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Sample records for batu hijau porphyry

  1. Halogen Chemistry of Hydrothermal Micas: a Possible Geochemical Tool in Vectoring to Ore for Porphyry Copper-Gold Deposit

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    Arifudin Idrus

    2018-01-01

    Porphyry copper-gold deposit commonly exhibits an extensive alteration zone of hydrothermal micas particularly biotite and sericite. This study is aimed to analyze and utilize the chemistry of halogen fluorine and chlorine of biotite and sericite to be a possible tool in vectoring to ore for copper porphyry deposits. To achieve the objectives, several selected altered rock samples were taken crossing the Batu Hijau copper-gold mine from inner to outer of the deposit, and hydrothermal micas co...

  2. Porphyry copper assessment of Southeast Asia and Melanesia: Chapter D in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Bookstrom, Arthur A.; Dicken, Connie L.; Drenth, Benjamin J.; Ludington, Steve; Robinson, Gilpin R.; Setiabudi, Bambang Tjahjono; Sukserm, Wudhikarn; Sunuhadi, Dwi Nugroho; Wah, Alexander Yan Sze; Zientek, Michael L.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey collaborated with member countries of the Coordinating Committee for Geoscience Programmes in East and Southeast Asia (CCOP) on an assessment of the porphyry copper resources of Southeast Asia and Melanesia as part of a global mineral resource assessment. The region hosts world-class porphyry copper deposits and underexplored areas that are likely to contain undiscovered deposits. Examples of known porphyry copper deposits include Batu Hijau and Grasberg in Indonesia; Panguna, Frieda River, and Ok Tedi in Papua New Guinea; and Namosi in Fiji.

  3. Halogen Chemistry of Hydrothermal Micas: a Possible Geochemical Tool in Vectoring to Ore for Porphyry Copper-Gold Deposit

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    Arifudin Idrus

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Porphyry copper-gold deposit commonly exhibits an extensive alteration zone of hydrothermal micas particularly biotite and sericite. This study is aimed to analyze and utilize the chemistry of halogen fluorine and chlorine of biotite and sericite to be a possible tool in vectoring to ore for copper porphyry deposits. To achieve the objectives, several selected altered rock samples were taken crossing the Batu Hijau copper-gold mine from inner to outer of the deposit, and hydrothermal micas contained by the rocks were analyzed petrographically and chemically. Mineral chemistry was detected by electron microprobe analyzer, whilst biotite is petrographically classified as either magmatic or hydrothermal types. Sericite replacing plagioclase occurred as fine-grained mineral and predominantly associated with argillic-related alteration types. Biotites in the Batu Hijau deposit are classified as phlogopite with a relatively low mole fraction magnesium (XMg (~0.75 compared to the “typical” copper porphyry deposit (~0.82. The relationship between the XMg and halogen contents are generally consistent with “Fe-F and Mg-Cl avoidance rules”.  F content in biotite and sericite decrease systematically from inner part of the deposit which is represented by early biotite (potassic zone where the main copper-gold hosted, to the outer part of the deposit. However, chlorine in both biotite and sericite from each of the alteration zones shows a relative similar concentration, which suggests that it is not suitable to be used in identification of the alteration zones associated with strong copper-gold mineralization. H2O content of the biotite and sericite also exhibits a systematic increase outward which may also provide a possible geochemical vector to ore for the copper porphyry deposits. This is well correlated with fluorine content of biotite in rocks and bulk concentration of copper from the corresponding rocks.

  4. Diversity of primary CL textures in quartz from porphyry environments: implication for origin of quartz eyes

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    Vasyukova, O. V.; Kamenetsky, V. S.; Goemann, K.; Davidson, P.

    2013-10-01

    Porphyry-style mineralization is related to the intrusion and crystallization of small stocks, which can be of different compositions (from intermediate to felsic) and can intrude into different host rocks (from magmatic to sedimentary). We used cathodoluminescence and electron probe microanalysis to study the internal textures of more than 300 quartz eyes from six porphyry deposits, Panguna (Papua New Guinea), Far Southeast porphyry (Philippines), Batu Hijau (Indonesia), Antapaccay (Peru), Rio Blanco (Chile) and Climax (USA). Significant diversity of the internal textures in quartz eyes was revealed, sometimes even within a single sample. Quartz grains with Ti-rich cores surrounded by Ti-poor mantles were found next to the grains showing the opposite Ti distribution or only slight Ti fluctuations.We propose that diversity of the internal patterns in quartz eyes can actually reflect in situ crystallization history, and that prolonged crystallization after magma emplacement under conditions of continuous cooling can account for the observed features of internal textures. Formation of quartz eyes begins at high temperatures with crystallization of high titanium Quartz 1, which as the melt becomes more and more evolved and cooler, is overgrown by low Ti Quartz 2. Subsequent fluid exsolution brings about dramatic change in the melt composition: OH - , alkalis and other Cl-complexed elements partition into the fluid phase, whereas Ti stays in the melt, contributing to a rapid increase in Ti activity. Separation of the fluid and its further cooling causes disequilibrium in the system, and the Quartz 2 becomes partially resorbed. Exsolution of the fluid gradually builds up the pressure until it exceeds the yield strength of the host rocks and they then fracture. This pressure release most likely triggers crystallization of Quartz 3, which is higher in Ti than Quartz 2 because Ti activity in the melt is higher and pressure of crystallization is lower. As a result of the

  5. Petrography and Mineral Chemistry of Magmatic and Hydrothermal Biotite in Porphyry Copper-Gold Deposits: A Tool for Understanding Mineralizing Fluid Compositional Changes During Alteration Processes

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    Arifudin Idrus

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available DOI: 10.17014/ijog.5.1.47-64This study aims to understand the petrography and chemistry of both magmatic and hydrothermal biotites in porphyry copper-gold deposits, and to evaluate the fluid compositional changes during alteration processes. A total of 206 biotite grains from selected rock samples taken from the Batu Hijau porphyry Cu-Au deposit was analyzed. Detailed petrography and biotite chemistry analysis were performed on thin sections and polished thin sections, respectively, representing various rocks and alteration types. A JEOL JXA-8900R electron microprobe analyzer (EMPA was used for the chemistry analysis. The biotite is texturally divided into magmatic and hydrothermal types. Ti, Fe, and F contents can be used to distinguish the two biotite types chemically. Some oxide and halogen contents of biotite from various rocks and alteration types demonstrate a systematic variation in chemical composition. Biotite halogen chemistry shows a systematic increase in log (XCl/XOH and decrease in log (XF/XOH values from biotite (potassic through chlorite-sericite (intermediate argillic to actinolite (inner propylitic zones. The y-intercepts on the log (XCl/XOH vs. XMg and log (XF/XOH vs. XFe plotted for biotite from potassic and intermediate argillic zones are similar or slightly different. In contrast, the y-intercepts on the log (XCl/XOH vs. XMg and log (XF/XOH vs. XFe plotted for biotite from inner propylitic zone display different values in comparison to the two alteration zones. Halogen (F,Cl fugacity ratios in biotite show a similar pattern: in the potassic and intermediate argillic zones they show little variation, whereas in the inner propylitic zone they are distinctly different. These features suggest the hydrothermal fluid composition remained fairly constant in the inner part of the deposit during the potassic and intermediate argillic alteration events, but changed significantly towards the outer part affected by inner propylitic

  6. Mesin Pengasah Batu Permata

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    M. Yusuf

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Proses akhir pengerjaan batu permata pada industri kecil kerajinan permata adalahpenghalusan. Biasanya proses ini dilakukan secara manual dengan sikap kerja duduk bersila dilantai sehingga menimbulkan banyak keluhan terutama keluhan pada otot lengan danpinggang. Di samping itu hasil produksinya juga kurang optimal. Mengatasi permasalahan inidan untukmeningkatkan produktivitas kerja perajin, dilakukan perbaikan dengan cara membuatmesin pengasah batu permata yang murah dan ergonomis. Penelitian awal dilakukan pada 16perajin permata dengan rancangan "treatment by subject design" dengan dua kelompok yaitukelompok Kontrol (mengasah permata secara manual menggunakan tangan dengan sikapkerja duduk bersila di lantai, dan kelompok Perlakuan (subjek diberikan perlakuan mengasahbatu permata menggunakan alat pengasah dengan sikap kerja duduk di kursi. Beban kerjadiprediksi dari denyut nadi kerja yang dihitung dengan metode 10 denyut. Sedangkanproduktivitas kerja dinilai dari jumlah produk yang dihasilkan per denyut nadi kerja rata-ratadalam satu jam. Data dianalisis dengan menggunakan uji independen t test pada tarafkemaknaan 5%. Hasil analisis menunjukkan bahwa terjadi perbedaan yang signifikan (p < 0,05pada beban kerja dan produktivitas kerja antara kelompok Kontrol dan Perlakuan. Beban kerjapada kelompok Kontrol diperoleh sebesar 104,29 ± 4,65, dan pada kelompok Perlakuandiperoleh 88,64 ± 2,33 atau mengalami penurunan sebesar 15%. Sedangkan produktivitaskerja pada kelompok kontrol diperoleh 0,01002 ± 0,00042, dan pada kelompok Perlakuandiperoleh 0,05801 ± 0,00207 atau mengalami peningkatan sebesar 478,8%. Dari hasil analisisdapat disimpulkan bahwa mesin pengasah batu permata memberikan peningkatanproduktivitas kerja perajin permata. Oleh karena itu penggunaan mesin ini disarankan untukdipergunakan pada para perajin permata yang disetai perubahan sikap kerja dari duduk bersiladi lantai menjadi sikap kerja duduk secara alamiyah di kursi.Kata Kunci

  7. PERGULATAN HIDUP PEREMPUAN PEMECAH BATU

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    Sri Suhartini

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Semakin terbatasnya lahan pertanian dan berkembangnya teknologi pertanian, mengakibatkan penurunan kesempatan kerja perempuan disektor pertanian di daerah pedesaan. Oleh karena itu muncul berbagai alternatif pekerjaan yang ditekuni perempuan di pedesaan. Bidang pekerjaan yang dipilih perempuan desa umumnya sebagai buruh, salah satunya adalah buruh pemecah batu. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui kehidupan sosial dan ekonomi perempuan pemecah batu, mengetahui pembagian waktu perempuan sebagai ibu rumah tangga dan sebagai pemecah batu dan mengetahui relasi antara pekerjaan menjadi pemecah batu dengan pola pengambilan keputusan dalam rumah tangga para perempuan pemecah batu. Metode yang digunakan adalah pendekatan deskriptif kualitatif dan dilakukan  pada para perempuan pemecah batu di Desa Kebondalem Kecamatan Gringsing Kabupaten Batang. Pengumpulan data menggunakan teknik wawancara mendalam dan observasi partisipasi terbatas. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa para perempuan mendapat keuntungan dengan bekerja sebagai pemecah batu dan dengan pekerjaan ini mereka dapat memperluas hubungan sosial dengan masyarakat luas. Akan tetapi kehidupan ekonomi para perempuan pemecah batu tidak mengalami perubahan karena pendapatan yang diperoleh belum mampu untuk memenuhi kebutuhan hidupnya. Alokasi waktu yang dicurahkan perempuan pemecah batu lebih banyak jika dibandingkan oleh para pekerja laki – laki dalam sehari-hari. Dengan demikian perempuan pemecah batu memiliki beban yang lebih berat jika dibandingkan dengan suami.The more limited agricultural land and the development of agricultural technology results in the decrease of female employment in the agricultural sector in rural areas. This condition is characterized by the emergence of alternative jobs for rural women. Such an alternative is stone-breaking labor. The objective of this study is to examine the social and economic life of breaking stones women, the distribution of time of

  8. Teachers' Attitude towards English in Batu Anam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, Mah Zhi; Lin, Lee Poh

    2011-01-01

    This research investigates the attitude of 60 primary and secondary school teachers towards English in Batu Anam. A questionnaire was administered to find out whether they have a positive or a negative attitude towards the English language. Results indicate that teachers in Batu Anam generally have a positive attitude towards English. Comparison…

  9. Reptiles of Lata Bukit Hijau, Kedah, Malaysia

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    Shahriza Shahrudin

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Lata Bukit Hijau is located within the Banjaran Bintang Ranges on the west coast of northern Peninsular Malaysia. The reptile fauna in this pristine area was intensively investigated from 2008 to 2011 on 10 consecutive visits. A total 37 species of reptiles from 31 genera and 10 families were recorded to inhabit this area. Out of this number, 17 species were lizards (13 genera and four families, 17 species were snakes (15 genera and four families and three species were freshwater turtles (three genera and two families. These preliminary data increased the number of lizards, snakes and freshwater turtles reported from Banjaran Bintang from 31 to 41, 30 to 44 and three to five species, respectively

  10. EVALUASI UNTUK MENGATASI BEBAN LEBIH PADA PENYULANG BATU BELIG

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    Kadek Hendra Priadi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Penyulang Batu Belig merupakan penyulang dengan konfigurasi tipe radial, dengan 109 trafo distribusi, total daya terpasang 19.175 KVA. Pada tahun 2013 beban puncak penyulang Batu Belig sebesar 284 A dan standar maksimal pembebanan suatu penyulang 240 A (80% dari 300 ampere. Mengatasi beban lebih pada penyulang Batu Belig, perlu dilakukan rekonfigurasi jaringan distribusi. Rekonfigurasi jaringan distribusi dapat dilakukan dengan dua skenario : skenario 1 dengan mengalihkan sebagian beban penyulang Batu Belig ke penyulang terdekat, yaitu penyulang Mertanadi dan Uma Alas. Skenario 2 dengan memotong beban penyulang Batu Belig menjadi dua, sehingga didapat penyulang Batu Belig 1 dan penyulang Batu Belig 2. Penyulang Batu Belig 2 akan dialihkan ke penyulang baru, yang ditarik dari gardu induk terdekat, yaitu Gardu Induk Padang Sambian dan Gardu Induk Pemecutan Kelod. Setelah dianalisis solusi terbaik untuk mengatasi beban yang sudah kritis pada penyulang Batu Belig dengan rekonfigurasi skenario 2, yaitu penyulang Batu Belig 2 dengan sumber gardu induk Pemecutan Kelod (trafo III/ 60 MVA mengunakan kabel tanam (AL XLPE 240 mm2. Menggunakan kabel tanam didapat persentase losses sebesar 2,5% dan persentase drop tegangan sebesar 1,63%, untuk standar losses yang diijinkanl adalah 5,24% [1], dan drop tegangan pada tipe radial yang diijinkan tidak boleh lebih dari 5% [2].

  11. RANCANG BANGUN MESIN PENGUPAS KULIT ARI KACANG HIJAU SISTEM ROLLER KAPASITAS 50 KG/JAM

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    Qomaruddin Qomaruddin

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Kacang hijau adalah sejenis tanaman budidaya dan palawija yang dikenal luas di daerah tropika. Sebagai bahan makanan, kacang hijau dapat diolah menjadi berbagai olahan makanan yang bergizi tinggi. Proses pengolahan kacang hijau menjadi makanan ringan selama ini membutuhkan waktu yang cukup lama yang disebabkan oleh proses pengupasan kulit ari yang dilakukan secara manual. Sehingga diperlukan rancangan alat pengupas yang dapat mempercepat proses tersebut. Rancang bangun yang telah dilakukan meliputi penentuan putaran roller, daya motor penggerak yang digunakan, diameter roller, ukuran pulley, dan jenis sabuk. Hasil rancang bangun mesin pengupas kulit ari kacang hijau dengan sistem roller diperoleh dimensi dan spesifikasi mesin dengan menggunakan diameter roller 110 mm dan poros 25 mm, daya motor 0,25 HP dengan putaran 175, 262, dan 131 rpm. Sehingga dapat dihasilkan mesin pengupas kulit ari kacang hijau dengan kapasitas 50 kg/jam. Kata kunci: kacang hijau, pengupas, roller, kulit ari.

  12. Potato Organic Farming in Batu City, Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Sugiarto, Sugiarto; Sulistiono, Rudi; Sudiarso, Sudiarso; Soemarno, Soemarno

    2013-01-01

    Organic potato cultivation was an effort to improve declining quality of potato agroecosystems and to preserve soil fertility. This study was conducted to analyze pattern of farming system and land management on the area of organic potatoes in Batu city. Research was conducted by the survey method, respondents were determined by the method of stratified cluster sampling. Farmer respondents were experienced organic potato farmer and as "expert leaders". Results show that the mindset of farmer...

  13. Kajian Kinerja Terminal Batu Ampar Kota Balikpapan

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    Randha Alief Chikita

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Batu Ampar Terminal Balikpapan is the only type A passenger terminal in Balikpapan City. The purpose of this study is to determine the operational performance of the terminal at this time and also to determine the level of service in the terminal. The results of this study indicate that for FIFO queue discipline analysis on AKDP and AKAP bus lines, it is known that ρ <1 means that there is currently no queue in the terminal. For the analysis of terminal facilities it is known that there are still some terminal facilities that are not yet available from the main facilities and supporting facilities, therefore the need for additional facilities in order to meet the standard of passenger terminal type A. In the next 15 years analysis for traffic intensity value is approaching 1 which means in the future will cause the queue in the terminal, so it is necessary for the improvement of terminal performance. For the service performance with IPA method there are 35 variables that there are 7 variables that enter in quadrant I. In the next step to do analysis to know the priority of handling by using QFD method. Keywords: Batu Ampar Terminal Balikpapan, IPA, terminal performance, QFD

  14. ANALISIS RUANG TERBUKA HIJAU PERUMAHAN NASIONAL DI KOTA MEDAN

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    Wahyu Fahreza

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui untuk mengetahui : (1 Kondisi ruang terbuka hijau publik pada perumahan nasional (perumnas Kota Medan ditinjau dari luasan, vegetasi, jenis dan perawatan. (2 Aktifitas yang dimanfaatkan pada ruang terbuka hijau publik perumahan nasional (perumnas. Penelitian ini dilakukan di Kota Medan tahun 2015. Populasi dalam penelitian ini yaitu Perumahan Nasional Martubung, dan Perumahan Nasional Helvetia karna kedua Perumahan nasional ini berada di Kota Medan. Sampel dalam penelitian ini adalah semua populasi (Total sampling. Teknik pengumpulan data yang digunakan adalah teknik observasi, studi dokumenter dan wawancara. Data dianalisis dengan teknik deskriptif kualitatif. Hasil penelitian, menunjukan bahwa (1 kondisi RTH publik pada kedua perumahan nasional ini ditinjau dari luasan, jenis, vegetasi dan perawatan. Untuk luasan RTH, kedua perumahan nasional ini belum optimal dan belum memenuhi syarat yang ditentukan Kementrian PU yang mensyratkan 20% dari luas kawasan. Jenis RTH pada perumahan nasional ini yaitu taman, lapangan sepak bola, lapangan olahraga, bantaran danau, dan lahan kosong terbengkalai. Untuk vegetasi pada RTH, masih terlalu sedikit sehingga mengurangi nilai keindahan dan keteduhan pada RTH kedua perumahan nasional ini, hal itu terlihat dari tanaman-tanaman yang layu, kering dan gersang. Perawatan RTH yang dilakukan kurang maksimal hal itu terlihat dari rumput yang tidak teratur dan lebat, ranting pohon yang berjatuhan serta fasilitas didalam RTH yang rusak. (2 Aktifitas yang dimanfaatkan pada ruang terbuka hijau publik perumahan nasional (perumnas. Ada beberapa RTH yang tidak dilakukan pemanfaatan aktifitas didalamnya. Jenis aktifitas yang ada pada kedua perumahan nasional ini hampir sama, yaitu bermain bola, bermain bulu tangkis, bermain futsal, bermain voli, berolahraga seperti jogging dan senam, bermain anak-anak, bersosialisasi, berjualan dan acara-acara tahunan. Kata Kunci: RTH, perumnas

  15. Proses Kreatif Teater Garasi Yogyakarta Dalam Lakon Waktu Batu

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    Nur Iswantara

    2013-11-01

    The Creative Process of Garasi Theater Yogyakarta for the Story of Waktu Batu. The aims of this research is to understand the creative concept and process of Garasi Theater Yogyakarta. It is one of the phenomenal Indonesian contemporary groups of theater. Some of its works have already been performed in front of local and national audiences as well. This research mainly focuses on the internal and external factors which have influnced the condusive situation towards the development and popularity of Garasi Theater Yogyakarta. In order to solve the problems formulated in the research, the theory of creativity and the comparison between semiotic and management arts were actively used. The result of the research showed that Garasi Theater Yogyakarta has a traditional characteristic developed in a theater community of Yogyakarta and soon afterwards it has carried out such an artistic rebellion. The Garasi Theater Yogyakarta is as a group of contemporary theatre which has very clear vision and mission. By doing the creative work through a laboratory of theatrical production, Garasi Theater Yogyakarta was able to create a masterpiece of a performance entitled Waktu Batu. The performance of Waktu Batu consists of three sub-titles, namely: ‘Waktu Batu 1, Kisah-kisah yang Bertemu di Ruang Tunggu’; ‘Waktu Batu 2, Ritus Seratus Kecemasan dan Wajah Siapa yang Terbelah’; dan ‘Waktu Batu 3, Deus ex Machina dan Perasaan-perasaan Padamu’. This theatrical work can be said as an inspirative work in which it took four years in its creative process, had been activated by youngsters, and had been performed by means of a road-show program through some cities in Indonesia and Singapore. Keywords: Garasi Theater, Yogyakarta arts, Waktu Batu

  16. Lubang Tambang Batu Bara Bayah: Jejak Romusha di Banten Selatan

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    Iwan Hermawan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Romusha was a form of labor force mobilization during the Japanese occupation. They are employed to build military infrastructure and explore mining or digging foxholes. One of the center of romusha was Bayah in South Banten. Romusha were came from different parts of Java Island and employed in the Bayah Kozan coal mine. The coal mining system carried out in Bayah, is a closed mine. Mining is done by making a hole to reach ader (ore tree. The mining pits and coal mining activities were conducted with simple equipment under the pressure and torture of the Japanese soldiers who supervised romusha. This paper aims to uncover traces romusha in South Banten through the remains of Japan in the form of Coal Mine Hole. The writing method used is descriptive analysis. Data collection through the activities of literature studies, field surveys, and interviews. The suffering experienced by the romusha in Bayah reflected from the pits where coal mines are numerous in the region Gunungmadur Bayah. Romusha merupakan bentuk mobilisasi tenaga kerja pada masa Pendudukan Jepang. Mereka dipekerjakan untuk membangun sarana prasarana militer dan menggali bahan tambang atau lubang perlindungan. Salah satu daerah yang menjadi tempat pemusatan romusha adalah Bayah di Banten Selatan. Mereka berasal dari berbagai daerah di Pulau Jawa dan dipekerjakan di tambang batu bara Bayah Kozan. Sistem penambangan batu bara yang dilakukan di Bayah adalah tambang tertutup. Penambangan dilakukan dengan cara membuat lubang untuk mencapai ader, yaitu pohon bijih. Kegiatan penggalian lubang tambang dan penambangan batu bara dilakukan dengan peralatan sederhana di bawah tekanan dan siksaan tentara Jepang yang menjadi pengawas romusha. Tulisan ini bertujuan untuk mengungkap jejak romusha di Banten Selatan melalui tinggalan masa Jepang berupa lubang tambang batu bara. Metode penulisan yang digunakan adalah deskriptif analisis. Pengumpulan data melalui kegiatan studi pustaka, survei lapangan

  17. FORMULASI MI KERING SAGU DENGAN SUBSTITUSI TEPUNG KACANG HIJAU (Formulation of Dry Sago Noodles with Mung Bean Flour Substitution

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    Hilka Yuliani

    2015-11-01

    dilakukan menggunakan Mixture Design (DX7 dengan variabel berupa persentase pati sagu (80-100% dan tepung kacang hijau (0-20%. Substitusi tepung kacang hijau dapat menurunkan kekerasan, kelengketan, dan elongasi mi sagu, namun meningkatkan cooking loss. Produk optimum mi sagu diperoleh dengan substitusi tepung kacang hijau 4,7%. Pada kondisi ini mi sagu memiliki karakteristik kekerasan 1996,03 gf, skor kelengketan -19,2 gf, skor elongasi 214,35% dan skor cooking loss 10,82%. Uji sensori terhadap mi sagu formula optimum menunjukkan bahwa mi sagu yang dibuat secara keseluruhan tidak berbeda nyata dengan mi kering terigu komersial. Kata kunci: Cooking loss, elongasi, mi pati, sagu, tepung kacang hijau

  18. IDENTIFIKASI LETAK DAN JENIS RUANG TERBUKA HIJAU DI KAWASAN PERMUKIMAN PERKOTAAN

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    Nada Alifia

    2016-12-01

    The final result of this research is to find locations that have the potential as a green open space based on the needs of the community. The chosen location of which is distantly related to public facilities (eg religious facilities, near or on the river bank, located around the main street and in public facilities land. The quality of green open space is needed is to provide a sense of comfort, beauty, sustainability and public health. Functions and types of green open space which is expected by the public are parks and sports fields as a means of social activities for children, adolescents, adults and the elderly REFERENCES Budi Santoso, R. H. (2012. Pola Pemanfaatan Ruang Terbuka Hijau pada Kawasan Perkampungan Plemburan Tegal, Ngaglik Sleman. INERSIA , Vol. VIII No. 1. Departemen Dalam Negeri. (2007. Peraturan Menteri Dalam Negeri Nomor 1 Tahun 2007 tentang Penataan Ruang Terbuka Hijau Kawasan Perkotaan. Jakarta: Departemen Dalam Negeri. Departemen Dalam Negeri Republik Indonesia. (1988. Instruksi Menteri Dalam Negeri No. 14 Tahun 1988 Tentang: Penataan Ruang Terbuka Hijau Di Wilayah Perkotaan . Jakarta: Departemen Dalam Negeri Republik Indonesia. Direktorat Jenderal Penataan Ruang. (2008. Peraturan Menteri Pekerjaan Umum nomor: 05/PRT/M/2008 tentang Pedoman Penyediaan dan Pemanfaatan Ruang Terbuka Hijau di Kawasan Perkotaan. Jakarta: Departemen Pekerjaan Umum. Ida Bagos Mantra, K. d. (2012. Penentuan Sampel. Jakarta: LP3ES. Rushayati, dkk. (2011. Pengembangan Ruang Terbuka Hijau Berdasarkan Distribusi Suhu Permukaan di Kabupaten Bandung. Jurnal Forum Geografi No.25/I/Juli ISSN 0852-2682 . Singarimbun, M. (2012. Metode dan Proses Penelitian. Jakarta: LP3ES

  19. PENGARUH PUPUK MO PLUS TERHADAP PERTUMBUHAN BIBIT PISANG BARANGAN, AMBON HIJAU, DAN CAVENDISH HASIL KULTUR JARINGAN SECARA HIDROPONIK

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    Ummawati; Ilham Latunra, Andi; Baharuddin; Juhriah

    2017-01-01

    Penelitian Pengaruh Pupuk Mo Plus Terhadap Pertumbuhan Bibit Pisang Barangan, Ambon Hijau, dan Cavendish Hasil Kultur Jaringan Pada Sistem Hidroponik ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui respon pertumbuhan bibit pisang barangan, ambon hijau, dan cavendish hasil kultur jaringan dengan penyemprotan pupuk MO Plus pada sistem hidroponik. Penelitian ini telah dilaksanakan di Green House dan Laboratorium Kultur Jaringan, Puslitbang Bioteknologi LP2M, Universitas Hasanuddin, Makassar, berlangsung mulai ju...

  20. Perbandingan Antologi Cerpen Batu-Batu Setan Karya M. Fudoli Zaini Dan Lukisan Kaligrafi Karya A. Mustofa Bisri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mashuri Mashuri

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Tulisan ini mengkaji konstruksi dunia dan nalar santri dalam prosa karya kiai pesantren, yaitu Batu-Batu Setan karya M. Fudoli Zaini dan Lukisan Kaligrafi karya A. Mustofa Bisri. Teori yang digunakan adalah strukturalisme dan hermeneutik, dengan menggunakan metode bandingan. Dari kajian perbandingan didapatkan pola sistemik pada posisi pengarang sebagai agen dalam ranah produksi kultural. Pola-pola sistemik yang menggambarkan konstruksi dan nalar santri yang bersifat universal dan parsial dengan bersandar pada konsep oposisi biner: sintagmatik dan paradigmatik, dapat dirumuskan dari perbandingan kedua kumpulan cerpen tersebut. Dari kajian tentang karya dua kiai itu, biografi mereka, dan perbandingan antara keduanya terkonstruksikan dunia dan nalar santri. Nalar santri inilah yang menjadi pola berpikir dan cara melihat dari kalangan pesantren di dalam karya dan ‘kehidupan’‐nya. Abstract: This research aims to describe the construction of santri’s sense and the world in short stories written by two kiai, M. Fudoli Zaini’s Batu-Batu Setan and A. Mustofa Bisri’s Lukisan Kaligrafi. To analyze the comparativeness, structuralism and hermeneutics theory is used to describe the problem. We can see that there is a systemic pattern of the writers as an agent in a cultural production environment. Those systemic patterns show the universalities and partialities of santri’s construction and sense according to binary opposition concept, namely syntagmatic and paradigmatic. The differences among the two anthologies, seen from their short stories and biography are constructed by the world and sense of the santri. From their short stories and we can see how the santri think and see using their sense and the world. Key Words: construction of world; santri’s sense; comparative literature

  1. Late Cretaceous porphyry copper mineralization in Sonora, Mexico: Implications for the evolution of the Southwest North America porphyry copper province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barra, Fernando; Valencia, Victor A.

    2014-10-01

    Two porphyry Cu-Mo prospects in northern Sonora, Mexico (Fortuna del Cobre and Los Humos) located within the southwestern North American porphyry province have been dated in order to constrain the timing of crystallization and mineralization of these ore deposits. In Fortuna del Cobre, the pre-mineralization granodiorite porphyry yielded an U-Pb zircon age of 76.5 ± 2.3 Ma, whereas two samples from the ore-bearing quartz feldespathic porphyry were dated at 74.6 ± 1.3 and 75.0 ± 1.4 Ma. Four molybdenite samples from Los Humos porphyry Cu prospect yielded a weighted average Re-Os age of 73.5 ± 0.2 Ma, whereas two samples from the ore-bearing quartz monzonite porphyry gave U-Pb zircon ages of 74.4 ± 1.1 and 74.5 ± 1.3 Ma, showing a Late Cretaceous age for the emplacement of this ore deposit. The results indicate that Laramide porphyry Cu mineralization of Late Cretaceous age is not restricted to northern Arizona as previously thought and provide evidence for the definition of NS trending metallogenic belts that are parallel to the paleo-trench. Porphyry copper mineralization follows the inland migration trend of the magmatic arc as a result of the Farallon slab flattening during the Laramide orogeny.

  2. Penyediaan Ruang Terbuka Hijau Berdasarkan Nilai Emisi Co2 Di Kawasan Industri Surabaya

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    Indri Hastuti

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Aktivitas industri di Surabaya berkontribusi terhadap penurunan kualitas udara kota Surabaya melalui emisi pembakaran bahan bakar fosil. Sektor industri di kota Surabaya merupakan penyumbang nilai emisi CO2 tertinggi di antara sektor rumah tangga dan sektor transportasi. Besar kontribusi nilai emisi CO2 sektor industri pada tahun 2011 mencapai 51,74%.  Industri Margomulyo dan SIER merupakan industri dengan luas terbesar di antara kawasan industri kota Surabaya. Sehubungan dengan hal tersebut, maka penting untuk dilakukan penelitian terkait substansi di atas. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk memberikan konsep penyediaan ruang terbuka hijau berdasarkan nilai emisi CO2  di kawasan Industri Surabaya. Penelitian ini melalui beberapa proses input, yaitu mengidentifikasi karakteristik ruang terbuka hijau industri, analisis nilai emisi CO2, analisis tingkat emisi CO2, dan analisis kebutuhan RTH.. Hasil nilai emisi CO2 industri berdasarkan komoditas dan golongan industri kemudian dikelompokan ke dalam 3 tingkatan, yaitu emisi rendah, sedang, dan tinggi. Kemampuan serapan eksisting RTH dan besar sisa emisi di masing-masing kawasan dianalisis agar dapat diketahui besar luasan RTH maksimum yang yang akan diakomodasi ke dalam konsep penyediaan ruang terbuka hijau berdasarkan nilai emisi CO2 di kawasan industri Surabaya. Hasil yang diperoleh adalah total nilai emisi CO2 kawasan SIER sebesar  21.225,6  ton CO2/tahun,  sedangkan  kawasan  Margomulyo  mengeluarkan 17.047,2  ton  CO2/tahun. Berdasarkan eksisting ruang terbuka hijau, kemampuan serapan RTH di SIER dan Margomulyo sebesar 7,8% dan 3,5%. Konsep penyediaan RTH di kedua kawasan adalah pengoptimalan proporsi RTH sebesar 18,31% untuk kawasan industri SIER dan 8,38% untuk kawasan industri Margomulyo. Selain itu, konsep penyediaan RTH melalui pemaksimalan lahan kosong mampu mengurangi total nilai emisi menjadi 18.322,16 ton CO2/tahun dan 8.074,42 ton CO2/tahun.

  3. Batu Pahat Driving Cycle for Light Duty Gasoline Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainul Abidin, Zainul Ameerul Ikhsan B.; Faisal Hushim, Mohd; Ahmad, Osman Bin

    2017-08-01

    Driving cycle is a series of data points that represents the vehicle speed versus time. Transient driving cycles involve many changes such as frequent speed changes during typical on-road driving condition [2]. Model driving cycles involve protracted periods at constant speeds. The Batu Pahat Driving Cycle (BPDC) developed to represent the driving pattern of people in a district of Batu Pahat. Based on this driving cycle, it will be a reference to other researchers to study about the gases emission release and fuel consumption by the vehicle on the dynamometer or automotive simulation based on this driving cycle. Existing driving cycles used such as the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC), the Federal Test Procedure (FTP-72/75, and Japan 10-15 Mode Cycle is not appropriate for Batu Pahat district because of different road conditions, driving habits and environmental of developed driving cycle countries are not same [2][14]. Batu Pahat drive cycle was developed for low-capacity gasoline engine under 150 cc and operating on urban roads, rural roads and road around Universiti Tun Hussein Onn. The importance of these driving cycle as the reference for other research to measure and do automotive simulation regarding fuel consumption and gas emission release from the motorcycle for these three type of driving cycle area. Another use for driving cycles is in vehicle simulations [3]. More specifically, they are used in propulsion system simulations to predict the performance of internal combustion engines, transmissions, electric drive systems, batteries, fuel cell systems, and similar components [18]. Data collection methods used in this study is the use of Global Positioning System (GPS). The results obtained are not similar to each other due to differences in congestion on data taken. From the driving cycle graph obtained, such as the average velocity, maximum velocity, the duration and Positive Acceleration Kinetic Energy (PKE) can be determined. In addition, the best

  4. AKTIVITAS ANTIDOTUM AIR KELAPA HIJAU (Cocos nucifera L. TERHADAP KERACUNAN SIANIDA PADA MENCIT (Mus musculus L.

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    Astri Sulistia

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Cyanide is a toxic compound that can interfere with health and reduce the nutrients bioavailability in the body. These toxins inhibit the body cells to get oxygen so that the most affected are the heart and brain. The aim of this study was to know the effect of green coconut water (Cocos nucifera L. as an antidote to cyanide poisoning in mice (Mus musculus L.. The method was in vivo antidote activity using potassium cyanide-induced toxic mice. The mice were divided into 3 groups, i.e. negative control, positive control and test group with green coconut water giving 100% concentration. Each group consisted of 5 mice. Observations of toxic symptoms after the induction of potassium cyanide performed in initial times and and the results are analyzed visually by comparing graphs based on each group of tests during 24 hours of observation. The results showed that the green coconut water with 100% concentration that given in mice showed the influence of the reduction in toxic symptoms such as abnormal posture.  Recovery of toxic effect in the test group by giving green coconut water was no better than the positive control group by giving sodium nitrite and sodium thiosulfate.  Keywords: Green coconut water (Cocos nucifera L., Antidotum, Toxin, Potassium cyanide, Sodium nitrite, Sodium tiosulphate ABSTRAK Sianida merupakan senyawa beracun yang dapat mengganggu kesehatan serta mengurangi bioavailabilitas nutrien di dalam tubuh. Racun ini menghambat sel tubuh mendapatkan oksigen sehingga yang paling terkena dampaknya adalah organ jantung dan otak. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh pemberian air kelapa hijau (Cocos nucifera L. sebagai antidotum terhadap keracunan sianida pada mencit (Mus musculus L.. Metode yang digunakan adalah metode secara in vivo dengan menggunakan hewan uji mencit yang diinduksi kalium sianida. Mencit dibagi ke dalam 3 kelompok, yaitu kelompok kontrol negatif, kontrol positif dan kelompok uji dengan pemberian air

  5. The Dala (Älvdalen) Porphyries from Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wikström, Anders; Pereira, Lola; Lundqvist, Thomas; Cooper, Barry

    2014-05-01

    The Dala (Älvdalen) Porphyries from Sweden Anders Wikström (retired from Geological Survey of Sweden) Lola Pereira (University of Salamanca, Spain) Thomas Lundqvist (retired from Geological Survey of Sweden) Barry Cooper (University of South Australia) The commercial stone industry in Älvdalen, about 350 km northwest of Stockholm, commenced in the second half of the 18th century, as a consequence of social need. The region had been plagued by severe famine and there was an urgent need for additional wealth-generating industry. At that time it was already known that the porphyry in the area was similar to the "porfido rosso antico" from Egypt which had played an important role in the Roman culture. Many ups and downs followed. During one period in the 19th century, the Swedish Royal family owned the industry. At the same time, several "porphyry" objects were presented to different courts around Europe (e.g. a 4 metre tall vase to the Russian czar, although of a more granitic variety). Otherwise most products have been smaller objects like urns, vases, candelabras, etc. The very hard stone (with variable red or black colours) can be highly polished. Many of the porphyry varieties were sourced from glacial boulders. These had been "mechanically tested" by nature and were free from joints which otherwise was a problem in the associated quarries. Comagmatic granites also occur. The porphyries and granites have an age around 1700 Ma, and the former are amazingly well preserved with magnificent volcanic textures. The porphyries and granites occupy a vast area and are in part covered with red, continental sandstones (which are quarried to-day). In the middle of the 20th century, the ignimbritic character of the porphyry was discovered. Previously, the flattened "fiamme" (collapsed pumice) had been interpreted as some kind of flow structure in a lava. The porphyry manufacturing plants in Älvdalen are a part of the Swedish industrial history. Over a significant

  6. Struktur Populasi Monyet Ekor Panjang di Kawasan Pura Batu Pageh, Ungasan, Badung, Bali

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    Muh Imam Subiarsyah

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui struktur populasi monyet ekor panjang di kawasan Pura Batu Pageh. Jumlah populasi monyet dihitung secara langsung dan dibedakan berdasarkan jenis kelamin dan umur. Luas habitat ditentukan berdasarkan daerah jelajah yang merupakan tanah milik Pura, tanah pemerintah atau hutan yang bukan merupakan tanah milik masyarakat. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan jumlah total populasi monyet ekor panjang di kawasan Pura Batu Pageh adalah 189 ekor terdiri atas 22 ekor (11,6% jantan dewasa, 37 ekor (19,6% betina dewasa, 106 ekor (56,1% monyet muda dan 24 ekor (12,7% anakan, yang terbagi menjadi empat kelompok sosial yaitu kelompok Parkir, kelompok Barat, kelompok Utara dan kelompok Timur. Rasio monyet jantan dewasa dengan betina dewasa adalah 1 : 2. Luas habitat monyet ekor panjang di kawasan Pura Batu Pageh adalah 1 hektar. Disimpulkan bahwa struktur populasi monyet ekor panjang di kawasan Pura Batu Pageh didomonasi oleh monyet muda dan tingkat kepadatan populasi adalah 189 ekor/hektar.

  7. Analisis Tentang Pernikahan Dini di Kecamatan Kota Pinang Kabupaten Labuhan Batu Selatan Tahun 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Sepriana, Ita

    2015-01-01

    Early marriage in Kecamatan Kota Pinang Kabupaten Labuhan Batu Selatan is still very high and it became one of the staples of reproductive problems faced today. This is often caused by economic factors, education, parents/family, yourself, and mass media. This research was conducted in Kecamatan Kota Pinang Kabupaten Labuhan Batu Selatan. This type of research using qualitative methods. The subject of research is the 5 young women who are married, 5 the parents of teenage daughters, 1 reli...

  8. TINDAKAN KOMUNIKATIF DALAM MODEL PEMBERDAYAAN WANITA PADA SEKOLAH PEREMPUAN DESA, KOTA BATU, JAWA TIMUR

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    Dhanny S. Sutopo

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Sekolah perempuan Batu adalah sekolah informal yang bergerak dalam bidang pemberdayaan perempuan. Tujuan dari berdirinya sekolah perempuan ini juga melegitimasi tujuan dari gerakan feminisme yang menghendaki laki-laki dan perempuan memiliki akses yang sama dalam kehidupan sosialnya, seperti dalam hal pekerjaan, pendapatan, dan juga kesejahteraan. Persamaan akses tersebut dapat secara perlahan diwujudkan dengan mengikuti sekolah perempuan Kota Batu. Tulisan ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui bagaimana aplikasi tindakan komunikatif dalam pelaksanaan sekolah perempuan di Batu. Tindakan komunikatif ini mencakup proses partisipasi yang berkelajutan dari anggota komunitas, mengurangi narasi besar, aktif dalam melakukan diskusi dan dialog publik yang mengembangkan pengetahuan yang setara. Melalui penelitian kualitatif ditemukan bahwa tindakan komunikatif dalam pelaksanaan sekolah perempuan Batu menganut konsep parsitipatif dimana para peserta diperlakukan sebagai subyek sekaligus obyek dalam kegiatan ini. Spirit utama yang dibangun dalam sekolah perempuan ini antara lain: kesederhanaan, kemandirian, kejujuran, keadilan, kesetaraan, menolak kekerasan dan diskriminasi.   Sekolah Perempuan Batu is an informal school for women which is conducted in order to fulfill the main purpose of their empowerment. This purpose also legitimize the goals of feminism movement that requires men and women equality to access social life in terms of jobs, income, and welfare. This paper aims to describe the application of communicative action in the implementation of Sekolah Perempuan Batu. This communicative action includes a process of sustained participation of community member, reducing the grand narrative, active discussions and public dialogue that develops the knowledge equivalent. Through qualitative research found that communicative action in the implementation of Sekolah Perempuan Batu embrace the concept of participatory where participants are treated as subject as

  9. Analisis Profil Dan Perkembangan Aktivitas USAha Pedagang Di Obyek Wisata Kota Batu

    OpenAIRE

    Handini, Darmayanti Pri; Wulandari, Wahju

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study were: (1) To determine the relationship between the merchant profile traders business activities development in tourism Batu (2). To determine the relationship between business profile traders with the development of business activities of traders in the tourist Batu City (3). To determine the development of business-to-income trader traders in tourism in the City of Stone. The population used as samples are traders who move in Stone Town is a tourist attraction in: ...

  10. Implementasi AJAX pada Peta Wisata “esbatu” Sistem Informasi Jejaring Wisata Kota Batu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agung Panji Sasmito

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Minimnya informasi terkait kepariwisataan di Kota Batu yang bisa diakses online dan terintegrasi membuat potensi pariwisata di Batu kurang begitu dikenal oleh wisatawan domestik maupun mancanegara. Sejauh ini informasi wisata di Kota Batu baru sebatas media cetak dan media elektronik, dan belum ada penyebaran informasi melalui internet seperti peta wisata yang dapat diakses secara online. Tujuan penelitian adalah mengembangkan peta wisata berbasis AJAX pada “esbatu” sistem informasi jejaring wisata Kota Batu. Rancangan penelitian adalah penelitian pengembangan yang dilakukan pada Dinas Pariwisata dan Kebudayaan Kota Batu. Pengembangan dilaksanakan dengan menggunakan waterfall model dengan pengujian BlackBox testing. Validitas peta wisata diukur dengan menggunakan DeLone and McLean Model of Information Systems Success. Hasil pengujian dengan BlackBox testing menunjukkan bahwa secara fungsionalitas semua fitur pada peta wisata berjalan lancar. Hasil validasi kepada ahli sistem informasi, ahli pariwisata Kota Batu, dan beberapa calon pengguna peta wisata pada sistem informasi “esbatu” menunjukkan bahwa peta wisata sangat valid dari segi sistem informasi dan informasi pariwisata sehingga layak digunakan tanpa revisi.

  11. Peran Theme Park pada Industri Pariwisata dalam Penyerapan Tenaga Kerja di Kota Batu (Studi pada Museum Angkut dan Kusuma Agrowisata)

    OpenAIRE

    Amimaitreya, Wasesa; Pangestuti, Edriana

    2017-01-01

    Batu city is one of the tourism city in East Java, which is dominated by artificial tourist attractions or theme park. Batu City has 22 units of tourist attractions including Museum Angkut and Kusuma Agrowisata is an example of theme park in Batu City. The development of tourist attraction, especially dominated by the theme park certainly has a role for absorb the workforce of Batu city people. The purpose of this research is to know the role of the theme park in the absorption of workforce ...

  12. The geology and geochemistry of Philippine Porphyry copper deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divis, Allan F.

    Porphyry copper deposits and their relationship to felsic intrusions are of considerable economic as well as academic interest. They generally occur near continental margins and in island arcs. Although some conjecture exists as to the ultimate source of transition metals associated with the deposits, a growing body of evidence suggests the metals are principally derived from a magmatic source: the porphyry intrusions. These intrusions may also give rise to adjacent vein and precious metal deposits. Over 40 potential deposits have been reported in the Philippine island arc and approximately nine are or have been in production. The known and inferred reserves from these deposits exceed three billion metric tons of ore— approximately 10 to 20 million tons of metallic copper. Several deposits may ultimately have more than a billion tons of ore reserves. There appears to be a remarkable correlation between the timing of porphyry intrusions in the Philippines and that in other areas, particularly New Guinea and the Solomon Islands. These intrusions also show a close relationship to the timing of oceanic plate tectonic processes. Periods of increased subduction rate and accompanying dilation and/or shearing within the arc may be conducive to the generation of porphyry magmas on an episodic rather than continuous basis. Ultimately, the development of an economically significant ore body requires the presence of a hydrous magma and may be associated with other primary compositional characteristics. However, anomalous high primary magmatic concentrations of copper do not appear to be required for the formation of the porphyry deposits. The Philippine porphyry intrusions differ somewhat from `continental' porphyries and are chemically similar to mineralized island arc intrusions of the Carribean and the southwest Pacific. The Philippine intrusions generally range from diorites and quartz diorites to low potassium granodiorites. Initial 87-Sr/86-Sr ratios are low, ranging

  13. Isolasi dan Karakterisasi Sifat Pati Kacang Hijau (Vigna radiata L. Beberapa Varietas Lokal Indonesia

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    Priyanto Triwitono

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Mung beans is a kind of legumes that possesses a potential  amylose to produce low calories RS-3. Studies on the characteristics of the starch will be useful for the treatment of obesity in the future. Isolation and characterization of the properties of mung bean starch of 4 local Indonesian varieties (Walet, Sriti, Murai, and Vima-1 have done. Isolation of starch using a modified method of Hoover. The analyzed properties of starch consist of starch content, amylose content, granular shape, color, swelling power, WHC, the blue value, amylograph and crystallinity properties. The results indicated that the mung bean varieties Walet have the highest amylose content (55.39%, that’s potential as source of  RS-3. Mung beans Walet have the 42.11% of starch content; 35.33% of yield starch; 99.63%  of starch purity; 17.11 g/g of highest swelling power; 65.26 g/g of WHC; 59.36 g/g  of OHC; 8.92% of blue value; Oval granular shape; white  color (88.09 of  Lightness; 78.7 °C of gelatinization temperature; tipe C of X-ray diffraction pattern, and 1430 Cp of the fastest retrograded starch viscosity. ABSTRAK Kacang hijau merupakan jenis kacang-kacangan sumber pati beramilosa tinggi yang potensial menghasilkan RS-3 tinggi dan rendah kalori. Kajian tentang karakteristik patinya akan membuka peluang pemanfaatannya untuk penanganan obesitas di masa datang. Telah dilakukan isolasi dan karakterisasi sifat-sifat pati kacang hijau dari 4 varietas lokal Indonesia (Walet, Sriti, Murai, dan Vima-1. Isolasi pati menggunakan metode Hoover yang dimodifikasi dan sifat-sifat pati yang dianalisis meliputi kadar pati, amilosa, bentuk granula, warna pati, swelling power, WHC, blue value, viskositas, dan sifat kristalinitas pati. Hasil isolasi dan analisis menunjukkan bahwa kacang hijau varietas Walet memiliki kadar amilosa paling tinggi (55,39%, sehingga potensial sebagai bahan dasar RS-3. Kacang hijau Walet menghasilkan kadar pati 42,11%; rendemen pati 35

  14. Daya Hambat Perak Nitrat (Agno3 pada Perkecambahan Biji Kacang Hijau (Vigna radiata

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    Muh. Shofi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Logam berat banyak digunakan dalam kehidupan manusia, di antaranya Hg, Pb, Cr, Zn, dan Ag. Di antara logam tersebut, logam perak (Ag banyak digunakan oleh masyarakat untuk kegiatan sehari-hari, seperti dalam fotografi, untuk pembuatan cermin perak, dan sebagai reagen dalam analisis. Logam perak dapat diperoleh dari senyawa AgNO3. Keberadaan logam perak pada tanaman dapat menghambat proses perkecambahan pada tanaman kacang hijau (Vigna radiata, yang ditandai dengan penghambatan pemanjangan sel pada akar. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui pengaruh daya hambat terhadap pertumbuhan kecambah kacang hijau dan mengetahui konsentrasi hambatan (Inhibitory Concentration dari perak nitrat (AgNO3. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian diketahui bahwa terdapat penghambatan pada pembentukan akar dengan rata-rata penghambatan lebih dari 50% pada konsentrasi 462,27 ppm. Hal ditunjukkan pada panjang akar yang lebih pendek seiring dengan tingginya konsentrasi AgNO3. Hal tersebut dapat disimpulkan bahwa konsentrasi AgNO3 berpengaruh pada perkecambahan biji kacang hijau yang ditandai dengan terhambatnya pemanjangan panjang akar kacang hijau.Abstract Heavy metals are widely used in human life, including Hg, Pb, Cr, Zn, and Ag. Among these metals, silver is widely used for human daily activities, such as in photography, for the manufacture of silver mirror, and as reagents in many analysis. Silver metal can be obtained from AgNO3 compounds. The presence of silver metal in a plant may inhibit the germination process in the green bean plant (Vigna radiata which is characterized by inhibition of cell lengthening in the root. The aims of this research are to investigate the influence of the inhibitory power to green bean growth and the inhibitory concentration of the silver nitrate (AgNO3. The result showed that there was inhibition that occurred in the root formation by more than 50% of average inhibition at the concentration of 462.27 ppm. It was shown that

  15. ANALISIS WAKTU PEMUPUKAN TANAMAN SAWI HIJAU (Brassica rapa var. parachinensis DENGAN TEKNIK PERUNUT RADIOAKTIF

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    Gusti Ngurah Sutapa

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Telah dilakukan penelitian analisis waktu pemupukan pada tanaman sawi hijau (Brassica rapa var. parachinensisdengan teknik perunut radioaktif. Untuk menuju sistem pertanian berkelanjutan perlu adanya perbaikan pertanian(intensifikasi selama beberapa tahun yang lalu masih signifikan, karena ketersediaan sumber daya alam danteknologi pertanian cukup memadai dan berimbang dengan ketersediaan lahan dan peningkatan jumlah penduduk.Keadaan ini sulit untuk dipertahankan dimasa yang akan datang, kecuali ada pendekatan baru yang menawarkan ide dan teknik untuk meningkatkan produktifitas pertanian. Efesiensi pemupukan tanaman dengan teknik perunut (tracer radioisotop adalah salah satu potensi menujusistem pertanian berkelanjutan. Teknik perunut dapat digunakan antara lain untuk mempelajari hubungan antaratanah dan tanaman, menentukan kondisi optimal dalam penggunaan pupuk (waktu pemupukan, pola perakaranaktif tanaman, jenis dan takaran pupuk, mempelajari proses dekomposisi dan mineralisasi bahan organik, sertamempelajari proses fotosintesis tanaman,baik dengan metoda langsung maupun tidak langsung.Waktu pemupukanyang lebih tepat dapat ditentukan dengan teknik perunut tersebut, sehingga optimalisasi pemupukan dapat dicapai,tanpa pemborosan yang tidak berguna.Dari penelitian dengan menggunakan radioisotop P, ternyata waktupemupukan pada tanaman sawi hijau (Brassica rapa var. parachinensis yang paling signifikan adalah padapukul 9.00 pagi. Waktu siang hari mulai pukul 11.00 sampai pukul 15.00 adalah waktu pemupukan yang sangatburuk. Sedangkan waktu sore hari yaitu pukul 15.00 sampai 17.00 menunjukkan waktu pemupukan yang semakinbaik namun tidak signifikan.32

  16. ANALISIS WAKTU PEMUPUKAN TANAMAN SAWI HIJAU (Brassica rapa var. parachinensis DENGAN TEKNIK PERUNUT RADIOAKTIF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gusti Ngurah Sutapa

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Telah dilakukan penelitian analisis waktu pemupukan pada tanaman sawi hijau (Brassica rapa var. parachinensisdengan teknik perunut radioaktif. Untuk menuju sistem pertanian berkelanjutan perlu adanya perbaikan pertanian(intensifikasi selama beberapa tahun yang lalu masih signifikan, karena ketersediaan sumber daya alam danteknologi pertanian cukup memadai dan berimbang dengan ketersediaan lahan dan peningkatan jumlah penduduk.Keadaan ini sulit untuk dipertahankan dimasa yang akan datang, kecuali ada pendekatan baru yang menawarkan ide dan teknik untuk meningkatkan produktifitas pertanian. Efesiensi pemupukan tanaman dengan teknik perunut (tracer radioisotop adalah salah satu potensi menujusistem pertanian berkelanjutan. Teknik perunut dapat digunakan antara lain untuk mempelajari hubungan antaratanah dan tanaman, menentukan kondisi optimal dalam penggunaan pupuk (waktu pemupukan, pola perakaranaktif tanaman, jenis dan takaran pupuk, mempelajari proses dekomposisi dan mineralisasi bahan organik, sertamempelajari proses fotosintesis tanaman,baik dengan metoda langsung maupun tidak langsung.Waktu pemupukanyang lebih tepat dapat ditentukan dengan teknik perunut tersebut, sehingga optimalisasi pemupukan dapat dicapai,tanpa pemborosan yang tidak berguna.Dari penelitian dengan menggunakan radioisotop P, ternyata waktupemupukan pada tanaman sawi hijau (Brassica rapa var. parachinensis yang paling signifikan adalah padapukul 9.00 pagi. Waktu siang hari mulai pukul 11.00 sampai pukul 15.00 adalah waktu pemupukan yang sangatburuk. Sedangkan waktu sore hari yaitu pukul 15.00 sampai 17.00 menunjukkan waktu pemupukan yang semakinbaik namun tidak signifikan.32

  17. Konservasi Kearifan Budaya Lokal dalam Proses Interaksi Sosial Etnis Melayu di Kabupaten Batu Bara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramli Nur

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the local wisdoms of ethnic Malay in the district of Batu Bara as a reference for their individual and social interactions with special focus on interethnic relationships, particularly within socio-religious realm. The study finds that ethnic diversity in the district of Batu Bara is not an obstacle to create a harmonious relation in social, economic, political, and religious activities among the people. It means that the Malays in Batu Bara have virtuous interaction with other ethnicities in the region. They, for an instance, are able to build mutual trust with other ethnicities in economic activities. In addition, they are able to work hand-in-hand with other people in many areas of social aspects. It is also found that the Malays of Batu Bara treat other ethnicities as equal in terms of providing an individual his/her social stratum to be, for an example, a prominent figure of society. They also give other people from other ethnicities chance of being political elites or leaders of mass organizations. The study finds that, however, the Malays of Batu Bara tend to choose the local (indigenous person as their leader.

