporarily with the other two Mo and Cu mineralized granite porphyries,i.e.,the Sifang and Luoboling granite porphyries.The dacite and granite intrusives are characterized by high Ce4+/Ce3+ ratios,which indicates that the magmatic system was of oxidative and therefore consistent with the huge Cu-Mo-Au ore-forming potential of the dacite and granite porphyries.Moreover,the similarities of age,geochemical characteristics and mineralization demonstrate that the Cu-Mo-Au mineralization in the Zijinshan ore field is most likely a unified porphyry ore-forming system.%福建紫金山Cu-Mo-Au-Ag多金属矿田是一个完整的斑岩-浅成低温热液矿床成矿体系.英安玢岩主要分布在紫金山Au-Cu矿床内火山机构及其附近,与高品位Au-Cu矿体空间上联系密切,是矿田内火山-侵入岩浆过程的一个重要环节.采自矿区的两个英安玢岩样品LA-ICP-MS锫石U-Pb定年结果分别为(105.0±0.7) Ma(MSWD =0.83)和(105.0±2.2) Ma (MSWD=1.70),其形成时代与区内Mo-Cu矿化的萝卜岭和四方岩体形成时代相近.三个岩体形成时代及地球化学特征的相似性表明它们应为同源岩浆演化的产物,它们均具有较高的锆石Ce4+/Ce3+值,即岩浆体系具有较高的氧逸度,与区内斑岩成矿体系巨量金属堆积的地质事实相一致.英安玢岩的精确定年表明,紫金山Cu-Au矿与萝卜岭Mo-Cu矿及四方岩体有关的Mo矿床为同一斑岩成矿体系的产物.

  16. 安徽庐枞沙溪斑岩铜矿蚀变及矿化特征研究%Characteristics of alteration and mineralization of the Shaxi porphyry copper deposit, Luzong area, Anhui Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁峰; 周涛发; 王世伟; 范裕; 汤诚; 张千明; 俞沧海; 石诚

    2012-01-01

    沙溪斑岩铜矿是长江中下游成矿带中部庐枞火山岩盆地外围的一个大型铜矿床.本文在前人工作基础上,基于详细的野外观察和系统的岩相学、矿相学工作,详细研究了矿床的蚀变特征及分带.结果表明,矿床的蚀变类型有钾硅酸盐化、青磐岩化、长石分解蚀变和高岭土化,从深到浅依次发育有钾硅酸盐化、长石分解蚀变叠加钾硅酸盐化、长石分解蚀变和高岭土化等蚀变.确定了矿化特征、矿物生成顺序并划分了成矿阶段,即:钾硅酸盐阶段、石英硫化物阶段和石英碳酸盐阶段,其中,石英硫化物阶段又可进一步分为石英硫化物亚阶段和绿帘石-绿泥石亚阶段.基于蚀变及矿化特征认为,沙溪铜矿床的矿化始于钾硅酸盐阶段的晚期,石英硫化物亚阶段是黄铜矿主要的沉淀阶段,石英碳酸盐阶段也对成矿贡献了部分铜质.与世界上不同构造环境的典型斑岩铜矿床对比认为,沙溪矿床总体上与这些矿床的蚀变、矿化特征类似;与陆缘弧、岛弧、陆内碰撞造山后伸展环境矿床在矿体产出位置、蚀变分带方面相似;而由于围岩性质的差异,与板内环境的德兴矿床在矿体位置、蚀变分带方面存在差异,但是二者在脉体类型特别是与矿化关系密切的脉体特征上较为一致.因此,对于斑岩型矿床而言,构造背景可能控制了其岩浆的形成、演化以及含矿性,而岩浆岩最终定位的深度、围岩等条件则控制了其蚀变、矿化特征.%Shaxi is a large porphyry copper deposit located outside the Luzong volcanic basin in the Middle and Lower Reaches of the Yangtze River metallogenic belt. Before this study, geological investigations of wall rock alteration and mineralization characteristics of the deposit were minor, restricting application of these guides to exploration and to further study of the metallogenesis of the region. On the basis of previous work

  17. 黑龙江完达山地区358高地岩金矿床花岗斑岩LA-ICP-MS锆石U-Pb定年及其地质意义%LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb dating of granite-porphyry from 358 Upland rock gold deposit in Wanda Mountain area, Heilongjiang Province and its geological significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王庆磊; 杨言辰; 李骞; 马晓阳; 谈艳; 张国宾

    2015-01-01

    The 358 Upland rock gold deposit is located at the east edge of the Wanda orogenic belt, being part of the Circum-Pacif-ic metallogenic belt. The authors selected the granite porphyry closely associated with mineralization in the study area to conduct a systematic study of geology, petrography, element geochemistry and LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb dating results. According to the re-sults obtained, the granite porphyry is rich in silicon, sodium, potassium, aluminum and poor in magnesium and calcium, the Rittman index (σ) is 1.12 to 2.00(σ1.1). The granite-porphyry is enriched in LILE, relatively depleted in Ba, Nb and Ta, severely depleted in Sr, P and Ti; enriched in LREE, and depleted in HREE, with Eu anomalies. These characteristics reveal that the granite-porphyry is peraluminous, and the S type granite and magma might have been of shell source. LA-ICP-MS zircon dating methods were used to determine the age of the granite-porphyry. It is thus concluded that the gold metallogenic epoch should be late Early Cretaceous. Combined with the tectonic discrimination diagrams, the porphy-ry-granite shows the characteristics of post-collisional granite, and the formation of the porphyry might have been closely related to the post-collisional extension of the Pacific plate.%选取黑龙江省完达山地区358高地与成矿关系密切的花岗斑岩,进行系统的地质、岩相学、元素地球化学及LA-ICP-MS锆石U-Pb定年研究.结果显示:花岗斑岩具有富硅、钠、钾、铝,贫镁、钙的特征,里特曼指数(σ)为1.12~2.00(σ1.1);富集大离子亲石元素,亏损Nb、Ta,严重亏损Sr、P、Ti;轻稀土元素富集,重稀土元素亏损,具有负Eu异常.这些特征揭示,花岗斑岩是过铝质的S型花岗岩,岩浆来源可能为壳源.LA-ICP-MS锆石定年获得花岗斑岩的成岩年龄为128±1Ma,推断金矿成矿时代应为早白垩世晚期.构造判别图解显示,花岗斑岩具有碰撞后花岗岩的特征,斑岩体的形成很可能

  18. 蒙西斑岩铜钼矿含矿岩体地球化学和Sr-Nd-Pb同位素特征%Geochemical and Sr-Nd-Pb Isotopic Characteristics of the Ore-bearing Rock in Mengxi Porphyry Cu-Mo Deposit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘建朝; 王瑞美; 程建新; 彭素霞; 张海东; 王得权; 郑利宏

    2014-01-01

    Ore-bearing porphyry in Mengxi porphyry Copper-Molybdenum deposit is plagiogranite porphyry.The geo-chemical and Sr-Nd-Pb isotope research of porphyry bodies show that rocks are peraluminous calc-alkaline,enriched in large-ion lithophile elements Rb,Ba,U,K,Pb,Sr and depleted in high field strength elements Th,Ta,Nb,Nd,Ti.Through the studies on porphyry bodies,it is identified for rock bodies characterized with low (87Sr/86Sr) ⅰ ratio (0.7046 5~0.7053 7) and high εNd(t) value (-2.2~6.6).(206Pb/204Pb)i ratio of the rock bodies range from 17.13 to 17.33,(207Pb/204Pb)i ratio from 15.47 to 15.54,and (208Pb/204Pb)i ratio from 37.11 to 37.33.These characteristics indicate that the porphyry bodies possibly formed in arc environment, and the magmatic materials were derived from the mantle,involved some portions of crustal rocks,which may related with partial melting of subducted oceanic crust.Qiongheba in eastern Junggar is a potential area for prospecting the phyry Cu deposit.%蒙西斑岩铜钼矿含矿斑岩体主要为斜长花岗斑岩。通过对含矿斑岩体地球化学和Sr-Nd-Pb同位素特征的研究,确立斑岩体为过铝质钙碱性系列岩石,富集Rb,Ba,U,K,Pb,Sr等大离子亲石元素,亏损Th,Ta,Nb,Nd,Ti等高场强元素;具低的(87Sr/86Sr)ⅰ值(0.70465~0.70537)和相对较高的εNd(t)值(-2.2~6.6),且有较低的初始铅同位素比值(206Pb/204Pb)i=17.13~17.33,(207Pb/204Pb)i=15.47~15.54,(208Pb/204Pb)i=37.11~37.33。上述特征表明其形成于岛弧环境,岩浆物质来源以幔源为主,但也有少量壳源组分参与,岩浆的形成可能与洋壳的俯冲作用有关。东准噶尔琼河坝地区是形成和寻找斑岩型铜矿的有利地区。

  19. Geological Characteristics of the Mingze Porphyry Molybdenum Deposit and Prospecting Prognosis in Its Adjacent Area,Shannan,Tibet%西藏山南明则矿区斑岩型钼矿地质特征及外围找矿预测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈玉水; 王成东; 杜庆安

    2011-01-01

    西藏山南明则矿区斑岩型钼矿床主要由一厚大隐伏的钼矿体组成,其上部覆盖着巨厚层的古近系罗布莎群磨拉石建造.矿床赋存于冈底斯-念青唐古拉板片与喜马拉雅板片的结合带附近,赋矿岩石为钾长花岗岩和二长花岗斑岩.自上而下递次出现青盘岩化、泥化、(黄铁)绢云母化或石英钾化带.岩体侵入时代为古近纪渐新世.辉钼矿Re-Os同位素等时线年龄值为30Ma.该矿的发现为冈底斯成矿带南缘寻找同类斑岩型钼(铜)矿提供了新的线索.%The Mingze porphyry molybdenum deposit in Shannan, Tibet, is mainly composed of concealed massive molybdenum orebodies, which are covered by thick Paleogene Luobusa molasse. It lies in the suture zone between the Gangdise - Nyainqentanglha plate and the Himalayan plate. The deposit is hosted in K-feldspar granite and monzonitic granite-porphyry. From the top to the bottom of the orebody, alteration varies from propylitic alteration, argillization, phyllite-like alteration, pyritization to silicifiration and potassic alteration. The age of intrusive rock is Paleogene Oligocene, and the Re-Os isotope age of molybdenite ore is 30Ma. The discovery of the Mingze deposit provides new helpful evidence for prospecting similar porphyry molybdenum (copper) deposit along the southern margin of the Gangdise metallogenic belt.

  20. PROCESS MINERALOGY OF A PORPHYRY COPPER-MOLYBDENUM ORE CONTAINING ARSENIC IN PERU%秘鲁某斑岩型含砷铜钼矿工艺矿物学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于宏东; 金建文

    2012-01-01

    This paper performs a research on process mineralogy of a porphyry copper-molybdenum ore containing arsenic in Peru, by which the mode of occurrence of arsenic, copper, molybdenum in the ore is investigated, thus the mineralogy material for the ore of this type is enriched and an analysis on the mineralogy factors which influence the mineral processing targets is carried on. The results of process mineralogy show that the oxidation rate is quite low in the ore of this type, and the copper and molybdenum are easy to acquire a high recovery during mineral processing circuit, thus it is easy to achieve more ideal mineral processing targets. However, the arsenic in the ore is also of remarkable concentration in the copper-concentrated ore, more attention should be paid on the trend of tennantite in mineral separation process and produce copper concentrate with high and low arsenic by take full advantage of the small difference in the floatable property between the tennantite and chalcopyrite.%对秘鲁某斑岩型含砷铜钼矿进行了工艺矿物学研究,查明了矿石中砷、铜、钼等元素的赋存状态,丰富了该类型矿石的矿物学资料,并就影响选矿指标的矿物学因素进行了分析.工艺矿物学研究结果表明,该类型矿石的氧化率比较低,铜钼应具有较高的选矿回收率,选别作业时容易获得较理想的选矿指标,但矿石中的砷会在铜精矿中有显著的富集,应该重视砷黝铜矿在选矿流程中的走向,充分利用砷黝铜矿与黄铜矿之间浮游性的微小差异生产高、低砷铜精矿.

  1. Ecosystem Health in Mineralized Terrane-Data from Podiform Chromite (Chinese Camp Mining District, California), Quartz Alunite (Castle Peak and Masonic Mining Districts, Nevada/California), and Mo/Cu Porphyry (Battle Mountain Mining District, Nevada) Deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blecker, Steve W.; Stillings, Lisa L.; Amacher, Michael C.; Ippolito, James A.; DeCrappeo, Nicole M.

    2010-01-01

    various mineralized terranes. We were also interested in examining these relations in the context of determining appropriate reference conditions with which to compare reclamation efforts. The purpose of this report is to present the data used to develop indices of soil and ecosystem quality associated with mineralized terranes (areas enriched in metal-bearing minerals), specifically podiform chromite, quartz alunite, and Mo/Cu porphyry systems. Within each of these mineralized terranes, a nearby unmineralized counterpart was chosen for comparison. The data consist of soil biological, chemical, and physical parameters, along with vegetation measurements for each of the sites described below. Synthesis of these data and index development will be the subject of future publications.

  2. HUBUNGAN SUBSTRAT DASAR PERAIRAN DENGAN KEHADIRAN RUMPUT LAUT ALAM DI PERAIRAN UJUNG GENTENG, SUKABUMI, JAWA BARAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ofri Johan

    2015-12-01

    dari garis pantai dengan perbedaan karakteristik antar masing-masing kawasan tersebut, yaitu kawasan 1, 2, dan 3 dengan jarak 0-100 m, 100-300 m, dan > 300 m dari garis pantai. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa sebanyak 24 genus dari 34 spesies rumput laut yang termasuk dalam kelompok alga coklat, merah, dan hijau ditemukan pada ketiga kawasan dengan persentase total tutupan masing-masing 25,88%; 27,72%; dan 46,40%. Tutupan rumput laut tertinggi ditemukan pada kawasan 1, yang dicirikan oleh substrat pasir yang berasosiasi dengan lamun, dan diikuti oleh kawasan 2 dan 3. Hasil analisis diskriminan menunjukkan hubungan yang signifikan antara distribusi alga merah dengan tipe substrat pasir; alga coklat dengan tipe substrat batu karang, pecahan karang, dan karang hidup; sedangkan alga hijau tersebar hampir di seluruh kawasan dengan tipe substrat yang berbeda. Informasi keterkaitan substrat dan keberadaan jenis rumput laut sangat penting dalam mendukung pengembangan teknologi budidaya rumput laut.

  3. Characteristics of Alteration and Mineralization in the Sharang Pophyry Molybdenum Deposit in the Northern Margin of Gangdese and Comparison with Typical Porphyry Molybdenum Deposits in the World%冈底斯北缘沙让斑岩钼矿蚀变矿化特征及与典型斑岩钼矿床的对比

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵俊兴; 秦克章; 李光明; 李金祥

    2011-01-01

    The large-scale Sharang porphyry molybdenum deposit, as the firstly discovered single molybdenum porphyry-type deposit in the Cangdese metallogenic belt, formed in the main-stage of India-Asia continental collision with distinct characteristics of alteration and mineralization. The alteration types include potassic-silicate alteration ( K-feldspathization and biotitization), chlorite-epidote alteration, silicification, phyllic alteration (quartz-seri-cite-pyrite alteration) and argillic alteration (mainly Kaolinitization and illite - hydromuscovitization, always overlapping the silicic zone and phyllic zone). The main characteristics of mineralization, most founded in the ore district, are molybdenite-bearing vein, stockwork quartz+molybdenite±sulfide (other gangue minerals) vein, and ribbon-textured quartz+molybdenite±pyrite vein. Less disseminated mineralization, pure molybdenite veinlets and spotted mineralized matrix in the magmatic-hydrothermal breccias are observed in the Sharang area. As the phyllic zone and argillic zone are both main alteration types in the field study of Sharang, low erosion level of this porphyry deposit suggests great potential for the exploration. Additionally, several world-wide, typical porphyry molybdenum deposits are selected for the comparison and discussion of their characteristics of alteration and mineralization in this paper. It is concluded that both of potassic-silicate alteration and phyllic alteration have the major tight connection with mineralization in the most porphyry molybdenum deposits, and some alteration zones consist of fluorine-bearing minerals, such as the topaz zone in Henderson and fluorite-bearing zone in Donggou. The comparisons also indicate that the geometries of orebodies in most porphyry molybdenum deposits have been found as layers of coating ore -shell (or called inverted-cup) in the top of ore-forming intrusion. Among the orebodies, the main patterns of mineralization are stockwork and ribbon

  4. 拉萨地块北部~90Ma斑岩型矿床年代学及成矿地质背景%Geochronology and Ore-Forming Geological Background of ~90 Ma Porphyry Copper Deposit in the Lhasa Terrane, Tibet Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王保弟; 许继峰; 刘保民; 陈建林; 王立全; 郭琳; 王冬兵; 张万平

    2013-01-01

    A number of large-very large porphyry Cu-Mo-Au deposits have been discovered in the Tibetan plateau, which has caused widespread concern in recent years. Existing research results show that the formation ages of thse ore-bearing porphyries and porphyry deposits in the Tibetan Pleteau concentrate mainly on four stages: 120~110 Ma, ~90 Ma, 54~45 Ma and 18~12 Ma, but the ore-forming geological background of porphyry deposits forming at the second stage (90Ma) is still controversial. This study reports the zircon LA-ICPMS U-Pb and molybdenites Re-Os ages of the porphyry Cu-Mo-Au deposits in the northern Lhasa terrane, along with analysis of ore-forming background. Two weighted average 206Pb/238U ages for two granodioritic porphyry samples are 92. 1±1. 2 Ma and 93. 8±1.2 Ma, which probably record the age of magma crystallization, while the molybdenites Re-Os isotopic age of 88. 2~89. 6 Ma probably represents the age of mineralization of the Balazha porphyry deposits. Based on the regional geochemical data, this study suggests that the magmatism and mineralizaion at~90 Ma in the northern Lhasa terrane was neither the prodcut of subduction of the Neo-Tethys ocean and oceanic ridge, which are represented by the Yarlung-zangbo suture, nor the direct result of subduction of the BangongcoNujiang Ocean, but likely the product of collision process after the subduction and closure of the BangongcoNujiang Ocean.%近年来青藏高原多个大型—超大型斑岩Cu-Mo-Au矿床的发现已引起人们广泛的关注,现有研究显示这些含矿斑岩和斑岩型矿床的形成年龄主要集中在120~110 Ma、~90 Ma、54~45 Ma和18~12 Ma4个阶段,其中90 Ma左右的斑岩型矿床的成矿地质背景仍存在很大争议.本文报道拉萨地块北部尼玛县拔拉扎斑岩型矿床含矿斑岩的LA-ICPMS锆石U-Pb定年以及辉钼矿Re-OS定年结果,并分析了该期的成矿地质背景.两件花岗闪长斑岩锆石206 Pb/238U

  5. The first discovery of Indosinian quartz porphyry in Dongkengkou Village, southern An-hui Province%皖南印支期石英斑岩的首次发现及其构造意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘秀; 余心起; 李鹏举; 陈子微

    2016-01-01

    印支时期,中国东南部地区构造运动活跃,岩浆活动较为发育。但是,皖南地区一直未发现该时期侵入岩。近期在安徽省黄山市徽州区东坑口村北约500m处x046县道旁,发现石英斑岩脉体。用LA-ICP-MS技术测得其中锆石的U-Pb年龄为245.2±2.4 Ma,此年龄代表石英斑岩的结晶年龄,即形成于印支期中三叠世,而非前人一直认为的燕山期岩浆活动产物。岩石地球化学特征显示,东坑口石英斑岩富集Th、La、Ce等大离子亲石元素及轻稀土元素,亏损Ba、Sr、P、Ti等高场强元素,具有高的10000×Ga/Al值及Zr、Nb、Ce、Y含量,岩石中可见半自形的石英和斜长石,具有A型花岗岩的特征。皖南印支期A型花岗岩的发现,为区域构造-岩浆演化研究提供了新的科学依据,对理解和构建中国东南部乃至华南地区早中生代构造演化具有重要意义。%It is generally thought that both tectonic events and magmatic activities during the Indosinian period were intense in south⁃eastern China. In contrast, the Indosinian magmatic activities in southern Anhui area were generally not considered to be existent, be⁃cause there was not any previous reported Indosinian intrusive rock in this area. In this paper, the authors obtained LA-ICP-MS zir⁃con U-Pb weighted average age of 245.2±2.4Ma for the quartz porphyry dyke from the side of x046 highway, about 500m north of Dongkengkou Village, Huizhou District, Huangshan City, southern Anhui Province, which implys that the Dongkengkou quartz por⁃phyry (DQP) was formed during Indosinian period rather than in Yanshanian period. The bulk-rock chemical data indicate that the DQP is enriched with LILE, LREE and depleted in high field-strength elements Ba, Sr, P, Ti, and possesses high 10000×Ga/Al ra⁃tios and high Zr, Nb, Ce and Y values. Petrologically, the DQP has hypidiomorphic quartz and plagioclase, exhibiting A-type gran

  6. Lead-isotopic, sulphur-isotopic, and trace-element studies of galena from the Silesian-Cracow Zn-Pb ores, polymetallic veins from the Gory Swietokrzyskie MTS, and the Myszkow porphyry copper deposit, Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, S.E.; Vaughn, R.B.; Gent, C.A.; Hopkins, R.T.

    1996-01-01

    Lead-isotopic data on galena samples collected from a paragenetically constrained suite of samples from the Silesian-Cracow ore district show no regional or paragenetically controlled lead-isotopic trends within the analytical reproducibility of the measurements. Furthermore, the new lead-isotopic data agree with previously reported lead-isotopic results (R. E. Zartman et al., 1979). Sulfur-isotopic analyses of ores from the Silesian-Cracow district as well as from vein ore from the Gory Swietokrzyskie Mts. and the Myszkow porphyry copper deposit, when coupled with trace-element data from the galena samples, clearly discriminate different hydrothermal ore-forming events. Lead-isotopic data from the Permian and Miocene evaporite deposits in Poland indicate that neither of these evaporite deposits were a source of metals for the Silesian-Cracow district ores. Furthermore, lead-isotopic data from these evaporite deposits and the shale residues from the Miocene halite samples indicate that the crustal evolution of lead in the central and western European platform in southern Poland followed normal crustal lead-isotopic growth, and that the isotopic composition of crustal lead had progressed beyond the lead-isotopic composition of lead in the Silesian-Cracow ores by Permian time. Thus, Mesozoic and Tertiary sedimentary flysch rocks can be eliminated as viable source rocks for the metals in the Silesian-Cracow Mississippi Valley-type (MVT) deposits. The uniformity of the isotopic composition of lead in the Silesian-Cracow ores, when coupled with the geologic evidence that mineralization must post-date Late Jurassic faulting (E. Gorecka, 1991), constrains the geochemical nature of the source region. The source of the metals is probably a well-mixed, multi-cycle molasse sequence of sedimentary rocks that contains little if any Precambrian metamorphic or granitic clasts (S. E. Church, R. B. Vaughn, 1992). If ore deposition was post Late Jurassic (about 150 m. y.) or later

  7. Metallogenic age and ore genesis of the Badaguan porphyry copper-molybdenum deposit in Inner Mongolia%内蒙古八大关斑岩型铜钼矿床形成时代与成因分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李春风; 柳振江; 宓奎峰; 王建平; 刘瑞斌; 邹君宇; 王忠宝

    2014-01-01

    八大关铜钼矿床是内蒙古德尔布干成矿带中段的一个典型斑岩型矿床,绢英岩化、青磐岩化等蚀变分带明显,矿体呈条带状赋存于印支期石英闪长岩中。笔者通过运用Re-Os同位素年代学、元素地球化学以及硫同位素等测试手段,初步分析了该矿床的成矿过程。辉钼矿Re-Os同位素加权平均模式年龄为(226.7±2.4) Ma,表明该矿床形成于晚三叠世早期;元素地球化学分析显示含矿岩体属于中钾含量的钙碱性岩石系列,为I型花岗岩,产于火山弧构造环境,具有活动板块边缘的特征,矿化过程中,成矿母岩的稀土元素总量逐渐降低,轻重稀土发生明显分异;金属硫化物的δ34S值介于+0.5‰~+4.8‰,具有幔源硫的特征。综合分析认为八大关铜钼矿床形成于晚三叠世,蒙古-鄂霍茨克洋向南俯冲过程中,深部岩浆活动带来了大量成矿物质,洋壳部分熔融侵位到额尔古纳地块之上,随热液流体迁移的Cu、Mo等元素与源自地幔的硫相结合,最终富集成矿。%Located in the middle of Derbugan metallogenic belt in Inner Mongolia, the Badaguan copper-molybdenum deposit is a typical porphyry deposit with obvious phyllic and propylitic alteration zones. The banded orebodies occur in Triassic quartz diorite. By such means as Re-Os isotope geochronology, element geochemistry and sulfur isotope geochemistry, the authors preliminarily analyzed the ore-forming process of the deposit. Re-Os dating of molybdenite gave a weighted average model age of (226.7 ± 2.4) Ma, implying that the deposit was formed in the early Late Triassic. Element geochemical analysis shows that the ore-bearing rocks were I-type granites and belonged to calc-alkaline rock series with moderate content of potassium, which were produced in a volcanic arc environment with characteristic active plate edges. During the ore-forming process, ΣREE in ore-bearing rock gradually

  8. Garnets in porphyry-skarn systems: A LA-ICP-MS, fluid inclusion, and stable isotope study of garnets from the Hongniu-Hongshan copper deposit, Zhongdian area, NW Yunnan Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Hui-juan; Zhang, Chang-qing; Mao, Jing-wen; Santosh, M.; Zhou, Yun-man; Hou, Lin

    2015-05-01

    The Late Cretaceous Hongniu-Hongshan porphyry-skarn copper deposit is located in the Zhongdian area of northwestern Yunnan Province, China. Garnets from the deposit have compositions that range from Adr14Grs86 to almost pure andradite (Adr98Grs2) and display two different styles of zoning. The garnets are predominantly of magmatic-hydrothermal origin, as is evidenced by their 18Ofluid (5.4-6.9‰) and low Dfluid (-142‰ to -100‰) values, both of which likely result from late-stage magmatic open-system degassing. Three generations of garnet have been identified in this deposit: (1) Al-rich garnets (Grt I; Adr22-57Grs78-43) are anisotropic, have sector dodecahedral twinning, are slightly enriched in light rare earth elements (LREEs) compared with the heavy rare earth elements (HREEs), have negative or negligible Eu anomalies, and contain high concentrations of F. Fluid inclusions within these Al-rich garnets generally have salinities of 12-39 wt.% NaCl eq. and have liquid-vapor homogenization temperatures (Th) of 272-331 °C. The Grt I are most likely associated with low- to medium-salinity fluids that were generated by the contraction of an ascending vapor phase and that formed during diffusive metasomatism caused by pore fluids equilibrating with the host rocks at low W/R (water/rock) ratios. These garnets formed as a result of the high F activity of the system, which increased the solubility of Al within the magmato-hydrothermal fluids in the system. (2) Fe-rich garnets (Adr75-98Grs25-2) have trapezohedral faces, and are both anisotropic with oscillatory zoning and isotropic. These second-generation Fe-rich garnets (Grt II) have high ΣREE concentrations, are LREE-enriched and HREE-depleted, and generally have positive but variable Eu anomalies. All of the Fe-rich garnets contain high-salinity fluid inclusions with multiple daughter minerals with salinities of 33-80 wt.% NaCl eq. Some of them show higher temperatures of halite dissolution (465-591 °C) than

  9. On geological and geochemical features and cause of formation of porphyry copper gold deposit of Shaxi type in Lujiang County, Anhui%安徽沙溪式斑岩铜(金)矿床地质地球化学特征及成因分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚孝德; 陈芳; 王利民; 孙明明

    2012-01-01

    沙溪斑岩铜(金)矿床位于庐枞火山岩盆地西北外围,处于郯庐断裂带内部.矿体主要产于燕山期的石英闪长斑岩,次为黑云母石英闪长斑岩中.主要成矿期为岩浆期后热液期.蚀变分带自内向外:钠-更长石化带—硬石膏-黑云母-钾硅酸盐化带—钾硅酸盐青磐岩化叠加带—石英绢云母化带—青磐岩化带,主要工业矿体位于钾硅酸盐化带及其外侧.文章总结沙溪式斑岩铜(金)矿床地质地球化学特征,并对该类型铜(金)矿床的成因进行了探讨.%The porphyry copper gold deposit of Shaxi type locates in northwest periphery of Luzong volcanic basin, inside of the Tanlu fault zone. The ore bodies mainly occur in quartz diorite of Yans-hanian, and then in biotite quartzdioriteporphyry. The main metallogenic period is the postmagmatic hydrothermal solution. The alteration zones from the inner to outward are successively the Na-oligo-clase zone, the anhydrite, biotite and K-silicate zone, the superimposed zone of K-silicate and propy-lite, the quartz-sericite zone, and the propylitic zone. The mainly industry ore bodies locate in the K-silicate zone and its outside. The geological and geochemical features of the porphyry copper gold deposit of Shaxi type are summarized, and the cause of the formation of the deposit of this type is discussed.

  10. RS Comprehensive Evaluation for Porphyry Copper in South of Arequipa Province of Peru Based on RS Mine-indicating Information%基于遥感示矿信息的秘鲁阿雷基帕省南部斑岩铜矿遥感综合评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨日红; 陈秀法; 李志忠

    2013-01-01

    在总结秘鲁南部地区斑岩铜矿成矿地质规律的基础上,分析了研究区控矿构造和赋矿岩层、矿化蚀变类型等成控矿地质特征;并根据研究区斑岩铜矿典型蚀变带蚀变矿物组合及其波谱特征,利用美国地质勘查局(USGS)波谱数据库,重建了斑岩铜矿典型蚀变带主要蚀变矿物在ASTER卫星数据B1~B9对应的反射率曲线,综合对比分析主要蚀变矿物的波谱曲线特征后,研发了基于ASTER数据B1467和B1348主成分分析模型,可分别提取典型蚀变带中泥化—绢英岩化类和青磐岩化蚀变矿物组合信息,并分别提取了研究区泥化—绢英岩化类和青磐岩化带蚀变矿物组合信息,为研究区斑岩型铜矿的遥感综合评价提供了重要的示矿标志;同时,采用人机交互遥感解译技术,获取了斑岩铜矿控矿构造、矿源层与赋矿岩石等示矿信息.最后,基于遥感技术获取的线性与环形控矿构造、矿源层与赋矿岩石、泥化—绢英岩化类和青磐岩化带蚀变矿物组合等遥感示矿信息,完成了研究区遥感找矿综合评价,圈定出遥感找矿有利区,经与已知斑岩铜矿床和物化探资料对比,以及高分辨卫星图像佐证,发现遥感评价结果具有很好的效果.%Based on ore-forming geological regularity of porphyry copper in the south of Arequipa Province,Peru,this essay analyzes the ore-forming and ore-controlling geological features such as ore controlling structure,ore-boring rocks, mineralization and alteration types in the studied area. A set of principal components analysis pattern is developed in which the information of argillic-and phyllic-altered and propylitization altered minerals assemblages in the typical alteration zones can be extracted and studied respectively after making use of spectral data of USGS,reestablishing the reflectivity curve of main altered minerals of the typical alteration zones of porphyry copper which is corresponded

  11. Lithogeochemistry and Sr-Nd-Pb Isotopic Characteristics of Mujicun Porphyry Cu-Mo Deposit in Taihang Mountains and Their Significances%太行山木吉村斑岩铜(钼)矿床岩石地球化学、S r-Nd-Pb同位素特征及其地质意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曲凯; 董国臣; 李胜荣; 申俊峰; 王艳娟; 王霞; 罗薇

    2014-01-01

    Mujicun porphyry copper-molybdenum deposit, located in the northern section of Taihang Mountains,is an important ore deposit in the Taihang tectonic-magmatic-metallogenic belt.This article is based on the particular field works and systematic analysis of petrology,geochemical data and Sr-Nd-Pb isotopes.The result shows the ore-bearing diorite-porphyry of Mujicun belonging to the high-K calc-alkaline I-type intrusive rock.Geochemical analysis shows that the diorite-porphyry is rich in SiO2,Al2O3 and Sr,a high ratio of Sr/Y, (La/Yb)N ,low in Yb and Y.All the ore-bearing porphyries in the study area have similar distribution of rare earths and trace elements,with right-oblique curve,and unclear postive Eu anomalies.It is characterized by enriched large-ion lithophile elements of Ba,K,U,Sr and depleted high field strength elements such as Nb, Ta,P and Ti with adakite affinity in geochemical characteristic.The diorite porphyry has ISr ratios of 0.705 386 to 0.706 838,εNd(t)values of -16.7 to -14.9.The averages of 208Pb/204Pb,207Pb/204Pb and 206Pb/204Pb ratios are 36.614,15.226 and 16.545,respectively,similar to those lead isotope ratios in ore of Mujicun de-posit.Sr-Nd-Pb isotopes show that the formations of the magma were probably related to origin of partial melting of lower crust with mantle materials contribution.Combining with the geological background of the study area, the authors considered that the Mujicun ore-bearing diorite porphyry possibly resulted from partial melting in lower crust with the mantle mass exchange.%木吉村斑岩铜(钼)矿床位于太行山北段涞源杂岩体的腰部,是太行山构造-岩浆-成矿带的一个重要矿床。在野外调研的基础上,对木吉村斑岩铜(钼)矿床含矿岩体进行了系统的岩石学、地球化学和Sr-Nd-Pb同位素研究。结果表明:木吉村矿床的含矿岩体闪长玢岩为高钾钙碱性I型侵入岩,具有较高的SiO2、Al2 O3、Sr含量

  12. The Indo-Chinese Epoch Arc Magmatism of Geza Island-Arc and Porphyry Copper Mineralization in Pulang Sanjiang Orogenic Belt, Southwest China%云南省格咱岛弧印支期岩浆演化及普朗斑岩型铜矿成矿作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘学龙; 李文昌; 尹光侯; 张娜

    2012-01-01

    Geza island arc located in the southern of Yidun arc of southwest Sanjiang tectonic igneous rock belts in China, it was the result that Ganzi-Litang oceanic crust dived to the Zhongdian Landmasses in late Triassic. The belt is an important discovered copper-polymetallic metallogenic belt in the recent years in China. The regional strong tectonic-magmatic activity runs through the orogenesis of island arc, the rich mineralization developed in the different times and different circumstances of island arc orogenesis, where outputed the large sized Pulang and Xuejiping porphyry-related copper polymetallic deposit. The Pulang porphyry copper deposits is a typical representative of Indosinian porphyry copper deposits, the ore-bearing porphyry SiO2 content in 60. 07% ~65. 78%, it belongs to the neutral-acid rocks. A12O3content is 14. 80% ~ 15.97%, (K2O+Na2O) is 5. 79% ~10. 99% , K2O/Na2O is 0.7 ~ 1.14, Rittmann index (σ) is 1.02 ~ 1. 9, Consolidation index (SI) is in the range of 7. 65 — 24. 77, Differentiation index (DI) is in the range of 61. 17 ~ 70. 58, so the rocks belong to calc-alkaline rocks series and have the better magma differentiation. A/CNK values in 0. 74~0. 981, average of 0. 87, rocks belong to prospective aluminous granits. Zircon U-Pb dating results show that the quartz diorite formation age was 220. 8 ± 4. IMa, the quartz monzonite porphyry formation age was 214. 8±3. 5Ma, porphyries rocks metallogenic epoch is mainly concentrated in the Indosinian.%格咱岛弧位于西南三江构造火成岩带义敦岛弧南端,是晚三叠世甘孜-理塘洋壳向德格-中甸陆块俯冲的产物,是我国近年来新发现的重要铜多金属成矿带.该区强烈的构造-岩浆活动贯穿于岛弧造山作用的始终,丰富的成矿作用发育于岛弧造山的不同时代、不同环境,产出了普朗、雪鸡坪等大型铜多金属矿床.其中普朗斑岩型铜矿是印支期斑岩铜矿的典型代表,其含矿斑岩体SiO2

  13. The discovery and exploration process of the Chalukou giant porphyry molybdenum polymetallic deposit in forest-covered area of northeastern Da Higgnan Mountains and its geological significance%大兴安岭北东段森林覆盖区岔路口巨型斑岩钼多金属矿床的发现过程及意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟昭君; 王宏燕; 韩龙; 张国玉; 阚学胜; 李宪臣; 王建平; 张瑞忠; 吕克鹏; 孙振江; 石耀军; 张佳南

    2011-01-01

    The discovery of the Chalukou giant porphyry molybdenum polymeatllic ore district, the largest molybdenum ore district in northern China, is a major breakthrough in the exploration work conducted in the forest-covered area within northeastern Da Higgnan Mountains in recent years. This ore deposit is controlled by No. 1029 volcanic mechanism located in southern Yilehuli Mountain and its mineralization is spatially and temporally associated with Late Jurassic subvolcanic quartz porphyry, granite porphyry and cryptoexplosive breccias. The dome-shaped ore body, hosted by volcano-sedimentary rocks and mineralized porphyry stocks, is concealed in the depth and has a great deep extension. Stockworks and rilling veinlets are main mineralization types in this ore deposit, together with a few lode and veinlet dissemination types. Hydrothermal alterations are developed widely and show obvious zoning, characterized by notable intense silicification and fluoritization. From the surface to the depth of more than 1 500 m, the extent of mineralization and alteration increases gradually from low-grade ores and weak quartz- sericite assemblage surrounded by large-size argillic zone to high-grade ores and intense silicification and potassic alteration assemblage. There are vein -type lead -zinc -silver ore bodies associated with the mineralization system in the upper part of the Mo ore body. Tectonically, this ore deposit was formed by magmatism that originated from an intra -plate extensional environment after collision -collage of plates. The magmatic -hydrothermal system is highly oxidized and remarkably enriched in F and S, which is similar to the feature of the Climax porphyry Mo deposit in the United States. The discovery and exploration of the Chalukou Mo deposit provide an example for research on the transition of porphyry Mo mineralization to vein-type Pb-Zn-Ag mineralization and has significance for the regional ore prospecting work and the study of tectonic

  14. 西藏雄村斑岩型铜金矿集区Ⅰ号矿体的硫、铅同位素特征及其对成矿物质来源的指示%Sulfur and Lead Isotope Characteristics of No.Ⅰ Ore Body in the Xiongcun Porphyry Copper-Gold Ore Concentration Area of Tibet:Implications for the Source of Metals in the Ore Deposit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郎兴海; 唐菊兴; 李志军; 黄勇; 丁枫; 王成辉; 张丽; 周云

    2012-01-01

    The Xiongcun porphyry copper-gold ore concentration area, one of the large-size metallogenic areas discovered along the Gangdise porphyry copper belt, occurs in an island arc environment associated with northward intra-oceanic subduction of Neo-Tethys oceanic crust. The ore-forming age of the Xiongcun porphyry copper-gold ore concentration area is middle Jurassic. It is located in the middle of the southern margin of the Gangdise orogenic belt, and its south margin is Shigatse forearc basin. The latest exploration data indicate that there are several potential mineralization-alteration areas and three large-size copper-gold ore bodies (No. I, II and Ⅲ) in the Xiongcun porphyry copper-gold ore concentration area. In this paper, Xiongcun No. I ore body was chosen as the research object. According to sulfur and lead isotope composition of ore-baring porphyry, tuff and main sulfides of the ore, the authors have reached the following two conclusions: 1) Sulfur isotopic compositions vary in a narrow range of δ34S values from -3.5‰ to +2.7‰ (-1.07‰ on average) and are close to zero, indicating a mantle sulfur signature. 2) They have uniform Pb isotope compositions with low content of radiogenic Pb. The 206Pb/204Pb, 207Pb/204Pb, and 208Pb/204Pb ratios vary in the ranges of 18.104-18.432, 15.473-15.533 and 37.918-38.3072, respectively. They are located in the transition zone of mantle Pb and orogen Pb but are closer to the former, reflecting a mixing between the mantle material and minor crust material. Through a comparative study of sulfur and lead isotopes of porphyry copper deposits of the island arc environment (e.g., Xiongcun No. I ore body) and those of the collisional orogenic environment in the Gangdise porphyry copper belt, the authors found that they have similar metal sources, but porphyry copper deposits of the island arc environment have experienced weak contamination of crust materials, whereas porphyry copper deposits of the coilisional orogenic

