WorldWideScience

Sample records for batu hijau porphyry

  1. Porphyry copper assessment of Southeast Asia and Melanesia: Chapter D in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Bookstrom, Arthur A.; Dicken, Connie L.; Drenth, Benjamin J.; Ludington, Steve; Robinson,, Gilpin R.; Setiabudi, Bambang Tjahjono; Sukserm, Wudhikarn; Sunuhadi, Dwi Nugroho; Wah, Alexander Yan Sze; Zientek, Michael L.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey collaborated with member countries of the Coordinating Committee for Geoscience Programmes in East and Southeast Asia (CCOP) on an assessment of the porphyry copper resources of Southeast Asia and Melanesia as part of a global mineral resource assessment. The region hosts world-class porphyry copper deposits and underexplored areas that are likely to contain undiscovered deposits. Examples of known porphyry copper deposits include Batu Hijau and Grasberg in Indonesia; Panguna, Frieda River, and Ok Tedi in Papua New Guinea; and Namosi in Fiji.

  2. PERGULATAN HIDUP PEREMPUAN PEMECAH BATU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Suhartini

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Semakin terbatasnya lahan pertanian dan berkembangnya teknologi pertanian, mengakibatkan penurunan kesempatan kerja perempuan disektor pertanian di daerah pedesaan. Oleh karena itu muncul berbagai alternatif pekerjaan yang ditekuni perempuan di pedesaan. Bidang pekerjaan yang dipilih perempuan desa umumnya sebagai buruh, salah satunya adalah buruh pemecah batu. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui kehidupan sosial dan ekonomi perempuan pemecah batu, mengetahui pembagian waktu perempuan sebagai ibu rumah tangga dan sebagai pemecah batu dan mengetahui relasi antara pekerjaan menjadi pemecah batu dengan pola pengambilan keputusan dalam rumah tangga para perempuan pemecah batu. Metode yang digunakan adalah pendekatan deskriptif kualitatif dan dilakukan  pada para perempuan pemecah batu di Desa Kebondalem Kecamatan Gringsing Kabupaten Batang. Pengumpulan data menggunakan teknik wawancara mendalam dan observasi partisipasi terbatas. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa para perempuan mendapat keuntungan dengan bekerja sebagai pemecah batu dan dengan pekerjaan ini mereka dapat memperluas hubungan sosial dengan masyarakat luas. Akan tetapi kehidupan ekonomi para perempuan pemecah batu tidak mengalami perubahan karena pendapatan yang diperoleh belum mampu untuk memenuhi kebutuhan hidupnya. Alokasi waktu yang dicurahkan perempuan pemecah batu lebih banyak jika dibandingkan oleh para pekerja laki – laki dalam sehari-hari. Dengan demikian perempuan pemecah batu memiliki beban yang lebih berat jika dibandingkan dengan suami.The more limited agricultural land and the development of agricultural technology results in the decrease of female employment in the agricultural sector in rural areas. This condition is characterized by the emergence of alternative jobs for rural women. Such an alternative is stone-breaking labor. The objective of this study is to examine the social and economic life of breaking stones women, the distribution of time of

  3. PEMBERDAYAAN APARATUR UNTUK MENINGKATKAN KINERJA DI KECAMATAN BATU, KOTA BATU

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    ROBIQ - YUNIANTO

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK   Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk (1 Mendeskripsikan, menganalisa dan mengintepretasikan aspek-aspek yang berhubungan dengan bentuk dan teknik/cara-cara pemberdayaan aparatur; (2 Mendeskripsikan, menganalisa dan menginteprestasikan aspek-aspek yang berhubungan dengan upaya meningkatkan kinerja aparatur Kecamatan Batu. Penelitian yang dilakukan pada Kecamatan Batu Kota Batu ini menggunakan jenis Penelitian Diskriptif Kualitatif yang terbatas pada usaha mengungkapkan suatu masalah dan keadaan atau peristiwa sebagaimana adanya, sehingga bersifat sekedar untuk mengungkapkan fakta. Oleh sebab itu, penelitian ini lebih menekankan pada makna dari suatu proses daripada sekedar perhitungan statistik. Hasil penelitian menunjukan bahwa upaya pemberdayaan aparatur yang ditempuh melalui bentuk dan tehnik atau cara-cara pemberdayaan secara langsung maupun tidak langsung telah diselenggarakan kendati belum optimal. Berbagai bentuk pemberdayaan aparatur yang diselenggarakan antara lain: (a Pendidikan dan pelatihan, yang berfungsi meningkatkan kualitas manajerial dan profesionalisme aparatur; (b Penyelenggaraan motivasi secara umum yang terdiri atas peningkatan penghasilan dan kesejahteraan aparatur, penyediaan sarana dan prasarana kerja, penyediaan sumberdaya keuangan pendukung kinerja dan pemberian penghargaan dan hukuman menghendaki adanya komitmen, peranan dan tanggung jawab lebih dari unsur pimpinan organisasi.  Teknik pemberdayaan aparatur ditempuh melalui serangkaian aktivitas penetapan visi, misi dan hasil capaian yang dikehendaki bersama, pendelegasian wewenang dan pengelolaan  sumberdaya organisasi, serta evaluasi pertanggungjawaban atas hasil capaian. Semua ini menunjukkan isyarat kurangnya keseriusan/ ketidak sungguhan sebagian pihak aparatur dalam unit kerja. Proses penetapan visi, misi hanya sekedar memenuhi aspek formalitas saja. Kinerja aparatur yang merupakan potret indikasi keberhasilan maupun kegagalan dalam proses pencapaian tujuan

  4. Teachers Attitude towards English in Batu Anam

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    Mah Zhi Jian

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This research investigates the attitude of 60 primary and secondary school teachers towards English in Batu Anam. A questionnaire was administered to find out whether they have a positive or a negative attitude towards the English language. Results indicate that teachers in Batu Anam generally have a positive attitude towards English. Comparison between male and female teachers, optionist and non-optionist teachers and teachers from different types of schools are also analyzed.

  5. Reptiles of Lata Bukit Hijau, Kedah, Malaysia

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    Shahriza Shahrudin

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Lata Bukit Hijau is located within the Banjaran Bintang Ranges on the west coast of northern Peninsular Malaysia. The reptile fauna in this pristine area was intensively investigated from 2008 to 2011 on 10 consecutive visits. A total 37 species of reptiles from 31 genera and 10 families were recorded to inhabit this area. Out of this number, 17 species were lizards (13 genera and four families, 17 species were snakes (15 genera and four families and three species were freshwater turtles (three genera and two families. These preliminary data increased the number of lizards, snakes and freshwater turtles reported from Banjaran Bintang from 31 to 41, 30 to 44 and three to five species, respectively

  6. Islamic Eco-Ethics: Landasan Filosofis Ideal Implementasi Ekonomi Hijau di Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Maulana Arifin, Amhar

    2013-01-01

    Paradigma diseminasi ekonomi hijau tidak terlepas dari resiko, kendala, dan tantangan. Diantara problematika implementasi konsep ini adalah trade-off antara pertumbuhan ekonomi dan pengelolaan lingkungan dan resiko ketimpangan akibat distribusi faktor produksi ramah lingkungan yang tidak merata. 1 Di Indonesia sendiri implementasi ekonomi hijau masih terfragmentasi, juga terjadi beberapa permasalahan fundamental seperti disharmoni peraturan perundang-undangan, inkonsistensi pemerintah, sikap ...

  7. Proses Kreatif Teater Garasi Yogyakarta Dalam Lakon Waktu Batu

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    Nur Iswantara

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan penelitian ini memahami konsep dan proses kreatif Teater Garasi Yogyakarta (TGY. TGY merupakan salah satu kelompok teater kontemporer Indonesia yang cukup fenomenal. Puluhan karya TGY telah disajikan dihadapan penonton baik di tingkat lokal maupun nasional. Penelitian difokuskan pada faktor-faktor internal dan eksternal yang mempengaruhi situasi kondusif bagi pertumbuhan dan perkembangan kelompok TGY. Teori kreativitas, perbandingan seni, semiotika dan manajemen seni digunakan untuk membedah permasalahan yang diajukan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa TGY berada dalam lingkungan perteateran Yogyakarta yang syarat dengan teater tradisional melakukan ‘pemberontakan’ artistik. Sebagai organisasi seni teater kontemporer, TGY memiliki visi dan misi yang jelas. Melalui ‘laboratorium penciptaan teater’ TGY mampu menghasilkan satu maha karya pertunjukan lakon Waktu Batu (WB. Pertunjukan lakon WB terdiri tiga sub judul: ‘Waktu Batu 1, Kisah-kisah yang Bertemu di Ruang Tunggu’; ‘Waktu Batu 2, Ritus Seratus Kecemasan dan Wajah Siapa yang Terbelah’; dan ‘Waktu Batu 3, Deus ex Machina dan Perasaan-perasaan Padamu’. Karya ini inspiratif karena memakan waktu empat tahun proses kreatifnya, digerakkan oleh insan-insan muda dan dipentaskan road show di berbagai kota di Indonesia dan Singapura.Kata kunci: Teater Garasi, kesenian Yogyakarta, Waktu Batu.ABSTRACTThe Creative Process of Garasi Theater Yogyakarta for the Story of Waktu Batu. The aims of this research is to understand the creative concept and process of Garasi Theater Yogyakarta. It is one of the phenomenal Indonesian contemporary groups of theater. Some of its works have already been performed in front of local and national audiences as well. This research mainly focuses on the internal and external factors which have influnced the condusive situation towards the development and popularity of Garasi Theater Yogyakarta. In order to solve the problems formulated in the

  8. KAJIAN ALIH FUNGSI RUANG TERBUKA HIJAU DI KOTA DENPASAR

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    I Nengah Riana

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Denpasar city is both the capital as well as the major growth center in Bali. This growth however has caused problems for open space provision. Green open space in urban areas is a necessary part of spatial planning in order to maintain water catchment areas to improve urban environmental compatibility, creation of an urban environment that is safe, comfortable, fresh, beautiful and healthy, and to provide a balance between the natural environment, the built environment and the public realm. The transformation of open space to urban uses in cities is ubiquitous and impacts on spatial planning. This study aims to determine the extent of land conversion in Denpasar and the reasons for such change. Quantitative analysis is used to focus on the form of land use change and the logic behind it. The study concentrates on open space conversion. Data was collected by observation, questionnaires and interview. The final results of this research will hopefully enrich the field of regional development and urban spatial planning, and provide a useful stimulus in the forward planning of Denpasar. Preliminary results suggest that land conversion predominantly serves residential land use (94.12%. Dominant factors that affect its transfer are due to its strategic location (69.50% and blocked irrigation channels (30.1%. The analysis demonstrates that many open green spaces are located in strategic areas with a complete infrastructure that supports land conversion but are located beside irrigation channels than cannot function optimally. Keywords: land conversion, green open space, urban open space  Abstrak Denpasar merupakan ibu kota Provinsi dan pusat pertumbuhan di Bali. Pesatnya pertumbuhan kota memunculkan permasalahan terkait pengadaan ruang terbuka hijau. Ruang terbuka hijau pada kawasan perkotaan merupakan bagian dari penataan ruang kota dengan tujuan menjaga ketersediaan lahan, sebagai kawasan resapan air, menjaga keseimbangan antara lingkungan

  9. Pengaruh Pengekstrakan pada Kekuatan Kayu: Damar Batu, Kempas, dan Durian

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    Iskandar Iskandar

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to determine strength rate of Damar Batu/Balau (Shorea spp., Kempas (Kompassia malaccensis, and Durian (Durio spp. before and after extraction. For this purpose, three solvents were used in sequence to extract the wood which are acetone pentane, and mixture of hexane, acetone, and water (HAW with volume ratio 55:44:2. Studies on the wood comprises of tensile, bending, and impact test. The tests are conducted based on method of ASTM D 3500 – 90, ASTM D 3043 – 95, and ASTM D 1e43 – 94 for tensile, bending, and impact test, respectively. The result showed that Damar Batu/Balau has higher strength compared to Kempas and Durian Woods. All the wood samples after extraction show a slight decreasing in tensile strength, tensile extension, and flexural stress, whereby modulus tensile, modulus flexural, and impact strength increases. Keywords: bending, extraction, impact, tensile

  10. Sistem Informasi Komoditas Tanaman Pangan Kabupaten Batu Bara

    OpenAIRE

    Siregar, Justira Mai Nora

    2012-01-01

    Food crops information system in Batu Bara Regency are still stored in books and/or files that are very limited in effectiveness. Computerized information delivery methods and internet networks are solutions that are worth to try to overcome the problems of information flow. Study was designed to make systems that can help process the delivering, storing, and monitoring of data displayed in a web form. The systems were designed in a user oriented programming language PHP, and MySQL database w...

  11. Analisis Pengaruh Kualitas Pelayanan terhadap Loyalitas Pasien Rawat Inap Ruangan Kelas I di Rumah Sakit Tingkat II Putri Hijau Medan

    OpenAIRE

    Sari, Roza Maya

    2011-01-01

    The second grade Hospital Putri Hijau as a goverment asset that claimed to give best service by increasing quality service of hospital that finally be able to create statisfaction of patient in spite of the patient has high loyality. There is few problem in service the give by Hospital. Such as: 1) How far quality of service (tangible, reliablety, responsiveness, assurance, and empathy) influence to satisfaction of lodges patient in Second Grade Hospital Putri Hijau. 2) How far satisfaction i...

  12. Pengaruh Pengekstrakan pada Kekuatan Kayu: Damar Batu, Kempas, dan Durian

    OpenAIRE

    Iskandar Iskandar

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this research is to determine strength rate of Damar Batu/Balau (Shorea spp.), Kempas (Kompassia malaccensis), and Durian (Durio spp.) before and after extraction. For this purpose, three solvents were used in sequence to extract the wood which are acetone pentane, and mixture of hexane, acetone, and water (HAW) with volume ratio 55:44:2. Studies on the wood comprises of tensile, bending, and impact test. The tests are conducted based on method of ASTM D 3500 – 90, ASTM D 304...

  13. Pengaruh Pertumbuhan Usaha Kecil Menengah (UKM terhadap Pertumbuhan Ekonomi Daerah(Studi di Pemerintah Kota Batu

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    Pradnya Paramita Hapsari

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Keberhasilan pembangunan nasional dapat ditempuh dengan menggunakan paradigma pembangunan yaitu pemberdayaan. Salah satu upaya pemberdayaan tersebut yaitu melalui pemberdayaan UKM. UKM adalah sektor usaha yang mampu bertahan di krisis multidimensi tahun 1998 dan krisis global pada tahun 2008. UKM merupakan penyumbang PDB terbesar nasional sampai saat ini. Oleh karena itu Pemberdayaan UKM mutlak diperlukan. Kota Batu merupakan salah satu kota yang menarik dan berpotensi untuk pengembangan Dunia Usaha dan Pariwisata. Pemberdayaan UKM dan sektor pariwisata di Kota Batu berpengaruh secara signifikan terhadap peningkatan perekonomian baik secara individu maupun keseluruhan (PAD Kota Batu. Untuk mengetahui signifikansi hubungan antara pemberdayaan UKM dan pertumbuhan ekonomi daerah di Kota Batu maka dilakukan pengujian secara bersama-sama dan parsial terhadap variabel-variabel pemberdayaan UKM yang meliputi jumlah UKM, tenaga kerja UKM, Modal UKM dan Laba UKM. Dari hasil pengujian regresi panel secara bersama-sama ditemukan bahwa Pemberdayaan UKM berpengaruh secara signifikan terhadap pertumbuhan ekonomi daerah di Kota Batu. Dan dari hasil pengujian secara parsial variabel jumlah UKM dan tenaga kerja UKM tidak ditemukan pengaruh yang signifikan terhadap pertumbuhan ekonomi di Kota Batu, sedangkan untuk variabel Modal UKM dan Laba UKM ditemukan pengaruh yang signifikan terhadap pertumbuhan Ekonomi di Kota Batu. Kata Kunci: Pembangunan, Pemberdayaan,  PDB, Pertumbuhan Ekonomi, UKM

  14. Pengaruh Pupuk Hijau Krinyu (Chromolaena odorata L.) Terhadap Pertumbuhan Dan Produksi Jagung (Zea mays L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Junaida Damanik

    2009-01-01

    Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh pupuk hijau krinyu (Chromolaena odorata) terhadap pertumbuhan dan produksi tanaman jagung (Zea mays L). Penelitian ini dilaksanakan di areal ladang jagung milik rakyat di Desa Namo Rambe, dimulai pada bulan Agustus 2008 dan selesai pada bulan November 2008. Rancangan yang digunakan adalah Rancangan Acak Kelompok Non Faktorial yang terdiri dari 6 taraf yaitu T1 (Kontrol), T2 (Krinyu),T3 (Krinyu + N0 P60 K45), T4 (Krinyu + N60 P60 K...

  15. AT3 (Acyltransferase) Gene Isolated From Capsicum frutescens cv. Cakra Hijau

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamad Habibi; Andi Madhihah Manggabarani; Eko Sri Sulasmi; Dwi Listyorini

    2013-01-01

    Chili pepper is widely used and cultivated by Indonesian people. There are three species of chili pepper, i.e.: Capsicum annuum L., Capsicum frutescens L., and Capsicum violaceum HBK. Capsicum frutescens L. has a higher economic value due to its pungency and carotenoid content. C. frutescens has several cultivars, one of those is Capsicum frutescens cv. Cakra Hijau. This cultivar is resistant against pest and disease and has very high pungency. This special character of chili pepper is born b...

  16. ANALISIS BEBAN KERJA OPERATOR MESIN PEMOTONG BATU BESAR (SIRKEL 160 CM DENGAN MENGGUNAKAN METODE 10 DENYUT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andriyanto

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available PT. PAH merupakan sebuah industri pemotongan batu magma (magma stone yang terletak di jalan Magelang Km. 15 Yogyakarta. Di perusahaan pemotongan batu ini terdapat 3 ukuran pemotongan yaitu sirkel besar (diameter 160 cm, sirkel sedang (diameter 60 - 90 cm dan sirkel kecil (diameter 30 - 50 cm. Penelitian ini khususnya pada pemotongan batu besar, dimana terdapat keluhan kelelahan operator yang terdiri dari operator utama dan operator pembantu. Penelitian dilakukan dengan tujuan untuk mengetahui tingkat beban kerja fisik operator pemotong batu besar (sirkel 160 dengan metode 10 denyut. Dalam penelitian ini ditentukan lama waktu istirahat yang dibutuhkan operator utama maupun pembantu. Selanjutnya dilakukan implementasi waktu istirahat tersebut dan dilakukan pengukuran kembali untuk mengetahui penurunan denyut nadi kerja operator. Penerapan waktu istirahat tersebut membawa penurunan DNK operator masuk kategori ringan dan % CVL masuk kategori tidak terjadi kelelahan.

  17. Rancangan Sistem Kerja Ergonomi Pada Manual Material Handling Di Pencetakan Batu Bata.

    OpenAIRE

    Rizki, Andria

    2015-01-01

    UKM. Kilang Nainggolanmerupakan usaha yang bergerak di bidang produksi batu bata dengan bahan baku tanah liat.Salah satu kegiatan manual yang dilakukan pada pencetakan yaitu manual material handling. Pekerja sering mengalami keluhan sakit pada beberapa bagian tubuh. Hal ini disebabkan karena fasilitas kerja tidak ergonomis. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mendapatkan rancangan fasilitas kerja yang ergonomis sesuai dengan antropometri pekerja. Pada stasiun pencetakan batu bata pekerja memin...

  18. Porphyry copper deposits of the world

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Information on porphyry copper deposits from around the world with grade and tonnage models, a general classification based on geologic setting, mineralogy, with...

  19. AT3 (Acyltransferase Gene Isolated From Capsicum frutescens cv. Cakra Hijau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Habibi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Chili pepper is widely used and cultivated by Indonesian people. There are three species of chili pepper, i.e.: Capsicum annuum L., Capsicum frutescens L., and Capsicum violaceum HBK. Capsicum frutescens L. has a higher economic value due to its pungency and carotenoid content. C. frutescens has several cultivars, one of those is Capsicum frutescens cv. Cakra Hijau. This cultivar is resistant against pest and disease and has very high pungency. This special character of chili pepper is born by its secondary metabolic, Capsaicin. Moreover, capsaicin also serves as defense mechanism, antiarthritis, analgesic, and anticancer. This study aimed to isolate Acyltransferase (AT3 gene which encoding Capsaicin Synthase (CS enzyme. AT3 gene was isolated through PCR using forward primer 5’-ATG GCT TTT GCA TTA CCA TCA-3’ and reverse primer 5’-CCT TCA CAA TTA TTC GCC CA-3’. Data were analyzed using DNA Baser, BLAST, and ClustalX. This study has successfully isolated 404 bp fragments of AT3 gene. This fragments located at 1918-1434 bp referred to AT3 gene from Capsicum frutescens cv. Shuanla. Isolation of upstream and downstream fragments of AT3 gene from Capsicum frutescens cv. Cakra Hijau is undergoing.

  20. Porphyry of Russian Empires in Paris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulakh, Andrey

    2014-05-01

    Porphyry of Russian Empires in Paris A. G. Bulakh (St Petersburg State University, Russia) So called "Schokhan porphyry" from Lake Onega, Russia, belongs surely to stones of World cultural heritage. One can see this "porphyry" at facades of a lovely palace of Pavel I and in pedestal of the monument after Nicolas I in St Petersburg. There are many other cases of using this stone in Russia. In Paris, sarcophagus of Napoleon I Bonaparte is constructed of blocks of this stone. Really, it is Proterozoic quartzite. Geology situation, petrography and mineralogical characteristic will be reported too. Comparison with antique porphyre from the Egyptian Province of the Roma Empire is given. References: 1) A.G.Bulakh, N.B.Abakumova, J.V.Romanovsky. St Petersburg: a History in Stone. 2010. Print House of St Petersburg State University. 173 p.

  1. Analisis Faktor-Faktor Yang Mempengaruhi Kesejahteraan Karyawan di PTPN IV Kebun Air Batu

    OpenAIRE

    Putra Adri Ananda P.

    2011-01-01

    This study entitled "Analysis of the factors that affect the welfare of employees at PTPN IV Water Garden Stone". This study aims to analyze the influence of salary, intensive, bonuses, and health services to the welfare of employees PTPN IV Kebun Air Batu. The study population were employees of the company PTPN IV Kebun Air Batu as much as 1197 people captured sample of 100 people by way of cluster sampling (sampling area). Basic rights are recognized is the fulfillment of the needs of food...

  2. ANALISA POSISI KERJA PADA PROSES PENCETAKAN BATU BATA MENGGUNAKAN METODE NIOSH

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    Merry Siska

    2012-06-01

    Pabrik pencetakan batu bata milik Bapak Miri mengerjakan pencetakan batu bata dengan proses manual. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk memberikan posisi kerja usulan pada operator. Dari perhitungan dengan menggunakan metode NIOSH dapat disimpulkan bahwa telah diperhitungkan nilai Recommended Weight Limit (RWL, nilai Lifting Index (LI, nilai Torque dan nilai konsumsi energi dari posisi usulan pada semua bagian tubuh dan dibandingkan pada posisi awal operator bekerja, maka pengangkatan beban tidak lagi bertumpu di bagian back dan sudah berubah dari posisi awal bekerja serta mengurangi keluhan bekerja pada bagian back. Bekerja tidak perlu terburu-buru, karena akan mengeluarkan energi yang dikeluarkan banyak dan akan mengakibatkan resiko cedera pada bagian tubuh.

  3. Uji Efektivitas Beberapa Waktu Aplikasi Pupuk Hijau Krinyu (Chromolaena odorata l.) Terhadap pertumbuhan dan produksi jagung (Zea mays L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Jonaha K. Purba

    2009-01-01

    Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui keefektifitasan beberapa waktu aplikasi pupuk hijau krinyu (Chromolaena odorata L.) terhadap pertumbuhan dan produksi jagung (Zea mays L.). Penelitian dilaksanakan di desa Namo Rambe, Deli Serdang dengan ketinggian tempat sekitar 30 m di atas permukaan laut pada awal bulan Agustus hingga akhir bulan November 2008. Metode yang digunakan adalah rancangan acak kelompok (RAK) non faktorial dengan enam perlakuan dan tiga ulangan. Perlakuannya terdiri dar...

  4. Perbandingan Reaksi Zat Besi Terhadap Teh Hitam dan Teh Hijau Secara In Vitro dengan Menggunakan Spektrofotometer Uv-Vis

    OpenAIRE

    Husnil Wardiyah; Yustini Alioes; Dian Pertiwi

    2014-01-01

    AbstrakSalah satu permasalahan gizi yang dihadapi Indonesia adalah anemia defisiensi besi. Defesiensi besi ini dapat disebabkan oleh asupan dan serapan yang tidak adekuat, seperti kebiasaan mengonsumsi zat yang dapat menghambat penyerapan zat besi seperti minum teh pada saat makan. Hambatan penyerapan ini disebabkan oleh polifenol yang terkandung di dalam teh, terutama tanin. Penelitian ini dilakukan pada teh hitam dan teh hijau yang banyak dikonsumsi masyarakat. Larutan teh hitam dan teh hij...

  5. Analysis of tectonic settings of global superlarge porphyry copper deposits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA; Bin(夏斌); CHEN; Genwen(陈根文); WANG; He(王核)

    2003-01-01

    About three quarters of superlarge porphyry copper deposits throughout the world occur along the eastern Pacific basin rim, most of which were formed during the Mesozoic-Cenozoic. Porphyry copper deposits often occur in the upper parts of a subduction zone and in a within-plate orogenic belt. Some porphyry copper deposits are inconsistent with plate subduction with respect to their formation time, and most of them in the world are associated with tensional environment. Metallogenic porphyries originated from the mantle, and the involvement of the lower-crust or oceanic crust materials have played an important role. Based on the geochemical characteristics and tectonic settings of the ore-bearing porphyries in the Gandise and Yulong metallogenic zones, it is proposed that delamination may be the important mechanism of formation of porphyry copper deposits.

  6. Dynamics of strombolian eruptions at Batu Tara volcano (Indonesia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarlato, P.; Del Bello, E.; Gaudin, D.; Taddeucci, J.; Ricci, T.; Cesaroni, C.

    2015-12-01

    In September 2014, high-speed imaging and acoustic data were acquired during 3 days of almost continuous recording (04-06/09/2015) at Batu Tara Volcano, in the small isolated island of Pulau Komba, in the Flores Sea (about 50 km N of Lembata). This volcano is very similar to the Italian Stromboli Volcano in both eruptive style and edifice morphology. The field experiment aimed at investigating degassing and explosive dynamics using a combination of GPS synchronized devices deployed in direct view of the active vent: i) a high-speed visible camera acquiring images at 500 frames per second (fps),ii) a thermal infrared (FLIR) camera acquiring at 50-200 fps, iii) a visible time lapse camera (GO-PRO) acquiring at 0.2-0.5 Hz (2 - 5 s interval), iv) two broadband microphones (Freq. range of kHz to 0.1 Hz) sampled at 10 kHz. Explosions can be discriminated in type according to their visual, thermal and acoustic features.Some explosions are characterized by a first sudden radial ejection of large spatter and bombs (main pulse), eventually followed by other similar events (secondary pulses), with very little amount of ash involved. In these eruptions, infrasonic waveforms are characterized by a first, high amplitude transient, with a first positive peak pressure followed by rapid dampening, typical of a Strombolian eruption.Other explosions are characterized by the sustained ejection of a dense jet of ash, with abundant decimeter to meter sized spatter and hot blocks.These eruptions are not accompanied by a maximum peak pressure at the eruption onset. Spectrograms show a high frequency component propagating for the entire duration of the signal.These two distinct types are sometimes overlapping and eruptions show a high amplitude transient followed by a high frequency coda. These different evolutions suggest that there are at least two repeatable explosion dynamics occurring in the conduit, with comparable gas overpressure, source depth and amount of gas involved

  7. Tingkat Pengetahuan dan Sikap Suami tentang Vasektomi di Desa Batu Ajo Kecamatan Kota Pinang dan Kabupaten Labuhanbatu Tahun 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Hardianti, Sri

    2016-01-01

    Background: Figuresmale participationin family planningin Indonesiais still low. That's because the husband's knowledge and attitudes about vasectomy still minus. Village Batu Ajo isone area that the low level of participation KB Vasectomy. Objective: to determine the level of knowledge and attitudes about vasectomy husband in the village of Batu ajo city district snut Labuhanbatu District 2015. Methodology: The study useda descriptivecross sectional approach. Number of samples 54 malec...

  8. Duobaoshan Porphyry Copper Deposit and Its Associated Components

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@Duobaoshan porphyry copper deposit, situated in Nenjiang County of Heilongjiang Province, Northeast China, lies tectonically in the Mongolian-Okhotsk geosyncline.Duobaoshan porphyry copper ore field consisting of Duobaoshan copper deposit and Tongshan copper deposit contains rich copper associated with molybdenum, gold, silver and osmium (OsX87). In this sense, this porphyry copper ore field will turn into a large industrial base of copper, gold, silver and osmium. At present, in Duobaoshan porphyry copper deposit occurs a usable B+C+-D grade reserve of 3 276 630ton Cu, 122 920 ton Mo, 87 ton gold and 1 417 ton Ag.

  9. Valuing quality of vegetation in recharge area of Seruk Spring, Pesanggrahan Valley, Batu City, East Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SITI SOFIAH

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Yulistyarini T, Sofiah S (2011 Valuing quality of vegetation in recharge area of Seruk Spring, Pesanggrahan Valley, Batu City, East Java. Biodiversitas 12: 229-234. A Seruk spring is one of the springs in Batu city which has water debit less than 1 liter per second. Land use changes of Seruk spring recharge area was occured in 2001. Recharge area of Seruk Spring consists of anthropogenic forest, eucalypts plantation, bamboo forest, pines plantation, horticulture and housing. The aim of this research was to valuing the quality of vegetation which supported ground water recharge in Seruk spring. Quality of vegetation were determined by vegetation structure, diversity, the thickness of litter and C-stock of each land use systems. Forests, eucalypts plantation and bamboo forests had almost same quality of vegetation.

  10. Grade-Tonnage Model of Porphyry Copper Deposits of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Xueping; Wei Min; Yang Lipei; Zhao Jingman

    2003-01-01

    A grade-tonnage model is established according to the analysis of 72 porphyry copper deposits recorded in "The Mineral Resources Data Base of China". Based on the analysis of frequency histogram, the cumulative frequency distributing graph and the theoretical model with double logarithmic coordinates of copper deposits, the typical mathematical characteristics of grade-tonnage model of porphyry copper deposits are clarified.

  11. Penentuan Tingkat Kekritisan Lahan Daerah Aliran Sungai Bilah Di Kabupaten Labuhan Batu

    OpenAIRE

    Dalimunthe, Jannatul Laila

    2011-01-01

    Indonesiaan forest decrease to be degraded land spaciously. It was effected by mamanagement, illegal logging,and shifting cultivation. The activated of Forest and Land Rehabilitation is one f mways for exceedthis problem. Besides of that identification of destroy land veri important indication to know rehabilitation activated. The purpose of research for identification the width the critis level of wathershed in Labuhan Batu with using The Geografik Information System technologi. The resea...

  12. Late Cretaceous porphyry copper mineralization in Sonora, Mexico: Implications for the evolution of the Southwest North America porphyry copper province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barra, Fernando; Valencia, Victor A.

    2014-10-01

    Two porphyry Cu-Mo prospects in northern Sonora, Mexico (Fortuna del Cobre and Los Humos) located within the southwestern North American porphyry province have been dated in order to constrain the timing of crystallization and mineralization of these ore deposits. In Fortuna del Cobre, the pre-mineralization granodiorite porphyry yielded an U-Pb zircon age of 76.5 ± 2.3 Ma, whereas two samples from the ore-bearing quartz feldespathic porphyry were dated at 74.6 ± 1.3 and 75.0 ± 1.4 Ma. Four molybdenite samples from Los Humos porphyry Cu prospect yielded a weighted average Re-Os age of 73.5 ± 0.2 Ma, whereas two samples from the ore-bearing quartz monzonite porphyry gave U-Pb zircon ages of 74.4 ± 1.1 and 74.5 ± 1.3 Ma, showing a Late Cretaceous age for the emplacement of this ore deposit. The results indicate that Laramide porphyry Cu mineralization of Late Cretaceous age is not restricted to northern Arizona as previously thought and provide evidence for the definition of NS trending metallogenic belts that are parallel to the paleo-trench. Porphyry copper mineralization follows the inland migration trend of the magmatic arc as a result of the Farallon slab flattening during the Laramide orogeny.

  13. Pengaruh Kompetensi, Penempatan Kerja, dan Pengembangan Karir Karyawan Terhadap Kinerja Karyawan Pada Bank Rakyat Indonesia Cabang Putri Hijau Medan

    OpenAIRE

    Hutabarat, Ika Petresia

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays the measurement of employee performance have become very important to evaluate the performance of the employees in the bank and the plan of future goals. Seen from the main task of Bank Rakyat Indonesia Cabang Putri Hijau Medan which is to collect funds from the public and distribute those funds to the business world, it needs an honest employee and meets the job specifications to meet the target set by the company, an employee who is able to solve the problems properly and has achie...

  14. Uji Bakteriologis Es Batu Rumah Tangga yang digunakan Penjual Minuman di Pasar Lubuk Buaya Kota Padang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basri Hadi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakEs batu digunakan untuk minuman dan terbuat dari air. Nilai sanitasi dan kehegienisan yang baik suatu minuman/makanan adalah tidak ditemukan adanya kuman E. coli sebagai parameter karena E. coli merupakan flora normal usus yang keluar bersama tinja dimana sebagai sumber infeksi terhadap makanan dan minuman. Dalam rangka meningkatkan derajat kesehatan masyarakat perlu dilaksanakan berbagai upaya kesehatan termasuk pengawasan kualitas makanan dan minuman. Telah dilakukan penelitian deskriptif dengan menggunakan metoda indeks MPN (Most Propable Number di bagian Mikrobiologi Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Andalas. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menilai kualitas bakteriologis es batu Rumah Tangga yang digunakan penjual minuman di pasar Lubuk Buaya kota Padang. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa 88,9% sampel es batu Rumah Tangga yang digunakan penjual minuman di pasar Lubuk Buaya kota Padang belum memenuhi syarat kesehatan, dengan angka MPN yang bervariasi. Dari hasil penelitian ini dapat disimpulkan bahwa sanitasi dan higienis es batu Rumah Tangga yang digunakan penjual minuman di pasar Lubuk Buaya kota Padang terkontaminasi bakteri koliform.Kata kunci: Uji Bakteriologis, Es Batu, MPNAbstractIce cube is widely use for drinks and beverages, it made from water.Good sanitation and hygienic value of a food/drink is determined by the founding of the E. coli germ as a parameter, since the E. coli is a normal flora of the intestine that is secreted together with feces, which is an infection-resulting source on food and drink. In order to improve the health of public, many efforts need to be done, including the monitoring of foods and drinks quality. A descriptive study has been done with index method of MPN (Most Probable Number in Microbiology section of Medical Faculty Andalas University. This study is aimed to determine the bacteriological qualiti of Ice cube were use by seller drinks at the pasar Lubuk Buaya kota Padang. Result of the study

  15. MINERALOGICAL FEATURES OF ULTRAMAFIC HYPOXENOLITHS IN ALKALI-RICH PORPHYRY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xianfan; YANG Zhengxi; LIU Jiaduo; ZHANG Chengjiang; WU Dechao; LI Youguo

    2003-01-01

    Ultramafic hypoxenoliths found in the alkali-rich porphyry in the Liuhe Village, Heqing, Yunnan,China, are of great significance in understanding the origin and evolution of the porphyry. This paper discusses the mineralogical features of the hypoxenoliths. It shows that the xenoliths are characterized by the upper mantle rocks modified to certain extent by the enriched mantle fluid metasomatism in the mantle environment, with the enriched mantle property of Iow-degree partial melting. This constitutes the important mineralogical evidence for the petrogenesis and mineralization of alkali-rich porphyry.

  16. KOMPOSISI KIMIA MINYAK ATSIRI BUAH SIRIH HIJAU (PIPER BETLE L, KEMUKUS (PIPER CUBEBA L DAN CABE JAWA (PIPER RETROFRACTUM VAHL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Widyo Wartono

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Tumbuhan genus Piper mempunyai kandungan minyak atsiri hampir disemua bagiannya, namun komposisi kimianya belum semua dilaporkan. Pada laporan ini kami melakukan isolasi dan identifikasi senyawa kimia minyak atsiri pada bagian buah tumbuhan Piper. Isolasi minyak atsiri buah Piper dilakukan dengan destilasi air menggunakan destilasi Stahl dan analisis komposisi kimia dengan kromatografi gas-spektroskopi masa (GC-MS. Kandungan minyak atsiri buah sirih hijau (Piper betle 1,4% (v/b, cabe jawa (Piper retrofractum 1% (v/b, dan buah kemukus (Piper cubeba 1,7% (v/b. Hasil analisis GC-MS menunjukan kandungan utama minyak atsiri adalah senyawa golongan monoterpen, seskuiterpen dan fenil propanoid. Kandungan utama minyak atsiri buah sirih hijau (P. betle adalah eugenol (12,36%, isokaryofillena (9,55% dan β-selinena (8,09%, sedangkan komponen utama buah cabe jawa (Piper retrofractum adalah isokaryofilen (8,88%, β-bisabolen (7,01% dan zingiberen (6,32%, dan minyak atsiri buah kemukus (Piper cubeba adalah spathulanol (27,05%, sativen (8,73% dan germakren D (7,50%.

  17. Isotope geology of the bakircay porphyry copper prospect, northern turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, R. P.

    1981-10-01

    Isotopic data for the Bakircay granodiorite porphyry, MediaObjects/126_2005_BF01798964_f1.tif give a Late Eocene age for the development of the porphyry copper system. They suggest a close temporal and genetic relationship between igneous and hydrothermal activity, and indicate that magmatic-hydrothermal fluids produced potassic alteration and that meteoric fluids enriched in radiogenic87Sr were responsible for propylitic alteration. The granodiorite porphyry is petrologically similar to porphyry copper-related intrusions from island arc and continental margin settings, which form a group with initial87Sr/86Sr ratios of less than 0. 7043, representing magmas produced in tectonic environments lacking any important component of old (i. e. Precambrian) continental material.

  18. The Dala (Älvdalen) Porphyries from Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wikström, Anders; Pereira, Lola; Lundqvist, Thomas; Cooper, Barry

    2014-05-01

    The Dala (Älvdalen) Porphyries from Sweden Anders Wikström (retired from Geological Survey of Sweden) Lola Pereira (University of Salamanca, Spain) Thomas Lundqvist (retired from Geological Survey of Sweden) Barry Cooper (University of South Australia) The commercial stone industry in Älvdalen, about 350 km northwest of Stockholm, commenced in the second half of the 18th century, as a consequence of social need. The region had been plagued by severe famine and there was an urgent need for additional wealth-generating industry. At that time it was already known that the porphyry in the area was similar to the "porfido rosso antico" from Egypt which had played an important role in the Roman culture. Many ups and downs followed. During one period in the 19th century, the Swedish Royal family owned the industry. At the same time, several "porphyry" objects were presented to different courts around Europe (e.g. a 4 metre tall vase to the Russian czar, although of a more granitic variety). Otherwise most products have been smaller objects like urns, vases, candelabras, etc. The very hard stone (with variable red or black colours) can be highly polished. Many of the porphyry varieties were sourced from glacial boulders. These had been "mechanically tested" by nature and were free from joints which otherwise was a problem in the associated quarries. Comagmatic granites also occur. The porphyries and granites have an age around 1700 Ma, and the former are amazingly well preserved with magnificent volcanic textures. The porphyries and granites occupy a vast area and are in part covered with red, continental sandstones (which are quarried to-day). In the middle of the 20th century, the ignimbritic character of the porphyry was discovered. Previously, the flattened "fiamme" (collapsed pumice) had been interpreted as some kind of flow structure in a lava. The porphyry manufacturing plants in Älvdalen are a part of the Swedish industrial history. Over a significant

  19. Geotechnical Properties of Malaysian Organic Soils: Case Study in Batu Pahat, Johor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix N. L. Ling

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Subsurface exploration is required before any development project in order to gain an understanding of the characteristics of the material that one will encounter. The type of the tests and exploration are normally specified based on the design requirement in accordance to respective code of practice. In general, the physical properties and strength of the material are important in civil engineering applications. However, the chemical contents and organic contents are only specified sometimes when necessary despite the fact that the physical and strength of the material are closely related to its chemical properties and organic contents. In most construction works, the top soil and peat soil which are highly organic will be removed prior to carrying out construction work which resulted in exposing the bottom layer of soil. Hence, the aim of this study is to determine the geotechnical properties of the organic soils at the interface layer of peat soil and inorganic soil which normally exposed after removing top soil and peat soil at the surface. The physical & chemical properties, strength and organic contents of the soils are determined in accordance to the BS1377:1990 and BS ISO 13320:2009. Three locations which are identified to be rich in organic soils namely Parit Nipah, Parit Sidek and Batu Puteh of Batu Pahat, were chosen in this case study. These locations are found to be difference geographically. The soil samples were collected using a peat auger at Parit Nipah and Batu Puteh while undisturbed tube sampler was used at Parit Sidek because the soil is too stiff to be sampled using peat auger. The findings of this study showed that the physical properties of the soil are strongly correlated with its organic content. However, the chemical properties and strength of the soil is found to be site dependent and poorly correlated to its organic content.

  20. Application of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) in Analysing Rainfall Distribution Patterns in Batu Pahat District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadir, A. A.; Kaamin, M.; Azizan, N. S.; Sahat, S.; Bukari, S. M.; Mokhtar, M.; Ngadiman, N.; Hamid, N. B.

    2016-07-01

    Rainfall forecasting reports are crucial to provide information and warnings to the population in a particular location. The Malaysian Meteorology Department (MMD) is a department that plays an important role in monitoring the situation and issued the statement of changes in weather and provides services such as weather advisories and gives warnings when the situation requires. Uncertain weather situations normally have created panic situation, especially in big cities because of flash floods due to poor drainage management. Usually, local authorities provided rainfall data in tables, and it is difficult to analyse to acquire the rainfall trend. Therefore, Geographic Information System (GIS) applications are commonly used to generate rainfall patterns in visual formation with a combination of characteristics of rainfall data and then can be used by stakeholders to facilitate the process of analysis and forecasting rainfall. The objective of this study is to determine the pattern of rainfall distribution using GIS applications in Batu Pahat district to assist interested parties to understand and easy to analyse the rainfall data in visual form or mapping form. Rainfall data for a period of 10 years (2004-2013) and monthly data (Dec 2006 - Feb 2007) are provided by the Department of Irrigation and Drainage (DID) for 12 stations in the district of Batu Pahat, and rainfall maps in each year was obtained using the interpolation Inverse Distance Weighted (IDW) method was used in this research. The rainfall map was then analyzed to identify the highest rainfall that was received during the period of study. For the conclusion, this study has proved that rainfall analysis using GIS application is efficient to be used in gaining information of rainfall patterns as the results show that the highest rainfall occurred in 2006 and 2007, and it were the years of major floods occurrence in Batu Pahat district.

  1. Hardboiled Performance and Affective Intimacy: Remediations of Racism in the Cenk Batu Tatorte

    OpenAIRE

    Breger, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    Although not around to stay, the first Turkish German detective to be featured in the Germany’s most popular television crime series, Tatort nonetheless represented a major TV event (2008–12). In his sixth episode as an investigator in a series famous for its continued engagement with topical social issues, Cenk Batu would be killed off after his loyalty to the German state had been tested by the schemes of a ruthless killer trying to exploit Batu’s love for a woman. Cast in the role of an un...

  2. Strategi Peningkatan Pemasaran Sub Terminal Agribisnis Hessa Air Genting Kecamatan Air Batu Kabupaten Asahan

    OpenAIRE

    Piliang, Yetty Fitri Yanti

    2015-01-01

    YETTY FITRI YANTI PILIANG. The Strategy of Marketing Improvement of Hessa Agribusiness Sub-Terminal, Air Genting, Air Batu Subdistrict, Asahan District (Under the Supervision of Ir. Diana Chalil, M.Si, Ph.D (chair) and Sri Fajar Ayu, SP, MM, DBA as the (member) The research was conducted from June, 2012 to February, 2013. The objective of the research was 1) to identify internal and external factors which influenced the role of STA Hessa Air Genting in marketing the product of farmers’ ve...

  3. Pendugaan Cadangan Karbon Pada Tegakan Kelapa Sawit (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) Umur 15 Tahun di Perkebunan Kelapa Sawit Putri Hijau, Besitang Sumatera Utara

    OpenAIRE

    Sitanggang, Guswinda Nasari

    2015-01-01

    Forests absorb CO2 during photosynthesis and store it as organic matter in biomass plants, as well as oil palm plantations. This study aimed were to : (1) obtain a model Allometric estimation of carbon stocks in vegetation potential of oil palm plantations in North Sumatra; (2) to obtain the potential carbon stocks in forest conversion to oil palm plantations in North Sumatra. This research was conducted in the area of Oil Palm Putri Hijau, Besitang North Sumatra. The research was carried out...

  4. Model pendugaan cadangan karbon pada kelapa sawit (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) umur 5 tahun di perkebunan kelapa sawit PT. Putri Hijau, Kabupaten Langkat.

    OpenAIRE

    Silaban, Dedy Hamonangan

    2015-01-01

    Palm Oil Plant a CO2 absorber as well as other crops such as forest plants. Currentlythe center ofoil palm plantationslocatedin the province ofNorth Sumatra. This study aimedtoobtaincarbonestimationmodelsAllometricpalmplantationsinPT. PutriHijau, Langkatand to getpotentialcarbon contentof plantoil palm(Elaeis guineensisJacq.) Age5years. The researchcarried outin twostages, the first stage was datacollectioninthe field andthe secondstage wasbiomassandcarbonanalyzesof each ofthe laboratory. The...

  5. Spatial Planning in Perspective of Good Governance (A Study on Analysis of Spatial Planning in Batu City as a Tourism City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Retno Wulan Sekarsari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Spatial planning is an effort to improve the welfare of the community and to ensure environmental sustainability by taking into account the comparative advantages in an area and minimizing the development gap by reducing slums, and poor and underdeveloped areas. Regional Spatial Planning Policy is a kind of policy product to control the level of environmental damage and the disorganized development and growth in a city or regency. The role of Batu City Government is to realize Batu City space that is safe, comfortable, productive and sustainable as a superior agropolitan city and tourism city in East Java Province. This article utilized Good Governance Perspective and System Theory to analyze the formulation of Regional Spatial Planning Policy in Batu City. This article firstly explained about tourism development, and secondly described the authority and responsibility of stakeholders in spatial planning formulation. The third part clarified good governance perspective on spatial planning in Batu City and analyzed supporting and inhibiting factors in spatial planning formulation in Batu City. The findings showed that only some actors and factors had strong influence over the formulation of Regional Spatial Planning Policy. Keywords: Good Governace, Governace Perspective, Spatial Planning, Tourism City, Batu City

  6. Faktor-Faktor Yang Mempengaruhi Penyalahgunaan Narkoba Pada Remaja di Kelurahaan Aekkanopan Timur Kecamatan Kualuh Hulu Kabupaten Labuhan Batu Utara

    OpenAIRE

    Siahaan, Daniel Calti

    2015-01-01

    Research conducted in East Village Aekkanopan Sub-district Kualuh Hulu north Regency Labuhan Batu .The research is descriptive research , where main source of the research is a teenager who are victims of drug abuse as many as four people and one additional informants the mother ros as the teenager was well aware of the activity drug abuse and your djamal as aekkanopan east village .Engineering data collection with the study library , field studies , interviews and observation . The data...

  7. Pengaruh Insentif dan Disiplin Kerja Terhadap Loyalitas Kerja Karyawan Operasional PT. SMART Tbk Perkebunan Padang Halaban Kabupaten Labuhan Batu Utara

    OpenAIRE

    Simatupang, Nita Febrina

    2016-01-01

    Basically, employee loyalty is the result of a complex process, both derived from internal factors and external factors. Employee loyalty greatly help the PT SMART Tbk Plantation Halaban Padang Utara Labuhan Batu regency in the accomplishment of work, and to realize short-term goals and long term. Good employee loyalty is the hope of the company that employs the employee. If incentives and discipline better then working in the company's loyalty becomes good.This study attempts to examine some...

  8. Peat swamp forest types and their regeneration in Giam Siak Kecil-Bukit Batu Biosphere Reserve, Riau, East Sumatra, Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    H. Gunawan; Kobayashi, S.; Mizuno, K; Kono, Y

    2012-01-01

    Although the ecology of tropical peat swamp forests is only now becoming understood, they are already under severe threat of conversion and degradation. Based on studies of the peat swamp forest of the Giam Siak Kecil–Bukit Batu Biosphere Reserve carried out between 2009 and 2010, this paper discusses forest types and regeneration processes in terms of promoting biodiversity conservation and sustainable management of the remaining peat swamp forest. Permanent plots covering a total area of th...

  9. Island history affects faunal composition: the treeshrews (Mammalia: Scandentia: Tupaiidae) from the Mentawai and Batu Islands, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargis, Eric J.; Woodman, Neal; Morningstar, Natalie C.; Reese, Aspen T.; Olson, Link E.

    2014-01-01

    The Mentawai and Batu Island groups off the west coast of Sumatra have a complicated geological and biogeographical history. The Batu Islands have shared a connection with the Sumatran ‘mainland’ during periods of lowered sea level, whereas the Mentawai Islands, despite being a similar distance from Sumatra, have remained isolated from Sumatra, and probably from the Batu Islands as well. These contrasting historical relationships to Sumatra have influenced the compositions of the respective mammalian faunas of these island groups. Treeshrews (Scandentia, Tupaiidae) from these islands have, at various times in their history, been recognized as geographically circumscribed populations of a broadly distributed Tupaia glis, subspecies, or distinct species. We used multivariate analyses of measurements from the skull and hands to compare the island populations from Siberut (Mentawai Islands) and Tanahbala (Batu Islands) with the geographically adjacent species from the southern Mentawai Islands (T. chrysogaster) and Sumatra (T. ferruginea). Results from both the skull and manus of the Siberut population show that it is most similar to T. chrysogaster, whereas the Tanahbala population is more similar to T. ferruginea, confirming predictions based on island history. These results are further corroborated by mammae counts. Based on these lines of evidence, we include the Siberut population in T. chrysogaster and the Tanahbala population in T. ferruginea. Our conclusions expand the known distributions of both the Mentawai and Sumatran species. The larger geographical range of the endangered T. chrysogaster has conservation implications for this Mentawai endemic, so populations and habitat should be re-evaluated on each of the islands it inhabits. However, until such a re-evaluation is conducted, we recommend that the IUCN Red List status of this species be changed from ‘Endangered’ to ‘Data Deficient’.

  10. A Study of Geological Formation on Different Sites in Batu Pahat, Malaysia Based On HVSR Method Using Microtremor Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noor, M. A. M.; Madun, A.; Kamarudin, A. F.; Daud, M. E.

    2016-07-01

    Geological formation is a one of information need to know during site reconnaissance. Conventional method like borehole has been known is very accurate to identify the formation of geology of a site. However, the problem of this technique is very expensive and not economical for large area. In the last decade, microtremor measurement has been introduced as an alternative technique and widely used in the geological formation study. Therefore, the aim in this study is to determine the geological formation underneath of surface in Batu Pahat district using microtremor measurement. There are two parameters have been carried out from microtremor measurement in term of natural frequency and HVSR curves images. Microtremor measurements are done conducted at 15 sites surrounding of Batu Pahat. Horizontal to vertical spectral ratio (HVSR) method was used for analyzing microtermor measurement data, to determine the natural frequency and also HVSR curves image. In this study, values of natural frequencies are used to classify the soil types with range in the between 0.93 to 5.35 Hz, meanwhile the pattern of HVSR curve images has been shown exists a few groups of soil types surrounding Batu Pahat district. Hence, microtremor measurement indirectly can be used as a one technique to add value in the site reconnaissance in the future.

  11. Pengaruh Motivasi Dan Lingkungan Kerja Terhadap Kinerja Dokter Dalam Memberikan Pelayanan Kepada Pasien Rawat Inap Di Rumah Sakit Tingkat II Putri Hijau KESDAM I/ Bukit Barisan Medan

    OpenAIRE

    Candra, Iskandar

    2013-01-01

    A doctor has an important position in yielding health service quality in a hospital since he is fully responsible for the process of medical treatment and for the cure of patients. The performance of Putri Hijau Level II Hospital, Medan, is not optimal. The Achievement of BOR (Bed Occupancy Rate) in 2011 was 48% with the target of 60-85%, due to the low motivation either intrinsic or extrinsic and the lack of supporting work environment. The aim of the research was to analyze the influence...

  12. Progress in porphyry copper exploration from the Gangdise belt, Tibet, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Youye; DUO Ji; CHENG Shunbo; GAO Shunbao; DAI Fanghua

    2007-01-01

    Recent mineral exploration in the Gangdise porphyry copper deposit belt, an important component of the Himalaya-Tethyan metallogenic belt, has led to the discovery of a number of deposits, as exemplified by the world-class Miocene Qulong porphyry Cu deposit. This paper reviews major advances in the studies of ore genesis and metallogenic regularity and progresses in mineral exploration of porphyry Cu deposits in the belt. Existing problems and suggestion for future exploration also are given.

  13. Porphyry copper assessment of the Tibetan Plateau, China: Chapter F in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludington, Steve; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Robinson, Gilpin R., Jr.; Mars, John L.; Miller, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey collaborated with the China Geological Survey to conduct a mineral-resource assessment of resources in porphyry copper deposits on the Tibetan Plateau in western China. This area hosts several very large porphyry deposits, exemplified by the Yulong and Qulong deposits, each containing at least 7,000,000 metric tons (t) of copper. However, large parts of the area are underexplored and are likely to contain undiscovered porphyry copper deposits.

  14. PERALIHAN MATA PENCAHARIAN SEBAGAI BENTUK ADAPTASI (Studi Kasus: Desa Batu Belubang, Bangka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ira Adiatma

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Bangka island as a whole has undergone a significant change related thereto. Group of fishermen coastalcommunities are the most vulnerable to changing weather and coastal environment. In the village of BatuBelubang, frequent extreme weather phenomena of the cyclone and the rapid change of weather, had forced thepopulation to adapt to climate change. The livelihoods of fishermen who rely heavily on natural conditions causethe dependence on weather patterns and ocean activities.This research uses qualitative analysis with the positivistic approach. The method of data collection is done withthe interview focused and observational field to see the real conditions and survey agencies to obtainpreliminary data regarding the level of climate change that occurred in the region. The analysis is done byassessing the linkages/relationship of the destructive effects of climate change on livelihoods of fishermen.From the analysis carried out, the main reason for the occurrence of the transition is economic livelihood. Thistransition is triggered by vulnerability due to climate change and the existence of externalities, namely adeterioration of Tin prices and the pepper in the international market in 1990 which was then backed up bypolicy changes after regional autonomy in 2001. The welfare obtained from short-term floating mines have hugeconsequences for the coastal environmental damage that would lead to a condition in which a new vulnerability.Key words : the transition of livelihood, adaptation, fisherman

  15. PEMODELAN STRUKTUR BAWAH PERMUKAAN DAERAH SUMBER AIR PANAS SONGGORITI KOTA BATU BERDASARKAN DATA GEOMAGNETIK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dafiqiy Ya’lu Ulin Nuha, Novi Avisena

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Telah dilakukan penelitian dengan metode geomagnetik pada tanggal 26 -27 April 2011 di daerah Songgoriti Kota Batu dengan tujuan untuk mengetahui pola Anomali Magnet Total dan struktur geologi bawah permukaan. Setelah dilakukan koreksi data yang meliputi koreksi diurnal dan koreksi IGRF maka didapatkan nilai anomali magnet total serta kontinuasi ke atas dan reduksi ke kutub. Selanjutnya dilakukan interpretasi secara kualitatif dan kuantitatif. Interpretasi kuantitatif dilakukan dengan membaca pola kontur anomali magnet lokal dan reduksi ke kutub, sedangkan interpretasi kualitatif dilakukan dengan membuat penampang 2,5 D pada dua lintasan AB dan CD. Berdasarkan interpretasi kuantitatif pada kontur anomali  magnetik lokal didapatkan variasi nilai anomali antara -800 nT-600 nT dengan anomali tinggi terdapat pada arah timur dan barat daerah penelitian, anomali sedang terletak pada daerah tengah penelitian dan anomali rendah terdapat pada sedikit   daerah   tengah   penelitian.   Daerah   penelitian   didominasi   anomali   magnetik   sedang. Berdasarkan interpretasi kualitatif pada model penampang 2,5 D lintasan AB dan CD, didapatkan tujuh body yaitu batuan tufa, batuan tufa, batuan breksi vulkanik, batuan breksi tufaan, batuan lava, batuan basalt, dan batuan andesit. Berdasarkan sifat fisik dari tiap lapisan batuan, diduga batuan sarang dalam sistem geothermal yang berupa sumber air panas di daerah penelitian adalah batuan breksi vulkanik dengan batuan penutup (cap rock berupa batuan tufa. Kata Kunci : Anomali Magnet, Struktur Geologi, Air Panas.

  16. Deep xenoliths in alkalic porphyry,liuhe,Yunnan,and implications to petrogenesis of alkalic porphyry and associated mineralizations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘显凡; 战新志; 高振敏; 刘家军; 李朝阳; 苏文超

    1999-01-01

    Na-rich microlite-glass is first discovered in deep-source xenoliths in alkali-rich porphyry, Liuhe village, Heqing County, Yunnan Province. It is shown that the ultramafic xenoliths originated from partial melting of primary mantle and the glass resulted from metasomatism between the xenoliths and mantle fluid derived from mantle degassing. Mantle metasomatism not only resulted in the enrichment of alkaline, large-ion elements, ore metals and volatiles but also created a favorable condition for the generation of alkaline magmas. The mantle xenoliths and their characteristics of mantle metasomatism provide important evidence for a better understanding of the petrogenesis and mineralization of the Cenozoic alkali-rich porphyry in western Yunnan.

  17. PEMISAHAN ION KROM(III DAN KROM(IV DALAM LARUTAN DENGAN MENGGUNAKAN BIOMASSA ALGA HIJAU SPIROGYRA SUBSALSA SEBAGAI BIOSORBEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Mawardi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Karakteristik pemisahan ion Cr3+ dan Cr6+ dalam larutan melalui proses biosorpsi menggunakan biomassa alga hijau Spirogyra subsalsa dengan sistem batch telah diteliti. Dalam pelaksanaannya diawali dengan melakukan analisis kualitatif gugus fungsi dalam biomassa menggunakan instrumen FTIR, kemudian dipelajari karakteristik pengaruh variabel pH awal larutan, ukuran partikel biosorben, kecepatan pengadukan, pengaruh pemanasan biosorben, laju penyerapan, pengaruh konsentrasi larutan ion logam terhadap kapasitas serapan biomassa alga. Berdasarkan spektra spektroskopi FTIR dapat disimpulkan bahwa  biomassa alga hijau S. Subsalsa mengandung gugus-gugus karboksilat, amina, amida, amino, karbonil dan hidroksil, disamping adanya senyawa silikon, belerang dan fosfor. Hasil penelitian yang diperoleh  memperlihatkan bahwa kapasitas biosorpsi sangat dipengaruhi oleh pH larutan, waktu kontak dan konsentrasi awal larutan. Biosorpsi optimum kation Cr3+ terjadi pada pH 4,0 sedangkan ion Cr6+ terjadi pada pH 2,0 kemudian berkurang dejalan dengan naiknya pH larutan. Perhitungan dengan persamaan Isoterm Langmuir diperoleh data kapasitas serapan maksimum biomassa alga S. subsalsa untuk masing-masing ion Cr3+ dan Cr6+ adalah 1,82 mg (0,035 mmol dan 1,51 mg (0,029 mmol per gram biomassa kering. Kinetika biosorpsi berlangsung relatif cepat, dimana selama selang waktu 30 menit, masing-masing ion terserap sekitar 95,7%; dan 86,5%. Daya serap biomassa juga dipengaruhi kecepatan pengadukan, sedangkan faktor ukuran partikel dan pemanasan biosorben kurang mempengaruhi daya serap biomassa. Key Word : biosorpsi, spirogyra subsalsa, krom(III, krom(VI, sistem batchAbstract Separation of Ion Chromium(III and Chromium(IV In Solution Using Green Algae Biomass Spirogyra subsalsa as Biosorbent. The characteristics of Cr3+andCr6+ ion separation in solution through biosorption process using green algal biomass Spirogyrasubsalsa with batch systems have been investigated. The study

  18. Imperial porphyry from Gebel Abu Dokhan, the Red Sea Mountains, Egypt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makovicky, Emil; Frei, Robert; Karup-Møller, Sven;

    2016-01-01

    The prestigious red Imperial Porphyry was quarried from Mons Porphyrites in the Red Sea Mountains of Egypt. It was reserved for imperial use in Rome and Constantinople and widely reused in Romanesque and Renaissance times. The mineralogy and petrology of the porphyry collected at Mons Porphyrites...

  19. Cross and Adu: A Socio-Historical Study on the Encounter between Christianity and the Indigenous Culture on Nias and the Batu Islands, Indonesia (1865-1965)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hummel, U.; Telaumbanua, T.

    2007-01-01

    This study is a fruit of joined intercultural research. The authors, an Asian and a European, look at the encounter between Christianity and the realm of the indigenous people of Nias and the Batu Islands (the Ono Niha) and their culture. During the course of one century (1865-1965), two missionary

  20. Organic petrochemical and organic geochemical characterization of the Tertiary coal-bearing sequence of Batu Arang, Selangor, Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasiah, A.W.; Abolins, P. [University of Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia). Dept. of Geology

    1998-08-01

    The Tertiary coal-bearing sequence at Batu Arang in Selangor, Peninsular Malaysia consists of a sandstone-coal-oil shale facies assemblage. A detailed organic petrological and organic geochemical study was carried out on several organic-rich sediments from this sequence. The coals, hypautochthonous in origin, are mainly duroclarite-type, although other minor microlithotypes also occur. Alginite is not observed in the coals, but other liptinitic constituents are common, particularly thin-walled cutinite and sporinite. The oil shales and the coals are thermally immature. This immaturity has a considerable influence on the biomarker distributions. Interestingly, for Tertiary age sediments of continental origin, the diagnostic biomarker compounds such as 18 alpha (H)-oleanane and bicadinanes, normally linked to the higher land plant group of angiosperms, are not observed in the samples analysed. A clear distinction, however, in the biomarker distributions of the shales and the coals/carbargilite can be made based upon the distribution of C-27-C-29 regular steranes. The depositional environment of the Batu Arang coal-bearing sequence is interpreted as varying from an alluvial flood plain peat-swamp to fluvio-lacustrine depositional setting.

  1. Re-Os Dating of the Pulang Porphyry Copper Deposit in Zhongdian, NW Yunnan, and Its Geological Significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Pusheng; HOU Zengqian; WANG Haiping; QU Wenjun; MENG Yifeng; YANG Zhusen; LI Wenchang

    2004-01-01

    The Pulang porphyry copper deposit is located in the Zhongdian island arc belt, NW Yunnan, in the central part of the Sanjiang area, SW China, belonging to the southern segment of the Yidun island arc belt on the western margin of the Yangtze Platform. In the Yidun island arc, there occur well-known "Gacun-style" massive sulfide deposits in the northern segment and plenty of porphyry copper deposits in the southern segment, of which the Pulang porphyry copper deposit is one of the representatives. Like the Yulong porphyry copper deposit, this porphyry copper deposit is also one of the most important porphyry copper deposits in the eastern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. But it is different from other porphyry copper deposits in the eastern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (e.g. those in the Gangdise porphyry copper belt and Yulong porphyry copper belt) in that it formed in the Indosinian period, while others in the Himalayan period. Because of its particularity among the porphyry copper deposits of China, this porphyry copper deposit is of great significance for the study of the basic geology and the evaluation and prediction of mineral resources in the Zhongdian island arc belt.However, no accurate chronological data are available for determining the timing of mineralization of the porphyry copper deposit. By field observation in the study area and Re-Os dating of molybdenite and K-Ar dating of hydrothermal minerals and whole rock from the typical geological bodies, the timing of mineralization of the porphyry copper deposit has systematically been determined for the first time. The K-Ar age for the hydrothermal mineralization of biotite-quartz monzonitic porphyry that has undergone patassic silicate (biotite and K-feldspar) alteration ranges from 235.4±2.4 to 221.5±2.0 Ma and the Re-Os age for molybdenite in the quartz-molybdenite stage is ~213±3.8 Ma. These data are very close to each other, suggesting that the ore-forming processes of the Pulang porphyry copper deposit was

  2. Porphyry-copper mineralisation in the central Srednogorie zone, Bulgaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strashimirov, Strashimir; Petrunov, Rumen; Kanazirski, Milko

    2002-08-01

    The porphyry-copper systems in the central part of the Srednogorie zone (Bulgaria) are represented by three major deposits (Elatsite, Medet and Assarel) and several smaller deposits and occurrences, all of them within the Panagyurishte ore district. The hydrothermal systems are related to Late Cretaceous calc-alkaline igneous complexes. Ore mineralisation is developed predominantly in the apical parts of subvolcanic and intrusive bodies as well as within the volcanic and basement metamorphic rocks. Several of the porphyry systems are spatially associated with shallow-level intermediate and high-sulphidation volcanic-hosted epithermal deposits of economic importance, such as the major gold-copper mine at Chelopech located 10 km from the Elatsite porphyry-copper deposit. Mineralisation processes in the porphyry deposits start with intensive hydrothermal alteration of the wall rocks. K-silicate alteration is characteristic for pre-ore hydrothermal activity in all of them, and it is located mostly in their central parts. Propylitic alteration is prominent in the Medet and Assarel deposits. The Assarel deposit is located in the central part of a palaeovolcanic structure and shows a large spectrum of pre-ore alterations, including propylitic, sericitic, and advanced argillic assemblages. The initial stages of the hydrothermal systems are characterised by high temperatures (>550-500 °C) and highly saline (50-20 wt% NaCl equiv.) and vapour-rich fluids of likely magmatic origin. The composition of the fluids gradually changes from H2O-NaCl±FeCl2 to H2O-NaCl-KCl and H2O-NaCl-dominated as the fluids cool, react with wall rocks, and may become diluted with meteoric water. Fe-Ti-oxide mineral associations were formed early in all deposits, later followed, in the Elatsite deposit, by an assemblage of bornite, chalcopyrite, platinum group element (PGE) phases, Co-Ni thiospinels, Ag- and Bi-tellurides, and selenides. The main ore stage in all deposits is dominated by

  3. Zircon U-Pb dating of Maherabad porphyry copper-gold prospect area: evidence for a late Eocene porphyry-related metallogenic epoch in east of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azadeh Malekzadeh Shafaroudi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Eastern Iran has great potential for porphyry copper deposits, as a result of its past subduction zone tectonic setting that lead to extensive alkaline to calc-alkaline magmatic activity in Tertiary time. Maherabad is the first porphyry Cu-Au prospecting area which is discovered in eastern Iran. This is related to a succession o f monzonitic to dioritic porphyries stocks that were emplaced within volcanic rocks. Monzonitic porphyries have basic role in mineralization. Hydrothermal alteration zones are well developed including potassic, sericitic-potassic, quartz-sericite-carbonate-pyrite, quartz-carbonate-pyrite, silicified-propylitic, propylitic, carbonate and silicified zones. Mineralization occurs as Disseminated, stockwork and hydrothermal breccia. Based on early stage of exploration, Cu is between 179- 6830 ppm (ave. 3200 ppm and Au is up to 1000 ppb (ave. 570 ppb. This prospect is gold- rich porphyry copper deposit. Laser-ablation U-Pb dating of two samples from ore-related intrusive rocks indicate that these two monzonitic porphyries crystallized at 39.0 ± 0.8 Ma to 38.2 ± 0.8 Ma, within a short time span of less than ca. 1 Ma during the middle Eocene. This provides the first precise ages for metallogenic episode of porphyry-type mineralization. Also, the initial 87Sr/86Sr and (143Nd/144Ndi was recalculated to an age of 39 Ma. Initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios for monzonitic rocks are 0.7047-0.7048. The (143Nd/144Ndi isotope composition are 0.512694-0.512713. Initial ε Nd isotope values 1.45-1.81. Based on isotopic data the magma had originated beyond the continental crust. The study will be used for tectonic-magmatic setting and evolution of eastern Iran. Keywords: Lut block, Middle Eocene, Zircon, Geochronology, Laser ablation ICP-MS,

  4. Porphyry copper assessment of western Central Asia: Chapter N in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Byron R.; Mars, John L.; Denning, Paul D.; Phillips, Jeffrey D.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Zientek, Michael L.; Dicken, Connie L.; Drew, Lawrence J.; with contributions from Alexeiev, Dmitriy; Seltmann, Reimar; Herrington, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey conducted an assessment of resources associated with porphyry copper deposits in the western Central Asia countries of Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, and Tajikistan and the southern Urals of Kazakhstan and Russia as part of a global mineral resource assessment. The purpose of the study was to (1) delineate permissive areas (tracts) for undiscovered porphyry copper deposits; (2) compile a database of known porphyry copper deposits and significant prospects; (3) where data permit, estimate numbers of undiscovered deposits within those permissive tracts; and (4) provide probabilistic estimates the amounts of copper (Cu), molybdenum (Mo), gold (Au), and silver (Ag) that could be contained in those undiscovered deposits.

  5. Mo isotope fractionation during hydrothermal evolution of porphyry Cu systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafiei, Behnam; Shamanian, GholamHossein; Mathur, Ryan; Mirnejad, Hassan

    2015-03-01

    We present Mo isotope compositions of molybdenite types from three successive stages of ore deposition in several porphyry copper deposits of the Kerman region, Iran. The data provide new insights into controlling processes on Mo isotope fractionation during the hydrothermal evolution of porphyry systems. The Mo isotope compositions of 27 molybdenite samples show wide variations in δ97Mo ranging from -0.37 to +0.92 ‰. The data reveal that molybdenites in the early and transitional stages of mineralization (preferentially 2H polytypes; δ97Mo mean = 0.35 ‰) have higher δ97Mo values than late stage (mainly 3R polytypes; δ97Mo mean = 0.02 ‰) molybdenites. This trend suggests that fractionation of Mo isotopes occurred in high-temperature stages of mineralization and that hydrothermal systems generally evolve towards precipitation of molybdenite with lower δ97Mo values. Taking into account the genetic models proposed for porphyry Cu deposits along with the temperature-dependent fractionation of Mo isotope ratios, it is proposed that large variations of Mo isotopes in the early and the transitional stages of ore deposition could be controlled by the separation of the immiscible ore-forming fluid phases with different density, pH, and ƒO2 properties (i.e., brine and vapor). The fractionation of Mo isotopes during fluid boiling and Rayleigh distillation processes likely dominates the Mo isotope budget of the remaining ore-forming fluids for the late stage of mineralization. The lower δ97Mo values in the late stage of mineralization can be explained by depletion of the late ore-forming hydrothermal solutions in 97Mo, as these fluids have moved to considerable distance from the source. Finally, the relationship observed between MoS2 polytypes (2H and 3R) and their Mo isotopic compositions can be explained by the molecular vibration theory, in which heavier isotopes are preferentially partitioned into denser primary 2H MoS2 crystals.

  6. PEMBUATAN BIOETANOL DARI ALGA Codium geppiorum DAN PEMANFAATAN BATU KAPUR NUSA PENIDA TERAKTIVASI UNTUK MENINGKATKAN KUALITAS BIOETANOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Wayan Karta

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available  ABSTRAK: Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh variasi konsentrasi penambahan ragi tape dan waktu fermentasi terhadap kadar etanol dalam pembuatan bioetanol berbahan alga Codium geppiorum, dan pengaruh variasi suhu aktivasi dan massa batu kapur Nusa Penida dalam meningkatkan kadar etanol. Penelitian adalah True Experiment dengan Rancangan Acak Lengkap (RAL pola faktorial 3 x 4 yang terdiri dari dua faktor. Kadar etanol diukur dengan Gas Chromatography Varian 3300 dan dianalisis dengan Anava dua jalur menggunakan software SPSS 17.0. Hasil penelitian pada kadar etanol hasil fermentasi menunjukkan nilai Fhitung > Ftabel (38,212 > 2,51 dengan probabilitas 0,000 yang berarti adanya interaksi antara variasi konsentrasi ragi dan waktu fermentasi. Perlakuan yang optimum diperoleh pada W3D3 (waktu 7 hari dan konsentrasi 20% yaitu dengan rata-rata 3,03% dari massa sampel alga 25 gram. Hasil penelitian dehidrasi etanol menunjukkan nilai Fhitung > Ftabel (3,082 > 2,51 dengan probabilitas 0,022 yang berarti terdapat interaksi antara suhu aktivasi dan massa batu kapur dalam dehidrasi etanol. Perlakuan yang optimum adalah M1T1 (massa 50 gram dan suhu 800oC dengan rata-rata kadar etanol 99,15 %. Aplikasi batu kapur dengan dehidrasi optimum mampu meningkatkan kadar bioetanol dari 28,92% menjadi 83,78%. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian disimpulkan bahwa variasi konsentrasi ragi tape dan waktu fermentasi berpengaruh signifikan terhadap kadar etanol yang dihasilkan pada pembuatan bioetanol berbahan alga Codium geppiorum; dan variasi suhu aktivasi dan massa batu kapur berpengaruh signifikan dalam meningkatkan kadar etanol.  ABSTRACT: The aims of this research are to determine the effect of the concentration of yeast addition and length of fermentation on the amount of ethanol produced in the fermentation of algae Codium geppiorum and the effect of activation temperature and the amount of Nusa Penida’s limestone on the concentration of ethanol in the

  7. VASEKTOMI DAN PEMOTONGAN TARING PADA MONYET EKOR PANJANG (Macaca fascicularis DI KAWASAN WISATA PURA BATU PAGEH, DESA UNGASAN BADUNG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Nengah Wandia

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Population growth and aggressiveness are important factors on macaque populations that their habitats are used as tourist destinations. Controlling those two factors may decrease the negative impact of the macaque population both to the environment and the internal circumstance of the population. This Community Service was packed as a vasectomy and canine cutting services on the adult male of long tailed macaques occupying a tourist destination of Pura Batu Pageh, Ungasan Village, Badung Regency. Vasectomy is a surgical division of all or part of vas deferens to induce sterility. Surgical resection of part of vas deferens used a midline slicing method. In this program, one selectively adult male was successfully vasectomized and the four canines were also cut successfully. Later inspection showed that there was no any problem with the individual that formerly subjected to medical treatments and even the wounds went to be healing completely.

  8. Porphyry copper assessment of eastern Australia: Chapter L in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bookstrom, Arthur A.; Len, Richard A.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Robinson,, Gilpin R.; Zientek, Michael L.; Drenth, Benjamin J.; Jaireth, Subhash; Cossette, Pamela M.; Wallis, John C.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducts national and global assessments of resources (mineral, energy, water, and biologic) to provide science in support of decision making. Mineral resource assessments provide syntheses of available information about where mineral deposits are known and suspected to occur in the Earth’s crust and which commodities may be present, together with estimates of amounts of resources that may be present in undiscovered deposits. The USGS collaborated with geologists of the Geological Survey of New South Wales and Geoscience Australia (formerly the Australian Geological Survey Organisation) on an assessment of Phanerozoic-age porphyry copper resources in Australia. Porphyry copper deposits contain about 11 percent of the identified copper resources in Australia. This study addresses resources of known porphyry copper deposits and expected resources of undiscovered porphyry copper deposits in eastern Australia.

  9. El Salvador, Chile porphyry copper deposit revisited: Geologic and geochronologic framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornejo, P.; Tosdal, R.M.; Mpodozis, C.; Tomlinson, A.J.; Rivera, O.; Fanning, C.M.

    1997-01-01

    The Eocene (42 to 41 Ma) El Salvador porphyry copper deposit in the Indio Muerto district, northern Chile (26?? 15??? S Lat.), formerly thought to have formed at the culmination of a 9-m.y. period of episodic magmatism, is shown by new mapping, U-Pb and K-Ar geochronology, and petrologic data to have formed during the younger of two distinct but superposed magmatic events - a Paleocene (???63 to 58 Ma) and an Eocene (44 to 41 Ma) event. In the district, high-K Paleocene volcano-plutonic activity was characterized by a variety of eruptive styles and magmatic compositions, including a collapse caldera associated with explosive rhyolitic magmatism (El Salvador trap-door caldera), a post-collapse rhyolite dome field (Cerro Indio Muerto), and andesitic-trachyandesitic stratovolcanos (Kilo??metro Catorce-Los Amarillos sequence). Precaldera basement faults were reactivated during Paleocene volcanism as part of the collapse margin of the caldera. Beneath Cerro Indio Muerto, where the porphyry Cu deposit subsequently formed, the intersection of two major basement faults and the NNE-striking rotational axis of tilted ignimbrites of the Paleocene El Salvador caldera localized emplacement of post-collapse rhyolite domes and peripheral dikes and sills. Subsequent Eocene rhyolitic and granodioritic-dacitic porphyries intruded ???14 m.y. after cessation of Paleocene magmatism along the same NNE-striking structural belt through Cerro Indio Muerto as did the post-collapse Paleocene rhyolite domes. Eocene plutonism over a 3-m.y. period was contemporaneous with NW-SE-directed shortening associated with regional sinistral transpression along the Sierra Castillo fault, lying ???10 km to the east. Older Eocene rhyolitic porphyries in the Indio Muerto district were emplaced between 44 and 43 Ma, and have a small uneconomic Cu center associated with a porphyry at Old Camp. The oldest granodioritic-dacitic porphyries also were emplaced at ???44 to 43 Ma, but their petrogenetic relation to

  10. Analisis Pengaruh Lingkungan Kerja Dan Insentif Terhadap Produktivitas Kerja Karyawan Di Pabrik Kelapa Sawit PT. Perkebunan Nusantara IV Kebun Air Batu Asahan

    OpenAIRE

    Nasution, Fuad Abdillah

    2013-01-01

    Business development is becoming competitive; therefore, a company is expected to use its human resources properly and correctly. In an attempt to increase the work productivity at PT. Perkebunan Nusantara IV, Air Batu Plantation, Asahan, the employees should be dynamic, creative and transparent, but they have to be critical and responsive to new ideas and changes. Productive employees are those who are skillful and able to understand their job as what has been expected. It can be seen from t...

  11. PENGARUH BUDAYA ORGANISASI DAN LINGKUNGAN KERJA TERHADAP ORGANIZATIONAL CITIZENSHIP BEHAVIOR, MOTIVASI DAN KINERJA (Survey Pada Karyawan Hotel Berbintang di Kota Malang dan Batu)

    OpenAIRE

    Bambang Warsito

    2009-01-01

    This research seeks to investigate the relationship between organizational culture variables, work environment, organizational citizenship behavior, motivation and performance in the star-typed hotel industry at Malang and Batu. This research was purposed to assess the differences of organizational culture, work environment, organizational citizenship behavior, motivation and performance based on the characteristic of respondents. This research was categorized as survey one using cross-sectio...

  12. Cross and Adu: A Socio-Historical Study on the Encounter between Christianity and the Indigenous Culture on Nias and the Batu Islands, Indonesia (1865-1965)

    OpenAIRE

    Hummel, U.; Telaumbanua, T.

    2007-01-01

    This study is a fruit of joined intercultural research. The authors, an Asian and a European, look at the encounter between Christianity and the realm of the indigenous people of Nias and the Batu Islands (the Ono Niha) and their culture. During the course of one century (1865-1965), two missionary societies, the Rhenish Mission and the Dutch Lutheran Mission, were each propagating a certain type of Protestantism among the Ono Niha. The course of Christianization transformed the Niasan cultur...

  13. Geochronologic constraints on magmatic intrusions and mineralization of the Zhunuo porphyry copper deposit in Gangdese, Tibet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In situ zircon U-Pb ages for the recently discovered Zhunuo porphyry copper deposit in the western part of the Gangdese metallogenic belt in Tibet were determined by sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe (SHRIMP). The ages can be divided into two separate groups, reflecting more than four major tectono-magmatic events in the area. The 62.5±2.5 Ma age of inherited zircons may be related to the volcanic eruption of the Linzizong Group formed shortly after the India-Asia continental collision. The 50.1±3.6 Ma age most likely corresponds to the time of underplating of mantle-derived mafic magma in Gangdese. The 15.6±0.6 Ma age obtained from magmatic zircons is interpreted as the age of crystallization of the Zhunuo ore-forming porphyry. Finally, a molybdenite Re-Os isochron age of 13.72±0.62 Ma is consistent with another zircon U-Pb age of 13.3 ±0.2 Ma, representing the time of copper mineralization. These ages, in combination with available literature data, indicate that magmatic crystallization and copper mineralization in the Gangdese metallogenic belt became gradually younger westward, and further suggest that the Zhunuo porphyry copper deposit was formed in the same tectonic stage as other porphyry copper deposits in the eastern and central Gangdese belt. This conclusion provides critical information for future exploration of porphyry copper deposits in western Gangdese.

  14. Application of GIS Based Multi-criteria Analysis in Site Selection of Water Reservoirs (Case Study: Batu Pahat, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakhtyar Ali Ahmad

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Malaysia is well endowed with abundance of natural water resources, which has significantly contributed to the socio-economic development of the country. However, the situation has somewhat changed over the last decade. The aim of this study is to apply GIS in identifying the most suitable location for water reservoir for area of Batu Pahat, Johor in Malaysia. The main criteria selected for this study are pipe line, elevation, rive, Land use, road network, water supply network and slope. Methodology is designed in such a way to achieve the objectives of this study as to identify the important criteria for locating water reservoir, to model the location of reservoir using Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP and Weighted Overlay (WO methods. Based on the criteria chosen, the data are processed and analyzed the existing 52 reservoir locations and their capacities. Based on the projected number of population for the year 2050, as a result, 5 new reservoir locations have been identified to fulfill the future demands of water for the study area. Thus, it can be concluded that the weights derived from AHP integrated in Arc GIS can be a useful tool in GIS analysis for the determination of suitable locations for water reservoir in the study area.

  15. Investigation of Stabilised Batu Pahat Soft Soil Pertaining on its CBR and Permeability Properties for Road Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Idrus, M. M.; Singh, J. S. M.; Musbah, A. L. A.; Wijeyesekera, D. C.

    2016-07-01

    Soil stabilization by adding materials such as cement, lime and bitumen is one of the effective methods for improving the geotechnical properties of soils [11] Nano-particle is one of the newest additives and many studies about using nano-particle in soil improvement has been done but it was given less attention when soft clay soils stabilization is concerned. To evaluate the strength characteristics of stabilized Batu Pahat soft clay, laboratory investigation on early strength gained by the stabilized soil must be conducted to formulate a suitable and economical mix design [10]. To achieve such purpose, the study examined the effect of NanoClay on the California Bearing Ratio and the Permeability of soft clay. The results gained shows that the Nano-Clay is able to increase the strength of the soft clay [9]. The California Bearing Ratio of the soil is increase significantly where the results for the highest percentage of admixture is 14.4% while the permeability of the soil decreases significantly with increasing Nano-Clay whereby the results of the highest percentage of admixture is 2.0187x10-11 m/s. After doing this research, it is proven that Nano-clay can contribute towards better soil stabilization and enhance the quality of soil as subgrade and foundation at large.

  16. Ore-forming fluid constraints on illite crystallinity (IC) at Dexing porphyry copper deposit, Jiangxi Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Illite, a distinctive kind of clay minerals of potassiumalteration within the hydrothermal alteration zone, frequently occurs at the Tongchang porphyry copper deposit ore field. The illite crystallinity (IC) value and expandability are mainly affected by water/rock ratio or fluid flux. It was formed by illitization of plagioclase and micas during hydrothermal fluid-rock interaction within the porphyry body and near the contact zone with wall rocks. Moreover, the negative correlation between illite index (IC) and copper grade indicates that within the alteration zone, the smaller the illite crystallinity value, the higher the alteration degree, and the higher the copper grade due to higher water/rock ratio. At lower levels of the porphyry body, however, the illite crystallinity (IC) values are mainly controlled by temperature and time duration.

  17. Audio-magnetotelluric survey to characterize the Sunnyside porphyry copper system in the Patagonia Mountains, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampson, Jay A.; Rodriguez, Brian D.

    2010-01-01

    The Sunnyside porphyry copper system is part of the concealed San Rafael Valley porphyry system located in the Patagonia Mountains of Arizona. The U.S. Geological Survey is conducting a series of multidisciplinary studies as part of the Assessment Techniques for Concealed Mineral Resources project. To help characterize the size, resistivity, and skin depth of the polarizable mineral deposit concealed beneath thick overburden, a regional east-west audio-magnetotelluric sounding profile was acquired. The purpose of this report is to release the audio-magnetotelluric sounding data collected along that east-west profile. No interpretation of the data is included.

  18. Imperial porphyry from Gebel Abu Dokhan, the Red Sea Mountains, Egypt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makovicky, Emil; Frei, Robert; Karup-Møller, Sven;

    2016-01-01

    The prestigious red Imperial Porphyry was quarried from Mons Porphyrites in the Red Sea Mountains of Egypt. The porphyry, reserved for imperial use in Rome and Constantinople, was widely reused in Romanesque and Renaissance times, and in the Ottoman Empire. At the locality, the rocks vary from dark......, K-feldspar, and minor anorthite and calcite. Rare pyroxene retains its primary morphology but is completely altered to epidote group minerals. Primary hornblende lies along the magnesiohastingsite-edenite join but recrystallized to low-Na, low-AlIV magnesiohornblende, and tremolite...

  19. Ridge subduction and porphyry copper-gold mineralization:An overview

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Many large porphyry Cu-Au deposits are connected to adakitic rocks known to be closely associated with ridge subduction. For example, there are several subducting ridges along the east Pacific margin, e.g., in Chile, Peru, and South America, most of which are associated with large porphyry Cu-Au deposits. In contrast, there are much fewer ridge subductions on the west Pacific margin and porphyry Cu-Au deposits are much less there, both in terms of tonnage and the number of deposits. Given that Cu and Au are moderately incompatible elements, oceanic crust has much higher Cu-Au concentrations than the mantle and the continental crust, and thus slab melts with their diagnostic adakitic chemistry have systematically higher Cu and Au, which is favorable for mineralization. Considering the geotherm of subducting slabs in the Phanerozoic, ridge subduction is the most favorable tectonic setting for this. Therefore, slab melting is the likely link in the spatial association between ridge subduction and Cu-Au deposits. Geochemical signatures of slab melting and hence maybe ridge subduction in less eroded regions in eastern China, the central Asian orogenic belt etc. may indicate important exploration targets for large porphyry Cu-Au deposits.

  20. Analysis on the Long Term Effect of Trial Test Road Constructed on Batu Pahat Soft Clay (BPSC) at Recess UTHM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idrus, M. M. M.; Edayu, A. E.; Adnan, Z.; Ismail, B.