  18. Efficacy Quotient Tindakan ESWL Piezolith Richard Wolf 3000 pada Penderita Batu Ureter di RSUPN Dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo, 2008–2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinny Verdini

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL saat ini telah menjadi metode yang paling umum dalam tatalaksana aktif batu ureter. Sejak Maret 2008, RSCM telah menggunakan mesin ESWL piezolith 3000 richard wolf dan belum diketahui nilai efficacy quotient (EQ. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menentukan nilai EQ dari tindakan ESWL menggunakan mesin piezolith richard wolf 3000 pada batu ureter dan hubungan angka bebas batu dengan lokasi batu, jumlah batu, beban batu, opasitas batu, obstruksi, dan fungsi ginjal. Studi cross sectional ini dilakukan pada bulan Januari 2008-Desember 2011 dan data dianalisis dengan statistik multivariat. Terdapat 113 (95 % dari 119 pasien yang dinyatakan bebas batu setelah tindakan ESWL pertama. Didapatkan nilai EQ 0,89. Hanya ukuran batu yang mempengaruhi angka bebas batu dalam penelitian ini (p<0,05. Disimpulkan bahwa prosedur ESWL menggunakan mesin richard wolf piezolith 3000 memiliki nilai EQ dan angka bebas batu yang lebih baik daripada mesin-mesin sebelumnya dan mesin lain yang sejenis. Faktor yang mempengaruhi keberhasilan adalah ukuran batu ureter yang ditatalaksana.Kata Kunci: batu ureter, ESWL, efficacy quotient, angka bebas batu. Efficacy Quotient of ESWL Piezolith Richard Wolf 3000 Machine in Patientswith Ureteral Stones in Dr. Cipto MangunkusumoNational Hospital 2008 - 2011AbstractExtracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL is the most common method of ureteral stone management. Since 2008, RSCM has ben using ESWL piezolith 3000 richard wolf and efficacy quotient (EQ value have not yet studied. The study aims was to determine the efficacy quotient (EQ of ESWL using piezolith richard wolf 3000 machine for ureteral stone by analyzing free-stone rate with location of stones, number of stones, stone burden, stone opacity, obstruction and kidney function. This cross sectional study was carried out in January 2008-December 2011, with multivariate analytical study. Ninety five percent (n=113 of 119 patients were

  19. KAJIAN POTENSI PEMAKAMAN SEBAGAI RUANG TERBUKA HIJAU PERKOTAAN, STUDI KASUS: TPU KOTA PONTIANAK

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    Agustiah Wulandari

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Ruang terbuka hijau (RTH pada saat ini banyak mengalami perubahan fungsi menjadi lahan terbangun. Tidak dipungkiri lagi bahwa RTH di banyak kota di Indonesia sudah beralih fungsi menjadi kawasan pemukiman, perhotelan, restauran, pertokoan, perkantoran, jalan raya, tempat parkir, pompa bensin, tempat pedagang kaki lima dan kawasan lainnya. Hal ini menciptakan kelangkaan RTH di banyak daerah perkotaan di Indonesia. Proses perencanaan kota yang berwawasan lingkungan sangat diperlukan di seluruh wilayah perkotaan di Indonesia. Pemanfaatan ruang terbuka yang selama ini belum atau kurang dimanfaatkan harus lebih dimaksimalkan lagi pemanfaatannya, seperti tempat pemakaman. Pemakaman merupakan salah satu bentuk ruang terbuka kota yang belum efektif pemanfaatannya sebagai RTH. Karakteristik dan jenis makam yang ada di Indonesia seperti  tempat pemakaman umum (TPU dan tempat pemakaman khusus (TPK memiliki kelebihan dan kekurangan untuk dimanfaatkan sebagai ruang terbuka hijau. Pemanfaatan tempat pemakaman umum sebagai RTH dilakukan dengan membandingkan variabel-variabel dari tiap indikator  fungsi RTH, seperti fungsi sosial, fungsi fisik, dan fungsi estetika.  Kesimpulan yang dihasilkan berdasarkan fungsi fisik RTH kawasan pemakaman saat ini masih belum ada kawasan pemakaman umum yang secara optimal dapat berfungsi sebagai RTH. Kawasan Pemakaman yang memenuhi fungsi sosial  RTH  adalah TPU Islam, TPU Kristen, dan TPU tionghoa.  Sedangkan  Fungsi estetika  RTH dapat dipenuhi oleh tempat pemakaman Kristen dan Tionghoa.   Green open space has now been changed into buildings. urban green space has been converted into residential areas, hotels, restaurants, shops, offices, highways, parking lots, gas stations, street vendors and other areas. This creates a dearth of green space in many urban areas in Indonesia. Ecological city planning is indispensable in all urban areas in Indonesia. Utilization of open space should be maximized

  20. PERAN PEMERINTAH DAERAH DALAM PENGEMBANGAN OBYEK WISATA HUTAN BATU RAMMANG – RAMMANG DI KABUPATEN MAROS

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    Harnida Harnida

    2012-10-01

       Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui peran pemerintah daerah dalam pengembangan obyek wisata Hutan Batu Rammang-rammang Kabupaten Maros dan mengetahui upaya pemerintah dalam pengembangan obyek wisata hutan batu rammang- rammang Kabupaten Maros dengan menggunakan indicator pemerintah sebagai fasilitator, regulator dan mediator. Jenis penelitian ini bersifat kualitatif dengan tipe penelitian fenomenologi. Data dikumpulkan dengan menggunakan instrumen berupa; Observasi, wawancara dan penelusuran dokumen. Hasil Penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa secara umum peran pemerintah dalam pengembangan obyek wisata hutan batu rammang- rammang di Kabupaten Maros belum maksimal. Sebagai fasilitator, pemerintah belum banyak memfasilitasi aktifitas masyarakat setempat. Sebagai mediator, pemerintah daerah kurang keinginan dan keluhan dari masyarakat di daerah tersebut terkait peningkatan sarana dan prasarana. Sebagai regulator, pemerintah daerah juga kurang berkomunikasi mengenai aturan pelestarian obyek wisata tersebut.

  1. Acoustic Quality Levels of Mosques in Batu Pahat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizah Adnan, Nor; Nafida Raja Shahminan, Raja; Khair Ibrahim, Fawazul; Tami, Hannifah; Yusuff, M. Rizal M.; Murniwaty Samsudin, Emedya; Ismail, Isham

    2018-04-01

    Every Friday, Muslims has been required to perform a special prayer known as the Friday prayers which involve the delivery of a brief lecture (Khutbah). Speech intelligibility in oral communications presented by the preacher affected all the congregation and determined the level of acoustic quality in the interior of the mosque. Therefore, this study intended to assess the level of acoustic quality of three public mosques in Batu Pahat. Good acoustic quality is essential in contributing towards appreciation in prayers and increasing khusyu’ during the worship, which is closely related to the speech intelligibility corresponding to the actual function of the mosque according to Islam. Acoustic parameters measured includes noise criteria (NC), reverberation time (RT) and speech transmission index (STI), and was performed using the sound level meter and sound measurement instruments. This test is carried out through the physical observation with the consideration of space and volume design as a factor affecting acoustic parameters. Results from all 3 mosques as the showed that the acoustic quality level inside these buildings are slightly poor which is at below 0.45 coefficients based on the standard. Among the factors that influencing the low acoustical quality are location, building materials, installation of sound absorption material and the number of occupants inside the mosque. As conclusion, the acoustic quality level of a mosque is highly depends on physical factors of the mosque such as the architectural design and space volume besides other factors as been identified by this study.

  2. Desain Pabrik Synthetic Gas (Syngas dari Gasifikasi Batu Bara Kualitas Rendah sebagai Pasokan Gas PT Pupuk Sriwidjaja

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    Toto Iswanto

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Menurut data dari Kementrian Energi dan Sumber Daya Mineral (ESDM tahun 2013, cadangan gas bumi Indonesia saat ini sebesar 170 TSCF dan akan habis dalam kurun waktu 59 tahun, dengan estimasi tidak ada peningkatan atau penurunan produksi. Di lain pihak, industri-industri kimia di Indonesia, semisal industri pupuk, sangat mengandalkan pasokan gas alam sebagai bahan baku pupuk maupun sumber energi. Permasalahan utama yang dihadapi industri pupuk dewasa ini adalah kurangnya pasokan gas alam untuk proses produksi. Di PT Pupuk Sriwidjaja misalnya, kebutuhan gas alam rata-rata untuk proses produksi amonia dan urea mencapai 225 MMSCFD. Namun, pasokan gas dari Pertamina selalu kurang dari jumlah tersebut. Karena selalu berulang, maka hal ini akan mengganggu kinerja PT Pupuk Sriwidjaja sebagai garda terdepan pertahanan pangan nasional bersama petani. Salah satu jenis sumber daya alam yang potensial mengganti dan atau mensubtitusi pemakaian gas alam adalah Synthetic Gas (Syngas. Syngas merupakan gas campuran yang komponen utamanya adalah gas karbon monoksida (CO dan hidrogen (H2 yang dapat digunakan sebagai bahan bakar dan juga dapat digunakan sebagai bahan baku dalam proses pembuatan zat kimia baru seperti metana, amonia, dan urea. Syngas dapat diperoleh dari proses gasifikasi batu bara dimana batu bara diubah dari bentuk padat menjadi gas. Batu bara yang merupakan bahan baku pembuatan syngas jumlahnya sangat melimpah di Indonesia. Menurut data dari Kementrian ESDM tahun 2011, total sumber daya batu bara di Indonesia diperkirakan 119,4 miliar ton, dimana 48%-nya terletak di Sumatera Selatan dan 70% deposit batu bara di Sumatera Selatan tersebut adalah batu bara muda berkualitas rendah. Deposit batu bara terbesar di Sumatera Selatan terletak di Kab. Muara Enim yang letaknya tidak terlalu jauh dengan PT Pupuk Sriwidjaja. Ditambah lagi dengan adanya PT Bukit Asam sebagai produsen terbesar batu bara di Kab. Muara Enim tentu akan mempermudah pasokan batu bara

  3. Pembuatan Pasta Gigi Katekin Teh Hijau dan Uji Daya Hambat terhadap Bakteri Streptococcus Mutans dan Lactobascillus Ascidopillus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fajriani Fajriani

    2015-06-01

    Peracikan formula dan pembuatan pasta gigi katekin teh hijau dilakukan sesuai hasil uji KHM (MIC. Pasta gigi katekin teh hijau ini dilakukan pengukuran kadar total flavonoid dan total polifenol, selanjutnya pengukuran uji daya hambat pasta gigi katekin teh hijau dilakukan dengan metode difusi menggunakan well (sumuran sebagai reservoar sampel uji terhadap bakteri streptococus mutans dan lactobacilus acidophilus. Hasil diperoleh prodak pasta gigi katekin teh hijau dengan kandungan kadar flavonoid 77% dan kadar polifenol 41%, sedangkan hasil uji diameter hambatan pasta gigi katekin teh hijau terhadap bakteri streptococcus mutans 17,2 mm dan bakteri lactobacillus acidophilus 19,6 mm. Hasil ini menunjukkan bahwa prodak katekin teh hijau ini sangat efektif digunakan sehari-hari sebagai perawatan gigi dan juga sebagai antibakteri kariogenik.   Making Green Tea Catechin Toothpaste and Inhibition Test Against Streptococcus Mutans and Acidophilus Lactobaccilus. The manufacture of this toothpaste is motivated by the desire of researchers to facilitate the public to use natural ingredients of green tea catechins whose result effectiveness against cariogenic bacteria was directly tested inhibition. This study is to find the right formula composition for greentea catechins toothpaste based on the result of the inhibition properties of greentea cathecins against tostreptococcus mutans dan lactobacillus acidophilus. The manufacture of greentea catechins toothpaste was after making catechins extracts and testing minimal inhibition concentration (MIC and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC using liquid dilution method. The toothpaste was then made according to the result of MIC. The toothpaste’s flavonoid and polyphenol total contain was measured; then the inhibition property of the toothpaste to was measured using diffusion method with wells as the sample reservoar for streptococus mutans dan lactobacilus acidophilus. It is found that the toothpaste contains

  4. Aspek Keselamatan Kerja Pada Proses Pembentukan Batu Permata Menggunakan Mesin Gerinda

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    Anom Santiana

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Proses pengerjaan batu permata ini ada tiga tahapan yaitu proses pemotongan, prosespembentukan dan proses penghalusan. Pada proses pemotongan, bahan baku yang semulamasih berbentuk bongkahan batu baik batu pirus, batu akik, batu kecubung, dan semacamnyadipotong-potong menjadi bagian kecil dengan teknik tertentu dengan menggunakan gerindapotong. Selanjutnya adalah proses pembentukan, potongan batu yang sudah kecil dibentukdengan menggunakan gerinda asah. Bentuk batu permata disesuaikan dengan pesanankonsumen atau sesuai keinginan perajin sendiri. Sedangkan proses akhir pada pengerjaan batupermata ini adalah menggosok atau mengasah batu permata tersebut biar licin dan menggkilap.Dalam setiap proses ini tentunya mempunyai resiko terhadap kecelakaan kerja. Bahaya-Bahayadari Mesin gerinda ini antara antara lain adalah putaran grinda yang sangat cepat, terbentur olehbarang-barang yang terlempar keluar dari mata asah mesin gerinda, Percikan api yang keluar, jaritangan terpotong, debu yang keluar, dan sebagainya. Untuk itu dilakukan observasi terhadap 12orang pekerja perajin batu permata di Karangasem Bali. Gerinda yang digunakan adalah gerindatangan, beban kerja dihitung berdasarkan denyut nadi, keluhan otot diprediksi denganmenggunakan nordic body map. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa aspek keselamatan yangharus diperhatikan oleh perajin adalah penggunaan APD (alat pelindung diri seperti sarung tangan,masker, dan kaca mata, perubahan Sikap Kerja agar lebih alamiah, dan pengaturan waktu kerja.Untuk itu diperlukan pemahaman prosedur kerja sebelum menggunakan gerinda tangan dalampembentukan batu permata pada perajin sebelum menggunakan mesin gerinda.Kata Kunci : Aspek Keselamatan, Mesin Gerinda, perajin batu permata There are three stages in gemstones processing namely the cutting , forming and polishingprocesses. In the cutting process, the raw materials are initially still a good chunk of stone ofturquoise, agate, amethyst, and the like is cut into

  5. Penggunaan Daun Pisang Batu (Musa Balbisiana Colla) Sebagai Adsorben Untuk Menyerap Logam Crom (Cr) Dan Nikel (Ni)

    OpenAIRE

    Hanim, Ulfa

    2011-01-01

    A research for the using of batu banana leaves (Musa Balbisiana Colla) as adsorbent of chrome (Cr) and nickel (Ni), has been done. The sample of dried batu banana leaves that had be powdered in the size of 50 mesh and mixed with NaOH 20% activated by using HCl 1 N solution. In this research, the pH is measured on the chrome (Cr) and nickel (Ni) using pH meter and the measurement of chrome (Cr) and nickel (Ni) content in the sample of dried batu banana leaves before activation and after activa...

  6. Uji Efektifitas Pyraclostrobin Sebagai Agensia Planth Health Dengan Beberapa Level Cekaman Air Pada Tanaman Sawi Hijau (Brassica Juncea L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Pradana, Febry Mitra; Sumarni, Titin; Wicaksono, Karuniawan Puji

    2015-01-01

    Pyraclostrobin ialah salah satu bahan aktif golongan strobirulin yang dapat memberikan efek toleran terhadap cekaman pada fase pertumbuhan tanaman seperti cekaman suhu dan air. Pada penelitian ini agensia Pyraclostrobin akan diuji pada berbagai cekaman air dan menggunakan tanaman sawi hijau sebagai indikator. Tujuan dari penelitian ini ialah untuk mempelajari sejauh mana agensia pyraclostrobin dapat membantu tanaman menghadapi stress air. Penelitian dilaksanakan dalam rumah plastik pada bulan...

  7. Respon Pertumbuhan Dan Produksi Kacang Hijau (Phaseolus radiatus L.) Pada Beberapa Komposisi Lumpur Kering Limbah Domestik Sebagai Media Tanam

    OpenAIRE

    Liza Khairani

    2009-01-01

    Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui respon pertumbuhan dan produksi kacang hijau pada beberapa komposisi lumpur kering limbah domestik sebagai media tanam. Penelitian ini menggunakan rancangan acak kelompok (RAK) non faktorial yang terdiri dari 9 perlakuan komposisi media yaitu : P1 (Top soil + Pasir + Sludge = 100% + 0 + 0), P2 (Top soil + Pasir + Sludge = 50% + 50% + 0), P3 (Top soil + Pasir + Sludge = 50% + 0 + 50%), P4 (Top soil + Pasir + Sludge = 50% + 25% +25%), P5 (Top soil + Pas...

  8. ANALISIS POSITIONING KERIPIK KENTANG DENGAN PENDEKATAN METODE MULTI DIMENSIONAL SCALLING DI KOTA BATU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Asmaul Mustaniroh

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Potato chips are one of the main products of Batu city. Based on data from Batu government’s  in 2002, there are only 2 selling units. In 2008, amount of potato chips   and another selling unit, so the research on positioning of potato chips in Batu city is important to do. The purpose of this research are to understand which attributes which influence custumer consideration to buy and to consume potato chips, and to analyze positioning which is formed between four potato chips brand (Cita Mandiri, Gizi Food, Leo, Rimbaku based on costumer perception in Batu city by using Multi Dimensional Scaling method. Attributes that influence costumer to buy and to consume potato chips are product (taste and crunchy level, price (product price compare with quality, and considerable price products, distribution (the local stock of the products or how strategic is the selling location, promotion (the using of advertising or promotion media (such as internet, radio, or brochure. Based on the Multi Dimensional Scaling Method, positioning follow this structure are Gizi Food as market leader, Leo as market challenger, and Rimbaku and Cita Mandiri as market follower.

  9. Studi Deskriptif Penerpan Servicescapes pada Restoran Waroeng Bamboe Kota Batu Menurut Persepsi Konsumen

    OpenAIRE

    Angelina, Sherend Lia

    2013-01-01

    Servicescape berperan penting dalam kemajuan hubungan Perusahaan dengan konsumen maupun karyawan, produk dan jasa di desain menjadi satu kesatuan yang memberikan image tertentu sehingga mampu menarik reaksi emosional konsumen, karena itu servicescape sangat penting dalam pembentukan kesan atau awal dalam membentuk harapan konsumen. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mendeskripsikan persepsi konsumen terhadap servicescapes pada restoran Waroeng Bamboe Kota Batu, dengan menggunakan 3 dimensi da...

  10. Exotism of Batu Putih area in Samarinda, East Kalimantan as conservation area for ecotourism destination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutan, Syamsidar; Cahyani, Rina Wahyu; Alam, Fajar; Syuhada, Endy Mukhlis

    2017-02-01

    Batu Putih is a limestone hill complex in Air Putih area, Samarinda, East Kalimantan. The unique value of this region is a towering limestone ridge which easily recognizable at a distance, water catchment area in the city, great place to learn earth science as understanding the ancient marine deposition and hydrocarbon potential development, and the heritage of the region. The objective of this research is toreview the potential of Batu Putih area and surrounding as a green conservation area for ecotourism destination. Batu Putih area, geologically part of Kutai Basin, is controlled by tectonic event, resulted on Northeast-Southwest undulated trend known as Samarinda anticlinorium. Data collected cover several aspects: (1) geological aspects: various types of rocks, groundwater condition and other related data; (2) vegetation aspects; (3) cultural aspect: heritage and historical place. By results from evaluation of existing data, development plan will be commenced. Research found 2 spots for landscape viewing, 3 water resources, various marine fossils in some locations and mud volcano. Vegetations are dominated by "kersen" (Muntingia calabura L.), "aren" (Arenga pinnata) and "pletekan" (Ruellia tuberosa). Based on the findings of the existing kinds of uniqueness, conservation of the area are mandatories. Protection and preservation of the region in integrated manner and area development for ecotourism and education are things should be done in Batu Putih, as increasingly damaged and depleted by limestone mining activities using heavy equipment.

  11. Birds Communities at Mangrove of Batu Ampar, Kubu Raya District, West Kalimantan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarwadi Budi Hernowo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Batu Ampar mangrove is an important bird habitat especially for birds which have relation to mangrove ecosystem in West Kalimantan. The research was conducted in February to March 2007, at mangrove Batu Ampar demo site. Sampling was done to get representative area for bird survey. The 19 transects were chosen as sampling site to collect bird data such as species and number of individual. Bird surveys were carried out using Reconnaissance method and index point of abundance (IPA count method. The length of each transect was approximately 500 m. The results showed that the bird community's structure dominated by insectivorous birds represented approximately 60 % of total bird's species at mangrove Batu Ampar demo site. The abundance numbers of the individual with the bird's species has relation pattern like J opposite. Percentage of dominant bird species was approximately 11%, those are such as stork billed kingfisher, white-collared kingfisher, common iora, chestnuts-rumped babbler, Strip-Tit Babbler, magpie robin, ashy tailorbird, mangrove blue flycatcher, pied fantail, mangrove whistler, Brown-throated Sunbird and Cooper-Throated Sunbird. Vertical structure of mangrove vegetation was used by birds at mangrove Batu Ampar demo site is mainly B stratum, and it used around 60% birds species. Based on dendrogram analysis there were 5 cluster birds species. The mangrove bird specialists found at sampling area were mangrove blue flycatcher and Cooper throated sunbird.

  12. Porphyry copper assessment of the Tibetan Plateau, China: Chapter F in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludington, Steve; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Robinson, Gilpin R.; Mars, John L.; Miller, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey collaborated with the China Geological Survey to conduct a mineral-resource assessment of resources in porphyry copper deposits on the Tibetan Plateau in western China. This area hosts several very large porphyry deposits, exemplified by the Yulong and Qulong deposits, each containing at least 7,000,000 metric tons (t) of copper. However, large parts of the area are underexplored and are likely to contain undiscovered porphyry copper deposits.

  13. HUBUNGAN KEKERABATAN BEBERAPA POPULASI KERANG HIJAU (Perna viridis DI INDONESIA BERDASARKAN SEKUEN CYTROCROME B mtDNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achmad Sudradjat

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui hubungan kekerabatan stok kerang hijau (Perna viridis di beberapa perairan Indonesia sebagai informasi dasar bagi program pemuliaan. Sampel kerang hijau yang berasal dari populasi alam perairan Tanjung Kait, Kamal, Panimbang, Cirebon, Pasuruan, Kenjeran, dan Pangkep diambil secara acak. Amplifikasi PCR dan sekuensing mitokondria daerah cytochrome B adalah HCO (F: 5’-TAA ACT TCA GGG TGA CCA AAA AAT CA-3’ (26 bp dan LCO (R: 5’-GGT CAA CAA ATC ATA AAG ATA TTG G-3’ (25 bp. Sekuen DNA yang diperoleh digunakan untuk analisis homologi, analisis genetic distance dan analisis kekerabatan. Hasil analisis homologi susunan nukleotida berdasarkan BLAST-N terhadap sekuen mtDNA Perna viridis yang tersimpan di Genebank menunjukkan similaritas 97%. Hasil analisis didapatkan jarak genetik yang terdekat adalah populasi Tanjung Kait dengan Kenjeran sedangkan jarak genetik terjauh adalah populasi Cirebon dengan Kamal. Hubungan kekerabatan yang ditunjukkan dengan dendrogram diperoleh 2 kelompok yaitu 6 populasi membentuk satu kelompok dan populasi Cirebon membentuk kluster tersendiri. Sekuens tersebut mungkin dapat digunakan sebagai penanda dalam program breeding kerang hijau di Indonesia

  14. Pengaruh Rasio Tulangan Bambu Terhadap Kuat Lentur Balok Beton Bertulang Bambu Dengan Campuran Serat Bambu Dan Agregat Kasar Batu Apung

    OpenAIRE

    Faizal, Muhammad; Dewi, Sri Murni; N., Christin Remayanti

    2016-01-01

    Rumah tahan gempa memiliki berat sendiri yang ringan karena berat sendiri sangat berpengaruh terhadap gaya gempa. Peneliti berinovasi dengan menggunakan batu apung sebagai agregat kasar, menggunakan bambu sebagai tulangan, dan menambahkan serat bambu pada campuran beton. Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui pengaruh rasio tulangan bambu pada balok bertulang bambu dengan campuran serat bambu dan agregat kasar batu apung ditinjau dari kuat lentur balok. Penelitian ini menggunakan 12 benda ...

  15. Efek Pemberian Seduhan Teh Hijau terhadap Gelombang Alfa Otak pada Mahasiswa Tingkat Akhir Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Islam Bandung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helga Marwa Afifah

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Teh merupakan bahan alam yang sudah dikenal memiliki banyak manfaat salah satunya sebagai zat relaksan. Sifat relaksan diperoleh dari kandungan senyawa pada teh terutama teh hijau yaitu L-teanin yang memicu peningkatan aktivitas gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA, produksi serotonin dan dopamin, serta menghambat kerja glutamat. Efek keseluruhan L-teanin pada otak memicu seseorang menjadi rileks, kondisi rileks dapat dinilai dari aktivitas gelombang alfa otak. Tujuan penelitian ini menilai efek pemberian seduhan teh hijau terhadap gelombang alfa otak pada mahasiswa tingkat akhir Fakultas Kedokteran Unisba. Penelitian menggunakan metode eksperimental, melalui dua kali perekaman gelombang alfa otak sebelum dan setelah pemberian seduhan teh hijau yang mengandung 50 mg L-teanin dengan menggunakan brain wave sensors. Hasil penelitian dianalisis melalui Uji Wilcoxon. Penelitian dilakukan di Fakultas Kedokteran Unisba pada bulan April–Mei 2014. Sampel yang digunakan adalah mahasiswa tingkat akhir Fakultas Kedokteran Unisba yaitu sebanyak 30 orang, terdiri atas 13 laki-laki dan 17 perempuan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pada 28 dari 30 orang memperlihatkan peningkatan gelombang alfa otak setelah pemberian seduhan teh hijau dan hanya 2 orang yang memperlihatkan gelombang alfa otak yang lebih rendah. Hasil Uji Wilcoxon menunjukkan nilai signifikansi <0,001. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian, dapat disimpulkan bahwa pemberian seduhan teh hijau memiliki efek meningkatkan gelombang alfa otak pada mahasiswa tingkat akhir Fakultas Kedokteran Unisba. Hal ini dapat disebabkan karena aktivitas L-teanin dalam teh hijau yang dapat memicu aktivitas GABA, serotonin, dan dopamin serta menghambat kerja glutamat sehingga memicu kondisi relaksasi yang dinilai dalam gelombang alfa otak. Kata kunci: Gelombang alfa otak, L-teanin, teh, teh hijau   The Effect of Green Tea to Alpha Brain Waves of Final Students of Faculty of Medicine Universitas Islam Bandung Abstract

  16. KAWASAN PRODUKSI SENI PAHAT BATU SEBAGAI DAERAH TUJUAN WISATA DI KABUPATEN MAGELANG

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    Yuliana Pinaringsih Kristiutami

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract - Development of tourism in Indonesia is currently more important, not only in order to increase the revenue of the country, is expected also to expanding business opportunities, while providing new job opportunities as well as to reduce unemployment. Potential Village Tamanagung as industrial areas and areas of stone carving art craft. Production area of stone carving art has the potential and attraction of attraction so that built and developed as a worthy tourist destination. In the development of tourism in the area of production of stone sculpture studio and the government in cooperation with surrounding communities. The existence of cooperation between organizations institutions with studio owner. Human Resources Training and empowerment of the overall performance of the Department of Tourism. Involving the private sector role in tourism development and promotion is encouraged with the development of technology and information. Designing a stone sculpture gallery as container sales, promotion, recreation and exhibition of handicrafts is a strategy in the development of stone sculpture production region as one tourism destination. Keywords: Development, Stone Sculpture Area, Potential, Attractions, Tourist Destination   Abstrak - Pengembangan kepariwisataan di Indonesia saat ini semakin penting, tidak saja dalam rangka meningkatkan penerimaan devisa negara, diharapkan juga dapat memperluas kesempatan berusaha, disamping memberikan lapangan pekerjaan baru juga untuk mengurangi pengangguran. Potensi Desa Tamanagung sebagai daerah industri dan kawasan kerajinan seni pahat batu. Kawasan produksi seni pahat batu mempunyai potensi dan daya tarik wisata berupa atraksi sehingga layak dibangun dan dikembangkan sebagai daerah tujuan wisata. Dalam pengembangan pariwisata di kawasan produksi seni pahat batu pemerintah bekerjasama dengan sanggar dan masyarakat sekitar. Adanya kerjasama antara organisasi lembaga dengan pemilik sanggar

  17. Imperial porphyry from Gebel Abu Dokhan, the Red Sea Mountains, Egypt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makovicky, Emil; Frei, Robert; Karup-Møller, Sven

    2016-01-01

    The prestigious red Imperial Porphyry was quarried from Mons Porphyrites in the Red Sea Mountains of Egypt. The porphyry, reserved for imperial use in Rome and Constantinople, was widely reused in Romanesque and Renaissance times, and in the Ottoman Empire. At the locality, the rocks vary from dark...

  18. PENGHALANG SOSIAL DAN PSIKOLOGIS PADA PROYEK KONSTRUKSI DENGAN PRINSIP BANGUNAN HIJAU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Wibowo Caesariadi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Proyek konstruksi bangunan merupakan kegiatan yang menentukan penerapan prinsip bangunan hijau. Gerakan bangunan hijau yang telah berlangsung cukup lama telah cukup berhasil secara teknologi dan ekonomis, namun halangan dapat datang dari manusia yang terlibat (stakeholders pada proyek tersebut. Penghalang ini berangkat dari faktor sosial dan psikologis manusia, yang seringkali tidak disadari. Kajian tentang penghalang tersebut dilihat dari tingkat individu, organisasi dan kelembagaan. Pemecahan masalah dilakukan dengan melihat penghalang sebagai kesempatan atau sebagai masalah yang harus dipecahkan. Faktor edukasi memegang peranan penting dalam mengubah faktor sosial dan psikologis yang menghalangi tersebut. Termasuk pula peranan penting pemerintah sebagai pengatur   Process of construction project is an activity which determines the application of the principles of green building. Green building movement has been going on for quite a while and has been significantly successful both technologically and economically. However, obstructions may come from humans involved (stakeholders in the project. These obstructions originated from the social and psychological factors, which are often unrecognized.  This study on the obstructions covered  from the level of individuals, organizations and institutions. Problem solving is done by looking at the obstructions as the opportunity or as a problem to be solved. Education holds significant role in changing social and psychological factor, this includes the role of government as the regulator REFERENCES ______ 2008. A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK® Guide — Fourth Edition. Newtown Square: Project Manage-ment Institute. ______            Green Building Council Indonesia. http://www.gbcindonesia.org. Akses: 7 Desember 2010. Hoffman, Andrew J. & Henn, Rebecca. 2008. Overcoming the Social and Psychological Barriers to Green Building. Organization and Environment

  19. Identification of most tolerant lichen species to vehicular traffic's pollutants at Batu Pahat area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khairuddin, Nur Ain; Muhammad, Norhayati; Hashim, Nor Haslina; Yusof, Hasliza; Jusoh, Samsiah; Abas, Azlan; Talip, Balkis A.; Abdullah, Norazlin; Din, Laily B.

    2017-10-01

    Bio-indicators are organisms that can be used for the identification and qualitative determination of human generated environmental factors. The decreasing population of sensitive lichens in specific regions around the world due to low air quality level has make lichens as a bio-indicator for air pollution. Lichen is a result of symbiotic association of fungus and alga and well known for having wide variety of sensitivity towards environmental stressors such as air quality and climate change. The aim of this study is to identify the most tolerant lichen species to vehicular traffic's pollutant at Batu Pahat urban and suburban areas. This study was conducted by using Index of Atmospheric Purity (IAP) method and followed by morphological and chemicals testing for species identification. Dirinaria picta has been identified as the most tolerant lichen species against pollutants from vehicle traffic. The results also indicated that the air quality of Batu Pahat town/urban area could be considered as moderately clean.

  20. Penerapan UKS dengan PHBS di Wilayah Kerja Puskesmas Pancur Batu Kabupaten Deli Serdang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pomarida Simbolon

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Latar belakang: Anak usia sekolah merupakan masa keemasan untuk menanamkan nilai-nilai Hidup Bersih dan Sehat (PHBS dan mempromosikannya dalam sekolah, keluarga maupun masyarakat. Masalah kesehatan anak sekolah merupakan masalah yang berkaitan dengan PHBS, seperti kecacingan, diare, karies gigi/gigi berlobang, masalah yang berkaitan dengan faktor berisiko, masalah gizi serta gangguan kesehatan yang berkaitan dengan sanitasi dasar yang kurang memenuhi syarat kesehatan. PHBS harus dilakukan dengan baik, bila tidak dilakukan dengan baik akan menimbulkan dampak yang tidak diinginkan dan penerapannya melalui pembinaan Usaha Kesehatan Sekolah (UKS.Persentase UKS 56% belum diterapkan di sekolah wilayah kerja Puskesmas Hamparan Perak. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis hubungan penerapan UKS dengan PHBS di Wilayah Kerja Puskesmas Pancur Batu Metode:Penelitian ini merupakan observasional analitik dengan desain cross sectional. Pupulasi penelitian adalah seluruh sekolah yang ada di wilayah kerja Puskesmas Pancur Batu sebanyak 34 sekolah dengan total sampling. Pengumpulan data menggunakan kuesioner dengan uji chi-square. Hasil: Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa 64,7% UKS tidak diterapkan dan 52,9% pelaksanaan PHBS kurang. Hasil uji statistik menunjukkan ada hubungan signifikan antara penerapan UKS dengan pelaksanaan PHBS di wilayah kerja Puskesmas Pancur Batu (p value = 0,04. Simpulan: Disarankan adanya kebijakan dari dinas kesehatan dan UPT Dinas Pendidikan  bekerja sama dengan kepala sekolah untuk mengaktifkan kembali UKS. ABSTRACT Title: Aplication UKS with PHBS in Pancur Batu Health Center Working Area Deli Serdang District Background: School children are a golden age to instill the values of Clean and Healthy Life (PHBS and promotions in schools, family and community. Health problems from children are issues about PHBS, such as worm infections, diarrhea, dental caries / teeth, problems associated with risk factors, nutritional problems and

  1. Perbandingan Reaksi Zat Besi Terhadap Teh Hitam dan Teh Hijau Secara In Vitro dengan Menggunakan Spektrofotometer Uv-Vis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Husnil Wardiyah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakSalah satu permasalahan gizi yang dihadapi Indonesia adalah anemia defisiensi besi. Defesiensi besi ini dapat disebabkan oleh asupan dan serapan yang tidak adekuat, seperti kebiasaan mengonsumsi zat yang dapat menghambat penyerapan zat besi seperti minum teh pada saat makan. Hambatan penyerapan ini disebabkan oleh polifenol yang terkandung di dalam teh, terutama tanin. Penelitian ini dilakukan pada teh hitam dan teh hijau yang banyak dikonsumsi masyarakat. Larutan teh hitam dan teh hijau dijadikan sebagai kontrol, kemudian diberikan perlakuan dengan meneteskan FeCl3 1% sebanyak lima tetes. Larutan tersebut dibaca besar absorbannya dengan spektrofotometer UV-Vis. Prosedur ini dilakukan dengan pengulangan sebanyak lima kali. Data hasil penelitian diolah dengan menggunakan independent sample t test untuk melihat perbedaan rata-rata pada dua kelompok sampel tersebut. Dari hasil penelitian didapatkan rata-rata besar absorban teh hitam kontrol 0,539 dan setelah diteteskan zat besi 0,30640. Absorban teh hijau kontrol 0,961 dan setelah diteteskan zat besi 0,65020. Hal ini berarti bahwa terjadi penurunan konsentrasi larutan tersebut. Penurunan absorban pada kontrol teh hitam dengan perlakuan adalah 43,15%, sedangkan pada teh hijau adalah 32,34%. Berdasarkan uji statistik, disimpulkan bahwa terdapat perbedaan bermakna antara absorbansi teh hitam dan teh hijau.Kata kunci: Teh hitam, teh hijau, zat besi, absorban.AbstractOne of the nutritional problems faced by Indonesia is iron deficiency anemia. It is caused by inadequate intake and absorption. One of the causes of this inadequate absorption is eating habit to consume substances that can inhibit iron absorption like drinking tea while eating. This is caused by tea polyphenol compounds, especially tannins. Black tea and green tea were observed in this research since these are widely consumed by public. Solution of black tea and green tea were used as control and they were treated by giving five

  2. Modelling of Multi Input Transfer Function for Rainfall Forecasting in Batu City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priska Arindya Purnama

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to model and forecast the rainfall in Batu City using multi input transfer function model based on air temperature, humidity, wind speed and cloud. Transfer function model is a multivariate time series model which consists of an output series (Yt sequence expected to be effected by an input series (Xt and other inputs in a group called a noise series (Nt. Multi input transfer function model obtained is (b1,s1,r1 (b2,s2,r2 (b3,s3,r3 (b4,s4,r4(pn,qn = (0,0,0 (23,0,0 (1,2,0 (0,0,0 ([5,8],2 and shows that air temperature on t-day affects rainfall on t-day, rainfall on t-day is influenced by air humidity in the previous 23 days, rainfall on t-day is affected by wind speed in the previous day , and rainfall on day t is affected by clouds on day t. The results of rainfall forecasting in Batu City with multi input transfer function model can be said to be accurate, because it produces relatively small RMSE value. The value of RMSE data forecasting training is 7.7921 while forecasting data testing is 4.2184. Multi-input transfer function model is suitable for rainfall in Batu City.

  3. 3-D Resistivity Imaging on Archaeology Characterization at Sungai Batu area in Kedah, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinmin, M.; Rosli, S.; Nordiana, M. M.; Muhammad, S. B.; Mokhtar, S.

    2017-08-01

    Electrical Resistivity Imaging (ERI) was conducted at the archaeological site of Sungai Batu, Lembah Bujang in Kedah, Malaysia and it is located between Gunung Jerai in the North and Muda River in the South, Kuala Muda, Kedah. This paper presents the geophysical results that aimed to identify the characterization at Sungai Batu, Kedah. ERI survey was performed at plot SB2ZZ, Sungai Batu with total of 15 survey lines using pole-dipole array with electrode spacing of 0.75 m. The ERI results were then processed with Res2DInv and Res3Dinv softwares. Resistivity contrast shows good variation to correlate well with lithology of the earth materials. To enhance the results, data were visualized using isosurface resistivity surface. The ERI shows interesting anomaly with resistivity of 400 - 500 Ωm varies from 0.34 - 1.17 m and few spotted anomalies detected at deeper depth which varies from 2 m - 4 m. Based on-site calibration at partly exhumed sites, anomalies were interpreted as baked clay bricks. The results obtained in this study area gives reliable interpretation for archaeological interest.

  4. OPTIMASI FORMULA DAN STRUKTUR MIKROSKOPIK PASTA BEBAS GLUTEN BERBAHAN DASAR PUREE UBI JALAR UNGU DAN TEPUNG KACANG HIJAU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ira Mulyawanti

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to optimize gluten free pasta formula made from purple sweet potato puree and mung bean flour. Aplication of a mixture design allowed to find the optimal composition to achieve the desirable characteristic. The results showed that the optimal formula was mixture of 45.25% purple sweet potato puree and 51.75% mung bean flour. The characteristics of the chosen formula were springiness of 2.29 mm, 0.38 cohesiveness, cooking loss 17.62%,333.48 ͼHue, Ie   20.59%, and 42.42 mg/L anthocyanin content. Microscopic structure showed that cooked pasta with purple sweet potato puree composition below 50% in the formula had a solid texture appearance.   Keywords: Pasta, purple sweet potatoes, gluten free food, formulation optimization   ABSTRAK Penelitian bertujuan untuk mengoptimasi formula pasta bebas gluten berbahan dasar puree ubi jalar ungu dan tepung kacang hijau. Aplikasi mixture design dalam optimasi formula dapat menghasilkan formula yang optimal dengan karakteristik produk sesuai dengan yang diinginkan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa komposisi optimal puree ubi jalar ungu dengan tepung kacang hijau dalam formula adalah 45,25% puree ubi jalar ungu dan 51,75% tepung kacang hijau. Pada komposisi tersebut dihasilkan pasta ubi jalar ungu dengan karakteristik yaitu kekenyalan 2,29 mm, cohesiveness 0,38, KKP 17,62%, warna 333,48, Ie   20,59%, dan kandungan antosianin 42,42 mg/L. Dari segi mikroskopik, pasta ubi jalar ungu matang dengan rasio puree ubi jalar ungu dengan formula di bawah 50% sudah menunjukkan adanya struktur yang kompak. Kata kunci: Pasta, ubi jalar ungu, pangan bebas gluten, optimasi formula

  5. Porphyry-copper mineralisation in the central Srednogorie zone, Bulgaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strashimirov, Strashimir; Petrunov, Rumen; Kanazirski, Milko

    2002-08-01

    The porphyry-copper systems in the central part of the Srednogorie zone (Bulgaria) are represented by three major deposits (Elatsite, Medet and Assarel) and several smaller deposits and occurrences, all of them within the Panagyurishte ore district. The hydrothermal systems are related to Late Cretaceous calc-alkaline igneous complexes. Ore mineralisation is developed predominantly in the apical parts of subvolcanic and intrusive bodies as well as within the volcanic and basement metamorphic rocks. Several of the porphyry systems are spatially associated with shallow-level intermediate and high-sulphidation volcanic-hosted epithermal deposits of economic importance, such as the major gold-copper mine at Chelopech located 10 km from the Elatsite porphyry-copper deposit. Mineralisation processes in the porphyry deposits start with intensive hydrothermal alteration of the wall rocks. K-silicate alteration is characteristic for pre-ore hydrothermal activity in all of them, and it is located mostly in their central parts. Propylitic alteration is prominent in the Medet and Assarel deposits. The Assarel deposit is located in the central part of a palaeovolcanic structure and shows a large spectrum of pre-ore alterations, including propylitic, sericitic, and advanced argillic assemblages. The initial stages of the hydrothermal systems are characterised by high temperatures (>550-500 °C) and highly saline (50-20 wt% NaCl equiv.) and vapour-rich fluids of likely magmatic origin. The composition of the fluids gradually changes from H2O-NaCl±FeCl2 to H2O-NaCl-KCl and H2O-NaCl-dominated as the fluids cool, react with wall rocks, and may become diluted with meteoric water. Fe-Ti-oxide mineral associations were formed early in all deposits, later followed, in the Elatsite deposit, by an assemblage of bornite, chalcopyrite, platinum group element (PGE) phases, Co-Ni thiospinels, Ag- and Bi-tellurides, and selenides. The main ore stage in all deposits is dominated by

  6. Imperial porphyry from Gebel Abu Dokhan, the Red Sea Mountains, Egypt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makovicky, Emil; Frei, Robert; Karup-Møller, Sven

    2016-01-01

    The prestigious red Imperial Porphyry was quarried from Mons Porphyrites in the Red Sea Mountains of Egypt. It was reserved for imperial use in Rome and Constantinople and widely reused in Romanesque and Renaissance times. The mineralogy and petrology of the porphyry collected at Mons Porphyrites.......88 Ga and εNd from +5.1 to +5.7 were inferred. The magmas which led to formation of the Imperial Porphyry appear to be derived from a subduction-modified depleted mantle and underwent only minor contamination by older continental crust. Trace-element features, notably the high Th, U, K, Rb and Cs...

  7. Porphyry copper assessment of western Central Asia: Chapter N in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Byron R.; Mars, John L.; Denning, Paul; Phillips, Jeffrey D.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Zientek, Michael L.; Dicken, Connie L.; Drew, Lawrence J.; with contributions from Alexeiev, Dmitriy; Seltmann, Reimar; Herrington, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey conducted an assessment of resources associated with porphyry copper deposits in the western Central Asia countries of Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, and Tajikistan and the southern Urals of Kazakhstan and Russia as part of a global mineral resource assessment. The purpose of the study was to (1) delineate permissive areas (tracts) for undiscovered porphyry copper deposits; (2) compile a database of known porphyry copper deposits and significant prospects; (3) where data permit, estimate numbers of undiscovered deposits within those permissive tracts; and (4) provide probabilistic estimates the amounts of copper (Cu), molybdenum (Mo), gold (Au), and silver (Ag) that could be contained in those undiscovered deposits.

  8. OPTIMALISASI FUNGSI RUANG TERBUKA HIJAU DENGAN MELIHAT POLA SEBARAN PENGUNJUNG STUDI KASUS: TAMAN TABEBUYA, JAGAKARSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ari Widyati Purwantiasning

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak_ Penyediaan ruang terbuka publik di dalam perkotaan terutama di kota metropolitan seperti Jakarta menjadi sebuah issue yang tidak pernah terselesaikan dengan baik. Terbatasnya lahan perkotaan dan juga area bebas yang seharusnya disediakan untuk ruang terbuka publik sangat sulit didapatkan.Saat ini sebagai salah satu solusinya, pemerintah daerah memiliki kemauan dalam memikirkan solusi masalah ini, dan mendorong otoritas daerah untuk menyediakan area ruang terbuka publik. Ruang terbuka public dapat didefinisikan sebagai taman, ruang terbuka hijau di dalam kota, yang menyediakan beberapa fasilitas di dalam area tersebut. Ruang terbuka public ini akan menjadi tempat yang penting bagi setiap orang yang tinggal di sekitarnya jika area ruang terbuka public tersebut dapat menyediakan fasilitas yang dapat digunakan sebagai tempat bersosialisasi, bertemu dengan orang baru (networking, sebagai titik kumpul ataupun untuk aktifitas lainnya. Ruang terbuka public ini juga dapat menjadi tempat yang menarik bila tempat tersebut menyediakan beberapa fasilitas pendukung bagi berbagai aktifitas baik untuk anak, dewasa maupun orang tua seperti fasilitas olahraga, fasilitas bermain anak, tempat pasif untuk relaksasi dan juga sebagai area konservasi untuk kawasan hijau.Penelitian ini ditujukan untuk menganalisis pola bagaimana orang-orang khususnya pengunjung ruang terbuka public tersebar di dalam area yang dikaitkan dengan posisi dari fasilitas-fasilitas tersebut. Taman Tabebuya yang berlokasi di Ciganjur Jagakarsa dipilih menjadi studi kasus, karena taman ini merupakan salah satu  ruang terbuka publik yang dianggap indah di Jakarta Selatan. Metode penelitian yang digunakan adalah metode kuantitatif dengan memberikan beberapa data yang dikumpulkan khususnya pada hari Sabtu dan Minggu sepanjang hari dengan waktu-waktu tertentu yaitu pagi, siang dan sore hari.  Kata kunci : ruang terbuka publik, Tabebuya, pola sebaran   Abstract. Providing public opening

  9. Constraints of magmatic oxidation state on mineralization in the Beiya alkali-rich porphyry gold deposit, western Yunnan, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue-Quan Gao

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The Beiya gold deposit is the biggest Cenozoic gold deposit in the Jinshajiang-Ailaoshan alkali-rich porphyry metallogenic belt within the Sanjiang region. Porphyry intrusions are widely distributed at the Beiya deposit. In this study, we investigate the lithological and geochemical characteristics of the Beiya alkali-rich porphyries and compare zircon Ce4+/Ce3+ ratio and magmatic oxygen fugacity (fO2 of the ore-bearing and ore-barren porphyries. The research shows that the ore-bearing intrusion is monzogranite porphyry in the area of Wandongshan, Hongnitang and their surrounding ore blocks. The intrusions have similar U-Pb zircon ages of ∼36 Ma, and all the porphyries display patterns of enriched LREEs and depleted HREEs. The ore-bearing monzogranite porphyry is characterized with high zircon Ce4+/Ce3+ ratio (average of 80 and high fO2 value (average of △FMQ = +3.7, whereas the ore-barren monzogranite porphyry and granite porphyry are characterized by much lower zircon Ce4+/Ce3+ ratios (average of 24 and 20, respectively and low fO2 values (average of △FMQ = +1.2 and △FMQ = −0.5, respectively. This indicates that the ore-bearing porphyry intrusions had much higher fO2 of magma than the ore-barren porphyry intrusions. We suggest that oxidized magmas are more favorable to porphyry Cu-Au mineralization under the intra-continental and collisional settings, which is similar to that in arc environments. Such a conclusion may potentially be used in regional exploration for porphyry Cu-Au deposits.

  10. El Salvador, Chile porphyry copper deposit revisited: Geologic and geochronologic framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornejo, P.; Tosdal, R.M.; Mpodozis, C.; Tomlinson, A.J.; Rivera, O.; Fanning, C.M.

    1997-01-01

    The Eocene (42 to 41 Ma) El Salvador porphyry copper deposit in the Indio Muerto district, northern Chile (26?? 15??? S Lat.), formerly thought to have formed at the culmination of a 9-m.y. period of episodic magmatism, is shown by new mapping, U-Pb and K-Ar geochronology, and petrologic data to have formed during the younger of two distinct but superposed magmatic events - a Paleocene (???63 to 58 Ma) and an Eocene (44 to 41 Ma) event. In the district, high-K Paleocene volcano-plutonic activity was characterized by a variety of eruptive styles and magmatic compositions, including a collapse caldera associated with explosive rhyolitic magmatism (El Salvador trap-door caldera), a post-collapse rhyolite dome field (Cerro Indio Muerto), and andesitic-trachyandesitic stratovolcanos (Kilo??metro Catorce-Los Amarillos sequence). Precaldera basement faults were reactivated during Paleocene volcanism as part of the collapse margin of the caldera. Beneath Cerro Indio Muerto, where the porphyry Cu deposit subsequently formed, the intersection of two major basement faults and the NNE-striking rotational axis of tilted ignimbrites of the Paleocene El Salvador caldera localized emplacement of post-collapse rhyolite domes and peripheral dikes and sills. Subsequent Eocene rhyolitic and granodioritic-dacitic porphyries intruded ???14 m.y. after cessation of Paleocene magmatism along the same NNE-striking structural belt through Cerro Indio Muerto as did the post-collapse Paleocene rhyolite domes. Eocene plutonism over a 3-m.y. period was contemporaneous with NW-SE-directed shortening associated with regional sinistral transpression along the Sierra Castillo fault, lying ???10 km to the east. Older Eocene rhyolitic porphyries in the Indio Muerto district were emplaced between 44 and 43 Ma, and have a small uneconomic Cu center associated with a porphyry at Old Camp. The oldest granodioritic-dacitic porphyries also were emplaced at ???44 to 43 Ma, but their petrogenetic relation to

  11. Lytological characterization and hydrothermal alteration Infiernillo porphyry, provincia Mendoza, Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez, A.; Rubinstein, N.; Kleiman, L.. E.mail: kleiman@cae.cnea.gov.ar

    2007-01-01

    El Infiernillo porphyry copper and Mo deposit, in southern Mendoza, Argentina is hosted by ignimbrites of the Cochico Group (lower Permian). The alteration zone consists of a small central quartz neck with appreciable hematite surrounded by an intense quartz-injected zone with local pervasive potassic alteration. Outwards, there is a well-developed phyllic halo with intense bleaching which consists of pervasive and vein-type silicification, sericitization and pyritization. In the outer part of the alteration zone, small polymetallic veins with pyrite, arsenopyrite, galena and minor, chalcopyrite, sphalerite and electrum in quartz gangue crop out. New field, petro-mineralogic and geochemical data confirmed that the host rocks are equivalent to the dacitic and rhyodacitic ignimbrites of the Toba Vieja Gorda Member (Yacimiento Los Reyunos Formation, Cochico Group)

  12. Multiple and prolonged porphyry Cu–Au mineralization and alteration events in the Halasu deposit, Chinese Altai, Xinjiang, northwestern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunji Xue

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Halasu area is located in the southeastern margin of the Chinese Altai in Xinjiang, China. It is part of the Altaid orogenic collage where a number of porphyry-type Cu–Mo–Au deposits have been discovered in recent years. Geological mapping and drilling indicate the presence of various mineralized porphyritic intrusions in the Halasu Cu–Au deposit, which is currently under exploration. U–Pb dating of zircon crystals from four different mineralized porphyries reveals three significantly different ages of magmatic intrusion, i.e., ca. 372–382 Ma granodioritic porphyry and porphyritic granite, ca. 266 Ma quartz monzonitic porphyry, and ca. 216 Ma quartz dioritic porphyry. Re–Os dating of molybdenite from veinlet-dissemination ores in the granodioritic porphyry yields an age of mineralization of ca. 377 Ma, and Ar–Ar dating of K-feldspar from K-feldspar–quartz–chalcopyrite veins produces ages of ca. 269 and ca. 198 Ma. The mineralization (and alteration ages correspond broadly to the three episodes of magmatic intrusion, suggesting three overprinting porphyry mineralization events that are significantly separated in time. The first episode of porphyry intrusion and mineralization may be related to the magmatic arc being above a plate subduction zone, and the second was formed in a late-collisional environment during the closing of the Junggar Ocean, whereas the third episode of mineralization took place in the post-collisional stage. This case study suggests that in orogens where major porphyry deposits have been found in magmatic arc environments, the potential of discovering late- to post-collisional porphyry deposits cannot be neglected; conversely, in orogens where most porphyry deposits have late- to post-collisional ages, more attention should be paid to porphyries that were formed earlier in magmatic arc environments.

  13. The effect of road characteristics on motorcycle accident in Batu east Java Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abusini, Sobri

    2013-09-01

    Safe of transportation on road is global problem with not only transportation problem, but also social teritory problem in sosial life. WHO pay attention to safe transportation on road to decide healthy day in the world 2004 with caption: Road Safety is no Accident. WHO is clariafy that road accident level in the world have to reach 1.2 mellion victim death and over 30 mellion injuries every year. As much 85% sacrifice death are accident in develop state, where vehicle number only 32% from vehicle number in the world. That becouse as the objective is to decide influence road charakteristics geometrics for motorcycle accident in Batu East Java Indonesia. Using some statistical analysis it is found that the best-fit motorcycle accident model is: Acc = 0,009F0,703exp(-0,334SW-0,361G+0.077S) Where: Acc = number of accident, F = Flow, pcu/hr, SW = shoulder width (m), S = speed, km/hr, G = Gradient (0,1) The model shows that the affecting factors are flow, shoulder width and speed, therefore local government should improve some related factor (flow, shoulder width, Gradient and speed) that can reduce the number of motorcycle accident at crossing road in Batu.

  14. ANALISIS KEBERLANJUTAN PENGELOLAAN HUTAN LINDUNG MANGROVE DI BATU AMPAR, KABUPATEN KUBU RAYA, PROVINSI KALIMANTAN BARAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endang Karlina

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Hutan lindung mangrove mempunyai fungsi dan manfaat secara ekonomi, ekologi dan sosial. Pengelolaannya memerlukan perencanaan yang dapat menjamin keberlanjutan fungsi dan manfaat tersebut. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui tingkat keberlanjutan pengelolaan hutan lindung mangrove dan menentukan faktor-faktor yang berpengaruh terhadap pengelolaan hutan lindung mangrove yang berkelanjutan. Analisis data menggunakan RAP-Mpforest dengan metode multidimensional scaling (MDS. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa status keberlanjutan pengelolaan hutan lindung mangrove di Kecamatan Batu Ampar adalah cukup berkelanjutan (54,59% pada kriteria ekologi; dan kurang berkelanjutan pada kriteria ekonomi (34,06% dan kriteria sosial (42,03%. Faktor-faktor yang berpengaruh terhadap keberlanjutan pengelolaan hutan lindung mangrove meliputi: (1 penataan batas kawasan; (2 kesesuaian peruntukan kawasan; (3 ketersediaan bibit tanaman mangrove; (4 perlindungan terhadap flora  dan fauna; (5 pendapatan pemerintah dari pengelolaan dan pemanfaatan hutan lindung mangrove; (6 tingkat pendapatan masyarakat sekitar hutan; (7 mekanisme resolusi konflik lahan yang efektif; dan (8 praktek budaya lokal dalam pelestaria hutan lindung mangrove; (9 ketersediaan organisasi masyarakat dalam pengelolaan hutan lindung mangrove; dan (10 keterlibatan masyarakat dalam pengelolaan hutan lindung mangrove. Perencanaan pengelolaan yang tidak mempertimbangkan kesepuluh faktor tersebut secara seimbang tidak akan menjamin keberlanjutan pengelolaan hutan lindung mangrove di Batu Ampar.