  15. 广西大黎铜钼矿石英二长(斑)岩年代学、地球化学特征及其地质意义%Chronology and Geochemical Characteristics of Quartz Monzonite (Porphyry) in the Dali Copper-Molybdenum Deposit and Its Geological Significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡升奇; 周国发; 彭松柏; 张先进; 易顺华; 唐国胜

    2012-01-01

    Dali quartz monzonite (porphyry) body lies at southern Dali Town of Tengxian County in Guangxi. LA-ICP-MS U-Pb isotopic dating of zircons separated from the quartz monzonite and the quartz monzonite porphyry yields average 206Pb/238U ages of (102.8±0.9) Ma and (101.7±1.2) Ma, respectively. The results of geochemical study indicate that SiO2 values are in the range of 60.09%-62.91%, Na2O and CaO are in the range of 2.90%-3.08% and 3.32%-4.35%, A/CNK=0.83-0.93, being all lower than 1.0. 100Fe3+/(Fe3++ Fe2+) ratios are in the range of 37.76-42.93, and the Rittmann index of quartz monzonite (porphyry) varies from 2.94 to 3.07, suggesting a calc-alkaline and metaluminous nature. Geochemical characteristics of rare earth elements are SREE=(254.74-301.06)×l0-6, ILREE=(234.35-279.38)×l0-6, IHREE=(20.39-21.68)×l0-6, LREE/HREE=11.49-12.89, (La/Yb)N=11.51-16.28, 8Eu=0.61-0.90, and 5Ce=0.99-1.08. The rock has moderate REE concentration, showing a pattern of relative enrichment of LREE. The chondrite-normalized REE patterns demonstrate right-oblique linear REE patterns with weak negative Eu anomaly and significant fractionation between LREE and HREE. On the whole, trace elements show relative enrichment of large ion lithophile elements Rb, Th, U, K, La, Ce, Pb and depletion of high field strength elements Nb, Ta, Sr, P, Ti. It is also shown that the I-type quartz monzonite(porphyry)was derived form the crust-mantle mixed source. Combined with regional tectonic evolution, the authors hold that Dali quartz monzonite (porphyry) was the product of a tensile tectonic environment at the late Yanshanian post-collisional stage of the late Early Cretaceous period. The rock was formed due to back-arc extension related to high angle subduction of the paleo-Pacific plate caused by northward movement of the Indian plate. Through discussing the regional tectonic evolution and exploring the basic properties, causes and tectonic environment of the rocks, the authors analyzed the favorable

  16. Fluid inclusion study of the Baishan porphyry Mo deposit in the eastern Tianshan ore field, Xinjiang Province%新疆东天山白山钼矿床流体包裹体研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    项楠; 杨永飞; 吴艳爽; 周可法

    2013-01-01

    The Baishan Mo deposit in the eastern Tianshan, Xinjiang Province, is a large-giant porphyry deposit discovered in the eastern Jueluotag tectonic belt According to paragenesis and crosscutting relationship of the stockworks, ore-forming veinlets in order from early to late are the early quartz-potassic feldspar veinlets, quartz-potassic feldspar-molybdenite veinlets, quartz-molybdenite veinlets, quartz-polymetallic sulfide veinlets and the late stage quartz-carbonate-fluorite veinlets. The hydrothermal quartz in the early quartz-potassic feldspar veinlets mainly contain pure CH4 (PC-type), CH4-H2O (Cl-type) and NaCl-H2O (W-type); these fluid inclusions mainly homogenize at temperatures of 320℃ to 420℃ , and yield salinities of 1. 98% to 8. 79% NaCleqv. The quartz-potassic feldspar-molybdenite veinlets contain daughter mineral-bearing (S-type) and W-type fluid inclusions, with homogenization temperatures ranging from 260℃ to 400℃ and salinities of 1. 49% to 8. 65% NaCleqv. The quartz-molybdenite veinlets and quartz-polymetallic sulfide veinlets contain W-, S- and C2 (CO2-H2O) types of fluid inclusions that are generally homogenized at temperatures of 200℃ to 240℃ and 140℃ to 240℃ , with salinities of 2. 14% to 8. 10% NaCleqv and 0. 33% to 10. 22% NaCleqv, respectively. The late-stage quartz-carbonate-fluorite veinlets only contain the W-type fluid inclusions mainly which homogenize at l00℃ to 160℃ , yielding salinities of 0. 17% to 4. 86% NaCleqv. The estimated pressures range from 105 ~ 221 MPa for the early-stage veinlets to 15 ~ 285MPa for the quartz-polymetallic sulfide veinlets. In a word, the ore-forming fluids evolve from high temperature, carbonic and reducing magmatic to low temperature and low salinity meteoric. The decrease of temperature and the reduction of high-valent molybdenum of HMoO4- result in the precipitation of molybdenite.%白山钼矿位于东天山觉罗塔格成矿带东段,是新疆极具代表性的大型-超大型斑

  17. Features and evolution of metallogenic fluid in Jiadanggen porphyry copper deposit of Gonghe Country, Qinghai Province%青海共和县加当根斑岩铜矿床成矿流体特征及演化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于淼; 丰成友; 肖晔; 刘建楠; 李大新; 李国臣; 马圣钞

    2013-01-01

    加当根矿床是近几年新发现的研究程度较低的斑岩型铜矿床,文章对含矿斑岩、石英脉和绢英中的石英岩开展了详细的流体包裹体特征及氢、氧同位素组成研究.该矿床流体包裹体类型丰富,以大量发育含子晶多相包裹体为特征,子矿物种类多样,包括石盐、钾盐、石膏、黄铜矿、黄铁矿、赤铁矿等.石膏、赤铁矿的出现,暗示着岩浆结晶早期处于氧化环境.成矿流体由来自岩浆的高温、高盐度流体和以天水成因为主的中-高温、低盐度流体2个端员组分组成,高温、高盐度流体为主要载矿流体,形成温度> 440℃,w(NaCleq)为30%~82%,其是在浅成条件下于岩浆结晶的最后阶段从浅部岩浆中直接出溶形成的;中-高温、低盐度流体主要来源于天水或天水与晚期岩浆热液的混合,温度主要集中在220~360C,w(NaCleq)< 20%.石英流体包裹体氢、氧同位素研究表明流体混合在卸载成矿上的重要性,石英脉和绢英岩化阶段是含矿物质沉淀的主要阶段.脉石英的流体温度集中在280~440℃,绢英岩化蚀变石英中流体包裹体的均一温度介于240~340℃.%The Jiadanggen porphyry copper deposit was discovered in recent years, but its research is very insufficient. This paper mainly deals with the homogenization temperature of fluid inclusions and the evolution tendency of ore-forming fluid. The fluid inclusions in the pluton and quartz veins are characterized by abundantly daughter minerals-bearing inclusions in which daughter minerals composed of halite, sylvite, gypsum, chalcopyrite, pyrite and hematite. The presence of gypsum and hematite imply oxidation environment at the early stage of magmatic crystallization. The microthermometric analysis of inclusions reveals that the metallogenic fluid consists of both high-temperature, hypersaline fluids and medium-low temperature, low salinity ones. High temperature, hypersaline fluids

  18. ASTER数据的斑岩铜矿典型蚀变矿物组合信息提取方法——以秘鲁南部阿雷基帕省斑岩铜矿区为例%Information Extraction of Typical Alteration Mineral Assemblage in Porphyry Copper Using ASTER Satellite Data, Arequipa Province of South Peru

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨日红; 李志忠; 陈秀法

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we studied the information extraction technology of alteration mineral assemblages. Using the standard laboratory spectral database of U. S. Geological Survey, we rebuilt the reflectivity curve of key alteration minerals in porphyry copper alteration zones with ASTER data. After comparative analysis of these key alteration minerals spectral curves, we found the characteristic of absorption valley at the spectral 2. 2μm (which is corresponding to the B6 of ASTER data) of the argillic- and phyllic-altered mineral assemblage (which include muscovite, kaolinite, montmorillonite, alunite, illite, etc. ) , and with the characteristic of high reflection peaks at B4 and B7. The characteristic of absorption valley at the spectral 2. 3 μm (which is corresponding to the B8 of ASTER data) of the propylitization altered mineral assemblage (which include chlorite, epidote, calcite, etc. ,), and with the characteristic of a high reflection peaks at B4, while the B9 has a higher reflectivity than the B8. Accordingly, the principal component analysis model was developed. This model can make component analysis based on ASTER Bl, B4, B6 and B7 to extract the argillic- and phyllic-altered mineral assemblage; component analysis based on ASTER Bl, B3, B4 and B8 to extract propylitization altered mineral assemblage. At the same time, the process was established for the alteration mineral assemblage information extraction. Taking porphyry copper region in Arequipa Province of south Peru as an example, based on comprehensive analysis of the geological background of the study area, especially its typical alteration zoning and alteration mineral assemblages in the area, we found a typical porphyry alteration zonation in Arequipa Province. So we can take advantage of the technical processes and methods, and after ASTER data preprocessing, interfering surface features removal, principal component analysis and threshold setting, to extract argillic- and phyllic-altered mineral

  19. Zircon SHRIMP U Pb Ages and Its Geological Significance to the Rhyolite and Granite Porphyry in Dashimo Basin,Manzhouli%满洲里达石莫盆地流纹岩、花岗斑岩SHRIMP锆石U Pb年龄及其地质意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    解开瑞; 巫建华; 李长华; 吴仁贵; 余达淦

    2015-01-01

    满洲里达石莫盆地火山岩系由下部的铁镁质火山岩组合、中部的高钾钙碱性流纹岩碱性粗面岩组合和上部的铁镁质火山岩组合所构成,并有花岗斑岩侵入.SHRIMP 锆石 U Pb 年龄表明,流纹岩和花岗斑岩锆石的206 Pb/238 U年龄分别为143�3±1�3Ma和143�0±1�8Ma,两者在误差范围内一致,同为早白垩世早期岩浆活动的产物.通过区域地层对比,结合已有的高精度锆石 U Pb 年龄数据,可将达石莫盆地及大兴安岭北部原塔木兰沟组、原上库力组、原梅勒图组火山岩中的铁镁质火山岩组合(年龄大于145Ma的部分)归入塔木兰沟组,高钾钙碱性流纹岩碱性粗面岩组合(年龄为145~130Ma的部分)归入上库力组,年龄小于127Ma的部分铁镁质火山岩组合归入梅勒图组.依照中国东部、俄罗斯东部和蒙古东部与火山岩有关的热液型铀矿主要赋存在早白垩世早期火山岩与次火山岩接触带附近的事实,推测达石莫盆地流纹岩与花岗斑岩的接触带是铀矿勘查值得关注的部位.%The lower and upper layer of volcanic series in Dashimo basin of southern Manzhouli is characG terized by the combination of mafic volcanic rocks,and the middle is characterized by the combination of the high potassium calc alkaline rhyolite alkaline trachyte,accompanied by the intrusion of granitic porphyry.The zircon SHRIMP U Pb dating results of rhyolite and granite porphyry show that rhyolite and granite porphyry are 143�3±1�3 Ma、143�0±1�8 Ma respectively,the rhyolite and granite porG phyry belong to Early age of Early Cretaceous epoch,the isotopic age of rhyolite and granite porphyry consistent within the error range,they are the products of the same magmatic evolution.Based on the study of regional stratigraphic correlation, combined with the published high precision U Pb zircon age data,the volcanic rocks from former Tamulangou formation,former Shangkuli formation and the

  20. Upaya Meningkatkan Niat Pembelian Produk Ramah Lingkungan Melalui Nilai, Risiko, dan Kepercayaan Terhadap Produk Hijau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jati Waskito

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to analyze the public perception of value, risk, and trust of green products and developing green marketing model by considering the environmental friendliness of the product, the perception of the value of products, and the risk of products to enhance the consumer's intention to purchase green products. This research used 292 respondents as a sample research. Using a structural equations mode, this research found that the public reward and risk products significantly influence consumers' willingness to buy green products. While the trust is not able to increase green purchasing their desires, and cannot be moderating appreciation green value and green risk to increase green purchasing greenDOI: 10.15408/etk.v14i1.2259 

  1. Pengaruh Berbagai Konsentrasi Dimethylsulfoxide terhadap Kualitas Semen Beku Ayam Hutan Hijau Post Thawing

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    Wayan Bebas

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The process of freezing and thawing on semen can lead to physical stress, often called cold shock, and couses the structural and biochemical damage that affecting cell function and ultimately lead to the death of the cell The aim of this study was to know the effect of the addition of various concentrations of dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO as the intracellular cryoprotectant in phosphate yolk diluent on the post thowing quality of the green jungle fowl semen. The study used eight green jungle fowl semens which were collected with massage techniques. Semen was evaluated macroscopically and microscopically. Good quality semen was diluted with phosphate yolk which was added four different concentration of DMSO, namely 4%, 6%, 8%, and 10%. Semen was then filled and sealed in a mini straw (0.25 mL with the concentration of 150.106 cells, and equilibrated at 4oC for 4 hours. The semen freezing was processed using conventional method. Evaluation was performed on post thawing semen. The evaluation of semen quality included the progressive motility and plasma membrane intact. Data were analyzed by analysis of variance. If there were any significant differences, the data were futher analyzed by Duncan test. The results showed that addition of DMSO concentration of 6% has resulted the progressive motility and intact plasma membrane higher significantly (P <0.05 than those of the addition of DMSO concentration 4%, 8%, and 10%.

  2. Psikologi Hijau (Green Psychology sebagai Alternatif untuk Peningkatan Kesejahteraan Psikologis Masyarakat Perkotaan

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    Murty Magda Pane

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This article describes so many disasters caused by the decrease of environment quality, or even pollution and environmental destruction, are due to society's bad behaviors. The decrease of environment quality, as consequences, may cause lower people's lives quality phisically and mentally as well. To overcome the problem, it is proposed a psychology intervension, called "green" psychology.

  3. Psikologi Hijau (Green Psychology) sebagai Alternatif untuk Peningkatan Kesejahteraan Psikologis Masyarakat Perkotaan

    OpenAIRE

    Murty Magda Pane

    2013-01-01

    This article describes so many disasters caused by the decrease of environment quality, or even pollution and environmental destruction, are due to society's bad behaviors. The decrease of environment quality, as consequences, may cause lower people's lives quality phisically and mentally as well. To overcome the problem, it is proposed a psychology intervension, called "green" psychology.

  4. Efek Paparan Musik dan Noise pada Karakteristik Morfologi dan Produktivitas Tanaman Sawi Hijau (Brassica Juncea

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    Joko Prasetyo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of present study was to investigate the effect of various sounds on the green mustard’s (Brassica Juncea morphology characteristic and productivity. The plant has been subjected to three various sound, namely classical music (rhythmic violin music, machine and traffic noise, and mixed sound (classical music and traffic noise with 70-75 dB sound pressure level, from germination to harvest for three hours (7-10 am. each day. Six parameters, i.e. germination, plant height, leaf width, leaf lenght, total plant lenght, and fresh weight, related with growth and productivity of plant were been monitored on regular basis.The results showed classical music improves germination up to 15% for 36 hours, plant height 13,5%, leaf width 14,8%, leaf length 14,2%, and wet weight 57,1%. In general, exposure to classical music gives the best results on the morphological characteristics and productivity of green mustard.

  5. Pengaruh Varietas dan Waktu Penyiangan Gulma Terhadap Pertumbuhan dan Hasil Tanaman Kacang Hijau (Phaseolus Radiatus L.

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    EUSEBIO GOMES

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Effects of Variety and Weeding Times on Growth and Yield of Mungbean (PhaseolusRadiatus L.The mungbean have a great potential as a food ingredient mixture of refined productsand has certain competitive advantages over other types of beans. Mungbean production in East Timoris still low and has not been able to meet the needs of the market. Therefore, weed control and selectionof good varieties of mung beans is one of the determining factors in the increased production of mungbean.The objective of the study was to determine the effect of time of weeding on the growth and yield ofseveral varieties of mungbean. The study was conducted at the Pilot Suco Hera Sub-distrito Cristo Rei,Dili-Timor Leste. It used a randomized block design with two factors. The first factor was type ofvarieties of mungbean and the second factor was the weeding time. Factor of types of varieties consistedof three, namely: VL = Local Variety, VM = Merak variety, VG = Gelatik variety, while factor ofweeding times consists of PO = No weeding, P1 = weeding at 2 and 4 weeks after planting, P2 =weeding at 3 and 5 weeks after planting, with three replications. The results showed that weeding timeaffected the outcome of drying seed dry weight per hectare. Weeding time at 2 and 4 weeks afterplanting had a better dry weight of seed i.e 1.09 g, compared to those of weeding at 3 and 5 weeksafter planting. The use of different varieties showed that Merak variety had drying seed dry weight of1.16 tons ha-1, Gelatik variety was 1.09 tons ha-1, and the local variety was 0.97 tons ha-1.

  6. VALUASI MANFAAT EKOLOGIS RUANG TERBUKA HIJAU (RTH DI KOTA BOGOR DENGAN APLIKASI CITYGREEN 5.4

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    Indung Sitti Fatimah

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Greenery open space is a fundamental part of urban development and management in sustaining the quality of urban environment and the welfare of urban dwellers. A high rate of population growth and limited land owned causing the growth of physical development in the city is done by converting such green open space, agricultural land, forest and other open space for urban development purposes. This study is intended to analyze total value of greenery open space ecological benefits of Bogor City, and provide possible recommendations in order to increase the capacity of its urban ecosystem. This analytical framework is applied to Bogor City considering its peculiarities of greenery open space existence and architectures. The research was conducted by spatial approach through CITYGreen 5.4 software to determine the ecological benefits of greenery open space, based on the trees canopy cover and non trees canopy cover to predict the economic value. CityGreen is a software tool developed by American Forest that helps people understand the value of trees to the local environment. The result showed that CITYGreen 5.4 software can be used to conduct complex analysis of ecosystem services and create easy to understand reports.The software calculate dollar benefits for the services provided by the trees and other greenery open space in absorbed such harmfull pollutants, carbon storage and sequestration, and reducing storm water volumes as natural flood control. The capacity of ecological benefit can still be improved to provide greater benefits in various ways. This software will be very beneficial for city planners in evaluate site plan, and model development scenario that capture the benefits of trees.Keywords:greenery open space, CITYGreen 5.4, ecological benefit

  7. PEMANFAATAN UMBI TALAS SEBAGAI BAHAN SUBTITUSI TEPUNG TERIGU DALAM PEMBUATAN COOKIES YANG DISUPLEMENTASI DENGAN KACANG HIJAU

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    Welli Yuliatmoko

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Taro flour can be used as a wheat flour substitution in cookies making, although its quality is still relatively low, especially in terms of taste and nutritional composition. An alternative way to improve its nutritional composition is by the addition of green beans, as a protein source. This study was aimed to obtain the cookies formulation that use Lampung Taro flour enriched with green beans flour as a wheat flour substitution. The cookies were tested organoleptically by panelists using hedonic scale including color, aroma, taste, texture and general appearance. The acceptable cookies were analyzed their chemical characteristics. The results showed that Taro flour cookies with the content of 30%, 50%, and 60% Lampung Taro flour have received the best judgment from panelists. From the nutritional point these cookies were considered meet the nutritional value specified by SNI 1992 but the protein content was still below standard. The addition of 10% green beans flour was not able to improve the nutritional value of protein in the cookies. Taro flour can be used as a wheat flour substitution in cookies making, although its quality is still relatively low, especially in terms of taste and nutritional composition. An alternative way to improve its nutritional composition is by the addition of green beans, as a protein source. This study was aimed to obtain the cookies formulation that use Lampung Taro flour enriched with green beans flour as a wheat flour substitution. The cookies were tested organoleptically by panelists using hedonic scale including color, aroma, taste, texture and general appearance. The acceptable cookies were analyzed their chemical characteristics. The results showed that Taro flour cookies with the content of 30%, 50%, and 60% Lampung Taro flour have received the best judgment from panelists. From the nutritional point these cookies were considered meet the nutritional value specified by SNI 1992 but the protein content was still below standard. The addition of 10% green beans flour was not able to improve the nutritional value of protein in the cookies.

  8. Sekolah Hijau Sebagai Alternatif Pendidikan Lingkungan Hidup dengan Menggunakan Pendekatan Kontekstual

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    Sumarmi Sumarmi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Green school have the comitment to systematically develop school programs internalizing environmental values. As the environtment education is geared toward the development of knowledge, awareness, positive attitude, and responsible behavior toward environment, a joyful learning approach seemingly appropriate for green schools is contextual teaching and learning (CTL. Through CTL, green schools can create more meaningful lessons, making the environtment education real

  9. PERTUMBUHAN DAN PRODUKSI TANAMAN SAWI HIJAU Brassica juncea L. PADA BERBAGAI DESAIN HIDROPONIK

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    Anjeliza, Rispa Yeusy

    2013-01-01

    The research about growth and production of green mustard Brassica juncea L. on a variety of hydroponic design took place at the Laboratory Division of Biotechnology Activities Research Center, University of Hasanuddin, Makassar and runs from January to March 2013. This research aimed to determine which is more effective hydroponic design to optimize growth and production of green mustard Brassica juncea L. This research was based on a completely randomized design (CRD) with 4 treatments hydr...

  10. MODEL PERENCANAAN RUANG TERBUKA HIJAU TAMAN LINGKUNGAN DI KOTA BANJARBARU, KALIMANTAN SELATAN

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    Jainah Muchran

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Peningkatan kualitas ruang kota dan upaya meningkatkan fungsi kawasan di lingkungan perkotaan, RTH harus dipertimbangkan sebagai bagian integral dari kegiatan penataan bangunan. Alasannya ialah karena aspek bangunan dan lingkungan merupakan komponen permukiman yang tak terpisahkan, saling menunjang secara seimbang, serasi, dan selaras. Sebagai kota yang menginginkan mutu lingkungan perkotaannya tetap terjaga dengan baik walaupun memiliki laju pertumbuhan penduduk yang tinggi, Kota Banjarbaru tentunya juga harus memenuhi ketentuan-ketentuan tersebut. Oleh karena itu sangat diperlukan permodelan dalam perencanaan RTH Taman Lingkungan di Kota Banjarbaru dengan berbagai pertimbangan yang disesuaikan dengan kondisi wilayah, luas lahan dan manfaat yang bisa dinikmati secara maksimal oleh masyarakat. Model perencanaan RTH Taman Lingkungan dilakukan dengan mengkaji berdasarkan aspek spasial (keruangan dan sosial. Pentingnya model perencanaan RTH Taman Lingkungan di Kota Banjarbaru disebabkan tidak diterapkannya model perencanaan yang sesuai dengan perkembangan kota sehingga pemanfaatan secara langsung tidak maksimal dirasakan oleh masyarakat Kota Banjarbaru. Penelitian ini mengkaji lebih dalam hubungan aspek spasial dan sosial RTH taman lingkungan tersebut dengan pentingnya keterlibatan masyarakat dalam penentuan rencana desain RTH taman lingkungan yang direncanakan. Metode yang digunakan untuk aspek sosial ini adalah wawancara. Hasil penelitian ini diketahui jumlah RTH taman lingkungan di kota Banjarbaru Utara dan Banjarbaru Selatan yang bersifat publik, berdasarkan hierarki pelayanan adalah 9 (sembilan unit dengan luas 31.799 m², berdasarkan analisis data tingkat persepsi masyarakat terhadap keberadaan RTH Taman Lingkungan di Kota Banjarbaru Utara dan Banjarbaru Selatan sangat bermanfaat bagi masyarakat. Faktor yang mempengaruhi persepsi masyarakat di Banjarbaru Utara adalah  tingkat pendidikan dan informasi sedangkan di Banjarbaru Selatan adalah  informasi dan lama bermukim. Model perencanaan RTH Taman Lingkungan yang sesuai dengan preferensi masyarakat, lingkungan alam dan lingkungan binaan di Kota Banjarbaru adalah dilengkapi dengan fasilitas umum, taman bermain, tempat duduk pengunjung, lahan khusus untuk pedagang, area parkir yang aman, tempat sampah yang menyesuaikan luasan RTH Taman tersebut, pemilihan lampu taman yang sesuai dengan kondisi lingkungan setempat dan pemilihan jenis tanaman yang  sesuai dengan kondisi lahan

  11. Volcanic Structural Systems and its Ore-control on the Songkaersu Porphyry-Type Cu-Au Deposit in Eastern Junggar, Xinjiang%新疆东准噶尔松喀尔苏斑岩型铜金矿床的火山构造系统及其控矿作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张栋; 范俊杰; 刘鹏; 潘爱军; 王治华; 张峰; 赵军; 雷文大

    2015-01-01

    The Songkaersu Cu-Au deposit is located in the south part of the Karamaili tectonic belt and is related to the continental volcanic rocks in Carboniferous continental volcanic belt. Based on studying the lithofacies, patterns, features and stress field of the ore-controlling volcanic structural systems, this paper discusses its evolution, mechanism and model. Our study indicated that (1) the volcanic structural systems are composed of regional continental volcanic belt, volcano-tectonic depression, and caldera (dome), at different scales;(2) The ore-forming processes are controlled by the volcanic structural systems. It has proved that the volcano-tectonic depression is restricted by regional NW-trending deep-seated faults, and one of the caldera groups with ring and radial faults defined by the Devonian basement in the ore field. Both host porphyry and its mineralization extent are defined by the convergence of the SN- and EW-trending volcanic faults. Moreover, the ore-bodies and mineralization type are related to their spatial association with the host porphyry, and the NE-trending faults also contributed to the superposition of the Au mineralization;(3) Tectonic systems include levels from dominant fault systems to basement fault systems, volcanic fault systems, and intrusive contact structure systems. Ore-controlling tectonic processes are related to stress of different period, with SN stress from Late Devonian to Early-Middle Carboniferous and NW stress from Late Carboniferous to Permian. The SN stress could display as NW-trending dextral strike-slip faults, clockwise rotary of adjacent block, and beginning of volcano-tectonic systems. The NW stress could show as volcano faults, superimposed the NE trend slip joints, with linear distribution of volcanic rocks, and epithermal Au mineralization; (4) The conversion of the SN stress and NW stress resulted in lithospheric delamination and asthenosphere mantle underplating under post-collisional environment; (5) The

  12. 西藏雄村铜金矿Ⅰ号矿体赋矿凝灰岩成因探讨:来自岩石地球化学、Sr-Nd-Pb同位素地球化学特征的证据%The Genesis of Mineralized Tuff of No.Ⅰ Ore Body in the Xiongcun Porphyry Copper-Gold Metallogenic Ore District, Tibet: Evidence from Geochemistry and Sr-Nd-Pb Isotopes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁枫; 郎兴海; 胡正华; 杨欢欢; 王子正; 张丽

    2012-01-01

    雄村斑岩型铜金矿集区位于冈底斯造山带中段南缘,目前发现的Ⅰ、Ⅱ、Ⅲ号主矿体均产于含矿斑岩体及其接触带附近的凝灰岩中,本文主要对雄村Ⅰ号矿体赋矿凝灰岩开展岩石地球化学特征研究.赋矿凝灰岩显示出与岛弧火山岩相似的地球化学特征,如相对富集LREE、LILE而亏损HREE、HFS以及低的I(sr)值(变化范围为0.704163~0.705369,均值0.704907)和正的εNd(t)值(变化范围为3.7805~7.6286,均值5.904121)等,其形成与印度-亚洲大陆碰撞造山之前的新特提斯洋俯冲作用有关,产于新特提斯洋向北的洋内俯冲作用而形成的岛弧环境.赋矿凝灰岩起源于岛弧底部的新生玄武质岩层的部分熔融,源岩主要由角闪石、斜长石和少量石榴子石组成.赋矿凝灰岩、含矿斑岩体和成矿作用同属一个火山-岩浆-热液系统,赋矿凝灰岩为成矿提供了必要的围岩外部因素,是矿区重要的控矿因素,也是一个重要的找矿地质条件.在雄村矿区及其外围,侵位于凝灰岩中的斑岩体应该是今后找矿评价的重点区域.%The Xiongcun porphyry copper-gold metallogenic ore concentration area is located in the north of the middle Gangdise orogenic belt. No. Ⅰ, Ⅱ and Ⅲ main ore bodies of Xiongcun area are hosted in ore-bearing porphyries and tuff along the contact zone. This paper mainly studied geochemistry of mineralized tuff in Xiongcun No. I ore body. The mineralized tuff is similar to volcanic rocks in island arc in such geochemical characteristics as relative enrichment of LREE and LILE, depletion of HREE and HFS, low I(Sr) values (raning from 0.704163 to 0.705369, 0.704907 on average), and positive εNd(t) values (ranging from 3.7805~7.6286, 5.904121 on average). Mineralized tuff was formed in an island arc environment and was related to northwards subduction of the Neo-Tethys Ocean which occurred before India - Asian continental collision, and its source

  13. Analisis Sif Kerja, Masa Kerja, dan Budaya K3 dengan Fungsi Paru Pekerja Tambang Batu Bara

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    Qomariyatus Sholihah

    2015-08-01

    study aimed to determine relations of work shift, work period and occupational health and safety (OHS culture with lung function of coal mining worker. This study was control case design with each amount of sample for case and control was 178 respondents. The study was conducted on October – November 2014 at PT X in South Borneo. Results based on chisquare test showed p value = 0.044 for work shift, 0.028 for work period and 0.013 for OHS culture. Based on logistic regression test results, p value for work shift was 0.01 with OR = 3.934. As conclusion, there is a relation between work shift with lung function, then there is no relation found between work period and OHS culture with lung function. Work shift is an independent variable most dominantly influencing the lung function.

  14. SIR-A views our environment An Experiment in the Batu Angkal Area, West Kalimantan, Indonesia

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    Sutanto .

    2013-07-01

    Factors affecting the ease of identification are. mainly tonal contrast, shape, size, surface roughness, direction in relation to the illumination, and dielectric constant. Due to the future availability of SIR-B image of Kalimantan, further study is recommended.

  15. Solid Waste Composition and Quantification at Taman Melewar, Parit Raja, Batu Pahat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadir, A. A.; Abidin, S. S. S. Z.

    2016-07-01

    The poor management of solid waste is noticeable through the increasing of the solid waste each year and the difficulties in disposing the waste in the current available landfill. This study was undertaken to analyze the quantity and composition of waste generation in Taman melewar. Taman Melewar is a student residential area and this study is focusing on student's daily waste composition. The objective of this study was to identify the amount of solid waste generation, analyze and classify the composition of solid waste in Taman Melewar. The waste collection was conducted for 50 houses on a daily basis for two weeks. The average household waste generation rate was 0.082 kg/person/day. Organic waste was the major constituent of waste production. The average of organic waste represents about 72.4% followed by paper (9%), plastics film (5.5%), plastics rigid (4.7%), napkins (3.8%), tetrapek (1.3%), glass (1.1%), household hazardous waste (0.85%), textiles (0.52%), metal (0.51%) and rubber (0.34%). The moisture content was ranging from 27.67% to 28.68%. An evaluation was made based on student's behavior towards waste production and recycling. In conclusion, the results revealed that organic waste is the highest waste generated and recycling habits is also poor in Taman Melewar.

  16. On three apparently new species of Birds from the islands Batu, Sumbawa and Alor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Finsch, O.

    1899-01-01

    Adult male. General colour above dark brown; bead above darker; lores and ear-region lighter and more greyish brown; chin whitish grey, throat and breast ashy grey, remainder underparts, axillaries and greater under wing-coverts white, the smaller ones along the carpal margin grey; sides washed with

  17. APLIKASI METODE GEOLISTRIK DALAM SURVEY POTENSI HIDROTHERMAL (STUDI KASUS: SEKITAR SUMBER AIR PANAS KASINAN PESANGGRAHAN BATU

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    Ika Yulia Sulistyarini, Irjan

    2012-03-01

    Hasil penelitian menunjukkan lapisan penyusun bawah permukaan pada lintasan B dan C tidak kontinu dan didominasi oleh lapisan yang tidak memiliki sifat pembawa air panas yang berupa batuan lava dan campuran batuan lava dengan andesit yang menunjukkan kemas tertutup dan porositas batuan jelek. Potensi air panas masih kecil dan diduga air panas yang muncul ke permukaan berasal dari aliran air panas dari arah songgoriti-cangar. Air panas tersebut muncul ke permukaan diduga karena adanya rekahan batuan di bawah permukaan. Kata Kunci : Air Panas (Hidrothermal, Geolistrik Resistivitas Konfigurasi Wenner, Potensi air panas.

  18. Solid Waste Composition Study at Taman Universiti, Parit Raja, Batu Pahat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadir, A. A.; Sani, M. S. A. M.

    2016-07-01

    Solid waste management is recognised as one of the most challenging issues confronted by both the developed and developing countries. The problems rise due to growing population in current years which results in increased generation of waste with various compositions. The aim of this study was to determine the waste compositions at Taman Universiti. Taman Universiti is a mix residential and commercial area which a preferred residential location amongst students and lecturers due to its proximate location to UTHM main campus. The waste collection was carried out for 50 houses on a daily basis. The collection and sorting out method was conducted according to Malaysian Standard MS 2505:2012 and the data was collected and recorded The result showed that the average generation rate of household waste at Taman Universiti was 0.16kg/person/day and the moisture content was approximately ranging from 61%-68%. Household wastes collected were categorized and it consisted of food and organic, paper, rigid plastics, plastics film, baby diapers, glass, tetra pak, household hazardous waste, metal, rubber, textiles, garden waste and leather. The proportion of each wastes were approximately 64.67%, 9.36%, 9.22%, 5.33%, 3.51%, 2.53%, 1.37%, 1.05%, 0.84%, 0.85%, 0.80%, 0.27%, and 0.23%, respectively. Results from the analyses indicated that the food and organic waste are the major composition of household waste at Taman Universiti followed by the paper, rigid plastics, and plastic film. Meanwhile, the proportion of baby diapers, glass, tetra pak, household hazardous waste, metal, rubber, textiles, and garden decreasing accordingly. In addition, leather was recognized as the least category that contributed to the household waste.

  19. Analisis Biaya Manfaat Program Jaring Pengaman Sosial di Kabupaten Labuhan Batu

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    Esti Pancaningdyah

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This research is aimed at evaluating the program namely Local People Empowerment for Overcoming Economic Crisis Impact (Pemberdayaan Daerah dalam Mengatasi Dampak Krisis Ekonomi – PDM-DKE which relates to the social safety net program in six villages of Labuhanbatu Regency. Two basic cast-benefit analysis are used — the Net Benefit (NB and the Cost-Benefit Ratio (CBR --- to evaluate the program for two target groups in Labuhanbatu. In the contrary to the objective of the program, it is indicated that quite a large portion of the fund (35.78% was not used for empowering the smalls scales shops/stalls. The recipients from the poor people category was constitute only 19.18% of the total number, who gets about 10.97% of the total fund allocated. Using two scenarios for sensitivity analysis and 12 % per year for discounting, this research conclude that the PDM-DKE program is beneficial but the benefit was enjoyed more by no-low-income recipients. However, there might possibilities that the program create some non-quantifiable benefit. The following recommendation are put forward: 1 To ensure that the use of aid and the determination of the terget group are accordance with the original objective, there is a need for monitoring, supervision and guidance at every stage of the implementation up to the lowest level. 2 Allocation of the aid should be more selective in order to avoid deviations in the implementation. 3 Further research is necessary to investigate the implementation of the program in wider scope

  20. Drinking Water Quality of Water Vending Machines in Parit Raja, Batu Pahat, Johor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, N. H.; Yusop, H. M.

    2016-07-01

    An increased in demand from the consumer due to their perceptions on tap water quality is identified as one of the major factor on why they are mentally prepared to pay for the price of the better quality drinking water. The thought that filtered water quality including that are commercially available in the market such as mineral and bottled drinking water and from the drinking water vending machine makes they highly confident on the level of hygiene, safety and the mineral content of this type of drinking water. This study was investigated the vended water quality from the drinking water vending machine in eight locations in Parit Raja are in terms of pH, total dissolve solids (TDS), turbidity, mineral content (chromium, arsenic, cadmium, lead and nickel), total organic carbon (TOC), pH, total colony-forming units (CFU) and total coliform. All experiments were conducted in one month duration in triplicate samples for each sampling event. The results indicated the TDS and all heavy metals in eight vended water machines in Parit Raja area were found to be below the Food Act 1983, Regulation 360C (Standard for Packaged Drinking Water and Vended water, 2012) and Malaysian Drinking Water Quality, Ministry of Health 1983. No coliform was presence in any of the vended water samples. pH was found to be slightly excess the limit provided while turbidity was found to be 45 to 95 times more higher than 0.1 NTU as required by the Malaysian Food Act Regulation. The data obtained in this study would suggest the important of routine maintenance and inspection of vended water provider in order to maintain a good quality, hygienic and safety level of vended water.

  1. ISOLASI DAN IDENTIFIKASI BAKTERI PEREDUKSI SULFAT PADA AREA PERTAMBANGAN BATU BARA MUARA ENIM, SUMATERA SELATAN

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    Muchamad Yusron

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Sulfate reducing bacteria utilize sulfate as their terminal electron acceptor and reduce it to sulphide. Acid mine drainage, by-products of mining activities, is an acidic sulfate-rich wastewater suitable habitat for sulfate reducing bacteria. Isolation and identification of sulfate reducing bacteria collected from Muara Enim coal mining, South Sumatra was carried out at Laboratory of Environmental Biotechnology, Indonesian Center for Biodiversity and Biotechnology (ICBB, Bogor, and Laboratory of Microbiology, Faculty of Veterinary, Bogor Agricultural University. Postgate B liquid media was used for isolation and purification via serial dilution. Physiological and biochemical characterization was done based on Bergeys Manual of Determinative Bacteriology. Fifteen pure isolates have been isolated with diverse characteristics. Eight isolates can sustain at pH 3, while the rest sustain at pH 4 or above. Sulfate reduction efficiency of each isolates were different, but increased as the pH increased. The bacteria are classified as Desulfovibrio sp., which is characterized straight rods, motile, non spore-forming and able to grow in simple organic carbon.

  2. Studi Komposisi Mineral Tepung Batu Bukit Kamang Sebagai Bahan Baku Pakan Sumber Mineral

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    Khalil

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to determine mineral content of limestone originated from natural deposit of Bukit Kamang for feedstuff. Six samples were prepared and chemically analyzed. The first was limestone in meal form as a product of local milling industry. Another five samples were deposit components with different color of blackish, dark blue, blue, light blue and white. There was 21 kinds of mineral determined which were divided into 3 groups: macros (Ca, P, Mg, Na, K, Cl and S, trace minerals (Mn, Zn, Fe, Cu, Se, Co and Mo and toxic elements (As, F, Hg, Cd, Pb, Ni and Cr. The results showed that Bukit Kamang’s limestone contained considerable high essential minerals of Ca, Se, Fe and Mn. The limestone consisted of 38%-40% Ca, 388 ppm Se, 295 ppm Fe and 205 ppm Mn. There were two toxic elements detected: Pb and Cd, but their concentration was found relatively low: 28 and 7 ppm, respectively.

  3. Instalasi Buku dari Batu sebagai Representasi Reinkarnasi Ilmu dalam Pengkaryaan Tiga Dimensi Seni Patung Kontemporer

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    Gabriel Aries Setiadi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The human life civilization have been enlightened by the invention of script, more than 5000 years ago the scripts have been embodying an idea, an experience and a wisdom through the next generation. Book as an object is an arrangement of the scripts that embody the idea and experience consist of words that contains meaning. Book consists of the cover, and all the content that symbolized with the layer of papers, the thickness, the books title and the authors on the cover and on the side of book. Scripts initially only found on the rock or a piece of clay, but as the time goes by and the needs, its changed from the rocks and clay turned into the sheet of leather, leaves, and wood. By the time, leather, wood, and leaves then no longer used and now paper comes to mainstream media. A collection of paper united in numbers we know now as a book. According to the evolution, physically of a book already has changed several times but the function still remain as a medium to read and written something. The fact is, we need to realize that the role of books during human history would be the same, that is a knowledge transfer media, either by means of a scientific writing, novel, a fairy tale, and scripture. The role of books on civilization has change in very significant, how many books that can affect people’s mind, how many people can be influence by the book, and how many changes that preceded by one writing. The change of the book physically, from the very beginning until now, have many script written about feeling, idea, and experience. As long as that also has been create physical and psychological interaction between human and the book. Human had an important role in the life cycle trough knowledge, based on desire and ideas. Passion and imagination be the important point of culture and civilization changes. This artwork is a way to creating an interaction between human and the book physically, with different visual appearance that is the fossilized book.