    2016-07-01

    The reinforcement used in soil for construction of roads on the soft clay is very important as it will determine the level of service of the road after it was built. Damage or defects on the road surface to be an indicator of the level of the road has dropped and shows the deformation of the road. For this research, an analysis has carried out on the long-term effect of trial test road constructed on Batu Pahat Soft Clay (BPSC) at RECESS UTHM. Through this research, the reinforcement using Rawell Geosynthetic Clay Liner (RGCL) was the best with the stability is 14964 N, a low flow is 2.69mm, stiffness modulus is 1766 MPa, the peak load is 739.4 N and a lower horizontal deformation which is 1.71 µm compared Woven Geotextile section and section without geotextile [1] [9]. In terms of deformation can be seen clearly from physical observations that section without geotextile suffered significant damage than others. Settlement of road can also be analyzed by a longitudinal section that plotted based on the result of leveling work. After that, settlements are more visible way on the right side of the road trial. Through lab tests conducted, it indicate that the coring samples obtained from sites of each section meets the specifications set by the Jabatan Kerja Raya (JKR) in terms of stability, flow and stiffness [1]. Through this study, a trial road built on soft soil can be used as a test site because of the uniqueness of these roads which has three different types of reinforcements.

  1. Peat swamp forest types and their regeneration in Giam Siak Kecil-Bukit Batu Biosphere Reserve, Riau, East Sumatra, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Gunawan

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Although the ecology of tropical peat swamp forests is only now becoming understood, they are already under severe threat of conversion and degradation. Based on studies of the peat swamp forest of the Giam Siak Kecil–Bukit Batu Biosphere Reserve carried out between 2009 and 2010, this paper discusses forest types and regeneration processes in terms of promoting biodiversity conservation and sustainable management of the remaining peat swamp forest. Permanent plots covering a total area of three hectares were established in natural and disturbed forest areas. Within these plots, 135 tree species belonging to 34 families were identified. Mixed peat swamp forest and bintangur forest, which have different dominant species, were identified as the main forest types. The greatest species richness was in logged-over forest, with 82 species and a density of 2,492 stems ha-1. The success of regeneration varied between typical main species in the logged-over forest and in forest disturbed by wind and fire. All of the forest stands had high densities of trees with diameters at breast height (DBH of 3–10 cm, which are a potential source of recruitment to ensure the sustained regeneration of the forest remaining in the Biosphere Reserve. Regeneration is very important for improving the condition of disturbed peat swamp forest areas in the reserve, but natural regeneration will not be sufficient to restore the forest vegetation and conserve the associated biodiversity. Some form of human-assisted accelerated regeneration will be needed, such as enrichment planting of typical canopy species that have problems with establishment. It is important for the remaining natural peat swamp forests to be conserved because of their unique forest-type formations which have distinct dominant species, floristic composition, diversity and local environment characteristics. Improved management of secondary forest must be achieved through rehabilitation, halted forest

  2. PENGARUH BUDAYA ORGANISASI DAN LINGKUNGAN KERJA TERHADAP ORGANIZATIONAL CITIZENSHIP BEHAVIOR, MOTIVASI DAN KINERJA (Survey Pada Karyawan Hotel Berbintang di Kota Malang dan Batu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Warsito

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available This research seeks to investigate the relationship between organizational culture variables, work environment, organizational citizenship behavior, motivation and performance in the star-typed hotel industry at Malang and Batu. This research was purposed to assess the differences of organizational culture, work environment, organizational citizenship behavior, motivation and performance based on the characteristic of respondents. This research was categorized as survey one using cross-sectional study to 15 star-typed hotels at Batu and Malang. The result of investigation using SEM technique indicated that the model developed had moderate fit level. The result of Goodness of fit indices showed moderate result to all construct in the model. Partially, the construct developed showed good outcome in goodness of fit evaluation. Generally, all exogenous variables (organizational culture and work environment significantly affected the performance of employee. Some hypotheses expected on this research were supported, and some of these were not supported. Organizational culture significantly affected organizational citizenship behavior and employee performance, but insignificantly affected motivation. Work environment significantly influenced organizational citizenship behavior but insignificantly affected motivation. Organizational citizenship behavior insignificantly affected motivation, but motivation significantly affected the employee performance.

  3. Evaluation of the Permanent Deformations and Aging Conditions of Batu Pahat Soft Clay-Modified Asphalt Mixture by Using a Dynamic Creep Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Allam A. M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the permanent deformation and aging conditions of BatuPahat soft clay–modified asphalt mixture, also called BatuPahat soft clay (BPSC particles; these particles are used in powder form as an additive to hot-mix asphalt mixture. In this experiment, five percentage compositions of BPSC (0%, 2%, 4%, 6%, and 8% by weight of bitumen were used. A novel design was established to modify the hot-mix asphalt by using the Superpave method for each additive ratio. Several laboratory tests evaluating different properties, such as indirect tensile strength, resilient stiffness modulus, and dynamic creep, was conducted to assess the performance of the samples mixed through the Superpave method. In the resilient modulus test, fatigue and rutting resistance were reduced by the BPSC particles. The added BPSC particles increased the indirect tensile strength. Among the mixtures, 4% BPSC particles yielded the highest performance. In the dynamic creep test, 4% BPSC particles added to the unaged and short-term aged specimens also showed the highest performance. Based on these results, our conclusion is that the BPSC particles can alleviate the permanent deformation (rutting of roads.

  4. Zircon U-Pb and molybdenite Re-Os dating of the Chalukou porphyry Mo deposit in the northern Great Xing'an Range, China and its geological significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Mao, Jingwen; Wu, Guang; Wang, Feng; Luo, Dafeng; Hu, Yanqing

    2014-01-01

    The newly discovered Chalukou giant porphyry Mo deposit, located in the northern Great Xing'an Range, is the biggest Mo deposit in northeast China. The Chalukou Mo deposit occurs in an intermediate-acid complex and Jurassic volcano-sedimentary rocks, of which granite porphyry, quartz porphyry, and fine-grained granite are closely associated with Mo mineralization. However, the ages of the igneous rocks and Mo mineralization are poorly constrained. In this paper, we report precise in situ LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb dates for the monzogranite, granite porphyry, quartz porphyry, fine grained granite, rhyolite porphyry, diorite porphyry, and andesite porphyry in the Chalukou deposit, corresponding with ages of 162 ± 2 Ma, 149 ± 5 Ma, 148 ± 2 Ma, 148 ± 1 Ma, 137 ± 3 Ma, 133 ± 2 Ma, and 132 ± 2 Ma, respectively. Analyses of six molybdenite samples yielded a Re-Os isochron age of 148 ± 1 Ma. These data indicate that the sequence of the magmatic activity in the Chalukou deposit ranges from Jurassic volcano-sedimentary rocks and monzogranite, through late Jurassic granite porphyry, quartz porphyry, and fine-grained granite, to early Cretaceous rhyolite porphyry, diorite porphyry, and andesite porphyry. The Chalukou porphyry Mo deposit was formed in the late Jurassic, and occurred in a transitional tectonic setting from compression to extension caused by subduction of the Paleo-Pacific oceanic plate.

  5. Critical Factors Controlling Pd and Pt Potential in Porphyry Cu–Au Deposits: Evidence from the Balkan Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demetrios G. Eliopoulos

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Porphyry Cu–Au–Pd±Pt deposits are significant Au resources, but their Pd and Pt potential is still unknown. Elevated Pd, Pt (hundreds of ppb and Au contents are associated with typical stockwork magnetite-bornite-chalcopyrite assemblages, at the central parts of certain porphyry deposits. Unexpected high grade Cu–(Pd+Pt (up to 6 ppm mineralization with high Pd/Pt ratios at the Elatsite porphyry deposit, which is found in a spatial association with the Chelopech epithermal deposit (Bulgaria and the Skouries porphyry deposit, may have formed during late stages of an evolved hydrothermal system. Estimated Pd, Pt and Au potential for porphyry deposits is consistent with literature model calculations demonstrating the capacity of aqueous vapor and brine to scavenge sufficient quantities of Pt and Pd, and could contribute to the global platinum-group element (PGE production. Critical requirements controlling potential of porphyry deposits may be from the metals contained in magma (metasomatized asthenospheric mantle wedge as indicated by significant Cr, Co, Ni and Re contents. The Cr content may be an indicator for the mantle input.

  6. Geochronology of the Hongniu-Hongshan porphyry and skarn Cu deposit, northwestern Yunnan province, China: Implications for mineralization of the Zhongdian arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Hui-juan; Mao, Jing-wen; Pei, Rong-fu; Zhang, Chang-qing; Tian, Guang; Zhou, Yunman; Li, Jianxin; Hou, Lin

    2014-01-01

    The Hongniu-Hongshan porphyry and skarn copper deposit is located in the Triassic Zhongdian island arc, northwestern Yunnan province, China. Single-zircon laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry U-Pb dating suggests that the diorite porphyry and the quartz monzonite porphyry in the deposit area formed at 200 Ma and 77 Ma, respectively. A Re-Os isotopic date of molybdenite from the ore is 78.9 Ma, which indicates that in addition to the known Triassic Cu-(Au) porphyry systems, a Late Cretaceous porphyry Cu-Mo mineralization event also exists in the Zhongdian arc. The quartz monzonite porphyry shows characteristics of a magnetite series intrusion, with a high concentration of Al, K, Rb, Ba, and Pb, low amount of Ta, Ti, Y, and Yb, and a high ratio of Sr/Y (average 26.42). The Cretaceous porphyry also shows a strong fractionation between light and heavy rare earth elements (average (La/Yb)N 37.9), which is similar to those of the Triassic subduction-related diorite porphyry in the Hongniu-Hongshan deposit and the porphyry hosting the Pulang copper deposit. However, in contrast to the older intrusions, the quartz monzonite porphyry contains higher concentrations of large ion lithophile elements and Co, and lesser Sr and Zr. Therefore, whereas the Triassic porphyry Cu-(Au) mineralization is related to slab subduction slab in an arc setting, the quartz monzonite porphyry in the Hongniu-Hongshan deposit formed by the remelting of the residual oceanic slab combined with contributions from subduction-modified arc lithosphere and continental crust, which provided the metals for the Late Cretaceous mineralization.

  7. Porphyry copper assessment of the Mesozoic of East Asia: China, Vietnam, North Korea, Mongolia, and Russia: Chapter G in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludington, Steve; Mihalasky, Mark J.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Robinson, Giplin R., Jr.; Frost, Thomas P.; Gans, Kathleen D.; Light, Thomas D.; Miller, Robert J.; Alexeiev, Dmitriy V.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) collaborated with the China Geological Survey (CGS) to conduct a mineral resource assessment of Mesozoic porphyry copper deposits in East Asia. This area hosts several very large porphyry deposits, exemplified by the Dexing deposit in eastern China that contains more than 8,000,000 metric tons of copper. In addition, large parts of the area are undergoing active exploration and are likely to contain undiscovered porphyry copper deposits.

  8. Isotopic tracing of ore-forming source materials for Dexing porphyry copper deposit of Jiangxi, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng QIAN; Jianjun LU

    2008-01-01

    Dexing copper deposit is the biggest porphyry copper deposit in China. By researching isotopes of C,Si and Cu from the samples of Tongchang and Fujiawu ore-field, the authors found that δ13CPDB values of siderite were close to the δ13CPDB value of original magma; δ30Si values of the samples at the ore-forming stage were close to the δ30Si value range of magma, δ30Si values of partial samples were far away from it; Cu isotopic compositions of massive chalcopyrite formed at the early ore-forming stage are higher than that of veinal chalcopyrite formed at the later ore-forming stage. The results show that ore-forming materials were mainly derived from the porphyry body, and part of them were from wall rock materials.

  9. Exploration for porphyry-style copper mineralisation near Llandeloy, southwest Dyfed

    OpenAIRE

    P M Allen; Cooper, D. C.; Bide, P.; Cameron, D G; Parker, M.E.; Haslam, H.W.; Easterbrook, G.D.; Basham, I.R.

    1985-01-01

    Geological, geochemical and geophysical surveys followed by drilling in the area around Llandeloy, southwest Dyfed, have located disseminated copper mineralisa tion of porphyry type associated with intermediate intrusive rocks masked by thick overburden. Intermediate intrusive rocks in the area were selected for investigation as potential hosts for disseminated copper mineralisation on the basis of the known geology and tectonic setting. An initial assessment of the...

  10. Timing and duration of hydrothermal activity at the Los Bronces porphyry cluster: an update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deckart, K.; Silva, W.; Spröhnle, C.; Vela, I.

    2014-06-01

    New geochronological data from the Los Bronces cluster of the Río Blanco-Los Bronces mega-porphyry Cu-Mo district establish a wide range of magmatism, hydrothermal alteration, and mineralization ages, both in terms of areal extent and time. The northern El Plomo and southernmost Los Piches exploration areas contain the oldest barren porphyritic intrusions with U-Pb ages of 10.8 ± 0.1 Ma and 13.4 ± 0.1 Ma, respectively. A hypabyssal barren intrusion adjacent northwesterly to the main pit area yields a slightly younger age of 10.2 ± 0.3 Ma (San Manuel sector, U-Pb), whereas in the Los Bronces (LB) open-pit area, the present day mineral extraction zone, porphyries range from 8.49 to 6.02 Ma (U-Pb). Hydrothermal biotite and sericite ages are up to 0.5 Ma younger but consistent with the cooling of the corresponding intrusion events of each area. Two quartz-molybdenite B-type veins from the LB open pit have Re-Os molybdenite ages of 5.65 ± 0.03 Ma and 5.35 ± 0.03 Ma consistent with published data for the contiguous Río Blanco cluster. The San Manuel exploration area within the Los Bronces cluster, located about 1.5-2 km southeast of the open-pit extraction zone, shows both the oldest hydrothermal biotite (7.70 ± 0.07 Ma; 40Ar/39Ar) and breccia cement molybdenite ages (8.36 ± 0.06 Ma; Re-Os) registered in the entire Río Blanco-Los Bronces district. These are also older than those reported from the El Teniente porphyry Cu(-Mo) deposit, suggesting that mineralization in the late Miocene to early Pliocene porphyry belt of Central Chile commenced 2 Ma before the previously accepted age of 6.3 Ma.

  11. Global mineral resource assessment: porphyry copper assessment of Mexico: Chapter A in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Robinson,, Gilpin R.; Ludington, Steve; Gray, Floyd; Drenth, Benjamin J.; Cendejas-Cruz, Francisco; Espinosa, Enrique; Pérez-Segura, Efrén; Valencia-Moreno, Martín; Rodríguez-Castañeda, José Luis; Vásquez-Mendoza, Rigobert; Zürcher, Lukas

    2010-01-01

    Mineral resource assessments provide a synthesis of available information about distributions of mineral deposits in the Earth’s crust. A probabilistic mineral resource assessment of undiscovered resources in porphyry copper deposits in Mexico was done as part of a global mineral resource assessment. The purpose of the study was to (1) delineate permissive areas (tracts) for undiscovered porphyry copper deposits within 1 km of the surface at a scale of 1:1,000,000; (2) provide a database of known porphyry copper deposits and significant prospects; (3) estimate numbers of undiscovered deposits within those permissive tracts; and (4) provide probabilistic estimates of amounts of copper (Cu), molybdenum (Mo), gold (Au), and silver (Ag) that could be contained in undiscovered deposits for each permissive tract. The assessment was conducted using a three-part form of mineral resource assessment based on mineral deposit models (Singer, 1993). Delineation of permissive tracts primarily was based on distributions of mapped igneous rocks related to magmatic arcs that formed in tectonic settings associated with subduction boundary zones. Using a GIS, map units were selected from digital geologic maps based on lithology and age to delineate twelve permissive tracts associated with Jurassic, Laramide (~90 to 34 Ma), and younger Tertiary magmatic arcs. Stream-sediment geochemistry, mapped alteration, regional aeromagnetic data, and exploration history were considered in conjunction with descriptive deposit models and grade and tonnage models to guide estimates.

  12. Hydrothermal alteration mapping using ASTER data in Baogutu porphyry deposit, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remote sensing plays an important role in mineral exploration. One of its proven applications is extracting host-rock lithology and alteration zones that are related to porphyry copper deposits. An Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) was used to map the Baogutu porphyry deposit alteration area. A circular alteration mineral zoning pattern was clearly observed in the classification result of potassic, phyllic, argillic, propylitic zones. The potassic is characterized by biotite and anhydrite with an absorption feature centered at 1.94 and 2.1um. The phyllic zone is characterized by illite and sericite that indicates an intense Al-OH absorption feature centered at 2.20um. The narrower argillic zone including kaolinite and alunite displays a secondary Al-OH absorption feature at 2.17 um. The mineral assemblages of the outer propylitic zone are epidote, chlorite and calcite that exhibit absorption features at 2.335um.The performance of Principal Component Analysis(PCA), Minimum Noise Fraction (MNF), band ratio(BR) and Constrained Energy Minimization(CEM) has been evaluated. These techniques identified new prospects of porphyry copper mineralization in the study areas. These results indicate that ASTER is a powerful tool in the initial steps of mineral exploration

  13. SHRIMP U-Pb dating of the Antucoya porphyry copper deposit: new evidence for an Early Cretaceous porphyry-related metallogenic epoch in the Coastal Cordillera of northern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksaev, Victor; Munizaga, Francisco; Fanning, Mark; Palacios, Carlos; Tapia, José

    2006-10-01

    The Antucoya porphyry copper deposit (300 Mt at 0.45% total Cu) is one of the largest deposits of a poorly known Early Cretaceous porphyry belt in the Coastal Cordillera of northern Chile. It is related to a succession of granodioritic and tonalitic porphyritic stocks and dikes that were emplaced within Jurassic andesitic rocks of the La Negra Formation immediately west of the N-S trending sinistral strike-slip Atacama Fault Zone. New zircon SHRIMP U-Pb data indicate that the porphyries of Antucoya crystallized within the time span from 142.7 ± 1.6 to 140.6 ± 1.5 Ma (±2 σ), and late, unmineralized, NW-SE trending dacite dikes with potassic alteration and internal deformation crystallized at 141.9 ± 1.4 Ma. The Antucoya porphyry copper system appears to be formed after a change of stress conditions along the magmatic arc from extensional in the Late Jurassic to transpressive during the Early Cretaceous and provides support for an Early Cretaceous metallogenic episode of porphyry-type mineralization along the Coastal Cordillera of northern Chile.

  14. Porphyry Cu-Au and associated polymetallic Fe-Cu-Au deposits in the Beiya Area, western Yunnan Province, south China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, X.-W.; Cai, X.-P.; Xiao, Q.-B.; Peters, S.G.

    2007-01-01

    The Alkaline porphyries in the Beiya area are located east of the Jinshajiang suture, as part of a Cenozoic alkali-rich porphyry belt in western Yunnan. The main rock types include quartz-albite porphyry, quartz-K-feldspar porphyry and biotite-K-feldspar porphyry. These porphyries are characterised by high alkalinity [(K2O + Na2O)% > 10%], high silica (SiO2% > 65%), high Sr (> 400??ppm) and 87Sr/86Sr (> 0.706)] ratio and were intruded at 65.5??Ma, between 25.5 to 32.5??Ma, and about 3.8??Ma, respectively. There are five main types of mineral deposits in the Beiya area: (1) porphyry Cu-Au deposits, (2) magmatic Fe-Au deposits, (3) sedimentary polymetallic deposits, (4) polymetallic skarn deposits, and (5) palaeoplacers associated with karsts. The porphyry Cu-Au and polymetallic skarn deposits are associated with quartz-albite porphyry bodies. The Fe-Au and polymetallic sedimentary deposits are part of an ore-forming system that produced considerable Au in the Beiya area, and are characterised by low concentrations of La, Ti, and Co, and high concentrations of Y, Yb, and Sc. The Cenozoic porphyries in western Yunnan display increased alkalinity away from the Triassic Jinshajiang suture. Distribution of both the porphyries and sedimentary deposits in the Beiya area are interpreted to be related to partial melting in a disjointed region between upper mantle lithosphere of the Yangtze Plate and Gondwana continent, and lie within a shear zone between buried Palaeo-Tethyan oceanic lithosphere and upper mantle lithosphere, caused by the subduction and collision of India and Asia. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Porphyry copper assessment of Europe, exclusive of the Fennoscandian Shield: Chapter K in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutphin, David M.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Drew, Lawrence J.; Large, Duncan E.; Berger, Byron R.; Dicken, Connie L.; DeMarr, Michael W.; with contributions from Billa, Mario; Briskey, Joseph A.; Cassard, Daniel; Lips, Andor; Pertold, Zdeněk; Roşu, Emilian

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) collaborated with European geologists to assess resources in porphyry copper deposits in Europe, exclusive of Scandinavia (Sweden, Denmark, Norway, and Finland) and Russia. Porphyry copper deposits in Europe are Paleozoic and Late Cretaceous to Miocene in age. A number of the 31 known Phanerozoic deposits contain more than 1 million metric tons of contained copper, including the Majdanpek deposit, Serbia; Assarel, Bulgaria; Skouries, Greece; and Rosia Poeni, Romania. Five geographic areas were delineated as permissive tracts for post-Paleozoic porphyry copper deposits. Two additional tracts were delineated to show the extent of permissive igneous rocks associated with porphyry copper mineralization related to the Paleozoic Caledonian and Variscan orogenies. The tracts are based on mapped and inferred subsurface distributions of igneous rocks of specific age ranges that define areas where the occurrence of porphyry copper deposits within 1 kilometer of the Earth’s surface is possible. These tracts range in area from about 4,000 to 93,000 square kilometers. Although maps at a variety of different scales were used in the assessment, the final tract boundaries are intended for use at a scale of 1:1,000,000.

  16. Mineralization episode of porphyry copper deposits in the Jinshajiang-Red River mineralization belt: Re-Os dating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Denghong; QU Wenjun; LI Zhiwei; YIN Hanlong; CHEN Yuchuan

    2005-01-01

    Re-Os isotopic dating for the molybdenites from the porphyry copper deposits of the Jinshajiang-Red River mineralization belt in Yunnan Province yields isochron ages of 33.9±1.1 Ma for the Machangqing deposit and 34.4±0.5 Ma for the Tongchang deposit. This result shows that both the Machangqing and the Tongchang porphyry Cu-Mo deposits from two different ore-fields formed simultaneously. This new data and the published Re-Os model ages of molybdenite (35.4 Ma, 35.9 Ma, 36.2 Ma) of the Yulong porphyry copper deposit in Tibet, which is located in the same Jinshajiang-Red River mineralization belt as the Machangqing deposit and the Tongchang deposit, suggest that these three Cenozoic porphyry copper deposits in the Jinshajiang-Red River mineralization belt were contemporary for their mineralization episode. That is to say, even their present locality is far away and nearly iso-distantly distributed, these three porphyry Cu(Mo) deposits belong to the same mineralization episode at the end of Eocene.

  17. PETROGENETIC AND METALLOGENETIC AGES FOR THE PORPHYRY COPPER DEPOSITS IN THE GANGDISE METALLOGENIC BELT IN SOUTHERN TIBET

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Guangming; RUI Zongyao

    2004-01-01

    Recent examination and assessment about the porphyry copper deposits in Gangdise metallogenic belt in southern Tibet have revealed that these porphyry copper deposits are highly prospective. Several methods have been used for the isotopic dating of the Qulong, Tinggong and Chongjiang porphyry copper deposits, which gives out a petrogenetic age of 17.58±0.74Ma (single-zircon dating of SHRIMP), a metallogenetic age of 15.99±0.32Ma (Re-Os isochron dating) and an alteration age ranging between12.00Ma and 16.5Ma (K-Ar dating). The metallogenetic age is in general agreement with the alteration age.It can be seen that the petrogenetic and metallogenetic ages for the porphyry copper deposits in Gangdise metallogenic belt are noticeably later than the age for the collisional granitic intrusion in this belt. The authors contend that the porphyry copper deposits in the study area were formed in a post-collisional extensional tectonic setting, and are closely related to the delamination of the mountain roots of the orogenic belts and the uplifting of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau.

  18. Late Carboniferous porphyry copper mineralization at La Voluntad, Neuquén, Argentina: Constraints from Re-Os molybdenite dating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido, Mirta; Barra, Fernando; Domínguez, Eduardo; Ruiz, Joaquin; Valencia, Victor A.

    2008-07-01

    The La Voluntad porphyry Cu-Mo deposit in Neuquén, Argentina, is one of several poorly known porphyry-type deposits of Paleozoic to Early Jurassic age in the central and southern Andes. Mineralization at La Voluntad is related to a tonalite porphyry from the Chachil Plutonic Complex that intruded metasedimentary units of the Piedra Santa Complex. Five new Re-Os molybdenite ages from four samples representing three different vein types (i.e., quartz-molybdenite, quartz-sericite-molybdenite and quartz-sericite-molybdenite ± chalcopyrite-pyrite) are identical within error and were formed between ~312 to ~316 Ma. Rhenium and Os concentrations range between 34 to 183 ppm and 112 to 599 ppb, respectively. The new Re-Os ages indicate that the main mineralization event at La Voluntad, associated to sericitic alteration, was emplaced during a time span of 1.7 ± 3.2 Ma and that the deposit is Carboniferous in age, not Permian as previously thought. La Voluntad is the oldest porphyry copper deposit so far recognized in the Andes and indicates the presence of an active magmatic arc, with associated porphyry style mineralization, at the proto-Pacific margin of Gondwana during the Early Pennsylvanian.

  19. Ages and tectonic significance of the collision-related granite porphyries in the Lhunzhub Basin,Tibet,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG LiQuan; ZHU DiCheng; GENG QuanRu; LIAO ZhongLi; PAN GuiTang

    2007-01-01

    The Paleocene collision-related granite porphyries are identified for the first time along the western margin of the Lhunzhub Basin,Tibet.SHRIMP U-Pb zircon analysis indicates that the granite porphyries were emplaced at 58.7±1.1 Ma(MSWD=0.79)during the Indo-Asian continental collision.The granite porphyries are peraluminous and high in K,belonging to the calc-alkaline to high-K calc-alkaline series.They are relatively enriched in LILE,Th and LREE and depletion in Ba,Nb,P and Ti,characterized by LREE-enriched patterns with slightly to moderately negative Eu anomalies.These Paleocene granite porphyries are interpreted as the products generated by partial melting of the pre-existing arc crustal rocks caused by the increase of pressures and temperatures during the crustal shortening at the early stages of the Indo-Asian continental collision since 65 Ma.Despite inherited geochemical features and tectonic settings of the arc protoliths,they are significantly different from the volcanic rocks of the Dianzhong Formation within the Linzizong Group and the Miocene granite porphyries in the Gangdise belt.

  20. Pengaruh Penerapan Sistem Akuntansi Keuangan Keuangan Daerah, Kapasitas Sumber Daya Manusia, Pemanfaatan Teknologi Informasi dan Komitmen Organisasi Sebagai Variabel Pemoderasi Terhadap Kualitas Laporan Keuangan Pemerintah Daerah Pada Pemerintah Daerah Kabupaten Labuhan Batu Selatan

    OpenAIRE

    Simbolon, Rahmat Akbar

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to analyze the effect of the application of a variable area of financial accounting system, human resource capacity and utilization of information technology on the quality of local government financial reports and organizational commitment as moderating variable. respondents in this study were employees of regional work units, namely CO, Treasurer Treasurer Receipts and Expenditures South Labuhan Batu regency. civil servants SKPD a sample of this research are 48 employees fr...

  1. Porphyry copper assessment of the Tethys region of western and southern Asia: Chapter V in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zürcher, Lukas; Bookstrom, Arthur A.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Mars, John C.; Ludington, Stephen; Zientek, Michael L.; Dunlap, Pamela; Wallis, John C.; Drew, Lawrence J.; Sutphin, David M.; Berger, Byron R.; Herrington, Richard J.; Billa, Mario; Kuşcu, Ilkay; Moon, Charles J.; Richards, Jeremy P.; Zientek, Michael L.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Johnson, Kathleen M.

    2015-11-18

    A probabilistic mineral resource assessment of undiscovered resources in porphyry copper deposits in the Tethys region of western and southern Asia was carried out as part of a global mineral resource assessment led by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The purpose of the study was to delineate geographic areas as permissive tracts for the occurrence of porphyry copper deposits at a scale of 1:1,000,000 and to provide probabilistic estimates of amounts of copper likely to be contained in undiscovered porphyry copper deposits in those tracts. The team did the assessment using the USGS three-part form of mineral resource assessment, which is based on (1) mineral deposit and grade-tonnage models constructed from known deposits as analogs for undiscovered deposits, (2) delineation of permissive tracts based on geoscientific information, and (3) estimation of numbers of undiscovered deposits.

  2. Porphyry copper assessment of the Tethys region of western and southern Asia: Chapter V in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zürcher, Lukas; Bookstrom, Arthur A.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Mars, John C.; Ludington, Stephen; Zientek, Michael L.; Dunlap, Pamela; Wallis, John C.; Drew, Lawrence J.; Sutphin, David M.; Berger, Byron R.; Herrington, Richard J.; Billa, Mario; Kuşcu, Ilkay; Moon, Charles J.; Richards, Jeremy P.

    2015-01-01

    A probabilistic mineral resource assessment of undiscovered resources in porphyry copper deposits in the Tethys region of western and southern Asia was carried out as part of a global mineral resource assessment led by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The purpose of the study was to delineate geographic areas as permissive tracts for the occurrence of porphyry copper deposits at a scale of 1:1,000,000 and to provide probabilistic estimates of amounts of copper likely to be contained in undiscovered porphyry copper deposits in those tracts. The team did the assessment using the USGS three-part form of mineral resource assessment, which is based on (1) mineral deposit and grade-tonnage models constructed from known deposits as analogs for undiscovered deposits, (2) delineation of permissive tracts based on geoscientific information, and (3) estimation of numbers of undiscovered deposits.

  3. Consequences of fractal grade distribution for bulk sorting of a copper porphyry deposit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peter Coghill; David Miljak; Elizabeth Williams

    2015-01-01

    We show the presence of fractal ordering of copper grade in bore core data at short range in the Cadia Ridgeway porphyry deposit and measure its persistence after mining by monitoring the output of the mine every 20 s for a month using a large scale, zero field magnetic resonance sensor. A simple model is used to investigate this connection and its consequences for sorting of the ore. Fractal distributions, and their associated power laws, have two features highly favourable for segregating ore:a large proportion of low-grade pods and the large scale spatial clustering of grade.

  4. Geology and ore fluid geochemistry of the Jinduicheng porphyry molybdenum deposit, East Qinling, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongying; Ye, Huishou; Wang, Xiaoxia; Yang, Lei; Wang, Xiuyuan

    2014-01-01

    Jinduicheng deposit is a giant Mesozoic porphyry Mo system deposit in the East Qinling molybdenum belt, Shaanxi Province, China. The mineralization is associated with the I-type Jinduicheng granite porphyry. Both the porphyry stock and country rocks underwent intense hydrothermal alteration. The alteration, with increasing distance from the parent intrusion, changes from silicification, through potassic and phyllic assemblages, carbonation, to propylitic assemblages. Molybdenite, the dominant ore mineral, occurs in veinlets, most of which are hosted by the altered country rocks, with less than 25% of the ore in the porphyry body. The hydrothermal system comprises four stages, including pre-ore quartz and K-feldspar; two ore stages of quartz, K-feldspar, molybdenite, and Pb- And Zn-bearing sulfides; and post-ore quartz and carbonate. Six main types of primary fluid inclusions are present in hydrothermal quartz, including two-phase aqueous, one-phase aqueous, three-phase CO2-bearing, CO2-dominated fluid inclusions, gas inclusions, and melt inclusions. The homogenization temperatures of fluid inclusions range from 210 to 290 °C in the pre-ore stage, 150-310 °C in ore stage I, 150-360 °C in the ore stage II, and 195-325 °C in the post-ore stage quartz. Estimated salinities of the ore-forming fluids range from 6.9 to 13.5, 4.3 to 12.3, 6.2 to 12.4, and 3.4 to 9.9 wt.% NaCl equiv. in stages 1-4, respectively. The δ34S values of pyrite in the two ore stages range from 2.8‰ to 4.3‰, whereas the δ34S values of molybdenite range from 2.9‰ to 6.2‰. The data suggest both magmatic and crustal sources of sulfur. The δD and δ18O values for the hydrothermal fluids are -57.2‰ to -84.4‰ and 8.0‰ to -3.2‰, respectively. The fluid inclusion and stable data indicate that the pre-ore hydrothermal fluids were mostly of magmatic origin, but the fluids responsible for ore deposition were mixed magmatic and meteoric, and eventually meteoric water dominated the system

  5. The architecture of the porphyry-metal system as a prospecting stratagem in the Southern Rocky Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuerburg, George J.

    1978-01-01

    A model of the porphyry-metal system characteristic of the consanguineous Cretaceous and Tertiary igneous rocks and associated ores of the southern Rocky Mountains is constructed from the bits and pieces exposed in the Colorado mineral belt and the San Juan volcanic field. Hydrothermally altered rocks in a part of the areas of mineralized rock associated with the Platoro caldera are matched against the model, to locate and to characterize latent mineral deposits for optimal prospecting and exploration. The latent deposits are two stockwork molybdenite deposits (porphyry-molybdenum) and one or two copper-gold-silver chimney deposits.

  6. Hydrothermal Fluid evolution in the Dalli porphyry Cu-Au Deposit: Fluid Inclusion microthermometry studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Zarasvandi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction A wide variety of world-class porphyry Cu deposits occur in the Urumieh-Dohktar magmatic arc (UDMA of Iran.The arc is composed of calc-alkaline granitoid rocks, and the ore-hosting porphyry intrusions are dominantly granodiorite to quartz-monzonite (Zarasvandi et al., 2015. It is believed that faults played an important role in the emplacement of intrusions and subsequentporphyry-copper type mineralization (Shahabpour, 1999. Three main centers host the porphyry copper mineralization in the UDMA: (1 Ardestan-SarCheshmeh-Kharestan zone, (2 Saveh-Ardestan district; in the central parts of the UDMA, hosting the Dalli porphyry Cu-Au deposit, and (3 Takab-Mianeh-Qharahdagh-Sabalan zone. Mineralized porphyry coppersystems in the UDMA are restricted to Oligocene to Mioceneintrusions and show potassic, sericitic, argillic, propylitic and locally skarn alteration (Zarasvandi et al., 2005; Zarasvandi et al., 2015. In the Dalli porphyry deposit, four hydrothermal alteration zones, includingpotassic, sericitic, propylitic, and argillic types have been described in the two discrete mineralized areas, namely, northern and southern stocks. Hypogenemineralization includes chalcopyrite, pyrite, and magnetite, with minor occurrences of bornite.Supergene activity has produced gossan, oxidized minerals and enrichment zones. The supergene enrichment zone contains chalcocite and covellite with a 10-20 m thickness. Mineralization in the northern stock is mainly composed of pyrite and chalcopyrite. The aim of this study is the investigation and classification of hydrothermal veins and the constraining of physicochemical compositions of ore-forming fluids using systematic investigation of fluid inclusions. Materials and methods Twenty samples were collected from drill holes. Thin and polished sections were prepared from hydrothermal veins of thepotassic, sericitic and propylitic alteration zones. Samples used for fluid inclusion measurements were collected

  7. Petrogenesis of skarn related Cu-porphyry intrusion deposit, Ali-Abad- Darreh Zereshk, Yazd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batoul Taghipour

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The study area is a part of Cenozoic magmatic belt of Central Iran, which is located in the West of Yazd porovince. Contact metamorphism and skarn occurred in conglomerate part of Sngestan Formation. The Oligocene intrusion bodies of Ali-Abad-Darreh Zereshk are leucocerate and have the chemical composition of granite to granodiorite with calc-alkaline affinity from volcanic arc geological setting. The main mineral assemblage of skarn in order of imprtance is as follow: Garnet + epidote + quartz + calcite + pyrite + iron oxides. Brown garnets are the skarn characteristic mineral. EPMA analysis has shown that the chemical composition with garnet belong to andradite-grossular solid-solution (And 65, Gross 30 with more andradite component. The high permeability and presence of carbonate pebbles in conglomerate are two important factors for fluid flow and genesis of garnets. Distinct oscillatory zoning in garnets is resulted from the change of fO2 in fluids. The evolution of Ali-Abad skarn is took place in the range of 380 to 530 ºC, 0.5 Kbar pressure and high fO2. Also close association of this skarn with Ali-Abad intrusive with Cu-porphyry mineralization shows that this skarn is a Cu-porphyry type skarn.

  8. Iron concretions within a highly altered unit of the Berlins Porphyry, New Zealand: an abiotic or biotic story?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Toni L.; Oze, Christopher; Horton, Travis W.

    2016-09-01

    The Berlins Porphyry located on the South Island of New Zealand provides an opportunity to examine iron concretions formed in a subterranean system. Specifically, an alteration zone within the Berlins Porphyry contains iron concretions similar to sedimentary biologically-mediated iron concretions. Here, we provide evidence for two sources of dissolved Fe (II) that potentially aided in the formation of the iron concretions. Furthermore, we discuss the potential for microbial involvement in the anaerobic oxidation of Fe (II) to Fe (III) to form magnetite. Evidence in support of this hypothesis includes the low concentrations of iron and sulfur in the white hydrothermally altered porphyry outcrop and concretion cores; concentrated pyrite and magnetite mineralisation surrounding the cores; and δ13C values indicative of organic carbon (averaging -26 ‰ ± 4 ‰) within the iron cement, porphyry-core-boundary and outer weathered rinds of the concretions. Overall, these unusually preserved iron concretions could represent a new environmental niche for microorganisms and a potential analogue for microbially induced iron-oxidation. More importantly, this study illustrates the many obstacles involved in analysing and interpreting potential subterranean biosignatures.

  9. Geochemical Charactristics and Genesis of Topaz—Bearing Porphyries in Yangbin Area of Taishun County,Zhejiang Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王德滋; 刘昌实; 等

    1995-01-01

    The host rocks of the porphyry tin deposits in the Yangbin area are prince-pally topaz-bearing porphyry dikes about 2 km long and 2-20m wide.Three lithologic types are identified for the dikes:topaz-bearing potassium feldspar granitic porphyry,topaz-bearing monzonitic granitic porphyry and topaz-bearing quartz porphyry.The con-tent of topaz in the rocks ranges from 10 to 20 vol.%.Porphyritic texture is characteristic,with quartz,potassium feldspar and albite as main phenocryst minerals.The phenocryst occupies 10-20vol% of the rocks.The rock groundmass consists of subhedrak topaz,quartz and protolithionite.Topaz has a unit-cell parameter b=8.797(A)°,and F:OH=1.92:0.18, indicating a F-rich variety formed at high temperature .The topaz-bearing porphyries occurring in this area are strongly peraluminous (A/NKC=1.574-12.94),with high ra-tios of F/C1(146-303) and Rb/Sr(5-122).They are rich in incompatible elements (Sn,313×10-6-1042×10-6;W,6×10-6-218×10-6;Nb,27×10-6-54×10-6),but poor in compatible elements (Sr,10×10-6-28×10-6;Ba,58×10-6-73×10-6;V,3×10-6-10×10-6,Cl,150×10-6-226×10-6).The rocks are also characterized by high total REE amount (281.69×10-6-319.76×10-6);with strong Eu depletion (&Eu=0.01-0.03)and low ratio of LREE/HREE(0.78-0.84).In summary ,the authors propose propose an idea of S-type genesis for the topaz-bearing porphyries with tin mineralization,instead of I-type.

  10. The magnetic anomaly on the Permian Alcaparrosa porphyry (Argentina). A case of pyrrhotite-remanence-dominated anomaly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. The Permian Alcaparrosa porphyry is a small (600 meters in diameter) rhyodacite stock outcropping in the Precordillera geological province, San Juan, Argentina. It developed a 3-kilometers-long, NW-SE-trending alteration halo ('Faja Amarilla', yellow belt) in the host rocks, which is a sequence of Ordovician marine mudstones with interbedded basaltic flows included in the Alcaparrosa Fm. The porphyry-related alteration overprinted a previous low-grade-metamorphic alteration assemblage characteristic of an oceanic floor environment. The aeromagnetic survey revealed a bipolar anomaly in the total magnetic intensity (TMI) coinciding with the outcropping alteration halo. The surrounding Alcaparrosa Fm is non-magnetic and therefore the anomaly is clearly defined in a quiet magnetic zone, showing a minimum to the north, centred on the porphyry, and a semi lunar maximum to the south. The shape of the anomaly is opposed to the expected shape of induced magnetic anomalies in mid latitudes of the southern hemisphere. Available data show that both the Permian porphyry and its alteration halo carry a magnetic remanence with positive inclination (i.e. reversed polarity), probably acquired during the Permo-Carboniferous Reversed Superchron. The Koenigsberger ratio (Q) for the porphyry resulted lower than 1, which means that remanence is not intense enough to control the shape of the magnetic anomaly. On the other side, outcropping rocks of the alteration halo show intense supergene alteration and are non-magnetic. However, relics of phyllic alteration where found relatively preserved of supergene alteration, and they showed monoclinic pyrrhotite as magnetic carrier, and a Q ratio higher than 1. We used those data to model a body carrying a reversed magnetic remanence. The shape and extension of the modelled body seems a good approximation to the possible shape of the sulphide-bearing alteration halo around the rhyodacite porphyry. The

  11. Porphyry copper assessment of East and Southeast Asia: Philippines, Taiwan (Republic of China), Republic of Korea (South Korea), and Japan: Chapter P in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Bookstrom, Arthur A.; Demarr, Michael W.; Dicken, Connie L.; Ludington, Stephen; Robinson,, Gilpin R.; Zientek, Michael L.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey collaborated with member countries of the Coordinating Committee for Geoscience Programmes in East and Southeast Asia (CCOP) on an assessment of the porphyry copper resources of East and Southeast Asia as part of a global mineral resource assessment. The assessment covers the Philippines in Southeast Asia, and the Republic of Korea (South Korea), Taiwan (Province of China), and Japan in East Asia. The Philippines host world class porphyry copper deposits, such as the Tampakan and Atlas deposits. No porphyry copper deposits have been discovered in the Republic of Korea (South Korea), Taiwan (Province of China), or Japan.

  12. Geochemical and Sr-Pb-Nd isotopic characteristics of the Shakhtama porphyry Mo-Cu system (Eastern Transbaikalia, Russia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berzina, A. P.; Berzina, A. N.; Gimon, V. O.

    2014-01-01

    The Shakhtama Mo-Cu porphyry deposit is located within the eastern segment of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt, bordering the southern margin of the Mongol-Okhotsk suture zone. The deposit includes rocks of two magmatic complexes: the precursor plutonic (J2) and ore-bearing porphyry (J3) complexes. The plutonic complex was emplaced at the final stages of the collisional regime in the region; the formation of the porphyry complex may have overlapped with a transition to extension. The Shakhtama rocks are predominantly metaluminous, I-type high K calc-alkaline to shoshonitic in composition, with relatively high Mg#, Ni, Cr and V. They are characterized by crustal-like ISr (0.70741-0.70782), relatively radiogenic Pb isotopic compositions, ɛNd(T) values close to CHUR (-2.7 to +2.1) and Nd model ages from 0.8 to 1.2 Ga. Both complexes are composed of rocks with K-adakitic features and rocks without adakite trace element signatures. The regional geological setting together with geochemical and isotopic data indicate that both juvenile and old continental crust contributed to their origin. High-Mg# K-adakitic Shakhtama magmas were most likely generated by partial melting of thickened lower crust during delamination and interaction with mantle material, while magmas lacking adakite-like signatures were probably generated at shallower levels of lower crust. The derivation of melts, related to the formation of plutonic and porphyry complexes involved variable amounts of old Precambrian lower crust and juvenile Phanerozoic crust. Isotopic data imply stronger contribution of juvenile mantle-derived material to the fertile magmas of the porphyry complex. Juvenile crust is proposed as an important source of fluids and metals for the Shakhtama ore-magmatic system.

  13. Geochemical Trace of Silicon Isotopes of Intrusions and Ore Veins Related to Alkali-rich Porphyry Deposits in Western Yunnan, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xianfan; YANG Zhengxi; LIU Jiaduo; WU Dechao; ZHANG Chenjiang; LI Youguo

    2004-01-01

    Western Yunnan is the well-known polymetallic province in China. It is characterized by copper-gold mineralization related to Cenozoic alkali-rich porphyry. This paper analyzes the silicon isotope data obtained from four typical alkali-rich porphyry deposits based on the dynamic fractionation principle of silicon isotope. The study shows that the ore materials should originate mainly from alkali-rich magmas, together with silicon-rich mineralizing fluids.The process of mineralization was completed by auto-metasomatism, i.e. silicon-rich mineralizing fluids (including alkali-rich porphyry and wall-rock strata) replaced and altered the country rocks and contaminated with crustal rocks during the crystallization of alkali-rich magmas. Such a process is essentially the continuance of the metasomatism of mantle fluids in crust's mineralization. This provides important evidence of silicon isotopic geochemistry for better understanding the mineralization of the Cenozoic alkali-rich porphyry polymetallic deposits

  14. 斑岩铜矿床研究进展%Review of Porphyry Copper Deposit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张云国; 周朝宪

    2011-01-01

    斑岩铜矿不但形成于环太平洋成矿域,还形成于特提斯成矿域和中亚成矿域(古亚洲洋成矿域)。成矿物质来源于深部,经过“洋壳一地幔熔岩流”、“原始岩浆”、“浅部富矿岩浆”和“岩浆结晶一成矿”4个阶段,其中在“原始弧岩浆”阶段,通过MASH过程,有大量成矿物质和能量的聚集。成矿流体为富H2O、高温、高压、高盐度、强氧化性、高氧逸度的富矿气液相流体,这些特点有利于成矿物质在岩浆一热液分离过程中向流体富集,并以氯络合物的形式运移。随着成矿流体的上侵,温度和压力的降低是成矿物质沉淀的主要影响因素。磁铁矿的结晶为成矿流体提供了大量的S2-离子,也是导致成矿物质沉淀的主要因素。斑岩型蚀变带从里向外为石英内核、钾化带、SCC带和泥化带,铜矿化主要发育在矿化带外围以及SCC带。目前,斑岩铜矿成矿模型主要有经典模型、系统模型和多阶段叠加模型。%Porphyry copper deposit as the largest source of Cu is one of the most important deposits in the world. Porphyry Copper Deposit not only occured in Circum-Pacific ore-forming region, but also oceured in Tethys ore-forming region and Middle-Asian(Paleo-Asian Oceanic) ore-forming region. The mineralization materials de- rived from the deep. Porphyry forms through four stages: "Oceanic Crust-Mantle Lava Flow"," Original Magma", "Shallow Ore Magma"," Crystallization of Magma-Minerali- zation". In the stage of "Original Magma", much met- allogenic materials and energy gather through the process of "MASH". Ore-forming fluids are high-grade fliuds of gas-liquid phase, which are of fluid-rich, high temperature, high pressure, high salinity, strong oxidizing, high ox- ygen fugacity. The characteristics of ore-torming fluids are favorable tbr metallogenic materials to gather from mag- mas to fluids in the

  15. Porphyry copper deposit model: Chapter B in Mineral deposit models for resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayuso, Robert A.; Barton, Mark D.; Blakely, Richard J.; Bodnar, Robert J.; Dilles, John H.; Gray, Floyd; Graybeal, Fred T.; Mars, John L.; McPhee, Darcy K.; Seal, Robert R., II; Taylor, Ryan D.; Vikre, Peter G.; John, David A.

    2010-01-01

    This report contains a revised descriptive model of porphyry copper deposits (PCDs), the world's largest source (about 60 percent) and resource (about 65 percent) of copper and a major source of molybdenum, gold and silver. Despite relatively low grades (average 0.44 percent copper in 2008), PCDs have significant economic and societal impacts due to their large size (commonly hundreds of millions to billions of metric tons), long mine lives (decades), and high production rates (billions of kilograms of copper per year). The revised model describes the geotectonic setting of PCDs, and provides extensive regional- to deposit-scale descriptions and illustrations of geological, geochemical, geophysical, and geoenvironmental characteristics. Current genetic theories are reviewed and evaluated, knowledge gaps are identified, and a variety of exploration and assessment guides are presented. A summary is included for users seeking overviews of specific topics.

  16. An orientation soil survey at the Pebble Cu-Au-Mo porphyry deposit, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Steven M.; Eppinger, Robert G.; Fey, David L.; Kelley, Karen D., (Edited By); Giles, S.A.

    2009-01-01

    Soil samples were collected in 2007 and 2008 along three traverses across the giant Pebble Cu-Au-Mo porphyry deposit. Within each soil pit, four subsamples were collected following recommended protocols for each of ten commonly-used and proprietary leach/digestion techniques. The significance of geochemical patterns generated by these techniques was classified by visual inspection of plots showing individual element concentration by each analytical method along the 2007 traverse. A simple matrix by element versus method, populated with a value based on the significance classification, provides a method for ranking the utility of methods and elements at this deposit. The interpretation of a complex multi-element dataset derived from multiple analytical techniques is challenging. An example of vanadium results from a single leach technique is used to illustrate the several possible interpretations of the data.

  17. Pemanfaatan Biogas (Gas Methan) Dari Hasil Pengolahan Palm Oil Mill Effluent (Pome) Secara Anaerobic Sebagai Bahan Bakar Unit Oil Refinery Dan Pencegah Pencemaran Lingkungan Di Pt.Multimas Nabati Asahan, Batu Bara

    OpenAIRE

    sitorus, Syaiful bahri

    2016-01-01

    Palm oil production in Indonesia continues to increase, thereby increasing the amount of waste therefore to decimate environmental pollution load in the waste in the processing of palm oil in the palm oil mills in PT.Multimas Nabati Asahan, Batu Bara has made Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) by using Anaerobic technology to produce biogas which can be utilized as fuel for burning palm oil mills in the refinery unit Multimas 200 palm oil mills, once the reduced pollutant load will be processed b...

  18. Analisis Persepsi Modal Sosial (Social Capital dan Hubungannya Dengan Eksistensi Kelompok Tani (Kasus pada Kelompok Tani Wanita “Sri Sejati 2”, Desa Junrejo, Kecamatan Junrejo, Kota Batu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ica Febrianti Putri

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Jumlah petani di Indonesia yang cukup banyak hingga saat ini serta sebaran komoditas yang diusahakan menunjang terbentuknya organisasi-organisasi sosial yang menaungi masyarakat sebagai petani dan mempermudah fasilitas-fasilitas pertanian yang diturunkan kepada para petani tersebut. Organisasi  tersebut salah satunya adalah organisasi kelompok tani yang tersebar di seluruh penjuru tanah air, salah satunya di Desa Junrejo. Permasalahan yang dihadapi pada salah satu kelompok tani yang terdapat di desa Junrejo ini adalah kesibukan kerja para anggotanya yang menyebabkan mereka sulit menghadiri pertemuan rutin kelompok. Sehingga muncullah kelompok tani wanita ”Sri Sejati 2” yang diupayakan dengan giat oleh para anggotanya dibantu dengan penyuluh dari Dinas Pertanian Kota Batu untuk terus hidup dengan mengembangkan aspek-aspek modal sosial yang dimiliki dan mampu berprestasi melalui karya-karya yang dihasilkan bersama.  Berkaitan dengan hal di atas, maka  tujuan penelitian ini antara lain mendeskripsikan kondisi persepsi modal sosial  (social capital yang dimiliki kelompok tani wanita “Sri Sejati 2”, mendeskripsikan eksistensi kelompok tani wanita “Sri Sejati 2”, serta menganalisis hubungan antara modal sosial  (social capital dengan eksistensi kelompok tani wanita “Sri Sejati 2”.  Jenis penelitian adalah penelitian deskriptif (Description Research.  Daerah penelitian dipilih secara sengaja  (purposive, yaitu di Desa Junrejo, Kecamatan Junrejo, Kota Batu.  Metode yang digunakan adalah metode sensus dimana data-data dikumpulkan dari seluruh anggota populasi yaitu pada kelompok tani “Sri Sejati 2” Desa Junrejo, Kecamatan Junrejo, Kota Batu. dimana seluruh anggota populasi berjumlah 23 orang. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa kelompok tani wanita “Sri Sejati 2” memiliki modal sosial (social capital yang tinggi. Tingginya modal sosial (social capital yang mereka miliki dikarenakan  adanya  tingkat partisipasi

  19. A review of the geological characteristics and geodynamic setting of Late Paleozoic porphyry copper deposits in the Junggar region, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, Northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fuquan; Mao, Jingwen; Pirajno, Franco; Yan, Shenghao; Liu, Guoren; Zhou, Gang; Zhang, Zhixin; Liu, Feng; Geng, Xinxia; Guo, Chunli

    2012-04-01

    In this review, we describe the geological characteristics of porphyry copper deposits in Junggar region, Xinjiang, and place these into their metallogenic-tectonic context. These porphyry copper deposits are mainly found in four metallogenic belts: (1) a Late Silurian to Early Devonian Cu-Mo metallogenic belt in the Qiongheba area; (2) the Late Devonian Kalaxiange'er Cu metallogenic belt; (3) the Early Carboniferous Xilekuduke-Suoerkuduke porphyry-skarn Cu-Mo metallogenic belt; and (4) the Late Carboniferous Baogutu porphyry Cu metallogenic belt. The ages of mineralization can be divided into three broad intervals: copper deposits range mainly from 300 to 180 °C. Salinity ranges from 0.5 to 21.7 wt.% NaCl equiv and 28.9 to 66.76 wt.% NaCl equiv. Ore-forming fluids in the Baogutu and Yunyingshan deposits in the Baogutu and Qiongheba belts, were mainly derived from magmatic fluids, whereas those in the Halasu, Yulekenhalasu and Xilekuduke deposits in the Kalaxiange'er and Xilekuduke-Suoerkuduke belts were mainly derived from magmatic fluids, with some contributions from meteoric water. Sulfur isotope compositions of some porphyry copper deposits cluster around 0‰, indicating that the sulfur was probably derived from mantle-related magmas. The ore-forming processes in all porphyry copper deposits are closely related to the emplacement of intermediate, intermediate-felsic and felsic porphyry intrusions. Porphyry copper deposits in Junggar region developed in a range of tectonic regimes including continental arc, ocean island arc and post collisional settings.

  20. The optimisation of electrokinetic remediation for heavy metals and radioactivity contamination on Holyrood-Lunas soil (acrisol species) in Sri Gading Industrial Area, Batu Pahat, Johor, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed Johar, S; Embong, Z

    2015-11-01

    The optimisation of electrokinetic remediation of an alluvial soil, locally named as Holyrood-Lunas from Sri Gading Industrial Area, Batu Pahat, Johor, Malaysia, had been conducted in this research. This particular soil was chosen due to its relatively high level of background radiation in a range between 139.2 and 539.4 nGy h(-1). As the background radiation is correlated to the amount of parent nuclides, (238)U and (232)Th, hence, a remediation technique, such as electrokinetic, is very useful in reducing these particular concentrations of heavy metal and radionuclides in soils. Several series of electrokinetics experiments were performed in laboratory scale in order to study the influence of certain electrokinetic parameters in soil. The concentration before (pre-electrokinetic) and after the experiment (post-electrokinetic) was determined via X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis technique. The best electrokinetic parameter that contributed to the highest achievable concentration removal of heavy metals and radionuclides on each experimental series was incorporated into a final electrokinetic experiment. Here, High Pure Germanium (HPGe) was used for radioactivity elemental analysis. The XRF results suggested that the most optimised electrokinetic parameters for Cr, Ni, Zn, As, Pb, Th and U were 3.0 h, 90 volts, 22.0 cm, plate-shaped electrode by 8 × 8 cm and in 1-D configuration order whereas the selected optimised electrokinetic parameters gave very low reduction of (238)U and (232)Th at 0.23 ± 2.64 and 2.74 ± 23.78 ppm, respectively. PMID:25920778

  1. Geological and geochemical studies of the Shujiadian porphyry Cu deposit, Anhui Province, Eastern China: Implications for ore genesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shiwei; Zhou, Taofa; Yuan, Feng; Fan, Yu; White, Noel C.; Lin, Fengjie

    2015-05-01

    Most porphyry deposits in the world occur in magmatic arc settings and are related to subduction of oceanic plates. A small proportion of porphyry deposits occur in intracontinental settings, however they are still poorly understood. Shujiadian, a newly-discovered porphyry Cu deposit, is located in the Middle-Lower Yangtze River Valley metallogenic belt and belongs to the intracontinental class. The deposit has classic alteration zones defined by a core of potassic alteration and local Ca-silicate alteration, which is overprinted by a feldspar-destructive alteration zone and cut by veins containing epidote and chlorite. Wallrocks of the deposit are unreactive quartz-rich sedimentary rocks. Three main paragenetic stages have been recognized based on petrographic observations; silicate stage, quartz-sulfide stage, and sulfide-carbonate stage. Quartz + pyrite + chalcopyrite ± molybdenite veins, and quartz + chalcopyrite + pyrite veins of the quartz-sulfide stage contribute most of the copper, and chalcopyrite + chlorite ± pyrite ± pyrrhotite ± quartz ± illite veins of the sulfide-carbonate stage also contribute part of the copper; all the mineralized veins are associated with feldspar-destructive alteration. Investigations on the fluid inclusions in Shujiadian indicate that the ore-forming fluids had four evolutionary episodes: immiscibility and overpressure in the silicate stage, boiling in the quartz-sulfide stage and mixing with meteoric water in the sulfide-carbonate stage. Sulfur and strontium isotope studies suggest that ore metals were mainly derived from magmatic-hydrothermal fluids, and combined with our study of fluid inclusions, we infer that decompression, changes in oxygen fugacity and sulfur content were the main factors that caused Cu precipitation. Compared with porphyry deposits in magmatic arc settings, there are some differences in the ore-bearing rock, alteration, and the composition of ore-forming fluids.

  2. Origin of high Sr/Y magmas from the northern Taihang Mountains: Implications for Mesozoic porphyry copper mineralization in the North China Craton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yongfeng; Santosh, M.; Wei, Ruihua; Ma, Guoxi; Chen, Zhikuan; Wu, Jinluan

    2013-12-01

    A number of porphyry Cu deposits have been described from east China which occur in association with Mesozoic high Sr/Y rocks within the continental interior rather than in an arc setting. However, the origin of these high Sr/Y rocks remains controversial. In this study we report precise zircon U-Pb age, as well as major-trace element and Sr-Nd-Pb isotope compositions from the Mujicun Cu mineralized porphyries in the northern Taihang orogen of eastern North China Craton (NCC). LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb dating yields an emplacement age of 143 ± 2 Ma, identical to the molybdenite Re-Os isochron ages of 142.5 ± 1.4 Ma for this intrusion. Like most of the Mesozoic adakitic rocks from the eastern NCC, the ore-bearing porphyries and associated volcanic lavas from northern Taihang orogen are rich in large ion lithophile elements and light REE, and have highly differentiated REE patterns. The porphyries and associated volcanic lavas have Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic compositions showing EM1-like isotopic signatures. Such geochemical and isotopic features confirm that the parental magma for these rocks originated from melting of an enriched sub-continental lithospheric mantle source. In comparison to the associated lavas, the ore-bearing porphyries have pronounced low FeO3T, TiO2 and P2O5 contents, and middle-heavy REE (and Y) and Zr concentrations, indicating fractional crystallization of amphibole with the observed accessory mineral assemblage such as Fe-Ti oxides, titanite, zircon and apatite. On the other hand, most of the porphyries exhibit relatively high Al2O3, Ba and Sr concentrations and pronounced positive Eu anomalies, excluding significant plagioclase fractionation due to suppression of the high water content in the magmas. The presence of the contemporary amphibole cumulates regionally exposed in the study area strongly support significant amphibole fractionation during the formation of the Mujicun porphyries. Thus, fractionation of a water-saturated magma is proposed as a

  3. Porphyry copper assessment of Central America and the Caribbean Basin: Chapter I in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Floyd; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Ludington, Stephen; Zürcher, Lukas; Nelson, Carl E.; Robinson, Gilpin R., Jr.; Miller, Robert J.; Moring, Barry C.

    2014-01-01

    Mineral resource assessments provide a synthesis of available information about distributions of mineral deposits in the Earth’s crust. The U.S. Geological Survey prepared a probabilistic mineral resource assessment of undiscovered resources in porphyry copper deposits in Central America and the Caribbean Basin in collaboration with geoscientists from academia and the minerals industry. The purpose of the study was to (1) delineate permissive areas (tracts) for undiscovered porphyry copper deposits within 1 kilometer of the surface at a scale of 1:1,000,000; (2) provide a database of known porphyry copper deposits and significant prospects; (3) estimate numbers of undiscovered deposits within the permissive tracts; and (4) provide probabilistic estimates of amounts of copper, molybdenum, gold, and silver that could be contained in undiscovered deposits. The assessment was done using a three-part mineral resource assessment based on established mineral deposit models. Permissive tracts were delineated based primarily on distributions of mapped igneous rocks related to magmatic arcs that formed in tectonic settings associated with convergent plate margins. Five permissive tracts were delineated: the Early Cretaceous through Eocene Santiago tract, the Late Cretaceous through Oligocene Chortis tract, the Paleocene through Oligocene Darién tract, the Miocene and Pliocene Cocos tract, and the Eocene to Holocene Lesser Antilles tract. These tracts range in size from about 3,000 to about 204,000 square kilometers.

  4. Re-Os and U-Pb geochronology of the Laochang Pb-Zn-Ag and concealed porphyry Mo mineralization along the Changning-Menglian suture, SW China: implications for ore genesis and porphyry Cu-Mo exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Xiao-Dong; Li, Jian-Wei; Zhao, Xin-Fu; Wang, Hong-Qiang; Qi, Liang

    2016-02-01

    Numerous polymetallic volcanogenic massive sulfide (VMS), vein, and replacement deposits are distributed along the Changning-Menglian suture zone in Sanjiang Tethyan metallogenic province, SW China. Laochang is the largest Pb-Zn-Ag vein and replacement deposit in this area, with a proven reserve of 0.51 Mt Pb, 0.34 Mt Zn, and 1,737 t Ag. Its age and relationship to magmatic events and VMS deposits in the region, however, have long been debated. In this paper, we present pyrite Re-Os and titanite U-Pb ages aiming to provide significant insights into the timing and genesis of the Pb-Zn-Ag mineralization. Pyrite grains in textural equilibrium with galena, sphalerite, and chalcopyrite from stratabound Pb-Zn-Ag and Cu-bearing Pb-Zn-Ag orebodies have a Re-Os isochron age of 45.7 ± 3.1 Ma (2 σ, mean square weighted deviation (MSWD) = 0.45), whereas titanite grains intergrown with sulfide minerals yield a weighted mean 206Pb/238U age of 43.4 ± 1.2 Ma (2 σ, n = 8). A Mo-mineralized granitic porphyry intersected by recent drilling below the Laochang Pb-Zn-Ag ores yields a zircon U-Pb age of 44.4 ± 0.4 Ma (2 σ, n = 12). Within analytical uncertainties, the ages of the Pb-Zn-Ag deposit and the concealed Mo-mineralized porphyry are indistinguishable, indicating that they are products of a single magmatic hydrothermal system. The results show that Laochang Pb-Zn-Ag deposit is significantly younger than the host mafic volcanic rock (zircon U-Pb age of 320.8 ± 2.7 Ma; 2 σ, n = 12) and Silurian VMS deposits along the Changning-Menglian suture zone, arguing against its origin as a Carboniferous VMS deposit as many researchers claimed. The initial 187Os/188Os ratio (0.540 ± 0.012) obtained from the pyrite Re-Os isochron suggests that metals were likely derived from the granitic porphyry that formed from a hybrid magma due to mixing of crustal- and mantle-derived melts, rather than from the mafic volcanic host rocks as previously thought. Our results favor that the Laochang

  5. Geochemistry and fluid characteristics of the Dalli porphyry Cu-Au deposit, Central Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarasvandi, Alireza; Rezaei, Mohsen; Raith, Johann; Lentz, David; Azimzadeh, Amir-Mortaza; Pourkaseb, Hooshang

    2015-11-01

    The Miocene Dalli porphyry Cu-Au deposit in the central part of Urumieh-Dokhtar magmatic arc is the first reported Au-rich porphyry Cu deposit in the Zagros orogenic belt. The Cu-Au mineralization is mainly hosted in diorite and quartz diorite intrusions, presenting as numerous veinlets in the altered wall rocks, with potassic, phyllic, and propylitic alteration developed. Based on the mineral assemblages and crosscutting relations of veinlets, hydrothermal mineralization-alteration occurred in at least three stages, characterized by veinlets of (1) Qtz + Kfs + Mag ± Ccp, (2) Qtz + Py + Ccp ± Bn ± Cv ± Cc and, (3) Qtz + Chl + Bt. The ore-bearing intrusions exhibit typical geochemical characteristics of subduction zone magmas, including LREE fractionated pattern, strong enrichment in LILE (Cs, Rb, Ba, Pb, and U), and depletion of HFSE, with marked negative Ti and Nb anomalies. The adakite-like ore-hosting porphyry intrusions are characterized by a systematic gradual decreasing and increasing of Y and Eu/Eu∗ with increasing SiO2 content, respectively. Moreover, they exhibit a significant increasing trend of Sr/Y with decreasing of Y, which indicates progressive hornblende fractionation and suppression of plagioclase fractionation during the evolution toward high water content of parental magma. A relatively flat HREE pattern with low Dyn/Ybn and Nb/Ta values may represent that amphibole played a more important role than garnet in the generation of the adakitic melts in the thickened lower crust. Based on the phase assemblages confirmed by detailed laser Raman spectroscopy analyses and proportion of solid, liquid, and gaseous components, five types of fluid inclusions were recognized, which are categorized as; (1) liquid-rich two phase (liquidH2O + vaporH2O) (IIA), (2) vapor-rich two phase (vaporH2O/CO2 + liquidH2O) (IIB), (3) high saline simple fluids (IIIA; liquidH2O + vaporH2O + Hl), (4) high saline opaque mineral-bearing fluids (IIIB; liquidH2O + vaporH2O

  6. From a long-lived upper-crustal magma chamber to rapid porphyry copper emplacement: Reading the geochemistry of zircon crystals at Bajo de la Alumbrera (NW Argentina)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buret, Yannick; von Quadt, Albrecht; Heinrich, Christoph; Selby, David; Wälle, Markus; Peytcheva, Irena

    2016-09-01

    The formation of world class porphyry copper deposits reflect magmatic processes that take place in a deeper and much larger underlying magmatic system, which provides the source of porphyry magmas, as well as metal and sulphur-charged mineralising fluids. Reading the geochemical record of this large magmatic source region, as well as constraining the time-scales for creating a much smaller porphyry copper deposit, are critical in order to fully understand and quantify the processes that lead to metal concentration within these valuable mineral deposits. This study focuses on the Bajo de la Alumbrera porphyry copper deposit in Northwest Argentina. The deposit is centred on a dacitic porphyry intrusive stock that was mineralised by several pulses of porphyry magma emplacement and hydrothermal fluid injections. To constrain the duration of ore formation, we dated zircons from four porphyry intrusions, including pre-, syn- and post-mineralisation porphyries based on intersection relations between successive intrusion and vein generations, using high precision CA-ID-TIMS. Based on the youngest assemblages of zircon grains, which overlap within analytical error, all four intrusions were emplaced within 29 ka, which places an upper limit on the total duration of hydrothermal mineralisation. Re/Os dating of hydrothermal molybdenite fully overlaps with this high-precision age bracket. However, all four porphyries contain zircon antecrysts which record protracted zircon crystallisation during the ∼200 ka preceding the emplacement of the porphyries. Zircon trace element variations, Ti-in-zircon temperatures, and Hf isotopic compositions indicate that the four porphyry magmas record a common geochemical and thermal history, and that the four intrusions were derived from the same upper-crustal magma chamber. Trace element zoning within single zircon crystals confirms a fractional crystallisation trend dominated by titanite and apatite crystallisation. However, zircon

  7. Uplift and submarine formation of some Melanesian porphyry copper deposits: Stable isotope evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chivas, A.R.; O'Neil, J.R.; Katchan, G.

    1984-01-01

    Hydrogen and oxygen isotope analyses of sericites and kaolinites from four young porphyry copper deposits (Ok Tedi (1.2 Ma) and Yandera (6.5 Ma), Papua New Guinea; Koloula (1.5 Ma), Solomon Islands; and Waisoi (ocean water. For Ok Tedi, the non-magmatic component was a meteoric water with an isotopic composition different from that of the present meteoric water in the region. The isotopic signature of the former meteoric water is consistent with a surface elevation of 200 m a.s.l. or less at the time of mineralization. The deposit was later exposed and supergene kaolinitization commenced at approximately 1200 m a.s.l. Uplift and erosion has continued to the present at which time the elevation of the exposed deposit is 1800 m a.s.l. This rate of uplift is consistent with that known from other geological evidence. If the rate of uplift were approximately constant during the last 1.2 Ma, the age of supergene enrichment can be dated at approximately 0.4 Ma B.P. Similarly, influx of meteoric water at Yandera occurred when the ground surface above the deposit was at an elevation of approximately 600 m a.s.l. The deposit's present elevation is 1600 m a.s.l. In this case a total uplift of approximately 2.2 km is indicated, with removal of 1.2 km of overburden by erosion. ?? 1984.

  8. Lead and zinc geochemical behavior based on geological characteristics in Parkam Porphyry Copper System, Kerman, Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Seyyed; Saeed; Ghannadpour; Ardeshir; Hezarkhani

    2015-01-01

    Parkam(Sarah) porphyry system is located on the metallogenic belt of Kerman, Iran. Due to existence of some copper-rich resources in this region, finding out the exact statistical characteristics such as distribution of data population, mean, variance and data population behavior of elements like Cu, Mo, Pb and Zn is necessary for interpreting their geological behavior. For this reason, precise calculation of statistical characteristics of Pb and Zn grade datasets was performed and results were interpreted geologically. The natures of Pb and Zn distributions were initially identified and their distributions were normalized through statistical treatment. Subsequently, the variograms were calculated for each exploration borehole and show that both Pb and Zn geochemical variates are spatially correlated. According to the similarity of the behavior of Pb and Zn in these calculations, it is decided to measure their exact behavior applying K-means clustering method. K-means clustering results show that the Zn grade varies linearly relative to that of Pb values and their behavior is similar. Based on the geochemical behavior similarity of Pb and Zn, throughout the pervasive secondary hydrothermal activity, they are remobilized in the similar manner, from the deep to the shallow levels of the mineralization zones. However, statistical analysis suggests that hydrothermal activity associated with secondary waters in Parkam is effective in remobilizing and enriching both Pb and Zn since they have similar geochemical characteristics. However, the process does not result in generation of economic concentrations.

  9. Lead and zinc geochemical behavior based on geological characteristics in Parkam Porphyry Copper System, Kerman, Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Seyyed Saeed Ghannadpour; Ardeshir Hezarkhani

    2015-01-01

    Parkam (Sarah) porphyry system is located on the metallogenic belt of Kerman, Iran. Due to existence of some copper-rich resources in this region, finding out the exact statistical characteristics such as distribution of data population, mean, variance and data population behavior of elements like Cu, Mo, Pb and Zn is necessary for interpreting their geological behavior. For this reason, precise calculation of statistical characteristics of Pb and Zn grade datasets was performed and results were interpreted geologically. The natures of Pb and Zn distributions were initially identified and their distributions were normalized through statistical treatment. Subsequently, the variograms were calculated for each exploration borehole and show that both Pb and Zn geochemical variates are spatially correlated. According to the similarity of the behavior of Pb and Zn in these calculations, it is decided to measure their exact behavior applyingK-means clustering method.K-means clustering results show that the Zn grade varies linearly relative to that of Pb values and their behavior is similar. Based on the geochemical behavior similarity of Pb and Zn, throughout the pervasive secondary hydrothermal activity, they are remobilized in the similar manner, from the deep to the shallow levels of the mineralization zones. However, statistical analysis suggests that hydrothermal activity associated with secondary waters in Parkam is effective in remobilizing and enriching both Pb and Zn since they have similar geochemical characteristics. However, the process does not result in generation of economic concentrations.

  10. Re-Os age for molybdenite from the Gangdese porphyry copper belt on Tibetan plateau: Implication for geodynamic setting and duration of the Cu mineralization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU; Zengqian; QU; Xiaoming; WANG; Shuxian; DU; Andao; GAO

    2004-01-01

    The Gangdese porphyry copper belt consists of one large and five middle-small deposits in addition to dozens of ore-bearing porphyry bodies. The belt trends 350 km long along the EW-striking Gangdese batholith, and locally occurs as a string of beads extending about 50 km within the SN-trending rifting zones (grabens) on the Tibetan plateau. Monzonitic granite- porphyry and quartz monzonitic porphyry, as dominant host rocks, are shoshonitic and potassic calc-alkaline. Available dating data indicate that the ages of the shallow-level emplacement for these porphyries vary from 10 Ma to 18 Ma, which are identical to that of associated potassic calc-alkaline volcanic rocks (10-15 Ma) and mafic dykes (13-18 Ma).The timing and duration of Cu mineralization events are constrained by Re-Os ages for molybdenites from three porphyry copper deposits in the Gangdese porphyry copper belt. Five molybdenite samples from the Nanmu deposit yielded an 187Re-187Os isochron with a highly precise age of (14.76±0.22) Ma; six molybdenites from the Chongjiang deposit gave an isochron age of (14.04±0.16) Ma. Re-Os model ages for two molybdenite samples from Lakang'e deposit vary from 13.5 Ma to 13.6 Ma, which are basically identical to isochron ages mentioned above. All the thirteen samples from these three deposits yielded a linear array in the isochron diagram with a higher correlation coefficient of 0.99719 and an isochron age of (14.39±0.22) Ma (1σ error), suggesting an coeval event of the Cu mineralization and a shared source of ore materials for the Gangdese porphyry copper belt. Compared with the longer-lived felsic magmatic-hydrothermal system, the Cu mineralization is a relatively short event with duration of about 0.5 Ma, and usually occurs in the later-stage of the complicate magmatic system.The emplacement age of the Gangdese porphyries indicates that they intruded after the rapid rising of the Gangdese Mountains at 21-23 Ma, and formed in a post-collision crustal extension

  11. Alteration zone Mapping in the Meiduk and Sar Cheshmeh Porphyry Copper Mining Districts of Iran using Advanced Land Imager (ALI Satellite Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Beiranvand Pour

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the capability of Earth Observing-1 (EO1 Advanced Land Imager (ALI data for hydrothermal alteration mapping in the Meiduk and Sar Cheshmeh porphyry copper mining districts, SE Iran. Feature-oriented principal components selection, 4/2, 8/9, 5/4 band ratioing were applied to ALI data for enhancing the hydrothermally altered rocks associated with porphyry copper mineralization, lithological units and vegetation. Mixture-tuned matched-filtering (MTMF was tested to discriminate the hydrothermal alteration areas of porphyry copper mineralization from surrounding environment using the shortwave infrared bands of ALI. Results indicate that the tested methods are able to yield spectral information for identifying vegetation, iron oxide/hydroxide and clay minerals, lithological units and the discrimination of hydrothermally altered rocks from unaltered rocks using ALI data.

  12. Lead isotope compositions of Late Cretaceous and early Tertiary igneous rocks and sulfide minerals in Arizona: Implications for the sources of plutons and metals in porphyry copper deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouse, R.M.; Ruiz, J.; Titley, S.R.; Tosdal, R.M.; Wooden, J.L.

    1999-01-01

    Porphyry copper deposits in Arizona are genetically associated with Late Cretaceous and early Tertiary igneous complexes that consist of older intermediate volcanic rocks and younger intermediate to felsic intrusions. The igneous complexes and their associated porphyry copper deposits were emplaced into an Early Proterozoic basement characterized by different rocks, geologic histories, and isotopic compositions. Lead isotope compositions of the Proterozoic basement rocks define, from northwest to southeast, the Mojave, central Arizona, and southeastern Arizona provinces. Porphyry copper deposits are present in each Pb isotope province. Lead isotope compositions of Late Cretaceous and early Tertiary plutons, together with those of sulfide minerals in porphyry copper deposits and of Proterozoic country rocks, place important constraints on genesis of the magmatic suites and the porphyry copper deposits themselves. The range of age-corrected Pb isotope compositions of plutons in 12 Late Cretaceous and early Tertiary igneous complexes is 206Pb/204Pb = 17.34 to 22.66, 207Pb/204Pb = 15.43 to 15.96, and 208Pb/204Pb = 37.19 to 40.33. These Pb isotope compositions and calculated model Th/U are similar to those of the Proterozoic rocks in which the plutons were emplaced, thereby indicating that Pb in the younger rocks and ore deposits was inherited from the basement rocks and their sources. No Pb isotope differences distinguish Late Cretaceous and early Tertiary igneous complexes that contain large economic porphyry copper deposits from less rich or smaller deposits that have not been considered economic for mining. Lead isotope compositions of Late Cretaceous and early Tertiary plutons and sulfide minerals from 30 metallic mineral districts, furthermore, require that the southeastern Arizona Pb province be divided into two subprovinces. The northern subprovince has generally lower 206Pb/204Pb and higher model Th/U, and the southern subprovince has higher 206Pb/204Pb and

  13. Re-Os molybdenite ages and zircon Hf isotopes of the Gangjiang porphyry Cu-Mo deposit in the Tibetan Orogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Cheng-Biao; Zhang, Xing-Chun; Zhong, Hong; Hu, Rui-Zhong; Zhou, Wei-De; Li, Chao

    2013-06-01

    The Miocene porphyry Cu-(Mo) deposits in the Gangdese orogenic belt in southern Tibet were formed in a post-subduction collisional setting. They are closely related to the Miocene adakite-like porphyries which were probably derived from a thickened basaltic lower crust. Furthermore, mantle components have been considered to have played a crucial role in formation of these porphyry deposits (Hou et al. Ore Geol Rev 36: 25-51, 2009; Miner Deposita doi:10.1007/s00126-012-0415-6, 2012). In this study, we present zircon Hf isotopes and molybdenite Re-Os ages on the newly discovered Gangjiang porphyry Cu-Mo deposit in southern Tibet to constrain the magma source of the intrusions and the timing of mineralization. The Gangjiang porphyry Cu-Mo deposit is located in the Nimu ore field in the central Gangdese porphyry deposits belt, southern Tibet. The copper and molybdenum mineralization occur mainly as disseminations and veins in the overlapped part of the potassic and phyllic alteration zones, and are predominantly hosted in the quartz monzonite stock and in contact with the rhyodacite porphyry stock. SIMS zircon U-Pb dating of the pre-mineral quartz monzonite stock and late intra-mineral rhyodacite porphyry yielded ages of 14.73 ± 0.13 Ma (2 σ) and 12.01 ± 0.29 Ma (2 σ), respectively. These results indicate that the magmatism could have lasted as long as about 2.7 Ma for the Gangjiang deposit. The newly obtained Re-Os model ages vary from 12.51 ± 0.19 Ma (2 σ) to 12.85 ± 0.18 Ma (2 σ) for four molybdenite samples. These Re-Os ages are roughly coincident with the rhyodacite porphyry U-Pb zircon age, and indicate a relatively short-lived episode of ore deposition (ca. 0.3 Ma). In situ Hf isotopic analyses on zircons by using LA-MC-ICP-MS indicate that the ɛ Hf( t) values of zircons from a quartz monzonite sample vary from +2.25 to +4.57 with an average of +3.33, while zircons from a rhyodacite porphyry sample vary from +5.53 to +7.81 with an average of +6.64. The

  14. 40Ar/39Ar Dating of the Shaxi Porphyry Cu-Au Deposit in the Southern Tan-Lu Fault Zone, Anhui Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Xiaoyong; ZHENG Yongfei; XIAO Yilin; DU Jianguo; SUN Weidong

    2007-01-01

    Four samples of plagioclase and biotite from the Shaxi porphyry in the lower part of the Yangtze metallogenic belt were analyzed for age determination with the 40Ar/39Ar method. The results yield reproducible ages of 126 Ma to 135 Ma with a high level of confidence according to the agreement between isochron and plateau ages. The four Ar-Ar ages are relatively consistent within the analytical error. These ages are also consistent with, but more precise than, previous K-Ar and Rb-Sr ages and thus provide better constraints on the time of porphyry formation and associated Cu-Au mineralization along the middle to lower part of the Yangtze metallogenic belt. The ages of 126 to 135 Ma are interpreted to represent the intrusive time of the Shaxi porphyry, so that the Cu-Au mineralization should have occurred later due to the post-magmatic hydrothermal event.

  15. Re-Os age for molybdenite from the Gangdese porphyry copper belt on Tibetan plateau:Implication for geodynamic setting and duration of the Cu mineralization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU Zengqian; QU Xiaoming; WANG Shuxian; DU Andao; GAO Yongfeng; HUANG Wei

    2004-01-01

    The Gangdese porphyry copper belt consists of one large and five middle-small deposits in addition to dozens of ore-bearing porphyry bodies. The belt trends 350 km long along the EW-striking Gangdese batholith, and locally occurs as a string of beads extending about 50 km within the SN-trending rifting zones (grabens) on the Tibetan plateau. Monzonitic granite- porphyry and quartz monzonitic porphyry, as dominant host rocks, are shoshonitic and potassic calc-alkaline. Available dating data indicate that the ages of the shallow-level emplacement for these porphyries vary from 10 Ma to 18 Ma, which are identical to that of associated potassic calc-alkaline volcanic rocks (10-15 Ma) and mafic dykes (13-18 Ma).The timing and duration of Cu mineralization events are constrained by Re-Os ages for molybdenites from three porphyry copper deposits in the Gangdese porphyry copper belt. Five molybdenite samples from the Nanmu deposit yielded an 187Re-187Os isochron with a highly precise age of (14.76±0.22) Ma; six molybdenites from the Chongjiang deposit gave an isochron age of (14.04±0.16) Ma. Re-Os model ages for two molybdenite samples from Lakang'e deposit vary from 13.5 Ma to 13.6 Ma, which are basically identical to isochron ages mentioned above. All the thirteen samples from these three deposits yielded a linear array in the isochron diagram with a higher correlation coefficient of 0.99719 and an isochron age of (14.39±0.22) Ma (1σ error), suggesting an coeval event of the Cu mineralization and a shared source of ore materials for the Gangdese porphyry copper belt. Compared with the longer-lived felsic magmatic-hydrothermal system, the Cu mineralization is a relatively short event with duration of about 0.5 Ma, and usually occurs in the later-stage of the complicate magmatic system.The emplacement age of the Gangdese porphyries indicates that they intruded after the rapid rising of the Gangdese Mountains at 21-23 Ma, and formed in a post-collision crustal extension

  16. Geologic and geochemical insights into the formation of the Taiyangshan porphyry copper–molybdenum deposit, Western Qinling Orogenic Belt, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kun-Feng Qiu,; Taylor, Ryan D.; Yao-Hui Song,; Hao-Cheng Yu,; Kai-Rui Song,; Nan Li,

    2016-01-01

    Taiyangshan is a poorly studied copper–molybdenum deposit located in the Triassic Western Qinling collisional belt of northwest China. The intrusions exposed in the vicinity of the Taiyangshan deposit record episodic magmatism over 20–30 million years. Pre-mineralization quartz diorite porphyries, which host some of the deposit, were emplaced at 226.6 ± 6.2 Ma. Syn-collisional monzonite and quartz monzonite porphyries, which also host mineralization, were emplaced at 218.0 ± 6.1 Ma and 215.0 ± 5.8 Ma, respectively. Mineralization occurred during the transition from a syn-collisional to a post-collisional setting at ca. 208 Ma. A barren post-mineralization granite porphyry marked the end of post-collisional magmatism at 200.7 ± 5.1 Ma. The ore-bearing monzonite and quartz monzonite porphyries have a εHf(t) range from − 2.0 to + 12.5, which is much more variable than that of the slightly older quartz diorite porphyries, with TDM2 of 1.15–1.23 Ga corresponding to the positive εHf(t) values and TDM1 of 0.62–0.90 Ga corresponding to the negative εHf(t) values. Molybdenite in the Taiyangshan deposit with 27.70 to 38.43 ppm Re suggests metal sourced from a mantle–crust mixture or from mafic and ultramafic rocks in the lower crust. The δ34S values obtained for pyrite, chalcopyrite, and molybdenite from the deposit range from + 1.3‰ to + 4.0‰, + 0.2‰ to + 1.1‰, and + 5.3‰ to + 5.9‰, respectively, suggesting a magmatic source for the sulfur. Calculated δ18Ofluid values for magmatic K-feldspar from porphyries (+ 13.3‰), hydrothermal K-feldspar from stockwork veins related to potassic alteration (+ 11.6‰), and hydrothermal sericite from quartz–pyrite veins (+ 8.6 to + 10.6‰) indicate the Taiyangshan deposit formed dominantly from magmatic water. Hydrogen isotope values for hydrothermal sericite ranging from − 85 to − 50‰ may indicate that magma degassing progressively depleted residual liquid in

  17. Re-Os isotopic and trace element compositions of pyrite and origin of the Cretaceous Jinchang porphyry Cu-Au deposit, Heilongjiang Province, NE China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng; Huang, Xiao-Wen; Cui, Bin; Wang, Bo-Chao; Yin, Yi-Fan; Wang, Jing-Rui

    2016-11-01

    The Jinchang Cu-Au deposit in Northeast China contains more than 76 tons of Au and 4683 tons of Cu with average ore grades of 11.34 g/t Au and 1.44% Cu. The deposit is typical of porphyry types and consists of gold orebodies mainly hosted in a ∼113 Ma granitic porphyry and breccia pipes within the porphyry intrusion. Mineralization is closely associated with early potassic alteration and late phyllic alteration. Pyrite is the main Au-bearing mineral and contains 1.48-18.9 ppb Re and 11.4-38 ppt common Os. Extremely low common Os concentrations and high Re/Os ratios are indicative of derivation of ore-forming materials from the crust. Low Re in pyrite from the Jinchang deposit may indicate a mixing source of mantle and crust or a crustal source. Five Re-Os isotopic analyses yield a model 1 isochron age of 114 ± 22 Ma (2σ, MSWD = 0.15), similar to the age of the host porphyry. Pyrite contains detectable Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Ag, Au, Sb, Pb and Bi. Pyrite has Co/Ni ratios similar to that of volcanogenic and hydrothermal sulfide deposits, indicating a magmatic-hydrothermal origin, and has Au and As contents similar to that of porphyry-epithermal systems. Pyrite grains from potassic and phyllic alteration stages have different trace element contents, reflecting the evolution of ore-forming fluids from magmatic dominated to magmatic mixed with meteoric water. In combination with regional geology, our new results are suggestive of origin of the Jinchang Cu-Au deposit from contemporary intrusions of granitic porphyries related to the Early Cretaceous subduction of the Paleo-Pacific plate.