  15. Evaluation Of Batu Bumbun Sanctuary Ecosystem And Management Strategy Affected By Climate Change In Mahakam Watershed Kutai Kartanegara Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lariman

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Batu Bumbun Sanctuary Middle Mahakam Lake is very important for the fishermen community and Mahakam Irrawaddy Dolphin life concerned to its function as the source of fish and as the feeding ground of Irrawaddy Dolphin Orcaella brevirostris. The changes in the forest function and the climate such as rainfall and water surfaces are predicted to have caused suppression in the ecosystem of Batu Bumbun Sanctuary. The aim of this study is to evaluate the current ecosystem changes of Batu Bumbun Sanctuary and suggest a suitable management strategy as a way to conserve its function. The research was conducted during the dry season April June and rainy season November December 2014 by using survey methods. The measured parameters were including water quality DO pH temperature TSS TDS alkalinity and clarity vegetation composition rainfall water surface elevation and sediment. The data of fish community were analysed by using Shanon-Wiener index. The result showed that 1 The current condition of Batu Bumbun biophysical ecosystem has been experiencing a heavy degradation showed by a high fluctuation of the water surface in two extreme seasons such as the flood in rainy seasons and silt up in the dry season. 2 The vegetation composition in the riverbanks was composed of five species including Bungur Lagerstroemia speciosa Rambai Punai Chaetocarpus Castano carpus Kendikara Dillenia excelsa Kademba Mytragina speciosa and Rengas Gluta renghas. The dominant tree species was Putat Barringtonia asiatica and Perupuk Lophopetalum javanicum. 3 Batu Bumbun Sanctuary has been experiencing a heavy siltation caused by silt material that piles up the weeds during the rainy season. Since 1985 Batu Bumbun was predicted to have rates of silting around 8 cmyear. From those result it can be concluded that Batu Bumbun has been experiencing a heavy degradation showed by a high fluctuation of water surface vegetation composition and heavy siltation. Then the most suitable

  16. BUDIDAYA KERANG HIJAU (Perna viridis L. DENGAN METODE DAN KEPADATAN BERBEDA DI PERAIRAN PESISIR KUALA LANGSA, ACEH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andi Sagita

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Kerang hijau merupakan komoditas budidaya laut yang sangat prospektif untuk dikembangkan pada suatu sistem budidaya, karena dapat dilakukan dengan biaya produksi yang rendah namun menghasilkan profitabilitas yang tinggi. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui metode dan kepadatan yang paling optimal untuk budidaya kerang hijau di perairan pesisir Kuala Langsa, Aceh. Metode penelitian menggunakan rancangan acak lengkap faktorial yang terdiri atas faktor metode (long line dan stick dan faktor kepadatan (20, 30, dan 40 individu/kantong 5,30 L, masing-masing diulang sebanyak empat kali. Berdasarkan sidik ragam data Specific Growth Rate (SGR dari panjang (SGL L dan bobot (SGR W menunjukkan semua perlakuan metode, kepadatan dan interaksi berbeda signifikan pada taraf uji 5% (P<0,05, di mana perlakuan yang paling optimal yaitu perlakuan metode long line dengan kepadatan 20 individu/kantong 5,30 L diperoleh rata-rata nilai SGR (L sebesar 0,86 ± 0,01%/hari dan SGR (W sebesar 1,18 ± 0,04%/hari dengan sintasan mencapai 92,50 ± 2,89%. Parameter kualitas perairan selama periode budidaya masih sesuai untuk mendukung kehidupan kerang hijau di mana suhu berkisar 27,5-34,0°C; salinitas 28,5-33,0 ppt; pH 7,8-8,6; dan oksigen terlarut 4,5-6,5 mg/L; serta kecepatan arus 0,1-0,3 m/s. Budidaya kerang hijau dengan metode long line pada kepadatan 20 individu/kantong 5,30 L merupakan pola budidaya yang paling optimal untuk diterapkan di perairan pesisir Kuala Langsa, Aceh. Green mussel is a very prospective marine aquaculture commodity due to its low cost production but with high profitability. This research aimed to determine the most optimal method and densities for green mussel culture in coastal waters of Kuala Langsa, Aceh. The research used a completely randomized factorial design consisting of methods factor (long line and stick and densities factor (20, 30, and 40 individuals/basket 5.30 L, each repeated four times. Based on the variance analysis of

  17. Time scales of porphyry Cu deposit formation: insights from titanium diffusion in quartz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, Celestine N.; Reed, Mark H.; Mercer, Cameron M.

    2015-01-01

    Porphyry dikes and hydrothermal veins from the porphyry Cu-Mo deposit at Butte, Montana, contain multiple generations of quartz that are distinct in scanning electron microscope-cathodoluminescence (SEM-CL) images and in Ti concentrations. A comparison of microprobe trace element profiles and maps to SEM-CL images shows that the concentration of Ti in quartz correlates positively with CL brightness but Al, K, and Fe do not. After calibrating CL brightness in relation to Ti concentration, we use the brightness gradient between different quartz generations as a proxy for Ti gradients that we model to determine time scales of quartz formation and cooling. Model results indicate that time scales of porphyry magma residence are ~1,000s of years and time scales from porphyry quartz phenocryst rim formation to porphyry dike injection and cooling are ~10s of years. Time scales for the formation and cooling of various generations of hydrothermal vein quartz range from 10s to 10,000s of years. These time scales are considerably shorter than the ~0.6 m.y. overall time frame for each porphyry-style mineralization pulse determined from isotopic studies at Butte, Montana. Simple heat conduction models provide a temporal reference point to compare chemical diffusion time scales, and we find that they support short dike and vein formation time scales. We interpret these relatively short time scales to indicate that the Butte porphyry deposit formed by short-lived episodes of hydrofracturing, dike injection, and vein formation, each with discrete thermal pulses, which repeated over the ~3 m.y. generation of the deposit.

  18. Magma Mixing at Pulang Porphyry Copper Deposit, NW China: Petrographic, Geochemical and Geochronological evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, D.; Wang, A.

    2009-12-01

    Pulang porphyry copper deposit, located in Zhongdian arc, NW China, was formed by the subduction process of eastern Paleo-Tethys Oceanic crust. Plenty of mafic microgranular enclaves (MME) were found in the granodiorite porphyries, which intruded in quartz monzonite porphyries, the wall rocks of copper orebodies. The enclaves are diorite in composition, and represent blobs of mafic magma injected into a felsic host magma. The MME have a mineral assemblage (plagioclase + amphibole + biotite ± quartz ± K-feldspar) almost identical to that of host granodiorite porphyries, but with different mineral proportions. The MME are strip-shaped with grouped and directional alignment, and some of them contact gradually with the host rocks. The characteristic petrographic features of the MME are the presence of mingling and quench textures, such as acicular apatites, quartz ocelli rimmed by mafic minerals, and K-feldspar poikilitically enclosing mafic minerals, etc. These evidences show magma mingling or mixing. For the MME and host rocks, main oxides or elements with SiO2, or Al2O3/MgO with SiO2/MgO display significant linear correlations. Characteristics of spidergrams and REE patterns of MME and host rocks are similar, the MME present negative Eu and Sr anomalies, and the host rocks show weak Eu and obvious Sr positive anomalies. According to these, we can conclude that elements transferred between the MME and host rocks, which indicates the existence of magma mixing. The SHRIMP U-Pb concordia ages of the MME, granodiorite porphyries and quartz monzonite porphyries are 213±1Ma, 211±1Ma and 213.1±1.7Ma respectively. Molybdenite Re-Os isochron age is 213±3.8Ma. All these ages indicated the events of magma mixing and copper mineralization were at the same period. Phenomena of magma mixing have been found at many large-scale porphyry copper deposits around the world. Pulang porphyry copper deposit will be a new object to study the role of mafic magmas in the generation of

  19. Analisis Kualitas Air Sungai Akibat Pencemaran Tempat Pembuangan Akhir Sampah Batu Bola dan Karakteristik Sertakeluhan Kesehatan Pengguna Air Sungai Batang Ayumi di Kota Padangsidimpuan Tahun 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Harahap, Alprida; Naria, evi; Santi, Devi Nuraini

    2013-01-01

    Analysis of river water quality due to Batu Bola landfill pollution and characteristics with health of Batang Ayumi river users in Padangsidimpuan city. Batang Ayumi river which located in Batunadua village, district Batunadua, Padangsidimpuan city, has been polluted by Batu Bola landfills, according to government regulation No.82 of 2001 concerning about the Management of Water Quality and Water Pollution Control. This study is a descriptive survey, which is to know about the physical pol...

  20. Pengaruh Word Of Mouth terhadap Minat Beli Konsumen Baraya Travel Pool Buah Batu (Studi pada Mahasiswa Administrasi Bisnis Universitas Telkom Angkatan 2013)

    OpenAIRE

    Anisa Agnelia, Revina; Wardhana, Aditya

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to analyze the effect of Word of Mouth towards Buah Batu Baraya Travel Consumer Purchase Intention. The method that being used is descriptive - causal. The sampling technique that being used is nonprobability sampling with the sampling method incidental sampling. The data collection is done by distributing questionnaires to 100 Students of Business Administration Student 2013 of Telkom University that know Baraya Travel pool Buah Batu. Data analysis technique that being used ...

  1. Undiscovered porphyry copper resources in the Urals—A probabilistic mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Mihalasky, Mark J.; Ludington, Stephen; Phillips, Jeffrey; Berger, Byron R.; Denning, Paul; Dicken, Connie; Mars, John; Zientek, Michael L.; Herrington, Richard J.; Seltmann, Reimar

    2017-01-01

    A probabilistic mineral resource assessment of metal resources in undiscovered porphyry copper deposits of the Ural Mountains in Russia and Kazakhstan was done using a quantitative form of mineral resource assessment. Permissive tracts were delineated on the basis of mapped and inferred subsurface distributions of igneous rocks assigned to tectonic zones that include magmatic arcs where the occurrence of porphyry copper deposits within 1 km of the Earth's surface are possible. These permissive tracts outline four north-south trending volcano-plutonic belts in major structural zones of the Urals. From west to east, these include permissive lithologies for porphyry copper deposits associated with Paleozoic subduction-related island-arc complexes preserved in the Tagil and Magnitogorsk arcs, Paleozoic island-arc fragments and associated tonalite-granodiorite intrusions in the East Uralian zone, and Carboniferous continental-margin arcs developed on the Kazakh craton in the Transuralian zone. The tracts range from about 50,000 to 130,000 km2 in area. The Urals host 8 known porphyry copper deposits with total identified resources of about 6.4 million metric tons of copper, at least 20 additional porphyry copper prospect areas, and numerous copper-bearing skarns and copper occurrences.Probabilistic estimates predict a mean of 22 undiscovered porphyry copper deposits within the four permissive tracts delineated in the Urals. Combining estimates with established grade and tonnage models predicts a mean of 82 million metric tons of undiscovered copper. Application of an economic filter suggests that about half of that amount could be economically recoverable based on assumed depth distributions, availability of infrastructure, recovery rates, current metals prices, and investment environment.

  2. KAJIAN POTENSI USAHA PEMBUATAN TERASI UDANG STUDI KASUSDESA BANTELAN, KECAMATAN BATU PUTIH, KABUPATEN SUMENEP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iffan Maflahah

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Bantelan is one of coastal village in the Batu Putih , Sumenep, known as shrimp paste where made. More than 50 families (head of household has a side business for shrimp paste made. Based on this fact, indicating in Bantelan has a potential area for the development of shrimp paste made. Purposes these research were : 1 determine the potential of making shrimp paste in Bantelan; 2 assessing manufacturing process and marketing distribution; 3 assessing the potential of shrimp paste development. Research methodology is observation and interviews with shrimp paste makers in Bantelan. Results showed : 1 Bantelan has the potential to be business processing shrimp paste; 2 shrimp paste processing still using simple technology; 3 product quality need improvements as technology, capital, marketing and quality for the development of business scale.

  3. Identifying Resistivity Anomalies of Sungai Batu Ancient River using 3D Contour Map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusoh, R.; Saad, R.; Saidin, M.; Muhammad, S. B.; Anda, S. T.; Ismail, M. A. M.; Hazreek, Z. A. M.

    2018-04-01

    Electrical resistivity method was undertaken at archeological site at Sungai Batu in Lembah Bujang, located at Sungai Merbok in northwestern of Malaysia. The survey was implemented near the excavation site. This paper shows the results of 5 ground resistivity survey line was carry out using SAS4000 equipment. The wenner-schlumberger array was applied for measurement. Resistivity data are used to obtain valuable information to identify the remain buried archeology. The ground resistivity data were presented in contour map for various depth by using Surfer 13 software visualized clearly the anomalies evidenced for every single depth section. The results from the survey has found the appearance of sedimentation formation that believe happen long time ago after ancient river was buried by sediment from weathering process due to increasing sea level. Otherwise, another anomaly was found in the middle of the survey area which shows high resistivity value about 1000 – 2000 ohm.m

  4. Carbon Dioxide Emissions Due to Forest Fires in Bukit Batu Area, Bengkalis Regency, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anita, Sofia; Ariful Amri, T.; Abu Hanifah, T.; Furnando, Edo; Lukas, Amos

    2017-05-01

    High concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is the major cause of global warming. This study focuses on estimation of carbon emissions from forest fires in Indonesia, especially Bukit Batu area, Bengkalis Regency. Peatlands in this area are widely used as an agricultural cultivation and plantations. The aim of this study is to measure the concentration of CO2 emitted based on the relationship of physical and chemical properties of peat soil. Measurements carried out on these peatlands with different vegetation covered, i.e. bush land, palm plantations and secondary forests. Methods used in this research were Infrared Gas Analyzer and Gas Chromatography. The average of CO2 emissions obtained of bush land, palm plantations, and secondary forest were 497.4 ppm; 523. 2 ppm; and 457.2 ppm, respectively.

  5. Audio-magnetotelluric survey to characterize the Sunnyside porphyry copper system in the Patagonia Mountains, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampson, Jay A.; Rodriguez, Brian D.

    2010-01-01

    The Sunnyside porphyry copper system is part of the concealed San Rafael Valley porphyry system located in the Patagonia Mountains of Arizona. The U.S. Geological Survey is conducting a series of multidisciplinary studies as part of the Assessment Techniques for Concealed Mineral Resources project. To help characterize the size, resistivity, and skin depth of the polarizable mineral deposit concealed beneath thick overburden, a regional east-west audio-magnetotelluric sounding profile was acquired. The purpose of this report is to release the audio-magnetotelluric sounding data collected along that east-west profile. No interpretation of the data is included.

  6. Magnetotelluric survey to characterize the Sunnyside porphyry copper system in the Patagonia Mountains, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Brian D.; Sampson, Jay A.

    2010-01-01

    The Sunnyside porphyry copper system is part of the concealed San Rafael Valley porphyry system located in the Patagonia Mountains of Arizona. The U.S. Geological Survey is conducting a series of multidisciplinary studies as part of the Assessment Techniques for Concealed Mineral Resources project. To help characterize the size and resistivity of the mineralized area beneath overburden, a regional east-west magnetotelluric sounding profile was acquired. This is a data release report of the magnetotelluric sounding data collected along the east-west profile; no interpretation of the data is included.

  7. Peningkatan Pengetahuan Dan Keterampilan Guru SD Muhammadiyah 4 Batu Dalam Mengelola Pembelajaran ABK melalui Lesson Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endang Poerwanti

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Anak-anak dengan kebutuhan khusus (ABK yang dikenal sebagai anak-anak cacat, atau anak-anak yang luar biasa, anak-anak yaitu yang menyimpang secara signifikan dari kriteria normal, baik dari aspek fisik, psikologis, emosional dan sosial. Mulai tahun 2001, pemerintah mulai program pendidikan inklusif, pendidikan inklusif adalah untuk memasukkan anak-anak dengan kebutuhan khusus belajar bersama dengan anak normal di kelas dan sekolah reguler. Masalahnya, guru di sekolah reguler tidak berpendidikan dan dipersiapkan khusus untuk mengelola proses belajar mengajar untuk ABK. Masalah juga dialami oleh SD Muhammadiyah 4 Batu, untuk membantu memecahkan masalah tim FKIP menerapkan aktivitas Lesson Study untuk meningkatkan pengetahuan guru dan keterampilan dalam mengelola ABK pembelajaran individual Lesson study yang dilakukan dalam tiga siklus yang dikemas dalam tiga model pembelajaran; ABK belajar sendiri di kelas khusus, pengajaran dan pembelajaran di kelas reguler dan pengajaran dan pembelajaran ABK di kelas reguler dengan bantuan GPK. Setiap siklus terdiri dari beberapa kegiatan. Studi pelajaran terdiri dari empat kegiatan yang disingkat PDCA; P (rencana atau perencanaan, D (lakukan adalah pelaksanaan pembelajaran oleh seorang guru sebagai model dan diamati oleh guru lainnya, C (cek merupakan cerminan dari perbaikan lebih lanjut proses pembelajaran, dan A (tindak adalah tindak lanjut.  Dari tiga tahapan pelaksanaan proses belajar mengajar ABK dapat memberikan manfaat bagi para guru untuk meningkatkan pemahaman dan keterampilan untuk mengelola pembelajaran untuk ABK. Melalui Lesson Study diharapkan ABK mendapatkan layanan yang tepat dan belajar yang optimal. Beberapa temuan dampak pada perilaku siswa di kelas adalah bahwa siswa dapat menerima keberadaan ABK di. Meskipun keterbatasan kelas fasilitas guru mendapatkan pengalaman berharga yang terkait dengan pengembangan pembelajaran melalui forum ABK Lesson Study. Jadi kebutuhan untuk pelaksanaan tindak

  8. Analyzing soil electrical and strength parameters using geophysical and geotechnical methods in Sungai Batu, Kedah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulaiman, Nabila; Nordiana, M. M.; Azwin, I. N.; Saidin, Mokhtar

    2017-07-01

    Engineering structures require strong foundations to prevent hazards occur due to lack of understanding the subsurface soil. Geophysical and geotechnical surveys were conducted in Sungai Batu, Kedah to determine the effectiveness of correlating electrical parameters for vertical resolution and to evaluate soil strength by integrating Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT), Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) and Standard Penetration Test (SPT). Results from ERT and GPR showed heterogeneity in the subsurface stratigraphy from surface to 8.6 m depth. The inversion model showed two zones of saturated (150 Ωm). The integration of ERT, GPR and SPT is applied at the borehole position which is at distance of 9.5 m of the survey line. The resistivity values at distance of 9.5 m range from 7 - 30 Ωm due to soil formed by sedimentation originated from fluvial system (sandy clay and clay). Calculated electrical conductivity values from GPR radargram coincide and in range with values from ERT. At distance of 9.5 m, the electrical conductivity range from 32 - 148 mS/m. The N-value from SPT showed low value with range of 12 - 20. The correlation of electrical parameters from ERT and GPR showed good agreement which is effective for vertical resolution. Low resistivity (high conductivity), low N-value and heterogeneity of the soil denote unstable subsurface. Sandy clay/clay in Sungai Batu are detrimental for shallow foundation as the soil material is susceptible to subsidence and has irregular characteristics influenced by the weather. Hence, the soils up to 8 m depth were u nstable, weak and may cause harm to building structure.

  9. An Examination of Relationship between Quality Municipal Services and Citizen Satisfaction in Malaysian Local Council, Batu Pahat in Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Bello, Muhammad Umar; Martin, David; Kasim, Rozila; Abubakar, Muhammad; Umar, Muhammad Akilu

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the relationships that exist between quality municipal service and citizen satisfaction. This paper is, therefore, an examination of Relationship between quality Municipal Service and citizen satisfaction in Batu Pahat, Malaysia. It argues that the constitutional mandate of local council in terms of “function performance” has not been translated into reality in many occasions. Hypothesis was postulated for the study. The methodology adopted is quantitative in nature, 100 q...

  10. Pengaruh City Branding “Shining Batu” Terhadap City Image Dan Keputusan Berkunjung Wisatawan Ke Kota Batu Tahun 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Wandari, Lita Ayu

    2014-01-01

    This research aims to: investigate the influence of city branding on city image; investigate the influence of city branding on decision to visit; and investigate the influence of ity image on decision to visit. The research method used in this study is explanatory reserach. Sample of 102 tourists visiting the tourist attractions in Batu 2014 purposive random sampling technique. Methods of data collection questionnaire. Descriptive data analysis and path analysis. The results showed that the ...

  11. Hubungan Riwayat Paparan Pestisida dengan Kejadian Gangguan Fungsi Hati (Studi Pada Wanita Usia Subur di Daerah Pertanian Kota Batu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashanur Jenni

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The woman of childbearing-age is one of the population at risk for pesticide poisoning with long term negative effects. Negative effects of pesticides exposure  in woman of childbearing-age can cause liver disfunction. The objective of this research was to analize the assosiation between pesticides exposure and liver disfunction on women childbearing-age at Kota Batu. Methods: This research is an analytical study using cross-sectional approach. The research took sample 165 women in childbearing-age from four villages which were chosen purposively. Data obtained from research data specific environmental pollutionin agricultura lregions Kota Batu conducted by the Agency for Health Research and Development of the Ministry of Healthin 2012. Results:The results showed that the average at childbearing-age women in the agricultural zone in Batu was 37.41± 8.704 years, with the number of women of childbearing-age who had detect able pesticide exposure were 55 people (33.3%. Further more, by multivariate analysis using the test Structural Equation Modeling (SEM found a significant relationship betweena history of exposure to pesticides with the incidence of liver dysfunction with a coefficient value of 0.242 and the value of the T-Statistic test of 2,615 women of childbearing-age in Kota Batu. Conclusion: women of childbearing-age who experiencedliver dysfunction was 70.9% of the 55 people had pesticides exposure. To avoidliver dysfunction, It is suggested to better knowledge of storage, formulation of pesticide and washing the families farmers clothes Keywords: women of childbearing-age, pesticides exsposure, liver dysfunction

  12. The Influence of Family Parenting On Students’ Achievement at SMAN 2 Rantau Selatan Labuhan Batu district in 2013

    OpenAIRE

    Silalahi, Yanti Nova

    2014-01-01

    Parenting is parents’ parenting to shape the child's personality. Application of parents’ parenting can influence learning achievement in school, career and social life. There are 4 kinds of parenting, namely democratic, permissive, authoritarian and penelantar parenting. This study aims to determine the influence of family upbringing on students’ achievement. This study uses descriptive correlative. The samples in this study were 35 students grade XI at SMAN 2 Rantau Selatan Labuhan Batu dis...

  13. STUDI BIOAKUMULASI MERKURI DARI JALUR AIR LAUT OLEH KERANG DARAH (ANADARA GRANOSA DAN KERANG HIJAU (PERNA VIRIDIS

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    Heny Suseno

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Blood cockle and green mussel are source of protein that vulnerable to contamination by mercury (Hg through bioaccumulation process. The research of Hg2+ bioaccumulation ability by bloodcockle (Anadara granosa and green mussel (Perna viridis using the radiotracer 203Hg2+ was conducted based on laboratory experiments design. Biokinetic parameters, such as the uptake and depuration rate and Concentration Factor, were determined to obtain predictions of Bioconcentration Factor (BCF and steady state conditions. The results of experiment using non-linear model showed that blood cockle and green mussel have the capability to accumulate Hg2+ by 15429.38 and 6963.68 times higher than its concentration in seawater after 51 days. Based on the BCF value obtained from the experiments, the predicted concentration of mercury in Anadara granosa and Perna viridis from Jakarta Bay was 1.327 and 0.599 mg.Kg-1 respectively. The predicted concentration of Hg2+ in Anadara granosa exceeds those required by ISO 7387:2009. On the other hand, the predicted in Perna viridis still meet the requirements of ISO 7387 2009. Keywords: Bioaccumulation, mercury, Perna viridis, Anadara granosa   ABSTRAK Kerang darah dan kerang hijau merupakan salah satu sumber protein yang rentan terkontaminasi merkuri (Hg melalui proses bioakumulasi. Penelitian kemampuan bioakumulasi Hg2+ oleh kerang darah (Anadara granosa dan kerang hijau (Perna viridis menggunakan radiotracer 203Hg2+ dilakukan dengan desain eksperimen di laboratorium. Parameter biokinetika seperti kecepatan pengambilan, kecepatan pelepasan dan Faktor Konsentrasi ditetapkan untuk memprediksi Faktor Biokonsentrasi dan kondisi steady state proses bioakumulasi. Hasil percobaan yang dimodelkan dalam persamaan non linier menunjukkan bahwa Anadara granosa maupun Perna viridis mampu mengakumulasi Hg2+ masing-masing 15429,38 dan 6963,68 kali dari konsentrasinya di dalam air laut setelah 51 hari. Berdasarkan nilai BCF masing

  14. Origin of the Lengshuigou porphyry-skarn Cu deposit in the Zha-Shan district, South Qinling, central China, and implications for differences between porphyry Cu and Mo deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Guiqing; Mao, Jingwen; Wang, Ruiting; Meng, Deming; Sun, Jia; Dai, Junzhi; Ren, Tao; Li, Jianbi; Zhao, Haijie

    2017-04-01

    Porphyry Cu and Mo deposits are two economically important types of metal deposits worldwide, but factors controlling their difference remain enigmatic. Compared with the well-studied large porphyry Mo province in the south margin of the North China Block (S-NCB), the origin of newly discovered porphyry Cu deposits in the South Qinling (SQB) is poorly constrained. Integrated zircon LA-ICPMS U-Pb and molybdenite Re-Os ages and geological evidence indicate three stages of magmatism at Lengshuigou: (1) late Neoproterozoic (718 to 704 Ma) quartz diorite + albitite + granite association during the pre-ore stage, (2) 146 to 145 Ma granodiorite porphyry during the syn-ore stage, and (3) 145 Ma granite porphyry during the post-ore stage. Elemental and Sr-Nd isotopic evidence provide important constraints on their magma source. Pre-ore Neoproterozoic quartz diorite + albitite + granite was derived by re-melting of a mixture of crustal and juvenile mantle materials, and stronger fractional crystallization was involved in these ore-hosting intrusions than in contemporary granitoids hosted in the Douling Group. Syn-ore granodiorite porphyry was derived from mantle-derived magma with contributions from different proportions of crustal components. Post-ore granite porphyry was derived mainly from a crustal source. Nearly contemporaneous porphyry Cu and Mo systems were identified in Qinling Province, including the 147-139 Ma porphyry Mo systems in the S-NCB and 150-146 Ma porphyry Cu systems in the SQB. Granitic stocks related to porphyry Cu systems in the SQB are characterized by moderate SiO2 contents (58.01-69.07 %) and less radiogenic Nd-Hf isotopes (ɛNd(t) = -3.8 to -6.3, ɛHf(t) = -4.5 to +1.6), whereas the granitic stocks related to porphyry Mo deposits in the S-NCB have high SiO2 concentrations (64.00-76.00 %) and more radiogenic Nd-Hf isotopes (ɛNd(t) = -18.0 to -11.6, ɛHf(t) = -26.3 to -13.5). In addition, molybdenite from the Chigou and Lengshuigou porphyry Cu

  15. Ring structures and copper mineralization in Kerman porphyry copper belt, SE Iran

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    Gholamreza Mirzababaei

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The role of some ring structures in the distribution of porphyry copper deposits in south Kerman porphyry copper belt is discussed. In the study area, ring structures are circular or elliptical shaped features which are partly recognized on satellite images. In this study, Landsat multispectral images were used to identify ring structures in the area. The rudimentary identification stages of the circles were mainly based on their circular characteristics on the images. These structures match with the regional tectonic features and can be seen mainly in two types; namely, large-magnitude and small scale circles. The associated mineralization in the study area is mainly porphyry Cu and vein type base metal sulfide deposits. There is a sensible relationship between the large circles and mineralization. These circles have encompassed almost entire Cu deposits and prospects in south part of Kerman porphyry copper belt. The small circles seem to be external traces of (porphyritic intrusive bodies that appear on surface as small circles. Formation of the large circular structures do not appear to be related to the external processes and there is no clear indication of how they came into existence but, their arrangement around the edges of a positive residual anomaly area shows the probable role of this anomaly in their formation. This matter is also recognized on the generalized crustal thickness map of the region in which an updoming of the upper mantle is observed. This study can improve our collective knowledge for copper exploration in this region.

  16. Geochemistry of magnetite from porphyry Cu and skarn deposits in the southwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadoll, Patrick; Mauk, Jeffrey L.; LeVeille, Richard A.; Koenig, Alan E.

    2015-01-01

    A combination of petrographic observations, laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS), and statistical data exploration was used in this study to determine compositional variations in hydrothermal and igneous magnetite from five porphyry Cu–Mo and skarn deposits in the southwestern United States, and igneous magnetite from the unmineralized, granodioritic Inner Zone Batholith, Japan. The most important overall discriminators for the minor and trace element chemistry of magnetite from the investigated porphyry and skarn deposits are Mg, Al, Ti, V, Mn, Co, Zn, and Ga—of these the elements with the highest variance for (I) igneous magnetite are Mg, Al, Ti, V, Mn, Zn, for (II) hydrothermal porphyry magnetite are Mg, Ti, V, Mn, Co, Zn, and for (III) hydrothermal skarn magnetite are Mg, Ti, Mn, Zn, and Ga. Nickel could only be detected at levels above the limit of reporting (LOR) in two igneous magnetites. Equally, Cr could only be detected in one igneous occurrence. Copper, As, Mo, Ag, Au, and Pb have been reported in magnetite by other authors but could not be detected at levels greater than their respective LORs in our samples. Comparison with the chemical signature of igneous magnetite from the barren Inner Zone Batholith, Japan, suggests that V, Mn, Co, and Ga concentrations are relatively depleted in magnetite from the porphyry and skarn deposits. Higher formation conditions in combination with distinct differences between melt and hydrothermal fluid compositions are reflected in Al, Ti, V, and Ga concentrations that are, on average, higher in igneous magnetite than in hydrothermal magnetite (including porphyry and skarn magnetite). Low Ti and V concentrations in combination with high Mn concentrations are characteristic features of magnetite from skarn deposits. High Mg concentrations (trend that indicates that magnetite from skarn (calcic and magnesian) commonly has low Ti and V concentrations.

  17. Perbedaan Daya Hambat Ekstrak Daun Sirih Hijau ( Piper betle L. dan Daun Sirih Merah ( Piper crocatum Ruiz & Pav terhadap Pertumbuhan Escherichia coli

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    Tristika Aulia Syahrinastiti

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakSirih hijau (Piper betle L. dan sirih merah (Piper crocatum Ruiz & Pav dipercaya memiliki khasiat mencegah penyakit infeksi saluran kemih yang disebabkan oleh Escherichia coli. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk menjelaskan perbedaan daya hambat ekstrak daun sirih hijaudan daun sirih merah terhadap pertumbuhan Escherichia coli. Jenis penelitian ini adalah eksperimental dengan desain post test only control group. Penelitian dilakukan di laboratorium mikrobiologi Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Andalas. Hasil penelitian adalah: 1. Efek daya hambat ekstrak daun sirih merah pada konsentrasi 2,5%, 5%, 7,5%, dan 10%, yaitu 0,6cm, 1,1cm, 1,2cm, dan 1,2cm; 2. Ekstrak daun sirih hijau tidak memiliki efek daya hambat pada konsentrasi 2,5%, 5%, 7,5%, dan 10%. Kesimpulan eksperimen ini adalah ekstrak daun sirih merah memiliki efek daya hambat lebih baik daripada ekstrak daun sirih hijau.Kata kunci: ekstrak daun sirih hijau, ekstrak daun sirih merah, escherichia coli, daerah bebas hambat AbstractGreen betel (Piper betle L. and red betel (Piper crocatum Ruiz & Pav are trusted of possessing an efficacy of preventing urinary tract infection caused by Eschericia coli. The objective of this study was to explain the difference of inhibition zones between the green betel and the red betel towards the growth of Eschericia coli. The type of this research was experimental study with post test only control group design. This research was carried out in Microbiology Laboratory, Faculty of Medicine Andalas University.The results of this research were: 1.The inhibition zones of red betel extract in concentration of 2.5%, 5%, 7.5%, and 10% were 0.6 cm, 1.1 cm, 1.2 cm, and 1.2 cm; 2. The extract of green betel had none of inhibition zones in concentration of of 2.5%, 5%, 7.5%, and 10%. In conclusion, the red betel extract has better inhibition zones than the green betel extrac.Keywords: green betel extract, red betel extract, eschericia coli, inhibition zone

  18. Pengukuran Hasil Pendampingan Kelompok Wirausaha Baru di Kota Batu Tahun 2014

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    Mohammad Zaenal Abidin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available At the end of 2015, Indonesia will be entering ASEAN Economic Community. Indonesia as the largest population in South East Asia will be the largest market if the number of entrepreneur is less than standard number. Especially the competitiveness index of Indonesia comes to the 34th position in the world and in the 4th position in ASEAN. Indonesia economic growth cannot be separated from the contribution of SME. It contributes 98.7% of employment and 59,08% on gross domestic product. As contributor for Indonesia economic growth, SME also faces complex problems both internal and external. In attempt to improve quantity and quality of SME it requires well-programmed moves one of which is recent entrepreneurial assistance program organized by East Java Government. The present study aims at determining knowing mentoring component description and the effect of learning component on the success of recent entrepreneurial assistance program, the result of recent entrepreneurial assistance program, and supporting and obstacle Faktor of recent entrepreneurial assistance program in Batu.The present study employed quantitative causality associative model and embedded model of qualitative. The study consists of independent variable (X; purpose, material, instructor, media, and assistance method and dependent variable is the success of assistance program. The population of the study is the participants of entrepreneurship assistance program in Batu of 2014. The sampling technique employed is saturated sampling with 40 respondents. Analysis technique employed is multiple linear regression analysis and strengthens by the result of qualitative data analysis. The data obtained through questionnaires with Likert scale and interview.In conclusion, that the description of the mentoring program components assessed both by the participants, the size of the success of the mentoring program could be said to be good in size softskill but less good in size hardskill, the

  19. Cyrts in the city: a new Bent-toed Gecko (Genus Cyrtodactylus) is the only endemic species of vertebrate from Batu Caves, Selangor, Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grismer, L Lee; Wood, Perry L; Onn, Chan Kin; Anuar, Shahrul; Muin, Mohd Abdul

    2014-03-07

    Cyrtodactylus metropolis sp. nov. from Batu Caves massif, Selangor, Peninsular Malaysia is differentiated from all congeners by having a unique suite of morphological and color pattern characteristics. Remarkably, this species has been overlooked despite a plethora of field studies at Batu Caves from 1898 to the present and no specimens had ever been examined until now. As with all other limestone forest-adapted Cyrtodactylus in Peninsular Malaysia, C. metropolis sp. nov. is not a cave-adapted species but is far more common on the exterior surfaces of the Batu Caves limestone massif and its surrounding limestone vegetation. We suggest that researchers devote time exploring the exterior surfaces of limestone massifs as well the interiors of their caves.

  20. Critical Factors Controlling Pd and Pt Potential in Porphyry Cu–Au Deposits: Evidence from the Balkan Peninsula

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    Demetrios G. Eliopoulos

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Porphyry Cu–Au–Pd±Pt deposits are significant Au resources, but their Pd and Pt potential is still unknown. Elevated Pd, Pt (hundreds of ppb and Au contents are associated with typical stockwork magnetite-bornite-chalcopyrite assemblages, at the central parts of certain porphyry deposits. Unexpected high grade Cu–(Pd+Pt (up to 6 ppm mineralization with high Pd/Pt ratios at the Elatsite porphyry deposit, which is found in a spatial association with the Chelopech epithermal deposit (Bulgaria and the Skouries porphyry deposit, may have formed during late stages of an evolved hydrothermal system. Estimated Pd, Pt and Au potential for porphyry deposits is consistent with literature model calculations demonstrating the capacity of aqueous vapor and brine to scavenge sufficient quantities of Pt and Pd, and could contribute to the global platinum-group element (PGE production. Critical requirements controlling potential of porphyry deposits may be from the metals contained in magma (metasomatized asthenospheric mantle wedge as indicated by significant Cr, Co, Ni and Re contents. The Cr content may be an indicator for the mantle input.

  1. Sikap Masyarakat Terhadap Program Kitar Semula: Kajian Kes Di Daerah Batu Pahat, Johor

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    Seow Ta Wee

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available A recycling programme is one of the strategies implemented to avoid the risk on increasing number of domestic waste at national dumping sites. Numerous efforts and initiatives are carrying out by the government to reduce waste management cost burdened to national local authorities which yearly contributes about RM1 billion. There are many significant factors contribute to community behaviors towards this particular programmed. In general, it can be classified into two (i behavioral factor and, (ii community participation in recycling programmed. This research intends to understand the community behavior towards recycling programmed in the district of Batu Pahat, Johor, Malaysia. A total of 383 respondents were selected in a random sampling within the municipality and major town in the district. The result of the study indentified that most of the respondents are not involved with recycling programmed in their locality. Therefore, the authorities should consider an integrated and holistic approach in order to reform the recycling programmed to the local context and facilitate to change the mentality among those communities.

  2. Damar Batu as a novel matrix former for the transdermal drug delivery: in vitro evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundada, A S; Avari, J G

    2009-09-01

    Damar Batu (DB) is a novel film-forming biomaterial obtained from Shorea species, evaluated in this study for its potential application in transdermal drug delivery system. DB was characterized initially in terms of acid value, softening point, molecular weight (M(w)), polydispersity index (M(w)/M(n)), and glass transition temperature (T(g)). Neat, plasticized films of DB were investigated for mechanical properties. The biomaterial was further investigated as a matrix-forming agent for transdermal drug delivery system. Developed matrix-type transdermal patches were evaluated for thickness and weight uniformity, folding endurance, drug content, in vitro drug release study, and skin permeation study. On the basis of in vitro drug release and in vitro skin permeation performance, formulation containing DB/Eudragit RL100 (60 : 40) was found to be better than other formulations and was selected as the optimized formulation. IR analysis of physical mixture of drug and polymer and thin layer chromatography study exhibited compatibility between drug and polymer. From the outcome of this study, it can be concluded that applying suitable adhesive layer and backing membrane-developed DB/ERL100, transdermal patches can be of potential therapeutic use.

  3. Utilizing of 2-D resistivity with geotechnical method for sediment mapping in Sungai Batu, Kedah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taqiuddin, Z. M.; Rosli, S.; Nordiana, M. M.; Azwin, I. N.; Mokhtar, S.

    2017-07-01

    Sungai Batu is Lembah Bujang subdistrict, located at northern region of Peninsular Malaysia, recognized as an international cultural and commercial crossroad for 2000 years ago, and recorded as the oldest archaeological site in southeast Asia. The discovering of iron smelting area (1st-4th century) shows the evidence of important iron industry in Malay Peninsular to others civilization. Nowadays, a lot of interdisciplinary research was conducted in this area including geophysical prospect to understand the subsurface profile for this locality. Geophysical approach such as 2-D resistivity was performed with the main objective is to identify sediment deposit for this area. Three 2-D resistivity survey lines were design across borehole and data acquired using ABEM SAS4000 system with Pole-dipole array using 2.5 m minimum electrode spacing. The data obtained was process using Res2Dinv software to produce inversion model and Surfer10 software used for interpretation and correlation with respective borehole record. The 2-D resistivity inversion model shows that, the area dominated by clay soil with resistivity values of 500 Ωm interpreted as hard layer. The saturated zone (25 m which consider large volume of soil deposit during sedimentation process. The correlation with the borehole record shows that clay profile distributed at depth of >20 m. The present of shale in certain borehole record indicate that the environment deposit is clam/stagnant water condition during the formation process which suspected controlled by the deposition process from the land deposit.

  4. Porphyry copper assessment of the Mesozoic of East Asia: China, Vietnam, North Korea, Mongolia, and Russia: Chapter G in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludington, Steve; Mihalasky, Mark J.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Robinson, Giplin R.; Frost, Thomas P.; Gans, Kathleen D.; Light, Thomas D.; Miller, Robert J.; Alexeiev, Dmitriy V.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) collaborated with the China Geological Survey (CGS) to conduct a mineral resource assessment of Mesozoic porphyry copper deposits in East Asia. This area hosts several very large porphyry deposits, exemplified by the Dexing deposit in eastern China that contains more than 8,000,000 metric tons of copper. In addition, large parts of the area are undergoing active exploration and are likely to contain undiscovered porphyry copper deposits.

  5. PEMISAHAN ION KROM(III DAN KROM(IV DALAM LARUTAN DENGAN MENGGUNAKAN BIOMASSA ALGA HIJAU SPIROGYRA SUBSALSA SEBAGAI BIOSORBEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Mawardi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Karakteristik pemisahan ion Cr3+ dan Cr6+ dalam larutan melalui proses biosorpsi menggunakan biomassa alga hijau Spirogyra subsalsa dengan sistem batch telah diteliti. Dalam pelaksanaannya diawali dengan melakukan analisis kualitatif gugus fungsi dalam biomassa menggunakan instrumen FTIR, kemudian dipelajari karakteristik pengaruh variabel pH awal larutan, ukuran partikel biosorben, kecepatan pengadukan, pengaruh pemanasan biosorben, laju penyerapan, pengaruh konsentrasi larutan ion logam terhadap kapasitas serapan biomassa alga. Berdasarkan spektra spektroskopi FTIR dapat disimpulkan bahwa  biomassa alga hijau S. Subsalsa mengandung gugus-gugus karboksilat, amina, amida, amino, karbonil dan hidroksil, disamping adanya senyawa silikon, belerang dan fosfor. Hasil penelitian yang diperoleh  memperlihatkan bahwa kapasitas biosorpsi sangat dipengaruhi oleh pH larutan, waktu kontak dan konsentrasi awal larutan. Biosorpsi optimum kation Cr3+ terjadi pada pH 4,0 sedangkan ion Cr6+ terjadi pada pH 2,0 kemudian berkurang dejalan dengan naiknya pH larutan. Perhitungan dengan persamaan Isoterm Langmuir diperoleh data kapasitas serapan maksimum biomassa alga S. subsalsa untuk masing-masing ion Cr3+ dan Cr6+ adalah 1,82 mg (0,035 mmol dan 1,51 mg (0,029 mmol per gram biomassa kering. Kinetika biosorpsi berlangsung relatif cepat, dimana selama selang waktu 30 menit, masing-masing ion terserap sekitar 95,7%; dan 86,5%. Daya serap biomassa juga dipengaruhi kecepatan pengadukan, sedangkan faktor ukuran partikel dan pemanasan biosorben kurang mempengaruhi daya serap biomassa. Key Word : biosorpsi, spirogyra subsalsa, krom(III, krom(VI, sistem batchAbstract Separation of Ion Chromium(III and Chromium(IV In Solution Using Green Algae Biomass Spirogyra subsalsa as Biosorbent. The characteristics of Cr3+andCr6+ ion separation in solution through biosorption process using green algal biomass Spirogyrasubsalsa with batch systems have been investigated. The study

  6. KAJIAN FUNGSI EKOLOGI JALUR HIJAU JALAN SEBAGAI PENYANGGA LINGKUNGAN PADA TOL JAGORAWI (Study of the Ecological Function of Roadside Greenery as Environmental Buffer on Jagorawi Highway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imawan Wahyu Hidayat

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Tujuan studi ini adalah untuk mengevaluasi jalur hijau jalan Tol Jagorawi sebagai penyangga dan pendukung keamanan pengguna pada tiga fungsi utama, yaitu pereduksi polusi udara, peredam kebisingan, dan pembatas ruang. Studi lapangan dilaksanakan melalui tiga segmen pengamatan. Metode komparatif digunakan untuk mengukur kesesuaian dan ketepatan tanaman pada jalur hijau jalan Tol Jagorawi berdasarkan peraturan dan prinsip ilmu arsitektur lanskap. Hasil studi mengindikasikan bahwa pemilihan tanaman, struktur, pola, dan konfigurasinya tidak sesuai dan tidak tepat untuk mendukung fungsi-fungsi tersebut. Jalur hijau jalan pada seluruh segmen mencapai tingkatan sedang: 44,26% (I; 47,54%-50,32% (II; 49,35%-50,74% (III untuk pereduksi polusi udara, tingkatan buruk hingga baik: 32,67%-41,67% (I; 30,0% (II; 59,33%-69,67% (III untuk peredam kebisingan, tingkatan sedang hingga baik: 56,00%-57,33% (I; 57,69%-58,85% (II; 62,83%-69,67% (Ill untuk fungsi pembatas ruang, dan tingkatan sedang hingga baik: 56,00%-58,17% (I; 57,50%- 58,46% (II; 59,42% (III untuk fungsi estetika. Studi ini merekomendasikan bahwa perencanaan jalur hijau jalan yang baik memerlukan pemilihan tanamanyang tepat berdasarkan struktur, performa,pola penanaman, dan konfigurasinya untuk mencapai keefektifan peranjalur hijau jalan sebagai penyangga lingkungan dan mendukung keamanan pada Tol Jagorawi.   ABSTRACT The objectives of this study were to evaluate roadside greenery in Jagorawi Highway as buffer and supporting factor of user safety in three major functions, such as air pollutant reduction, noise abatement, and space barrier. Fieldwork study was conducted to three segments of observation. The comparative method used to measure plants suitability and compatibility in roadside greenery of Jagorawi Highway according to the regulations and principles of landscape architecture science. The study results indicated that plants selection, structures, patterns, and configurations were

  7. INTERSTOCK EFFECT ON THE GROWTH OF MANDARIN CV BATU 55, TANGERINE CV PONTIANAK AND LIME CV NIMAS PROPAGATED BY GRAFTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugiyatno A.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Japansche citroen (JC rootstock is still the main choice for producing citrus seeds for its high availability and compatibility. Other rootstocks have been used in the production, yet they produce unsatisfying results. Based on the theory, there is an alternative to use rootstock as interstock in order to stimulate the growth of scion. The objective of this reseach is to understand the effect of interstock on the growth of Mandarin cv. Batu 55, Tangerine cv. Pontianak and Lime cv. Nimas. This research was conducted in the screen house of Tlekung Experimental Field of Indonesian Citrus and Subtropical Fruits Research Institute (ICSFRI in Batu-East Java, located on 950 m asl, from January to April 2016. This research was arranged in a CRD design with 4 replications and 24 interstock-scion combination treatments. The interstocks used in this study were Carizzo citrange, Citrumello, Poncirus trifoliata, Volkameriana, Rough lemon, Troyer citrange, Kanci and control (JC combined with 3 scions namely Mandarin cv. Batu 55, Tangerine cv. Pontianak and Lime cv. Nimas propagated by grafting. The result showed the percentage of successful grafting ranged between 37.5% to 100%, while the percentage of the shoot formed on grafted plants was 75%-100%. The use of Poncirus trifoliata as interstock has stimulated fastest bud break on Tangerine cv. Pontianak in just 24.75 days while the Troyer citrange has stimulated better shoot growth in Lime cv. Nimas, resulted to the highest shoot around 52.20 cm which was significantly different from other treatments. Meanwhile, Carizzo citrange has been found to have some influences to the plant diameter and the number of leave of Lime cv. Nimas but showed insignificant effect on the growth of its own diameter. The use of interstock showed that it can be used to promote the growth of scion which usually has slow growth when it is directly grafted on the rootstock.

  8. Hydrothermal alteration mapping using ASTER data in Baogutu porphyry deposit, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Q; Zhang, B; Lu, L; Lin, Q

    2014-01-01

    Remote sensing plays an important role in mineral exploration. One of its proven applications is extracting host-rock lithology and alteration zones that are related to porphyry copper deposits. An Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) was used to map the Baogutu porphyry deposit alteration area. A circular alteration mineral zoning pattern was clearly observed in the classification result of potassic, phyllic, argillic, propylitic zones. The potassic is characterized by biotite and anhydrite with an absorption feature centered at 1.94 and 2.1um. The phyllic zone is characterized by illite and sericite that indicates an intense Al-OH absorption feature centered at 2.20um. The narrower argillic zone including kaolinite and alunite displays a secondary Al-OH absorption feature at 2.17 um. The mineral assemblages of the outer propylitic zone are epidote, chlorite and calcite that exhibit absorption features at 2.335um.The performance of Principal Component Analysis(PCA), Minimum Noise Fraction (MNF), band ratio(BR) and Constrained Energy Minimization(CEM) has been evaluated. These techniques identified new prospects of porphyry copper mineralization in the study areas. These results indicate that ASTER is a powerful tool in the initial steps of mineral exploration

  9. Slope monitoring by using 2-D resistivity method at Sungai Batu, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azman, Muhamad Iqbal Mubarak Faharul; Yusof, Azim Hilmy Mohd; Ismail, Nur Azwin; Ismail, Noer El Hidayah

    2017-07-01

    Slope is a dynamic system of geo-environmental phenomena that related to the movement of the soil and rock masses. In Pulau Pinang, the occurrence of slope related phenomena such as landslide and rock fall has become a huge issue especially during rainy season as the government would have to invest more for the people safety. 2-D resistivity method is one of the geophysical methods that can be applied to overcome this issue thus prepare countermeasure actions. Monitoring is one of the common acquisition technique that has been used in solving such issue. This technique was applied to identify and monitor changes at the suspected area and thus, countermeasure steps can be taken accordingly and not blindfolded. Starting from August until November 2016, a 200 m survey line of 2-D resistivity survey had been conducted monthly at Sungai Batu, Pulau Pinang slope for monitoring purpose. Three resistivity ranges were able to detect within the subsurface. Resistivity value of 250 - 400 Ωm indicated the low resistivity value and interpreted as the weak zone located at distance of 90 - 120 m with depth of 10 m. Intermediate resistivity value was interpreted as weathered granite zone with resistivity value of 400 - 1500 Ωm was found at almost along survey line. High resistivity value was > 5000 Ωm and interpreted as granitic bedrock located at depth of > 20 m. Aside from weathered granite zone and weak zone, a fracture was found develop over time at distance of 130 - 140 m. The features found have the potential to be the cause for slope failure phenomena to occur. As a conclusion, monitoring slope using 2-D resistivity method is a success and indeed helpful in overcome landslide and rock fall issue as a pre-countermeasure action.

  10. Magma Emplacement Rates and Porphyry Copper Deposits: Thermal Modelling of the Yerington Batholith, Nevada, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöpa, Anne; Annen, Catherine; Dilles, John H.; Sparks, R. Stephen J.; Blundy, Jon D.

    2017-04-01

    Many porphyry copper deposits are associated with granitoid plutons. Their genesis is attributed to the degassing of pluton-forming intermediate to silicic magma chambers. These plutons are commonly envisioned as resulting from the slow cooling and crystallization of large magma chambers. Most of the models combine the formation of ore deposits and the cooling of a magma chamber. However, they do not consider neither how typically hundreds of cubic kilometres of magma were emplaced into the upper crust, nor the prolonged growth of plutons involving simultaneous cooling and crystallization together with the release of exsolved volatiles, which may contribute to ore formation. We use numerical simulations of thermal evolution due to pluton growth to investigate the links between pluton construction, magma accumulation, solidification, volatile exsolution, volatile release and porphyry copper formation. The Jurassic Yerington batholith in western Nevada, USA, is used as a case study because it is associated with economic porphyry copper deposits, it shows an exceptional exposure revealing the geometry of the intrusion, and petrological and geochronological analysis have shed light on its emplacement style and duration. Our conductive heat flow model simulates the growth of the ˜1000 km3 batholith emplaced at 2-8 km crustal depth by step-wise intrusions of vertically stacked sills. Different emplacement rates and repose times of no melt injection between the three main Yerington intrusions were tested. Our numerical simulations show that to comply with the conceptual model linking porphyry copper deposits with the presence of large, highly molten magma chambers, magmas must be emplaced at a high rate of several cm/yr. In plutonic records, such high rates are uncommon. It follows that either the current conceptual model is incorrect or that porphyry copper deposits are only produced by the rare, rapidly emplaced plutons. The fact that many granitoid plutons are barren

  11. Penggunaan Limbah Hasil Pembakaran Batu Bara dan Sugar Cane Bagasse Ash (SCBA pada Paving Geopolimer dengan Proses Steam Curing

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    Dimas Setiyo Nugroho

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Bottom ash merupakan limbah sisa pembakaran batu bara disamping fly ash yang saat ini tidak banyak dimanfaatkan. Di dalam penelitian ini bahan dasar yang digunakan adalah bottom ash dan larutan alkali sebagai pengikat untuk membuat bahan dasar paving geopolimer. Abu batu digunakan sebagai filler. Selain itu bahan lain yang digunakan adalah SCBA (Sugar Cane Bagasse Ash / abu ampas tebu untuk menambah sumber silika aktif pada bottom ash. Sebelum digunakan SCBA dikalsinasi pada suhu 850oC selama 7 jam. Dalam penelitian ini, benda uji yang digunakan adalah paving berukuran 20cm x 10cm x 8cm. Selain itu dibuat variasi pembakaran SCBA antara lain 450oC selama 6 jam; 600oC selama 3 jam; dan 850oC selama 3 jam sebagai pembanding. Paving yang terbuat dari fly ash dari PT. Petrokimia digunakan sebagai pembanding terhadap bottom ash. Seluruh paving dicetak dengan menggunakan alat pres manual di laboratorium. Didapat hasil bahwa semakin banyak berat SCBA dalam campuran, akan menurunkan kualitas paving. Kuat tekan maksimum terdapat pada variasi 0% SCBA pada umur 28 hari dengan kuat tekan rata-rata sebesar 9.65 MPa, resapan air sebesar 8.68%, dan ketahanan aus sebesar 0.61 mm/menit. Disimpulkan bahwa, perawatan steam tidak memberikan hasil yang lebih baik dibandingkan paving geopolimer yang tidak di-steam.

  12. Magma Fertility is the First-Order Factor for the Formation of Porphyry Cu±Au Deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J. W.; Campbell, I. H.; Malaviarachchi, S. P. K.; Cocker, H.; Nakamura, E.; Kay, S. M.

    2017-12-01

    Magma fertility, the metal abundance in magma, has been considered to be one of the key factors for the formation of porphyry Cu±Au deposits. In this study we provide clear evidence to support the hypothesis that the platinum group element (PGE) can be used to distinguish barren from ore-bearing Cu±Au felsic suites. We determined the PGE contents of three barren volcanic and subvolcanic suites from Argentina and Japan, and compare the results with two porphyry Cu-bearing subvolcanic suites from Chile and two porphyry Cu-Au-bearing suites from Australia. The barren suites are significantly depleted in PGE abundances by the time of fluid exsolution, which is attributed to early sulfide saturation at mid to lower crust depths or assimilation of chalcophile element-poor crustal materials. Barren magma, produced by melting continental crust, may have been initially deficient in chalcophile elements. In contrast, the Cu±Au ore-bearing suites contain at least an order of magnitude higher PGE contents than those of the barren suites by the time of fluid saturation. They are characterized by late sulfide saturation in a shallow magma chamber, which allows the chalcophile elements to concentrate in the fractionating magma from which they are sequestered by ore-forming fluids. We suggest the Pd/MgO and Pd/Pt ratios of igneous rocks can be used as magma fertility indicators, and to distinguish between barren, porphyry Cu and porphyry Cu-Au magmatic systems.

  13. Porphyry copper assessment of Europe, exclusive of the Fennoscandian Shield: Chapter K in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutphin, David M.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Drew, Lawrence J.; Large, Duncan E.; Berger, Byron R.; Dicken, Connie L.; DeMarr, Michael W.; with contributions from Billa, Mario; Briskey, Joseph A.; Cassard, Daniel; Lips, Andor; Pertold, Zdeněk; Roşu, Emilian

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) collaborated with European geologists to assess resources in porphyry copper deposits in Europe, exclusive of Scandinavia (Sweden, Denmark, Norway, and Finland) and Russia. Porphyry copper deposits in Europe are Paleozoic and Late Cretaceous to Miocene in age. A number of the 31 known Phanerozoic deposits contain more than 1 million metric tons of contained copper, including the Majdanpek deposit, Serbia; Assarel, Bulgaria; Skouries, Greece; and Rosia Poeni, Romania. Five geographic areas were delineated as permissive tracts for post-Paleozoic porphyry copper deposits. Two additional tracts were delineated to show the extent of permissive igneous rocks associated with porphyry copper mineralization related to the Paleozoic Caledonian and Variscan orogenies. The tracts are based on mapped and inferred subsurface distributions of igneous rocks of specific age ranges that define areas where the occurrence of porphyry copper deposits within 1 kilometer of the Earth’s surface is possible. These tracts range in area from about 4,000 to 93,000 square kilometers. Although maps at a variety of different scales were used in the assessment, the final tract boundaries are intended for use at a scale of 1:1,000,000.