  4. KEBIASAAN MAKAN IBU MENYUSUI DI KOTA BATU (PERKOTAAN DAN SUKAHARJA (PEDESAAN, CIOMAS, BOGOR

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    Sri Muljati

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Rapid Assesment Procedures has been applied to explore kinds of food which related to the production of breast milk among lactating mothers, traditional-midwives, key-persons and nutrition volunteer in Bogor. The study was also designed to compare the beliefs between rural and urban population. The study reveals that there are beliefs of foods which related to producing breast milk in rural as well as in urban. In facts, foods which inhibited breast milk production are only a few and there is no different beliefs between rural and urban. Foods which are believed in stimulating the production are mostly unusual foods such as young papaya (Carica papaya, beluntas leaves (Plucea indica Less, banana flowers (Musa paradisiaca. Foods which should be restricted by mothers who just delivery until 40 days was listed.

  5. DESIGNING COMPANY PERFORMANCE MEASUREMENT SYSTEM USING BALANCE SCORECARD APPROACH

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    Cecep Mukti Soleh

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to design how to measure company performance by using balance scorecard approach in coal transportation services industry. Depth interview was used to obtain qualitative data determination of strategic objectives, key performance indicators, strategic initiatives, and in charge units for each balanced scorecard perspectives while the quantitative data were obtained from weighting through questionnaires and analyzed using paired comparison to get a perspective what mostly affected the performance of the company. To measure the achievement of corporate performance, each KPI used (1 the scoring system with the methods that higher is better, lower is better and precise is better; (2 traffic light system with the help of green, yellow, red for identification of target achievement. This research result shows that in the balance scorecard perspective, the most influences on the overall performance of the company include the customer's perspective (31%, financial perspective (29%, internal business processes (21%, learning, and growth 19%. Keywords: balance scorecard, paired comparison, coal transportation serviceABSTRAKPenelitian ini bertujuan untuk merancang pengukuran kinerja perusahaan dengan menggunakan pendekatan balance scorecard di industri jasa pengangkutan batu bara. Data kualitatif diperoleh melalui indepth interview digunakan untuk menentukan sasaran strategik, indikator kinerja utama, inisiatif strategi dan penanggungjawab setiap divisi setiap perspektif balance scorecard, sedangkan data kuantitatif digunakan untuk pembobotan melalui kuesioner dan dianalisis dengan menggunakan metode paired comparisson untuk mendapatkan perspektif yang paling berpengaruh terhadap kinerja perusahaan. Ukuran pencapaian kinerja perusahaan dari setiap KPI menggunakan; (1 scoring system dengan bantuan metode higher is better, lower is better dan precise is better;(2 traffic light system dengan menggunakan bantuan warna hijau, kuning, merah

  6. Meningkatkan Efesiensi Pemakaian Air dengan Mengatur Ketebalan Mulsa dan Interval Irigasi Untuk Kacang Hijau (Vigna radiata L.

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    Eko Sulistyono

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Mulsa diketahui sebagai teknologi budidaya untuk menurunkan evapotranspirasi dan meningkatkan efisiensi pemakaian air.  Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menentukan kombinasi antara ketebalan mulsa dan interval irigasi yang memberikan efisiensi pemakaian air paling tinggi. Percobaan rumah kaca dilakukan dengan lima tingkat ketebalan mulsa ( 0, 3, 6, 9 and 12 cm yang dikombinasikan dengan empat tingkat interval irigasi (2, 4, 6, and 8 hari.  Percobaan  di susun dalam Rancangan Acak Kelompok dengan tiga ulangan. Interaksi antara ketebalan mulsa dan interval irigasi berpengaruh nyata terhadap tinggi tanaman, jumlah cabang, bobot biji, evapotranspirasi dan efisiensi pemakaian air. Produksi maksimal diperoleh dengan perlakuan frekuensi irigasi 6 hari sekali atau keadaan air tanah sebelum irigasi sebesar 72.63 %AT saat umur tanaman 2-4 MST, 68.95 %AT saat umur tanaman 4-6 MST, 62.14 %AT saat umur tanaman 6-8 MST, 66.99 %AT saat tanaman umur >8 MST, dengan ketebalan mulsa 9 cm. Kombinasi ketebalan mulsa 9 cm dengan interval irigasi 6 hari sekali mempunyai nilai efisiensi pemakaian air sebesar 0.877 ± 1.754  g L-1.Kata kunci: mulsa

  7. Respons Imunoglobulin-G dan Imunoglobulin-M Mencit yang Diberi Ekstrak Methanol Alga Biru Hijau dan Diinfeksi Dengan Takizoit

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    Sorta Basar Ida Simanjuntak

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasmosis is an infectious disease caused by Toxoplasma gondii. This disease could severelyaffect humans and animals. Up to now there has been no simple treatment to fight toxoplasmosis. Aprospective alternative treatment to overcome this problem is by increasing immunity of the body using animmunostimulant such as Spirulina platensis. The aims of this research were to observe the potency of S.platensis as an immunostimulant and to find the most potential fraction of S. Platensis that can increasethe responses of IgG and IgM antibodies againts toxoplasma. The responses of these antibodies weremeasured using ELISA method. The isolation of compounds from S. platensis using Preparative ThinLayer Chromatography (PTLC found three fractions which were a top fraction (I, a middle fraction (II,and a lower fraction (III. Forty-eight mice used in this research were divided into four different groupswith 12 mice in each group and treated differently. The top, middle, and lower fractions of S. platensis wereadministered orally to three groups of mice respectively at dose of 3mg/ml for each mouse while the micein the fourth group were kept as untreated controls. The treatment was conducted for 14 days consecutivelyand on the next day, all mice, including the controls, were challenged with tachizoit. The effect of S.platensisfractions on the responses of IgG and IgM antibodies were then measured at various time intervals, i.e. day0 (before infection and day 1, 2, and 3 after infection. The results showed that IgG response increased inthe day 0 (2.504 OD and the day 3 after infection (2.608 OD while IgM response increased in day 1 afterinfection (2.898 OD. In conclusion, S. platensis was an immunostimulant and the middle fraction (II of S.Platensis was the most potential fraction to increase immunity againts toxoplasma .

  8. KEBIJAKAN PENGELOLAAN LINGKUNGAN KAWASAN INDUSTRI SESUAI PROPER KLHK PERINGKAT HIJAU (STUDI KASUS DI KAWASAN INDUSTRI JABABEKA BEKASI

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    Temmy Wikaningrum

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Environmental management in industrial estate is the strategic policy model which is needed to be developed referring to the Indonesian Government Decree number 24 year 2009, that state almost all of the new industrial developments should be located in industrial estate. The complexity in this environmental management was approached by “green rating” of PROPER’s criteria regulated by Ministry of Environment & Forestry (KLHK. PROPER is the assessment program of company performance rating in environmental management. Green rating is classified by PROPER in terms of beyond compliance performance. The result of the case study in Jababeka Industrial Estate (KIJA Bekasi, based on its environmental situational analysis year 2014 by multidimensional scaling (MDS method, showed that only the management dimension had a sustainability performance. The results of prospective analysis on leverage factors of MDS showed that the key factors of the environmental management model were (1 DRKPL (summary document of environmental management performance, (2 implementation of water conservation and reducing water pollution program, (3funding for water conservation, (4 monitoring and evaluation of community development program, (5 implementation of 3R (reduce, reuse, recycle programs of hazardous waste, (6 technology of 3R, and (7 benchmarking. Based on the key parameters and referred to the possibilities conditions, three scenarios have been developed to approach the implementative policy. The moderate scenario was recommended to be the right policy in term of consideration of technology, funding availability, time of implementation and organization skills.Keywords: environmental management, industrial estate, jababeka, proper KLHK

  9. IDENTIFIKASI JEJARING PENGELOLAAN KONSERVASI PENYU HIJAU (Chelonia mydas MELALUI PENENTUAN KOMPOSISI GENETIK DAN METAL TAG DI LAUT SULU SULAWESI

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    Ni Kadek Dita Cahyani

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The research used 51 tissue samples taken from 51 individual Green Turtles in Pulau Panjang, EastKalimantan. The isolation of mtDNA was achieved by adding Proteinase K into the samples prior to the utilization ofthe PCR (Polimerase Chain Reaction technique. The MEGA 3.1 computer program was employed to read the DNAsequences obtained through the PCR technique.Seven different haplotypes were identified from the analyzed samples. The haplotypes are: A3 (N=7; 13.73%,A4 (N=1; 1.96%, A6 (N=2; 3.92%, C3 (N=5; 9.80%, C5 (N=6; 11.76%, C14 (N=5; 9.80% dan D2 (N=25;49.02%. Tag findings clearly demonstrated that the Green Turtles, which feed on the seagrass beds of Pulau Panjang,originated in different nesting sites, including Sabah and Trengganu in Malaysia, Sangalaki and Derawan inIndonesia, and Phillipine. The MSA (Mixed Stock Analysis showed that the Green Turtles population in PulauPanjang was composed of several management units (nesting sites, which were Berau (47%, Sulu Sea (34% andMicronesia (6%.

  10. IDENTIFIKASI SEKS RASIO TUKIK PENYU HIJAU (Chelonia mydas DAN PENYU BELIMBING (Dermochelys coriacea DI BERBAGAI PANTAI PENELURAN UTAMA DI INDONESIA

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    DWI SUPRAPTI

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Sex ratio is highly dependent on incubation temperature. The optimum temperature of 28 ° C - 30 ° C can result in sex ratio 1: 1. The high temperature will be produced predominantly female hatchlings, and vice versa. The incubation temperatures influenced by some environmental factors such as rainfall, air temperature, air humidity, sand temperature, sand humidity, sand type and vegetation. This research carried out at the Sukamade beach - East Java, Sangalaki island - East Kalimantan and Jamursba Medi beach - West Papua. Results showed the unbalanced sex ratio of sea turtle hatchlings in each of study area. The Sukamade beach generated 75% of male hatchlings in nests under vegetation, 100% female hatchlings in the nest on open beaches, and 87.5% male hatchlings in the hatchery. While the sex ratio of hatchlings produced on Sangalaki island are 100% male in nests under vegetation, 72.22% male hatchlings in the nest on open beaches and 94.44% male hatchlings in the hatchery. On the Jamursba Medi beach produced 90.9% male hatchlings from nests on open beaches. Based on correlation analysis, a significant correlation showed between sex ratio and incubation temperature with significance of 0.01. While there is no significance correlation showed between sex ratios by environmental factors, with significance of 0.942 for the air temperature variable, 0.340 for the air humidity, 0292 for amount of the rainfall, 0799 for the sand fraction, and 0.331 for the sand humidity. All of these significance are greater than 0.05.

  11. KELAYAKAN REHABILITASI MANGROVE DENGAN TEKNIK GULUDAN DALAM PERSPEKTIF PERDAGANGAN KARBON DI KAWASAN HIJAU LINDUNG MUARA ANGKE, PROVINSI DKI JAKARTA

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    Isluyandari Woelan Yanuartanti

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Mitigation of climate change due to CO2 emissions, the forestry sector developed a REDD+ scheme. This study was conducted to examine financial feasibility of the mangrove rehabilitation with guludan technique, so that further funding of mangrove rehabilitation can be included into REDD+ scheme. Guludan technology was developed to overcome the deep water column for mangrove rehabilitation in the former pond area. This technique has been developed for mangrove species Avicennia marina with spacing 0.25 m x 0.25 m, 0.5 m x 0.5 m, and 1 m x 1 m. Based on diameter and height growth of 36 months planted seedlings of A.marina followed logistic model. CO2 sequestration 386.34 t/ha, 131.12 t/ha, and 26.75 t/ha in 0.25 m x 0.25 m, 0.5 m x 0.5 m, and 1 m x 1 m spacing. With CO2 sequestration selling price of €20,00/t CO2 and rehabilitated land area of 10 ha, this rehabilitation action using guludan technique is not financially feasible, because the criteria for a negative NPV, Net B/C< 1, and IRR < the investment rate, which is 12%. The alternative for this is by implementing material efficiency and increasing carbon selling price as much €54.5/t CO2 for the spacing 0.25 m x 0.25 m; €122/t CO2 for the spacing 0.5 m x 0.5 m; and €580/t CO2 for the spacing 1 m x 1 m.Keywords: Avicennia marina, guludan, CO2 sequestration, plant spacing, and financial feasibility

  12. 伊犁地区果子沟南华系塔里萨依组冰碛岩顶部花岗斑岩年龄及其意义%Granite Porphyry SHRIMP U-Pb Age at Top of the Nanhuan Talisaye Formation in Guozigou, Ili area, and Implications for Glaciogenic Diamictite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高维; 张传恒; 李永安

    2011-01-01

    There are three diamictite (tillite) units in the Guozigou--Keguqin section in Ili area of the northern part of the Western Tianshan Mountains, which are Qurutielikti Formation (Lower diamictite ),Biexibasitao Formation (Middle diamictite ) and Talisaye Formation (Upper diamictite ) from bottom to top.According to the former study, the Talisaye Formation is still correlated with the Hagriqaok diamictite in Quruqtagh area. This paper reports a magmatic zircon age of 642 ±5 Ma (206Pb/238U) from granite -porphyry, which intrudes into the top of the Talisaye Formation. This dating represents the evolved magma age. Even this is the dating of the intrusive body, yet this is a new evidence for the up limit of the Talisaye Formation. Meanwhile, the Qulutielikti Formation ( Lower diamictite), the Biexibasitao Formation ( Middle diamictite) correlated with Bayxi diamictite and Alatonggou diamictite respectively in Quruqtagh area, so we can put a suggestion that the Talisaye diamictite is correlated with Teruiaiken diamictite and not with Hagriqaok diamictite in Quruqtagh area. So, this paper advanced a new evidence for the Neoproterozoic glaciogenic diamictite between the Guozigou section in the Western Tianshan and some sections in Quruqtagh area in the Eastern Tianshan.%西天山东北段伊犁地厌的果子沟-科古琴剖面发育了新元古代3套冰碛岩,自下而上为库鲁铁列克提组(下冰碛岩)、别西巴斯套组(中冰碛岩)和塔里萨依组(上冰碛岩).前人研究认为塔里萨依组冰碛岩与库鲁克塔格地区的汉格尔乔克组对比.本文报道了侵入于塔里萨依组顶部的花岗斑岩中岩浆锆石(206)Pb/(238)PbU年龄为(642±5)Ma,应代表花岗斑岩的形成时代.尽管该年龄为花岗斑岩侵位年龄,但可限定果子沟剖面塔里萨依组冰碛岩的沉积上限.由于区内有库鲁铁列克提组(下冰碛岩)和别西巴斯套组(中冰碛岩),可分别对比于库鲁克塔格地区的贝义西组和阿勒

  13. Brecha de turmalina del pórfido de cobre-oro San Jorge, Mendoza: alteración, mineralización y origen de los fluidos Tourmaline breccia of San Jorge porphyry copper gold deposit (Mendoza: alteration, mineralization and origin of the fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirta M. Garrido

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available La brecha de turmalina (breccia pipe asociada al pórfido de cobre oro San Jorge está desarrollada en las sedimentitas carboníferas (Formación Yalguaráz ubicada en el contacto con el margen SO del cuerpo de granodiorita (Pérmico. Es clasto sostén y monomíctica (arenisca, con escasa matriz y cemento principalmente de turmalina. La intensidad del brechamiento disminuye hasta alcanzar un stockwork y una zona de menor densidad de venillas en la base. La alteración hidrotermal se manifiesta como un reemplazo de la roca y un relleno de fracturas. Presenta una primera alteración potásica y se sobreimpone una fílica que predomina en las partes medias y altas del cuerpo. Como relleno de las fracturas, se presentan turmalina, feldespato potásico, sericita, pirita y calcopirita, y es donde se registran las leyes más altas de cobre del depósito. Fracturas posteriores a la brecha están vinculadas a venillas de cuarzo y sericita, de sericita y de cuarzo, pirita, calcopirita y arsenopirita. Un primer fluido relacionado a la alteración potásica es sobresaturado en sales y no presenta ebullición; el otro relacionado al evento de alteración fílica es de baja salinidad y manifiesta ebullición a 400ºC. Considerando un sistema hidrostático, se estimó una profundidad de formación para la brecha de 1,5 km. Los valores isotópicos calculados de δ18O entre 8,45 y 9,75 ‰ y de δ D entre -53,07 y -63,07 ‰ sobre turmalina indican una fuente magmática para los fluidos. Desde el punto de vista genético, y sustentado por las evidencias de texturas, inclusiones fluidas e isótopos, se clasifica como una brecha hidrotermal magmáticaThe tourmaline breccia (breccia pipe associated to San Jorge porphyry copper ore deposit is developed in carboniferous sedimentites (Yalguaráz Formation at the contact with the SW margin of a permian granodiorite. The breccia is clast supported and monomictic (sandstone, with scarce matrix and cement mainly composed

  14. Element geochemical characteristics of No.Ⅱ ore body of the Xiongcun porphyry copper-gold deposit in Tibet%西藏雄村斑岩铜金矿床Ⅱ号矿体元素地球化学特征及其指示意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄勇; 唐菊兴; 丁俊; 郎兴海; 李志军; 张丽

    2012-01-01

    雄村铜金矿是冈底斯成矿带上新发现的岛弧型斑岩铜金矿床,矿床由3个矿体组成,Ⅱ号矿体位于Ⅰ号矿体北西侧3km处.Ⅱ号矿体中铜、金、银矿化主要分布在早期钾-硅酸盐化带以及绢云母白云母-石英硫化物带中,早期钾-硅酸盐化的典型矿物组合为黑云母+磁铁矿±钾长石+黄铜矿+黄铁矿,热液磁铁矿含量较高.元素空间分布特征以及相关性分析表明,Cu和Au、Ag呈显著正相关,黄铜矿是Au和Ag的主要载体,分布在矿体中心.Cu与K、Rb呈正相关,而与Na呈负相关的特点表明矿化与钾质交代关系密切,晚期矿化以分布在外围的细脉状、脉状方铅矿和闪锌矿化为主.由矿体中心向外,与矿化有关的16种元素构成Cu、Au、Ag、K、Rb、Ba-Mo-Co、Ni-Pb、Zn、Mn、Ag、Sb-Na元素分带,元素带状分布特征与蚀变矿化分带吻合.分布在外围的Na同时受钾质交代过程中Na元素向外迁移作用以及早期深部高温环境下的钠质-钙质蚀变共同控制.元素空间分带特征与蚀变与矿化分带机理类似,受热液流体演化、运移、温压条件和原岩组分等综合因素控制,分带特征对今后的找矿与勘探工作具有一定的指示意义.%The Xiongcun copper-gold deposit is an island arc porphyry copper-gold deposit newly discovered in the Gangdise metallogenic belt. It consists of three ore bodies. No. Ⅱ ore body is located 3 km northwest of No. I ore body. Cu, Au, and Ag mineralizations occur in early K-silicate alteration zone and sericite-muscovite-quartz-sulphide zone. Early K-silicate alteration is characterized by biotite + magnetite ± K-feldspar + chalcopy-rite+ pyrite, and is rich in magnetite. Element distribution characteristics and correlation analysis show that Cu is well correlated to Au and Ag. Au- and Ag-bearing chalcopyrite is mainly distributed at the center of the ore deposit. Cu is positively related to K, Rb and negatively related to Na

  15. Petrology, Geochemistry and Petrogenesis of Wolonggu granites and Tongchang granodioritic porphyries: Constraints on copper metallogenic geological settings in northeastern Jiangxi Province%江西卧龙谷花岗岩和铜厂花岗闪长斑岩的地球化学特征及成因——对赣东北地区铜矿成矿地质背景的制约

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭博然; 刘树文; 杨朋涛; 王宗起; 罗平; 王永庆; 罗国辉; 王伟

    2013-01-01

    Northeastern Jiangxi Province is a major polymetallic ore-forwing area in northeastern segment of the Jiangnan orogenic belt.Wolonggu granitoid pluton is a typical nonmineralized granite pluton and consists chiefly of monzogranites.LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb isotopic dating yields a weighted mean 206Pb/238U age of 133Ma±1Ma,which represents the age ofmagrnatic crystallization and reveals that the granitic pluton was emplaced in Early Cretaceous.Combined with their high initial 87Sr/865r values ranging from 0.716079 to 0.719392 and low εNd(t) values ranging from-6.51 to-5.14,the authors hold that the Wolonggu granites were probably derived from partial melting of metamorphic pelitic rocks from the crustal source region.However,Tongchang granodioritic porphyric intrusion is a classic mineralized granitic pluton and consists mainly of granodioritic porphyries.Emplaced in Middle Jurassic (with crystallization age of 171Ma±3Ma),the Tongchang granodioritic porphyries display low initial87Sr/86Sr values ranging from 0.704403 to 0.704475,high εNd (t) values ranging from-1.14 to ±1.80 and higher Mg# values of 28-53,suggesting that the magma was possibly derived from partial melting of subducted oceanic slabs and relative sediments,and was polluted by mantle materials during its upward migration.The comparison of features between the nonmineralized granite pluton and the copper mineralized granitic pluton can detect the constraint of the Mesozoic granitoid magmatism on copper metallogenic geological settings,which may provide the essential geological data of the geodynamic setting for regional mineralization.%赣东北地区是江南造山带东北段重要的多金属成矿区.卧龙谷花岗岩体是典型的非铜矿成矿花岗岩体,由二长花岗岩组成,其LA-ICP-MS锆石U-Pb同位素分析揭示其岩浆结晶年龄为133 Ma±1Ma,形成于早白垩世.这些岩石表现出高的初始87Sr/86Sr比值(0.716079~ 0.719392)和较低的εNd(t)(-6.51~-5.14)值,指示

  16. Rock-forming and Ore-forming Ages as well as Formation Environments of Porphyry Molybdenum Deposits in Beishan Area, Inner Mongolia%内蒙古北山地区斑岩型钼矿的成岩成矿时代和形成环境探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨岳清; 赵金花; 孟贵祥; 严加永; 吕博; 王守光; 贾玲珑; 韩建刚

    2013-01-01

    A nearly EW-trending molybdenum (copper) ore belt was found in Beishan area of Inner Mongolia. The relatively large deposits in this belt include Liushashan molybdenum deposit, Elegenwulanwula molybdenum deposit and Xiaohulishan molybdenum deposit., Re-Os isotope dating of molybdenite samples from these three deposits yielded isochron ages of (260±10) Ma (Middle Permian), 332.0 Ma (Early Carboniferous) and 220 Ma (Late Triassic) respectively. Obviously, different metallogenic epochs reflect different environments for the formation of these deposits. Based on new SHRIMP zircon U-Pb age data of the porphyry related to mineralization as well as basic rock and ore geochemical work, the authors revealed the formation environments of the three deposits from the angle of regional crustal evolution. In the Early Paleozoic, the three deposits were in Kazakhstan plate, and in the Late Paleozoic, due to the development of Hongshishan-Baiheshan-Pengboshan area from rift valley to ocean basin, the position of the Liushashan molybdenum deposit was split into the Tarim plate. Due to the difference in subduction mechanism and underlying basement, tectono-magmatic activities were somewhat different in two island arcs. In active marginal belt of north Tarim plate, magmatic activity was unusually strong and lasted from Carboniferous to the end of Permian. In the early stage, mineralization was dominated mainly by iron, and molybdenum (copper) deposits were formed in the late stage. Magmatic activity of the marginal belt in south Kazakhstan plate was a bit weaker than that in the northern marginal belt of Tarim plate, and the magmatic activity was mainly concentrated in Carboniferous; in such an environment, the Elegenwulanwula molybdenum deposit was formed. At the end of Permian, the split plate of Beishan area became a unified plate again through collage. From that time on, Beishan area entered into an environment of intra-continental crustal activity, and stretching

  17. ANALISIS FAKTOR-FAKTOR YANG MEMPENGARUHI KEUNGGULAN KOMPARATIF DAN KEUNGGULAN KOMPETITIF PADA UKM PENGRAJIN BATU MARMER DI KABUPATEN TULUNGAGUNG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andi Nu Graha

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Marketing Global was viewed that could give basically of business performance. It had been controlled and measured. Whereas certain business do not have attention toward global market. The development of middle and small industries face regional market and global market have to base with strongest effort and continuity. Hence, the production of middle and small business has comparative advantages  competitive advantages. The purpose of this research is to know the various factors both comparative and competitive advantages in middle and small businesess of Marble Stones in Tuluagung Region, East Java. The analysis research are found : (1 The main problem of comparative advantages in middle and small businesess was the lower of wages labor, (2 the largest of scope area, (3 the aglomeration area and the government policies. The result of this research are production factors, the similar industries and the industries supported.

  18. Penetapan Kadar Protein dan Lemak Dari Berbagai Jenis Ikan Lele di Kecamatan Pancur Batu Dengan Metode Kjeldahl dan Sokletasi

    OpenAIRE

    Tarigan, Balilibra Betlehemia Reformanda

    2017-01-01

    Eating fish is very good for health. Experts advise to eat more fish than red meat. The fish is not foreign to the people of Indonesia, because Indonesia is rich in fish potential both capture fisheries and aquaculture, unfortunately awareness of eating fish to the public remains low. One of the many types of fish consumed by people is catfish. Catfish popular because apart easily obtained, catfish, nutritious and cheap. Community Karo, catfish believed to relieve pain in wounds experienced b...

  19. PENGARUH KEPUASAN DAN KEPERCAYAAN TERHADAP LOYALITAS PELANGGAN LEMBAGA PENGEMBANGAN DAN SERTIFIKASI BATU MULIA (LPSB DI MARTAPURA KABUPATEN BANJAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eni Hairany

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This  study  has  the  objective  of  identifying  and  analyzing  the  influence  of satisfaction and trust on customer loyalty LPSB Martapura Banjar District. Research  location  conducted  in  LPSB  Martapura  Banjar  Regency.  The population of this research is all the customers who use the services LPSB in requesting certificates, as well as scrap in 2012, according to the data contained in the report LPSB in 2012 as many as 124 people . Based on the results of hypothesis testing, with multiple linear regressions, get that  the  satisfaction  and  confidence  significantly  positive  effect  on  customer loyalty LPSB Martapura Banjar District. Partially, satisfaction and confidence significantly  positive  effect  on  customer  loyalty.  Between  two  variables, satisfaction variable is a variable that is the dominant influence on customer loyalty LPSB Martapura Banjar district.  Keywords: Satisfaction, Trust, Loyalty

  20. POLA ASUH MAKAN, PERKEMBANGAN BAHASA, DAN KOGNITIF ANAK BALITA STUNTED DAN NORMAL DI KELURAHAN SUMUR BATU, BANTAR GEBANG BEKASI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Latifah Hanum

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe purpose of this study was to identify the association between nutritional status, language and cognitive development and also differences of language and cognitive development between normal and stunted underfiveschildren. The study design was a cross-sectional. Sample size was 70 children consisted of 35 normal and 35 stunted children. The highest percentage level of education of fathers and mothers only primary school and more than half of children came from poor families. There was significant difference (pKey words: cognitive development, language development, stunting, underfives childrenABSTRAKTujuan dari studi ini adalah untuk mengetahui kaitan status gizi dengan perkembangan bahasa dan kognitif pada anak yang berstatus gizi normal dan stunted. Penelitian ini menggunakan desain cross sectional. Total subjek pada penelitian ini sebanyak 70 anak balita, terdiri dari 35 anak balita berstatus gizi stunted dan 35 anak berstatus gizi normal. Sebagian besar pendidikan orang tua adalah SD dan berasal dari keluarga miskin. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa terdapat perbedaan signifikan (pdan besar keluarga. Kelompok balita normal memiliki pencapaian perkembangan bahasa dan kognitif yang lebih tinggi daripada kelompok anak balita stunted. Tidak terdapat perbedaan pola asuh makan anak balita normal dan stunted (p>0.05, namun skor pola asuh makan ibu anak balita normal lebih tinggi daripada anak balita stunted. Berdasarkan uji korelasi terdapat hubungan signifikan (pKata kunci: perkembangan kognitif, perkembangan bahasa, stunting, anak balita

  1. Respon Orang Tua Terhadap Program Kids Club Yayasan Fondasi Hidup Indonesia Di Desa Baru Kecamatan Pancur Batu Kabupaten Deli Serdang

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    To see the existing reality in Indonesia at the moment, the presence of children thus much distressed by the development process of the problem ignores the interests and rights of the child. On the other hand, social condition, the versatile underestimined political in this country were aggravating the deteriotation of good parenting patterns at the level of families and the community. As a consequence, it appears children who did not obtain an education that is maximum. One of the social pro...

  2. POLA DAN ETOS KERJA PEREMPUAN DALAM INDUSTRI RUMAH TANGGA DI JORONG CANGKIANG NAGARI BATU TABA KECAMATAN AMPEK ANGKEK KABUPATEN AGAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marleni Marleni

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the role of women in domestic and public sphere. Multi-role women are able to maintain harmonious relations in their extended and core families. The main reason women have trading activities because of economic pressures. They feel they have a responsibility for their family livelihood sustainability. The interesting thing is  they aware that their contributions to supplement their family income does not necessarily revoke roles as wife and mother in their family.Thus the women's role to implement various strategies in order to run smoothly, both in domestic and public aspects.Keywords : Women, have trading, domestic and public activityCopyright © 2013 by Kafa`ah All right reservedDOI : 10.15548/jk.v3i1.70

  3. 加权Logistic回归模型在斑岩铜矿预测中的应用——以中—哈边境扎尔—玛萨吾尔成矿带为例%The Application of Weighted Logistic Regression Model in Prediction of Porphyry Copper Deposit——take Zharma-Sawur metallogenic belt, China-Kazakhstan border area, as an example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    努丽曼古·阿不都克力木; 张晓帆; 陈川; 徐仕琪; 赵同阳

    2012-01-01

    加权Logistic回归是基于GIS成矿预测的主要方法之一,其模型是不同于线性模型的一种类型.它具有强大的空间分析功能、适用性强、不受任何独立条件的约束、预测结果更可靠,因此在矿产资源评价研究中得到了很多地质学家的青睐.以矿床模型和成矿理论为基础,加权Logistic回归分析模型在成矿预测中的应用主要包括三部分:加权Logistic回归模型的建立及其应用、成矿有利度综合评价、成矿远景区圈定.本文以中国—哈萨克斯坦边境地区扎尔玛—萨吾尔成矿带斑岩型铜矿为例,探讨了基于GIS的加权Logistic回归模型在成矿预测中的应用.%Weighted Logistic Regression is one of the main methods of mineral potential mapping. It is different from linear model. Because of its powerful spatial analysis function, strong adaptability, unconstrained by independent conditions, and more reliable prediction results, Weighted Logistic Regression is widely used by many geologists in mineral resources assessment. Based on the mineral deposit model and theory, Weighted Logistic Regression is consists of three parts: (1) Establishment of weighted logistic regression model for mineral potential mapping; (2 ) comprehensive evaluation of favorable degrees; (3 ) mineral potential mapping of study area. By the Weighted Logistic Regression model for mineral potential mapping, Zharma-Sawur Metallogic Belt which across border region of China and Kazakhstan is studied and mineral prospecting area of porphyry copper deposit is mapped. At the end, the availability of Weighted Logistic Regression Model for mineral potential mapping is discussed.

  4. 粉末压片制样-波长色散X射线荧光光谱法测定斑岩型钼铜矿中主次量元素钼铜铅锌砷镍硫%Determination of Major and Minor Elements of Mo, Cu, Pb, Zn, As, Ni and S in the Porphyry Type Lindgrenite by Wavelength Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry with Pressed-powder Pellets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏鹏超; 李明礼; 王祝; 李代琼; 胡亚燕

    2012-01-01

    A method has been developed for the determination of Mo, Cu, Pb, Zn, Ni, As and S in porphyry type lindgrenite from Tibet by Wavelength Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry with pressed powder pellets. The national standard reference materials of molybdenum ore and copper ore, as well as self-synthesized reference materials were used to build the working curve. Using Compton correction as the internal standard, the matrix effect and particle size effect was corrected by empirical coefficients. According to the verification by the national standard reference materials and self-synthesized reference materials, the analytical results were in good agreement with certified values. The relative standard deviation RSD (n = 12) of this method was less than 2. 18% for all of the elements. Compared with classical chemical methods, this method was simple, fast and highly accurate and provided precision without chemical pretreatment. It is suitable for practical determination of lindgrenite samples. Seven calibration samples were synthesized by the national standard reference materials which solved the problem of lack of calibration samples.%采用粉末压片制样,波长色散X射线荧光光谱法测定西藏某斑岩型钼铜矿中7个主次量元素Mo、Cu、Pb、Zn、As、Ni、S.选择钼矿石、铜矿石国家标准物质及自配标准物质建立工作曲线,使用康普顿散射线作内标,同时采用经验系数法校正基体效应及粒度效应.方法经国家标准物质、自配标准参考物质验证,测定值与标准值吻合,方法分析精密度(RSD,n=12)小于2.18%,与化学法相比,样品不需进行化学前处理,操作简单、快速、准确度高、精密度好,能满足钼铜矿的实际分析需要.利用国家标准物质配制合成了7个校准标准样品,有效地解决了方法建立过程中标准样品种类和数量不足的问题.

  5. 华北克拉通北部长城系底界年龄小于1670Ma:来自北京密云花岗斑岩岩脉锆石LA-MC-ICPMS U-Pb年龄的约束%The base age of the Changchengian System at the northern North China Crnton should be younger than 1670 Ma: Constraints from zircon U-Pb LA-MC-ICPMS dating of a granite-porphyry dike in Miyun County, Beijing.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李怀坤; 苏文博; 周红英; 耿建珍; 相振群; 崔玉荣; 刘文灿; 陆松年

    2011-01-01

    近期在北京密云沙厂北东的大龙门村附近发现一条花岗斑岩岩脉,该岩脉侵入于新太古代密云群角闪斜长片麻岩当中,其顶部则与片麻岩一起被常州沟组含砾砂岩沉积不整合覆盖.对该岩脉采用LA-MC-ICPMS进行锆石U-Pb同位素年龄测定,获得了(1 673±10)Ma的侵位年龄.这表明华北北部的常州沟组底界(也即长城系的底界)年龄小于1 670 Ma,很可能接近1 650 Ma,比传统的底界年龄1 800 Ma至少年轻150Ma左右.这是迄今为止华北北部长城系底界最为直接而精确的年龄约束.结合上覆大红峪组、高于庄组等测年资料,可进一步将新厘定的长城系(含常州沟组、串岭沟组、团山子组、大红峪组)的形成时代限定在1 650~1 600 Ma,归属于固结纪(Statherian Period,1 800~1 600Ma)最晚期.这一新进展表明,华北北部中一新元古界的底界与西伯利亚里菲系(Riphean)和印度温地亚(Vindhyan)超群等沉积序列的底界几乎完全一致,可能暗示华北与这些古陆在哥伦比亚超大陆旋回中有着紧密的亲缘关系.%Recently a granite-porphyry dike has been recognized near the Dalongmen Village in the north of the Shachang Town, Miyun County, Beijing. The dike emplaced into the Neoarchean Miyun Group amphibole-plagio-gneiss. Both the dike and the wall rock gneiss were unconformably overlain by the conglomerate and sandstone of the Changzhougou Formatiorn By means of LA-MC-ICPMS zircon U-Pb dating, the emplacement age 1673±10 Ma of the granite-porphyry dike has been obtained. This dating result indicates that the base age of the Changzhougou Formation, i.e. the base age of the Changchengian System at the northern North China Craton (NCC) should be younger than 1670 Ma, probably close to 1650 Ma, at least~150 Ma younger than the conventionally adopted age 1800 Ma. This is the most direct and precise age constraint for the base of the Changchengian System at the northern NCC to date

  6. Aktivitas Polifenol Teh Hijau (Camellia sinensis (L O. Kuntze Sebagai Imunomodulator melalui Respons Supresi Imunoglobulin E (IgE pada Rinitis Alergika

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusni

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Allergic rhinitis is an inflammatory condition of the nasal mucosa caused by interactions between allergens and immunoglobulin E (IgE. Immunomodulatory is an important part of the treatment of allergic rhinitis. One of the medicinal plants that have immunomodulatory activities is green tea (Camellia sinensis L., specifically polyphenols. The purpose of this study was to analyze the activity of green tea’s polyphenols as an immunomodulator in patients with allergic rhinitis. This study was conducted in June to December 2011 in the laboratory of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine Unsyiah with the IgE examinations conducted in private laboratories. This study is a pretest-postest quasi experimental study with control group design. Subjects were 12 patients with allergic rhinitis; 6 people were included in the control group (placebo and 6 in the treatment group (green tea’s polyphenols 2x350 mg/day, for 14 days. Analysis of the data was performed using the normality test, homogeneity test, and t-test (p<0.05. The results showed that the levels of immunoglobulin E after the administration of green tea’s polyphenols in the treatment group was lower than the control group (1.475.2±940.7 vs 494.3±366.5 IU, but not significantly (p=0.05. In conclusion, the administration of green tea’s polyphenols can insignificantly decrease the secretion of IgE. Hence, further research is required.

  7. AKTIVITAS ANTIBAKTERI FRAKSI-FRAKSI EKSTRAK SIRIH HIJAU (Piper betle Linn TERHADAP PATOGEN PANGAN [Antibacterial Activity of Fractionated Green Sirih (Piper betle Linn Extract Against Food Pathogenic Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maggy T. Suhartono

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Fractionation of green sirih (Piper betle Linn extract by chromatography colom using the mixture of several solvents i.e. chloroform, ethanol and acetic acid (4:1:1 resulted in 17 fractions. All fractions showed antibacterial activities but only 2 fractions (fraction 3 and fraction 4 showed the highest inhibition towards the six tested bacteria Escherichia coli, Salmonella Typhimurium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus and Listeria monocytogenes. Among the tested bacteria, all fractions of green sirih extracts showed the most effective inhibition against, Salmonella Typhimurium with inhibition zone diameters ranging from 10 mm to 26 mm. Identification using GC-MS found that fraction 3 and fraction 4 contained chavicol; dodecanoic acid, myristic, palmitic and oleic acid.

  8. AKTIVITAS ANTIBAKTERI EKSTRAK SIRIH HIJAU (Piper betle L TERHADAP BAKTERI PATOGEN PANGAN [Antibacterial Activity of Green Sirih (Piper betle L Extract towards Food Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suliantari1

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Green sirih (Piper betle L extract were prepared using water, ethanol and ethyl acetate extraction of the dried materials. The extracts were tested for their antibacterial activities against Escherichia coli, Salmonella Typhimurium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus and Listeria monocytogenes. At concentrations 10-50% the extracts effectively inhibited the growth of all tested bacteria as shown by the clear zones which varied from 7 to 24 mm, while the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC varied from 0.1 to 1 %. E. coli, S. Typhimurium and S. aureus were more resistance to the green sirih extracts than other tested bacteria. The results showed that in general, ethanol extraction produced the best extract with strong antibacterial activities against E. coli and S. aureus. Analysis of the extract components with GC-MS revealed that sirih extract contained phenol, chavicol, eugenol, caryophylene, cylene, chalarene and others.

  9. ANTIOXIDATIVE CHARACTERISTICS OF BEVERAGES MADE FROM A MIXTURE OF LEMONGRASS EXTRACT AND GREEN TEA [Studi Karakteristik Antioksidan Minuman Campuran Ekstrak Serai dan Teh Hijau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremia Manuel Halim*

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Combination of lemongrass extract and green tea infusion is expected to produce functional beverage that has potential antioxidant activity as compared to individual materials. This research was aimed to investigate the appropriate solvent type and extraction methods to produce lemongrass extract with highest antioxidant activity and also to investigate the antioxidant characteristic of beverages prepared from a mixture of lemongrass extract and green tea. Lemongrass were subjected to extraction under reflux and maceration using three type of solvents (distilled water, ethanol, and ethyl acetate. The resulting extracts were assessed for their total phenolic content, total flavonoid content, and antioxidant activity. Extraction under reflux and using ethanol as solvent resulted in extract with best antioxidant activity (IC50=158.70±47.88 mg/L for reflux method and 103.73±8.03 mg/L for ethanol. This extract was combined with green tea with several ratios (lemongrass extract to green tea [w/w] = 1:3; 1:2; 1:1; 2:1; 3:1. Four level of stevia were used in the beverages (0, 200, 400, 600 ppm. Beverages made with lomogass: tea ratio of 1:3 and 1:1 (w/w and 600 ppm stevia turned out to be beverages with the highest antioxidant activity (IC50=271.83±44.48 mg/L and 287.15±36.25 mg/L for ratio 1:3 and 1:1 [w/w] consecutively, 301.59±80.89 mg/L for stevia level 600 ppm. Hedonic testing on beverages revealed that beverage made from lemongrass: tea ratio 1:1 [w/w] ratio with addition of stevia at 600 ppm is the most preferred based on colour, aroma, and overall acceptance.