  18. Variation of molybdenum isotopes in molybdenite from porphyry and vein Mo deposits in the Gangdese metallogenic belt, Tibetan plateau and its implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong; Zhou, Lian; Gao, Shan; Li, Jian-Wei; Hu, Zhi-Fang; Yang, Lu; Hu, Zhao-Chu

    2016-02-01

    We present Mo isotopic ratios of molybdenite from five porphyry molybdenum deposits (Chagele, Sharang, Jiru, Qulong, and Zhuonuo) and one quartz-molybdenite vein-type deposit (Jigongcun) along the Gangdese metallogenic belt in the Tibetan Plateau. These deposits represent a sequence of consecutive events of the India-Asia collision at different periods. Additional molybdenite samples from the Henderson Mo deposit (USA), the oceanic subduction-related El Teniente (Chile), and Bingham (USA) porphyry Cu-(Mo) deposits were analyzed for better understanding the controls on the Mo isotope systematics of molybdenite. The results show that molybdenite from Sharang, Jiru, Qulong, and Zhuonuo deposits have similar δ97Mo (˜0 ‰), in agreement with the values of the Henderson Mo deposit (-0.10 ‰). In contrast, samples from the Changle and Jigongcun deposit have δ97Mo of 0.85 ‰ to 0.88 ‰ and -0.48 %, respectively. Molybdenite from the El Teniente and Bingham deposits yields intermediate δ97Mo of 0.27 and 0.46 ‰, respectively. The Mo isotopes, combined with Nd isotope data of the ore-bearing porphyries, indicate that source of the ore-related magmas has fundamental effects on the Mo isotopic compositions of molybdenite. Our study indicates that molybdenite related to crustal-, and mantle-derived magmas has positive or negative δ97Mo values, respectively, whereas molybdenite from porphyries formed by crust-mantle mixing has δ97Mo close to 0 ‰. It is concluded that the Mo isotope composition in the porphyry system is a huge source signature, without relation to the tectonic setting under which the porphyry deposits formed.

  19. Hydrothermal alteration and its effects on the magnetic properties of Los Pelambres, a large multistage porphyry copper deposit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapia, Joseline; Townley, Brian; Córdova, Loreto; Poblete, Fernando; Arriagada, César

    2016-09-01

    The Los Pelambres porphyry copper deposit is located 190 km north of Santiago, Chile. A paleomagnetic and mineralogical study was conducted at this deposit to determine the effects of hydrothermal alteration on the magnetic properties and minerals of rocks within the deposit when compared to the surrounding country rock. In the Los Pelambres deposit, magnetic properties of rocks are carried by titano-hematite and titano-magnetite solid solution minerals, where the former commonly indicates the exsolution of rutile. Magnetic minerals of intrusive rocks from the greater Los Pelambres region show that magmatic titano-magnetites and magnetites are the main magnetization carriers. The hydrothermal fluid associated with rutile exsolution textures could have played an important role in the mineralization of Cu in this deposit. The paleomagnetic properties in the Los Pelambres deposit can be divided in three main groups: (i) HMRG (high magnetic remanence group), (ii) HMSG (high magnetic susceptibility group), and (iii) LMSG (low magnetic susceptibility/remanence group). In-situ magnetic properties of the HMSG and LMSG are similar to the formations and units present regionally, however HRMG samples clearly differ from the country rocks. The high variability of in-situ magnetic properties presented in the Los Pelambres deposit has also been characteristic of other porphyry copper deposits in Chile (e.g., Chuquicamata and El Teniente). Regarding the field of exploration geophysics and porphyry copper deposits, this study suggests that phyllic, chloritic, and potassic alterations are related to low, intermediate, and high in-situ NRM, respectively, suggesting that geophysical methods must target a noisy magnetic signal depending on the scale of the study. The knowledge and results obtained are especially meaningful because magnetic surveys conducted for exploration do not commonly allow for the detection of ore mineralization.

  20. Fluid inclusion characteristics and molybdenite Re-Os geochronology of the Qulong porphyry copper-molybdenum deposit, Tibet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Selby, David; Feely, Martin; Costanzo, Alessandra; Li, Xian-Hua

    2016-04-01

    The Qulong porphyry copper and molybdenum deposit is located at the southwest margin of the Lhasa Terrane and in the eastern region of the Gangdese magmatic belt. It represents China's largest porphyry copper system, with ˜2200 million tonnes of ore comprising 0.5 % Cu and 0.03 % Mo. The mineralization is associated with Miocene granodiorite, monzogranite and quartz-diorite units, which intruded into Jurassic volcanic units in a post-collisional (Indian-Asian) tectonic setting. Field observations and core logging demonstrate the alteration and mineralization at Qulong are akin to typical porphyry copper systems in subduction settings, which comprise similar magmatic-hydrothermal, potassic, propylitic and phyllic alteration assemblages. Molybdenite Re-Os geochronology confirms the relative timeframe defined by field observations and core logging and indicates that the bulk copper and molybdenum at Qulong were deposited within 350,000 years: between 16.10 ± 0.06 [0.08] (without and with decay constant uncertainty) and 15.88 ± 0.06 [0.08] Ma. This duration for mineralization is in direct contrast to a long-lived intrusive episode associated with mineralization based on previous zircon U-Pb data. Our fluid inclusion study indicates that the ore-forming fluid was oxidized and contained Na, K, Ca, Fe, Cu, Mo, Cl and S. The magmatic-hydrothermal transition occurred at ˜425 °C under lithostatic pressure, while potassic, propylitic and phyllic alteration occurred at hydrostatic pressure with temperature progressively decreasing from 425 to 280 °C. The fluid inclusion data presented here suggests that there has been ˜2.3 km of erosion at Qulong after its formation, and this erosion may be related to regional uplift of the Lhasa Terrane.

  1. Methane origin and oxygen-fugacity evolution of the Baogutu reduced porphyry Cu deposit in the West Junggar terrain, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Ping; Pan, HongDi

    2015-12-01

    Most porphyry copper deposits worldwide contain magnetite, hematite, and anhydrite in equilibrium with hypogene copper-iron sulfides (chalcopyrite, bornite) and have fluid inclusions with CO2 >> CH4 that are indicative of high fO2. In contrast, the Baogutu porphyry Cu deposit in the West Junggar terrain (Xinjiang, China) lacks hematite and anhydrite, contains abundant pyrrhotite and ilmenite in equilibrium with copper-iron sulfides (chalcopyrite), and has fluid inclusions with CH4 >> CO2 that are indicative of low fO2. The mineralized intrusive phases at Baogutu include the main-stage diorite stock and minor late-stage diorite porphyry dikes. The main-stage stock underwent fractional crystallization and country-rock assimilation-contamination, and consists of dominant diorite and minor gabbro and tonalite porphyry. The country rocks contain organic carbons (0.21-0.79 wt.%). The δ13CvPDB values of the whole rocks (-23.1 to -25.8 ‰) in the wall rocks suggest a sedimentary organic carbon source. The δ13CvPDB values of CH4 (-28.2 to -36.0 ‰) and CO2 (-6.8 to -20.0 ‰) in fluid inclusions require an organic source of external carbon and equilibration of their Δ13CCO2-CH4 values (8.2-25.0 ‰) at elevated temperatures (294-830 °C) suggesting a significant contribution of thermogenic CH4. Mineral composition data on the main-stage intrusions, such as clinopyroxene, hornblende, biotite, magnetite, ilmenite, sphene, apatite, and pyrrhotite, suggest that the primary magma at Baogutu was oxidized and became reduced after emplacement by contamination with country rocks. Mineral compositions and fluid inclusion gas compositions suggest that the redox state of the system evolved from log fO2 > FMQ + 1 in the magma stage, to log fO2 country rocks assimilation-contamination, to log fO2 > FMQ in the hydrothermal stage. Though oxidized magma was emplaced initially, assimilation-contamination of carbonaceous country rocks decreased its fO2 such that exsolved fluids contained

  2. The mass balance calculation of hydrothermal alteration in Sarcheshmeh porphyry copper deposit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Maanijou

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Sarcheshmeh porphyry copper deposit is located 65 km southwest of Rafsanjan in Kerman province. The Sarcheshmeh deposit belongs to the southeastern part of Urumieh-Dokhtar magmatic assemblage (i.e., Dehaj-Sarduyeh zone. Intrusion of Sarcheshmeh granodiorite stock in faulted and thrusted early-Tertiary volcano-sedimentary deposits, led to mineralization in Miocene. In this research, the mass changes and element mobilities during hydrothermal process of potassic alteration were studied relative to fresh rock from the deeper parts of the plutonic body, phyllic relative to potassic, argillic relative to phyllic and propylitic alteration relative to fresh andesites surrounding the deposit. In the potassic zone, enrichment in Fe2O3 and K2O is so clear, because of increasing Fe coming from biotite alteration and presence of K-feldspar, respectively. Copper and molybdenum enrichments resulted from presence of chalcopyrite, bornite and molybdenite mineralization in this zone. Enrichment of SiO2 and depletion of CaO, MgO, Na2O and K2O in the phyllic zone resulted from leaching of sodium, calcium and magnesium from the aluminosilicate rocks and alteration of K-feldspar to sericite and quartz. In the argillic zone, Al2O3, CaO, MgO, Na2O and MnO have also been enriched in which increasing Al2O3 may be from kaolinite and illite formation. Also, enrichment in SiO2, Al2O3 and CaO in propylitic alteration zone can be attributed to the formation of chlorite, epidote and calcite as indicative minerals of this zone.

  3. 新疆东戈壁斑岩型钼矿床之斑岩体特征%Geological and Geochemical Characteristics of Ore-forming Granite Porphyry in East Gobi Porphyry Molybdenum Deposit in Xinjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨志强; 吴邦友; 郑松森; 安金亮; 常勇强

    2011-01-01

    East Gobi porphyry molybdenum deposit which locates at south of Hami(about 110 km away),Xinjiang province,is in the Jueluotage polymetallic metallogenic belt of Eastern Tianshan Mt..Three type magmatic rocks,pale red porphyritic granite,granite prophyry vein and fine-grained granite vein are distributed in East Gobi Mo deposit,while ore-bodies are mainly occurred in the outer contact zone of Late Hercynian intruded porphyritic granite and low-metamorphic clastic rock.The petrological and geochemical feature of ore-bearing porphyry in East Gobi Mo deposit is comparison with the porphyry in other porphyry-type Mo deposits,which indicated that the porphyritic granite is with higher SiO2 content and belongs to calc alkali S-type granite.East Gobi porphyry Mo deposit is the first discovered super-large Mo deposit in Xinjiang province,this research may be very valuable for prospecting the similar deposit in this area.%新疆东戈壁斑岩型钼矿床位于哈密市南110 km,为荒漠戈壁区,隶属于东天山觉罗塔格多金属成矿带。钼矿体赋存于斑状花岗岩体的外接触带浅变质碎屑岩中;侵入岩主要有浅肉红色斑状花岗岩(隐伏岩体)、花岗斑岩脉、细粒花岗岩脉三种,控矿岩体为隐伏斑状花岗岩,属华力西晚期第二次侵入。本文对东戈壁矿区岩体的岩石学、岩石化学、岩石地球化学特征进行了较详细研究,并与国内的斑岩型钼矿岩体的岩石化学、岩石地球化学特征进行了对比,其主要结论是东戈壁矿区斑状花岗岩SiO2含量偏高,属钙碱性岩,侵入岩成因分类属陆壳重熔S型花岗岩。该矿床为新疆发现的第一个特大型钼矿床,此项研究对在区域上寻找同类型矿床具有重要的借鉴意义。

  4. Characteristics and evolution of ore-forming fluids of the Chongjiang copper deposit in the Gangdise porphyry copper belt, Tibet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuling Xie; Jiuhua Xu; Guangming Li; Zhiming Yang; Longsheng Yi

    2007-01-01

    Petrography, microthermometry, and scanning electron microscope/energy dispersive spectrometer (SEM/EDS) studies were performed on the fluid inclusions in the ore-bearing quartz veins and quartz phenocrysts in the porphyry of the Chongjiang porphyry copper deposit. The analyses of the fluid inclusions indicate that the ore-forming fluids were exsolved from magma. They are near-saturated, supercritical, rich in volatile constituents, and have the capture temperature of 362-389°C and salinities of 17.7wt%-18.9wt% NaCl eq. With the decreasing of temperature and pressure, the supercritical fluids were separated into a low salinity vapor phase and a high salinity liquid phase. During quartz-sericitization, the high salinity fluid boiled and separated into a low salinity vapor phase and a high salinity liquid phase. The high salinity inclusions that formed in the boiling process had daughter mineral melting temperatures higher than the homogenization temperatures of the vapor and liquid phases. The late fluids that are responsible for argillization are of lower temperature and salinity.

  5. Using a titanium-in-quartz geothermometer for crystallization temperature estimation of the Palaeoproterozoic Suursaari quartz porphyry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kairi Ehrlich

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The Suursaari volcanic sequence represents volcanic activity related to Wiborg Batholith rapakivi intrusions in the southern part of the Fennoscandian Shield. The estimated pressure conditions for batholith granitic rocks are 1–5 kbar and crystallization temperatures range from 670 to 890 °C. To describe the temperature regime of the Suursaari volcanic system, a rock sample was taken from the Mäkiinpäällys Mountain outcrop and analysed with laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Sample spots were selected from quartz phenocrysts and groundmass. Quartz crystallization temperatures were calculated by the Ti-in-quartz method that takes into account rutile equilibrium and Ti activity in each phase. The calculated crystallization temperatures of the Suursaari quartz porphyry are in the range of 647–738 °C. The results show that the Suursaari quartz porphyry contains two generations of quartz which can be distinguished on the basis of crystallization temperatures: phenocrysts crystallized at higher and groundmass quartz at lower temperature.

  6. Geochemical, microtextural and petrological studies of the Samba prospect in the Zambian Copperbelt basement: a metamorphosed Palaeoproterozoic porphyry Cu deposit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Master, Sharad; Mirrander Ndhlovu, N.

    2015-04-01

    Ever since Wakefield (1978, IMM Trans., B87, 43-52) described a porphyry-type meta-morphosed Cu prospect, the ca 50 Mt, 0.5% Cu Samba deposit (12.717°S, 27.833°E), hosted by porphyry-associated quartz-sericite-biotite schists in northern Zambia, there has been controversy about its origin and significance. This is because it is situated in the basement to the world's largest stratabound sediment-hosted copper province, the Central African Copperbelt, which is hosted by rocks of the Neoproterozoic Katanga Supergroup. Mineralization in the pre-Katangan basement has long played a prominent role in ore genetic models, with some authors suggesting that basement Cu mineralization may have been recycled into the Katangan basin through erosion and redeposition, while others have suggested that the circulation of fluids through Cu-rich basement may have leached out the metals which are found concentrated in the Katangan orebodies. On the basis of ca 490-460 Ma Ar-Ar ages, Hitzman et al. (2012, Sillitoe Vol., SEG Spec. Publ., 16, 487-514) suggested that Samba represents late-stage impregnation of copper mineralization into the basement, and that it was one of the youngest copper deposits known in the Central African Copperbelt. If the Samba deposit really is that young, then it would have post-dated regional deformation and metamorphism (560-510 Ma), and it ought to be undeformed and unmetamorphosed. The Samba mineralization consists of chalcopyrite and bornite, occurring as disseminations, stringers and veinlets, found in a zone >1 km along strike, in steeply-dipping lenses up to 10m thick and >150m deep. Our new major and trace element XRF geochemical data (14 samples) show that the host rocks are mainly calc-alkaline metadacites. Cu is correlated with Ag (Cu/Ag ~10,000:1) with no Au or Mo. Our study focused on the microtextures and petrology of the Samba ores. We confirm that there is alteration of similar style to that accompanying classical porphyry Cu mineralization

  7. Adakite-like granitoid porphyries in the Eastern Pontides, NE Turkey: Potential parental melts and geodynamic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karsli, Orhan; Ketenci, Murat; Uysal, İbrahim; Dokuz, Abdurrahman; Aydin, Faruk; Chen, Bin; Kandemir, Raif; Wijbrans, Jan

    2011-11-01

    The tectonic setting of the Eastern Pontides during the late Mesozoic to early Cenozoic remains a subject of debate. Petrogenesis of adakite-like granitoid porphyries plays a critical role in determining the nature of the lower continental crust and mantle dynamics during orogenic processes in the region. Here we describe, for the first time, the late Paleocene to early Eocene adakite-like granitoid porphyries from the northern part of the Eastern Pontides although their counterparts in the southern part have recently been found. The adakitic porphyries, which emplaced into the subduction-related Turonian-Santonian volcanics from northern part of the region, consist of I-type calc-alkaline quartz monzonite-tonalite (SiO2 = 62.89-65.07 wt.%) and high-K calc-alkaline granodiorite-granite associations (SiO2 = 69.06-70.43 wt.%). The former displays peraluminous to metaluminous signatures, whereas the latter shows peraluminous geochemical character. The granite-granodiorite porphyries have high K2O (3.32-3.84 wt.%), and low Na2O (3.48-4.61 wt.%) and MgO (0.91-1.04 wt.%) relative to the quartz monzonite-tonalite association (K2O = 1.50-1.92 wt.%; Na2O = 4.08-6.45 wt.%; MgO = 1.44-2.07 wt.%). Ar-Ar geochronology studies on the amphibole separates reveal that the adakite-like porphyries have a crystallization ages of 51.34 ± 0.27 to 53.55 ± 0.34 Ma. Here, we contend that these rocks were formed by partial fusion of a mafic lower continental crust in a collisional phase but not in a subduction setting. All the samples exhibit the typical geochemical characteristics of adakite, that is, high Sr (250-1141 ppm), high Sr/Y ratios (16-147), low Y (6.8-14.8 ppm) and low HREE concentrations; they are similar to adakites formed by slab melting associated with the subduction zone. However, the rocks exhibit heterogeneity in isotopic composition, with ISr ranging from 0.70554 to 0.70986, εNd (51 Ma) from -8.5 to -0.9 and Nd model ages from 0.72 to 1.26 Ga. The samples are

  8. The Jebel Ohier deposit—a newly discovered porphyry copper-gold system in the Neoproterozoic Arabian-Nubian Shield, Red Sea Hills, NE Sudan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierlein, F. P.; McKeag, S.; Reynolds, N.; Bargmann, C. J.; Bullen, W.; Murphy, F. C.; Al-Athbah, H.; Brauhart, C.; Potma, W.; Meffre, S.; McKnight, S.

    2016-08-01

    Ongoing exploration in the Red Sea Hills of NE Sudan has led to the identification of a large alteration-mineralization system within a relatively undeformed Neoproterozoic intrusive-extrusive succession centered on Jebel Ohier. The style of mineralization, presence of an extensive stockwork vein network within a zoned potassic-propylitic-argillic-advanced argillic-altered system, a mineralization assemblage comprising magnetite-pyrite-chalcopyrite-bornite (±gold, silver and tellurides), and the recurrence of fertile mafic to intermediate magmatism in a developing convergent plate setting all point to a porphyry copper-gold association, analogous to major porphyry Cu-Au-Mo deposits in Phanerozoic supra-subduction settings such as the SW Pacific. Preliminary U-Pb age dating yielded a maximum constraint of c. 730 Ma for the emplacement of the stockwork system into a significantly older ( c. 800 Ma) volcanic edifice. The mineralization formed prior to regional deformation and accretion of the host terrane to a stable continental margin at by c. 700 Ma, thus ensuring preservation of the deposit. The Jebel Ohier deposit is interpreted as a relatively well-preserved, rare example of a Neoproterozoic porphyry Cu-Au system and the first porphyry Cu-Au deposit to be identified in the Arabian-Nubian Shield.

  9. Fluid inclusion evidence for hydrothermal fluid evolution in the Darreh-Zar porphyry copper deposit, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nateghi, Arash; Hezarkhani, Ardeshir

    2013-09-01

    The Darreh-Zar porphyry copper deposit is associated with a quartz monzonitic-granodioritic-porphyritic stock hosted by an Eocene volcanic sedimentary complex in which magmatic hydrothermal fluids were introduced and formed veins and alteration. Within the deepest quartz-rich and chalcopyrite-poor group A veins, LVHS2 inclusions trapped high salinity, high temperature aqueous fluids exsolved directly from a relatively shallow magma (0.5 kbar). These late fluids were enriched in NaCl and reached halite saturation as a result of the low pressure of magma crystallization and fluid exsolution. These fluids extracted Cu from the crystallizing melt and transported it to the hydrothermal system. As a result of ascent, the temperature and pressure of these fluids decreased from 600 to 415 °C, and approximately 500-315 bars. At these conditions, K-feldspar and biotite were stabilized. Type A veins were formed at a depth of ∼1.2 km under conditions of lithostatic pressure and abrupt cooling. Upon cooling and decompressing, the fluid intersected with the liquid-vapor field resulting in separation of immiscible liquid and vapor. This stage was recorded by formation of LVHS1, LVHS3 and VL inclusions. These immiscible fluids formed chalcopyrite-pyrite-quartz veins with sericitic alteration envelopes (B veins) under the lithostatic-hydrostatic pressure regime at temperatures between 415 and 355 °C at 1.3 km below the paleowater table. As the fluids ascended, copper contents decreased and these fluids were diluted by mixing with the low salinity-external fluid. Therefore, pyrite-dominated quartz veins were formed in purely hydrostatic conditions in which pressure decreased from 125 bars to 54 bars and temperature decreased from 355 to 298 °C. During the magmatic-hydrothermal evolution, the composition and P-T regime changed drastically and caused various types of veins and alterations. The abundance of chalcopyrite precipitation in group B veins suggests that boiling and

  10. Early Paleozoic magmatism and metallogeny in Northeast China: a record from the Tongshan porphyry Cu deposit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xinlu; Yao, Shuzhen; Ding, Zhenju; He, Mouchun

    2016-04-01

    The Tongshan Cu deposit is located in the northern segment of the Great Xing'an Range and represents one of the few early Paleozoic porphyry Cu deposits in northeastern China. The granitic rocks in the Tongshan Cu deposit include concealed granodiorite and exposed tonalite, which yield LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb ages of 478 ± 3 Ma and 214 ± 3 Ma, respectively. The granodiorite has relatively high SiO2 (60.5-63.5 wt%) and Sr (596-786 ppm) contents, low Yb (1.21-1.53 ppm) and Y (9.81-13.0 ppm) contents, and initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.7038-0.7040), suggesting adakitic affinity. Combined with its positive ɛNd(t) values (3.5-5.4), low Mg# values (41-50), and low contents of Cr (18.6-29.0 ppm) and Ni (7.3-9.1 ppm), we propose an origin by partial melting of a juvenile mafic lower crust in a post-collisional setting after the amalgamation of the Erguna and Xing'an Blocks. The tonalite is characterized by high SiO2 (63.1-65.9 wt%) and Al2O3 (16.0-16.3 wt%) contents, low (87Sr/86Sr) i ratios (0.7041-0.7042), positive ɛNd(t) values (2.6-3.0), along with LILE and LREE enrichments and Nb-Ta-Ti depletions, suggesting an origin by partial melting of juvenile mafic lower crust, coupled with fractional crystallization, in a post-orogenic setting after the collision between the Xing'an and Songnen Blocks. The δD values of ore-forming fluids range from -100 to -93 ‰, and the δ18O values calculated from hydrothermal quartz are between -3 and 10 ‰. The δ34S values of sulfides vary from -2.6 to -1.1 ‰. Field observations, as well as the geochronological and H-O-S isotopic data, suggest that the Cu mineralization at Tongshan was genetically linked with the granodiorite.

  11. Quantitative Mineral Resource Assessment of Copper, Molybdenum, Gold, and Silver in Undiscovered Porphyry Copper Deposits in the Andes Mountains of South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Charles G.; Zappettini, Eduardo O.; Vivallo S., Waldo; Celada, Carlos Mario; Quispe, Jorge; Singer, Donald A.; Briskey, Joseph A.; Sutphin, David M.; Gajardo M., Mariano; Diaz, Alejandro; Portigliati, Carlos; Berger, Vladimir I.; Carrasco, Rodrigo; Schulz, Klaus J.

    2008-01-01

    Quantitative information on the general locations and amounts of undiscovered porphyry copper resources of the world is important to exploration managers, land-use and environmental planners, economists, and policy makers. This publication contains the results of probabilistic estimates of the amounts of copper (Cu), molybdenum (Mo), gold (Au), and silver (Ag) in undiscovered porphyry copper deposits in the Andes Mountains of South America. The methodology used to make these estimates is called the 'Three-Part Form'. It was developed to explicitly express estimates of undiscovered resources and associated uncertainty in a form that allows economic analysis and is useful to decisionmakers. The three-part form of assessment includes: (1) delineation of tracts of land where the geology is permissive for porphyry copper deposits to form; (2) selection of grade and tonnage models appropriate for estimating grades and tonnages of the undiscovered porphyry copper deposits in each tract; and (3) estimation of the number of undiscovered porphyry copper deposits in each tract consistent with the grade and tonnage model. A Monte Carlo simulation computer program (EMINERS) was used to combine the probability distributions of the estimated number of undiscovered deposits, the grades, and the tonnages of the selected model to obtain the probability distributions for undiscovered metals in each tract. These distributions of grades and tonnages then can be used to conduct economic evaluations of undiscovered resources in a format usable by decisionmakers. Economic evaluations are not part of this report. The results of this assessment are presented in two principal parts. The first part identifies 26 regional tracts of land where the geology is permissive for the occurrence of undiscovered porphyry copper deposits of Phanerozoic age to a depth of 1 km below the Earth's surface. These tracts are believed to contain most of South America's undiscovered resources of copper. The

  12. Mineral and geochemical characterization of advance argillic alteration of the Biely vrch Au-porphyry deposit, Slovakia – DVE-10 and DVE-51 boreholes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Madejová

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The Biely vrch deposit is a new economic Au-porphyry mineralization discovered in Slovakia. The deposit is located in the central zone of the Neogene Javorie stratovolcano, situated in the eastern part of the Central Slovakian Volcanic Field. Au-porphyry deposits represent a relatively new type of deposits of the porphyry group that has a growing importance in the world. The Biely vrch deposit shares many properties typical for Au-porphyry deposits in general. Zones of advanced argillic alteration are the uppermost part of the porphyry system and the youngest alteration. They are spread from surface to depth of several hundred metres in the shape of ledges. Kaolinite was the main clay mineral from studied samples. Its average amount was almost 33 wt%. That value was determined by XRD quantitative analyses of 13 bulk samples from the depth of 2 to 205 m. The amount of kaolinite was ranged from 3 to 54 wt% in the particular samples. Pyrophyllite attends kaolinite as the second clay mineral in the upper part of advanced argillic alteration. Dickite, another index mineral of advanced argillic alteration, occurred with kaolinite more frequently than pyrophyllite but in smaller amount. Almost in half of the studied samples significant presence of illite was identified, part of them belong to intermediate argillic zone. Clay minerals were studied also by electron microscopy and IR spectroscopy. Quartz was determined as the main non-clay mineral. The first mineral quantitative analyses showed big potential to use a product of advanced argillic alteration as a secondary source of silicate raw material with high content of Al2O3. Models of distribution of selected elements were prepared simultaneously with mineralogical characterization. Several good correlations were observed of these distributions and alterations and their products.

  13. Petrogenesis of Paleocene-Eocene porphyry deposit-related granitic rocks in the Yaguila-Sharang ore district, central Lhasa terrane, Tibet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Junxing; Li, Guangming; Evans, Noreen J.; Qin, Kezhang; Li, Jinxiang; Zhang, Xia'nan

    2016-11-01

    The Paleocene-Eocene ore deposits in the Gangdese Metallogenic Belt, Tibet, are thought to have been formed during the main period of India-Asia continental collision. This paper reports the whole-rock major element, trace element, and Sr-Nd-Hf isotopic compositions and zircon trace element contents of volcanic and intrusive rocks from the Paleocene Yaguila skarn Pb-Zn-Ag deposit and adjacent Eocene Sharang porphyry Mo deposit in the central Lhasa terrane, Tibet. Geochemical signatures and Nd-Hf isotopic compositions indicate that the Yaguila Cretaceous rhyolitic rocks were formed by the melting of ancient continental crust, whereas the Paleocene causative granite porphyry may have resulted from the interaction between mantle-derived and crustal-derived materials when continental collision was initiated. The dramatic increase of εNd(t) values between emplacement of the granite porphyry and later porphyritic biotite granite suggests a greater involvement of mantle materials during the crystallization of the barren biotite granite stock. The post-ore Miocene granodiorite porphyry has a similar geochemical signature to the Sharang Miocene dykes, suggesting they were both generated from melting of enriched lithospheric mantle. Nd-Hf mixing calculations indicate an increasing contribution of mantle materials in Paleocene to Eocene intrusions, consistent with the regional tectonic model of Neo-Tethyan oceanic slab roll-back and break-off. Zircons from both the Yaguila and Sharang ore-related porphyries have higher Ce anomalies than those from the barren granitoids, suggesting that Mo mineralization was closely related to highly oxidized and differentiated magma. The fertile intrusions in the Yaguila-Sharang district contain EuN/EuN∗ values from 0.3 to 0.6, higher than the non-mineralized intrusions. The processes of early crystallization of plagioclase and/or SO2-degassing from underlying magma can explain the observed negative Eu anomalies in zircon.

  14. Indosinian Tectonic Setting of the Southern Yidun Arc: Constraints from SHRIMP Zircon Chronology and Geochemistry of Dioritic Porphyries and Granites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A mass of granitoid and dioritic intrusions are distributed in the southern Yidun Arc, among which the representative Indosinian intrusions include the Dongco and Maxionggou granitoid intrusions in Daocheng County and hypabyssal intrusions intruding into arc volcanic rocks near the Xiangcheng town. The Dongco and Maxionggou granitoid intrusions consist mainly of porphyraceous monzogranites, megacryst monzogranites and aplite granites. The Xiangcheng hypabyssal intrusions are composed dominantly of dioritic porphyries. SHRIMP zircon ages of 224±3 Ma and 222±3 Ma have been obtained for the Dongco granitoid intrusion and the Xiangcheng dioritic porphyries, respectively.The Xiongcheng dioritic porphyries show a calc-alkaline geochemical feature, and are characterized by higher Sr/Y ratios, depletive Nb, Ta, P and Ti, enriched LILEs, and lower εNd (t) (= -3.27), suggesting that they might be derived from mantle source magmas that were obviously contaminated by continent crustal materials. However, the Dongco and Maxionggou granitoids belong to high-potassium calcalkaline series with a per-metaluminous feature, and are characterized by higher CaO/(∑FeO+MgO)and Al2O3/(∑FeO+ MgO) ratios, lower (La/Yb)n and Sr/Y ratios, depletive Nb, Ta, Sr, P and Ti,enriched LILEs, and very low εNd (t) (= -8.10), indicating that the granitoids might be derived from partial melting of continental crust materials mainly of graywacke. Petrogenesis of Dongco and Maxionggou granitoids implies that there was an oceanic crust between the Zongza continental block (ZCB) and western margin of the Yangtze Craton (WMYZC). And the oceanic crust slab subducted westward during the Indosinian Epoch, producing an Andes-type continent marginal arc and a backarc basin at the WMSCC. Then the oceanic basin closed and a sinistrally lateral collision occurred at ca. 224 Ma-222 Ma between the ZCB and the WMYZC, causing partial melting of sediments in the back-arc basin to generate granitoid magmas of the

  15. The geology, structure and mineralisation of the Oyu Tolgoi porphyry copper-gold-molybdenum deposits, Mongolia:A review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    T.M. Mike Porter

    2016-01-01

    The Oyu Tolgoi cluster of seven porphyry Cu-Au-Mo deposits in southern Mongolia, define a narrow, linear, 12 km long, almost continuously mineralised trend, which contains in excess of 42 Mt of Cu and 1850 t of Au, and is among the largest high grade porphyry Cu-Au deposits in the world. These deposits lie within the Gurvansayhan island-arc terrane, a fault bounded segment of the broader Silurian to Carboniferous Kazakh-Mongol arc, located towards the southern margin of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt, a collage of magmatic arcs that were periodically active from the late Neoproterozoic to Permo-Triassic, extending from the Urals Mountains to the Pacific Ocean. Mineralisation at Oyu Tolgoi is associated with multiple, overlapping, intrusions of late Devonian (w372 to 370 Ma) quartz-monzodiorite intruding Devonian (or older) juvenile, probably intra-oceanic arc-related, basaltic lavas and lesser volcaniclastic rocks, unconformably overlain by late Devonian (w370 Ma) basaltic to dacitic pyroclastic and volcano sedimentary rocks. These quartz-monzodiorite intrusions range from early-mineral porphyritic dykes, to larger, linear, syn-, late- and post-mineral dykes and stocks. Ore was deposited within syn-mineral quartz-monzodiorites, but is dominantly hosted by augite basalts and to a lesser degree by overlying dacitic pyroclastic rocks. Following ore deposition, an allochthonous plate of older Devonian (or pre-Devonian) rocks was overthrust and a post-ore biotite granodiorite intruded at w365 Ma. Mineralisation is characterised by varying, telescoped stages of intrusion and alteration. Early A-type quartz veined dykes were followed by Cu-Au mineralisation associated with potassic alteration, mainly K-feldspar in quartz-monzodiorite and biotite-magnetite in basaltic hosts. Downward reflux of cooled, late-magmatic hydrothermal fluid resulted in intense quartz-sericite retrograde alteration in the upper parts of the main syn-mineral intrusions, and an equivalent chlorite

  16. Petrochemistry of igneous rocks of the California-Vetas mining district, Santander, Colombia: Implications for northern Andean tectonics and porphyry Cu (-Mo, Au) metallogeny

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissig, Thomas; Mantilla Figueroa, Luis Carlos; Hart, Craig J. R.

    2014-07-01

    Porphyry Mo and Cu mineralization in the California-Vetas mining district is contemporaneous with 10.9 to 8.4 Ma granodiorite porphyry stocks and overprinted by Au-Ag mineralization of epithermal affinity. Mineralization is hosted by Grenvillian aged paragneisses (Bucaramanga Gneiss of the Santander Massif) and late Triassic to early Jurassic granitic rocks. All intrusive rocks are high-K calc-alkaline. Late Triassic to early Jurassic rocks include peraluminous granites with more than 70 wt.% SiO2 as well as metaluminous diorites, tonalites and granodiorites with SiO2 between 54.9 and 60.4 wt.%. Late Miocene rocks are weakly peraluminous granodiorite porphyries with SiO2 between 61 and 67 wt.% SiO2. Late Miocene rocks share some characteristics with adakite-like rocks which are widely associated with porphyry and epithermal style mineralization elsewhere in the Andes. They have high Ba (930 to 1500 ppm) and high Ba/La (28 to 50), high Sr (850 to 1100 ppm) and Sr/Y (48-78) and depleted middle rare earth elements (MREE) compared to the Mesozoic granites, which have 400 to 700 ppm Ba (Ba/La 14 to 25) and 80 to 150 ppm Sr (Sr/Y 2.5 to 14), and Mesozoic diorites and tonalites, which have ~ 900 to 1200 ppm Ba (Ba/La 20 to 32) and ~ 610 to 750 ppm Sr (Sr/Y 22 to 25). Miocene granodiorite porphyries, in contrast to Mesozoic intrusive rocks have only weak negative Eu anomalies. The Miocene rocks have 87Sr/86Sr ratios of 0.7052 to 0.7067 and εNd of - 1.9 to - 5.4 and are significantly more isotopically primitive than all other rocks in the study area including the Mesozoic diorites to tonalites (87Sr/86Sr = 0.7082 and 0.7092; εNd = - 6.7 and - 7.2), granites (87Sr/86Sr = 0.730 (n = 2); εNd = - 8.2 and - 8.3) and Bucaramanga Gneiss (0.718 to 0.743; εNd = - 10.8 to - 14.1). Lead isotope data are broadly consistent with the Sr and Nd isotope data and the Miocene porphyries have the lowest 207Pb/204Pb ratios but overlap with the Mesozoic diorites to tonalites in their 206Pb

  17. Timing of porphyry (Cu-Mo) and base metal (Zn-Pb-Ag-Cu) mineralisation in a magmatic-hydrothermal system—Morococha district, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catchpole, Honza; Kouzmanov, Kalin; Bendezú, Aldo; Ovtcharova, Maria; Spikings, Richard; Stein, Holly; Fontboté, Lluís

    2015-12-01

    The Morococha district in central Peru is characterised by economically important Cordilleran polymetallic (Zn-Pb-Ag-Cu) vein and replacement bodies and the large Toromocho porphyry Cu-Mo deposit in its centre. U-Pb, Re-Os, and 40Ar/39Ar geochronology data for various porphyry-related hydrothermal mineralisation styles record a 3.5-Ma multi-stage history of magmatic-hydrothermal activity in the district. In the late Miocene, three individual magmatic-hydrothermal centres were active: the Codiciada, Toromocho, and Ticlio centres, each separated in time and space. The Codiciada centre is the oldest magmatic-hydrothermal system in the district and consists of a composite porphyry stock associated with anhydrous skarn and quartz-molybdenite veins. The hydrothermal events are recorded by a titanite U-Pb age at 9.3 ± 0.2 Ma and a molybdenite Re-Os age at 9.26 ± 0.03 Ma. These ages are indistinguishable from zircon U-Pb ages for porphyry intrusions of the composite stock and indicate a time span of 0.2 Ma for magmatic-hydrothermal activity. The small Ticlio magmatic-hydrothermal centre in the west of the district has a maximum duration of 0.3 Ma, ranging from porphyry emplacement to porphyry mineralisation at 8.04 ± 0.14 Ma (40Ar/39Ar muscovite cooling age). The Toromocho magmatic-hydrothermal centre has a minimum of five recorded porphyry intrusions that span a total of 1.3 Ma and is responsible for the formation of the giant Toromocho Cu-Mo deposit. At least two hydrothermal pulses are identified. Post-dating a first pulse of molybdenite mineralisation, wide-spread hydrous skarn covers an area of over 6 km2 and is recorded by five 40Ar/39Ar cooling ages at 7.2-6.8 Ma. These ages mark the end of the slowly cooling and long-lived Toromocho magmatic-hydrothermal centre soon after last magmatic activity at 7.26 ± 0.02 Ma. District-wide (50 km2) Cordilleran base metal vein and replacement bodies post-date the youngest recorded porphyry mineralisation event at Toromocho

  18. Hydrothermal Evolution of the Giant Cenozoic Kadjaran porphyry Cu-Mo deposit, Tethyan metallogenic belt, Armenia, Lesser Caucasus: mineral paragenetic, cathodoluminescence and fluid inclusion constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovakimyan, Samvel; Moritz, Robert; Tayan, Rodrik; Rezeau, Hervé

    2016-04-01

    The Lesser Caucasus belongs to the Central segment of the Tethyan metallogenic belt and it is a key area to understand the metallogenic evolution between the Western & Central parts of the Tethyan belt and its extension into Iran. Zangezur is the most important mineral district in the southernmost Lesser Caucasus. It is a component of the South Armenian block, and it was generated during the convergence and collision of the southern margin of the Eurasian plate and the northern margin of the Arabian plate, and terranes of Gondwana origin (Moritz et al., in press). The Zangezur ore district consists of the Tertiary Meghri-Ordubad composite pluton, which is characterized by a long-lasting Eocene to Pliocene magmatic, tectonic and metallogenic evolution. It hosts major porphyries Cu-Mo and epithermal Au - polymetallic deposits and occurrences, including the giant world class Kadjaran porphyry Cu-Mo deposit (2244 Mt reserves, 0.3% Cu, 0.05% Mo and 0.02 g/t Au). The Kadjaran deposit is hosted by a monzonite intrusion (31.83±0.02Ma; Moritz et al., in press). Detailed field studies of the porphyry stockwork and veins of the different mineralization stages, their crosscutting and displacement relationships and the age relationship between different paragenetic mineral associations were the criteria for distinction of the main stages of porphyry mineralization at the Kadjaran deposit. The economic stages being: quartz- molybdenite, quartz-molybdenite-chalcopyrite, and quartz-chalcopyrite. The main paragenetic association of the Kadjaran porphyry deposit includes pyrite, molybdenite, chalcopyrite, bornite, chalcocite, pyrrhotite, covellite, sphalerite, and galena. Recent field observations in the Kadjaran open pit revealed the presence of epithermal veins with late vuggy silica and advanced argillic alteration in the north-eastern and eastern parts of the deposit. They are distributed as separate veins and have also been recognized in re-opened porphyry veins and in

  19. USGS exploration geochemistry studies at the Pebble porphyry Cu-Au-Mo deposit, Alaska-pdf of presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppinger, Robert G.; Kelley, Karen D.; Fey, David L.; Giles, Stuart A.; Minsley, Burke J.; Smith, Steven M.

    2010-01-01

    From 2007 through 2010, scientists in the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) have been conducting exploration-oriented geochemical and geophysical studies in the region surrounding the giant Pebble porphyry Cu-Au-Mo deposit in southwestern Alaska. The Cretaceous Pebble deposit is concealed under tundra, glacial till, and Tertiary cover rocks, and is undisturbed except for numerous exploration drill holes. These USGS studies are part of a nation-wide research project on evaluating and detecting concealed mineral resources. This report focuses on exploration geochemistry and comprises illustrations and associated notes that were presented as a case study in a workshop on this topic. The workshop, organized by L.G. Closs and R. Glanzman, is called 'Geochemistry in Mineral Exploration and Development,' presented by the Society of Economic Geologists at a technical conference entitled 'The Challenge of Finding New Mineral Resources: Global Metallogeny, Integrative Exploration and New Discoveries,' held at Keystone, Colorado, October 2-5, 2010.

  20. Ore-forming fluid constraints on illite crystallinity (IC) at Dexing porphyry copper deposit, Jiangxi Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN; Zhangdong

    2001-01-01

    [1]uatier, M. D., Peacor, D. R., O’Neil, J. R., Smectite-illite transition in Barbados accretionary wedge sediments: TEM and AEM evidence for dissolution/crystallization at low temperature, Clays and Clay Minerals, 1992, 40(1): 65.[2]Eberl, D., Hower, J., Kinetics of illite formation, Geological Society of America Bulletin, 1976, 9: 1326[3]Elliott, W. C., Matisoff, G., Evaluation of kinetic models for smectite to illite transformation, Clays and Clay Minerals, 1996, 44(1): 77.[4]Ji Junfeng, Browne, P. R. L., Liu Yingjun et al., Kinetic model for the smectite to illite transformation in active geothermal system, Chinese Science Bulletin (in Chinese), 1997, 42 (21): 2313[5]Pollastro, R. M., Considerations and applications of the illite/smectite geothermometer in hydrocarbonbearing rocks of Miocene to Mississippian age, Clays and Clay Minerals, 1993, 41(1): 119[6]Harvey, C. C., Browne, P. R. L., Mixed-layer clay geothermometry in the Wairakei geothermal field, New Zealand, Clays and Clay Minerals, 1991, 39(3): 614[7]Whitney, G., Role of water in the smectite-to-illite reaction, Clays and Clay Minerals, 1990, 38 (2): 343.[8]Inoue, A., Kitagawa, R., Morphological characteristics of illitic clay minerals from a hydrothermal system, American Mineralogist, 1994, 79: 700.[9]Velde, B., Vasseur, G., Estimation of the diagenetic smectite to illite in time-temperature space, American Mineralogist, 1992, 77: 967.[10]hu Xun, Huang Chongke, Rui Zongyao et al., Dexing Porphyry Copper Deposit (in Chinese), Beijing: Geological Publishing House, 1983.[11]Kisch, H. J., Illite crystallinity: recommendation on sample preparation, X-ray diffraction settings and interlaboratory samples, Journal of Metamorphic Geology, 1991, 9: 665.[12]Eberl, D. D., Velde, B., Beyond the Kübler Index, Clay Minerals, 1989, 24(3): 571.[13]Srodon, J., Eberl, D. D., Illite. Micas, Reviews in Mineralogy (ed. Bailey, S. W.), 1984, 13: 495.[14]Yao, Y. C

  1. Devonian and carboniferous arcs of the oyu tolgoi porphyry Cu-Au district, South Gobi region, Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wainwright, A.J.; Tosdal, R.M.; Forster, C.N.; Kirwin, D.J.; Lewis, P.D.; Wooden, J.L.

    2011-01-01

    The Central Asian orogenic belt consists of microcontinental blocks and mobile belts positioned between the Siberian craton and the Tarim and North China cratons. Extending across Asia for 5000 km, the belt consists of terranes that decrease in age southward away from the Siberian craton. A time-stratigraphic-structural sequence for the rocks is critical to defining the tectonic evolution of the belt. In the Oyu Tolgoi area of the South Gobi Desert (Mongolia), Devonian and Carboniferous rocks record the construction of multiple arcs, formation of a giant porphyry Cu-Au system, exhumation, and polyphase deformation. The oldest rocks are basaltic volcanic and subvolcanic rocks of the Devonian Alagbayan Group intruded by Late Devonian quartz monzodiorite stocks and dikes, which host giant porphyry Cu-Au deposits. The rocks were exhumed, overlain by pyroclastic rocks, and then tectonically buried by marine mafic supracrustal rocks prior to the youngest Devonian granodiorite intrusions. The postmineral Carboniferous Gurvankharaat Group unconformably overlying the deformed terrane consists of effusive, pyroclastic, subvolcanic and volcaniclastic rocks, as well as sedimentary units. The supracrustal rocks underwent polyphase shortening after 330 Ma and prior to 290 Ma. Variations in stratigraphic sequences suggest that the region is underlain by a submarine arc that became emergent during the Upper Devonian and remained subaerial to shallow subaqueous through much of the Carboniferous. Xenocrystic zircons in igneous rocks suggest that the offshore arcs were sufficiently close to ancient crust to have interacted with detritus shed into marine basins, most likely from the Siberian craton and fringing early Paleozoic terranes. ?? 2011 Geological Society of America.

  2. Re-Os molybdenite and LA-ICPMS-MC U-Pb zircon geochronology for the Milpillas porphyry copper deposit: insights for the timing of mineralization in the Cananea District, Sonora, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Víctor A. Valencia; Benito Noguez Alcántara; Fernando Barra; Joaquín Ruiz; George Gehrels; Francisco Quintanar; Martín Valencia Moreno

    2006-01-01

    New geochronological data presented here improves the understanding of the temporal evolution of the Cananea Mining District, and particularly of the Milpillas porphyry copper deposit (northeastern Sonora, Mexico). Uranium-lead zircon analyses, using laser ablation ICP-MS multi-collector, from the quartz monzonite porphyry unit that host the mineralization at the Milpillas deposit, yielded a crystallization age of 63.9 ± 1.3 Ma (2-sigma). Re-Os molybdenite ages from two drill core samples fro...

  3. Geological, geochronological, geochemical, and Sr-Nd-O-Hf isotopic constraints on origins of intrusions associated with the Baishan porphyry Mo deposit in eastern Tianshan, NW China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yinhong; Xue, Chunji; Liu, Jiajun; Zhang, Fangfang

    2016-10-01

    The Baishan porphyry Mo deposit (0.72 Mt; 0.06 % Mo) is located in the interior of the eastern Tianshan orogenic belt in Xinjiang, NW China. The deposit comprises 15 orebodies that are associated with monzogranite and granite porphyry stocks and are structurally controlled by roughly EW-trending faults. Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) zircon U-Pb dating of the monzogranite and granite porphyry yielded the Middle Triassic age (228 ± 2 to 227 ± 2 Ma), which coincide with the molybdenite Re-Os model ages ranging from 226 ± 3 to 228 ± 3 Ma. The Triassic monzogranite and granite porphyry belong to high-K calc-alkaline series and are characterized by high SiO2 and Al2O3 and low MgO, TiO2, and P2O5 concentrations, with negative Eu anomalies (δEu = 0.55-0.91). The least-altered monzogranite and granite porphyry yield uniform ɛ Nd( t) values from +1.6 to +3.6, and wide (87Sr/86Sr) i ratios ranging between 0.7035 and 0.7071, indicating that they were derived from the lower crust. In situ O-Hf isotopic analyses on zircon using SIMS and laser ablation multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-MC-ICP-MS) indicate that the δ18O and ɛ Hf( t) values of zircon from a monzogranite sample vary from 6.1 to 7.3 ‰ and +8.0 to +11.7, respectively, whereas zircon from a granite porphyry sample vary from 6.2 to 6.9 ‰ and +7.3 to +11.2, respectively. The geochemical and isotopic data imply that the primary magmas of the Baishan granite were likely derived from partial melts from the lower crust involving some mantle components. The Baishan Mo deposit and granitic emplacement were proposed to be most likely related to post-orogenic lithospheric extension and magmatic underplating. An extensional event coupled with the rising of hot mantle-derived melts triggered partial melting of the lower crust, as well as provided metals (Mo).

  4. Geological, geochronological, geochemical, and Sr-Nd-O-Hf isotopic constraints on origins of intrusions associated with the Baishan porphyry Mo deposit in eastern Tianshan, NW China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yinhong; Xue, Chunji; Liu, Jiajun; Zhang, Fangfang

    2016-03-01

    The Baishan porphyry Mo deposit (0.72 Mt; 0.06 % Mo) is located in the interior of the eastern Tianshan orogenic belt in Xinjiang, NW China. The deposit comprises 15 orebodies that are associated with monzogranite and granite porphyry stocks and are structurally controlled by roughly EW-trending faults. Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) zircon U-Pb dating of the monzogranite and granite porphyry yielded the Middle Triassic age (228 ± 2 to 227 ± 2 Ma), which coincide with the molybdenite Re-Os model ages ranging from 226 ± 3 to 228 ± 3 Ma. The Triassic monzogranite and granite porphyry belong to high-K calc-alkaline series and are characterized by high SiO2 and Al2O3 and low MgO, TiO2, and P2O5 concentrations, with negative Eu anomalies (δEu = 0.55-0.91). The least-altered monzogranite and granite porphyry yield uniform ɛ Nd(t) values from +1.6 to +3.6, and wide (87Sr/86Sr) i ratios ranging between 0.7035 and 0.7071, indicating that they were derived from the lower crust. In situ O-Hf isotopic analyses on zircon using SIMS and laser ablation multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-MC-ICP-MS) indicate that the δ18O and ɛ Hf(t) values of zircon from a monzogranite sample vary from 6.1 to 7.3 ‰ and +8.0 to +11.7, respectively, whereas zircon from a granite porphyry sample vary from 6.2 to 6.9 ‰ and +7.3 to +11.2, respectively. The geochemical and isotopic data imply that the primary magmas of the Baishan granite were likely derived from partial melts from the lower crust involving some mantle components. The Baishan Mo deposit and granitic emplacement were proposed to be most likely related to post-orogenic lithospheric extension and magmatic underplating. An extensional event coupled with the rising of hot mantle-derived melts triggered partial melting of the lower crust, as well as provided metals (Mo).

  5. U-Pb (zircon) and geochemical constraints on the age, origin, and evolution of Paleozoic arc magmas in the Oyu Tolgoi porphyry Cu-Au district, southern Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wainwright, A.J.; Tosdal, R.M.; Wooden, J.L.; Mazdab, F.K.; Friedman, R.M.

    2011-01-01

    Uranium-Pb (zircon) ages are linked with geochemical data for porphyry intrusions associated with giant porphyry Cu-Au systems at Oyu Tolgoi to place those rocks within the petrochemical framework of Devonian and Carboniferous rocks of southern Mongolia. In this part of the Gurvansayhan terrane within the Central Asian Orogenic Belt, the transition from Devonian tholeiitic marine rocks to unconformably overlying Carboniferous calc-alkaline subaerial to shallow marine volcanic rocks reflects volcanic arc thickening and maturation. Radiogenic Nd and Pb isotopic compositions (??Nd(t) range from +3.1 to +7.5 and 206Pb/204Pb values for feldspars range from 17.97 to 18.72), as well as low high-field strength element (HFSE) contents of most rocks (mafic rocks typically have Elsevier B.V.

  6. Investigation on the age of mineralization in the Sungun porphyry Cu-Mo deposit, NW Iran with a regional metallogenic perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmonds, Vartan; Moazzen, Mohssen; Mathur, Ryan

    2016-04-01

    The Sungun porphyry copper deposit (PCD) is located in NW Iran, neighbouring several other PCDs and prospects in the region and the Lesser Caucasus (south Armenia). It lies on the Urumieh-Dokhtar magmatic arc (UDMA), which formed through the northeast-ward subduction of the Neo-Tethyan oceanic crust beneath the Central Iranian plate during late-Mesozoic and early-Cenozoic [1], and hosts the porphyry copper metallogenic belt of Iran. The Sungun PCD is the second largest deposit in Iran with ore reserves of about 850 Mt at 0.62 wt% Cu and 0.01 wt% Mo and probable reserves over 1Gt. The monzonitic to quartz monzonitic porphyry stock intruded the upper Cretaceous carbonates and Eocene volcano-sedimentary rocks. It produced a skarn-type mineralization at its contact zone with the carbonate rocks, as well as vast hydrothermal alteration zones and porphyry-type Cu and Mo mineralization. The zircon U-Pb age of the host porphyry stock is about 22.5±0.4 to 20.1±0.4 Ma [2]. Re-Os dating of four molybdenite separates from this PCD shows ages ranging between 22.9±0.2 to 21.7±0.2 Ma, with an average of 22.57±0.2 Ma, corresponding to the early Miocene (Aquitanian). These ages indicate that both the porphyry stock and the Cu-Mo mineralization are post-collisional events, similar to many other deposits and prospects in NW and central Iran and south Armenia, and the mineralization occurred shortly after the emplacement of the host stock, corresponding better to the ages obtained from the marginal parts of the stock. Magmatism and mineralization in Sungun coincides with the third metallogenic epoch in the Lesser Caucasus (Eocene to Miocene; [3]), though it is considerably younger than all of the dated PCDs and prospects in the south Armenia. It also postdates Cu-Mo mineralizations in the Saheb Divan (35 Ma), Qaradagh batholith (31.22±0.28 to 25.19±0.19 Ma), as well as Haft Cheshmeh PCD (28.18±0.42 to 27.05±0.37 Ma) in NW Iran, while it seems to be coeval with the Kighal

  7. Re-Os geochronology of the El Salvador porphyry Cu-Mo deposit, Chile: Tracking analytical improvements in accuracy and precision over the past decade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Aaron; Stein, Holly J.; Morgan, John W.; Markey, Richard J.; Watanabe, Yasushi

    2014-04-01

    Sulfide minerals from the El Salvador porphyry Cu-Mo deposit, Chile, were dated by Re-Os geochronology to clarify the timing and duration of mineralization. As these data are collected over the past 10 years, they chronicle the evolution of Re-Os analytical procedures and improvements in spike-sample equilibration, mass spectrometry and data reduction. Included in the data is the first tennantite-pyrite Re-Os isochron along with tennantite-enargite-pyrite Os tracing of ore metals based on initial osmium systematics (187Os/188Osi). Porphyry-associated mineralization follows the traditional early (A), transitional (B), and late (D) stage classification of relative timing of vein formation. Most Cu- and Mo-bearing sulfides were deposited during stages A and B. Field relationships clearly show the B-stage veins are older than the D-stage veins. Samples analyzed with Carius tube digestion and mixed-double spike indicate B-stage molybdenite mineralization between 41.8 and 41.2 Ma. These ages best represent the timing of main-stage mineralization at El Salvador. A five-point 187Re-187Os isochron for pyrite-tennantite from the latest D-stage veins yields an age of 42.37 ± 0.45 Ma. The isochron age, while older, is within error of early analyses of molybdenite by alkaline fusion digestion using single Re and Os spikes (42.4-42.0 Ma). A separate pyrite and tennantite-enargite pair containing significant common Os yields an initial 187Os/188Os ratio of 0.134 ± 0.042, compatible with a predominantly mantle origin. We appreciate the early analyses for their historical significance while emphasize the geological implications of the 41.8-41.2 Ma molybdenite ages. Temperature estimates by sulfur thermometry and fluid inclusions are 390-510 °C for the B-stage molybdenites and 230-240 °C for the latest D-stage pyrite and tennantite. Analyses based on Carius tube digestion and updated spike calibrations suggest a ∼0.6 m.y. duration (∼41.8 to 41.2 Ma) in-line with published

  8. Remelting of Neoproterozoic relict volcanic arcs in the Middle Jurassic: Implication for the formation of the Dexing porphyry copper deposit, Southeastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xuan; Fan, Hong-Rui; Santosh, M.; Hu, Fang-Fang; Yang, Kui-Feng; Li, Qiu-Li; Yang, Yue-Heng; Liu, Yongsheng

    2012-10-01

    The Dexing copper deposit in southeastern China is a typical non-arc porphyry deposit, the origin of which has been a topic of debate for several decades. Here we present new results from U-Pb geochronology, whole-rock chemistry and Sr-Nd-Hf-O isotopic investigations on the ore-forming granodioritic porphyry. LA-ICPMS zircon U-Pb data suggest that the granodioritic porphyry was formed in the Middle Jurassic (ca. 172.5 Ma) probably associated with lithospheric thinning driven by either sub-continental lithospheric mantle delamination or asthenospheric upwelling. The porphyry displays both arc-like and adakitic trace element signatures. The adakitic features suggest that HREE (heavy rare earth elements)-rich minerals such as garnet and hornblende, in the absence of plagioclase resided in the source region. The arc-like signatures are broadly comparable with those of the proximal Neoproterozoic island arc rocks including the keratophyre from Shuangxiwu Group and associated granitoids indicating a potential genetic relationship. The porphyry has chondritic ɛNd(t) of - 0.28 to 0.25 and radiogenic ɛHf(t) of 2 to 7, and correspondingly, uniform two stage depleted mantle Nd model ages of 940-980 Ma and Hf model ages of 800-1100 Ma (mean ~ 920 Ma). On Nd and Hf isotopic evolution diagrams, these values are markedly similar to those of the adjacent Neoproterozoic arc rocks when calculated forward to the Mid-Jurassic. Zircons of the porphyry show mantle-like oxygen isotope characters with δ18O values clustering in the range of 4.7-5.9‰, similar to the values for the Neoproterozoic arc rocks mentioned above. The geochemical and isotopic features recorded in our study suggest mantle-derived magmas with no significant supracrustal input for the source of the porphyry. With regard to the source of the Cu ore, we consider a model involving the remelting of sulfide-bearing arc-related lower crustal source. Furthermore, the occurrence of a Neoproterozoic VMS (volcanic massive

  9. U-Pb zircon, geochemical and Sr-Nd-Hf-O isotopic constraints on age and origin of the ore-bearing intrusions from the Nurkazgan porphyry Cu-Au deposit in Kazakhstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Ping; Pan, Hongdi; Seitmuratova, Eleonora; Jakupova, Sholpan

    2016-02-01

    Nurkazgan, located in northeastern Kazakhstan, is a super-large porphyry Cu-Au deposit with 3.9 Mt metal copper and 229 tonnage gold. We report in situ zircon U-Pb age and Hf-O isotope data, whole rock geochemical and Sr-Nd isotopic data for the ore-bearing intrusions from the Nurkazgan deposit. The ore-bearing intrusions include the granodiorite porphyry, quartz diorite porphyry, quartz diorite, and diorite. Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) zircon U-Pb dating indicates that the granodiorite porphyry and quartz diorite porphyry emplaced at 440 ± 3 Ma and 437 ± 3 Ma, respectively. All host rocks have low initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.70338-0.70439), high whole-rock εNd(t) values (+5.9 to +6.3) and very high zircon εHf(t) values (+13.4 to +16.5), young whole-rock Nd and zircon Hf model ages, and consistent and slightly high zircon O values (+5.7 to +6.7), indicating that the ore-bearing magmas derived from the mantle without old continental crust involvement and without marked sediment contamination during magma emplacement. The granodiorite porphyry and quartz diorite porphyry are enriched in large ion lithophile elements (LILE) and light rare earth elements (LREE) and depleted in high-field strength elements (HFSE), Eu, Ba, Nb, Sr, P and Ti. The diorite and quartz diorite have also LILE and LREE enrichment and HFSE, Nb and Ti depletion, but have not negative Eu, Ba, Sr, and P anomalies. These features suggest that the parental magma of the granodiorite porphyry and quartz diorite porphyry originated from melting of a lithospheric mantle and experienced fractional crystallization, whereas the diorite and quartz diorite has a relatively deeper lithospheric mantle source region and has not experienced strong fractional crystallization. Based on these, together with the coeval ophiolites in the area, we propose that a subduction of the Balkhash-Junggar oceanic plate took place during the Early Silurian and the ore-bearing intrusions and associated Nurkazgan

  10. Sr and O isotopic characteristics of porphyries in the Qinling molybdenum deposit belt and their implication to genetic mechanism and type

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈衍景; 李超; 张静; 李震; 王海华

    2000-01-01

    A great deal of Mesozoic hypobatholithic granites and hypabyssal porphyries develop in the Qinling Mountains. The former has long been regarded as transformation type (or S-type), and the latter associated with Mo-mineralization regarded as syntexis type (or l-type) granitoids. Statistics show that Sr, andδ18O of hypabyssal porphyries respectively range from 0.705 to 0.714, and from 7.2‰ to 12.1‰, agreeing with those of hypobatholithes (Sr1=0.705-0.710, δ18O = 6.1‰-10.4‰), which indicates that they share similar material sources and petrogenic mechanism. Based on analysis of lithological, mineralogical and geochemical characteristics of these granitoids and on study of their petrogenic tectonic background and regional geophysical data, we argue that both the shallow-seated porphyries and deep-seated batholithes were the products of Mesozoic collision between South China and North China paleocontinents. Subsequently, all these granti-toids should be attributed to collision type.

  11. Geochronology and isotope geochemistry of the Baogutu porphyry copper deposit in the West Junggar region, Xinjiang, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Ping; Shen, Yuanchao; Pan, Hongdi; Li, Xian-hua; Dong, Lianhui; Wang, Jingbin; Zhu, Heping; Dai, Huawu; Guan, Weina

    2012-04-01

    The Baogutu copper deposit, a newly-discovered middle-sized porphyry copper deposit, is located in the West Junggar region of Xinjiang, NW China. Baogutu is associated with a Late Carboniferous intrusive complex that was emplaced into Lower Carboniferous volcano-sedimentary strata. The intrusive complex comprises main-stage diorites and minor late-stage diorite porphyries. Their intrusive activity occurred in 313.0 ± 2.2 Ma to 312.3 ± 2.2 Ma based on U-Pb zircon SIMS analyses. Molybdenite separated from ore-bearing quartz veins yields Re-Os model ages from 309.4 ± 4.4 Ma to 314.1 ± 4.5 Ma with a weighted mean age of 312.4 ± 1.8 Ma. Biotites, separated from fresh diorite and hydrothermal breccias in main-stage diorites, yield 40Ar/39Ar plateau ages of 308.26 ± 1.88 and 305.69 ± 1.76 Ma, respectively. These dates obtained from three independent dating techniques constrain the ore-forming age of the Baogutu deposit. Stable isotopes (H, O, S) and radiogenic isotope (Pb) have been used to discriminate the sources of the ore-forming fluid at Baogutu. The δ18O (1.14-1.74‰) and δD (-74‰ to -98‰) data indicate that the water of the ore-forming fluids was derived from magmatic water. The δ34S values (-0.24‰ to +0.4‰) show that the sulfur isotope composition of the ore fluids is characterized by magma sulfur. Lead isotope compositions (206Pb/204Pb = 17.92-18.89, 207Pb/204Pb = 15.45-15.62, 208Pb/204Pb = 37.68-38.36) indicate that the lead of the ore fluids is derived from the mantle. These data confirm the occurrence of a Cu-Au-Mo mineralizing event at Late Carboniferous in the Baogutu region and the ore-forming fluids are mainly derived from the mantle. The event is inferred to be associated with Late Carboniferous Junggar oceanic crust subduction.

  12. Stable isotope (S, O, H and C) studies of the phyllic and potassic phyllic alteration zones of the porphyry copper deposit at Sungun, East Azarbaidjan, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calagari, Ali Asghar

    2003-05-01

    The porphyry copper deposit (PCD) at Sungun is located in East Azarbaidjan, NW of Iran. The magmatic suites in the Sungun area are a part of the NW-SE trending Cenozoic magmatic belt of Iran. The Sungun porphyries occur as stocks and dikes. The stocks are divided into two groups, I and II. Porphyry Stock II, ranging in composition from quartz monzonite through granodiorite to granite, hosts the Sungun PCD. Four distinct types of hypogene alterations were recognized at Sungun: (1) potassic; (2) potassic-phyllic; (3) phyllic; and (4) propylitic. Stable isotope (S, O, H, and C) studies were restricted to within the phyllic and potassic-phyllic alteration zones, where numerous cross-cutting quartz, sulfides, carbonates, and sulfate veinlets are present. The objective of these studies was to determine the origin of the ore-forming solutions, and their important components (e.g. sulfur and carbon). Twenty sulfide and four sulfate samples were taken from sulfide and gypsum veinlets within Porphyry Stock II and the associated skarn zone for sulfur isotopic analyses. The δ34S values of sulfides (pyrite, chalcopyrite, molybdenite, galena, sphalerite) and sulfate (gypsum) range from -4.6 to -0.2‰ (mean of -1.5‰) and from 10.9 to 14.4‰ (mean of 12.9‰), respectively. These values are almost analogous to those from El Salvador (Chile) and Ajo (Arizona), and Twin Buttes (Arizona), and strongly suggest a magmatic source for the sulfur at Sungun. Twenty-eight fluid inclusion-rich quartz samples from quartz veinlets beneath the supergene zones of the Porphyry Stock II were chosen for O and H isotopic analyses. The δ18O (of quartz) and δD (of fluid inclusions in quartz) values range from 8.3 to 10.2‰ (mean of 9.2‰) and -58 to -75‰ (mean of -66‰) relative to Standard Mean Ocean Water (SMOW), respectively. The calculated δ18O values of the fluids range from 4.4‰ (T=375 ° C) to 7.6‰ (T=570 ° C) with a mean of 6.4‰. The δ18O and δD values of the fluids lie

  13. The Mesozoic Caosiyao giant porphyry Mo deposit in Inner Mongolia, North China and Paleo-Pacific subduction-related magmatism in the northern North China Craton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Huaying; Zhang, Lianchang; Pirajno, Franco; Shu, Qihai; Zhang, Min; Zhu, Mingtian; Xiang, Peng

    2016-09-01

    The Caosiyao giant porphyry Mo deposit is located in the Wulanchabu area of Inner Mongolia, within the northern North China Craton (NCC). It contains more than 2385 Mt of ore with an average grade of 0.075% Mo. In the Caosiyao mining district, Mo mineralization occurs mainly in a Mesozoic granite porphyry as disseminations and stockworks, with some Mo distributed in Archean metamorphic rocks and diabase as stockworks and veins. The host granite porphyry is composed of two different phases that can be distinguished based on mineral assemblages and textures: one phase contains large and abundant phenocrysts (coarse-grained), while the other phase is characterized by fewer and smaller phenocrysts (medium-grained). Zircon U-Pb-Hf analyses of the former phase yielded a concordant 206Pb/238U age of 149.8 ± 2.4 Ma with a 206Pb/238U weighted mean age of 149.9 ± 2.4 Ma and εHf(t) values ranging from -12.2 to 18.3, while the latter phase gave a concordant 206Pb/238U age of 149.0 ± 2.2 Ma with a 206Pb/238U weighted mean age of 149.0 ± 2.1 Ma and εHf(t) values ranging from -13.1 to 17.7. Five samples of disseminated molybdenite have a 187Re-187Os isochron age of 149.5 ± 5.3 Ma with a weighted average age of 149.0 ± 1.8 Ma, whereas six veinlet-type molybdenite samples have a well-constrained 187Re-187Os isochron age of 146.9 ± 3.1 Ma and a weighted average age of 146.5 ± 0.8 Ma. Thus, it is suggested that the Mo mineralization of the Caosiyao deposit occurred during the Late Jurassic (ca. 147-149 Ma), almost coeval with the emplacement of the host granite porphyry (ca. 149-150 Ma). The host granite porphyry is characterized by high silica (SiO2 = 71.52-74.10 wt%), relatively high levels of oxidation (Fe2O3/FeO = 0.32-0.94 wt%) and high alkali element concentrations (Na2O + K2O = 8.21-8.76 wt%). The host granite porphyry also shows enrichments in U and K, and depletion in Ba, Sr, P, Eu, and Ti, suggesting strong fractional crystallization of plagioclase, biotite, and

  14. Mineralization and Geochemical Exploration in Volcanic- Plotonic Area of Halakabad Village (Sabzevar, Regarding to Cu-Porphyry Deposits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panahi Shahri, M.

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The investigated area is located 30 Km south of Sabzevar in Halakabad village. Geological phenomenons in area follow a trend of NW-SE. Mineralization consists of metallic and non-metallic (kaolin mineralization. Disseminated and veinlet mineralization is generally associated with argillic alteration type. Pyrite is the most widespread type of sulfide mineralization in Halakabad occurrences. It usually displays a euhedral habit and have occurred at least in two generations. Calcopyrite is common in veinlets although in minor amounts. Secondary sulfuric acid weathering of the ore has generated huge surficial amounts of oxide and sulfate minerals which of hematite and jarosite are the most abundant. Geochemical exploration was conducted over both drainage geochemistry and rock geochemistry. Results show that some of the stream sediments have higher concentrations of Copper and Zinc than normal. This anomalies maches with monzonite outcrops in area. The chip rock geochemical data shows highest values in west of halakabad mine for Cu and Zn respectively 500 and 900 ppm. These data represents that all samples collected from surficial areas of east of area contain lower concentrations of Copper while sulfide mineralization is more than the other parts. Presence of favorable alteration system in region, presence of monzonite subvolcanic intrusions and regional geological criteria indicates a possible Cu-Au porphyry system in Halakabad area.

  15. Zircon U–Pb geochronology and geochemistry of rhyolitic tuff, granite porphyry and syenogranite in the Lengshuikeng ore district, SE China: Implications for a continental arc to intra-arc rift setting

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Changming Wang; Da Zhang; Ganguo Wu; Yigan Xu; Emmanuel John M Carranza; Yaoyao Zhang; Huaikun Li; Jianzhen Geng

    2013-06-01

    SE China is well known for its Mesozoic large-scale granitoid plutons and associated ore deposits. Here, zircon U–Pb geochronological and geochemical data have been used to better constrain the petrogenesis of the igneous rocks associated with porphyry Ag–Pb–Zn deposits in the Lengshuikeng ore district, SE China. The Lengshuikeng rhyolitic tuff, granite porphyry and syenogranite yielded zircon U–Pb ages of 161, 155 and 138 Ma, respectively. The Lengshuikeng granite porphyries belong to calc-alkaline series and show fractionated I-type affinities. The rhyolitic tuffs show almost similar characteristics as the granite porphyries. The engshuikeng syenogranites are all alkali-rich and show A-type affinities. The syenogranites have high contents of high field strength elements such as Nb, Ta, Zr, Hf; with Zr + Nb + Ce + Y contents of < 350 ppm. Chondrite-normalized REE patterns show relative enrichment of LREEs and strong negative Eu anomalies. The Lengshuikeng granite porphyries, syenogranites and tuffs were probably derived from partial melting of underlying Proterozoic metasedimentary rocks with minor addition of mantle-derived magmas, accompanied by fractional crystallization. Detailed petrologic and geochemical data for the Jurassic igneous rocks from the Lengshuikeng ore district imply that during the Late Jurassic, SE China on the southeast of the Shi-Hang zone was a continental arc associated with the subduction of the Palaeo-Pacific plate and that since the beginning of the Early Cretaceous an intra-arc rift has been formed along the Shi-Hang zone.

  16. Economic filters for evaluating porphyry copper deposit resource assessments using grade-tonnage deposit models, with examples from the U.S. Geological Survey global mineral resource assessment: Chapter H in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson,, Gilpin R.; Menzie, W. David

    2012-01-01

    An analysis of the amount and location of undiscovered mineral resources that are likely to be economically recoverable is important for assessing the long-term adequacy and availability of mineral supplies. This requires an economic evaluation of estimates of undiscovered resources generated by traditional resource assessments (Singer and Menzie, 2010). In this study, simplified engineering cost models were used to estimate the economic fraction of resources contained in undiscovered porphyry copper deposits, predicted in a global assessment of copper resources. The cost models of Camm (1991) were updated with a cost index to reflect increases in mining and milling costs since 1989. The updated cost models were used to perform an economic analysis of undiscovered resources estimated in porphyry copper deposits in six tracts located in North America. The assessment estimated undiscovered porphyry copper deposits within 1 kilometer of the land surface in three depth intervals.

  17. Age and geochemistry of host rocks of the Cobre Panama porphyry Cu-Au deposit, central Panama: Implications for the Paleogene evolution of the Panamanian magmatic arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Michael J.; Hollings, Peter; Thompson, Jennifer A.; Thompson, Jay M.; Burge, Colin

    2016-04-01

    The Cobre Panama porphyry Cu-Au deposit, located in the Petaquilla district of central Panama, is hosted by a sequence of medium- to high-K calc-alkaline volcanic and sub-volcanic rocks. New crystallisation ages obtained from a granodiorite Petaquilla batholith and associated mineralised diorite to granodiorite porphyry stocks and dikes at Cobre Panama indicate that the batholith was emplaced as a multi-phase intrusion, over a period of ~ 4 million years from 32.20 ± 0.76 Ma to 28.26 ± 0.61 Ma, while the porphyritic rocks were emplaced over a ~ 2 million year period from 28.96 ± 0.62 Ma to 27.48 ± 0.68 Ma. Both the volcanic to sub-volcanic host rocks and intrusive rocks of the Cobre Panama deposit evolved via fractional crystallisation processes, as demonstrated by the major elements (e.g. Al2O3, Fe2O3, TiO2 and MgO) displaying negative trends with increasing SiO2. The Petaquilla intrusive rocks, including the diorite-granodiorite porphyries and granodiorite batholith, are geochemically evolved and appear to have formed from more hydrous magmas than the preceding host volcanic rocks, as evidenced by the presence of hornblende phenocrysts, higher degrees of large-ion lithophile element (LILE) and light rare earth element (LREE) enrichment and heavy rare earth element (HREE) depletion, and higher Sr/Y and La/Yb values. However, the degree of LREE enrichment, HREE depletion and La/Yb values are insufficient for the intrusive rocks to be considered as adakites. Collectively, the volcanic and intrusive rocks have LILE, REE and mobile trace element concentrations similar to enriched Miocene-age Cordilleran arc magmatism found throughout central and western Panama. Both the Petaquilla and Cordilleran arc magmatic suites are geochemically more evolved than the late Cretaceous to Eocene Chagres-Bayano arc magmas from northeastern Panama, as they display higher degrees of LILE and LREE enrichment. The geochemical similarities between the Petaquilla and Cordilleran arc

  18. Porphyry copper assessment of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt and eastern Tethysides: China, Mongolia, Russia, Pakistan, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, and India: Chapter X in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihalasky, Mark J.; Ludington, Stephen; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Alexeiev, Dmitriy V.; Frost, Thomas P.; Light, Thomas D.; Robinson,, Gilpin R.; Briggs, Deborah A.; Wallis, John C.; Miller, Robert J.; Bookstrom, Arthur A.; Panteleyev, Andre; Chitalin, Andre; Seltmann, Reimar; Guangsheng, Yan; Changyun, Lian; Jingwen, Mao; Jinyi, Li; Keyan, Xiao; Ruizhao, Qiu; Jianbao, Shao; Gangyi, Shai; Yuliang, Du

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey collaborated with international colleagues to assess undiscovered resources in porphyry copper deposits in the Central Asian Orogenic Belt and eastern Tethysides. These areas host 20 known porphyry copper deposits, including the world class Oyu Tolgoi deposit in Mongolia that was discovered in the late 1990s. The study area covers major parts of the world’s largest orogenic systems. The Central Asian Orogenic Belt is a collage of amalgamated Precambrian through Mesozoic terranes that extends from the Ural Mountains in the west nearly to the Pacific Coast of Asia in the east and records the evolution and final closure of the Paleo-Asian Ocean in Permian time. The eastern Tethysides, the orogenic belt to the south of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt, records the evolution of another ancient ocean system, the Tethys Ocean. The evolution of these orogenic belts involved magmatism associated with a variety of geologic settings appropriate for formation of porphyry copper deposits, including subduction-related island arcs, continental arcs, and collisional and postconvergent settings. The original settings are difficult to trace because the arcs have been complexly deformed and dismembered by younger tectonic events. Twelve mineral resource assessment tracts were delineated to be permissive for the occurrence of porphyry copper deposits based on mapped and inferred subsurface distributions of igneous rocks of specific age ranges and compositions. These include (1) nine Paleozoic tracts in the Central Asian Orogenic Belt, which range in area from about 60,000 to 800,000 square kilometers (km2); (2) a complex area of about 400,000 km2 on the northern margin of the Tethysides, the Qinling-Dabie tract, which spans central China and areas to the west, encompassing Paleozoic through Triassic igneous rocks that formed in diverse settings; and (3) assemblages of late Paleozoic and Mesozoic rocks that define two other tracts in the Tethysides, the 100

  19. Geochemical Characteristics and Significance of Major Elements, Trace Elements and REE in Mineralized Altered Rocks of Large-Scale Tsagaan Suvarga Cu-Mo Porphyry Deposit in Mongolia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The alteration types of the large-scale Tsagaan Suvarga Cu-Mo porphyry deposit mostly comprise stockwork silicification, argillization, quartz-sericite alteration, K-silicate alteration, and propylitization.The mineralized and altered zones from hydrothermal metallogenic center to the outside successively are Cu-bearing stockwork silicification zone, Cu-bearing argillized zone, Cu-Mo-bearing quartz-sericite alteration zone, Cu-Mo-bearing K-silicate alteration zone, and propylitization zone.The K-silicate alteration occurred in the early phase, quartz-sericite alteration in the medium phase, and argillization and carbonatization (calcite) in the later phase.Ore-bearing-altered rocks are significantly controlled by the structure and fissure zones of different scales, and NE- and NW-trending fissure zones could probably be the migration pathways of the porphyry hydrothermal system.Results in this study indicated that the less the concentrations of REE, LREE, and HREE and the more the extensive fractionation between LREE and HREE, the closer it is to the center circulatory hydrothermal ore-forming and the more extensive silicification.The exponential relationship between the fractionation of LREE and HREE and the intensity of silicification and K-silicate alteration was found in the Cu-Mo deposit studied.The negative Eu anomaly, normal Eu, positive Eu anomaly and obviously positive Eu anomaly are coincident with the enhancement of Na2O and K2O concentrations gradually, which indicated that Eu anomaly would be significantly controlled by the alkaline metasomatism of the circulatory hydrothermal ore-forming system.Therefore, such characteristics as the positive Eu anomaly, the obvious fractionation between LREE and HREE and their related special alteration lithofacies are suggested to be metallogenic prognostic and exploration indications for Tsagaan Suvarga-style porphyry Cu-Mo deposits in Mongolia and China.

  20. Geochemical behavior of rare earth elements of the hydrothermal alterations within the Tepeoba porphyry Cu-Mo-Au deposits at Balikesir, NW Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doner, Zeynep; Abdelnasser, Amr; Kiran Yildirim, Demet; Kumral, Mustafa

    2016-04-01

    This work reports the geochemical characteristics and behavior of the rare earth elements (REE) of the hydrothermal alteration of the Tepeoba porphyry Cu-Mo-Au deposit located in the Anatolian tectonic belt at Biga peninsula (Locally Balikesir province), NW Turkey. The Cu-Mo-Au mineralization at this deposit hosted in the hornfels rocks and related to the silicic to intermediate intrusion of Eybek pluton. It locally formed with brecciated zones and quartz vein stockworks, as well as the brittle fracture zones associated with intense hydrothermal alteration. Three main alteration zones with gradual boundaries formed in the mine area in the hornfels rock that represents the host rock, along that contact the Eybek pluton; potassic, propylitic and phyllic alteration zones. The potassic alteration zone that formed at the center having high amount of Cu-sulfide minerals contains biotite, muscovite, and sericite with less amount of K-feldspar and associated with tourmalinization alteration. The propylitic alteration surrounds the potassic alteration having high amount of Mo and Au and contains chlorite, albite, epidote, calcite and pyrite. The phyllic alteration zone also surrounds the potassic alteration containing quartz, sericite and pyrite minerals. Based on the REE characteristics and content and when we correlate the Alteration index (AI) with the light REEs and heavy REEs of each alteration zone, it concluded that the light REEs decrease and heavy REEs increase during the alteration processes. The relationships between K2O index with Eu/Eu* and Sr/Sr* reveals a positive correlation in the potassic and phyllic alteration zones and a negative correlation in the propylitic alteration zone. This refers to the hydrothermal solution which is responsible for the studied porphyry deposits and associated potassic and phyllic alterations has a positive Eu and Sr anomaly as well as these elements were added to the altered rock from the hydrothermal solution. Keywords: Rare

  1. Re-Os sulfide (chalcopyrite, pyrite and molybdenite) systematics and fluid inclusion study of the Duobaoshan porphyry Cu (Mo) deposit, Heilongjiang Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Wu, Guang; Li, Yuan; Zhu, Mingtian; Zhong, Wei

    2012-04-01

    The Duobaoshan porphyry deposit, located in the northwestern part of the Lesser Hinggan Range, is one of the biggest porphyry Cu (Mo) deposits in the Central Asian orogenic belt in China. The Duobaoshan porphyry deposit occurs in granodiorite and volcanic rocks of the Middle Ordovician Duobaoshan Formation. Six types of veins have been identified in three ore-forming stages as follows: a quartz-potassic feldspar vein in the early ore-forming stage, an early stage quartz-molybdenite vein, late stage quartz-molybdenite and quartz-chalcopyrite-pyrite veins in the middle ore-forming stage, and quartz-pyrite and calcite-quartz veins in the late ore-forming stage. The following four types of fluid inclusions are distinguished from various quartz veins: two-phase aqueous, pure gas phase, CO2-bearing and daughter mineral-bearing inclusions. The ore-forming fluid for the early ore-forming stage belongs to the H2O-CO2-NaCl system, which is characterized by high temperatures (>550 °C), intermediate salinities (16.2-18.1 wt% NaCl eqv.) and high CO2 content. The ore-forming fluid from the middle ore-forming stage evolved to the H2O-CO2-NaCl system, which is characterized by intermediate to high temperatures (230-450 °C) and high/low salinities (0.8 to >65.3 wt% NaCl eqv.) and is also rich in CO2 and metals. The ore-forming fluid finally reached cool temperatures (110-200 °C), low salinities (3.9-8.4 wt% NaCl eqv.) and was CO2-poor. Intensive fluid immiscibility or boiling occurred when the ore-forming fluid with temperatures of 230-450 °C and pressures of 10-41 MPa ascended to 4.1 km, inducing the escape of CO2, depressing the solubility of fluid, and depositing abundant metal sulfides. The total Re and Os concentrations of chalcopyrite and pyrite range from 0.15 to 2.95 μg/g and 0.74 to 15.01 ng/g, respectively. Analyses of seven chalcopyrite and pyrite samples yielded isochron ages of 482-486 Ma, and the model age of one molybdenite sample is 485.6 ± 3.7 Ma. The

  2. Gold-rich sulfide melt inclusions in xenocrysts from a mid-crustal magma chamber, Mt. Milligan porphyry deposit, British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, J. J.; Guillong, M.

    2009-05-01

    Very coarse-grained amphibole xenocrysts (potassian magnesiohastingsite) hosted in an early monzonite stock at the Mt Milligan Cu-Au porphyry deposit, British Columbia, Canada contain coeval sulfide and silicate melt inclusions of primary origin. The sulfide melt inclusions have a bulk composition comparable to Cu-rich ISS. Late growth zones in the amphibole are devoid of sulfide inclusions and contain only low salinity, chalcopyrite-bearing fluid inclusions(average 7.4 wt% NaCleq.). Thermobarometry constrains the minimum conditions of sulfide entrapment (amphibole crystallization) to ˜8 kbar and ˜700°C. LA-ICPMS analyses of 22 sulfide melt inclusions show that it was highly enriched in Au (50± 20 ppm, 1σ), Ag (140± 70 ppm, 1σ) and Ni (5000 ± 3000 ppm, 1σ). Ratios of Cu/Au (7500± 2500, 1σ) and Au/Ag (0.45± 0.24, 1σ) are identical to metal ratios in porphyry- stage veins, demonstrating that these metals were not fractionated from one another during suspected volatile exsolution, fluid-melt partitioning, and subsequent transport and precipitation of ore metals. The extremely Au- rich composition of the sulfide melt may reflect fractional crystallization of the sulfide liquid prior to entrapment in the amphibole. Both the xenocrysts and rare, high Mg, alkali basalt xenoliths hosted in the intrusions are depleted in Cr, Co, Ni and Cu, reflecting the sequestering of the base metals into a sulfide liquid in a mid- crustal magma chamber where amphibole and Cr-spinel were cumulus phases. The results of this study show that a Cu-Au-rich sulfide melt coexisted with a amphibole-saturated alkalic basaltic liquid in mid-crustal magma chamber prior to the emplacement of the main intrusions and associated porphyry stage mineralization at Mt. Milligan. This sulfide melt appears to have destabilized with the appearance (exsolution) of a single-phase low salinity aqueous fluid. Identification and analysis of ore metals in sulfide melt inclusions in relatively common

  3. Bio-Remediation of Acid Mine Drainage in the Sarcheshmeh Porphyry Copper Mine by Fungi: Batch and Fixed Bed Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanieh Soleimanifar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Acid mine drainage (AMD containing high concentrations of iron and sulphate, low pH and variableconcentrations of heavy metals leads to many environmental problems. The concentrations of Cu and Mnare high in the AMD of the Sarcheshmeh porphyry copper mine, Kerman province, south of Iran. In thisstudy, the bio-remediation of Cu and Mn ions from acid mine drainage was investigated using two nativefungi called Aspergillus niger and Phanerochaete chrysosporium which were extracted from the soil andsediment samples of the Shour River at the Sarcheshmeh mine. The live fungi was first harvested andthen killed by boiling in 0.5 N NaOH solution. The biomass was finally dried at 60 C for 24 h andpowdered. The optimum biosorption parameters including pH, temperature, the amount of biosorbent andcontact time were determined in a batch system. The optimum pH varied between 5 and 6. It was foundthat the biosorption process increased with an increase in temperature and the amount of biosorbent.Biosorption data were attempted by Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models and showed a good match.Kinetic studies were also carried out in the present study. The results show that the second-order kineticsmodel fits well the experimental data. The biosorption experiments were further investigated with acontinuous system to compare the biosorption capacities of two systems. The results show thatbiosorption process using a continuous system increases efficiency up to 99%. A desorption process waseventually performed in order to recover Copper and Manganese ions. This process was successful andfungi could be used again.

  4. Mineralogical study on volcanic ash of the eruption on September 27, 2014 at Ontake volcano, central Japan: correlation with porphyry copper systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minami, Yusuke; Imura, Takumi; Hayashi, Shintaro; Ohba, Tsukasa

    2016-04-01

    The volcanic ash of the eruption on September 27, 2014 at Ontake volcano consists mostly of altered rock fragments. The ash contains partly altered volcanic rock fragments consisting of primary igneous minerals (plagioclase, orthopyroxene, titanomagnetite, and feldspars) and volcanic glass accompanied by alteration minerals to some extents, and contains no juvenile fragments. These features indicate that the eruption was a non-juvenile hydrothermal eruption that was derived from the hydrothermal system developed under the crater. The major minerals derived from hydrothermal alteration zones are silica mineral, kaolin-group mineral, smectite, pyrophyllite, muscovite, alunite, anhydrite, gypsum, pyrite, K-feldspar, albite, and rutile. Minor chlorite, biotite, and garnet are accompanied. Five types of alteration mineral associations are identified from observations on individual ash particles: silica-pyrite, silica-pyrite ± alunite ± kaolin, silica-pyrophyllite-pyrite, silica-muscovite ± chlorite, and silica-K-feldspar ± albite ± garnet ± biotite. The associations indicate development of advanced argillic, sericite, and potassic alteration zones under the crater. Occurrence of anhydrite veinlet and the set of alteration zones indicate hydrothermal alteration zones similar to late-stage porphyry copper systems. Comparing the mineral associations with the geologic model of the late-stage porphyry copper systems, the source depths of mineral associations are estimated to range from near surface to >2 km. The depths of advanced argillic alteration, sericite, and potassic zones are 0 to ~2, ~1.5 to ~2, and >2 km, respectively.