  14. Pengaruh Selang Waktu Peletakkan Terhadap Keberhasilan Penetasan Telur Penyu Hijau (Chelonia mydas L. (Effect of Planting Time on Egg Hatching Success of Green Turtle (Chelonia mydas L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edi Wibowo Kushartono

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Salah satu usaha konservasi melindungi Penyu hijau (Chelonia mydas L. yaitu dengan tindakan relokasi dengan memindahkan telur dari sarang alami ke tempat penetasan semi alami. Waktu pemindahan dan peletakan telur yang tepat sangat diperlukan untuk memperoleh daya tetas maksimal. Tujuan penelitian ini untuk mengetahui pengaruh selang waktu peletakan telur Penyu Hijau terhadap keberhasilan penetasannya. Rancangan penelitian adalah Rancangan Acak Kelompok berdasarkan 3 induk yang berbeda dengan perlakuan selang waktu peletakan yaitu 2, 7 dan 12 jam. Pengukuran dan pengamatan kondisi lingkungan dilakukan selama inkubasi. Pengamatan munculnya tukik mulai dilakukan pada hari ke 50 masa inkubasi.  Pembongkaran sarang dilakukan pada hari ke 60 masa inkubasi kemudian dilakukan pembedahan secara manual untuk mengamati telur yang gagal menetas. Hasil menunjukkan bahwa tidak ada pengaruh nyata secara signifikan adanya perbedaan selang waktu peletakan terhadap keberhasilan penetasan dan keberhasilan kemunculan. Namun selang waktu peletakan dengan nilai yang baik ditunjukkan pada 2 jam, dilanjutkan dengan 12 jam dan 7 jam. Kata kunci: penetasan, penyu hijau (Chelonia mydas L., semi alami One of the conservation efforts undertaken to protect the green turtle (C. mydas L. is by relocation of the nest where the eggs are removed from natural to semi-natural hatchery. A right time for the removal and burial of eggs are needed to obtain maximum hatching rate. The purpose of this study is to determine the impact of interval laying period on the hatching success of the green turtle eggs. Randomized block design is used which is based on three different turtles with treatment interval of burying, which is 2, 7, and 12 h. Measurements and observations were made during the environmental conditions of the incubation period. Observations hatchling emergence started on day 50 of incubation. Nest destruction was conducted on the 60th day incubation then eggs that failed to

  15. Petrogenesis of Quebrada de la Mina and Altar North porphyries (Cordillera of San Juan, Argentina: Crustal assimilation and metallogenic implications

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    Laura Maydagán

    2017-09-01

    Fluids that precipitated sulfides in the Altar deposit may have remobilized Pb from the host rocks, as indicated by the ore minerals being more radiogenic (207Pb/204Pb = 15.6243–15.6269 than their host intrusions. Au/Cu ratio in Altar porphyries (average Au/Cu ratio of 0.14 × 10−4 by weight in Altar Central is higher than in the giant Miocene porphyry deposits located to the south: Los Pelambres, Río Blanco and Los Bronces (Chile and Pachón (Argentina. We suggest that the increase in Au content in the porphyries of this region could be linked to the assimilation of high radiogenic Pb components in the magmas within these long-lived maturation systems.

  16. Porphyry copper assessment of the Tethys region of western and southern Asia: Chapter V in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zürcher, Lukas; Bookstrom, Arthur A.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Mars, John C.; Ludington, Stephen; Zientek, Michael L.; Dunlap, Pamela; Wallis, John C.; Drew, Lawrence J.; Sutphin, David M.; Berger, Byron R.; Herrington, Richard J.; Billa, Mario; Kuşcu, Ilkay; Moon, Charles J.; Richards, Jeremy P.; Zientek, Michael L.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Johnson, Kathleen M.

    2015-11-18

    A probabilistic mineral resource assessment of undiscovered resources in porphyry copper deposits in the Tethys region of western and southern Asia was carried out as part of a global mineral resource assessment led by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The purpose of the study was to delineate geographic areas as permissive tracts for the occurrence of porphyry copper deposits at a scale of 1:1,000,000 and to provide probabilistic estimates of amounts of copper likely to be contained in undiscovered porphyry copper deposits in those tracts. The team did the assessment using the USGS three-part form of mineral resource assessment, which is based on (1) mineral deposit and grade-tonnage models constructed from known deposits as analogs for undiscovered deposits, (2) delineation of permissive tracts based on geoscientific information, and (3) estimation of numbers of undiscovered deposits.

  17. Petrogenesis of the Pulang porphyry complex, southwestern China: Implications for porphyry copper metallogenesis and subduction of the Paleo-Tethys Oceanic lithosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peng; Dong, Guo-Chen; Zhao, Guo-Chun; Han, Yi-Gui; Li, Yong-Ping

    2018-04-01

    The Pulang complex is located in the southern segment of the Yidun Arc in the Sanjiang Tethys belt, southwestern China. It is composed of quartz diorite, quartz monzonite and granodiorite porphyries, and hosts the super-large Pulang deposit. This study presents new U-Pb geochronological, major-trace elemental and Sr-Nd-Hf isotopic data to constrain the petrogenesis of the Pulang complex and to evaluate its significances for porphyric mineralization and tectonic evolution of the Paleo-Tethys Ocean. The zircon U-Pb dating yields ages ranging from 208 Ma to 214 Ma. Geochemically, the Pulang complex has high Sr and MgO contents, and high Sr/Y and La/Yb ratios, but low Yb and Y contents, displaying adakitic affinities. However, it has moderate Sr/Y and La/Yb ratios, and high Rb contents (32 to 202 ppm). The Pulang samples plot into the transitional field between adakites and normal arc rocks, differing from typical adakites. It is attributed to the assimilation of 10-15% crustal components. The zircon εHf(t) (-4.6 to -2.5), whole-rock (87Sr/86Sr)i (0.7052 to 0.7102), εNd(t) (-0.62 to 2.12) values and adakitic affinities suggest that the Pulang complex was derived from a basaltic slab-melt source and reacted with peridotite during ascending through an enriched asthenospheric mantle wedge. The basaltic slab-melts likely resulted from the westward subduction of the Ganzi-Litang oceanic plate (a branch of the Paleo-Tethys). As far as the metallogenesis concerned, three factors in mineralization are proposed in this paper. The country rock, quartz diorite porphyry, has higher Cu contents than the mantle (average 30 ppm), suggesting that ore-forming magma was derived from a Cu-enriched source, which is a crucial contribution to the late mineralization to form the super-large Pulang deposit. In addition, the barren quartz diorite, granodiorite, and ore-bearing quartz monzonite porphyries are all characterized by high oxygen fugacity, which is another important factor for the

  18. The Effects of Treatments on Batu Banana Flour and Percentage of Wheat Substitution on The Resistant Starch, In Vitro Starch Digestibility Content and Palatability of Cookies Made with Banana (Musa balbisiana Colla) Flour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnasari, D.; Rustanti, N.; Arifan, F.; Afifah, DN

    2018-02-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is the most common endocrine disease worldwide. Resistant starch is polysaccharide that is recommended for DM patient diets. One of the staple crops containing resistant starch is banana. It is the fourth most important staple crop in the world and critical for food security, best suited plant in warm, frost-free, and coastal climates area. Among banana varieties, Batu bananas (Musa balbisiana Colla) had the highest content of resistant starch (~39%), but its use as a food ingredient is limited. Inclusion of Batu banana flour into cookies manufacturing would both increase the economic value of Batu bananas and provide alternative snacks for DM patients. Here we sought to examine whether cookies made with modified Batu banana flour would be a suitable snack for DM patients. This study used a completely randomized design with two factors: substitution of Batu banana flour (25%, 50%,75%) for wheat-based flour and Batu banana flour treatment methods (no treatment, autoclaving-cooling, autoclaving-cooling-spontaneous fermentation). The resistant starch and in vitro starch digestibility levels were analyzed using two-way ANOVA and Tukey test, whereas the acceptance level was analyzed by Friedman and Wilcoxon tests. The content of resistant starch and in vitro starch digestibility of the different treatments ranged from 3.10 to 15.79% and 16.03 to 52.59%, respectively. Both factors differed significantly (p0.05). Meanwhile, palatability in terms of color, aroma, texture, and flavor differed significantly among the different treatments and starch contents (p<0.05). Together these results show that Batu banana flour could be a promising ingredient for the production of snacks suitable for consumption by DM patients. Keywords: Batu banana, cookies, resistant starch, in vitro starch digestibility

  19. A new look on Imperial Porphyry: a famous ancient dimension stone from the Eastern Desert of Egypt—petrogenesis and cultural relevance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu El-Enen, Mahrous M.; Lorenz, Joachim; Ali, Kamal A.; von Seckendorff, Volker; Okrusch, Martin; Schüssler, Ulrich; Brätz, Helene; Schmitt, Ralf-Thomas

    2018-03-01

    Imperial Porphyry, a famous dimension stone of spectacular purple color, was quarried in the Mons Porphyrites area north of Jabal Dokhan in the Eastern Desert of Egypt, from the beginning of the first until the middle of the fifth century AD. During this period, the valuable material was processed as decorative stone and was used for objects of art, reserved exclusively for the Imperial court of the Roman Empire. Later on, only antique spoils of smaller or bigger size have been re-used for these purposes. The Imperial Porphyry is a porphyritic rock of trachyandesitic to dacitic composition that occurs in the uppermost levels of shallow subvolcanic sill-like intrusions, forming a member of the Dokhan Volcanic Suite. Its purple color is mainly due to dispersed flakes of hematite, resulting from hydrothermal alteration of a dark green Common Porphyry of similar composition, underlying the Imperial Porphyry. Both, the Common Porphyry and the purple Imperial Porphyry', are extensively exposed in the Roman quarries. Contacts between Common and Imperial Porphyry are irregular and gradational. In both rock types, intrusive breccias are frequent, indicating a complex intrusion history. U-Th-Pb zircon geochronology on two samples of Imperial Porphyry and one sample of the Common Porphyry yielded an age range of 609-600 Ma, thus confirming earlier results of radiometric dating. Geochemical evidence indicates that both the Imperial and the Common Porphyry are of medium- to high-K calc-alkaline affinity. The magmas have formed by partial melting of a subduction-modified upper mantle. The subsequent intrusion took place within a highly extended terrane (HET).

  20. PENGEMBANGAN MEDIA BERBASIS MULTIMEDIA INTERAKTIF UNTUK MENINGKATKAN PEMAHAMAN SISWA MAN 2 BATU MATERI KINGDOM ANIMALIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feni Nur’ain

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Learning biology plays an important role in the educational process as well as the development of technology, because biology has an effort for human to generate interest in science and technology development.Various issues that arise in school in biology learning materials associated with the Kingdom Animalia and the material is very much difficult for students to understand and time limitations in the learning process. So there should be used development of teaching media to overcome this. The purpose of this study are: (1 to know the effectiveness of the implementation of teaching media development, (2 to know the level of students understanding by using the application of teaching media development. This type of research is development research or Research and Development (R & D. the development used is based on the development steps from Borg & Gall (1983 modified from Sukmadinata (2010 which includes three steps, namely: preliminary study, development and validation. To determine the effectiveness of the implementation of teaching media development is done by giving the questionnaire to students. To determine the level of students understanding performed pretest and posttest. The research was conducted on 28 March to 29 September 2013 at MAN 2 Batu Malang. The results of this development in the form of teaching media product Biology that has been through some trials and revisions of the experts and students. Based on the feasibility of media experts, subject matter experts, and students teaching media are stated that it is very viable and effective used in learning. Based on the experimental test on class treatment there was an increasing students' understanding of the material of the Kingdom Animalia that is the average value before using the media (pretest increased from 41.60 to 90.3 after using the media (posttest, while the control class average value before reading textbooks (pretest increased from 48.80 to 68.60 (posttest after

  1. Instalasi Buku dari Batu sebagai Representasi Reinkarnasi Ilmu dalam Pengkaryaan Tiga Dimensi Seni Patung Kontemporer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Aries Setiadi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Penemuan tulisan telah membawa cahaya peradaban kedalam kehidupan manusia, penemuan yang telah ada lebih dari 5000 tahun yang lampau tersebut memungkinkan pelestarian buah pikiran maupun pengalaman, dan pewarisan kebijaksanaan yang telah diperoleh kepada generasi berikutnya. Tulisan-tulisan tersebut awalnya hanya berupa lembaran atau lempengan yang terpisah, namun seiring dengan perubahan jaman dan kebutuhannya maka lempengan batu dan tanah berubah menjadi lembaran kulit, daun, maupun kayu. Media kulit, kayu, serta daun kemuadian tidak lagi dipakai dan kertas menjadi media utama. Kumpulan kertas tersebut disatukan dalam jumlah yang banyak yang kita kenal saat ini sebagai wujud buku. Sesuai kebutuhan zamannya, wujud buku secara fisik sudah mengalami beberapa kali perubahan namun secara fungsi buku tetap sebagai medium untuk dibaca dan dituliskan sesuatu. Berdasarkan fakta tersebut, kita perlu menyadari bahwa peran buku selama sejarah manusia akan tetap sama, yaitu sebagai media transfer ilmu pengetahuan, baik dengan cara penulisan ilmiah, novel, dongeng, maupun ayat-ayat kitab suci. Peranan buku terhadap perubahan sangatlah signifikan. Berapa banyak buku yang dapat mempengaruhi pemikiran orang lain. Berapa banyak orang yang dapat dipengaruhi pikirannya oleh satu buku yang berkualitas. Berapa banyak perubahan yang diawali oleh satu tulisan. Buku sebagai objek karya merupakan kumpulan sebuah tulisan perwujudan buah pikiran maupun pengalaman yang tersusun dari berbagai kalimat, terdiri atas kata-kata yang terbentuk akibat susunan huruf dan menghasilkan makna. Secara harfiah buku itu sendiri terdiri atas sampul depan, halaman-halaman isi yang dilambangkan dengan tumpukan lembaran kertas, ketebalan jilid, judul buku dan pengarang pada sampul depan dan pada ketebalan jilid. Seiring  perkembangan buku secara fisik, dari awal penciptaannya hingga kini, telah banyak tulisan tentang perasaan, ide,dan  pengalaman diungkapkan. Selama itu pula telah

  2. Hydrothermal Fluid evolution in the Dalli porphyry Cu-Au Deposit: Fluid Inclusion microthermometry studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Zarasvandi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction A wide variety of world-class porphyry Cu deposits occur in the Urumieh-Dohktar magmatic arc (UDMA of Iran.The arc is composed of calc-alkaline granitoid rocks, and the ore-hosting porphyry intrusions are dominantly granodiorite to quartz-monzonite (Zarasvandi et al., 2015. It is believed that faults played an important role in the emplacement of intrusions and subsequentporphyry-copper type mineralization (Shahabpour, 1999. Three main centers host the porphyry copper mineralization in the UDMA: (1 Ardestan-SarCheshmeh-Kharestan zone, (2 Saveh-Ardestan district; in the central parts of the UDMA, hosting the Dalli porphyry Cu-Au deposit, and (3 Takab-Mianeh-Qharahdagh-Sabalan zone. Mineralized porphyry coppersystems in the UDMA are restricted to Oligocene to Mioceneintrusions and show potassic, sericitic, argillic, propylitic and locally skarn alteration (Zarasvandi et al., 2005; Zarasvandi et al., 2015. In the Dalli porphyry deposit, four hydrothermal alteration zones, includingpotassic, sericitic, propylitic, and argillic types have been described in the two discrete mineralized areas, namely, northern and southern stocks. Hypogenemineralization includes chalcopyrite, pyrite, and magnetite, with minor occurrences of bornite.Supergene activity has produced gossan, oxidized minerals and enrichment zones. The supergene enrichment zone contains chalcocite and covellite with a 10-20 m thickness. Mineralization in the northern stock is mainly composed of pyrite and chalcopyrite. The aim of this study is the investigation and classification of hydrothermal veins and the constraining of physicochemical compositions of ore-forming fluids using systematic investigation of fluid inclusions. Materials and methods Twenty samples were collected from drill holes. Thin and polished sections were prepared from hydrothermal veins of thepotassic, sericitic and propylitic alteration zones. Samples used for fluid inclusion measurements were collected

  3. Analysis of cattle breeder’s income in South Kualuh sub-district of Labuhan Batu Utara Regency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasnudi; Berutu, I. S.; Daulay, A. H.; Ginting, N.; Sembiring, I.

    2018-02-01

    Beef cattle breeding is a business of the majority people in South Kualuh Subdistrict among others business. Therefore it is necessary to know the people income of beef cattle farms in the district. This research was conducted in South Kualuh Subdistrict of Labuhan Batu Utara Regency of North Sumatera Province from October to December 2016. This research used survey method with family respondent unit that raising beef cattle. The sample was obtained through Proportional Stratified Random Sampling method and obtained by 97 farmers such as, from Tanjung Pasir village, 64 respondents, Simangalam village was 24 respondents and Lobu Huala village was 9 respondents. Data was analysed by multiple linear regression analysis. The results showed that scale of business, education of farmers positively affect the income of beef cattle farms while the age, breeding experience and the number of family dependents negatively affect to the income of beef cattle farms.

  4. PEMBUATAN BIOETANOL DARI ALGA Codium geppiorum DAN PEMANFAATAN BATU KAPUR NUSA PENIDA TERAKTIVASI UNTUK MENINGKATKAN KUALITAS BIOETANOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Wayan Karta

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK: Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh variasi konsentrasi penambahan ragi tape dan waktu fermentasi terhadap kadar etanol dalam pembuatan bioetanol berbahan alga Codium geppiorum, dan pengaruh variasi suhu aktivasi dan massa batu kapur Nusa Penida dalam meningkatkan kadar etanol. Penelitian adalah True Experiment dengan Rancangan Acak Lengkap (RAL pola faktorial 3 x 4 yang terdiri dari dua faktor. Kadar etanol diukur dengan Gas Chromatography Varian 3300 dan dianalisis dengan Anava dua jalur menggunakan software SPSS 17.0. Hasil penelitian pada kadar etanol hasil fermentasi menunjukkan nilai Fhitung > Ftabel (38,212 > 2,51 dengan probabilitas 0,000 yang berarti adanya interaksi antara variasi konsentrasi ragi dan waktu fermentasi. Perlakuan yang optimum diperoleh pada W3D3 (waktu 7 hari dan konsentrasi 20% yaitu dengan rata-rata 3,03% dari massa sampel alga 25 gram. Hasil penelitian dehidrasi etanol menunjukkan nilai Fhitung > Ftabel (3,082 > 2,51 dengan probabilitas 0,022 yang berarti terdapat interaksi antara suhu aktivasi dan massa batu kapur dalam dehidrasi etanol. Perlakuan yang optimum adalah M1T1 (massa 50 gram dan suhu 800oC dengan rata-rata kadar etanol 99,15 %. Aplikasi batu kapur dengan dehidrasi optimum mampu meningkatkan kadar bioetanol dari 28,92% menjadi 83,78%. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian disimpulkan bahwa variasi konsentrasi ragi tape dan waktu fermentasi berpengaruh signifikan terhadap kadar etanol yang dihasilkan pada pembuatan bioetanol berbahan alga Codium geppiorum; dan variasi suhu aktivasi dan massa batu kapur berpengaruh signifikan dalam meningkatkan kadar etanol.  ABSTRACT: The aims of this research are to determine the effect of the concentration of yeast addition and length of fermentation on the amount of ethanol produced in the fermentation of algae Codium geppiorum and the effect of activation temperature and the amount of Nusa Penida’s limestone on the concentration of ethanol in the

  5. PENGEMBANGAN HANDOUT BERBASIS KONTEKSTUAL PADA PELAJARAN BIOLOGI MATERI BIOTEKNOLOGI UNTUK SISWA KELAS XII SMK NEGERI 02 BATU

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    Fega Rahmayani

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The teaching learning activity in SMK is inappropriate with the purpose of teaching and learning in SMK, which the students are taught to be able to apply the materials in the real life. Teaching material is taken from the biology book of SMA that the content is theoretically, so the explanation on the material is unsuitable and not applicative that makes the student less in ability and skill for application in daily life. From the problem above, this research purpose on developing the contextual basic handout of the biological course in biotechnology material in SMK N 02 Batu.This research is developing research based on research and development by Sugiyono’s model that use a few developing steps, those are: (1 Potential and problem, (2 Collecting data, (3 Product design, (4 Validation design, (5 Design revision, (6 Try out the product, (7 Product revision. The data collecting methods is using validation from the expert of handout, material expert and try out to the study club. The technique of analyze data using quantitative and qualitative data. The result of quantitative data is the percentage of handout product value that classify in the handout quality and the result of qualitative data come from comment and advise of validator and try out in SMK.The result quality of the handout found that the developing contextual basic handout reach out the good quality after following the procedure of validation with percentage 80.90% and try out to the student that use the handout with percentage very good, 97.75% and get the positive respond from student with percentage 90.82%. From the whole of the contextual basic handout have a good quality and appropriate in use for teaching material of Biology in teaching learning process in SMK N 02 Batu.

  6. Organic petrological and organic geochemical characterisation of the Tertiary coal-bearing sequence of Batu Arang, Selangor, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan Hasiah, Abdullah; Abolins, Peter

    1998-08-01

    The Tertiary coal-bearing sequence at Batu Arang in Selangor, Peninsular Malaysia consists of a sandstone-coal-oil shale facies assemblage. A detailed organic petrological and organic geochemical study was carried out on several organic-rich sediments from this sequence. The oil shales are dominated by Botryococcus-derived telalginite and Pediastrum-derived lamalginite. The coals, hypautochthonous in origin, are mainly duroclarite-type, although other minor microlithotypes also occur. Alginite is not observed in the coals, but other liptinitic constituents are very common, particularly thin-walled cutinite and sporinite. The oil shales and the coals are thermally immature. This immaturity has a considerable influence on the biomarker distributions, particularly so on the triterpanes which are dominated by C 31αβ 22R and C 30ββ compounds. Interestingly, for Tertiary aged sediments of continental origin, the diagnostic biomarker compounds such as 18 α(H)-oleanane and bicadinanes, normally linked to the higher land plant group of angiosperms, are not observed in the samples analysed. Tricyclic terpanes occur only in very low relative abundance or are virtually absent. A clear distinction, however, in the biomarker distributions of the shales and the coals/carbargilite can be made based upon the distribution of C 27-C 29 regular steranes: the shales, with a source input being predominantly planktonic algae, are dominated by 5 α(H),14 α(H),17 α(H) 20R cholestane, while the coals/carbargilites, with a source input consisting mainly of higher plant material, are dominated by 5 α(H),14 α(H),17 α(H) 20R ethyl cholestane. The depositional environment of the Batu Arang coal-bearing sequence is interpreted as varying from an alluvial flood plain peat-swamp to fluvio-lacustrine depositional setting.

  7. SUMBER DAYA ALAM UNTUK KESEJAHTERAAN PENDUDUK LOKAL: Studi Analisis Dampak Pertambangan Batu Bara Di Empat Kecamatan Area Kalimantan Timur, Indonesia

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    Rahmad Budi Suharto

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to provethe famous, so called: resource curse hypothesis is really exist in Indonesia. In contrast to empirical studies typically use an econometric methods, we choose alternative, to use a field survey approach to interview and photograph the factual conditions that occur. We chose coal mining in Kalimantan corridor with four sample sub-district (kabupaten and cities in the province of East Kalimantan (Kutai regency and the city of Samarinda as an object of research. More specifically, the purpose of this study is to answer the question: whether the coal mining activities affect (positive or negative for the population in the surrounding area. Primarily concerned with the social and economic dimensions such as environmental quality, livelihoods and the shift pattern, cost of living, income, employment opportunities and openness sought. The results show facts from field, the implications and provide insight to the truth of the resource curse hypothesis debate. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk membuktikan hipotesis kutukan sumber daya alam (natural resource curse hypothesis berlaku di Indonesia. Berbeda dengan penelitian empiris yang biasanya menggunakan pendekatan ekonometrik, kami memilih menggunakan pendekatan survei lapangan dengan wawancara dan memotret langsung kondisi faktual yang terjadi. Kami memilih pertambangan batu bara di koridor Kalimantan dengan empat sampel  wilayah kecamatan kabupaten dan kota di Provinsi Kalimantan Timur (Kabupaten Kutai Kartanegara dan Kota Samarinda sebagai obyek penelitian. Lebih spesifik, tujuan penelitian ini untuk menjawab pertanyaan: apakah kegiatan pertambangan batu bara memberi dampak perubahan (positif atau negatif bagi penduduk lokal di sekitar area terdampak. Terutama berkaitan dengan dimensi sosial dan ekonomi di antaranya seperti kualitas lingkungan, mata pencaharian dan pola pergeserannya, biaya hidup, penghasilan, kesempatan kerja dan keterbukaan berusaha. Hasil penelitian

  8. Gold concentrations of magmatic brines and the metal budget of porphyry copper deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich, T.; Günther, D.; Heinrich, C. A.

    1999-06-01

    Porphyry copper-molybdenum-gold deposits are the most important metal resources formed by hydrothermal processes associated with magmatism. It remains controversial, however, whether the metal content of porphyry-style and other magmatic-hydrothermal deposits is dominantly controlled by metal partitioning between magma and an exsolving magmatic fluid phase, or by scavenging of metals from solid upper-crustal rocks by surface-derived fluids. It also remains unknown to what degree the metal content in such deposits is affected by selective mineral precipitation from the ore fluid. Extremely saline fluids, precipitating quartz and ore minerals in veins have been inferred to have a significant magma-derived component, on the basis of geological, isotopic, and experimental evidence,. Here we report gold and copper concentrations of single fluid inclusions in quartz, determined by laser-ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The results show that the Au/Cu ratio of primary high-temperature brines is identical to the bulk Au/Cu ratio in two of the world's largest copper-gold ore bodies. This indicates that the bulk metal budget of such deposits is primarily controlled by the composition of the incoming fluid, which is, in turn, likely to be controlled by the crystallization process in an underlying magma chamber.

  9. Petrogenesis of skarn related Cu-porphyry intrusion deposit, Ali-Abad- Darreh Zereshk, Yazd

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    Batoul Taghipour

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The study area is a part of Cenozoic magmatic belt of Central Iran, which is located in the West of Yazd porovince. Contact metamorphism and skarn occurred in conglomerate part of Sngestan Formation. The Oligocene intrusion bodies of Ali-Abad-Darreh Zereshk are leucocerate and have the chemical composition of granite to granodiorite with calc-alkaline affinity from volcanic arc geological setting. The main mineral assemblage of skarn in order of imprtance is as follow: Garnet + epidote + quartz + calcite + pyrite + iron oxides. Brown garnets are the skarn characteristic mineral. EPMA analysis has shown that the chemical composition with garnet belong to andradite-grossular solid-solution (And 65, Gross 30 with more andradite component. The high permeability and presence of carbonate pebbles in conglomerate are two important factors for fluid flow and genesis of garnets. Distinct oscillatory zoning in garnets is resulted from the change of fO2 in fluids. The evolution of Ali-Abad skarn is took place in the range of 380 to 530 ºC, 0.5 Kbar pressure and high fO2. Also close association of this skarn with Ali-Abad intrusive with Cu-porphyry mineralization shows that this skarn is a Cu-porphyry type skarn.

  10. Gold in primary high thermal transformations of the Au porphyry deposit Biely vrch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozak, J.; Kodera, P.; Lexa, J.; Chovan, M.

    2014-01-01

    Porphyry gold deposit Biely vrch is situated in northern part of the Javorie stratovolcano in eastern part of Central Slovakia Volcanic Field. Intrusion of diorite to andesite porphyry with andesites is affected by hydrothermal alterations with dominant intermediate argillic alteration. Accumulations of gold are spatially associated with stockwork, formed by different types of quartz veinlets. Gold grains occur in altered rocks in the vicinity of quartz veinlets and rarely also as inclusions in vein. Analysed gold grains are chemically very homogenous and have fineness between 87 to 99.50 wt % Au while silver is the only significant element in addition to gold. In deeper parts of the deposit gold also occurs associated with K and Ca-Na silicate alteration which confirms precipitation of gold already in early stages of the hydrothermal system from high salinity Fe-K rich salt melt based on analyses of corresponding fluid inclusions. Difference in the fineness of gold is not significant between primary and secondary hydrothermal alterations. The highest fineness of gold (more than 99 wt %) in advanced argillic alteration is probably caused by remobilisation by acidic hydrothermal fluids. (authors)

  11. Porphyry copper deposit formation by sub-volcanic sulphur dioxide flux and chemisorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henley, Richard W.; King, Penelope L.; Wykes, Jeremy L.; Renggli, Christian J.; Brink, Frank J.; Clark, David A.; Troitzsch, Ulrike

    2015-03-01

    Porphyry copper deposits--the primary source of the world’s copper--are a consequence of the degassing of intrusion complexes in magmatic arcs associated with ancient subduction zones. They are characterized by copper and iron sulphides, commonly found with anhydrite (CaSO4), over scales of several kilometres through intensely altered and fractured rocks. The magmatic source of the metals is broadly understood, but the processes that transport and deposit the metals at the megaton scale are unclear. The hydrogen sulphide necessary for metal deposition is commonly assumed to form by a reaction between sulphur dioxide and water, but this reaction is inefficient and cannot explain the formation of economic-grade deposits. Here we use high-temperature laboratory experiments to show that a very rapid chemisorption reaction occurs between sulphur dioxide gas, a principal component of magmatic gas mixtures, and calcic feldspar, an abundant mineral in the arc crust. The chemisorption reaction generates the mineral anhydrite and hydrogen sulphide gas, and triggers deposition of metal sulphides. We use thermodynamic calculations to show that as magmatic gas cools and expands the concentration of hydrogen sulphide gas increases exponentially to drive efficient deposition of metal sulphides and consequent formation of economic-grade porphyry copper deposits.

  12. Pengaruh Word Of Mouth Terhadap Minat Beli Konsumen Baraya Travel Pool Buah Batu (Studi Pada Mahasiswa Administrasi Bisnis Universitas Telkom Angkatan 2013

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    Revina Anisa Agnelia

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze the effect of Word of Mouth towards Buah Batu Baraya Travel Consumer Purchase Intention. The method that being used is descriptive - causal. The sampling technique that being used is nonprobability sampling with the sampling method incidental sampling. The data collection is done by distributing questionnaires to 100 Students of Business Administration Student 2013 of Telkom University that know Baraya Travel pool Buah Batu. Data analysis technique that being used is simple linear regression analysis. Based on the results, it can be concluded that the Word of Mouth has positive effect on Baraya Travel consumer purchase intention. Based on the coefficient of determination (R2 calculation can be known the magnitude of the effect of word of mouth (X variable on purchase intention (Y was 32.9%. While the remaining 67.1% is influenced by other factors that not be examined in this study.

  13. Porphyry copper assessment of East and Southeast Asia: Philippines, Taiwan (Republic of China), Republic of Korea (South Korea), and Japan: Chapter P in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Bookstrom, Arthur A.; Demarr, Michael W.; Dicken, Connie L.; Ludington, Stephen; Robinson, Gilpin R.; Zientek, Michael L.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey collaborated with member countries of the Coordinating Committee for Geoscience Programmes in East and Southeast Asia (CCOP) on an assessment of the porphyry copper resources of East and Southeast Asia as part of a global mineral resource assessment. The assessment covers the Philippines in Southeast Asia, and the Republic of Korea (South Korea), Taiwan (Province of China), and Japan in East Asia. The Philippines host world class porphyry copper deposits, such as the Tampakan and Atlas deposits. No porphyry copper deposits have been discovered in the Republic of Korea (South Korea), Taiwan (Province of China), or Japan.

  14. PENGARUH BUDAYA ORGANISASI DAN LINGKUNGAN KERJA TERHADAP ORGANIZATIONAL CITIZENSHIP BEHAVIOR, MOTIVASI DAN KINERJA (Survey Pada Karyawan Hotel Berbintang di Kota Malang dan Batu)

    OpenAIRE

    Bambang Warsito

    2009-01-01

    This research seeks to investigate the relationship between organizational culture variables, work environment, organizational citizenship behavior, motivation and performance in the star-typed hotel industry at Malang and Batu. This research was purposed to assess the differences of organizational culture, work environment, organizational citizenship behavior, motivation and performance based on the characteristic of respondents. This research was categorized as survey one using cross-sectio...

  15. The Role of Fisherman Wife in Improving Household Income in Pondok Batu Village Sarudik Sub District Tapanuli Tengah Regency Sumatera Utara Province

    OpenAIRE

    Nainggolan, Efrita; Hendri, Ridar; Amrifo, Viktor

    2017-01-01

    This research was conducted in April 2016 located in Pondok BatuVillage, Sarudik Subdistrict, Tapanuli Tengah Regency, North SumateraProvince. The purpose of this study is to describe the characteristics offishermen's wive, to analyze the time division of the fisherman wife between therole of housewife and the additional income earner and to describe the role of thefisherman wife in increasing the household income. The method used in thisresearch is survey method. Respondents in this research...

  16. KEANEKARAGAMAN JENIS TUMBUHAN YANG BERGUNA SECARA LOKAL DI DESA BATU AMPAR, DI DEKAT KAWASAN HUTAN LINDUNG BUKIT RAJA MANDARA, KABUPATEN BENGKULU SELATAN (The Diversity of Locally Useful Plants in Batu Ampar Village Near Bukit Raja Mandara Protected

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiryono Wiryono

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Keanekaragaman jenis tumbuhan memiliki banyak fungsi bagi masyarakat, terutama adalah mereka yang tinggal di daerah pedesaan. Masing-masing masyarakat tradisional di Indonesia memiliki pengetahuan khusus tentang tumbuhan yang terdapat di lingkungan mereka dan pemanfaatanya. Memiliki banyak jenis tumbuhan dan suku bangsa, Indonesia kaya akan keanekaragaman biologi dan budaya. Namun, pertanian modern dan globalisasi cenderung menurunkan keanekaragaman biologi dan budaya tersebut. Oleh karena itu, pelestarian pengetahuan dan pemanfaatan tradisional sangat penting untuk dilakukan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendokumentasikan keanekaragaman jenis tumbuhan yang digunakan oleh penduduk desa Batu Ampar, di Kecamatan Kedurang, Kabupaten Bengkulu Selatan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa penduduk desa tersebut memanfaatkan 83 jenis tanaman dalam 8 kategori, yaitu bahan makanan sebanyak 35 jenis, bahan obat-obatan 30 jenis, bahan bangunan 16 jenis, kayu bakar 9 jenis, pagar dan pagar hidup 9 jenis, kerajinan tangan 9 jenis, pewarna 1 jenis dan racun 1 jenis. Lima puluh lima jenis tumbuhan diambil dari lahan pribadi dan 28 jenis dari hutan. Secara ekonomis, 54 jenis tumbuhan dimanfaatkan untuk keperluan sendiri, sedangkan 29 jenis tumbuhan selain dimanfaatkan sendiri juga dijual. ABSTRACT The diversity of plant species serves many purposes for community, especially those living in rural areas. Each traditional community inIndonesiamay have specific knowledge and use of plants found in their environment.  Having many plant species and tribes,Indonesiais rich in biological and cultural diversity. Modern agriculture and globalization, however, tends to reduce both diversities. It is, therefore, essential that traditional knowledge and uses of biological diversity be preserved. This study was aimed to document the diversity of plants used by villagers of Batu Ampar,KedurangSubdistrict, South Bengkulu District. Results showed that villagers used

  17. Porphyry-copper ore shells form at stable pressure-temperature fronts within dynamic fluid plumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weis, P; Driesner, T; Heinrich, C A

    2012-12-21

    Porphyry-type ore deposits are major resources of copper and gold, precipitated from fluids expelled by crustal magma chambers. The metals are typically concentrated in confined ore shells within vertically extensive vein networks, formed through hydraulic fracturing of rock by ascending fluids. Numerical modeling shows that dynamic permeability responses to magmatic fluid expulsion can stabilize a front of metal precipitation at the boundary between lithostatically pressured up-flow of hot magmatic fluids and hydrostatically pressured convection of cooler meteoric fluids. The balance between focused heat advection and lateral cooling controls the most important economic characteristics, including size, shape, and ore grade. This self-sustaining process may extend to epithermal gold deposits, venting at active volcanoes, and regions with the potential for geothermal energy production.

  18. Optimizing Performance of SABC Comminution Circuit of the Wushan Porphyry Copper Mine—A Practical Approach

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    Wei Zhang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This research is focused on the Phase I SABC milling circuit of the Wushan porphyry copper mine. Improvements to the existing circuit were targeted without any significant alterations to existing equipment or the SABC circuit. JKSimMet simulations were used to test various operating and design conditions to improve the comminution process. Modifications to the SABC comminution circuit included an increase in the SAG mill ball charge from 8% to 10% v/v; an increase in the mill ball charge from 23% v/v to 27% v/v; an increase in the maximum operating power draw in the ball mill to 5800 kW; the replacement of the HP Series pebble crusher with a TC84 crusher; and the addition of a pebble bin. Following these improvements, an increase in circuit throughput, a reduction in energy consumption, and an increase in profitability were obtained.

  19. Geochemistry and statistical analyses of porphyry system and epithermal veins at Hizehjan in northwestern Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radmard, Kaikhosrov; Zamanian, Hassan; Hosseinzadeh, Mohamad Reza; Khalaji, Ahmad Ahmadi

    2017-12-01

    Situated about 130 km northeast of Tabriz (northwest Iran), the Mazra'eh Shadi deposit is in the Arasbaran metallogenic belt (AAB). Intrusion of subvolcanic rocks, such as quartz monzodiorite-diorite porphyry, into Eocene volcanic and volcano-sedimentary units led to mineralisation and alteration. Mineralisation can be subdivided into a porphyry system and Au-bearing quartz veins within andesite and trachyandesite which is controlled by fault distribution. Rock samples from quartz veins show maximum values of Au (17100 ppb), Pb (21100 ppm), Ag (9.43ppm), Cu (611ppm) and Zn (333 ppm). Au is strongly correlated with Ag, Zn and Pb. In the Au-bearing quartz veins, factor group 1 indicates a strong correlation between Au, Pb, Ag, Zn and W. Factor group 2 indicates a correlation between Cu, Te, Sb and Zn, while factor group 3 comprises Mo and As. Based on Spearman correlation coefficients, Sb and Te can be very good indicator minerals for Au, Ag and Pb epithermal mineralisation in the study area. The zoning pattern shows clearly that base metals, such as Cu, Pb, Zn and Mo, occur at the deepest levels, whereas Au and Ag are found at higher elevations than base metals in boreholes in northern Mazra'eh Shadi. This observation contrasts with the typical zoning pattern caused by boiling in epithermal veins. At Mazra'eh Shadi, quartz veins containing co-existing liquid-rich and vapour-rich inclusions, as strong evidence of boiling during hydrothermal evolution, have relatively high Au grades (up to 813 ppb). In the quartz veins, Au is strongly correlated with Ag, and these elements are in the same group with Fe and S. Mineralisation of Au and Ag is a result of pyrite precipitation, boiling of hydrothermal fluids and a pH decrease.

  20. Element migration of pyrites during ductile deformation of the Yuleken porphyry Cu deposit (NW-China)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Tao; Xu, Xing-Wang; Gao, Jun; Peters, Stephen; Li, Jilei; Cao, Mingjian; Xiang, Peng; Wu, Chu; You, Jun

    2017-01-01

    The strongly deformed Yuleken porphyry Cu deposit (YPCD) occurs in the Kalaxiangar porphyry Cu belt (KPCB), which occupies the central area of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB) between the Sawu’er island arc and the Altay Terrane in northern Xinjiang. The YPCD is one of several typical subduction-related deposits in the KPCB, which has undergone syn-collisional and post-collisional metallogenic overprinting. The YPCD is characterized by three pyrite-forming stages, namely a hydrothermal stage A (Py I), a syn-ductile deformation stage B (Py II) characterized by Cu-Au enrichment, and a fracture-filling stage C (Py III). In this study, we conducted systematic petrographic and geochemical studies of pyrites and coexist biotite, which formed during different stages, in order to constrain the physicochemical conditions of the ore formation. Euhedral, fragmented Py I has low Pb and high Te and Se concentration and Ni contents are low with Co/Ni ratios mostly between 1 and 10 (average 9.00). Py I is further characterized by enrichments of Bi, As, Ni, Cu, Te and Se in the core relative to the rim domains. Anhedral round Py II has moderate Co and Ni contents with high Co/Ni ratios >10 (average 95.2), and average contents of 46.5 ppm Pb and 5.80 ppm Te. Py II is further characterized by decreasing Bi, Cu, Pb, Zn, Ag, Te, Mo, Sb and Au contents from the rim to the core domains. Annealed Py III has the lowest Co content of all pyrite types with Co/Ni ratios mostly element migration behavior during the different stages of deformation and, thus, mineralisation.

  1. ANALISIS PENGELOLAAN LINGKUNGAN PABRIK KELAPA SAWIT BATU AMPAR - PT. SMART Tbk. DALAM IMPLEMENTASI INDONESIAN SUSTAINABLE PALM OIL

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    Hendra Septiawan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Indonesian Sustainable Palm Oil (ISPO is a standard system of sustainable palm oil plantations in Indonesia are economically viable, socially viable and environmentally friendly which is compulsory in accordance with the regulations. This study aims to analyze the environmental management performance in palm oil mill Batu Ampar and formulate the performance optimization based on the ISPO requirements. The evaluation shows that the company can meet the 38 indicators related to environmental management with some of the achievements include utilization of renewable energy sources that generate energy by 5.0664 million KWh, amounting to 1,677,615.89 liters of diesel fuel savings, reduction in CO2 emissions by 70.63 Kg / ton CPO, chemical fertilizers worth saving Rp.5.750.080,00 / ha / year. The optimization strategy for continuous improvement which is based on the SWOT analysis include: the selection of accredited laboratories, improve the performance of Waste Water Treatment Plant, planned to construct methane capture, optimizing the utilization of solid waste, optimizing the reduction of hazardous waste, provide input in determining government policy, and training routine related to environmental management to improve the competence of personnel.Keywords: environmental management, optimization, performance, sustainable

  2. GROUND INSECT DIVERSITY IN ARBORETRUM OF SUMBER BRANTAS BATU-MALANG AS BASE OF LEARNING RESOURCE MAKING: FLIPCHART

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    Ovy Dwi Rachmasari

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Forests are natural resources in which have high potencial support of biodiversity. One of the existing resources in the forest are ground insects. The presence ground insects are needed to aid in decomposition processes. The purpose of this study was to determine what kind of insects are there in the arboretum Sumber Brantas which its scientific classification can be determined based on their classification until species level. Moreover, to know the diversity value, the abundance, and the sum dominance ratio in three stations. This type of research is descriptive quantitative which employing observation technique in collecting data. Pitfall trap was used to trap ground insects. The results showed that the ground insects found in the study site were: 8 species of 4 orders, diversity index at the Arboretum Sumber Brantas Batu-Malang was moderate of 1.6597, the highest abundance values was at station I of 10.00 for Diplocheila polita, while the greatest percentage of sum dominace value was at station III for Periplaneta Americana of 0.89%. The resuls of the study were used to make flipchart as biology learning resources.

  3. STUDI KEANEKARAGAMAN CAPUNG (ODONATA SEBAGAI BIOINDIKATOR KUALITAS AIR SUNGAI BRANTAS BATU-MALANG DAN SUMBER BELAJAR BIOLOGI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candra Virgiawan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Jenis penelitian yang digunakan adalah penelitian deskriptif kuantitatif. Penelitian deskriptif bertujuan untuk mendeskripsikan suatu peristiwa dan kejadian yang terjadi, penelitian kuantitatif bertujuan untuk menjelaskan angka-angka data analisis mengunakan statistik. Penelitian ini dilakukan pada tanggal 25 Juli-16 Agustus 2014 pagi hari dengan metode jelajah (visual day flying. Data dikumpulkan dengan melakukan observasi atau pengamatan langsung terhadap populasi yang diselidiki. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian didapatkan sepuluh jenis spesies capung (Odonata, delapan jenis termasuk dalam sub ordo Anisoptera, Famili Libellulidae yaitu Diplacodes trivalis, Neurothemis ramburii, Orthetrum glaucum, Orthetrum pruinosum, Orthetrum sabina, Pantela flavescens, Trithemis festiva, Zyxomma obtusum, dan dua jenis termasuk dalam subordo Zygoptera, Famili Chlorocyphidae yaitu. Libellago lineate dan famili Coenagrionidae yaitu Ischnura sinegalensis. Odonata yang memiliki indeks nilai penting tertinggi yaitu 1.80% dari famili Libelludae, Genus Orthetrum, dan jenis Orthetrum Sabina. Nilai keanekaragaman tertinggi terdapat pada lokasi A yaitu 1.62. Nilai indeks kemerataan disemua lokasi mendekati 1 menunjukkan bahwa kondisi habitat pada semua stasiun penelitian adalah heterogen. Berdasarkan hasil analisis korelasi terdapat beberapa faktor abiotik yang memiliki korelasi yang kuat dengan jumlah jenis capung yang di temukan, faktor abiotik tersebut diantaranya adalah intensitas cahaya, DO, dan BOD. Hasil analisis FBI (Famili Biotik Indeks diperoleh nilai 7,00, hal ini menunjukan bahwa kualitas air sungai Brantas Batu-Malang tergolong dalam kategori buruk dengan tingkat pencemaran terpolusi sangat banyak.

  4. Demand for long acting and permanent contraceptive methods and associated factors among family planning service users, Batu town, Central Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haile, Anley; Fantahun, Mesganaw

    2012-01-01

    Evidence suggests a high unsatisfied demand for long acting and permanent contraceptive methods in sub-Saharan Africa. However, there is limited knowledge on demand for long acting and permanent contraceptive methods and associated factors in Ethiopia. The objective of this study was to assess demand for long acting and permanent contraceptive methods and associated factors among women of age group 18-49 years in Batu town, East Shoa Zone, Ethiopia. A facility based cross-sectional survey was conducted in six service delivery points from March to April 2009 on 398 women of age 18-49 years old. Thirteen (3%) were using long acting and permanent contraceptive methods and 89 (22.4%) wanted no more child in the future making the total demand of long acting and permanent contraceptive methods 24.4%. Older age group, multiparty, that the provider asked about reproductive intention, and the provider explained side effects of method selected were significantly associated with using LA and MPs (P demand and several socio demographic and family planning service quality related factors were associated with demand for long acting and permanent contraceptive methods indicating that multi-dimensional measures are needed to improve the use of long acting and permanent contraceptive methods.

  5. Optimization of Archeological Anomalies using GIS method for Magnetic and Resistivity Study at Sungai Batu, Lembah Bujang, Kedah (Malaysia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusoh, R.; Saad, R.; Saidin, M.; Anda, S. T.; Muhammad, S. B.; Ashraf, M. I. M.; Hazreek, Z. A. M.

    2018-04-01

    Magnetic and resistivity method has become a reliable option in archeological exploration. The use of both method has become popular these day. However, both method gives different type of sensing in detecting anomalies and direct interpret from the anomalies will result large coverage area for excavation. Therefore, to overcome this issue, both anomalies can be extracted using ArcGIS software to reduce excavated coverage area. The case study located at Sungai Batu, Lembah Bujang near SB2ZZ lot expected buried clay brick monument which will be a perfect case to apply this technique. Magnetic and resistivity method was implemented at the study area where the anomalies coverage area for magnetic and resistivity is 531.5 m2 and 636 m2 respectively which total area of both anomalies was 764 m2. By applying combine technique, the anomalies area reduce to 403.7 m2 which reduce the suspected anomalies by 47.16 %. The unsuspected clay brick monument area was increase from 15.86% to 55.54% which improve the cost and labor work for excavation.

  6. Magmatic-hydrothermal fluid evolution of the Dalli porphyry Cu-Au deposit; using Amphibole and Plagioclas mineral chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houshang Pourkaseb

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The formation of porphyry copper deposits is attributed to the shallow emplacement, and subsequent cooling of the hydrothermal system of porphyritic intrusive rocks (Titley and Bean, 1981. These deposits have usually been developed along the chain of subduction-related volcanic and calc-alkalin batholiths (Sillitoe, 2010. Nevertheless, it is now confirmed that porphyry copper systems can also form in collisional and post collisional settings (Zarasvandi et al., 2015b. Detailed studies on the geochemical features of ore-hosting porphyry Cu-Mo-Au intrusions indicate that they are generally adakitic, water and sulfur- riched, and oxidized (Wang et al., 2014. For example, high oxygen fugacity of magma has decisive role in transmission of copper and gold to the porphyry systems as revealed in (Wang et al., 2014. In this regard, the present work deals with the mineral chemistry of amphibole and plagioclase in the Dalli porphyry Cu-Au deposit. The data is used to achieve the physical and chemical conditions of magma and its impact on mineralization. Moreover, the results of previous studies on the hydrothermal system of the Dalli deposit such as Raman laser spectroscopy and fluid inclusion studies are included for determination of the evolution from magmatic to hydrothermal conditions. Materials and methods In order to correctly characterize the physical and chemical conditions affecting the trend of mineralization, 20 least altered and fractured samples of diorite and quartz-diorite intrusions were chosen from boreholes. Subsequently, 20 thin-polished sections were prepared in the Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz. Finally, mineral chemistry of amphibole and plagioclase were determined using electron micro probe analyses (EMPA in the central lab of the Leoben University. Results Amphibole that is one of the the main rock-forming minerals can form in a wide variety of igneous and metamorphic rocks. Accordingly, amphibole chemistry can be

  7. Geochronology and magnetic fabrics of the Altenberg-Teplice granite porphyry: implications for emplacement style of a caldera ring dike

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tomek, Filip; Žák, J.; Svojtka, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 46 (2016), s. 39-40 E-ISSN 1434-7512. [Late Paleozoic magmatism in the Erzgebirge / Krušné hory: Magma genesis, tectonics, geophysics, and mineral deposits : abstracts. 11.11.2016-12.11.2016, Freiberg] Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : porphyry * magnetic fabrics * geochronology * Altenberg-Teplice Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy http://tu-freiberg.de/sites/default/files/media/institut-fuer-geologie-718/pdf/fog_volume_46.pdf

  8. Petrogenesis of the Jiaoziding granitoids and associated basaltic porphyries: Implications for extensive early Neoproterozoic arc magmatism in western Yangtze Block

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun-Yong; Wang, Xiao-Lei; Gu, Zhi-Dong

    2018-01-01

    Middle Neoproterozoic (ca 860-750 Ma) granitoids are widely distributed in the western margin of the Yangtze Block, China, yet their magma sources and tectonic settings are unclear. The geochronology and geochemistry of the granitoids and associated basaltic porphyries, which intruded the 970 Ma Tongmuliang arc volcanic rocks in the Jiaoziding area (east of Pingwu county), were investigated in this study. LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb dating indicates that the Jiaoziding granitoids and basaltic porphyries were formed at 795 ± 6 Ma and 790 ± 20 Ma, respectively. The granitoids have high SiO2 (69.2-76.9 wt%), K2O (2.3-5.6 wt%), and Na2O (3.2-5.1 wt%) contents, and a low Al2O3 (12.4-14.5 wt%) content. The basaltic porphyries contain high concentrations of TiO2 ( 3 wt%) and high field strength elements, have steep rare earth element patterns, and are depleted in Nd and Hf isotopes. Batch partial-melting modelling indicates that the Jiaoziding granitoids could have been derived by 5% and 50-70% partial melting of Tongmuliang mafic rocks and quartz-keratophyres, respectively. Formation of the basaltic porphyries by melting of upwelling asthenospheric mantle would have been facilitated by extensive lithospheric delamination during the Neoproterozoic. This study established a link between mid-Neoproterozoic granitic magmatism and 970 Ma juvenile arc crust, indicating that extensive early Neoproterozoic juvenile arc crust, and partial melting of this crust in an extensional setting, favoured the formation of middle Neoproterozoic granitic rocks along the W-NW margin of the Yangtze Block.

  9. Porphyry copper assessment of Central America and the Caribbean Basin: Chapter I in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Floyd; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Ludington, Stephen; Zürcher, Lukas; Nelson, Carl E.; Robinson, Gilpin R.; Miller, Robert J.; Moring, Barry C.

    2014-01-01

    Mineral resource assessments provide a synthesis of available information about distributions of mineral deposits in the Earth’s crust. The U.S. Geological Survey prepared a probabilistic mineral resource assessment of undiscovered resources in porphyry copper deposits in Central America and the Caribbean Basin in collaboration with geoscientists from academia and the minerals industry. The purpose of the study was to (1) delineate permissive areas (tracts) for undiscovered porphyry copper deposits within 1 kilometer of the surface at a scale of 1:1,000,000; (2) provide a database of known porphyry copper deposits and significant prospects; (3) estimate numbers of undiscovered deposits within the permissive tracts; and (4) provide probabilistic estimates of amounts of copper, molybdenum, gold, and silver that could be contained in undiscovered deposits. The assessment was done using a three-part mineral resource assessment based on established mineral deposit models. Permissive tracts were delineated based primarily on distributions of mapped igneous rocks related to magmatic arcs that formed in tectonic settings associated with convergent plate margins. Five permissive tracts were delineated: the Early Cretaceous through Eocene Santiago tract, the Late Cretaceous through Oligocene Chortis tract, the Paleocene through Oligocene Darién tract, the Miocene and Pliocene Cocos tract, and the Eocene to Holocene Lesser Antilles tract. These tracts range in size from about 3,000 to about 204,000 square kilometers.

  10. Geochemistry and fluid characteristics of the Dalli porphyry Cu-Au deposit, Central Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarasvandi, Alireza; Rezaei, Mohsen; Raith, Johann; Lentz, David; Azimzadeh, Amir-Mortaza; Pourkaseb, Hooshang

    2015-11-01

    The Miocene Dalli porphyry Cu-Au deposit in the central part of Urumieh-Dokhtar magmatic arc is the first reported Au-rich porphyry Cu deposit in the Zagros orogenic belt. The Cu-Au mineralization is mainly hosted in diorite and quartz diorite intrusions, presenting as numerous veinlets in the altered wall rocks, with potassic, phyllic, and propylitic alteration developed. Based on the mineral assemblages and crosscutting relations of veinlets, hydrothermal mineralization-alteration occurred in at least three stages, characterized by veinlets of (1) Qtz + Kfs + Mag ± Ccp, (2) Qtz + Py + Ccp ± Bn ± Cv ± Cc and, (3) Qtz + Chl + Bt. The ore-bearing intrusions exhibit typical geochemical characteristics of subduction zone magmas, including LREE fractionated pattern, strong enrichment in LILE (Cs, Rb, Ba, Pb, and U), and depletion of HFSE, with marked negative Ti and Nb anomalies. The adakite-like ore-hosting porphyry intrusions are characterized by a systematic gradual decreasing and increasing of Y and Eu/Eu∗ with increasing SiO2 content, respectively. Moreover, they exhibit a significant increasing trend of Sr/Y with decreasing of Y, which indicates progressive hornblende fractionation and suppression of plagioclase fractionation during the evolution toward high water content of parental magma. A relatively flat HREE pattern with low Dyn/Ybn and Nb/Ta values may represent that amphibole played a more important role than garnet in the generation of the adakitic melts in the thickened lower crust. Based on the phase assemblages confirmed by detailed laser Raman spectroscopy analyses and proportion of solid, liquid, and gaseous components, five types of fluid inclusions were recognized, which are categorized as; (1) liquid-rich two phase (liquidH2O + vaporH2O) (IIA), (2) vapor-rich two phase (vaporH2O/CO2 + liquidH2O) (IIB), (3) high saline simple fluids (IIIA; liquidH2O + vaporH2O + Hl), (4) high saline opaque mineral-bearing fluids (IIIB; liquidH2O + vaporH2O

  11. Raman spectroscopic study of alunite occurrences in the Sapes porphyry-epithermal deposit, NE Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papazotos, Panagiotis; Perraki, Maria; Voudouris, Panagiotis; Skliros, Vasilios

    2017-04-01

    The Sapes area, Northeastern Greece, represent a deeply eroded Oligocene volcanic edifice built up of post-collisional intermediate-to-acidic intrusives and their volcanic equivalents. The area hosts a telescoped porphyry-epithermal system and associated high-sulfidation epithermal Au-Ag-Cu-Bi-Te mineralization within advanced argillic alteration lithocaps (Voudouris, 2014). Alunite is a common mineralogical constituent among the advanced argillic alteration assemblages and it is a hydrated aluminium potassium sulfate mineral with a general formula KAl3(SO4)2(OH)6. The objective of this work is to study the alunites samples in the Sapes porphyry-epithermal deposit by means of Raman spectroscopy, as it has been shown to be a useful tool in studying the alunite structure, either natural or synthetic (Frost et al., 2006; Maubec et al., 2012). Raman spectra were excited employing a 532 nm laser at a resolution of 2 cm-1 in the range of 100-4000 cm-1. Raman spectra exhibit distinguished bands at 162 cm-1, attributed to translational mode of cations and or librational and translational modes of SO42-, at 235 cm-1 suggesting framework deformations including the SO42- entities as a whole or attributed to OH/O hydrogen bond stretching mode, a weak band at 385 cm-1 may corresponding to Al-OH stretching vibrations, a moderate band at 564 cm-1 assigned to Al-O and OH deformation modes, bands at 484 and 653 cm-1 respectively due to v2(SO42-) and v4(SO42-) bending modes, a very strong vibration at 1025 cm-1 that is ascribed to the v1 stretching vibration of the SO42- bands located at 1080 and 1186 cm-1 due to v3(SO42-) stretching modes and finally two bands at 3480 cm-1 and 3502 cm-1 that are assigned to the OH stretching vibrations (Breitinger et al., 1997; Frost et al., 2006; Maubec et al., 2012 and references therein). A Raman and FTIR spectroscopic future work will focus on the comparative study among the alunites occurrences in Greece (Sapes, Limnos, Lesvos and Milos), so

  12. Pyrite as a record of hydrothermal fluid evolution in a porphyry copper system: A SIMS/EMPA trace element study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, Martin; Deditius, Artur; Chryssoulis, Stephen; Li, Jian-Wei; Ma, Chan-Qiang; Parada, Miguel Angel; Barra, Fernando; Mittermayr, Florian

    2013-03-01

    Porphyry copper deposits are currently the world's largest source of copper and molybdenum, and are also among the largest reservoirs of gold in the upper crust. Despite the fact that pyrite is a ubiquitous mineral phase in these deposits and secondary Cu enrichment processes are commonly controlled by the abundance of this sulfide, the major and trace element chemistry of pyrite from porphyry systems remains unconstrained. In this study, we report the first comprehensive trace element database of pyrite from the Dexing deposit, China's largest porphyry Cu deposit. By combining high-spatial resolution and X-ray mapping capabilities of electron microprobe analysis (EMPA) with low detection limits and depth-profiling capabilities of secondary-ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) in a suite of samples from the Dexing deposit, we show that the concentrations of precious metals (e.g., Au, Ag), metalloids (e.g., As, Sb, Se, Te) and heavy metals (e.g., Cu, Co, Ni, Zn, Hg) in pyrite from porphyry systems are more significant than previously thought. Among the elements analyzed, Cu, As, Au and Ni are the most abundant with concentrations that vary from sub-ppm levels to a few wt.% (i.e., ˜6 wt.% Cu, ˜3 wt.% As, ˜0.25 wt.% Au, and ˜0.2 wt.% Ni). Detailed wavelength-dispersive spectrometry (WDS) X-ray maps and SIMS depth vs. isotope concentration profiles reveal that pyrite from the Dexing deposit is characterized by complex chemical zoning where the studied elements occur in different mineralogical forms. While As occurs as a structurally bound element in pyrite, Cu and Au can occur as both solid solution and micro- to nano-sized particles of chalcopyrite and native Au (or Au tellurides), respectively, indicating that pyrite can control metal speciation and partitioning during porphyry Cu mineralization. The well-developed oscillatory zoning detected in pyrite, where Cu-rich, As-depleted growth zones alternate with Cu-depleted, As-rich layers, indicates that Cu is geochemically

  13. Temporal Evolution of Volcanic and Plutonic Magmas Related to Porphyry Copper Ores Based on Zircon Geochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilles, J. H.; Lee, R. G.; Wooden, J. L.; Koleszar, A. M.