  10. PERIODE KRITIS KACANG HIJAU (Phaseolus aureus L. AKIBAT PERSAINGAN DENGAN GULMA DAN MACAM PENGOLAHAN TANAH PADA TANAH MEDITERAN MERAH DI DESA SOCAH KECAMATAN SOCAH BANGKALAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ainur Rafiq Amrullah

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Mung bean is one of leguminose plants planted in the third  order after soy bean and ground nut.  The presence of weeds on certain growth periode (critical periode and at certain population can cause to reduce the yield of this plant.  This research aimed to study the critical periode of mung bean as the affected by the presence of weeds on different soil tillage.  The study was carried out on horticulture station research, Socah District, Bangkalan Regency with red mediteran (Alfisol soil type. The research was arranged in a randomized block design with two factors. The first factor was the clear away weed consisted of  8 levels and the second factor was soil tillage method consisted two levels.  Result showed that there were significant interaction between the way in clearing away weeds and soil tillage treatment on the plant height, leaf area, leaf number, fresh and dry weight of plant, pod number, and dry weight of seed of plant.  Moreover,  the longer weeds present in assosiation with mung bean plant was the higher the effect of the weeds to reduce the yield. The higher yield was resulted from plant growing on the tilled soil. The critical periode of mung bean plant growing in the competition with weeds on untilled and tilled soil respectivelly was between 2 and 4 weeks after planting and between 6 and 8 weeks after planting.

  11. EFEK EKSTRAK ETANOL GANGGANG HIJAU (Ulva Lactuca L TERHADAP BERAT BADAN DAN KADAR TRIGLISERIDA TIKUS JANTAN YANG DIBERI DIET LEMAK TINGGI

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    Wahyu Widyaningsih

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies showed the potential of melatonin of green algae ( Ulva lactuca L to reduce the risk of coronary heart disease with the activity of antihiperlipidemia. Obesity and hiperlipidemia were the risk factor of degenerative diseases such as heart disease. This research aims was explore the effect of ethanol extract of green algae against weight, consumption of rat feed test white male rat were given high fat diet . Research was started with extraction green algae with ethanol 96 % to obtained concentrated extract. The extract was tested to wistar rats age of 2 months. Animals test divided into 6 group. Group I was control group, treated with high fat diet of lard 2 ml / 200g BW, of group II given high fat diet and simvastatin, group III, IV and V given high fat diet and green algae extract doses 50 mg/ Kg BW, 100 mg/Kg BW and 200 mg/ Kg BW. Group VI is the control group without diet fat high. Treatment was conducted over 28 days. Measuring normal of his weight every five day for 28 days and in measuring consumption feed with measure weight feed the rest of feed early 20 g. The difference of data weight rats per 5 days and consumption fodder for 28 days counted area under curve ( AUC from curves time versus weight. The measurement of triglycerides levels. The result showed the high fat diet with lard 2 ml / 200g BW for 28 days reduce weight and consumption feed mice in a significantly than control without high fat diet. The treatment with extract ethanol dose of 50 , 100 and 200 mg / Kg BW did not reduce weight, feed consumption, triglyceride levelsof mice were given high fat diet.

  12. The gamma dose assessment and pH correlation for various soil types at Batu Pahat and Kluang districts, Johor, Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johar, Saffuwan Mohamed, E-mail: saffuwan@uthm.edu.my [Department of Science, Faculty of Science, Technology and Human Development, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (Malaysia); Embong, Zaidi [Department of Science, Faculty of Science, Technology and Human Development, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (Malaysia); Research Center for Soft Soil (RECESS), Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (Malaysia); Tajudin, Saiful Azhar Ahmad [Research Center for Soft Soil (RECESS), Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (Malaysia)

    2016-01-22

    An assessment of absorbed dose and radiation hazard index as well as its relationship with soil pH was performed in this study. The area was chosen due to its variety of soil types from the Alluvial and the Sedentary group. The radioactivity concentration levels and the soil acidity were measured using the Canberra GC3518 high pure germanium with a relative efficiency of 35% at 1.3 MeV and the Takemura Soil pH and Moisture Tester (DM15), respectively. Overall results show the Holyrood-Lunas soil of Alluvial group recorded the highest external terrestrial gamma radiation dose rate (TGRD) of 286.4±37.9 nGy h{sup −1} and radioactivity concentrations of 78.1±8.9 Bq kg{sup −1} ({sup 226}Ra), 410.5±55.4 Bq kg{sup −1} ({sup 232}Th) and 56.4±8.8 Bq kg{sup −1} ({sup 40}K), respectively, while the Peat soil of Alluvial group recorded the lowest TGRD of 4.4±2.7 nGy h{sup −1} and radioactivity concentrations of 4.8±1.7 Bq kg{sup −1} ({sup 226}Ra), 3.1±1.1 Bq kg{sup −1} ({sup 232}Th) and 6.1±2.0 Bq kg{sup −1} ({sup 40}K), respectively. The estimated mean outdoor annual effective dose, the mean radium equivalent activity (R{sub eq}) and the mean external (H{sub ext}) and internal hazard index (H{sub int}) associated with the alluvial and sedentary soil group were evaluated at 0.15 and 0.20 mSv, 280 and 364 Bq kg{sup −1}, H{sub ext} = 0.78 and 1.01, and H{sub int} = 0.93 and 1.26, respectively. Correlation analysis between 238U, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K with soil pH level for alluvial group was r = +0.68, +0.48 and 0, respectively, while for sedentary soil, the Pearson’s, r = −0.30, −0.90 and +0.14, respectively.

  13. Recognition of a porphyry system using ASTER data in Bideghan - Qom province (central of Iran)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feizi, F.; Mansouri, E.

    2014-07-01

    The Bideghan area is located south of the Qom province (central of Iran). The most impressive geological features in the studied area are the Eocene sequences which are intruded by volcanic rocks with basic compositions. Advanced Space borne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) image processing have been used for hydrothermal alteration mapping and lineaments identification in the investigated area. In this research false color composite, band ratio, Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Least Square Fit (LS-Fit) and Spectral Angel Mapping (SAM) techniques were applied on ASTER data and argillic, phyllic, Iron oxide and propylitic alteration zones were separated. Lineaments were identified by aid of false color composite, high pass filters and hill-shade DEM techniques. The results of this study demonstrate the usefulness of remote sensing method and ASTER multi-spectral data for alteration and lineament mapping. Finally, the results were confirmed by field investigation.

  14. PROPERTY AND METALLOGENIC CHARACTERISTICS OF ALKALI-RICH PORPHYRY IN WESTERN MARGIN OF YANGTZE PLATFORM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    Alkali-richporphyriesofthewesternmarginofYangtzePlatformspreadalongAilaoshan-Jin-shajiangfromwesttonorth;theirage,therocktype...

  15. Petrogenesis of skarn related Cu-porphyry intrusion deposit, Ali-Abad- Darreh Zereshk, Yazd

    OpenAIRE

    Batoul Taghipour; Mohammad Ali Mackizadeh

    2011-01-01

    The study area is a part of Cenozoic magmatic belt of Central Iran, which is located in the West of Yazd porovince. Contact metamorphism and skarn occurred in conglomerate part of Sngestan Formation. The Oligocene intrusion bodies of Ali-Abad-Darreh Zereshk are leucocerate and have the chemical composition of granite to granodiorite with calc-alkaline affinity from volcanic arc geological setting. The main mineral assemblage of skarn in order of imprtance is as follow: Garnet + epidote + quar...

  16. Imperial porphyry from Gebel Abu Dokhan, the Red Sea Mountains, Egypt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makovicky, Emil; Frei, Robert; Karup-Møller, Sven;

    2016-01-01

    -K calc-alkaline andesites and dacites with a traceelement spectrum typical of volcanic rocks from an Andean subduction-zone setting. Four rock samples yielded an errorchron with an age of 560 ± 42 Ma and an initial 87Sr/86Sr ratio of 0.70283 ± 0.00011. Using Nd isotope data, values of TDM from 0.84 to 0...

  17. Recognition of a porphyry system using ASTER data in Bideghan – Qom province (central of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Feizi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The Bideghan area is located south of the Qom province (central of Iran. The most impressive geological features in the studied area are the Eocene sequences which are intruded by volcanic rocks with basic compositions. Advanced Space borne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER image processing have been used for hydrothermal alteration mapping and lineaments identification in the investigated area. In this research false color composite, band ratio, Principal Component Analysis (PCA, Least Square Fit (LS-Fit and Spectral Angel Mapping (SAM techniques were applied on ASTER data and argillic, phyllic, Iron oxide and propylitic alteration zones were separated. Lineaments were identified by aid of false color composite, high pass filters and hill-shade DEM techniques. The results of this study demonstrate the usefulness of remote sensing method and ASTER multi-spectral data for alteration and lineament mapping. Finally, the results were confirmed by field investigation.

  18. Speciation and leachability of copper in mine tailings from porphyry copper mining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik K.; Yianatos, Juan B; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2005-01-01

    Mine tailing from the El Teniente-Codelco copper mine situated in VI Region of Chile was analysed in order to evaluate the mobility and speciation of copper in the solid material. Mine tailing was sampled after the rougher flotation circuits, and the copper content was measured to 1150mgkg^-^1 dry...... matter. This tailing was segmented into fractions of different size intervals: 0-38, 38-45, 45-53, 53-75, 75-106, 106-150, 150-212, and >212@mm, respectively. Copper content determination, sequential chemical extraction, and desorption experiments were carried out for each size interval in order...... to evaluate the speciation of copper. It was found that the particles of smallest size contained 50-60% weak acid leachable copper, whereas only 32% of the copper found in largest particles could be leached in weak acid. Copper oxides and carbonates were the dominating species in the smaller particles...

  19. PERENCANAAN DAN ANALISIS BIAYA INVESTASI ANTARA PERKERASAN KAKU DENGAN PERKERASAN LENTUR PADA JALUR TRANS JAKARTA BUSWAY: STUDI KASUS PADA TRANS JAKARTA BUSWAY KORIDOR 8 ANTARA HALTE PONDOK INDAH 2 HINGGA HALTE PERMATA HIJAU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardi Prahara

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Types of rigid pavement for road has been widely used in Indonesia, ranging from toll roads to the outer town road. Rigid pavement is considered more powerful than the flexible pavement. In other words, rigid pavement is expected to have a longer service life and minimal maintenance. The construction cost for rigid pavement is more expensive compared to flexible pavement. While the need for rigid pavement maintenance is cheaper than for flexible pavement. Seen from investment point of view, rigid pavement is more profitable than flexible pavement, because the annual fee required for rigid pavement is less. Due to the comparations, an analysis is performed in this study to select which type of pavement is best used in the future.

  20. PARAMETER KINETIKA INAKTIVASI TERMAL DAN ISOLASI Staphylococcus aureus PADA MINUMAN DARI GEL CINCAU HIJAU DAN ROSELA [Thermal Inactivation Kinetics Parameter and Isolation of Staphylococcus aureus on Drink from Green Grass Jelly and Roselle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eko Hari Purnomo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Information about heat resistance (D and z values of target bacteria is needed for the thermal process design on drink from Green Grass Jelly (Premna oblongifolia Merr. and Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L., so it can guarantee quality and safety of the product. The objectives of this research were to isolate Staphylococcus aureus from commercial green grass jelly and to determine the D and z values of Staphylococcus aureus (from commercial product and standard clinical isolate ATCC 25923 on heating menstruum of green grass jelly and roselle. Isolation of S. aureus was done by inoculation in selective medium, D and z values of Staphylococcus aureus were assessed by heating at constant temperatures of 57, 53, 49, and 45°C during the time interval 2.5, 5, 10, and 15 minutes. The results showed that one isolate (Isolate A gave positive response of Staphylococcus aureus in isolation tests and had similar percentage with the reference culture of 41.8% using the API Staph Kit. Heat resistance of Staphylococcus aureus (represented as D value isolated from green grass jelly at constant heating temperature of D45, D49, D53 and D57 were 32.3, 17.9, 4.6, and 1.5 minutes. On the other hand, D value of isolates ATCC 25923 (standard clinical isolate at constant heating temperature of D45, D49, D53 and D57 were 18.5, 6.8, 2.9, and 1.4 minutes. The z value of isolates A and ATCC 25923 were 8.8°C and 10.8°C. Smaller z value of isolate A showed that pasteurization process can be accelerated and optimized with increasing the temperature slightly but has the same lethality effect.

  1. PENGARUH KONSENTRASI GARAM, PENAMBAH JENIS ASAM TERHADAP MUTU LADA HIJAU DALAM BOTOL SELAMA PENYIMPANAN [The Effect of Salt and the Addition of Several Acid Types on the Quality of Bottled Green Pepper During Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endah Djubaedah1

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Research on the effect of salt and the acid types addition on the quality of bottled green pepper during storage has been conducted. Treatments were used 10 % and 20 % of salt, 0.2 % of citric acid and 4 % of acetic acid. The product were stored for 3 months and were analyzed for green color degree, pH, total plate count (TPC, piperine and total solid content. The results showed that citric acid treatment, better than acetic acid treatment, indicated by higher degree of green color (5.30 - 5.92 and pH 4.5 - 4.7 while the other 4.46 - 4.60 of green color degree and pH 3.5 - 3.9. Treatment of 20 % salt was more effective than 10 % of salt in preventing microorganism growth which was indicated by lower TPC value (2 - 5 colony/g. Products treated by citric acid and acetic acid also had lower TPC value, 3 - 5 colony/g and 2 - 3 colony/g respectively. Combinations of salt and acid treatments gave significant effect on it. Piperine content were relatively unchanged during 2 months storage (6.5 - 8 % but it decreased in 3 months storage (5 - 6 %. The best quality was product treated by 20 % of salt and 0.2 % of citric acid. It was also treated by soaking in 2 % of Na2CO3 for 30 minutes, blanching for 5 minutes, addition of 300 ppm SO2 and heating in 100 °C for 15 minutes as constant treatment. The product was also feasible financially on capacity 1,000 bottle per day. Selling Rp. 4,000.00 per bottle will give benefit Rp. 60,000,000.00 per 6 months with 1.11 benefit cost ratio (B/CResearch on the effect of salt and the acid types addition on the quality of bottled green pepper during storage has been conducted. Treatments were used 10 % and 20 % of salt, 0.2 % of citric acid and 4 % of acetic acid. The product were stored for 3 months and were analyzed for green color degree, pH, total plate count (TPC, piperine and total solid content. The results showed that citric acid treatment, better than acetic acid treatment, indicated by higher degree of green color (5.30 - 5.92 and pH 4.5 - 4.7 while the other 4.46 - 4.60 of green color degree and pH 3.5 - 3.9. Treatment of 20 % salt was more effective than 10 % of salt in preventing microorganism growth which was indicated by lower TPC value (2 - 5 colony/g. Products treated by citric acid and acetic acid also had lower TPC value, 3 - 5 colony/g and 2 - 3 colony/g respectively. Combinations of salt and acid treatments gave significant effect on it. Piperine content were relatively unchanged during 2 months storage (6.5 - 8 % but it decreased in 3 months storage (5 - 6 %. The best quality was product treated by 20 % of salt and 0.2 % of citric acid. It was also treated by soaking in 2 % of Na2CO3 for 30 minutes, blanching for 5 minutes, addition of 300 ppm SO2 and heating in 100 °C for 15 minutes as constant treatment. The product was also feasible financially on capacity 1,000 bottle per day. Selling Rp. 4,000.00 per bottle will give benefit Rp. 60,000,000.00 per 6 months with 1.11 benefit cost ratio (B/C

  2. KANDUNGAN LOGAM BERAT (Pb dan Cd Pada Sawi Hijau (Brassica rapa l. Subsp. Perviridis Bailey Dan Wortel (Daucus Carrota L. Var. Sativa Hoffm YANG BEREDAR DI PASAR KOTA DENPASAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deni Agung Priandoko

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Has been doing a research about the content of heavy metals (Pb and Cdin green mustard (Brassica rapa L. subsp. Perviridis Bailey and carrot (DaucusCarrota L. Var. Sativa Hoffm that exist in the market of Denpasar city. Purposeof this research was to know the content of Pb and Cd in green mustard andcarrots that exist in traditional markets (Badung and Kreneng market Denpasarcity that treated by washing and without washing. Content of Pb and Cd in greenmustard and carrots that analyzed by AAS (atomic absorption spectrophotometer.The results of research shows that contents of Pb in green mustard andcarrots that washed and without washed in Kreneng and Badung Market equal to64.71 ± 6.66 ug / g, 69.58 ± 4.61 ug / g, 62.56 ± 6.99 ug / g, 64.96 ± 7:20 ug / g,62.56 ± 6:56 ug / g, 73, 91 ± 2:51 ug / g, 57.17 ± 8:59 ug / g, 59.71 ± 8.93 ug / gdry weight. Content of Cd that washed and without washed equal to SCK 8.81 ±1.68?g / g, 10, 55 ± 1.78 ug / g, 8.09 ± 1.71 ug / g, 9.30 ± 2:01 ug / g, 8.96 ± 1.72ug / g, 10.09 ± 1:09 ug / g, 7.39 ± 1.6 ug / g 5, 8.14 ± 1.71 ug / g dry weight

  3. PENGARUH PENAMBAHAN LAKASE DARI JAMUR TIRAM PUTIH (Pleurotus ostreatus TERHADAP AKTIVITAS ANTIOKSIDAN TEH HIJAU [Effect of The Addition of Laccase from White Oyster Mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus Towards Antioxidant Activity of Green Tea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tagor M. Siregar1*

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Laccase is one of the enzymes that can be used in organic synthesis using aromatic compounds (polyphenols and aminofenol as substrates. Polyphenol compound in green tea is flavan-3-ols or catechin which are susceptible to enzymatic reaction with laccase. In this research laccase isolated from white oyster mushroom was added into the green tea extract. Addition of laccase is expected to yield products with a higher antioxidant activity. Prior to it’s use, laccase activity was determined and had a specific activity of 0.54 Unit/mg. The green tea extract was prepared using methanol and water as solvents. The antioxidant activity was evaluated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical-scavenging activity method and the total flavonoid content was assayed by spectrophotometry. Antioxidant compounds are identified by using UV-Vis spectrophotometry and GC-MS. Addition of laccase into green tea extract resulted in precipitates showing a significant increase in flavonoid content and antioxidant activity. Use of methanol as solvent resulted in extract with higher antioxidant activity and total flavonoid than that extracted with water. Qualitative analysis with spectrophotometer UV-Vis and GC-MS showed that the new components in the precipitates were a variety of dimeric products with increased molecular weight and antioxidant activity. Addition of laccase into green tea extract has yielded products with higher antioxidant activity.

  4. 西范坪斑岩铜矿钾硅酸盐化作用的地球化学研究%ELEMENT′S MOBILITY DURING POTASSIUM-SILICATE ALTERATION OF MONZONITE-PORPHYRY:EVIDENCE FROM XIFANPING PORPHYRY COPPER DEPOSIT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王奖臻; 胡瑞忠; 孙燕; 陆彦; 李泽琴

    2002-01-01

    西范坪铜矿是我国近年来新发现的斑岩型铜矿床.伴随铜矿化发生了强烈的钾硅酸盐化.蚀变作用使成矿主岩的SiO2,K2O增加,CaO,Na2O,Fe2O3减少;大离子亲石元素含量降低;LREE减少,LaN/YbN比值升高,δEu值降低.通过研究认为,西范坪铜矿成矿母岩是富钠(Na2O>K2O)斑岩,而不是富钾(K2O>Na2O)岩石,这说明相对富钠的斑岩也能成矿.

  5. Paleozoic magmatism and porphyry Cu-mineralization in an evolving tectonic setting in the North Qilian Orogenic Belt, NW China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Kun-Feng; Deng, Jun; Taylor, Ryan D.; Song, Kai-Rui; Song, Yao-Hui; Li, Quan-Zhong; Goldfarb, Richard J.

    2016-01-01

    The NWW-striking North Qilian Orogenic Belt records the Paleozoic accretion–collision processes in NW China, and hosts Paleozoic Cu–Pb–Zn mineralization that was temporally and spatially related to the closure of the Paleo Qilian-Qinling Ocean. The Wangdian Cu deposit is located in the eastern part of the North Qilian Orogenic Belt, NW China. Copper mineralization is spatially associated with an altered early Paleozoic porphyritic granodiorite, which intruded tonalites and volcaniclastic rocks. Alteration zones surrounding the mineralization progress outward from a potassic to a feldspar-destructive phyllic assemblage. Mineralization consists mainly of quartz-sulfide stockworks and disseminated sulfides, with ore minerals chalcopyrite, pyrite, molybdenite, and minor galena and sphalerite. Gangue minerals include quartz, orthoclase, biotite, sericite, and K-feldspar. Zircon LA-ICPMS U–Pb dating of the ore-bearing porphyritic granodiorite yielded a mean 206Pb/238U age of 444.6 ± 7.8 Ma, with a group of inherited zircons yielding a mean U–Pb age of 485 ± 12 Ma, consistent with the emplacement age (485.3 ± 6.2 Ma) of the barren precursor tonalite. Rhenium and osmium analyses of molybdenite grains returned model ages of 442.9 ± 6.8 Ma and 443.3 ± 6.2 Ma, indicating mineralization was coeval with the emplacement of the host porphyritic granodiorite. Rhenium concentrations in molybdenite (208.9–213.2 ppm) suggest a mantle Re source. The tonalities are medium-K calc-alkaline. They are characterized by enrichment of light rare-earth elements (LREEs) and large-ion lithophile elements (LILEs), depletion of heavy rare-earth elements (HREEs) and high-field-strength elements (HFSEs), and minor negative Eu anomalies. They have εHf(t) values in the range of +3.6 to +11.1, with two-stage Hf model ages of 0.67–1.13 Ga, suggesting that the ca. 485 Ma barren tonalites were products of arc magmatism incorporating melts from the mantle wedge and the lithosphere. In contrast, the 40-m.y.-younger ore-bearing porphyritic granodiorite is sub-alkaline and peraluminous. They are enriched in LREEs and LILEs, depleted in HFSEs, and show weak negative Eu anomalies. They displayεHf(t) values of captured or inherited zircons in the range of +8.5 to +10.0, and younger two-stage Hf model ages of 0.78 Ga and 0.86 Ga, similar to those of ca. 485 Ma tonalite. The ca. 445 Ma zircons have εHf(t) values of −2.1 to +9.9, with two-stage Hf model ages of 0.75–1.27 Ga. Moreover, they have relatively high oxygen fugacity than that of the precursor barren tonalite. The ca. 445 Ma magmas at Wangdian thus formed in a subduction setting, and incorporated melts from the subduction-modified lithosphere that had previously been enriched by additions of chalcophile and siderophile element-rich materials by the earlier magmatism and metasomatism during the Paleo Qilian-Qinling Ocean subduction event.

  6. Porphyry copper assessment of British Columbia and Yukon Territory, Canada: Chapter C in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihalasky, Mark J.; Bookstrom, Arthur A.; Frost, Thomas P.; Ludington, Steve

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey does regional, national, and global assessments of resources (mineral, energy, water, biologic) to provide science in support of land management and decision making. Mineral resource assessments provide a synthesis of available information about where mineral deposits are known and suspected to be in the Earth’s crust, which commodities may be present, and estimates of amounts of resources that may be present in undiscovered deposits.

  7. The generative holistic noetic theory : With its application to the concepts of genus and species from Porphyry's Introduction

    OpenAIRE

    Torres-Heredia Julca, Jaime Vladimir

    2007-01-01

    This is the exact English translation of a paper written in French between 2004 and 2006 and officially presented at the Faculty of Letters of the University of Geneva (Switzerland) on June 29th 2006. The original French version has an IDDN certificate (IDDN.CH.010.0106630.000.R.P.2006.035.31235), obtained on June 29th 2006, that brings a proof and a precise date of its creation. The aim of this paper is to study what could correspond in our mind to the Ideas, the universals, the genus or the...

  8. Analisis Kesiapan Industri Manufaktur Teknologi Informasi dan Komunikasi (TIK Dalam Negeri Untuk Mendukung Implementasi Green-ICT Pada Sektor Telekomunikasi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diah Yuniarti

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Industri TIK merupakan bagian dari industri masa depan yang terdiri atas industri perangkat, infrastruktur/jaringan dan aplikasi/konten. Akhir-akhir ini, aspek lingkungan menjadi pertimbangan dalam menciptakan kesinambungan industri, termasuk industri TIK atau yang dikenal dengan istilah TIK hijau. Implementasi TIK Hijau pada penyelenggara telekomunikasi masih menemui beberapa kendala yaitu efisiensi rendah dan investasi tinggi pada penggunaan perangkat TIK berbasis energi alternatif. Selain itu, rencana implementasi TIK Hijau di lembaga pemerintah maupun swasta masih dibayangi isu terkait kekuatan industri dalam negeri. Penelitian ini bertujuan mengukur kesiapan industri manufatur TIK dalam negeri untuk mendukung implementasi TIK Hijau pada sektor telekomunikasi. Pendekatan penelitian menggunakan pendekatan kuantitatif berdasarkan indikator attitude, policy, practice, technology dan governance yang dimodifikasi pada Green IT Readiness Model oleh Molla, Alemayehu, et.al. Berdasarkan analisis LSR, secara umum lima responden industri manufaktur dikategorikan memiliki sikap positif. Indikator yang perlu mendapatkan perhatian dari responden yang tergolong memiliki sikap negatif adalah indikator policy dan governance.

  9. ABSORPSI β-KAROTEN SERBUK DAUN SINGKONG (Manihot Utilissima) KERING PADA ANAK PRASEKOLAH

    OpenAIRE

    Almasyhuri Almasyhuri; M. Khumaidi; Muhilal Muhilal; Rimbawan Rimbawan

    2012-01-01

    Indonesia telah bebas dari masalah kurang vitamin A (KVA), tetapi jumlah anak balita dengan vitamin A serum marjinal (<20 ug/dl) masih tinggi. Salah satu program penanggulangan KVA di Indonesia adalah dengan peningkatan konsumsi sayuran hijau pada anak balita. Menurut de Pee, karoten sayuran hijau kurang dapat diabsorpsi karena berupa ikatan komplek yang kuat yang berada dalam kloro plas. Penelitian ini mempelajari pengaruh pembuatan serbuk kering daun singkong muda dan tua terhadap absorp...

  10. Development of Learning Devices through Problem Based Learning Model Based on the Context of Aceh Cultural to Improve Mathematical Communication Skills and Social Skills of SMPN 1 Muara Batu Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aufa, Mahrani; Saragih, Sahat; Minarni, Ani

    2016-01-01

    The purposes of this study were:1) Developed problem-based on learning tools in the cultural context of Aceh (PBM-BKBA) who meet the criteria are valid, practical and effective; 2) Described the improvement of communication capabilities mathematics and social skills of students using the PBM-BKBA developed; and 3) Described the process of student…

  11. Aktivitas Zymomonas mobilis pada produk etanol dari buah semu jambu mete (Anacardium occidentale dengan variasi sumber nitrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AKHMAD MUSTOFA

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Mustofa A, Suranto. 2010. Aktivitas Zymomonas mobilis pada produk etanol daribuah semu jambu mete (Anacardium occidentale dengan variasi sumber nitrogen. Bioteknologi 7: 1-9. Penelitian ini bertujuan mengetahui kemampuan Zymomonas mobilis dalam memproduksi etanol melalui proses fermentasi batch (selama 24, 48 dan 72 jam, menggunakan sumber karbon sari buah jambu mete (varietas merah, hijau dan kuning dan sumber nitrogen berupa urea, ammonium sulfat, ekstrak kecambah kacang hijau dan ekstrak kacang koro (Mucuna pruriens. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa varietas buah jambu mete hijau dengan sumber nitrogen ammonium sulfat dan lama fermentasi 24 jam memberikan hasil etanol yang paling optimal. Pada perlakuan tersebut diperoleh nilai pH 5,87, kadar gula reduksi 7,64 g/100 mL (tingkat konsumsi 48,44%, jumlah bakteri 8,0x107 (µ = 0,154 dan etanol sebesar 33,02 g/L (Ye = 90,19%.

  12. Zircon and apatite fission track analyses on mineralization ages and tectonic activities of Tuwu-Yandong porphyry copper deposit in northern Xinjiang, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The mineralization ages reported in the past in the Tuwu-Yandong copper district not only are different, but also fall into the Hercynian epoch. This study has achieved 9 zircon and 7 apatite fission track analysis results. The zircon fission track ages range from 158 Ma to 289 Ma and the apatite ages are between 64 Ma and 140 Ma. The mineralization accords with the regional tectonics in the copper district. We consider that the zircon fission track age could reveal the mineralization age based on annealing zone temperature of 140-300℃ and retention temperature of ~250℃ for zircon fission track, and metallogenetic temperature of 120-350℃ in this ore district. Total three mineralization epochs have been identified, i.e., 289-276 Ma,232-200 Ma and 165-158 Ma, and indicate occurrence of the mineralization in the Indosinian and Yanshan epochs. Corresponding to apatite fission track ages, the three tectonic-mineralizing epochs are 140-132 Ma, 109-97 Ma and 64 Ma, which means age at about 100℃ after the mineralization. The three epochs lasted 146 Ma, 108 Ma and about 100 Ma from ~250℃ to ~100℃ and trend decrease from early to late. It is shown by the fission track modeling that this district underwent three stages of geological thermal histories, stable in Cretaceous and cooling both before Cretaceous and after 20 Ma.

  13. A deposit scale mineral prospectivity analysis: A comparison of various knowledge-driven approaches for porphyry copper targeting in Seridune, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abedi, Maysam; Mostafavi Kashani, Seyed Bagher; Norouzi, Gholam-Hossain; Yousefi, Mahyar

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, an application of a knowledge-driven mineral prospectivity mapping (MPM) approach so-called ;the evidential belief functions (EBFs) using Dempster-Shafer's rule of combination; is proposed. This technique is used to weight and integrate a large scale exploration dataset in order to localize prospects for definition of further exploration drilling sites. In this study, exploration datasets of Seridune copper deposit in the Kerman province, SE Iran used for the methodology. In this regard, geophysical evidence layers extracted from interpretation of magnetic and electrical surveys, geological evidence layers derived via the geological datasets (i.e. lithology, fault and alteration), and geochemical evidence maps were generated and integrated for MPM. Furthermore, various MPM approaches including outranking, index overlay and fuzzy logic methods were examined for comparison with the introduced method. To evaluate and compare the efficiency of the methods, the productivity of the drilled boreholes (Cu concentration multiplied by its ore thickness along each drilled borehole) was used to validate the generated prospectivity models. The results showed higher efficiency of the Dempster-Shafer's model in comparison with the prospectivity models generated using other MPM approaches.

  14. 冈底斯斑岩铜矿带冲江及驱龙含矿斑岩体锆石ELA-ICP-MS及SHRIMP定年对比研究%COMPARISON OF ELA-ICP-MS AND SHRIMP U-PB ZIRCON AGES OF THE CHONGJIANG AND QULONG ORE-BEARING PORPHYRIES IN THE GANGDESE PORPHYRY COPPER BELT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    莫济海; 梁华英; 喻亨祥; 谢应雯; 张玉泉

    2006-01-01

    利用ELA-ICP-MS分析技术对冈底斯斑岩铜矿带冲江及驱龙含矿斑岩体进行锆石U-Pb年龄测定,所得到的年龄分别为14.0±0.2Ma和17.0±0.2Ma.两个含矿岩体锆石ELA-ICP-MS U-Pb年龄和SHRIMP年龄在误差范围内基本一致.冲江含矿斑岩体成岩成矿可分为两期,每期成岩成矿时间跨度约1Ma;驱龙含矿斑岩体成岩成矿时间跨度约为1 Ma.

  15. Analisis Konsep Seni Arsitektur Pada Karya Kenzo Tange Kenzo Tange No Sakuhin No Kenchiku No Bijūtsu No Gainen No Bunseki

    OpenAIRE

    Sigalingging, Sery

    2010-01-01

    Arsitaktur adalah bagian dari kebudayaan manusia yang berkaitan dengan berbagai segi kehidupan, antara lain: seni, teknik, ruang/ tata ruang, geografi, dan sejarah. Namun ada beberapa batasan dan pengeritian tentang arsitektur, tergantung dari segi mana kita memandangnya. Sejak Jepang memasuki masa modernisasi, perkembangan arsitektur semakin maju. Pada saat itu mulai muncul arsitektur-arsitektur gaya baru yang terbuat dari batu dan batu-bata. Contohnya pabrik-pabrik dan kantor-kantor peme...

  16. Questa Baseline and Pre-Mining Ground-Water Quality Investigation. 13. Mineral Microscopy and Chemistry of Mined and Unmined Porphyry Molybdenum Mineralization Along the Red River, New Mexico: Implications for Ground- and Surface-Water Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plumlee, Geoff; Lowers, Heather; Ludington, Steve; Koenig, Alan; Briggs, Paul

    2005-01-01

    This report is one in a series presenting results of an interdisciplinary U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) study of ground-water quality in the lower Red River watershed prior to open-pit and underground molybdenite mining at Molycorp's Questa mine. The stretch of the Red River watershed that extends from just upstream of the town of Red River to just above the town of Questa includes several mineralized areas in addition to the one mined by Molycorp. Natural erosion and weathering of pyrite-rich rocks in the mineralized areas has created a series of erosional scars along this stretch of the Red River that contribute acidic waters, as well as mineralized alluvial material and sediments, to the river. The overall goal of the USGS study is to infer the pre-mining ground-water quality at the Molycorp mine site. An integrated geologic, hydrologic, and geochemical model for ground water in the mineralized but unmined Straight Creek drainage is being used as an analogue for the geologic, geochemical, and hydrologic conditions that influenced ground-water quality and quantity at the mine site prior to mining. This report summarizes results of reconnaissance mineralogical and chemical characterization studies of rock samples collected from the various scars and the Molycorp open pit, and of drill cuttings or drill core from bedrock beneath the scars and adjacent debris fans.

  17. Pórfiro granítico Mojotoro (Salta: ¿Una cúpula intrusiva o un dique en el ciclo pampeano? The Mojotoro granitic porphyry (Salta: An intrusive roaf or a dike in the Pampean Cycle?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.J. Toselli

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available El pórfiro granítico Mojotoro, constituye la cúpula de un plutón epizonal, emplazado en un área geológica bien conocida, de la Formación Puncoviscana, en las inmediaciones de la ciudad de Salta (24º47´44,9"S - 65º21´35,9"W, 1.304 m s.n.m.. Sin bien se carece de determinaciones geocronológicas, los caracteres geológicos regionales y situación estratigráfica de no alcanzar los niveles del Grupo Mesón, sugieren edades pampeanas, correspondientes a la orogenia tilcárica. Los caracteres petrográficos corresponden a pórfiros graníticos, con fenocristales de feldespato potásico, acompañados por cuarzo, plagioclasa y biotita. Las rocas han sufrido intensa sericitización, caolinización y limonitización. Asimismo muestra esferulitas recristalizadas, inclusiones fluidas y fragmentos de granófiro, que indican emplazamiento somero, con rápido intercrecimiento conjunto de cuarzo en una masa de feldespato alcalino hipersolvus. La susceptibilidad magnética es baja con valores de 0,11 x 10-3 SI, típicos para granitos corticales formados a partir de protolitos metasedimentarios.The Mojotoro porphyritic granite is located close to the city of Salta (24°47´44,9"S - 65°21´35,9"W, 1304 m.a.s.l., at Cerro Mojotoro in the Eastern Cordillera. The pluton is emplaced in the Puncoviscana Formation (Late Precambrian-Early Cambrian, a lithological unit composed mainly of greenish pelites. The Puncoviscana Formation is covered unconformably by Cambrian quartzites of the Meson Group. Stratigraphic relationships of the granite indicate a Pampean age and emplacement during the Tilcaric orogenic phase. Petrographically it is a porphyritic granite with K-feldspar phenocrysts accompanied by quartz, plagioclase and biotite. The rock is strongly altered by sericitization, kaolinization, and limonitization. Likewise, the granite exhibits recrystalized spherules, fluid inclusions and granophyric fragments, indicative of shallow emplacement, with fast intergrowth of quartz in a mass of K-feldspar hypersolvus. Low magnetic susceptibility, with values of 0.11x10-3 SI, is typical of cortical granite that was formed from a metasedimentary protolith.

  18. Mineralization, alteration and vein systems of the Bolong porphyry copper deposit in the Duolong ore concentration area, Tibet%西藏多龙矿集区波龙斑岩铜矿床蚀变与脉体系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨毅; 张志; 唐菊兴; 陈毓川; 李玉彬; 王立强; 李建力; 高轲; 王勤

    2015-01-01

    波龙铜矿床是多龙矿集区继多不杂斑岩铜矿床后发现的又一大型斑岩铜矿床.文章在详细的野外地质编录及室内镜下鉴定基础上,对波龙斑岩矿床蚀变与脉体系统进行系统梳理.结果表明,波龙矿床发育明显的蚀变分带,从深部(或核部)往浅部(或外侧)具有钾化带→黄铁绢英岩化带→泥化叠加黄铁绢英岩化带→角岩化带(或外侧的青磐岩化带)的蚀变分带特征.共识别出M、A、B、D4种脉体类型,以A、B脉最为发育.与成矿关系密切的主要为钾化带、黄铁绢英岩化带及A、B脉.与国内外典型斑岩矿床蚀变特征相比,波龙矿床蚀变特征总体与“二长岩”模式相似,特征矿物组合与阿根廷Bajo de la Alumbrera矿床,国内驱龙铜矿、多不杂铜矿等都具有相似之处.但波龙矿床从钾化带至黄铁绢英岩化带都大量发育的稀疏-稠密浸染状及脉状磁铁矿是该矿床的独有特色.

  19. Disseminated, veinlet and vein Pb-Zn, Cu and Sb polymetallic mineralization in the GaleChah-Shurab mining district, Iranian East Magmatic Assemblage (IEMA)

    OpenAIRE

    Behzad Mehrabi; Ebrahim Tale Fazel; Ali Nokhbatolfoghahai

    2011-01-01

    The Iranian East Magmatic Assemblage (IEMA) in the Central Lut region, hosted porphyry and vein-type polymetallic mineralization. The GaleChah-Shurab mining district is located in NW of the IEMA. Volcanic and subvolcanic bodies in the area are composed of calc-alkaline porphyry quartz-latite, porphyry dacite and rhyodacite and hornblende-biotite andesite, equivalent to I-type granite. They emplaced in Tertiary and intruded the Jurassic shale, siltstone and limestone basement (Shemshak Fm). Th...

  20. Penetapan Kadar Protein Dan Non Protein Nitrogen (NPN) Pada Ulat Kidu (Rhynchophorus ferrugineus) Dan Hasil Olahannya Dengan Metode Kjeldahl

    OpenAIRE

    Rahmawati, Vivi Maisari

    2013-01-01

    Edible larva is a source of protein that comes from the edible larva of bumblebee with red head lives in decayed sago palm. Frying and boiling process, will affect the protein content. This research aimed to study content of protein in edible larva and the effect of process frying and boiling to the its protein content. The sample is the edible larva bought from Pancur batu market, urban village of Tuntungan II, sub district of Pancur batu. The content of protein and NPN on edible’s larva...

  1. Stratigraphy and mineralogy of a carbonate-hosted gold deposit: Kings Mountain gold mine, NC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Supplee, J.; Lapoint, D.; Feiss, P.G.