  5. Extremely Re-Rich Molybdenite from Porphyry Cu-Mo-Au Prospects in Northeastern Greece: Mode of Occurrence, Causes of Enrichment, and Implications for Gold Exploration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Kartal

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Extremely Re-rich molybdenite occurs with pyrite in sodic–calcic, sodic–sericitic and sericitic-altered porphyritic stocks of granodioritic–tonalitic and granitic composition in the Sapes–Kirki–Esymi, Melitena and Maronia areas, northeastern Greece. Molybdenite in the Pagoni Rachi and Sapes deposits is spatially associated with rheniite, as well as with intermediate (Mo,ReS2 and (Re,MoS2 phases, with up to 46 wt % Re. Nanodomains and/or microinclusions of rheniite may produce the observed Re enrichment in the intermediate molybdenite–rheniite phases. The extreme Re content in molybdenite and the unique presence of rheniite in porphyry-type mineralization, combined with preliminary geochemical data (Cu/Mo ratio, Au grades may indicate that these deposits have affinities with Cu–Au deposits, and should be considered potential targets for gold mineralization in the porphyry environment. In the post-subduction tectonic regime of northern Greece, the extreme Re and Te enrichments in the magmatic-hydrothermal systems over a large areal extent are attributed to an anomalous source (e.g., chemical inhomogenities in the mantle-wedge triggered magmatism, although local scale processes cannot be underestimated.

  6. Geological and geochemical characteristics of the Aksug porphyry Cu-Mo system, Altay-Sayan region, Russia%俄罗斯阿尔泰-Sayan地区Aksug斑岩Cu-Mo体系的地质与地球化学特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Berzina AN; Berzina AP

    2008-01-01

    The Aksug deposit, located in Ahay-Sayan region of Russia, is one of the largest porphyry Cu-Mo deposits in Southern Siberia. The ore-bearing porphyries of the Aksug porphyry Cu-Mo system were formed in post-collisional environment. Geochemically they belong to calk-alkaline and high K-calk-alkaline series. Rocks are characterized by enrichment of LILE and depletion of HSFE and HREE, showing the importance of subduction-related components in magma generation. Large plutonic intrusions that host porphyry systems have been formed during collision. The origin of porphyritic rocks is dominantly the mantle with lower crustal contribution. The mainly economically important Cu-Mo mineralization is closely related to a porphyry series in time and space, being emplaced towards the end of magmatic activity. Though the emplacement of plutonic and ore-bearing porphyry complexes took place in different geodynamic environments, both complexes are characterized by certain similarity in geochemical composition, alkalinity, trace element content, Sr isotopic composition. This fact evidently indicates a common deep-seated magmatic source (at the lower crust-upper mantle level), Low initial 87Sr/86Sr, sulfur isotopic characteristics and presence of PGE-Co-Ni mineralization in associated pyrite-chalcopyrite ores suggest that mantle source of chalcophile elements was of high importance in porphyry Cu-Mo mineralization of the Aksug deposit.

  7. Late Cretaceous porphyry Cu and epithermal Cu-Au association in the Southern Panagyurishte District, Bulgaria: the paired Vlaykov Vruh and Elshitsa deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouzmanov, Kalin; Moritz, Robert; von Quadt, Albrecht; Chiaradia, Massimo; Peytcheva, Irena; Fontignie, Denis; Ramboz, Claire; Bogdanov, Kamen

    2009-08-01

    Vlaykov Vruh-Elshitsa represents the best example of paired porphyry Cu and epithermal Cu-Au deposits within the Late Cretaceous Apuseni-Banat-Timok-Srednogorie magmatic and metallogenic belt of Eastern Europe. The two deposits are part of the NW trending Panagyurishte magmato-tectonic corridor of central Bulgaria. The deposits were formed along the SW flank of the Elshitsa volcano-intrusive complex and are spatially associated with N110-120-trending hypabyssal and subvolcanic bodies of granodioritic composition. At Elshitsa, more than ten lenticular to columnar massive ore bodies are discordant with respect to the host rock and are structurally controlled. A particular feature of the mineralization is the overprinting of an early stage high-sulfidation mineral assemblage (pyrite ± enargite ± covellite ± goldfieldite) by an intermediate-sulfidation paragenesis with a characteristic Cu-Bi-Te-Pb-Zn signature forming the main economic parts of the ore bodies. The two stages of mineralization produced two compositionally different types of ores—massive pyrite and copper-pyrite bodies. Vlaykov Vruh shares features with typical porphyry Cu systems. Their common geological and structural setting, ore-forming processes, and paragenesis, as well as the observed alteration and geochemical lateral and vertical zonation, allow us to interpret the Elshitsa and Vlaykov Vruh deposits as the deep part of a high-sulfidation epithermal system and its spatially and genetically related porphyry Cu counterpart, respectively. The magmatic-hydrothermal system at Vlaykov Vruh-Elshitsa produced much smaller deposits than similar complexes in the northern part of the Panagyurishte district (Chelopech, Elatsite, Assarel). Magma chemistry and isotopic signature are some of the main differences between the northern and southern parts of the district. Major and trace element geochemistry of the Elshitsa magmatic complex are indicative for the medium- to high-K calc-alkaline character of

  8. Magmatic-hydrothermal fluids and volatile metals in the Spirit Lake pluton and Margaret Cu-Mo porphyry system, SW Washington, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iveson, Alexander A.; Webster, James D.; Rowe, Michael C.; Neill, Owen K.

    2016-03-01

    The halogen-bearing minerals tourmaline, amphibole, and biotite formed during magmatic-hydrothermal processes associated with the late-stage cooling of the Spirit Lake granitoid pluton (Mt. St. Helens, WA) and with the younger sulphide-mineralised rocks of the Margaret Cu-Mo porphyry deposit located entirely within the pluton. Major- and trace-element discrimination suggests that one tourmaline population crystallised from fractionated late-stage melt pockets in granodiorite-monzogranitic dykes of the pluton. These coarse, euhedral, oscillatory, and complexly sector-zoned uvite tourmalines span a limited range in Mg/(Mg + Fe) [Mg#] space (0.4-0.7 apfu) and show the highest Ti, Ca, F, Nb, and Ta contents, and low X-site vacancies (0.6 apfu), lower Ca and F contents, and the highest Li, As, and HREE contents (>80 ppm Li, >1200 ppm As). This population appears to record direct, rapid crystallisation from magmatic ± meteoric fluid(s) bearing the signature of the breakdown of primary feldspars and pyroxenes, with fluid exsolution from fractionated melt patches likely triggered by the formation of the previous generation of tourmaline. Mineralised porphyry deposit tourmaline compositions from the stockwork span a much larger range in Mg# space (0.05-0.9 apfu) and are almost entirely Ca-free. X-sites of these schorl tourmalines are dominated by Na or vacancies, and the Y-sites are strongly Fe enriched. The highest Mn and Zn concentrations (>4000 and >1000 ppm, respectively) potentially reflect the composition of mineralising fluids during ore deposition. A number of boron isotopic analyses yield predominantly heavy boron, but δ11B values range from -5.2 to 6.2 ‰ and average 1.4 ‰. Whilst most plutonic tourmalines conform to reported a- and c-sector element partitioning models, those from the mineralised porphyry show large and variable sector fractionation differences, suggesting that external controls may also be important. Wider evidence for late-stage pervasive

  9. Formation of the adakite-like granitoid complex and porphyry copper-gold deposit in Shaxi from southern Tancheng-Lujiang fault belt: A clue to the West Pacific plate subduction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LAN Xianghua; YANG Xiaoyong; YU Liangfan; ZHANG Qianming

    2009-01-01

    On the basis of the geological and geochemical studies, including chemical analysis of bulk rocks, rare-earth and trace element studies, fluid inclusion, and S and O isotopic analyses, the authors described the geo-logical background of the deposit in detail and presented significant proofs for the conditions of formation of the Shaxi porphyry copper-gold deposit. Compared with other large and supper-large porphyry copper deposits in China and the adjacent Cu-Au mineralized areas, the ore-forming processes and conditions were analyzed; and the possibil-ity of forming large porphyry copper deposits in the Shaxi area was discussed. The present study indicated that the ore-forming fluid and material were mainly of magmatic origin, while meteoric water played a certain role in the ore-forming processes. Interactions between subducting and overriding plates provided a major driving force for the formation of igneous rocks and the deposition of metal elements in East China since Jurassic. Based on the geo-chemical data of the Shaxi intrusive, it is found that the copper (gold) mineralization is closely related to the genesis of adakite-like intrusive in the Shaxi area. This adakite-like intrusive was formed in the subduction environment as a result of the subduction of the West Pacific plate toward the East China continent, where there is a great potential-ity to form a large porphyry copper deposit.

  10. Porphyry-Cu-Mo Stockwork Formation by Dynamic, Transient Hydrothermal Pulses: Mineralogic Insights From the Deposit at Butte, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, C. N.; Reed, M. H.

    2011-12-01

    The temperature profile in magmatic-hydrothermal systems directly affects the chemical behavior and pressure regime of hydrothermal fluids and the resulting diversity of mineralization. We combine textural observations of igneous and hydrothermal minerals using SEM-CL and -BSE images with three independent mineral thermobarometers to better understand the thermal profile at the porphyry-Cu-Mo deposit in Butte, Montana. We apply the two most recent (and controversial) forms of the Ti-in-quartz thermobarometer from Thomas et al. (2010) and Huang and Audétat (2011), the Zr-in-rutile thermobarometer of Tomkins et al. (2007), and the XMg-Ti-in-biotite thermometer of Henry et al. (2005) to estimate the formation temperatures of these magmatic and hydrothermal minerals. In a comparison of isobaric temperature distributions from Ti-in-quartz (Thomas et al., 2010) and Zr-in-rutile we find that the Thomas et al. calibration consistently yields temperatures that are 50 to 200°C lower than those from Zr-in-rutile. These quartz temperatures are unreasonably low for quartz phenocrysts and are considerably lower than previous estimates for vein quartz. Temperature estimates from the Zr-in-rutile and XMg-Ti-in-biotite thermobarometers agree well with each other and with previous temperature estimates. We conclude that application of the Ti-in-quartz thermobarometer of Thomas et al. is not appropriate for this natural system. Quartz temperatures calculated using the calibration of Huang and Audétat (2011) are closer to those from rutile and biotite. Application of the Ti-in-quartz thermobarometer of Huang and Audétat to hydrothermal samples yields maximum temperature estimates, however, and requires evaluation of trace element abundances (e.g., Ti, Al) and other crystal lattice impurities (e.g., fluid inclusions) in growth zones as a means to determine whether growth zones represent slow or fast-growing quartz. Using thermobarometry from rutile, biotite, and quartz (Huang and

  11. Microgranular enclaves in island-arc andesites: A possible link between known epithermal Au and potential porphyry Cu-Au deposits in the Tulasu ore cluster, western Tianshan, Xinjiang, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaobo; Xue, Chunji; Symons, David T. A.; Zhang, Zhaochong; Wang, Honggang

    2014-05-01

    The successful exploration for porphyry copper deposit in western Tianshan, Xinjiang, faces great challenge. Tulasu basin is an important epithermal gold ore cluster in western Tianshan, which was formed in a southwest-Pacific-type island-arc setting during the late Paleozoic by the southward subduction of the North Tianshan ocean beneath the Yili plate. Porphyry Cu-Au deposits are possibly to be found at depth or adjacent to these epithermal gold deposits. Some sulfide-mineralized microgranular enclaves of monzonite porphyry and microdiorite were found in andesites of the Tawuerbieke gold district, Tulasu basin. The enclaves are randomly distributed, with generally round or subangular shape and commonly clearly defined within their host andesite, and have a chilled surrounding margin of andesite. The monzonite porphyry enclaves (MPE) exhibit porphyritic texture with the phenocrysts of plagioclase and K-feldspar. The microdiorite enclaves (MDE) are mainly composed of plagioclase and hornblende with an aplitic texture and massive structure. The host andesites show porphyritic texture, with the phenocrysts major of plagioclase, minor of hornblende and clinopyroxene. The groundmass consists of short-column plagioclase and minor clinopyroxene with a hyalopilitic texture. Zircon grains from a MPE sample yield a weighted 206Pb/238U age of 356.2 ± 4.3 Ma (n = 13, MSWD = 1.11), which is effectively coincident with the 360.5 ± 3.4 Ma (n = 20, MSWD = 0.61) of an andesite sample within analytical error, indicating that they were coeval. In addition, the MPE, MDE and the andesite samples share similar normalized incompatible element and rare earth element patterns that are characterized by a pronounced enrichment of large ion lithophile elements and a deficit of high field strength elements. Moreover, the samples show similar Nd isotope compositions to the contemporary andesites and basaltic andesites. Detailed petrology, geochronology and geochemistry studies suggest that

  12. Geochemical characteristics of the Shujiadian Cu deposit related intrusion in Tongling: Petrogenesis and implications for the formation of porphyry Cu systems in the Middle-Lower Yangtze River Valley metallogenic belt, eastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shiwei; Zhou, Taofa; Yuan, Feng; Fan, Yu; Cooke, David R.; Zhang, Lejun; Fu, Bin; White, Noel C.

    2016-05-01

    Porphyry Cu deposits can form in intracontinental or post-collision settings; however, both the genesis of fertile magmas and the mechanism of metal enrichment remain controversial. The Shujiadian porphyry Cu deposit is located in the Tongling area of the Middle-Lower Yangtze River Valley metallogenic belt. It is hosted by the Shujiadian complex, which mainly consists of quartz diorite porphyry (143.7 ± 1.7 Ma) and pyroxene diorite (139.8 ± 1.6 Ma). They both belong to the calc-alkaline series, with enrichment in large-ion lithophile elements (LILE) and light rare earth elements (LREE), depletion in high field-strength elements (HFSE) and heavy rare earth elements (HREE), and slightly negative Eu anomalies. Both quartz diorite porphyry and pyroxene diorite have geochemical affinities with adakite, and their low MgO (1.5-3.7 wt%), and Ni (3.7-6.9 ppm), Cr (2.0-44 ppm), and Th/Ce contents (0.06-0.11) indicate that the intrusive rocks have some characteristics of adakite-like rocks derived from thickened lower crust and melts from metabasaltic rocks and eclogites. Plagioclases from the quartz diorite porphyry are andesine (An value = 31.8-40.5) and from the pyroxene diorite are felsic albite and oligoclase with large-scale zones and variable An value (An value = 8.9-18.3), Fe and Sr contents, which indicate that mixing of mafic and felsic magma may have occurred in the shallow magma chamber. Compared to the barren quartz diorite porphyry, relatively lower SiO2 contents (49.5-55.2 wt.%), higher εNd(t) values (- 7.4 to - 6.9), εHf(t) values (- 11.0 to - 9.1) compositions, Ti-in-zircon temperatures (714-785 °C), and variations of HREE contents of the mineralization-related pyroxene diorite suggest mixing with high-temperature mafic magma. Calculated Ce4 +/Ce3 + values of pyroxene diorite plot between the Ni-NiO buffer (NNO) and magnetite-hematite buffer (MH), and barren quartz diorite porphyry samples plot below the Ni-NiO buffer (NNO). Geochemical features of

  13. Zircon U-Pb and molybdenite Re-Os geochronology and Sr-Nd-Pb-Hf isotopic constraints on the genesis of the Xuejiping porphyry copper deposit in Zhongdian, Northwest Yunnan, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Cheng-Biao; Zhang, Xing-Chun; Hu, Rui-Zhong; Wang, Shou-Xu; Zhong, Hong; Wang, Wai-Quan; Bi, Xian-Wu

    2012-10-01

    The Xuejiping porphyry copper deposit is located in northwestern Yunnan Province, China. Tectonically, it lies in the southern part of the Triassic Yidun island arc. The copper mineralization is mainly hosted in quartz-dioritic and quartz-monzonitic porphyries which intruded into clastic-volcanic rocks of the Late Triassic Tumugou Formation. There are several alteration zones including potassic, strong silicific and phyllic, argillic, and propylitic alteration zones from inner to outer of the mineralized porphyry bodies. The ages of ore-bearing quartz-monzonitic porphyry and its host andesite are obtained by using the zircon SIMS U-Pb dating method, with results of 218.3 ± 1.6 Ma (MSWD = 0.31, N = 15) and 218.5 ± 1.6 Ma (MSWD = 0.91, N = 16), respectively. Meanwhile, the molybdenite Re-Os dating yields a Re-Os isochronal age of 221.4 ± 2.3 Ma (MSWD = 0.54, N = 5) and a weighted mean age of 219.9 ± 0.7 Ma (MSWD = 0.88). They are quite in accordance with the zircon U-Pb ages within errors. Furthermore, all of them are contemporary with the timing of the Garzê-Litang oceanic crust subduction in the Yidun arc. Therefore, the Xuejiping deposit could be formed in a continental margin setting. There are negative ɛNd(t) values ranging from -3.8 to -2.1 and relatively high initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios from 0.7051 to 0.7059 for the Xuejiping porphyries and host andesites. The (206Pb/204Pb)t, (207Pb/204Pb)t and (208Pb/204Pb)t values of the Xuejiping porphyries and host andesites vary from 17.899 to 18.654, from 15.529 to 15.626, and from 37.864 to 38.52, respectively, indicative of high radiogenic Pb isotopic features. In situ Hf isotopic analyses on zircons by using LA-MC-ICP-MS exhibit that there are quite uniform and slightly positive ɛHf(t) values ranging from -0.2 to +3.2 (mostly between 0 and +2), corresponding to relatively young single-stage Hf model ages from 735 Ma to 871 Ma. These isotopic features suggest that the primary magmas of the Xuejiping porphyries and

  14. The porphyry metallogenesis of Geza volcanic magmatic arc in NW Yunnan%滇西北格咱火山-岩浆弧斑岩成矿作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李文昌; 尹光侯; 余海军; 卢映祥; 刘学龙

    2011-01-01

    处于义敦岛弧南端的格咱火山-岩浆弧,印支期以大规模中酸性火山-岩浆岩呈北西向带状展布为特征,本文根据火山-岩浆岩的分布、类型、时代与构造环境、成矿作用等,将该岩浆岩带细分为西部烂泥塘-春都斑岩成矿带和东部亚杂-普朗斑岩成矿带,并阐述了西斑岩带岩浆侵位时间较东斑岩带早15~25Myr以及2个成矿带不同的成矿特征,提出该区燕山晚期叠加了1期广泛的钼(钨、铜)成矿作用,以S型花岗岩侵位,南北向叠加于印支期岛弧岩浆岩带上,由北而南从出露至半隐伏、隐伏状,在云南境内圈出休瓦促、热林、红山、铜厂沟等多个花岗(斑)岩体,蚀变花岗(斑)岩内发育石英脉型和蚀变岩型钼矿化,围岩中以热液脉型沿断裂带、不同岩性界面等成矿.以往研究,休瓦促、热林成岩年龄分别为84.4±1.1Ma和81.7±1.1Ma,成矿年龄分别为83±1Ma和81.2±2.3Ma.(李建康等,2007;尹光侯等,2009);本次在红山铜矿深部隐伏岩体中获辉钼矿Re-Os等时线年龄80.2Ma.研究认为,燕山期岩体成矿,仍然表现出岩体由内向外(由深到浅)形成斑岩型钼(铜)矿→接触带夕卡岩型钼(铜)矿→外围角岩钼(铜)矿、热液脉状铜铅锌矿等成矿系列,据此进行缺位预测,为下步找矿指出了方向.%The Ceza volcanic magmatic arc in the south end part of Yidun island arc is characterized by Indosinian large scale intermediate-acid volcanic magmatic rock in NW zonal distribution. In this paper, we divide this magmatic rock zone into the west Lannitang-Chundu porphyry metallogenesis zone and the east Yaza-Pulang porphyry metsllogenesis zone according to the distribution, type, age, structural environment and metallogenesis, etc. , of the volcanic magmatic rock and indicate the emplacement time of west porphyry zone is IS ~25Myr earlier than that of the east porphyry zone and the different metallogenesis characteristics of them. We

  15. Two-types of Early Cretaceous adakitic porphyries from the Luxi terrane, eastern North China Block: Melting of subducted Paleo-Pacific slab and delaminated newly underplated lower crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hao; Xu, Zhaowen; Lu, Xiancai; Fu, Bin; Lu, Jianjun; Yang, Xiaonan; Zhao, Zengxia

    2016-01-01

    The origin and tectonic setting of Early Cretaceous adakitic rocks from the Luxi terrane in the eastern North China Block (NCB) remain debated. To resolve this issue, we determined whole-rock geochemistry, zircon U-Pb ages, and in situ Hf-O isotopes of the Mengyin and Liujing adakitic porphyries from the Luxi terrane. Zircon U-Pb dating results reveal that both the Mengyin and Liujing plutons were emplaced during the Early Cretaceous, with weighted mean 206Pb/238U ages of 130 ± 1 Ma (2σ) and 131 ± 2 Ma (2σ), respectively. In addition, abundant Neoarchean-Paleoproterozoic inherited zircon cores are identified in the Mengyin adakitic porphyry with 207Pb/206Pb ages ranging from 2.53 to 2.42 Ga. Rocks of both plutons are silicic (SiO2 = 65.4-70.2 wt.%), metaluminous, and alkaline in composition, comprising mainly quartz syenite porphyries. Samples from both plutons are enriched in large ion lithophile elements (LILEs) (e.g., Rb, Sr, and Ba), and light rare earth elements (LREEs), depleted in high field strength elements (HFSEs) (e.g., Nb, Ta, and Ti), and heavy rare earth elements (HREEs), and have either positive or no Eu anomalies. In addition, both adakitic porphyries have high Mg# values (51-64), high Sr and La contents, low Y and Yb contents, and high Sr/Y (Mengyin = 149-264; Liujing = 58-110) and (La/Yb)N (Mengyin = 32.4-45.3; Liujing = 43.8-53.1) ratios, similar to adakitic rocks worldwide. The Mengyin adakitic porphyry has higher whole-rock εNd(t) values (-5.8 to - 4.1), more radiogenic Pb [(206Pb/204Pb)i = 18.35-18.39, (207Pb/204Pb)i = 15.55-15.56, (208Pb/204Pb)i = 38.20-38.23], higher zircon rim εHf(t) values (+ 3.3 to + 8.8) and δ18O values (+ 6.5‰ to + 7.9‰), and lower (87Sr/86Sr)i ratios (0.7049-0.7050) than the Liujing adakitic porphyry [εNd(t) = - 12.4 to - 12.2, (206Pb/204Pb)i = 17.63-17.72, (207Pb/204Pb)i = 15.56-15.58, (208Pb/204Pb)i = 37.76-37.94, εHf(t) = - 14.8 to - 11.2, δ18O = + 5.9‰ to + 7.1‰, (87Sr/86Sr)i = 0.7090-0.7091]. The

  16. Mineralogical and geochemical characteristics of zircon from diorite porphyry dyke in Sergozerskoe gold occurrence (the Strel'ninsky greenstone belt, Kola region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kudryashov N. M.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Mineralogical and geochemical investigation of zircon from diorite porphyry from Sergozerskoe occurrence has been carried out. Study of morphology and inner structure of zircon crystals in back scattered electron rays as well as assaying for content and distribution of Rare Earth Elements in mineral grains have given important information about conditions of crystallization and following metasomatic alteration of zircon. Zircon characteristics show that it crystallized in a melt, enriched in fluid phase. Fluid influence lasted after zircon crystallization, this reflected in uneven composition of the mineral and in configuration of REE spectra, typical for metasomatic zircon. Similar zircon characteristics have been noted in zircons from other gold occurrences in greenstone belts in the Kola region

  17. U-Pb ages for two tonalitic gneisses, pegmatitic granites, and K-feldspar porphyries, Olkiluoto study site, Eurajoki, SW Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Secondary ion microprobe zircon U-Pb ages have been determined for two tonalitic gneisses, two pegmatitic granites, and two potassium feldspar porphyry samples from the Olkiluoto study site, Eurajoki, S-W Finland. Moreover, monazites from the Kfeldspar porphyries were dated using TIMS U-Pb method. The tonalitic gneiss A1879 TTG 1 reveals bimodal zircon population and for A1880 TTG it is homogeneous. The samples yield similar overlapping concordia ages of 1851 ± 5 Ma and 1856 ± 5 Ma, respectively. The pegmatitic granite samples A1881 PGR 1 and A1883 PGR 2 have mostly zircons resembling those of the TTG's. The supposed pegmatitic zircons with high U and low Th are strongly altered. The zircon U-Pb data of A1881 PGR 1 plot roughly in two separate lines on a concordia diagram. The apparently younger ∼1.79 Ga data are all from the high U and low Th/U zircons and therefore certainly set the minimum age for the A1881 PGR 1. It is suggested, that the ∼1.85 Ga data comprise analyses from inherited zircons as it include both lower and higher Th/U zircons and 1.85 Ga coevals with age of the tonalitic gneisses. Thus, the apparent age for the A1881 PGR 1 is ∼1.79 Ga. The U-Pb data of sample A1883 PGR 2 also divide into two groups. The higher Th/U, inherited zircons determine an age of 1852 ± 9 Ma which is the same as that of the TTG's. The low Th/U zircon data scatter and the age of 1.83 Ga for A1883 PGR 2 is only poorly determined. The both potassium feldspar porphyry samples A1882 KFP 1 and A1884 KFP 2 reveal heterogeneous zircon populations. The A1882 KFP 1 zircons showing magmatic zoning in BSE images conceivably determine a concordia age of 1842± 6 Ma for the rock. In addition to that a few ∼1.9 Ga inherited zircon and metamorphic low Th/U rims with ages between 1.88 Ga and 1.83 Ga were detected. The age for the youngest metamorphic zircon rims overlaps with that of the magmatic zircons. The zircons in the other KFP sample A1884 show a wide range of ages

  18. Production of sulfur gases and carbon dioxide by synthetic weathering of crushed drill cores from the Santa Cruz porphyry copper deposit near Casa Grande, Pinal County, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinkle, M.E.; Ryder, J.L.; Sutley, S.J.; Botinelly, T.

    1990-01-01

    Samples of ground drill cores from the southern part of the Santa Cruz porphyry copper deposit, Casa Grande, Arizona, were oxidized in simulated weathering experiments. The samples were also separated into various mineral fractions and analyzed for contents of metals and sulfide minerals. The principal sulfide mineral present was pyrite. Gases produced in the weathering experiments were measured by gas chromatography. Carbon dioxide, oxygen, carbonyl sulfide, sulfur dioxide and carbon disulfide were found in the gases; no hydrogen sulfide, organic sulfides, or mercaptans were detected. Oxygen concentration was very important for production of the volatiles measured; in general, oxygen concentration was more important to gas production than were metallic element content, sulfide mineral content, or mineral fraction (oxide or sulfide) of the sample. The various volatile species also appeared to be interactive; some of the volatiles measured may have been formed through gas reactions. ?? 1990.

  19. 40Ar-39Ar Dating of Albite and Phlogopite from Porphyry Iron Deposits in the Ningwu Basin in East-Central China and Its Significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Jinjie; MAO Jingwen

    2004-01-01

    40Ar-39Ar dating of albite from the Meishan and Taocun iron deposits yields plateau ages of 122.90±0.16 Ma and 124.89±0.30 Ma, and isochron ages of 122.60±0.16 Ma and 124.90±0.29 Ma, respectively. Phlogopite from the Zhongshan-Gushan ore field has a plateau age of 126.7±0.17 Ma and an isochron age of 127.21±1.63 Ma. Analysis of regional geodynamic evolution of the middle-lower Yangtze River region suggests that the porphyry iron deposits were formed as a result of large-scale lithosphere delamination and strong sinistral strike-slip movement of the TanchengLujiang fault zone. The copper, molybdenum and gold deposit system in the middle-lower Yangtze River region was formed during the stress transition period of the eastern China continent.

  20. Hydrothermal modification of host rock geochemistry within Mo-Cu porphyry deposits in the Galway Granite, western Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolometti, Gavin; McCarthy, Will

    2016-04-01

    Hydrothermal alteration of host rock is a process inherent to the formation of porphyry deposits and the required geochemical modification of these rocks is regularly used to indicate proximity to an economic target. The study involves examining the changes in major, minor and trace elements to understand how the quartz vein structures have influenced the chemistry within the Murvey Granite that forms part of the 380-425Ma Galway Granite Complex in western Ireland. Molybdenite mineralisation within the Galway Granite Complex occurred in close association with protracted magmatism at 423Ma, 410Ma, 407Ma, 397Ma and 383Ma and this continues to be of interest to active exploration. The aim of the project is to characterize hydrothermal alteration associated with Mo-Cu mineralisation and identify geochemical indicators that can guide future exploration work. The Murvey Granite intrudes metagabbros and gneiss that form part of the Connemara Metamorphic complex. The intrusion is composed of albite-rich pink granite, garnetiferous granite and phenocrytic orthoclase granite. Minor doleritic dykes post-date the Murvey Granite, found commonly along its margins. Field mapping shows that the granite is truncated to the east by a regional NW-SE fault and that several small subparallel structures host Mo-Cu bearing quartz veins. Petrographic observations show heavily sericitized feldspars and plagioclase and biotite which have undergone kaolinization and chloritisation. Chalcopyrite minerals are fine grained, heavily fractured found crystallized along the margins of the feldspars and 2mm pyrite crystals. Molybdenite are also seen along the margins of the feldspars, crystallized whilst the Murvey Granite cooled. Field and petrographic observations indicate that mineralisation is structurally controlled by NW-SE faults from the selected mineralization zones and conjugate NE-SW cross cutting the Murvey Granite. Both fault orientations exhibit quartz and disseminated molybdenite

  1. Rhenium and precious metal (Pt, Pd, and Au) abundances in porphyry Cu-Mo deposits of Central-Asian Mobile Belt%中亚造山带中斑岩铜钼矿的Re,Pt,Pd和Au含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anita N.Berzina; Alexander F.Korobeinikov

    2007-01-01

    Precious metal ( Pt, Pd and Au) and Re contents in rocks, ores and flotation concentrates of Siberian (Russia) and Mongolian porphyry Cu-Mo and Mo-Cu deposits were studied. The following deposits are discussed: Early Devonian porphyry Mo-Cu Sora deposit (Kuznetsk Alatau Mountains, Russia) and porphyry Cu-Mo Aksug deposit, (northeastern Tuva, Russia); Triassic porphyry Cu-Mo Erdenetiin Ovoo deposit (northern Mongolia). The samples analyzed include unaltered host rocks of plutons, porphyry rocks of ore-bearing series, different types of altered rocks, mineral separate analyses of molybdenite, chalcopyrite and magnetite, as well as flotation concentrates. Pt, Pd, Au and Re contents were determined using ICP/MS, AAS and inversion voltammetric analysis.PGE abundances in rocks and poorly mineralized samples span a large range from below detection limit to 65 ppb Pt and 74 ppb Pd. Re concentrations in whole rock samples range from below detection limit to 89 ppb. Molybdenite has been shown to be the major host phase for Re. The results presented show that Aksug deposit reveals elevated PGE and Au contents in ore minerals and flotation concentrates. High Pd contents in ores of the Aksug deposit are in accordance with the presence of palladium mineralization in the form of palladium telluride merenskyite ( Pd, Pt) Te2.The variety of precious metals and Re contents in the studied deposits could be caused by a complex interplay of several factors,including importance of primary metal concentrations derived from the source, transport of metals to the deposition area,physicochemical properties of the fluid (fo2, pH, fs, T, P), and depositional conditions. Higher Re contents in molybdenite and chalcopyrite separates are typical for copper-rich Aksug and Erdenetiin Ovoo deposits. Rhenium concentration in sulfides from molybdenum-rich Sora deposit is significantly lower. Highly oxidized, Cl-rich fluid style at Aksug and Erdenetiin Ovoo was favorable for high rhenium solubility and

  2. Re-Os dating on pyrite and metal sources tracing in porphyry-type and neutral epithermal deposits: example of the Bolcana, Troita and Magura deposits, Apuseni Mountains, Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many porphyry-type (Cu-Au) and neutral epithermal (Pb-Zn and Au ± Ag) ore deposits are encountered in the region of the Apuseni Mountains, located at the foot of the Carpathian chain in the Western Romania. These deposits are related to a Neogene andesitic volcanism. In order to demonstrate possible genetic relationships between the porphyry-type and neutral epithermal deposits, the Bolcana porphyry has been investigated since it is surrounded by a number of epithermal low-sulfidation veins with a Pb-Zn ± Au mineralisation. These veins are currently mined at the Troita and Magura sites. A structural analysis and a 3D modelling pf these deposits indicate that the geometry and orientation of fractures and mineralized vein are consistent both with direction of regional extension and with a NW-SE progression of the different andesitic intrusions. In order to establish precisely the temporal relationship between the different ore deposits, a Re-Os dating method has been developed and applied on pyrite which is ubiquitous in all of the deposits. This method enabled us to assign an age of 10.9 ± 1.9 Ma for the porphyry-hosted mineralization. The ages obtained for the epithermal systems are somewhat approximative as perturbations of the Re-Os system are observed for these environments. A fractionation of rhenium responsible for a significant enrichment in this element for the apical zone of the porphyry has been demonstrated. This enrichment is most probably related to a maximum boiling event, which may also explain a similar enrichment in arsenic for the pyrite in the same zone. The sources for the metals have been characterized at the district scale by combining two isotopic systems (Re-Os and Pb-Pb) on both pyrite and galena. The osmium data indicate that the Troita deposit has composition which is similar to that of the Bolcana porphyry. In contrast the results obtained for the Magura deposits indicate the Re-OS system has in this case been perturbed due to a

  3. Characterization and zircon SHRIMP U-Pb geochronology of the subvolcanic rocks from Yarumalito Porphyry System, Marmato District, Colombia; Caracterizacao e geocronologia SHRIMP U-Pb em zircao das rochas subvulcanicas do sistema porfiro Yarumalito, Distrito de Marmato, Colombia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henrichs, Isadora A.; Frantz, Jose Carlos; Marques, Juliana C.; Castoldi, Marco S., E-mail: isahenrichs@gmail.com, E-mail: jose.frantz@ufrgs.br, E-mail: juliana.marques@ufrgs.br [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Instituto de Geociencias; Ordonez-Carmona, Oswaldo, E-mail: oswaldo.geologo@gmail.com [Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Medellin (Colombia). Facultad de Minas; Sato, Kei, E-mail: keisato@usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas Geocronologicas

    2014-09-15

    The mining District of Marmato, located in the Central Cordillera, is considered one of the oldest gold districts in Colombia and its exploration dates back to the Inca’s times, being exploited regularly for more than a thousand years. Inserted in this context lies the Yarumalito porphyry system (YPS), characterized to concentrate ore in structure related veins and stockworks. The YPS is related to the Miocene magmatism of the Combia Formation. In this paper, the subvolcanic rocks directly associated with the mineralized zones were described in order to obtain U-Pb ages in zircon to the intrusions. Selected samples from two fertile intrusions, one andesitic (more abundant in the area) and other dioritic (more restricted), were carefully described and dated by SHRIMP. The results points to a very restricted interval for the ages, with weighted average {sup 206}Pb/{sup 238}U varying from 7,00 ± 0,15 Ma for the andesitic porphyry and 6.95 ± 0.16 Ma for the dioritic porphyry. These results constrain the Yarumalito system to the final stages of the Combia magmatism and suggest a brief period for the crystallization of the mineralized subvolcanic rocks in the area and in the Marmato District. (author)

  4. 东秦岭尚古寺斑岩钼矿地质特征及成矿潜力分析%Geological Characteristics and Prospecting Potential of the Shanggusi Porphyry Molybdenum Deposit in the East Qinling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨宗锋; 罗照华; 卢欣祥; 黄凡; 陈必河

    2011-01-01

    尚古寺斑岩钼矿位于东秦岭,为东秦岭地区已知钼矿区的最东部端元。出露面积约1.5km^2,围岩主要为元古代片麻岩和碱流岩。辉钼矿化主要发育在花岗斑岩体的东部和南部区域,花岗斑岩顶部细粒花岗斑岩和其上覆花岗质伟晶岩均呈浸染状矿化,南部角岩发育裂隙矿化。花岗斑岩主体岩性主要矿物组合为石英、钾长石和斜长石,显示具有富硅、富碱和贫铁、贫镁的特征。花岗斑岩含有典型的圆粒状高温石英斑晶,其边部或整体呈现溶蚀吸回特征,溶蚀残余石英以港湾状、骨骸状和枝状为主,溶蚀部分被基质矿物充填或整体被钾长石和斜长石包裹,是高温花岗斑岩岩浆经历深部高温石英结晶后迅速就位浅部,发生快速不平衡结晶作用的产物。岩体内部发育中基性暗色微粒包体,呈球状、椭球状和塑性流动状态;富云母区域,呈不规则状和纹层状,暗示存在岩浆混合/混杂作用;蚀变晶洞构造、连通晶洞构造、空腔构造、硫化物蚀变突起和纵向蛇曲状云母富集区,记录了花岗斑岩内部流体出溶和运移的现象。花岗斑岩顶部过冷结晶形成的细粒花岗斑岩外壳,和其过冷前锋快速形成的花岗质伟晶岩圈闭了成矿流体,形成浸染状矿化。尚古寺斑岩钼矿是壳源岩浆和深部成矿流体耦合成矿的实例,对应于透岩浆流体成矿体系中的正岩浆成矿亚体系和边缘伟晶岩成矿亚体系,因而斑岩内部未出露部分可能依然具有巨大的成矿潜力。%The Shanggusi porphyry molybdenum deposit is located in the easternmost part of all the known molybdenum deposits in the East Qinling with an outcrop area about 1.5km^2. Disseminated molybdenite mineralization occurred in the marginal fine-grain porphyry granite and the periphery granitic pegmatite in the east and south part of the Shanggusi granite porphyry

  5. Temporal and spatial distribution of alteration, mineralization and fluid inclusions in the transitional high-sulfidation epithermal-porphyry copper system at Red Mountain, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecumberri-Sanchez, Pilar; Newton, M. Claiborne; Westman, Erik C.; Kamilli, Robert J.; Canby, Vertrees M.; Bodnar, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    Red Mountain, Arizona, is a Laramide porphyry Cu system (PCD) that has experienced only a modest level of erosion compared to most other similar deposits in the southwestern United States. As a result, the upper portion of the magmatic–hydrothermal system, which represents the transition from shallower high-sulfidation epithermal mineralization to deeper porphyry Cu mineralization, is well preserved. Within the Red Mountain system, alteration, mineralization and fluid inclusion assemblages show a systematic distribution in both time and space. Early-potassic alteration (characterized by the minerals biotite and magnetite) is paragenetically earlier than late-potassic alteration (K-feldspar–anhydrite) and both are followed by later phyllic (sericite–pyrite) alteration. Advanced argillic alteration (pyrophyllite–alunite–other clay minerals) is thought to be coeval with or postdate phyllic alteration. Minerals characteristic of advanced argillic alteration are present in the near surface. Phyllic alteration extends to greater depths compared to advanced argillic alteration. Early-potassic and late-potassic alteration are only observed in the deepest part of the system. Considerable overlap of phyllic alteration with both early-potassic and late-potassic alteration zones is observed. The hypogene mineralization contains 0.4–1.2% Cu and is spatially and temporally related to the late-potassic alteration event. Molybdenum concentration is typically In the deepest part of the system, an early generation of low-to-moderate density and salinity liquid + vapor inclusions with opaque daughter minerals is followed in time by halite-bearing inclusions that also contain opaque daughter minerals indicating that an early intermediate-density magmatic fluid evolved to a high-density, high-salinity mineralizing fluid. The increase in density and salinity of fluids with time observed in the deeper parts of the system may be the result of immiscibility (“boiling”) of

  6. Early Carboniferous adakitic rocks in the area of the Tuwu deposit, eastern Tianshan, NW China: Slab melting and implications for porphyry copper mineralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yin-Hong; Xue, Chun-Ji; Liu, Jia-Jun; Wang, Jian-Ping; Yang, Jun-Tao; Zhang, Fang-Fang; Zhao, Ze-Nan; Zhao, Yun-Jiang; Liu, Bin

    2015-05-01

    Existing geochronological and geochemical data for the Early Carboniferous magmatic rocks in the eastern Tianshan, Xinjiang, have been interpreted in a variety of theories regarding petrogenesis and geodynamic setting. The proposed settings include rift, back-arc basin, passive continental margin, island arc, ridge subduction, and post-collisional environment. To evaluate these possibilities, we present new SHRIMP zircon U-Pb geochronology and geochemical data, whole-rock geochemical, Hf isotope, and S isotope data for tonalitic rocks and ores associated with the Tuwu porphyry copper deposit located in the center of the late Paleozoic Dananhu-Tousuquan arc, eastern Tianshan. SHRIMP zircon U-Pb dating indicates that the magmatic activity and thus associated copper mineralization occurred ca.332 Ma. The tonalitic rocks are calc-alkaline granites with A/CNK values ranging from 1.16 to 1.58; are enriched in K, Rb, Sr, and Ba; and are markedly depleted in Nb, Ta, Ti, and Th. They show geochemical affinities similar to adakites, with high Sr, Al2O3, and Na2O contents and La/Yb ratios; low Y and Yb contents; and slight positive Eu anomalies. In situ Hf isotopic analyses of zircons yielded positive initial εHf(t) values ranging from 6.9 to 17.2. The δ34S values of the ore sulfides range from -3.0‰ to +1.7‰, reflecting a deep sulfur source. Our results indicate that the paleo-Tianshan oceanic slab was being simultaneously subducted northward beneath the Dananhu-Tousuquan arc, and southward beneath the Aqishan-Yamansu arc during the Early Carboniferous. The Tuwu adakitic tonalitic rocks were derived from the partial melting of the subducted paleo-Tianshan oceanic slab, which was subsequently hybridized by mantle wedge peridotites. The slab-derived magmas have considerably high copper contents and are highly oxidized, thus leading to porphyry copper mineralization. Such Early Carboniferous tonalitic rocks that are widespread in the eastern Tianshan define a province

  7. Naturally acidic surface and ground waters draining porphyry-related mineralized areas of the Southern Rocky Mountains, Colorado and New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verplanck, P.L.; Nordstrom, D.K.; Bove, D.J.; Plumlee, G.S.; Runkel, R.L.

    2009-01-01

    Acidic, metal-rich waters produced by the oxidative weathering and resulting leaching of major and trace elements from pyritic rocks can adversely affect water quality in receiving streams and riparian ecosystems. Five study areas in the southern Rocky Mountains with naturally acidic waters associated with porphyry mineralization were studied to document variations in water chemistry and processes that control the chemical variations. Study areas include the Upper Animas River watershed, East Alpine Gulch, Mount Emmons, and Handcart Gulch in Colorado and the Red River in New Mexico. Although host-rock lithologies in all these areas range from Precambrian gneisses to Cretaceous sedimentary units to Tertiary volcanic complexes, the mineralization is Tertiary in age and associated with intermediate to felsic composition, porphyritic plutons. Pyrite is ubiquitous, ranging from ???1 to >5 vol.%. Springs and headwater streams have pH values as low as 2.6, SO4 up to 3700 mg/L and high dissolved metal concentrations (for example: Fe up to 400 mg/L; Cu up to 3.5 mg/L; and Zn up to 14.4 mg/L). Intensity of hydrothermal alteration and presence of sulfides are the primary controls of water chemistry of these naturally acidic waters. Subbasins underlain by intensely hydrothermally altered lithologies are poorly vegetated and quite susceptible to storm-induced surface runoff. Within the Red River study area, results from a storm runoff study documented downstream changes in river chemistry: pH decreased from 7.80 to 4.83, alkalinity decreased from 49.4 to chemistry of naturally acidic waters tends to overlap but not reach the extreme concentrations of metals and acidity as some mine waters. The chemistry of waters draining these mineralized but unmined areas can be used to estimate premining conditions at sites with similar geologic and hydrologic conditions. For example, the US Geological Survey was asked to estimate premining ground-water chemistry at the Questa Mo mine, and

  8. 大陆碰撞成矿作用:Ⅰ.冈底斯新生代斑岩成矿系统%Metallogenesis of continental collision setting: Part Ⅰ. Gangdese Cenozoic porphyry Cu-Mo systems in Tibet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯增谦; 郑远川; 杨志明; 杨竹森

    2012-01-01

    Giant porphyry deposits are generally found in magmatic arcs and continent collisions] belt. Metallogenic theory, of the porphyry copper deposit under the magmalic arc condition has been well established, while that in the continental collision setting has not been formed. A large number of porphyry deposits were formed in Tibetan plateau as the result of collision between the India and the Lhasa plates. Three different porphyry deposit belts have been found in the Lhasa terrene. The Sharang-type porphyry Mo deposit and the Yaguila-type por-phyry-skarn Pb-Zn-Cu deposit distributed along the north margin of the Gangdese belt (the central Lhasa tcr-rane) were formed in the main-collisional period (65~41 Ma). The Mingze-type porphyry Mo deposit and the Nuri-type porphyry-skarn Cu-Wu-Mo deposit in the central part of the Gangdese belt (southern Lhasa terrane) were formed in late-collisional period (40~26 Ma), whereas the Qulong-type porphyry Cu-Mo deposits developed in the Zedong arc belt was formed in the post-collisional period (25~ 13 Ma). The fertile Gangdese porphyry systems are generally composed of multistage hypergenic intrusive complexes. These complexes are generally characterized by high-K, and most of them are K calc-aikali and shoshonitic in composition- The Cu-bearing porphyries are dominated by monzogranile, and generally show geochemical affinity to adakites, while the Mo-bearing porphyry deposits are mainly associated with granite, which was most likely derived from continental crust. Whole-rock geochemistry and Sr-Nd-Hf isotopic data indicate that the Cu-bearing magmas were most probably derived from the thickened juvenile mafic lower-crust beneath south Tibet. The melting of sul-fide-bearing phases in the juvenile mantle components of the Tibetan lower-crust probably provided parts of Cu, Au and S for the fertile magmas. However, the Mo-bearing magmas were likely derived from partial melting of the ancient Tibetan lower crust, while Mo was also

  9. “三江”地区中旬弧普朗成矿斑岩地球化学特征及其成因%Geochemistry and petrogenesis of Pulang porphyries in Sanjiang region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任江波; 许继峰; 陈建林; 张世权; 梁华英

    2011-01-01

    Located in Zhongdian island arc belt in northwestern Yunnan Province, the Pulang super large porphyry copper deposit was formed in late Triassic during the westward subduction of the Ganzi-Litang ocean plate below Zhongdian microplate. The mineralized rocks of the Pulang porphyry copper deposit mainly include quartz dioritic porphyries and quartz monzonitic porphyries in a complex pluton, and economic ores are mainly preserved in the quartz monzonitic porphyries. The quartz dioritic porphyrites were intruded by later quartz monzonitic porphyries, but the two kinds of rocks display similar geochemical characteristics, such as similar REE patterns, incompatible trace element patterns and initial 87Sr/86Sr and Nd/144Nd ratios, suggesting that they were coge-netic products or were derived from similar sources. Geochemically, both kinds of rocks are akin to adakite, as evidenced by such characteristics as high Sr content (289×10-6~l 200×10-6), high La/Yb and Sr/Yb ratios, relatively high MgO and Mg# (>59), depleted Y and Yb, slightly negative Eu anomalies and positive Sranomalies Moreover, the radiogenic Sr [0.705 60 61.0%) and K2O (2.2%~4.4%), while the latter have high SiQ2(> 65.9%) and K2O (3.5%~8.1%). Therefore, the authors hold that the Pulang porphyry copper deposit was probably related to the westward subduction of Ganzhi-Litang oceanic plate during late Triassic. At the early stage of subduction, the quartz dioritic porphyries with subduction-related origin were formed firstly, then increasing adakitic magmas of slab melting were mixed with melts from subducted sediments or arc materials, producing more acid and high oxygen fugacity adakitic magmas, which finally intruded the upper crust below Pulang and promoted the mineralization of the Pulang porphyry copper deposit at the shallow level.%普朗斑岩铜矿床是中国西南“三江”地区新发现的具超大规模的印支期斑岩铜矿床,其成矿岩体的斑岩具有高的Sr含量(289×10-6~1 200

  10. Temporal evolution of bacterial communities associated with the in situ wetland-based remediation of a marine shore porphyry copper tailings deposit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaby, N; Dold, B; Rohrbach, E; Holliger, C; Rossi, P

    2015-11-15

    Mine tailings are a serious threat to the environment and public health. Remediation of these residues can be carried out effectively by the activation of specific microbial processes. This article presents detailed information about temporal changes in bacterial community composition during the remediation of a section of porphyry copper tailings deposited on the Bahía de Ite shoreline (Peru). An experimental remediation cell was flooded and transformed into a wetland in order to prevent oxidation processes, immobilizing metals. Initially, the top oxidation zone of the tailings deposit displayed a low pH (3.1) and high concentrations of metals, sulfate, and chloride, in a sandy grain size geological matrix. This habitat was dominated by sulfur- and iron-oxidizing bacteria, such as Leptospirillum spp., Acidithiobacillus spp., and Sulfobacillus spp., in a microbial community which structure resembled acid mine drainage environments. After wetland implementation, the cell was water-saturated, the acidity was consumed and metals dropped to a fraction of their initial respective concentrations. Bacterial communities analyzed by massive sequencing showed time-dependent changes both in composition and cell numbers. The final remediation stage was characterized by the highest bacterial diversity and evenness. Aside from classical sulfate reducers from the phyla δ-Proteobacteria and Firmicutes, community structure comprised taxa derived from very diverse habitats. The community was also characterized by an elevated proportion of rare phyla and unaffiliated sequences. Numerical ecology analysis confirmed that the temporal population evolution was driven by pH, redox, and K. Results of this study demonstrated the usefulness of a detailed follow-up of the remediation process, not only for the elucidation of the communities gradually switching from autotrophic, oxidizing to heterotrophic and reducing living conditions, but also for the long term management of the remediation

  11. Pb-Sr-Nd isotopes in surficial materials at the Pebble Porphyry Cu-Au-Mo Deposit, Southwestern Alaska: can the mineralizing fingerprint be detected through cover?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayuso, Robert A.; Kelley, Karen D.; Eppinger, Robert G.; Forni, Francesca

    2013-01-01

    The Cretaceous Pebble porphyry Cu-Au-Mo deposit is covered by tundra and glacigenic sediments. Pb-Sr-Nd measurements were done on sediments and soils to establish baseline conditions prior to the onset of mining operations and contribute to the development of exploration methods for concealed base metal deposits of this type. Pebble rocks have a moderate range for 206Pb/204Pb = 18.574 to 18.874, 207Pb/204Pb = 15.484 to 15.526, and 208,Pb/204Pb = 38.053 to 38.266. Mineralized granodiorite shows a modest spread in 87Sr/86Sr (0.704354–0.707621) and 143Nd/144Nd (0.512639–0.512750). Age-corrected (89 Ma) values for the granodiorite yield relatively unradiogenic Pb (e.g., 207Pb/204Pb 87Sr/86Sr, and positive values of ɛNd (1.00–4.52) that attest to a major contribution of mantle-derived source rocks. Pond sediments and soils have similar Pb isotope signatures and 87Sr/86Sr and 143Nd/144Nd values that resemble the mineralized granodiorites. Glacial events have obscured the recognition of isotope signatures of mineralized rocks in the sediments and soils. Baseline radiogenic isotope compositions, prior to the onset of mining operations, reflect natural erosion, transport and deposition of heterogeneous till sheets that included debris from barren rocks, mineralized granodiorite and sulfides from the Pebble deposit, and other country rocks that pre- and postdate the mineralization events. Isotopic variations suggest that natural weathering of the deposit is generally reflected in these surficial materials. The isotope data provide geochemical constraints to glimpse through the extensive cover and together with other geochemical observations provide a vector to concealed mineralized rocks genetically linked with the Pebble deposit.

  12. Assessing the Performance of Statistical-structural and Geostatistical Methods in Estimating the 3D Distribution of the Uniaxial Compressive Strength Parameter in the Sarcheshmeh Porphyry Copper Deposit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahboubeh Pishbin

    2014-06-01

    estimating the UCS parameter in porphyry copper deposits.

  13. Temporal evolution of bacterial communities associated with the in situ wetland-based remediation of a marine shore porphyry copper tailings deposit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaby, N; Dold, B; Rohrbach, E; Holliger, C; Rossi, P

    2015-11-15

    Mine tailings are a serious threat to the environment and public health. Remediation of these residues can be carried out effectively by the activation of specific microbial processes. This article presents detailed information about temporal changes in bacterial community composition during the remediation of a section of porphyry copper tailings deposited on the Bahía de Ite shoreline (Peru). An experimental remediation cell was flooded and transformed into a wetland in order to prevent oxidation processes, immobilizing metals. Initially, the top oxidation zone of the tailings deposit displayed a low pH (3.1) and high concentrations of metals, sulfate, and chloride, in a sandy grain size geological matrix. This habitat was dominated by sulfur- and iron-oxidizing bacteria, such as Leptospirillum spp., Acidithiobacillus spp., and Sulfobacillus spp., in a microbial community which structure resembled acid mine drainage environments. After wetland implementation, the cell was water-saturated, the acidity was consumed and metals dropped to a fraction of their initial respective concentrations. Bacterial communities analyzed by massive sequencing showed time-dependent changes both in composition and cell numbers. The final remediation stage was characterized by the highest bacterial diversity and evenness. Aside from classical sulfate reducers from the phyla δ-Proteobacteria and Firmicutes, community structure comprised taxa derived from very diverse habitats. The community was also characterized by an elevated proportion of rare phyla and unaffiliated sequences. Numerical ecology analysis confirmed that the temporal population evolution was driven by pH, redox, and K. Results of this study demonstrated the usefulness of a detailed follow-up of the remediation process, not only for the elucidation of the communities gradually switching from autotrophic, oxidizing to heterotrophic and reducing living conditions, but also for the long term management of the remediation

  14. Sr-Nd isotope geochemistry and tectonomagmatic setting of the Dehsalm Cu-Mo porphyry mineralizing intrusives from Lut Block, eastern Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjmandzadeh, R.; Santos, J. F.

    2014-01-01

    The Dehsalm Cu-Mo-bearing porphyritic granitoids belong to the Lut Block volcanic-plutonic belt (central eastern Iran). These rocks range in composition from gabbro-diorite to granite, with dominance of monzonites and quartz monzonites, and have geochemical features of high-K calc-alkaline to shoshonitic volcanic arc suites. Primitive mantle-normalized trace element spider diagrams display strong enrichment in large-ion lithophile elements such as Rb, Ba and Cs and depletions in some high-field strength elements, e.g., Nb, Ti, Y and HREE. Chondrite-normalized plots display significant LREE enrichments, high LaN/YbN and a lack of Eu anomaly. High Sr/Y and La/Yb ratios of Dehsalm intrusives reveal that, despite their K-rich composition, these granitoids show some resemblances with adakitic rocks. A Rb-Sr whole rock-feldspar-biotite age of 33 ± 1 Ma was obtained in a quartz monzonite sample and coincides, within error, with a previous geochronological result in Chah-Shaljami granitoids, further northwest within the Lut Block. (87Sr/86Sr)i and ɛNdi isotopic ratios range from 0.70481 to 0.70508 and from +1.5 to +2.5, respectively, which fits into a supra-subduction mantle wedge source for the parental melts and indicates that crustal contribution for magma diversification was of limited importance. Sr and Nd isotopic compositions together with major and trace element geochemistry point to an origin of the parental magmas by melting of a metasomatized mantle source, with phlogopite breakdown playing a significant role in the geochemical fingerprints of the parental magmas; small amounts of residual garnet in the mantle source also help to explain some trace element patterns. Geochemical features of Dehsalm porphyries and its association with Cu-Mo mineralization agree with a mature continental arc setting related to the convergence of Afghan and Lut plates during Oligocene.

  15. Chronology, geochemistry and Sr-Nd isotope studies of Jurassic intrusions in the Diyanqinamu porphyry Mo mine, central Inner Mongolia, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hairui; Huang, Zhilong; Li, Wenbo; Leng, Chengbiao; Ma, Deyun; Zhang, Xingchun

    2014-07-01

    Available cores of porphyritic granite and aplitic granite from the Diyanqinamu porphyry Mo deposit in the north central Great Xing’an Range presented an opportunity to examine and analyze Mesozoic igneous rocks far from the Paleo-Pacific subduction zone. The Diyanqinamu granites are highly fractionated I-type, distinguished from the M-, A- or S-type granite by: high SiO2, and Rb; low Zr, Nb, Y, and Ce; low Fe2O3total/MgO and (K2O + Na2O)/CaO ratios; low alumina saturation index (Haker diagrams; low Ba, Sr, Nb, P, Ti, Eu; linear relationship in both (La/Yb)N vs. La and Sr vs. Ba diagrams; and, decreasing LREE and ∑REE with increasing SiO2. The Diyanqinamu granites have young depleted-mantle two-stage model ages (avg. TDM2 = 660 Ma) similar to those of most Mesozoic voluminous felsic magmas in northeastern China, and were likely sourced from pre-existent crustal components both “old” and juvenile that had been juxtaposed during the tectonic evolution of the Paleo-Asian Ocean. These granites project in the transitional field from syn-collision to post-collision tectonic settings on tectonic discrimination diagrams, implying emplacement in an extensional environment. Extensional volcanism and basin formation in the Great Xing’an Range region in Late Jurassic is coeval with the Diyanqinamu granites, demonstrating that post-orogenic lithospheric extension related to the closure of the Mongol-Okhotsk Ocean was the main driving force for Late Jurassic magmatism in this region.

  16. 甘肃龙尾沟斑岩型铜(钨)矿床成矿特征及形成环境%Geological Characteristics and Metallogenic Environment of the Longweigou Porphyry Copper(tungsten) Deposit,Gansu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾群子; 马云海; 全守村; 王建军; 肖朝阳; 李金超

    2012-01-01

    龙尾沟铜(钨)矿床是祁连山地区新近发现的一处斑岩型矿床,其评价及研究对祁连山地区铜矿勘查具有重要的指导和借鉴作用.本文通过对含矿斑岩年代学及地球化学、矿体产出特征及矿石物质组成、围岩蚀变等进行了系统研究,结果表明,花岗闪长斑岩形成年龄为358.7 Ma;矿体呈似层状、透镜状和脉状产出,主要产于高钾碱性系列斑岩体内,并受近南北向构造控制;矿石矿物主要为黄铜矿、黄铁矿、磁黄铁矿、白钨矿,呈细脉一浸染状、浸染状产出;矿化以富铜、钨、金贫钼为特征;与成矿关系密切的围岩蚀变主要为绢英岩化,次为钾硅酸盐化和硅化;矿床成矿时代为海西早期,形成于陆内造山伸展环境.从成矿背景分析认为祁连山地区陆内造山环境所形成的斑岩型铜矿具有良好的找矿前景.%The Longweigou porphyry copper( tungsten) deposit, a newly found deposit, lies in the Oulongbuluke uplift belt of the Qilian orogenic belt. The evaluation and research of the Longweigou copperCtungsten) ore deposit will present important guidance and reference for copper exploration in the Qilian Mountain area. The chronology and the geochemistry of the ore-bearing porphyry deposit were studied and the occurrence features of the deposit, the components of gold mineral and the alteration of the wall rock were investigated. Results showed that the formation age of the granodiorite porphyry is 358. 7Ma; and that the ore-body, which has occurrences of stratiform or lenticular or vein, occurs mainly in the high potassium alkali series porphyry and is controlled by NS structures; and that chalcopyrite, pyrite, pyrrhotite, and scheelite are main ore minerals, which have veinlet-disseminated and disseminated structures; and that mineralization is characterized by enriching copper, tungsten and gold and depleting molybdenum; and that the mineralization related wall-rock alterations are

  17. Metallogenetic epoch of the Almalyk porphyry copper ore field, Uzbekistan.and its geological significance%乌兹别克斯坦Almalyk斑岩铜矿田成矿时代及其地质意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛春纪; 段士刚; 柴凤梅; 木合塔尔·买买提; A.X.TypeceóekoB; 屈文俊

    2013-01-01

    The exploration of porphyry copper deposits in western Tianshan. Xinjiang, had attracted much attentions. The Almalyk copper deposit in western Tianshan. Uzbekistan, is one of the largest porphyry copper deposits in Asia, but has not well been dated. The Almalyk copper ore field is located in the southern part of Caledonian-Hercynian central I lanshan fold belt, and includes four copper deposits: Kalmakyr. Dalneye. Sarcheku and Kyzata. Copper mineralization occurred within the porphyries. The primary ores are characterized mainly by stockwork and disseminated structures, and the major metallic minerals are in assemblage of py-rite. chalcopyrite. molybdenite, hematite, magnetite, nature gold and bornite. The present paper obtains the weighted model age of 320. 1 ± 2. 3 Ma and an isochron age of 317.6±2. 5 Ma based on the Re-Os isotopic method by using the molybdenites from the Sarcheku copper-molybdenum ores. On the basis of the sequence of magmatic formation in this area, it is suggested that the tectonomagmatic hydrothermal process in Almalyk ore field started at the early Carboniferous, developed during the late Carboniferous, and finished at the early Permian, and the porphyry copper mineralization mainly occurred during the late Carboniferous. The world-class large and supper large porphyry copper mineralization including the Almalyk copper deposit in western Tianshan is closely related to the complex arc magmatic geological processes resulted from the sulxluction of paleo-Asia ocean crust under Kazakhstan-Yili plate, which happened mainly from the middle Devonian to the late Carboniferous (D2 - C2).%新疆西天山斑岩铜矿找矿勘查备受关注.乌兹别克斯坦Almalyk斑岩铜矿田处在西天山西段,铜矿规模属亚洲第二大,但其成矿时代还没有准确厘定.在区域地质构造中,Almalvk铜矿田位于中天山加里东 华力西褶皱带南部边缘,包括Kalmakyr、Dalneye、Sarcheku和Kyzata等4个铜矿床,铜成矿主要发生

  18. IMPLEMENTASI TUGAS DAN WEWENANG PENYIDIK TERHADAP PERLINDUNGAN PENYU HIJAU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budi Prasetyo

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The research of officer task and authority implementation towards green turtle conservation (study case of Marine Police Directorate Regional Bali aims to describing and analizing officer task and authority implementation in deep based on both KUHAP or Conservation Law. Besides, this research also aims to figure out the enabling and inhibiting factors in implementing officer task and authority towards green turtle conservation, also researching the steps taken by of Marine Police Directorate Regional Bali. The need for green turtle in Bali is rising up to this time. Although many criminal offensers got caught by of Marine Police Directorate Regional Bali officers but it is still going on. Based on this situation, a question arises how is the implementation of officer task and authority towards green turtle conservation and what are the enabling and inhibiting factors. The method used in this research is empirical legal research with descriptive research using prime and secondary data resouces with interview and also related available documents. This research uses non probability sampling technique which is purpose sampling with quota sampling that is a process of sample withdrawing by observing the easiest sample to take and the sample has special features that attracts the researcher. With all collected data, managed using qualitative analysis and the data presented descriptively and sistematically. Based on the research done before, it is noticed that the implementation of officer task and authority towards green turtle conservation based on KUHAP and Conservation Law has been going well. Granting rights for the suspects of green turtle trading during the investigation has been done by the officers based on KUHAP. The factors which becomes the enabling task for officer task and authority towards green turtle is the law factor, law enforcement, equipment and facilities, and culture. Meanwhile the society factor is the main inhibiting factor for implementing officer task and authority towards green turtle conservation. The habit of consuming turtle meat and guise of religious ceremony are mostly used as the reasons in trading this protected animal.

  19. Perancangan Permukiman Kota yang Sehat dengan Penerapan Arsitektur Hijau

    OpenAIRE

    Puspita, Inka

    2015-01-01

    Urban life identic with individualism and heterogeneity in terms of both social and economic. One of the causes of the nature of individualism and heterogeneity is the lack of time for social interaction between individuals and diverse backrounds and communities that can lead to social interaction gap. Majority of the urban population have crowded activity and their time much taken with the work activity. So that the urban population tend to use the remaining time to rest. ...

  20. KUANTITAS DAN KUALITAS RUANG TERBUKA HIJAU DI PERMUKIMAN PERKOTAAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agung Dwiyanto

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Green Air-Gap management in area of settlement urban tend to to experience of the challenge which enough weightof effect about height of urbanization current. while on the other side, energy support the downhill existing socialand environment also, so that cannot make balance to the requirement of space of effect about human pressure .Other challenge go together the height mount the conversion or displace to utilize the farm from farm (especiallyagriculture farm become the area develop;builded generating impact to lowering environmental quality nyabecome green of urban. Evaluate the planology is exist in generally only study the aspect of accuracy or deviation ofspace according about zoning which already specified . Meanwhile its exploiting intensity change seldom debate, sothat need the new stages;steps to improve;repair the quality and existing amount green space.

  1. Analisis Ruang Terbuka Hijau (RTH) di Kawasan Kota Medan

    OpenAIRE

    Gulo, Berkat Fangatulo

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays, world movement so faster than before, signed by most village became a city, and city became a modern city (metropolitan). Reduction of quantity and quality of public open spaces in the city, like urban green space or non-urban green space caused decreasing environment in the city, such as flood, highly air pollution and criminal act as often as happen. Kota Medan is a mother city of North Sumatra Province and gate city in Western of Indonesia. Higly increasing of resident in the cit...

  2. ANALISIS PERILAKU KONSUMEN KOTA BOGOR TERHADAP PRODUK KOSMETIK HIJAU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadya Tanaya Ardianti

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The exploding societal movement based upon environmental concerns and consumer awareness is spreading all over the globe. As a result, consumers concern about environmental issues is growing significantly and marketers have realized the importance of introducing green cosmetic products.However, there is doubt whether this awareness and concern is translated into the right behavior. In this study, consumers’ attitudes, behaviors, perception and demographic factor were manipulated to determine their relative influence on willingness to pay for green cosmetic products. The results showed consumer’s age, education, income and ecoliteracy to be the consistent explanatory factor in predicting their willingness to pay. The result also suggested that attitude toward firm’s responsibilities and buying behavior which’s consider environment factor to be the consistent explanatory factor in predicting their willingness to pay. This study also examined the relationships between consumer’s attitude, subjective norms, perceived behavior control and green cosmetic buying intentions using the Theory of PlannedBehavior (TPB. This study revealed that at significance level ten percent, attitude, subjective norm and perceived behavior control correlates positively with intention.

  3. Magmatic and structural controls on porphyry-style Cu-Au-Mo mineralization at Kemess South, Toodoggone District of British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duuring, Paul; Rowins, Stephen M.; McKinley, Bradley S. M.; Dickinson, Jenni M.; Diakow, Larry J.; Kim, Young-Seog; Creaser, Robert A.

    2009-05-01

    Kemess South is the only Cu-Au-Mo mine in the Toodoggone district and a major Cu and Au producer in British Columbia. Porphyry-style Cu-Au-Mo mineralization is mainly hosted by the tabular, SW-plunging, 199.6 ± 0.6-Ma Maple Leaf granodiorite, which intrudes tightly folded, SW-dipping, Permian Asitka Group siltstone and limestone and homogeneous Triassic Takla Group basalt. Southwest-dipping 194.0 ± 0.4-Ma Toodoggone Formation conglomerate, volcaniclastic, and epiclastic rocks overlie the granodiorite and Asitka Group rocks. Minor Cu-Au-Mo mineralization is hosted by the immediate Takla Group basalt country rock, whereas low-tonnage high-grade Cu zones occur beneath a 30-m-thick leached capping in supergene-altered granodiorite and in exotic positions in overlying Toodoggone Formation conglomerate. Granodiorite has an intrusive contact with mineralized and altered Takla Group basalt but displays a sheared contact with unmineralized and less altered Asitka Group siltstone. The North Block fault is a deposit-scale, E-striking, steeply S-dipping normal fault that juxtaposes the granodiorite/basalt ore body against unmineralized Asitka Group rocks. Younger NW- and NE-striking normal-dextral faults cut all rock types, orebodies, and the North Block fault with displacements of up to 100 m and result in the graben-and-horst-style block faulting of the stratigraphy and ore body. Both basalt and granodiorite host comparable vein sequence and alteration histories, with minor variations in hydrothermal mineral assemblages caused by differing protolith chemistry. Early potassic alteration (and associated early-stage Cu ± Au ± Mo mineralization) is partly replaced by phyllic and intermediate argillic alteration associated with main-stage Cu-Au-Mo mineralization. Two main-stage veins have Re-Os molybdenite ages of 201.3 ± 1.2 and 201.1 ± 1.2 Ma. These mineralization ages overlap the 199.6 ± 0.6-Ma U-Pb zircon crystallization age for the Maple Leaf granodiorite. Late

  4. Partial melting of subducted paleo-Pacific plate during the early Cretaceous: Constraint from adakitic rocks in the Shaxi porphyry Cu-Au deposit, Lower Yangtze River Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Jianghong; Yang, Xiaoyong; Li, Shuang; Gu, Huangling; Mastoi, Abdul Shakoor; Sun, Weidong

    2016-10-01

    A large porphyry Cu-Au deposit associated with early Cretaceous intrusive rocks has been discovered and explored in the Shaxi area, Lower Yangtze River Belt (LYRB), eastern China. We studied two types of intrusive rocks in the Shaxi area: Cu-Au mineralization related diorites and quartz-diorites (adakitic rocks), and newly found high Sr/Y ratio biotite-gabbros. They were formed almost simultaneously with crystallization ages of ca. 130 to 129 Ma, younger than the early stage shoshonitic rocks (Longmenyuan, Zhuanqiao and Shuangmiao Fm.) in the Luzong volcanic basin, ~ 10 km south of the Shaxi area. These intrusive rocks show similar distribution patterns of trace elements (enriched in LILEs and depleted in HFSEs) and REEs (enriched in LREEs and depleted in HREEs, no Eu negative anomaly, flat HREE patterns). The diorites and quartz-diorites are adakitic rocks with calc-alkaline affinity, distinguished from other adakitic rocks in the LYRB which are high-K calc-alkaline series. The biotite-gabbros are not adakitic rocks, although they are characterized by high Sr/Y ratios. Shaxi adakitic rocks show positive zircon εHf(t) values, which may be attributed to the contribution of subducted oceanic crust, while the εHf(t) values of the biotite-gabbros are mostly negative, indicating the involvement of old crustal materials. Although Sr-Nd-Pb isotopes of Shaxi adakitic rocks are more depleted than those of other adakitic rocks in the LYRB, they are still slightly enriched, similar to continental arc adakites in the Andean Austral Volcanic Zone. The Shaxi adakitic rocks are characterized by high Sr contents and Sr/Y ratios, medium (La/Yb)N, MgO contents and Mg#, and low K2O/Na2O ratios, decoupling of Sr/Y and (La/Yb)N, low Th/U values, exhibiting characteristics of slab-derived adakitic rocks. They were not produced by fractional crystallization of basaltic magmas like adakitic rocks in Edong-Jiurui and Tongling but originally generated from partial melting of subducted

  5. 金平铜厂铜钼矿床赋矿岩体锆石LA-ICP-MS U-Pb年龄及意义%Zircon LA-ICP-MS U-Pb Age of the Jinping-Tongchang Porphyry Associated with Cu-Mo Mineralization and its Geological Implication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄波; 梁华英; 莫济海; 谢应雯

    2009-01-01

    The Jinping-Tongchang Cu-Mo deposit located at the southwestern segment of the Ailao Shan-Red River shear zone,which is in the southern part of the Cenozoic metallogenic belt along the Ailao Shan-Red River shear and its north-em stretching zone in eastern Tibet. The Jinping-Tongchang ore-bearing porphyry is composed of monzogranite porphyries and monzonites. CL photos of the analyzed zircons from the Jinping-Tongchang porphyry are characterized by the well-developed oscillatory zoning, suggesting that the analyzed zircon grains are of magmatic origin. Zircon LA-ICP-MS U-Pb age of the ore-bearing porphyry is 35.1 ±0. 3Ma, with MSWD = 1. 88. Different zoning of the same zircon grain has similar U-Pb age within error. The zircon age of the Jinping-Tongchang ore-bearing porphyry is similar to those of the Machangqing porphyry copper deposit and potassic alkaline rocks along the Ailao Shan-Red River shear zone. It is concluded that the Jinping-Tongchang ore-bearing porphyry has genetic relation to the left-lateral movements of the Ailao Shan-Red River shear zone caused by the collision between the Indian and Asian plates.%金平铜厂铜钼矿床赋矿岩体位于哀牢山-金沙江新生代成矿带南端,红河走滑断裂西侧,赋矿岩体主要由二长花岗斑岩及二长花岗岩组成.岩体锆石阴极发光图(CL)环带构造发育,不同环带U-Pb年龄在误差范围内基本一致.锆石LA-ICP-MS U-Pb年结果表明赋矿岩体主要是35.1±0.3Ma形成的.含矿岩体形成与印度板块与欧亚板块碰撞产生的红河-哀牢山左行走滑断裂活动有关.

  6. 广西龙头山斑岩金矿成矿岩体的岩石学、岩石地球化学及热液蚀变作用特征%Petrologic, Petro-Chemical and Hydrothermal Alteration Characteristics of Porphyry Pipe in Longtoushan Gold Deposit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾南石; 张春鹏; 徐文炘; 朱文风; 邱桂龙

    2011-01-01

    The Longtoushan porphyry related to gold mineralization is reconfirmed with granodiorite porphyry based on SiO2 contents and residual hornblende. Hydrothermal fluids from magmatic system formed sericite zone at lower part, and kaolinite zone at upper portion in the granodiorite porphyry. B-rich Au-bearing hydrothermal fluid which mixed meteoric water from the heat of magma intrusion filled in the fractures surrounded the porphyry pipe, replaced the altered porphyry rock, and formed the zone of gold mineralization and tourmaline alteration. Petro-chemical characteristics and isotope dating suggest that the Longtoushan porphyry pipe was formed by I type magma which has been contaminated by some materials from crust. The porphyry intrusion has the similar materials of rock-forming, structure setting, and timing with other intrusions found in the surrounding areas.%根据镜下特征及SiO2含量,将龙头山金矿成矿岩体的构成主体重新定名为花岗闪长斑岩.岩浆期后气液导致岩体上部发生弥散型绢云母化和高岭石化;受热流体的酸碱分离作用影响,形成高岭石化相对在上、绢云母化在下的垂直蚀变分带.侵入岩浆带来的热能,同时形成有大气降水加入的富硼含矿热液,并沿岩体接触带及顶部发育的碎裂构造等开放空间充填,交代已绢云母化、高岭石化的花岗闪长斑岩,形成围绕岩体的近环状含金隐爆角砾岩和电气石-硅化带.微量元素与同位素测年研究表明,成矿岩体的成岩物质来源于燕山晚期受混染的I型花岗岩浆;与周边岩体在成岩物质、侵位空间及成岩时代等方面表现出岩浆活动的一致性.

  7. U-Pb, Re-Os, and 40Ar/39Ar geochronology of the Nambija Au-skarn and Pangui porphyry Cu deposits, Ecuador: implications for the Jurassic metallogenic belt of the Northern Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiaradia, Massimo; Vallance, Jean; Fontboté, Lluis; Stein, Holly; Schaltegger, Urs; Coder, Joshua; Richards, Jeremy; Villeneuve, Mike; Gendall, Ian

    2009-05-01

    New U-Pb, Re-Os, and 40Ar/39Ar dates are presented for magmatic and hydrothermal mineral phases in skarn- and porphyry-related ores from the Nambija and Pangui districts of the Subandean zone, southeastern Ecuador. Nambija has been one of the main gold-producing centers of Ecuador since the 1980s due to exceptionally high-grade ores (average 15 g/t, but frequently up to 300 g/t Au). Pangui is a recently discovered porphyry Cu-Mo district. The geology of the Subandean zone in southeastern Ecuador is dominated by the I-type, subduction-related, Jurassic Zamora batholith, which intrudes Triassic volcanosedimentary rocks. The Zamora batholith is in turn cut by porphyritic stocks, which are commonly associated with skarn formation and/or porphyry-style mineralization. High precision U-Pb and Re-Os ages for porphyritic stocks (U-Pb, zircon), associated prograde skarn (U-Pb, hydrothermal titanite), and retrograde stage skarn (Re-Os, molybdenite from veins postdating gold deposition) of the Nambija district are all indistinguishable from each other within error (145 Ma) and indicate a Late Jurassic age for the gold mineralization. Previously, gold mineralization at Nambija was considered to be Early Tertiary based on K-Ar ages obtained on various hydrothermal minerals. The new Jurassic age for the Nambija district is slightly younger than the 40Ar/39Ar and Re-Os ages for magmatic-hydrothermal minerals from the Pangui district, which range between 157 and 152 Ma. Mineralization at Nambija and Pangui is associated with porphyritic stocks that represent the last known episodes of a long-lived Jurassic arc magmatism (˜190 to 145 Ma). A Jurassic age for mineralization at Nambija and Pangui suggests that the Northern Andean Jurassic metallogenic belt, which starts in Colombia at 3° N, extends down to 5° S in Ecuador. It also adds a new mineralization style (Au-skarn) to the metal endowment of this belt.

  8. Geochronology,Geochemistry and Zircon Hf Isotopic Compositions of the Ore-Bearing Porphyry in the Lakang'e Porphyry Cu-Mo Deposit,Tibet%西藏拉抗俄斑岩 Cu-Mo 矿床含矿斑岩地球化学、锆石 U-Pb 年代学及 Hf 同位素组成

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冷秋锋; 唐菊兴; 郑文宝; 王保宏; 唐攀; 王豪

    2016-01-01

    拉抗俄 Cu-Mo 矿床是冈底斯成矿带东段典型的斑岩型矿床,前人对该矿床进行了初步的矿床地球化学研究,但欠缺系统性.在系统的野外地质调查基础上,对拉抗俄斑岩 Cu-Mo 矿床的含矿斑岩开展了详细的地球化学和年代学研究,旨在精确确定矿床含矿斑岩的成岩年龄、岩石成因及源区特征.岩石地球化学特征显示,含矿花岗闪长斑岩富硅,相对贫镁和钙,SiO2含量为62.51%~72.41%,MgO 含量为0.59%~1.30%,CaO 含量为0.95%~3.44%;碱含量高,Na2 O 含量为3.51%~4.75%,K2 O 含量为3.30%~4.97%;偏铝质或弱的过铝质,A/CNK 比值为0.90~1.01;相对富集大离子亲石元素 Rb、Ba、Th、U、Sr,明显亏损 Nb、Ta、Ti、P、Zr 等高场强元素.岩体稀土总量较低,为82.80×10-6~132.09×10-6;富集轻稀土,且轻重稀土分异明显;具有弱的 Eu 负异常和弱 Ce 负异常.采用 LA-ICP-MS 锆石 U-Pb 同位素测年技术对含矿花岗闪长斑岩进行定年,岩体成岩年龄为13.58±0.42 Ma,系中新世岩浆活动的产物.锆石εHf (t)值为-3.99~4.49,Hf 同位素两阶段模式年龄 tDM2为808~1349 Ma.研究结果显示拉抗俄含矿花岗闪长斑岩具有埃达克岩地球化学特征,其岩浆源区主要来源于新生地壳部分熔融的组分,在岩浆侵位过程中遭受了古老地壳物质的混染,岩石形成于印度-亚洲大陆碰撞造山带的后碰撞伸展构造背景.%The Lakang'e Cu-Mo deposit is a typical porphyry deposit in the eastern Gangdese metallogenic belt,on which previ-ous geochemical studies are not adequate and systematic.In this paper,we present the results of the systematic logging of drill-holes and provide new petrological zircon U-Pb age,and Hf isotope data for the deposit that allow the identification of the tim-ing of formation and mineralization

  9. Kink zone localization, structurally-controlled instability, and large-scale rock slope failure at the Mt. Gorsa porphyry quarry (Trentino, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agliardi, F.; Crosta, G. B.; Meloni, F.; Valle, C.; Rivolta, C.; Leva, D.

    2012-04-01

    Rock slope failure is controlled by rock mass strength and anisotropy, and by slope-scale persistent fractures with different spacing, eventually resulting in complex mechanisms as large-scale flexural toppling, block toppling, and kink band slumping. Despite these mechanisms have been studied, their interplay in large rock slope failure is often difficult to ascertain in complex geological settings. We studied the 250 m high porphyry quarry slopes of Mt. Gorsa (Trentino, Italy). Two slopes facing to N and E are carved in Permian rhyolithic ignimbrites, providing spectacular exposures of the inherited geological structure. Despite the strong intact rock, rock mass has a complex structure due to the occurrence of thermal cooling joints, persistent tectonic fractures, and joint sets. Evidence of ongoing displacement of the northern quarry face in 2003 motivated geotechnical and geophysical site investigation, and the initiation of displacement monitoring activities. GB-InSAR measurements using a LiSALab system captured large-scale slope dilation involving 400.000 m3. Further GB-InSAR measurements have been carried out since 2010. In order to understand the mechanisms governing large-scale deformation and failure of the northern slope, we carried out a comprehensive field and modelling study exploiting terrestrial photo mapping, field structural analysis and discontinuity surveys at different locations. On the northern face, 190 Geological Strength Index (GSI) surveys along benches, DEM structural analysis (COLTOP3D), and analysis of GB-InSAR data were carried out, and relationships among rock mass quality, 2003 landslide extent, and measured displacements established. Data show that slope instability is locally constrained by close and persistent cooling joints steeply dipping to the south (K1), persistent fault surfaces moderately dipping to the NNW (K2), and joint sets steeply dipping to NE and WNW (K3 and K4). NNW-dipping, top-to-N kink bands up to 2m wide also

  10. Pre-eruptive conditions of the Hideaway Park topaz rhyolite: Insights into metal source and evolution of magma parental to the Henderson porphyry molybdenum deposit, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, Celestine N.; Hofstra, Albert H.; Todorov, Todor I.; Roberge, Julie; Burgisser, Alain; Adams, David T.; Cosca, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    The Hideaway Park tuff is the only preserved extrusive volcanic unit related to the Red Mountain intrusive complex, which produced the world-class Henderson porphyry Mo deposit. Located within the Colorado Mineral Belt, USA, Henderson is the second largest Climax-type Mo deposit in the world, and is therefore an excellent location to investigate magmatic processes leading to Climax-type Mo mineralization. We combine an extensive dataset of major element, volatile, and trace element abundances in quartz-hosted melt inclusions and pumice matrix glass with major element geochemistry from phenocrysts to reconstruct the pre-eruptive conditions and the source and evolution of metals within the magma. Melt inclusions are slightly peraluminous topaz rhyolitic in composition and are volatile-charged (≤6 wt % H2O, ≤600 ppm CO2, ∼0·3–1·0 wt % F, ∼2300–3500 ppm Cl) and metal-rich (∼7–24 ppm Mo, ∼4–14 ppm W, ∼21–52 ppm Pb, ∼28–2700 ppm Zn, <0·1–29 ppm Cu, ∼0·3–1·8 ppm Bi, ∼40–760 ppb Ag, ∼690–1400 ppm Mn). Melt inclusion and pumice matrix glass chemistry reveal that the Hideaway Park magma evolved by large degrees of fractional crystallization (≤60–70%) during quartz crystallization and melt inclusion entrapment at pressures of ≤300 MPa (≤8 km depth), with little to no crystallization upon shallow ascent and eruption. Filter pressing, crystal settling, magma recharge and mixing of less evolved rhyolite melt, and volatile exsolution were important processes during magma evolution; the low estimated viscosities (∼105–1010 Pa s) of these H2O- and F-rich melts probably enhanced these processes. A noteworthy discrepancy between the metal contents in the pumice matrix glass and in the melt inclusions suggests that after quartz crystallization ceased upon shallow magma ascent and eruption, the Hideaway Park magma exsolved an aqueous fluid into which Mo, Bi, Ag, Zn, Mn, Cs, and Y strongly

  11. Ultra-deep oxidation and exotic copper formation at the late pliocene boyongan and bayugo porphyry copper-gold deposits, surigao, philippines: Geology, mineralogy, paleoaltimetry, and their implications for Geologic, physiographic, and tectonic controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braxton, D.P.; Cooke, D.R.; Ignacio, A.M.; Rye, R.O.; Waters, P.J.

    2009-01-01

    The Boyongan and Bayugo porphyry copper-gold deposits are part of an emerging belt of intrusion-centered gold-rich deposits in the Surigao district of northeast Mindanao, Philippines. Exhumation and weathering of these Late Pliocene-age deposits has led to the development of the world's deepest known porphyry oxidation profile at Boyongan (600 m), and yet only a modest (30-70 m) oxidation profile at adjacent Bayugo. Debris flows, volcanic rocks, and fluviolacustrine sediments accumulating in the actively extending Mainit graben subsequently covered the deposits and preserved the supergene profiles. At Boyongan and Bayugo, there is a vertical transition from shallower supergene copper oxide minerals (malachite + azurite + cuprite) to deeper sulfide-stable assemblages (chalcocite ?? hypogene sulfides). This transition provides a time-integrated proxy for the position of the water table at the base of the saturated zone during supergene oxidation. Contours of the elevation of the paleopotentiometric surface based on this min- eralogical transition show that the thickest portions of the unsaturated zone coincided with a silt-sand matrix diatreme breccia complex at Boyongan. Within the breccia complex, the thickness of the unsaturated zone approached 600 in, whereas outside the breccia complex (e.g., at Bayugo), the thickness averaged 50 m. Contours of the paleopotentiometric surface suggest that during weathering, groundwater flowed into the breccia complex from the north, south, and east, and exited along a high permeability zone to the west. The high relief (>550 m) on the elevation of the paleopotentiometric surface is consistent with an environment of high topographic relief, and the outflow zone to the west of the breccia complex probably reflects proximity to a steep scarp intersecting the western breccia complex margin. Stable isotope paleoaltimetry has enabled estimation of the elevation of the land surface, which further constrains the physiographic setting

  12. 遥感技术在格咱岛弧地区斑岩铜矿勘查中的应用%The application of remote sensing technique for porphyry copper exploration in the Gezan arc region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘峻杉; 胡滨; 何政伟

    2015-01-01

    Remote sensing data can be used to extract alteration information,which provides the basis for porphyry copper ore exploration.The study area is located in the Gezan arc region.The level of geological research is low and the metallogenic potential is tremendous.Principal component analyses (PCA)were applied to get the iron-stain alteration and hydroxyl altera-tion information by making use of OLI data.Principal component analyses (PCA)were applied to get sericite information from ASTER data.SWIR band of ASTER data is used to extract sericite information,the method can inhibit the vegetation informa-tion,highlight the mineral information.A porphyry mineralization point was discovered during ground inspection which has confirmed the validity of remote sensing technology.The method can provide a reference for the mineral exploration in Yunnan region.%遥感数据能够提取围岩蚀变信息,为斑岩铜矿的勘查提供依据。研究区地处格咱岛弧地区,地质研究程度较低,成矿潜力巨大。采用主成分分析法处理 OLI 数据得到研究区的铁染和羟基蚀变信息,采用该方法从 ASTER 数据中提取了绢云母信息。利用 ASTER 数据的 SWIR波段来提取绢云母信息,能够抑制植被信息,突出矿物信息。经过野外踏勘发现了斑岩铜矿点,证实了遥感技术的有效性,该方法能够为云南地区斑岩铜矿的勘查提供借鉴。

  13. 浅析河南嵩县鱼池岭斑岩型钼矿床地质特征及找矿标志%Geological characteristics and clues for prospecting of Yuchiling porphyry Mo deposit in Songxian of Henan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周树峰; 陈庆良; 李耀武; 徐卫强; 宋向明

    2014-01-01

    鱼池岭斑岩型钼矿是东秦岭新发现的超大型钼矿床,矿体赋存于合峪岩体童子庄复式花岗岩体和隐爆角砾集块岩中。矿体呈似层状、不规则的穹丘体状。矿石类型以辉钼矿矿石、黄铁矿-辉钼矿矿石为主。钼矿化主要呈细脉浸染状、细脉状、浸染状产出;矿化与脉体发育程度呈正相关。围岩蚀变具有分带特点:从隐爆角砾岩体向外,蚀变表现为钾化-石英绢云母化-粘土化分带。成矿经历了岩浆期、透岩浆流体期。该区燕山期斑岩岩株、隐爆角砾集块岩体是主要的找矿标志;合峪岩体及相类似岩体是今后找矿方向。%Yuchiling porphyry Mo deposit is a newly discovered super large scale deposit in the East Qinling Mountains,and the ore-bodies occur in Tongzizhuang composite granite of Heyu rock body and crypto-explo-sive brecciated agglomerate.The ore-bodies are in stratoid structure or irregular dome structure.The ores are mainly composed of molybdenite and pyrite-molybdenite.The mineralization of molybdenum occurs in veinlet disseminated structure,veinlet structure,or disseminated structure.The mineralization is positively correlated with the growth of veins.The alteration of wall-rocks is characterized by zoning:from the crypto-explosive breccia outward,the alteration occurs in forms of potassic alteration,quartz-sericitization and argil-lation respectively.The ore-forming process includes magmatic stage and transmagmatic fluid stage.The oc-currence of Yanshanian porphyry-type stocks and crypto-explosive brecciated agglomerates are the primary clues for prospecting.Heyu rock bodies and similar rock bodies are the prospecting direction in the future.