    2015-12-01

    Porphyry Cu (Mo-Au) and epithermal Au-Ag ores are globally associated with shallow hydrous, strongly oxidized, and sulfur-rich arc intrusions. In many localities, long-lived magmatism includes evolution from early andesitic volcanic (v) and plutonic (p) rocks to later dacitic or rhyolitic compositions dominated by plutons. We compare zircon compositions from three igneous suites with different time spans: Yerington, USA (1 m.y., p>v), El Salvador, Chile (4 m.y., p>v), and Yanacocha, Peru (6 m.y., v>p). At Yerington granite dikes and ores formed in one event, at ES in 2 to 3 events spanning 3 m.y., and at Yanacocha in 6 events spanning 5 m.y. At both ES and Yanacocha, high-Al amphiboles likely crystallized at high temperature in the mid-crust and attest to deep magmas that periodically recharged the shallow chambers. At Yanacocha, these amphiboles contain anhydrite inclusions that require magmas were sulfur-rich and strongly oxidized (~NNO+2). The Ti-in-zircon geothermometer provides estimates of 920º to 620º C for zircon crystallization, and records both core to rim cooling and locally high temperature rim overgrowths. Ore-related silicic porphyries yield near-solidus crystallization temperatures of 750-650°C consistent with low zircon saturation temperatures. The latter zircons have large positive Ce/Ce* and small negative Eu/Eu*≥0.4 anomalies attesting to strongly oxidized conditions (Ballard et al., 2001), which we propose result from crystallization and SO2 loss to the magmatic-hydrothermal ore fluid (Dilles et al., 2015). The Hf, REE, Y, U, and Th contents of zircons are diverse in the magma suites, and Th/U vs Yb/Gd plots suggest a dominant role of crystal fractionation with lesser roles for both crustal contamination and mixing with high temperature deep-sourced mafic magma. Ce/Sm vs Yb/Gd plots suggest that magma REE contents at contamination are most evident in pre-ore magmas, whereas ore-forming intrusions at low temperatures are dominated by crystal

  14. Magmatic controls on the genesis of porphyry Cu-Mo-Au deposits: The Bingham Canyon example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grondahl, Carter; Zajacz, Zoltán

    2017-12-01

    Bingham Canyon is one of the world's largest porphyry Cu-Mo-Au deposits and was previously used as an example to emphasize the role of magma mixing and magmatic sulphide saturation in the enhancement of ore fertility of magmatic systems. We analyzed whole rocks, minerals, and silicate melt inclusions (SMI) from the co-genetic, ore-contemporaneous volcanic package (∼38 Ma). As opposed to previous propositions, whole-rock trace element signatures preclude shoshonite-latite genesis via mixing of melanephelinite and trachyte or rhyolite, whereas core to rim compositional profiles of large clinopyroxene phenocrysts suggests the amalgamation of the ore-related magma reservoir by episodic recharge of shoshonitic to latitic magmas with various degrees of differentiation. Major and trace element and Sr and Nd isotopic signatures indicate that the ore-related shoshonite-latite series were generated by low-degree partial melting of an ancient metasomatized mantle source yielding volatile and ore metal rich magmas. Latite and SMI compositions can be reproduced by MELTS modeling assuming 2-step lower and upper crustal fractionation of a primary shoshonite with minimal country rock assimilation. High oxygen fugacities (≈ NNO + 1) are prevalent as evidenced by olivine-spinel oxybarometry, high SO3 in apatite, and anhydrite saturation. The magma could therefore carry significantly more S than would have been possible at more reducing conditions, and the extent of ore metal sequestration by magmatic sulphide saturation was minimal. The SMI data show that the latites were Cu rich, with Cu concentrations in the silicate melt reaching up to 300-400 ppm at about 60 wt% SiO2. The Au and Ag concentrations are also high (1.5-4 and 50-200 ppb, respectively), but show less variation with SiO2. A sudden drop in Cu and S concentrations in the silicate melt at around 65 wt% SiO2 in the presence of high Cl, Mo, Ag, and Au shows that the onset of effective metal extraction by fluid

  15. Pressure gradients and boiling as mechanisms for localizing ore in porphyry systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Charles G.

    1978-01-01

    Fluid inclusions in ore zones of porphyry systems indicate that extensive boiling of hydrothermal fluids accompanies deposition of ore and gangue minerals. The boiling commonly accompanied a change from a lithostatic to a hydrostatic environment during evolution of an epizonal stock. Pressure gradients near the margin of the stock can determine whether ore or only a diffuse zone of mineralization is formed. A sharp drop in pressure in an epizonal environment is more likely to cause extensive boiling than a comparable change in a deeper environment, as the slope of the boiling curve steepens with an increase 'in pressure. The drop in pressure causes the hydrothermal fluids to boil and creates a crackle (stockwork) breccia, which hosts the veinlets of gangue quartz and ore minerals. The boiling selectively partitions CO2, H2S, and HCl into the vapor phase, changing the pH, composition, ionic strength, and thus the solubility product of metal complexes in the remaining liquid and causing the ore and gangue to come out of solution. Fluid inclusions trapped from boiling solutions can exhibit several forms, depending on the physical and chemical conditions of the hydrothermal fluid from which they were trapped. In one case, inclusions when heated can homogenize to either liquid or vapor at the same temperature, which is the true boiling temperature. In another case, homogenization of various inclusions can occur through a range of temperatures. The latter case results from the trapping of mixture of liquid and vapor. Variations in salinity can result from boiling of the hydrothermal fluid, or intermittent incorporation of high-salinity fluids from the magma, or trapping of fluids of varying densities at pressure-temperature conditions above the critical point of the fluid. In places, paleopressure-temperature transition zones can be recognized by fluid-inclusion homogenization temperatures and phase relationships and by the presence of anhydrite daughter minerals

  16. Improving Students' Writing Achievement in Descriptive Text Through Task Based Language Teaching (Tblt) (a Classroom Action Research at the Students of Class Vii-e SMPN 01 Batu)

    OpenAIRE

    OKTAVIANTI, EKA

    2015-01-01

    Key words: Writing Achievement, TBLT, Decriptive Text Writing is one of the basic skills that have to be learnt by students in junior high school. In the first year of junior high school the students are expected to be able to develop and produce simple functional text, like descriptive text. Based on the preliminary study that has been conducted by the researcher, it was showed that most of VII-E students in SMPN 01 Batu have difficulties in writing descriptive text. So,the aim of this rese...

  17. From a long-lived upper-crustal magma chamber to rapid porphyry copper emplacement: Reading the geochemistry of zircon crystals at Bajo de la Alumbrera (NW Argentina)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buret, Yannick; von Quadt, Albrecht; Heinrich, Christoph; Selby, David; Wälle, Markus; Peytcheva, Irena

    2016-09-01

    The formation of world class porphyry copper deposits reflect magmatic processes that take place in a deeper and much larger underlying magmatic system, which provides the source of porphyry magmas, as well as metal and sulphur-charged mineralising fluids. Reading the geochemical record of this large magmatic source region, as well as constraining the time-scales for creating a much smaller porphyry copper deposit, are critical in order to fully understand and quantify the processes that lead to metal concentration within these valuable mineral deposits. This study focuses on the Bajo de la Alumbrera porphyry copper deposit in Northwest Argentina. The deposit is centred on a dacitic porphyry intrusive stock that was mineralised by several pulses of porphyry magma emplacement and hydrothermal fluid injections. To constrain the duration of ore formation, we dated zircons from four porphyry intrusions, including pre-, syn- and post-mineralisation porphyries based on intersection relations between successive intrusion and vein generations, using high precision CA-ID-TIMS. Based on the youngest assemblages of zircon grains, which overlap within analytical error, all four intrusions were emplaced within 29 ka, which places an upper limit on the total duration of hydrothermal mineralisation. Re/Os dating of hydrothermal molybdenite fully overlaps with this high-precision age bracket. However, all four porphyries contain zircon antecrysts which record protracted zircon crystallisation during the ∼200 ka preceding the emplacement of the porphyries. Zircon trace element variations, Ti-in-zircon temperatures, and Hf isotopic compositions indicate that the four porphyry magmas record a common geochemical and thermal history, and that the four intrusions were derived from the same upper-crustal magma chamber. Trace element zoning within single zircon crystals confirms a fractional crystallisation trend dominated by titanite and apatite crystallisation. However, zircon

  18. IKLIM MIKRO DAN KEBUTUHAN RUANG TERBUKA HIJAU DI KOTA SEMARANG (The Micro Climate and The Need of Green Open Space for The City of Semarang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewi Liesnoor Setyowati

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK  Salah satu darnpak perkembangan jumlah penduduk kota adalah terjadinya konversi lahan. Konversi ruang terbuka hijau (RTH menjadi fasilitas bangunan menyebabkan terjadi pencemaran di kota. Berkurangnya RTH mengakibatkan terjadinya kenaikan temperatur lokal dalam kota. Keberadaan RTH memiliki manfaat cukup besar dalam peningkatan kualitas lingkungan hidup kota, seperti sebagai pengendali iklim mikro. Sebaran vegetasi perindang termasuk kategori jarang, terutama komposisi vegetasi rendah dan kerapatan pohon sangat jarang. Kondisi Iklim mikro secara keseluruhan termasuk kategori sebagian tidak nyaman, khususnya pada siang hari. Kondisi tersebut dipengaruhi oleh kurangnya vegetasi perindang di sepanjang jalan, sehingga kondisi iklim mikro menjadi panas dan kering. Keberadaan RTH di Semarang Tengah yang hanya seluas 6,77% perlu ditambah RTH seluas 14,02%. Diharapkan luas RTH sebesar 20,79% dari total luas wilayah, sehingga akan dapat memperbaiki iklim mikro di kawasan perkotaan.   ABSTRACT  One of the impact of people growth in town is land conversion. Green open space conversion become building facilities cause contamination in the city. Decreasing of green open space result local temperature increase in the city. Existence of green open space have big enough benefit of the quality of city environment, for example by controller of micro climate. The leafy vegetation spread include categories seldom, especially composition of low vegetation and closeness of tree very rare. Condition of micro climate as categorized 'a part unpleasant', specially in the day time. The condition influenced by decrease of  vegetation in alongside street, so that cause situation of micro climate hot and dry. Existence of green open space in Middle Semarang which only for the width of 6.77% require to be added green open space by 14.02%. So that expectedly wide of green open space equal to 20,79% from wide of total region, will be able to improvement of micro

  19. KARAKTERISTIK BISKUIT COKLAT DARI CAMPURAN TEPUNG PISANG BATU (Musa balbisiana colla DAN TEPUNG TERIGU PADABERBAGAI TINGKAT SUBSTITUSI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Nurdjanah

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of wheat flour as a main ingredient in processed food products in Indonesia will increase the dependence of wheat flour import. This can be reducedpartly by using local foodsource such as balbisiana banana (pisang batu. The purpose of this research was to obtain  formulation of balbisiana banana flour and wheat flour to produce biscuit with the best organoleptic propeties. The experiment was arranged in  a Random Complete Block Design (RCBD , non factorial with three replications.  The single factor used was the formulation of balbisiana banana flour and wheat, consisted of six levels 90:10 (F1, 85:15 (F2, 80:20 (F3, 75:25 (F4, 70:30 (F5 dan 65 : 35 (F6. The data were analyzed using Barlett test to find homogenity, furthermore the Tuckey test was used to test  the additivity, and then tested using ANOVA.  The mean separation was further analysis using Honest Significant Difference test (HSD at 5%  level of significance. The results showed that the substitution of  wheat ffour with balbisiana banana flour had significant effect on color, texture, overall acceptance and commercial potential, but i had no significant effect on the taste. The best biscuit was found in  F2 treatment (85% balbisiana banana flour : 15% wheat flour with the criteria: water , ash, fat, protein, and  , carbohydrate contents were 1,4%, 2,6%, f 20,7%, 5,7%, 69,6% respectively. The  glycemic index (GI , total dietary fiber and total phenol were 21,1%, 32,3% and 2,8 ppm.

  20. Analysis on the Long Term Effect of Trial Test Road Constructed on Batu Pahat Soft Clay (BPSC) at Recess UTHM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idrus, M. M. M.; Edayu, A. E.; Adnan, Z.; Ismail, B.

    2016-07-01

    The reinforcement used in soil for construction of roads on the soft clay is very important as it will determine the level of service of the road after it was built. Damage or defects on the road surface to be an indicator of the level of the road has dropped and shows the deformation of the road. For this research, an analysis has carried out on the long-term effect of trial test road constructed on Batu Pahat Soft Clay (BPSC) at RECESS UTHM. Through this research, the reinforcement using Rawell Geosynthetic Clay Liner (RGCL) was the best with the stability is 14964 N, a low flow is 2.69mm, stiffness modulus is 1766 MPa, the peak load is 739.4 N and a lower horizontal deformation which is 1.71 µm compared Woven Geotextile section and section without geotextile [1] [9]. In terms of deformation can be seen clearly from physical observations that section without geotextile suffered significant damage than others. Settlement of road can also be analyzed by a longitudinal section that plotted based on the result of leveling work. After that, settlements are more visible way on the right side of the road trial. Through lab tests conducted, it indicate that the coring samples obtained from sites of each section meets the specifications set by the Jabatan Kerja Raya (JKR) in terms of stability, flow and stiffness [1]. Through this study, a trial road built on soft soil can be used as a test site because of the uniqueness of these roads which has three different types of reinforcements.

  1. An Examination of Relationship between Quality Municipal Services and Citizen Satisfaction in Malaysian Local Council, Batu Pahat in Perspective

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    Muhammad Umar Bello

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the relationships that exist between quality municipal service and citizen satisfaction. This paper is, therefore, an examination of Relationship between quality Municipal Service and citizen satisfaction in Batu Pahat, Malaysia. It argues that the constitutional mandate of local council in terms of “function performance” has not been translated into reality in many occasions. Hypothesis was postulated for the study. The methodology adopted is quantitative in nature, 100 questionnaires were administered and 89 were retrieved. Systematic random sampling technic was used to retrieve the respondents’ responses. This study applies SPSS statistical tests and AMOS version 23 and Structural Equation Modeling (SEM software was used for further analysis. The relationship between these two constructs was then evaluated. The findings in this paper are that quality municipal services have direct effect on citizen satisfaction. The paper shows that, on average quality municipal service enhanced citizen satisfaction. The paper has developed valid and reliable constructs that can be used to measure the effect of quality municipal services on citizen satisfaction with municipal council service delivery. Thus, the paper concludes and recommends that municipal council must attempt to overcome the challenges that have by-passed their performance. The study recommends that there is needs for local municipal to strategies to makes the local council more robust for enhancing the lives of inhabitants and to foster good relationship between the management and local people in the study area. The study also gives recommendation to municipal council to strategies on other factors to enhance citizen welfare.

  2. Textural characteristics and sedimentary environment of sediment at eroded and deposited regions in the severely eroded coastline of Batu Pahat, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan Mohtar, Wan Hanna Melini; Nawang, Siti Aminah Bassa; Abdul Maulud, Khairul Nizam; Benson, Yannie Anak; Azhary, Wan Ahmad Hafiz Wan Mohamed

    2017-11-15

    This study investigates the textural characteristics of sediments collected at eroded and deposited areas of highly severed eroded coastline of Batu Pahat, Malaysia. Samples were taken from systematically selected 23 locations along the 67km stretch of coastline and are extended to the fluvial sediments of the main river of Batu Pahat. Grain size distribution analysis was conducted to identify its textural characteristics and associated sedimentary transport behaviours. Sediments obtained along the coastline were fine-grained material with averaged mean size of 7.25 ϕ, poorly sorted, positively skewed and has wide distributions. Samples from eroded and deposition regions displayed no distinctive characteristics and exhibited similar profiles. The high energy condition transported the sediments as suspension, mostly as pelagic and the sediments were deposited as shallow marine and agitated deposits. The fluvial sediments of up to 3km into the river have particularly similar profile of textural characteristics with the neighbouring marine sediments from the river mouth. Profiles were similar with marine sediments about 3km opposite the main current and can go up to 10km along the current of Malacca Straits. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Evaluation of the Permanent Deformations and Aging Conditions of Batu Pahat Soft Clay-Modified Asphalt Mixture by Using a Dynamic Creep Test

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    Al Allam A. M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the permanent deformation and aging conditions of BatuPahat soft clay–modified asphalt mixture, also called BatuPahat soft clay (BPSC particles; these particles are used in powder form as an additive to hot-mix asphalt mixture. In this experiment, five percentage compositions of BPSC (0%, 2%, 4%, 6%, and 8% by weight of bitumen were used. A novel design was established to modify the hot-mix asphalt by using the Superpave method for each additive ratio. Several laboratory tests evaluating different properties, such as indirect tensile strength, resilient stiffness modulus, and dynamic creep, was conducted to assess the performance of the samples mixed through the Superpave method. In the resilient modulus test, fatigue and rutting resistance were reduced by the BPSC particles. The added BPSC particles increased the indirect tensile strength. Among the mixtures, 4% BPSC particles yielded the highest performance. In the dynamic creep test, 4% BPSC particles added to the unaged and short-term aged specimens also showed the highest performance. Based on these results, our conclusion is that the BPSC particles can alleviate the permanent deformation (rutting of roads.

  4. PENGARUH BUDAYA ORGANISASI DAN LINGKUNGAN KERJA TERHADAP ORGANIZATIONAL CITIZENSHIP BEHAVIOR, MOTIVASI DAN KINERJA (Survey Pada Karyawan Hotel Berbintang di Kota Malang dan Batu

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    Bambang Warsito

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available This research seeks to investigate the relationship between organizational culture variables, work environment, organizational citizenship behavior, motivation and performance in the star-typed hotel industry at Malang and Batu. This research was purposed to assess the differences of organizational culture, work environment, organizational citizenship behavior, motivation and performance based on the characteristic of respondents. This research was categorized as survey one using cross-sectional study to 15 star-typed hotels at Batu and Malang. The result of investigation using SEM technique indicated that the model developed had moderate fit level. The result of Goodness of fit indices showed moderate result to all construct in the model. Partially, the construct developed showed good outcome in goodness of fit evaluation. Generally, all exogenous variables (organizational culture and work environment significantly affected the performance of employee. Some hypotheses expected on this research were supported, and some of these were not supported. Organizational culture significantly affected organizational citizenship behavior and employee performance, but insignificantly affected motivation. Work environment significantly influenced organizational citizenship behavior but insignificantly affected motivation. Organizational citizenship behavior insignificantly affected motivation, but motivation significantly affected the employee performance.

  5. Alteration zone Mapping in the Meiduk and Sar Cheshmeh Porphyry Copper Mining Districts of Iran using Advanced Land Imager (ALI Satellite Data

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    A. Beiranvand Pour

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the capability of Earth Observing-1 (EO1 Advanced Land Imager (ALI data for hydrothermal alteration mapping in the Meiduk and Sar Cheshmeh porphyry copper mining districts, SE Iran. Feature-oriented principal components selection, 4/2, 8/9, 5/4 band ratioing were applied to ALI data for enhancing the hydrothermally altered rocks associated with porphyry copper mineralization, lithological units and vegetation. Mixture-tuned matched-filtering (MTMF was tested to discriminate the hydrothermal alteration areas of porphyry copper mineralization from surrounding environment using the shortwave infrared bands of ALI. Results indicate that the tested methods are able to yield spectral information for identifying vegetation, iron oxide/hydroxide and clay minerals, lithological units and the discrimination of hydrothermally altered rocks from unaltered rocks using ALI data.

  6. Geochemical and textural characterization of phosphate accessory phases in the vein assemblage and metasomatically altered Llallagua tin porphyry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betkowski, Wladyslaw B.; Rakovan, John; Harlov, Daniel E.

    2017-09-01

    Petrographic and geochemical characterization of phosphate accessory minerals represents a powerful tool in understanding the mineralization and metasomatic history of one of the world's biggest tin deposits, the Siglo XX mine, Salvadora stock, Llallagua, Bolivia. The Llallagua tin deposit lies in a hydrothermally altered porphyry stock that is part of the subduction-related Bolivian tin belt. Despite numerous studies, there is still a debate over the timing and characteristics of mineralization history of the deposit. Primary igneous fluorapatite and monazite (for the first time) were recognized in the altered porphyry. The igneous monazite is enriched in Th, unlike the hydrothermal monazite that is recognized for its low Th concentration. Fluorapatite, monazite, and xenotime also coexist with cassiterite within the hydrothermal vein assemblage. Fluorapatite and xenotime are essentially pristine. Monazite, however, shows various degrees of alteration in the form of regenerative mineral replacement (RMR). This exemplifies differential reactivity and selective mineral replacement/alteration of three accessory phosphate minerals, that are all important geochemical tracers of magmatic and hydrothermal processes, and which can all be used as geochronometers. Mineral textures and composition in the altered porphyry and vein assemblages have been evaluated. Monazite-xenotime geothermometry indicates monazite crystallization beginning around 550 °C. Monazite continues to grow as temperatures gradually decrease to about 300 °C, when most of cassiterite precipitation occurred in the samples studied. The primary mechanism of phosphate alteration has been identified as a coupled dissolution-reprecipitation process, which led to REE exchange in the igneous fluorapatite and hydrothermal monazite. In Type I local alteration, La and Pr-Nd show continuity across the pre- and post- alteration concentric zones indicating that they were not affected by alteration. This is an

  7. Methane origin and oxygen-fugacity evolution of the Baogutu reduced porphyry Cu deposit in the West Junggar terrain, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Ping; Pan, HongDi

    2015-12-01

    Most porphyry copper deposits worldwide contain magnetite, hematite, and anhydrite in equilibrium with hypogene copper-iron sulfides (chalcopyrite, bornite) and have fluid inclusions with CO2 >> CH4 that are indicative of high fO2. In contrast, the Baogutu porphyry Cu deposit in the West Junggar terrain (Xinjiang, China) lacks hematite and anhydrite, contains abundant pyrrhotite and ilmenite in equilibrium with copper-iron sulfides (chalcopyrite), and has fluid inclusions with CH4 >> CO2 that are indicative of low fO2. The mineralized intrusive phases at Baogutu include the main-stage diorite stock and minor late-stage diorite porphyry dikes. The main-stage stock underwent fractional crystallization and country-rock assimilation-contamination, and consists of dominant diorite and minor gabbro and tonalite porphyry. The country rocks contain organic carbons (0.21-0.79 wt.%). The δ13CvPDB values of the whole rocks (-23.1 to -25.8 ‰) in the wall rocks suggest a sedimentary organic carbon source. The δ13CvPDB values of CH4 (-28.2 to -36.0 ‰) and CO2 (-6.8 to -20.0 ‰) in fluid inclusions require an organic source of external carbon and equilibration of their Δ13CCO2-CH4 values (8.2-25.0 ‰) at elevated temperatures (294-830 °C) suggesting a significant contribution of thermogenic CH4. Mineral composition data on the main-stage intrusions, such as clinopyroxene, hornblende, biotite, magnetite, ilmenite, sphene, apatite, and pyrrhotite, suggest that the primary magma at Baogutu was oxidized and became reduced after emplacement by contamination with country rocks. Mineral compositions and fluid inclusion gas compositions suggest that the redox state of the system evolved from log fO2 > FMQ + 1 in the magma stage, to log fO2 FMQ in the hydrothermal stage. Though oxidized magma was emplaced initially, assimilation-contamination of carbonaceous country rocks decreased its fO2 such that exsolved fluids contained abundant CH4 and deposited a reduced assemblage of

  8. Geochemical element mobility during the hydrothermal alteration in the Tepeoba porphyry Cu-Mo-Au deposits at Balikesir, NW Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelnasser, Amr; Kiran Yildirim, Demet; Doner, Zeynep; Kumral, Mustafa

    2016-04-01

    The Tepeoba porphyry Cu-Mo-Au deposit represents one of the important copper source and mineral deposits in the Anatolian tectonic belt at Balikesir province, NW Turkey. It considered as a vein-type deposit locally associated with intense hydrothermal alteration within the brecciation, quartz stockwork veining, and brittle fracture zones in the main host rock that represented by hornfels, as well as generally related to the shallow intermediate to silicic intrusive Eybek pluton. Based on the field and geologic relationships and types of ore mineral assemblages and the accompanied alteration types, there are two mineralization zones; hypogene (primary) and oxidation/supergene zones are observed associated with three alteration zones; potassic, phyllic, and propylitic zones related to this porphyry deposit. The phyllic and propylitic alterations locally surrounded the potassic alteration. The ore minerals related to the hypogene zone represented by mostly chalcopyrite, Molybdenite, and pyrite with subordinate amount of marcasite, enargite, and gold. On the other hand they include mainly cuprite with chalcopyrite, pyrite and gold as well as hematite and goethite at the oxidation/supergene zone. This study deals with the quantitative calculations of the mass/volume changes (gains and losses) of the major and trace elements during the different episodes of alteration in this porphyry deposit. These mass balance data reveal that the potassic alteration zone that the main Cu- and Mo-enriched zone, has enrichment of K, Si, Fe, and Mg, and depletion of Na referring to replacement of plagioclase and amphibole by K-feldspar, sericite and biotite. While the propylitic alteration that is the main Mo- and Au-enriched zone is accompanied with K and Na depletion with enrichment of Si, Fe, Mg, and Ca forming chlorite, epidote, carbonate and pyrite. On the other hand the phyllic alteration that occurred in the outer part around the potassic alteration, characterized by less amount

  9. Petrogenesis of low-δ18O quartz porphyry dykes, Koegel Fontein complex, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Chris; Mulder, Kwenidyn; Sarkar, Saheli; Whitehead, Benjamin; Roopnarain, Sherissa

    2018-04-01

    This paper investigates the origin of low-δ18O quartz porphyry dykes associated with the 144-133 Ma Koegel Fontein Igneous Complex, which was intruded during the initial phase of breakup of Africa and South America. The 25-km diameter Rietpoort Granite is the largest and youngest phase of activity, and is roofed by a 10-km diameter pendant of gneiss. Quartz porphyry (QP) dykes, up to 15 m in width, strike NW-SE across the complex. The QP dykes that intruded outside the granite have similar quartz phenocryst δ18O values (average 8.0‰, ± 0.7, n = 33) to the granite (average 8.3 ± 1.0, n = 7). The QP dykes that intruded the roof pendant have quartz phenocrysts with more variable δ18O values (average 1.6‰, ± 2.1, n = 55). In some cases quartz phenocrysts have δ18O values as low as - 2.5‰. The variation in δ18O value within the quartz crystal population of individual dykes is small relative to the overall range, and core and rim material from individual quartz phenocrysts in three samples are identical within error. There is no evidence that quartz phenocryst δ18O values have been affected by fluid-rock interaction. Based on a Δquartz-magma value of 0.6‰, magma δ18O values must have been as low as - 3.1‰. Samples collected along the length of the two main QP dykes that traverse the roof pendant have quartz phenocryst δ18O values that range from + 1.1 to + 4.6‰, and - 2.3 to + 5.6‰, respectively. These δ18O values correlate negatively ( r = - 0.96) with initial 87Sr/86Sr, which can be explained by the event that lowered δ18O values of the source being older than the dykes. We suggest that the QP dykes were fed by magma produced by partial melting of gneiss, which had been variably altered at high temperature by 18O-depleted meteoric water during global glaciation at 550 Ma. The early melts had variable δ18O value but as melt pockets interconnected during melting, the δ18O values approached that of average gneiss. Variable quartz phenocryst

  10. Distribution and composition of gold in porphyry gold systems: example from the Biely Vrch deposit, Slovakia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koděra, Peter; Kozák, Jaroslav; Brčeková, Jana; Chovan, Martin; Lexa, Jaroslav; Jánošík, Michal; Biroň, Adrián; Uhlík, Peter; Bakos, František

    2018-03-01

    The Biely Vrch deposit in the Western Carpathians is assigned to the shallow, sulfide-poor porphyry gold deposit type and has an exceptionally low Cu/Au ratio. According to 3-D geochemical models, there is a limited spatial correlation between Au and Cu due to the primary introduction of gold by a salt melt and Cu by low-density vapor. Despite a rough spatial correlation of gold grades with quartz stockwork intensity, gold is hosted mostly by altered rock, exclusively in native form. Three main gold mineral assemblages were recognized here. In the deepest parts of the system, the K- and Ca-Na silicate gold assemblage is associated with minerals of high-temperature alteration (plagioclase, K-feldspar, actinolite), with gold grades and fineness depending on depth and potassium content of the host rock: K-silicate alteration hosts the lowest fineness gold ( 914), whereas Ca-Na silicate alteration has the highest ( 983). The intermediate argillic gold assemblage is the most widespread, with gold hosted mainly by chlorite, illite, smectite, and interstratified illite-chlorite-smectite minerals. The gold fineness is mostly variable (875-990) and inherited from the former gold mineral assemblages. The latest advanced argillic gold assemblage has its gold mostly in kaolinite. The extremely high fineness ( 994) results from gold remobilization by late-stage aqueous magmatic-hydrothermal fluids. Uncommon bonanza-grade appears where the earlier gold mineral assemblages were further enriched by this remobilized gold. Primary precipitation of gold occurred during ascent and cooling of salt melts at 450 to 309 °C, mostly during retrograde quartz solubility.

  11. The mass balance calculation of hydrothermal alteration in Sarcheshmeh porphyry copper deposit

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    Mohammad Maanijou

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Sarcheshmeh porphyry copper deposit is located 65 km southwest of Rafsanjan in Kerman province. The Sarcheshmeh deposit belongs to the southeastern part of Urumieh-Dokhtar magmatic assemblage (i.e., Dehaj-Sarduyeh zone. Intrusion of Sarcheshmeh granodiorite stock in faulted and thrusted early-Tertiary volcano-sedimentary deposits, led to mineralization in Miocene. In this research, the mass changes and element mobilities during hydrothermal process of potassic alteration were studied relative to fresh rock from the deeper parts of the plutonic body, phyllic relative to potassic, argillic relative to phyllic and propylitic alteration relative to fresh andesites surrounding the deposit. In the potassic zone, enrichment in Fe2O3 and K2O is so clear, because of increasing Fe coming from biotite alteration and presence of K-feldspar, respectively. Copper and molybdenum enrichments resulted from presence of chalcopyrite, bornite and molybdenite mineralization in this zone. Enrichment of SiO2 and depletion of CaO, MgO, Na2O and K2O in the phyllic zone resulted from leaching of sodium, calcium and magnesium from the aluminosilicate rocks and alteration of K-feldspar to sericite and quartz. In the argillic zone, Al2O3, CaO, MgO, Na2O and MnO have also been enriched in which increasing Al2O3 may be from kaolinite and illite formation. Also, enrichment in SiO2, Al2O3 and CaO in propylitic alteration zone can be attributed to the formation of chlorite, epidote and calcite as indicative minerals of this zone.

  12. Porphyry-Style Petropavlovskoe Gold Deposit, the Polar Urals: Geological Position, Mineralogy, and Formation Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vikentyev, I. V.; Mansurov, R. Kh.; Ivanova, Yu. N.; Tyukova, E. E.; Sobolev, I. D.; Abramova, V. D.; Vykhristenko, R. I.; Trofimov, A. P.; Khubanov, V. B.; Groznova, E. O.; Dvurechenskaya, S. S.; Kryazhev, S. G.

    2017-11-01

    Geological and structural conditions of localization, hydrothermal metasomatic alteration, and mineralization of the Petropavlovskoe gold deposit (Novogodnenskoe ore field) situated in the northern part of the Lesser Ural volcanic-plutonic belt, which is a constituent of the Middle Paleozoic island-arc system of the Polar Urals, are discussed. The porphyritic diorite bodies pertaining to the late phase of the intrusive Sob Complex play an ore-controlling role. The large-volume orebodies are related to the upper parts of these intrusions. Two types of stringer-disseminated ores have been revealed: (1) predominant gold-sulfide and (2) superimposed low-sulfide-gold-quartz ore markedly enriched in Au. Taken together, they make up complicated flattened isometric orebodies transitory to linear stockworks. The gold potential of the deposit is controlled by pyrite-(chlorite)-albite metasomatic rock of the main productive stage, which mainly develops in a volcanic-sedimentary sequence especially close to the contacts with porphyritic diorite. The relationships between intrusive and subvolcanic bodies and dating of individual zircon crystals corroborate a multistage evolution of the ore field, which predetermines its complex hydrothermal history. Magmatic activity of mature island-arc plagiogranite of the Sob Complex and monzonite of the Kongor Complex initiated development of skarn and beresite alterations accompanied by crystallization of hydrothermal sulfides. In the Early Devonian, due to emplacement of the Sob Complex at a depth of approximately 2 km, skarn magnetite ore with subordinate sulfides was formed. At the onset of the Middle Devonian, the large-volume gold porphyry Au-Ag-Te-W ± Mo,Cu stockworks related to quartz diorite porphyry—the final phase of the Sob Complex— were formed. In the Late Devonian, a part of sulfide mineralization was redistributed with the formation of linear low-sulfide quartz vein zones. Isotopic geochemical study has shown that the

  13. From Batu to Janybek: Military Conflicts of the Ulus of Jochi with Poland and Hungary (2 »

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    R. Hautala

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Research objective: The author of this article examines a number of military conflicts between the ulus of Jochi and both Hungary and Poland followed the first invasion of the Tatars in these lands in 1241. Research materials: For the most part, the author’s analysis is based on information of synchronous Latin sources in comparison with information contained in Russian and Mamluk chronicles. In addition to the Hungarian, Polish, and German chronicles, the author resorts to the use of the contents of the papal letters to Eastern Europe, which provide both the most reliable information about military conflicts and information on the Papal Curia’s measures to improve the defense of eastern borders of the Latin world from the Tatar raids. Research results and novelty: During the reign of Batu, Latin sources indicate extreme concern about the possible resumption of the western expansion of the Tatars in spite of the fact that, in reality, Tatar military activity on the eastern borders of Catholic Europe had an extremely minor character. On the contrary, during the reign of Berke, Tatars carried a very destructive raid on Lesser Poland. However, further Tatar expansion was interrupted by an unexpected collapse of the Mongol Empire. The subsequent reign of khan Mengu-Timur was distinguished with relative tension with the Catholic Europe. However, the actual attack on Hungary and Poland took place only under the khans Tuda-Mengu and Tula-Buga. Later, under the khans Tokhta and Uzbek, the tension between the Golden Horde and Catholic Europe weakened considerably, which, in particular, allowed the beginning of the Hungarian territorial expansion into Moldova. However, the end of the reign of khan Uzbek was characterized by a sharp deterioration of relations between the Golden Horde and Poland, which was associated with the beginning of the war of Galician succession. Analysis of the course of this war shows the apparent weakening of the influence of

  14. Geochemical, microtextural and petrological studies of the Samba prospect in the Zambian Copperbelt basement: a metamorphosed Palaeoproterozoic porphyry Cu deposit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Master, Sharad; Mirrander Ndhlovu, N.

    2015-04-01

    Ever since Wakefield (1978, IMM Trans., B87, 43-52) described a porphyry-type meta-morphosed Cu prospect, the ca 50 Mt, 0.5% Cu Samba deposit (12.717°S, 27.833°E), hosted by porphyry-associated quartz-sericite-biotite schists in northern Zambia, there has been controversy about its origin and significance. This is because it is situated in the basement to the world's largest stratabound sediment-hosted copper province, the Central African Copperbelt, which is hosted by rocks of the Neoproterozoic Katanga Supergroup. Mineralization in the pre-Katangan basement has long played a prominent role in ore genetic models, with some authors suggesting that basement Cu mineralization may have been recycled into the Katangan basin through erosion and redeposition, while others have suggested that the circulation of fluids through Cu-rich basement may have leached out the metals which are found concentrated in the Katangan orebodies. On the basis of ca 490-460 Ma Ar-Ar ages, Hitzman et al. (2012, Sillitoe Vol., SEG Spec. Publ., 16, 487-514) suggested that Samba represents late-stage impregnation of copper mineralization into the basement, and that it was one of the youngest copper deposits known in the Central African Copperbelt. If the Samba deposit really is that young, then it would have post-dated regional deformation and metamorphism (560-510 Ma), and it ought to be undeformed and unmetamorphosed. The Samba mineralization consists of chalcopyrite and bornite, occurring as disseminations, stringers and veinlets, found in a zone >1 km along strike, in steeply-dipping lenses up to 10m thick and >150m deep. Our new major and trace element XRF geochemical data (14 samples) show that the host rocks are mainly calc-alkaline metadacites. Cu is correlated with Ag (Cu/Ag ~10,000:1) with no Au or Mo. Our study focused on the microtextures and petrology of the Samba ores. We confirm that there is alteration of similar style to that accompanying classical porphyry Cu mineralization

  15. Quantitative Mineral Resource Assessment of Copper, Molybdenum, Gold, and Silver in Undiscovered Porphyry Copper Deposits in the Andes Mountains of South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Charles G.; Zappettini, Eduardo O.; Vivallo S., Waldo; Celada, Carlos Mario; Quispe, Jorge; Singer, Donald A.; Briskey, Joseph A.; Sutphin, David M.; Gajardo M., Mariano; Diaz, Alejandro; Portigliati, Carlos; Berger, Vladimir I.; Carrasco, Rodrigo; Schulz, Klaus J.

    2008-01-01

    Quantitative information on the general locations and amounts of undiscovered porphyry copper resources of the world is important to exploration managers, land-use and environmental planners, economists, and policy makers. This publication contains the results of probabilistic estimates of the amounts of copper (Cu), molybdenum (Mo), gold (Au), and silver (Ag) in undiscovered porphyry copper deposits in the Andes Mountains of South America. The methodology used to make these estimates is called the 'Three-Part Form'. It was developed to explicitly express estimates of undiscovered resources and associated uncertainty in a form that allows economic analysis and is useful to decisionmakers. The three-part form of assessment includes: (1) delineation of tracts of land where the geology is permissive for porphyry copper deposits to form; (2) selection of grade and tonnage models appropriate for estimating grades and tonnages of the undiscovered porphyry copper deposits in each tract; and (3) estimation of the number of undiscovered porphyry copper deposits in each tract consistent with the grade and tonnage model. A Monte Carlo simulation computer program (EMINERS) was used to combine the probability distributions of the estimated number of undiscovered deposits, the grades, and the tonnages of the selected model to obtain the probability distributions for undiscovered metals in each tract. These distributions of grades and tonnages then can be used to conduct economic evaluations of undiscovered resources in a format usable by decisionmakers. Economic evaluations are not part of this report. The results of this assessment are presented in two principal parts. The first part identifies 26 regional tracts of land where the geology is permissive for the occurrence of undiscovered porphyry copper deposits of Phanerozoic age to a depth of 1 km below the Earth's surface. These tracts are believed to contain most of South America's undiscovered resources of copper. The

  16. Tectonic setting of the pebble and other copper-gold-molybdenum porphyry deposits within the evolving middle cretaceous continental margin of Northwestern North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldfarb, Richard J.; Anderson, Eric; Hart, Craig J.R.

    2013-01-01

    The Pebble Cu-Au-Mo deposit in southwestern Alaska, containing the largest gold resource of any known porphyry in the world, developed in a tectonic setting significantly different from that of the present-day. It is one of a series of metalliferous middle Cretaceous porphyritic granodiorite, quartz monzonite, and diorite bodies, evolved from lower crust and metasomatized lithospheric mantle melts, which formed along much of the length of the North American craton suture with the Peninsular-Alexander-Wrangellia arc. The porphyry deposits were emplaced within the northernmost two of a series of ca. 130 to 80 Ma flysch basins that define the suture, as well as into arc rocks immediately seaward of the two basins. Deposits include the ca. 100 to 90 Ma Pebble, Neacola, and other porphyry prospects along the Kahiltna basin-Peninsula terrane boundary, and the ca. 115 to 105 Ma Baultoff, Carl Creek, Horsfeld, Orange Hill, Bond Creek, and Chisna porphyries along the Nutzotin basin-Wrangellia terrane boundary.The porphyry deposits probably formed along the craton margin more than 1,000 km to the south of their present latitude. Palinspastic reconstructions of plate kinematics from this period are particularly difficult because magmatism overlaps the 119 to 83 Ma Cretaceous Normal Superchron, a period when sea-floor magnetic data are lacking. Our favored scenario is that ore formation broadly overlaps the cessation of sedimentation and contraction and the transition to a transpressional continental margin regime, such that the remnant ocean basins were converted to strike-slip basins. The basins and outboard Peninsular-Alexander-Wrangellia composite superterrane, which are all located seaward of the deep crustal Denali-Farewell fault system, were subjected to northerly dextral transpression for as long as perhaps 50 m.y., beginning at ca. 95 ± 10 Ma. The onset of this transpression was marked by development of the mineralized bodies along fault segments on the seaward side

  17. Effect of urban noise to the acoustical performance of the secondary school’s learning spaces - A case study in Batu Pahat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Y. G.; Abu Bakar, H.; Mohd. Sari, K. A.; Ewon, U.; Labeni, M. N.; Fauzan, N. F. A.

    2017-11-01

    Classrooms and laboratories are important spaces that use for teaching and learning process in the school. Therefore, good acoustical performances of these spaces are essential to ensure the speech or message from the teacher can be delivered to the students effectively and clearly. The aims of this study is to determine the acoustical performance of the teaching and learning spaces in public school that situated near to the traffic roads. The acoustical performance of the classrooms and laboratories at Sekolah Menengah Kebangsaan Convent Batu Pahat was evaluated in this study. The reverberation time and ambient noise of these learning spaces which are the main parameters for classroom design criteria were evaluated. Field measurements were carried out inside six classrooms and four laboratories unoccupied furnished according to the international standards. The acoustical performances of the tested learning spaces were poor where the noise criteria and reverberation times inside the measured classrooms and laboratories were higher than recommended values.

  18. Geological analysis of aeromagnetic data from southwestern Alaska: implications for exploration in the area of the Pebble porphyry Cu-Au-Mo deposit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Eric D.; Hitzman, Murray W.; Monecke, Thomas; Bedrosian, Paul A.; Shah, Anjana K.; Kelley, Karen D.

    2013-01-01

    Aeromagnetic data are used to better understand the geology and mineral resources near the Late Cretaceous Pebble porphyry Cu-Au-Mo deposit in southwestern Alaska. The reduced-to-pole (RTP) transformation of regional-scale aeromagnetic data shows that the Pebble deposit is within a cluster of magnetic anomaly highs. Similar to Pebble, the Iliamna, Kijik, and Neacola porphyry copper occurrences are in magnetic highs that trend northeast along the crustal-scale Lake Clark fault. A high-amplitude, short- to moderate-wavelength anomaly is centered over the Kemuk occurrence, an Alaska-type ultramafic complex. Similar anomalies are found west and north of Kemuk. A moderate-amplitude, moderate-wavelength magnetic low surrounded by a moderate-amplitude, short-wavelength magnetic high is associated with the gold-bearing Shotgun intrusive complex. The RTP transformation of the district-scale aeromagnetic data acquired over Pebble permits differentiation of a variety of Jurassic to Tertiary magmatic rock suites. Jurassic-Cretaceous basalt and gabbro units and Late Cretaceous biotite pyroxenite and granodiorite rocks produce magnetic highs. Tertiary basalt units also produce magnetic highs, but appear to be volumetrically minor. Eocene monzonite units have associated magnetic lows. The RTP data do not suggest a magnetite-rich hydrothermal system at the Pebble deposit. The 10-km upward continuation transformation of the regional-scale data shows a linear northeast trend of magnetic anomaly highs. These anomalies are spatially correlated with Late Cretaceous igneous rocks and in the Pebble district are centered over the granodiorite rocks genetically related to porphyry copper systems. The spacing of these anomalies is similar to patterns shown by the numerous porphyry copper deposits in northern Chile. These anomalies are interpreted to reflect a Late Cretaceous magmatic arc that is favorable for additional discoveries of Late Cretaceous porphyry copper systems in southwestern

  19. Magmatic Vapor Phase Transport of Copper in Reduced Porphyry Copper-Gold Deposits: Evidence From PIXE Microanalysis of Fluid Inclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowins, S. M.; Yeats, C. J.; Ryan, C. G.

    2002-05-01

    Nondestructive proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) studies of magmatic fluid inclusions in granite-related Sn-W deposits [1] reveal that copper transport out of reduced felsic magmas is favored by low-salinity vapor and not co-existing high-salinity liquid (halite-saturated brine). Copper transport by magmatic vapor also has been documented in oxidized porphyry Cu-Au deposits, but the magnitude of Cu partitioning into the vapor compared to the brine generally is less pronounced than in the reduced magmatic Sn-W systems [2]. Consideration of these microanalytical data leads to the hypothesis that Cu and, by inference, Au in the recently established "reduced porphyry copper-gold" (RPCG) subclass should partition preferentially into vapor and not high-salinity liquid exsolving directly from fluid-saturated magmas [3-4]. To test this hypothesis, PIXE microanalysis of primary fluid inclusions in quartz-sulfide (pyrite, pyrrhotite & chalcopyrite) veins from two RPCG deposits was undertaken using the CSIRO-GEMOC nuclear microprobe. PIXE microanalysis for the ~30 Ma San Anton deposit (Mexico) was done on halite-saturated aqueous brine (deposit (W. Australia) was done on halite-saturated "aqueous" inclusions, which contain a small (deposits of the new RPCG subclass demonstrate the greater potential of these systems, compared to the classically oxidized porphyry Cu-Au systems, to transport Cu and probably precious metals in a magmatic aqueous vapor phase. These PIXE data also support the possibility that Cu partitions preferentially into an immiscible CO2-rich magmatic fluid. References: [1] Heinrich, C.A. et al. (1992) Econ. Geol., 87, 1566-1583. [2] Heinrich, C.A. et al. (1999) Geology, 27, 755-758. [3] Rowins, S.M. (2000) Geology, 28, 491-494. [4] Rowins, S.M. (2000) The Gangue, GAC-MDD Newsletter, 67, 1-7 (www.gac.ca). [5] Rowins, S.M. et al. (1993) Geol. Soc. Australia Abs., 34, 68-70.

  20. Hydrothermal Evolution of the Giant Cenozoic Kadjaran porphyry Cu-Mo deposit, Tethyan metallogenic belt, Armenia, Lesser Caucasus: mineral paragenetic, cathodoluminescence and fluid inclusion constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovakimyan, Samvel; Moritz, Robert; Tayan, Rodrik; Rezeau, Hervé

    2016-04-01

    The Lesser Caucasus belongs to the Central segment of the Tethyan metallogenic belt and it is a key area to understand the metallogenic evolution between the Western & Central parts of the Tethyan belt and its extension into Iran. Zangezur is the most important mineral district in the southernmost Lesser Caucasus. It is a component of the South Armenian block, and it was generated during the convergence and collision of the southern margin of the Eurasian plate and the northern margin of the Arabian plate, and terranes of Gondwana origin (Moritz et al., in press). The Zangezur ore district consists of the Tertiary Meghri-Ordubad composite pluton, which is characterized by a long-lasting Eocene to Pliocene magmatic, tectonic and metallogenic evolution. It hosts major porphyries Cu-Mo and epithermal Au - polymetallic deposits and occurrences, including the giant world class Kadjaran porphyry Cu-Mo deposit (2244 Mt reserves, 0.3% Cu, 0.05% Mo and 0.02 g/t Au). The Kadjaran deposit is hosted by a monzonite intrusion (31.83±0.02Ma; Moritz et al., in press). Detailed field studies of the porphyry stockwork and veins of the different mineralization stages, their crosscutting and displacement relationships and the age relationship between different paragenetic mineral associations were the criteria for distinction of the main stages of porphyry mineralization at the Kadjaran deposit. The economic stages being: quartz- molybdenite, quartz-molybdenite-chalcopyrite, and quartz-chalcopyrite. The main paragenetic association of the Kadjaran porphyry deposit includes pyrite, molybdenite, chalcopyrite, bornite, chalcocite, pyrrhotite, covellite, sphalerite, and galena. Recent field observations in the Kadjaran open pit revealed the presence of epithermal veins with late vuggy silica and advanced argillic alteration in the north-eastern and eastern parts of the deposit. They are distributed as separate veins and have also been recognized in re-opened porphyry veins and in

  1. The geology, structure and mineralisation of the Oyu Tolgoi porphyry copper-gold-molybdenum deposits, Mongolia: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.M. (Mike Porter

    2016-05-01

    Mineralisation is characterised by varying, telescoped stages of intrusion and alteration. Early A-type quartz veined dykes were followed by Cu-Au mineralisation associated with potassic alteration, mainly K-feldspar in quartz-monzodiorite and biotite-magnetite in basaltic hosts. Downward reflux of cooled, late-magmatic hydrothermal fluid resulted in intense quartz-sericite retrograde alteration in the upper parts of the main syn-mineral intrusions, and an equivalent chlorite-muscovite/illite-hematite assemblage in basaltic host rocks. Uplift, facilitated by syn-mineral longitudinal faulting, brought sections of the porphyry deposit to shallower depths, to be overprinted and upgraded by late stage, shallower, advanced argillic alteration and high sulphidation mineralisation. Key controls on the location, size and grade of the deposit cluster include (i a long-lived, narrow faulted corridor; (ii multiple pulses of overlapping intrusion within the same structure; and (iii enclosing reactive, mafic dominated wall rocks, focussing ore.

  2. Determination of an optimum voxel size based on statistical methods in the Kahang Cu porphyry deposit, Central Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasrebi A.B.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to determine an optimum voxel size in the Kahang Cu porphyry deposit (Central Iran using statistical parameters and vector analysis based on the 26 drilled boreholes. The mean, median and Median Absolute Deviation (MAD were calculated for total distances between 14 pairs of closest boreholes in terms of X and Y directions. Based on the results, three block models were determined with 3 x 3 x 10 m3, 4 x 4 x 10 m3 and 5 x 5 x 10 m3 of voxel volumes for Cu distribution utilising inverse distance weighted (IDW method. According to calculation of Non-Zero voxel numbers and decreasing of standard deviations and Cu average values, the block model with 4 x 4 x 10 m3 voxel sizes determined as an optimum block model.

  3. Hydrothermal alteration and mass exchange in the hornblende latite porphyry, Rico, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, P.B.; Cunningham, C.G.; Naeser, C.W.

    1994-01-01

    The Rico paleothermal anomaly, southwestern Colorado, records the effects of a large hydrothermal system that was active at 4 Ma. This hydrothermal system produced the deep Silver Creek stockwork Mo deposit, which formed above the anomaly's heat source, and shallower base and precious-metal vein and replacement deposits. A 65 Ma hornblende latite porphyry is present as widespread sills throughout the area and provided a homogenous material that recorded the effects of the hydrothermal system up to 8 km from the center. Hydrothermal alteration in the latite can be divided into a proximal facies which consists of two assemblages, quartz-illite-calcite and chlorite-epidote, and a distal facies which consists of a distinct propylitic assemblage. Temperatures were gradational vertically and laterally in the anomaly, and decreased away from the centra heat source. A convective hydrothermal plume, 3 km wide and at least 2 km high, was present above the stock-work molybdenum deposit and consisted of upwelling, high-temperature fluids that produced the proximal alteration facies. Distal facies alteration was produced by shallower cooler fluids. The most important shallow base and precious-metal vein deposits in the Rico district are at or close to the boundary of the thermal plume. Latite within the plume had a large loss of Na2O, large addition of CaO, and variable SiO2 exchante. Distal propylitized latite samples lost small amounts of Na2O and CaO and exchanged minor variable amounts of SiO2. The edge of the plume is marked by steep Na2O exchange gradients. Na2O exchange throughout the paleothermal anomaly was controlled by the reaction of the albite components in primary plagioclase and alkali feldspars. Initial feldspar alteration in the distal facies was dominated by reaction of the plagioclase, and the initial molar ratio of reactants (alkali feldspar albite component to plagioclase albite component) was 0.35. This ratio of the moles of plagioclase to alkali feldspar

  4. Devonian and carboniferous arcs of the oyu tolgoi porphyry Cu-Au district, South Gobi region, Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wainwright, A.J.; Tosdal, R.M.; Forster, C.N.; Kirwin, D.J.; Lewis, P.D.; Wooden, J.L.

    2011-01-01

    The Central Asian orogenic belt consists of microcontinental blocks and mobile belts positioned between the Siberian craton and the Tarim and North China cratons. Extending across Asia for 5000 km, the belt consists of terranes that decrease in age southward away from the Siberian craton. A time-stratigraphic-structural sequence for the rocks is critical to defining the tectonic evolution of the belt. In the Oyu Tolgoi area of the South Gobi Desert (Mongolia), Devonian and Carboniferous rocks record the construction of multiple arcs, formation of a giant porphyry Cu-Au system, exhumation, and polyphase deformation. The oldest rocks are basaltic volcanic and subvolcanic rocks of the Devonian Alagbayan Group intruded by Late Devonian quartz monzodiorite stocks and dikes, which host giant porphyry Cu-Au deposits. The rocks were exhumed, overlain by pyroclastic rocks, and then tectonically buried by marine mafic supracrustal rocks prior to the youngest Devonian granodiorite intrusions. The postmineral Carboniferous Gurvankharaat Group unconformably overlying the deformed terrane consists of effusive, pyroclastic, subvolcanic and volcaniclastic rocks, as well as sedimentary units. The supracrustal rocks underwent polyphase shortening after 330 Ma and prior to 290 Ma. Variations in stratigraphic sequences suggest that the region is underlain by a submarine arc that became emergent during the Upper Devonian and remained subaerial to shallow subaqueous through much of the Carboniferous. Xenocrystic zircons in igneous rocks suggest that the offshore arcs were sufficiently close to ancient crust to have interacted with detritus shed into marine basins, most likely from the Siberian craton and fringing early Paleozoic terranes. ?? 2011 Geological Society of America.