    1985-01-01

    The Kings Mountain Gold Mine, Cleveland Company, North Carolina, is unique in the Appalachians in that it is carbonate-hosted, with a distinctive ore mineralogy. The mine stratigraphy is upright, younging east to west. The basal unit is a volcanic to subvolcanic chlorite, feldspar, quartz-eye porphyry, cut by a silicic porphyry, interpreted as a shallow level intrusion. Above and gradational to the chloritic porphyry, unless separated by the intrusive silicic porphyry, is a sericitic, quartz-eye porphyry, probably a metatuff. A north-thinning, graphite schists is above the sericitic porphyry. Carbonates overlie the graphite schist except to the north where they are above the sericitic porphyry. The carbonates consist of basal and upper sequences separated by a sericite, quartz-eye schists (metatuff) which is capped by a chlorite-sericite-graphite schist. Mineralization occurs within each carbonate sequence. This is overlain by interbedded chlorite and graphite schists with two horizons of exhalative iron formation (I.F.). Above the I.F. is a thick sequence of sericitic chlorite schists (turbidites). The mineralized carbonates are pervasively silicified with a disseminated assemblage of pyrite, pyrrhotite, sphalerite, chalcopyrite, galena, gold, altaite (PbTe), tetrahedrite, and pyrargyrite in quartz and dolomite +/- fluorite gangue. We suggest that the mineralization is associated with hydrothermal activity during emplacement of the silicic porphyry and following carbonate diagenesis. Mineralization was syn- or post-depositional with respect to the I.F.

  2. PENDEKATAN SOSIAL-EKOLOGI UNTUK PENILAIAN KESESUAIAN LOKASI RESTOCKING LOBSTER PASIR Panulirus homarus (Linnaeus, 1758 PADA BEBERAPA PERAIRAN DI INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amula Nurfiarini

    2016-11-01

    yang sama. Jika dibandingkan dengan kriteria pengambilan keputusan terhadap tingkat kesesuaian habitat, menunjukkan sebanyak 17 lokasi berada pada kategori kelayakan tinggi, dan 11 lokasi kategori kelayakan sedang. Prioritas lokasi restocking, terpilih tiga lokasi dengan nilai kelayakan tertinggi yakni perairan Batu Karas dan Pananjung Barat (Pangandaran, serta Perairan Karang Asem (Trenggalek.

  3. Physics Laboratory Investigation of Vocational High School Field Stone and Concrete Construction Techniques in the Central Java Province (Indonesia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purwandari, Ristiana Dyah

    2015-01-01

    The investigation aims in this study were to uncover the observations of infrastructures and physics laboratory in vocational high school for Stone and Concrete Construction Techniques Expertise Field or Teknik Konstruksi Batu dan Beton (TKBB)'s in Purwokerto Central Java Province, mapping the Vocational High School or Sekolah Menengah Kejuruan…

  4. The Reinforcement to the Citizen Participation in Taking Care of the Environmental Protection Towards a Green Moral Concept-Based Sustainable Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syahri, Mohamad

    2016-01-01

    The research sites were "Blitar, Malang" and "Batu" in East Java Province, Indonesia since those areas are regarded to have problems of environmental crises. In the data collection, this study made use of four methods, namely: a) observation, b) In-depth Interviews, c) documentation, and d) focus group discussion. The results…

  5. TITIK SEBAGAI DASAR PENCIPTAAN KARYA SENI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanny Wijaya

    2010-09-01

    pengolahan titik-titik warna sudah berkembang sejak lama. Pada masa pergerakan seni Impresionisme, beberapa seniman sudah mencoba untuk mengaplikasikan titik-titik warna sebagai sebuah teknik baru yang disebut dengan Pointilisme. Georges Seurat adalah seniman yang menjadi pelopor pengembangan teknik ini. Teknik Pointilisme sering dikenal dengan sebutan Divisionisme atau Chromoluminarism pada masanya. Teknik ini menggunakan metode additif yang mengkombinasikan pigmen dasar warna merah, hijau dan biru untuk menghasilkan vibrasi optikal pada lukisan, sehingga para pengamat lukisan dapat mencapai tingkat luminosity yang maksimal pada mata.Keberadaan teknik Pointilisme ini telah membuktikan bahwa ilmu pengetahuan dan seni dapat saling mendukung. Perpaduan logika dan estetika dapat menciptakan karya seni yang luar biasa.

  6. Global assessment of undiscovered copper resources

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Deposits, prospects, and permissive tracts for porphyry and sediment-hosted copper resources worldwide, with estimates of undiscovered copper resources. pCu_tracts...

  7. Increased Porphyrins in Primary Liver Cancer Mainly Reflect a Parallel Liver Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Kaczynski

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatic porphyries have been associated with an increased risk of primary liver cancer (PLC, which on the other hand may cause an increased porphyrin production. To evaluate the role of an underlying liver disorder we analyzed porphyrins in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC (n=65, cholangiocellular carcinoma (n=3, or suspected PLC, which turned out to be metastases (n=18 or a benign disorder (n=11. None of the patients had a family history of porphyry or clinical signs of porphyry. Increased aminolevulinic acid or porphyrin values were common not only in patients with PLC (43% but also in metastatic (50% and benign (64% liver disorders. The corresponding proportion for HCC patients with liver cirrhosis (55% was higher (P<.05 than in those without cirrhosis (17%. We conclude that symptomatic porphyries are unusual in PLC, whereas elevated urinary and/or faecal porphyrins are common, primarily reflecting a parallel liver disease and not the PLC.

  8. TADRIS MAHARAH AL-KALAM FI MADRASAH TSUNAIYYAH AL-LUGHAH AL-STANAWIYAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahkholid Nasution

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Giving the name Bilingual of the Madrasah Aliyah Bilingual Batu this a characteristic of this madrasah among madrasah-madrasah aliyah especially in Batu City. Bilingual in question is the use of the Arabic language and English as the language of instruction in these madrasah. Pay attention to the peculiarities of the madrasah, the writer wanted to dig further information about the development process of learning the Arabic language at the school, especially in the field of speaking skills (Maharah Kalam. Therefore, the approach used in writing this article is a qualitative approach with descriptive - evaluative method. It can be concluded that in general the process of the development of the Arabic language at the school has been following the principles of the development of the Arabic language to non-Arabs, but there are still many shortcomings and problems were found, including the media, environment and human resources are inadequate.

  9. Seaweed composition from Bintulu coast of Sarawak, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawawi, Mohd Hafizbillah; Idris, Mohd Hanafi; Kamal, Abu Hena Mustafa; King, Wong Sing

    2014-08-01

    Species composition of seaweed and distribution were investigated in the coastal waters of Bintulu, Sarawak. The seaweed samples were collected during low tide between May 2011 and May 2012 from the six different stations. In total 54 species of seaweeds were identified from study areas of Bintulu coastal waters. Among them, 23 species were from Rhodophyta with 11 families, 15 species were from Phaeophyta with 2 families and 16 species were from Chlorophyta with 10 families: Seventeen species of seaweeds were recorded from the Tanjung Batu, while 23 species from Pantai Telekom, 14 species from Golden Beach, 26 species from Kuala Similajau, 12 species from Kuala Nyalau and 21 species from Batu Mandi. Seaweeds abundance was high in rocky substrate and Rhodophyta (11 families and 23 species) was the common and highest group of seaweeds in this coastal areas. Present study recorded high diversified seaweed species at the rocky shore area compare to reef area.

  10. Regional mapping of hydrothermally altered igneous rocks along the Urumieh-Dokhtar, Chagai, and Alborz Belts of western Asia using Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data and Interactive Data Language (IDL) logical operators: a tool for porphyry copper exploration and assessment: Chapter O in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mars, John L.; Zientek, M.L.; Hammarstrom, J.M.; Johnson, K.M.; Pierce, F.W.

    2014-01-01

    Regional maps of phyllic and argillic hydrothermal alteration were compiled using Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data and logical operator algorithms. The area mapped extends from northwestern Iran to southeastern Pakistan and includes volcanic and magmatic arcs that make up the Urumieh-Dokhtar volcanic belt (UDVB), the Chagai volcanic belt (CVB), and the central part of the Alborz magmatic belt (AMB). The volcanic belts span the Zagros-Makran transform zone and the present day Baluchistan (Makran) volcanic arc. ASTER visible near infrared (VNIR) data contain three bands between 0.52 and 0.86 micrometers (μm) and the short-wave infrared (SWIR) data consist of six bands spanning 1.6 to 2.43 μm with 15-meter (m), and 30-m resolution, respectively.

  11. Magmatism and related mineralization of the intracontinental porphyry deposits in the Middle-Lower Yangtze River Valley Metallogenic Belt%长江中下游成矿带陆内斑岩型矿床的成岩成矿作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周涛发; 王世伟; 袁峰; 范裕; 张达玉; 常印佛; Noel C WHITE

    2016-01-01

    陆内环境斑岩型矿床的发现对斑岩成矿理论的完善具有重要意义.长江中下游成矿带作为中国东部重要的陆内成矿带之一,成矿带内发育多个重要的斑岩型矿床,如铜山口Cu-Mo矿床、鸡冠嘴Cu-Au矿床、白云山Cu矿、城门山Cu-Mo矿床、武山Cu-Mo矿床、丰山洞Cu-Au矿床、丁家山Cu矿、洋鸡山Au矿、沙溪Cu-Au矿床、冬瓜山Cu-Au矿床、舒家店Cu矿床和安基山Cu矿床等.本文选取成矿带内典型的、具有代表性的斑岩型矿床,对其地质特征(地层、构造、含矿斑岩、脉体特征和围岩蚀变)、成岩成矿年代、成矿岩体的岩石化学和成岩成矿地球化学等方面的研究资料和成果进行了系统总结,讨论和试图阐明长江中下游成矿带陆内斑岩型矿床的成岩成矿作用与成矿模式.研究显示,长江中下游成矿带形成于燕山期陆内造山过程,成矿斑岩岩浆活动和成矿作用主要发生于149~105Ma之间,进一步可以分为早、中、晚三阶段:149~135Ma、133 ~125Ma和123~ 105Ma,三阶段岩浆活动和成矿作用主要发生于成矿带中的断隆区,早阶段(149~135Ma)和晚阶段(123~105Ma)多为斑岩-矽卡岩型矿化,中阶段(133~125Ma)矿化为典型的斑岩型矿化.长江中下游成矿带内斑岩型矿床的含矿斑岩为高钾钙碱性-钙碱性系列岩石,大部分具有埃达克岩的地球化学特征,可能为源自富集地幔的岩浆和加厚下地壳部分熔融的岩浆混合的产物,源自富集地幔的基性岩浆对成矿具有至关重要的作用,它的混入使得混合岩浆富水、硫和金属(Cu、Au)等.进一步通过与岩浆弧环境的斑岩型矿床对比研究发现,长江中下游成矿带斑岩型矿床一般不发育高级泥化岩帽(advanced argillic liithocaps)以及浅部的高-中硫矿化蚀变系统,含矿岩浆源区性质和成矿物质来源等与岩浆弧环境的斑岩型矿床明显不同.

  12. 内蒙古额勒根斑岩型钼(铜)矿化区辉钼矿铼-锇同位素年龄及地质意义%Re-Os isotopic age dating of molybdenite separates from Elegen porphyry Mo (Cu)mineralized area, northwestern Alxa, western Inner Mongolia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂凤军; 屈文俊; 刘妍; 杜安道; 江思宏

    2005-01-01

    为了查明额勒根矿化区斑岩型钼(铜)矿化发生的时间,对主要矿化体内5件辉钼矿样品进行了铼-锇同位素分析,所获同位素等时线年龄为(332.0±9.0)Ma(2σ),其MSWD值为0.29.鉴于辉钼矿呈浸染状分布于似斑状花岗闪长岩和花岗闪长斑岩体中,并且与黄铜矿和黄铁矿呈共生结构关系,推测额勒根地区斑岩型钼(铜)矿化体、似斑状花岗闪长岩和花岗闪长斑岩体的形成时间为早石炭世中期,均是海西中期构造-岩浆活动的产物.

  13. 新疆包古图斑岩铜矿床成矿流体及成矿物质来源——来自硫、氢和氧同位素证据%Sources of ore-forming fluids and materials of the Baogutu porphyry copper deposit in Xinjiang: Constraints from sulfur-hydrogen-oxygen isotopes geochemistry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张志欣; 杨富全; 闫升好; 张锐; 柴凤梅; 刘锋; 耿新霞

    2010-01-01

    包古图大型斑岩铜矿位于准噶尔盆地西缘.铜矿化主要呈浸染状、细脉浸染状分布于似斑状(石英)闪长岩、闪长玢岩、隐爆角砾岩和少量花岗闪长岩中.依据矿脉的穿插关系和矿物组合,成矿过程经历了黑云母-钾长石-钠长石阶段、石英-硫化物阶段和石英碳酸盐阶段.矿脉中石英的δDSMOW值介于-107‰~-86‰,δOSMOW值变化于11.3‰~16.2‰,δ18OH2O值为4.4‰~9.3‰.表明成矿流体来源为深源的岩浆水.硫化物的δ34S值介于-5.1‰~0.7‰,平均为-1.8‰,表明硫来源于深部岩浆或地幔.结合Ⅱ、Ⅲ和Ⅴ号含矿岩体锆石LA-ICP-MS U-Pb年龄及辉钼矿Re-Os年龄,推断包古图铜矿床成矿作用发生在晚石炭世,与中酸性斑岩体的侵入有密切成因关系.

  14. New explanation for Nb-enriched alkali igneous rocks in Porgera porphyry copper-gold deposit,Papua New Guinea%巴布亚新几内亚波格拉斑岩型铜-金矿床富Nb碱性火成岩成因新解

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱章显; 杨振强

    2007-01-01

    巴布亚新几内亚波格拉(Porgera)斑岩铜-金矿床的侵入杂岩岩石类型为碱性玄武岩→夏威夷岩(粗面玄武岩)→橄榄粗安岩套.微量元素总体特征是富集大离子亲石元素(LILE)(Sr、Ba)和高场强元素(HFSE)(Zr、Nb、Th) .在微量元素蛛网图上显示宽的Th、Nb、U峰和Ti、Hf、Y的谷.该矿床夏威夷岩和橄榄粗安岩是一套板内富Nb碱性玄武岩系列,属于大陆OIB碱性侵入岩,而不是洋岛OIB系列,与地幔柱活动相关.波格拉侵入杂岩形成于弧-陆碰撞环境,为新生代主动大陆边缘板内碱性玄武岩的典型代表之一.

  15. CHARACTERISTIC OF BINDERLESS PARTICLEBOARD MADE FROM THREE SPECIES OF SULAWESI BAMBOO

    OpenAIRE

    Suhasman; A Detti Yunianti1; Sahriyanti Saad1); Baharuddin

    2012-01-01

    Three species of sulawesi bamboo were used to produce binderless particleboard (BP). Parring bamboo (Gigantochloa ater) was taken from Tanralili Maros, while betung bamboo (Dendrocalamus asper) and tallang bamboo (Schizostacyum barcahycladum) were taken from Batu Papan Makale Tana Toraja. The skin and nodia were removed before converted into chip. Particle was produced from chip after it air dried. The particles were oxidized using hydrogen peroxide 15% based on oven dry particle weight and 7...

  16. Pengembangan Model Dasar EOQ dengan Integrasi Produksi Distribusi untuk Produk Deteriorasi dengan Kebijakan Backorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Aisyah

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Model persediaan digunakan untuk menentukan kebijakan mengawasi tingkat persediaan. Oleh sebab itu keberadaan persediaan perlu dikelola dengan baik sehingga diperoleh kinerja yang optimal. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menghasilkan model integrasi produksi–distribusi untuk produk deteriorasi dengan kebijakan backorder. Model persediaan Economic Order Quantity (EOQ Single Item digunakan sebagai dasar pengembangan model. Algoritma pencarian solusi model dibuat untuk mendapatkan solusi dari model. Selain itu pada bagian akhir diberikan studi kasus implementasi model di UD. Bagus Agrista Mandiri, Batu.

  17. Desain dan Implementasi Peringatan Dini Banjir Menggunakan Data Mining dengan Wireless Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roni Putra

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is develop a warning system of early flood and weather information. This research was inspired by not stabilize weather condition of Indonesian. It will cause disaster such as flood because of the hight rainfall, as happened in Padang. Batu Busuk is one of the flood-prone area and galodo but there is no information about the weather, rainfall, humidity, temperature and wind speed and direction. The aim of this study is giving weather data and forecast information of the potential flood with variable rainfall, temperature, humidity, wind direction and wind speed which can be access realtime and up to date wherever and whenever via the webpage online. To determine the potential for flooding prediction by used data mining with a method of Alogritma C4.5 its can be result of decision tree. In this study using XBee S2PRO for sender and recipient with mesh topology which consists of a rainfall sensor components, SHT11, wind speed and direction as well as the arduino. Data storage and processing of information using the Raspberry Pi as a mini computer server. The result of sensor SHT11 measurement is a little difference with really measurement such as: 2.09% temperature, relative humidity of 0.59%, 3.87% wind speed, wind direction and precipitation 0% 6.32%. Meanwhile, the results of experiment in Batu Busuk proved the same weather conditions between EWS tool with the situation in Batu Busuk during the four day, where on March 22, 2016 at 5:35 PM information system Early Warning System (EWS issued a warning system would be the potential for flood and after it be floded Batu Busuk.

  18. Analisis Implementasi Nawa Cita Jokowi Dalam Pembangunan Agraria. (Studi Deskriptif: Konflik Tanah di Desa Padang Halaban)

    OpenAIRE

    NUGRAHA, ANGGA

    2017-01-01

    This study tried to describe the analysis of the implementation of goals Jokowi nawa cita the completion of agrarian conflict in the village of Padang Halaban. Where the purpose of this study was to determine how the government's efforts Jokowi-Jusuf Kalla in agrarian development and to analyze the implementation of the settlement of land conflicts in Padang Halaban district. Aek Kuo, Kab. North Labuhan Batu. Therefore, political interaction in this case related to the land con...

  19. Rock—Forming and Ore—Forming Temperatures of Lianhuashan Tungsten Deposit,Guangdong Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李兆麟; 杨忠芳

    1996-01-01

    The Lianhuashan tungsten deposit occurs in the volcanic terrain in the coastal area of Southeast China,where rhyolite,quartz porphyry and granite consitute a complee magmatic series.The orebodies are located in the endo-and exo-contacts between the quartz porphyry and the metasandstone of the Xiaoping coal measues.Hongenization temperatures of melt inclusions in zircon and quartz are 1100℃and 1050℃ for rhyolite,1000℃ and 860℃for quartz porphyry,and 950-1000℃and 820℃ for granite,respectively,demonstrating that the rockforming temperatures dropped successively from the eruptive to the intrusive rocks and that the homogenization temperatures of melt inclusions in zircon are 50-180℃higher than those in quartz.Homogenization temperatures of gas-liquid inclusions in quartz are 230-520℃(mostly 230-270℃)for quartz porphyry,200-450℃(mostly 200-360℃)for ore-bearing quartz veins,150-210℃for granite 170-200℃ for the vein quartz in it.Quartz from the quartz porphyry and from the ore-earing quartz veins show similar characteristics in inclusion type and homogenization temperature,indicating that intergranular solutions must have been formed upon cooling of magma and that ore-forming solutions for the tungstem mineralization were evolved mainly from ore-bearing intergranular solutions in the quartz porphyry.

  20. SHRIMP zircon U-Pb dating for subduction-related granitic rocks in the northern part of east Junggar, Xinjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    SHRIMP U-Pb zircon dating on the Xileketehalasu granodiorite porphyry and Kalasayi monodiorite porphyry that intrude middle Devonian Beitashan Formation at the north part of east Junggar region shows that they were formed at 381±6 Ma and 376±10 Ma respectively. They are interpreted as subduction-related granitic rocks, which is the first report that the isotopic ages for the granitic rocks range from 350 to 390 Ma. Another determined age for the Kalasayi monodiorite porphyry is 408±9 Ma, representing the age of underlain Lower Devonian volcanic rocks. Thus, the U-Pb dates suggest that the northeastward subduction of Junggar ocean from southwest occurred at 408 to 376 Ma (the real interval may be larger). Because the ore-bearing porphyry intruded following the formation of the volcanic rocks of middle Devonian Beitashan Formation, their tectonic setting is similar to the Andes Mountains that hosts world-class porphyry copper deposits, and the researched area could be regarded as a potential area for prospecting large porphyry copper deposits.

  1. Pengaruh Aerasi dan Sumber Nutrien terhadap Kemampuan Alga Filum Chlorophyta dalam Menyerap Karbon (Carbon Sink untuk Mengurangi Emisi CO2 di Kawasan Perkotaan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lancur Setoaji

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian terkait mitigasi pemanasan global, khususnya dalam penyerapan karbon dioksida (CO2, menjadi fokus utama di kalangan ilmuwan dunia. Secara alamiah, karbon dioksida dapat diserap oleh tumbuhan hijau, laut, karbonasi batuan kapur, dan alga. Pigmen hijau dalam alga atau klorofil dapat menyerap karbon dioksida dalam proses fotosintesis. Alga memiliki pertumbuhan yang sangat cepat sehingga cocok digunakan sebagai carbon sink. Penelitian terkait carbon sink ini bertujuan untuk menentukan kemampuan rata-rata serapan CO2 oleh alga di kawasan perkotaan dan menentukan pengaruh aerasi dan variasi sumber N terhadap pertumbuhan dan perkembangan alga. Penelitian ini dilakukan dalam skala laboratorium menggunakan reaktor dengan proses batch. Sampel alga yang digunakan didapatkan dari hasil pengembangbiakan yang bersumber dari perairan di kawasan perkotaan. Penelitian ini menggunakan dua variabel uji, yaitu aerasi dan sumber nutrien. Jumlah karbon dioksida yang diserap didapatkan dari perbandingan stoikiometri pada reaksi fotosintesis.  Berdasarkan perbandingan stoikiometri tersebut diketahui bahwa 1 gram sel alga yang terbentuk sebanding dengan 1,92 gram CO2 yang diserap. Dari hasil penelitian, alga dengan penambahan pupuk urea dapat menyerap 4,87 mg CO2/hari dalam kondisi tanpa aerasi atau 3,84 mg CO2/hari dengan aerasi. Sedangkan alga dengan penambahan pupuk NPK dapat menyerap 3,61 mg CO2/hari dalam kondisi tanpa aerasi atau 3,01 mg CO2/hari dengan aerasi.

  2. PRAKTIK PEMBERIAN MAKANAN PADA BAYI DI BOGOR DAN FAKTOR-FAKTOR SOSIAL BUDAYA YANG MEMPENGARUHI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnelia Arnelia

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Telah dilakukan penelitian di daerah perkotaan dan pedesaan Ciomas di Kabupaten Bogor, untuk mempelajari praktek pemberian makanan pada bayi serta faktor sosial budaya yang mempengaruhi dengan menggunakan metoda Rapid Assesment Procedures (RAP. Sampel penelitian adalah ibu-ibu yang mempunyai bayi umur (13-18 bulan, kader Posyandu, dukun bayi dan tokoh masyarakat. Hasil penelitian menunjukan bahwa makanan pralaktasi berupa madu dan air putih, biasa diberikan kepada bayi baru lahir di kedua desa. Bayi di daerah perkotaan sudah diberi ASI sejak berusia sehari, sedangkan di pedesaan umumnya pada hari ke empat karena ASI pada tiga hari pertama dianggap kotor dan biasanya dibuang. Pemberian makanan tambahan dimulai pada usia terlalu dini, yaitu rata-rata usia dua minggu di pedesaan dan satu bulan di perkotaan. Sebaliknya pemberian sayuran hijau dan protein hewani umumnya terlambat. Sayuran hijau baru diberikan setelah usia sembilan bulan di perkotaan, dan setelah 18 bulan di pedesaan. Protein hewani umumnya baru mulai diberikan setelah bayi berusia 12 bulan. Bahkan di daerah pedesaan, jenis ikan basah baru diberikan setelah anak berusia tiga tahun.

  3. Variasi morfologi, karyotipe dan pola pita protein pada berbagai varietas kamboja jepang (Adenium obesum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DWI HASTUTI

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Hastuti D, Suranto, Setyono P. 2009. Variasi morfologi, karyotipe dan pola pitaprotein pada berbagai varietas kamboja jepang (Adenium obesum. Bioteknologi 6:88-95. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui variasi Adenium obesum dari enam varietas yaitu obesum, cery, red lucas, red fanta , white bigben, dan harry potter berdasarkan sifat morfologi, karyotipe, serta pola pita protein. Preparat kromosom dibuat dengan metode squash semi permanen dengan bahan ujung akar tanaman dan pola pita protein dilakukan dengan metode SDS-PAGE. Data kualitatif meliputi bentuk dan warna daun dan bunga dari masing-masing varietas. Data morfometri antara varietas dianalisis dengan analisis sidaik ragam (ANAVA, dilanjutkan dengan uji jarak berganda Duncan (DMRT, pada taraf 5% terbukti terdapat beda nyata antar varietas. Pola pita protein akar, batang, daun serta semua organ dianalisis secara kualitatif menggunakan analisis kelompok hierarkhis Average Linkage (between Groups dalam program SPSS 10.0. Hasilnya menunjukkan bahwa keenam varietas memiliki karakter morfologi yang bervariasi, yaitu warna daun hijau muda sampai hijau tua, tidak berbulu, tulang daun polos, sedangkan warna mahkota merah muda sampai merah tua, walaupun ada yang putih dan kuning. Jumlah kromosom semua sama yaitu n =22, dimana panjang absolut kromosom berkisar antara 2,56-5,13 µm. Pola pita protein yang terbentuk secara kualitatif terdapat variasi ketebalan di antara keenam varietas, yang menunjukkan adanya perbedaan kandungan proteinnya.

  4. Directives for Mangrove Forest and Coastal Forest Rehabilitation in Earthquake and Tsunami Disaster Area in the Provinces of Manggroe Aceh Darussalam and Sumatera Utara (Nias Island, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecep Kusmara

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Peristiwa gempa bumi dan tsunami yang melanda Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam (NAD dan Pulau Nias Sumatera Utara pada bulan Desember 2004 telah mengakibatkan rusaknya sebagian besar hutan mangrove dan hutan pantai di kedua wilayah tersebut. Berhubung kedua tipe hutan tersebut sangat penting untuk menopang kelangsungan hidup penduduk pantai, maka penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mendapatkan arahan rehabilitasi hutan mangrove dan pantai yang rusak akibat tsunami di NAD dan Pulau Nias. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa wilayah pantai yang tanahnya berupa tanah mineral yang bukan lumpur dengan salinitas yang tinggi (di atas 10 0/00 seyogyanya ditanami oleh jenis mangrove eklusif (Rhizophora stylosa, R. apiculata, Sonneratia alba, Ceriops tagal dan Aegeciros floridum dan mangrove asosiat (Osbornea octodonta dan Scyphiphora sp., tanah bukan lumpur dengan salinitas rendah oleh berbagai jenis pohon hutan pantai (Casuarina equisetifolia, dan lain-lain, tanah lumpur bersalinitas tinggi oleh Avicenia spp. dan R. Mucronata; dan tanah gambut seyogyanya ditanami oleh Bruguiera gymnorrizha. Adapun lebar  jalur hijau vegetasi yang disarankan adalah minimal 225 m untuk wilayah NAD dan 211 m untuk wilayah pulau Nias. Untuk merealisasikan kegiatan rehabilitasi vegetasi pantai yang bersifat multitahun di NAD dan Nias maka kegiatan rehabilitasi tersebut harus ditempatkan dalam rangka pembangunan daerah Kata kunci: hutan mangrove, hutan pantai, jalur hijau, mangrove asosiat, mangrove eksklusif

  5. Studi Pengaruh Kekuatan dan Kekakuan Dinding Bata Pada Bangunan Bertingkat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redha Sadhu Leksono

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Dalam mendesain suatu struktur seperti portal, para perencana umumnya tidak memperhitungkan komponen dinding pengisi seperti batu bata sebagai komponen struktural (dianggap sebagai komponen non structural/beban terbagi rata. Pada kenyataannya, dinding pengisi tersusun atas  batu bata dengan mortar yang memiliki kekuatan dan kekakuan tertentu. Dinding pengisi, batu bata, ini juga memilki kecenderungan untuk berinteraksi bersama portal yang ditempatinya, terutama bila terkena gaya lateral (akibat gempa yang cukup besar. Dalam studi ini akan dianalisa sampai pada tingkat berapakah kekuatan dan kekakuan  dinding bata berpengaruh cukup signifikan terhadap suatu struktur gedung bertingkat. Dinding bata dianggap sebagai bracing tekan dan akan dimodelkan dengan batang diagonal, lalu akan dibandingkan dengan dinding bata yang dianggap sebagai beban mati terbagi rata (open frame. Untuk analisa strukturnya akan digunakan metode Analisa Statik Non-Linier (Pushover dengan program bantu SAP 2000. Hasil studi ini menunjukkan bahwa struktur open frame memiliki perilaku struktur yang lebih baik daripada struktur dengan bracing tekan. Hal ini ditunjukkan pada nilai target perpindahan saat performance point,  struktur open frame memiliki nilai yang lebih besar. Sehingga dapat ditarik kesimpulan bahwa dinding bata dapat mengganggu kinerja struktur utama untuk berdeformasi secara maksimal. Semakin tinggi tingkat lantai suatu gedung, maka tingkat pengaruh kekuatan dan kekakuan dinding bata semakin besar terhadap kinerja struktur utama. Oleh karena itu, perencanaan suatu desain bangunan harus memperhatikan kekuatan dan kekauaan dinding bata.

  6. Studi Eksperimen Pengaruh Variasi Kecepatan Udara Terhadap Performa Heat Exchanger Jenis Compact Heat Exchanger (Radiator Dengan Susunan Tube Inline Sebagai Pemanas Pada Sistem Pengeringan Batubara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irvan Paramananda

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Pengeringan yang dilakukan pada batu bara dengan memanfaatkan udara panas menggunakan konsep heat exchanger. Salah satu heat exchanger yang sering digunakan adalah heat exchanger dengan tipe single row-fin tube yaitu radiator. Radiator ini akan dimanfaatkan sebagai penghasil udara panas dari air panas yang mengalir dan dihembuskan oleh kipas radiator. Penelitian ini difokuskan pada effectiveness dari komponen radiator fungsi dari kecepatan udara mulai dari kecepatan 1 m/s, 2 m/s, 3 m/s, 4 m/s dan 5 m/s dan fungsi jumlah radiator yang digunakan. Prinsip dari radiator yang digunakan adalah mengalirkan fluida panas berupa air ke dalam tube-tube radiator kemudian didinginkan oleh udara yang dihembuskan oleh fan yang melewati fin sehingga air yang keluar dari tube menjadi dingin dan udara yang melewati fin menjadi panas. Hasil yang didapatkan dari eksperimen ini diantaranya kecepatan udara yang optimal terhadap proses pengeringan batu bara yang dipakai pada alat pengering batu bara adalah sebesar 5 m/s dengan menggunakan 2 radiator. qhot untuk penggunaan 2 radiator dengan kecepatan udara sebesar 5 m/s adalah 30121.17 Watt. Effectiveness pada penggunaan 2 radiator dengan kecepatan udara sebesar 5 m/s adalah 0.65. Efisiensi fin yang terjadi pada kecepatan udara 5 m/s dengan menggunakan 2 radiator sebesar 0.93

  7. The Late Cretaceous Middle Fork caldera, its resurgent intrusion, and enduring landscape stability in east-central Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacon, Charles R.; Dusel-Bacon, Cynthia; Aleinikoff, John N.; Slack, John F.

    2014-01-01

    Dissected caldera structures expose thick intracaldera tuff and, uncommonly, cogenetic shallow plutons, while remnants of correlative outflow tuffs deposited on the pre-eruption ground surface record elements of ancient landscapes. The Middle Fork caldera encompasses a 10 km × 20 km area of rhyolite welded tuff and granite porphyry in east-central Alaska, ∼100 km west of the Yukon border. Intracaldera tuff is at least 850 m thick. The K-feldspar megacrystic granite porphyry is exposed over much of a 7 km × 12 km area having 650 m of relief within the western part of the caldera fill. Sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe with reverse geometry (SHRIMP-RG) analyses of zircon from intracaldera tuff, granite porphyry, and outflow tuff yield U-Pb ages of 70.0 ± 1.2, 69.7 ± 1.2, and 71.1 ± 0.5 Ma (95% confidence), respectively. An aeromagnetic survey indicates that the tuff is reversely magnetized, and, therefore, that the caldera-forming eruption occurred in the C31r geomagnetic polarity chron. The tuff and porphyry have arc geochemical signatures and a limited range in SiO2 of 69 to 72 wt%. Although their phenocrysts differ in size and abundance, similar quartz + K-feldspar + plagioclase + biotite mineralogy, whole-rock geochemistry, and analytically indistinguishable ages indicate that the tuff and porphyry were comagmatic. Resorption of phenocrysts in tuff and porphyry suggests that these magmas formed by thermal rejuvenation of near-solidus or solidified crystal mush. A rare magmatic enclave (54% SiO2, arc geochemical signature) in the porphyry may be similar to parental magma and provides evidence of mafic magma and thermal input.

  8. Geology and ore deposits of the Chicago Creek area, Clear Creek County, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, J.E.; Wells, J.D.

    1956-01-01

    The Chicago Creek area, Clear Creek County, Colo., forms part of the Front Range mineral belt, which is a northeast-trending belt of coextensive porphyry intrusive rocks and hydrothermal veins of Tertiary age. More than $4.5 million worth of gold, silver, copper, lead, zinc, and uranium was produced from the mines in the area between 1859 and 1954. This investigation was made by the Geological survey on behalf of the Division of Raw Materials of the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission. The bedrock in the area is Precambrian and consists of igneous rocks, some of which have been metamorphosed , and metasedimentary rocks. The metasedimentary rocks include biotite-quartz-plagioclase gneiss that is locally garnetiferous, sillimanitic biotite-quartz gneiss, amphibolite, and lime-silicate gneiss. Rocks that may be metasedimentary or meta-igneous are quartz monzonite gneiss and granite gneiss and pegmatite. The granite gneiss and pegmatite locally form a migmatite with the biotitic metasedimentary rocks. These older rocks have been intruded by granodiorite, quartz, and granite pegmatite. During Tertiary time the Precambrian rocks were invaded by dikes and plugs of quartz monzonite porphyry, alaskite porphyry, granite porphyry, monzonite porphyry, bostonite and garnetiferous bostonite porphyry, quartz bostonite porphyry, trachytic granite porphyry, and biotite-quartz latite-porphyry. Solifluction debris of Wisconsin age forms sheets filling some of the high basins, covering some of the steep slopes, and filling parts of some of the valleys; talus and talus slides of Wisconsin age rest of or are mixed with solifluction debris in some of the high basins. Recent and/or Pleistocene alluvium is present along valley flats of the larger streams and gulches. Two periods of Precambrian folding can be recognized in the area. The older folding crumpled the metasedimentary rocks into a series of upright and overturned north-northeast plunging anticlines and synclines. Quartz monzonite

  9. Mineral and energy resource assessment maps of the Mount Katmai, Naknek, and western Afognak quadrangles, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, S.E.; Riehle, J.R.; Magoon, L.B.; Campbell, D.L.

    1992-01-01

    On the basis of new geologic mapping and exploration geochemical studies, we have provided a mineral and energy resource assessment of the Mount Katmai, Naknek, and western Afognak quadrangles, Alaska. We delineate four tracts of ground that have metallic mineral resources. The mineral deposit types considered in each tract are summarized in table 4. Estimates of the number of undiscovered mineral deposits have been made for porphyry copper and polymetallic vein deposits. We estimate that one undiscovered porphyry copper deposit is present in the Katmai study area at the ten percent probability level. Although the sampling density may be too low to give an accurate estimate of the number of undiscovered polymetallic vein deposits, we suggest that, at a minimum, there is a five percent probability for five or more undiscovered polymetallic vein deposits in the Katmai study area. In addition, several areas have potential for undiscovered porphyry molybdenum, massive sulfide, and epithermal gold and mercury deposits.

  10. Asphalt wear and pollution transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindgren, Asa [Division of Traffic Engineering, Lulea University of Technology Lulea (Sweden)

    1996-09-06

    Studded tires cause extensive wear of road surfaces during winter producing small particles. Besides transporting different adsorbed pollutants these particles also discharge metal ions by their own natural content. The major part (95%) of the asphalt is composed of stone fractions. The rest consists mainly of bitumen, which contains trace quantities of metals. Laboratory studies in this study have demonstrated different adsorbing properties of metal ions, as well as differences in adsorption when comparing stone materials. Two stone materials, a gabbro and a porphyry, have been tested for their adsorption properties concerning Pb, Cu, Zn and Cd. The gabbro showed better adsorption capacity than the porphyry. Gabbro has coarser grains, it is softer, and also has a higher content of most metals compared to the porphyry. In all tests lead and copper are more adsorbed than zinc and cadmium. All metal ions are released at about the same pH ({approx}4)

  11. Relations between A-type granites and copper mineralization as exemplified by the Machangqing Cu deposit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    This paper deals with the relations between the Machangqing rockbody which corresponds to the A-type granites and porphyry copper mineralization in terms of petrochemistry,trace element geochemistry,fluid inclusion geochemistry and isotope geochemistry.The results show that the Machangqing porphyry copper deposit was formed from the fluid predominated by magmatic fluid.This kind of ore-forming fluid was just differentiated from the magma responsible for the A-type granites.Therefore,as viewed from whether they contain water or not,the A-type granites can,at least,be divided into two types:water-bearing and water-free.The water-bearing A-type granites can serve as the host of porphyry copper deposits under certain geological conditions.

  12. Relations between A-type granites and copper mineralization as exemplified by the Machangqing Cu deposit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毕献武; 胡瑞忠; 叶造军; 邵树勋

    2000-01-01

    This paper deals with the relations between the Machangqing rockbody which corresponds to the A-type granites and porphyry copper mineralization in terms of petrochemistry, trace element geochemistry, fluid inclusion geochemistry and isotope geochemistry. The results show that the Machangqing porphyry copper deposit was formed from the fluid predominated by mag-matic fluid. This kind of ore-forming fluid was just differentiated from the magma responsible for the A-type granites. Therefore, as viewed from whether they contain water or not, the A-type granites can, at least, be divided into two types: water-bearing and water-free. The water-bearing A-type granites can serve as the host of porphyry copper deposits under certain geological conditions.

  13. ANCAMAN DI BALIK HASIL LAUT DI PERAIRAN TELUK JAKARTA TERHADAP KESEHATAN MASYARAKAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satmoko Wisaksono

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Tidak dapat dipungkiri dan disangsikan bahwa bahan makanan yang berasal dari hasil perikanan laut mempunyai kadar nilai gizi tinggi. lkan laut misalnya selain dagingnya mudah dicerna, juga kandungan protein, vitamin, mineral serta lemak tak jenuh sangat diperlukan untuk pertumbuhan dan kecerdasan. Jenis-jenis ikan laut segar yang banyak dikonsumsi dan disajikan di restoran seafood adalah ikan tongkol, tengiri, kakap, kerang, cumi, sotong, udang, kepiting, rajungan, dan lain sebagainya.Hasil penelitian yang dilakukan oleh Yayasan Lembaga Konsumen Indoneia (YLKI bekerjasama dengan IPB tahun 1997 menunjukkan bahwa contoh komoditi hasil laut yang diperoleh mengandung logam berat Hg adalah dari kelompok kerang-kerangan (Bivalvia yaitu kerang darah, hijau dan tahu.

  14. ISLAM DAN PELESTARIAN LINGKUNGAN HIDUP: Menggagas Pendidikan Islam Berwawasan Lingkungan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siswanto Siswanto

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available AbstracFrom theological view, human must be able to appreciate the environment. Religious ethics toward nature takes mankind to be responsible so that they can avoid the damage. In other words, to trash the environments means to destroy the human themselves. On the basis of this context, religious-education institution is expected to prove the graduates with a standard commitment to conserve the ecology . Establishing “Green Madrasah” becomes one of efforts that must be obtained. It is an education model that can transform religious-moral values into each aspect of socio-economic development. This has also been a mode of education which functionalize human as leader, ruler, and maintainer of nature and environmentKata-kata kunciIslam, pendidikan agama, lingkungan hidup, khalifah, madrasah hijau

  15. Gold deposits in the late Archaean Nzega-Igunga greenstone belt, central plateau of tanzania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feiss, P.G.; Siyomana, S.