  14. 安徽庐枞沙溪斑岩铜矿蚀变及矿化特征研究%Characteristics of alteration and mineralization of the Shaxi porphyry copper deposit, Luzong area, Anhui Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁峰; 周涛发; 王世伟; 范裕; 汤诚; 张千明; 俞沧海; 石诚

    2012-01-01

    沙溪斑岩铜矿是长江中下游成矿带中部庐枞火山岩盆地外围的一个大型铜矿床.本文在前人工作基础上,基于详细的野外观察和系统的岩相学、矿相学工作,详细研究了矿床的蚀变特征及分带.结果表明,矿床的蚀变类型有钾硅酸盐化、青磐岩化、长石分解蚀变和高岭土化,从深到浅依次发育有钾硅酸盐化、长石分解蚀变叠加钾硅酸盐化、长石分解蚀变和高岭土化等蚀变.确定了矿化特征、矿物生成顺序并划分了成矿阶段,即:钾硅酸盐阶段、石英硫化物阶段和石英碳酸盐阶段,其中,石英硫化物阶段又可进一步分为石英硫化物亚阶段和绿帘石-绿泥石亚阶段.基于蚀变及矿化特征认为,沙溪铜矿床的矿化始于钾硅酸盐阶段的晚期,石英硫化物亚阶段是黄铜矿主要的沉淀阶段,石英碳酸盐阶段也对成矿贡献了部分铜质.与世界上不同构造环境的典型斑岩铜矿床对比认为,沙溪矿床总体上与这些矿床的蚀变、矿化特征类似;与陆缘弧、岛弧、陆内碰撞造山后伸展环境矿床在矿体产出位置、蚀变分带方面相似;而由于围岩性质的差异,与板内环境的德兴矿床在矿体位置、蚀变分带方面存在差异,但是二者在脉体类型特别是与矿化关系密切的脉体特征上较为一致.因此,对于斑岩型矿床而言,构造背景可能控制了其岩浆的形成、演化以及含矿性,而岩浆岩最终定位的深度、围岩等条件则控制了其蚀变、矿化特征.%Shaxi is a large porphyry copper deposit located outside the Luzong volcanic basin in the Middle and Lower Reaches of the Yangtze River metallogenic belt. Before this study, geological investigations of wall rock alteration and mineralization characteristics of the deposit were minor, restricting application of these guides to exploration and to further study of the metallogenesis of the region. On the basis of previous work

  15. Sistem Informasi Akademik DI SMP Swasta YAPENDAK Air Batu

    OpenAIRE

    Yudhistira, Rizky

    2010-01-01

    Kajian ini bertujuan untuk membangun satu prototype sistem dan alat inventori berdasarkan sistem pendukung keputusan. Sistem ini dikembangkan menggunakan perangkat lunak Visual Basic 6 dan Microsoft Access 2003. Metodologi pengembangan sistem yang digunakan adalah berdasarkan siklus hidup pengembangan sistem dengan pendekatan air terjun dan iterasinya. Sistem ini meliputi modul – modul masukan data berkaitan dengan guru, pegawai, siswa, jadwal. Objek utama dari sistem ini ad...

  16. 蒙西斑岩铜钼矿含矿岩体地球化学和Sr-Nd-Pb同位素特征%Geochemical and Sr-Nd-Pb Isotopic Characteristics of the Ore-bearing Rock in Mengxi Porphyry Cu-Mo Deposit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘建朝; 王瑞美; 程建新; 彭素霞; 张海东; 王得权; 郑利宏

    2014-01-01

    Ore-bearing porphyry in Mengxi porphyry Copper-Molybdenum deposit is plagiogranite porphyry.The geo-chemical and Sr-Nd-Pb isotope research of porphyry bodies show that rocks are peraluminous calc-alkaline,enriched in large-ion lithophile elements Rb,Ba,U,K,Pb,Sr and depleted in high field strength elements Th,Ta,Nb,Nd,Ti.Through the studies on porphyry bodies,it is identified for rock bodies characterized with low (87Sr/86Sr) ⅰ ratio (0.7046 5~0.7053 7) and high εNd(t) value (-2.2~6.6).(206Pb/204Pb)i ratio of the rock bodies range from 17.13 to 17.33,(207Pb/204Pb)i ratio from 15.47 to 15.54,and (208Pb/204Pb)i ratio from 37.11 to 37.33.These characteristics indicate that the porphyry bodies possibly formed in arc environment, and the magmatic materials were derived from the mantle,involved some portions of crustal rocks,which may related with partial melting of subducted oceanic crust.Qiongheba in eastern Junggar is a potential area for prospecting the phyry Cu deposit.%蒙西斑岩铜钼矿含矿斑岩体主要为斜长花岗斑岩。通过对含矿斑岩体地球化学和Sr-Nd-Pb同位素特征的研究,确立斑岩体为过铝质钙碱性系列岩石,富集Rb,Ba,U,K,Pb,Sr等大离子亲石元素,亏损Th,Ta,Nb,Nd,Ti等高场强元素;具低的(87Sr/86Sr)ⅰ值(0.70465~0.70537)和相对较高的εNd(t)值(-2.2~6.6),且有较低的初始铅同位素比值(206Pb/204Pb)i=17.13~17.33,(207Pb/204Pb)i=15.47~15.54,(208Pb/204Pb)i=37.11~37.33。上述特征表明其形成于岛弧环境,岩浆物质来源以幔源为主,但也有少量壳源组分参与,岩浆的形成可能与洋壳的俯冲作用有关。东准噶尔琼河坝地区是形成和寻找斑岩型铜矿的有利地区。

  17. 西藏甲玛超大型铜矿区斑岩脉成岩时代及其与成矿的关系%Zircon SHRIMP U-Pb dating of porphyry vein from the Jiama copper polymetallic deposit in Tibet and its significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    应立娟; 唐菊兴; 王登红; 郑文宝; 秦志鹏; 张丽

    2011-01-01

    The Jiama copper polymetallic deposit is an important ore deposit with a super-large scale in the Cangdese metallogenic belt of Tibet Re-Os dating of molybdenites occurred in skarn, porphyry and hornfels has indicated the metallogenic period of Cu-Mo mineralization during 17Ma to 14Ma, whereas the research on its age of diagenesis is rather lack, especially for the porphyry veins as south-north distributed outcrops. In this paper, two samples of slightly mineralized porphyry rocks: granite porphyry (sample JM52-0) and granitic diorite porphyry (sample JM52-46. 7 ) , have been collected from the No. 52 adit in Qianshan of the mining area Through zircon SHRIMP U-Pb dating at the first time, their 206pb/238 U -207 Pb/235 U concord ages are 14. 2 ± 0. 2Ma and 14. 1 ± 0. 3Ma, respectively. The ages from the zircon SHRIMP U-Pb dating in this paper mean the crystallization age of magmatic zircon representing the south-north distributed granite and granitic diorite porphyry outcrops. The diagenesis age of this type porphyry veins is at the same period of ore-bearing porphyry intrusive event related to the south-north normal fault system and rift zone in Gangdese( 18 ~ 12Ma). Diagenesis and mineralization age of the Jiama copper polymetallic deposit shows the similar period for metallogenesis and diagenesis, which is similar to other porphyry-skam type ore deposits in the east part of the Gangdese metallogenic belt with a strong concentration of mineralization during 17 - 14Ma, indicating the magmatic-tectonic events in Miocene in the Gangdese and the genesis relationship between Cu-Mo mineralization and hydrothermal process in Jiama.%甲玛铜多金属矿是冈底斯成矿带上资源储量达到超大型规模的又一个重要矿床,2010年7月已正式投产.产于矽卡岩、斑岩和角岩中的辉钼矿Re-Os定年已表明甲玛矿床的铜钼成矿时代集中于17 ~ 14Ma,而成岩时代的研究相对较少,尤其是矿区及外围大量出露的近南北向

  18. Influence of backwater on bulk flotation of a porphyry copper-molybdenum ore%某斑岩型铜钼矿尾矿回水对混合浮选的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王怀; 郑晔; 郝福来; 宋超

    2016-01-01

    为分析某斑岩型铜钼矿尾矿回水对混合浮选的影响,以回水组分为研究对象进行了矿石中铜钼硫矿物可浮性的研究。结果表明:回水导致浮选精矿产率增大,铜、钼可浮性降低,硫被强烈抑制;回水中高浓度钙离子和APAM的联合作用,能有效地抑制矿石中的黄铁矿;浮选药剂以及 APAM 的累积,使浮选矿浆粘度增加,微细粒金属矿物夹杂在絮团之中而未能上浮。%In order to analyze the influence of backwater on bulk flotation of a porphyry copper‐molybdenum ore ,flotation tests were carried out to study the floatability of metallic minerals in the water containing different constituents .The results showed that the concentrate yield increase dramatically ,and the floatability of copper and molybdenum decline significantly under the condition of backwater flotation , however ,the pyrite is strongly inhibited that the high concentrations of calcium and APAM in backwater are the main causes .The slurry viscosity tends to rise with the cumulation of flotation reagents and APAM in backwater ,which lead to the loss of fine‐grained minerals wrapped in floccules .

  19. Features of ore-bearing bodies in the Dongyuan porphyry tungsten deposit,Qimen, Anhui%安徽祁门东源斑岩型钨矿含矿岩体特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪应庚; 王秀蓉; 任明君

    2013-01-01

    祁门东源岩体产于城安-大历山岩体的南侧,呈岩株状产出,相伴出露有东源、西源、江家三个岩体。从东源岩体含矿性和地质特征分析,认为东源岩体为含钨地质体,通过含矿热的运移和交代作用,在岩体顶部形成钨矿化的集中区,构成斑岩型钨矿床。从区域岩浆活动看,燕山早期为皖南的主要钨成矿期,具有相似地质背景的绩溪、旌德、宁国地区是具有寻找钨矿的有利地区。%The Dongyuan intrusion,Qimen occurs to the south of the Chengan-Dalishan intrusion as stocks outcropping separately in Dongyuan,Xiyuan and Jiangjia. Judging from ore-bearing potential and geological features,the Dongyuan intrusion is thought to be a tungsten-bearing geological body. With hydrothermal transport and replacement,tungsten mineralization took place substantially at the top of the rock body to form the porphyry tungsten deposit. In view of re-gional magmatic activities,early Yanshanian period is the major metallogenic stage for tungsten mineralization in south Anhui,where other favorable places for tungsten exploration are Jixi,Jingde and Ningguo areas due to their similar geo-logical settings compared with Dongyuan.

  20. U-Pb zircon and Re-Os molybdenite geochronology from La Caridad porphyry copper deposit: insights for the duration of magmatism and mineralization in the Nacozari District, Sonora, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valencia, V. A.; Ruiz, J.; Barra, F.; Geherls, G.; Ducea, M.; Titley, S. R.; Ochoa-Landin, L.

    2005-03-01

    Uranium-lead zircon (laser ablation multi-collector ICP-MS spot analysis) ages from La Caridad porphyry copper deposit in the Nacozari District, Northeastern Sonora, Mexico, suggest a short period of magmatism, between 55.5 and 52.6 Ma. Two U-Pb ages from the mineralized quartz monzonite unit, showing different textural characteristics, yielded indistinguishable crystallization ages (~54 Ma), and indicate that the intrusion responsible for the mineralization occurred as a single large complex unit, instead of multiple pulses of magmatism. Some zircons analyzed also show inherited ages in cores recording dates of 112-124 Ma, 141-166 Ma and 1.4 Ga. The Re-Os molybdenite ages from the potassic and phyllic hydrothermal alteration veins yielded identical ages within error, 53.6±0.3 Ma and 53.8±0.3 Ma, respectively (weighted average of 53.7±0.21 Ma), supporting a restricted period for the mineralization. The geochronological data thus indicate a short-lived magmatic and hydrothermal system. The inherited zircons of Precambrian and Late Jurassic-Mid Cretaceous age found in the intrusive rocks of La Caridad deposit, can be explained considering two possible scenarios within the tectonic/magmatic evolution of the area. The first scenario considers the presence of a Precambrian anorogenic granitic basement that is intruded by Mesozoic (Jurassic-Cretaceous) units present beneath the La Caridad deposit. The second scenario suggests that the Mesozoic Glance Conglomerate Formation of Arizona underlies the Paleocene volcanic-igneous pile in the La Caridad area.

  1. 西藏冈底斯南缘中新世含矿斑岩源区组成与成因%Petrogenesis of the Miocene Ore-Bearing Granite Porphyries in the Southern Gangdese, Tibet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高成; 李德威; 刘德民; 罗文行; 冯旻旻; 李华亮

    2014-01-01

    The Miocene lower crust flow in the southern Tibetan plateau is one of the present significant topics regarding continental dynamics, but the direction of lower crust flow has not yet been well constrained. Here we report an integrated study of zircon U-Pb ages, major and trace element geochemistry, and Sr-Nd-Pb-Hf isotope compositions of the ore-bearing adakite porphyries from the Chongjiang and Zhunuo areas in the southern margin of the Gangdese, Tibet. The U-Pb ages revealed that both the Chongjiang porphyritic biotite monzogranite and the Zhunuo porphyritic granite formed at ca. 15 Ma. The zircons from the Chongjiang porphyritic biotite monzogranite haveεHf(t) values of 1.2~5.1, corresponding to two-stage model ages of 1.1~1.4 Ga, which indicate that the Chongjiang porphyritic biotite monzogranite were derived from a juvenile crust source region. The zircons from the Zhunuo porphyritic granite haveεHf(t) values of-6.9~-0.1, corresponding to two-stage model ages of 1.6~2.2 Ga, indicating that they originated from partial melting of ancient crust. The major and trace element data show that both the Chongjiang monzogranite and the Zhunuo porphyritic granite have geochemical characteristics similar to those of adakite rocks, indicating that they are both from partial melting of thickened lower crust. The Sr-Nd isotopic compositions revealed that the source of the Chongjiang and Zhunuo granites may include mixed components from both the Lhasa continental crust and the Yarlung Zangbo ophiolite. The Pb isotopic compositions show that they contain both the Yarlung Zangbo ophiolite and the Himalayan enriched continental crustal components. We conclude that the Miocene Gangdese adakite porphyry has strong indications of melting of the thickened lower crustal which mixed with the Lhasa and Indian continental crusts, the Yarlung Zangbo ophiolite, and the mantle. These findings further imply that the lower curst flowed from the southern Tibetan toward the north, which

  2. 长江中下游成矿带贵池抛刀岭金矿含矿岩体年代学及地球化学研究%Geochemistry and zircon U-Pb age of ore-bearing porphyry in the Paodaoling gold deposit in Guichi, Middle-Lower Yangtze metallogenic belt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段留安; 杨晓勇; 汪方跃; 邓江洪; 孙卫东

    2012-01-01

    贵池抛刀岭金矿位于长江中下游成矿带安庆-贵池矿集区,是该地区首次发现的独立玢岩型金矿床,含矿岩体主要为蚀变矿化的英安玢岩.经过近两年的地质勘查,该矿床已接近大型金矿床规模.通过对抛刀岭金矿含矿岩体锆石LA-ICPMS U-Pb测定,其成岩年龄为146.8±2.4Ma和141.3±1.0Ma(2σ),与长江中下游地区中生代大规模铜金成矿事件时间一致.全岩地球化学研究表明,该岩石为过铝质,富集大离子亲石元素(K、Rb、Pb),亏损高场强元素(Nb、Ta、Ti)和轻稀土富集等地球化学特征.较高的锆石Ce4+/Ce3+和EuN/EuN*显示抛刀岭含矿岩体具有较高的氧逸度特征.构造判别图解显示这套含矿岩石属火山弧花岗岩(VAG),与长江中下游铜金矿床含矿岩体形成于同一构造背景下,即太平洋俯冲作用引起的洋壳和地幔楔熔融形成.%The Paodaoling gold deposit is the first discovered porphyry type gold deposit in Anqing-Guichi ore-cluster region in the Middle-Lower Yangtze metallogenic belt ( LYRB). The host rocks of the Paodaoling gold deposit are trachyte andesitic porphyries. Zircon LA-ICP-MS U-Pb dating of two ore-bearing porphyries are 146. 8 ±2. 4Ma and 141. 3 ± 1. OMa (2σ) , according with the main mineralization time of LYRB. Whole rock geochemistry indicates that the ore-bearing porphyries are peraluminous, enriched in K-Rb-Pb and light REE, depleted in Nb-Ta-Ti, similar to crustal origination. These porphyries show volcanic arc granite affinities. The higher ratios of Ce4+ VCe3+ and Eun/Eun, calculated from zircon data indicate that the Paodaling intrusion has higher oxygen fugacity with potentiality for Au formation. We conjecture that the Paodaoling gold deposit was probably related to melting of mantle wedge during subduction between Paleo-Pacific plate and Izanagi plate.

  3. Ecosystem Health in Mineralized Terrane-Data from Podiform Chromite (Chinese Camp Mining District, California), Quartz Alunite (Castle Peak and Masonic Mining Districts, Nevada/California), and Mo/Cu Porphyry (Battle Mountain Mining District, Nevada) Deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blecker, Steve W.; Stillings, Lisa L.; Amacher, Michael C.; Ippolito, James A.; DeCrappeo, Nicole M.

    2010-01-01

    various mineralized terranes. We were also interested in examining these relations in the context of determining appropriate reference conditions with which to compare reclamation efforts. The purpose of this report is to present the data used to develop indices of soil and ecosystem quality associated with mineralized terranes (areas enriched in metal-bearing minerals), specifically podiform chromite, quartz alunite, and Mo/Cu porphyry systems. Within each of these mineralized terranes, a nearby unmineralized counterpart was chosen for comparison. The data consist of soil biological, chemical, and physical parameters, along with vegetation measurements for each of the sites described below. Synthesis of these data and index development will be the subject of future publications.

  4. PROCESS MINERALOGY OF A PORPHYRY COPPER-MOLYBDENUM ORE CONTAINING ARSENIC IN PERU%秘鲁某斑岩型含砷铜钼矿工艺矿物学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于宏东; 金建文

    2012-01-01

    This paper performs a research on process mineralogy of a porphyry copper-molybdenum ore containing arsenic in Peru, by which the mode of occurrence of arsenic, copper, molybdenum in the ore is investigated, thus the mineralogy material for the ore of this type is enriched and an analysis on the mineralogy factors which influence the mineral processing targets is carried on. The results of process mineralogy show that the oxidation rate is quite low in the ore of this type, and the copper and molybdenum are easy to acquire a high recovery during mineral processing circuit, thus it is easy to achieve more ideal mineral processing targets. However, the arsenic in the ore is also of remarkable concentration in the copper-concentrated ore, more attention should be paid on the trend of tennantite in mineral separation process and produce copper concentrate with high and low arsenic by take full advantage of the small difference in the floatable property between the tennantite and chalcopyrite.%对秘鲁某斑岩型含砷铜钼矿进行了工艺矿物学研究,查明了矿石中砷、铜、钼等元素的赋存状态,丰富了该类型矿石的矿物学资料,并就影响选矿指标的矿物学因素进行了分析.工艺矿物学研究结果表明,该类型矿石的氧化率比较低,铜钼应具有较高的选矿回收率,选别作业时容易获得较理想的选矿指标,但矿石中的砷会在铜精矿中有显著的富集,应该重视砷黝铜矿在选矿流程中的走向,充分利用砷黝铜矿与黄铜矿之间浮游性的微小差异生产高、低砷铜精矿.

  5. 拉萨地块北部~90Ma斑岩型矿床年代学及成矿地质背景%Geochronology and Ore-Forming Geological Background of ~90 Ma Porphyry Copper Deposit in the Lhasa Terrane, Tibet Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王保弟; 许继峰; 刘保民; 陈建林; 王立全; 郭琳; 王冬兵; 张万平

    2013-01-01

    A number of large-very large porphyry Cu-Mo-Au deposits have been discovered in the Tibetan plateau, which has caused widespread concern in recent years. Existing research results show that the formation ages of thse ore-bearing porphyries and porphyry deposits in the Tibetan Pleteau concentrate mainly on four stages: 120~110 Ma, ~90 Ma, 54~45 Ma and 18~12 Ma, but the ore-forming geological background of porphyry deposits forming at the second stage (90Ma) is still controversial. This study reports the zircon LA-ICPMS U-Pb and molybdenites Re-Os ages of the porphyry Cu-Mo-Au deposits in the northern Lhasa terrane, along with analysis of ore-forming background. Two weighted average 206Pb/238U ages for two granodioritic porphyry samples are 92. 1±1. 2 Ma and 93. 8±1.2 Ma, which probably record the age of magma crystallization, while the molybdenites Re-Os isotopic age of 88. 2~89. 6 Ma probably represents the age of mineralization of the Balazha porphyry deposits. Based on the regional geochemical data, this study suggests that the magmatism and mineralizaion at~90 Ma in the northern Lhasa terrane was neither the prodcut of subduction of the Neo-Tethys ocean and oceanic ridge, which are represented by the Yarlung-zangbo suture, nor the direct result of subduction of the BangongcoNujiang Ocean, but likely the product of collision process after the subduction and closure of the BangongcoNujiang Ocean.%近年来青藏高原多个大型—超大型斑岩Cu-Mo-Au矿床的发现已引起人们广泛的关注,现有研究显示这些含矿斑岩和斑岩型矿床的形成年龄主要集中在120~110 Ma、~90 Ma、54~45 Ma和18~12 Ma4个阶段,其中90 Ma左右的斑岩型矿床的成矿地质背景仍存在很大争议.本文报道拉萨地块北部尼玛县拔拉扎斑岩型矿床含矿斑岩的LA-ICPMS锆石U-Pb定年以及辉钼矿Re-OS定年结果,并分析了该期的成矿地质背景.两件花岗闪长斑岩锆石206 Pb/238U

  6. Lead-isotopic, sulphur-isotopic, and trace-element studies of galena from the Silesian-Cracow Zn-Pb ores, polymetallic veins from the Gory Swietokrzyskie MTS, and the Myszkow porphyry copper deposit, Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, S.E.; Vaughn, R.B.; Gent, C.A.; Hopkins, R.T.

    1996-01-01

    Lead-isotopic data on galena samples collected from a paragenetically constrained suite of samples from the Silesian-Cracow ore district show no regional or paragenetically controlled lead-isotopic trends within the analytical reproducibility of the measurements. Furthermore, the new lead-isotopic data agree with previously reported lead-isotopic results (R. E. Zartman et al., 1979). Sulfur-isotopic analyses of ores from the Silesian-Cracow district as well as from vein ore from the Gory Swietokrzyskie Mts. and the Myszkow porphyry copper deposit, when coupled with trace-element data from the galena samples, clearly discriminate different hydrothermal ore-forming events. Lead-isotopic data from the Permian and Miocene evaporite deposits in Poland indicate that neither of these evaporite deposits were a source of metals for the Silesian-Cracow district ores. Furthermore, lead-isotopic data from these evaporite deposits and the shale residues from the Miocene halite samples indicate that the crustal evolution of lead in the central and western European platform in southern Poland followed normal crustal lead-isotopic growth, and that the isotopic composition of crustal lead had progressed beyond the lead-isotopic composition of lead in the Silesian-Cracow ores by Permian time. Thus, Mesozoic and Tertiary sedimentary flysch rocks can be eliminated as viable source rocks for the metals in the Silesian-Cracow Mississippi Valley-type (MVT) deposits. The uniformity of the isotopic composition of lead in the Silesian-Cracow ores, when coupled with the geologic evidence that mineralization must post-date Late Jurassic faulting (E. Gorecka, 1991), constrains the geochemical nature of the source region. The source of the metals is probably a well-mixed, multi-cycle molasse sequence of sedimentary rocks that contains little if any Precambrian metamorphic or granitic clasts (S. E. Church, R. B. Vaughn, 1992). If ore deposition was post Late Jurassic (about 150 m. y.) or later

  7. Metallogenic age and ore genesis of the Badaguan porphyry copper-molybdenum deposit in Inner Mongolia%内蒙古八大关斑岩型铜钼矿床形成时代与成因分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李春风; 柳振江; 宓奎峰; 王建平; 刘瑞斌; 邹君宇; 王忠宝

    2014-01-01

    八大关铜钼矿床是内蒙古德尔布干成矿带中段的一个典型斑岩型矿床,绢英岩化、青磐岩化等蚀变分带明显,矿体呈条带状赋存于印支期石英闪长岩中。笔者通过运用Re-Os同位素年代学、元素地球化学以及硫同位素等测试手段,初步分析了该矿床的成矿过程。辉钼矿Re-Os同位素加权平均模式年龄为(226.7±2.4) Ma,表明该矿床形成于晚三叠世早期;元素地球化学分析显示含矿岩体属于中钾含量的钙碱性岩石系列,为I型花岗岩,产于火山弧构造环境,具有活动板块边缘的特征,矿化过程中,成矿母岩的稀土元素总量逐渐降低,轻重稀土发生明显分异;金属硫化物的δ34S值介于+0.5‰~+4.8‰,具有幔源硫的特征。综合分析认为八大关铜钼矿床形成于晚三叠世,蒙古-鄂霍茨克洋向南俯冲过程中,深部岩浆活动带来了大量成矿物质,洋壳部分熔融侵位到额尔古纳地块之上,随热液流体迁移的Cu、Mo等元素与源自地幔的硫相结合,最终富集成矿。%Located in the middle of Derbugan metallogenic belt in Inner Mongolia, the Badaguan copper-molybdenum deposit is a typical porphyry deposit with obvious phyllic and propylitic alteration zones. The banded orebodies occur in Triassic quartz diorite. By such means as Re-Os isotope geochronology, element geochemistry and sulfur isotope geochemistry, the authors preliminarily analyzed the ore-forming process of the deposit. Re-Os dating of molybdenite gave a weighted average model age of (226.7 ± 2.4) Ma, implying that the deposit was formed in the early Late Triassic. Element geochemical analysis shows that the ore-bearing rocks were I-type granites and belonged to calc-alkaline rock series with moderate content of potassium, which were produced in a volcanic arc environment with characteristic active plate edges. During the ore-forming process, ΣREE in ore-bearing rock gradually

  8. Re-Os isotopic dating of molybdenite separates from Chalukou porphyry Mo polymetallic deposit in Heilongjiang Province%黑龙江岔路口钼多金属矿床辉钼矿铼-锇同位素年龄及地质意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂凤军; 孙振江; 李超; 刘翼飞; 吕克鹏; 张可; 刘勇

    2011-01-01

    岔路口矿床是迄今为止在中国北方发现的最大规模钼多金属矿床,钼、铅锌和银的储量分别为134万t、37万t和4200 t.考虑到大规模地质勘查工作仍在进行中,金属储量的增加只是个时间问题.为了进一步查明岔路口矿床的形成时间,笔者对主要钼多金属矿体8件辉钼矿样品进行了铼-锇同位素分析,所获同位素等时线年龄为(146.96±0.79) Ma(2σ),其MSWD值为1.2.鉴于辉钼矿呈浸染状和团块状分布于花岗斑岩岩株中,并且与部分黄铁矿和黄铜矿呈共生结构关系,可以推测岔路口地区钼多金属矿床及花岗斑岩的形成时间均为晚侏罗世,属燕山中期构造-岩浆活动的产物.岔路口钼多金属矿床形成时代的厘定对于提高该矿床的理论研究水平和指导隐伏金属矿床的找矿勘查工作均具有重要意义.%Located at the northernmost corner of the Deerbugan metallogenic belt and in the northeastern part of the Mongolian-Hinggan amalgamated massif, the newly found Chalukou ore deposit is the largest molybdenum poly-metallic deposit ever discovered in China. It contains 1.34 Mt of Mo (metal), 0.37 Mt of Pb-Zn and 4 200 t of Ag. As a part of the evaluation project of the molybdenum deposit, mineral exploration around Chalukou is still underway. During the Mesozoic Yanshanian orogeny, intense extensional tectonic and igneous activities resulted in the formation of large-scale acid volcanic rocks and granitoid intrusions at Chalukou and its neighboring areas. The Chalukou granite porphyry and quartz porphyry stocks were emplaced in the Jurassic volcano-sedimentary sequence controlled by NE-and NW-trending fault zones. Rock-forming minerals of the two porphyry stocks are mainly quartz, microcline, microperthite and plagioclase associated with minor biotite and sericite. Accessoryminerals include magnetite, apatite, zircon, sphene, and allanite. Molybdenum mineralization occurs within the Chalukou porphyry stocks

  9. Petrological Geochemistry and Chronology of Ore-bearing Intrusion in Wuxi Porphyry Gold Deposit, in South Anhui Province%皖南乌溪斑岩型金矿床赋矿侵入岩体的岩石地球化学及年代学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李双; 孙赛军; 杨晓勇; 孙卫东

    2015-01-01

    The Wuxi gold deposit is located in Langqiao town, Jingxian county in South Anhui province, which is situated in the Jiangnan orogen, between the Middle and Lower Yangtze polymetallic metallogenic belt and South China metallogenic belt. The LA-ICP-MS dating results for zircons from the drill samples and outcrop rock in ore-bearing granite porphyry are consistent, 139.6±1.7 Ma(ZK7301), 137.3±1.6 Ma(ZK7001), 137.3±1.1 Ma (10WX-1), respectively. This intrusion is controlled by fault structure, and slightly contaminated by the early Archean crustal material. The developed cryptoexplosive breccia and mineralized breccia indicated the Wuxi orebody and granite porphyry were formed contemporaneously. The Wuxi granite porphyry is characterized by peraluminous, enriched in LILE (large ion lithophile elements), depleted in HFSE (high field strength elements) and heavy rare earth elements, significant differentiation between LREE and HREE, slight Eu negative anomaly. The apatite from the Wuxi granite porphyry has similar REE characteristics with those of the Yangtze series, indicating it was affected by mantle derived magmatic fluid activities; and the highδEu value of the apatite implies open tectonic environment and high oxygen fugacity during magma evolution. Zircon oxygen fugacity calculation indicates the granite porphyry formed in a high oxygen fugacity condition, thus it is conducive for precipitation and mineralization of Cu, Au and other ore-forming elements. While the formation of the Wuxi granite porphyry was closely related to the subduction and collision of the Paleo-pacific plate. The developed faults in the deposit provided channels for ore-forming fluid migration, which is conducive to the mineralization. Further prospecting and geochemical work are necessary for the area.%皖南乌溪金矿床位于安徽省泾县榔桥镇,介于长江中下游多金属成矿带与华南成矿带之间,属于江南造山带。本文对乌溪含矿花岗斑岩钻孔样

  10. Lithogeochemistry and Sr-Nd-Pb Isotopic Characteristics of Mujicun Porphyry Cu-Mo Deposit in Taihang Mountains and Their Significances%太行山木吉村斑岩铜(钼)矿床岩石地球化学、S r-Nd-Pb同位素特征及其地质意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曲凯; 董国臣; 李胜荣; 申俊峰; 王艳娟; 王霞; 罗薇

    2014-01-01

    Mujicun porphyry copper-molybdenum deposit, located in the northern section of Taihang Mountains,is an important ore deposit in the Taihang tectonic-magmatic-metallogenic belt.This article is based on the particular field works and systematic analysis of petrology,geochemical data and Sr-Nd-Pb isotopes.The result shows the ore-bearing diorite-porphyry of Mujicun belonging to the high-K calc-alkaline I-type intrusive rock.Geochemical analysis shows that the diorite-porphyry is rich in SiO2,Al2O3 and Sr,a high ratio of Sr/Y, (La/Yb)N ,low in Yb and Y.All the ore-bearing porphyries in the study area have similar distribution of rare earths and trace elements,with right-oblique curve,and unclear postive Eu anomalies.It is characterized by enriched large-ion lithophile elements of Ba,K,U,Sr and depleted high field strength elements such as Nb, Ta,P and Ti with adakite affinity in geochemical characteristic.The diorite porphyry has ISr ratios of 0.705 386 to 0.706 838,εNd(t)values of -16.7 to -14.9.The averages of 208Pb/204Pb,207Pb/204Pb and 206Pb/204Pb ratios are 36.614,15.226 and 16.545,respectively,similar to those lead isotope ratios in ore of Mujicun de-posit.Sr-Nd-Pb isotopes show that the formations of the magma were probably related to origin of partial melting of lower crust with mantle materials contribution.Combining with the geological background of the study area, the authors considered that the Mujicun ore-bearing diorite porphyry possibly resulted from partial melting in lower crust with the mantle mass exchange.%木吉村斑岩铜(钼)矿床位于太行山北段涞源杂岩体的腰部,是太行山构造-岩浆-成矿带的一个重要矿床。在野外调研的基础上,对木吉村斑岩铜(钼)矿床含矿岩体进行了系统的岩石学、地球化学和Sr-Nd-Pb同位素研究。结果表明:木吉村矿床的含矿岩体闪长玢岩为高钾钙碱性I型侵入岩,具有较高的SiO2、Al2 O3、Sr含量

  11. 西藏雄村斑岩型铜金矿集区Ⅰ号矿体的硫、铅同位素特征及其对成矿物质来源的指示%Sulfur and Lead Isotope Characteristics of No.Ⅰ Ore Body in the Xiongcun Porphyry Copper-Gold Ore Concentration Area of Tibet:Implications for the Source of Metals in the Ore Deposit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郎兴海; 唐菊兴; 李志军; 黄勇; 丁枫; 王成辉; 张丽; 周云

    2012-01-01

    The Xiongcun porphyry copper-gold ore concentration area, one of the large-size metallogenic areas discovered along the Gangdise porphyry copper belt, occurs in an island arc environment associated with northward intra-oceanic subduction of Neo-Tethys oceanic crust. The ore-forming age of the Xiongcun porphyry copper-gold ore concentration area is middle Jurassic. It is located in the middle of the southern margin of the Gangdise orogenic belt, and its south margin is Shigatse forearc basin. The latest exploration data indicate that there are several potential mineralization-alteration areas and three large-size copper-gold ore bodies (No. I, II and Ⅲ) in the Xiongcun porphyry copper-gold ore concentration area. In this paper, Xiongcun No. I ore body was chosen as the research object. According to sulfur and lead isotope composition of ore-baring porphyry, tuff and main sulfides of the ore, the authors have reached the following two conclusions: 1) Sulfur isotopic compositions vary in a narrow range of δ34S values from -3.5‰ to +2.7‰ (-1.07‰ on average) and are close to zero, indicating a mantle sulfur signature. 2) They have uniform Pb isotope compositions with low content of radiogenic Pb. The 206Pb/204Pb, 207Pb/204Pb, and 208Pb/204Pb ratios vary in the ranges of 18.104-18.432, 15.473-15.533 and 37.918-38.3072, respectively. They are located in the transition zone of mantle Pb and orogen Pb but are closer to the former, reflecting a mixing between the mantle material and minor crust material. Through a comparative study of sulfur and lead isotopes of porphyry copper deposits of the island arc environment (e.g., Xiongcun No. I ore body) and those of the collisional orogenic environment in the Gangdise porphyry copper belt, the authors found that they have similar metal sources, but porphyry copper deposits of the island arc environment have experienced weak contamination of crust materials, whereas porphyry copper deposits of the coilisional orogenic

  12. Features and evolution of metallogenic fluid in Jiadanggen porphyry copper deposit of Gonghe Country, Qinghai Province%青海共和县加当根斑岩铜矿床成矿流体特征及演化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于淼; 丰成友; 肖晔; 刘建楠; 李大新; 李国臣; 马圣钞

    2013-01-01

    加当根矿床是近几年新发现的研究程度较低的斑岩型铜矿床,文章对含矿斑岩、石英脉和绢英中的石英岩开展了详细的流体包裹体特征及氢、氧同位素组成研究.该矿床流体包裹体类型丰富,以大量发育含子晶多相包裹体为特征,子矿物种类多样,包括石盐、钾盐、石膏、黄铜矿、黄铁矿、赤铁矿等.石膏、赤铁矿的出现,暗示着岩浆结晶早期处于氧化环境.成矿流体由来自岩浆的高温、高盐度流体和以天水成因为主的中-高温、低盐度流体2个端员组分组成,高温、高盐度流体为主要载矿流体,形成温度> 440℃,w(NaCleq)为30%~82%,其是在浅成条件下于岩浆结晶的最后阶段从浅部岩浆中直接出溶形成的;中-高温、低盐度流体主要来源于天水或天水与晚期岩浆热液的混合,温度主要集中在220~360C,w(NaCleq)< 20%.石英流体包裹体氢、氧同位素研究表明流体混合在卸载成矿上的重要性,石英脉和绢英岩化阶段是含矿物质沉淀的主要阶段.脉石英的流体温度集中在280~440℃,绢英岩化蚀变石英中流体包裹体的均一温度介于240~340℃.%The Jiadanggen porphyry copper deposit was discovered in recent years, but its research is very insufficient. This paper mainly deals with the homogenization temperature of fluid inclusions and the evolution tendency of ore-forming fluid. The fluid inclusions in the pluton and quartz veins are characterized by abundantly daughter minerals-bearing inclusions in which daughter minerals composed of halite, sylvite, gypsum, chalcopyrite, pyrite and hematite. The presence of gypsum and hematite imply oxidation environment at the early stage of magmatic crystallization. The microthermometric analysis of inclusions reveals that the metallogenic fluid consists of both high-temperature, hypersaline fluids and medium-low temperature, low salinity ones. High temperature, hypersaline fluids

  13. ASTER数据的斑岩铜矿典型蚀变矿物组合信息提取方法——以秘鲁南部阿雷基帕省斑岩铜矿区为例%Information Extraction of Typical Alteration Mineral Assemblage in Porphyry Copper Using ASTER Satellite Data, Arequipa Province of South Peru

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨日红; 李志忠; 陈秀法

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we studied the information extraction technology of alteration mineral assemblages. Using the standard laboratory spectral database of U. S. Geological Survey, we rebuilt the reflectivity curve of key alteration minerals in porphyry copper alteration zones with ASTER data. After comparative analysis of these key alteration minerals spectral curves, we found the characteristic of absorption valley at the spectral 2. 2μm (which is corresponding to the B6 of ASTER data) of the argillic- and phyllic-altered mineral assemblage (which include muscovite, kaolinite, montmorillonite, alunite, illite, etc. ) , and with the characteristic of high reflection peaks at B4 and B7. The characteristic of absorption valley at the spectral 2. 3 μm (which is corresponding to the B8 of ASTER data) of the propylitization altered mineral assemblage (which include chlorite, epidote, calcite, etc. ,), and with the characteristic of a high reflection peaks at B4, while the B9 has a higher reflectivity than the B8. Accordingly, the principal component analysis model was developed. This model can make component analysis based on ASTER Bl, B4, B6 and B7 to extract the argillic- and phyllic-altered mineral assemblage; component analysis based on ASTER Bl, B3, B4 and B8 to extract propylitization altered mineral assemblage. At the same time, the process was established for the alteration mineral assemblage information extraction. Taking porphyry copper region in Arequipa Province of south Peru as an example, based on comprehensive analysis of the geological background of the study area, especially its typical alteration zoning and alteration mineral assemblages in the area, we found a typical porphyry alteration zonation in Arequipa Province. So we can take advantage of the technical processes and methods, and after ASTER data preprocessing, interfering surface features removal, principal component analysis and threshold setting, to extract argillic- and phyllic-altered mineral

  14. Zircon U-Pb Ages, Hf Isotope and REE of Quartz Monzonite Porphyry in the Bangpu Pb-Zn Mining Area of Tibet and Their Geological Significance%西藏邦铺铅锌矿区石英二长斑岩锆石U-Pb年龄、Hf同位素和稀土元素特征及其地质意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈伟; 王立强; 胡正华; 罗茂澄; 冷秋锋; 唐晓倩; 王艺云; 杨毅; 张志

    2012-01-01

    The Bangpu Mo (Cu) polymetallic deposit is a large-size porphyry deposit newly discovered in the Gangdise belt, where there exist many intrusive rocks of different types and stages. The investigation of the Pb-Zn deposit located in the contact zone in the southeast part of the ore district has been very insufficient, in despite of the attention and exploitation paid to it. In this paper, U-Pb dating of LA-ICP-MS zircon and Hf isotopes and trace elements of zircon were used to investigate ore-bearing quartz-monzonite porphyry outcropped in the lead-zinc mining area, and the weighted average age of the 23 zircons 206Pb/238U is (15.43 ± 0.12) Ma (MSWD = 2.7, n = 23), suggesting a Miocene magmatic product. After the completion of the zircon dating, part of the dated zircons were analyzed systematically for the in-situ analysis of Hf isotopes. The 175Hf /177Hf ratio varies in the range of 0.28279-0 .282913, and εHf(t) varies in the range of 0.6 - 5.0. The testing results of Hf isotope and the Hf isotope of geochemical reservoirs and depleted mantle are similar, indicating that the source area or the quartz monzonite porphyry in this area mainly came from the depleted mantle, but in the process of magmatic evolution it was contaminated by the lower crust. The analyses of REE show the depletion of light REE and enrichment of heavy REE as well as the obvious existence of positive Ce anomaly and negative Eu anomaly, suggesting zircons of typical magmatic genesis. The results are consistent with the previous study of the Mo (Cu) mining area, and hence it is inferred that lead-zinc ore and molybdenum (copper) ore are products from the same porphyry system. It is shown that this deposit is somewhat identical with Jiama and Qulong large-size porphyry deposits in the region, with unified geodynamic background and deep magmatic activity.%邦铺钼(铜)多金属矿床是冈底斯带新近发现的大型斑岩型矿床,矿区内发育大量不同类型、不同期次的侵入岩

  15. 西藏山南地区明则斑岩钼矿床蚀变矿化特征与成矿时代%Characteristics of Alteration and Mineralization and Chronology of the Mingze Porphyry Mo Deposit in the Shannan Area of Southern Tibet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范新; 李光明; 黄树峰; 琚宜太; 陈雷; 秦克章; 肖波; 李金祥; 李秋平; 陈玉水; 陈金标; 赵俊兴

    2011-01-01

    The Mingze porphyry Mo deposit is located in the southeastern margin of the Candese metallogenic belt,north of the Yarlung Zangbo River suture zone. A variety of intrusions outcrop such as moyite, biotite monzogranite, granodiorite, porphyaceous adamellite and granite porphyry. The granite porphyry is the ore-fronting related intrusion which is completely mineralized. Wall rocks suffered extensive alteration, mainly as potassic, silicification, chloritization, kaolinization and skam alteration. Various types of alteration have the characteristics of vertical variations, and skarn formed where the intrusions interact with carbonate wall rocks. Potassic and silicification alteration occurred at deeper levels. Mineralization of the Mingze deposit also shows vertical variation. Cu and W mineralization in skarn formed in the relatively shallow subsurface, and Mo (Cu) mineralization in porphyry occurred at larger depths. Porphyry mineralization has vertical zoning characteristics. Texture of ores mainly includes massive, veinlet and disseminated form. Ore minerals mainly consist of molybdenite,chalcopyrite,pyrite and a little of bomites and scheelit. We selected pure biotite for the 40Ar-39Ar dating from the biotite-pyrite vein. The results show the plateau age is 28. 2±0. 33Ma,which coincides with the age of Re-Os. Combined with metallogenetic age previously reported, this age represents the metallogentic age of the southern belt of Cangdese between 30. 26Ma - 23. 62Ma. Which is obviously different from the northern or middle belt of the Candese metallogenic belt Dating of the metallogenic epoch of the Mingze deposit provides sound evidence for the multi-stage mineralization and the evolution of ore-forming related to the extensive tectono-magmatic activities.%明则斑岩钼矿床位于冈底斯成矿带的东南缘,雅鲁藏布江缝合带北侧.矿区内主要出露有钾长花岗岩、黑云母二长花岗岩、花岗闪长岩、似斑状二长花岗岩及花岗

  16. Psikologi Hijau (Green Psychology) sebagai Alternatif untuk Peningkatan Kesejahteraan Psikologis Masyarakat Perkotaan

    OpenAIRE

    Murty Magda Pane

    2013-01-01

    This article describes so many disasters caused by the decrease of environment quality, or even pollution and environmental destruction, are due to society's bad behaviors. The decrease of environment quality, as consequences, may cause lower people's lives quality phisically and mentally as well. To overcome the problem, it is proposed a psychology intervension, called "green" psychology.

  17. Pendugaan Cadangan Karbon Above Ground Biomass pada Ruang Terbuka Hijau di Kota Medan

    OpenAIRE

    Sitorus, Novita Ariani

    2015-01-01

    NOVITA ARIANI SITORUS : The Estimate of Carbon Stocks Above Ground Biomass at Green Open Space in Medan City. Under the supervision of RAHMAWATY and ABDUL RAUF. Global warming is the main environmental problems of this millennium. Carbon dioxide (CO2) is the main cause for global warming. Green open space such as urban forest and urban park play a role in mitigating global warming in urban areas because the vegetation that is capable to absorb CO2 from the atmosphere through photosynthes...

  18. Upaya Meningkatkan Niat Pembelian Produk Ramah Lingkungan Melalui Nilai, Risiko, dan Kepercayaan Terhadap Produk Hijau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jati Waskito

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to analyze the public perception of value, risk, and trust of green products and developing green marketing model by considering the environmental friendliness of the product, the perception of the value of products, and the risk of products to enhance the consumer's intention to purchase green products. This research used 292 respondents as a sample research. Using a structural equations mode, this research found that the public reward and risk products significantly influence consumers' willingness to buy green products. While the trust is not able to increase green purchasing their desires, and cannot be moderating appreciation green value and green risk to increase green purchasing greenDOI: 10.15408/etk.v14i1.2259 

  19. Sebaran Ruang Terbuka Hijau dan Peluang Perbaikan Iklim Mikro di Semarang Barat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewi Liesnoor Setyowati

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the research was detecting green open space (GOS spread and micro climate  condition  at Semarang Barat,   with  vegetation  spread  and  street  lane  area as  the  object  of  the  research. Population  characteristic  consisted  of  vegetation  area spread, mainly on the shaded  trees composition and micro climate condition by using  purposive sampling technique. The research used descriptive ecologycal approach. The result described that Semarang Barat vegetation spread is included as sparse vegetation, predominantly  by  squat  vegetation  composition with  infrequent  tree  density. Micro climate conditon is categorized as contented climate, but on edge at the daylight.  The condition  is  infl uenced  by  least  along  the  street;  consequently  the micro  climate  of temperature is high with low humidity.  Semarang Barat GOS is 17,1%, so the spacious should be 10,0% enhanced to gain 27,1% GOS to create a better climate. It is suggested to increase squat vegetation composition and quantity along Semarang Barat streets, so vegetation diversity will recovered.Keywords: green open space, micro climate, Semarang Barat

  20. Sekolah Hijau Sebagai Alternatif Pendidikan Lingkungan Hidup dengan Menggunakan Pendekatan Kontekstual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumarmi Sumarmi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Green school have the comitment to systematically develop school programs internalizing environmental values. As the environtment education is geared toward the development of knowledge, awareness, positive attitude, and responsible behavior toward environment, a joyful learning approach seemingly appropriate for green schools is contextual teaching and learning (CTL. Through CTL, green schools can create more meaningful lessons, making the environtment education real

  1. Efek Paparan Musik dan Noise pada Karakteristik Morfologi dan Produktivitas Tanaman Sawi Hijau (Brassica Juncea)

    OpenAIRE

    Joko Prasetyo; Tineke Mandang; I Dewa Made Subrata

    2014-01-01

    The objective of present study was to investigate the effect of various sounds on the green mustard’s (Brassica Juncea) morphology characteristic and productivity. The plant has been subjected to three various sound, namely classical music (rhythmic violin music), machine and traffic noise, and mixed sound (classical music and traffic noise) with 70-75 dB sound pressure level, from germination to harvest for three hours (7-10 am.) each day. Six parameters, i.e. germination, plant height, leaf...

  2. Efek Paparan Musik dan Noise pada Karakteristik Morfologi dan Produktivitas Tanaman Sawi Hijau (Brassica Juncea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joko Prasetyo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of present study was to investigate the effect of various sounds on the green mustard’s (Brassica Juncea morphology characteristic and productivity. The plant has been subjected to three various sound, namely classical music (rhythmic violin music, machine and traffic noise, and mixed sound (classical music and traffic noise with 70-75 dB sound pressure level, from germination to harvest for three hours (7-10 am. each day. Six parameters, i.e. germination, plant height, leaf width, leaf lenght, total plant lenght, and fresh weight, related with growth and productivity of plant were been monitored on regular basis.The results showed classical music improves germination up to 15% for 36 hours, plant height 13,5%, leaf width 14,8%, leaf length 14,2%, and wet weight 57,1%. In general, exposure to classical music gives the best results on the morphological characteristics and productivity of green mustard.

  3. PERTUMBUHAN DAN PRODUKSI TANAMAN SAWI HIJAU Brassica juncea L. PADA BERBAGAI DESAIN HIDROPONIK

    OpenAIRE

    Anjeliza, Rispa Yeusy

    2013-01-01

    The research about growth and production of green mustard Brassica juncea L. on a variety of hydroponic design took place at the Laboratory Division of Biotechnology Activities Research Center, University of Hasanuddin, Makassar and runs from January to March 2013. This research aimed to determine which is more effective hydroponic design to optimize growth and production of green mustard Brassica juncea L. This research was based on a completely randomized design (CRD) with 4 treatments hydr...

  4. Studi Kenyamanan Pengguna Terhadap Ruang Terbuka Hijau Publik Pada Rumah Susun Sukaramai Medan

    OpenAIRE

    Elbert

    2015-01-01

    High population density in urban areas require open space to improve the quality of the environment, one of them is green open space (RTH). Sukaramai flats were the first flats in Medan city , has high population density with limited land area, thus the necessity of public green space is needed. This green open space is located in Medan, Timah Putih road consists of two (2) areas including foot reflexology and garden. The purpose of this research is to find out how the public green space in t...

  5. Volcanic Structural Systems and its Ore-control on the Songkaersu Porphyry-Type Cu-Au Deposit in Eastern Junggar, Xinjiang%新疆东准噶尔松喀尔苏斑岩型铜金矿床的火山构造系统及其控矿作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张栋; 范俊杰; 刘鹏; 潘爱军; 王治华; 张峰; 赵军; 雷文大

    2015-01-01

    The Songkaersu Cu-Au deposit is located in the south part of the Karamaili tectonic belt and is related to the continental volcanic rocks in Carboniferous continental volcanic belt. Based on studying the lithofacies, patterns, features and stress field of the ore-controlling volcanic structural systems, this paper discusses its evolution, mechanism and model. Our study indicated that (1) the volcanic structural systems are composed of regional continental volcanic belt, volcano-tectonic depression, and caldera (dome), at different scales;(2) The ore-forming processes are controlled by the volcanic structural systems. It has proved that the volcano-tectonic depression is restricted by regional NW-trending deep-seated faults, and one of the caldera groups with ring and radial faults defined by the Devonian basement in the ore field. Both host porphyry and its mineralization extent are defined by the convergence of the SN- and EW-trending volcanic faults. Moreover, the ore-bodies and mineralization type are related to their spatial association with the host porphyry, and the NE-trending faults also contributed to the superposition of the Au mineralization;(3) Tectonic systems include levels from dominant fault systems to basement fault systems, volcanic fault systems, and intrusive contact structure systems. Ore-controlling tectonic processes are related to stress of different period, with SN stress from Late Devonian to Early-Middle Carboniferous and NW stress from Late Carboniferous to Permian. The SN stress could display as NW-trending dextral strike-slip faults, clockwise rotary of adjacent block, and beginning of volcano-tectonic systems. The NW stress could show as volcano faults, superimposed the NE trend slip joints, with linear distribution of volcanic rocks, and epithermal Au mineralization; (4) The conversion of the SN stress and NW stress resulted in lithospheric delamination and asthenosphere mantle underplating under post-collisional environment; (5) The

  6. 西藏雄村铜金矿Ⅰ号矿体赋矿凝灰岩成因探讨:来自岩石地球化学、Sr-Nd-Pb同位素地球化学特征的证据%The Genesis of Mineralized Tuff of No.Ⅰ Ore Body in the Xiongcun Porphyry Copper-Gold Metallogenic Ore District, Tibet: Evidence from Geochemistry and Sr-Nd-Pb Isotopes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁枫; 郎兴海; 胡正华; 杨欢欢; 王子正; 张丽

    2012-01-01

    雄村斑岩型铜金矿集区位于冈底斯造山带中段南缘,目前发现的Ⅰ、Ⅱ、Ⅲ号主矿体均产于含矿斑岩体及其接触带附近的凝灰岩中,本文主要对雄村Ⅰ号矿体赋矿凝灰岩开展岩石地球化学特征研究.赋矿凝灰岩显示出与岛弧火山岩相似的地球化学特征,如相对富集LREE、LILE而亏损HREE、HFS以及低的I(sr)值(变化范围为0.704163~0.705369,均值0.704907)和正的εNd(t)值(变化范围为3.7805~7.6286,均值5.904121)等,其形成与印度-亚洲大陆碰撞造山之前的新特提斯洋俯冲作用有关,产于新特提斯洋向北的洋内俯冲作用而形成的岛弧环境.赋矿凝灰岩起源于岛弧底部的新生玄武质岩层的部分熔融,源岩主要由角闪石、斜长石和少量石榴子石组成.赋矿凝灰岩、含矿斑岩体和成矿作用同属一个火山-岩浆-热液系统,赋矿凝灰岩为成矿提供了必要的围岩外部因素,是矿区重要的控矿因素,也是一个重要的找矿地质条件.在雄村矿区及其外围,侵位于凝灰岩中的斑岩体应该是今后找矿评价的重点区域.%The Xiongcun porphyry copper-gold metallogenic ore concentration area is located in the north of the middle Gangdise orogenic belt. No. Ⅰ, Ⅱ and Ⅲ main ore bodies of Xiongcun area are hosted in ore-bearing porphyries and tuff along the contact zone. This paper mainly studied geochemistry of mineralized tuff in Xiongcun No. I ore body. The mineralized tuff is similar to volcanic rocks in island arc in such geochemical characteristics as relative enrichment of LREE and LILE, depletion of HREE and HFS, low I(Sr) values (raning from 0.704163 to 0.705369, 0.704907 on average), and positive εNd(t) values (ranging from 3.7805~7.6286, 5.904121 on average). Mineralized tuff was formed in an island arc environment and was related to northwards subduction of the Neo-Tethys Ocean which occurred before India - Asian continental collision, and its source

  7. Re-Os isotopic dating of molybde-nites from the Bilugangan porphyry Mo deposit in Abag Banner, Inner Mongolia, and its geological significance%内蒙古阿巴嘎旗比鲁甘干斑岩型钼矿床辉钼矿Re-Os同位素年龄及其地质意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李俊建; 赵丽君; 唐文龙; 付超; 李超; 屈文俊; 张彤; 王守光; 党智财; 周勇

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the authors conducted for the first time Re-Os isotope analysis of molybdenite from the Bilugangan porphy⁃ry Mo deposit in Abag Banner, Inner Mongolia and obtained the molybdenite Re-Os isotope modal ages between 236.9±3.7Ma and 238.7 ± 2.4Ma and weighted average value of 237.9 ± 1.7Ma , which indicate that the mineralization of Bilugangan Mo deposit oc⁃curred in Indosinian period. The average rhenium content of molybdenite is 74.065×10-6, suggesting the source of rhenium was char⁃acterized by mantle-crust mixing. Belonging to a porphyry Mo deposit, the deposit is located within the Slonker-Huolinguole arc-basin system of Da Hinggan Mountains-Inner Mongolia orogenic belt south of Hegenshan fault belt. Controlled by internal or exter⁃nal contact zones, the Mo orebodies are mainly situated inside the biotite granite porphyry and hornstone. The controlling or hosting faults in the contact zones are principally in NW, NE and approximately EW directions, and are filled with quartz veins. The stronger the development of stringer and stockwork quartz veins, the stronger the molybdenum mineralization. Regional researches reveal that Indosinian is one of the most important Mo(W) mineralization stages in Da Hinggan Mountains-Inner Mongolia orogenic belt and the adjacent areas in spite of the fact that this kind of deposit was discovered for the first time in this region. The results obtained by the authors provide important references for the further study of ore-forming regularity in the Slonker- Huolinguole metallogenic belt.%采用辉钼矿Re-Os同位素定年,获得的内蒙古阿巴嘎旗比鲁甘干钼矿的辉钼矿Re-Os同位素模式年龄变化范围为236.9±3.7~238.7±2.4Ma,年龄加权平均值为237.9±1.7Ma,表明该矿床形成时代应为印支期。辉钼矿的Re含量平均值为74.065×10-6,表明其主要为幔壳混合来源特征。该矿床位于贺根山断裂带以南的兴蒙造山系索伦山-霍林郭勒弧

  8. The Bilihei gold deposit in Inner Mongolia: the first large-sized high-grade concealed porphyry Au deposit discovered on the northern margin of North China plate%华北板块北缘首例大型高品位隐伏斑岩型金矿床——内蒙古毕力赫金矿

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛良胜; 卿敏; 张文钊; 袁士松; 段希刚; 马满福; 庞继尧; 唐明国

    2009-01-01

    The Bilihei gold deposit(No.II ore zone) in Inner Mongolia,found by Gold Geological Institute of CAPF in 2006-2008,is one of the fatal breakthrough deposits supported by the Project of Supersedable Resource Prospecting of Critical Mines in China.It is located in the Mesozoic(Jurassic) continental facies volcanic basin on the northern margin of North China plate.The main characteristics of the deposit are as follows:(1) the concealed ore body occurs in the contact zone(mainly in the inner-contact zone) between granodiorite porphyry and volcanic rocks;(2) a large ore body 500m long,300m wide and averagely 52.85m thick was identified,which contains 21916 kg Au at the average grade of 4.5×10~(-6)(the highest grade being 54.76×10~(-6));(3) ores can be classified into altered granodiorite porphyry type and andesite porphyrite type,with the former type having typical unidirectional solidification texture(UST).There are only small amounts(550℃),and the temperature of the middle-late stage is 108~375℃,194℃ on average.It is concluded that this deposit is a large-sized and high-grade independent and concealed porphyry Au deposit and is the first deposit of this kind discovered on the northern margin of North China plate.%内蒙古毕力赫金矿床(Ⅱ号带)是全国危机矿山接替资源勘查获得重大突破的矿床之一,由武警黄金地质研究所勘查发现(2006-2008年).矿区位于华北板块北缘叠接俯冲带南部华北板块一侧的陆相火山岩盆地中.该矿床有如下主要特点:(1)矿体呈隐伏状态(距地表1~40 m)产出于隐伏的燕山期花岗闪长斑岩体接触带内.并以内接触带为主;(2)矿体规模大(目前控制长500 m,最宽处300 m,最窄处约40 m.最大厚度128.17 m,最小厚度10.53 m,平均厚度52.85 m),品位高(平均4.5×10~(-6),最高52.76×10~(-6)),单个矿体资源量达20 t以上;(3)矿石为蚀变的花岗闪长斑岩和火山岩型.前者具有典型的单向固结结构(UST).金属矿物

  9. 长江中下游成矿带抛刀岭大型斑岩型金矿特征及找矿前景%Characteristics and Prospects of Paodaoling Large Porphyry Gold Deposit in the Middle-lower Yangtze River Metallogenic Belt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段留安; 杨晓勇; 汪方跃

    2014-01-01

    抛刀岭金矿位于长江中下游成矿带安庆-池州矿集区,累计金金属量大于22 t ,为池州地区首例大型金矿床。该矿床金矿体主要产在英安玢岩中,基本不伴生其他有益金属元素,为独立金矿床。通过详细的矿床地质特征描述,结合已有斑岩型金矿的成矿模式,同时利用以往对该含矿岩体U-Pb锆石定年及相关地球化学研究,综合分析认为该矿为产在早白垩纪岛弧背景下的贫铜斑岩型金矿床,同时局部矿段在成矿过程中还经历了热液叠加作用。矿体产出严格受 NE向构造岩浆岩带控制,含矿岩体出露面积小于1.0 km2,属于典型的小岩体成大矿。运用“相似类比”、“矿床谱系”、“趋势外推”、“综合信息评价”等原则,指出该矿具有特大型金矿的潜质;同时,受同一 NE向构造控制的乌石、白虎山及自来山等同期岩浆岩发育地区,具有与抛刀岭金矿类似的成矿条件,是未来工作的重点靶区;发育于上述同期岩浆岩之间的志留纪地层中的破碎带蚀变岩、与斑岩型矿床配套产出的低温热液多金属硫化物型矿床等,都将是外围工作的重点研究地区。%Paodaoling gold deposit is located in Anqing-Chizhou ore concentrated area of the middle-lower Yangtze River metallogenic belt.It is the first large gold deposit discovered in Chizhou area with more than 22 t gold.Paodaoling gold deposit is independent with little other economic metal elements,and develop mainly in dacite-porphyrite.According to the detailed description of geological characteristics of gold deposit,combined with the metallogenic model of porphyry gold deposit and the characteristics of zircon U-Pb dating and geochemistry,it is proposed that Paodaoling gold deposit is a Cu-poor porphyry gold deposit formed in Early Cretaceous arc environment,and part of ore blocks experiences hydrothermal alteration.Ore bodies,which are

  10. DESIGNING COMPANY PERFORMANCE MEASUREMENT SYSTEM USING BALANCE SCORECARD APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecep Mukti Soleh

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to design how to measure company performance by using balance scorecard approach in coal transportation services industry. Depth interview was used to obtain qualitative data determination of strategic objectives, key performance indicators, strategic initiatives, and in charge units for each balanced scorecard perspectives while the quantitative data were obtained from weighting through questionnaires and analyzed using paired comparison to get a perspective what mostly affected the performance of the company. To measure the achievement of corporate performance, each KPI used (1 the scoring system with the methods that higher is better, lower is better and precise is better; (2 traffic light system with the help of green, yellow, red for identification of target achievement. This research result shows that in the balance scorecard perspective, the most influences on the overall performance of the company include the customer's perspective (31%, financial perspective (29%, internal business processes (21%, learning, and growth 19%. Keywords: balance scorecard, paired comparison, coal transportation serviceABSTRAKPenelitian ini bertujuan untuk merancang pengukuran kinerja perusahaan dengan menggunakan pendekatan balance scorecard di industri jasa pengangkutan batu bara. Data kualitatif diperoleh melalui indepth interview digunakan untuk menentukan sasaran strategik, indikator kinerja utama, inisiatif strategi dan penanggungjawab setiap divisi setiap perspektif balance scorecard, sedangkan data kuantitatif digunakan untuk pembobotan melalui kuesioner dan dianalisis dengan menggunakan metode paired comparisson untuk mendapatkan perspektif yang paling berpengaruh terhadap kinerja perusahaan. Ukuran pencapaian kinerja perusahaan dari setiap KPI menggunakan; (1 scoring system dengan bantuan metode higher is better, lower is better dan precise is better;(2 traffic light system dengan menggunakan bantuan warna hijau, kuning, merah

  11. KEBIASAAN MAKAN IBU MENYUSUI DI KOTA BATU (PERKOTAAN DAN SUKAHARJA (PEDESAAN, CIOMAS, BOGOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Muljati

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Rapid Assesment Procedures has been applied to explore kinds of food which related to the production of breast milk among lactating mothers, traditional-midwives, key-persons and nutrition volunteer in Bogor. The study was also designed to compare the beliefs between rural and urban population. The study reveals that there are beliefs of foods which related to producing breast milk in rural as well as in urban. In facts, foods which inhibited breast milk production are only a few and there is no different beliefs between rural and urban. Foods which are believed in stimulating the production are mostly unusual foods such as young papaya (Carica papaya, beluntas leaves (Plucea indica Less, banana flowers (Musa paradisiaca. Foods which should be restricted by mothers who just delivery until 40 days was listed.

  12. Instalasi Buku dari Batu sebagai Representasi Reinkarnasi Ilmu dalam Pengkaryaan Tiga Dimensi Seni Patung Kontemporer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Aries Setiadi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The human life civilization have been enlightened by the invention of script, more than 5000 years ago the scripts have been embodying an idea, an experience and a wisdom through the next generation. Book as an object is an arrangement of the scripts that embody the idea and experience consist of words that contains meaning. Book consists of the cover, and all the content that symbolized with the layer of papers, the thickness, the books title and the authors on the cover and on the side of book. Scripts initially only found on the rock or a piece of clay, but as the time goes by and the needs, its changed from the rocks and clay turned into the sheet of leather, leaves, and wood. By the time, leather, wood, and leaves then no longer used and now paper comes to mainstream media. A collection of paper united in numbers we know now as a book. According to the evolution, physically of a book already has changed several times but the function still remain as a medium to read and written something. The fact is, we need to realize that the role of books during human history would be the same, that is a knowledge transfer media, either by means of a scientific writing, novel, a fairy tale, and scripture. The role of books on civilization has change in very significant, how many books that can affect people’s mind, how many people can be influence by the book, and how many changes that preceded by one writing. The change of the book physically, from the very beginning until now, have many script written about feeling, idea, and experience. As long as that also has been create physical and psychological interaction between human and the book. Human had an important role in the life cycle trough knowledge, based on desire and ideas. Passion and imagination be the important point of culture and civilization changes. This artwork is a way to creating an interaction between human and the book physically, with different visual appearance that is the fossilized book.

  13. Kontribusi Pasar Mingguan (Onan) Terhadap Perekonomian Masyarakat Dalam Pengembangan Wilayah Kecamatan Air Batu Kabupaten Asahan

    OpenAIRE

    Prawoto, Dwi

    2010-01-01

    Weekly market (onan) as well as traditional market is the place where buyer and sellers meet at certain day once in a week .The research is to study the impact of onan market on local economic development using logistic regression. Both the seller’s and buyers’ point of view show that onan has significantly influence on local economic. It is noticed that the role of local government has less attention on market infrastructures. The government should develop a local enterprise that can de...

  14. Solid Waste Composition and Quantification at Taman Melewar, Parit Raja, Batu Pahat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadir, A. A.; Abidin, S. S. S. Z.

    2016-07-01

    The poor management of solid waste is noticeable through the increasing of the solid waste each year and the difficulties in disposing the waste in the current available landfill. This study was undertaken to analyze the quantity and composition of waste generation in Taman melewar. Taman Melewar is a student residential area and this study is focusing on student's daily waste composition. The objective of this study was to identify the amount of solid waste generation, analyze and classify the composition of solid waste in Taman Melewar. The waste collection was conducted for 50 houses on a daily basis for two weeks. The average household waste generation rate was 0.082 kg/person/day. Organic waste was the major constituent of waste production. The average of organic waste represents about 72.4% followed by paper (9%), plastics film (5.5%), plastics rigid (4.7%), napkins (3.8%), tetrapek (1.3%), glass (1.1%), household hazardous waste (0.85%), textiles (0.52%), metal (0.51%) and rubber (0.34%). The moisture content was ranging from 27.67% to 28.68%. An evaluation was made based on student's behavior towards waste production and recycling. In conclusion, the results revealed that organic waste is the highest waste generated and recycling habits is also poor in Taman Melewar.

  15. PENEGAKAN HUKUM TERHADAP PERUSAKAN LINGKUNGAN SEBAGAI AKIBAT PENAMBANGAN BATU KAPUR TANPA IZIN DI KABUPATEN GUNUNGKIDUL

    OpenAIRE

    Arvina, Shintia Utawifie

    2009-01-01

    This legal writing entitled Legal Enforcement towards Environmental Destruction as Result of Illegal Limestone Mining in Gunungkidul Regency. The important legal problem to study is how legal enforcement towards environmental destruction as result of illegal limestone mining in Gunungkidul Regency and what are barriers in legal enforcement towards environmental destruction as result of illegal limestone mining in Gunungkidul Regency. The purpose of this research was to know ...

  16. Drinking Water Quality of Water Vending Machines in Parit Raja, Batu Pahat, Johor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, N. H.; Yusop, H. M.

    2016-07-01

    An increased in demand from the consumer due to their perceptions on tap water quality is identified as one of the major factor on why they are mentally prepared to pay for the price of the better quality drinking water. The thought that filtered water quality including that are commercially available in the market such as mineral and bottled drinking water and from the drinking water vending machine makes they highly confident on the level of hygiene, safety and the mineral content of this type of drinking water. This study was investigated the vended water quality from the drinking water vending machine in eight locations in Parit Raja are in terms of pH, total dissolve solids (TDS), turbidity, mineral content (chromium, arsenic, cadmium, lead and nickel), total organic carbon (TOC), pH, total colony-forming units (CFU) and total coliform. All experiments were conducted in one month duration in triplicate samples for each sampling event. The results indicated the TDS and all heavy metals in eight vended water machines in Parit Raja area were found to be below the Food Act 1983, Regulation 360C (Standard for Packaged Drinking Water and Vended water, 2012) and Malaysian Drinking Water Quality, Ministry of Health 1983. No coliform was presence in any of the vended water samples. pH was found to be slightly excess the limit provided while turbidity was found to be 45 to 95 times more higher than 0.1 NTU as required by the Malaysian Food Act Regulation. The data obtained in this study would suggest the important of routine maintenance and inspection of vended water provider in order to maintain a good quality, hygienic and safety level of vended water.

  17. Solid Waste Composition Study at Taman Universiti, Parit Raja, Batu Pahat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadir, A. A.; Sani, M. S. A. M.

    2016-07-01

    Solid waste management is recognised as one of the most challenging issues confronted by both the developed and developing countries. The problems rise due to growing population in current years which results in increased generation of waste with various compositions. The aim of this study was to determine the waste compositions at Taman Universiti. Taman Universiti is a mix residential and commercial area which a preferred residential location amongst students and lecturers due to its proximate location to UTHM main campus. The waste collection was carried out for 50 houses on a daily basis. The collection and sorting out method was conducted according to Malaysian Standard MS 2505:2012 and the data was collected and recorded The result showed that the average generation rate of household waste at Taman Universiti was 0.16kg/person/day and the moisture content was approximately ranging from 61%-68%. Household wastes collected were categorized and it consisted of food and organic, paper, rigid plastics, plastics film, baby diapers, glass, tetra pak, household hazardous waste, metal, rubber, textiles, garden waste and leather. The proportion of each wastes were approximately 64.67%, 9.36%, 9.22%, 5.33%, 3.51%, 2.53%, 1.37%, 1.05%, 0.84%, 0.85%, 0.80%, 0.27%, and 0.23%, respectively. Results from the analyses indicated that the food and organic waste are the major composition of household waste at Taman Universiti followed by the paper, rigid plastics, and plastic film. Meanwhile, the proportion of baby diapers, glass, tetra pak, household hazardous waste, metal, rubber, textiles, and garden decreasing accordingly. In addition, leather was recognized as the least category that contributed to the household waste.

  18. SIR-A views our environment An Experiment in the Batu Angkal Area, West Kalimantan, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutanto .

    2013-07-01

    Factors affecting the ease of identification are. mainly tonal contrast, shape, size, surface roughness, direction in relation to the illumination, and dielectric constant. Due to the future availability of SIR-B image of Kalimantan, further study is recommended.

  19. Studi Komposisi Mineral Tepung Batu Bukit Kamang Sebagai Bahan Baku Pakan Sumber Mineral

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    Khalil

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to determine mineral content of limestone originated from natural deposit of Bukit Kamang for feedstuff. Six samples were prepared and chemically analyzed. The first was limestone in meal form as a product of local milling industry. Another five samples were deposit components with different color of blackish, dark blue, blue, light blue and white. There was 21 kinds of mineral determined which were divided into 3 groups: macros (Ca, P, Mg, Na, K, Cl and S, trace minerals (Mn, Zn, Fe, Cu, Se, Co and Mo and toxic elements (As, F, Hg, Cd, Pb, Ni and Cr. The results showed that Bukit Kamang’s limestone contained considerable high essential minerals of Ca, Se, Fe and Mn. The limestone consisted of 38%-40% Ca, 388 ppm Se, 295 ppm Fe and 205 ppm Mn. There were two toxic elements detected: Pb and Cd, but their concentration was found relatively low: 28 and 7 ppm, respectively.

  20. On three apparently new species of Birds from the islands Batu, Sumbawa and Alor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Finsch, O.

    1899-01-01

    Adult male. General colour above dark brown; bead above darker; lores and ear-region lighter and more greyish brown; chin whitish grey, throat and breast ashy grey, remainder underparts, axillaries and greater under wing-coverts white, the smaller ones along the carpal margin grey; sides washed with

  1. ALTERNATIF PERENCANAAN MOORING DOLPHIN PELABUHAN KHUSUS BATU BARA PT. SEMEN TONASA PANGKEP

    OpenAIRE

    Abadi, Yusri

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRAK Mooring dolphin adalah bagian yang sangat penting dan tidak terpisahkan pada konstruksi pelabuhan ataupun dermaga. Mooring dolphin memiliki berbagai macam jenis dan bentuk. Mooring dolphin berfungsi sebagai alat untuk menambat kapal yang berlabuh pada pelabuhan atau dermaga tersebut agar tidak bergeser jauh dari pelabuhan pada saat menerima gaya. Sehingga dengan demikian mooring dolphin yang terdiri dari tiga bagian utama yaitu, bollard, poer, dan tiang pancang yang direncanakan ...

  2. 吉林汪清夹皮沟斑岩型钼矿床的形成时代与成矿构造背景%Metallogenic epoch and tectonic setting of Jiapigou porphyry molybdenum deposit in Wangqing area, Jilin Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王辉; 任云生; 孙振明; 郝宇杰; 李超

    2013-01-01

    Located in Wangqing area of Jilin Province,the Jiapigou molybdenum deposit is one of the newly discovered porphyry deposits.The molybdenum ore bodies are hosted in the porphyraceous biotite monzogranite which is controlled by NE-trending faults.The weighted mean LA-ICP-MS U-Pb age of zircons separated from ore-bearing rock is (193.1 ± 1.0) Ma (MSWD=1.02),and the Re-Os isochron age of molybdenites collected from ores is (188.6 ± 4.7) Ma (MSWD =0.41).The results indicate that the Jipigou deposit was formed in early Jurassic period.It resulted from large-scale tectonic-magmatic-metallogenic event in early Yanshanian period together with other porphyry molybdenum deposits having isotopic ages of 190~ 160 Ma.The porphyraceous biotite monzogranite is characterized by high silica (SiO2 =72.29 % ~ 72.81%) and alkali (Na2O + K2O =7.62 % ~7.71%) belonging to the weakly peraluminous and the high-K calc-alkaline series.The REE patterns are rightoblique with significant fractionation between LREE and HREE (LREE/HREE =6.41~ 7.34) and medium negative Eu anomalies (δEu =0.33~ 0.40).Trace elements are on the whole characterized by relative enrichment of large ion lithophile elements (LILEs) and depletion of high field strength elements.The rock geochemical characteristics imply that the granite belongs to Ⅰ-type granite,and the rock-forming and ore-forming materials probably resulted from the melting of the lower part of the compressional and thickened crust.In combination with the regional tectonic evolution,the authors have reached the conclusion that the Jipigou molybdenum deposit was formed under the setting of transition and superimposition of tectonic regime,and the rock-forming and ore-forming processes were widely influenced by the subduction of the Paleo-Pacific plate.%夹皮沟钼矿床是吉林省汪清县近年来发现的一个中型斑岩型钼矿床.矿体赋存在受北东向断裂控制的似斑状黑云母二长花岗岩内.

  3. IDENTIFIKASI SEKS RASIO TUKIK PENYU HIJAU (Chelonia mydas DAN PENYU BELIMBING (Dermochelys coriacea DI BERBAGAI PANTAI PENELURAN UTAMA DI INDONESIA

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    DWI SUPRAPTI

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Sex ratio is highly dependent on incubation temperature. The optimum temperature of 28 ° C - 30 ° C can result in sex ratio 1: 1. The high temperature will be produced predominantly female hatchlings, and vice versa. The incubation temperatures influenced by some environmental factors such as rainfall, air temperature, air humidity, sand temperature, sand humidity, sand type and vegetation. This research carried out at the Sukamade beach - East Java, Sangalaki island - East Kalimantan and Jamursba Medi beach - West Papua. Results showed the unbalanced sex ratio of sea turtle hatchlings in each of study area. The Sukamade beach generated 75% of male hatchlings in nests under vegetation, 100% female hatchlings in the nest on open beaches, and 87.5% male hatchlings in the hatchery. While the sex ratio of hatchlings produced on Sangalaki island are 100% male in nests under vegetation, 72.22% male hatchlings in the nest on open beaches and 94.44% male hatchlings in the hatchery. On the Jamursba Medi beach produced 90.9% male hatchlings from nests on open beaches. Based on correlation analysis, a significant correlation showed between sex ratio and incubation temperature with significance of 0.01. While there is no significance correlation showed between sex ratios by environmental factors, with significance of 0.942 for the air temperature variable, 0.340 for the air humidity, 0292 for amount of the rainfall, 0799 for the sand fraction, and 0.331 for the sand humidity. All of these significance are greater than 0.05.

  4. IDENTIFIKASI JEJARING PENGELOLAAN KONSERVASI PENYU HIJAU (Chelonia mydas MELALUI PENENTUAN KOMPOSISI GENETIK DAN METAL TAG DI LAUT SULU SULAWESI

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    Ni Kadek Dita Cahyani

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The research used 51 tissue samples taken from 51 individual Green Turtles in Pulau Panjang, EastKalimantan. The isolation of mtDNA was achieved by adding Proteinase K into the samples prior to the utilization ofthe PCR (Polimerase Chain Reaction technique. The MEGA 3.1 computer program was employed to read the DNAsequences obtained through the PCR technique.Seven different haplotypes were identified from the analyzed samples. The haplotypes are: A3 (N=7; 13.73%,A4 (N=1; 1.96%, A6 (N=2; 3.92%, C3 (N=5; 9.80%, C5 (N=6; 11.76%, C14 (N=5; 9.80% dan D2 (N=25;49.02%. Tag findings clearly demonstrated that the Green Turtles, which feed on the seagrass beds of Pulau Panjang,originated in different nesting sites, including Sabah and Trengganu in Malaysia, Sangalaki and Derawan inIndonesia, and Phillipine. The MSA (Mixed Stock Analysis showed that the Green Turtles population in PulauPanjang was composed of several management units (nesting sites, which were Berau (47%, Sulu Sea (34% andMicronesia (6%.

  5. TOKSISITAS AKUT (LD50 DAN UJI GELAGAT EKSTRAK DAUN TEH HIJAU (CAMELLIA SINENSIS (LINN. KUNZE PADA MENCIT

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    Dian Sundari

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Among many kind of drinks, tea is the most preferable drink for Indonesian people. Compare to other drinks, tea has a lot of benefit to our healthy. Tea are able to prevent some diseases and help for recover process from simple diseasessuch as influenza, to chronic hard disease; that could cause death such as cancer. Variety of tea can be selected referring to the flavor. Acute toxicity test (Lethal Dose has been conducted of the extract of green tea leave (Camellia sinensis (Linn., Kunze. to the safety and symptom test as well. The test used mice as an animal experiments. The acute toxicity test use Weil, C.S (1915 method for the acute toxicity test and Paget. GE and Barnes, JM (1964 method for symptom test, high dosage under LD50 value are given to the mice, while green tea leave extract is made by percolation according to the method in Indonesian Pharmacope III. One kilogram of green tea powder produced an extract of 375 g or 37.5% of rendemen (sample. The result showed, the LD50 value of green lea leave extract was 3.303 (2.10 - 5.14 mg/10 g body weight i.p. By extrapolating the value as per oral in mice based on Gleason test (1969, the extract was classified as a Practically Non Toxic (PNT. The symptom test proved that green tea leave extract in a dosage of 2,7 mg/10 g body weight influenced the nerve system.   Key words : Camelia Sibebsis (Linn, Kunze, Green Tea, Safety, Toxicology

  6. RESPON PERTUMBUHAN DAN PRODUKSI TANAMAN SAWI HIJAU Brassica juncea L. TERHADAP VARIASI FORMULASI NUTRISI PADA SISTEM AEROPONIK

    OpenAIRE

    Irmayanti

    2013-01-01

    This research to response of plant growth and production of green mustard plant Brassica juncea L. to variations in the nutrients formulation aeroponic system is implemented in the Laboratory Division of Biotechnology Activities Research Center, University of Hasanuddin, Makassar, takes place from January to March 2013. This research aimed to assess the effect of several variations of nutrient formulation on growth and yield of green mustard plant Brassica juncea L. the aeroponic system. This...

  7. Pengaruh Mikoriza Vesikula Arbuskula (MVA) dan Pengunaan Mulsa Terhadap Pertumbuhan dan Produksi Kacang Hijau (Vigna radiata L. )

    OpenAIRE

    Sirait, Rajani

    2011-01-01

    The research was to examined the effect of vesicular arbuscular micorrhizae and by using mulch for the growth and production of mung bean. The experiment has done at Faculty of Agriculture, University of Sumatera Utara, Medan. The experiment used Randomized Block Design (RDB) Factorial with two treatment factors and three replication. First factor was vesicular arbuscular michorrrizae with four level, 0 g/plant, 4 g/plant, 8 g/plant, 12 g/plant. Second factor was mulch with thr...

  8. OPTIMALISASI PERTUMBUHAN DAN PRODUKSI TANAMAN SAWI HIJAU Brassica juncea L. SECARA HIDROPONIK DENGAN PEMBERIAN BERBAGAI BAHAN ORGANIK CAIR

    OpenAIRE

    Wahid, Tenri Sa'na

    2013-01-01

    The research about optimization the growth and production of green mustard plant Brassica juncea L. hydroponic by administering various liquid organic materials took place at the Agricultural Biotechnology Division of Center for Research and Development, Research and Development Society Center (LPPM) building 4th and 5th floors, University of Hasanuddin, Makassar, runs from January to March 2013. This research was aimed to select the best sources of hormones from various organic materials to ...

  9. KEBIJAKAN PENGELOLAAN LINGKUNGAN KAWASAN INDUSTRI SESUAI PROPER KLHK PERINGKAT HIJAU (STUDI KASUS DI KAWASAN INDUSTRI JABABEKA BEKASI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Temmy Wikaningrum

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Environmental management in industrial estate is the strategic policy model which is needed to be developed referring to the Indonesian Government Decree number 24 year 2009, that state almost all of the new industrial developments should be located in industrial estate. The complexity in this environmental management was approached by “green rating” of PROPER’s criteria regulated by Ministry of Environment & Forestry (KLHK. PROPER is the assessment program of company performance rating in environmental management. Green rating is classified by PROPER in terms of beyond compliance performance. The result of the case study in Jababeka Industrial Estate (KIJA Bekasi, based on its environmental situational analysis year 2014 by multidimensional scaling (MDS method, showed that only the management dimension had a sustainability performance. The results of prospective analysis on leverage factors of MDS showed that the key factors of the environmental management model were (1 DRKPL (summary document of environmental management performance, (2 implementation of water conservation and reducing water pollution program, (3funding for water conservation, (4 monitoring and evaluation of community development program, (5 implementation of 3R (reduce, reuse, recycle programs of hazardous waste, (6 technology of 3R, and (7 benchmarking. Based on the key parameters and referred to the possibilities conditions, three scenarios have been developed to approach the implementative policy. The moderate scenario was recommended to be the right policy in term of consideration of technology, funding availability, time of implementation and organization skills.Keywords: environmental management, industrial estate, jababeka, proper KLHK

  10. Respons Imunoglobulin-G dan Imunoglobulin-M Mencit yang Diberi Ekstrak Methanol Alga Biru Hijau dan Diinfeksi Dengan Takizoit

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    Sorta Basar Ida Simanjuntak

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasmosis is an infectious disease caused by Toxoplasma gondii. This disease could severelyaffect humans and animals. Up to now there has been no simple treatment to fight toxoplasmosis. Aprospective alternative treatment to overcome this problem is by increasing immunity of the body using animmunostimulant such as Spirulina platensis. The aims of this research were to observe the potency of S.platensis as an immunostimulant and to find the most potential fraction of S. Platensis that can increasethe responses of IgG and IgM antibodies againts toxoplasma. The responses of these antibodies weremeasured using ELISA method. The isolation of compounds from S. platensis using Preparative ThinLayer Chromatography (PTLC found three fractions which were a top fraction (I, a middle fraction (II,and a lower fraction (III. Forty-eight mice used in this research were divided into four different groupswith 12 mice in each group and treated differently. The top, middle, and lower fractions of S. platensis wereadministered orally to three groups of mice respectively at dose of 3mg/ml for each mouse while the micein the fourth group were kept as untreated controls. The treatment was conducted for 14 days consecutivelyand on the next day, all mice, including the controls, were challenged with tachizoit. The effect of S.platensisfractions on the responses of IgG and IgM antibodies were then measured at various time intervals, i.e. day0 (before infection and day 1, 2, and 3 after infection. The results showed that IgG response increased inthe day 0 (2.504 OD and the day 3 after infection (2.608 OD while IgM response increased in day 1 afterinfection (2.898 OD. In conclusion, S. platensis was an immunostimulant and the middle fraction (II of S.Platensis was the most potential fraction to increase immunity againts toxoplasma .