  5. Characterization of fluid inclusions and sulfur isotopes in the Iju porphyry copper deposit, North West of Shahr-e-Babak

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    Malihe Golestani

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The Iju porphyry copper deposit is located in the southern part of the Urumieh-Dokhtar magmatic arc (Dehaj-Sarduieh belt within the Kerman copper belt (Dimitrijevic, 1973. The Porphyry Copper mineralization in the Iranian plate occurs dominantly along the Urumieh-Dokhtar arc, which has resulted from the subduction of the Arabian plate beneath the central Iran and the closure of the Neo-Tethys Ocean during the Alpine orogeny (Hassanzadeh, 1993. The Iju porphyry copper deposit with 25 million tons of ore reserves is one of the main copper deposits within the Kerman copper belt. The mining area is composed of upper Miocene volcanic and subvolcanic rocks (mineralized and barren subvolcanic rocks and quaternary deposits. Two hydrothermal alteration zones of quartz-sericite-pyrite and propylitic zones can be identified in the Iju area. The copper mineralization in the Iju deposit occurs as disseminated, stockwork and hydrothermal breccia. In the hypogene zone, the mineral paragenesis include chalcopyrite, pyrite, with minor occurrences of bornite and magnetite. This paper reports geological, mineralogical, fluid inclusion and S isotope data from the Iju deposit in order to investigate ore-bearing fluids’ characteristics and the mechanisms of ore deposition. Materials and methods Fifteen samples of syngenetic quartz+pyrite bearing veinlets within the quartz-sericite-pyrite zone were selected from different depths across the seven boreholes. Quartz was used for double-polished thin sections and pyrite was used for sulfur isotope analysis. Fluid inclusion studies were performed using the Linkam cooling and heating stage, the THMSG 600 model. The syngenetic pyrite with thermometry quartz sample was used for the sulfur isotope experiments. Stable isotope analysis was performed at the Hatch Stable Isotope Laboratory in the University of Ottawa, Canada. Results The fluid inclusions of the Iju deposit represent a wide range in the

  6. Metal endowment reflected in chemical composition of silicates and sulfides of mineralized porphyry copper systems, Urumieh-Dokhtar magmatic arc, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarasvandi, Alireza; Rezaei, Mohsen; Raith, Johann G.; Pourkaseb, Houshang; Asadi, Sina; Saed, Madineh; Lentz, David R.

    2018-02-01

    The present work attempts to discriminate between the geochemical features of magmatic-hydrothermal systems involved in the early stages of mineralization in high grade versus low grade porphyry copper systems, using chemical compositions of silicate and sulfide minerals (i.e., plagioclase, biotite, pyrite and chalcopyrite). The data indicate that magmatic plagioclase in all of the porphyry copper systems studied here has high An% and Al content with a significant trend of evolution toward AlAl3SiO8 and □Si4O8 endmembers, providing insight into the high melt water contents of the parental magmas. Comparably, excess Al and An% in the high grade deposits appears to be higher than that of selected low grade deposits, representing a direct link between the amounts of exsolving hydrothermal fluids and the potential of metal endowment in porphyry copper deposits (PCDs). Also, higher Al contents accompanied by elevated An% are linked to the increasing intensity of disruptive alteration (phyllic) in feldspars from the high grade deposits. As calculated from biotite compositions, chloride contents are higher in the exsolving hydrothermal fluids that contributed to the early mineralization stages of highly mineralized porphyry systems. However, as evidenced by scattered and elevated log (fH2O)/(fHF) and log (fH2O)/(fHCl) values, chloride contents recorded in biotite could be influenced by post potassic fluids. Geothermometry of biotite associated with the onset of sulfide mineralization indicates that there is a trend of increasing temperature from high grade to low grade porphyry systems. Significantly, this is coupled with a sharp change in copper content of pyrite assemblages precipitated at the early stages of mineralization such that Cu decreased with increasing temperature. Based on EMPA and detailed WDS elemental mapping, trace elements do not exhibit complex compositional zoning or solid solution in the sulfide structure. Nevertheless, significant amounts of Cu and

  7. U-Pb (zircon) and geochemical constraints on the age, origin, and evolution of Paleozoic arc magmas in the Oyu Tolgoi porphyry Cu-Au district, southern Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wainwright, A.J.; Tosdal, R.M.; Wooden, J.L.; Mazdab, F.K.; Friedman, R.M.

    2011-01-01

    Uranium-Pb (zircon) ages are linked with geochemical data for porphyry intrusions associated with giant porphyry Cu-Au systems at Oyu Tolgoi to place those rocks within the petrochemical framework of Devonian and Carboniferous rocks of southern Mongolia. In this part of the Gurvansayhan terrane within the Central Asian Orogenic Belt, the transition from Devonian tholeiitic marine rocks to unconformably overlying Carboniferous calc-alkaline subaerial to shallow marine volcanic rocks reflects volcanic arc thickening and maturation. Radiogenic Nd and Pb isotopic compositions (??Nd(t) range from +3.1 to +7.5 and 206Pb/204Pb values for feldspars range from 17.97 to 18.72), as well as low high-field strength element (HFSE) contents of most rocks (mafic rocks typically have <1.5% TiO2) are consistent with magma derivation from depleted mantle in an intra-oceanic volcanic arc. The Late Devonian and Carboniferous felsic rocks are dominantly medium- to high-K calc-alkaline and characterized by a decrease in Sr/Y ratios through time, with the Carboniferous rocks being more felsic than those of Devonian age. Porphyry Cu-Au related intrusions were emplaced in the Late Devonian during the transition from tholeiitic to calc-alkaline arc magmatism. Uranium-Pb (zircon) geochronology indicates that the Late Devonian pre- to syn-mineral quartz monzodiorite intrusions associated with the porphyry Cu-Au deposits are ~372Ma, whereas granodiorite intrusions that post-date major shortening and are associated with less well-developed porphyry Cu-Au mineralization are ~366Ma. Trace element geochemistry of zircons in the Late Devonian intrusions associated with the porphyry Cu-Au systems contain distinct Th/U and Yb/Gd ratios, as well as Hf and Y concentrations that reflect mixing of magma of distinct compositions. These characteristics are missing in the unmineralized Carboniferous intrusions. High Sr/Y and evidence for magma mixing in syn- to late-mineral intrusions distinguish the Late

  8. Molybdenum mineralization related to the Yangtze's lower crust and differentiation in the Dabie Orogen: Evidence from the geochemical features of the Yaochong porphyry Mo deposit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qing-Quan; Li, Bin; Shao, Yong-Jun; Lu, An-Huai; Lai, Jian-Qing; Li, Yong-Feng; Luo, Zheng-Zhuan

    2017-06-01

    The Dabie Orogen is a world-class case for large amounts of Mo mineralization in that it contains at least 10 porphyry Mo deposits with Mo metal reserves over 3 Mt from the time period of 156-110 Ma. However, the principal mechanism for the Mo mineralization remains controversial due to the lack of a precise definition of its source and shallow ore-forming process, which is essential to understand these rare large Mo deposits. Detailed geochronology, geochemistry, and isotopic data for ore-related granites and minerals were analyzed in order to place constraints on the massive Mo mineralization in the Dabie Orogen in eastern China. The Yaochong molybdenum orebodies were hosted in the transition belt and alteration zone between the granitic stocks and the Dabie Complex and were characterized as numerous veinlets with potassic, phyllic and propylitic alterations. The buried Yaochong granitic intrusions and associated molybdenum mineralization yield Early Cretaceous ages of magmatic activities at ca. 138 Ma and extremely similar Re-Os isotope ages for the corresponding Mo metallogenic event at ca. 137 Ma. The Yaochong monzogranite and granite porphyry belong to the highly fractionated I-type granites, which are believed to be derived from the dominantly Yangtze's lower crust mixed with the Northern Dabie Complex due to their geochemical and isotope features. The elemental diversity and isotopic homogeneity suggest that the formation of the Yaochong monzogranite involved the fractionation of biotite, garnet and minor feldspar and accessory minerals combined with a weak crustal assimilation process. In contrast, the granite porphyry was possibly generated by the partial melting of the same mixed lower continental crust via the differentiation process involving the fractionation of feldspar, apatite, and/or titanite. Fractional crystallization processes can significantly elevate the molybdenum concentration in the residual melts. The biotite fractional crystallization

  9. Formation of the giant Chalukou porphyry Mo deposit in northern Great Xing'an Range, NE China: Partial melting of the juvenile lower crust in intra-plate extensional environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhen-Zhen; Qin, Ke-Zhang; Li, Guang-Ming; Ishihara, Shunso; Jin, Lu-Ying; Song, Guo-Xue; Meng, Zhao-Jun

    2014-08-01

    The Chalukou porphyry Mo deposit (2.46 Mt @ 0.087% Mo), located in the northern Great Xing'an Range, NE China, is the largest Mo deposit discovered in China so far. The host rocks consist of aplite porphyry, granite porphyry and quartz porphyry, and are intruded into Lower Ordovician intermediate-felsic volcanic-sedimentary rocks and pre-ore monzogranite and are cut by post-ore feldspar porphyry, diorite porphyry and quartz monzonite porphyry. Here, we present the zircon U-Pb ages, whole-rock geochemistry, Sr-Nd isotopic and zircon Hf isotopic data for the pre-ore, syn-ore and post-ore intrusive rocks. The Chalukou ore-forming porphyries intruded during 147-148 Ma and have high-silica, alkali-rich, metaluminous to slightly peraluminous compositions and are oxidized. They are enriched in large ion lithophile elements (e.g. K, Rb, U and Th), light REE and depleted in high-field strength elements (e.g. Nb, P and Ti). Depletions in Eu, Ba, Sr, Nb, Ta, P and Ti suggest that they have experienced strong fractional crystallization of plagioclase, biotite, hornblende and accessory minerals. The pre-ore monzogranite (~ 172 Ma) also belongs to the high-K calc-alkaline series. Highly fractionated REE patterns ((La/Yb) N = 19.6-21.7), high values of Sr/Y (54-69) and La/Yb (29-32), are adakite-like geochemical features. The post-ore rocks (~ 141-128 Ma) have similar geochemical characteristics with ore-forming porphyries except that quartz monzonite porphyry shows no Ba-Sr negative anomaly. All intrusive rocks have relative low initial 87Sr/86Sr (0.705413-0.707889) and εNd (t) values (- 1.28 to + 0.92), positive εHf (t) values (+ 2.4 to + 10.1) and young two-stage Nd and Hf model ages (TDM2 (Nd) = 863-977 Ma, TDM2 (Hf) = 552-976 Ma). These geochemical and isotopic data are interpreted to demonstrate that the ore-forming porphyries formed by partial melting of the juvenile lower crust caused by underplating of mafic magmas in an intra-plate extensional setting. The pre

  10. Origin of dioritic magma and its contribution to porphyry Cu-Au mineralization at Pulang in the Yidun arc, eastern Tibet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Kang; Yang, Zhi-Ming; Xu, Ji-Feng; Fu, Bin; Li, Wei-Kai; Sun, Mao-Yu

    2018-04-01

    The giant Pulang porphyry Cu-Au deposit in the Yidun arc, eastern Tibet, formed due to westward subduction of the Garze-Litang oceanic plate in the Late Triassic. The deposit is hosted in an intrusive complex comprising primarily coarse-grained quartz diorite and cored quartz monzonite. Here, we investigate a suite of simultaneous (216.6 ± 1.9 Ma) diorite porphyries within the complex. The diorite porphyries are geochemically similar to mafic magmatic enclaves (MME) hosted in coarse-grained quartz diorite, and both are characterized by low SiO2 (59.4-63.0 wt%) and high total alkali (Na2O + K2O = 7.0-9.2 wt%), K2O (3.5-6.4 wt%), MgO (3.2-5.5 wt%), and compatible trace element (e.g., Cr = 72-149 ppm) concentrations. They are enriched in large-ion lithophile and light rare earth elements (LILE and LREE, respectively), but depleted in high field-strength and heavy rare earth elements (HFSE and HREE, respectively), and yield variably high (La/Yb)N ratios (17-126, average 65) with weak to negligible Eu anomalies. Furthermore, they yield low (87Sr/86Sr)i ratios (0.7054-0.7067), weakly negative εNd(t) (-2.8 to -0.8) values, and variable zircon εHf(t) (-5.4 to +0.8) and δ18O (6.0‰-6.7‰) values. These geochemical features indicate that the diorite porphyry and MME formed through crustal assimilation of a magma produced during low-degree partial melting of metasomatized phlogopite-rich subcontinental lithospheric mantle. In contrast, the coarse-grained quartz diorite and quartz monzonite have relatively high concentrations of SiO2 (61.1-65.3 wt%), K2O (4.1-5.4 wt%), and total alkali (Na2O + K2O = 7.1-8.1 wt%), and low concentrations of MgO (generally Y ratios (50-63) that indicate an adakitic affinity, and are enriched in LILE, depleted in HFSE, and yield lower (La/Yb)N values (13-20, average 17) than the diorite porphyry and MME. They yield low (87Sr/86Sr)i ratios (0.7046-0.7066), negative εNd(t) (-3.3 to -1.7) values, and zircon εHf(t) and δ18O values of -2.9 to

  11. U-Pb zircon, geochemical and Sr-Nd-Hf-O isotopic constraints on age and origin of the ore-bearing intrusions from the Nurkazgan porphyry Cu-Au deposit in Kazakhstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Ping; Pan, Hongdi; Seitmuratova, Eleonora; Jakupova, Sholpan

    2016-02-01

    Nurkazgan, located in northeastern Kazakhstan, is a super-large porphyry Cu-Au deposit with 3.9 Mt metal copper and 229 tonnage gold. We report in situ zircon U-Pb age and Hf-O isotope data, whole rock geochemical and Sr-Nd isotopic data for the ore-bearing intrusions from the Nurkazgan deposit. The ore-bearing intrusions include the granodiorite porphyry, quartz diorite porphyry, quartz diorite, and diorite. Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) zircon U-Pb dating indicates that the granodiorite porphyry and quartz diorite porphyry emplaced at 440 ± 3 Ma and 437 ± 3 Ma, respectively. All host rocks have low initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.70338-0.70439), high whole-rock εNd(t) values (+5.9 to +6.3) and very high zircon εHf(t) values (+13.4 to +16.5), young whole-rock Nd and zircon Hf model ages, and consistent and slightly high zircon O values (+5.7 to +6.7), indicating that the ore-bearing magmas derived from the mantle without old continental crust involvement and without marked sediment contamination during magma emplacement. The granodiorite porphyry and quartz diorite porphyry are enriched in large ion lithophile elements (LILE) and light rare earth elements (LREE) and depleted in high-field strength elements (HFSE), Eu, Ba, Nb, Sr, P and Ti. The diorite and quartz diorite have also LILE and LREE enrichment and HFSE, Nb and Ti depletion, but have not negative Eu, Ba, Sr, and P anomalies. These features suggest that the parental magma of the granodiorite porphyry and quartz diorite porphyry originated from melting of a lithospheric mantle and experienced fractional crystallization, whereas the diorite and quartz diorite has a relatively deeper lithospheric mantle source region and has not experienced strong fractional crystallization. Based on these, together with the coeval ophiolites in the area, we propose that a subduction of the Balkhash-Junggar oceanic plate took place during the Early Silurian and the ore-bearing intrusions and associated Nurkazgan

  12. Mineralogical and geochemical characteristics of zircon from diorite porphyry dyke in Sergozerskoe gold occurrence (the Strel'ninsky greenstone belt, Kola region)

    OpenAIRE

    Kudryashov N. M.; Skublov S. G.; Kalinin A. A.; Lyalina L. M.

    2016-01-01

    Mineralogical and geochemical investigation of zircon from diorite porphyry from Sergozerskoe occurrence has been carried out. Study of morphology and inner structure of zircon crystals in back scattered electron rays as well as assaying for content and distribution of Rare Earth Elements in mineral grains have given important information about conditions of crystallization and following metasomatic alteration of zircon. Zircon characteristics show that it crystallized in a melt, enriched in ...

  13. Model Penyelesaian Konflik Kewenangan dalam hal Timbulnya Dampak Dumping Limbah Batu Bara: Studi Kasus pada Pemda Kota Bengkulu dengan Pemda Kabupaten Bengkulu Tengah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.T. Pareke

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Penelitian ini difokuskan pada model penyelesaian konflik kewenangan terhadap timbulnya dampak dumping limbah batu bara studi kasus pada Pemerintah Kota (Pemkot Bengkulu dengan Pemerintah Kabupaten (Pemkab Bengkulu Tengah: pertama, bagaimana dampak kerusakan yang terjadi akibat dari pencemaran di daerah hilir aliran Sungai Bengkulu; kedua, bagaimana tindakan pencegahan yang dilakukan terhadap perluasan dampak pencemaran bagi perusahaan di daerah hulu sungai Bengkulu; dan ketiga, bagaimana konsep ideal pencegahan perluasan dampak pencemaran yang seharusnya dilakukan oleh Pemerintah Provinsi Bengkulu. Penelitian ini menggunakan pendekatan normatif-sosiologis, menggunakan data hasil studi lapangan, dan melakukan studi kepustakaan. Studi ini menyimpulkan bahwa: pertama, ada beberapa dampak yang diakibatkan dari pencemaran limbah batu bara, diantaranya dampak terhadap kerusakan ekosistem sungai, dampak terhadap kondisi air (PDAM Kota Bengkulu, efek domino yang terjadi di hilir sungai, dan dampak terhadap estetika lingkungan; kedua, tindakan pencegahan yang dilakukan terhadap perluasan dampak pencemaran bagi perusahaan di daerah hulu Sungai Bengkulu masih terbatas pada instrumen perizinan saja, tidak menitikberatkan pada pengawasan yang lebih ketat; ketiga, konsep ideal pencegahan perluasan dampak pencemaran yang seharusnya dilakukan adalah dengan melibatkan berbagai pihak terkait, seperti pemerintah, masyarakat, dan stakeholder yang dimotori oleh pemerintah provinsi karena konflik kewenangan ini menyangkut dua wilayah administratif yang berbeda. Abstract This study focuses on authority conflict resolution model concerning the impact of coal waste dumping—case study on the Bengkulu Municipality Government and Bengkulu Regency Government: first, what is the damage caused by pollution in the river downstream of Bengkulu; second, what are the precautions against the impact of the expansion of the company's pollution in the headwaters area of

  14. Mineralogy, textures, and whole-rock geochemistry of advanced argillic alteration: Hugo Dummett porphyry Cu-Au deposit, Oyu Tolgoi mineral district, Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khashgerel, Bat-Erdene; Kavalieris, Imants; Hayashi, Ken-Ichiro

    2008-11-01

    Advanced argillic (AA) alteration is developed over a vertical interval of 500 m, above (and enclosing) Late Devonian quartz monzodiorite intrusions that accompany porphyry-style Cu-Au mineralization at the Hugo Dummett deposit. The AA alteration is mainly in basaltic rocks and locally extends into the overlying dacitic ash-flow tuff for about 100 m. The AA zone overprints porphyry-style quartz veins associated with quartz monzodiorite intrusions, but at least partly precedes high-grade porphyry-style bornite mineralization. Mineralogically, it consists of andalusite, corundum, residual quartz, titanium oxides, diaspore, alunite, aluminum phosphate-sulfate (APS) minerals, zunyite, pyrophyllite, topaz, kaolinite, and dickite, as well as anhydrite and gypsum, but is dominated by residual quartz and pyrophyllite. Alteration zonation is not apparent, except for an alunite-bearing zone that occurs approximately at the limit of strong quartz veining. Whole-rock geochemistry shows that the AA alteration removes most major elements except Si, Al, Ti, and P, and removes the trace elements Sc, Cs, and Rb. V, Zr, Hf, Nb, Ta, U, and Th are relatively immobile, whilst light REEs (La to Nd), Sr, Ba, and Ga can be enriched. Middle REEs (Sm to Gd) are moderately depleted; Y and heavy REEs (Tb to Lu) are strongly depleted except in two unusual samples where middle to heavy REEs are enriched.

  15. Porphyry, To Gaurus, On how embryos are ensouled afonasin@gmail.com An introduction, translation from the Greek into Russian and notes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene Afonasin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this small treatise the Neoplatonic philosopher Porphyry (c. 234–305 addresses the question, problematic to every Platonic philosopher, this of agency of the preexistent human soul. Are the embryos already in possession of the self-moving descended souls and thus already living beings? In order to answer the question Porphyry first tries to show that embryos are not actually animals and thus can more properly be compared with plants. The second set of arguments is aimed to show that they are not animals even potentially. Finally Porphyry argues that, regardless the time of its entry, the self-moving soul comes from outside, not from the parents. The final chapter of the treatise is unfortunately not preserved, but the answer given by the philosopher is clear: a particular soul enters an appropriate body immediately after its birth and harmonically attuned to it for the rest of the bodily life. The translation is prepared on the basis of a new commented edition by T. Dorandi (Brisson et al. 2012. An extensive commentary that accompanies the translation helps to situate the treatise in the context of ancient medical and philosophical literature.

  16. Mineralized breccia clasts: a window into hidden porphyry-type mineralization underlying the epithermal polymetallic deposit of Cerro de Pasco (Peru)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rottier, Bertrand; Kouzmanov, Kalin; Casanova, Vincent; Bouvier, Anne-Sophie; Baumgartner, Lukas P.; Wälle, Markus; Fontboté, Lluís

    2018-01-01

    Cerro de Pasco (Peru) is known for its large epithermal polymetallic (Zn-Pb-Ag-Cu-Bi) mineralization emplaced at shallow level, a few hundred meters below the paleo-surface, at the border of a large diatreme-dome complex. Porphyry-style veins crosscutting hornfels and magmatic rock clasts are found in the diatreme breccia and in quartz-monzonite porphyry dikes. Such mineralized veins in clasts allow investigation of high-temperature porphyry-style mineralization developed in the deep portions of magmatic-hydrothermal systems. Quartz in porphyry-style veins contains silicate melt inclusions as well as fluid and solid mineral inclusions. Two types of high-temperature (> 600 °C) quartz-molybdenite-(chalcopyrite)-(pyrite) veins are found in the clasts. Early, thin (1-2 mm), and sinuous HT1 veins are crosscut by slightly thicker (up to 2 cm) and more regular HT2 veins. The HT1 vein quartz hosts CO2- and sulfur-rich high-density vapor inclusions. Two subtypes of the HT1 veins have been defined, based on the nature of mineral inclusions hosted in quartz: (i) HT1bt veins with inclusions of K-feldspar, biotite, rutile, and minor titanite and (ii) HT1px veins with inclusions of actinolite, augite, titanite, apatite, and minor rutile. Using an emplacement depth of the veins of between 2 and 3 km (500 to 800 bar), derived from the diatreme breccia architecture and the supposed erosion preceding the diatreme formation, multiple mineral thermobarometers are applied. The data indicate that HT1 veins were formed at temperatures > 700 °C. HT2 veins host assemblages of polyphase brine inclusions, generally coexisting with low-density vapor-rich inclusions, trapped at temperatures around 600 °C. Rhyolitic silicate melt inclusions found in both HT1 and HT2 veins represent melt droplets transported by the ascending hydrothermal fluids. LA-ICP-MS analyses reveal a chemical evolution coherent with the crystallization of an evolved rhyolitic melt. Quartz from both HT1 and HT2 veins

  17. Stable isotope (S, O, H and C) studies of the phyllic and potassic phyllic alteration zones of the porphyry copper deposit at Sungun, East Azarbaidjan, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calagari, Ali Asghar

    2003-05-01

    The porphyry copper deposit (PCD) at Sungun is located in East Azarbaidjan, NW of Iran. The magmatic suites in the Sungun area are a part of the NW-SE trending Cenozoic magmatic belt of Iran. The Sungun porphyries occur as stocks and dikes. The stocks are divided into two groups, I and II. Porphyry Stock II, ranging in composition from quartz monzonite through granodiorite to granite, hosts the Sungun PCD. Four distinct types of hypogene alterations were recognized at Sungun: (1) potassic; (2) potassic-phyllic; (3) phyllic; and (4) propylitic. Stable isotope (S, O, H, and C) studies were restricted to within the phyllic and potassic-phyllic alteration zones, where numerous cross-cutting quartz, sulfides, carbonates, and sulfate veinlets are present. The objective of these studies was to determine the origin of the ore-forming solutions, and their important components (e.g. sulfur and carbon). Twenty sulfide and four sulfate samples were taken from sulfide and gypsum veinlets within Porphyry Stock II and the associated skarn zone for sulfur isotopic analyses. The δ34S values of sulfides (pyrite, chalcopyrite, molybdenite, galena, sphalerite) and sulfate (gypsum) range from -4.6 to -0.2‰ (mean of -1.5‰) and from 10.9 to 14.4‰ (mean of 12.9‰), respectively. These values are almost analogous to those from El Salvador (Chile) and Ajo (Arizona), and Twin Buttes (Arizona), and strongly suggest a magmatic source for the sulfur at Sungun. Twenty-eight fluid inclusion-rich quartz samples from quartz veinlets beneath the supergene zones of the Porphyry Stock II were chosen for O and H isotopic analyses. The δ18O (of quartz) and δD (of fluid inclusions in quartz) values range from 8.3 to 10.2‰ (mean of 9.2‰) and -58 to -75‰ (mean of -66‰) relative to Standard Mean Ocean Water (SMOW), respectively. The calculated δ18O values of the fluids range from 4.4‰ (T=375 ° C) to 7.6‰ (T=570 ° C) with a mean of 6.4‰. The δ18O and δD values of the fluids lie

  18. The Mesozoic Caosiyao giant porphyry Mo deposit in Inner Mongolia, North China and Paleo-Pacific subduction-related magmatism in the northern North China Craton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Huaying; Zhang, Lianchang; Pirajno, Franco; Shu, Qihai; Zhang, Min; Zhu, Mingtian; Xiang, Peng

    2016-09-01

    The Caosiyao giant porphyry Mo deposit is located in the Wulanchabu area of Inner Mongolia, within the northern North China Craton (NCC). It contains more than 2385 Mt of ore with an average grade of 0.075% Mo. In the Caosiyao mining district, Mo mineralization occurs mainly in a Mesozoic granite porphyry as disseminations and stockworks, with some Mo distributed in Archean metamorphic rocks and diabase as stockworks and veins. The host granite porphyry is composed of two different phases that can be distinguished based on mineral assemblages and textures: one phase contains large and abundant phenocrysts (coarse-grained), while the other phase is characterized by fewer and smaller phenocrysts (medium-grained). Zircon U-Pb-Hf analyses of the former phase yielded a concordant 206Pb/238U age of 149.8 ± 2.4 Ma with a 206Pb/238U weighted mean age of 149.9 ± 2.4 Ma and εHf(t) values ranging from -12.2 to 18.3, while the latter phase gave a concordant 206Pb/238U age of 149.0 ± 2.2 Ma with a 206Pb/238U weighted mean age of 149.0 ± 2.1 Ma and εHf(t) values ranging from -13.1 to 17.7. Five samples of disseminated molybdenite have a 187Re-187Os isochron age of 149.5 ± 5.3 Ma with a weighted average age of 149.0 ± 1.8 Ma, whereas six veinlet-type molybdenite samples have a well-constrained 187Re-187Os isochron age of 146.9 ± 3.1 Ma and a weighted average age of 146.5 ± 0.8 Ma. Thus, it is suggested that the Mo mineralization of the Caosiyao deposit occurred during the Late Jurassic (ca. 147-149 Ma), almost coeval with the emplacement of the host granite porphyry (ca. 149-150 Ma). The host granite porphyry is characterized by high silica (SiO2 = 71.52-74.10 wt%), relatively high levels of oxidation (Fe2O3/FeO = 0.32-0.94 wt%) and high alkali element concentrations (Na2O + K2O = 8.21-8.76 wt%). The host granite porphyry also shows enrichments in U and K, and depletion in Ba, Sr, P, Eu, and Ti, suggesting strong fractional crystallization of plagioclase, biotite, and

  19. Relationship between bulk mineralogy and induced polarisation responses in iron oxide-copper-gold and porphyry copper mineralisation, northern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilef, Sebastián; Vargas, Jaime Araya; Yáñez, Gonzalo

    2017-07-01

    We have studied the correlation between bulk mineralogy and induced polarisation (IP) responses in iron oxide-copper-gold (IOCG) and porphyry copper mineralised systems in northern Chile. Twelve drillholes (> 5000 m) that intersect IP sections were mapped and sampled to obtain geological characteristics and to quantify metallic minerals concentration in ore bodies. Geological parameters and modelled geophysical responses (electrical chargeability and resistivity) were compared using qualitative and quantitative criteria. Data analyses show that bulk sulphide concentration is the major factor that explains variations in the IP effect, even for IOCG ore bodies associated with magnetite mineralisation (up to 5 vol. %). Electrical chargeability exhibits a direct, but non-linear proportionality with sulphides content, while no clear trend is observed when chargeability is compared to magnetite concentration. In drillhole segments where macroscopic sulphides were not mapped, but IP results suggested high chargeabilities, petrographic studies revealed at least 1 vol. % of pyrite occurring as micro crystals (< 0.125 mm). The apparent resistivity data do not show any direct relationship with chargeability or sulphide contents.

  20. Geochemical Data for Samples Collected in 2008 Near the Concealed Pebble Porphyry Cu-Au-Mo Deposit, Southwest Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fey, David L.; Granitto, Matthew; Giles, Stuart A.; Smith, Steven M.; Eppinger, Robert G.; Kelley, Karen D.

    2009-01-01

    In the summer of 2007, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) began an exploration geochemical research study over the Pebble porphyry copper-gold-molybdenum deposit. This report presents the analytical data collected in 2008. The Pebble deposit is world class in size, and is almost entirely concealed by tundra, glacial deposits, and post-Cretaceous volcanic rocks. The Pebble deposit was chosen for this study because it is concealed by surficial cover rocks, is relatively undisturbed (except for exploration company drill holes), is a large mineral system, and is fairly well-constrained at depth by the drill hole geology and geochemistry. The goals of this study are to 1) determine whether the concealed deposit can be detected with surface samples, 2) better understand the processes of metal migration from the deposit to the surface, and 3) test and develop methods for assessing mineral resources in similar concealed terrains. The analytical data are presented as an integrated Microsoft Access 2003 database and as separate Excel files.

  1. Age and geochemistry of host rocks of the Cobre Panama porphyry Cu-Au deposit, central Panama: Implications for the Paleogene evolution of the Panamanian magmatic arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Michael J.; Hollings, Peter; Thompson, Jennifer A.; Thompson, Jay M.; Burge, Colin

    2016-04-01

    The Cobre Panama porphyry Cu-Au deposit, located in the Petaquilla district of central Panama, is hosted by a sequence of medium- to high-K calc-alkaline volcanic and sub-volcanic rocks. New crystallisation ages obtained from a granodiorite Petaquilla batholith and associated mineralised diorite to granodiorite porphyry stocks and dikes at Cobre Panama indicate that the batholith was emplaced as a multi-phase intrusion, over a period of 4 million years from 32.20 ± 0.76 Ma to 28.26 ± 0.61 Ma, while the porphyritic rocks were emplaced over a 2 million year period from 28.96 ± 0.62 Ma to 27.48 ± 0.68 Ma. Both the volcanic to sub-volcanic host rocks and intrusive rocks of the Cobre Panama deposit evolved via fractional crystallisation processes, as demonstrated by the major elements (e.g. Al2O3, Fe2O3, TiO2 and MgO) displaying negative trends with increasing SiO2. The Petaquilla intrusive rocks, including the diorite-granodiorite porphyries and granodiorite batholith, are geochemically evolved and appear to have formed from more hydrous magmas than the preceding host volcanic rocks, as evidenced by the presence of hornblende phenocrysts, higher degrees of large-ion lithophile element (LILE) and light rare earth element (LREE) enrichment and heavy rare earth element (HREE) depletion, and higher Sr/Y and La/Yb values. However, the degree of LREE enrichment, HREE depletion and La/Yb values are insufficient for the intrusive rocks to be considered as adakites. Collectively, the volcanic and intrusive rocks have LILE, REE and mobile trace element concentrations similar to enriched Miocene-age Cordilleran arc magmatism found throughout central and western Panama. Both the Petaquilla and Cordilleran arc magmatic suites are geochemically more evolved than the late Cretaceous to Eocene Chagres-Bayano arc magmas from northeastern Panama, as they display higher degrees of LILE and LREE enrichment. The geochemical similarities between the Petaquilla and Cordilleran arc magmas

  2. Porphyry copper assessment of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt and eastern Tethysides: China, Mongolia, Russia, Pakistan, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, and India: Chapter X in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihalasky, Mark J.; Ludington, Stephen; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Alexeiev, Dmitriy V.; Frost, Thomas P.; Light, Thomas D.; Robinson, Gilpin R.; Briggs, Deborah A.; Wallis, John C.; Miller, Robert J.; Bookstrom, Arthur A.; Panteleyev, Andre; Chitalin, Andre; Seltmann, Reimar; Guangsheng, Yan; Changyun, Lian; Jingwen, Mao; Jinyi, Li; Keyan, Xiao; Ruizhao, Qiu; Jianbao, Shao; Gangyi, Shai; Yuliang, Du

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey collaborated with international colleagues to assess undiscovered resources in porphyry copper deposits in the Central Asian Orogenic Belt and eastern Tethysides. These areas host 20 known porphyry copper deposits, including the world class Oyu Tolgoi deposit in Mongolia that was discovered in the late 1990s. The study area covers major parts of the world’s largest orogenic systems. The Central Asian Orogenic Belt is a collage of amalgamated Precambrian through Mesozoic terranes that extends from the Ural Mountains in the west nearly to the Pacific Coast of Asia in the east and records the evolution and final closure of the Paleo-Asian Ocean in Permian time. The eastern Tethysides, the orogenic belt to the south of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt, records the evolution of another ancient ocean system, the Tethys Ocean. The evolution of these orogenic belts involved magmatism associated with a variety of geologic settings appropriate for formation of porphyry copper deposits, including subduction-related island arcs, continental arcs, and collisional and postconvergent settings. The original settings are difficult to trace because the arcs have been complexly deformed and dismembered by younger tectonic events. Twelve mineral resource assessment tracts were delineated to be permissive for the occurrence of porphyry copper deposits based on mapped and inferred subsurface distributions of igneous rocks of specific age ranges and compositions. These include (1) nine Paleozoic tracts in the Central Asian Orogenic Belt, which range in area from about 60,000 to 800,000 square kilometers (km2); (2) a complex area of about 400,000 km2 on the northern margin of the Tethysides, the Qinling-Dabie tract, which spans central China and areas to the west, encompassing Paleozoic through Triassic igneous rocks that formed in diverse settings; and (3) assemblages of late Paleozoic and Mesozoic rocks that define two other tracts in the Tethysides, the 100

  3. Skarn-mineralized porphyry adakites in the Harlik arc at Kalatage, E. Tianshan (NW China): Slab melting in the Devonian-early Carboniferous in the southern Central Asian Orogenic Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Qigui; Yu, Mingjie; Xiao, Wenjiao; Windley, Brian F.; Li, Yuechen; Wei, Xiaofeng; Zhu, Jiangjian; Lü, Xiaoqiang

    2018-03-01

    The geodynamic control of mineralization in the accretionary evolution of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB) has long been controversial. Here we report new field, geochemical and geochronological data on recently defined porphyry and skarn-type ore deposits (Devonian-Early Carboniferous) in the Kalatage area in the middle of the Harlik-Dananhu arc, Eastern Tianshan, NW China in the southern CAOB, with the aim of better understanding the accretionary tectonics and genesis of porphyry and skarn-type mineralization. The Yudai porphyry Cu-(Au) deposits and the Xierqu skarn Cu-Fe-(Au) deposits are closely associated with Middle Devonian adakitic diorite porphyries (382-390 Ma), which are calc-alkaline and characterized by high Na2O/K2O ratios and Sr contents (310-1020 ppm), strong depletion of HREE (e.g., Yb = 0.80-1.44 ppm) and Y (7.68-14.50 ppm), and all enriched in Rb, Sr, Ba, K and depleted in Nb and Ti. They are characterized by distinctive Eu positive anomalies, high Na2O contents and MORB-like Sr and Nd isotope signatures (high εNd(t) = +6.1 to +7.0 and low (87Sr/86Sr)i = 0.70412-0.70462). These adakites most likely formed by melting of a young/hot subducted oceanic slab, and adakites in general are important carriers of porphyry Cu ± (Au) deposits. Early Carboniferous adakites in the Tuwu area south of Kalatage are known to have similar features. Therefore, skarn-mineralized porphyry adakites get younger from north to south, suggesting southward migration of the Harlik-Dananhu arc from 390 Ma to 322 Ma. These data indicate that partial melting of hot (and/or young) oceanic crustal slabs were an important mechanism of accretionary crustal growth and mineralization in the southern CAOB.

  4. The optimisation of electrokinetic remediation for heavy metals and radioactivity contamination on Holyrood-Lunas soil (acrisol species) in Sri Gading Industrial Area, Batu Pahat, Johor, Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed Johar, S.; Embong, Z.

    2015-01-01

    The optimisation of electrokinetic remediation of an alluvial soil, locally named as Holyrood-Lunas from Sri Gading Industrial Area, Batu Pahat, Johor, Malaysia, had been conducted in this research. This particular soil was chosen due to its relatively high level of background radiation in a range between 139.2 and 539.4 nGy h -1 . As the background radiation is correlated to the amount of parent nuclides, 238 U and 232 Th, hence, a remediation technique, such as electrokinetic, is very useful in reducing these particular concentrations of heavy metal and radionuclides in soils. Several series of electrokinetics experiments were performed in laboratory scale in order to study the influence of certain electrokinetic parameters in soil. The concentration before (pre-electrokinetic) and after the experiment (post-electrokinetic) was determined via X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis technique. The best electrokinetic parameter that contributed to the highest achievable concentration removal of heavy metals and radionuclides on each experimental series was incorporated into a final electrokinetic experiment. Here, High Pure Germanium (HPGe) was used for radioactivity elemental analysis. The XRF results suggested that the most optimised electrokinetic parameters for Cr, Ni, Zn, As, Pb, Th and U were 3.0 h, 90 volts, 22.0 cm, plate-shaped electrode by 8 x 8 cm and in 1-D configuration order whereas the selected optimised electrokinetic parameters gave very low reduction of 238 U and 232 Th at 0.23 ± 2.64 and 2.74 ± 23.78 ppm, respectively. (authors)

  5. The optimisation of electrokinetic remediation for heavy metals and radioactivity contamination on Holyrood-Lunas soil (acrisol species) in Sri Gading Industrial Area, Batu Pahat, Johor, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed Johar, S; Embong, Z

    2015-11-01

    The optimisation of electrokinetic remediation of an alluvial soil, locally named as Holyrood-Lunas from Sri Gading Industrial Area, Batu Pahat, Johor, Malaysia, had been conducted in this research. This particular soil was chosen due to its relatively high level of background radiation in a range between 139.2 and 539.4 nGy h(-1). As the background radiation is correlated to the amount of parent nuclides, (238)U and (232)Th, hence, a remediation technique, such as electrokinetic, is very useful in reducing these particular concentrations of heavy metal and radionuclides in soils. Several series of electrokinetics experiments were performed in laboratory scale in order to study the influence of certain electrokinetic parameters in soil. The concentration before (pre-electrokinetic) and after the experiment (post-electrokinetic) was determined via X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis technique. The best electrokinetic parameter that contributed to the highest achievable concentration removal of heavy metals and radionuclides on each experimental series was incorporated into a final electrokinetic experiment. Here, High Pure Germanium (HPGe) was used for radioactivity elemental analysis. The XRF results suggested that the most optimised electrokinetic parameters for Cr, Ni, Zn, As, Pb, Th and U were 3.0 h, 90 volts, 22.0 cm, plate-shaped electrode by 8 × 8 cm and in 1-D configuration order whereas the selected optimised electrokinetic parameters gave very low reduction of (238)U and (232)Th at 0.23 ± 2.64 and 2.74 ± 23.78 ppm, respectively. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Lithological and Hydrothermal Alteration Mapping of Epithermal, Porphyry and Tourmaline Breccia Districts in the Argentine Andes Using ASTER Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. Testa

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The area of interest is located on the eastern flank of the Andean Cordillera, San Juan province, Argentina. The 3600 km2 area is characterized by Siluro-Devonian to Neogene sedimentary and igneous rocks and unconsolidated Quaternary sediments. Epithermal, porphyry-related, and magmatic-hydrothermal breccia-hosted ore deposits, common in this part of the Frontal Cordillera, are associated with various types of hydrothermal alteration assemblages. Kaolinite – alunite-rich argillic, quartz – illite-rich phyllic, epidote – chlorite – calcite-rich propylitic and silicic are the most common hydrothermal alteration assemblages in the study area. VNIR, SWIR and TIR ASTER data were used to characterize geological features on a portion of the Frontal Cordillera. Red-green-blue band combinations, band ratios, logical operations, mineral indices and principal component analysis were applied to successfully identify rock types and hydrothermal alteration zones in the study area. These techniques were used to enhance geological features to contrast different lithologies and zones with high concentrations of argillic, phyllic, propylitic alteration mineral assemblages and silicic altered rocks. Alteration minerals detected with portable short-wave infrared spectrometry in hand specimens confirmed the capability of ASTER to identify hydrothermal alteration assemblages. The results from field control areas confirmed the presence of those minerals in the areas classified by ASTER processing techniques and allowed mapping the same mineralogy where pixels had similar information. The current study proved ASTER processing techniques to be valuable mapping tools for geological reconnaissance of a large area of the Argentinean Frontal Cordillera, providing preliminary lithologic and hydrothermal alteration maps that are accurate as well as cost and time effective.

  7. Molybdenite Re/Os dating, zircon U-Pb age and geochemistry of granitoids in the Yangchuling porphyry W-Mo deposit (Jiangnan tungsten ore belt), China: Implications for petrogenesis, mineralization and geodynamic setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Jingwen; Xiong, Bikang; Liu, Jun; Pirajno, Franco; Cheng, Yanbo; Ye, Huishou; Song, Shiwei; Dai, Pan

    2017-08-01

    The Yangchuling W-Mo deposit, located in the Jiangnan porphyry-skarn (JNB) tungsten ore belt, is the first recognized typical porphyry W-Mo deposit in China in the 1980's. Stockworks and disseminated W-Mo mineralization occur in the roof pendant of a 0.3 km2 monzogranitic porphyry stock that intruded into a granodiorite stock, hosted by Neoproterozoic phyllite and slate. LA-ICPMS zircon U-Pb analyses suggest that of the monzogranitic porphyry and granodiorite were formed at 143.8 ± 0.5 Ma and 149.8 ± 0.6 Ma, respectively. Six molybdenite samples yielded a Re-Os weighted mean age of 146.4 ± 1.0 Ma. Geochemical data show that both granodiorite and monzogranitic porphyry are characterized by enrichment of large ion lithophile elements (LILE) relative to high field strength elements (HFSE), indicating a peraluminous nature (A/CNK = 1.01-1.08). Two granitoids are characterized by a negative slope with significant light REE/heavy REE fractionation [(La/Yb)N = 8.38-23.20] and negative Eu anomalies (Eu/Eu* = 0.69-0.76). The P2O5 contents of the Yangchuling granitoids range from 0.12% to 0.17% and exhibit a negative correlation with SiO2, reflecting that they are highly fractionated I-type. They have high initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.7104-0.7116), low negative εNd(t) (- 5.05 to - 5.67), and homogeneous εHf(t) between - 1.39 and - 2.17, indicating similar sources. Additionally, two-stage Nd model ages (TDM2) of 1.3-1.4 Ga and two-stage Hf model ages (TDM2) of 1.2-1.3 Ga are consistent, indicating that Neoproterozoic crustal rocks of the Shuangqiaoshan Group could have contributed to form the Yangchuling magmas. Considering the two groups of parallel Late Mesozoic ore belts, namely the Jiangnan porphyry-skarn tungsten belt (JNB) in the south and the Middle-Lower Yangtze River porphyry-skarn Cu-Au-Mo-Fe ore belt (YRB) in the north, the Nanling granite-related W-Sn ore belt (NLB) in the south, the neighboring Qin-Hang porphyry-skarn Cu-Mo-hydrothermal Pb-Zn-Ag ore belt (QHB

  8. Extremely Re-Rich Molybdenite from Porphyry Cu-Mo-Au Prospects in Northeastern Greece: Mode of Occurrence, Causes of Enrichment, and Implications for Gold Exploration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Kartal

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Extremely Re-rich molybdenite occurs with pyrite in sodic–calcic, sodic–sericitic and sericitic-altered porphyritic stocks of granodioritic–tonalitic and granitic composition in the Sapes–Kirki–Esymi, Melitena and Maronia areas, northeastern Greece. Molybdenite in the Pagoni Rachi and Sapes deposits is spatially associated with rheniite, as well as with intermediate (Mo,ReS2 and (Re,MoS2 phases, with up to 46 wt % Re. Nanodomains and/or microinclusions of rheniite may produce the observed Re enrichment in the intermediate molybdenite–rheniite phases. The extreme Re content in molybdenite and the unique presence of rheniite in porphyry-type mineralization, combined with preliminary geochemical data (Cu/Mo ratio, Au grades may indicate that these deposits have affinities with Cu–Au deposits, and should be considered potential targets for gold mineralization in the porphyry environment. In the post-subduction tectonic regime of northern Greece, the extreme Re and Te enrichments in the magmatic-hydrothermal systems over a large areal extent are attributed to an anomalous source (e.g., chemical inhomogenities in the mantle-wedge triggered magmatism, although local scale processes cannot be underestimated.

  9. An exploration hydrogeochemical study at the giant Pebble porphyry Cu-Au-Mo deposit, Alaska, USA, using high-resolution ICP-MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppinger, Robert G.; Fey, David L.; Giles, Stuart A.; Kelley, Karen D.; Smith, Steven M.

    2012-01-01

    A hydrogeochemical study using high resolution ICP-MS was undertaken at the giant Pebble porphyry Cu-Au-Mo deposit and surrounding mineral occurrences. Surface water and groundwater samples from regional background and the deposit area were collected at 168 sites. Rigorous quality control reveals impressive results at low nanogram per litre (ng/l) levels. Sites with pH values below 5.1 are from ponds in the Pebble West area, where sulphide-bearing rubble crop is thinly covered. Relative to other study area waters, anomalous concentrations of Cu, Cd, K, Ni, Re, the REE, Tl, SO42− and F− are present in water samples from Pebble West. Samples from circum-neutral waters at Pebble East and parts of Pebble West, where cover is much thicker, have anomalous concentrations of Ag, As, In, Mn, Mo, Sb, Th, U, V, and W. Low-level anomalous concentrations for most of these elements were also found in waters surrounding nearby porphyry and skarn mineral occurrences. Many of these elements are present in low ng/l concentration ranges and would not have been detected using traditional quadrupole ICP-MS. Hydrogeochemical exploration paired with high resolution ICP-MS is a powerful new tool in the search for concealed deposits.

  10. Magmatic-hydrothermal fluids and volatile metals in the Spirit Lake pluton and Margaret Cu-Mo porphyry system, SW Washington, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iveson, Alexander A.; Webster, James D.; Rowe, Michael C.; Neill, Owen K.

    2016-03-01

    The halogen-bearing minerals tourmaline, amphibole, and biotite formed during magmatic-hydrothermal processes associated with the late-stage cooling of the Spirit Lake granitoid pluton (Mt. St. Helens, WA) and with the younger sulphide-mineralised rocks of the Margaret Cu-Mo porphyry deposit located entirely within the pluton. Major- and trace-element discrimination suggests that one tourmaline population crystallised from fractionated late-stage melt pockets in granodiorite-monzogranitic dykes of the pluton. These coarse, euhedral, oscillatory, and complexly sector-zoned uvite tourmalines span a limited range in Mg/(Mg + Fe) [Mg#] space (0.4-0.7 apfu) and show the highest Ti, Ca, F, Nb, and Ta contents, and low X-site vacancies (X-site vacancies (>0.6 apfu), lower Ca and F contents, and the highest Li, As, and HREE contents (>80 ppm Li, >1200 ppm As). This population appears to record direct, rapid crystallisation from magmatic ± meteoric fluid(s) bearing the signature of the breakdown of primary feldspars and pyroxenes, with fluid exsolution from fractionated melt patches likely triggered by the formation of the previous generation of tourmaline. Mineralised porphyry deposit tourmaline compositions from the stockwork span a much larger range in Mg# space (0.05-0.9 apfu) and are almost entirely Ca-free. X-sites of these schorl tourmalines are dominated by Na or vacancies, and the Y-sites are strongly Fe enriched. The highest Mn and Zn concentrations (>4000 and >1000 ppm, respectively) potentially reflect the composition of mineralising fluids during ore deposition. A number of boron isotopic analyses yield predominantly heavy boron, but δ11B values range from -5.2 to 6.2 ‰ and average 1.4 ‰. Whilst most plutonic tourmalines conform to reported a- and c-sector element partitioning models, those from the mineralised porphyry show large and variable sector fractionation differences, suggesting that external controls may also be important. Wider evidence for

  11. Zircon U–Pb geochronology and geochemistry of rhyolitic tuff, granite porphyry and syenogranite in the Lengshuikeng ore district, SE China: Implications for a continental arc to intra-arc rift setting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Changming; Zhang, Da; Wu, Gangguo; Xu, Yigan; Carranza, E.J.M; Zhang, Yaoyao; Li, Haikun; Geng, Jianzhen

    2013-01-01

    SE China is well known for its Mesozoic large-scale granitoid plutons and associated ore deposits. Here, zircon U–Pb geochronological and geochemical data have been used to better constrain the petrogenesis of the igneous rocks associated with porphyry Ag–Pb–Zn deposits in the Lengshuikeng ore

  12. Zircon U-Pb and Hf-O isotopes trace the architecture of polymetallic deposits: A case study of the Jurassic ore-forming porphyries in the Qin-Hang metallogenic belt, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Panlao; Yuan, Shunda; Mao, Jingwen; Santosh, M.; Zhang, Dongliang

    2017-11-01

    The Qin-Hang intra-continental porphyry-skarn Cu polymetallic belt (QHMB) is among the economically important metallogenic belts in South China. The significant differences in the size and metal assemblage of the Jurassic magmatic-hydrothermal ore deposits in this belt remain as an enigma. Here we employ zircon U-Pb and Hf-O isotopes of the Tongshanling and Baoshan Cu-Pb-Zn deposits in the central part of the QHMB to investigate the contrasting metallogenic architecture. Our SIMS zircon U-Pb data indicate that the Tongshanling and Baoshan granodiorite formed at 160 Ma. These rocks show high Mg# values, and negative zircon εHf(t) and high δ18O values suggesting that the magmas of the granodiorite porphyries were mainly generated through the anatexis of older crustal components triggered by the input of mantle-derived magma. The minor content of amphibole phenocrysts, low Sr/Y ratios, negative Eu anomaly, and low zircon Ce4 +/Ce3 + ratios indicate that the porphyries are relatively less oxidized with less water content compared with the ore-bearing porphyries in the Dexing and Yuanzhuding porphyry Cu deposits in the northern and southern part of the QHMB, suggesting that high magmatic water content and oxidation state are important prerequisites for the formation of large size porphyry-skarn copper deposits in the QHMB. The positive correlation between zircon εHf(t) values with the Cu reserves, as well as zircon δ18O values with the Cu/(Cu + Pb + Zn) ratios of the deposits indicate that the magmatic sources exerted a first-order control on the volume and metal assemblage of deposits in the QHMB. The Hf and Nd isotope contour maps indicate that the central part of the QHMB has high potential for Pb-Zn-dominated magmatic-hydrothermal deposits, whereas the northern and southern part of the QHMB are prospective for large Cu deposits. Our results have important implications in formulating regional exploration strategies for Jurassic porphyry-skarn Cu-Pb-Zn deposits in

  13. Platinum-group element geochemistry of the Forest Reef Volcanics, southeastern Australia: Implications for porphyry Au-Cu mineralisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowczak, Jessica N.; Campbell, Ian H.; Cocker, Helen; Park, Jung-Woo; Cooke, David R.

    2018-01-01

    Platinum-group element concentrations in felsic to intermediate rocks from the Forest Reef Volcanics, Cadia-Neville region, southeastern Australia have been analysed by the Ni-S fire assay-isotope dilution method. The Forest Reef Volcanics are shoshonitic to calc-alkaline in composition and fractionated to produce a wide range of compositions, with MgO varying between 9.7 and 1.8 wt.%. The interest in this suite is that it is coeval with Au-Cu porphyry-style mineralisation in the Cadia mineral district. This study uses PGE geochemistry to determine the timing of sulfide saturation, relative to volatile (ore-fluid) saturation, in the magma that gave rise to the Forest Reef Volcanics and, in turn, to assess how this timing affected the mineralisation potential of the evolving magmatic system. The Forest Reef Volcanics can be subdivided, on the basis of their contrasting PGE geochemistry, into high-Mg (>6.8 wt.% MgO) and low-Mg suites (≤6.8 wt.% MgO). Platinum, Pd and Re concentrations increase in the high-Mg samples, whereas Ir and Ru decrease and Rh concentrations remain steady, with decreasing MgO. The coupled Ir, Ru and Rh depletion is attributed to the partitioning of these elements into magnetite. The rate of Pt and Pd enrichment is not possible by closed-system fractional crystallisation alone, which suggests that the parent magma was replenished by a Pt-Pd-rich melt. In contrast, the PGE concentrations in the low-Mg samples decrease with decreasing MgO indicating the onset of sulfide saturation at 6.8 wt.% MgO, which is confirmed by the presence of spheroidal sulfide inclusions in liquidus crystals (i.e. clinopyroxene, plagioclase, magnetite). The rate of Pd depletion is appreciably less than for any other sulfide saturated felsic system for which data are available. This requires either that the amount of sulfide melt to have precipitated was unusually low, or that the rate of Pd depletion was limited by the mass of silicate melt the sulfide melt reached

  14. A new indicator mineral methodology based on a generic Bi-Pb-Te-S mineral inclusion signature in detrital gold from porphyry and low/intermediate sulfidation epithermal environments in Yukon Territory, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, R. J.; Allan, M. M.; Mortensen, J. K.; Wrighton, T. M.; Grimshaw, M. R.

    2017-12-01

    Porphyry-epithermal and orogenic gold are two of the most important styles of gold-bearing mineralization within orogenic belts. Populations of detrital gold resulting from bulk erosion of such regions may exhibit a compositional continuum wherein Ag, Cu, and Hg in the gold alloy may vary across the full range exhibited by natural gold. This paper describes a new methodology whereby orogenic and porphyry-epithermal gold may be distinguished according to the mineralogy of microscopic inclusions observed within detrital gold particles. A total of 1459 gold grains from hypogene, eluvial, and placer environments around calc-alkaline porphyry deposits in Yukon (Nucleus-Revenue, Casino, Sonora Gulch, and Cyprus-Klaza) have been characterized in terms of their alloy compositions (Au, Ag, Cu, and Hg) and their inclusion mineralogy. Despite differences in the evolution of the different magmatic hydrothermal systems, the gold exhibits a clear Bi-Pb-Te-S mineralogy in the inclusion suite, a signature which is either extremely weak or (most commonly) absent in both Yukon orogenic gold and gold from orogenic settings worldwide. Generic systematic compositional changes in ore mineralogy previously identified across the porphyry-epithermal transition have been identified in the corresponding inclusion suites observed in samples from Yukon. However, the Bi-Te association repeatedly observed in gold from the porphyry mineralization persists into the epithermal environment. Ranges of P-T-X conditions are replicated in the geological environments which define generic styles of mineralization. These parameters influence both gold alloy composition and ore mineralogy, of which inclusion suites are a manifestation. Consequently, we propose that this methodology approach can underpin a widely applicable indicator methodology based on detrital gold.