    1985-01-01

    2.2 m oz of gold have been produced, since 1935, from late Archaean (2480-2740 Ma) greenstone belts of the Central Plateau, Tanzania. North and east of Nzega (4/sup 0/12'S, 3/sup 0/11'E), 18% of the exposed basement, mainly Dodoman schists and granites, consists of metavolcanics and metasediments of the Nyanzian and Kavirondian Series. Four styles of mineralization are observed. 1. Stratabound quartz-gold veins with minor sulfides. Host rocks are quartz porphyry, banded iron formation (BIF), magnetite quartzite, and dense, cherty jasperite at the Sekenke and Canuck mines. The Canuck veins are on strike from BIF's in quartz-eye porphyry of the Igusule Hills. 2. Stratabound, disseminated gold in coarse-grained, crowded feldspar porphyry with lithic fragments and minor pyrite. At Bulangamilwa, the porphyry is conformable with Nyanzian-aged submarine (.) greenstone, volcanic sediment, felsic volcanics, and sericite phyllite. The deposits are on strike with BIF of the Wella Hills, which contains massive sulfide with up to 15% Pb+Zn. 3. Disseminated gold in quartz-albite metasomes in Nyanzian greenstones. At Kirondatal, alteration is associated with alaskites and feldspar porphyry dikes traceable several hundred meters into post-Dodoman diorite porphyry. Gold is with pyrite, arsenopyrite, pyrrhotite, minor chalcopyrite, and sphalerite as well as tourmalinite and silica-cemented breccias. 4. Basal Kavirondian placers in metaconglomerates containing cobbles and boulders of Dodoman and Nyanzian rocks several hundred meters up-section from the stratabound, disseminated mineralization at Bulangamilwa.

  16. ABSORPSI β-KAROTEN SERBUK DAUN SINGKONG (Manihot Utilissima KERING PADA ANAK PRASEKOLAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almasyhuri Almasyhuri

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia telah bebas dari masalah kurang vitamin A (KVA, tetapi jumlah anak balita dengan vitamin A serum marjinal (<20 ug/dl masih tinggi. Salah satu program penanggulangan KVA di Indonesia adalah dengan peningkatan konsumsi sayuran hijau pada anak balita. Menurut de Pee, karoten sayuran hijau kurang dapat diabsorpsi karena berupa ikatan komplek yang kuat yang berada dalam kloro plas. Penelitian ini mempelajari pengaruh pembuatan serbuk kering daun singkong muda dan tua terhadap absorpsi β-karoten pada anak prasekolah. Penelitian dilakukan di Kotamadya Bogor, Jawa Barat. Daun singkong diberikan dalam bentuk masakan gulai, yang diberikan dalam diit makanan pagi, siang dan sore selama tiga hari. Kadar β-karoten dalam duplikat makanan yang dikonsumsi dan dalam tinja selama tiga hari dianalisis dengan HPLC. β-karoten yang diabsorpsi merupakan selisih β-karoten dalam duplikat makanan yang dikonsumsi dan β-karoten dalam tinja selama tiga hari. Absorpsi β-karoten serbuk daun singkong muda kering (DSMK paling tinggi (37.9±5.2% dibanding β-karoten serbuk daun singkong tua kering (DSTK maupun daun singkong muda segar (DSMB yang besarnya masing-masing adalah 36.8±9.2% dan 35.4±5.8%. β-karoten daun singkong muda segar (DSMB paling kecil absorpsinya. Tetapi hasil uji anova β-karoten dari ketiga jenis daun singkong tersebut tidak ada perbedaan nyata (p>0.05. Kesimpulan dari penelitian ini ternyata pengeringan dan penghancuran menjadi serbuk belum dapat memperbaiki absorpsi β-karoten yang dikandung dalam daun singkong. 

  17. KONSEP BARU TOTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENT MANAGEMENT (TQEM UNTUK MENGUJI KINERJA LINGKUNGAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yana Ulfah

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis sebuah model mengontrol orientasi (Penelitian ini menguji pengaruh moderating dari Total Quality Manajemen Lingkungan Hidup (TQEM pada hubungan antara manajemen rantai pasokan hijau (GSCM dan kinerja lingkungan (EP. Premis penelitian adalah bahwa upaya organisasi total dari manajemen puncak dan karyawan memfasilitasi pelaksanaan GSCM, yang pada akhirnya meningkatkan kinerja hijau. Kerangka sampel termasuk unit bisnis strategis dari perusahaan atas industri otomotif dan elektronik di Indonesia. Sebanyak 200 kuesioner dikirimkan bersama dengan surat lamaran dan ongkos kiri. Hasil temuan menggambarkan GSCM yang positif pada lingkungan hidup kinerja TQEM Dan ini menunjukkan efek moderat yang kuat pada kinerja lingkungan hidup ada minimisasi limbah dan berbahaya minimalisasi bahan. Studi ini menunjukkan bahwa penting untuk mempertimbangkan penerapan TQEM dalam hal dukungan manajemen puncak, keterlibatan karyawan, pemasok dan koordinasi untuk melengkapi praktek GSCM. Temuan ini penting untuk kedua peneliti dan praktisi karena menunjukkan perlunya upaya terpadu program tersebut.This research examines the moderating influence of Total Quality Environmental Management (TQEM on the relationship between green supply chain management (GSCM and environmental performance (EP. The premise of the study is that the total organizational effort from top management and employees decide to facilitate the implementation of GSCM, which in turn increases the green performance. Sample frame includes a strategic business unit of the company’s automotive and electronics industries in Indonesia. The findings illustrate the positive GSCM performance environment TQEM and it shows a strong moderate effect on the environmental performance of existing hazardous waste minimization and minimization of material. This study concludes that it is important to consider the application of TQEM in terms of top management support

  18. Seasonal Changes in Mayfly Communities and Abundance in Relation to Water Physicochemistry in Two Rivers at Different Elevations in Northern Peninsular Malaysia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Suhaila Abdul Hamid; Mohd Ravi Che Salmah; Hamady Dieng; Abu Hassan Ahmad; Tomomitsu Satho; Fumio Miake

    2011-01-01

    A field study was performed at rivers in Gunung Jerai forest reserve (Kedah,Malaysia) to assess seasonal changes in mayfly community structure and abundance in relation to altitude and water physicochemistry.Rivers at lower (Batu Hampar River) and higher (Teroi River) elevations were visited through dry and wet seasons in September 2007 to August 2008.Monthly visits were made to 20 sites on each river,and water and aquatic insects were sampled using D-pond aquatic nets.Water was warmer,more acid,and more turbid in Teroi River during wet season.Ammonia was the only nutrient exhibiting significant seasonal variations (greater during wet season).Chemical oxygen demand content was higher in Teroi River where biochemical oxygen demand content was low during wet season.Species richness was higher in Batu Hampar River,but displayed seasonal variations only in Teroi River.Among the eight families encountered,Baetidae was the commonest.Baetid abundance was usually high during wet season,and those belonging to the dominant genus (Baetis) were more abundant in Teroi River.Heptageniidae was the second commonest family; its predominant genus,Thalerospyrus was more abundant in Teroi River during dry season.Caenidae,Leptophlebiidae and Oligoneuriidae were only found in Batu Hampar River where their abundances peaked during dry season,i.e.,Habrophlebiodes sp.and Isonychia sp.Ephemerellidae and Teloganodidae occurred only in Teroi River,with the first found only during dry season.Mayflies were recorded under very distinct physicochemical conditions,illustrating their potential usefulness for assessing water quality.Caenids,leptophlebids,oligoneurids ephemerellids and teloganodids seem to be particularly sensitive to temperature,acidity,turbidity,chemical oxygen demand and biochemical oxygen demand,parameters that varied with river altitude.

  19. Komposisi Media Pembibitan tl-m Zat Pengatur Tumbuh Dekamon 22,43 L Mempengaruhi Pertumbuhan Bibit Enten Tanaman Durian (Durio zibhethinus M u n*) Dibawah Naungan Tanaman Pepaya.

    OpenAIRE

    Tarigan, Abel Lesmana

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this research was to know the impact of the media nursery composition and the regulator of growth Dekamon 22,43 L of the graft seed of Durio plant (Durio zibhetinus Murr.) Under of the Papaya, This research is done in Medan - Pancur Batu street, North Sumatera, start at May 2004-October 2004.The Split-Plot Disgn was used in experiment with two factors. The First factor is the media nursery composition ( M ) that consist of four parts, they are: Mo ( Top Soil: Manure : Paddy W...

  20. THE FAMILY DIVERSITY OF PSOCOPTERA AT NUSA PENIDA, KLUNGKUNG DISTRICT-BALI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eyang Sriyani Toineno

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to identify diversity of the Psocoptera families collected from Nusa Penida. Samples were collected by beating method. Collected specimens were identified at the Laboratory of Animal Taxonomy, Department of Biology, Udayana University. The results showed that Psocoptera collected from Nusa Penida belongs to 5 families those were: Ectopsocidae, Pachytroctidae, Lepidopsocidae, Pseudocaeciliidae and Hemipsocidae. The genus of Lepidopsocus (Lepidopsocidae was cosmopolitan, found in all sites: Batu Kandik, Puncak Mundi, Bunga Mekar and Ped.Keywords: insecta, Psocoptera, Nusa Penida.

  1. Geochemistry of sericite and chlorite in well 14-2 Roosevelt Hot Springs geothermal system and in mineralized hydrothermal systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballantyne, J.M.

    1980-06-01

    Chemical compositions of chlorite and sericite from one production well in the Roosevelt geothermal system have been determined by electron probe methods and compared with compositions of chlorite and sericite from porphyry copper deposits. Modern system sericite and chlorite occur over a depth interval of 2 km and a temperature interval of 250/sup 0/C.

  2. Geophysical Exploration of Disseminated and Stockwork deposits associated with plutonic intrusive: A Case study in the eastern flank of the western Cordillera, Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, O.; Alexander, G. C.; Pintor, I. M.

    2011-12-01

    Disseminated deposit exploration in the tropics suffers from difficult geological mapping due to thick vegetation, lack of rock outcrop, and extensive but variable saprolitic weathering. Geophysical exploration of these deposits normally includes magnetic, induced polarization and gamma ray spectrometry surveys. The largest RTP Total field magnetic anomaly highs are usually associated with the diorite porphyry intrusive bodies. Normally, diorites are less magnetic than the basaltic rocks. Therefore, where the magnetic anomaly highs are related to the intrusions they can be explained by the intensive mineralization of basic metals including magnetite that are associated with the porphyry intrusions. Regularly, the magnetic anomaly gradients help to delineate local discontinuities that can be interpreted as local faults and joints that can be mineralized. The gamma ray spectrometry is useful to determine the anomalous concentration of Potassium, Uranium and Thorium that can be interpreted in terms of alteration halos and linear discontinuities. The statistical analysis of the data also can determine the intermediate intrusive / extrusive nature of the porphyry intrusions. The use of gamma ray spectrometry helps to determine the concentration of elemental potassium, regardless of the associated potassium mineral species, enabling alteration mapping in a geological setting related to volcanic-associated massive sulphide base metals and gold. The induced polarization survey is useful in outlining sulphide distribution in porphyry deposits related to chargeability anomaly highs. The preliminary results of the geophysical exploration program of the eastern flank of the Western Cordillera in the Andes Mountains of Colombia are discussed.

  3. Sea Dredged Gravel versus Crushed Granite as Coarse Aggregate for Self Compacting Concrete in Aggressive Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Eigil V.; Kristensen, Lasse Frølich

    2007-01-01

    modulus of elasticity. Tensile and compressive strength were found to depend both on aggregate type and on the properties of the interfacial zone close to the aggregate surface. Freeze-thaw scaling resistance was good with crushed granite, whereas sea gravel led to more severe scaling caused by porphyry...

  4. Copper-Polymetal Metallogenic Series and Prospecting Perspective of Eastern Section of Gangdise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Youye; Xue Yingxi; Gao Shunbao

    2003-01-01

    Geological, geophysical, geochemical and remote sensing comprehensive studies show that big ore-prospecting potentiality is contained in the eastern section of the Gangdise Mountains, Tibet.There are various mineralization types with dominant types of porphyry and exhalation. According to their relations with tectonic evolution, they are divided into four kinds of metallogenic series as follows:magmatic type (Cr, Pt, Cu, Ni) and exhalation type (Cu, Pb, Zn, Ag) ore deposit series related to Neo-Tethys oceanic crust subduction action (125-96 Ma); epithermal type (Au, Ag, Pb, Zn, Sb), altered fractured rock type (Cu, Mo) and skarn rock type (Cu) ore deposit series related to arc-continental collision; porphyry type (Cu, Mo), cryptoexplosion breccia type (Cu, Au, Pb, Zn), shear zone type (Au, Ag, Sb) and skarn rock type (Cu, Fe) ore deposit series with relation to post-orogenic extensional strike-slip. From subductive complex to the north, zoning appears to be crystallization differentiation type (segregation type)-shear zone type (altered rock type)-skarn rock type, epithermal type-porphyry type-porphyry type and exhalation type-exhalation type-hydrothermal filling-replacement type.The ore deposit is characterized by multi-places from the same source, parity and multi-stage, hypabyssal rock from the deep source and poly genetic compound as a whole.

  5. Zircon U-Pb geochronology, geochemistry, and Sr-Nd-Hf isotopes of granitoids in the Yulekenhalasu copper ore district, northern Junggar, China: Petrogenesis and tectonic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fuquan; Chai, Fengmei; Zhang, Zhixin; Geng, Xinxia; Li, Qiang

    2014-03-01

    The Yulekenhalasu porphyry copper deposit is located in the Kalaxiange'er metallogenic belt in northern Junggar, China. We present the results from zircon U-Pb geochronology, and geochemical and Sr-Nd-Hf isotope analyses of the granitoids associated with the ore deposits with a view to constrain their petrogenesis and tectonic setting. The granitoids consist of quartz diorite, diorite porphyry, porphyritic monzonite, and quartz porphyry, emplaced at 382, 379, 375-374, and 348 Ma, respectively, which span Late Devonian to early Carboniferous ages. The ore-bearing intrusion is mainly diorite porphyry, with subordinate porphyritic monzonite. The Late Devonian intrusions are characterized by SiO2 contents of 54.5-64.79 wt.%, Na2O contents of 3.82-8.24 wt.%, enrichment in Na, light rare-earth elements (LREEs), and large ion lithophile elements. They also display relative depletion in Y, Ba, P, Nb, Ta, and Ti, and weak negative Eu anomalies (δEu = 0.6-0.87). The early Carboniferous quartz porphyry is characterized by high SiO2 content (72.26-73.35 wt.%), enrichment in LREEs, K, and Sr, and relative depletion in Y (10.82-12.52 ppm) and Yb (1.06-1.15 ppm). The Late Devonian and early Carboniferous granitoids are characterized by positive ɛNd(t) values (5.2-10.1, one sample at - 1.9), positive ɛHf(t) values (7.46-18.45), low (87Sr/86Sr)i values (0.70363-0.70476), and young crustal residence ages. These data indicate that the sources of the granitoids were mainly mantle-derived juvenile rocks. Geochemical and Nd-Sr-Hf isotopic data demonstrate that the Late Devonian granitoids formed in an oceanic island arc, and they were formed from different sources, among which the mineralized diorite porphyry might have originated from a mixed slab-derived and mantle wedge melt source. The early Carboniferous quartz porphyry was likely emplaced in a mature island arc environment, and was probably derived from juvenile crust.

  6. Ecology of ephemeroptera, plecoptera and trichoptera (insecta) in rivers of the gunung jerai forest reserve: diversity and distribution of functional feeding groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamid, Suhaila Ab; Md Rawi, Che Salmah

    2014-08-01

    A field study was performed to describe the functional feeding groups (FFGs) of Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera and Trichoptera (EPT) in the Tupah, Batu Hampar and Teroi Rivers in the Gunung Jerai Forest Reserve (GJFR), Kedah, Malaysia. Twenty-nine genera belonging to 19 families were identified. The EPTs were classified into five FFGs: collector-gatherers (CG), collector-filterers (CF), shredders (SH), scrapers (SC) and predators (P). In this study, CG and CF were the dominant groups inhabiting all three rivers. Ephemeroptera dominated these rivers due to their high abundance, and they were also the CG (90.6%). SC were the lowest in abundance among all groups. Based on the FFGs, the Teroi River was suitable for CG, whereas the Tupah and Batu Hampar Rivers were suitable for CG and CF. The distribution of FFGs differed among the rivers (CG, χ(2) = 23.6, p = 0.00; SH, χ(2) = 10.02, p = 0.007; P, χ(2) = 25.54, p = 0.00; CF, χ(2) = 21.95, p = 0.00; SC, χ(2) = 9.31, p = 0.01). These findings indicated that the FFGs found in rivers of the GJFR represent high river quality.

  7. Assessment of Road Infrastructures Pertaining to Malaysian Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samsuddin Norshakina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Road Infrastructures contribute towards many severe accidents and it needs supervision as to improve road safety levels. The numbers of fatalities have increased annually and road authority should seriously consider conducting programs or activities to periodically monitor, restore of improve road infrastructure. Implementation of road safety audits may reduce fatalities among road users and maintain road safety at acceptable standards. This paper is aimed to discuss the aspects of road infrastructure in Malaysia. The research signifies the impact of road hazards during the observations and the impact of road infrastructure types on road accidents. The F050 (Jalan Kluang-Batu Pahat road case study showed that infrastructure risk is closely related with number of accident. As the infrastructure risk increase, the number of road accidents also increase. It was also found that different road zones along Jalan Kluang-Batu Pahat showed different level of intersection volume due to number of road intersection. Thus, it is hoped that by implementing continuous assessment on road infrastructures, it might be able to reduce road accidents and fatalities among drives and the community.

  8. PENYAKIT GINJAL KRONIS STADIUM V AKIBAT NEFROLITIASIS DAN PIELONEFRITIS KRONIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadek Arditya Putra Mardana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Penyakit ginjal kronik dikenal sebagai suatu kelainan dimana terjadi kerusakan dari struktur ginjal lebih dari 3 bulan yang disertai dengan penurunan LFG < 60 mL/min/1,73 m2, dengan atau tanpa penurunan fungsi ginjal yang bersifat irreversible. Di Amerika rata-rata prevalensinya 10-13% atau sekitar 25 juta orang yang terkena PGK. Sedangkan di Indonesia tahun 2009 prevalensinya 12,5% atau 18 juta orang dewasa yang terkena PGK. Etiologi dari PGK yang tersering adalah diabetes mellitus, diikuti oleh hipertensi dan glomerulonefritis, dan obstruksi serta infeksi saluran kemih. Tatalaksana penyakit gagal ginjal kronik meliputi terapi terhadap penyakit dasarnya, pencegahan terapi terhadap kondisi komorbid (comorbid condition, memperlambat pemburukan (progression fungsi ginjal, pencegahan dan terapi terhadap komplikasi, terapi pengganti ginjal berupa dialisis atau transplantasi ginjal. Pada kasus ini pasien dengan keluhan utama mual,muntah, kencing yang sedikit dan disertai nyeri di daerah pinggang kiri sejak 2 tahun terakhir dan diketahui pasien pernah didiagnosis dengan batu di ginjal kiri satu tahun yang lalu. Pasien juga dengan riwayat menderita hipertensi dan pernah kencing mengeluarkan batu. Pada pemeriksaan fisik ditemukan pasien dengan tekanan darah 180/100 mmHg, tampak anemis, ditemukan nyeri ketok CVA (+/- dan edema pada ekstremitas. Berdasarkan kasus tersebut akan dibahas lebih lanjut tentang gejala dan penanganan kasus.

  9. The Analysis of Multicultural Based School Development Plans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nunuk Hariyati

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Pengembangan Sekolah Berbasis Multikultural Abstract: This study aims to determine the process of the preparation and implementation of the school development plan based on a multicultural school. The researcher used a qualitative approach, the type of case study is explanatory. Research location is SPI High School in Kota Batu. The findings of this research indicate that the school has a multicultural RPS, do strategies contained in multicultural RPS, RPS preparation process shown in the flow and RJKM RAKS preparation, implementation of the RPS is good, the school facilitates students in developing good self on the ability of academic and non-academic. Key Words: school development plan (RPS, multicultural education   Abstrak: Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui proses penyusunan dan implementasi rencana pengembangan sekolah pada sekolah berbasis multikultural. Peneliti menggunakan pendekatan kualitatif, jenis studi kasus, bersifat eksplanatoris. Lokasinya di SMA SPI Kota Batu. Temuan penelitian menunjukkan bahwa sekolah  memiliki RPS multikultural, strategi yang dilakukan termuat dalam RPS multikultural, proses penyusunan RPS tampak pada alur penyusunan RAKS dan RJKM, implementasi RPS sudah baik, sekolah memfasilitasi siswa dalam pengembangan diri baik pada kemampuan akademik maupun non akademik.  Kata kunci: rencana pengembangan sekolah (RPS, pendidikan multikultural

  10. Analisis Struktur Mikro Dan Perubahan Fasa γ-TiAl Sebagai Material Paduan Tahan Temperatur Tinggi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyka Rahayu Meyla Sari

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Kebutuhan material paduan tahan temperatur tinggi semakin meningkat salah satunya pada industri pesawat terbang. Paduan intermetalik γ-TiAl dijadikan kandidat sebagai konstruksi aplikasi temperatur tinggi karena lebih ringan dan memiliki ketahanan pembakaran yang baik. Sintesa substrat dilakukan melalui proses mechanical alloying menggunakan Modification Horizontal Ball Mill selama 10 jam dengan kecepatan 400 rpm dilanjutkan annealing pada 900oC selama 30 menit. Sintesa paduan γ-TiAl melibatkan serbuk titanium dan aluminium dengan komposisi Ti64wt%-Al. Pengujian thermal cyclic dilakukan pada temperatur 8000C selama satu jam kemudian didinginkan sampai temperatur kamar dan dibiarkan selama 30 menit untuk setiap siklusnya dengan menggunakan burner oxygen acetelene sebagai simulasi aplikasi paduan g-TiAl pada temperatur tinggi. Pengujian XRD dilakukan untuk mengidentifikasi transformasi fasa dari senyawa yang terbentuk, SEM-EDAX dilakukan untuk mengamati morfologi dan komposisi unsur dari mikrostruktur. Fasa intermealik γ-TiAl terbentuk sebagai hasil sintesa paduan setelah mechanical alloying dan annealing. Perlakuan thermal cyclic hingga  siklus kelima terbentuk oksida Al2O3, TiO2 dan Al2TiO5 sebagai produk oksidasi dari paduan γ-TiAl. Oksida SiO2 dan Mg(SiO3 muncul akibat kereaktifan unsur yang berada pada batu tahan api yang digunakan sebagai tempat spesimen saat dilakukan pemanasan sehingga kedepannya disarankan untuk tidak menggunakan batu tahan api.

  11. Oil-productive Miocene algal and sea grass carbonate mudbanks, south Sumatra, Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longman, M.W.; Beddoes, L.R. Jr.

    1985-02-01

    Ramba and Tanjung Laban oil fields, located about 70 km northwest of Palembang in southern Sumatra, produce from wackestones and packstones in the lower Miocene Batu Raja Formation. Reservoir rocks are part of relatively small, undolomitized, low-relief carbonate buildups that accumulated on a widespread platform facies. Rocks in the platform facies are dominantly shaly nodular wackestones, whereas rocks in the buildup are dominantly nonshaly wackestones and packstones. The regional setting, the abundance of micrite in the buildups, the absence of both coralline algae and marine cements, and the geometry of the buildups suggest that noncalcareous algae and/or sea grasses were the dominant organisms responsible for forming these mudbanks. The absence of shale in the mudbanks has been important in forming the secondary porosity that yields most of the oil. Vugs and molds form as much as 30% of the rock in the best reservoir zones. Fractures formed by dissolution and collapse greatly enhance reservoir zones quality in many places. Another type of porosity, microintercrystalline, occurs within chalky micrites scattered through the upper part of the buildups. Porosity in these micrites reaches 25%, but permeability is very low. The recent discovery of oil in these low-energy carbonate mudbanks of the Batu Raja Formation has opened a new exploration play in the South Sumatra basin. Many similar buildups will likely be found as exploration continues and the basin's paleogeography becomes better understood.

  12. Behavioral Intention to Use Public Transport Based on Theory of Planned Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambak Kamarudin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An increase in population generates increasing in travel demand. In Malaysia, public transport become an important modes of transport that connection people. This paper presents behavioural intention to use public transport especially public bus based on Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB. A questionnaire survey was conducted to identify factors that contribute and influence users to use public bus and to determine factor that most dominant using TPB model. A total of 282 questionnaires were distributed in selected area of Batu Pahat and Kluang. Correlation and regression analysis were used for this study. Results show that the Attitude toward public transport is the most dominant factor compared with Subjective Norm and Perceived Behavior Control that influencing users to use public bus. Majority respondents were agreed that they prefer to use public bus because it is cheap to travel and no other choices of other transfer modes. As for the recommendation, this study can be extended in future as part of strategic sustainable transportation system in Batu Pahat and Kluang areas.

  13. SISTEM INFORMASI PENJUALAN DAN PENGHITUNGAN KADAR PERHIASAN EMAS (STUDY KASUS DI TOKO PERHIASAN REJEKI DENPASAR - BALI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ali mahmudi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Perhiasan emas dan perak, dari dulu sampai sekarang, sudah menjadi gaya hidup di masyarakat. Perhiasan dipakai sebagai penunjang penampilan maupun sebagai alat investasi. Dalam perkembanganya perhiasan dapat terbuat dari campuran bahan logam mulia seperti tembaga, perak dan emas. Sistem informasi ini dirancang untuk membantu proses penjualan di Toko Perhiasan Rejeki Denpasar-Bali. Applikasi ini dibuat dengan menggunakan Microsoft Visual Studio 2008, database MySql dan MySql konector 6.1.3 sebagai konektor. Sistem informasi ini dilengkapi dengan aplikasi untuk menghitung kadar perhiasan. Di samping itu, aplikasi ini juga dilengkapi denganalat hitung untuk menentukan campuran emas, perak dan tembaga untuk membuat emas dengan kadar tertentu. Metode gosok batu adalah metode tradisional untuk mengetahui kadar perhiasan. Metode ini dilakukan dengan cara menggosokan perhiasan ke batu dan kemudian ditambahkan cairan kimia. Metode ini kurang akurat untuk menentukan kadar perhiasan. Oleh sabab itu, dibangunlah sistem informasi penjualan dan penghitungan kadar perhiasan. Aplikasi ini diharapkan dapat mempermudah dalam pendataan penjualan dan pesanan perhiasan di Toko perhiasan Rejeki Denpasar-Bali. Kata Kunci: Sistem Informasi Penjualan, Emas, aplikasi hitung kadar, perhiasan.

  14. LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb dating and phenocryst EPMA of dikes, Guocheng, Jiaodong Peninsula: Implications for North China Craton lithosphere evolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Widespread dike swarm, including diorite-, monzonite-porphyry and lamprophyre, intruded in the al- tered breccia gold deposits along basin marginal faults, Guocheng, Jiaodong Peninsula. Petrography exhibits biotite enclaves in amphibole phenocrysts and the presence of acicular apatites in these dikes. Electron probe microanalyses (EPMA) show that the amphibole and clinopyroxene phenocryst’s mantle in diorite porphyry and lamprophyre respectively has sharply higher MgO (Mg#) and Cr2O3 contents in contrast to their cores. The plagioclase phenocryst in monzonite porphyry has reverse zoning. These results indicate that the magma mixing between mantle-derived mafic and crust-derived felsic magmas occurred in the original process of the dikes. Zircon cathodoluminescence (CL) images show well-developed magmatic oscillatory zones and the acquired LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb weighted mean 206Pb/238U ages are 114±2 Ma (MSDW=1.5) for monzonite porphyry (GS1) and 116±1 Ma (MSDW=0.8) for diorite porphyry (GS2), respectively. Earlier magmatic events in the northwest Jiaodong Peninsula represented by some inherited or captured zircons also occur in these dikes. Magmatic zircons from GS1 and GS2 display consistent chondrite-normalized REE patterns and Nb/Ta values, implying that they may share a similar or same source. HREE enrichment and obvious negative Eu anomalies of these zircons preclude garnet presented in their source. Our results, combined with preciously pub- lished data, indicate that dike intrusion and gold mineralization among quartz vein, altered tectonite and altered breccia gold deposits are broadly contemporaneous throughout the Jiaodong Peninsula. These also imply that the intensive crust-mantle interaction and asthenospheric underplating had oc- curred in the Early Cretaceous in the Peninsula, together with foundering of lower crust in the early Mesozoic, representing the different stages of lithosphere thinning in the North China Craton (NNC).

  15. LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb dating and phenocryst of dikes, Guocheng, Jiaodong Peninsula: Implications for North China Craton lithosphere evolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAN Jun; WEI JunHao; GUO LingLi; ZHANG KeQing; YAO ChunLiang; LU JianPei; LI HongMei

    2008-01-01

    Widespread dike swarm, including diorite-, monzonite-porphyry and lamprophyre, intruded in the altered breccia gold deposits along basin marginal faults, Guocheng, Jiaodong Peninsula. Petrography exhibits biotite enclaves in amphibole phenocrysts and the presence of acicular apatites in these dikes.Electron probe microanalyses (EPMA) show that the amphibole and clinopyroxene phenocryst's mantle in diorite porphyry and lamprophyre respectively has sharply higher MgO (Mg#) and Cr203 contents in contrast to their cores. The plagioclase phenocryst in monzonite porphyry has reverse zoning. These results indicate that the magma mixing between mantle-derived mafic and crust-derived felsic magmas occurred in the original process of the dikes. Zircon cathodoluminescence (CL) images show well-developed magmatic oscillatory zones and the acquired LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb weighted mean 206pb/238U ages are 114±2 Ma (MSDW=1.5) for monzonite porphyry (GS1) and 116±1 Ma (MSDW=0.8) for diorite porphyry (GS2), respectively. Earlier magmatic events in the northwest Jiaodong Peninsula represented by some inherited or captured zircons also occur in these dikes. Magmatic zircons from GSl and GS2 display consistent chondrite-normalized REE patterns and Nb/Ta values, implying that they may share a similar or same source. HREE enrichment and obvious negative Eu anomalies of these zircons preclude garnet presented in their source. Our results, combined with preciously published data, indicate that dike intrusion and gold mineralization among quartz vein, altered tectonite and altered breccia gold deposits are broadly contemporaneous throughout the Jiaodong Peninsula.These also imply that the intensive crust-mantle interaction and asthenospheric underplating had occurred in the Early Cretaceous in the Peninsula, together with foundering of lower crust in the early Mesozoic, representing the different stages of lithosphere thinning in the North China Craton (NNC).

  16. Subeffusive Ejecta At Mount Vesuvius: Evidence For A "shallow" Magma Reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cigolini, C.; Ruffini, R.; Laiolo, M.

    Subeffusive ejecta of the 1944 eruption of Mount Vesuvius are tephritic clinopyroxene-rich porphyries and italites. These materials are associated to pyroclas- tic deposits of phono-tephritic composition. Tephrytic porphyries show a hypidiomor- phic granular texture and consist of phenocrystic leucite, diopsidic clinopyroxene, olivine and phlogopite on a holocrystalline matrix of leucite, plagioclase, phlogopite. Titanomagnetite and apatite are accessory phases. Sampled italites ejecta are charac- terized by an orthocumulithic texture consisting of a crystals leucite and interstitial brownish glass. This glass includes rare elongated microphenocrysts of plagioclase and subordinated clinopyroxene. REE patterns for the tephritic porphyries are com- parable with those of recent lavas and tephra and show a sligthly higher enrichment in HREE (up to 10 times the average chondrite). Spider diagrams, normalized to pri- mordial mantle values, indicate that the tephritic porphyries lack a negative anomaly in Ta which, in turn, is strongly negative within the lavas. This is due to the higher content of phenocrystic clinopyroxene (with a high mineral/melt partition coefficient) within the tephritic porphyries. Thermobarometric estimates indicate that leucite is in equilibrium with a tephritic melt at pressures of 5.7-6 kbar for temperatures ranging 1100-1200 C. Moreover, selected reactions for the assemblage Ol+Cpx+An+SiO2 (liq) define equilibrium pressures of 3.2-5 kbar [both for hydrous (with about 2 wt % H2O) and anhydrous conditions] for temperatures ranging 1150-1200 C. These esti- mates suggests the existence of a secondary "shallow" reservoir located at a depth of about 10-18 Km below Mount Vesuvius, which is consistent with recent petrological and geophysical data.

  17. Petrogenesis of gold-mineralized magmatic rocks of the Taerbieke area, northwestern Tianshan (western China): Constraints from geochronology, geochemistry and Sr-Nd-Pb-Hf isotopic compositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Gong-Jian; Wang, Qiang; Wyman, Derek A.; Sun, Min; Zhao, Zhen-Hua; Jiang, Zi-Qi

    2013-09-01

    Many Late Paleozoic Cu-Au-Mo deposits occur in the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB). However, their tectonic settings and associated geodynamic processes have been disputed. This study provides age, petrologic and geochemical data for andesites and granitic porphyries of the Taerbieke gold deposit from the Tulasu Basin, in the northwestern Tianshan Orogenic Belt (western China). LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb dating indicates that the granitic porphyries have an Early Carboniferous crystallization age (349 ± 2 Ma) that is broadly contemporaneous with the eruption age (347 ± 2 Ma) of the andesites. The andesites have a restricted range of SiO2 (58.94-63.85 wt.%) contents, but relatively high Al2O3 (15.39-16.65 wt.%) and MgO (2.51-6.59 wt.%) contents, coupled with high Mg# (57-69) values. Geochemically, they are comparable to Cenozoic sanukites in the Setouchi Volcanic Belt, SW Japan. Compared with the andesites, the granitic porphyries have relatively high SiO2 (72.68-75.32 wt.%) contents, but lower Al2O3 (12.94-13.84 wt.%) and MgO (0.10-0.33 wt.%) contents, coupled with lower Mg# (9-21) values. The andesites and granitic porphyries are enriched in both large ion lithophile and light rare earth elements, but depleted in high field strength elements, similar to those of typical arc magmatic rocks. They also have similar Nd-Hf-Pb isotope compositions: ɛNd(t) (+0.48 to +4.06 and -0.27 to +2.97) and zircons ɛHf(t) (+3.4 to +8.0 and -1.7 to +8.2) values and high (206Pb/204Pb)i (18.066-18.158 and 17.998-18.055). We suggest that the Taerbieke high-Mg andesitic magmas were generated by the interaction between mantle wedge peridotites and subducted oceanic sediment-derived melts with minor basaltic oceanic crust-derived melts, and that the magmas then fractionated to produce the more felsic members (i.e., the Taerbieke granitic porphyries) during late-stage evolution. Taking into account the Carboniferous magmatic record from the western Tianshan Orogenic Belt, we suggest that

  18. Geochemistry, zircon U-Pb dating and Hf isotopies composition of Paleozoic granitoids in Jinchuan, NW China: Constraints on their petrogenesis, source characteristics and tectonic implication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Renyu; Lai, Jianqing; Mao, Xiancheng; Li, Bin; Ju, Peijiao; Tao, Shilong

    2016-05-01

    Granitoids are widely distributed in Jinchuan at the southwestern margin of the North China plate, which is also an important area of mineral deposits. The research subject of this article are two Paleozoic granitoids, a cataclastic syenogranite and a granodiorite porphyry. This study presents whole rock geochemistry and zircon U-Pb-Hf isotope data for the two granitoids to determine their petrogenesis, source characteristics and tectonic significance. The cataclastic syenogranite is characterized by metaluminous composition with high potassium, and LaN/YbN from 39 to 48. The composition with strong negative Eu anomalies and Zircon saturation temperatures (TZr) from 947 to 1072 °C classify this intrusion as an A-type granite. The granodiorite porphyry is metaluminous with high sodium, sub-alkaline, LaN/YbN ratios from 27 to 32. These I-type intrusions have no Eu anomalies and TZr ranges from 818 to 845 °C. Both the cataclastic syenogranite and granodiorite porphyry show enrichment of LREE and LILE and depletion of HREE and HFSE, except Hf and Zr. Using single zircon LA-ICP-MS U-Pb dating, the emplacement age of the cataclastic syenogranite and granodiorite porphyry are determined at 433.4 ± 3.7 Ma and 361.7 ± 4.6 Ma, respectively. Zircons from the cataclastic syenogranits have uniform negative εHf(t) values (-11 ± 0.5 to -9 ± 0.5), implying the involvement of an old Palaeoproterozoic crustal source in magma genesis. The zircons from the granodiorite porphyry have εHf(t) values that range from -8 ± 1.0 to +10 ± 0.6, suggesting heterogeneous source materials involving both juvenile and ancient crust reworked crustal components. Based on the geological significance of granites at the southwestern margin of the North China plate, the closure of the North Qilian Ocean occurred at ∼444 Ma. Geochemical features suggest that the cataclastic syenogranite and granodiorite porphyry formed in an intraplate extensional and compressional setting, respectively. Hence

  19. Disseminated, veinlet and vein Pb-Zn, Cu and Sb polymetallic mineralization in the GaleChah-Shurab mining district, Iranian East Magmatic Assemblage (IEMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behzad Mehrabi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The Iranian East Magmatic Assemblage (IEMA in the Central Lut region, hosted porphyry and vein-type polymetallic mineralization. The GaleChah-Shurab mining district is located in NW of the IEMA. Volcanic and subvolcanic bodies in the area are composed of calc-alkaline porphyry quartz-latite, porphyry dacite and rhyodacite and hornblende-biotite andesite, equivalent to I-type granite. They emplaced in Tertiary and intruded the Jurassic shale, siltstone and limestone basement (Shemshak Fm. The faults, joints and fractures, are the main controls on the mineralization, in forms of disseminated, vein, veinlet and minor stockwork and brecciation type mineralization of Pb, Zn, Cu, Sb and trace elements. Vein and veinlet of Pb+Zn±Cu±Sb in the Gale-Chah abandoned mine accompanied by carbonate and silicic alterations in association with galena, sphalerite, pyrite, chalcopyrite, bournonite and tetrahedrite as the hypogene ore minerals and their supergene products including cerussite, covellite, digenite and second-generation colloidal pyrite. The Pb+Zn+Cu+Sb mineralization associated with sericitic and silicic alterations in the Shurab abandoned mine, is composed of two types of mineralization, veinlet and brecciation vein in the porphyry dacite boundaries with Jurassic shale and sandstones, and the disseminated and disseminated-veinlet mineralization which is hosted by the altered porphyry dacite and rhyodacite intrusive rocks. The mineral assemblages are galena, sphalerite, stibnite, As-bearing pyrite, chalcopyrite and tetrahedrite-tennantite complex hypogene-sulfide ore as a hypogene ore, and malachite, covellite, cerussite and melancoitic pyrite as a sulfide-oxide supergene ore. The Pb+Zn+Sb±As±Ag polymetallic occurrence is associated with sericitic, carbonate and chloritic alteration assemblage in the Chupan occurrence, in two forms, I vein, veinlet-stockwork (30m depth confined to fault structures and II disseminated-replacement (below 70m mainly

  20. Geochemistry, zircon U-Pb and Lu-Hf isotopes of an Early Cretaceous intrusive suite in northeastern Jiangxi Province, South China Block: Implications for petrogenesis, crust/mantle interactions and geodynamic processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Zhengbin; Liu, Shuwen; Zhang, Lifei; Wang, Zongqi; Wang, Wei; Yang, Pengtao; Luo, Ping; Guo, Boran