  11. KELAYAKAN REHABILITASI MANGROVE DENGAN TEKNIK GULUDAN DALAM PERSPEKTIF PERDAGANGAN KARBON DI KAWASAN HIJAU LINDUNG MUARA ANGKE, PROVINSI DKI JAKARTA

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    Isluyandari Woelan Yanuartanti

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Mitigation of climate change due to CO2 emissions, the forestry sector developed a REDD+ scheme. This study was conducted to examine financial feasibility of the mangrove rehabilitation with guludan technique, so that further funding of mangrove rehabilitation can be included into REDD+ scheme. Guludan technology was developed to overcome the deep water column for mangrove rehabilitation in the former pond area. This technique has been developed for mangrove species Avicennia marina with spacing 0.25 m x 0.25 m, 0.5 m x 0.5 m, and 1 m x 1 m. Based on diameter and height growth of 36 months planted seedlings of A.marina followed logistic model. CO2 sequestration 386.34 t/ha, 131.12 t/ha, and 26.75 t/ha in 0.25 m x 0.25 m, 0.5 m x 0.5 m, and 1 m x 1 m spacing. With CO2 sequestration selling price of €20,00/t CO2 and rehabilitated land area of 10 ha, this rehabilitation action using guludan technique is not financially feasible, because the criteria for a negative NPV, Net B/C< 1, and IRR < the investment rate, which is 12%. The alternative for this is by implementing material efficiency and increasing carbon selling price as much €54.5/t CO2 for the spacing 0.25 m x 0.25 m; €122/t CO2 for the spacing 0.5 m x 0.5 m; and €580/t CO2 for the spacing 1 m x 1 m.Keywords: Avicennia marina, guludan, CO2 sequestration, plant spacing, and financial feasibility

  12. Petrology, Geochemistry and Petrogenesis of Wolonggu granites and Tongchang granodioritic porphyries: Constraints on copper metallogenic geological settings in northeastern Jiangxi Province%江西卧龙谷花岗岩和铜厂花岗闪长斑岩的地球化学特征及成因——对赣东北地区铜矿成矿地质背景的制约

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭博然; 刘树文; 杨朋涛; 王宗起; 罗平; 王永庆; 罗国辉; 王伟

    2013-01-01

    Northeastern Jiangxi Province is a major polymetallic ore-forwing area in northeastern segment of the Jiangnan orogenic belt.Wolonggu granitoid pluton is a typical nonmineralized granite pluton and consists chiefly of monzogranites.LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb isotopic dating yields a weighted mean 206Pb/238U age of 133Ma±1Ma,which represents the age ofmagrnatic crystallization and reveals that the granitic pluton was emplaced in Early Cretaceous.Combined with their high initial 87Sr/865r values ranging from 0.716079 to 0.719392 and low εNd(t) values ranging from-6.51 to-5.14,the authors hold that the Wolonggu granites were probably derived from partial melting of metamorphic pelitic rocks from the crustal source region.However,Tongchang granodioritic porphyric intrusion is a classic mineralized granitic pluton and consists mainly of granodioritic porphyries.Emplaced in Middle Jurassic (with crystallization age of 171Ma±3Ma),the Tongchang granodioritic porphyries display low initial87Sr/86Sr values ranging from 0.704403 to 0.704475,high εNd (t) values ranging from-1.14 to ±1.80 and higher Mg# values of 28-53,suggesting that the magma was possibly derived from partial melting of subducted oceanic slabs and relative sediments,and was polluted by mantle materials during its upward migration.The comparison of features between the nonmineralized granite pluton and the copper mineralized granitic pluton can detect the constraint of the Mesozoic granitoid magmatism on copper metallogenic geological settings,which may provide the essential geological data of the geodynamic setting for regional mineralization.%赣东北地区是江南造山带东北段重要的多金属成矿区.卧龙谷花岗岩体是典型的非铜矿成矿花岗岩体,由二长花岗岩组成,其LA-ICP-MS锆石U-Pb同位素分析揭示其岩浆结晶年龄为133 Ma±1Ma,形成于早白垩世.这些岩石表现出高的初始87Sr/86Sr比值(0.716079~ 0.719392)和较低的εNd(t)(-6.51~-5.14)值,指示

  13. The Source of Hydrothermal Fluids and Mineralization in the Aolunhua Porphyry Mo- Cu Deposit, Southern Da Hinggan Mountains:Constraints from Stable (C, H, O and S) and Radiogenic (Pb) Isotopes%大兴安岭南段敖仑花斑岩钼(铜)矿床成矿流体来源与成矿作用:稳定同位素C、H、O、S和放射性Pb同位素约束

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马星华; 陈斌

    2011-01-01

    Stable (C, H, O and S) and radiogenic (Pb) isotopes of hydrothermal solutions from the Aolunhua Mo - Cu deposit in southern Da Hinggan Mountains were analyzed with the purpose of determining the source of the ore-forming fluids and tracing the ore-forming process. New isotopic data indicate that the hydrothermal solutions were not from a single source. C, H, O and S isotopic compositions of the ore-forming fluids show that the metallogenic complexing agent had a hybrid origin,derived mainly from the mantle and subordinately from the crust. The Pb isotopic compositions of the molybdenite suggest that molybdenum came mainly from the juvenile orogenic belt, with a small amount derived from the mantle. Distinct metallogenic mechanism was identified based on stable isotope compositions and previous fluid inclusion studies. The mineralization at the early stage was caused by a mixing between magmatic fluid and meteoric water. However, mineralization at the prevailing metallogenic stage resulted from the fluid boiling. Distinct from the porphyry deposits formed in arc settings and collisional orogenic settings, the Aolunhua porphyry Mo - Cu deposit was formed in a unique geological setting related to reactivation of a juvenile orogen under an extensional back-arc regime during the Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous period. Interaction between magmas and hydrothermal fluids from the mantle and the crust formed a hybrid system, which created essential conditions for subsequent mineralization. It is thus held that more importance should be attached to this ore-forming process so as to recognize potential fertile intrusions.%基于稳定同位素C、H、O、S和放射性Pb同位素的测试和分析,对大兴安岭南段敖仑花斑岩钼(铜)矿床成矿流体的来源进行了示踪,探讨了流体演化与成矿作用过程.新的稳定同位素数据显示:敖仑花矿床成矿热液具有混合来源性质;脉石矿物石英中流体的C、H、O同位素和矿石硫

  14. Rock-forming and Ore-forming Ages as well as Formation Environments of Porphyry Molybdenum Deposits in Beishan Area, Inner Mongolia%内蒙古北山地区斑岩型钼矿的成岩成矿时代和形成环境探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨岳清; 赵金花; 孟贵祥; 严加永; 吕博; 王守光; 贾玲珑; 韩建刚

    2013-01-01

    A nearly EW-trending molybdenum (copper) ore belt was found in Beishan area of Inner Mongolia. The relatively large deposits in this belt include Liushashan molybdenum deposit, Elegenwulanwula molybdenum deposit and Xiaohulishan molybdenum deposit., Re-Os isotope dating of molybdenite samples from these three deposits yielded isochron ages of (260±10) Ma (Middle Permian), 332.0 Ma (Early Carboniferous) and 220 Ma (Late Triassic) respectively. Obviously, different metallogenic epochs reflect different environments for the formation of these deposits. Based on new SHRIMP zircon U-Pb age data of the porphyry related to mineralization as well as basic rock and ore geochemical work, the authors revealed the formation environments of the three deposits from the angle of regional crustal evolution. In the Early Paleozoic, the three deposits were in Kazakhstan plate, and in the Late Paleozoic, due to the development of Hongshishan-Baiheshan-Pengboshan area from rift valley to ocean basin, the position of the Liushashan molybdenum deposit was split into the Tarim plate. Due to the difference in subduction mechanism and underlying basement, tectono-magmatic activities were somewhat different in two island arcs. In active marginal belt of north Tarim plate, magmatic activity was unusually strong and lasted from Carboniferous to the end of Permian. In the early stage, mineralization was dominated mainly by iron, and molybdenum (copper) deposits were formed in the late stage. Magmatic activity of the marginal belt in south Kazakhstan plate was a bit weaker than that in the northern marginal belt of Tarim plate, and the magmatic activity was mainly concentrated in Carboniferous; in such an environment, the Elegenwulanwula molybdenum deposit was formed. At the end of Permian, the split plate of Beishan area became a unified plate again through collage. From that time on, Beishan area entered into an environment of intra-continental crustal activity, and stretching

  15. 加权Logistic回归模型在斑岩铜矿预测中的应用——以中—哈边境扎尔—玛萨吾尔成矿带为例%The Application of Weighted Logistic Regression Model in Prediction of Porphyry Copper Deposit——take Zharma-Sawur metallogenic belt, China-Kazakhstan border area, as an example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    努丽曼古·阿不都克力木; 张晓帆; 陈川; 徐仕琪; 赵同阳

    2012-01-01

    加权Logistic回归是基于GIS成矿预测的主要方法之一,其模型是不同于线性模型的一种类型.它具有强大的空间分析功能、适用性强、不受任何独立条件的约束、预测结果更可靠,因此在矿产资源评价研究中得到了很多地质学家的青睐.以矿床模型和成矿理论为基础,加权Logistic回归分析模型在成矿预测中的应用主要包括三部分:加权Logistic回归模型的建立及其应用、成矿有利度综合评价、成矿远景区圈定.本文以中国—哈萨克斯坦边境地区扎尔玛—萨吾尔成矿带斑岩型铜矿为例,探讨了基于GIS的加权Logistic回归模型在成矿预测中的应用.%Weighted Logistic Regression is one of the main methods of mineral potential mapping. It is different from linear model. Because of its powerful spatial analysis function, strong adaptability, unconstrained by independent conditions, and more reliable prediction results, Weighted Logistic Regression is widely used by many geologists in mineral resources assessment. Based on the mineral deposit model and theory, Weighted Logistic Regression is consists of three parts: (1) Establishment of weighted logistic regression model for mineral potential mapping; (2 ) comprehensive evaluation of favorable degrees; (3 ) mineral potential mapping of study area. By the Weighted Logistic Regression model for mineral potential mapping, Zharma-Sawur Metallogic Belt which across border region of China and Kazakhstan is studied and mineral prospecting area of porphyry copper deposit is mapped. At the end, the availability of Weighted Logistic Regression Model for mineral potential mapping is discussed.

  16. SEM-EDS investigation of daughter minerals of fluid inclusions at the Dexing porphyry Cu-Mo deposit, Jiangxi Province, China%江西德兴斑岩铜钼矿床流体包裹体子矿物SEM-EDS研究及其对成矿流体性质的制约

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘玄; 范宏瑞; 胡芳芳; 胡保根; 朱小云

    2011-01-01

    能排除这些高盐包裹体是由中低盐度流体发生相分离而形成的可能性.Q+Py±Cp±Cc脉中发育的稀土子矿物指示成脉流体具有高盐度-低pH-含CO2的特征,而这类子矿物在(黄铁)绢英岩和Q+Py+Mo±Cp脉中不发育的原因可能是CO2与液相发生了相分离作用.%A large number of daughter mineral-bearing fluid inclusions formed in Q + Py ± Cp ± Cc veins, phyllic rocks and Q + Py + Mo ± Cp veins at the Dexing porphyry copper-molybdenum deposit, SE China. On the basis of microscopic investigation of the vein (and rock) mineral assemblages and fluid inclusion petrology, Scanning Electron Microscopy and X-ray Energy Dispersive Spectrum ( SEM-EDS) were employed in identification of the solid phases in fluid inclusions. Our results suggest that (1) transparent daughter minerals in Q + Py ± Cp ± Cc veins include sericite, halite, bischofite, dolomite, iron-bearing chlorides, apatite and Ce-bearing phosphates, and opaque phases consist of hematite, iron-bearing oxides and chalcopyrite; (2) transparent daughter minerals in phyllic rocks include halite, anhydrite, gypsum, sericite, magnesium sulfate, magnesite, magnesium chloride, (Fe, Cu, Mg) carbonate and sulfate, while opaque phase include hematite, magnetite, rutile and chalcopyrite; and (3) daughter minerals in Q + Py + Mo ± Cp veins are far less developed, which include halite, siderite and K-feldspar for the transparent daughters and hematite for the opaque ones. Various types of daughter minerals in Q + Py ± Cp ± Cc veins, phyllic rocks and Q + Py + Mo ± Cp veins indicate that hydrothermal fluids responsible for their formation are significantly complex in composition and appear to be hypersaline, oxidized and ore minerals enriched. However, detailed alteration mineral observation suggests that Na, Ca, Mg, Fe, which appear in those solid phases are probably contributions from the preexisting minerals ( plagioclases, hornblendes, biotites and possibly phosphates

  17. Re-Thinking Kebijakan Pembangunan dalam Perspektif Ekonomi Lokal: Studi Kasus Tambang Emas Batu Gosok – Labuan Bajo – NTT

    OpenAIRE

    Doddy Setiawan; Robert T. Herman

    2011-01-01

    This paper is a practical-theoretical study towards economic development policy. Unrealistic policy and planning approach, government management close and uncooperative system which considered intervening political interest rather than economic development are as one cause of stagnating economic development in several areas. Economic development that has been established by central government has not able to give velocity acceleration solution in economic development; it is the authority and ...

  18. PERAN AKTIF WANITA DALAM PENINGKATAN PENDAPATAN RUMAH TANGGA MISKIN: STUDI KASUS PADA WANITA PEMECAH BATU DI PUCANGANAK KECAMATAN TUGU TRENGGALEK *

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugeng Haryanto

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This research explain how women share actively in the effort increasing earnings of the household. This research done with taking sample at the stone crusher women in Kecamatan Tugu Kabupaten Trenggalek. Women have potency in giving contri-bution of earnings of household, especially impecunious household. In impecunious household, women household member plunge to job market for adding earnings household felt insufficient. Women contribution can be told as safety valve or sup-porter for impecunious household to fulfill everyday basic need. This research aim 1 for analyzing contribution of earnings of stone crusher worker women to earn-ings of family, 2 to know usage of earnings of stone crusher worker women, 3 to know in working which poured by stone crusher worker women. Research finding indicate that women who work as stone crusher have enough significant earnings contribution to earnings of family.

  19. PERAN AKTIF WANITA DALAM PENINGKATAN PENDAPATAN RUMAH TANGGA MISKIN: STUDI KASUS PADA WANITA PEMECAH BATU DI PUCANGANAK KECAMATAN TUGU TRENGGALEK *

    OpenAIRE

    Sugeng Haryanto

    2008-01-01

    This research explain how women share actively in the effort increasing earnings of the household. This research done with taking sample at the stone crusher women in Kecamatan Tugu Kabupaten Trenggalek. Women have potency in giving contri-bution of earnings of household, especially impecunious household. In impecunious household, women household member plunge to job market for adding earnings household felt insufficient. Women contribution can be told as safety valve or sup-porter for impecu...

  20. Analisis Kelarutan Garam Kalsium pada Batu Ginjal dalam Infusa Meniran (Phyllantus niruri L.) secara Spektrofotometri Serapan Atom

    OpenAIRE

    Wongso, Fransisca

    2016-01-01

    Kidney stones are stones that occur either in kidney and urethra. The most common type of stones are made of calcium crystal. About 60% kidney stones contain calcium oxalate, phosphate, carbonate, uric acid, magnesium, and ammonium. Meniran (stonebreaker) has benefit as diuretic and inhibitor or breaker of kidney stone formation. It contained potassium that can replace calcium to join carbonate, oxalate, or uric forming soluble compounds and slowly will come out together with urine. The purpo...

  1. Tinjauan Yuridis Perjanjian Kerja Tenaga Kerja Asing Pada PT. Toyo Kanetsu Indonesia (Studi Pada Kawasan Industri Batu Ampar, Batam)

    OpenAIRE

    Sari, Ayu Fulia

    2013-01-01

    Indonesia which is known as a developing country needs supports from the other countries including neighboring countries in the form of cooperation with them because Indonesia wants to be able to make progress and compete with them in the free job market (globalization and liberalization). Therefore, foreign workers play a very big and important role in the Indonesia’s national development. The essential problem of the foreign workers is more in the sector of our dependence on ...

  2. ANALISIS FAKTOR-FAKTOR YANG MEMPENGARUHI KEUNGGULAN KOMPARATIF DAN KEUNGGULAN KOMPETITIF PADA UKM PENGRAJIN BATU MARMER DI KABUPATEN TULUNGAGUNG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andi Nu Graha

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Marketing Global was viewed that could give basically of business performance. It had been controlled and measured. Whereas certain business do not have attention toward global market. The development of middle and small industries face regional market and global market have to base with strongest effort and continuity. Hence, the production of middle and small business has comparative advantages  competitive advantages. The purpose of this research is to know the various factors both comparative and competitive advantages in middle and small businesess of Marble Stones in Tuluagung Region, East Java. The analysis research are found : (1 The main problem of comparative advantages in middle and small businesess was the lower of wages labor, (2 the largest of scope area, (3 the aglomeration area and the government policies. The result of this research are production factors, the similar industries and the industries supported.

  3. POLA DAN ETOS KERJA PEREMPUAN DALAM INDUSTRI RUMAH TANGGA DI JORONG CANGKIANG NAGARI BATU TABA KECAMATAN AMPEK ANGKEK KABUPATEN AGAM

    OpenAIRE

    Marleni Marleni

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the role of women in domestic and public sphere. Multi-role women are able to maintain harmonious relations in their extended and core families. The main reason women have trading activities because of economic pressures. They feel they have a responsibility for their family livelihood sustainability. The interesting thing is  they aware that their contributions to supplement their family income does not necessarily revoke roles as wife and mother in their family.Thus t...

  4. POLA DAN ETOS KERJA PEREMPUAN DALAM INDUSTRI RUMAH TANGGA DI JORONG CANGKIANG NAGARI BATU TABA KECAMATAN AMPEK ANGKEK KABUPATEN AGAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marleni Marleni

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the role of women in domestic and public sphere. Multi-role women are able to maintain harmonious relations in their extended and core families. The main reason women have trading activities because of economic pressures. They feel they have a responsibility for their family livelihood sustainability. The interesting thing is  they aware that their contributions to supplement their family income does not necessarily revoke roles as wife and mother in their family.Thus the women's role to implement various strategies in order to run smoothly, both in domestic and public aspects.Keywords : Women, have trading, domestic and public activityCopyright © 2013 by Kafa`ah All right reservedDOI : 10.15548/jk.v3i1.70

  5. Gambaran Status Yodium Pada Ibu Hamil Di Desa Lama, Desa Baru Dan Desa Hulu Kecamatan Pancur Batu

    OpenAIRE

    Mhd. Syahputra

    2008-01-01

    Gangguan akibat kekurangan yodium merupakan kumpulan gejala yang dapat ditimbulkan oleh karena tubuh menderita kekurangan yodium dalam waktu yang lama. Akibat dan kekurangan yodium ini dapat terjadi mulai dan ibu hamil yang melahirkan bayi kretinism sampai gangguan psikoneurologis yang lebih rendah. Indonesia adalah suatu negara dengan prevalensi tinggi dan gangguan defesiensi yodium. Oleh sebab itu pada tahun 1993 Indonesia telah menetapkan program yodisasi garam tingkat nasional akan tetapi...

  6. 华北克拉通北部长城系底界年龄小于1670Ma:来自北京密云花岗斑岩岩脉锆石LA-MC-ICPMS U-Pb年龄的约束%The base age of the Changchengian System at the northern North China Crnton should be younger than 1670 Ma: Constraints from zircon U-Pb LA-MC-ICPMS dating of a granite-porphyry dike in Miyun County, Beijing.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李怀坤; 苏文博; 周红英; 耿建珍; 相振群; 崔玉荣; 刘文灿; 陆松年

    2011-01-01

    近期在北京密云沙厂北东的大龙门村附近发现一条花岗斑岩岩脉,该岩脉侵入于新太古代密云群角闪斜长片麻岩当中,其顶部则与片麻岩一起被常州沟组含砾砂岩沉积不整合覆盖.对该岩脉采用LA-MC-ICPMS进行锆石U-Pb同位素年龄测定,获得了(1 673±10)Ma的侵位年龄.这表明华北北部的常州沟组底界(也即长城系的底界)年龄小于1 670 Ma,很可能接近1 650 Ma,比传统的底界年龄1 800 Ma至少年轻150Ma左右.这是迄今为止华北北部长城系底界最为直接而精确的年龄约束.结合上覆大红峪组、高于庄组等测年资料,可进一步将新厘定的长城系(含常州沟组、串岭沟组、团山子组、大红峪组)的形成时代限定在1 650~1 600 Ma,归属于固结纪(Statherian Period,1 800~1 600Ma)最晚期.这一新进展表明,华北北部中一新元古界的底界与西伯利亚里菲系(Riphean)和印度温地亚(Vindhyan)超群等沉积序列的底界几乎完全一致,可能暗示华北与这些古陆在哥伦比亚超大陆旋回中有着紧密的亲缘关系.%Recently a granite-porphyry dike has been recognized near the Dalongmen Village in the north of the Shachang Town, Miyun County, Beijing. The dike emplaced into the Neoarchean Miyun Group amphibole-plagio-gneiss. Both the dike and the wall rock gneiss were unconformably overlain by the conglomerate and sandstone of the Changzhougou Formatiorn By means of LA-MC-ICPMS zircon U-Pb dating, the emplacement age 1673±10 Ma of the granite-porphyry dike has been obtained. This dating result indicates that the base age of the Changzhougou Formation, i.e. the base age of the Changchengian System at the northern North China Craton (NCC) should be younger than 1670 Ma, probably close to 1650 Ma, at least~150 Ma younger than the conventionally adopted age 1800 Ma. This is the most direct and precise age constraint for the base of the Changchengian System at the northern NCC to date

  7. Penetapan Kadar Vitamin C dari Jus Buah Apel (Malus domestica Borkh.) yang Berwarna Merah dan Hijau secara Titrasi dengan 2,6-Diklorofenol Indofenol pada Beberapa Interval Waktu

    OpenAIRE

    Panjaitan, Novaria Sari Dewi

    2015-01-01

    Apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) is one of the most popular fruit and most consumed by the society for drinking by blended or juiced. Beside of its interesting colour, apple also has good function for health because it contents high levels of nutrition. This research was intended to find out about the content of vitamin C in red and green apple juice and to find out about the decreasing of vitamin C level in red and green apple juice on several time intervals, which is 0 to 5 hours. Red and ...

  8. Aktivitas Polifenol Teh Hijau (Camellia sinensis (L O. Kuntze Sebagai Imunomodulator melalui Respons Supresi Imunoglobulin E (IgE pada Rinitis Alergika

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusni

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Allergic rhinitis is an inflammatory condition of the nasal mucosa caused by interactions between allergens and immunoglobulin E (IgE. Immunomodulatory is an important part of the treatment of allergic rhinitis. One of the medicinal plants that have immunomodulatory activities is green tea (Camellia sinensis L., specifically polyphenols. The purpose of this study was to analyze the activity of green tea’s polyphenols as an immunomodulator in patients with allergic rhinitis. This study was conducted in June to December 2011 in the laboratory of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine Unsyiah with the IgE examinations conducted in private laboratories. This study is a pretest-postest quasi experimental study with control group design. Subjects were 12 patients with allergic rhinitis; 6 people were included in the control group (placebo and 6 in the treatment group (green tea’s polyphenols 2x350 mg/day, for 14 days. Analysis of the data was performed using the normality test, homogeneity test, and t-test (p<0.05. The results showed that the levels of immunoglobulin E after the administration of green tea’s polyphenols in the treatment group was lower than the control group (1.475.2±940.7 vs 494.3±366.5 IU, but not significantly (p=0.05. In conclusion, the administration of green tea’s polyphenols can insignificantly decrease the secretion of IgE. Hence, further research is required.

  9. Model Sistem Dinamis Ruang Terbuka Hijau Kota Medan Berdasarkan Faktor - Faktor Lingkungan (Studi Kasus Di Kecamatan Medan Polonia Dan Medan Area)

    OpenAIRE

    Faizah, Fitrina

    2011-01-01

    The research was conducted in 2 ( two ) subdistrict in Medan City, that were Medan Polonia and Medan Area subdistricts from October to November 2009. The aim of this research is to descript the dynamic system model of Green Open Space (GOS) which in Medan Polonia and Medan Area subdistricts. The model was used a dynamic system method of Powersim 2.5 program. The model was constructed there were sub system broad of region, population, to the amount of vehicle and plant (tree). Simulation resul...

  10. Pendugaan Cadangan Karbon Pada Tegakan Sawit (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) Umur 10 Tahun di Perkebunan Kelapa Sawit PT. Putri Hijau, Kabupaten Langkat

    OpenAIRE

    Hutasoit, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Plantation area in Indonesia tends to increase from year to year. If left unchecked, the forest land will be increasingly threatened as it is converted into at plantations. This research is oriented to estimate carbon stocks in oil palm plantations in North Sumatra. The extent to which the ability of CO2 absorption by oil palm plantations compared to forests, so that land management can be managed. The purpose of this research was to obtain the potential carbon stocks in vegeta...

  11. ANTIOXIDATIVE CHARACTERISTICS OF BEVERAGES MADE FROM A MIXTURE OF LEMONGRASS EXTRACT AND GREEN TEA [Studi Karakteristik Antioksidan Minuman Campuran Ekstrak Serai dan Teh Hijau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremia Manuel Halim*

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Combination of lemongrass extract and green tea infusion is expected to produce functional beverage that has potential antioxidant activity as compared to individual materials. This research was aimed to investigate the appropriate solvent type and extraction methods to produce lemongrass extract with highest antioxidant activity and also to investigate the antioxidant characteristic of beverages prepared from a mixture of lemongrass extract and green tea. Lemongrass were subjected to extraction under reflux and maceration using three type of solvents (distilled water, ethanol, and ethyl acetate. The resulting extracts were assessed for their total phenolic content, total flavonoid content, and antioxidant activity. Extraction under reflux and using ethanol as solvent resulted in extract with best antioxidant activity (IC50=158.70±47.88 mg/L for reflux method and 103.73±8.03 mg/L for ethanol. This extract was combined with green tea with several ratios (lemongrass extract to green tea [w/w] = 1:3; 1:2; 1:1; 2:1; 3:1. Four level of stevia were used in the beverages (0, 200, 400, 600 ppm. Beverages made with lomogass: tea ratio of 1:3 and 1:1 (w/w and 600 ppm stevia turned out to be beverages with the highest antioxidant activity (IC50=271.83±44.48 mg/L and 287.15±36.25 mg/L for ratio 1:3 and 1:1 [w/w] consecutively, 301.59±80.89 mg/L for stevia level 600 ppm. Hedonic testing on beverages revealed that beverage made from lemongrass: tea ratio 1:1 [w/w] ratio with addition of stevia at 600 ppm is the most preferred based on colour, aroma, and overall acceptance.

  12. Effect of Irradiation of 60CO Gamma Rays on Growth of Garlic (Allium Sativum L) Plants Cv. Lumbu Hijau at Low Land Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garlic originally come from the sub tropical area. In Indonesia, garlic is grown generally in high land area with an altitude between 1000 - 1600 m above sea level. Therefore, the area for growing and producing garlic is limited. Besides, genetic variation of garlic is very narrow since garlic belongs to vegetatively propagated crops. An effort for increasing genetic variation of garlic was done by exposing garlic cloves to gamma rays in order to obtain garlic mutant lines adapted to low land area. Garlic cloves were exposed to different doses of gamma rays 0 (untreated) 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 Gy at the Centre for Research and Development of Isotope and Radiation Technology. Each dose consisted of 150 garlic cloves. Untreated and irradiated garlic cloves were grown at Bandar Buat Experimental Station (50 m above sea level), Padang, West Sumatera. The experiment was arranged in a randomized block design with three replication. The parameter observed were percentage of grown plants and survival harvested plants, plant height, leaf number, chlorophyll content, number of stomata, plant age, number of cloves per bulbs, fresh, dry weight and diameter of bulbs. The result indicated that the dose of gamma rays 6 Gy is an advantage dose for obtaining well adapted garlic mutant lines in the low land area. (author)

  13. KONSEP BARU TOTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENT MANAGEMENT (TQEM) UNTUK MENGUJI KINERJA LINGKUNGAN

    OpenAIRE

    Yana Ulfah; Muhammad Ikbal

    2012-01-01

    Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis sebuah model mengontrol orientasi (Penelitian ini menguji pengaruh moderating dari Total Quality Manajemen Lingkungan Hidup (TQEM) pada hubungan antara manajemen rantai pasokan hijau (GSCM) dan kinerja lingkungan (EP). Premis penelitian adalah bahwa upaya organisasi total dari manajemen puncak dan karyawan memfasilitasi pelaksanaan GSCM, yang pada akhirnya meningkatkan kinerja hijau. Kerangka sampel termasuk unit bisnis strategis dari perusahaan ata...

  14. PROPERTY AND METALLOGENIC CHARACTERISTICS OF ALKALI-RICH PORPHYRY IN WESTERN MARGIN OF YANGTZE PLATFORM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    Alkali-richporphyriesofthewesternmarginofYangtzePlatformspreadalongAilaoshan-Jin-shajiangfromwesttonorth;theirage,therocktype...

  15. Speciation and leachability of copper in mine tailings from porphyry copper mining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik K.; Yianatos, Juan B; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2005-01-01

    Mine tailing from the El Teniente-Codelco copper mine situated in VI Region of Chile was analysed in order to evaluate the mobility and speciation of copper in the solid material. Mine tailing was sampled after the rougher flotation circuits, and the copper content was measured to 1150mgkg^-^1 dry...... matter. This tailing was segmented into fractions of different size intervals: 0-38, 38-45, 45-53, 53-75, 75-106, 106-150, 150-212, and >212@mm, respectively. Copper content determination, sequential chemical extraction, and desorption experiments were carried out for each size interval in order...... to evaluate the speciation of copper. It was found that the particles of smallest size contained 50-60% weak acid leachable copper, whereas only 32% of the copper found in largest particles could be leached in weak acid. Copper oxides and carbonates were the dominating species in the smaller particles...

  16. Studi Tentang Kualitas Air Hasil Olahan Dan Air Sungai Sipare-Pare Serta Persepsi Masyarakat Pada Instalasi Pengolahan Air Limbah Domestik Perumahan Tanjung Gading Kabupaten Batu Bara

    OpenAIRE

    Dewi, Eva Kusuma

    2011-01-01

    This thesis purposed is to determine the processed water quality of the WWTP (Wastewater Treatment Plant), Tanjung Gading based on Environment Ministerial Decree No. 112 Year 2003, and to compare the quality of Sipare-pare river water before and after the processed water outlet WWTP Tanjung Gading under PP. 82 Year 2001. It is also to know the perception of people living on the outskirts of River Sipare-pare the use of water on processed water quality of Tanjung Gading WWTP. In this research,...

  17. Analisis Faktor-Faktor yang Mempengaruhi Implementasi SIMDA dan Pengaruhnya Terhadap Kualitas Laporan Keuangan Pemerintah Daerah (Penelitian pada SKPD di Kabupaten Labuhan Batu Utara)

    OpenAIRE

    Diwasya, Ina Rahmi

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine factors that affect SIMDA implementation and quality of financial statements of SKPD in Labuhanbatu Utara. It examines the effect of human resources, data quality, management commitment and perception of the success on management information system of public government / SIMDA. A survey of 64 respondents is selected to gather information’s to test the study hypotheses.The hypothesis was analyzed using Structural Equation Model (SEM) with Smart PLS 2.0...

  18. Penggunaan Serat Alami Limbah Ampas Tebu (BAGGASE) PTPN II Sei Semayang Dan Perekat Abu Terbang Batu Bara Pltu Sibolga (FLY ASH) Substitusi Semen Pada Pembuatan Genteng

    OpenAIRE

    Daulay, Sri Hanurawati NS

    2010-01-01

    Incerasing tensile strengthof concrete can be obtained by adding fiber to the fresh concrete mix. In limited applications of non structural element. The natural fiber (mineral or organic) can be used. This research is conducted to know the influence of baggase fiber addition in cement, sand, and water mix to in crease the tensile, compressive strength,fracture strength hardness and water absorption. This result will be application in building materialin dustries especially for tiles produ...

  19. The gamma dose assessment and pH correlation for various soil types at Batu Pahat and Kluang districts, Johor, Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An assessment of absorbed dose and radiation hazard index as well as its relationship with soil pH was performed in this study. The area was chosen due to its variety of soil types from the Alluvial and the Sedentary group. The radioactivity concentration levels and the soil acidity were measured using the Canberra GC3518 high pure germanium with a relative efficiency of 35% at 1.3 MeV and the Takemura Soil pH and Moisture Tester (DM15), respectively. Overall results show the Holyrood-Lunas soil of Alluvial group recorded the highest external terrestrial gamma radiation dose rate (TGRD) of 286.4±37.9 nGy h−1 and radioactivity concentrations of 78.1±8.9 Bq kg−1 (226Ra), 410.5±55.4 Bq kg−1 (232Th) and 56.4±8.8 Bq kg−1 (40K), respectively, while the Peat soil of Alluvial group recorded the lowest TGRD of 4.4±2.7 nGy h−1 and radioactivity concentrations of 4.8±1.7 Bq kg−1 (226Ra), 3.1±1.1 Bq kg−1 (232Th) and 6.1±2.0 Bq kg−1 (40K), respectively. The estimated mean outdoor annual effective dose, the mean radium equivalent activity (Req) and the mean external (Hext) and internal hazard index (Hint) associated with the alluvial and sedentary soil group were evaluated at 0.15 and 0.20 mSv, 280 and 364 Bq kg−1, Hext = 0.78 and 1.01, and Hint = 0.93 and 1.26, respectively. Correlation analysis between 238U, 232Th and 40K with soil pH level for alluvial group was r = +0.68, +0.48 and 0, respectively, while for sedentary soil, the Pearson’s, r = −0.30, −0.90 and +0.14, respectively

  20. Isolasi dan Karakterisasi Fungi Endofit Pada Akar tanaman Akasia (Acacia sp) di PT Sumatera Riang Lestari Sei Kebaro Labuhan Batu Selatan Sumatera Utara

    OpenAIRE

    Siadari, Menak Hotnauli

    2010-01-01

    Endophytic fungi are microorganisms associated with plant tissues that are profitable, this endophytic fungi can improve plant growth while the plants provide a food source for endophytic. The purpose of this study is to determine and characterize the types of endophytic fungi found on acacia roots both macroscopic and microscopic. Sample was taken from healthy roots of acacia plants 10 and 6 years old. Isolation and characterization conducted laboratory Forest Faculty of Agriculture Universi...

  1. The gamma dose assessment and pH correlation for various soil types at Batu Pahat and Kluang districts, Johor, Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johar, Saffuwan Mohamed, E-mail: saffuwan@uthm.edu.my [Department of Science, Faculty of Science, Technology and Human Development, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (Malaysia); Embong, Zaidi [Department of Science, Faculty of Science, Technology and Human Development, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (Malaysia); Research Center for Soft Soil (RECESS), Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (Malaysia); Tajudin, Saiful Azhar Ahmad [Research Center for Soft Soil (RECESS), Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (Malaysia)

    2016-01-22

    An assessment of absorbed dose and radiation hazard index as well as its relationship with soil pH was performed in this study. The area was chosen due to its variety of soil types from the Alluvial and the Sedentary group. The radioactivity concentration levels and the soil acidity were measured using the Canberra GC3518 high pure germanium with a relative efficiency of 35% at 1.3 MeV and the Takemura Soil pH and Moisture Tester (DM15), respectively. Overall results show the Holyrood-Lunas soil of Alluvial group recorded the highest external terrestrial gamma radiation dose rate (TGRD) of 286.4±37.9 nGy h{sup −1} and radioactivity concentrations of 78.1±8.9 Bq kg{sup −1} ({sup 226}Ra), 410.5±55.4 Bq kg{sup −1} ({sup 232}Th) and 56.4±8.8 Bq kg{sup −1} ({sup 40}K), respectively, while the Peat soil of Alluvial group recorded the lowest TGRD of 4.4±2.7 nGy h{sup −1} and radioactivity concentrations of 4.8±1.7 Bq kg{sup −1} ({sup 226}Ra), 3.1±1.1 Bq kg{sup −1} ({sup 232}Th) and 6.1±2.0 Bq kg{sup −1} ({sup 40}K), respectively. The estimated mean outdoor annual effective dose, the mean radium equivalent activity (R{sub eq}) and the mean external (H{sub ext}) and internal hazard index (H{sub int}) associated with the alluvial and sedentary soil group were evaluated at 0.15 and 0.20 mSv, 280 and 364 Bq kg{sup −1}, H{sub ext} = 0.78 and 1.01, and H{sub int} = 0.93 and 1.26, respectively. Correlation analysis between 238U, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K with soil pH level for alluvial group was r = +0.68, +0.48 and 0, respectively, while for sedentary soil, the Pearson’s, r = −0.30, −0.90 and +0.14, respectively.

  2. The gamma dose assessment and pH correlation for various soil types at Batu Pahat and Kluang districts, Johor, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johar, Saffuwan Mohamed; Embong, Zaidi; Tajudin, Saiful Azhar Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    An assessment of absorbed dose and radiation hazard index as well as its relationship with soil pH was performed in this study. The area was chosen due to its variety of soil types from the Alluvial and the Sedentary group. The radioactivity concentration levels and the soil acidity were measured using the Canberra GC3518 high pure germanium with a relative efficiency of 35% at 1.3 MeV and the Takemura Soil pH and Moisture Tester (DM15), respectively. Overall results show the Holyrood-Lunas soil of Alluvial group recorded the highest external terrestrial gamma radiation dose rate (TGRD) of 286.4±37.9 nGy h-1 and radioactivity concentrations of 78.1±8.9 Bq kg-1 (226Ra), 410.5±55.4 Bq kg-1 (232Th) and 56.4±8.8 Bq kg-1 (40K), respectively, while the Peat soil of Alluvial group recorded the lowest TGRD of 4.4±2.7 nGy h-1 and radioactivity concentrations of 4.8±1.7 Bq kg-1 (226Ra), 3.1±1.1 Bq kg-1 (232Th) and 6.1±2.0 Bq kg-1 (40K), respectively. The estimated mean outdoor annual effective dose, the mean radium equivalent activity (Req) and the mean external (Hext) and internal hazard index (Hint) associated with the alluvial and sedentary soil group were evaluated at 0.15 and 0.20 mSv, 280 and 364 Bq kg-1, Hext = 0.78 and 1.01, and Hint = 0.93 and 1.26, respectively. Correlation analysis between 238U, 232Th and 40K with soil pH level for alluvial group was r = +0.68, +0.48 and 0, respectively, while for sedentary soil, the Pearson's, r = -0.30, -0.90 and +0.14, respectively.

  3. Analisis Pengaruh Kualitas Pelayanan Terhadap Kepuasan Nasabah dan Dampaknya Pada Loyalitas Nasabah Bank Sumut Cabang Pembantu Limapuluh Di Kabupaten Batu Bara

    OpenAIRE

    Tampubolon, Lasma Ria

    2012-01-01

    Bank Sumut is a bank owned by the provincial Government of Sumatera Utara and is expected to be one of the resources of the original locally-generated revenues for the Province of Sumatera Utara. Realizing the importance of service quality improvement, the management of Bank Sumut pays their serious attention through their vision and mission. In facing the very tight competition, Bank Sumut has an overall standard of service such as Greeting, Greet and Smile, which plays an important role in ...

  4. PENGARUH KONSENTRASI GARAM, PENAMBAH JENIS ASAM TERHADAP MUTU LADA HIJAU DALAM BOTOL SELAMA PENYIMPANAN [The Effect of Salt and the Addition of Several Acid Types on the Quality of Bottled Green Pepper During Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endah Djubaedah1

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Research on the effect of salt and the acid types addition on the quality of bottled green pepper during storage has been conducted. Treatments were used 10 % and 20 % of salt, 0.2 % of citric acid and 4 % of acetic acid. The product were stored for 3 months and were analyzed for green color degree, pH, total plate count (TPC, piperine and total solid content. The results showed that citric acid treatment, better than acetic acid treatment, indicated by higher degree of green color (5.30 - 5.92 and pH 4.5 - 4.7 while the other 4.46 - 4.60 of green color degree and pH 3.5 - 3.9. Treatment of 20 % salt was more effective than 10 % of salt in preventing microorganism growth which was indicated by lower TPC value (2 - 5 colony/g. Products treated by citric acid and acetic acid also had lower TPC value, 3 - 5 colony/g and 2 - 3 colony/g respectively. Combinations of salt and acid treatments gave significant effect on it. Piperine content were relatively unchanged during 2 months storage (6.5 - 8 % but it decreased in 3 months storage (5 - 6 %. The best quality was product treated by 20 % of salt and 0.2 % of citric acid. It was also treated by soaking in 2 % of Na2CO3 for 30 minutes, blanching for 5 minutes, addition of 300 ppm SO2 and heating in 100 °C for 15 minutes as constant treatment. The product was also feasible financially on capacity 1,000 bottle per day. Selling Rp. 4,000.00 per bottle will give benefit Rp. 60,000,000.00 per 6 months with 1.11 benefit cost ratio (B/CResearch on the effect of salt and the acid types addition on the quality of bottled green pepper during storage has been conducted. Treatments were used 10 % and 20 % of salt, 0.2 % of citric acid and 4 % of acetic acid. The product were stored for 3 months and were analyzed for green color degree, pH, total plate count (TPC, piperine and total solid content. The results showed that citric acid treatment, better than acetic acid treatment, indicated by higher degree of green color (5.30 - 5.92 and pH 4.5 - 4.7 while the other 4.46 - 4.60 of green color degree and pH 3.5 - 3.9. Treatment of 20 % salt was more effective than 10 % of salt in preventing microorganism growth which was indicated by lower TPC value (2 - 5 colony/g. Products treated by citric acid and acetic acid also had lower TPC value, 3 - 5 colony/g and 2 - 3 colony/g respectively. Combinations of salt and acid treatments gave significant effect on it. Piperine content were relatively unchanged during 2 months storage (6.5 - 8 % but it decreased in 3 months storage (5 - 6 %. The best quality was product treated by 20 % of salt and 0.2 % of citric acid. It was also treated by soaking in 2 % of Na2CO3 for 30 minutes, blanching for 5 minutes, addition of 300 ppm SO2 and heating in 100 °C for 15 minutes as constant treatment. The product was also feasible financially on capacity 1,000 bottle per day. Selling Rp. 4,000.00 per bottle will give benefit Rp. 60,000,000.00 per 6 months with 1.11 benefit cost ratio (B/C

  5. PERENCANAAN DAN ANALISIS BIAYA INVESTASI ANTARA PERKERASAN KAKU DENGAN PERKERASAN LENTUR PADA JALUR TRANS JAKARTA BUSWAY: STUDI KASUS PADA TRANS JAKARTA BUSWAY KORIDOR 8 ANTARA HALTE PONDOK INDAH 2 HINGGA HALTE PERMATA HIJAU

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardi Prahara; Andika Sunarsa

    2012-01-01

    Types of rigid pavement for road has been widely used in Indonesia, ranging from toll roads to the outer town road. Rigid pavement is considered more powerful than the flexible pavement. In other words, rigid pavement is expected to have a longer service life and minimal maintenance. The construction cost for rigid pavement is more expensive compared to flexible pavement. While the need for rigid pavement maintenance is cheaper than for flexible pavement. Seen from investment point of view, r...

  6. PERENCANAAN DAN ANALISIS BIAYA INVESTASI ANTARA PERKERASAN KAKU DENGAN PERKERASAN LENTUR PADA JALUR TRANS JAKARTA BUSWAY: STUDI KASUS PADA TRANS JAKARTA BUSWAY KORIDOR 8 ANTARA HALTE PONDOK INDAH 2 HINGGA HALTE PERMATA HIJAU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardi Prahara

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Types of rigid pavement for road has been widely used in Indonesia, ranging from toll roads to the outer town road. Rigid pavement is considered more powerful than the flexible pavement. In other words, rigid pavement is expected to have a longer service life and minimal maintenance. The construction cost for rigid pavement is more expensive compared to flexible pavement. While the need for rigid pavement maintenance is cheaper than for flexible pavement. Seen from investment point of view, rigid pavement is more profitable than flexible pavement, because the annual fee required for rigid pavement is less. Due to the comparations, an analysis is performed in this study to select which type of pavement is best used in the future.

  7. PARAMETER KINETIKA INAKTIVASI TERMAL DAN ISOLASI Staphylococcus aureus PADA MINUMAN DARI GEL CINCAU HIJAU DAN ROSELA [Thermal Inactivation Kinetics Parameter and Isolation of Staphylococcus aureus on Drink from Green Grass Jelly and Roselle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eko Hari Purnomo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Information about heat resistance (D and z values of target bacteria is needed for the thermal process design on drink from Green Grass Jelly (Premna oblongifolia Merr. and Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L., so it can guarantee quality and safety of the product. The objectives of this research were to isolate Staphylococcus aureus from commercial green grass jelly and to determine the D and z values of Staphylococcus aureus (from commercial product and standard clinical isolate ATCC 25923 on heating menstruum of green grass jelly and roselle. Isolation of S. aureus was done by inoculation in selective medium, D and z values of Staphylococcus aureus were assessed by heating at constant temperatures of 57, 53, 49, and 45°C during the time interval 2.5, 5, 10, and 15 minutes. The results showed that one isolate (Isolate A gave positive response of Staphylococcus aureus in isolation tests and had similar percentage with the reference culture of 41.8% using the API Staph Kit. Heat resistance of Staphylococcus aureus (represented as D value isolated from green grass jelly at constant heating temperature of D45, D49, D53 and D57 were 32.3, 17.9, 4.6, and 1.5 minutes. On the other hand, D value of isolates ATCC 25923 (standard clinical isolate at constant heating temperature of D45, D49, D53 and D57 were 18.5, 6.8, 2.9, and 1.4 minutes. The z value of isolates A and ATCC 25923 were 8.8°C and 10.8°C. Smaller z value of isolate A showed that pasteurization process can be accelerated and optimized with increasing the temperature slightly but has the same lethality effect.

  8. PENGARUH PENAMBAHAN LAKASE DARI JAMUR TIRAM PUTIH (Pleurotus ostreatus TERHADAP AKTIVITAS ANTIOKSIDAN TEH HIJAU [Effect of The Addition of Laccase from White Oyster Mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus Towards Antioxidant Activity of Green Tea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tagor M. Siregar1*

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Laccase is one of the enzymes that can be used in organic synthesis using aromatic compounds (polyphenols and aminofenol as substrates. Polyphenol compound in green tea is flavan-3-ols or catechin which are susceptible to enzymatic reaction with laccase. In this research laccase isolated from white oyster mushroom was added into the green tea extract. Addition of laccase is expected to yield products with a higher antioxidant activity. Prior to it’s use, laccase activity was determined and had a specific activity of 0.54 Unit/mg. The green tea extract was prepared using methanol and water as solvents. The antioxidant activity was evaluated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical-scavenging activity method and the total flavonoid content was assayed by spectrophotometry. Antioxidant compounds are identified by using UV-Vis spectrophotometry and GC-MS. Addition of laccase into green tea extract resulted in precipitates showing a significant increase in flavonoid content and antioxidant activity. Use of methanol as solvent resulted in extract with higher antioxidant activity and total flavonoid than that extracted with water. Qualitative analysis with spectrophotometer UV-Vis and GC-MS showed that the new components in the precipitates were a variety of dimeric products with increased molecular weight and antioxidant activity. Addition of laccase into green tea extract has yielded products with higher antioxidant activity.

  9. EVALUASI EFEK LAKSATIF DAN FERMENTABILITAS KOMPONEN PEMBENTUK GEL DAUN CINCAU HIJAU (Premna oblongifolia Merr. [Evaluation of Laxatife ffect and Fermentabilitiy of Gel Forming Component ofGreen cingcau Leaves(Premna oblongifolia Merr.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samsu Udayana Nurdin

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The major effects of dietary fibre occur in the colon. Each type of dietary fibre interacts with the microflora, and the colonic mucosa and muscle to produce several possible effects. The action of an individual fibre source depends to a large extent on its fermentability. The least fermentable dietary fibres are in general having the greatest effects on stool output. Previous research showed that Gel Forming Component (GFC of green cingcau leaves (Premna oblongifolia Merr. had high fermentability in vitro. Therefore, in this research, we evaluated its effecton stool output and viable cells number of lactic acid bacteria in the diegesta of rats fed with diet containing GFC. Fifteen of 3 months-old Sparague-Dawle (cand (3 Rats fed with diet containing iulin (l. The results showed that stool output of G was higher than l, but lower than C (6.30, 4.61, 7.21%, (respectively. feces consistency of G was softer than l, but harder than C. Number of viable cells of latic acid bacteria in the diegesta of G, I, and C were 12.85, 11.97 and 11.14 log of viable cells numbe/g digesta, respectively. These data suggest that GFC of green cingcau leaves had moderate laxative effect and fermentability.

  10. Analisis Kesiapan Industri Manufaktur Teknologi Informasi dan Komunikasi (TIK Dalam Negeri Untuk Mendukung Implementasi Green-ICT Pada Sektor Telekomunikasi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diah Yuniarti

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Industri TIK merupakan bagian dari industri masa depan yang terdiri atas industri perangkat, infrastruktur/jaringan dan aplikasi/konten. Akhir-akhir ini, aspek lingkungan menjadi pertimbangan dalam menciptakan kesinambungan industri, termasuk industri TIK atau yang dikenal dengan istilah TIK hijau. Implementasi TIK Hijau pada penyelenggara telekomunikasi masih menemui beberapa kendala yaitu efisiensi rendah dan investasi tinggi pada penggunaan perangkat TIK berbasis energi alternatif. Selain itu, rencana implementasi TIK Hijau di lembaga pemerintah maupun swasta masih dibayangi isu terkait kekuatan industri dalam negeri. Penelitian ini bertujuan mengukur kesiapan industri manufatur TIK dalam negeri untuk mendukung implementasi TIK Hijau pada sektor telekomunikasi. Pendekatan penelitian menggunakan pendekatan kuantitatif berdasarkan indikator attitude, policy, practice, technology dan governance yang dimodifikasi pada Green IT Readiness Model oleh Molla, Alemayehu, et.al. Berdasarkan analisis LSR, secara umum lima responden industri manufaktur dikategorikan memiliki sikap positif. Indikator yang perlu mendapatkan perhatian dari responden yang tergolong memiliki sikap negatif adalah indikator policy dan governance.

  11. Pengaruh Aerasi dan Sumber Nutrien terhadap Kemampuan Alga Filum Chlorophyta dalam Menyerap Karbon (Carbon Sink) untuk Mengurangi Emisi CO2 di Kawasan Perkotaan

    OpenAIRE

    Lancur Setoaji; Joni Hermana

    2013-01-01

    Penelitian terkait mitigasi pemanasan global, khususnya dalam penyerapan karbon dioksida (CO2), menjadi fokus utama di kalangan ilmuwan dunia. Secara alamiah, karbon dioksida dapat diserap oleh tumbuhan hijau, laut, karbonasi batuan kapur, dan alga. Pigmen hijau dalam alga atau klorofil dapat menyerap karbon dioksida dalam proses fotosintesis. Alga memiliki pertumbuhan yang sangat cepat sehingga cocok digunakan sebagai carbon sink. Penelitian terkait carbon sink ini bertujuan untuk menentukan...

  12. Effec of green Tea Toward Sensitivity of Diabetic Melitus Patients

    OpenAIRE

    hamrun, nurlindah

    2007-01-01

    Advantages of green tea as a medicine ascribed from plant had been known and used by community. In dental medicine, several researchers had reported that the advantages of green tea for dental health. The research aims to examine effect of green tea toward sensitivity tooth of diabetic mellitus patients. / Khasiat teh hijau sebagai obat yg berasal dari tumbuhan telah diketahui dan digunakan oleh masyarakat. Dalam bidang kedokteran gigi, beberapa peneliti telah melaporkan khasiat teh hijau

  13. ABSORPSI β-KAROTEN SERBUK DAUN SINGKONG (Manihot Utilissima) KERING PADA ANAK PRASEKOLAH

    OpenAIRE

    Almasyhuri Almasyhuri; M. Khumaidi; Muhilal Muhilal; Rimbawan Rimbawan

    2012-01-01

    Indonesia telah bebas dari masalah kurang vitamin A (KVA), tetapi jumlah anak balita dengan vitamin A serum marjinal (<20 ug/dl) masih tinggi. Salah satu program penanggulangan KVA di Indonesia adalah dengan peningkatan konsumsi sayuran hijau pada anak balita. Menurut de Pee, karoten sayuran hijau kurang dapat diabsorpsi karena berupa ikatan komplek yang kuat yang berada dalam kloro plas. Penelitian ini mempelajari pengaruh pembuatan serbuk kering daun singkong muda dan tua terhadap absorp...

  14. Paleozoic magmatism and porphyry Cu-mineralization in an evolving tectonic setting in the North Qilian Orogenic Belt, NW China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Kun-Feng; Deng, Jun; Taylor, Ryan D.; Song, Kai-Rui; Song, Yao-Hui; Li, Quan-Zhong; Goldfarb, Richard J.

    2016-01-01

    The NWW-striking North Qilian Orogenic Belt records the Paleozoic accretion–collision processes in NW China, and hosts Paleozoic Cu–Pb–Zn mineralization that was temporally and spatially related to the closure of the Paleo Qilian-Qinling Ocean. The Wangdian Cu deposit is located in the eastern part of the North Qilian Orogenic Belt, NW China. Copper mineralization is spatially associated with an altered early Paleozoic porphyritic granodiorite, which intruded tonalites and volcaniclastic rocks. Alteration zones surrounding the mineralization progress outward from a potassic to a feldspar-destructive phyllic assemblage. Mineralization consists mainly of quartz-sulfide stockworks and disseminated sulfides, with ore minerals chalcopyrite, pyrite, molybdenite, and minor galena and sphalerite. Gangue minerals include quartz, orthoclase, biotite, sericite, and K-feldspar. Zircon LA-ICPMS U–Pb dating of the ore-bearing porphyritic granodiorite yielded a mean 206Pb/238U age of 444.6 ± 7.8 Ma, with a group of inherited zircons yielding a mean U–Pb age of 485 ± 12 Ma, consistent with the emplacement age (485.3 ± 6.2 Ma) of the barren precursor tonalite. Rhenium and osmium analyses of molybdenite grains returned model ages of 442.9 ± 6.8 Ma and 443.3 ± 6.2 Ma, indicating mineralization was coeval with the emplacement of the host porphyritic granodiorite. Rhenium concentrations in molybdenite (208.9–213.2 ppm) suggest a mantle Re source. The tonalities are medium-K calc-alkaline. They are characterized by enrichment of light rare-earth elements (LREEs) and large-ion lithophile elements (LILEs), depletion of heavy rare-earth elements (HREEs) and high-field-strength elements (HFSEs), and minor negative Eu anomalies. They have εHf(t) values in the range of +3.6 to +11.1, with two-stage Hf model ages of 0.67–1.13 Ga, suggesting that the ca. 485 Ma barren tonalites were products of arc magmatism incorporating melts from the mantle wedge and the lithosphere. In contrast, the 40-m.y.-younger ore-bearing porphyritic granodiorite is sub-alkaline and peraluminous. They are enriched in LREEs and LILEs, depleted in HFSEs, and show weak negative Eu anomalies. They displayεHf(t) values of captured or inherited zircons in the range of +8.5 to +10.0, and younger two-stage Hf model ages of 0.78 Ga and 0.86 Ga, similar to those of ca. 485 Ma tonalite. The ca. 445 Ma zircons have εHf(t) values of −2.1 to +9.9, with two-stage Hf model ages of 0.75–1.27 Ga. Moreover, they have relatively high oxygen fugacity than that of the precursor barren tonalite. The ca. 445 Ma magmas at Wangdian thus formed in a subduction setting, and incorporated melts from the subduction-modified lithosphere that had previously been enriched by additions of chalcophile and siderophile element-rich materials by the earlier magmatism and metasomatism during the Paleo Qilian-Qinling Ocean subduction event.

  15. Isolation and characterization of lost copper and molybdenum particles in the flotation tailings of Kennecott copper porphyry ores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tserendavga, Tsend-Ayush

    The importance of flotation separation has long been, and continues to be, an important technology for the mining industry, especially to metallurgical engineers. However, the flotation process is quite complex and expensive, in addition to being influenced by many variables. Understanding the variables affecting flotation efficiency and how valuable minerals are lost to the tailings gives metallurgists an advantage in their attempts to increase efficiency by designing operations to target the areas of greatest potential value. A successful, accurate evaluation of lost minerals in the tailings and appropriate solutions to improve flotation efficiency can save millions of dollars in the effective utilization of our mineral resources. In this dissertation research, an attempt has been made to understand the reasons for the loss of valuable mineral particles in the tailings from Kennecott Utah Copper ores. Possibilities include liberation, particle aggregation (slime coating) and surface chemistry issues associated with the flotation separation. This research generally consisted of three main aspects. The first part involved laboratory flotation experiments and factors, which affect the flotation efficiency. Results of flotation testing are reported that several factors such as mineral exposure/liberation and slime coating and surface oxidation strongly affect the flotation efficiency. The second part of this dissertation research was to develop a rapid scan dual energy (DE) methodology using 2D radiography to identify, isolate, and prepare lost sulfide mineral particles with the advantages of simple sample preparation, short analysis time, statistically reliable accuracy and confident identification. The third part of this dissertation research was concerned with detailed characterization of lost particles including such factors as liberation, slime coating, and surface chemistry characteristics using advanced analytical techniques and instruments. Based on the results from characterization, the extent to which these factors contribute to the loss of sulfide mineral particles in the tailings were determined.

  16. Porphyry copper assessment of northeast Asia: Far East Russia and northeasternmost China: Chapter W in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihalasky, Mark J.; Ludington, Stephen; Alexeiev, Dmitriy V.; Frost, Thomas P.; Light, Thomas D.; Briggs, Deborah A.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Wallis, John C.; Bookstrom, Arthur A.; Panteleyev, Andre

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey assesses resources (mineral, energy, water, environmental, and biologic) at regional, national, and global scales to provide science in support of land management and decision making. Mineral resource assessments provide a synthesis of available information about where mineral deposits are known and suspected to be in the Earth’s crust, which commodities may be present, and estimates of amounts of resources in undiscovered deposits.

  17. Porphyry copper assessment of British Columbia and Yukon Territory, Canada: Chapter C in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihalasky, Mark J.; Bookstrom, Arthur A.; Frost, Thomas P.; Ludington, Steve

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey does regional, national, and global assessments of resources (mineral, energy, water, biologic) to provide science in support of land management and decision making. Mineral resource assessments provide a synthesis of available information about where mineral deposits are known and suspected to be in the Earth’s crust, which commodities may be present, and estimates of amounts of resources that may be present in undiscovered deposits.

  18. Paleozoic magmatism and porphyry Cu-mineralization in an evolving tectonic setting in the North Qilian Orogenic Belt, NW China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Kun-Feng; Deng, Jun; Taylor, Ryan D.; Song, Kai-Rui; Song, Yao-Hui; Li, Quan-Zhong; Goldfarb, Richard J.

    2016-05-01

    The NWW-striking North Qilian Orogenic Belt records the Paleozoic accretion-collision processes in NW China, and hosts Paleozoic Cu-Pb-Zn mineralization that was temporally and spatially related to the closure of the Paleo Qilian-Qinling Ocean. The Wangdian Cu deposit is located in the eastern part of the North Qilian Orogenic Belt, NW China. Copper mineralization is spatially associated with an altered early Paleozoic porphyritic granodiorite, which intruded tonalites and volcaniclastic rocks. Alteration zones surrounding the mineralization progress outward from a potassic to a feldspar-destructive phyllic assemblage. Mineralization consists mainly of quartz-sulfide stockworks and disseminated sulfides, with ore minerals chalcopyrite, pyrite, molybdenite, and minor galena and sphalerite. Gangue minerals include quartz, orthoclase, biotite, sericite, and K-feldspar. Zircon LA-ICPMS U-Pb dating of the ore-bearing porphyritic granodiorite yielded a mean 206Pb/238U age of 444.6 ± 7.8 Ma, with a group of inherited zircons yielding a mean U-Pb age of 485 ± 12 Ma, consistent with the emplacement age (485.3 ± 6.2 Ma) of the barren precursor tonalite. Rhenium and osmium analyses of molybdenite grains returned model ages of 442.9 ± 6.8 Ma and 443.3 ± 6.2 Ma, indicating mineralization was coeval with the emplacement of the host porphyritic granodiorite. Rhenium concentrations in molybdenite (208.9-213.2 ppm) suggest a mantle Re source. The tonalities are medium-K calc-alkaline. They are characterized by enrichment of light rare-earth elements (LREEs) and large-ion lithophile elements (LILEs), depletion of heavy rare-earth elements (HREEs) and high-field-strength elements (HFSEs), and minor negative Eu anomalies. They have εHf(t) values in the range of +3.6 to +11.1, with two-stage Hf model ages of 0.67-1.13 Ga, suggesting that the ca. 485 Ma barren tonalites were products of arc magmatism incorporating melts from the mantle wedge and the lithosphere. In contrast, the 40-m.y.-younger ore-bearing porphyritic granodiorite is sub-alkaline and peraluminous. They are enriched in LREEs and LILEs, depleted in HFSEs, and show weak negative Eu anomalies. They display εHf(t) values of captured or inherited zircons in the range of +8.5 to +10.0, and younger two-stage Hf model ages of 0.78 Ga and 0.86 Ga, similar to those of ca. 485 Ma tonalite. The ca. 445 Ma zircons have εHf(t) values of -2.1 to +9.9, with two-stage Hf model ages of 0.75-1.27 Ga. Moreover, they have relatively high oxygen fugacity than that of the precursor barren tonalite. The ca. 445 Ma magmas at Wangdian thus formed in a subduction setting, and incorporated melts from the subduction-modified lithosphere that had previously been enriched by additions of chalcophile and siderophile element-rich materials by the earlier magmatism and metasomatism during the Paleo Qilian-Qinling Ocean subduction event.

  19. Faktor-Faktor Yang Mempengaruhi Masyarakat Tidak Menggunakan Hak Pilihnya Pada Pemilihan Umum Bupati Dan Wakil Bupati Kabupaten Deli Serdang Tahun 2008 Di Desa Tanjung Anom Kecamatan Pancur Batu Ketua Departemen Ilmu Politik

    OpenAIRE

    Sembiring, Zulfan Harapanta

    2015-01-01

    In Indonesia the term golput (white group) is better known than the term apathy in every election. Birth not vote in Indonesia's political system begins with deep concern the behavior of political elites who only talk about power and how to maintain it. This term appears in the 1970's, refers to the attitudes and political action to not participate in the election of the New Order as it is considered undemocratic. Golput is a political process, which is a reflection of public mistrust of poli...

  20. Analisis Yuridis Mengenai Tanggung Jawab Sosial Perusahaan Terhadap Masyarakat Ditinjau Dari Undang-Undang Nomor 25 Tahun 2007 Tentang Penanaman Modal (Studi Penelitian di PT INALUM di Kabupaten Batu Bara)

    OpenAIRE

    Sihotang, Fakhrul Rozi

    2011-01-01

    The presence of an investment to the area for develop once for capital will be impact to the people and the environment. Most companies are only take the benefit from capital vine without thinking about the social responsibilities to the public. Many exploitation of natural resources and environmental destruction around the operating company (investor). Law Number 25 Year 2007 regarding Investment in Article 15 letter (b) and Article 17 governs the obligations of investors in the implementati...

  1. Zircon and apatite fission track analyses on mineralization ages and tectonic activities of Tuwu-Yandong porphyry copper deposit in northern Xinjiang, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The mineralization ages reported in the past in the Tuwu-Yandong copper district not only are different, but also fall into the Hercynian epoch. This study has achieved 9 zircon and 7 apatite fission track analysis results. The zircon fission track ages range from 158 Ma to 289 Ma and the apatite ages are between 64 Ma and 140 Ma. The mineralization accords with the regional tectonics in the copper district. We consider that the zircon fission track age could reveal the mineralization age based on annealing zone temperature of 140-300℃ and retention temperature of ~250℃ for zircon fission track, and metallogenetic temperature of 120-350℃ in this ore district. Total three mineralization epochs have been identified, i.e., 289-276 Ma,232-200 Ma and 165-158 Ma, and indicate occurrence of the mineralization in the Indosinian and Yanshan epochs. Corresponding to apatite fission track ages, the three tectonic-mineralizing epochs are 140-132 Ma, 109-97 Ma and 64 Ma, which means age at about 100℃ after the mineralization. The three epochs lasted 146 Ma, 108 Ma and about 100 Ma from ~250℃ to ~100℃ and trend decrease from early to late. It is shown by the fission track modeling that this district underwent three stages of geological thermal histories, stable in Cretaceous and cooling both before Cretaceous and after 20 Ma.

  2. Extremely Re-Rich Molybdenite from Porphyry Cu-Mo-Au Prospects in Northeastern Greece: Mode of Occurrence, Causes of Enrichment, and Implications for Gold Exploration

    OpenAIRE

    Tamara Kartal; Melissa Ortelli; Luca Bindi; Robert Moritz; Vasilios Melfos; Paul G. Spry; Panagiotis Voudouris

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: Extremely Re-rich molybdenite occurs with pyrite in sodic–calcic, sodic–sericitic and sericitic-altered porphyritic stocks of granodioritic–tonalitic and granitic composition in the Sapes–Kirki–Esymi, Melitena and Maronia areas, northeastern Greece. Molybdenite in the Pagoni Rachi and Sapes deposits is spatially associated with rheniite, as well as with intermediate (Mo,Re)S2 and (Re,Mo)S2 phases, with up to 46 wt % Re. Nanodomains and/or microinclusions of rheniite may produce the ...

  3. Jurnal Kesehatan Andalas. 2013; 2(2) Malrotasi dan Volvulus pada Anak

    OpenAIRE

    Yusri Dianne Jurnalis; Yorva Sayoeti; Adria Russelly

    2013-01-01

    AbstrakMalrotasi dan volvulus merupakan kasus gawat darurat dibidang bedah anak yang memerlukan intervensi segera. Malrotasi dan volvulus kebanyakan terjadi pada periode neonatus walaupun pada beberapa kasus dilaporkan terjadi pada usia anak besar bahkan dewasa. Manifestasi klinis berupa muntah hijau dengan atau tanpa distensi abdomen yang berhubungan dengan obstruksi duodenum atau volvulus midgut. Keterlambatan diagnosis dan talaksana dapat mengakibatkan terjadinya nekrosis intestinal, short...

  4. 冈底斯斑岩铜矿带冲江及驱龙含矿斑岩体锆石ELA-ICP-MS及SHRIMP定年对比研究%COMPARISON OF ELA-ICP-MS AND SHRIMP U-PB ZIRCON AGES OF THE CHONGJIANG AND QULONG ORE-BEARING PORPHYRIES IN THE GANGDESE PORPHYRY COPPER BELT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    莫济海; 梁华英; 喻亨祥; 谢应雯; 张玉泉

    2006-01-01

    利用ELA-ICP-MS分析技术对冈底斯斑岩铜矿带冲江及驱龙含矿斑岩体进行锆石U-Pb年龄测定,所得到的年龄分别为14.0±0.2Ma和17.0±0.2Ma.两个含矿岩体锆石ELA-ICP-MS U-Pb年龄和SHRIMP年龄在误差范围内基本一致.冲江含矿斑岩体成岩成矿可分为两期,每期成岩成矿时间跨度约1Ma;驱龙含矿斑岩体成岩成矿时间跨度约为1 Ma.

  5. Questa Baseline and Pre-Mining Ground-Water Quality Investigation. 13. Mineral Microscopy and Chemistry of Mined and Unmined Porphyry Molybdenum Mineralization Along the Red River, New Mexico: Implications for Ground- and Surface-Water Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plumlee, Geoff; Lowers, Heather; Ludington, Steve; Koenig, Alan; Briggs, Paul

    2005-01-01

    This report is one in a series presenting results of an interdisciplinary U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) study of ground-water quality in the lower Red River watershed prior to open-pit and underground molybdenite mining at Molycorp's Questa mine. The stretch of the Red River watershed that extends from just upstream of the town of Red River to just above the town of Questa includes several mineralized areas in addition to the one mined by Molycorp. Natural erosion and weathering of pyrite-rich rocks in the mineralized areas has created a series of erosional scars along this stretch of the Red River that contribute acidic waters, as well as mineralized alluvial material and sediments, to the river. The overall goal of the USGS study is to infer the pre-mining ground-water quality at the Molycorp mine site. An integrated geologic, hydrologic, and geochemical model for ground water in the mineralized but unmined Straight Creek drainage is being used as an analogue for the geologic, geochemical, and hydrologic conditions that influenced ground-water quality and quantity at the mine site prior to mining. This report summarizes results of reconnaissance mineralogical and chemical characterization studies of rock samples collected from the various scars and the Molycorp open pit, and of drill cuttings or drill core from bedrock beneath the scars and adjacent debris fans.

  6. Analisis Kebutuhan Hutan Kota Sebagai Penyerap Gas CO2 Antropogenik Di Pusat Kota Medan

    OpenAIRE

    RD. Guti Gratimah

    2009-01-01

    Kota merupakan pusat aktivitas manusia. Pembangunan kota yang terus meningkat dan berkurangnya Ruang Terbuka Hijau (RTH) akan menyebabkan karbondioksida meningkat. Oleh sebab itu konsentrasi gas CO2 di udara ambien harus diupayakan tidak terus bertambah naik, salah satu cara untuk mengatasinya dengan membangun hutan kota. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah menentukan luasan hutan kota sebagai penyerap gas CO2 antropogenik yang berasal dari bensin, solar, minyak tanah dan LPG. Penelitia...

  7. A BOUNDARY ELEMENT METHOD FOR STEADY INFILTRATION FROM A SINGLE CHANNEL

    OpenAIRE

    N. WIDANA; MARIA LOBO

    2012-01-01

    The matric flux potential and horizontal and vertical flux distributions are obtained usingintegral equation techniques for a single irrigation channel. The theory is based on the assumptionthat the hydraulic conductivity is an exponential function of the soil water potential. In therelevant special cases the results are compared with results obtained previously by Batu [4] andWarrick and Loman [20].

  8. The Reinforcement to the Citizen Participation in Taking Care of the Environmental Protection Towards a Green Moral Concept-Based Sustainable Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syahri, Mohamad

    2016-01-01

    The research sites were "Blitar, Malang" and "Batu" in East Java Province, Indonesia since those areas are regarded to have problems of environmental crises. In the data collection, this study made use of four methods, namely: a) observation, b) In-depth Interviews, c) documentation, and d) focus group discussion. The results…

  9. The First Report of Penicillium georgiense in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Yee, Teh Li; Zakaria, Latiffah

    2014-01-01

    Penicillium georgiense was isolated from sandy beach soil from Batu Ferringhi beach, Penang Island, Malaysia. The identification was based on morphological characteristics and phylogenetic analysis of internal transcribed spacer regions and β-tubulin sequences. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of P. georgiense in Malaysia.

  10. Physics Laboratory Investigation of Vocational High School Field Stone and Concrete Construction Techniques in the Central Java Province (Indonesia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purwandari, Ristiana Dyah

    2015-01-01

    The investigation aims in this study were to uncover the observations of infrastructures and physics laboratory in vocational high school for Stone and Concrete Construction Techniques Expertise Field or Teknik Konstruksi Batu dan Beton (TKBB)'s in Purwokerto Central Java Province, mapping the Vocational High School or Sekolah Menengah Kejuruan…

  11. Uji Adaptasi Beberapa Varietas Padi Ladang (Oryza sativa L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Herlina Fitri

    2009-01-01

    Penelitian ini dilaksanakan di Lahan Penelitian Fakultas Pertanian, Universitas Sumatera Utara, Medan. Penelitian ini dilaksanakan untuk mengetahui daya adaptasi dan produksi beberapa varietas padi ladang. Penelitian ini menggunakan rancangan acak kelompok non faktorial dengan perlakuan 5 varietas. Varietas padi yang diuji adalah Towuti, Situ Bagendit, Situ Patenggang, Batu Tegi dan Arias. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan Varietas berpengaruh nyata terhadap tinggi tanaman, jumlah anakan per tanam...

  12. A BOUNDARY ELEMENT METHOD FOR STEADY INFILTRATION FROM A SINGLE CHANNEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. WIDANA

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The matric flux potential and horizontal and vertical flux distributions are obtained usingintegral equation techniques for a single irrigation channel. The theory is based on the assumptionthat the hydraulic conductivity is an exponential function of the soil water potential. In therelevant special cases the results are compared with results obtained previously by Batu [4] andWarrick and Loman [20].

  13. Occurrence of Giardia and Cryptosporidium (oo)cysts in the river water of two recreational areas in Selangor, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azman, J; Init, I; Wan Yusoff, W S

    2009-12-01

    This study is the first report on the occurrence of Giardia and Cryptosporidium (oo)cysts in recreational rivers water from Malaysia. It was carried out in water samples at two rivers, 'Sungai Congkak' and 'Sungai Batu', located in Selangor State. The occurrence of both Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium parvum (oo)cysts was higher in Sungai Congkak (50% or 15/30 and 10% or 3/30 respectively) than Sungai Batu (16% or 5/30 and 3.3% or 1/30 respectively). The mean density of cysts/L was 0.72 in Sungai Congkak and 0.023 in Sungai Batu, and that of oocysts/L was 0.023 in Sungai Congkak and 0.0033 in Sungai Batu, showing that the occurrence of Giardia was higher and more frequent than Cryptosporidium in both rivers. Sungai Congkak also showed higher faecal coliforms count (ranging from 0.48x10³ to 73x10³ CFU/100 mL) than Sungai Batu (0.41x10³ to 16x10³ CFU/100 mL). On the other hand, the Giardia and Cryptosporidium (oo)cysts and faecal coliforms were more concentrated at the downstream station, followed by midstream and upstream stations which might be due to human factors where settlements and recreation areas were located around and between midstream and downstream stations. The (oo)cysts and faecal coliforms also increased during public holidays due to the significantly higher number of visitors (bathers) compared with the week days. All the parameters (physical, faecal coliforms and rainfall) did not show consistent significant correlation (based on r values of Pearson correlation analysis) with both protozoa, therefore these parameters are not suitable as indicator for the presence of Giardia and Cryptosporidium (oo)cysts in both rivers. PMID:20237443

  14. Antipredator Behaviour of Limnonectes blythii (Boulenger, 1920 (Anura: Dicroglossidae from Kedah, Peninsular Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahriza Shahrudin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The frog Limnonectes blythii was collected at different locations in Kedah, Peninsular Malaysia, three from Sungai Sedim Recreational Forest, two from Bukit Hijau Recreational Forest, and two from Ulu Paip Recreational Forest. Nine antipredator mechanisms were displayed by this species, including fleeing, hiding among leaf litter, diving into water, bladder discharge, defensive call, feigning death, crouching, inflating the body, and body-raising. The two latter actions were accompanied by a defensive call. These observations document for the first time antipredator behaviour in L. blythii.

  15. Molybdenite occurrences in Greece: mineralogy, geochemistry and depositional environment

    OpenAIRE

    Voudouris, P.; Melfos, V.; Moritz, Robert; Spry, P. G.; Ortelli, Mélissa; Kartal, T.

    2010-01-01

    Molybdenite occurs mainly in three mineralization types in Greece: (a) porphyry Mo-Cu-(±Te-Ag-Au), (b) reduced intrusion-related Mo-W systems (skarn, intrusion-hosted) and (c) shear zone-related Cu-Au-Bi-Mo. In porphyry-Mo-Cu prospects the molybdenite is the main ore constituent together with pyrite in quartz stockworks crosscutting sericite±carbonate altered porphyry stocks (dacite at Pagoni Rachi/Kirki, Myli/Esymi, Konos/Sapes, Melitena/Rhodopi and Stypsi/Lesvos; microgranite at Ktismata/Ma...

  16. PRAKTIK PEMBERIAN MAKANAN PADA BAYI DI BOGOR DAN FAKTOR-FAKTOR SOSIAL BUDAYA YANG MEMPENGARUHI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnelia Arnelia

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Telah dilakukan penelitian di daerah perkotaan dan pedesaan Ciomas di Kabupaten Bogor, untuk mempelajari praktek pemberian makanan pada bayi serta faktor sosial budaya yang mempengaruhi dengan menggunakan metoda Rapid Assesment Procedures (RAP. Sampel penelitian adalah ibu-ibu yang mempunyai bayi umur (13-18 bulan, kader Posyandu, dukun bayi dan tokoh masyarakat. Hasil penelitian menunjukan bahwa makanan pralaktasi berupa madu dan air putih, biasa diberikan kepada bayi baru lahir di kedua desa. Bayi di daerah perkotaan sudah diberi ASI sejak berusia sehari, sedangkan di pedesaan umumnya pada hari ke empat karena ASI pada tiga hari pertama dianggap kotor dan biasanya dibuang. Pemberian makanan tambahan dimulai pada usia terlalu dini, yaitu rata-rata usia dua minggu di pedesaan dan satu bulan di perkotaan. Sebaliknya pemberian sayuran hijau dan protein hewani umumnya terlambat. Sayuran hijau baru diberikan setelah usia sembilan bulan di perkotaan, dan setelah 18 bulan di pedesaan. Protein hewani umumnya baru mulai diberikan setelah bayi berusia 12 bulan. Bahkan di daerah pedesaan, jenis ikan basah baru diberikan setelah anak berusia tiga tahun.

  17. Pengaruh Aerasi dan Sumber Nutrien terhadap Kemampuan Alga Filum Chlorophyta dalam Menyerap Karbon (Carbon Sink untuk Mengurangi Emisi CO2 di Kawasan Perkotaan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lancur Setoaji

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian terkait mitigasi pemanasan global, khususnya dalam penyerapan karbon dioksida (CO2, menjadi fokus utama di kalangan ilmuwan dunia. Secara alamiah, karbon dioksida dapat diserap oleh tumbuhan hijau, laut, karbonasi batuan kapur, dan alga. Pigmen hijau dalam alga atau klorofil dapat menyerap karbon dioksida dalam proses fotosintesis. Alga memiliki pertumbuhan yang sangat cepat sehingga cocok digunakan sebagai carbon sink. Penelitian terkait carbon sink ini bertujuan untuk menentukan kemampuan rata-rata serapan CO2 oleh alga di kawasan perkotaan dan menentukan pengaruh aerasi dan variasi sumber N terhadap pertumbuhan dan perkembangan alga. Penelitian ini dilakukan dalam skala laboratorium menggunakan reaktor dengan proses batch. Sampel alga yang digunakan didapatkan dari hasil pengembangbiakan yang bersumber dari perairan di kawasan perkotaan. Penelitian ini menggunakan dua variabel uji, yaitu aerasi dan sumber nutrien. Jumlah karbon dioksida yang diserap didapatkan dari perbandingan stoikiometri pada reaksi fotosintesis.  Berdasarkan perbandingan stoikiometri tersebut diketahui bahwa 1 gram sel alga yang terbentuk sebanding dengan 1,92 gram CO2 yang diserap. Dari hasil penelitian, alga dengan penambahan pupuk urea dapat menyerap 4,87 mg CO2/hari dalam kondisi tanpa aerasi atau 3,84 mg CO2/hari dengan aerasi. Sedangkan alga dengan penambahan pupuk NPK dapat menyerap 3,61 mg CO2/hari dalam kondisi tanpa aerasi atau 3,01 mg CO2/hari dengan aerasi.

  18. Variasi morfologi, karyotipe dan pola pita protein pada berbagai varietas kamboja jepang (Adenium obesum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DWI HASTUTI

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Hastuti D, Suranto, Setyono P. 2009. Variasi morfologi, karyotipe dan pola pitaprotein pada berbagai varietas kamboja jepang (Adenium obesum. Bioteknologi 6:88-95. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui variasi Adenium obesum dari enam varietas yaitu obesum, cery, red lucas, red fanta , white bigben, dan harry potter berdasarkan sifat morfologi, karyotipe, serta pola pita protein. Preparat kromosom dibuat dengan metode squash semi permanen dengan bahan ujung akar tanaman dan pola pita protein dilakukan dengan metode SDS-PAGE. Data kualitatif meliputi bentuk dan warna daun dan bunga dari masing-masing varietas. Data morfometri antara varietas dianalisis dengan analisis sidaik ragam (ANAVA, dilanjutkan dengan uji jarak berganda Duncan (DMRT, pada taraf 5% terbukti terdapat beda nyata antar varietas. Pola pita protein akar, batang, daun serta semua organ dianalisis secara kualitatif menggunakan analisis kelompok hierarkhis Average Linkage (between Groups dalam program SPSS 10.0. Hasilnya menunjukkan bahwa keenam varietas memiliki karakter morfologi yang bervariasi, yaitu warna daun hijau muda sampai hijau tua, tidak berbulu, tulang daun polos, sedangkan warna mahkota merah muda sampai merah tua, walaupun ada yang putih dan kuning. Jumlah kromosom semua sama yaitu n =22, dimana panjang absolut kromosom berkisar antara 2,56-5,13 µm. Pola pita protein yang terbentuk secara kualitatif terdapat variasi ketebalan di antara keenam varietas, yang menunjukkan adanya perbedaan kandungan proteinnya.

  19. Directives for Mangrove Forest and Coastal Forest Rehabilitation in Earthquake and Tsunami Disaster Area in the Provinces of Manggroe Aceh Darussalam and Sumatera Utara (Nias Island, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecep Kusmara

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Peristiwa gempa bumi dan tsunami yang melanda Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam (NAD dan Pulau Nias Sumatera Utara pada bulan Desember 2004 telah mengakibatkan rusaknya sebagian besar hutan mangrove dan hutan pantai di kedua wilayah tersebut. Berhubung kedua tipe hutan tersebut sangat penting untuk menopang kelangsungan hidup penduduk pantai, maka penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mendapatkan arahan rehabilitasi hutan mangrove dan pantai yang rusak akibat tsunami di NAD dan Pulau Nias. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa wilayah pantai yang tanahnya berupa tanah mineral yang bukan lumpur dengan salinitas yang tinggi (di atas 10 0/00 seyogyanya ditanami oleh jenis mangrove eklusif (Rhizophora stylosa, R. apiculata, Sonneratia alba, Ceriops tagal dan Aegeciros floridum dan mangrove asosiat (Osbornea octodonta dan Scyphiphora sp., tanah bukan lumpur dengan salinitas rendah oleh berbagai jenis pohon hutan pantai (Casuarina equisetifolia, dan lain-lain, tanah lumpur bersalinitas tinggi oleh Avicenia spp. dan R. Mucronata; dan tanah gambut seyogyanya ditanami oleh Bruguiera gymnorrizha. Adapun lebar  jalur hijau vegetasi yang disarankan adalah minimal 225 m untuk wilayah NAD dan 211 m untuk wilayah pulau Nias. Untuk merealisasikan kegiatan rehabilitasi vegetasi pantai yang bersifat multitahun di NAD dan Nias maka kegiatan rehabilitasi tersebut harus ditempatkan dalam rangka pembangunan daerah Kata kunci: hutan mangrove, hutan pantai, jalur hijau, mangrove asosiat, mangrove eksklusif

  20. Increased Porphyrins in Primary Liver Cancer Mainly Reflect a Parallel Liver Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Kaczynski

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatic porphyries have been associated with an increased risk of primary liver cancer (PLC, which on the other hand may cause an increased porphyrin production. To evaluate the role of an underlying liver disorder we analyzed porphyrins in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC (n=65, cholangiocellular carcinoma (n=3, or suspected PLC, which turned out to be metastases (n=18 or a benign disorder (n=11. None of the patients had a family history of porphyry or clinical signs of porphyry. Increased aminolevulinic acid or porphyrin values were common not only in patients with PLC (43% but also in metastatic (50% and benign (64% liver disorders. The corresponding proportion for HCC patients with liver cirrhosis (55% was higher (P<.05 than in those without cirrhosis (17%. We conclude that symptomatic porphyries are unusual in PLC, whereas elevated urinary and/or faecal porphyrins are common, primarily reflecting a parallel liver disease and not the PLC.

  1. TADRIS MAHARAH AL-KALAM FI MADRASAH TSUNAIYYAH AL-LUGHAH AL-STANAWIYAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahkholid Nasution

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Giving the name Bilingual of the Madrasah Aliyah Bilingual Batu this a characteristic of this madrasah among madrasah-madrasah aliyah especially in Batu City. Bilingual in question is the use of the Arabic language and English as the language of instruction in these madrasah. Pay attention to the peculiarities of the madrasah, the writer wanted to dig further information about the development process of learning the Arabic language at the school, especially in the field of speaking skills (Maharah Kalam. Therefore, the approach used in writing this article is a qualitative approach with descriptive - evaluative method. It can be concluded that in general the process of the development of the Arabic language at the school has been following the principles of the development of the Arabic language to non-Arabs, but there are still many shortcomings and problems were found, including the media, environment and human resources are inadequate.

  2. 冀北大滩盆地铀(钼)成矿流纹岩-花岗斑岩SHRIMP锆石U-Pb定年、地球化学及Sr-Nd同位素特征%SHRIMP U-Pb geochronology, geochemistry and Sr-Nd isotopes of the uranium-(molybdenum) related rhyolite and granitic porphyry, Datan, northern Heibei

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张雅菲; 巫建华; 姜山; 刘玄; 吴仁贵; 刘帅; 郭国林

    2016-01-01

    大滩火山岩盆地位于华北克拉通北缘,燕辽多金属(Mo-U-Ag-Pb-Zn)成矿带西段,沽源-红山子铀成矿亚带西南段.高精度SHRIMP锆石U-Pb定年表明,盆地内张家口组流纹岩和侵入其中的花岗斑岩分别形成于140.2±1.9Ma(2σ,MSWD=1.7)和131.7±1.1Ma(2σ,MSWD=0.8).全岩主、微量元素特征显示,流纹岩和花岗斑岩均富集Si、Fe、Ga、Rb、Pb、Th、U、Zr、Hf、Nb、Ta和LREE,亏损Al、Mg、Ti、Ba、Sr、Eu、Cr、Ni和HREE,为典型的A型花岗岩特征.全岩Nd同位素研究表明,二者具有相似的εNd(t)(分别为-15.9和-16.5)和tDM2值(分别为2267Ma和2220Ma),暗示二者具有相同的岩浆来源.元素相关性分析表明,母岩浆从流纹岩演化至花岗斑岩经历了一定程度的钾长石和黑云母的结晶分异,导致了后者Si、U、HREE的进一步富集,以及Fe、Mg、Ti、Al、Sr、Ba、Eu、Zr、LREE等元素的相对亏损.结合前人工作,我们认为流纹岩和花岗斑岩形成于华北克拉通岩石圈减薄及破坏的板内伸展背景,来源于古元古代(ca.2.2 ~ 2.3Ga)火成地壳物质(英云闪长质、花岗闪长质岩石)的部分熔融.结合全岩Rb-Sr等时线年龄及前人获得的矿石U-Pb年龄推断,该区主要铀(钼)矿化时代介于105~1 10Ma,明显晚于流纹岩和花岗斑岩的成岩时代.通过与区域上的产铀盆地(沽源)对比,以及对流纹岩和花岗斑岩的U含量等特征分析认为,两者(尤其是花岗斑岩)是很好的铀矿成矿物质来源,暗示了大滩盆地具有良好的成矿前景.