  15. The nature of hydrothermal fluids in the Kahang porphyry copper deposit (Northeast of Isfahan based on mineralography, fluid inclusion and stable isotopic data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salimeh Sadat Komeili

    2017-02-01

    hypogene sulfide mineral and chalcopyrite is the predominant Cu- sulfide in the Kahang mineralized area. Primary magnetite grains having irregular boundaries formed in association with phyllic –potassic altered zones (Afshooni et al., 2014. Chalcocite and covellite as secondary copper minerals in the enriched supergene zone replaced the chalcopyrite. Thermometric studies on fluid inclusions conducted on quartz veins was related to the phyllic zone. Almost all studied fluid inclusions were homogenized to the liquid phase. Hydrothermal solutions with salinity over 26% wt equivalent NaCl, comparable with those of the other porphyry deposits (Morales Ruano et al., 2002; Hezarkhani, 2006; Hezarkhani, 2009 were responsible for the formation of the Kahang porphyry copper deposit. Homogenization temperatures of 200-450°C and 500-550°C were obtained from heating- cooling experiments on the two and multi phase fluid inclusions. The presence of gas riched fluid inclusions together with those of liquid riched and multiphase different salinities in the quartz veins as well as the occurrence of hydrothermal breccias are indicative of boiling fluids. Result In the Kahang porphyry Cu- deposit, the oxidation zone is characterized by hematite, goethite, jarosite, malachite, and azurite; the supergene zone is identified by chalcocite, chalcopyrite and coevllite; and chalcopyrite, pyrite and magnetite are the mineral assemblage of the hypogene zone. The volcanic as well as the plutonic rocks of the area have been hydrothermally altered which gave rise to the formation of propyllitic, intermediate argillic and mineralized phyllic zones. Fluid inclusion study on quartz veins revealed salinity over 26% wt equivalent NaCl and homogenization temperature of 200-450°C and 500-550°C. The presence of gas riched fluid inclusions together with those of liquid riched and multiphase different salinities in the quartz veins as well as the occurrence of hydrothermal breccias are indicative of boiling

  16. Coarse muscovite veins and alteration deep in the Yerington batholith, Nevada: insights into fluid exsolution in the roots of porphyry copper systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runyon, Simone E.; Steele-MacInnis, Matthew; Seedorff, Eric; Lecumberri-Sanchez, Pilar; Mazdab, Frank K.

    2017-04-01

    Veins and pervasive wall-rock alteration composed of coarse muscovite±quartz±pyrite are documented for the first time in a porphyritic granite at Luhr Hill in the Yerington District, Nevada. Coarse muscovite at Luhr Hill occurs at paleodepths of 6-7 km in the roots of a porphyry copper system and crops out on the scale of tens to hundreds of meters, surrounded by rock that is unaltered or variably altered to sodic-calcic assemblages. Coarse muscovite veins exhibit a consistent orientation, subvertical and N-S striking, which structurally restores to subhorizontal at the time of formation. Along strike, coarse muscovite veins swell from distal, millimeter-thick muscovite-only veinlets to proximal, centimeter-thick quartz-sulfide-bearing muscovite veins. Crosscutting relationships between coarse muscovite veins, pegmatite dikes, and sodic-calcic veins indicate that muscovite veins are late-stage magmatic-hydrothermal features predating final solidification of the Luhr Hill porphyritic granite. Fluid inclusions in the muscovite-quartz veins are high-density aqueous inclusions of 3-9 wt% NaCl eq. and <1 mol% CO2 that homogenize between 150 and 200 °C, similar to fluid inclusions from greisen veins in Sn-W-Mo vein systems. Our results indicate that muscovite-forming fluids at Luhr Hill were mildly acidic, of low to moderate salinity and sulfur content and low CO2 content, and that muscovite in deep veins and alteration differs in texture, composition, and process of formation from sericite at shallower levels of the hydrothermal system. Although the definition of greisen is controversial, we suggest that coarse muscovite alteration is more similar to alteration in greisen-type Sn-W-Mo districts worldwide than to sericitic alteration at higher levels of porphyry copper systems. The fluids that form coarse muscovite veins and alteration in the roots of porphyry copper systems are distinct from fluids that formed copper ore or widespread, shallower, acidic alteration

  17. Ore-forming adakitic porphyry produced by fractional crystallization of oxidized basaltic magmas in a subcrustal chamber (Jiamate, East Junggar, NW China)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Tao; Xu, Xing-Wang; Gao, Jun; Peters, Stephen; Zhang, Di; Jielili, Reyaniguli; Xiang, Peng; Li, Hao; Wu, Chu; You, Jun; Liu, Jie; Ke, Qiang

    2018-01-01

    Adakitic intrusions are supposed to have a close genetic and spatial relationship to porphyry Cu deposits. However, the genesis of adakitic intrusions is still under dispute. Here, we describe newly discovered intrusive complex rocks, which are composed of ore-bearing, layered magnetite-bearing gabbroic and adakitic rocks in Jiamate, East Junggar, NW China. These Jiamate Complex intrusions have diagnostic petrologic, geochronologic and geochemical signatures that indicate they were all generated from the same oxidized precursor magma source. Additionally, these layered rocks underwent the same fractional crystallization process as the ore-bearing adakitic rocks in the adjacent Kalaxiangar Porphyry Cu Belt (KPCB) in an oceanic island arc (OIA) setting. The rocks studied for this paper include layered magnetite-bearing gabbroic intrusive rocks that contain: (1) gradual contact changes between lithological units of mafic and intermediate rocks, (2) geochemical signatures that are the same as those found in oceanic island arc (OIA) rocks, (3) typical adakitic geochemistry, and (4) similar characteristics and apparent fractional crystallization relationships of ultra-basic to basic rocks to those in the nearby Beitashan Formation and to ore-bearing adakitic rocks in the KPCB. They also display similar zircon U-Pb and zircon Hf model ages.The Jiamate Complex intrusions contain intergrowths of magnetite and layered gabbro, and the intermediate-acidic intrusions of the Complex display typical adakitic affinities. Moreover, in conjunction with previously published geochronological and geochemistry data of the mafic rocks in the Beitashan Formation and in the KPCB area, additional data generated for the Jiamate Complex intrusions rocks indicate that they were formed from fractional crystallization processes. The Jiamate Complex intrusions most likely were derived from a metasomatized mantle wedge that was underplated at the root of the Saur oceanic island arc (Saur OIA). The

  18. Mineralogical and geochemical characteristics of zircon from diorite porphyry dyke in Sergozerskoe gold occurrence (the Strel'ninsky greenstone belt, Kola region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kudryashov N. M.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Mineralogical and geochemical investigation of zircon from diorite porphyry from Sergozerskoe occurrence has been carried out. Study of morphology and inner structure of zircon crystals in back scattered electron rays as well as assaying for content and distribution of Rare Earth Elements in mineral grains have given important information about conditions of crystallization and following metasomatic alteration of zircon. Zircon characteristics show that it crystallized in a melt, enriched in fluid phase. Fluid influence lasted after zircon crystallization, this reflected in uneven composition of the mineral and in configuration of REE spectra, typical for metasomatic zircon. Similar zircon characteristics have been noted in zircons from other gold occurrences in greenstone belts in the Kola region

  19. Chronology, geochemistry and Sr-Nd isotope studies of Jurassic intrusions in the Diyanqinamu porphyry Mo mine, central Inner Mongolia, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hairui; Huang, Zhilong; Li, Wenbo; Leng, Chengbiao; Ma, Deyun; Zhang, Xingchun

    2014-07-01

    Available cores of porphyritic granite and aplitic granite from the Diyanqinamu porphyry Mo deposit in the north central Great Xing’an Range presented an opportunity to examine and analyze Mesozoic igneous rocks far from the Paleo-Pacific subduction zone. The Diyanqinamu granites are highly fractionated I-type, distinguished from the M-, A- or S-type granite by: high SiO2, and Rb; low Zr, Nb, Y, and Ce; low Fe2O3total/MgO and (K2O + Na2O)/CaO ratios; low alumina saturation index (closure of the Mongol-Okhotsk Ocean was the main driving force for Late Jurassic magmatism in this region.

  20. Integrating Data of ASTER and Landsat-8 OLI (AO for Hydrothermal Alteration Mineral Mapping in Duolong Porphyry Cu-Au Deposit, Tibetan Plateau, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingbin Zhang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important characteristics of porphyry copper deposits (PCDs is the type and distribution pattern of alteration zones which can be used for screening and recognizing these deposits. Hydrothermal alteration minerals with diagnostic spectral absorption properties in the visible and near-infrared (VNIR through the shortwave infrared (SWIR regions can be identified by multispectral and hyperspectral remote sensing data. Six Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER bands in SWIR have been shown to be effective in the mapping of Al-OH, Fe-OH, Mg-OH group minerals. The five VNIR bands of Landsat-8 (L8 Operational Land Imager (OLI are useful for discriminating ferric iron alteration minerals. In the absence of complete hyperspectral coverage area, an opportunity, however, exists to integrate ASTER and L8-OLI (AO to compensate each other’s shortcomings in covering area for mineral mapping. This study examines the potential of AO data in mineral mapping in an arid area of the Duolong porphyry Cu-Au deposit(Tibetan Plateau in China by using spectral analysis techniques. Results show the following conclusions: (1 Combination of ASTER and L8-OLI data (AO has more mineral information content than either alone; (2 The Duolong PCD alteration zones of phyllic, argillic and propylitic zones are mapped using ASTER SWIR bands and the iron-bearing mineral information is best mapped using AO VNIR bands; (3 The multispectral integration data of AO can provide a compensatory data of ASTER VNIR bands for iron-bearing mineral mapping in the arid and semi-arid areas.

  1. Comparing Independent Component Analysis with Principle Component Analysis in Detecting Alterations of Porphyry Copper Deposit (case Study: Ardestan Area, Central Iran)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoudishadi, S.; Malian, A.; Hosseinali, F.

    2017-09-01

    The image processing techniques in transform domain are employed as analysis tools for enhancing the detection of mineral deposits. The process of decomposing the image into important components increases the probability of mineral extraction. In this study, the performance of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Independent Component Analysis (ICA) has been evaluated for the visible and near-infrared (VNIR) and Shortwave infrared (SWIR) subsystems of ASTER data. Ardestan is located in part of Central Iranian Volcanic Belt that hosts many well-known porphyry copper deposits. This research investigated the propylitic and argillic alteration zones and outer mineralogy zone in part of Ardestan region. The two mentioned approaches were applied to discriminate alteration zones from igneous bedrock using the major absorption of indicator minerals from alteration and mineralogy zones in spectral rang of ASTER bands. Specialized PC components (PC2, PC3 and PC6) were used to identify pyrite and argillic and propylitic zones that distinguish from igneous bedrock in RGB color composite image. Due to the eigenvalues, the components 2, 3 and 6 account for 4.26% ,0.9% and 0.09% of the total variance of the data for Ardestan scene, respectively. For the purpose of discriminating the alteration and mineralogy zones of porphyry copper deposit from bedrocks, those mentioned percentages of data in ICA independent components of IC2, IC3 and IC6 are more accurately separated than noisy bands of PCA. The results of ICA method conform to location of lithological units of Ardestan region, as well.

  2. COMPARING INDEPENDENT COMPONENT ANALYSIS WITH PRINCIPLE COMPONENT ANALYSIS IN DETECTING ALTERATIONS OF PORPHYRY COPPER DEPOSIT (CASE STUDY: ARDESTAN AREA, CENTRAL IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mahmoudishadi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The image processing techniques in transform domain are employed as analysis tools for enhancing the detection of mineral deposits. The process of decomposing the image into important components increases the probability of mineral extraction. In this study, the performance of Principal Component Analysis (PCA and Independent Component Analysis (ICA has been evaluated for the visible and near-infrared (VNIR and Shortwave infrared (SWIR subsystems of ASTER data. Ardestan is located in part of Central Iranian Volcanic Belt that hosts many well-known porphyry copper deposits. This research investigated the propylitic and argillic alteration zones and outer mineralogy zone in part of Ardestan region. The two mentioned approaches were applied to discriminate alteration zones from igneous bedrock using the major absorption of indicator minerals from alteration and mineralogy zones in spectral rang of ASTER bands. Specialized PC components (PC2, PC3 and PC6 were used to identify pyrite and argillic and propylitic zones that distinguish from igneous bedrock in RGB color composite image. Due to the eigenvalues, the components 2, 3 and 6 account for 4.26% ,0.9% and 0.09% of the total variance of the data for Ardestan scene, respectively. For the purpose of discriminating the alteration and mineralogy zones of porphyry copper deposit from bedrocks, those mentioned percentages of data in ICA independent components of IC2, IC3 and IC6 are more accurately separated than noisy bands of PCA. The results of ICA method conform to location of lithological units of Ardestan region, as well.

  3. The genesis of the Hashitu porphyry molybdenum deposit, Inner Mongolia, NE China: constraints from mineralogical, fluid inclusion, and multiple isotope (H, O, S, Mo, Pb) studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Degao; Liu, Jiajun; Tombros, Stylianos; Williams-Jones, Anthony E.

    2018-03-01

    The Hashitu porphyry molybdenum deposit is located in the Great Hinggan Range Cu-Mo-Pb-Zn-Ag polymetallic metallogenic province of NE China, in which the Mo-bearing quartz veins are hosted in approximately coeval granites and porphyries. The deposit contains more than 100 Mt of ore with an average grade of 0.13 wt.% Mo. This well-preserved magmatic-hydrothermal system provides an excellent opportunity to determine the source of the molybdenum, the evolution of the hydrothermal fluids and the controls on molybdenite precipitation in a potentially important but poorly understood metallogenic province. Studies of fluid inclusions hosted in quartz veins demonstrate that the Hashitu hydrothermal system evolved to progressively lower pressure and temperature. Mineralogical and fluid inclusion analyses and physicochemical calculations suggest that molybdenite deposition occurred at a temperature of 285 to 325 °C, a pressure from 80 to 230 bars, a pH from 3.5 to 5.6, and a Δlog fO2 (HM) of -3.0, respectively. Results of multiple isotope (O, H, S, Mo, and Pb) analyses are consistent in indicating a genetic relationship between the ore-forming fluids, metals, and the Mesozoic granitic magmatism (i.e., δ 18OH2O from +1.9 to +9.7‰, δDH2O from -106 to -87‰, δ 34SH2S from +0.3 to +3.9‰, δ 98/95Mo from 0 to +0.37‰, 206Pb/204Pb from 18.2579 to 18.8958, 207Pb/204Pb from 15.5384 to 15.5783, and 208Pb/204Pb from 38.0984 to 42.9744). Molybdenite deposition is interpreted to have occurred from a low-density magmatic-hydrothermal fluid in response to decreases in temperature, pressure, and fO2.

  4. Re-Os dating on pyrite and metal sources tracing in porphyry-type and neutral epithermal deposits: example of the Bolcana, Troita and Magura deposits, Apuseni Mountains, Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardon, Olivier

    2007-01-01

    Many porphyry-type (Cu-Au) and neutral epithermal (Pb-Zn and Au ± Ag) ore deposits are encountered in the region of the Apuseni Mountains, located at the foot of the Carpathian chain in the Western Romania. These deposits are related to a Neogene andesitic volcanism. In order to demonstrate possible genetic relationships between the porphyry-type and neutral epithermal deposits, the Bolcana porphyry has been investigated since it is surrounded by a number of epithermal low-sulfidation veins with a Pb-Zn ± Au mineralisation. These veins are currently mined at the Troita and Magura sites. A structural analysis and a 3D modelling pf these deposits indicate that the geometry and orientation of fractures and mineralized vein are consistent both with direction of regional extension and with a NW-SE progression of the different andesitic intrusions. In order to establish precisely the temporal relationship between the different ore deposits, a Re-Os dating method has been developed and applied on pyrite which is ubiquitous in all of the deposits. This method enabled us to assign an age of 10.9 ± 1.9 Ma for the porphyry-hosted mineralization. The ages obtained for the epithermal systems are somewhat approximative as perturbations of the Re-Os system are observed for these environments. A fractionation of rhenium responsible for a significant enrichment in this element for the apical zone of the porphyry has been demonstrated. This enrichment is most probably related to a maximum boiling event, which may also explain a similar enrichment in arsenic for the pyrite in the same zone. The sources for the metals have been characterized at the district scale by combining two isotopic systems (Re-Os and Pb-Pb) on both pyrite and galena. The osmium data indicate that the Troita deposit has composition which is similar to that of the Bolcana porphyry. In contrast the results obtained for the Magura deposits indicate the Re-OS system has in this case been perturbed due to a

  5. Characterization and zircon SHRIMP U-Pb geochronology of the subvolcanic rocks from Yarumalito Porphyry System, Marmato District, Colombia; Caracterizacao e geocronologia SHRIMP U-Pb em zircao das rochas subvulcanicas do sistema porfiro Yarumalito, Distrito de Marmato, Colombia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henrichs, Isadora A.; Frantz, Jose Carlos; Marques, Juliana C.; Castoldi, Marco S., E-mail: isahenrichs@gmail.com, E-mail: jose.frantz@ufrgs.br, E-mail: juliana.marques@ufrgs.br [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Instituto de Geociencias; Ordonez-Carmona, Oswaldo, E-mail: oswaldo.geologo@gmail.com [Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Medellin (Colombia). Facultad de Minas; Sato, Kei, E-mail: keisato@usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas Geocronologicas

    2014-09-15

    The mining District of Marmato, located in the Central Cordillera, is considered one of the oldest gold districts in Colombia and its exploration dates back to the Inca’s times, being exploited regularly for more than a thousand years. Inserted in this context lies the Yarumalito porphyry system (YPS), characterized to concentrate ore in structure related veins and stockworks. The YPS is related to the Miocene magmatism of the Combia Formation. In this paper, the subvolcanic rocks directly associated with the mineralized zones were described in order to obtain U-Pb ages in zircon to the intrusions. Selected samples from two fertile intrusions, one andesitic (more abundant in the area) and other dioritic (more restricted), were carefully described and dated by SHRIMP. The results points to a very restricted interval for the ages, with weighted average {sup 206}Pb/{sup 238}U varying from 7,00 ± 0,15 Ma for the andesitic porphyry and 6.95 ± 0.16 Ma for the dioritic porphyry. These results constrain the Yarumalito system to the final stages of the Combia magmatism and suggest a brief period for the crystallization of the mineralized subvolcanic rocks in the area and in the Marmato District. (author)

  6. Origin of the subduction-related Carboniferous intrusions associated with the Yandong porphyry Cu deposit in eastern Tianshan, NW China: constraints from geology, geochronology, geochemistry, and Sr-Nd-Pb-Hf-O isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yin-Hong; Xue, Chun-Ji; Liu, Jia-Jun; Zhang, Fang-Fang

    2017-10-01

    The Yandong porphyry Cu deposit is located at the south margin of the Dananhu-Tousuquan arc belt in eastern Tianshan, northwest China. The Cu ores comprise mainly disseminations and vein zones in the potassic and phyllic alteration zones, and are predominantly hosted in diorite porphyry, tonalite, and quartz porphyry, which intruded into Carboniferous Qi'eshan Group volcanic rocks. The U-Pb ages indicate that four intrusions were emplaced between 338.6 ± 2.9 and 326.1 ± 2.6 Ma. Five molybdenite samples yield Re-Os model ages of 333.8-329.5 Ma with a weighted average age of 331.8 ± 2.1 Ma. Fourteen pyrite samples have 206Pb/204Pb of 17.776-18.959, 207Pb/204Pb of 15.410-15.534, and 208Pb/204Pb of 37.323-38.127, similar to the age-corrected data of the Yandong tonalite. The tonalite shows adakite-like characteristics (e.g., high Sr/Y ratios and low Y contents), and has positive ɛNd(t) and ɛHf(t) values, and low zircon O isotopes (3.7-4.6 ‰), suggesting that the melt was derived from partial melting of a subducted oceanic slab followed by mantle peridotite interaction. The diorite porphyry exhibits high Mg# and low Sr/Y values, slightly negative Eu anomalies, and positive ɛHf(t) values, indicating a lithospheric mantle source. The quartz porphyry, with stronger negative Eu anomalies, less evolved ɛHf(t) values, and low δ18O values (4.7-5.5 ‰), was probably derived from mantle melts that experienced mixing with lower crustal materials (melts or assimilation). The new data suggest that the Yandong intrusions formed in an arc setting. As the tonalite is genetically linked to the Cu mineralization, subduction-related slab melts must have played a key role in the formation of the Yandong deposit.

  7. Spatial coincidence and similar geochemistry of Late Triassic and Eocene-Oligocene magmatism in the Andes of northern Chile: evidence from the MMH porphyry type Cu-Mo deposit, Chuquicamata District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zentilli, Marcos; Maksaev, Victor; Boric, Ricardo; Wilson, Jessica

    2018-04-01

    The MMH porphyry type copper-molybdenum deposit in northern Chile is the newest mine in the Chuquicamata District, one of largest copper concentrations on Earth. Mineralized Eocene-Oligocene porphyry intrusions are hosted by essentially barren Triassic granodiorites. Despite a century of exploitation, geologists still have problems in the mine distinguishing the Triassic granodiorite from the most important ore-carrying Eocene porphyries in the district. To resolve the problem, internally consistent high-quality geochemical analyses of the Triassic and Tertiary intrusives were carried out: explaining the confusion, they show that the rock units in question are nearly identical in composition and thus respond equally to hydrothermal alteration. In detail, the only difference in terms of chemical composition is that the main Eocene-Oligocene porphyries carry relatively less Fe and Ni. Unexpectedly, the mineralized Eocene-Oligocene porphyries have consistently less U and Th than other Tertiary intrusions in the district, a characteristic that may be valuable in exploration. The supergiant copper-molybdenum deposits in the Central Andes were formed within a narrow interval between 45 and 31 Ma, close to 7% of the 200 My duration of "Andean" magmatism, which resulted from subduction of oceanic lithosphere under South America since the Jurassic. Although recent work has shown that subduction was active on the margin since Paleozoic times, pre-Andean (pre-Jurassic) "Gondwanan" magmatism is often described as being very different, having involved crustal melting and the generation of massive peraluminous rhyolites and granites. This study shows that the indistinguishable Late Triassic and Eocene-Oligocene intrusions occupy the same narrow NS geographic belt in northern Chile. If it is accepted that magma character may determine the potential to generate economic Cu-Mo deposits, then Late Triassic volcano-plutonic centres in the same location in the South American margin

  8. Spatial coincidence and similar geochemistry of Late Triassic and Eocene-Oligocene magmatism in the Andes of northern Chile: evidence from the MMH porphyry type Cu-Mo deposit, Chuquicamata District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zentilli, Marcos; Maksaev, Victor; Boric, Ricardo; Wilson, Jessica

    2018-03-01

    The MMH porphyry type copper-molybdenum deposit in northern Chile is the newest mine in the Chuquicamata District, one of largest copper concentrations on Earth. Mineralized Eocene-Oligocene porphyry intrusions are hosted by essentially barren Triassic granodiorites. Despite a century of exploitation, geologists still have problems in the mine distinguishing the Triassic granodiorite from the most important ore-carrying Eocene porphyries in the district. To resolve the problem, internally consistent high-quality geochemical analyses of the Triassic and Tertiary intrusives were carried out: explaining the confusion, they show that the rock units in question are nearly identical in composition and thus respond equally to hydrothermal alteration. In detail, the only difference in terms of chemical composition is that the main Eocene-Oligocene porphyries carry relatively less Fe and Ni. Unexpectedly, the mineralized Eocene-Oligocene porphyries have consistently less U and Th than other Tertiary intrusions in the district, a characteristic that may be valuable in exploration. The supergiant copper-molybdenum deposits in the Central Andes were formed within a narrow interval between 45 and 31 Ma, close to 7% of the 200 My duration of "Andean" magmatism, which resulted from subduction of oceanic lithosphere under South America since the Jurassic. Although recent work has shown that subduction was active on the margin since Paleozoic times, pre-Andean (pre-Jurassic) "Gondwanan" magmatism is often described as being very different, having involved crustal melting and the generation of massive peraluminous rhyolites and granites. This study shows that the indistinguishable Late Triassic and Eocene-Oligocene intrusions occupy the same narrow NS geographic belt in northern Chile. If it is accepted that magma character may determine the potential to generate economic Cu-Mo deposits, then Late Triassic volcano-plutonic centres in the same location in the South American margin

  9. Magma chamber cooling by episodic volatile expulsion as constrained by mineral vein distributions in the Butte, Montana Cu-Mo porphyry deposit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, K.; Karlstrom, L.; Reed, M. H.

    2016-12-01

    The role of hydrothermal systems in the thermal evolution of magma chambers is poorly constrained yet likely significant. We analyze trends in mineral composition, vein thickness and overall volumetric fluid flux of the Butte, Montana porphyry Cu-Mo deposit to constrain the role of episodic volatile discharge in the crystallization of the source magma chamber ( 300 km3of silicic magma). An aqueous fluid sourced from injection of porphyritic dikes formed the Butte porphyry Cu network of veins. At least three separate pulses of fluid through the system are defined by alteration envelopes of [1] gray sericite (GS); [2] early-dark micaceous (EDM), pale-green sericite (PGS), and dark-green sericite (DGS); and [3] quartz-molybdenite (Qmb) and barren-quartz. Previous research using geothermometers and geobarometers has found that vein mineral composition, inferred temperatures and inferred pressures vary systematically with depth. Later fluid pulses are characterized by lower temperatures, consistent with progressive cooling of the source. We have digitized previously unused structural data from Butte area drill cores, and applied thermomechanical modeling of fluid release from the source magma chamber through time. Vein number density and vein thickness increase with depth as a clear function of mineralogy and thus primary temperature and pressure. We identify structural trends in the three fluid pulses which seem to imply time evolution of average vein characteristics. Pulses of Qmb-barren quartz and EDM-PGS-DGS (1st and 2nd in time) exhibit increasing vein number density (157 & 95 veins/50m, respectively) and thickness (300mm & 120mm, respectively) as a function of depth. EDM-PGS-DGS has a shallower peak in vein density (800m) than Qmb-barren quartz (>1600m). These data provide the basis for idealized mechanical models of hydrofractures, to predict driving pressures and to compare with existing source temperatures and total fluid volumes in order to estimate the total

  10. Structural and numerical modeling of fluid flow and evolving stress fields at a transtensional stepover: A Miocene Andean porphyry copper system as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuñez, R. C.; Griffith, W. A.; Mitchell, T. M.; Marquardt, C.; Iturrieta, P. C.; Cembrano, J. M.

    2017-12-01

    Obliquely convergent subduction orogens show both margin-parallel and margin-oblique fault systems that are spatially and temporally associated with ore deposits and geothermal systems within the volcanic arc. Fault orientation and mechanical interaction among different fault systems influence the stress field in these arrangements, thus playing a first order control on the regional to local-scale fluid migration paths as documented by the spatial distribution of fault-vein arrays. Our selected case study is a Miocene porphyry copper-type system that crops out in the precordillera of the Maule region along the Teno river Valley (ca. 35°S). Several regional to local faults were recognized in the field: (1) Two first-order, N-striking subvertical dextral faults overlapping at a right stepover; (2) Second-order, N60°E-striking steeply-dipping, dextral-normal faults located at the stepover, and (3) N40°-60°W striking subvertical, sinistral faults crossing the stepover zone. The regional and local scale geology is characterized by volcano-sedimentary rocks (Upper Eocene- Lower Miocene), intruded by Miocene granodioritic plutons (U-Pb zircon age of 18.2 ± 0.11 Ma) and coeval dikes. We implement a 2D boundary element displacement discontinuity method (BEM) model to test the mechanical feasibility of kinematic model of the structural development of the porphyry copper-type system in the stepover between N-striking faults. The model yields the stress field within the stepover region and shows slip and potential opening distribution along the N-striking master faults under a regionally imposed stress field. The model shows that σ1 rotates clockwise where the main faults approach each other, becoming EW when they overlap. This, in turn leads to the generation of both NE- and NW-striking faults within the stepover area. Model results are consistent with the structural and kinematic data collected in the field attesting for enhanced permeability and fluid flow transport

  11. Geologic and environmental characteristics of porphyry copper deposits with emphasis on potential future development in the Bristol Bay Watershed, Alaska (Appendix H)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seal, Robert R.

    2012-01-01

    This report is prepared in cooperation with the Bristol Bay Watershed Assessment being conducted by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The goal of the assessment is to help understand how future large-scale development in this watershed may affect water quality and the salmon fishery. Mining has been identified as a potential source of future large scale development in the region, especially because of the advanced stage of activity at the Pebble prospect. The goal of this report is to summarize the geologic and environmental characteristics of porphyry copper deposits in general, largely on the basis of literature review. Data reported in the Pebble Project Environmental Baseline Document, released by the Pebble Limited Partnership in 2011, are used to enhance the relevance of this report to the Bristol Bay watershed. The geologic characteristics of mineral deposits are paramount to determining their geochemical signatures in the environment. The geologic characteristics of mineral deposits are reflected in the mineralogy of the mineralization and alteration assemblages; geochemical associations of elements, including the commodities being sought; the grade and tonnage of the deposit; the likely mining and ore-processing methods used; the environmental attributes of the deposit, such as acid-generating and acid-neutralizing potentials of geologic materials; and the susceptibility of the surrounding ecosystem to various stressors related to the deposit and its mining, among other features (Seal and Hammarstrom, 2003). Within the Bristol Bay watershed, or more specifically the Nushagak and Kvichak watersheds, the geologic setting is permissive for the occurrence of several mineral deposit types that are amenable for large-scale development. Of these deposit types, porphyry copper deposits (e.g., Pebble) and intrusion-related gold deposits (e.g., Shotgun) are the most important on the basis of the current maturity of exploration activities by the mining

  12. Temporal and spatial distribution of alteration, mineralization and fluid inclusions in the transitional high-sulfidation epithermal-porphyry copper system at Red Mountain, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecumberri-Sanchez, Pilar; Newton, M. Claiborne; Westman, Erik C.; Kamilli, Robert J.; Canby, Vertrees M.; Bodnar, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    Red Mountain, Arizona, is a Laramide porphyry Cu system (PCD) that has experienced only a modest level of erosion compared to most other similar deposits in the southwestern United States. As a result, the upper portion of the magmatic–hydrothermal system, which represents the transition from shallower high-sulfidation epithermal mineralization to deeper porphyry Cu mineralization, is well preserved. Within the Red Mountain system, alteration, mineralization and fluid inclusion assemblages show a systematic distribution in both time and space. Early-potassic alteration (characterized by the minerals biotite and magnetite) is paragenetically earlier than late-potassic alteration (K-feldspar–anhydrite) and both are followed by later phyllic (sericite–pyrite) alteration. Advanced argillic alteration (pyrophyllite–alunite–other clay minerals) is thought to be coeval with or postdate phyllic alteration. Minerals characteristic of advanced argillic alteration are present in the near surface. Phyllic alteration extends to greater depths compared to advanced argillic alteration. Early-potassic and late-potassic alteration are only observed in the deepest part of the system. Considerable overlap of phyllic alteration with both early-potassic and late-potassic alteration zones is observed. The hypogene mineralization contains 0.4–1.2% Cu and is spatially and temporally related to the late-potassic alteration event. Molybdenum concentration is typically In the deepest part of the system, an early generation of low-to-moderate density and salinity liquid + vapor inclusions with opaque daughter minerals is followed in time by halite-bearing inclusions that also contain opaque daughter minerals indicating that an early intermediate-density magmatic fluid evolved to a high-density, high-salinity mineralizing fluid. The increase in density and salinity of fluids with time observed in the deeper parts of the system may be the result of immiscibility (“boiling”) of

  13. Petrogenesis of the late Early Cretaceous granodiorite - Quartz diorite from eastern Guangdong, SE China: Implications for tectono-magmatic evolution and porphyry Cu-Au-Mo mineralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Lihui; Mao, Jingwen; Liu, Peng; Li, Yang

    2018-04-01

    Comprehensive petrological, zircon U-Pb dating, Hf-O isotopes, whole rock geochemistry and Sr-Nd isotopes data are presented for the Xinwei and Sanrao intrusions in the eastern Guangdong Province, Southeast (SE) China, with an aim to constrain the petrogenesis, tectono-magmatic evolution and evaluate the implication for porphyry Cu-Au-Mo mineralization. The Xinwei intrusion is composed of granodiorite and quartz diorite, whilst the Sanrao intrusion consists of granodiorite. Zircon U-Pb ages show that both intrusions were emplaced at ca. 106-102 Ma. All rocks are metaluminous to weakly peraluminous, high-K calc-alkaline in composition, and they are characterized by LREEs enrichment, depletion in Nb, Ta, P, and Ti, and strongly fractionated LREEs to HREEs. The initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios range from 0.7055 to 0.7059, and εNd(t) values range from -3.9 to -3.0. Together with the relatively high εHf(t) values (-3.2 to 3.3) and low δ18O values (4.9‰ to 6.6‰), these data suggest that the Xinwei and Sanrao intrusions were derived from a mixed source: including the mantle-derived mafic magmas and lower continental crustal magmas. Fractional crystallization played an important role in the magmatic evolution of the Xinwei and Sanrao intrusions. The elemental and isotopic compositions of the Xinwei and Sanrao intrusions, as well as the high water content and oxidation state of their parental magmas, are similar to those of the ore-bearing granodiorites of the Luoboling porphyry Cu-Mo deposit in the Fujian Province, neighbouring east to the Guangdong Province, indicating that the late Early Cretaceous granodioritic intrusions in the eastern Guangdong Province may also have Cu-Au-Mo mineralization potential. The late Early Cretaceous magmatic event is firstly reported in eastern Guangdong, and represents a positive response of large-scale lithosphere extension and thinning, triggered by the changing subduction direction of the Paleo-Pacific plate from oblique subduction to

  14. Fluid Inclusion and Oxygen Isotope Constraints on the Origin and Hydrothermal Evolution of the Haisugou Porphyry Mo Deposit in the Northern Xilamulun District, NE China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qihai Shu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Haisugou porphyry Mo deposit is located in the northern Xilamulun district, northeastern China. Based on alteration and mineralization styles and crosscutting relationships, the hydrothermal evolution in Haisugou can be divided into three stages: an early potassic alteration stage with no significant metal deposition, a synmineralization sericite-chlorite alteration stage with extensive Mo precipitation, and a postmineralization stage characterized by barren quartz and minor calcite and fluorite. The coexistence of high-salinity brine inclusions with low-salinity inclusions both in potassic alteration stage (~440°C and locally in the early time of mineralization stage (380–320°C indicates the occurrence of fluid boiling. The positive correlations between the homogenization temperatures and the salinities of the fluids and the low oxygen isotopic compositions (δ18Ofluid < 3‰ of the syn- to postmineralization quartz together suggest the mixing of magmatic fluids with meteoric water, which dominated the whole mineralization process. The early boiling fluids were not responsible for ore precipitation, whereas the mixing with meteoric water, which resulted in temperature decrease and dilution that significantly reduced the metal solubility, should have played the major role in Mo mineralization. Combined fluid inclusion microthermometry and chlorite geothermometer results reveal that ore deposition mainly occurred between 350 and 290°C in Haisugou.

  15. Systematic sulfur stable isotope and fluid inclusion studies on veinlet groups in the Sarcheshmeh porphyry copper deposit: based on new data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Maanijou

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Mineralization occurred by intrusion of granodioritic stock of middle Miocene in volcano–sedimenrary rocks in Sarcheshmeh of early Tertiary age. This research is based on samples of new drilled boreholes and benches of 2500m elevation. Based on mineralogy and crosscutting relationships, at least four groups of veinlets pertaining to four stages of mineralization were recognized. Sulfur isotope studies in the Sarcheshmeh porphyry copper deposit were conducted on pyrite, chalcopyrite, molybdenite and anhydrites of four groups of veinlets. The δ34S values in the sulfides and sulfates range from -2.2 to 1.27‰ and from 10.2 to 14.5 ‰, respectively. The average δ34S value in the sulfides is 1‰ and that for the sulfates is about 13‰. Considering these results, it can be concluded that the sulfides made up of a fluid that its sulfur has a magmatic origin. Also, fluid inclusions of different veinlet groups were studied, showing high temperature, high salinity and the occurrence of boiling in the mineralizing fluids. Moreover, these studies indicate presence of three types of fluids including magmatic, meteoritic and mixture of these two fluids in alteration and mineralizion processes.

  16. Karakteristik Fisiko-Kimiawi (Morfologi, Higroskopisitas, pH dan Toksisitas Panel Bangunan yang Dihasilkan dari Komposit Limbah Abu Terbang Batu Bara (Fly Ash, Daun-Ampas Tebu, Jerami-Sekam Padi dan Ijuk (Palm Fiber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulianto P. Prihatmaji

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Telah dilakukan penelitian tentang karakteristik fisiko-kimiawi (morfologi, higroskopisitas, ph dan toksisitas panel bangunan yang dihasilkan dari komposit limbah abu terbang batu bara (fly ash, daunampas tebu, jerami-sekam padi dan ijuk (palm fiber. Berdasarkah hasil uji dan analisis fisiko-kimiawi kaitannya dengan morfologi secara makroskopis menunjukkan bahwa komposit panel bangunan dari berbagai macam jenis bahan baku tersebut tampak menyatu secara solid dengan ikatan kimia antar bahan yang terlibat. Bahan organik yang berupa limbah ampas-daun tebu, jerami-sekam padi, dan ijuk tampak menyatu padu dengan komponen anorganiknya berupa fly ash dan semen. Kaitannya dengan higroskopisitasnya, produk panel bangunan yang dihasilkan tampaknya tidak terpengaruh oleh iklim dan kelembaban di dalam maupun di luar ruang karena kadar air panel bangunan yang diuji pada hari ke-30 dan hari ke-60 relatif stabil yakni 19,65% yang berarti normal. Kaitannya dengan tingkat keasaman (pH, panel bangunan yang dihasilkan menunjukkan kondisi yang aman/tidak menyebabkan iritasi karena pH: 7-8 yang berarti tidak mengiritasi/aman. Adapun hasil uji dan analisis toksisitas fly ash dilakukan menggunakan indikator biologis; mencit menunjukkan harga LD50: 32,915 mg/kg (bb yang berarti relatif tidak berbahaya. Kutu air menunjukkan harga LC50: 75,515 ppm (7,552% yang berarti hampir tidak toksik dan ikan mas menunjukkan harga LC50: 121,943 ppm (12,194% yang berarti tidak toksik. Oleh sebab itu produk panel bangunan yang dihasilkan dapat dipastikan aman dikonsumsi.

  17. EKSPLORATORI TUJUAN MANAJEMEN KEUANGAN BISNIS HIJAU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djoko Wintoro

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Companies were facing growth pressure to transform into green business. They needed green management aswell as green finance to guide the implementation of green business. This research explored the objectives ofgreen financial management. By sending questionnaires to Finance Director of Indonesian companies, thisresearch found that the objective of green finance included three objectives which were to maximize shareholderwealth, maximize social wealth, and sustain natural resources.

  18. HOTEL HIJAU SEBAGAI ALTERNATIF PENGURANGAN DAMPAK LINGKUNGAN

    OpenAIRE

    Nanny Roedji Roedji

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, eviromental management has gotten a fully attention. Then, hospitality industry in East Java Province has committed to the Eco Friendly Enviroment needs a deep investigation in order to analyze a practical managment of hotel product which uses an eviromental friendly method in improving efficiency of energy, water, air quality, and solid waste management and liquid waste management system. This research used a descriptive qualitatif method which chracterized causuality and using a s...

  19. HOTEL HIJAU SEBAGAI ALTERNATIF PENGURANGAN DAMPAK LINGKUNGAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanny Roedji Roedji

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, eviromental management has gotten a fully attention. Then, hospitality industry in East Java Province has committed to the Eco Friendly Enviroment needs a deep investigation in order to analyze a practical managment of hotel product which uses an eviromental friendly method in improving efficiency of energy, water, air quality, and solid waste management and liquid waste management system. This research used a descriptive qualitatif method which chracterized causuality and using a survey method. Data were collected by using an istitutional-perceptional approach and were analyzed by using enviromental performance scale from 1 to 5 point toward Green Hotel practice. The conclusion from the investigation result are; 45% hotel understand the concept and green product implementation. 50% hotel reuse the water to pour the garden. 40% about operating procedure such as towel reuse and bed sheet. 90% of the hotel already use VRV air-conditioner which can adjust the temperature suitable� with the number of the people in the room and its automatically turn off when there are no people in the room. 45% shows that hotel provide dispenser to combine shampoo and conditioner (hair moisturizer in one product so it will decrease the plastic waste.

  20. Partial-melting of fertile metasedimentary rocks controlling the ore formation in the Jiangnan porphyry-skarn tungsten belt, south China: A case study at the giant Zhuxi W-Cu skarn deposit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Shiwei; Mao, Jingwen; Zhu, Yongfeng; Yao, Zaiyu; Chen, Guohua; Rao, Jianfeng; Ouyang, Yongpeng

    2018-04-01

    The Zhuxi W-Cu deposit, located in the Jiangnan porphyry-skarn W belt, is a world-class W deposit. We studied three coeval mineralization-related intrusions composed of biotite monzogranite, fine-grained granite, and granite porphyry in the Zhuxi mine. These rocks contain peritectic garnet and K-feldspar. The LA-ICP-MS U-Pb dating of zircon from the biotite monzogranite, fine-grained granite, and granite porphyry yields average ages of 149.38 ± 0.86 Ma, 149.0 ± 1.0 Ma, and 148.30 ± 1.4 Ma, respectively. The Zhuxi granites are enriched in Cs, Rb, and U and depleted in Ba, Sr, and Ti, with ASI [molar Al2O3 / (CaO + Na2O + K2O)] values of 1.03-2.15. The fine-grained granite exhibits initial 87Sr/86Sr values of 0.716-0.717 and εNd(t) values ranging from -9.61 to -9.21. The εHf(t) values of the biotite monzogranite and fine-grained granite range from -8.83 to -6.30 and from -9.86 to -7.62, respectively. The Sr-Nd-Hf isotopic compositions of these rocks are similar to those of the fertile Neoproterozoic metasedimentary rocks in the Jiangnan W belt. The Zhuxi granites are S-type granites based on their mineral assemblages and geochemical characteristics. The Hf isotopic compositions, Sr-Nd isotopic characteristics, and trace element modelling suggest that the studied granites formed from the dehydration melting of fertile Neoproterozoic metasedimentary rocks caused by the Late Jurassic underplating of OIB-like basaltic magma.

  1. CO2-rich and CO2-poor ore-forming fluids of porphyry molybdenum systems in two contrasting geologic setting: evidence from Shapinggou and Zhilingtou Mo deposits, South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, P.

    2017-12-01

    Porphyry deposits are the world most important source of Mo, accounting for more than 95% of world Mo production. Porphyry Mo deposits have been classified into Climax type and Endako type. The Climax type was generally formed in an intra-continental setting, and contain high contents of Mo (0.15-0.45 wt.%) and F (0.5-5 wt.%). In contrast, the Endako type was generated in a continental arc setting and featured by low concentrations of Mo (0.05-0.15 wt.%) and F (0.05-0.15 wt.%). The systematic comparison of ore fluids in two contrasting tectonic environments is still poorly constrained. In this study, the Shapinggou and Zhilingtou Mo deposits in South China were selected to present the contrasting ore-forming fluid features. The fluid inclusion study of Shapinggou Mo deposit suggest: Early barren quartz veins contain fluid inclusions with salinities of 7.9-16.9 wt% NaCl equiv . CO2 contents are high enough to be detected by Raman. Later molybdenite-quartz veins contain vapor-type fluid inclusions with lower salinities (0.1-7.4 wt% NaCl equiv) but higher CO2-contents, coexisting with brine inclusions with 32.9-50.9 wt% NaCl equiv. The fluid inclusion study on Zhilintou Mo deposit suggest : Early barren quartz veins contain mostly intermediate density fluid inclusions with salinities of 5.3-14.1 wt% NaCl equiv, whereas main-stage quartz-molybdenite veins contain vapor-rich fluid inclusions of 0.5-6.2 wt% NaClequiv coexisting with brine inclusions of 38.6-44.8 wt% NaCl equiv. In contrast to the Shapinggou Mo deposit, the fluid inclusions at Shizitou contain only minor amounts of CO2. This study suggests the two porphyry molybdenum deposits experienced a similar fluid evolution trend, from single-phase fluids at the premineralization stage to two-phase fluids at the mineralization stage. Fluid boiling occurred during the ore stage and probably promoted a rapid precipitation of molybdenite. Intensive phyllic alteration, CO2-poor ore-forming fluids, and continental arc

  2. Paleozoic tectonic evolution of the Dananhu-Tousuquan island arc belt, Eastern Tianshan: Constraints from the magmatism of the Yuhai porphyry Cu deposit, Xinjiang, NW China

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    Wang, Yunfeng; Chen, Huayong; Han, Jinsheng; Chen, Shoubo; Huang, Baoqiang; Li, Chen; Tian, Qinglei; Wang, Chao; Wu, Jianxin; Chen, Mingxia

    2018-03-01

    The Yuhai intrusions (quartz diorite, granite and pyroxene diorite) are located in the eastern part of the Dananhu-Tousuquan island arc belt of the Eastern Tianshan, and associated with the early Paleozoic porphyry Cu mineralization. LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb dating yielded emplacement ages of 443.5 ± 4.1 Ma for the quartz diorite, 325.4 ± 2.5 Ma for the granite, and 291 ± 3.0 Ma for the pyroxene diorite. These rocks are tholeiitic to calc-alkaline and metaluminous, with A/CNK values ranging from 0.66 to 1.10. The Silurian ore-bearing Yuhai quartz diorite is rich in LREEs and LILEs (e.g., K, Ba, Pb and Sr), and depleted in HREEs and HFSEs (e.g., Nb, Ta and Ti). These rocks are MgO-rich (1.90-3.80 wt.%; Mg# = 37-72), with high Sr/Y, La/Yb and Ba/Th ratios, positive εNd(t) (6.31-6.84) and εHf(t) (13.26-16.40), low (87Sr/86Sr)i (0.7037-0.7039), and low Nb/U and Ta/U ratios. The data suggest that the quartz diorite was generated by the partial melting of subducted juvenile oceanic slab. The oxygen fugacity (ƒO2) of the quartz diorite, calculated by zircon Ce4+/Ce3+ ratios, is higher than that of the granite and pyroxene diorite, implying that the quartz diorite was more favorable to porphyry Cu mineralization. The Carboniferous Yuhai granite reveals similar geochemical features with the quartz diorite, except for the lower Mg# (27-33), and the more elevated Th/U and Th/La ratios. Furthermore, these rocks also show high εNd(t) (5.2-5.8) and εHf(t) (11.03-14.85) values, and low (87Sr/86Sr)i (0.7036-0.7037). These features indicate that the parental magma of the granite was probably derived from a juvenile lower crust with no significant mantle component involvement. Different from the Yuhai quartz diorite and granite, the early Permian Yuhai pyroxene diorite contains low SiO2 (50.76-55.74 wt.%) and high MgO (3.96-4.33 wt.%; Mg# = 40-44). The εNd(t), εHf(t) and (87Sr/86Sr)i values of the pyroxene diorite are 5.77-6.42, 7.99-12.10 and 0.7035-0.7040, respectively. The

  3. Data integration modeling applied to drill hole planning through semi-supervised learning: A case study from the Dalli Cu-Au porphyry deposit in the central Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatehi, Moslem; Asadi, Hooshang H.

    2017-04-01

    In this study, the application of a transductive support vector machine (TSVM), an innovative semi-supervised learning algorithm, has been proposed for mapping the potential drill targets at a detailed exploration stage. The semi-supervised learning method is a hybrid of supervised and unsupervised learning approach that simultaneously uses both training and non-training data to design a classifier. By using the TSVM algorithm, exploration layers at the Dalli porphyry Cu-Au deposit in the central Iran were integrated to locate the boundary of the Cu-Au mineralization for further drilling. By applying this algorithm on the non-training (unlabeled) and limited training (labeled) Dalli exploration data, the study area was classified in two domains of Cu-Au ore and waste. Then, the results were validated by the earlier block models created, using the available borehole and trench data. In addition to TSVM, the support vector machine (SVM) algorithm was also implemented on the study area for comparison. Thirty percent of the labeled exploration data was used to evaluate the performance of these two algorithms. The results revealed 87 percent correct recognition accuracy for the TSVM algorithm and 82 percent for the SVM algorithm. The deepest inclined borehole, recently drilled in the western part of the Dalli deposit, indicated that the boundary of Cu-Au mineralization, as identified by the TSVM algorithm, was only 15 m off from the actual boundary intersected by this borehole. According to the results of the TSVM algorithm, six new boreholes were suggested for further drilling at the Dalli deposit. This study showed that the TSVM algorithm could be a useful tool for enhancing the mineralization zones and consequently, ensuring a more accurate drill hole planning.

  4. Integrated geophysical imaging of a concealed mineral deposit: a case study of the world-class Pebble porphyry deposit in southwestern Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Anjana K.; Bedrosian, Paul A.; Anderson, Eric D.; Kelley, Karen D.; Lang, James

    2013-01-01

    We combined aeromagnetic, induced polarization, magnetotelluric, and gravity surveys as well as drillhole geologic, alteration, magnetic susceptibility, and density data for exploration and characterization of the Cu-Au-Mo Pebble porphyry deposit. This undeveloped deposit is almost completely concealed by postmineralization sedimentary and volcanic rocks, presenting an exploration challenge. Individual geophysical methods primarily assist regional characterization. Positive chargeability and conductivity anomalies are observed over a broad region surrounding the deposit, likely representing sulfide minerals that accumulated during multiple stages of hydrothermal alteration. The mineralized area occupies only a small part of the chargeability anomaly because sulfide precipitation was not unique to the deposit, and mafic rocks also exhibit strong chargeability. Conductivity anomalies similarly reflect widespread sulfides as well as water-saturated glacial sediments. Mineralogical and magnetic susceptibility data indicate magnetite destruction primarily within the Cu-Au-Mo mineralized area. The magnetic field does not show a corresponding anomaly low but the analytic signal does in areas where the deposit is not covered by postmineralization igneous rocks. The analytic signal shows similar lows over sedimentary rocks outside of the mineralized area, however, and cannot uniquely distinguish the deposit. We find that the intersection of positive chargeability anomalies with analytic signal lows, indicating elevated sulfide concentrations but low magnetite at shallow depths, roughly delineates the deposit where it is covered only by glacial sediments. Neither chargeability highs nor analytic signal lows are present where the deposit is covered by several hundred meters of sedimentary and volcanic rocks, but a 3D resistivity model derived from magnetotelluric data shows a corresponding zone of higher conductivity. Gravity data highlight geologic features within the

  5. Pb-Sr-Nd isotopes in surficial materials at the Pebble Porphyry Cu-Au-Mo Deposit, Southwestern Alaska: can the mineralizing fingerprint be detected through cover?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayuso, Robert A.; Kelley, Karen D.; Eppinger, Robert G.; Forni, Francesca

    2013-01-01

    The Cretaceous Pebble porphyry Cu-Au-Mo deposit is covered by tundra and glacigenic sediments. Pb-Sr-Nd measurements were done on sediments and soils to establish baseline conditions prior to the onset of mining operations and contribute to the development of exploration methods for concealed base metal deposits of this type. Pebble rocks have a moderate range for 206Pb/204Pb = 18.574 to 18.874, 207Pb/204Pb = 15.484 to 15.526, and 208,Pb/204Pb = 38.053 to 38.266. Mineralized granodiorite shows a modest spread in 87Sr/86Sr (0.704354–0.707621) and 143Nd/144Nd (0.512639–0.512750). Age-corrected (89 Ma) values for the granodiorite yield relatively unradiogenic Pb (e.g., 207Pb/204Pb 87Sr/86Sr, and positive values of ɛNd (1.00–4.52) that attest to a major contribution of mantle-derived source rocks. Pond sediments and soils have similar Pb isotope signatures and 87Sr/86Sr and 143Nd/144Nd values that resemble the mineralized granodiorites. Glacial events have obscured the recognition of isotope signatures of mineralized rocks in the sediments and soils. Baseline radiogenic isotope compositions, prior to the onset of mining operations, reflect natural erosion, transport and deposition of heterogeneous till sheets that included debris from barren rocks, mineralized granodiorite and sulfides from the Pebble deposit, and other country rocks that pre- and postdate the mineralization events. Isotopic variations suggest that natural weathering of the deposit is generally reflected in these surficial materials. The isotope data provide geochemical constraints to glimpse through the extensive cover and together with other geochemical observations provide a vector to concealed mineralized rocks genetically linked with the Pebble deposit.

  6. Mo-mineralized porphyries are relatively hydrous and differentiated: insights from the Permian-Triassic granitic complex in the Baituyingzi Mo-Cu district, eastern Inner Mongolia, NE China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yan; Liu, Jianming; Zeng, Qingdong; Wang, Jingbin; Wang, Yuwang; Hu, Ruizhong; Zhou, Lingli; Wu, Guanbin

    2017-08-01

    Mo-Cu mineralization in the Baituyingzi district of eastern Inner Mongolia occurs within a granitic complex. This paper presents and discusses zircon U-Pb ages and whole-rock geochemical and Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic data from the granitic complex as potential indicators for porphyry Mo fertility. The U-Pb ages indicate that five units of the granitic complex were emplaced between 265.2 ± 0.7 and 246.5 ± 1.0 Ma. Constrained by crosscutting dikes, Mo-Cu mineralization was probably related to the Baituyingzi monzogranite porphyry dated at 248.2 ± 0.64 Ma. The intrusions belong to high-K calc-alkaline to shoshonitic series that are characterized by highly fractionated rare earth element (REE) patterns and strong enrichments of large ion lithophile elements, relative to high-field strength elements. Apart from the ˜246-Ma dike that shows negative ɛNd ( t) values (-14.9 to -13.1), the intrusions have ɛNd( t) values ranging from -3.9 to 1.0, relatively young depleted mantle model ages (811 to 1183 Ma), 206Pb/204Pb of 18.137-18.335, and 207Pb/204Pb of 15.591-15.625, which are consistent with a juvenile lower crustal origin. Among the intrusions, the ˜248-Ma porphyry and the ˜246-Ma dike show adakite-like characteristics (e.g., Sr/Y = 44.9-185) and listric-shaped REE patterns that indicate amphibole fractionation and a hydrous magma source. However, the porphyry exhibits a higher differentiation index (81.4-91.5) and a steeper REE profile (e.g., LaN/YbN = 25.6-87.0) than those of the ˜246-Ma dike, which suggests that it is highly differentiated. We propose that the complex was generated by the partial melting of juvenile mafic lower crust (containing minor old crustal relicts) that was triggered by collision between the North China Craton and Siberian Craton. As indicated by the Th/Nb, Th/Yb, Ba/Th, and Ba/La ratios of the intrusions, the crust may have been derived from the melting of the fertile mantle wedge that was metasomatized by various amounts of slab

  7. Geochronology, geochemistry and Hf–Sr–Nd isotopes of the ore-bearing syenite from the Shapinggou porphyry Mo deposit, East Qinling-Dabie orogenic belt

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    Tao He

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The Shapinggou Mo deposit is located in the western Dabie mountains, the eastern part of the Qinling-Dabie molybdenum orogenic belt. Shapinggou Mo deposit is a concealed deposit with the ore body mainly hosted by explosive breccia of Gaijing and the granite porphyry as well as the syenite of Shapinggou. Geochemistry study show that the SiO2 contents of Shapinggou syenite range from 61.74 to 69.93%, and the A/CNK from 0.95 to 1.06, classified as metaluminous to weak peraluminous, belonging to alkalic to shoshonitic series. The Mo deposits in Qinling Mo belt formed in two main periods, i.e., the first period occurred in to the Early Cretaceous (145–130 Ma, the second period in the late Early Cretaceous (130–110 Ma. Most of the Mo deposits in Dabie region formed in the second period. The results of zircon U–Pb show that the age of the Shapinggou syenite is 111.3 ± 1.2 Ma, which belongs to the second period. Proterozoic-Archean inherited zircons suggest that it may include some more ancient crustal material like Kongling group. The ɛHf(t values of Shapinggou syenite range from −15.6 to −8.0, TDM2(Hf from 1.7 to 2.16 Ga, respectively. The ɛNd(t values of the Shapinggou syenite range from −12.29 to −11.76, TDM2(Nd from 1.85 to 1.89 Ga, the 87Sr/86Sr from 0.709 to 0.710, respectively. Results of zircon Hf isotope and whole rock Sr–Nd isotope of Shapinggou syenite indicate that the Mo ore-forming materials were mainly generated from old Yangtze craton, e.g., gneiss from Dabie orogeny, mixed with some juvenal mantle materials. The geodynamics of the Shapinggou Mo deposit corresponded to an extension period in Eastern China, which caused by large scale lithospheric thinning. The delamination caused asthenosphere upwelling and crust-mantle interaction, which provided the ore-forming material and heat.