    2014-07-01

    The Early Cretaceous Tieshan intrusive suite, in northeastern Jiangxi Province along the northern margin of the Eastern Cathaysia Block, is composed of diabase porphyrites, monzodiorites, syenite porphyries, quartz monzonites, monzogranites and granite porphyries. LA-ICPMS zircon U-Pb isotopic analyses reveal that this intrusive complex was emplaced between 142 Ma and 117 Ma. The ~ 135 Ma diabase porphyrites, monzodiorites, and syenite porphyries are characterized by low to moderate SiO2 and MgO contents, with high K2O and total alkaline contents. These rocks exhibit slightly to strongly fractionated REE patterns and upper crust-like multi-element patterns with depletions of Nb, Ta and Ti, and show strongly negative εHf (t) values of - 9.0 to - 11.8. All these patterns are identical to those of the Caiyuan syenites, Huangtuling gabbros in the east, and Lengshuikeng trachyandesites and quartz syenites in the west. These geochemical and zircon Lu-Hf isotopic features indicate that their magmatic precursors were generated by 0.2%-2% partial melting of a phlogopite-bearing enriched subcontinental lithospheric mantle source that was metasomatized by sediments. The ~ 117 Ma quartz monzonite has slightly higher εHf (t) values (- 5.6 to - 8.7) like those of the Honggong syenites, indicating an interaction between the asthenosphere and the lithosphere. The ~ 142-134 Ma granite porphyries and monzogranites are characterized by high SiO2 levels but low concentrations of refractory elements, and show enrichment of LREEs and LILEs, with variable negative anomalies of Nb, Ta, Ti, Sr, P and Ba in multi-element diagrams normalized by primitive mantle. The monzogranite exhibits strongly negative εHf (t) values of - 10.5 to - 13.3 and TDM2 (Hf) values of 1849-2023 Ma, and the granite porphyries display relatively wide εHf (t) values of - 7.2 to - 13.4 and TDM2 (Hf) values of 1645-2043 Ma, indicating that these monzogranites and granite porphyries are highly fractionated granites

  1. Peranan Hasil Hutan Bukan Kayu dalam Pembangunan Hutan Kemasyarakatan di Perbukitan Menoreh (Kasus di Desa Hargorejo, Kokap, Kulonprogo, D.I.Yogyakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Palmolina

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Pengembangan Hasil Hutan Bukan Kayu (HHBK dalam berbagai program pembangunan kehutanan yang mengutamakan fungsi lingkungan, sosial, ekonomi, dan budaya masyarakat lokal diharapkan dapat mewujudkan kelestarian hutan. Salah satu program pembangunan kehutanan adalah Hutan Kemasyarakatan (HKm. Kajian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui peranan HHBK dalam pembangunan HKm yang dilakukan di Perbukitan Menoreh dengan kasus di Desa Hargorejo, Kokap, Kulon Progo. Data dikumpulkan pada bulan Januari hingga Juni 2013 melalui wawancara secara mendalam terhadap 10 informan dan penyebaran kuesioner terhadap 35 orang anggota kelompok tani yang memiliki lahan garapan di HKm. Jenis tanaman kayu yang dominan dikembangkan adalah tanaman jati, mahoni, dan akasia. Sementara tanaman HHBK yang ditanam adalah tanaman buah (pisang, nangka, tanaman pangan (singkong, jagung, kedelai, kacang tanah, serta tanaman herbal (jahe, kunyit, temulawak. Pengelolaan HKm dilakukan secara swadaya dengan didampingi Yayasan DAMAR. Selain kondisi lingkungan menjadi hijau dan sejuk (66% responden menyatakan lingkungan desa menjadi lebih hijau dan sejuk, debit air bertambah (76% responden menyatakan persediaan air banyak, dampak positif pengelolaan HKm di Desa Hargorejo adalah juga memberikan kontribusi ekonomi pada rumah tangga petani (terjadi pengurangan prosentasi kondisi ekonomi petani kurang baik dari 80% menjadi 52% setelah adanya akses HKm. Kata kunci: HHBK, hutan kemasyarakatan, Menoreh, program pengembangan, manfaat hutan The roles of Non Timber Forest Products in the development of community forestry in Menoreh Hills (A case of Hargorejo Village, Kokap, Kulon Progo Regency, Yogyakarta Abstract Development of Non-Timber Forest Products (NTFPs in various forestry development program that promotes the function of environmental, social, economic, and culture of local communities is expected to create sustainability. One of the forestry development programs are Community Forest (HKm. This

  2. AKSI KOLEKTIF DALAM BERSEPEDA: Studi Banding Atas Sego Segawe (Sepeda Kanggo Sekolah lan Nyambut Gawe dan JLFR (Jogja Last Friday Ride di Kota Yogyakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Jamal Thoriq

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Munculnya berbagai gerakan berbasis lingkungan merupakan respon atas krisis lingkungan hidup di Kota Yogyakarta. Atas inisiasi Mantan Walikota Yogyakarta, Sego Segawe (Sepeda nggo Sekolah lan Nyambut Gawe dihadirkan pada 2008 sebagai gerakan bersepeda. Kultur bersepeda di Kota Yogyakarta yang sedang kondusif dimanfaatkan para pesepeda untuk melahirkan kegiatan bersepeda bernama JLFR (Jogja Last Friday Ride pada 2010. Secara eksplisit, keduanya memiliki tujuan yang sama, yaitu menumbuhkan kesadaran warga untuk kembali menggunakan sepeda sebagai transportasi hijau. Meski demikian, terdapat perbedaan pada cara Sego Segawe maupun JLFR dalam menggalang aksi secara kolektif. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui bagaimana perbandingan pola sosialisasi Sego Segawe dan JLFR dalam menggalang aksi secara kolektif dan mengetahui faktor-faktor yang mendukung dan menghambat keberlangsungan Sego Segawe dan JLFR. Hasil penelitian ini diharapkan mampu menjadi sarana informasi kepada publik dalam kampanye penggunaan sepeda sebagai transportasi hijau. Penelitian ini berpijak pada teori Aksi Kolektif Alberto Melucci (1996 & 1989, konsep Sosialisasi dari Rush dan Althof (2007, dan 5 Mekanisme Sosialisasi menurut Damsar (2010. Penelitian ini dilaksanakan dalam waktu lebih kurang 3 bulan, yaitu mulai akhir Agustus sampai dengan awal November 2014. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode kualitatif dengan pendekatan deskriptif komparatif. Tehnik sampling yang digunakan adalah purposive sampling. Informan dipilih yang memenuhi syarat penelitian, yaitu; 1 informan dari stakeholder Kota Yogyakarta, 5 informan dari Sego Segawe, 5 informan dari JLFR. Metode pengumpulan data dilakukan dengan cara observasi, wawancara dan dokumentasi. Tehnik analisis data dilakukan dengan cara reduksi data, display data dan terakhir ditarik kesimpulan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan perbedaan antara Sego Segawe dan JLFR pada pola sosialisasi yang dibagi menjadi 5 mekanisme sosialisasi

  3. POTENSI SPAGHETTINI KOMPOSIT SEMOLINA DURUM-PATI GANYONG DALAM PEMBENTUKAN SHORT CHAIN FATTY ACID DAN ASAM LAKTAT PADA FERMENTASI MENGGUNAKAN MIKROFLORA FESES MANUSIA (Potential Production of Short Chain Fatty Acid and Lactic Acid from Durum and Canna Starch-Based Spaghettini Through Fermentation by Human Colonic Microflora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefani Amanda Harmani

    2016-10-01

    sebagai bahan dasar pembuatan spaghettini. Variasi yang digunakan ialah variasi jenis umbi ganyong serta variasi jumlah pati ganyong dalam tepung komposit. Kadar RS semolina (20% lebih tinggi daripada kadar RS pati ganyong ungu (17,7% dan pati ganyong hijau (15,4%. Kadar RS, SCFA, dan asam laktat yang dihasilkan spaghettini durum-pati ganyong ungu lebih besar daripada spaghettini durum-pati ganyong hijau. Spaghettini komposit durum-pati ganyong mampu menghasilkan SCFA dan asam laktat melalui fermentasi in vitro menggunakan mikroflora feses manusia dengan kadar yang lebih rendah daripada spaghettini 100% durum. Kata kunci: Pati ganyong, spaghettini, resistant starch, SCFA, asam laktat

  4. PENGEMBANGAN LAMPU LED DENGAN TEKNOLOGI PHOTOVOLTAIC (LED-PV SEBAGAI ALAT BANTU PENGUMPUL IKAN PADA PERIKANAN BAGAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mochamad Arief Sofijanto

    2015-03-01

    mengetahui perbedaan jumlah hasil tangkapan pada bagan tancap akibat perlakuan warna lampu LED yang berbeda. Metode penelitian yang digunakan adalah deskriptif dan experimental fishing dimana rancangan penelitiannya adalah Rancangan Acak Lengkap (RAL dengan perlakuan warna lampu LED sebanyak 5 jenis warna yaitu merah (A, kuning (B, hijau (C, biru (D, dan putih (E dengan 6 kali ulangan. Secara deskriptif hasil penelitian menunjukkan lampu LED dapat digunakan untuk menggantikan lampu petromaks dan lampu LHE. Diperoleh 17 jenis ikan laut yang tertarik pada cahaya lampu LED yang digunakan. Hasil analisis statistik menunjukkan terdapat perbedaan nyata terhadap hasil tangkapan bagan dengan perlakuan warna lampu LED. Berdasarkan Uji Nyata Terkecil dinyatakan bahwa bagan yang menggunakan warna lampu LED biru mendapatkan hasil tangkapan tertinggi kemudian diikuti oleh warna kuning, hijau, putih dan merah.  The set ‘bagan’ (liftnet fishing gear is a kind of fishing gears which using atificial light as fishes gathering. This fishing gear uses an electric generator to turn on the energy saving lamp which hang on under the set ‘bagan’. The price of gasoline more expensive due to the Indonesia government’s fuel subsidy reduced and this make fishing operation costs more expensive for fishermen. This research using the LED lamps that do not use gasoline as fuel because the LED lamps can use the photovoltaic technology (solar cell system. The purposes of this study were: 1 to find out whether the LED lamps can replace the kerosene lamps and saving energy lamps, 2 to know the different in cath using different colours of LED lamps. The reserach methods are descriptive and experimental fishing which used Completely Randomized Design with LED lamps colour treatments i.e: red (A, yellow (B, green (C, blue (D, and white (E, the number of replications are 6 times. LED lamps can be used to replace the kerosene and saving energy lamps. There were 17 species of

  5. Concentrations of Cu, growth, and chlorophyll content of field-cultivated wheat growing in naturally enriched Cu soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, C.M.; Vardaka, E.; Lanaras, T. [Univ. of Thessaloniki (Greece)

    1997-02-01

    The Serbo-Macedonian massif of northern Greece is notable for the occurrence of numerous small areas of sulphide mineralisation. Varying degrees of porphyry copper mineralisation, associated with post-Miocene volcanic rocks of rhyolitic composition, can be encountered in agricultural fields which are used mainly for wheat production. Although Cu is a trace element essential to plant nutrition, in excess, it is phytotoxic causing stunted growth, chlorosis and root malformation. Previous studies on wheat growing in these naturally enriched Cu soils have shown that plants have reduced growth, chlorosis and chloroplast ultrastructural changes and a reduced efficiency of the photochemistry of photosystem II (PSII). The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between the Cu concentration of the soil and the plant tissue Cu concentration, growth and chlorophyll content of field-cultivated wheat growing in soils with varying degrees of porphyry copper mineralisation. 15 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  6. The Berezitovoe gold-polymetallic deposit (Upper Amur region, Russia):Structure, mineralogy and genetic aspects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alexandr S. Vakh; Vadim G. Khomich; Natalia G. Boriskina; M. Santosh

    2016-01-01

    The Berezitovoe deposit in the Sergachi volcano-plutonic and metallogenic belt preserves evidence for polymetallic mineralization of multiple stages. The steeply dipping garnet-tourmaline-muscovite-quartz metasomatites (with K-Ar ages of 132 ? 2.9 and 127 ? 4.4 Ma) carry two distinct stages of mineralization developed at different times:(1) polymetallic mineralization and (2) gold-quartz. The deposit is located within Paleozoic gneissose granitoids of the Pikansky complex (dated as 379 ? 1.1 Ma by zircon U-Pb method) intruded by early Cretaceous porphyry-like granites of the Haikta pluton (dated as 137 ? 0.67 Ma by zircon U-Pb method) and late Cretaceous dikes of porphyrites, porphyries, and lamprophyres. Evidence suggests the action of late gold-bearing hydrothermal fluids on the early pol-ymetallic ores and the selective mobilization of some elements from these lead to redeposition together with complex sulphosalts.

  7. The Laramide Mesa formation and the Ojo de Agua caldera, southeast of the Cananea copper mining district, Sonora, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Dennis P.; Miller, Robert J.; Woodbourne, Keith L.

    2006-01-01

    The Mesa Formation extends from Cananea, Mexico, southeast to the Sonora River and is the main host rock of Laramide porphyry copper deposits in the Cananea District and at the Alacran porphyry prospect to the east. The Mesa consists of two members-a lower andesite and an upper dacite. The lowest part of the dacite member is a crystal tuff about 100 m thick. This tuff is the outfall of a caldera centered near the village of Ojo de Agua, dated by 40Ar/39Ar at 65.8 Ma ?0.4. The Ojo de Agua Caldera is about 9 km in diameter and is filled by a light gray biotite dacite tuff with abundant flattened pumice fragments. The volume of the caldera is estimated to be 24 km3.

  8. Analisis Faktor-faktor yang Menyebabkan Laporan Keuangan Pemerintah Daerah Beropini Disclaimer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Nur Rahmawati

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of the Factors Causing the Financial Statement of Local Government Have Disclaimer Opinion. The purpose of this study is to know the factors that tends to cause public sector specificly East Java public sector get disclaimer opinion. More public sector financial report get disclaimer opinion it means declining in public sector performance quality in serving this country. Exactly each public sector has their own trigger in the emerge of disclaimer opinion. This study using descriptive methodology with case study method to analyze causing factors of disclaimer opinion. In the 2008 budget period, public sector which get this opinion are city of Batu, city of Surabaya, regency of Trenggalek, regency of Pasuruan, regency of Banyuwangi and regency of Ponorogo. The result of this study shows that the main factor causing the six financial report of public sectors get disclaimer opinion is the weakness of Internal Control System (ICS.

  9. Explorasi Hubungan antara Personaliti Islamik dan Gaya Keibubapaan

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    NOORAINI OTHMAN

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to identify the parenting styles which influence the Islamic personality among students from one of the secondary school in Batu Pahat district, Johor. Using strata random sampling technique, a total of 302 students from form 1 to form 6 of the secondary school was chosen as the respondents. This correlational study used questionnaire as an instrument for its data collection. The data analysis was done using the descriptive and inferential statistical analysis with the help of Statistical Packages for Social Sciences (SPSS version 17.0. Descriptive analysis result shows a medium level of authoritative parenting style, high level of authoritarian parenting style and low level of permissive parenting style were practiced. Inferential analysis result shows the existence of a significant relationship between parenting styles (authoritarian, authoritative and permissive and Islamic personality.

  10. Production of haploids from anther culture of banana [Musa balbisiana (BB)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assani, A; Bakry, F; Kerbellec, F; Haïcour, R; Wenzel, G; Foroughi-Wehr, B

    2003-02-01

    We report here, for the first time, the production of haploid plants of banana Musa balbisiana (BB). Callus was induced from anthers in which the majority of the microspores were at the uninucleate stage. The frequency of callus induction was 77%. Callus proliferation usually preceded embryo formation. About 8% of the anthers developed androgenic embryos. Of the 147 plantlets obtained, 41 were haploids (n=x=11). The frequency of haploid production depended on genotypes used: 18 haploid plants were produced from genotype Pisang klutuk, 12 from Pisang batu, seven from Pisang klutuk wulung and four from Tani. The frequency of regeneration was 1.1%, which was based on the total number of anthers cultured. Diploid plants (2n=2x=22) were also observed in the regenerated plants. The haploid banana plants that were developed will be important material for the improvement of banana through breeding programmes.

  11. Effect of different drying methods on concentrations of several phytochemicals in herbal preparation of 8 medicinal plants leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahanom, H; Azizah, A; Dzulkifly, M

    1999-12-01

    The effect of oven drying at 50ᵒC ± 1ᵒC for 9 hour, 70ᵒC ± 1ᵒC for 5 hour and freeze drying on retention of chlorophyll, riboflavin, niacin, ascorbic acid and carotenoids in herbal preparation consisting of 8 medicinal plants was evaluated. The medicinal plants selected were leaves of Apium graveolens (saderi), Averrhoa bilimbi (belimbing buluh), Centella asiatica (pegaga), Mentha arvensis (pudina), Psidium guajava (jambu batu), Sauropus androgynous (cekor manis), Solanum nigrum (terung meranti) and Polygonum minus (kesum ). Results revealed that both type and conditions of the drying treatments affected retention of all phytochemicals analysed. Herbal preparation developed using oven drying was found to have inferior phytochemicals content compared to that obtained by freeze dryer. Nevertheless, the herbal preparation developed using all treatments still retain appreciable amount of phytochemicals studied, especially carotenoids, ascorbic acid, niacin and riboflavin and thus have potential for commercial purposes.

  12. PENGARUH JENIS MEDIA DAN ZAT PENGATUR TUMBUH ATONIK TERHADAP PERKECAMBAHAN SPORA DAN PEMBENTUKAN SPOROFIT Lygodium circinnatum (Burm.f. Sw. (SCHIZAEACEAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustaid Siregar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lygodium circinnatum (Burm.f. Sw. adalah sejenis paku merambat (Schizaeaceae yang batangnya banyak digunakan sebagai bahan untuk industri kerajinan tangan. Belakangan ini pasokan bahan bakunya mengalami penurunan akibat menurunnya populasi di alam. Tumbuhan ini belum dibudidayakan, sehingga perlu dilakukan tindakan konservasi termasuk upaya perbanyakannya. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh jenis media dan Atonik terhadap perkecambahan spora dan pembentukan sporofit L. circinnatum. Dua jenis media yang diuji adalah: a lumpur sawah dan b campuran akar kadaka dan bubuk batu bata. Penelitian dilakukan di dalam rumah kaca menggunakan rancangan acak lengkap. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa media lumpur sawah secara signifikan berpengaruh terhadap perkecambahan dan pembentukan sporofit, tetapi harus diikuti dengan upaya penjarangan pada sporofit. Tingginya kepadatan sporofit dapat menghambat pertumbuhan gametofit menjadi sporofit. Penggunaan media lumpur sawah yang diberi Atonik pada konsentrasi 1,5 ml l-1 dapat disarankan untuk perkecambahan dan pembentukan sporofit L. circinnatum.

  13. CINQUE NUOVE SPECIE DI TRECHUS DELL’ETIOPIA (Coleoptera, Carabidae

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    P. Magrini

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Nella presente nota vengono descritte cinque nuove specie di Trechus, tutte raccolte in alta quota in Etiopia, e inquadrate nei gruppi di specie indicati da Jeannel. Tre provengono dal Massiccio del Simien (Provincia di Gondar: Trechus peynei n. sp. e Trechus loeffleri n. sp. (gruppo simienensis e Trechus martelluccii n. sp. (gruppo sublaevis; due provengono dal Monte Batu (Mendebo, Provincia di Bale: Trechus batuensis n. sp. (gruppo bipartitus e Trechus bastianinii n. sp., non inquadrabile al momentoin nessuno dei gruppi di specie indicati da Jeannel. Non descriviamo una sesta specie, sintopica con T. bastianinii n. sp., anche se sicuramente nuova, poichè abbiamo a disposizione solo due esemplari femmina. Tutte le nuove specie si differenziano chiaramente da tutte quelle finora descritte, per la diversità netta sia dell’edeago che della morfologia esterna, i cui caratteri e immagini descrittive sono riportati nel testo.

  14. Tests of Rock Cores Scott Study Area, Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    1970-05-01

    little potassium feldspar is present in these cores. The bulk composition of this rock is quartz, plagio - clase feldspar (near oligoclase), chlorite...rhyolite porphyry, containing quartz and equal amounts of potassium and plagio - clase feldspar. Piece 22 of PC-2 (Figure 4.8) and Piece 22 of DC-5 (Figure...representative of this type. The bulk composition was Plagio - clase, orthoclase, quartz, biotite, and chlorite. About one-third of the pieces of the core

  15. Self-ordering and complexity in epizonal mineral deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henley, Richard W.; Berger, Byron R.

    2000-01-01

    Epizonal base and precious metal deposits makeup a range of familiar deposit styles including porphyry copper-gold, epithermal veins and stockworks, carbonate-replacement deposits, and polymetallic volcanic rock-hosted (VHMS) deposits. They occur along convergent plate margins and are invariably associated directly with active faults and volcanism. They are complex in form, variable in their characteristics at all scales, and highly localized in the earth’s crust.

  16. Mesozoic Bimodal Volcanic Suite in Zhalantun of the Da Hinggan Range and Its Geological Significance:Zircon U-Pb Age and Hf Isotopic Constraints

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Mesozoic bimodal volcanic rocks of basaltic andesite and rhyolite are widely distributed in the Da Hinggan Range, but their petrogenetic relationships and geodynamic implications are rarely constrained. Detailed studies on doleritic and porphyry dikes in the Zhalantun area indicate that they display features of magma mixing, suggesting their coeval formation. In situ zircon U-Pb dating shows that the porphyry was emplaced in the Early Cretaceous with a 206Pb/238U age of 130±1 Ma. Zircons from the dolerite also yield an Early Cretaceous emplacement age of 124±2 Ma although some inherited zircons have been identified. These age results indicate that the Early Cretaceous was an important period of magmatism in the Da Hinggan Range. Zircons from porphyry are characterized by positive value of εHf(t) as high as 10.3±0.5 with Hf depleted mantle model age of 349-568 Ma, whereas magmatic zircons from the dolerite have εHf(t) value of 11.0±1.4 with Hf depleted mantel model age of 342-657 Ma,consistent with those from the porphyry. Considering other data on the geological evolution of this area,it is concluded that the mafic magma originated from the partial melting of Paleozoic enriched lithospheric mantle, whereas the felsic magma came from recycling of juvenile crust formed during the Paleozoic. Both of the protoliths are closely related to the subduction of the Paleo-Asian Ocean during the Paleozoic, indicating that the Paleozoic is an important period of large-scale crustal growth in the area.

  17. Characteristics of Mineralized Volcanic Centers in Javanese Sunda Island Arc, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setijadji, L. D.; Imai, A.; Watanabe, K.

    2007-05-01

    The subduction-related arc magmatism in Java island, Sunda Arc, Indonesia might have started in earliest Tertiary period, but the distinctively recognizable volcanic belts related with Java trench subduction occurred since the Oligocene. We compiled geoinformation on volcanic centers of different epochs, distribution of metallic mineral deposits, petrochemistry of volcanic rocks, geologic structures, and regional gravity image in order to elucidate characteristics of the known mineralized volcanic centers. Metallic deposits are present in various styles from porphyry-related, high-sulfidation, and low-sulfidation epithermal systems; all related with subaerial volcanism and subvolcanic plutonism. Only few and small occurrences of volcanigenic massive sulfides deposits suggest that some mineralization also occurred in a submarine environment. Most locations of mineral deposits can be related with location of Tertiary volcanic centers along the volcanic arcs (i.e. volcanoes whose genetic link with subduction is clear). On the other side there is no mineralization has been identified to occur associated with backarc magmatism whose genetic link with subduction is under debate. There is strong evidence that major metallic deposit districts are located within compressive tectonic regime and bound by coupling major, deep, and old crustal structures (strike-slip faults) that are recognizable from regional gravity anomaly map. So far the most economical deposits and the only existing mines at major industry scale are high-grade epithermal gold deposits which are young (Upper Miocene to Upper Pliocene), concentrated in Bayah dome complex in west Java, and are associated with alkalic magmatism-volcanism. On the other hand, known porphyry Cu-Au deposits are associated with old (Oligocene to Upper Miocene) stocks, and except for one case, all deposits are located in east Java. Petrochemical data suggest a genetic relationship between porphyry mineralization with low- to

  18. Competition between Festuca rubra L. and F. pratensis Huds. in natural conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Widera

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of the edaphic conditions and properties of pure and cenopopulations of Festuca rubra and Festuca pratensis allowed to establish the competitivity of these two species on 4 different lithological substrates in the Sudetes Foothills. A model of competition between F. rubra and F. pratensis was constructed on the basis of the biomass of their populations. On a substrate of porphyry, sand and granite F. rubra prevails in competition while on basalt F. pratensi is preponderant.

  19. An Introduction to Copper Deposits in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    There are 11 genetic types of copper deposit in China, three of which (porphyry,contact metasomatic and VMS types) are the most important. The copper deposits distribute widely both temporally and spatially in China. The features of copper ores in China are mostly poor in copper tenor and complex in metal associated. The copper metallogeny in China predominantly occurs in three metallogenic megadomains, namely the circum-Pacific, the paleo-Asian and the Tethys-Himalayan.

  20. The Ajo Mining District, Pima County, Arizona--Evidence for Middle Cenozoic Detachment Faulting, Plutonism, Volcanism, and Hydrothermal Alteration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Dennis P.; Force, Eric R.; Wilkinson, William H.; More, Syver W.; Rivera, John S.; Wooden, Joseph L.

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: The Ajo porphyry copper deposit and surrounding Upper Cretaceous rocks have been separated from their plutonic source and rotated by detachment faulting. Overlying middle Cenozoic sedimentary and volcanic rocks have been tilted and show evidence for two periods of rotation. Following these rotations, a granitic stock (23.7?0.2 Ma) intruded basement rocks west of the Ajo deposit. This stock was uplifted 2.5 km to expose deep-seated Na-Ca alteration.

  1. Contrasting hydrological processes of meteoric water incursion during magmatic-hydrothermal ore deposition: An oxygen isotope study by ion microprobe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fekete, Szandra; Weis, Philipp; Driesner, Thomas; Bouvier, Anne-Sophie; Baumgartner, Lukas; Heinrich, Christoph A.

    2016-10-01

    Meteoric water convection has long been recognized as an efficient means to cool magmatic intrusions in the Earth's upper crust. This interplay between magmatic and hydrothermal activity thus exerts a primary control on the structure and evolution of volcanic, geothermal and ore-forming systems. Incursion of meteoric water into magmatic-hydrothermal systems has been linked to tin ore deposition in granitic plutons. In contrast, evidence from porphyry copper ore deposits suggests that crystallizing subvolcanic magma bodies are only affected by meteoric water incursion in peripheral zones and during late post-ore stages. We apply high-resolution secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) to analyze oxygen isotope ratios of individual growth zones in vein quartz crystals, imaged by cathodo-luminescence microscopy (SEM-CL). Existing microthermometric information from fluid inclusions enables calculation of the oxygen isotope composition of the fluid from which the quartz precipitated, constraining the relative timing of meteoric water input into these two different settings. Our results confirm that incursion of meteoric water directly contributes to cooling of shallow granitic plutons and plays a key role in concurrent tin mineralization. By contrast, data from two porphyry copper deposits suggest that downward circulating meteoric water is counteracted by up-flowing hot magmatic fluids. Our data show that porphyry copper ore deposition occurs close to a magmatic-meteoric water interface, rather than in a purely magmatic fluid plume, confirming recent hydrological modeling. On a larger scale, the expulsion of magmatic fluids against the meteoric water interface can shield plutons from rapid convective cooling, which may aid the build-up of large magma chambers required for porphyry copper ore formation.

  2. Geophysical exploration of disseminated and stockwork deposits associated with plutonic intrusive rock: a case study on the eastern flank of Colombia’s western cordillera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernández Pardo Orlando

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Disseminated deposits are low-grade, large tonnage deposits which are mainly mined for gold, copper, molybdenum and tin. These deposits are normally associated with intermediate to acid plutonic intrusive rocks and all are characterized by intense, extensive hydrothermal alteration of host rocks. Disseminated deposit exploration in the tropics suffers from difficult geological mapping due to dense vegetation, lack of rock outcrops and extensive but variable saprolytic weathering. Geophysical exploration of these deposits normally includes magnetic, induced polarization and gamma ray spectrometry surveys. The largest RTP total magnetic field anomaly highs are usually associated with diorite porphyry intrusive bodies. Diorites are usually less magnetic than basaltic rocks; thus when magnetic anomaly highs are related to intrusions they can be explained by basic metals’ intensive mineralization (including magnetite associated with porphyry intrusions. Magnetic anomaly gradients regularly help delineate local discontinuities which can be interpreted as local faults and joints that can be mineralized. Gamma ray spectrometry is useful for determining anomalous potassium, uranium and thorium concentration as it can map alteration halos and linear discontinuities. Statistical analysis of the data also can determine the intermediate intrusive / extrusive nature of porphyry intrusions. Gamma ray spectrometry can help to determine elemental potassium concentration, regardless of the associated potassium mineral species, thereby enabling alteration mapping in a geological setting related to volcanic-associated massive sulphide base metal and gold deposits. An induced polarization survey is useful in outlining disseminated sulphide distribution in porphyry deposits related to chargeability anomaly highs. The results of the Quinchía project’s geophysical exploration program are discussed.

  3. Geochronology of Ailaoshan-Jinshajiang alkali- rich intrusive rocks and their Sr and Nd isotopic characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玉泉; 谢应雯

    1997-01-01

    Twenty-nine isotopic ages, ranging from 41 to 27 Ma, are presented for the alkali-rich intrusive rocks and their coexisting alkaline volcanic rocks, lamprophyres and acidic porphyries, indicating that they are Tertiary in age. The alkali-rich intrusive rocks have 143Nd/144Nd ratios from 0. 512 415 to 0. 512 544, and 87Sr/86Sr ratios from 0.705 4 to 0.706 8, suggesting that their material originates from an enriched mantle source.

  4. Seasonal trends in abundance and composition of marine debris in selected public beaches in Peninsular Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobilik, Julyus-Melvin; Ling, Teck-Yee; Husain, Mohd-Lokman Bin; Hassan, Ruhana

    2015-09-01

    The abundance and composition of marine debris were investigated at Saujana (in the state of Negeri Sembilan) and Batu Rakit (in the state of Terengganu) beaches during surveys conducted in December 2012 (northeast monsoon), May 2013 (intermediate monsoon) and July 2013 (southwest monsoon). A total of 4,682 items of debris weighing 231.4 kg were collected and sorted. Batu Rakit received substantially greater quantities of debris (815±717 items/km or 40.4±13.0 kg/km) compared to Saujana (745±444 items/km or 36.7±18.0 kg/km). Total debris item was more abundant during the southwest monsoon (SWM) (1,122±737 items/km) compared to the northeast monsoon (NEM) (825±593 items/ km) and the intermediate monsoon (IM) (394±4 items/km) seasons. Plastic category (88%) was the most numerous items collected and object items contributed 44.18% includes packaging, plastic fragments, cups, plastic shopping bags, plastic food wrapper, clear plastic bottles from the total debris items collected. Object items associated with common source (47%) were the highest debris accumulated, followed by terrestrial (30%) and marine (23%) sources. The high percentage of common and terrestrial sources during SWM season requires immediate action by marine environment stakeholders to develop and introduce strategies to reduce if not totally eliminates the marine debris in the marine environment. Awareness should be continued and focused on beach users and vessels' crew to alert them on the alarming accumulation rate of marine debris and its pathways into the marine environment.

  5. Mining resettlement and rural development in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalid, H N

    1992-07-01

    The Malaysian government has employed 3 kinds of resettlement schemes: 1) resettlement of farmers under modern agricultural and land development programs to grow cash crops; 2) resettlement of rural population in well-guarded locations to isolate them from communist insurgents; and 3) resettlement and compensation of population displaced thorough resource exploitation such as construction of dams and mining. The Kinta Valley resettlement is examined in the example of 3 villages where tin mining encroached on their agricultural land. 98 households were included in the sample from Batu Bertudung, Tekka, and Jelutung that had been settled in the 1940s. The villagers were eventually evacuated and sustained technological, pecuniary, and psychological losses. The economic loses involved property, land, and crops, and social losses comprised social networks, neighborhood, and stability. 81.7% of the villagers who were left landless successfully insisted on complete relocation of their villagers in new villages in claims to the respective tin mining companies through their newly formed village action committees in the mid-1960s. The compensation consisted of 1) group compensation by planned resettlement, 2) cash payment, and 3) replacement of the former plot with another piece of land. Social needs were not included in the calculation and the compensation received reflected roughly their economic worth at the time. The villagers of Tekka and Jelutung had their houses rebuilt which were comparable to their old homes using new materials and stronger foundations. Those from Batu Bertudung were resettled in another village, and were compensated in cash to rebuild their homes themselves. Basic amenities were insufficient: new wells had to be dug, the public standpipe was overused, and only dirt roads were constructed. The government provided most basic amenities 5-6 years later under the rural development program.

  6. A Study of Flood Evacuation Center Using GIS and Remote Sensing Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustaffa, A. A.; Rosli, M. F.; Abustan, M. S.; Adib, R.; Rosli, M. I.; Masiri, K.; Saifullizan, B.

    2016-07-01

    This research demonstrated the use of Remote Sensing technique and GIS to determine the suitability of an evacuation center. This study was conducted in Batu Pahat areas that always hit by a series of flood. The data of Digital Elevation Model (DEM) was obtained by ASTER database that has been used to delineate extract contour line and elevation. Landsat 8 image was used for classification purposes such as land use map. Remote Sensing incorporate with GIS techniques was used to determined the suitability location of the evacuation center from contour map of flood affected areas in Batu Pahat. GIS will calculate the elevation of the area and information about the country of the area, the road access and percentage of the affected area. The flood affected area map may provide the suitability of the flood evacuation center during the several levels of flood. The suitability of evacuation centers can be determined based on several criteria and the existing data of the evacuation center will be analysed. From the analysis among 16 evacuation center listed, there are only 8 evacuation center suitable for the usage during emergency situation. The suitability analysis was based on the location and the road access of the evacuation center toward the flood affected area. There are 10 new locations with suitable criteria of evacuation center proposed on the study area to facilitate the process of rescue and evacuating flood victims to much safer and suitable locations. The results of this study will help in decision making processes and indirectly will help organization such as fire-fighter and the Department of Social Welfare in their work. Thus, this study can contribute more towards the society.

  7. DAMPAK PERUBAHAN NILAI TUKAR MATA UANG TERHADAP EKSPOR INDONESIA

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    Dhany Surya Ratana

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe aim of this research were (1 to analyze the impact of exchange rate movement on the Indonesian aggregate export volume and to Crude palm oils (CPO, rubber’s and coal’s, (2 to analyze factors that influencing those exports, and (3 to analyze Indonesian’s exports respond to those factors’ shock. The analysis method used was VAR/VECM, impulse-response function, and fixed-effects vector decomposition. World economic showed results as all models predicted were positive and significant effects on export volume. The relative price showed a negative and significant effect on all models. The exchange rate depreciation only showed a positive and significant effect on CPO model. It this research concluded that  the exchange rate movement does not have any effect on Indonesia export volume despite the commodities model have little to no import parts on its final export goods.Keywords: granger causality, VAR/VECM, export, exchange rateABSTRAKTujuan dari penelitian ini adalah (1 menganalisis dampak perubahan nilai tukar uang terhadap volume ekspor agregat dan komoditas Crude palm oil (CPO, karet, dan batu bara Indonesia, (2 menganalisis faktor yang mempengaruhi volume ekspor agregat dan komoditas CPO, karet, dan batu bara Indonesia, (3 menganalisis respon ekspor Indonesia terhadap guncangan variabel yang mempengaruhinya. Metode analisis data yang digunakan VAR/VECM, impulse-response function, dan fixed-effects vector decomposition. Ekonomi dunia menunjukkan hasil yang sesuai prediksi berpengaruh positif dan  signifikan pada volume ekspor pada seluruh model. Harga relatif memberikan hasil sesuai dengan prediksi negatif dan signifikan pada seluruh model. Depresiasi nilai tukar hanya menunjukkan hubungan positif signifikan pada model CPO. Dapat disimpulkan bahwa pergerakan nilai tukar tidak memiliki dampak pada volume ekspor Indonesia walaupun model komoditas hanya memiliki sedikit bagian impor pada barang akhir untuk ekspor.Kata kunci

  8. Flood Water Level Mapping and Prediction Due to Dam Failures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musa, S.; Adnan, M. S.; Ahmad, N. A.; Ayob, S.

    2016-07-01

    Sembrong dam has undergone overflow failure. Flooding has been reported to hit the town, covering an area of up to Parit Raja, located in the district of Batu Pahat. This study aims to identify the areas that will be affected by flood in the event of a dam failure in Sembrong Dam, Kluang, Johor at a maximum level. To grasp the extent, the flood inundation maps have been generated by using the InfoWorks ICM and GIS software. By using these maps, information such as the depth and extent of floods can be identified the main ares flooded. The flood map was created starting with the collection of relevant data such as measuring the depth of the river and a maximum flow rate for Sembrong Dam. The data were obtained from the Drainage and Irrigation Department Malaysia and the Department of Survey and Mapping and HLA Associates Sdn. Bhd. Then, the data were analyzed according to the established Info Works ICM method. The results found that the flooded area were listed at Sri Lalang, Parit Sagil, Parit Sonto, Sri Paya, Parit Raja, Parit Sempadan, Talang Bunut, Asam Bubok, Tanjung Sembrong, Sungai Rambut and Parit Haji Talib. Flood depth obtained for the related area started from 0.5 m up to 1.2 m. As a conclusion, the flood emanating from this study include the area around the town of Ayer Hitam up to Parit Raja approximately of more than 20 km distance. This may give bad implication to residents around these areas. In future studies, other rivers such as Sungai Batu Pahat should be considered for this study to predict and reduce the yearly flood victims for this area.

  9. Book Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Sharp

    1961-10-01

    Full Text Available - P. Voorhoeve, Tudjimah, Asrar al-insan fi maýrifa al-ruh waýl-Rahman. Tesis Djakarta, 1961. 477 blz. - F.D.K. Bosch, Alastair Lamb, Chandi Bukit Batu Pahat. Three Additional Notes. 14 pp., 2 figs., 21 pls; Monographs....(etc. No. 5, 1961. - F.D.K. Bosch, Alistair Lamb, Chandi Bukit Batu Pahat; a Report on the Excavation of an Ancient Temple in Kedah. 108 pp., 40 figs., 179 pls; Monographs on Southeast Asian Subjects No. 1, Eastern Universities Press Ltd., Singapore, 1960. - T.J. Brasser, Frederick J. Dockstader, Indian art in America - The arts and crafts of the North American Indian. New York Graphic Society, Greenwich, Mass., U.S.A. 1961. 224 pages, 70 color plates, 180 black and white illustrations. - J. Prins, Cora Vreede-De Steurs, Lýýmancipation de la femme indonýsienne. Mouton & Co, Den Haag en Parijs. 174 blz., 21 platen, 1 kaart. - Clifford Geertz, Bali, Studies in Life, Thought and Ritual; Selected Studies on Indonesia, Vol. 5. W. van Hoeve, The Hague & Bandung 1960. 368 pp. text. - Tjan Giok Bwee, D.E. Wilmott, The Chinese of Semarang: a changing minority community in Indonesia. Ithaca, New York, Cornell University Press, 1960, 366 pp. - P. Gregorius, J. de Leeuwe, Groepshuwelijk en enkelvoudig huwelijk, Uitgeverij L. Stafleu & Zoon, Leiden 1960, 136 blz. - P. van Emst, Andrew Sharp, The discovery of the Pacific Islands. Clarendon Press: Oxford University Press. Oxford 1960. 259 pp. - T. Volker, John Bastin, The changing balance of the early Southeast Asian pepper trade (Papers on Southeast Asian subjects No 1. Department of History University of Malaya in Kuala Lumpur, 1960. 60 pp. text, maps, bibliog. - W.F. Wertheim, Leslie H. Palmier, Social status and power in Java. London School of Economics Monographs on Social Anthropology, no. 20. London, 1960. 165 blz.