  3. Geochronology,Geochemistry and Petrogenic & Metallogenic Settings of the Yangmadian Porphyry Molybdenum Deposit in the Yanshan-Liaoning Metallogenic Belt,North China%燕辽成矿带养马甸斑岩型钼矿成矿岩体的年代学、地球化学及成岩成矿环境

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯慧; 吴昌志; 郑远川; 顾连兴; 蒋少涌; 孙洪涛; 高龙

    2012-01-01

    The Yangmadian Mo deposit is located in western Liaoning province, eastern part of the Yanshan - Liaoning Mo (Cu) metallogenic belt. The Yangmadian granitic pluton associated with the molybdenum mineralization is composed of three main different lithofacies, porphyraceous granite, coarse-grained granite and fine-grained granite. Their major minerals include quartz (30%- 45%), K-feldspar (35%- 50%), plagioclase (15%- 25%) and biotite (3%- 5%). Orebodies of the Yangmadian Mo deposit occur mainly in the fine-grained granite, and minor in the coarse-grained granite and porphyraceous granite. Geochemical researches show that the pluton is rich in Si (ω(SiO2) = 69. 26%-76.44%), alkalis (ω(Na2O+K2O) = 7. 87%-8. 81%), poor in Ca (ω(CaO) =0. 36%- 1. 33%) , Mg (ω (MgO) = 0. 17%-0.61%), Fe (ω(FeOT) = 1. 47%-3. 39%) , potassic (K2O/Na2O= 1. 05 - 1. 31) and metaluminous (A/CNK = 0. 90 - 1. 00). The pluton is generally enriched in Large Ion Lithophile Element (LILE, such as K, Rb, Th and LREE) , normal in High Field Strong Element (HFSE, such as Nb, Ta, Zr, Hf and HREE) , slightly depleted in Medium REE, and displays a "V" shape chondrite-normalized REE patterns with strong negative Eu anomalies (δEu = 0. 26 - 0. 76). Both evolution characters of the minerals and geochemical characters of the rocks indicate that the Yangmadian pluton were resulted from different degree fractional crystallization of the common parent magma, which derived from the part melting of lower crust materials under high-pressure granulite facies. The isotopic dating indicates that LA - ICP - MS zircon U - Pb ages are (192. 1 + 1. 9) Ma, (189. 5 + 1.4) Ma, and (189.3+3. 3) Ma for porphyraceous, coarse-grained and fine-grained granite, respectively. Based on comprehensive researches on existing geological data, it can be conclude that petrogeny and metallogeny of the Yangmadian pluton were resulted from the Early Jurassic reactivation of the residual mantle wedge induced by subduction of the Paleo-Asia Ocean in Paleozoic period.%养马甸钼矿床位于燕辽钼(铜)成矿带东段的辽西地区.养马甸岩体由似斑状花岗岩、粗粒花岗岩和细粒花岗岩3个不同岩相组成,主要矿物为石英(30%~45%)、钾长石(35%~50%)、斜长石(15%~25%)和少量黑云母(3%~5%).矿体主要赋存于养马甸岩体的细粒花岗岩中,少部分赋存在紧邻细粒花岗岩的粗粒花岗岩和似斑状花岗岩中.地球化学研究表明,养马甸岩体总体为富硅(w(SiO2)=69.26%~76.44%)、富碱(w(Na2O+K2O)=7.87%~8.81%),贫钙(w(CaO) =0.36%~1.33%)、镁(w(MgO)=0.17%~0.61%)和铁(w(FeOT)=1.47%~3.39%)的钾质(K2O/Na2O=1.05~1.31)—准铝质花岗岩(A/CNK=0.90~1.00).该岩体总体富集大离子亲石元素(K、Rb、Th和LREE),高场强元素(Nb、Ta、Zr、Hf和HREE)亏损不明显,而中稀土相对亏损,在稀土元素配分图上呈左陡右缓的“V”型.岩石地球化学及矿物演化特征表明,养马甸岩体的不同岩相为同源岩浆经历不同程度分离结晶作用的产物,其母岩浆来源于高压麻粒岩相下地壳物质的部分熔融.成岩与成矿年代学研究表明,似斑状花岗岩的LA-ICP-MS锆石U-Pb年龄为(192.1±1.9) Ma,粗粒花岗岩的LA-ICP-MS锆石U-Pb年龄为(189.5±1.4)Ma,而细粒花岗岩的LA-ICP-MS锆石U-Pb年龄为(189.3士3.3)Ma.结合对已有资料的归纳和分析,认为养马甸斑岩钼矿形成于后造山背景下的陆内伸展环境,含矿岩体及斑岩型钼矿的形成可能与古亚洲洋残留地幔楔在早侏罗世的再活化有关.

  4. Regional mapping of hydrothermally altered igneous rocks along the Urumieh-Dokhtar, Chagai, and Alborz Belts of western Asia using Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data and Interactive Data Language (IDL) logical operators: a tool for porphyry copper exploration and assessment: Chapter O in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mars, John L.; Zientek, M.L.; Hammarstrom, J.M.; Johnson, K.M.; Pierce, F.W.

    2014-01-01

    Regional maps of phyllic and argillic hydrothermal alteration were compiled using Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data and logical operator algorithms. The area mapped extends from northwestern Iran to southeastern Pakistan and includes volcanic and magmatic arcs that make up the Urumieh-Dokhtar volcanic belt (UDVB), the Chagai volcanic belt (CVB), and the central part of the Alborz magmatic belt (AMB). The volcanic belts span the Zagros-Makran transform zone and the present day Baluchistan (Makran) volcanic arc. ASTER visible near infrared (VNIR) data contain three bands between 0.52 and 0.86 micrometers (μm) and the short-wave infrared (SWIR) data consist of six bands spanning 1.6 to 2.43 μm with 15-meter (m), and 30-m resolution, respectively.

  5. 新疆包古图斑岩铜矿床成矿流体及成矿物质来源——来自硫、氢和氧同位素证据%Sources of ore-forming fluids and materials of the Baogutu porphyry copper deposit in Xinjiang: Constraints from sulfur-hydrogen-oxygen isotopes geochemistry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张志欣; 杨富全; 闫升好; 张锐; 柴凤梅; 刘锋; 耿新霞

    2010-01-01

    包古图大型斑岩铜矿位于准噶尔盆地西缘.铜矿化主要呈浸染状、细脉浸染状分布于似斑状(石英)闪长岩、闪长玢岩、隐爆角砾岩和少量花岗闪长岩中.依据矿脉的穿插关系和矿物组合,成矿过程经历了黑云母-钾长石-钠长石阶段、石英-硫化物阶段和石英碳酸盐阶段.矿脉中石英的δDSMOW值介于-107‰~-86‰,δOSMOW值变化于11.3‰~16.2‰,δ18OH2O值为4.4‰~9.3‰.表明成矿流体来源为深源的岩浆水.硫化物的δ34S值介于-5.1‰~0.7‰,平均为-1.8‰,表明硫来源于深部岩浆或地幔.结合Ⅱ、Ⅲ和Ⅴ号含矿岩体锆石LA-ICP-MS U-Pb年龄及辉钼矿Re-Os年龄,推断包古图铜矿床成矿作用发生在晚石炭世,与中酸性斑岩体的侵入有密切成因关系.

  6. 内蒙古额勒根斑岩型钼(铜)矿化区辉钼矿铼-锇同位素年龄及地质意义%Re-Os isotopic age dating of molybdenite separates from Elegen porphyry Mo (Cu)mineralized area, northwestern Alxa, western Inner Mongolia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂凤军; 屈文俊; 刘妍; 杜安道; 江思宏

    2005-01-01

    为了查明额勒根矿化区斑岩型钼(铜)矿化发生的时间,对主要矿化体内5件辉钼矿样品进行了铼-锇同位素分析,所获同位素等时线年龄为(332.0±9.0)Ma(2σ),其MSWD值为0.29.鉴于辉钼矿呈浸染状分布于似斑状花岗闪长岩和花岗闪长斑岩体中,并且与黄铜矿和黄铁矿呈共生结构关系,推测额勒根地区斑岩型钼(铜)矿化体、似斑状花岗闪长岩和花岗闪长斑岩体的形成时间为早石炭世中期,均是海西中期构造-岩浆活动的产物.

  7. Geochronology and geochemistry of Eocene potassic felsic intrusions in the Nangqian basin, eastern Tibet: Tectonic and metallogenic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yue; Bi, Xian-Wu; Hu, Rui-Zhong; Chen, You-wei; Liu, He-qing; Xu, Lei-luo

    2016-03-01

    The Jinshajiang-Ailaoshan copper belt is the most significant porphyry copper belt in eastern Tibet. In the northern segment of this belt within the Nangqian basin, which occurs 100 km east of the Yulong porphyry copper deposit, several felsic intrusions have been recently discovered. The Yulong porphyry copper deposit is one of the largest porphyry copper deposits in China, and it is associated with peraluminous adakitic rocks formed in a post-collisional setting. The Nangqian felsic intrusions vary from syenite porphyry to monzonite porphyry in rock types. No significant Cu-Au mineralization has been found in the Nangqian felsic intrusions despite extensive exploration in recent years. LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb dating reveals that the Nangqian syenite porphyry and monzonite porphyry were emplaced at ~ 35.6±0.3 Ma and from 39.5±0.3 to 37.4±0.3 Ma, respectively, similar to the age of the Yulong porphyry copper deposit. The Nangqian felsic intrusions are characterized by metaluminous compositions (A/CNK = 0.82-1.01), and they share some common features with shoshonites such as high K2O contents (4.58-5.58 wt.%), high K2O/Na2O ratios (0.92-1.28), LREE-LILE enrichments and negative Nb-Ta-Ti-P anomalies, as well as with adakites derived from an eclogite-facies source with high Al2O3 (14.98-15.74 wt.%), Sr (954-2190 ppm), Sr/Y (68-132) and La/Yb (53-85), and low Y and Yb contents. The Nangqian felsic intrusions have high initial 87Sr/86Sr (0.7050-0.7055), variable εNd(t) (- 0.31-1.43) and small variations in (206Pb/204Pb)i (18.68-18.74), (207Pb/204Pb)i (15.53-15.62) and (208Pb/204Pb)i (38.51-38.80). Zircon crystals from both syenite and monzonite porphyries are characterized by positive εHf(t) from 5.2 to 8.5. The results suggest that the syenite and monzonite magmas were differentiated from parental shoshonitic melts by fractional crystallization of olivine, clinopyroxene and minor feldspar. The parent magmas originated from a lithospheric mantle metasomatized by slab

  8. Tectonogeochemical features and metallogenic prognosis in the Xiaolongtan copper mining district, Binchuan, Yunnan Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Mingqin; SONG Huanbin; SU Xunqing

    2007-01-01

    The Xiaolongtan copper mining district is an important area in Dali, West Yunnan, where porphyry copper deposits occur, and copper orebodies are controlled by fault or contact zone structures between porphyry massifs and country rocks. Based on detailed field investigation and deep-going analysis, the authors systematically studied the tectonogeochemical features of this mining district, proposed the principle and foundation of metallogenic prognosis, and delineated the most potential mineralization target area.

  9. Study of Ambient and Indoor Air Quality in the Building Built on the Former Landfill

    OpenAIRE

    Anuar Ithnin; Nazipah Zakaria; Nor Azura Sulong; Shamrul Aizam Abd. Rahman; Normah Awang; Nurul Farahana Kamaludin

    2012-01-01

    Problem statement: The air quality study of PPR Taman Wahyu II, Selayang, Selangor was a residential project that was built on the former landfill site. The landfill site will produce landfill gases which can influence the air quality level in and outside the building. Approach: This air quality study also involving PPR Intan Baiduri, Batu Caves, Selangor as a control building. The air quality parameters chosen were physical, chemical and biological. Instruments used were HVS, Biogas Analyzer...

  10. A Boundary Element Method for Steady Infiltration from Periodic Channels.

    OpenAIRE

    Azis, Moh. Ivan; Clements, D. L.; Lobo, M

    2003-01-01

    The matric flux potential and horizontal and vertical flux distributions are obtained for periodic irrigation channels by using boundary integral equation techniques. Numerical results are given for the special cases of semicircular and rectangular channels and the results compared with those of Batu [Soil Science Society of America Journal, 42:545??? 549, 1978] and Warrick and Lomen [Soil Science Society of America Journal, 40:639???643, 1976] for a flat strip. The re...

  11. Penilaian Status Gizi Setelah Terapi Besi Pada Anak Sekolah Dasar Yang Menderita Anemia Defisiensi Besi

    OpenAIRE

    Leon Agustian

    2008-01-01

    Latar belakang. Efek zat besi terhadap peningkatan berat dan tinggi badan pada anak dengan anema defisiensi besi (ADB) telah di diketahui dapat meningkatkan pertumbuhan. Kemungkinan koeksistensi antara malnutrisi dan ADB sering dijumpai. Tujuan. Mengetahui efek besi terhadap status gizi pada anak dengan ADB Metode. Suatu uji klinis acak terkontrol, dilaksanakan di Kecamatan Bilah Hulu Kabupaten Labuhan Batu pada bulan November 2006 sampai Februari 2007. Anemia defisiensi besi didiagno...

  12. Pengembangan Model Dasar EOQ dengan Integrasi Produksi Distribusi untuk Produk Deteriorasi dengan Kebijakan Backorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Aisyah

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Model persediaan digunakan untuk menentukan kebijakan mengawasi tingkat persediaan. Oleh sebab itu keberadaan persediaan perlu dikelola dengan baik sehingga diperoleh kinerja yang optimal. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menghasilkan model integrasi produksi–distribusi untuk produk deteriorasi dengan kebijakan backorder. Model persediaan Economic Order Quantity (EOQ Single Item digunakan sebagai dasar pengembangan model. Algoritma pencarian solusi model dibuat untuk mendapatkan solusi dari model. Selain itu pada bagian akhir diberikan studi kasus implementasi model di UD. Bagus Agrista Mandiri, Batu.

  13. Penggunaan Pelepah Kelapa Sawit Yang Difermentasi Dengan Mikroba Lokal Pada Domba Lokal Jantan

    OpenAIRE

    Kartolo, Rahmat

    2015-01-01

    Rahmat Kartolo, 2014. “The Use of Oil Palm Fronds Fermented by Local Microbes on Local Male Sheep” Supervised by: Ma’ruf Tafsin and Simon P Ginting. The purpose of this experiment is to investigate the effect of oil palm fronds fermented by local microbes on local male sheep. This research was carried out at Agricultural Extension Society, Muara Batu, North Aceh, Aceh Province. Feed composition and digestibility were analysed at the Nutrition and Feed Technology Laboratory, Ani...

  14. Explorasi Hubungan antara Personaliti Islamik dan Gaya Keibubapaan

    OpenAIRE

    NOORAINI OTHMAN; SALASIAH KHAIROLLAH

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to identify the parenting styles which influence the Islamic personality among students from one of the secondary school in Batu Pahat district, Johor. Using strata random sampling technique, a total of 302 students from form 1 to form 6 of the secondary school was chosen as the respondents. This correlational study used questionnaire as an instrument for its data collection. The data analysis was done using the descriptive and inferential statistical analysis with th...

  15. Reisolasi Dan Identifikasi Fungi Pada Tanaman Gaharu (Aquilaria malaccencis Lamk.) Yang Telah Diinokulasi

    OpenAIRE

    Lisdayani

    2015-01-01

    Gaharu merupakan hasil penginfeksian dari fungi yang biasanya menggunakan fungi Fusarium sp. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui konsistensi keberadaan Fusarium sp pada gaharu (Aquilaria malaccencis Lamk.) yang telah di inokulasi dan fungi apa yang banyak terdapat pada batang atas, tengah, dan bawah gaharu. Sampel yang digunakan adalah batang yang telah diinokulasi yang diambil dari Desa Penungkiran Dusun II Durin Jangah Pancur Batu. Isolasi dan identifikasi dilakukan di Labora...

  16. ANALISIS DISPARITAS KUALITAS PELAYANAN PUSKESMAS DI KABUPATEN KUTAI KARTANEGARA

    OpenAIRE

    Irwandy; Syahrir A. Pasinringi; Dian S. Rislamind; Nurdin Perdana

    2013-01-01

    Para penyedia pelayanan kesehatan dan pembuat kebijakan saat ini telah banyak menggunakan kepuasan pasien sebagai salah satu alat ukur kinerja organisasi pelayanan kesehatan sepertu Puskesmas. Kabupaten Kutai Kartanegara adalah salah satu kabupaten yang berada di Propinsi Kalimantan Timur. Walaupun kaya akan sumber daya alam seperti batu bara dan gas bumi, kabupaten Kutai Kartanegara masih menghadapi permasalahan klasik berupa terjadinya disparitas pembangunan kesehatan di daerah-daerahnya. ...

  17. Keanekaragaman Vegetasi Dan Perhitungan Karbon Tersimpan Pada Vegetasi Mangrove Di Hutan Mangrove Kuala Indah Kabupaten Batubara

    OpenAIRE

    Harahap, Rosmawati

    2011-01-01

    The research of “ Vegetation Diversity and Calculation of Carbon Sink in Kuala Indah Mangrove Forest Batu Bara” to determine the diversity and dominance of mangroves, the carbon sink and the level of destruction of mangrove forests in the Mangrove Forest of Kuala Indah, Location of study determined by purposive sampling method by determining the location of the study deliberately considered representative. Collecting data on the location of the research by using the kuwadrat method with samp...

  18. PENGARUH BLENDED LEARNING TERHADAP PENGUASAAN KONSEP DAN PENALARAN FISIKA PESERTA DIDIK KELAS X

    OpenAIRE

    Hermawanto -; S. Kusairi; Wartono -

    2013-01-01

    Penelitian ini bertujuan 1) Mengetahui pengaruh blended learning terhadap penguasaan konsep fisika 2) Mengetahui pengaruh blended learning terhadap penalaran fisika. Rancangan yang digunakan adalah Randomized Posttest only Control Group Design. Populasinya adalah peserta didik kelas X SMA Negeri 1 Batu. Sampelnya yaitu kelas X-6 dan X-10 sebagai kelas eksperimen, kelas X-11 dan X-12 sebagai kelas kontrol. Hasil uji t penguasan konsep didapat thitung = 6,64 > = ttabel =1,66, menunjukkan ada...

  19. Desain dan Implementasi Peringatan Dini Banjir Menggunakan Data Mining dengan Wireless Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roni Putra

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is develop a warning system of early flood and weather information. This research was inspired by not stabilize weather condition of Indonesian. It will cause disaster such as flood because of the hight rainfall, as happened in Padang. Batu Busuk is one of the flood-prone area and galodo but there is no information about the weather, rainfall, humidity, temperature and wind speed and direction. The aim of this study is giving weather data and forecast information of the potential flood with variable rainfall, temperature, humidity, wind direction and wind speed which can be access realtime and up to date wherever and whenever via the webpage online. To determine the potential for flooding prediction by used data mining with a method of Alogritma C4.5 its can be result of decision tree. In this study using XBee S2PRO for sender and recipient with mesh topology which consists of a rainfall sensor components, SHT11, wind speed and direction as well as the arduino. Data storage and processing of information using the Raspberry Pi as a mini computer server. The result of sensor SHT11 measurement is a little difference with really measurement such as: 2.09% temperature, relative humidity of 0.59%, 3.87% wind speed, wind direction and precipitation 0% 6.32%. Meanwhile, the results of experiment in Batu Busuk proved the same weather conditions between EWS tool with the situation in Batu Busuk during the four day, where on March 22, 2016 at 5:35 PM information system Early Warning System (EWS issued a warning system would be the potential for flood and after it be floded Batu Busuk.

  20. SHRIMP zircon U-Pb dating for subduction-related granitic rocks in the northern part of east Junggar, Xinjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    SHRIMP U-Pb zircon dating on the Xileketehalasu granodiorite porphyry and Kalasayi monodiorite porphyry that intrude middle Devonian Beitashan Formation at the north part of east Junggar region shows that they were formed at 381±6 Ma and 376±10 Ma respectively. They are interpreted as subduction-related granitic rocks, which is the first report that the isotopic ages for the granitic rocks range from 350 to 390 Ma. Another determined age for the Kalasayi monodiorite porphyry is 408±9 Ma, representing the age of underlain Lower Devonian volcanic rocks. Thus, the U-Pb dates suggest that the northeastward subduction of Junggar ocean from southwest occurred at 408 to 376 Ma (the real interval may be larger). Because the ore-bearing porphyry intruded following the formation of the volcanic rocks of middle Devonian Beitashan Formation, their tectonic setting is similar to the Andes Mountains that hosts world-class porphyry copper deposits, and the researched area could be regarded as a potential area for prospecting large porphyry copper deposits.

  1. Bioleaching of two different types of chalcopyrite by Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Ying-bo; Lin, Hai; Fu, Kai-bin; Xu, Xiao-fang; Zhou, Shan-shan

    2013-02-01

    Two different types of chalcopyrite (pyritic chalcopyrite and porphyry chalcopyrite) were bioleached with Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans ATF6. The bioleaching of the pyritic chalcopyrite and porphyry chalcopyrite is quite different. The copper extraction reaches 46.96% for the pyritic chalcopyrite after 48-d leaching, but it is only 14.50% for the porphyry chalcopyrite. Proper amounts of initial ferrous ions can improve the efficiency of copper extraction for the two different types of chalcopyrite. The optimum dosage of ferrous ions for the pyritic chalcopyrite and porphyry chalcopyrite is different. The adsorption of ATF6 on the pyritic chalcopyrite and porphyry chalcopyrite was also studied in this paper. It is found that ATF6 is selectively adsorbed by the two different types of chalcopyrite; the higher adsorption onto the pyritic chalcopyrite than the porphyry chalcopyrite leads to the higher copper dissolution rate of the pyritic chalcopyrite. In addition, the zeta-potential of chalcopyrite before and after bioleaching further confirms that ATF6 is more easily adsorbed onto the pyritic chalcopyrite.

  2. Studi Pengaruh Kekuatan dan Kekakuan Dinding Bata Pada Bangunan Bertingkat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redha Sadhu Leksono

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Dalam mendesain suatu struktur seperti portal, para perencana umumnya tidak memperhitungkan komponen dinding pengisi seperti batu bata sebagai komponen struktural (dianggap sebagai komponen non structural/beban terbagi rata. Pada kenyataannya, dinding pengisi tersusun atas  batu bata dengan mortar yang memiliki kekuatan dan kekakuan tertentu. Dinding pengisi, batu bata, ini juga memilki kecenderungan untuk berinteraksi bersama portal yang ditempatinya, terutama bila terkena gaya lateral (akibat gempa yang cukup besar. Dalam studi ini akan dianalisa sampai pada tingkat berapakah kekuatan dan kekakuan  dinding bata berpengaruh cukup signifikan terhadap suatu struktur gedung bertingkat. Dinding bata dianggap sebagai bracing tekan dan akan dimodelkan dengan batang diagonal, lalu akan dibandingkan dengan dinding bata yang dianggap sebagai beban mati terbagi rata (open frame. Untuk analisa strukturnya akan digunakan metode Analisa Statik Non-Linier (Pushover dengan program bantu SAP 2000. Hasil studi ini menunjukkan bahwa struktur open frame memiliki perilaku struktur yang lebih baik daripada struktur dengan bracing tekan. Hal ini ditunjukkan pada nilai target perpindahan saat performance point,  struktur open frame memiliki nilai yang lebih besar. Sehingga dapat ditarik kesimpulan bahwa dinding bata dapat mengganggu kinerja struktur utama untuk berdeformasi secara maksimal. Semakin tinggi tingkat lantai suatu gedung, maka tingkat pengaruh kekuatan dan kekakuan dinding bata semakin besar terhadap kinerja struktur utama. Oleh karena itu, perencanaan suatu desain bangunan harus memperhatikan kekuatan dan kekauaan dinding bata.

  3. ANCAMAN DI BALIK HASIL LAUT DI PERAIRAN TELUK JAKARTA TERHADAP KESEHATAN MASYARAKAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satmoko Wisaksono

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Tidak dapat dipungkiri dan disangsikan bahwa bahan makanan yang berasal dari hasil perikanan laut mempunyai kadar nilai gizi tinggi. lkan laut misalnya selain dagingnya mudah dicerna, juga kandungan protein, vitamin, mineral serta lemak tak jenuh sangat diperlukan untuk pertumbuhan dan kecerdasan. Jenis-jenis ikan laut segar yang banyak dikonsumsi dan disajikan di restoran seafood adalah ikan tongkol, tengiri, kakap, kerang, cumi, sotong, udang, kepiting, rajungan, dan lain sebagainya.Hasil penelitian yang dilakukan oleh Yayasan Lembaga Konsumen Indoneia (YLKI bekerjasama dengan IPB tahun 1997 menunjukkan bahwa contoh komoditi hasil laut yang diperoleh mengandung logam berat Hg adalah dari kelompok kerang-kerangan (Bivalvia yaitu kerang darah, hijau dan tahu.

  4. STUDI TERHADAP KONSERVASI ENERGI PADA GEDUNG SEWAKA DHARMA KOTA DENPASAR YANG MENERAPKAN KONSEP GREEN BUILDING

    OpenAIRE

    I Wayan Swi Putra

    2015-01-01

    Gedung  Sewaka  Dharma  Kota  Denpasar  dibangun  dengan  konsep  desain  green building. Dengan konsep desain green  building, gedung Sewaka Dharma diharapkan mampu menghemat energi di  dalam pengoperasiannya. Konsep desain green building yang diterapkan antara  lain,  gedung  dibuat  dengan  banyak  jendela  kaca,  memakai  sistem  ventilasi  vertikal, lingkungan  di  dalam  dan  di  luar  gedung  yang  hijau  serta  pemakaian  solar  sel  untuk  lampu penerangan  luar  dalam  mengurangi  k...

  5. KONSEP BARU TOTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENT MANAGEMENT (TQEM UNTUK MENGUJI KINERJA LINGKUNGAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yana Ulfah

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis sebuah model mengontrol orientasi (Penelitian ini menguji pengaruh moderating dari Total Quality Manajemen Lingkungan Hidup (TQEM pada hubungan antara manajemen rantai pasokan hijau (GSCM dan kinerja lingkungan (EP. Premis penelitian adalah bahwa upaya organisasi total dari manajemen puncak dan karyawan memfasilitasi pelaksanaan GSCM, yang pada akhirnya meningkatkan kinerja hijau. Kerangka sampel termasuk unit bisnis strategis dari perusahaan atas industri otomotif dan elektronik di Indonesia. Sebanyak 200 kuesioner dikirimkan bersama dengan surat lamaran dan ongkos kiri. Hasil temuan menggambarkan GSCM yang positif pada lingkungan hidup kinerja TQEM Dan ini menunjukkan efek moderat yang kuat pada kinerja lingkungan hidup ada minimisasi limbah dan berbahaya minimalisasi bahan. Studi ini menunjukkan bahwa penting untuk mempertimbangkan penerapan TQEM dalam hal dukungan manajemen puncak, keterlibatan karyawan, pemasok dan koordinasi untuk melengkapi praktek GSCM. Temuan ini penting untuk kedua peneliti dan praktisi karena menunjukkan perlunya upaya terpadu program tersebut.This research examines the moderating influence of Total Quality Environmental Management (TQEM on the relationship between green supply chain management (GSCM and environmental performance (EP. The premise of the study is that the total organizational effort from top management and employees decide to facilitate the implementation of GSCM, which in turn increases the green performance. Sample frame includes a strategic business unit of the company’s automotive and electronics industries in Indonesia. The findings illustrate the positive GSCM performance environment TQEM and it shows a strong moderate effect on the environmental performance of existing hazardous waste minimization and minimization of material. This study concludes that it is important to consider the application of TQEM in terms of top management support

  6. KESTABILAN IODIUM DALAM GARAM PADA BERBAGAI TIPE DAN RESEP MASAKAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ance Murdiana Dahro

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Dalam jangka panjang fortifikasi garam dianggap cara yang paling tepat guna dan ekonomis untuk menanggulangi masalah kekurangan iodium. Dalam kaitan tersebut perlu diketahui kestabilan iodium dalam garam yang ditambahkan kedalam masakan dari berbagai tipe dan resep di tingkat lapangan. Sampel berupa masakan yang berasal dari 6 kota di 6 provinsi di Indonesia, banyak dikonsumsi dan dijual di tempat yang banyak dikunjungi orang. Penentuan sampel masakan dilakukan setelah pengujian garam yang digunakan dengan menggunakan pereaksi Iodinatest buatan Indofarma. Bila setelah penambahan pereaksi pada garam timbul warna ungu menandakan bahwa garam tersebut mengandung iodium, masakan ituu kemudian ditetapkan sebagai sampel. Jumlah garam yang ditambahkan diketahui dari wawancara dengan penjual makanan tersebut. Jumlah iodium dalam garam yang ditambahkan kedalam masakan diketahui setelah dilakukan analisis garam di laboratorium. Dari iodium yang tersisa dalam makanan dapat dihitung jumlah iodium yang hilang. Dibuat pula beberapa masakan serupa dengan menggunakan resep asli di laboratorium (simulasi. Pelepasan iodium dari makanan dilakukan melalui dua tahap yaitu digestasi kering lalu dilanjutkan dengan digestasi cara basah. Penetapan iodium dilakukan dengan reaksi "Sandell Kolthoff'. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa jumlah iodium yang tersisa pada umumnya amat rendab (dibawah 50 ug/100 gram masakan. Tiap jenis masakan bervariasi dalam keasaman, jenis dan jumlah bumbu yang ditambahkan. Iodium yang rusak/hilang dari masakan tipe asam yang dimasak atau tidak dimasak (contoh kuah empek-empek atau asinan sekitar 60-85%, dari masakan bersantan tapi dimasak tidak lama (contoh soto santan sekitar 40-50%, dari masakan bersantan dikeringkan (contoh rendang sekitar 60-70%, dari masakan yang digoreng (contoh sambal hijau sekitar 45-60%, dari masakan yang diolah tidak lama (contoh sayur tettu, rujak cingur sekitar 40-50%, sedangkan dari masakan yang dimasak lebih dari

  7. ABSORPSI β-KAROTEN SERBUK DAUN SINGKONG (Manihot Utilissima KERING PADA ANAK PRASEKOLAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almasyhuri Almasyhuri

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia telah bebas dari masalah kurang vitamin A (KVA, tetapi jumlah anak balita dengan vitamin A serum marjinal (<20 ug/dl masih tinggi. Salah satu program penanggulangan KVA di Indonesia adalah dengan peningkatan konsumsi sayuran hijau pada anak balita. Menurut de Pee, karoten sayuran hijau kurang dapat diabsorpsi karena berupa ikatan komplek yang kuat yang berada dalam kloro plas. Penelitian ini mempelajari pengaruh pembuatan serbuk kering daun singkong muda dan tua terhadap absorpsi β-karoten pada anak prasekolah. Penelitian dilakukan di Kotamadya Bogor, Jawa Barat. Daun singkong diberikan dalam bentuk masakan gulai, yang diberikan dalam diit makanan pagi, siang dan sore selama tiga hari. Kadar β-karoten dalam duplikat makanan yang dikonsumsi dan dalam tinja selama tiga hari dianalisis dengan HPLC. β-karoten yang diabsorpsi merupakan selisih β-karoten dalam duplikat makanan yang dikonsumsi dan β-karoten dalam tinja selama tiga hari. Absorpsi β-karoten serbuk daun singkong muda kering (DSMK paling tinggi (37.9±5.2% dibanding β-karoten serbuk daun singkong tua kering (DSTK maupun daun singkong muda segar (DSMB yang besarnya masing-masing adalah 36.8±9.2% dan 35.4±5.8%. β-karoten daun singkong muda segar (DSMB paling kecil absorpsinya. Tetapi hasil uji anova β-karoten dari ketiga jenis daun singkong tersebut tidak ada perbedaan nyata (p>0.05. Kesimpulan dari penelitian ini ternyata pengeringan dan penghancuran menjadi serbuk belum dapat memperbaiki absorpsi β-karoten yang dikandung dalam daun singkong. 

  8. Asphalt wear and pollution transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindgren, Asa [Division of Traffic Engineering, Lulea University of Technology Lulea (Sweden)

    1996-09-06

    Studded tires cause extensive wear of road surfaces during winter producing small particles. Besides transporting different adsorbed pollutants these particles also discharge metal ions by their own natural content. The major part (95%) of the asphalt is composed of stone fractions. The rest consists mainly of bitumen, which contains trace quantities of metals. Laboratory studies in this study have demonstrated different adsorbing properties of metal ions, as well as differences in adsorption when comparing stone materials. Two stone materials, a gabbro and a porphyry, have been tested for their adsorption properties concerning Pb, Cu, Zn and Cd. The gabbro showed better adsorption capacity than the porphyry. Gabbro has coarser grains, it is softer, and also has a higher content of most metals compared to the porphyry. In all tests lead and copper are more adsorbed than zinc and cadmium. All metal ions are released at about the same pH ({approx}4)

  9. Mineral and energy resource assessment maps of the Mount Katmai, Naknek, and western Afognak quadrangles, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, S.E.; Riehle, J.R.; Magoon, L.B.; Campbell, D.L.

    1992-01-01

    On the basis of new geologic mapping and exploration geochemical studies, we have provided a mineral and energy resource assessment of the Mount Katmai, Naknek, and western Afognak quadrangles, Alaska. We delineate four tracts of ground that have metallic mineral resources. The mineral deposit types considered in each tract are summarized in table 4. Estimates of the number of undiscovered mineral deposits have been made for porphyry copper and polymetallic vein deposits. We estimate that one undiscovered porphyry copper deposit is present in the Katmai study area at the ten percent probability level. Although the sampling density may be too low to give an accurate estimate of the number of undiscovered polymetallic vein deposits, we suggest that, at a minimum, there is a five percent probability for five or more undiscovered polymetallic vein deposits in the Katmai study area. In addition, several areas have potential for undiscovered porphyry molybdenum, massive sulfide, and epithermal gold and mercury deposits.

  10. Comparative study on the passivation layers of copper sulphide minerals during bioleaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Kai-bin; Lin, Hai; Mo, Xiao-lan; Wang, Han; Wen, Hong-wei; Wen, Zi-long

    2012-10-01

    The bioleaching of copper sulphide minerals was investigated by using A. ferrooxidans ATF6. The result shows the preferential order of the minerals bioleaching as djurleite>bornite>pyritic chalcopyrite>covellite>porphyry chalcopyrite. The residues were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It is indicated that jarosite may not be responsible for hindered dissolution. The elemental sulfur layer on the surface of pyritic chalcopyrite residues is cracked. The compact surface layer of porphyry chalcopyrite may strongly hinder copper extraction. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) further confirms that the passivation layers of covellite, pyritic chalcopyrite, and porphyry chalcopyrite are copper-depleted sulphide Cu4S11, S8, and copper-rich iron-deficient polysulphide Cu4Fe2S9, respectively. The ability of these passivation layers was found as Cu4Fe2S9>Cu4S11>S8>jarosite.

  11. Relations between A-type granites and copper mineralization as exemplified by the Machangqing Cu deposit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    This paper deals with the relations between the Machangqing rockbody which corresponds to the A-type granites and porphyry copper mineralization in terms of petrochemistry,trace element geochemistry,fluid inclusion geochemistry and isotope geochemistry.The results show that the Machangqing porphyry copper deposit was formed from the fluid predominated by magmatic fluid.This kind of ore-forming fluid was just differentiated from the magma responsible for the A-type granites.Therefore,as viewed from whether they contain water or not,the A-type granites can,at least,be divided into two types:water-bearing and water-free.The water-bearing A-type granites can serve as the host of porphyry copper deposits under certain geological conditions.

  12. Relations between A-type granites and copper mineralization as exemplified by the Machangqing Cu deposit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毕献武; 胡瑞忠; 叶造军; 邵树勋

    2000-01-01

    This paper deals with the relations between the Machangqing rockbody which corresponds to the A-type granites and porphyry copper mineralization in terms of petrochemistry, trace element geochemistry, fluid inclusion geochemistry and isotope geochemistry. The results show that the Machangqing porphyry copper deposit was formed from the fluid predominated by mag-matic fluid. This kind of ore-forming fluid was just differentiated from the magma responsible for the A-type granites. Therefore, as viewed from whether they contain water or not, the A-type granites can, at least, be divided into two types: water-bearing and water-free. The water-bearing A-type granites can serve as the host of porphyry copper deposits under certain geological conditions.

  13. Seasonal Changes in Mayfly Communities and Abundance in Relation to Water Physicochemistry in Two Rivers at Different Elevations in Northern Peninsular Malaysia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Suhaila Abdul Hamid; Mohd Ravi Che Salmah; Hamady Dieng; Abu Hassan Ahmad; Tomomitsu Satho; Fumio Miake

    2011-01-01

    A field study was performed at rivers in Gunung Jerai forest reserve (Kedah,Malaysia) to assess seasonal changes in mayfly community structure and abundance in relation to altitude and water physicochemistry.Rivers at lower (Batu Hampar River) and higher (Teroi River) elevations were visited through dry and wet seasons in September 2007 to August 2008.Monthly visits were made to 20 sites on each river,and water and aquatic insects were sampled using D-pond aquatic nets.Water was warmer,more acid,and more turbid in Teroi River during wet season.Ammonia was the only nutrient exhibiting significant seasonal variations (greater during wet season).Chemical oxygen demand content was higher in Teroi River where biochemical oxygen demand content was low during wet season.Species richness was higher in Batu Hampar River,but displayed seasonal variations only in Teroi River.Among the eight families encountered,Baetidae was the commonest.Baetid abundance was usually high during wet season,and those belonging to the dominant genus (Baetis) were more abundant in Teroi River.Heptageniidae was the second commonest family; its predominant genus,Thalerospyrus was more abundant in Teroi River during dry season.Caenidae,Leptophlebiidae and Oligoneuriidae were only found in Batu Hampar River where their abundances peaked during dry season,i.e.,Habrophlebiodes sp.and Isonychia sp.Ephemerellidae and Teloganodidae occurred only in Teroi River,with the first found only during dry season.Mayflies were recorded under very distinct physicochemical conditions,illustrating their potential usefulness for assessing water quality.Caenids,leptophlebids,oligoneurids ephemerellids and teloganodids seem to be particularly sensitive to temperature,acidity,turbidity,chemical oxygen demand and biochemical oxygen demand,parameters that varied with river altitude.

  14. Le gisement de cuivre or de Bolcana (monts Métallifères, Roumanie) : premières données sur les altérations et minéralisations associées

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milu, Viorica; Leroy, Jacques L.; Piantone, Patrice

    2003-08-01

    The Bolcana ore deposit (Metaliferi Mountains, western Romania) is a porphyry ore deposit with associated epithermal veins. On the basis of different parageneses, four alteration types were distinguished: potassic, phyllic, argillic and propylitic. The mineralogical and geochemical data and estimated crystallisation temperatures of alteration minerals indicate an evolution of the system from an early period of porphyry type mineralisation (Cu+Au) to a late period of low-sulphidation epithermal mineralisation (Au+base metal). To cite this article: V. Milu et al., C. R. Geoscience 335 (2003).

  15. Assessment of Bekok River Water Quality Status and Its Suitability for Supporting the Different Uses: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Lee Mao Rui; Mohamad Ali Fulazzaky

    2011-01-01

    The river's water flow from the upstream area that is represent by the Bekok dam. The water flows into the sea through the Sungai Simpang Kanan and Sungai Batu Pahat. Bekok' river flows through various types of land use including agricultural with oil palm estate and rubber estate. From the review visit carried out on the river pollution found there from the sources such as fertilizer into the ground and dumped it into the Bekok' river, waste water draining from users around the city Yong Pen...

  16. Geophysical Exploration of Disseminated and Stockwork deposits associated with plutonic intrusive: A Case study in the eastern flank of the western Cordillera, Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, O.; Alexander, G. C.; Pintor, I. M.

    2011-12-01

    Disseminated deposit exploration in the tropics suffers from difficult geological mapping due to thick vegetation, lack of rock outcrop, and extensive but variable saprolitic weathering. Geophysical exploration of these deposits normally includes magnetic, induced polarization and gamma ray spectrometry surveys. The largest RTP Total field magnetic anomaly highs are usually associated with the diorite porphyry intrusive bodies. Normally, diorites are less magnetic than the basaltic rocks. Therefore, where the magnetic anomaly highs are related to the intrusions they can be explained by the intensive mineralization of basic metals including magnetite that are associated with the porphyry intrusions. Regularly, the magnetic anomaly gradients help to delineate local discontinuities that can be interpreted as local faults and joints that can be mineralized. The gamma ray spectrometry is useful to determine the anomalous concentration of Potassium, Uranium and Thorium that can be interpreted in terms of alteration halos and linear discontinuities. The statistical analysis of the data also can determine the intermediate intrusive / extrusive nature of the porphyry intrusions. The use of gamma ray spectrometry helps to determine the concentration of elemental potassium, regardless of the associated potassium mineral species, enabling alteration mapping in a geological setting related to volcanic-associated massive sulphide base metals and gold. The induced polarization survey is useful in outlining sulphide distribution in porphyry deposits related to chargeability anomaly highs. The preliminary results of the geophysical exploration program of the eastern flank of the Western Cordillera in the Andes Mountains of Colombia are discussed.

  17. 豫西祁雨沟金矿床成矿流体岩浆来源的流体包裹体和稳定同位素证据

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范宏瑞; 胡芳芳; 杨奎锋; 金成伟

    2009-01-01

    Gold ores of the Qiyugou deposit in the eastern part of the Xiong' ershan region are hosted in breccia pipes within a Mesozoic granitic porphyry. Three stages of alteration-hydrothermal activity are recognized within the Qiyugou breccias. The first stage of hydrothermal metasomatism produced extensive Kfeldspar alteration, The second stage is associated with deposition of gold and base metal sulfide minerals.

  18. Permo-Carboniferous gold epoch of northeast Queensland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 40Ar/39Ar and U-Pb methods of isotopic dating have been used to determine the age of alteration minerals and host rocks from a number of Permo-Carboniferous Au deposits in the Tasman Fold Belt system of northeast Queensland. There was a continuum in porphyry-style Au mineralisation from ca 330 to 290 Ma, which post-dates epithermal Au in the Eastern Basin sequence of the Drummond Basin. Porphyry-style Au at Kidston. and the Buck Reef. Ravenswood, formed at ca 330 Ma. The Red Dome and Mungana skarns were deposited at ca 320-310 Ma and ca 310 Ma. respectively The Au mineralisation at Mt Wright. and in the quartz-sulfide veins. Ravenswood. was emplaced at ca 310-305 Ma. The youngest porphyry-style Au deposit is Mt Leyshon, which probably formed at ca 290 Ma Where high-level intrusions are associated with Au, magmatism and mineralisation are. in general. essentially coeval. The age of the host rocks to the Permo-Carboniferous Au deposits is variable, and may be more than 150 million years older than the mineralisation. The plutonic-style Au deposit at Charters Towers is significantly older than the porphyry systems, and formed at ca 414 Ma. Copyright (1998) Blackwell Science Asia

  19. Sea Dredged Gravel versus Crushed Granite as Coarse Aggregate for Self Compacting Concrete in Aggressive Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Eigil V.; Kristensen, Lasse Frølich

    2007-01-01

    modulus of elasticity. Tensile and compressive strength were found to depend both on aggregate type and on the properties of the interfacial zone close to the aggregate surface. Freeze-thaw scaling resistance was good with crushed granite, whereas sea gravel led to more severe scaling caused by porphyry...

  20. Copper-Polymetal Metallogenic Series and Prospecting Perspective of Eastern Section of Gangdise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Youye; Xue Yingxi; Gao Shunbao

    2003-01-01

    Geological, geophysical, geochemical and remote sensing comprehensive studies show that big ore-prospecting potentiality is contained in the eastern section of the Gangdise Mountains, Tibet.There are various mineralization types with dominant types of porphyry and exhalation. According to their relations with tectonic evolution, they are divided into four kinds of metallogenic series as follows:magmatic type (Cr, Pt, Cu, Ni) and exhalation type (Cu, Pb, Zn, Ag) ore deposit series related to Neo-Tethys oceanic crust subduction action (125-96 Ma); epithermal type (Au, Ag, Pb, Zn, Sb), altered fractured rock type (Cu, Mo) and skarn rock type (Cu) ore deposit series related to arc-continental collision; porphyry type (Cu, Mo), cryptoexplosion breccia type (Cu, Au, Pb, Zn), shear zone type (Au, Ag, Sb) and skarn rock type (Cu, Fe) ore deposit series with relation to post-orogenic extensional strike-slip. From subductive complex to the north, zoning appears to be crystallization differentiation type (segregation type)-shear zone type (altered rock type)-skarn rock type, epithermal type-porphyry type-porphyry type and exhalation type-exhalation type-hydrothermal filling-replacement type.The ore deposit is characterized by multi-places from the same source, parity and multi-stage, hypabyssal rock from the deep source and poly genetic compound as a whole.

  1. Geochemistry of sericite and chlorite in well 14-2 Roosevelt Hot Springs geothermal system and in mineralized hydrothermal systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballantyne, J.M.

    1980-06-01

    Chemical compositions of chlorite and sericite from one production well in the Roosevelt geothermal system have been determined by electron probe methods and compared with compositions of chlorite and sericite from porphyry copper deposits. Modern system sericite and chlorite occur over a depth interval of 2 km and a temperature interval of 250/sup 0/C.

  2. Assessment of Road Infrastructures Pertaining to Malaysian Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samsuddin Norshakina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Road Infrastructures contribute towards many severe accidents and it needs supervision as to improve road safety levels. The numbers of fatalities have increased annually and road authority should seriously consider conducting programs or activities to periodically monitor, restore of improve road infrastructure. Implementation of road safety audits may reduce fatalities among road users and maintain road safety at acceptable standards. This paper is aimed to discuss the aspects of road infrastructure in Malaysia. The research signifies the impact of road hazards during the observations and the impact of road infrastructure types on road accidents. The F050 (Jalan Kluang-Batu Pahat road case study showed that infrastructure risk is closely related with number of accident. As the infrastructure risk increase, the number of road accidents also increase. It was also found that different road zones along Jalan Kluang-Batu Pahat showed different level of intersection volume due to number of road intersection. Thus, it is hoped that by implementing continuous assessment on road infrastructures, it might be able to reduce road accidents and fatalities among drives and the community.

  3. PENYAKIT GINJAL KRONIS STADIUM V AKIBAT NEFROLITIASIS DAN PIELONEFRITIS KRONIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadek Arditya Putra Mardana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Penyakit ginjal kronik dikenal sebagai suatu kelainan dimana terjadi kerusakan dari struktur ginjal lebih dari 3 bulan yang disertai dengan penurunan LFG < 60 mL/min/1,73 m2, dengan atau tanpa penurunan fungsi ginjal yang bersifat irreversible. Di Amerika rata-rata prevalensinya 10-13% atau sekitar 25 juta orang yang terkena PGK. Sedangkan di Indonesia tahun 2009 prevalensinya 12,5% atau 18 juta orang dewasa yang terkena PGK. Etiologi dari PGK yang tersering adalah diabetes mellitus, diikuti oleh hipertensi dan glomerulonefritis, dan obstruksi serta infeksi saluran kemih. Tatalaksana penyakit gagal ginjal kronik meliputi terapi terhadap penyakit dasarnya, pencegahan terapi terhadap kondisi komorbid (comorbid condition, memperlambat pemburukan (progression fungsi ginjal, pencegahan dan terapi terhadap komplikasi, terapi pengganti ginjal berupa dialisis atau transplantasi ginjal. Pada kasus ini pasien dengan keluhan utama mual,muntah, kencing yang sedikit dan disertai nyeri di daerah pinggang kiri sejak 2 tahun terakhir dan diketahui pasien pernah didiagnosis dengan batu di ginjal kiri satu tahun yang lalu. Pasien juga dengan riwayat menderita hipertensi dan pernah kencing mengeluarkan batu. Pada pemeriksaan fisik ditemukan pasien dengan tekanan darah 180/100 mmHg, tampak anemis, ditemukan nyeri ketok CVA (+/- dan edema pada ekstremitas. Berdasarkan kasus tersebut akan dibahas lebih lanjut tentang gejala dan penanganan kasus.

  4. Behavioral Intention to Use Public Transport Based on Theory of Planned Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambak Kamarudin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An increase in population generates increasing in travel demand. In Malaysia, public transport become an important modes of transport that connection people. This paper presents behavioural intention to use public transport especially public bus based on Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB. A questionnaire survey was conducted to identify factors that contribute and influence users to use public bus and to determine factor that most dominant using TPB model. A total of 282 questionnaires were distributed in selected area of Batu Pahat and Kluang. Correlation and regression analysis were used for this study. Results show that the Attitude toward public transport is the most dominant factor compared with Subjective Norm and Perceived Behavior Control that influencing users to use public bus. Majority respondents were agreed that they prefer to use public bus because it is cheap to travel and no other choices of other transfer modes. As for the recommendation, this study can be extended in future as part of strategic sustainable transportation system in Batu Pahat and Kluang areas.

  5. Zircon U-Pb geochronology, geochemistry, and Sr-Nd-Hf isotopes of granitoids in the Yulekenhalasu copper ore district, northern Junggar, China: Petrogenesis and tectonic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fuquan; Chai, Fengmei; Zhang, Zhixin; Geng, Xinxia; Li, Qiang

    2014-03-01

    The Yulekenhalasu porphyry copper deposit is located in the Kalaxiange'er metallogenic belt in northern Junggar, China. We present the results from zircon U-Pb geochronology, and geochemical and Sr-Nd-Hf isotope analyses of the granitoids associated with the ore deposits with a view to constrain their petrogenesis and tectonic setting. The granitoids consist of quartz diorite, diorite porphyry, porphyritic monzonite, and quartz porphyry, emplaced at 382, 379, 375-374, and 348 Ma, respectively, which span Late Devonian to early Carboniferous ages. The ore-bearing intrusion is mainly diorite porphyry, with subordinate porphyritic monzonite. The Late Devonian intrusions are characterized by SiO2 contents of 54.5-64.79 wt.%, Na2O contents of 3.82-8.24 wt.%, enrichment in Na, light rare-earth elements (LREEs), and large ion lithophile elements. They also display relative depletion in Y, Ba, P, Nb, Ta, and Ti, and weak negative Eu anomalies (δEu = 0.6-0.87). The early Carboniferous quartz porphyry is characterized by high SiO2 content (72.26-73.35 wt.%), enrichment in LREEs, K, and Sr, and relative depletion in Y (10.82-12.52 ppm) and Yb (1.06-1.15 ppm). The Late Devonian and early Carboniferous granitoids are characterized by positive ɛNd(t) values (5.2-10.1, one sample at - 1.9), positive ɛHf(t) values (7.46-18.45), low (87Sr/86Sr)i values (0.70363-0.70476), and young crustal residence ages. These data indicate that the sources of the granitoids were mainly mantle-derived juvenile rocks. Geochemical and Nd-Sr-Hf isotopic data demonstrate that the Late Devonian granitoids formed in an oceanic island arc, and they were formed from different sources, among which the mineralized diorite porphyry might have originated from a mixed slab-derived and mantle wedge melt source. The early Carboniferous quartz porphyry was likely emplaced in a mature island arc environment, and was probably derived from juvenile crust.

  6. Geological characteristics and genetic type of Riabuxi copper-polymetallic deposit in Coqen county,Tibet%西藏自治区措勤县日阿布洗铜多金属矿床地质特征及成因类型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄东荣; 杜昌法

    2012-01-01

    西藏自治区日阿布洗铜多金属矿位于冈底斯山脉北缘斑岩型铜矿成矿带,含矿斑岩体为晚喜山期花岗斑岩,具全岩矿化特征,斑岩体与构造蚀变岩带形成矿床。研究表明,地表和浅部出露含矿斑岩体只是岩枝,矿区剥蚀程度低,主斑岩体尚未出露,深部找矿潜力巨大。经深部钻孔工程及地表槽探验证,矿体品位和厚度沿走向和倾向变化系数较小,伴生组份较多,并对其资源量进行了初步估算。喜山晚期第一阶段花岗斑岩侵入体是主要成矿物质来源,矿床成因类型应为斑岩型铜矿床。%The Riabuxi copper-polymetallic deposit in Coqen county,Tibet,is located in the northern margin of the Gangdise porphyry-type copper metallogenetic belt.The host rocks is the late Himalayan granitic-porphyries which are wholly mineralized.The copper-polymetallic deposit is occured at the contact zones of the porphyries and structural altered rocks.Our study reveals that the ore-bearing porphyries exposed at the surface are only apophyses and dikes,an intense erosion did not take place,indicating a benefit potential for discovering deep-seated porphyry deposits.Verified by deep drilling and surface trenching,it is found that the variation coefficients of grades and thicknesses along strikes and dips of ore bodies are small and associated component contents are relatively great.A preliminary estimate shows that metallogenic materials were originated from the late Himalayan first stage granite-porphyry intrusions,and the deposit belonging to a porphyry-type copper deposit.

  7. 河北省涞水县安妥岭钼矿含矿岩体与成矿的关系%Relationship Between the Ore-Bearing Rock and Antuoling Mo Deposit in Laishui County, Hebei Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭鹏志; 樊秉鸿; 肖成东; 沈利霞

    2012-01-01

      安妥岭岩体位于太行山北段岩浆成矿带,目前已发现一个大型钼矿,成矿地质条件良好,找矿潜力较大。含矿岩体是一个复式杂岩体,主要成分顶部核心为石英花岗斑岩,而花岗闪长斑岩、二长花岗斑岩环绕其构成岩体主体;含矿岩石具有富碱富钾的总体特征,Na2O与K2O随SiO2增加而增加。复式含矿岩体控制了矿化的形态和特征,矿化带呈一个倒扣的不规则筒状,在岩体与围岩接触带形成裂隙式充填的脉状矿体,而岩体深部为隐爆角砾岩状矿化和浸染状矿化,属于斑岩型矿床。安妥岭岩体矿化蚀变分带明显,从矿化中心向外蚀变分带为:钾化-硅化带、硅化-绢云母化带、青盘岩化带、泥化-黄铁矿弱硅化带和矽卡岩带。本文就安妥岭钼矿含矿岩体与成矿的关系进行了研究,对安妥岭钼矿的进一步找矿和探讨太行山成矿带斑岩型钼矿的成矿规律都有重要意义。%  The Antuoling porphyry body is located in the magma metallogenic belt of the Northern Taihang Moun-tains. A large molybdenum deposit is discovered with good geological condition of mineralization and prospect-ing potential in it now. It is a compound porphyry body in which quartz porphyry is in top core and granodio-rite-porphyry and monzonite granite-porphyry are surrounded it. The characteristic of ore-bearing rock is rich in alkali and potassic elements. With increase of SiO2, Na2O and K2O increase. The compound porphyry body con-trols the mineralization pattern and characteristic. Mineralization zone appears an inverted irregular cylinder. Con-tact zone of the porphyry body and the wall rocks forms faults and fissures filled with vein ore bodies. The deep rock is with cryptoexplosive breccia mineralization and contaminated mineralization. The deposit belongs to por-phyry type deposit. The mineralization altered zone is obvious, from the center to outward as potassium-silicified zone

  8. Petrogenesis of the Seleteguole granitoids from Jinhe county in Xinjiang (West China): Implications for the tectonic transformation of Northwest Tianshan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Leng, Cheng-Biao; Zhang, Xing-Chun; Su, Wen-Chao; Tang, Hong-Feng; Yan, Jia-Hui; Cao, Jing-Liang

    2016-07-01

    The Seleteguole Cu-Mo deposit in Jinghe County, Xinjiang is tectonically located on the northern margin of the Northwestern Tianshan. Three major intrusions including biotite granite, diorite porphyry and quartz diorite porphyry have been identified. The biotite granite, with a zircon U-Pb age of 307 ± 3 Ma, intruded carbonates and clastic rocks of the Middle Carboniferous Dongtujin Formation. The younger diorite porphyry and quartz diorite porphyry, with an identical zircon U-Pb age of 302 ± 3 Ma, locally intruded the biotite granite; where the granite in contact with the two porphyries were characterized by phyllic alteration. The mineralogical and geochemical characteristics indicate that all granitoids in Seleteguole belong to calc-alkaline I-type. These granitoids are enriched in LILE relative to HFSE with negative anomalies of Nb, P and Ti, typical of arc-related rocks. All three granitoids have positive zircon εHf(t) values, low Mg# ratios (34-39), and low Cr (geological and geochemical characteristics of the Late Carboniferous igneous rocks in the Northwestern Tianshan show that Late Carboniferous I-type granitoids, with juvenile Sr-Nd-(Hf) isotopic signatures, formed in a continent-marginal arc setting as a result of the subduction of Paleo-Junggar Ocean beneath the Yili Block. In combination with the compositions of the Early Permian granitoids in the region, we suggest that the tectonic setting of the Northwestern Tianshan transformed from a continental arc to an intracontinental extension setting at the Carboniferous-Permian boundary (ca. 300 Ma).

  9. LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb dating and phenocryst of dikes, Guocheng, Jiaodong Peninsula: Implications for North China Craton lithosphere evolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAN Jun; WEI JunHao; GUO LingLi; ZHANG KeQing; YAO ChunLiang; LU JianPei; LI HongMei

    2008-01-01

    Widespread dike swarm, including diorite-, monzonite-porphyry and lamprophyre, intruded in the altered breccia gold deposits along basin marginal faults, Guocheng, Jiaodong Peninsula. Petrography exhibits biotite enclaves in amphibole phenocrysts and the presence of acicular apatites in these dikes.Electron probe microanalyses (EPMA) show that the amphibole and clinopyroxene phenocryst's mantle in diorite porphyry and lamprophyre respectively has sharply higher MgO (Mg#) and Cr203 contents in contrast to their cores. The plagioclase phenocryst in monzonite porphyry has reverse zoning. These results indicate that the magma mixing between mantle-derived mafic and crust-derived felsic magmas occurred in the original process of the dikes. Zircon cathodoluminescence (CL) images show well-developed magmatic oscillatory zones and the acquired LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb weighted mean 206pb/238U ages are 114±2 Ma (MSDW=1.5) for monzonite porphyry (GS1) and 116±1 Ma (MSDW=0.8) for diorite porphyry (GS2), respectively. Earlier magmatic events in the northwest Jiaodong Peninsula represented by some inherited or captured zircons also occur in these dikes. Magmatic zircons from GSl and GS2 display consistent chondrite-normalized REE patterns and Nb/Ta values, implying that they may share a similar or same source. HREE enrichment and obvious negative Eu anomalies of these zircons preclude garnet presented in their source. Our results, combined with preciously published data, indicate that dike intrusion and gold mineralization among quartz vein, altered tectonite and altered breccia gold deposits are broadly contemporaneous throughout the Jiaodong Peninsula.These also imply that the intensive crust-mantle interaction and asthenospheric underplating had occurred in the Early Cretaceous in the Peninsula, together with foundering of lower crust in the early Mesozoic, representing the different stages of lithosphere thinning in the North China Craton (NNC).

  10. LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb dating and phenocryst EPMA of dikes, Guocheng, Jiaodong Peninsula: Implications for North China Craton lithosphere evolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Widespread dike swarm, including diorite-, monzonite-porphyry and lamprophyre, intruded in the al- tered breccia gold deposits along basin marginal faults, Guocheng, Jiaodong Peninsula. Petrography exhibits biotite enclaves in amphibole phenocrysts and the presence of acicular apatites in these dikes. Electron probe microanalyses (EPMA) show that the amphibole and clinopyroxene phenocryst’s mantle in diorite porphyry and lamprophyre respectively has sharply higher MgO (Mg#) and Cr2O3 contents in contrast to their cores. The plagioclase phenocryst in monzonite porphyry has reverse zoning. These results indicate that the magma mixing between mantle-derived mafic and crust-derived felsic magmas occurred in the original process of the dikes. Zircon cathodoluminescence (CL) images show well-developed magmatic oscillatory zones and the acquired LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb weighted mean 206Pb/238U ages are 114±2 Ma (MSDW=1.5) for monzonite porphyry (GS1) and 116±1 Ma (MSDW=0.8) for diorite porphyry (GS2), respectively. Earlier magmatic events in the northwest Jiaodong Peninsula represented by some inherited or captured zircons also occur in these dikes. Magmatic zircons from GS1 and GS2 display consistent chondrite-normalized REE patterns and Nb/Ta values, implying that they may share a similar or same source. HREE enrichment and obvious negative Eu anomalies of these zircons preclude garnet presented in their source. Our results, combined with preciously pub- lished data, indicate that dike intrusion and gold mineralization among quartz vein, altered tectonite and altered breccia gold deposits are broadly contemporaneous throughout the Jiaodong Peninsula. These also imply that the intensive crust-mantle interaction and asthenospheric underplating had oc- curred in the Early Cretaceous in the Peninsula, together with foundering of lower crust in the early Mesozoic, representing the different stages of lithosphere thinning in the North China Craton (NNC).

  11. Geochemistry, zircon U-Pb dating and Hf isotopies composition of Paleozoic granitoids in Jinchuan, NW China: Constraints on their petrogenesis, source characteristics and tectonic implication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Renyu; Lai, Jianqing; Mao, Xiancheng; Li, Bin; Ju, Peijiao; Tao, Shilong

    2016-05-01

    Granitoids are widely distributed in Jinchuan at the southwestern margin of the North China plate, which is also an important area of mineral deposits. The research subject of this article are two Paleozoic granitoids, a cataclastic syenogranite and a granodiorite porphyry. This study presents whole rock geochemistry and zircon U-Pb-Hf isotope data for the two granitoids to determine their petrogenesis, source characteristics and tectonic significance. The cataclastic syenogranite is characterized by metaluminous composition with high potassium, and LaN/YbN from 39 to 48. The composition with strong negative Eu anomalies and Zircon saturation temperatures (TZr) from 947 to 1072 °C classify this intrusion as an A-type granite. The granodiorite porphyry is metaluminous with high sodium, sub-alkaline, LaN/YbN ratios from 27 to 32. These I-type intrusions have no Eu anomalies and TZr ranges from 818 to 845 °C. Both the cataclastic syenogranite and granodiorite porphyry show enrichment of LREE and LILE and depletion of HREE and HFSE, except Hf and Zr. Using single zircon LA-ICP-MS U-Pb dating, the emplacement age of the cataclastic syenogranite and granodiorite porphyry are determined at 433.4 ± 3.7 Ma and 361.7 ± 4.6 Ma, respectively. Zircons from the cataclastic syenogranits have uniform negative εHf(t) values (-11 ± 0.5 to -9 ± 0.5), implying the involvement of an old Palaeoproterozoic crustal source in magma genesis. The zircons from the granodiorite porphyry have εHf(t) values that range from -8 ± 1.0 to +10 ± 0.6, suggesting heterogeneous source materials involving both juvenile and ancient crust reworked crustal components. Based on the geological significance of granites at the southwestern margin of the North China plate, the closure of the North Qilian Ocean occurred at ∼444 Ma. Geochemical features suggest that the cataclastic syenogranite and granodiorite porphyry formed in an intraplate extensional and compressional setting, respectively. Hence

  12. Disseminated, veinlet and vein Pb-Zn, Cu and Sb polymetallic mineralization in the GaleChah-Shurab mining district, Iranian East Magmatic Assemblage (IEMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behzad Mehrabi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The Iranian East Magmatic Assemblage (IEMA in the Central Lut region, hosted porphyry and vein-type polymetallic mineralization. The GaleChah-Shurab mining district is located in NW of the IEMA. Volcanic and subvolcanic bodies in the area are composed of calc-alkaline porphyry quartz-latite, porphyry dacite and rhyodacite and hornblende-biotite andesite, equivalent to I-type granite. They emplaced in Tertiary and intruded the Jurassic shale, siltstone and limestone basement (Shemshak Fm. The faults, joints and fractures, are the main controls on the mineralization, in forms of disseminated, vein, veinlet and minor stockwork and brecciation type mineralization of Pb, Zn, Cu, Sb and trace elements. Vein and veinlet of Pb+Zn±Cu±Sb in the Gale-Chah abandoned mine accompanied by carbonate and silicic alterations in association with galena, sphalerite, pyrite, chalcopyrite, bournonite and tetrahedrite as the hypogene ore minerals and their supergene products including cerussite, covellite, digenite and second-generation colloidal pyrite. The Pb+Zn+Cu+Sb mineralization associated with sericitic and silicic alterations in the Shurab abandoned mine, is composed of two types of mineralization, veinlet and brecciation vein in the porphyry dacite boundaries with Jurassic shale and sandstones, and the disseminated and disseminated-veinlet mineralization which is hosted by the altered porphyry dacite and rhyodacite intrusive rocks. The mineral assemblages are galena, sphalerite, stibnite, As-bearing pyrite, chalcopyrite and tetrahedrite-tennantite complex hypogene-sulfide ore as a hypogene ore, and malachite, covellite, cerussite and melancoitic pyrite as a sulfide-oxide supergene ore. The Pb+Zn+Sb±As±Ag polymetallic occurrence is associated with sericitic, carbonate and chloritic alteration assemblage in the Chupan occurrence, in two forms, I vein, veinlet-stockwork (30m depth confined to fault structures and II disseminated-replacement (below 70m mainly

  13. Pengaturan Lampu Taman LED RGB Berbasis Arduino Yang Dilengkapi Solar Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fina Supegina

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Pada saat ini perkembangan teknologi sudah semakin canggih. Dari waktu ke waktu perkembangan teknologi terus saja berkembang, dari teknologi yang semula menggunakan obor, petromaks, lampu pijar, lampu gas, hingga sampai ke lampu LED (Light Emiting Dioda. Semua lampu – lampu tersebut dibuat untuk membantu manusia untuk melakukan aktifitas di malam hari. Penggunaan lampu led pada masa kini banyak kita jumpai karena selain dapat digunakan untuk pencahayaan di malam hari dan juga lampu led dapat menghemat energi listrik dibandingkan dengan lampu pijar dan lampu gas.Penggunaan lampu LED RGB( Light Emiting Dioda Red, Green, Blue ini dapat dikontrol menggunakan remote untuk pengubahan warnanya dan sebagai receivernya menggunakan TSOP 1738. Penggunaan lampu LED RGB ini dilengkapi dengan LDR (Light Dependent Resistor untuk otomatisasi lampu pada waktu malam dan pagi hari, sedangkan untuk processornya menggunakan arduino duemilanove. Sebagai sumber tegangan menggunakan battery 12V yang dilengkapi dengan solar cell untuk charger battery. Penggunaan lampu LED RGB( Light Emiting Dioda Red, Green, Blue dapat menerima sinyal dari remote dengan jarak 10 meter dan dapat memancarkan cahaya berwarna merah, biru, hijau, dan kombinasinya. Di waktu malam hari lampu ini dapat langsung menyala dan mati di waktu pagi hari. Lampu LED RGB ini dilengkapi dengan solar cell yang digunakan untuk mencharger aki/battery yang berfungsi sebagai power supply ke board arduino. 

  14. Perbandingan Penilaian Visual Analog Scale dari Injeksi Subkutan Morfin 10 mg dan Bupivakain 0,5% pada Pasien Pascabedah Sesar dengan Anestesi Spinal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wulan Fadinie

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available ocal anesthetic agent and opioid can subcutaneously be injected into the wound to reduce postoperative pain. This study was conducted to evaluate pain intensity using visual analog scale (VAS, which can be a very effective method of postoperative pain assessment, and to compare VAS when resting and coughing between local infiltration of 10 mg morphine and 2 mg/kgBW 0.5% bupivacaine after caesarian section. This study was a double blinded randomized clinical trial on 100 subjects. The inclusion criteria were pregnant women, aged 20–40 years, with physical ASA I–II status who underwent elective and emergency caesarean section in Haji Adam Malik Hospital, dr. Pirngadi Hospital, Putri HijauHospital, Haji Hospital, and Sundari Hospital during the period of July 2014. Subjects were divided into group A with 10 mg morphine infiltration and group B with 2 mg/kgBW 0.5% bupivacaine local infiltration. The resulting VAS scores were analyzed statistically using Mann-Whitney. ItLower VAS scores were found in group A 4.72 (SB=1.54 when compared to group B 2.14 (SB=1.21. In conclusion, local infiltration of 10 mg morphine is better compared to 2 mg/kgBW 0.5% bupivacaine.

  15. Analisis Penggunaan Marker Tracking Pada Augmented Reality Huruf Hijaiyah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meyti Eka Apriyani

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Teknologi augmented reality berdasarkan metode pelacakan (tracking  terbagi menjadi dua yaitu marker based tracking dan markerless. Kedua metode ini memiliki persamaan yaitu dipengaruhi oleh jarak pendeteksian dan intensitas cahaya dalam keberhasilannya memunculkan suatu objek. Akan tetapi belum diketahui berapa jarak yang tepat dan kondisi intensitas cahaya yang ideal bagi kedua metode tersebut. Penelitian ini diusulkan untuk menganalisis pengaruh jarak pendeteksian serta integritas cahaya terhadap metode marker based tracking dan markerless. Variasi jarak yang digunakan adalah 5cm, 10cm, 20cm, 30cm, 40cm, 50cm, dan 80cm sebagai sub indikator jarak pendeteksian kemudian untuk mendapatkan variasi besarnya intensitas cahaya digunakan sumber cahaya matahari, lampu berwarna kuning, merah, hijau, biru, dan putih (terang. Metode pengujian yang digunakan yaitu menentukan jarak minimum dan jarak maksimum pendeteksian serta menentukan besarnya intensitas cahaya untuk memunculkan  suatu objek. Hasil pengujian ini adalah jarak minimum dan maksimum pendeteksian serta intensitas cahaya yang didapatkan untuk kedua metode yang diusulkan yaitu marker based tracking memiliki rata-rata jarak minimum 7.5 cm dan maksimum 80.5 cm. Sedangkan markerless rata-rata jarak minimum 3.8 cm dan maksimum 300 cm. Sistem dapat memunculkan objek pada intensitas 97 lux -1605 lux

  16. Performance Dashboard pada Rumah Sakit Islam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irfan Ismail Sungkar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dashboard  sebagai  sarana  visualisasi  sederhana  tentang  indikator,  indikator  inilah  yang  diukur  kedalam  sebuah  satuan  yang  di visualisasikan dalam bentuk gambar dan angka. Dalam pembangunan aplikasi  performance  dashboard pada RSUI Harapan Anda Tegal akan  di  kaji  berdasarkan  KPI  (Key  Performance  Indicator  menurut  pengukuran  kinerja  Balanced  Scorecard  yang  dikembangkan menjadi beberapa perspektif diantaranya Perspektif Keuangan, Perspektif Pelanggan, Perspekif Mutu Proses, Perspektif Lingkungan dan Perspekif Pengembangan SDM. Dengan adanya  performance dashboard  yang dtujukan kepada  strategic level  maka dapat  membantu dalam  pengambilan  keputusan  dengan  ditampilkan  indikator-indikator  tersebut  dalam  warna  merah,  kuning,  hijau.  Dengan  indikator tersebut maka level strategic dapat mengambil keputusan yang berkaitan dengan inisiatif strategi.Kata kunci : Dashboad; KPI; Business Intelegent; Balanced Scorecard

  17. The Laramide Mesa formation and the Ojo de Agua caldera, southeast of the Cananea copper mining district, Sonora, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Dennis P.; Miller, Robert J.; Woodbourne, Keith L.

    2006-01-01

    The Mesa Formation extends from Cananea, Mexico, southeast to the Sonora River and is the main host rock of Laramide porphyry copper deposits in the Cananea District and at the Alacran porphyry prospect to the east. The Mesa consists of two members-a lower andesite and an upper dacite. The lowest part of the dacite member is a crystal tuff about 100 m thick. This tuff is the outfall of a caldera centered near the village of Ojo de Agua, dated by 40Ar/39Ar at 65.8 Ma ?0.4. The Ojo de Agua Caldera is about 9 km in diameter and is filled by a light gray biotite dacite tuff with abundant flattened pumice fragments. The volume of the caldera is estimated to be 24 km3.

  18. Petrology, composition, and age of intrusive rocks associated with the Quartz Hill molybdenite deposit, southeastern Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, T.; Smith, James G.; Elliott, R.L.

    1979-01-01

    A large porphyry molybdenum deposit (Quartz Hill deposit) was recently discovered in the heart of the Coast Range batholithic complex about 70 km E of Ketchikan, SE Alaska. Intrusive rocks associated with the mineral deposit form two composite epizonal to hypabyssal stocks and many dikes in country rocks. All observed metallization and alteration is within the Quartz Hill stock. Molybdenite forms fracture coatings and occurs in veins with quartz. Alteration is widespread and includes development of secondary quartz, pyrite, K-feldspar, biotite, white mica, chlorite, and zeolite. Field relations indicate that the stocks were emplaced after regional uplift and erosion of the Coast Range batholithic complex, and K-Ar data show that intrusion and alteration took place in late Oligocene time, about 27 to 30 Ma ago. Data from the Ketchikan quadrangle indicate that porphyry molybdenum metallization in the Coast Range batholithic complex is associated with regionally extensive but spotty, middle Tertiary or younger, felsic magmatism. -from Authors

  19. Pre-Eocene rocks of Java, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketner, Keith B.; Kastowo; Modjo, Subroto; Naeser, C.W.; Obradovich, J.D.; Robinson, Keith; Suptandar, Tatan; Wikarno

    1976-01-01

    The exposed pre-Eocene rocks of Java can be divided into two compound units for purposes of reconnaissance mapping and structural interpretation: a sedimentary sequence and melange. The sedimentary sequence consists of moderately deformed and little-metamorphosed conglomerate, sandstone, mudstone, claystone, chert, and limestone. The melange consists of a chaotic mechanical mixture of rocks identical to those of the sedimentary sequence and their metamorphic equivalents, such as schist, phyllite, quartzite, and marble. In addition, it contains a large proportion of quartz porphyry and smaller amounts of granite, basalt, gabbro, peridotite, pyroxenite, and serpentinite. The sedimentary sequence is at least partly of Early Cretaceous age and the melange is of Early Cretaceous to very early Paleocene age. They are overlain unconformably by Eocene rocks. The presence in the melange of blocks of quartz porphyry and granite is not easily reconcilable with current plate tectonic concepts in which the sites of formation of melange and plutonic rocks should be hundreds of kilometres apart.

  20. Explorasi Hubungan antara Personaliti Islamik dan Gaya Keibubapaan

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    NOORAINI OTHMAN

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to identify the parenting styles which influence the Islamic personality among students from one of the secondary school in Batu Pahat district, Johor. Using strata random sampling technique, a total of 302 students from form 1 to form 6 of the secondary school was chosen as the respondents. This correlational study used questionnaire as an instrument for its data collection. The data analysis was done using the descriptive and inferential statistical analysis with the help of Statistical Packages for Social Sciences (SPSS version 17.0. Descriptive analysis result shows a medium level of authoritative parenting style, high level of authoritarian parenting style and low level of permissive parenting style were practiced. Inferential analysis result shows the existence of a significant relationship between parenting styles (authoritarian, authoritative and permissive and Islamic personality.

  1. Production of haploids from anther culture of banana [Musa balbisiana (BB)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assani, A; Bakry, F; Kerbellec, F; Haïcour, R; Wenzel, G; Foroughi-Wehr, B

    2003-02-01

    We report here, for the first time, the production of haploid plants of banana Musa balbisiana (BB). Callus was induced from anthers in which the majority of the microspores were at the uninucleate stage. The frequency of callus induction was 77%. Callus proliferation usually preceded embryo formation. About 8% of the anthers developed androgenic embryos. Of the 147 plantlets obtained, 41 were haploids (n=x=11). The frequency of haploid production depended on genotypes used: 18 haploid plants were produced from genotype Pisang klutuk, 12 from Pisang batu, seven from Pisang klutuk wulung and four from Tani. The frequency of regeneration was 1.1%, which was based on the total number of anthers cultured. Diploid plants (2n=2x=22) were also observed in the regenerated plants. The haploid banana plants that were developed will be important material for the improvement of banana through breeding programmes.

  2. CINQUE NUOVE SPECIE DI TRECHUS DELL’ETIOPIA (Coleoptera, Carabidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Magrini

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Nella presente nota vengono descritte cinque nuove specie di Trechus, tutte raccolte in alta quota in Etiopia, e inquadrate nei gruppi di specie indicati da Jeannel. Tre provengono dal Massiccio del Simien (Provincia di Gondar: Trechus peynei n. sp. e Trechus loeffleri n. sp. (gruppo simienensis e Trechus martelluccii n. sp. (gruppo sublaevis; due provengono dal Monte Batu (Mendebo, Provincia di Bale: Trechus batuensis n. sp. (gruppo bipartitus e Trechus bastianinii n. sp., non inquadrabile al momentoin nessuno dei gruppi di specie indicati da Jeannel. Non descriviamo una sesta specie, sintopica con T. bastianinii n. sp., anche se sicuramente nuova, poichè abbiamo a disposizione solo due esemplari femmina. Tutte le nuove specie si differenziano chiaramente da tutte quelle finora descritte, per la diversità netta sia dell’edeago che della morfologia esterna, i cui caratteri e immagini descrittive sono riportati nel testo.

  3. Life History of Thalerosphyrus (Ephemeroptera: Heptageniidae) in Tropical Rivers with Reference to the Varying Altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamid, Suhaila Ab; Rawi, Che Salmah Md; Ahmad, Abu Hassan

    2016-02-01

    The life history and the influence of environmental parameters on Thalerosphyrus were investigated in two first-order rivers-the Batu Hampar River and the Teroi River of Gunung Jerai, Kedah-in northern peninsular Malaysia. Based on nymphal body length, Thalerosphyrus was found to be trivoltine in both rivers, regardless of the altitudinal difference, but its population abundance was four times higher in the Teroi River, presumably related to its better survival in the lower water temperature. At least nine instars of Thalerosphyrus were detected in the field-collected nymphs. Its life cycle was completed within 2.5-3.0 months, with overlapping cohorts and continual emergence of up to 3 months. The main driving factors of the high abundance of Thalerosphyrus were the water temperature and habitat quality. PMID:27019681

  4. Analisis Faktor-faktor yang Menyebabkan Laporan Keuangan Pemerintah Daerah Beropini Disclaimer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Nur Rahmawati

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of the Factors Causing the Financial Statement of Local Government Have Disclaimer Opinion. The purpose of this study is to know the factors that tends to cause public sector specificly East Java public sector get disclaimer opinion. More public sector financial report get disclaimer opinion it means declining in public sector performance quality in serving this country. Exactly each public sector has their own trigger in the emerge of disclaimer opinion. This study using descriptive methodology with case study method to analyze causing factors of disclaimer opinion. In the 2008 budget period, public sector which get this opinion are city of Batu, city of Surabaya, regency of Trenggalek, regency of Pasuruan, regency of Banyuwangi and regency of Ponorogo. The result of this study shows that the main factor causing the six financial report of public sectors get disclaimer opinion is the weakness of Internal Control System (ICS.

  5. Stable isotope geochemistry of the Ulldemolins Pb-Zn-Cu deposit (SW Catalonian Coastal Ranges, Spain)

    OpenAIRE

    Alfonso, P.; Canet, C.; Melgarejo i Draper, Joan-Carles; Mata i Perelló, Josep M. (Josep Maria); Fallick, A.E.

    2012-01-01

    The Pb-Zn-Cu deposit of Ulldemolins occurs within the Carboniferous sedimentary series of the southernmost Catalonian Coastal Ranges. It consists of sulphide-bearing calc-silicate assemblages, with epidote, Ca-amphiboles and Ca-garnet, which develop selectively along a dolomicrite bed near the contact with a granite porphyry. Two mineralisation styles can be differentiated: a) banded and b) irregular. Fluid inclusions and stable isotope compositions of sulphur in sulphides (sphalerite, galena...

  6. La cuestión de la división en diez predicamentos en los comentarios neoplatónicos de las Categorías

    OpenAIRE

    García-Norro, J.J. (Juan José); Rovira, R. (Rogelio)

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to expound the teaching of the Greek Neoplatonic Commentaries concerning the completeness of the Aristotelian categories. This teaching contributes to the clarification of the current debate on the problem of the nature and number of categories. The Commentaries on the Categories by Porphyry, Dexippus, Ammonius, Simplicius, Olympiodorus, Elias (David) and Philoponus are analyzed and discussed. El objeto de este trabajo es exponer la enseñanza de los comentarios neo...

  7. Tibet’s Duolong Is Expected to Become a World-class CopperGold Mining Base

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>According to copper.ccmn.cn,the geotectonic of the integrated prospection area of Duolong in Tibet is located at the western segment of the Bangonghu-Nujiang metallogenic belt in Tethys metallogenic domain,and the Duolong ore concentration area inside is a key working area,where five large and extra large porphyry copper deposits including those in western Dobzha,Bolong,southern Tiegelong and Naruo,and multiple copper deposits have been

  8. Competition between Festuca rubra L. and F. pratensis Huds. in natural conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Widera

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of the edaphic conditions and properties of pure and cenopopulations of Festuca rubra and Festuca pratensis allowed to establish the competitivity of these two species on 4 different lithological substrates in the Sudetes Foothills. A model of competition between F. rubra and F. pratensis was constructed on the basis of the biomass of their populations. On a substrate of porphyry, sand and granite F. rubra prevails in competition while on basalt F. pratensi is preponderant.

  9. Geophysical exploration of disseminated and stockwork deposits associated with plutonic intrusive rock: a case study on the eastern flank of Colombia’s western cordillera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernández Pardo Orlando

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Disseminated deposits are low-grade, large tonnage deposits which are mainly mined for gold, copper, molybdenum and tin. These deposits are normally associated with intermediate to acid plutonic intrusive rocks and all are characterized by intense, extensive hydrothermal alteration of host rocks. Disseminated deposit exploration in the tropics suffers from difficult geological mapping due to dense vegetation, lack of rock outcrops and extensive but variable saprolytic weathering. Geophysical exploration of these deposits normally includes magnetic, induced polarization and gamma ray spectrometry surveys. The largest RTP total magnetic field anomaly highs are usually associated with diorite porphyry intrusive bodies. Diorites are usually less magnetic than basaltic rocks; thus when magnetic anomaly highs are related to intrusions they can be explained by basic metals’ intensive mineralization (including magnetite associated with porphyry intrusions. Magnetic anomaly gradients regularly help delineate local discontinuities which can be interpreted as local faults and joints that can be mineralized. Gamma ray spectrometry is useful for determining anomalous potassium, uranium and thorium concentration as it can map alteration halos and linear discontinuities. Statistical analysis of the data also can determine the intermediate intrusive / extrusive nature of porphyry intrusions. Gamma ray spectrometry can help to determine elemental potassium concentration, regardless of the associated potassium mineral species, thereby enabling alteration mapping in a geological setting related to volcanic-associated massive sulphide base metal and gold deposits. An induced polarization survey is useful in outlining disseminated sulphide distribution in porphyry deposits related to chargeability anomaly highs. The results of the Quinchía project’s geophysical exploration program are discussed.

  10. The Ajo Mining District, Pima County, Arizona--Evidence for Middle Cenozoic Detachment Faulting, Plutonism, Volcanism, and Hydrothermal Alteration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Dennis P.; Force, Eric R.; Wilkinson, William H.; More, Syver W.; Rivera, John S.; Wooden, Joseph L.

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: The Ajo porphyry copper deposit and surrounding Upper Cretaceous rocks have been separated from their plutonic source and rotated by detachment faulting. Overlying middle Cenozoic sedimentary and volcanic rocks have been tilted and show evidence for two periods of rotation. Following these rotations, a granitic stock (23.7?0.2 Ma) intruded basement rocks west of the Ajo deposit. This stock was uplifted 2.5 km to expose deep-seated Na-Ca alteration.

  11. Contrasting hydrological processes of meteoric water incursion during magmatic-hydrothermal ore deposition: An oxygen isotope study by ion microprobe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fekete, Szandra; Weis, Philipp; Driesner, Thomas; Bouvier, Anne-Sophie; Baumgartner, Lukas; Heinrich, Christoph A.

    2016-10-01

    Meteoric water convection has long been recognized as an efficient means to cool magmatic intrusions in the Earth's upper crust. This interplay between magmatic and hydrothermal activity thus exerts a primary control on the structure and evolution of volcanic, geothermal and ore-forming systems. Incursion of meteoric water into magmatic-hydrothermal systems has been linked to tin ore deposition in granitic plutons. In contrast, evidence from porphyry copper ore deposits suggests that crystallizing subvolcanic magma bodies are only affected by meteoric water incursion in peripheral zones and during late post-ore stages. We apply high-resolution secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) to analyze oxygen isotope ratios of individual growth zones in vein quartz crystals, imaged by cathodo-luminescence microscopy (SEM-CL). Existing microthermometric information from fluid inclusions enables calculation of the oxygen isotope composition of the fluid from which the quartz precipitated, constraining the relative timing of meteoric water input into these two different settings. Our results confirm that incursion of meteoric water directly contributes to cooling of shallow granitic plutons and plays a key role in concurrent tin mineralization. By contrast, data from two porphyry copper deposits suggest that downward circulating meteoric water is counteracted by up-flowing hot magmatic fluids. Our data show that porphyry copper ore deposition occurs close to a magmatic-meteoric water interface, rather than in a purely magmatic fluid plume, confirming recent hydrological modeling. On a larger scale, the expulsion of magmatic fluids against the meteoric water interface can shield plutons from rapid convective cooling, which may aid the build-up of large magma chambers required for porphyry copper ore formation.

  12. An Introduction to Copper Deposits in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    There are 11 genetic types of copper deposit in China, three of which (porphyry,contact metasomatic and VMS types) are the most important. The copper deposits distribute widely both temporally and spatially in China. The features of copper ores in China are mostly poor in copper tenor and complex in metal associated. The copper metallogeny in China predominantly occurs in three metallogenic megadomains, namely the circum-Pacific, the paleo-Asian and the Tethys-Himalayan.

  13. Mineral exploration in the area of the Fore Burn igneous complex, south-western Scotland

    OpenAIRE

    P M Allen; Cooper, D. C.; Parker, M.E.; Easterbrook, G.D.; Haslam, H.W.

    1982-01-01

    The Fore Burn igneous complex consists mainly of quartz-microdiorite, tonalite and feldspar porphyry forming semiconcordant or concordant bodies within early Devonian volcanic and sedimentary rocks, just north of the Southern Upland Fault, some 24 km east of Girvan. There is evidence that the complex has been folded. Several small bodies of intrusion breccia occur within both the complex and the country rock and there is a zone of monolithologic breccias along a fau...

  14. Minerals in Afghanistan : the potential for gold

    OpenAIRE

    Benham, Antony John; Coats, Stan

    2006-01-01

    Gold has been worked in Afghanistan for centuries from many areas including Takhar province in the north and from Ghazni, Zabul, and Kandahar provinces in the south-west of the country. Currently, gold is produced almost solely by artisanal miners working the Samti Placer Deposit in Takhar Province. Gold deposits and prospects are known in rocks of Proterozoic to Neogene age. Many styles of gold mineralisation occur, in particular skarn, vein-hosted, porphyry and alluvial...