  10. KAJIANTEKNOLOGI PIEZO ESWL(EXTRACORPOREAL SHOCKWAVE LITHOTRIPSY RICHARD WOLF TYPE PIEZOLITH 3000 DIBANDINGKAN ALAT ESWL TYPE YC-9200 ESWL DAN B ULTRASOUND SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Gde Raka Widiana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Telah dilakukan kajian teknologi di rumah sakit umum pusat Sanglah untuk menentukan apakah intervensi ESWL baru dibandingkan ESWL lama lebih cost-effective, bila dipakai mengganti alat lamabila ditinjau dari perspektif medik, sosial dan ekonomi. Dilakukan pertemuan yang dihadiri oleh pihak terkait untuk menentukan kajian HTA pada alat ESWL baru. Pertemuan itu dihadiri oleh Ketua HTA, Direktur Medik, Kepala Bidang Pelayanan, Kepala dan Staf Divisi Urologi, dan StafDivisi Radiologi. Pertemuan itu bertujuan untuk menjawab apakah ESWL merek Richard Wolf type Piezolith 3000 dengan system In-line USG, 3000 shock per pasien buatan Jerman dapat menggantiESWL lama buatan Cina type YC-9200 ESWL dan B Ultrasound system. Dilakukan pencarian di internet pada sumber primer dan sekunder MIDLINE, COCHRANE, dan  Highwire. Dengan data dari3 penelitian asli yang didapat dari pencarian, dibuat model pohon keputusan pemakaian piezolith ESWL dibandingkan ESWL lama untuk melihatkemanjuran dan keamanan dibandingkan biaya danaplikasinya pada pasien batu ginjal di rumah sakit Sanglah Denpasar, dengan menilai aspek perspektifm ekonomi dan social, dihasilkan utility benefitrelative sebesar 0.40. Dengan melakukan adjustmentterhadap asumsi umur harapan hidup pasien ( 65 tahun dengan batu ginjal maka pemakaian ESWL baru ini menghasilkan peningkatan relatif umur harapan hidup pasien sebagai keuntungan ekonomisocial yang dikenal sebagai quality adjusted life years (QALY.Disimpulkan bahwa, ESWL piezoelectric Richard Wolf type Piezolith 3000 dengan system In-line USG, 3000 lebih cost-effective dari perspektifekonomi kesehatan dibandingkan ESWL lama dengan 3 bulan QALY gain dan denganbiaya (cost 1,5 juta rupiah per bulan QALY gain. [MEDICINA 2014;45:9-12

  11. Banatitic magmatic and metallogenetic belt: metallogeny of the Romanian Carpathians segment

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    S̡erban-Nicolae Vlad

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available The Romanian Carpathians sector of the Late Cretaceous Banatitic Magmatic and Metallogenetic belt (BMMB contains 1 plutons and volcano-plutonic complexes, i. e. calc-alkaline, I-type granitoids, with related ores; 2 shoshonitic plutons that lack economic interest. Two provinces have been delineated: the Apuseni Mts. Province in the North and the Western South Carpathians in the South. Apuseni Mts. Province is a non-porphyry environment related to more evolved (granodioritic-granitic magmatism. It is subdivided into three zones: Vlădeasa (Pb-Zn ores of restricted metallogenetic potential; Gilău-Bihor (Fe, Bi, Mo, Cu, W, Au, Ni, Co, Pb, Zn, Ag, U, B ores / conspicuous peri-batholitic arrangement and South Apuseni (only one minor Fe-skarn occurrence. Western South Carpathians Province occurs in Romania and extends in Eastern Serbia. It is subdivided into South Banat Mts.–Timok Zone (SBTZ and Poiana Ruscă Mts.– North Banat Mts.– Ridanj-Krepoljin Zone (PR-NB-RKZ. SBTZ is a typical porphyry environment of high metallogenetic potential (Cu, Au, Pb, Zn, while PR-NB-RKZ is a non-porphyry environment with small to medium size Pb, Zn, Fe, Cu deposits/prospects exhibiting commonly a peri-plutonic zoning. The metallogenetic model of the Romanian Carpathians segment of BMMB is conceived based on correlating magma composition/level of emplacement and ore types.

  12. The Chahnaly low sulfidation epithermal gold deposit, western Makran volcanic arc, southeastern Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sholeh, Ali; Rastad, Ebrahim; Huston, David L.; Gemmell, J. Bruce; Taylor, Ryan D.

    2016-01-01

    The Chahnaly low-sulfidation epithermal Au deposit and nearby Au prospects are located northwest of the intermittently active Bazman stratovolcano on the western end of the Makran volcanic arc, which formed as the result of subduction of the remnant Neo-Tethyan oceanic crust beneath the Lut block. The arc hosts the Siah Jangal epithermal and Kharestan porphyry prospects, near Taftan volcano, as well as the Saindak Cu-Au porphyry deposit and world-class Reko Diq Cu-Au porphyry deposit, near Koh-i-Sultan volcano to the east-northeast in Pakistan. The host rocks for the Chahnaly deposit include early Miocene andesite and andesitic volcaniclastic rocks that are intruded by younger dacitic domes. Unaltered late Miocene dacitic ignimbrites overlie these rocks. Laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) U-Pb zircon geochronology data yield ages between 21.8 and 9.9 Ma for the acidic-intermediate regional volcanism. The most recent volcanic activity of the Bazman stratovolcano involved extrusion of an olivine basalt during Pliocene to Quaternary times. Interpretation of geochemical data indicate that the volcanic rocks are synsubduction and calc-alkaline to subalkaline. The lack of a significant negative Eu anomaly, a listric-shaped rare earth element pattern, and moderate La/Yb ratios of host suites indicate a high water content of the source magma.

  13. The role of the Antofagasta-Calama Lineament in ore deposit deformation in the Andes of northern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios, Carlos; Ramírez, Luis E.; Townley, Brian; Solari, Marcelo; Guerra, Nelson

    2007-02-01

    During the Late Jurassic-Early Oligocene interval, widespread hydrothermal copper mineralization events occurred in association with the geological evolution of the southern segment of the central Andes, giving rise to four NS-trending metallogenic belts of eastward-decreasing age: Late Jurassic, Early Cretaceous, Late Paleocene-Early Eocene, and Late Eocene-Early Oligocene. The Antofagasta-Calama Lineament (ACL) consists of an important dextral strike-slip NE-trending fault system. Deformation along the ACL system is evidenced by a right-lateral displacement of the Late Paleocene-Early Eocene metallogenic belts. Furthermore, clockwise rotation of the Early Cretaceous Mantos Blancos copper deposit and the Late Paleocene Lomas Bayas porphyry copper occurred. In the Late Eocene-Early Oligocene metallogenic belt, a sigmoidal deflection and a clockwise rotation is observed in the ACL. The ACL is thought to have controlled the emplacement of Early Oligocene porphyry copper deposits (34-37 Ma; Toki, Genoveva, Quetena, and Opache), whereas it deflected the Late Eocene porphyry copper belt (41-44 Ma; Esperanza, Telégrafo, Centinela, and Polo Sur ore deposits). These observations suggest that right-lateral displacement of the ACL was active during the Early Oligocene. We propose that the described structural features need to be considered in future exploration programs within this extensively gravel-covered region of northern Chile.

  14. PENGARUH WAKTU PANEN DAN NUTRISI MEDIA TERHADAP BIOPIGMEN Spirulina platensis

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    Iriani - setyaningsih

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Spirulina platensis merupakan alga hijau biru yang mengandung biopigmen fi kosianin dan antioksidanyang bermanfaat bagi kesehatan. Produksi biopigmen dipengaruhi oleh nutrien dan umur kultur. Penelitianini bertujuan menentukan pengaruh media dan umur panen terhadap kandungan fi kosianin dan aktivitasantioksidan. Kultivasi S. platensis dilakukan di dalam laboratorium menggunakan media KT, MT, dan Walne.Ekstraksi fi kosianin dilakukan menggunakan pelarut akuades dan bufer fosfat. Kandungan fi kosianin S.platensis dalam media MT (10,07 mg/mL tidak berbeda nyata dengan media Walne (7,49 mg/mL, tetapiberbeda nyata dengan media KT (0,71 mg/mL. Aktivitas antioksidan S. platensis pada ketiga media tidakberbeda nyata. Kandungan fi kosianin S. platensis pada hari ke-12 (10,42 mg/mL berbeda nyata dengan harike-6 (2,70 mg/mL, hari ke-14 (8,14 mg/mL, dan hari ke-17 (3,09 mg/mL. Aktivitas antioksidan S. platensispada keempat umur panen tidak berbeda nyata.Kata kunci: antioksidan, fi kosianin, Spirulina platensis, waktu panen

  15. PENGARUH WAKTU PANEN DAN NUTRISI MEDIA TERHADAP BIOPIGMEN Spirulina platensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iriani - setyaningsih

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Spirulina platensis merupakan alga hijau biru yang mengandung biopigmen fi kosianin dan antioksidanyang bermanfaat bagi kesehatan. Produksi biopigmen dipengaruhi oleh nutrien dan umur kultur. Penelitianini bertujuan menentukan pengaruh media dan umur panen terhadap kandungan fi kosianin dan aktivitasantioksidan. Kultivasi S. platensis dilakukan di dalam laboratorium menggunakan media KT, MT, dan Walne.Ekstraksi fi kosianin dilakukan menggunakan pelarut akuades dan bufer fosfat. Kandungan fi kosianin S.platensis dalam media MT (10,07 mg/mL tidak berbeda nyata dengan media Walne (7,49 mg/mL, tetapiberbeda nyata dengan media KT (0,71 mg/mL. Aktivitas antioksidan S. platensis pada ketiga media tidakberbeda nyata. Kandungan fi kosianin S. platensis pada hari ke-12 (10,42 mg/mL berbeda nyata dengan harike-6 (2,70 mg/mL, hari ke-14 (8,14 mg/mL, dan hari ke-17 (3,09 mg/mL. Aktivitas antioksidan S. platensispada keempat umur panen tidak berbeda nyata.Kata kunci: antioksidan, fi kosianin, Spirulina platensis, waktu panen

  16. Perbandingan Penilaian Visual Analog Scale dari Injeksi Subkutan Morfin 10 mg dan Bupivakain 0,5% pada Pasien Pascabedah Sesar dengan Anestesi Spinal

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    Wulan Fadinie

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available ocal anesthetic agent and opioid can subcutaneously be injected into the wound to reduce postoperative pain. This study was conducted to evaluate pain intensity using visual analog scale (VAS, which can be a very effective method of postoperative pain assessment, and to compare VAS when resting and coughing between local infiltration of 10 mg morphine and 2 mg/kgBW 0.5% bupivacaine after caesarian section. This study was a double blinded randomized clinical trial on 100 subjects. The inclusion criteria were pregnant women, aged 20–40 years, with physical ASA I–II status who underwent elective and emergency caesarean section in Haji Adam Malik Hospital, dr. Pirngadi Hospital, Putri HijauHospital, Haji Hospital, and Sundari Hospital during the period of July 2014. Subjects were divided into group A with 10 mg morphine infiltration and group B with 2 mg/kgBW 0.5% bupivacaine local infiltration. The resulting VAS scores were analyzed statistically using Mann-Whitney. ItLower VAS scores were found in group A 4.72 (SB=1.54 when compared to group B 2.14 (SB=1.21. In conclusion, local infiltration of 10 mg morphine is better compared to 2 mg/kgBW 0.5% bupivacaine.

  17. TANDA KARDINAL PEMERIKSAAN EKSTERNAL JENASAH DIDUGA TENGGELAM DARI DATA BAGIAN ILMU KEDOKTERAN FORENSIK RSUP SANGLAH BALI TAHUN 2012 -2014

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    Indah Dewi Astreani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Kematian dengan tenggelam sulit untuk didiagnosis karena membutuhkan pemeriksaan eksternal dan internal. Jenasah yang diduga tenggelam memerlukan tanda kardinal agar mengarahkan untuk pemeriksaan forensik selanjutnya. Bali sebagai  potensi pariwisata air memiliki risiko ditemukannya jenasah kasus diduga tenggelam. Tujuan penelitian untuk mengetahui gambaran tanda kardinal pada jenasah diduga tenggelam dari data bagian Ilmu Kedokteran Forensik RSUP Sanglah Bali tahun 2012-2014. Desain penelitian deskriptif retrospektif. Sampel 91 kasus. Berdasarkan karakteristik laki-laki 77 kasus, perempuan 14 kasus, WNI 50 kasus, WNA 41 kasus, anak-anak 12,1%, dewasa 87,9%. Jenasah diduga tenggelam di pantai 52 kasus, kolam renang 8 kasus, sungai 10 kasus, sisanya di rawa dan kamar mandi hanya dengan pemeriksaan eksternal. Tanda kardinal busa putih pada hidung (26,4%, mulut (31,9%, telinga (3,3%, bintik perdarahan mata (4,4%, pelebaran pembuluh darah mata (33% dan ada keduanya (28,6%, cadaveric spasm (1,1%, cutis anserine (4,4%, hands & feet of a washer woman (53,8%, tanda sianosis (56,0% & benda asing di tubuh korban (12,1%. Pemeriksaan internal getah paru 17 kasus, Ganggang Hijau (15,29%, Diatom (5,88%, Kristal Charcot Leyden (5,88%, Ganggang Merah (1,17% tidak ditemukan (3,52%. Tanda kardinal  patognomonis dari pemeriksaan eksternal hanya berperan untuk menguatkan pemeriksaan selanjutnya dari jenasah diduga tenggelam. Harapannya dapat menjadi informasi jenasah diduga korban tenggelam di Bali.  

  18. Analisis Penggunaan Marker Tracking Pada Augmented Reality Huruf Hijaiyah

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    Meyti Eka Apriyani

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Teknologi augmented reality berdasarkan metode pelacakan (tracking  terbagi menjadi dua yaitu marker based tracking dan markerless. Kedua metode ini memiliki persamaan yaitu dipengaruhi oleh jarak pendeteksian dan intensitas cahaya dalam keberhasilannya memunculkan suatu objek. Akan tetapi belum diketahui berapa jarak yang tepat dan kondisi intensitas cahaya yang ideal bagi kedua metode tersebut. Penelitian ini diusulkan untuk menganalisis pengaruh jarak pendeteksian serta integritas cahaya terhadap metode marker based tracking dan markerless. Variasi jarak yang digunakan adalah 5cm, 10cm, 20cm, 30cm, 40cm, 50cm, dan 80cm sebagai sub indikator jarak pendeteksian kemudian untuk mendapatkan variasi besarnya intensitas cahaya digunakan sumber cahaya matahari, lampu berwarna kuning, merah, hijau, biru, dan putih (terang. Metode pengujian yang digunakan yaitu menentukan jarak minimum dan jarak maksimum pendeteksian serta menentukan besarnya intensitas cahaya untuk memunculkan  suatu objek. Hasil pengujian ini adalah jarak minimum dan maksimum pendeteksian serta intensitas cahaya yang didapatkan untuk kedua metode yang diusulkan yaitu marker based tracking memiliki rata-rata jarak minimum 7.5 cm dan maksimum 80.5 cm. Sedangkan markerless rata-rata jarak minimum 3.8 cm dan maksimum 300 cm. Sistem dapat memunculkan objek pada intensitas 97 lux -1605 lux

  19. TRANSFEKSI MERUPAKAN METODE TEKNOLOGI TRANSGENIK PENYISIPAN GREEN FLOURESCENT PROTEIN TERHADAP IKAN WILD BETTA

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    Eni Kusrini

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Teknik transfer gen banyak dikembangkan untuk mengintroduksi molekul DNA ke dalam embrio. Keberhasilan transfer gen menggunakan metode transfeksi ditentukan oleh berbagai faktor, antara lain pemilihan larutan transfeksi yang sesuai dengan mempertimbangkan kesediaan secara komersial, mudah diaplikasikan, keberhasilan tinggi, dan tidak bersifat toksik terhadap embrio. Studi awal untuk mengetahui keberhasilan transfer gen terhadap embrio ikan wild betta digunakan Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP dan juga dapat digunakan sebagai model terhadap ikan betta. GFP merupakan gen yang mengkodekan protein dan memiliki sifat berpendar hijau. Induk jantan dan betina dipijahkan dengan perbandingan 1:1 pada wadah baskom dengan ketinggian air ± 14 cm serta diberikan substrat. Transfeksi dilakukan pada embrio fase pembelahan 2 sel. Larutan transfeksi dibuat dari campuran DNA plasmid pada media NaCl 0.9% hingga mencapai konsentrasi akhir 100 μL media (campuran transfast + DNA + NaCl. Aktivitas gen ini dapat divisualisasikan dengan menggunakan sinar ultra violet. Keberhasilan dari teknik transfer gen tersebut dibuktikan dengan adanya ekspresi gen atau deteksi DNA gen GFP yang dimasukkan. Ekspresi hasil korporasi DNA ke dalam telur melalui transfeksi pada wild betta dan keberhasilan transfer gen GFP dapat dibuktikan dengan analisis PCR. Tujuan dari penulisan makalah ini adalah menguraikan tentang metode transfeksi yang efektif untuk teknologi transfer gen terhadap ikan wild betta.

  20. PENGARUH PEMBERIAN GIBERELIN DAN AIR KELAPA TERHADAP PERKECAMBAHAN BIJI ANGGREK BULAN (Phalaenopsis sp.

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    Lilik Hidayatul Mukminin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Phalaenopsis sp. atau dikenal dengan nama dagang anggrek bulan termasuk famili Orchidaceae yang memiliki nilai ekonomis tinggi. Pembudidayaan tanaman anggrek selama ini terkendala pada biji anggrek yang memiliki daya kecambah kurang dari 1%. Daya kecambah biji yang rendah disebabkan oleh ukuran biji yang kecil dan tidak mempunyai endosperm. Oleh karena itu, perkecambahan biji anggrek perlu didukung oleh hormon tumbuh yang sesuai. Giberelin dan air kelapa diketahui dapat berperan dalam perkecambahan biji. Tujuan dari penelitian ini untuk mengetahui pengaruh pemberian Giberelin (GA3 dan air kelapa terhadap perkecambahan biji anggrek bulan (Phalaenopsis sp. Tahapan penelitian yang dilakukan yaitu melakukan sterilisasi, kemudian biji Anggrek diinokulasikan dalam medium MS dengan perlakuan variasi konsentrasi GA3 1 ppm, 2 ppm, 3 ppm dan perlakuan variasi konsentrasi air kelapa 10 mL, 20 mL, dan 25 mL beserta kombinasinya kemudian diamati pada hari ke-21. Parameter yang diamati berupa perkembangan morfologi protocorm dan fase perkembangan protocorm yang dianalisis secara deskriptif, sedangkan daya kecambah protocorm dianalisis ANOVA dan dilanjutkan uji Tukey pada tingkat kepercayaan 95% untuk melihat adanya perbedaan antarperlakuan. Perkembangan protocorm pada 3 perlakuan memperlihatkan fase perkembangan protocorm yang berbeda, yaitu embrio membengkak dan merobek testa, protocorm putih dengan absorbing hair, protocorm putih kekuningan, dan protocorm hijau bulat. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pemberian giberelin (GA3 3 ppm menghasilkan daya kecambah paling rendah dan pemberian kombinasi antara GA3 dan air kelapa menunjukan daya kecambah yang tidak berbeda nyata dengan perlakuan MS.

  1. Optimalisasi Penggunaan Lahan Untuk Memaksimalkan Pendapatan Pemerintah Daerah Kabupaten Sidoarjo (Studi Kasus : Kecamatan Waru

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    Mohammad Muhaimin

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Nilai pajak bumi dan bangunan di Kecamatan Waru merupakan yang terbesar dibandingkan dengan seluruh kecamatan di Kabupaten Sidoarjo. Namun, persentase kenaikan pajak bumi dan bangunan di Kecamatan Waru dari tahun 2009 sampai tahun 2012 sebesar 7%, jauh lebih kecil dibandingkan dengan kenaikan luasan lahan industri sebesar 27%, luasan lahan permukiman sebesar 23%, dan luasan lahan perdagangan dan jasa sebesar 27,8%. Selain itu, pembangunan yang ada belum memperhatikan aspek keseimbangan lingkungan yang diindikasikan oleh luasan ruang terbuka hijau (RTH sebesar 3,3%. Oleh karena itu diperlukan upaya untuk memaksimalkan pendapatan melalui pengaturan penggunaan lahan dengan tetap mengalokasikan RTH minimal 20%. Untuk optimalisasi penggunaan lahan tersebut, 2 tahapan penelitian dilakukan sebagai berikut; pertama menentukan faktor pengaruh perubahan penggunaan lahan industri, permukiman, dan perdagangan dan jasa dengan analisis Guttman; kedua merumuskan model optimalisasi penggunaan lahan dengan menggunakan Linear Programming dengan batasan utama luasan RTH minimal 20% dari luas wilayah. Berdasarkan hasil analisa, diperoleh lima alternatif pengaturan penggunaan lahan dengan alternatif pertama adalah alternatif terbaik sesuai dengan tujuan penelitian. Alternatif ini mengalokasikan luasan lahan industri sebesar 954,83 Ha, permukiman sebesar 1145,92 Ha, perdagangan jasa sebesar 69,66 Ha, dan RTH sebesar 606,4 Ha.

  2. Apatite trace element and halogen compositions as petrogenetic-metallogenic indicators: Examples from four granite plutons in the Sanjiang region, SW China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Li-Chuan; Hu, Rui-Zhong; Wang, Xin-Song; Bi, Xian-Wu; Zhu, Jing-Jing; Li, Chusi

    2016-06-01

    The abundances of trace elements including Sr, Ga and rare earth elements (REE) and halogens in apatite crystals from four intermediate-felsic plutons in the Zhongdian terrane in the Sanjiang region have been determined using electron microprobe and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry to evaluate the potential of apatite as a petrogenic-metallogenic indicator. The selected plutons include one that is not mineralized (the Triassic Xiuwacu pluton, or the TXWC pluton), one that hosts a porphyry-type Cu deposit (the Pulang pluton, or the PL pluton), one that hosts a porphyry-type Mo deposit (the Tongchanggou pluton, or the TCG pluton), and one that hosts a vein-type Mo deposit (the Cretaceous Xiuwacu pluton, or the CXWC pluton). Except for the CXWC pluton, the other three plutons have adakite-like trace element signatures in whole rocks. The results from this study show that REE, Sr and halogens in apatite can be used to track magma compositions, oxidation states and crystallization history. Apatite crystals from the adakite-like plutons are characterized by much higher Sr/Y and δEu than the non-adakite-type pluton. This means that apatite, which is not susceptible to alteration, is a useful tool for identifying the adakite-like plutons that no longer preserve the initial Sr/Y ratios in whole rocks due to weathering and hydrothermal alteration. Based on apatite Ga contents and δEu values, it is inferred that the parental magmas for the two adakite-like plutons containing porphyry-type Cu and Mo mineralization are more oxidized than that for the non-adakite-type pluton containing vein-type Mo mineralization. Apatite crystals from the vein-type Mo deposit have much lower Cl/F ratios than those from the porphyry-type Cu and Mo deposits. Apatite crystals from the adakite-like pluton without Cu or Mo mineralization is characterized by much lower Cl/F ratios than those from the adakite-like plutons that host the porphyry-type Cu and Mo deposits. The

  3. Investigation of Regional Fractures and Cu Mineralization Relationships in the Khezrabad and Shahr-e-Babak Area: Using Fry and Fractal analysis

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    Alireza Zarasvandi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Two main principal aspects for the genesis of porphyry copper deposits have been determined. The first genetic model concerns the petrologic and geochemical processes and the other relates the genesis to crustal deformation and geodynamic conditions (Kesler, 1997. Recent studies (e.g., Padilla Garza et al., 2001 show that the generation and emplacement of porphyry copper deposits may not only be dependent on magmatic and hydrothermal processes, but also that the regional and local tectonic setting plays an important role. Therefore in determining the suitable setting for emplacement of copper and other porphyry intrusions, determination of location of partial melting of the lower crust, generation of batholiths, and their volatile-rich derivative intrusions in the crust seems to be necessary (Carranza and Hale, 2002. Almost all porphyry copper deposits in Iran are located in the Urumieh-Dokhtar magmatic belt. These deposits show distinct spatial and temporal relationship with Miocene granodiorite plutonic rocks emplaced along strike slip faults (Mehrabi et al., 2005. Accordingly, the tectonic setting of ore deposits seem to be the most important factor for regional exploration of porphyry copper systems (Vearncombe and Vearncombe, 1999. There are several methods for analysis of distribution of ore deposits. In this research the role of structural control in the spatial distribution of porphyry deposits has been studied using Fry and Fractal methods. Here, the Fry method is used as a complementary method for Fractal analysis. Materials and methods Fry analysis is a self-adaptive method that is used for point objects. Fry analysis offers a visual approach to quantify the spatial trends in groups of point objects. Fry analysis can also be used to search for anisotropies in the distribution of point objects. More specifically it can be used to investigate whether a distribution of point objects occurs along linear trends, and whether

  4. 澜沧老厂多金属矿床成矿地质体特征%Geological Characteristics of Ore-bearing Rocks in Laochang Polymetallic Deposit,Lancang County

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刀艳; 杨帆; 李峰; 余璨

    2015-01-01

    The Volcanic rocks and granite porphyry are widely distributed in Laochang mining area, Lancang county, which are regarded as the main metallogenic geological body of volcanic gush flow depositing metallogenic system and deep por-phyry hydrothermal metallogenic system. The titanium magnetite in the olivine basalt of the volcanic rocks is conducted on spectrum analysis,the different minerals of amygdaloidal sodium trachyte lava and the microcrystaline potassium feldspar of al-mond-shaped potasium trachyte lava are analyzed by electron microprobe respectively. Besides that,the times and petrological characteristics of volcanic rock,the times,cause,source area and wall rock alteration characteristics of granite porphyry in min-ing area are summarized comprehensively. The analysis results show that:①the volcanic diagenetic age is the early carbonifer-ous epoch,and it owns the important ore-bearing lithology of the Ag-Pb-Zn mine in mining area,the space-time distribution of the ore deposit is controlled by the mining volcanism,which provides materials basis and important driving force of heat source for metallogenic activity;②concealed granite porphyry is the porphyry molybdenum ore-forming parent rock in mining area,and the granite porphyry intrusion period belongs to the early himalayan magmatic activity;③the early carboniferous volcanism and magmatism in himalayan period provide favorable conditions for the formation of metallogenic system. The above research re-sults have some certain reference value for analyzing the metallogenic system.%澜沧老厂矿区广泛分布的火山岩和花岗斑岩被分别作为火山喷流沉积成矿系统和深部斑岩热液成矿系统的主要成矿地质体。对火山岩中的橄榄玄武岩中的钛磁铁矿进行能谱分析,对杏仁状钠粗面质熔岩不同矿物和杏仁状钾质粗面质熔岩微晶钾长石分别进行电子探针分析,并对矿区火山岩年代、岩石学等特征,花岗斑岩年代

  5. Ages and sources of components of Zn-Pb, Cu, precious metal, and platinum group element deposits in the goodsprings district, clark county, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vikre, P.; Browne, Q.J.; Fleck, R.; Hofstra, A.; Wooden, J.

    2011-01-01

    ore breccias and relatively low S and Pb isotope values (??34S values vary from 0-??4%; 206Pb/204Pb replaced breccia clasts and margins of fissures in Paleozoic limestones and dolomites near porphyritic intrusions. Gold ?? silver deposits occur along contacts and within small-volume stocks and dikes of feldspar porphyry, one textural variety of porphyritic intrusions. Lead isotope compositions of copper ?? precious metal-PGE, gold ?? silver, and lead-dominant carbonate replacement deposits are similar to those of Mojave crust plutons, indicating derivation of Pb from 1.7 Ga crystalline basement or from Late Proterozoic siliciclastic sedimentary rocks derived from 1.7 Ga crystalline basement. Four texturally and modally distinctive porphyritic intrusions are exposed largely in the central part of the district: feldspar quartz porphyry, plagioclase quartz porphyry, feldspar biotite quartz porphyry, and feldspar porphyry. Intrusions consist of 64 to 70 percent SiO2 and variable K2O/Na2O (0.14-5.33) that reflect proportions of K-feldspar and albite phenocrysts and megacrysts as well as partial alteration to K-mica; quartz and biotite phenocrysts are present in several subtypes. Albite may have formed during emplacement of magma in brine-saturated basinal strata, whereas hydrothermal alteration of matrix, phenocrystic, and megacrystic feldspar and biotite to K-mica, pyrite, and other hydrothermal minerals occurred during and after intrusion emplacement. Small volumes of garnet-diopside-quartz and retrograde epidote-mica-amphibole skarn have replaced carbonate rocks adjacent to one intrusion subtype (feldspar-quartz porphyry), but alteration of carbonate rocks at intrusion contacts elsewhere is inconsp. Uranium-lead ages of igneous zircons vary inconsistently from ?? 180 to 230

  6. Metallogeny of the Gold Quadrilateral: style and characteristics of epithermal - subvolcanic mineralized structures, South Apuseni Mts., Romania

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    S̡erban-Nicolae Vlad

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available The Romanian territory contains numerous ore deposits mined since pre-Roman times. An assessment of historical gold production of the Gold Quadri-lateral (GQ yielded a total estimate of 55.7 Moz of gold throughout an area of 2400 km2. Interpreted in terms of mineralization density this is 23,208 oz of gold/ km2. The geological setting of the GQ is represented mainly by Tertiary (14.7 My to 7.4 My calc-alkaline volcano-plutonic complexes of intermediate character in sedimentary basins of molasse type. These basins are tectonically controlled by NW-SE lineation across early Alpine magmatic products, i.e. subduction related Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous igneous association (island arc ophiolites and granitoids and Upper Cretaceous igneous association (banatites. The Tertiary magmatism is associated with extensional tectonics caused by NE escape of the Pannonian region during Upper Oligocene-Lower Miocene times. As a result of tectono-magmatic and mineralization-alteration characteristics, two metallogenetical types were separated in the GQ, i.e. calc-alkaline andesitic (CAM and sub-alkaline rhyodacitic (SRM. Both develop almost entirely low-sulfidation type of Au epithermal mineralization. However, two subtypes, -rich in sulfide (2-7% and -poor in sulfide (7-20% were delineated and correlated with CAM type and SRM type respectively. Furthermore, CAM is connected at deeper levels with Cu-Au+/-Mo porphyry systems in contrast with SRM, which is a non-porphyry environment. The Brad-Săcărâmb district contains mainly CAM type andesitic structures. It is a porphyry environment with epithermal low-sulfidation-rich sulfide vein halo (Barza, Troiţa-Bolcana deposits. However, a few SRM type patterns, such as Măgura Ţebii, Băiţa-Crăciuneşti and Săcărâmb, deposits exhibit Au-Ag-Te low-sulfidation-poor sulfide epithermal vein halo. The Zlatna-Stănija district exhibits similar characteristics, with Au-Ag+/-Pb, Zn veins in Cu-Au subvolcanic-porphyry

  7. Strategy And Policy Statements On Green ICT: An Islamic Perspective

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    Shihab A. Hameed

    2012-01-01

    .ABSTRAK: Di era informasi dan kommunikasi teknologi (ICT kini, pembangunan ICT dan industri berkembang begitu pesat dan dikaitkan dengan daya membeli yang tinggi. Hari ini, masyarakat dunia menghadapi cabaran dalam meningkatkan prestasi persekitaran, terutamanya dengan perubahan cuaca, pemanasan global, dan pengurusan sumber. Industri ICT merupakan penyumbang sebahagian besar daripada ekonomi global yang berkaitan dengan inovasi, reka cipta dan perkembangan pesat hampir semua aspek manusia. Di sebaliknya pula, industri ICT bertanggung jawab terhadap pelepasan CO2 global. Masalah persekitaran global secara langsung mempengaruhi polisi tenaga dan industri banyak negara. Pembangunan pesat ICT menyebabkan meningkatnya penggunaan tenaga dan pertambahan masalah persekitaran. Penggunaan tenaga oleh ICT dianggarkan mencapai jumlah 15% daripada jumlah penggunaannya di seluruh dunia pada tahun 2020. Oleh itu, banyak negara yang membentuk polisi ICT Hijau supaya kecekapan tenaga dapat ditingkatkan seiring dengan perubahan cuaca. Kerajaan terutamanya di negara-negara membangun dan negara Islam lain haruslah mengamalkan polisi baru yang wajar agar tenaga digunakan secara efisien di bidang ICT. Kajian ini membentangkan masalah persekitaran yang kini berkaitan dengan menhijaukan ICT dan usaha-usaha untuk meyelesaikannya. Beberapa kajian berbentuk peringatan berasaskan paradigma penggunaan tenaga terkini, berdasarkan kepada amalan terbaru ICT yang dipinda. Kajian memberikan garis panduan kepada pembuat-pembuat keputusan dan para professional ICT untuk mempertingkatkan usaha mereka ke arah ICT hijau dan menyelesaikan masalah alam sekitar. Pandangan Islam terhadap alam sekitar dan usaha melindunginya dipertimbangkan, memandangkan ianya memberi pendapat yang menyeluruh, stabil dan adil berdasarkan sumber-sumber Islam iaitu Quran dan Sunnah. Banyak ayat-ayat Al-Quran dan hadis-hadis memperjelaskan (secara langsung atau tidak langsung cara yang betul dalam menangani dan melindungi sumber alam

  8. Geology, alteration, mineralization and geochemical study in Kalateh Taimour area, NE Iran

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    Zahra Alaminia

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The area is located 20 km northwest of Kashmar and about 4 km of Kalateh Taimour in Khorasan Razavi province. The study area is part of Tertiary volcanic-plutonic belt north of Daruneh fault and its situation in tectonic inliers between two important active faults, Doruneh and Taknar. Volcanic rocks are mainly intermediate to acid pyroclastic type. They formed during early Tertiary. The volcanic rocks of the Kalateh Taimour area are predominantly andesitic basalt, andesite, latite, trachyte, dacite and rhyodacite and are observed as lava, tuff, lapilli tuff and agglomerate. Field evidences and study show several subvolcanic bodies including quartz hornblende biotite monzodiorite porphyry, quartz biotite monzodiorite porphyry, quartz diorite porphyry and microdiorite which are intruded sometime in mid-Tertiary. In this belt, new methods of image processing were used for enhancing the alteration zones to help near infra red and short wavelength infrared and bands example band ratios and principle component method. Propylitic, sericitic and argillic are the main alteration types. Minor silicification is found in some areas. Alteration is extent but mineralization is limited. Mineralization is mainly controlled by fault system. Several mineralized faults are being discovered. Open space filling features are abundant. In the study area, disseminate and stock work mineralization are abundant. The amount of sulfide minerals is very small. Ancient mining is present in the area. Stream sediment geochemical study shows a very broad and high level of gold anomaly. Rock geochemical study show very high levels of Au, Ag, Cu, Pb, Zn and Au value is correlative to Cu, Pb, Zn and Ag values. Due to alteration modeling, non uniformity in mineralization and low abundance of sulfide mineralization suggest study in low sulphidation Au-Cu deposit.

  9. Variscan potassic dyke magmatism of durbachitic affinity at the southern end of the Bohemian Massif (Lower Austria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeitlhofer, Helga; Grasemann, Bernhard; Petrakakis, Konstantin

    2016-06-01

    Dykes in the Strudengau area (SW Moldanubian Zone, Austria) can be mineralogically divided into lamprophyres (spessartites and kersantites) and felsic dykes (granite porphyries, granitic dykes and pegmatoid dykes). Geochemical analyses of 11 lamprophyres and 7 felsic dykes show evidence of fractional crystallization. The lamprophyres are characterized by metaluminous compositions, intermediate SiO2 contents and high amounts of MgO and K2O; these rocks have high Ba (800-3000 ppm) and Sr (250-1000 ppm) contents as well as an enrichment of large-ion lithophile elements over high field strength elements, typical for enriched mantle sources with variable modifications due to fractionation and crustal contamination. This geochemical signature has been reported from durbachites (biotite- and K feldspar-rich mela-syenites particularly characteristic of the Variscan orogen in Central Europe). For most major elements, calculated fractionation trends from crystallization experiments of durbachites give an excellent match with the data from the Strudengau dykes. This suggests that the lamprophyres and felsic dykes were both products of fractional crystallization and subsequent magma mixing of durbachitic and leucogranitic melts. Rb-Sr geochronological data on biotite from five undeformed kersantites and a locally deformed granite porphyry gave cooling ages of c. 334-318 Ma, indicating synchronous intrusion of the dykes with the nearby outcropping Weinsberger granite (part of the South Bohemian Batholith, c. 330-310 Ma). Oriented matrix biotite separated from the locally deformed granite porphyry gave an Rb-Sr age of c. 318 Ma, interpreted as a deformation age during extensional tectonics. We propose a large-scale extensional regime at c. 320 Ma in the Strudengau area, accompanied by plutonism of fractionated magmas of syncollisional mantle-derived sources, mixed with crustal components. This geodynamic setting is comparable to other areas in the Variscan belt documenting an

  10. Early Cretaceous U-Pb zircon ages for the Copiapó plutonic complex and implications for the IOCG mineralization at Candelaria, Atacama Region, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marschik, Robert; Söllner, Frank

    2006-12-01

    Four of the major plutons in the vicinity of the Candelaria mine (470 Mt at 0.95% Cu, 0.22 g/t Au, 3.1 g/t Ag) and a dike-sill system exposed in the Candelaria open pit have been dated with the U-Pb zircon method. The new geochronological data indicate that dacite magmatism around 123 Ma preceded the crystallization of hornblende diorite (Khd) at 118 ± 1 Ma, quartz-monzonite porphyry (Kqm) at 116.3 ± 0.4 Ma, monzodiorite (Kmd) at 115.5 ± 0.4 Ma, and tonalite (Kt) at 110.7 ± 0.4 Ma. The new ages of the plutons are consistent with field relationships regarding the relative timing of emplacement. Plutonism temporally overlaps with the iron oxide Cu-Au mineralization (Re-Os molybdenite ages at ˜115 Ma) and silicate alteration (ages mainly from 114 to 116 and 110 to 112 Ma) in the Candelaria-Punta del Cobre district. The dated dacite porphyry and hornblende diorite intrusions preceded the ore formation. A genetic link of the metallic mineralization with the quartz-monzonite porphyry and/or the monzodiorite is likely. Both of these metaluminous, shoshonitic (high-K) intrusions could have provided energy and contributed fluids, metals, and sulfur to the hydrothermal system that caused the iron oxide Cu-Au mineralization. The age of the tonalite at 110.7 Ma falls in the same range as the late alteration at 110 to 112 Ma. Tonalite emplacement may have sustained existing or driven newly developed hydrothermal cells that caused this late alteration or modified 40Ar/39Ar and K/Ar systematic in some areas.

  11. He-Ar isotopic system of fluid inclusions in pyrite from the molybdenum deposits in south margin of North China Block and its trace to metallogenetic and geodynamic background

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU LaiMin; ZHANG GuoWei; GUO Bo; LEE Ben

    2009-01-01

    The helium and argon isotopic compositions of the ore-forming fluids from the molybdenum deposits such as Jinduicheng, Donggou, Shijiawan, and Sandaozhuang, which are located in the East Qinling molybdenum belt in south margin of North China Block (SMCNB), are reported in this paper. The origin and the evolution of the ore-forming fluids and their coupled-relationships with the intra-continental collision and orogenic process of Qinling Orogen in Mesozoic-Cenozoic have been discussed. The 3He/4He and 40Ar/36Ar values (3He/4He=1.38-3.64 Ra, and 40Ar/36Ar=295.68-346.39, respectively) of the fluid inclusions in pyrite from the molybdenum deposits in East Qinling suggest that, the ore-forming fluid system is mixed by two end members. One is the high temperature deep-derived fluid congenetic with the porphyries generated by crust-mantle mixing, and the other is the low-temperature meteoric water which is rich in crustal radiogenic He with the component of atmospheric Ar. From the Pb isotopic composition, and ore-bearing potential of the porphyry and the regional stratum, we can conclude that the ore-forming materials of the deposits in the East Qinling molybdenum belt are derived from the deep source by the mixing of lower crust and upper mantle. Therefore, the formation of the molybdenum deposits in SMNCB can be related to the crust-mantle interaction, which is accompanied by the intra-continental orogenic and extension process in the post-collision period of Qinling Orogen. The granitic porphyries which are related to Mo mineralization are not simple crust-remelting type granites or S type granites, but belong to syntexis-type or mantle-derived granites, hence their formation has a profound and regional geodynamic background.

  12. Visualizing trace element distribution in quartz using cathodoluminescence, electron microprobe, and laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusk, Brian; Koenig, Alan; Lowers, Heather

    2011-01-01

    Cathodoluminescent (CL) textures in quartz reveal successive histories of the physical and chemical fluctuations that accompany crystal growth. Such CL textures reflect trace element concentration variations that can be mapped by electron microprobe or laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). Trace element maps in hydrothermal quartz from four different ore deposit types (Carlin-type Au, epithermal Ag, porphyry-Cu, and MVT Pb-Zn) reveal correlations among trace elements and between trace element concentrations and CL textures. The distributions of trace elements reflect variations in the physical and chemical conditions of quartz precipitation. These maps show that Al is the most abundant trace element in hydrothermal quartz. In crystals grown at temperatures below 300 °C, Al concentrations may vary by up to two orders of magnitude between adjacent growth zones, with no evidence for diffusion. The monovalent cations Li, Na, and K, where detectable, always correlate with Al, with Li