  15. The application of PGNAA borehole logging for copper grade estimation at Chuquicamata mine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charbucinski, J; Duran, O; Freraut, R; Heresi, N; Pineyro, I

    2004-05-01

    The field trials of a prompt gamma neutron activation (PGNAA) spectrometric logging method and instrumentation (SIROLOG) for copper grade estimation in production holes of a porphyry type copper ore mine, Chuquicamata in Chile, are described. Examples of data analysis, calibration procedures and copper grade profiles are provided. The field tests have proved the suitability of the PGNAA logging system for in situ quality control of copper ore. PMID:15082058

  16. The application of PGNAA borehole logging for copper grade estimation at Chuquicamata mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charbucinski, J. E-mail: jacek.charbucinski@csiro.au; Duran, O.; Freraut, R.; Heresi, N.; Pineyro, I

    2004-05-01

    The field trials of a prompt gamma neutron activation (PGNAA) spectrometric logging method and instrumentation (SIROLOG) for copper grade estimation in production holes of a porphyry type copper ore mine, Chuquicamata in Chile, are described. Examples of data analysis, calibration procedures and copper grade profiles are provided. The field tests have proved the suitability of the PGNAA logging system for in situ quality control of copper ore.

  17. The application of PGNAA borehole logging for copper grade estimation at Chuquicamata mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The field trials of a prompt gamma neutron activation (PGNAA) spectrometric logging method and instrumentation (SIROLOG) for copper grade estimation in production holes of a porphyry type copper ore mine, Chuquicamata in Chile, are described. Examples of data analysis, calibration procedures and copper grade profiles are provided. The field tests have proved the suitability of the PGNAA logging system for in situ quality control of copper ore

  18. The study of molybdenite types related to the ore processing plant of the Sar Cheshmeh mine

    OpenAIRE

    Balandeh Aminzadeh; Jamshid Shahabpour; Mortaza Asadipour

    2010-01-01

    Molybdenite occurs in five forms in the Sar Cheshmeh porphyry copper deposit, namely, (1)-veinlets with quartz-molybdenite, (2)-veinlets with quartz-molydenite that were filled with pyrite, (3)-veinlets with quartz-molybdenite-pyrite–chalcopyrite, (4)-Molybdenite veinlets with very low quartz and (5)-disseminated molybdenite grains. Because of their large size, the veinlet-related molybdenite grains are easily liberated from the gangue minerals, provided the grinding is properly conducted (74...

  19. Molybdenite as a rhenium carrier : first results of a spectroscopic approach using synchrotron radiation

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Teresa Pereira; Figueiredo, M. Ondina; Oliveira, Daniel P. S.; Veiga, João Pedro; Batista, Maria João

    2013-01-01

    The chemical and physical properties of rhenium render it a highly demanded metal for advanced applications in important industrial fields. This very scarce element occurs mainly in ores of porphyry copper-molybdenum deposits associated with the mineral molybdenite, MoS2, but it has also been found in granite pegmatites and quartz veins as well as in volcanic gases. Molybdenite is a typical polytype mineral which crystal structure is based on the stacking of [S-Mo-S] with molybden...

  20. KAJIANTEKNOLOGI PIEZO ESWL(EXTRACORPOREAL SHOCKWAVE LITHOTRIPSY RICHARD WOLF TYPE PIEZOLITH 3000 DIBANDINGKAN ALAT ESWL TYPE YC-9200 ESWL DAN B ULTRASOUND SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Gde Raka Widiana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Telah dilakukan kajian teknologi di rumah sakit umum pusat Sanglah untuk menentukan apakah intervensi ESWL baru dibandingkan ESWL lama lebih cost-effective, bila dipakai mengganti alat lamabila ditinjau dari perspektif medik, sosial dan ekonomi. Dilakukan pertemuan yang dihadiri oleh pihak terkait untuk menentukan kajian HTA pada alat ESWL baru. Pertemuan itu dihadiri oleh Ketua HTA, Direktur Medik, Kepala Bidang Pelayanan, Kepala dan Staf Divisi Urologi, dan StafDivisi Radiologi. Pertemuan itu bertujuan untuk menjawab apakah ESWL merek Richard Wolf type Piezolith 3000 dengan system In-line USG, 3000 shock per pasien buatan Jerman dapat menggantiESWL lama buatan Cina type YC-9200 ESWL dan B Ultrasound system. Dilakukan pencarian di internet pada sumber primer dan sekunder MIDLINE, COCHRANE, dan  Highwire. Dengan data dari3 penelitian asli yang didapat dari pencarian, dibuat model pohon keputusan pemakaian piezolith ESWL dibandingkan ESWL lama untuk melihatkemanjuran dan keamanan dibandingkan biaya danaplikasinya pada pasien batu ginjal di rumah sakit Sanglah Denpasar, dengan menilai aspek perspektifm ekonomi dan social, dihasilkan utility benefitrelative sebesar 0.40. Dengan melakukan adjustmentterhadap asumsi umur harapan hidup pasien ( 65 tahun dengan batu ginjal maka pemakaian ESWL baru ini menghasilkan peningkatan relatif umur harapan hidup pasien sebagai keuntungan ekonomisocial yang dikenal sebagai quality adjusted life years (QALY.Disimpulkan bahwa, ESWL piezoelectric Richard Wolf type Piezolith 3000 dengan system In-line USG, 3000 lebih cost-effective dari perspektifekonomi kesehatan dibandingkan ESWL lama dengan 3 bulan QALY gain dan denganbiaya (cost 1,5 juta rupiah per bulan QALY gain. [MEDICINA 2014;45:9-12

  1. A Study of Flood Evacuation Center Using GIS and Remote Sensing Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustaffa, A. A.; Rosli, M. F.; Abustan, M. S.; Adib, R.; Rosli, M. I.; Masiri, K.; Saifullizan, B.

    2016-07-01

    This research demonstrated the use of Remote Sensing technique and GIS to determine the suitability of an evacuation center. This study was conducted in Batu Pahat areas that always hit by a series of flood. The data of Digital Elevation Model (DEM) was obtained by ASTER database that has been used to delineate extract contour line and elevation. Landsat 8 image was used for classification purposes such as land use map. Remote Sensing incorporate with GIS techniques was used to determined the suitability location of the evacuation center from contour map of flood affected areas in Batu Pahat. GIS will calculate the elevation of the area and information about the country of the area, the road access and percentage of the affected area. The flood affected area map may provide the suitability of the flood evacuation center during the several levels of flood. The suitability of evacuation centers can be determined based on several criteria and the existing data of the evacuation center will be analysed. From the analysis among 16 evacuation center listed, there are only 8 evacuation center suitable for the usage during emergency situation. The suitability analysis was based on the location and the road access of the evacuation center toward the flood affected area. There are 10 new locations with suitable criteria of evacuation center proposed on the study area to facilitate the process of rescue and evacuating flood victims to much safer and suitable locations. The results of this study will help in decision making processes and indirectly will help organization such as fire-fighter and the Department of Social Welfare in their work. Thus, this study can contribute more towards the society.

  2. Mining resettlement and rural development in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalid, H N

    1992-07-01

    The Malaysian government has employed 3 kinds of resettlement schemes: 1) resettlement of farmers under modern agricultural and land development programs to grow cash crops; 2) resettlement of rural population in well-guarded locations to isolate them from communist insurgents; and 3) resettlement and compensation of population displaced thorough resource exploitation such as construction of dams and mining. The Kinta Valley resettlement is examined in the example of 3 villages where tin mining encroached on their agricultural land. 98 households were included in the sample from Batu Bertudung, Tekka, and Jelutung that had been settled in the 1940s. The villagers were eventually evacuated and sustained technological, pecuniary, and psychological losses. The economic loses involved property, land, and crops, and social losses comprised social networks, neighborhood, and stability. 81.7% of the villagers who were left landless successfully insisted on complete relocation of their villagers in new villages in claims to the respective tin mining companies through their newly formed village action committees in the mid-1960s. The compensation consisted of 1) group compensation by planned resettlement, 2) cash payment, and 3) replacement of the former plot with another piece of land. Social needs were not included in the calculation and the compensation received reflected roughly their economic worth at the time. The villagers of Tekka and Jelutung had their houses rebuilt which were comparable to their old homes using new materials and stronger foundations. Those from Batu Bertudung were resettled in another village, and were compensated in cash to rebuild their homes themselves. Basic amenities were insufficient: new wells had to be dug, the public standpipe was overused, and only dirt roads were constructed. The government provided most basic amenities 5-6 years later under the rural development program.

  3. MONITORING DAERAH RESAPAN AIR DENGAN METODE GEOLISTRIK STUDI KASUS KELURAHAN SEKARAN, KECAMATAN GUNUNGPATI, KOTA SEMARANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Millah

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Kecamatan Gunungpati merupakan salah satu wilayah konservasi di Kota Semarang yang mengalami perkembangan sejakdidirikannya Kampus Unnes di Kelurahan Sekaran. Pesatnya pembangunan yang ada saat ini telah mengakibatkan terjadinyaperubahan tata guna lahan. Untuk mengetahui pengaruhnya terhadap fungsi daerah resapan air di Kelurahan Sekaran makadilakukan pengukuran dengan metode geolistrik konfigurasi Schlumberger. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahuistatus daerah resapan air di Kelurahan Sekaran. Penelitian ini dilakukan di Kawasan Kampus Unnes Sekaran dan sekitarnyadalam 2 tahap, yaitu bulan Nopember 2010 dan Januari 2011. Hasil pengolahan data dengan software Res2dinv ver. 3.56 diketahuibahwa untuk TS 01, TS 02, TS 04, TS 05 resapan air paling banyak terjadi pada bulan Nopember 2010, untuk TS 03 pada bulanJanuari 2011. Lapisan batuan penyusun yang ada umumnya terdiri dari lempung dan batu pasir. Lapisan batu pasir inilah yangdiharapkan dapat berfungsi sebagai penyimpan air hujan yang meresap dan teridentifikasi sebagai air tanah dangkal. Simpulandari penelitian ini yaitu Kelurahan Sekaran masih berfungsi sebagai daerah resapan air dengan ditemukannya air tanah dangkal dilokasi penelitian. This research aims to study the influence of development of Sekaran into the function of its water infiltration area by using a methodof Schlumberger configuration. There were two steps of research conducted in November 2010 and January 2011. The result ofdata processing using software Res2dinv ver. 3.56 shows that the most water infiltration happened in Nopember 2010 forTS 01,TS02, TS 04, TS 05 points, while those for TS 03 happened in January 2011. In general, the composing layers are clay and sand. Thesand is supposed to have the function of infiltrated rain water keeper and identified as shalow soil water. Based on the identifiedshalow soil water, the research concluded that Sekaran still has a function of water infiltration

  4. Implementation of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR of Cement Factory: Partnership Program, Environmental Guidance, and National Company-Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainal A Haris

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR of a company is aimed to improve social welfare around the company, then to get good relationship among people in the society as well as between society and the company itself for the sustainability. A research about implementation of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR program of PT. Semen Padang, a cement factory, was aimed to identify programs and collaborative model conducted by PT. Semen Padang in implementing the CSR program. This research was conducted in Batu Gadang Lubuk Kilangan (which is categorized as ring I for CSR receiver located next to limestone hill, a source of raw material for cement Padang. Data were collected by interviewing CSR Bureau of PT Semen Padang, local government (“Kelurahan” staffs, local organization (“KAN” staffs, people in Batu Gadang receiving and non-receiving CSR using survey method. Data were analyzed using Descriptive Analyses method. Based on the data collected, it could be concluded that PT Semen Padang totally had allocated fund for the CSR more than the amount (>2% it had to set aside. The CSR program was implemented through 3 forms, those were Partnership Program (PP, Environmental Guidance (EG and National Company-Care (NCC, as well as other program which was not included in PP and EG (non-PPEG. Among the programs implemented, partnership program gave better result.  If PT Semen Padang fully engaged local organization such as “KAN” as a co-worker, implementation of the CSR program can be more effective and reliable.

  5. Seasonal trends in abundance and composition of marine debris in selected public beaches in Peninsular Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobilik, Julyus-Melvin; Ling, Teck-Yee; Husain, Mohd-Lokman Bin; Hassan, Ruhana

    2015-09-01

    The abundance and composition of marine debris were investigated at Saujana (in the state of Negeri Sembilan) and Batu Rakit (in the state of Terengganu) beaches during surveys conducted in December 2012 (northeast monsoon), May 2013 (intermediate monsoon) and July 2013 (southwest monsoon). A total of 4,682 items of debris weighing 231.4 kg were collected and sorted. Batu Rakit received substantially greater quantities of debris (815±717 items/km or 40.4±13.0 kg/km) compared to Saujana (745±444 items/km or 36.7±18.0 kg/km). Total debris item was more abundant during the southwest monsoon (SWM) (1,122±737 items/km) compared to the northeast monsoon (NEM) (825±593 items/ km) and the intermediate monsoon (IM) (394±4 items/km) seasons. Plastic category (88%) was the most numerous items collected and object items contributed 44.18% includes packaging, plastic fragments, cups, plastic shopping bags, plastic food wrapper, clear plastic bottles from the total debris items collected. Object items associated with common source (47%) were the highest debris accumulated, followed by terrestrial (30%) and marine (23%) sources. The high percentage of common and terrestrial sources during SWM season requires immediate action by marine environment stakeholders to develop and introduce strategies to reduce if not totally eliminates the marine debris in the marine environment. Awareness should be continued and focused on beach users and vessels' crew to alert them on the alarming accumulation rate of marine debris and its pathways into the marine environment.

  6. Flood Water Level Mapping and Prediction Due to Dam Failures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musa, S.; Adnan, M. S.; Ahmad, N. A.; Ayob, S.

    2016-07-01

    Sembrong dam has undergone overflow failure. Flooding has been reported to hit the town, covering an area of up to Parit Raja, located in the district of Batu Pahat. This study aims to identify the areas that will be affected by flood in the event of a dam failure in Sembrong Dam, Kluang, Johor at a maximum level. To grasp the extent, the flood inundation maps have been generated by using the InfoWorks ICM and GIS software. By using these maps, information such as the depth and extent of floods can be identified the main ares flooded. The flood map was created starting with the collection of relevant data such as measuring the depth of the river and a maximum flow rate for Sembrong Dam. The data were obtained from the Drainage and Irrigation Department Malaysia and the Department of Survey and Mapping and HLA Associates Sdn. Bhd. Then, the data were analyzed according to the established Info Works ICM method. The results found that the flooded area were listed at Sri Lalang, Parit Sagil, Parit Sonto, Sri Paya, Parit Raja, Parit Sempadan, Talang Bunut, Asam Bubok, Tanjung Sembrong, Sungai Rambut and Parit Haji Talib. Flood depth obtained for the related area started from 0.5 m up to 1.2 m. As a conclusion, the flood emanating from this study include the area around the town of Ayer Hitam up to Parit Raja approximately of more than 20 km distance. This may give bad implication to residents around these areas. In future studies, other rivers such as Sungai Batu Pahat should be considered for this study to predict and reduce the yearly flood victims for this area.

  7. DAMPAK PERUBAHAN NILAI TUKAR MATA UANG TERHADAP EKSPOR INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhany Surya Ratana

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe aim of this research were (1 to analyze the impact of exchange rate movement on the Indonesian aggregate export volume and to Crude palm oils (CPO, rubber’s and coal’s, (2 to analyze factors that influencing those exports, and (3 to analyze Indonesian’s exports respond to those factors’ shock. The analysis method used was VAR/VECM, impulse-response function, and fixed-effects vector decomposition. World economic showed results as all models predicted were positive and significant effects on export volume. The relative price showed a negative and significant effect on all models. The exchange rate depreciation only showed a positive and significant effect on CPO model. It this research concluded that  the exchange rate movement does not have any effect on Indonesia export volume despite the commodities model have little to no import parts on its final export goods.Keywords: granger causality, VAR/VECM, export, exchange rateABSTRAKTujuan dari penelitian ini adalah (1 menganalisis dampak perubahan nilai tukar uang terhadap volume ekspor agregat dan komoditas Crude palm oil (CPO, karet, dan batu bara Indonesia, (2 menganalisis faktor yang mempengaruhi volume ekspor agregat dan komoditas CPO, karet, dan batu bara Indonesia, (3 menganalisis respon ekspor Indonesia terhadap guncangan variabel yang mempengaruhinya. Metode analisis data yang digunakan VAR/VECM, impulse-response function, dan fixed-effects vector decomposition. Ekonomi dunia menunjukkan hasil yang sesuai prediksi berpengaruh positif dan  signifikan pada volume ekspor pada seluruh model. Harga relatif memberikan hasil sesuai dengan prediksi negatif dan signifikan pada seluruh model. Depresiasi nilai tukar hanya menunjukkan hubungan positif signifikan pada model CPO. Dapat disimpulkan bahwa pergerakan nilai tukar tidak memiliki dampak pada volume ekspor Indonesia walaupun model komoditas hanya memiliki sedikit bagian impor pada barang akhir untuk ekspor.Kata kunci

  8. The role of the Antofagasta-Calama Lineament in ore deposit deformation in the Andes of northern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios, Carlos; Ramírez, Luis E.; Townley, Brian; Solari, Marcelo; Guerra, Nelson

    2007-02-01

    During the Late Jurassic-Early Oligocene interval, widespread hydrothermal copper mineralization events occurred in association with the geological evolution of the southern segment of the central Andes, giving rise to four NS-trending metallogenic belts of eastward-decreasing age: Late Jurassic, Early Cretaceous, Late Paleocene-Early Eocene, and Late Eocene-Early Oligocene. The Antofagasta-Calama Lineament (ACL) consists of an important dextral strike-slip NE-trending fault system. Deformation along the ACL system is evidenced by a right-lateral displacement of the Late Paleocene-Early Eocene metallogenic belts. Furthermore, clockwise rotation of the Early Cretaceous Mantos Blancos copper deposit and the Late Paleocene Lomas Bayas porphyry copper occurred. In the Late Eocene-Early Oligocene metallogenic belt, a sigmoidal deflection and a clockwise rotation is observed in the ACL. The ACL is thought to have controlled the emplacement of Early Oligocene porphyry copper deposits (34-37 Ma; Toki, Genoveva, Quetena, and Opache), whereas it deflected the Late Eocene porphyry copper belt (41-44 Ma; Esperanza, Telégrafo, Centinela, and Polo Sur ore deposits). These observations suggest that right-lateral displacement of the ACL was active during the Early Oligocene. We propose that the described structural features need to be considered in future exploration programs within this extensively gravel-covered region of northern Chile.

  9. Banatitic magmatic and metallogenetic belt: metallogeny of the Romanian Carpathians segment

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    S̡erban-Nicolae Vlad

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available The Romanian Carpathians sector of the Late Cretaceous Banatitic Magmatic and Metallogenetic belt (BMMB contains 1 plutons and volcano-plutonic complexes, i. e. calc-alkaline, I-type granitoids, with related ores; 2 shoshonitic plutons that lack economic interest. Two provinces have been delineated: the Apuseni Mts. Province in the North and the Western South Carpathians in the South. Apuseni Mts. Province is a non-porphyry environment related to more evolved (granodioritic-granitic magmatism. It is subdivided into three zones: Vlădeasa (Pb-Zn ores of restricted metallogenetic potential; Gilău-Bihor (Fe, Bi, Mo, Cu, W, Au, Ni, Co, Pb, Zn, Ag, U, B ores / conspicuous peri-batholitic arrangement and South Apuseni (only one minor Fe-skarn occurrence. Western South Carpathians Province occurs in Romania and extends in Eastern Serbia. It is subdivided into South Banat Mts.–Timok Zone (SBTZ and Poiana Ruscă Mts.– North Banat Mts.– Ridanj-Krepoljin Zone (PR-NB-RKZ. SBTZ is a typical porphyry environment of high metallogenetic potential (Cu, Au, Pb, Zn, while PR-NB-RKZ is a non-porphyry environment with small to medium size Pb, Zn, Fe, Cu deposits/prospects exhibiting commonly a peri-plutonic zoning. The metallogenetic model of the Romanian Carpathians segment of BMMB is conceived based on correlating magma composition/level of emplacement and ore types.

  10. The Chahnaly low sulfidation epithermal gold deposit, western Makran volcanic arc, southeastern Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sholeh, Ali; Rastad, Ebrahim; Huston, David L.; Gemmell, J. Bruce; Taylor, Ryan D.

    2016-01-01

    The Chahnaly low-sulfidation epithermal Au deposit and nearby Au prospects are located northwest of the intermittently active Bazman stratovolcano on the western end of the Makran volcanic arc, which formed as the result of subduction of the remnant Neo-Tethyan oceanic crust beneath the Lut block. The arc hosts the Siah Jangal epithermal and Kharestan porphyry prospects, near Taftan volcano, as well as the Saindak Cu-Au porphyry deposit and world-class Reko Diq Cu-Au porphyry deposit, near Koh-i-Sultan volcano to the east-northeast in Pakistan. The host rocks for the Chahnaly deposit include early Miocene andesite and andesitic volcaniclastic rocks that are intruded by younger dacitic domes. Unaltered late Miocene dacitic ignimbrites overlie these rocks. Laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) U-Pb zircon geochronology data yield ages between 21.8 and 9.9 Ma for the acidic-intermediate regional volcanism. The most recent volcanic activity of the Bazman stratovolcano involved extrusion of an olivine basalt during Pliocene to Quaternary times. Interpretation of geochemical data indicate that the volcanic rocks are synsubduction and calc-alkaline to subalkaline. The lack of a significant negative Eu anomaly, a listric-shaped rare earth element pattern, and moderate La/Yb ratios of host suites indicate a high water content of the source magma.

  11. [Spectral characteristics and implication of granite from pozaiying molybdenite deposits in west of Guangdong].

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Yan-Fei; Zhong, Li-li; Zhou, Yang-Zhang; Chen, Qing; Li, Xing-yuan

    2014-06-01

    Some granite samples from Pozaiying molybdenite deposits in the west of Guangdong were retrieved to characterize the spectral signature of XRD, FT-NIR and Raman. The results show that compared to the Porphyry granite and granite in the far zone, the signal of XRD and Raman of granite in near zone is weaker while the signal of FT-NIR is stronger. The authors' analyses indicate that the FWHM of quartz (101) peak in XRD, Sericite peak (4 529 cm(-1)) in FT-NIR and quartz peak in Raman shift from the latter are higher than those of former two. Those spectral characteristics indicate that compared with other samples, the content of petrogenetic mineral in samples from near zone is lower while the content of alteration mineral is higher, and its crystallinity and crystallization temperatures are both lower. The authors' studies suggest that there may be an alteration zone, embracing the granite-porphyry, which comprised low temperature mineral, and the quartz-porphyry which related to molybdenite mineralization belongs to the zone near Guanshanzhang mass. PMID:25358146

  12. The Petrogenesis and Prospecting Significance for the Acidic Veins of Wucaicheng in Karamaili from Eastern Junggar%东准噶尔卡拉麦里五彩城地区酸性岩脉岩石成因及找矿意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田健; 廖群安; 吴魏伟; 陈帅; 胡朝斌; 张晓军; 樊光明; 聂小妹; 王富明

    2014-01-01

    卡拉麦里断裂以南五彩城一带分布有大量以岩脉和小岩滴形式存在的流纹斑岩和花岗斑岩,这些浅成脉体侵位于上石炭统巴塔玛依内山组、上泥盆-下石炭统克安库都克组及志留系。LA-ICP-MS锆石U-Pb年龄显示,花岗斑岩及流纹斑岩形成于晚石炭世中-晚期(花岗斑岩年龄为(309.1±3.1)Ma,流纹斑岩年龄为(302.9±4.1)Ma)。Q ’-ANOR图中花岗斑岩及流纹斑岩主要投在碱长花岗岩及正长花岗岩区内,岩石高SiO2(73.38%~77.05%), K2O/Na2O=1.18%~1.84%,球粒陨石标准化的REE分布型式具LREE略富集的近似海鸥型的分布型式,岩石地球化学特征显示出高分异的A型花岗岩特点。从时空分布上看,这些岩脉应为晚石炭世巴塔玛依内山组火山岩的潜火山岩,后者具明显的的双峰式火山岩特征,形成时间上这些岩脉也与北部邻区的黄羊山、老鸭泉A型花岗岩体的形成年龄(300~311 Ma)十分接近,认为其应属陆内伸展环境产物。本研究在花岗斑岩中发现有岩浆晚期热液蚀变型的Cu,Pb,Zn矿化,与黄羊山、萨北及老鸭泉岩体中的Cu,Pb,Zn矿床成因类型相同,认为卡拉麦里断裂以南广泛发育的晚石炭世的潜火山岩可能具较好的找矿前景。%There are lots of veins and drops including granite porphyry and rhyolite porphyry in Wucaicheng from the south of Karamaili fault,these dike swarm are intruded in Batamayineishan Formation of the Upper Carboniferous,Song-kaersu Formation of the lower Carboniferous and Silurian strata.LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb dating shows that granite por-phyry and rhyolite porphyry are formed in the middle-late stage of Late Carboniferous (Weighted mean 206Pb/238U age of granite porphyry is (2 309.1 ± 3.1) Ma,rhyolite porphyry is (302.9 ± 4.1) Ma).Granite porphyry and rhyolite porphyry in-vest in the areas containing alkali feldspar granite and syenite granite in Q '-ANOR

  13. Petrogenesis, geochronology, and tectonic significance of granitoids in the Tongshan intrusion, Anhui Province, Middle-Lower Yangtze River Valley, eastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhi-Yu; Du, Yang-Song; Teng, Chuan-Yao; Zhang, Jing; Pang, Zhen-Shan

    2014-01-01

    The Tongshan copper deposit in Anhui Province is a typical mid-sized skarn and porphyry type deposit in the Anqing-Guichi district along the Middle-Lower Yangtze River Valley, eastern China. The Tongshan intrusion is closely related to this mineralization. The intrusion mainly comprises rocks that are quartz diorite porphyry, quartz monzonite porphyry, and granodiorite porphyry. Plagioclase in these rocks is mostly andesine (An = 31.0-42.9), along with minor oligoclase. Biotite is magnesium-rich [Mg/(Mg + Fe) = 0.52-0.67] and aluminum-poor (Al2O3 = 12.32-14.09 wt.%), and can be classified as magnesio-biotite. Hornblende is TiO2-poor ( 0.60], and is magnesio-hornblende or edenite. The SHRIMP zircon U-Pb age of the quartz monzonite porphyry is 145.1 ± 1.2 Ma, which corresponds to the middle Yanshanian period. Whole-rock geochemical results show that the rocks are silica-rich (SiO2 = 60.23-66.23 wt.%) and alkali-rich (K2O + Na2O = 4.97-8.72 wt.%), and low in calcium (CaO = 2.61-5.66 wt.%). Trace element results show enrichments in large ion lithophile element (e.g., K, Rb, and Ba) and depletions in some high field strength elements (e.g., Nb, Ta, P, and Ti). The total rare earth element (REE) content of the rocks is low (ΣREE 10] and small positive Eu anomalies (average δEu = 1.16). These mineralogical, geochronological, and geochemical results show that the intrusion has a mixed crust-mantle source. The Tongshan intrusion was formed by multiple emplacements of crustally contaminated basaltic magma generated by varying degrees of partial melting of enriched lithospheric mantle and lower crust. Hornblende thermobarometry yielded magmatic crystallization temperatures of 652-788 °C and an average crystallization pressure of 1.4 kbar, which corresponds to a depth of approx. 4.7 km. Biotite thermobarometry yielded similar temperatures and lower pressures of 735-775 °C and 0.6 kbar (depth 2.1 km), respectively. The parental magma had a high oxygen fugacity and was

  14. Apatite trace element and halogen compositions as petrogenetic-metallogenic indicators: Examples from four granite plutons in the Sanjiang region, SW China

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    Pan, Li-Chuan; Hu, Rui-Zhong; Wang, Xin-Song; Bi, Xian-Wu; Zhu, Jing-Jing; Li, Chusi

    2016-06-01

    The abundances of trace elements including Sr, Ga and rare earth elements (REE) and halogens in apatite crystals from four intermediate-felsic plutons in the Zhongdian terrane in the Sanjiang region have been determined using electron microprobe and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry to evaluate the potential of apatite as a petrogenic-metallogenic indicator. The selected plutons include one that is not mineralized (the Triassic Xiuwacu pluton, or the TXWC pluton), one that hosts a porphyry-type Cu deposit (the Pulang pluton, or the PL pluton), one that hosts a porphyry-type Mo deposit (the Tongchanggou pluton, or the TCG pluton), and one that hosts a vein-type Mo deposit (the Cretaceous Xiuwacu pluton, or the CXWC pluton). Except for the CXWC pluton, the other three plutons have adakite-like trace element signatures in whole rocks. The results from this study show that REE, Sr and halogens in apatite can be used to track magma compositions, oxidation states and crystallization history. Apatite crystals from the adakite-like plutons are characterized by much higher Sr/Y and δEu than the non-adakite-type pluton. This means that apatite, which is not susceptible to alteration, is a useful tool for identifying the adakite-like plutons that no longer preserve the initial Sr/Y ratios in whole rocks due to weathering and hydrothermal alteration. Based on apatite Ga contents and δEu values, it is inferred that the parental magmas for the two adakite-like plutons containing porphyry-type Cu and Mo mineralization are more oxidized than that for the non-adakite-type pluton containing vein-type Mo mineralization. Apatite crystals from the vein-type Mo deposit have much lower Cl/F ratios than those from the porphyry-type Cu and Mo deposits. Apatite crystals from the adakite-like pluton without Cu or Mo mineralization is characterized by much lower Cl/F ratios than those from the adakite-like plutons that host the porphyry-type Cu and Mo deposits. The

  15. Geochemical, zircon U-Pb dating and Sr-Nd-Hf isotopic constraints on the age and petrogenesis of an Early Cretaceous volcanic-intrusive complex at Xiangshan, Southeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shui-Yuan; Jiang, Shao-Yong; Jiang, Yao-Hui; Zhao, Kui-Dong; Fan, Hong-Hai

    2011-01-01

    The Late Mesozoic geology of Southeast China is characterized by extensive Jurassic to Cretaceous magmatism consisting predominantly of granites and rhyolites and subordinate mafic rocks, forming a belt of volcanic-intrusive complexes. The Xiangshan volcanic-intrusive complex is located in the NW region of the belt and mainly contains the following lithologies: rhyodacite and rhyodacitic porphyry, porphyritic lava, granite porphyry with mafic microgranular enclaves, quartz monzonitic porphyry, and lamprophyre dyke. Major and trace-element compositions, zircon U-Pb dating, and Sr-Nd-Hf isotopic compositions have been investigated for these rocks. The precise SHRIMP and LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb dating shows that the emplacement of various magmatic units at Xiangshan took place within a short time period of less than 2 Myrs. The stratigraphically oldest rhyodacite yielded a zircon U-Pb age of 135 ± 1 Ma and the overlying rhyodacitic porphyry has an age of 135 ± 1 Ma. Three porphyritic lava samples yielded zircon U-Pb ages of 136 ± 1 Ma, 132 ± 1 Ma, and 135 ± 1 Ma, respectively. Two subvolcanic rocks (granite porphyry) yielded zircon U-Pb ages of 137 ± 1 Ma and 137 ± 1 Ma. A quartz monzonitic porphyry dyke, which represented the final stage of magmatism at Xiangshan, also yielded a zircon U-Pb age of 136 ± 1 Ma. All these newly obtained precise U-Pb ages demonstrate that the entire magmatic activity at Xiangshan was rapid and possibly took place at the peak of extensional tectonics in SE China. The geochemical data indicate that all these samples from the volcanic-intrusive complex have an A-type affinity. Sr-Nd-Hf isotopic data suggest that the Xiangshan volcanic-intrusive complex derived mainly from remelting of Paleo-Mesoproterozoic crust without significant additions of mantle-derived magma. However, the quartz monzonitic porphyry, which has zircon Hf model ages older than the whole-rock Nd model ages, and which has ɛNd(T) value higher than the other rocks

  16. Investigation of Regional Fractures and Cu Mineralization Relationships in the Khezrabad and Shahr-e-Babak Area: Using Fry and Fractal analysis

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    Alireza Zarasvandi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Two main principal aspects for the genesis of porphyry copper deposits have been determined. The first genetic model concerns the petrologic and geochemical processes and the other relates the genesis to crustal deformation and geodynamic conditions (Kesler, 1997. Recent studies (e.g., Padilla Garza et al., 2001 show that the generation and emplacement of porphyry copper deposits may not only be dependent on magmatic and hydrothermal processes, but also that the regional and local tectonic setting plays an important role. Therefore in determining the suitable setting for emplacement of copper and other porphyry intrusions, determination of location of partial melting of the lower crust, generation of batholiths, and their volatile-rich derivative intrusions in the crust seems to be necessary (Carranza and Hale, 2002. Almost all porphyry copper deposits in Iran are located in the Urumieh-Dokhtar magmatic belt. These deposits show distinct spatial and temporal relationship with Miocene granodiorite plutonic rocks emplaced along strike slip faults (Mehrabi et al., 2005. Accordingly, the tectonic setting of ore deposits seem to be the most important factor for regional exploration of porphyry copper systems (Vearncombe and Vearncombe, 1999. There are several methods for analysis of distribution of ore deposits. In this research the role of structural control in the spatial distribution of porphyry deposits has been studied using Fry and Fractal methods. Here, the Fry method is used as a complementary method for Fractal analysis. Materials and methods Fry analysis is a self-adaptive method that is used for point objects. Fry analysis offers a visual approach to quantify the spatial trends in groups of point objects. Fry analysis can also be used to search for anisotropies in the distribution of point objects. More specifically it can be used to investigate whether a distribution of point objects occurs along linear trends, and whether

  17. Strategy And Policy Statements On Green ICT: An Islamic Perspective

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    Shihab A. Hameed

    2012-01-01

    .ABSTRAK: Di era informasi dan kommunikasi teknologi (ICT kini, pembangunan ICT dan industri berkembang begitu pesat dan dikaitkan dengan daya membeli yang tinggi. Hari ini, masyarakat dunia menghadapi cabaran dalam meningkatkan prestasi persekitaran, terutamanya dengan perubahan cuaca, pemanasan global, dan pengurusan sumber. Industri ICT merupakan penyumbang sebahagian besar daripada ekonomi global yang berkaitan dengan inovasi, reka cipta dan perkembangan pesat hampir semua aspek manusia. Di sebaliknya pula, industri ICT bertanggung jawab terhadap pelepasan CO2 global. Masalah persekitaran global secara langsung mempengaruhi polisi tenaga dan industri banyak negara. Pembangunan pesat ICT menyebabkan meningkatnya penggunaan tenaga dan pertambahan masalah persekitaran. Penggunaan tenaga oleh ICT dianggarkan mencapai jumlah 15% daripada jumlah penggunaannya di seluruh dunia pada tahun 2020. Oleh itu, banyak negara yang membentuk polisi ICT Hijau supaya kecekapan tenaga dapat ditingkatkan seiring dengan perubahan cuaca. Kerajaan terutamanya di negara-negara membangun dan negara Islam lain haruslah mengamalkan polisi baru yang wajar agar tenaga digunakan secara efisien di bidang ICT. Kajian ini membentangkan masalah persekitaran yang kini berkaitan dengan menhijaukan ICT dan usaha-usaha untuk meyelesaikannya. Beberapa kajian berbentuk peringatan berasaskan paradigma penggunaan tenaga terkini, berdasarkan kepada amalan terbaru ICT yang dipinda. Kajian memberikan garis panduan kepada pembuat-pembuat keputusan dan para professional ICT untuk mempertingkatkan usaha mereka ke arah ICT hijau dan menyelesaikan masalah alam sekitar. Pandangan Islam terhadap alam sekitar dan usaha melindunginya dipertimbangkan, memandangkan ianya memberi pendapat yang menyeluruh, stabil dan adil berdasarkan sumber-sumber Islam iaitu Quran dan Sunnah. Banyak ayat-ayat Al-Quran dan hadis-hadis memperjelaskan (secara langsung atau tidak langsung cara yang betul dalam menangani dan melindungi sumber alam

  18. Jurnal Kesehatan Andalas. 2013; 2(2 Malrotasi dan Volvulus pada Anak

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    Yusri Dianne Jurnalis

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakMalrotasi dan volvulus merupakan kasus gawat darurat dibidang bedah anak yang memerlukan intervensi segera. Malrotasi dan volvulus kebanyakan terjadi pada periode neonatus walaupun pada beberapa kasus dilaporkan terjadi pada usia anak besar bahkan dewasa. Manifestasi klinis berupa muntah hijau dengan atau tanpa distensi abdomen yang berhubungan dengan obstruksi duodenum atau volvulus midgut. Keterlambatan diagnosis dan talaksana dapat mengakibatkan terjadinya nekrosis intestinal, short bowel syndrome, dan ketergantungan pada nutrisi parenteral total. Mortalitas pada neonatus diperkirakan mencapai angka 30% pada sekitar tahun 1950, namun angka mortalitas tersebut semakin menurun mencapai 3% - 5%. Penanganan operatif yang darurat seringkali dibutuhkan untuk mencegah iskemia intestinal atau untuk melakukan reseksi pada lengkung usus yang telah mengalami infark.Kata kunci: malrotasi, volvulus midgut, prosedur Ladd, anakAbstractArial 9 italic Malrotation and volvulus is an emergency case in the field of surgery that requires immediate intervention. Malrotation and volvulus mostly occur in the neonatal period although in some cases have been reported in the age of the children and even adults. The clinical manifestations of vomiting green with or without abdominal distension associated with duodenal obstruction or midgut volvulus. Delay in diagnosis and management can lead to intestinal necrosis, short bowel syndrome, and dependence on total parenteral nutrition. Neonatal mortality rate is estimated at 30% in the 1950s, but the mortality rate has declined approximately 3% - 5%. Handling emergency operative is often needed to prevent intestinal ischemia or to perform bowel resection in the arch that has undergone infarction.Keywords:Malrotation, volvulus, Ladd procedure, children

  19. Variasi Panjang Fragmen Gen ND3 Burung Famili Ploceidae Endemik Pulau Jawa (The Length Variation of ND3Gen Fragmen of Java’s Endemic Ploceidae Family’s Birds

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    Ana Fitria

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Ploceidae family’s birds in Indonesia consist of 41 species include 13 species as Java’s endemic. Some species of Ploceidae family were start to rarely oberved, because of new house developing and hunting as a pets, zoo collection and education kit. It’s need some efforts to conserve these rare species through improving the habitat, rehabilitation, nursery, controlling, law inforcement for hunters, and genetic conservation according to a knowledgement of genetic variation. The research aimed to knew the length fragmen of ND3 DNAmt Gen and genetic variation among species of Ploceidae family’s birds. 11 species were observe for morphology’s characteristic than blood sample were collected for DNA isolation with Dixit methode. ND3 gen were amplificated by DNA isolated with PCR used H11151 and L10755 primer. PCR’s gain were visualized with 2 % agarose gel. The length fragmen of ND3 DNAmt were 321bp for Bondol Jawa, 338 bp for Bondol Haji and Bondol Peking, 393 bp for Burung Gereja Erasia, 413 bp for Manyar Emas, 406 bp for Gelatik Jawa, 334 bp for Manyar Tempua and Manyar Jambul, 351 bp for Pipit Benggala, 333 bp for Bondol Hijau Binglis, 317 bp for Pipit Zebra. The conclusion of this research were : 1. the length variation of ND3 DNAmt Gen among 11 species range from 317 – 413 bp and 2. morphological variation and length variation of ND3 DNAmt Gen shows that there was genetic variation among species of Ploceidae family’s birds. Key words : Ploceidae, ND3 Gen, Java’s endemic

  20. GREEN CONSUMER: DESKRIPSI TINGKAT KESADARAN DAN KEPEDULIAN MASYARAKAT JOGLOSEMAR TERHADAP KELESTARIAN LINGKUNGAN

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    Jati Waskito

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan utama dari penelitian ini adalah untuk menilai variabel efek khusus untuk kesadaran lingkungan dan pro-lingkungan perilaku pembelian produk hijau di Jogyakarta, Solo, dan Semarang. Statistik deskriptif variabel menghasilkan perbedaan kesadaran lingkungan dari 156 peserta. Temuan menarik dari studi ini adalah bahwa semua model  penelitian menunjukkan pengaruhsignifikan variabel prediktor secara bersamaan (environmental knowledge, environmental Attitude, recycling behavior, political action terhadap perilaku pembelian produk ramah lingkungan secara umum (general purchasing behavior maupun secara khusus (recycling paper production, not tested on animal, organic fruits & vegetabels, ozone friendly aerosol dan environmental friendly detergentl. Hasil penelitian ini juga menunjukkan masih rendahnya pengetahuan masyarakat untuk menjaga kelestarian lingkungan ini dapat menjadi alasan yang kuat untuk melakukan sosialisasi dan pembelajaran bagi masyarakat tentang pentingnya pelestarian lingkungan.The main objective of this study was to assess the effect of variables specific to environmental consciousness and pro-environmental green product purchasing behavior in Yogyakarta, Solo, and Semarang. Descriptive statistics of variables produce differences in the environmental awareness of the 156 participants. Interesting finding of this study is that all models showed a significant effect at the same predictor variables (environmental knowledge, environmental attitude, recycling behavior, political action on the purchase behavior of environmentally friendly products in general (general purchasing behavior and specifically (recycling paper production , not tested on animal, organic fruits & vegetabels, ozone  friendly aerosol and environmental friendly detergentl. The results also showed low knowledge of the community to preserve the environment can be a good reason for socialization and learning for the public about the importance of environmental

  1. PEMBANGUNAN PERMUKIMAN YANG BERKELANJUTAN UNTUK MENGURANGI POLUSI UDARA

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    Timoticin Kwanda

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The rapid increase of urban population will cause environment problems, such as clean water scarcity, bad condition of sanitation, garbage disposal, and air pollution. Main sources of air pollution in large cities are emissions of motor vehicles (CO which is 70% to 80% of the total air pollutant. Air pollution may create hazard for human health. Carbon monoxide (CO which changes into carbon dioxide (CO2 will cause global warming, and then climate change happened will cause flood and dry land, which then it effects on human health. In addition, the damage of Ozone layer caused by CFC chemical will cause more ultra violet going into the troposphere which causes skin cancer. To solve air pollution, first is to decrease energy consumption and search for a cleaner alternated energy. Second is to build sustainable buildings and settlements, and environment friendly public transportation system. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Peningkatan jumlah penduduk perkotaan yang relatif tinggi menimbulkan masalah bagi lingkungan hidup, misalnya masalah kurangnya air bersih, buruknya kondisi sanitasi, pembuangan sampah, dan polusi udara. Sumber terbesar polusi udara di kota besar adalah asap kendaraan bermotor (CO yaitu sebesar 70% - 80% dari total polutan udara. Pencemaran udara berdampak pada kesehatan manusia. Karbon monooksida (CO yang berubah menjadi karbon dioksida (CO2 akan berakibat pada pemanasan global, sehingga terjadi perubahan iklim yang menyebabkan banjir dan kekeringan, yang kemudian berpengaruh pada kesehatan manusia. Selain itu, rusaknya lapisan Ozon yang diakibatkan oleh senyawa kimia CFC, berakibat pada banyaknya sinar ultra violet memasuki troposfer yang dapat mengakibatkan kanker kulit. Untuk mengatasi masalah polusi udara ini, pertama adalah mengurangi konsumsi energi dan mencari energi alternatif yang lebih bersih. Kedua, mengurangi polusi udara dengan cara pembangunan ruang terbuka hijau, pembangunan bangunan dan permukiman yang

  2. SEJARAH PERTANIAN SAWAH LEBAK, PERAN PEREMPUAN DAN PANGAN KELUARGA DI KABUPATEN OGAN ILIR SUMATERA SELATAN

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    Yunindyawati Yunindyawati

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Lowland agricultural fields have unique characteristics that only harvest once a year and planting process  begins when the water has began to recede. The type of local rice planted is Pegagan. Pegagan  has unique characteristics, such as high trees, paddy longer lifespan, pest resistant, and tougher rice grains. These plants favored local residents because the rice produced relatively hard so filling. Therefore, rice Pegagan be the ultimate local food for local people. When there is a green revolution policy to increase rice productivity, the type of rice Pegagan displaced and replaced by new IR 42 and Ciherang rice seedlings. Family food pattern shifted, including local livelihoods. This article presents an overview of the history of lowland rice farming, the role of women in agriculture and food family. Keywords: History of lowland agriculture, role of women, family FoodPertanian sawah lebak memiliki karakteristik unik dimana hanya panen sekali dalam setahun dan proses penanaman dimulai saat air mulai surut. Jenis padi yang ditanam merupakan padi lokal jenis pegagan dengan karakteristik batang pohon tinggi, umur padi lebih lama, tahan hama, dan bulir padi lebih keras. Tanaman ini disukai penduduk lokal karena beras yang dihasilkan relatif keras sehingga mengenyangkan. Oleh karena itu, padi Pegagan menjadi pangan lokal yang paling utama bagi masyarakat lokal.  Ketika ada kebijakan revolusi hijau untuk meningkatkan produktivitas padi, maka semakin hari jenis padi Pegagan tergusur digantikan oleh bibit padi baru IR 42, Ciherang dan lainnya. Pola pangan keluarga pun bergeser, termasuk mata pencaharian penduduk lokal. Artikel ini menyajikan gambaran tentang sejarah pertanian padi lebak, peran perempuan dalam pertanian lebak serta pangan keluarga.Kata kunci: sejarah pertanian lebak, peran perempuan, pangan keluarga  

  3. MUTU PROTEIN MAKANAN SAPIHAN UNTUK BAYI UMUR 6-12 BULAN

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    Endi Ridwan

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini ditujukan unntk menguji mutu protein makanan tambahan yang dibuat dalam bentuk nasi tim untuk konsumsi anak berumur 6-12 bulan. Tujuan penelitian adalah mencoari alternatif pilihan makanan tambahan yang memenuhi syarat untuk kesehatan dan pertumbuhan bayi. Nasi tim yang dibuat juga merupakan suatu penganekaragam bentuk makanan tambahan untuk menjadi dasar bagi bayi bagaimana seharusnya menyenanggi bermacam-macam makanan, mengingat kelenjar perasa berkembang pesat sewaktu bayi. Nasi tim dibuat lima macam dengan bahan dasar beras, ubi merah dan jagung sebagai sumber hidrat arang; tempe dan tepung ikan sebagai sumber protein; sayuran hijau sebagai sumber karotin; dan minyak kelapa sebagai sumber lemak. Campuran makanan dianalis secara kimia dengan metoda AOAC. Kemudian dibuat simulate makanan untuk diuji mutu proteinnya (PER dan NPU dengan menggunakan tikus percobaan. Selama percobaan keadaan tikus diamati, dan pada akhir percobaan dilakukan pemeriksaan patologis anatomis untuk melihat kemungkinan adanya efek samping. Nilai PER kelima macam makanan tambahan tersebut berturut-turut adalah: campuran beras, jagung dan tempe 2,16 ±. 0,26; campuran beras, jagung dan tepung ikan 2,24 ± 0,37; campuran beras, jagung, tepung ikan dan kacang tanah 2,08 ± 0.33; campuran beras, ubi merah dan tempe 2,18 ± 0.32, dan campuran beras, ubi merah, tepung ikan dan kacang tanah 1,98 ± 0.38, sementara nilai NPU- operatif berturut-turut : 62,8%, 62,6%, 60,5%, 61,3% dan 60,9%. Nilai-nilai yang didapat dari kelima macam makanan tambahan tersebut menunjukkan bahwa kelima jenis makanan tambahan ini mempunyai mutu protein cukup baik karena masih dalam batas yang dianjurkan untuk PER (2,0 dan NPU (60%. Tidak didapat adanya kelainan klinis dan patologis pada hewan selama percobaan.

  4. STUDI TERHADAP KONSERVASI ENERGI PADA GEDUNG SEWAKA DHARMA KOTA DENPASAR YANG MENERAPKAN KONSEP GREEN BUILDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Wayan Swi Putra

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Gedung  Sewaka  Dharma  Kota  Denpasar  dibangun  dengan  konsep  desain  green building. Dengan konsep desain green  building, gedung Sewaka Dharma diharapkan mampu menghemat energi di  dalam pengoperasiannya. Konsep desain green building yang diterapkan antara  lain,  gedung  dibuat  dengan  banyak  jendela  kaca,  memakai  sistem  ventilasi  vertikal, lingkungan  di  dalam  dan  di  luar  gedung  yang  hijau  serta  pemakaian  solar  sel  untuk  lampu penerangan  luar  dalam  mengurangi  konsumsi  energi.  Dari  hasil  studi  yang  dilakukan  ada perbedaan antara perencanaan dan realisasi dalam pembangunannya.  Suhu dan kelembaban yang tinggi mengakibatkan terjadinya pemasangan AC di masing-masing ruangan.  Suhu dan kelembaban  yang  tinggi  diakibatkan  karena  tidak  berjalannya  sistem  ventilasi  alami  pada gedung tersebut.  Hal ini mengindikasikan bahwa konsep green building yang diterapkan pada gedung  Sewaka  Dharma  tidak  mampu  menciptakan  lingkungan  kerja  yang  nyaman  bagi pegawainya.

  5. Ages and sources of components of Zn-Pb, Cu, precious metal, and platinum group element deposits in the goodsprings district, clark county, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vikre, P.; Browne, Q.J.; Fleck, R.; Hofstra, A.; Wooden, J.

    2011-01-01

    ore breccias and relatively low S and Pb isotope values (??34S values vary from 0-??4%; 206Pb/204Pb replaced breccia clasts and margins of fissures in Paleozoic limestones and dolomites near porphyritic intrusions. Gold ?? silver deposits occur along contacts and within small-volume stocks and dikes of feldspar porphyry, one textural variety of porphyritic intrusions. Lead isotope compositions of copper ?? precious metal-PGE, gold ?? silver, and lead-dominant carbonate replacement deposits are similar to those of Mojave crust plutons, indicating derivation of Pb from 1.7 Ga crystalline basement or from Late Proterozoic siliciclastic sedimentary rocks derived from 1.7 Ga crystalline basement. Four texturally and modally distinctive porphyritic intrusions are exposed largely in the central part of the district: feldspar quartz porphyry, plagioclase quartz porphyry, feldspar biotite quartz porphyry, and feldspar porphyry. Intrusions consist of 64 to 70 percent SiO2 and variable K2O/Na2O (0.14-5.33) that reflect proportions of K-feldspar and albite phenocrysts and megacrysts as well as partial alteration to K-mica; quartz and biotite phenocrysts are present in several subtypes. Albite may have formed during emplacement of magma in brine-saturated basinal strata, whereas hydrothermal alteration of matrix, phenocrystic, and megacrystic feldspar and biotite to K-mica, pyrite, and other hydrothermal minerals occurred during and after intrusion emplacement. Small volumes of garnet-diopside-quartz and retrograde epidote-mica-amphibole skarn have replaced carbonate rocks adjacent to one intrusion subtype (feldspar-quartz porphyry), but alteration of carbonate rocks at intrusion contacts elsewhere is inconsp. Uranium-lead ages of igneous zircons vary inconsistently from ?? 180 to 230

  6. Metallogeny of the Gold Quadrilateral: style and characteristics of epithermal - subvolcanic mineralized structures, South Apuseni Mts., Romania

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    S̡erban-Nicolae Vlad

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available The Romanian territory contains numerous ore deposits mined since pre-Roman times. An assessment of historical gold production of the Gold Quadri-lateral (GQ yielded a total estimate of 55.7 Moz of gold throughout an area of 2400 km2. Interpreted in terms of mineralization density this is 23,208 oz of gold/ km2. The geological setting of the GQ is represented mainly by Tertiary (14.7 My to 7.4 My calc-alkaline volcano-plutonic complexes of intermediate character in sedimentary basins of molasse type. These basins are tectonically controlled by NW-SE lineation across early Alpine magmatic products, i.e. subduction related Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous igneous association (island arc ophiolites and granitoids and Upper Cretaceous igneous association (banatites. The Tertiary magmatism is associated with extensional tectonics caused by NE escape of the Pannonian region during Upper Oligocene-Lower Miocene times. As a result of tectono-magmatic and mineralization-alteration characteristics, two metallogenetical types were separated in the GQ, i.e. calc-alkaline andesitic (CAM and sub-alkaline rhyodacitic (SRM. Both develop almost entirely low-sulfidation type of Au epithermal mineralization. However, two subtypes, -rich in sulfide (2-7% and -poor in sulfide (7-20% were delineated and correlated with CAM type and SRM type respectively. Furthermore, CAM is connected at deeper levels with Cu-Au+/-Mo porphyry systems in contrast with SRM, which is a non-porphyry environment. The Brad-Săcărâmb district contains mainly CAM type andesitic structures. It is a porphyry environment with epithermal low-sulfidation-rich sulfide vein halo (Barza, Troiţa-Bolcana deposits. However, a few SRM type patterns, such as Măgura Ţebii, Băiţa-Crăciuneşti and Săcărâmb, deposits exhibit Au-Ag-Te low-sulfidation-poor sulfide epithermal vein halo. The Zlatna-Stănija district exhibits similar characteristics, with Au-Ag+/-Pb, Zn veins in Cu-Au subvolcanic-porphyry

  7. Technology of Multielement Information Analysis Used for Metallogenic Prediction in Yulong Area of Tibet, China%西藏玉龙地区成矿预测中的多元信息分析技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨蕻; 蒋琼玉; 郑翀; 罗文; 刘持恒

    2015-01-01

    The Yulong porphyry copper deposit belt is one of the largest deposit belts in Tibet, China. Because of the poor research, the extraction of remote sensing geological information is important for metallogenic prediction. Based on the process of color composites、 principal component analysis、 minimum noise fraction by making use of TM data and OLI data, a lot of infor-mation relating to the porphyry copper deposit is extracted. To get the regional geochemical anomaly map by using the technolo-gy of geographic information system. Based on the comprehen-sive analysis of geology, remote sensing and geochemical pros-pecting, they determine prospective areas for seeking ore depos-its, present prospecting method for porphyry copper deposit in the dense vegetation area.%玉龙斑岩铜矿带是西藏最大的斑岩铜矿带之一。该区域研究程度较低,遥感地质信息的提取对找矿预测意义重大。作者利用TM数据和OLI数据,通过波段组合、主成分分析、最小噪声分离技术提取了玉龙地区与斑岩铜矿有关的地质信息。运用GIS技术制作了区域内的地球化学异常图。在地质、遥感、地球化学异常综合分析的基础上,圈定了找矿远景区,提出了藏东高植被覆盖区找矿技术方法的组合。

  8. Early Cretaceous U-Pb zircon ages for the Copiapó plutonic complex and implications for the IOCG mineralization at Candelaria, Atacama Region, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marschik, Robert; Söllner, Frank

    2006-12-01

    Four of the major plutons in the vicinity of the Candelaria mine (470 Mt at 0.95% Cu, 0.22 g/t Au, 3.1 g/t Ag) and a dike-sill system exposed in the Candelaria open pit have been dated with the U-Pb zircon method. The new geochronological data indicate that dacite magmatism around 123 Ma preceded the crystallization of hornblende diorite (Khd) at 118 ± 1 Ma, quartz-monzonite porphyry (Kqm) at 116.3 ± 0.4 Ma, monzodiorite (Kmd) at 115.5 ± 0.4 Ma, and tonalite (Kt) at 110.7 ± 0.4 Ma. The new ages of the plutons are consistent with field relationships regarding the relative timing of emplacement. Plutonism temporally overlaps with the iron oxide Cu-Au mineralization (Re-Os molybdenite ages at ˜115 Ma) and silicate alteration (ages mainly from 114 to 116 and 110 to 112 Ma) in the Candelaria-Punta del Cobre district. The dated dacite porphyry and hornblende diorite intrusions preceded the ore formation. A genetic link of the metallic mineralization with the quartz-monzonite porphyry and/or the monzodiorite is likely. Both of these metaluminous, shoshonitic (high-K) intrusions could have provided energy and contributed fluids, metals, and sulfur to the hydrothermal system that caused the iron oxide Cu-Au mineralization. The age of the tonalite at 110.7 Ma falls in the same range as the late alteration at 110 to 112 Ma. Tonalite emplacement may have sustained existing or driven newly developed hydrothermal cells that caused this late alteration or modified 40Ar/39Ar and K/Ar systematic in some areas.

  9. Variscan potassic dyke magmatism of durbachitic affinity at the southern end of the Bohemian Massif (Lower Austria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeitlhofer, Helga; Grasemann, Bernhard; Petrakakis, Konstantin

    2016-06-01

    Dykes in the Strudengau area (SW Moldanubian Zone, Austria) can be mineralogically divided into lamprophyres (spessartites and kersantites) and felsic dykes (granite porphyries, granitic dykes and pegmatoid dykes). Geochemical analyses of 11 lamprophyres and 7 felsic dykes show evidence of fractional crystallization. The lamprophyres are characterized by metaluminous compositions, intermediate SiO2 contents and high amounts of MgO and K2O; these rocks have high Ba (800-3000 ppm) and Sr (250-1000 ppm) contents as well as an enrichment of large-ion lithophile elements over high field strength elements, typical for enriched mantle sources with variable modifications due to fractionation and crustal contamination. This geochemical signature has been reported from durbachites (biotite- and K feldspar-rich mela-syenites particularly characteristic of the Variscan orogen in Central Europe). For most major elements, calculated fractionation trends from crystallization experiments of durbachites give an excellent match with the data from the Strudengau dykes. This suggests that the lamprophyres and felsic dykes were both products of fractional crystallization and subsequent magma mixing of durbachitic and leucogranitic melts. Rb-Sr geochronological data on biotite from five undeformed kersantites and a locally deformed granite porphyry gave cooling ages of c. 334-318 Ma, indicating synchronous intrusion of the dykes with the nearby outcropping Weinsberger granite (part of the South Bohemian Batholith, c. 330-310 Ma). Oriented matrix biotite separated from the locally deformed granite porphyry gave an Rb-Sr age of c. 318 Ma, interpreted as a deformation age during extensional tectonics. We propose a large-scale extensional regime at c. 320 Ma in the Strudengau area, accompanied by plutonism of fractionated magmas of syncollisional mantle-derived sources, mixed with crustal components. This geodynamic setting is comparable to other areas in the Variscan belt documenting an

  10. Geology, alteration, mineralization and geochemical study in Kalateh Taimour area, NE Iran

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    Zahra Alaminia

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The area is located 20 km northwest of Kashmar and about 4 km of Kalateh Taimour in Khorasan Razavi province. The study area is part of Tertiary volcanic-plutonic belt north of Daruneh fault and its situation in tectonic inliers between two important active faults, Doruneh and Taknar. Volcanic rocks are mainly intermediate to acid pyroclastic type. They formed during early Tertiary. The volcanic rocks of the Kalateh Taimour area are predominantly andesitic basalt, andesite, latite, trachyte, dacite and rhyodacite and are observed as lava, tuff, lapilli tuff and agglomerate. Field evidences and study show several subvolcanic bodies including quartz hornblende biotite monzodiorite porphyry, quartz biotite monzodiorite porphyry, quartz diorite porphyry and microdiorite which are intruded sometime in mid-Tertiary. In this belt, new methods of image processing were used for enhancing the alteration zones to help near infra red and short wavelength infrared and bands example band ratios and principle component method. Propylitic, sericitic and argillic are the main alteration types. Minor silicification is found in some areas. Alteration is extent but mineralization is limited. Mineralization is mainly controlled by fault system. Several mineralized faults are being discovered. Open space filling features are abundant. In the study area, disseminate and stock work mineralization are abundant. The amount of sulfide minerals is very small. Ancient mining is present in the area. Stream sediment geochemical study shows a very broad and high level of gold anomaly. Rock geochemical study show very high levels of Au, Ag, Cu, Pb, Zn and Au value is correlative to Cu, Pb, Zn and Ag values. Due to alteration modeling, non uniformity in mineralization and low abundance of sulfide mineralization suggest study in low sulphidation Au-Cu deposit.

  11. 河南省汝阳竹园沟钼矿床地质特征及找矿标志%Geological Characteristics and Prospecting Indicators of the Zhuyuangou Mo - deposit in the Ruyang Area, Henan province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马红义

    2012-01-01

    河南汝阳竹园沟钼矿属斑岩型钼矿床。经过近三年的勘探,完成钻探工作量1万多米,各类样品8000多件。详细查明矿体赋存于燕山晚期第二次(火神庙)侵入细粒花岗岩与第一次侵入的中粗粒黑云母花岗岩内接触带中,矿体呈似层状、透镜状产出。钼矿化与岩石中裂隙的发育程度关系密切,矿体厚度一般50~150m,最大205.36/11。岩石类型为细粒花岗岩型辉钼矿矿石,为单一钼矿床。从岩石学、矿物学、地球化学等角度对该矿床地质特征进行研究,认为矿化蚀变具典型斑岩型矿床的特征,地球化学异常和花岗斑岩体是主要找矿标志,有助于在太山庙花岗岩体的钼矿找寻工作。%The Zhuyuangou Mo -deposit in Ruyang, Henan Province is a porphyry type molybdenum deposit. By nearly three years of exploration in this deposit, more than ten thousand meters of drilling was done, and 8000 samples were collected. The results show that the ore bodies occur in the inner contact zones between the first - intrusion medium - to coarse - grained biotite granites and the second - intrusion fine - grained granite (Huoshenmiao) , with layer - like or lens shape. The Mo mineralization is closely related to the development of fissures. The ore bodies are generally 50 - 150 m thick with maximum 205.36 m. All the ores are of fine - grained granite - porphyry type. Studies on the petrology, mineralogy, geochemistry and geological characteristics suggest that the mineralized alteration is similar to that of the typical porphyry deposits. And the geochemical anomalies and granite - porphyry rock bodies are the principle prospecting indicators, which will be helpful for prospecting ore bodies in the Taishanmiao granite body.

  12. Base and precious metals exploration by major corporations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This chapter analyzes base and precious metals exploration by one of the principal participants in the world of exploration - major corporations. The objective is to identify and assess the factors responsible for changes in the level and distribution of corporate exploration over the last fifteen to twenty years. The chapter discusses exploration as an economic activity, providing a conceptual framework for the analysis. It looks at changes in exploration expenditures over time for a number of North American and European companies. This is followed by an examination of the distribution of exploration funds among minerals, paying particular attention to porphyry copper, massive sulfide, molybdenum, and gold and silver deposits

  13. Complete Analytical Data for Samples of Jurassic Igneous Rocks in the Bald Mountain Mining District, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    du Bray, Edward A.

    2009-01-01

    This report presents all petrographic, major oxide, and trace element data for a set of 109 samples collected during an investigation of Jurassic igneous rocks in the Bald Mountain mining district, Nevada. Igneous rocks in the district include the Bald Mountain stock, quartz-feldspar porphyry dikes, basaltic andesite dikes, aplite sills, and rare lamprophyre dikes. These rocks, although variably altered near intrusion-related mineral deposits, are fresh in many parts of the district. Igneous rocks in the district are hosted by Paleozoic sedimentary rocks.

  14. MATERIAL ASSIMILATION IN A SHALLOW DIAPIRIC FORCEFUL INTRUSION: EVIDENCE FROM MICROSTRUCTURES AND CSD ANALYSIS IN A PORPHYRITIC INTRUSIVE BODY, “LA LÍNEA” TUNNEL, CENTRAL CORDILLERA, COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rayo Lorena

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The contact between the unit Porphyry Andesite and the Cajamarca Group is observed in the "Túnel de la Linea" section. The integration of petrographic, geochemical and textural (crystal size distribution, CSD analysis allows description of physical and chemical processes that took place in the contact zone in order to propose a model for the intrusion. Material assimilation produced quartz enrichment towards pluton's boundaries associated to a simple process of melt injection. The difference between host rock and hot melt rheologies causedshear stress that produced crystal breaking, folding and foliation rotation.

  15. H2O-driven generation of picritic melts in the Middle to Late Triassic Stuhini arc of the Stikine terrane, British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milidragovic, Dejan; Chapman, John B.; Bichlmaier, Sebastian; Canil, Dante; Zagorevski, Alex

    2016-11-01

    Basaltic to andesitic compositions predominate island arc magmatism; ultramafic magmas are rare. Ultramafic (MgO = 21-33 wt.%) tuff breccia, lapilli tuff, and ash tuff of the Middle to Upper Triassic Stuhini Group were erupted in the Stikine arc of the North American Cordillera shortly preceding an episode of prolific porphyry Cu-Mo(-Au) mineralization. The ultramafic tuff shows accumulation (20-65%) of olivine (Fo91) and minor chromite into a subalkaline picritic parental magma with MgO ∼16 wt.%. Despite the inferred high MgO content of the parental liquid, chromite phenocrysts record relatively low liquidus temperatures (mineralization.

  16. Are fractal dimensions of the spatial distribution of mineral deposits meaningful?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raines, G.L.

    2008-01-01

    It has been proposed that the spatial distribution of mineral deposits is bifractal. An implication of this property is that the number of deposits in a permissive area is a function of the shape of the area. This is because the fractal density functions of deposits are dependent on the distance from known deposits. A long thin permissive area with most of the deposits in one end, such as the Alaskan porphyry permissive area, has a major portion of the area far from known deposits and consequently a low density of deposits associated with most of the permissive area. On the other hand, a more equi-dimensioned permissive area, such as the Arizona porphyry permissive area, has a more uniform density of deposits. Another implication of the fractal distribution is that the Poisson assumption typically used for estimating deposit numbers is invalid. Based on datasets of mineral deposits classified by type as inputs, the distributions of many different deposit types are found to have characteristically two fractal dimensions over separate non-overlapping spatial scales in the range of 5-1000 km. In particular, one typically observes a local dimension at spatial scales less than 30-60 km, and a regional dimension at larger spatial scales. The deposit type, geologic setting, and sample size influence the fractal dimensions. The consequence of the geologic setting can be diminished by using deposits classified by type. The crossover point between the two fractal domains is proportional to the median size of the deposit type. A plot of the crossover points for porphyry copper deposits from different geologic domains against median deposit sizes defines linear relationships and identifies regions that are significantly underexplored. Plots of the fractal dimension can also be used to define density functions from which the number of undiscovered deposits can be estimated. This density function is only dependent on the distribution of deposits and is independent of the

  17. Post-collisional magmatism in Wuyu basin, central Tibet:evidence for recycling of subducted Tethyan oceanic crust

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵志丹; 莫宣学; 张双全; 郭铁鹰; 周肃; 董国臣; 王勇

    2001-01-01

    The trachyte and basaltic trachyte and intruded granite-porphyry of Gazacun formation of Wuyu Group in central Tibet are Neogene shoshonitic rocks. They are rich in LREE, with a weak to significant Eu negative anomalies. The enriched Rb, Th, U, K, negative HFS elements Nb, Ta, Ti and P, and Sr, Nd and Pb isotope geochemistry suggest that the volcanic rocks of Wuyu Group originated from the partial melting of lower crust of the Gangdese belt, with the involvement of the Tethyan oceanic crust. It implies that the north-subducted Tethys ocean crust have arrived to the lower crust of Gangdese belt and recycled in the Neogene magmatism.

  18. Geochemistry of Apatite from the Apatite-rich Iron Deposits in the Ningwu Region, East Central China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Four types of apatite have been identified in the Ningwu region. The first type of apatite is widely distributed in the middle dark colored zones (i.e. iron ores) of individual deposits. The assemblage includes magnetite, apatite and actinolite (or diopside). The second type occurs within magnetite-apatite veins in the iron ores. The third type is seen in magnetite-apatite veins and (or)nodules in host rocks (i.e. gabbro-diorite porphyry or gabbro-diorite or pyroxene diorite).The fourth type occurs within apatite-pyrite-quartz veins filling fractures in the Xiangshan Group. Rare earth elements (REE) geochemistry of apatite of the four occurrences in porphyry iron deposits is presented. The REE distribution patterns of apatite are generally similar to those of apatites in the Kiruna-type iron ores, nelsonites. They are enriched in light REE, with pronounced negative Eu anomalies. The similarity of REE distribution patterns in apatites from various deposits in different locations in the world indicates a common process of formation for various ore types, e.g.immiscibility. Early magmatic apatites contain 3031.48-12080 ×10-6 REE. Later hydrothermal apatite contains 1958 ×10-6 REE, indicating that the later hydrothermai ore-forming solution contains lower REE. Although gabbro-diorite porphyry and apatite show similar REE patterns, gabbro-diorite porphyries have no europium anomalies or feeble positive or feeble negative europium anomalies,caused both by reduction environment of mantle source region and by fractionation and crystallization (immiscibility) under a high oxygen fugacity condition. Negative Eu anomalies of apatites were formed possibly due to acquisition of Eu2+ by earlier diopsite during ore magma cooling.The apatites in the Aoshan and Taishan iron deposits yield a narrow variation range of 87Sr/86Sr values from 0.7071 to 0.7073, similar to those of the volcanic and subvoicanic rocks, indicating that apatites were formed by liquid immiscibility and

  19. WHITE MOUNTAIN WILDERNESS, NEW MEXICO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segerstrom, Kenneth; Stotelmeyer, R.B.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of a mineral survey the White Mountain Wilderness, which constitutes much of the western and northern White Mountains, New Mexico, is appraised to have six areas of probable mineral potential for base and precious metals. If mineral deposits exist in the wilderness, the potential is for small deposits of base and precious metals in veins and breccia pipes or, more significanlty, the possibility for large low-grade disseminated porphyry-type molybdenum deposits. There is little promise for the occurrence of geothermal energy resources in the area.

  20. Nature, origine et évolution des fluides dans le district minier de la caldeira d'oued bélif (nefza, Tunisie septentrionale)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbi, Fouad; Slim-Shimi, Najet; Tlig, Said; Zargouni, Fouad

    1999-02-01

    Fluid inclusion studies were undertaken on quartz, fluorite and calcites in the Oued Bélif caldera ore district in northern Tunisia. Two main groups of inclusions were distinguished: a fluid inclusion group, of magmatic origin, with a temperature higher than 350 °C and salinity higher than 30 wt % NaCl; and a group of mixing between magmatic and meteoric fluids with temperatures and salinities ranging from 150 to 250 °C and from 15 to 25 wt % NaCl, respectively. These two groups result from hydrothermal circulations of respectively, "porphyry copper" and epithermal systems; this is confirmed by the nature of the alteration.

  1. Bismoclite (BiOCl in the San Francisco de los Andes Bi–Cu–Au Deposit, Argentina. First Occurrence of a Bismuth Oxychloride in a Magmatic–Hydrothermal Breccia Pipe and Its Usefulness as an Indicator Phase in Mineral Exploration

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    Francisco J. Testa

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The rare bismuth oxychloride, bismoclite (BiOCl, has been identified in the weathered tourmaline–cemented, magmatic–hydrothermal breccia complex at the San Francisco de los Andes Bi–Cu–Au deposit, Argentina. A wide variety of supergene minerals were detected in the oxidized zone, but only preisingerite (Bi3(AsO42O(OH is intimately associated with bismoclite. Bismuth arsenate is present either as minor accessory phases or as traces in bismoclite-rich samples. This is the first documented occurrence of bismoclite in a porphyry-related, and magmatic–hydrothermal breccia pipe deposit. Bismoclite is interpreted to have formed by weathering of hypogene bismuthinite (Bi2S3, which originally occurred with arsenopyrite to cement the breccias. These appear to have reacted with O2- and HCl-bearing meteoric waters to produce pockets of supergene bismoclite–preisingerite assemblages. Bismoclite samples have been characterized by means of X-ray diffractometry (XRD, geochemistry, petrography, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, differential thermal analysis–thermogravimetry analysis (DTA–TGA and infrared analysis (IR providing useful insights and updated information regarding this rare bismuth oxychloride and associated arsenate mineral. The San Francisco de los Andes breccia complex shows similar geometry, morphology and internal organization as those found in traditional magmatic–hydrothermal breccias associated with Cu–Mo porphyry deposits. Bismoclite and preisingerite form due to the presence of hypogene Bi-bearing minerals followed by appropriate supergene conditions. These hypogene minerals commonly occur only as trace phases, or are entirely absent, in porphyry and related magmatic–hydrothermal breccia deposits. The scarcity of hypogene Bi–mineral phases in porphyry and related magmatic–hydrothermal breccia deposits is the main reason why bismoclite has not previously been reported in these types of deposits. The detection of

  2. The study of molybdenite types related to the ore processing plant of the Sar Cheshmeh mine

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    Balandeh Aminzadeh

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Molybdenite occurs in five forms in the Sar Cheshmeh porphyry copper deposit, namely, (1-veinlets with quartz-molybdenite, (2-veinlets with quartz-molydenite that were filled with pyrite, (3-veinlets with quartz-molybdenite-pyrite–chalcopyrite, (4-Molybdenite veinlets with very low quartz and (5-disseminated molybdenite grains. Because of their large size, the veinlet-related molybdenite grains are easily liberated from the gangue minerals, provided the grinding is properly conducted (74 micron. Because of their fine-grain size, the disseminated molybdenite grains are not liberated from the gangue and enter the tailings during the flotation process.

  3. Late Carboniferous high ɛNd(t)-ɛHf(t) granitoids, enclaves and dikes in western Junggar, NW China: Ridge-subduction-related magmatism and crustal growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Gong-Jian; Wang, Qiang; Wyman, Derek A.; Li, Zheng-Xiang; Zhao, Zhen-Hua; Yang, Yue-Heng

    2012-05-01

    We report results of petrologic, geochronological and geochemical investigation of the Late Carboniferous diorites, granodiorites, amphibole (Am)-bearing granites, and associated dioritic and monzonitic enclaves and mafic and granitic dikes in the Keramay area, of the western Junggar region of Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB). Zircon U-Pb dating suggests that they were generated in the Late Carboniferous (316-304 Ma). The diorite and granodiorite compositions extend over a wide range of SiO2 (53-70 wt.%), Sr (240-602 ppm), and Mg# (41-58) values, and are characterized by moderately fractionated rare earth element (REE) patterns, Nb-Ta depletion and relatively low Y and Yb contents. The mafic dikes consist of dolerites, diorite porphyries and minor granodiorite porphyries, and have variable SiO2 (51-59 wt.%) and high Mg#, Cr and Ni values. With the exception of two samples with relatively high heavy REE (HREE) contents, the mafic dikes exhibit trace element characteristics similar to diorites and granodiorites. The Am-bearing granites and a granite porphyry dike sample have high levels of SiO2 (73-77 wt.%), HREEs (e.g., Yb = 3.46-15.7 ppm) and low Mg#, Cr and Ni contents, along with clearly negative Eu, Ba and Sr anomalies, similar to typical A-type granites. All granitoids, enclaves and dikes in this region have high positive ɛNd(t) (+ 7.13 to + 9.74) and zircon ɛHf(t) (+ 10 to + 16) values and moderate initial 87Sr/87Sr ratios (0.7004-0.7049). Mineral composition data suggest that the parental magmas for mafic dikes are similar to Cenozoic sanukitoids in the Setouchi arc area (Japan) and were possibly generated under water-rich and high oxygen fugacity (NNO + 1.5 to NNO + 2.7) conditions. They most likely originated from partial melting of a mantle source variably modified by subducted oceanic crust-derived melts and minor fluids and subsequently underwent fractional crystallization. The diorites and granodiorites were possibly generated by magma mixing

  4. Geochronological studies in the Chuquicamata district, Chile: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dating and discrimination of significant events in the complex Chuquicamata porphyry copper system have been challenging. The work by others and us indicates that the first mineralizing (Chuqui) porphyries were emplaced at ca.35 Ma, followed by potassic alteration and various hydrothermal pulses to ca. 33 Ma. This system evolved within a dynamic ductile to brittle shear system. After 1- 2 km of exhumation, a discrete mineralizing (quartz-sericitic) event was superimposed at ca. 31 Ma. Relatively slower exhumation followed, allowing for the development and preservation of important supergene blankets (19 to 15 Ma) and exotic copper deposits. The unmineralized Fortuna igneous complex, juxtaposed across the NS (Falla Oeste) fault system, is relatively older than the Chuqui porphyries. Historically, in the 1960s, Pb-alpha on zircon approximately dated the Paleozoic and Mesozoic hosts to the Chuqui porphyries, and the Eocene Fortuna. In the 1970s and 1980s, conventional K/Ar dated the main potassic alteration at 35 to 33 Ma, and the quartz-sericite alteration at 31-28 Ma. In the 1990s, Rb-Sr accurately dated the major homogenization of the Chuqui system at 35 ±2 Ma and confirmed that Fortuna is older. 40Ar/39Ar defined two thermal pulses and documented thermal overprint by the younger event. U-Pb dating is hindered by the presence of xenocrystic zircon with Paleozoic ages. Recently, ELA-ICP-MS dating of zircon distinguish 3 intrusive phases at 34.8, 33.4 and 33.3 Ma, compatible with a 34.9 Ma age by Re-Os in molybdenite. Re-Os in Cu-Fe sulfides confirms the ca. 31 Ma age of the quartz-sericitic stage. Fission-track data on zircon and apatite, and (U-Th)/He dating, point to extremely fast cooling to oC after the quartz-sericitic event, and improve exhumation histories. Fission-track data on apatite and ESR of quartz in fault gouge suggest that the Falla Oeste was active into the Pliocene and Pleistocene, respectively (au)

  5. Role of transitory carbon reserves during adjustment to climate variability and source-sink imbalances in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legros, S; Mialet-Serra, I; Clement-Vidal, A; Caliman, J-P; Siregar, F A; Fabre, D; Dingkuhn, M

    2009-10-01

    Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) is a perennial, tropical, monocotyledonous plant characterized by simple architecture and low phenotypic plasticity, but marked by long development cycles of individual phytomers (a pair of one leaf and one inflorescence at its axil). Environmental effects on vegetative or reproductive sinks occur with various time lags depending on the process affected, causing source-sink imbalances. This study investigated how the two instantaneous sources of carbon assimilates, CO(2) assimilation and mobilization of transitory non-structural carbohydrate (NSC) reserves, may buffer such imbalances. An experiment was conducted in Indonesia during a 22-month period (from July 2006 to May 2008) at two contrasting locations (Kandista and Batu Mulia) using two treatments (control and complete fruit pruning treatment) in Kandista. Measurements included leaf gas exchange, dynamics of NSC reserves and dynamics of structural aboveground vegetative growth (SVG) and reproductive growth. Drought was estimated from a simulated fraction of transpirable soil water. The main sources of variation in source-sink relationships were (i) short-term reductions in light-saturated leaf CO(2) assimilation rate (A(max)) during seasonal drought periods, particularly in Batu Mulia; (ii) rapid responses of SVG rate to drought; and (iii) marked lag periods between 16 and 29 months of environmental effects on the development of reproductive sinks. The resulting source-sink imbalances were buffered by fluctuations in NSC reserves in the stem, which mainly consisted of glucose and starch. Starch was the main buffer for sink variations, whereas glucose dynamics remained unexplained. Even under strong sink limitation, no negative feedback on A(max) was observed. In conclusion, the different lag periods for environmental effects on assimilate sources and sinks in oil palm are mainly buffered by NSC accumulation in the stem, which can attain 50% (dw:dw) in stem tops. The resulting

  6. ANALISIS BIPLOT PADA DATA KASUS PENYAKIT DI BEBERAPA DAERAH DI INDONESIA TAHUN 2009

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    Bambang Heriyanto

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In order to reduce the spread of disease in developing countries such as Indonesia, data is rate  as well as practical methods to determine how to cope with the diseases that increasing rapidly each year. Descriptive statistical methods are generally only describe data on-dimensional, meaning that only one variable, so that when applied to data of high-dimensional visual representations which can be used to detect in an area with prevalent diseases and find out what the correlation between the cases such as tuberculosis and HIV-AIDS and the closeness between the two disease, only one table is needed. Biplot analysis has been impromented in an area that has a lot of cases of measles in the city of Batam in the year 2009 among other Sei Beduk District, Lubuk Baja and Batam City. Districts that have a lot of cases of STIs is Batu Aji and Nongsa . While the data bilpot analysis for the province of East Nusa Tenggara in 2009, Kupang regency, and East Sumba regency is still need  intensive assistance for nearly all disease variables clustered in the area. Keywords: disease, visual representation, data, correlation, the data dimension Abstrak Untuk mengurangi penyebaran penyakit di negara berkembang seperti Indonesia, di-butuhkan data serta metode praktis untuk menentukan bagaimana cara meng-atasi penyakit yang setiap tahun meningkat dengan cepat. Metode statistik des-kriptif umumnya hanya menggambarkan data pada dimensi, yang berarti bahwa hanya satu variabel, sehingga ketika diterapkan pada data dimensi tinggi penggambaran secara visual yang  dapat digunakan untuk mendeteksi penyakit di daerah umum dan mencari tahu apa korelasi antara kasus, misalnya korelasi antara penyakit tuberkolosis dengan HIV-AIDS dan kedekatan antar keduanya dengan hanya satu tabel saja. Hasil analisis biplot telah dilakukan pada daerah yang memiliki banyak kasus campak di Kota Batam pada Tahun 2009  antara lain di Kecamatan Sei

  7. Geochemistry of quaternary volcanism in the Sunda-Banda arc, Indonesia, and three-component genesis of island-arc basaltic magmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheller, G. E.; Varne, R.; Foden, J. D.; Abbott, M. J.

    1987-06-01

    Volcanic rocks of the Sunda and Banda arcs range from tholeiitic through calcalkaline and shoshonitic to leucititic, the widest compositional span of mafic magmatism known from an active arc setting. Mafic rocks in our data set, which includes 315 new analyses of volcanic rocks from twelve Quaternary volcanoes, including Batu Tara in the previously geochemically unknown Flores-Lembata arc sector, are generally similar to those from other island arcs: most contain Flores arc sectors each comprise volcanoes which become progressively more K-rich eastwards, culminating in the leucitite volcanoes Muriah, Soromundi and Sangenges, and Batu Tara, respectively. In the most easterly Banda sector, the volcanics vary from high- to low-K eastwards around the arc. Correlations between geochemistry and 87Sr/ 86Sr values show separate trends for each of the four arc sectors, believed to be the result of involvement of at least three geochemically and isotopically distinct components in the source regions of the arc magmatism. A dominant source component with a low K content and a low 87Sr/ 86Sr value, and common to all sectors, is probably peridotitic mantle. A second component, with low K content but high 87Sr/ 86Sr value, appears to be crustal material. This component is most apparent in the Banda sector, in keeping with that sector's tectonic setting close to Precambrian Australian continental crust, but it is also present to lesser extents in the West Java and Flores sectors. However, the most marked geochemical and isotopic variations shown by the arc volcanics are primarily due to the involvement of a third component, which is rich in K-group elements but has relatively low 87Sr/ 86Sr values. This component appears to be mantle-derived and is least overprinted by crustal material in the Bali sector volcanics where the Pb, Be, U-Th and O isotope characteristics of the rocks support the suggestion that their genesis has not involved incorporation of recently subducted

  8. Desempenho fisiológico e sanidade de sementes de trigo submetidas a tratamentos de hidratação/desidratação Phisiological performance and health of wheat seeds subjected to hydration/dehydration treatments

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    Carlos Augusto Pereira Motta

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar os efeitos de tratamentos de hidratação/desidratação no desempenho fisiológico e na sanidade de sementes de trigo (Triticum aestivum L., amostras dos cultivares "OCEPAR 7 - Batuíra" e "CEP 14 - Tapes", foram submetidas a períodos variáveis de 0 a 48 horas de hidratação, com intervalos de três horas entre si. Ao término de cada período de hidratação, as amostras foram caracterizadas quanto ao teor de água e aos estádios de desenvolvimento e, em seguida, submetidas à secagem até atingirem a umidade original. Após dois meses de armazenamento em câmara fria, as sementes foram avaliadas através de testes fisiológicos e de sanidade. Conclui-se que: períodos de hidratação superiores a 30 horas (a 20°C, seguidos de secagem, trazem prejuízos ao desempenho fisiológico e à sanidade de sementes de trigo; as respostas mais favoráveis no aspecto sanitário são obtidas nos tratamentos em que as sementes são submetidas a períodos intermediários de hidratação (entre 15 e 30 horas, antes da secagem.To evaluate the effect of hydration and dehydration, wheat (Triticum aestivum L. seeds of the cultivars `OCEPAR 7 - Batuíra' and `CEP 14 - Tapes' were submitted to periods of hydration, varying from 0 to 48 hours under constant temperature (20oC. At 3-hour intervals, seed samples of each treatment were characterized for water absorption and germination. The seeds were then oven dried at 30oC until their seeds reached the original moisture. After two months of storage in a cool chamber, seeds of the various treatments were evaluated for physiological aspects and health state. Hidration period over 30h followed by drying decreased the physiological performance and health. The best sanitary response was for intermediate periods of hytratation (15 to 27 hours.

  9. Masjid Pulo Kameng Akulturasi dan Toleransi Masyarakat Aceh

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    Masmedia Pinem

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available abstrakPenelitian ini adalah penelitian sejarah, yang berusaha mengungkap Masjid kuno Pulo Kameng sebagai salah satu artefak penting peninggalan Islam di Aceh Selatan. Metode yang di-pakai adalah kuantitatif dengan model pendekatan historisarkeologis. Pendekatan ini diperlukan untuk mendeskripsikan sejarah dan struktur fisik bangunan masjid kuno Pulo Kemeng yang kaya dengan nilai filosofis. Hasil penelitian ini dihasilkan yaitu:Pertama, Masjid Pulo Kameng didirikan pertama kali pada masa kerajaan Teuku Kejruen Amansyah, pada tanggal 28 Ramadan 1285 H/12 Januari 1869 M. Pembangunan tersebut melibatkan beberapa kampung yaitu Kampung Paya, Kampung Purut, Kampung Kluet, Kampung Krueng Batu, Kampung Ruwak, dan Kampung Tinggi. Kedua, Arsitektur masjid mendapatkan pengaruh kebudayaan Cina dalam bentuk kubah berbentuk pagoda, Hindu-Budha dengan ciri atap tumpang, dan berakulturasi dengan tipe bangunan lokal. Hal ini menunjukkan bahwa secara filosofis masyarakat Aceh pada masa lalu toleran dan akomodatif dengan perbedaan etnis dan budaya.Kata Kunci: Sejarah, Akulturasi, Masjid Pulau Kameng, Aceh Selatan. abstractThis is an historcal study which discusses an ancient mosque Pulo Kameng as one of the important artifacts of Islamic heritages in South Aceh. It applies qualitative method with historical-archeological approach. The approach is necessary to describe history and physical architecture of the mosque Pulo Kameng which is richof philosophical values. The results are: firstly, Pulo Kameng Mosque was established in the period of Teuku Kejruen Amansyah, on the 28th of Ramadan 1285 H/12 January 1869 M. The process of the establishment involved several villages, they are Kampung Paya, Kampung Purut, Kampung Kluet, Kampung Batu Krueng, Kamoung Ruwak, and Kampung Tinggi. Secondly, the architecture of the mosque can be regarded as the picture of how the Acehnese tolerated and accomodated various ethnic and cultural differences due to the

  10. Geological development and mineralization in the Atacama segment of the South American Andes, northern Chile (26°15' 27°25'S)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios, Carlos M.; Townley, Brian C.; Lahsen, Alfredo A.; Egaña, Antonio M.

    1993-12-01

    Between the Late Jurassic and the Middle Miocene, widespread magmatism, tectonic events and hydrothermal mineralization characterized the geological evolution of the Atacama segment of the South American Andes. A characteristic feature of this zone is the coincidence in time and space between subduction-generated igneous activity, crustal deformation and mineralization in the magmatic arcs, which formed longitudinal belts migrating eastward. Mineralization in