  8. Late Triassic Porphyritic Intrusions And Associated Volcanic Rocks From The Shangri-La Region, Yidun Terrane, Eastern Tibetan Plateau: Implications For Adakitic Magmatism And Porphyry Copper Mineralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, B.; Zhou, M.; Li, J.; Yan, D.

    2011-12-01

    The Yidun terrane, located on the eastern margin of the Tibetan plateau, has been commonly considered to be a Triassic volcanic arc produced by subduction of the Ganzi-Litang oceanic lithosphere. The Yidun terrane is characterized by numerous arc-affinity granitic intrusions located along a 500-km-long, north-south-trending belt. Among these granitic bodies, several small porphyritic intrusions in the southern segment of the terrane (Shangri-La region) are associated with large porphyry copper deposits. These porphyritc intrusions are composed of diorite and quartz diorite, and spatially associated with andesites and dacites. LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb ages of the intrusions range from 230 to 215 Ma. The andesites and dacites are intercalated with slates and sandstones and have ages of around 220 Ma. The intrusive and volcanic rocks have SiO2 contents from 56.6 to 67.1 wt.%, Al2O3 from 14.2 to 17.4 wt.% and MgO from 1.9 to 4.2 wt.%. They show significant negative Nb-Ta anomalies on primitive mantle-normalized spidergrams. They have high La/Yb (13-49) ratios with no prominent Eu anomalies. All the rocks have high Sr (258-1980 ppm), and low Y (13-21 ppm) with high Sr/Y ratios (29-102). The geochemical features indicate that both the volcanic rocks and porphyritic intrusions were derived from adakitic magmas. They have similar initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.7058 to 0.7077) and ɛNd (-1.88 to -4.93) values, but can be further divided into two groups: high silica (HSA) and low silica adakitic rocks (LSA). The HSA, representing an early stage of magmatism (230 to 215 Ma), were derived from oceanic slab melts with limited interaction with the overlying mantle wedge. At 215 Ma, more extensive interaction resulted in the formation of LSA. We propose that HSA were produced by flat subduction leading to melting of oceanic slab, whereas subsequent slab break-off caused the significant interaction between slab melts and the mantle wedge and thus the generation of the LSA. Compared with

  9. Post-collisional magmatism and ore-forming systems in the Menderes massif: new constraints from the Miocene porphyry Mo-Cu Pınarbaşı system, Gediz-Kütahya, western Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delibaş, Okan; Moritz, Robert; Chiaradia, Massimo; Selby, David; Ulianov, Alexey; Revan, Mustafa Kemal

    2017-12-01

    The Pınarbaşı Mo-Cu prospect is hosted within the Pınarbaşı intrusion, which is exposed together with the NW-SE-trending Koyunoba, Eğrigöz, and Baklan plutons along the northeastern border of the Menderes massif. The Pınarbaşı intrusion predominantly comprises monzonite, porphyritic granite, and monzodiorite. All units of the Pınarbaşı intrusion have sharp intrusive contacts with each other. The principal mineralization style at the Pınarbaşı prospect is a porphyry-type Mo-Cu mineralization hosted predominantly by monzonite and porphyritic granite. The porphyry type Mo-Cu mineralization consists mostly of stockwork and NE- and EW-striking sub-vertical quartz veins. Stockwork-type quartz veins hosted by the upper parts of the porphyritic granite within the monzonite, are typically enriched in chalcopyrite, molybdenite, pyrite, and limonite. The late NE- and EW-striking normal faults cut the stockwork vein system and control the quartz-molybdenite-chalcopyrite-sphalerite-fahlore-galena veins, as well as molybdenite-hematite-bearing silicified zones. Lithogeochemical and whole-rock radiogenic isotope data (Sr, Nd and Pb) of the host rocks, together with Re-Os molybdenite ages (18.3 ± 0.1 Ma - 18.2 ± 0.1 Ma) reveal that the monzonitic and granitic rocks of the Pınarbaşı intrusion were derived from an enriched lithospheric mantle-lower crust during Oligo-Miocene post-collisional magmatism. The lithospheric mantle was metasomatised by fluids and subducted sediments, and the mantle-derived melts interacted with lower crust at 35-40 km depth. This mechanism explains the Mo and Cu enrichments of the Pınarbaşı intrusion during back-arc magmatism. We conclude that the melt of the Pınarbaşı intrusion could have rapidly ascended to mid-crustal levels, with only limited crustal assimilation along major trans-lithospheric faults as a result of thinning of the middle to upper crust during regional extension, and resulted in the development of porphyry

  10. Pre-eruptive conditions of the Hideaway Park topaz rhyolite: Insights into metal source and evolution of magma parental to the Henderson porphyry molybdenum deposit, Colorado

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    Mercer, Celestine N.; Hofstra, Albert H.; Todorov, Todor I.; Roberge, Julie; Burgisser, Alain; Adams, David T.; Cosca, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    The Hideaway Park tuff is the only preserved extrusive volcanic unit related to the Red Mountain intrusive complex, which produced the world-class Henderson porphyry Mo deposit. Located within the Colorado Mineral Belt, USA, Henderson is the second largest Climax-type Mo deposit in the world, and is therefore an excellent location to investigate magmatic processes leading to Climax-type Mo mineralization. We combine an extensive dataset of major element, volatile, and trace element abundances in quartz-hosted melt inclusions and pumice matrix glass with major element geochemistry from phenocrysts to reconstruct the pre-eruptive conditions and the source and evolution of metals within the magma. Melt inclusions are slightly peraluminous topaz rhyolitic in composition and are volatile-charged (≤6 wt % H2O, ≤600 ppm CO2, ∼0·3–1·0 wt % F, ∼2300–3500 ppm Cl) and metal-rich (∼7–24 ppm Mo, ∼4–14 ppm W, ∼21–52 ppm Pb, ∼28–2700 ppm Zn, metal contents in the pumice matrix glass and in the melt inclusions suggests that after quartz crystallization ceased upon shallow magma ascent and eruption, the Hideaway Park magma exsolved an aqueous fluid into which Mo, Bi, Ag, Zn, Mn, Cs, and Y strongly partitioned. Given that the Henderson deposit contains anomalous abundances of not only Mo, but also W, Pb, Zn, Cu, Bi, Ag, and Mn, we suggest that these metals were sourced from similar fluids exsolved from unerupted portions of the same magmatic system. Trace element ratios imply that Mo was sourced deep, from either the lower crust or metasomatized mantle. The origin of sulfur remains unresolved; however, given the extremely low S solubility of rhyolite melts in the shallow crust we favor the possibility that another source of S might supplement or account for that present in the ore deposit, probably the comagmatic, mantle-derived lamprophyres that occur in minor quantities with the voluminous topaz rhyolites in the area. To account for

  11. In situ major and trace element analysis of amphiboles in quartz monzodiorite porphyry from the Tonglvshan Cu-Fe (Au) deposit, Hubei Province, China: insights into magma evolution and related mineralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Deng-Fei; Jiang, Shao-Yong

    2017-05-01

    The Tonglvshan deposit is the largest Cu-Fe (Au) skarn deposit in the Edong district, which is located in the westernmost part of the Middle and Lower Yangtze River metallogenic belt, China. In this study, we performed a detailed in situ analysis of major and trace elements in amphiboles from the ore-related Tonglvshan quartz monzodiorite porphyry using electron microprobe (EMPA) analysis and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). Two distinct populations of amphiboles, which can be distinguished by their aluminum content, are found in the quartz monzodiorite porphyry. The low-aluminum (Low-Al) amphiboles are subhedral or anhedral and formed at 46.3-73.5 MPa and 713-763 °C. In contrast, the high-aluminum (High-Al) amphiboles are euhedral and formed at 88-165 MPa and 778-854 °C. Some euhedral amphiboles are partially or completely replaced by Low-Al amphibole. The compositions of parental melts in equilibrium with the High-Al amphibole ( Melt 1) and Low-Al amphibole ( Melt 2) were computed by applying solid/liquid partition coefficients. This modeling shows that magma in equilibrium with High-Al amphibole ( Melt 1) underwent 40% fractional crystallization of amphibole, plagioclase and apatite at a depth of 5 km to evolve to magma in equilibrium with Low-Al amphibole ( Melt 2). Copper enrichment occurred in the magma after undergoing fractional crystallization. The magma had a high oxygen fugacity, increasing from NNO + 1 ( Melt 1) through NNO + 2 to HM ( Melt 2), which could have prevented the loss of Cu (and possibly Au) to sulfide minerals during crystallization. Finally, the evolved magma intruded to shallower depths, where it presumably exsolved aqueous ore-forming fluids. Therefore, the large Cu-Fe-Au reserves of the Tonglvshan deposit can likely be attributed to a combination of controlling factors, including high oxygen fugacity, fractional crystallization, fluid exsolution, and a shallow emplacement depth.

  12. Presenting a mapping method based on fuzzy Logic and TOPSIS multi criteria decision-making methods to detect promising porphyry copper mineralization areas in the east of the Sarcheshmeh copper metallogenic district

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shokouh Riahi

    2017-11-01

    through applying the multi-criteria decision-making method. Finally, the selected favorable areas in the metallogenic strip located at the south to the south-east of the Sarcheshmeh porphyry copper deposit are prioritized and introduced for further follow up ground exploration operations. Methodology In order to solve complex decision-making problems like the problem of mapping favorable porphyry copper mineralization zones under great uncertainties, the TOPSIS method is considered as an appropriate approach offering significant simplicity, flexibility and capability (Ataei., 2010. The TOPSIS method is considered to be an efficient method due to having very high accuracy, speed, sensitivity as well as being easy to implement and interpret the outputted results (Hwang and Yoon, 1981. It has found many applications in important areas of mining industry where there is a need to make decisions under risky conditions and data uncertainties. One basic issue in applying decision-making methods in the field of mineral exploration is to rank and propose the best possible candidates among all potentially favorable areas for the next stage of mineral exploration. In this regard, the best favorable areas are selected based on exploratory data layers including favorable lithologies, alterations, structures plus geochemical and geophysical anomalies (Pazand et al., 2012. Results and discussion In the first step, the area located south to the southeast of one the largest porphyry copper deposits in Iran known as Sarcheshmeh was investigated for favorable areas using all available exploratory data as mentioned in the previous section using fuzzy logic integration approach in the GIS environment. Evaluating the highly favorable areas presented by the fuzzy logic approach showed great consistency with the already known copper mineralization prospects. Next, the first 20 priorities obtained from the fuzzy logic approach were chosen as the best candidates to be ranked using the TOPSIS multi

  13. Late Mio-Pliocene chemical weathering of the Yulong porphyry Cu deposit in the eastern Tibetan Plateau constrained by goethite (U-Th)/He dating: Implication for Asian summer monsoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Xiao-Dong; Li, Jian-Wei; Shuster, David L.

    2017-08-01

    Chemical weathering has provided a potentially important feedback between tectonic forcing and climate evolution of the Asian continent, although precise constraints on the timing and history of weathering are only variably documented. Here, we use goethite (U-Th)/He and 4He/3He geochronology to constrain the timing and rates of chemical weathering at the Yulong porphyry Cu deposit on the eastern Tibetan Plateau. Goethite grains have (U-Th)/He ages ranging from 6.73 ± 0.51 to 0.53 ± 0.04 Ma that correlate with independent paleoclimatic proxies inferred from supergene Mn-oxides and loess deposits under variable tectonic regimes and vegetation zones over the southeastern Asia. This correlation indicates that regional climatic conditions, especially monsoonal precipitation, controlled chemical weathering and goethite precipitation in a vast area of southeastern Asia. The goethite ages suggest that the Asian summer monsoon was relatively strong from 7 to 4.6 Ma, but weakened between 4.6 and 4 Ma, and then significantly intensified from 4 to 2 Ma. The precipitation ages of goethites collected along a 100-m-thick weathering profile decrease with depth, and indicate a downward propagation of the weathering front at rates of table, which was possibly related to local surface uplift or reorganization of the river systems in southeastern Tibet during this period.

  14. Geochronological and thermochronological constraints on porphyry copper mineralization in the Domeyko alteration zone, northern Chile Determinaciones geocronológicas y termocronológicas para la mineralización de cobre porfídico en la zona de alteración de Domeyko, norte de Chile

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    Víctor Maksaev

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available At Domeyko, 40 km south of Vallenar in northern Chile (28°57'S-70°53'W, the Dos Amigos and Tricolor porphyry copper centers are located within a north-south-elongated hydrothermal alteration zone 6x1.5 km of surface dimensions. The centers are related to tonalite to granodiorite porphyry stocks displaying potassic alteration, which are surrounded by Lower Cretaceous andesitic volcanic rocks with sericitic, kaolinite-illite and propylitic alteration zones. The western boundary of the alteration zone is marked by the post-mineralization Cachiyuyo Batholith of granodioritic to dioritic composition. U-Pb zircon ages for the Dos Amigos porphyry are of 106.Ü3.5 and 104.0±3.5 Ma; and 108.5±3.4 for the nearby Tricolor porphyry. The Cachiyuyo Batholith yielded U-Pb zircon ages of 99.6±1.8 and 99.1±1.9 Ma; and 40Ar/39Ar ages for biotite of 96.9±3.9 and 94.8±0.9 Ma. These dates indicate that batholith emplacement postdated the Dos Amigos and Tricolor porphyries, in agreement with geological relationships. Although copper mineralization is spatially and genetically related to the Lower Cretaceous (Albian porphyry stocks, most of the dated hydrothermal micas from the Dos Amigos and Tricolor porphyries yielded 40Ar/39Ar ages between 97.1±2.5 and 96.0±1.4 Ma, which overlap within error with the cooling ages obtained for the neighboring batholith. 40Ar/39Ar dating of micas revealed significant disturbance of their K-Ar isotopic systematics that complicates accurate determination of the timing of hydrothermal activity at Domeyko. Nevertheless, the 40Ar/39Ar data establish a minimum Late Cretaceous age for this activity. A fission track age of 59.8±9.8 Ma of apatite from the Dos Amigos porphyry indicates cooling through the temperature range of the apatite partial annealing zone (~125-60°C during the Paleocene; and an (U-Th/He age of 44.7±3.7 Ma of apatite from the same porphyry sample shows cooling through the temperature range of the apatite He

  15. 3D inversion of magnetic and electrical resistivity-induced polarization data for an epithermal Au-Ag and underlying porphyry deposit: A case study from British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbassi, B.; Huebert, J.; Liu, L.; Lee, B.; Cheng, L.; Richards, J. P.; Unsworth, M. J.; Oldenburg, D.

    2013-12-01

    The Newton property is an epithermal Au-Ag deposit containing precious metals in association with disseminated sulfide minerals such as pyrite. This type of deposit often shows variable geological patterns, so it is important to find fast and cost-efficient methods for their exploration. Aeromagnetic surveys and ground electrical resistivity-induced polarization methods were applied over the Newton property. From preliminary 3D inversion of ZTEM and aeromagnetic data, and joint 3D inversion of electrical resistivity-induced polarization data, we show that low-resistivity and high-chargeability regions are signatures of disseminated sulfide mineralization. Potassic alteration, characterized by hydrothermal biotite (now mostly chloritized) and magnetite is also present locally, and may be related to underlying porphyry-type mineralization. This type of alteration can be identified from its magnetic signature, but the occurrence of other magnetic formations in the deposit area made interpretations of magnetic data difficult. We show that filtering geological noises related to background magnetic anomalies is an essential step in focusing on potassic alteration zones. We used electrical resistivity and induced polarization chargeability models to remove the signals of barren magnetic zones to focus on the susceptibilities pertaining to deep potassic alterations. In order to test the credibility of these interpretations, extensive petrophysical measurements (magnetic susceptibility, electrical resistivity, and gamma ray spectra) were collected on drill-core samples. We show that potassic alteration can also be characterized accurately from high levels of potassium to thorium ratio (K/Th) in gamma ray spectrometric measurements, and that this correlation is stronger than the magnetic signal (likely because hydrothermal magnetite is variable in abundance). Therefore, we focused on magnetic susceptibility values correlated with high K/Th ratios in order to reduce the

  16. Analisis Kepuasan Petani Bunga Krisan Potong terhadap Insektisida X di Desa Sidomulyo, Kecamatan Batu, Kota Batu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Febriana Dian Indranisa Ramadhani

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan penelitian ini untuk menganalisis tingkat kepuasan dan sekaligus menganalisis tingkat loyalitas petani bunga krisan potong terhadap penggunaan insektisida X. Metode yang digunakan adalah metode Importance Performance Analysis (IPA dan Customer Satisfaction Index (CSI.Untuk mengukur tingkat kepuasan digunakan delapan variabel yaitu kinerja, keistimewaan tambahan, keandalan, kesesuaian dengan spesifikasi, daya tahan, serviceability, estetika, dan kualitas yang dipersepsikan. Kemudian untuk mengukur tingkat loyalitas, diukur dengan lima tingkatan loyalitas yaitu switcher, habitual buyer, satisfied buyer, liking the brand, committed buyer. Responden yang digunakan berjumlah 55 orang petani bunga krisan potong. Metode IPA menghasilkan rata-rata tingkat kesesuaian sebesar 104.53% dan menunjukan bahwa produk sudah dapat memenuhi harapan konsumen. Metode CSI menghasilkan tingkat kepuasan sebesar 71.6% dan termasuk dalam kriteria puas. Hasil analisis loyalitas menunjukan petani bunga krisan potong berada pada tingkat loyalitas liking the brand.

  17. PERAN PERBANKAN DALAM IMPLEMENTASI BISNIS HIJAU DAN PEMBANGUNAN BERKELANJUTAN

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    Sari Yuniarti

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays green business was the solution offered by industry agents in saving earth in which they weredemanded to have active role in environment management, even with the increase of industry aware on theimportance of environment management, they were proactive in the effort to manage pollution to produce safeand hospitable environment product. This greening movement also happened in banking with the terminology“green banking.” Green banking could mean as banking that in doing the business was based on sustainabilitydevelopment principle, especially in credit or funding, namely there was ecology balance, human welfare, andalso the development of social cultural in society. Bank Indonesia hoped that green banking would givepositive contribution on the effort of fiscal and monetary policy strength that some of them were reflected fromthe decline of oil import charge and agriculture product because there was increase in supply of domesticenergy from the reformed energy sources, the increase of the energy use efficiency by industry, and the increaseof organic agricultural product supported by national banking.

  18. Model Meningkatkan Niat Beli Produk Hijau: Sebuah Pendekatan Strategik

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    Jati Waskito

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to develop the results of previous research, as follows: 1 design and test a model of consumer perceptions (that has been mapped during year-1 of a comprehensive review of the eco-friendly products 2 analyze the factors (i.e. environmentally friendly corporate image, perceptions of environmentally friendly products, product labels, and government regulations that influence purchasing decisions of eco-friendly products based on design and test result on the proposed model 3 identify the most important factors considered by the consumers through comprehensive model testing, so as to provide empirical evidence for the sake of implementing environmentally conscious marketing strategy.The results of the field survey managed to get 293 respondents who are willing to participate. The conclusions of the study are 1 the proposed research model in this study is able to represent a comprehensive picture of people’s perception on environmentally friendly products; 2 regulatory, corporate image, and product perceptions variables significantly shape the public perception of the eco-friendly products; 3 corporate image variable is the most important element in shaping public perceptions on environmentally friendly products.

  19. Analisis Perilaku Konsumen Kota Bogor terhadap Produk Kosmetik Hijau

    OpenAIRE

    Ardianti, Nadya Tanaya; Fahmi, Idqan; Ratnawati, Anny

    2008-01-01

    The exploding societal movement based upon environmental concerns and consumer awareness is spreading all over the globe. As a result, consumers concern about environmental issues is growing significantly and marketers have realized the importance of introducing green cosmetic products.However, there is doubt whether this awareness and concern is translated into the right behavior. In this study, consumers’ attitudes, behaviors, perception and demographic factor were manipulated to determine ...

  20. Kebijakan Penataan Ruang Terbuka Hijau di Kota Malang

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    Praptining Sukowati

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The firs purpose of the research is to analyze the sustainable development policies and public participation to the Green Open Space's shifting function in Malang. The second is to analysis the factors that binder the policy implementation process. This paper shows that public participation in the sustainable development policies is less than optimal. Some factors that impede the policy implementation are 1 inadequate provision of GOS both in quantity and quality; 2 many weakness in the institution who manage the GOS; 3 the weak role of the stakeholders; 4 the use of open land for GOS function is not optimal yet. Some of the recommendation of this research include the need to revise UU No.24/1992; to develop guidelines for the implementation of GOS's management; to improve the campaign about the importance of GOS through "green cities movement"; to develop incentive and disincentive mechanism for increase private participation in the GOS management; and to develop GOS's pilot projects in the Malang City.

  1. ANALISIS PERILAKU KONSUMEN KOTA BOGOR TERHADAP PRODUK KOSMETIK HIJAU

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    Nadya Tanaya Ardianti

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The exploding societal movement based upon environmental concerns and consumer awareness is spreading all over the globe. As a result, consumers concern about environmental issues is growing significantly and marketers have realized the importance of introducing green cosmetic products.However, there is doubt whether this awareness and concern is translated into the right behavior. In this study, consumers’ attitudes, behaviors, perception and demographic factor were manipulated to determine their relative influence on willingness to pay for green cosmetic products. The results showed consumer’s age, education, income and ecoliteracy to be the consistent explanatory factor in predicting their willingness to pay. The result also suggested that attitude toward firm’s responsibilities and buying behavior which’s consider environment factor to be the consistent explanatory factor in predicting their willingness to pay. This study also examined the relationships between consumer’s attitude, subjective norms, perceived behavior control and green cosmetic buying intentions using the Theory of PlannedBehavior (TPB. This study revealed that at significance level ten percent, attitude, subjective norm and perceived behavior control correlates positively with intention.

  2. SEKOLAH ISLAM TERPADU PENEKANAN PADA ARSITEKTUR HIJAU DI KABUPATEN BONE

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    Ismail B Arifin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of science and technology that is integrated with the Islamic knowledge wishes to create a potential religious generation. Islamic education institution creates a religious Islamic individual through two approaches; those are natural and cultural approaches. Method that is applied is descriptive, that is collecting and analyzing the primary and secondary data. Then, planning and designing approaches are done to review various aspects oriented with architect knowledge, basic theoretic and standard. The pressure of green architecture concept enclose energy efficiency because in architect concept that is friendly environment, continuing, holistic and based on the efforts to reach designing to create energy efficiency.

  3. ANALISIS SPASIAL FUNGSI EKOLOGI RUANG TERBUKA HIJAU DI KOTA CIBINONG

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    Ajat Rochmat Djatnika

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Green open space has a function to reduce the level of carbondioxide in the air. Carbondioxide levels are generally increased due to an increase in motor vehicle exhaust gas emissions and land use changes, such as changes in open land into industrial, or agricultural land turned into housing, etc.Cibinong City in this decade had increased levels of carbondioxide caused by the developmnet of a growing city. Research purposes are (1 analyze changes of green open space and its impact on the ability to absorb carbondioxide, (2 analyze the amount of carbondioxide produced by motor vehicle exhaust gas emissions for each road segment and provide direction spatially green open space. In this decade (from 2000 to 2010, Changes of unbuilt land to built land increased from 2.268,88 Ha (35,78 % to3.558,22 Ha (56,12 %, however, absorption of the green open spaces of the carbondioxide increases. Whereas, Carbondioxide emission strength on larger road on the Raya Bogor (City Center 498 gr/detik which has the function of arterial roads with the task of helping regional movement. The most amount of carbondioxide emissions generated by personal vehicles, motorcycles, and ligth public trasportation, while trucks and buses do not contribute. When the carbondioxide emission strength map is overlayed with the land use map then we have the conclusion that the roads that have a high volume of vehicle movement will have a high carbondioxide levels, but not mean low air quality because it depends on the existence of protective trees as green belt. Keywords: green open spaces, carbondioxide emission levels, landuse changes

  4. Kajian Penambahan Ruang Terbuka Hijau di Kota Semarang

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    Margareta Maria Sudarwani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of Semarang City has unknowingly impacted the changes of land use and exploitation of natural resources. This study aims to examine how much achievement of objectives and benefits obtained in increasing the extent of Green Open Space in Semarang City, and how the architect implementing components to support the creation of Green City. The result of this research shows that the quantity and quality, distribution and amount of Green Open Space in Semarang City still need to be improved; Efforts to utilize vacant land, critical land, river borders and land dismantling of public buildings is one of the efforts to increase the extent of green open space in urban areas; Providing green open space with Green City concept that apply Green Attribute in its design is strategy to provide Public Open Space which refers to the concept of Sustainable Development.

  5. PERENCANAAN KOTA HIJAU YOGYAKARTA BERDASARKAN PENGGUNAAN LAHAN DAN KECUKUPAN RTH

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    Amalia Ratnasari

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Green City concept is a concept of sustainable urban development that harmonize the natural environment and man made environment as a response to environmental degradation. Actualizing the green city, one of its attributes green open space is strictly regulated in Law No. 26 Year 2007 about Spatial Planning. The total area of the city 30% must be used as green open space (RTH, 20% as public RTH and 10% as private RTH. The purposes of this research are identifying vast and distribution of land use and RTH existing in Yogyakarta city, analyzing the adequacy of RTH based on vast territory and total population, determining areas that could potentially be developed for RTH, and arranging development strategy toward to Yogyakarta Green City. Several methods were used in this research, among others : image interpretation and analysis the adequacy of RTH is calculated based on vast territory and total population. The results showed that RTH eksisiting is 584.45 ha or 17.78%, consisting public green open space covering an area of 329.63 ha and private green open space for 254.82 ha. Based on vast territory, Yogyakarta city still needs 390.55 ha of  green open space , while based on total population, green open space still lack for 220.91 ha. Potential area in Yogyakarta City is 30.94 ha. RTH development strategy of Yogyakarta City focused on maintaining and increasing the quality of existing RTH, adding unused area as public RTH and developing green corridor. This indicates that green open space in Yogyakarta city is not sufficient based on the standard needed toward Green City.

  6. KUANTITAS DAN KUALITAS RUANG TERBUKA HIJAU DI PERMUKIMAN PERKOTAAN

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    Agung Dwiyanto

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Green Air-Gap management in area of settlement urban tend to to experience of the challenge which enough weightof effect about height of urbanization current. while on the other side, energy support the downhill existing socialand environment also, so that cannot make balance to the requirement of space of effect about human pressure .Other challenge go together the height mount the conversion or displace to utilize the farm from farm (especiallyagriculture farm become the area develop;builded generating impact to lowering environmental quality nyabecome green of urban. Evaluate the planology is exist in generally only study the aspect of accuracy or deviation ofspace according about zoning which already specified . Meanwhile its exploiting intensity change seldom debate, sothat need the new stages;steps to improve;repair the quality and existing amount green space.

  7. IMPLEMENTASI TUGAS DAN WEWENANG PENYIDIK TERHADAP PERLINDUNGAN PENYU HIJAU

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    Budi Prasetyo

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The research of officer task and authority implementation towards green turtle conservation (study case of Marine Police Directorate Regional Bali aims to describing and analizing officer task and authority implementation in deep based on both KUHAP or Conservation Law. Besides, this research also aims to figure out the enabling and inhibiting factors in implementing officer task and authority towards green turtle conservation, also researching the steps taken by of Marine Police Directorate Regional Bali. The need for green turtle in Bali is rising up to this time. Although many criminal offensers got caught by of Marine Police Directorate Regional Bali officers but it is still going on. Based on this situation, a question arises how is the implementation of officer task and authority towards green turtle conservation and what are the enabling and inhibiting factors. The method used in this research is empirical legal research with descriptive research using prime and secondary data resouces with interview and also related available documents. This research uses non probability sampling technique which is purpose sampling with quota sampling that is a process of sample withdrawing by observing the easiest sample to take and the sample has special features that attracts the researcher. With all collected data, managed using qualitative analysis and the data presented descriptively and sistematically. Based on the research done before, it is noticed that the implementation of officer task and authority towards green turtle conservation based on KUHAP and Conservation Law has been going well. Granting rights for the suspects of green turtle trading during the investigation has been done by the officers based on KUHAP. The factors which becomes the enabling task for officer task and authority towards green turtle is the law factor, law enforcement, equipment and facilities, and culture. Meanwhile the society factor is the main inhibiting factor for implementing officer task and authority towards green turtle conservation. The habit of consuming turtle meat and guise of religious ceremony are mostly used as the reasons in trading this protected animal.

  8. EFEKTIFITAS JALUR HIJAU DALAM MENGURANGI POLUSI UDARA OLEH KENDARAAN BERMOTOR

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    Lukmanul Hakim

    2017-01-01

    Green belt is a greening design having main function to reduce pollution dust. This research tested the effectiveness of green belt on side roads in catching or absorbing pollution dust or particles emitted by vehicles. Facts from this research showed that the shape of canopy structure and leaves’ cross sectional area highly determine the effectiveness of pollution dust absorpsion. Leaves with wider surface area and rough texture have high effectiveness. Trees having dense canopy and bushy are very effective in absorpsion of pollution dust. In this case, to design a green belt will required a few considerations that are affecting effectiveness in reducing air polution. Namely, selection of vegetation that has wide and rough leaves and type selection of tree canopy structure that is dense and bushy and suitable to green belt location. Keywords : climate amelioration, vegetation, absorpsion and pollution

  9. Nuclear microscopy of fluid inclusions at the CSIRO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, C.; Van Achterbergh, E.; Win, T.T.; McInnes, B.; Cripps, G.; Suter, G.; Liu, W.

    2003-01-01

    method (Ryan 2000), and detection limits down to 0.2 ppm have been achieved in minerals and melt inclusions (Ryan et al., 2001c), and ∼20 ppm in 20 μm fluid inclusions (Ryan et al, 2001b). Tests using synthetic fluid inclusions show an accuracy of -15% for the determination of the composition of the trapped fluid (Ryan et al, 1995). Natural inclusions containing daughter minerals show greater variability of-30%. Modelling has shown this to be consistent with the positioning of daughter minerals and vapour bubbles within the inclusion cavity and uncertainties in the estimation of inclusion dimensions. Figure 2 shows PIXE images of selected elements in coexisting brine and vapour inclusions in quartz from the Batu Hijau porphyry Cu-Au deposit, Sumbawa Island, Indonesia. The brine contains several daughter minerals such as halite and hematite, while the vapour shows a large central bubble and a chalcopyrite daughter. Cu is strongly partitioned into the vapour phase. The average Cu content of the brine is 0.15 wt% compared to 2.5 wt% in the vapour. Such high partitioning of Cu into the vapour phase indicates that phase separation, and pathways of vapour, can be important factors to consider for ore deposition in porphyry systems. Copyright (2003) Australian Microbeam Analysis Society

  10. Ecosystem health in mineralized terrane; data from podiform chromite (Chinese Camp mining district, California), quartz alunite (Castle Peak and Masonic mining districts, Nevada/California), and Mo/Cu porphyry (Battle Mountain mining district, Nevada) deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blecker, Steve W.; Stillings, Lisa L.; Amacher, Michael C.; Ippolito, James A.; DeCrappeo, Nicole M.

    2010-01-01

    within various mineralized terranes. We were also interested in examining these relations in the context of determining appropriate reference conditions with which to compare reclamation efforts.The purpose of this report is to present the data used to develop indices of soil and ecosystem quality associated with mineralized terranes (areas enriched in metal-bearing minerals), specifically podiform chromite, quartz alunite, and Mo/Cu porphyry systems. Within each of these mineralized terranes, a nearby unmineralized counterpart was chosen for comparison. The data consist of soil biological, chemical, and physical parameters, along with vegetation measurements for each of the sites described below. Synthesis of these data and index development will be the subject of future publications.

  11. FORTIFIKASI JAGUNG MANIS DAN KACANG HIJAU TERHADAP SIFAT FISIK, KIMIA DAN ORGANOLEPTIK SUSU JAGUNG MANIS KACANG HIJAU

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    Sri Setyani

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Sweet corn-mung bean milk can be used to helping increasing the nutrition status of the society . This research was aimed to find the formulation of sweet corn and mung bean that produce sweet corn-mung bean milk with the best physical, chemical and sensory characteristics and is accepted by consument. The experiment was arranged in a completely block randomized design (CBRD withy one factor and three replications. The treatments were five  formulations of sweet corn and  mung bean , they were 3:1 (F1, 2:1 (F2, 1:1 (F3, 1:2 (F4, and 1:3 (F5 (w/w. The data were analysed using analysis of variance, and then continued with 1 % and 5 % Least Significant Different Test. The determinination of the water addition that produced mung bean-sweet corn milk that is compliance with the total solid in SNI (11.5 % was done in the preliminary research. The preliminary research result showed that mung bean sweet corn milk has total solid of 15-19% for all of formulations, while the best favorable milk was  milk with the formulation: water that is at 1:10. The result of the main research showed that the stabilityobjectively, protein content, and organoleptic characteristic were not significanly different among sweet corn and mung bean formulations, but the stability visually, the viscosity, soluble total solid and fat content were significanltly different among sweet corn and mung bean formulation. According to the SNI (soluble total solid, protein and fat contents are the formulation that have met the soy milk quality standard, but the best formulation was found in  F2, with the protein content of 3,183% , fat content of 3,667%, and the most favourable formulation was  F2 formulation with 1, 893 score. The result of amino acid analysis on the best mung bean-sweet corn milk showed that five types of essential amino acid (threonine, valine, isoleucine, leucine and lysine have not met the amino acid standard yet by FAO (1973. In conclusion, the combination of sweet corn and mung bean become mung bean sweet corn milk has not overcome the lack of lysine on corn and methionine on mung bean yet. Keywords : ,Amino acid,  sweet corn, mung bean

  12. PENYELESAIAN SENGKETA TAMBANG: STUDI KASUS SENGKETA ANTARA MASYARAKAT SAMAWA DENGAN PT. NEWMONT NUSA TENGGARA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Salim H.S.

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Exploration activity in Batu Hijau and Elang Dodo has been conducted since contract of work was settled between PT. Newmont Nusa Tenggara and government of Indonesia. In practical level, dispute arose out between local people of Samawa ethnicity and the government Indonesia against PT. Newmont Nusa Tenggara. Research show, that the causing factors for the dispute are, among other things, the unresolved compensation, workforce issue, and an unexpected their party intervening into the contract. The society wishes to resolve this dispute through adat law by negotiating or mediating with adat leaders as the mediator. Kegiatan eksplorasi di Batu Hijau dan Elang Dodo dilakukan sejak kontrak karya disetujui antara PT. Newmont Nusa Tenggara dengan Pemerintah Indonesia. Dalam praktiknya, kontrak ini menimbulkan sengketa antara masyarakat etnis Samawa dan pemerintah Indonesia melawan PT. Newmont Nusa Tenggara. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa faktor penyebab terjadinya sengketa antara lain adalah belum dipenuhinya permintaan ganti rugi, masalah ketenagakerjaan, serta adanya pihak ketiga yang masuk dalam kontrak. Masyarakat menginginkan penyelesaian secara adat melalui negosiasi atau mediasi tetua adat.

  13. Factors Affecting Road Traffic Accident in Batu Pahat, Johor, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che-Him, Norziha; Roslan, Rozaini; Saifullah Rusiman, Mohd; Khalid, Kamil; Ghazali Kamardan, M.; Azbi Arobi, Farquis; Mohamad, Nazeera

    2018-04-01

    A road traffic accident resulted from the combination of factors related to the few components of the system involving environment, roads, road users, vehicles and the interaction between those systems. Road traffic accident (RTA) in Malaysia recorded as the highest fatality rate (per 100,000 population) among the ASEAN countries. In 2016, more than half of million cases accident recorded with more than 7,000 people were killed. Therefore, the RTA is one of the most critical issue in Malaysia even become the worldwide burden to authority. Generally, driving is a complex process which involves movement of a vehicle by either a computer or human controller. However, failure to control and coordinate will contribute to an accident. The objective of this study is to identify the pattern of accident in Johor Malaysia and to examine the relationship between the number of accident and the types of vehicles and roads. The results could help the government to recognise the different patterns, types of vehicles and roads that show major factors in the increasing of road traffic accident in Malaysia.

  14. MEMAKNAI BUNGA DI ATAS BATU Patung Karya Anusapati

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    Sumarwahyudi Sumarwahyudi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Sculpture is an iconic sign to convey a message or something that can be used to represent a state (context, events of the past, or those in the future. Sculpture consists of iconic signs that work together systemically to achieve certain goals. This study aims to (1 describe the meaning of denotation, and (2 interpret the connotative meaning of Anusapati’s work entitled “Bunga di Atas Batu” (Flower on a Stone, a bronze statue created in 2004, by employing the connotative semiotics approach of Roland Barthes. The sculpture portrays a monument, which invites everyone to see that ‘flower’ as the connotation of the forest has been elevated, not to be given a respectable position, but just to be remembered. Forests as valuable assets owned by the Indonesians and even the world are seen metaphorically as ‘the flower’ which is gradually disappearing, (almost becoming a memory. In some areas in Indonesia, forests have even completely disappeared and only left memories behind

  15. Study on Waste Composition at Taman Pura Kencana, Batu Pahat

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    Abdul Kadir Aeslina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Municipal solid waste management is a major challenge due to the increase in population and the development of a country. The problems also arise when the lifespan of the landfills available are shorten than estimated. The aim of this study is to determine waste composition at Taman Pura Kencana. The waste collection was carried out for 50 houses on a daily basis. The collection and sorting out method was conducted based on Malaysian Standard MS 2505:2012 and the data collected is recorded. The result showed the moisture content was approximately ranging between 25% – 30%. The density for each waste has been calculated and the result was recorded accordingly. The highest density is metal followed by organic waste, glass, napkins, household hazardous waste, textiles, paper, plastic rigid, plastic film, rubber and tetrapek. The waste collected also were categorized and consisted of food waste/organic (43.75%, paper (17.97%, plastics rigid (13.58%, plastic film (10.62%, napkins (4.43%, glass (3.10%, household hazardous waste (1.68%, metal (1.67%, tetrapek (1.34% , rubber (0.93%, and textiles (0.92%. Results from the analysis illustrated that waste generation in Taman Pura Kencana may influenced by sudden changes in lifestyles, incomes, household size and also increase of population.

  16. Profil Usaha Industri Batu Bata (Study Kasus : Usaha Batu Bata Rohima di Pekanbaru) Dilihat dari Aspek Pemasaran

    OpenAIRE

    ", Ruzikna; Wilandari, Rozi

    2014-01-01

    The title of this research are: Brick Industry Business Profile Viewed from the aspect of Marketing (Case Study: brick business Rohima In Pekanbaru). Formulation of the problem: We know that the expected sales target by industrial enterprises brick "Rohima" during the year 2011-2013 was not achieved, with respect to these problems, improvement efforts need to be done, the authors formulate something formulation of the problem, namely how the brick business profile seen from marketing aspects....

  17. Pengaruh Kepemimpinan Visioner terhadap Kinerja Pegawai dalam Memberikan Pelayanan Administrasi (Studi Kasus di Kantor Desa Pesanggrahan Kecamatan Batu Kota Batu)

    OpenAIRE

    Elmi,; Rusmiwari, Sugeng; Chornelia W, Roro Merry

    2017-01-01

    A visionary leader has an important role in improving the performance and behavior of employees to realize the success of the organization, especially government agencies in providing better administrative service to the community.Visionary Leadrship is expected to provide benefits for the organization to continue to live and grow. This study aimed to determine how bid was the influence of visionary leadership on the performance of employees in providing administrative service. Quantitative d...

  18. Pengaruh Warna Perangkap Feromon terhadap Hasil Tangkapan Imago Oryctes rhinoceros di Perkebunan Kelapa Sawit

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    Idum Satia Santi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of a synthetic-pheromone trap with active ingredient of ethyl-4-methyloctanoate in catching adults of Oryctes rhinoceros was believed to be influenced by the trap color. A RCBD trial with single factor and three block replicates was conducted during September to October 2008 at Oil-Palm-Trial Station at PTPN III, Labuhan Batu District, North-Sumatera Province. The single factor was trap color i.e. orange, green, white, blue, red, yellow, and pink. Results showed that total numbers and sex ratios of collected O. rhinoceros adults were not significantly influenced by the trap color. The total numbers of collected O. rhinoceros adult during 30 days on color of orange, green, white, blue, red, yellow, and pink were 136, 177, 126, 155, 129, 114, and 113 individuals with sex ratios ♂/♀ 0.47, 0.52, 0.62, 0.50, 0.60, 0.49, and 0.54, respectively. The synthetic pheromone significantly attracted more O. rhinoceros female (65% rather than the male one (35%.   Keefektifan perangkap feromon sintetik berbahan aktif ethyl-4-methyloctanoate dalam menangkap imago Oryctes rhinoceros diyakini dipengaruhi oleh warna perangkap tersebut. Percobaan RCBD faktor tunggal dengan tiga blok ulangan dilakukan pada bulan September sampai dengan Oktober 2008 di kebun penelitian kelapa sawit PTPN III, Kabupaten Labuhan Batu, Provinsi Sumatera Utara. Faktor tunggal tersebut yakni warna perangkap meliputi oranye, hijau, putih, biru, merah, kuning, dan pink. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa warna perangkap tidak berpengaruh signifikan terhadap hasil tangkapan dan sex ratio imago O. rhinoceros. Total imago O. rhinoceros yang tertangkap selama 30 hari pada warna oranye, hijau, putih, biru, merah, kuning dan pink sebanyak 136, 177, 126, 155, 129, 114 dan 113 dengan sex ratio ♂/♀ 0,47; 0,52; 0,62; 0,50; 0,60; 0,49 dan 0,54. Feromon sintetik secara signifikan lebih banyak menarik imago betina (65% daripada yang jantan (35%.

  19. DAMPAK PENGATURAN BARIS TANAM JAGUNG ( Zea mays L.) DAN POPULASI KACANG HIJAU (Phaseolus radiatus L.) DALAM TUMPANGSARI TERHADAP PERTUMBUHAN DAN HASIL KACANG HIJAU, JAGUNG

    OpenAIRE

    - Sucipto

    2009-01-01

    Many factors that must be consideredIn the intercropping system, especially competition between the mixed crop, both for growth and the development of plants. Various forms of interaction between plants in the agricultural environment has often been interpreted as a competition. Competition occurs in a population when there is competition, which affects the growth factors such as sunlight, water, nutrients, CO2 and other gases. Research goals to determine response of green beans and the impac...

  20. DAMPAK PENGATURAN BARIS TANAM JAGUNG ( Zea mays L. DAN POPULASI KACANG HIJAU (Phaseolus radiatus L. DALAM TUMPANGSARI TERHADAP PERTUMBUHAN DAN HASIL KACANG HIJAU, JAGUNG

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    - Sucipto

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Many factors that must be consideredIn the intercropping system, especially competition between the mixed crop, both for growth and the development of plants. Various forms of interaction between plants in the agricultural environment has often been interpreted as a competition. Competition occurs in a population when there is competition, which affects the growth factors such as sunlight, water, nutrients, CO2 and other gases. Research goals to determine response of green beans and the impact of the treatment populations of green beans and corn planting rows. This reseach use factorial design arranged in randomized block design with three replications, factor I is a population of green beans, with 4 levels, namely: A1: Population sprawl (35cm x 30cm; A2: Population's (30cm x 25cm; A3 : Population enough (25cm x 20cm and A4: Population solid (20cm x 15cm. Factor II, namely corn rows with two levels, namely: B1: Single line and B2: the double line .. The observed parameters include non destructive observations of plant height, number of leaves and stem diameter; Observation of destructive plant dry weight, seed dry weight, number of seeds, planting and number of pods. The results of treatment research affect the population of green bean green bean plants on plant height, stem diameter, number of leaves, plant dry weight, seed dry weight, number of seeds, and the number of pods. While the influence of maize plants at the stem diameter, number of seeds and seed dry weight. For planting rows of corn plants affect plant green beans on the plant height, stem diameter, number of leaves, dry weight, seed dry weight and number of seeds, and the corn plants affect the stem diameter, number of seeds, and seed dry weight.

  1. Pengaruh Varietas dan Waktu Penyiangan Gulma Terhadap Pertumbuhan dan Hasil Tanaman Kacang Hijau (Phaseolus Radiatus L.

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    EUSEBIO GOMES

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Effects of Variety and Weeding Times on Growth and Yield of Mungbean (PhaseolusRadiatus L.The mungbean have a great potential as a food ingredient mixture of refined productsand has certain competitive advantages over other types of beans. Mungbean production in East Timoris still low and has not been able to meet the needs of the market. Therefore, weed control and selectionof good varieties of mung beans is one of the determining factors in the increased production of mungbean.The objective of the study was to determine the effect of time of weeding on the growth and yield ofseveral varieties of mungbean. The study was conducted at the Pilot Suco Hera Sub-distrito Cristo Rei,Dili-Timor Leste. It used a randomized block design with two factors. The first factor was type ofvarieties of mungbean and the second factor was the weeding time. Factor of types of varieties consistedof three, namely: VL = Local Variety, VM = Merak variety, VG = Gelatik variety, while factor ofweeding times consists of PO = No weeding, P1 = weeding at 2 and 4 weeks after planting, P2 =weeding at 3 and 5 weeks after planting, with three replications. The results showed that weeding timeaffected the outcome of drying seed dry weight per hectare. Weeding time at 2 and 4 weeks afterplanting had a better dry weight of seed i.e 1.09 g, compared to those of weeding at 3 and 5 weeksafter planting. The use of different varieties showed that Merak variety had drying seed dry weight of1.16 tons ha-1, Gelatik variety was 1.09 tons ha-1, and the local variety was 0.97 tons ha-1.

  2. IMPLEMENTASI KEBIJAKAN RUANG TERBUKA HIJAU DI KOTA ADMINISTRASI JAKARTA UTARA PROVINSI DKI JAKARTA

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    Hendra Wijayanto

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available City Government of Jakarta, especially Government of North Jakarta as the authorized party has critical role in managing green open space in accordance with Law No. 26/2007 on Green Open Space Arrangement. The presence of green open space is needed as a climate regulator so that the air and water circulation system can be well maintained to support the embodiment of healthy and sustainable city, as a shade, oxygen producer, rainwater absorber, provider of animal habitat, pollutant absorbent, and windbreak. Green open space can improve ground water quality, prevent flooding, reduce air pollution, and lower city temperatures. In addition, green open space can also be a place of recreation, media communications for citizens of the city, as well as an object of education, research, and training in studying nature. This study aims to analyze the implementation of Green Open Space policy in the area of Jakarta particularly in North Jakarta. This research is a qualitative descriptive research that aims to provide a systematic, thorough, detailed, and profound analysis of the implementation of green open space management in North Jakarta. Data collection techniques were conducted with interviews supported by data collection through document review and observation. This research uses qualitative interactive data analysis technique which includes data reduction, data presentation, and conclusion / verification. The data validity test is done by using source triangulation.The results present that the implementation of the provision of green open space in North Jakarta Administration City is still not optimal and realized by 5% due to the use of land available for RTH does not function as the designation and the existence of some obstacles faced as weak supervision, land prices are expensive, improvement of undeveloped land and the lack of dissemination to the public. Therefore, this study recommend the need for a political will from the government, a review by the government to make Jakarta just as central government alone, and a tighter control by enforcement strict sanctions.

  3. Penghambatan aktivitas peneluran kumbang kacang hijau Callosobruchus Chinensis L. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae oleh extrak sepuluh spesies tumbuhan

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    Dadang Dadang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Oviposition Deterrence of Bean Weevil, Callosobruchus chinensis L.(Coleoptera: Bruchidae Treated with Ten Plant Extracts. Pest and Diseases attack agricultural products not only in the field but also in storehouse. Their attack causes decreasing both quantity and quality of stored materials. One of important stored product insect pests is Callosobruchus chinensis L. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae. Till now the effective strategy to control this insect pest is chemical control by using synthetic insecticides. The improper use synthetic insecticides causes some undesirable effects, so alternative strategist should be searched to controls insect pests in storehouse. One of the alternatives is by using plant materials as insect pests control agent. The aim of this study was to find out the oviposition deterrence of C. chinensis treated with ten plant which were extracted with methanol, hexane and ether. Oviposition deterrence was evaluated by choice and no-choice methods at 1,3 and 5% of extract concentration. Extract of Acorus calamus (methanol, A.calamus (hexane, A. calamus (ether, Illicium verum (ether, Pogostemon calbin (hexane, P. cablin (ether, Vetiveria zizanioides (hexane, and V. zizanioides (ether were able to deter ovipostion activity of C. chinensis by more than 90% of deterrence. Further study should be conducted to isolate and identify the active compound and to make botanical insecticide formulation for practical use as a commercial product.

  4. Kajian Komposisi Jalur Hijau Jalan di Kota Yogyakarta Terhadap Penjerapan Polutan Timbal (Pb

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    Fadlhinsyah Damanik

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to examine the composition of the green belt and its ability to adsorb particles of lead (Pb, determine the amount of particulate emissions of lead in the ambient air resulting from vehicle traffic activities and evaluate the composition of green belt some streets. The research was conducted using a survey method, the technical implementation is done by observation, questionnaires and secondary data collection. Sampling was done by purposive sampling is the selection of the sample with certain considerations deemed relevant according to the research objectives. Data were analyzed descriptively. The result showed that the green belt in three streets was dominated by Angsana trees (Pterocarpus indicus form a line 1 (one row crops. The composition of the green belt type, quantity, function, size, and distribution of plants available have not been able to reduce the concentration of lead (Pb and thus require rearrangement. The roads planted with tree of Angsana (Pterocarpus indicus and Tanjung (Mimusops elengi had concentrations of lead (Pb lower, as much as 1,39 µg/m3 at Urip Sumoharjo and as much as 1,11 µg/m3 at Laksda Adisucipto compared the road that only planted tree of Angsana (Pterocarpus indicus is contained at Ahmad Dahlan with (Pb concentration as much as 1,56 µg/m3. Concentrations of lead (Pb in the third road was approaching the threshold value, but still below the quality standards specified.

  5. PENGARUH KESADARAN LINGKUNGAN PADA NIAT BELI PRODUK HIJAU: STUDI PERILAKU KONSUMEN BERWAWASAN LINGKUNGAN

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    M.F. Shellyana Junaedi

    2015-12-01

    influence to green purchase intention. Result, based on path analysis using AMOS indicated that the model tested had an acceptable fit. The goodness-of-fit index (GFI was 0.977 which control for degree of freedom 1. Root mean square residual (RMR was 0.009. The implication of this research is relevant to marketers operating in organic-product market.

  6. Upaya Meningkatkan Niat Pembelian Produk Ramah Lingkungan Melalui Nilai, Risiko, dan Kepercayaan Terhadap Produk Hijau

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    Jati Waskito

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to analyze the public perception of value, risk, and trust of green products and developing green marketing model by considering the environmental friendliness of the product, the perception of the value of products, and the risk of products to enhance the consumer's intention to purchase green products. This research used 292 respondents as a sample research. Using a structural equations mode, this research found that the public reward and risk products significantly influence consumers' willingness to buy green products. While the trust is not able to increase green purchasing their desires, and cannot be moderating appreciation green value and green risk to increase green purchasing greenDOI: 10.15408/etk.v14i1.2259 

  7. Ruang Terbuka Hijau Dalam Mitigasi Perubahan Iklim Green Open Space in Climate Change Mitigation

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    Dewi, Yusriani Sapta

    2010-01-01

    Climate change is any substantial change in Earth's climate that lasts for an extended period oftime. Global warming refers to climate change that causes an increase in the average temperature of thelower atmosphere. Global warming is the combined result of anthropogenic (human-caused) emissionsof greenhouse gases and changes in solar irradiance, while climate change refers to any change in thestate of the climate that can be identified by changes in the average and/or the variability of its ...

  8. Sekolah Hijau Sebagai Alternatif Pendidikan Lingkungan Hidup dengan Menggunakan Pendekatan Kontekstual

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    Sumarmi Sumarmi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Green school have the comitment to systematically develop school programs internalizing environmental values. As the environtment education is geared toward the development of knowledge, awareness, positive attitude, and responsible behavior toward environment, a joyful learning approach seemingly appropriate for green schools is contextual teaching and learning (CTL. Through CTL, green schools can create more meaningful lessons, making the environtment education real

  9. PEMANFAATAN UMBI TALAS SEBAGAI BAHAN SUBTITUSI TEPUNG TERIGU DALAM PEMBUATAN COOKIES YANG DISUPLEMENTASI DENGAN KACANG HIJAU

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    Welli Yuliatmoko

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Taro flour can be used as a wheat flour substitution in cookies making, although its quality is still relatively low, especially in terms of taste and nutritional composition. An alternative way to improve its nutritional composition is by the addition of green beans, as a protein source. This study was aimed to obtain the cookies formulation that use Lampung Taro flour enriched with green beans flour as a wheat flour substitution. The cookies were tested organoleptically by panelists using hedonic scale including color, aroma, taste, texture and general appearance. The acceptable cookies were analyzed their chemical characteristics. The results showed that Taro flour cookies with the content of 30%, 50%, and 60% Lampung Taro flour have received the best judgment from panelists. From the nutritional point these cookies were considered meet the nutritional value specified by SNI 1992 but the protein content was still below standard. The addition of 10% green beans flour was not able to improve the nutritional value of protein in the cookies. Taro flour can be used as a wheat flour substitution in cookies making, although its quality is still relatively low, especially in terms of taste and nutritional composition. An alternative way to improve its nutritional composition is by the addition of green beans, as a protein source. This study was aimed to obtain the cookies formulation that use Lampung Taro flour enriched with green beans flour as a wheat flour substitution. The cookies were tested organoleptically by panelists using hedonic scale including color, aroma, taste, texture and general appearance. The acceptable cookies were analyzed their chemical characteristics. The results showed that Taro flour cookies with the content of 30%, 50%, and 60% Lampung Taro flour have received the best judgment from panelists. From the nutritional point these cookies were considered meet the nutritional value specified by SNI 1992 but the protein content was still below standard. The addition of 10% green beans flour was not able to improve the nutritional value of protein in the cookies.

  10. VALUASI MANFAAT EKOLOGIS RUANG TERBUKA HIJAU (RTH DI KOTA BOGOR DENGAN APLIKASI CITYGREEN 5.4

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    Indung Sitti Fatimah

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Greenery open space is a fundamental part of urban development and management in sustaining the quality of urban environment and the welfare of urban dwellers. A high rate of population growth and limited land owned causing the growth of physical development in the city is done by converting such green open space, agricultural land, forest and other open space for urban development purposes. This study is intended to analyze total value of greenery open space ecological benefits of Bogor City, and provide possible recommendations in order to increase the capacity of its urban ecosystem. This analytical framework is applied to Bogor City considering its peculiarities of greenery open space existence and architectures. The research was conducted by spatial approach through CITYGreen 5.4 software to determine the ecological benefits of greenery open space, based on the trees canopy cover and non trees canopy cover to predict the economic value. CityGreen is a software tool developed by American Forest that helps people understand the value of trees to the local environment. The result showed that CITYGreen 5.4 software can be used to conduct complex analysis of ecosystem services and create easy to understand reports.The software calculate dollar benefits for the services provided by the trees and other greenery open space in absorbed such harmfull pollutants, carbon storage and sequestration, and reducing storm water volumes as natural flood control. The capacity of ecological benefit can still be improved to provide greater benefits in various ways. This software will be very beneficial for city planners in evaluate site plan, and model development scenario that capture the benefits of trees.Keywords:greenery open space, CITYGreen 5.4, ecological benefit

  11. Aktivitas Antitumor (Hela dan T47d dan Antioksidan Ekstrak Makroalga Hijau Ulva fasciata

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    Endar Marraskuranto

    2008-12-01

    metode BSLT, uji sitotoksisitas terhadap sel tumor HeLa dan T47D dilakukan dengan metode uji MTT, sedangkan uji antioksidan dilakukan dengan metode DPPH (2,2-diphenyl pikryl hidrazil. Hasil uji toksisitas menunjukkan bahwa fraksi heksan U. fasciata memiliki toksisitas tertinggi dengan LC50 sebesar 19,12 ppm sehingga tergolong sangat toksik. Sementara itu, fraksi heksan makroalga U. fasciata menunjukkan aktivitas sitotoksik yang baik terhadap sel tumor HeLa (IC50 = 25,6 ppm dan terhadap sel tumor T47D (IC50 = 28,7 ppm. Akan tetapi, ekstrak kasar, fraksi metanol dan fraksi heksan makroalga U. fasciata tidak menunjukkan aktivitas antioksidan dengan nilai IC50 yang masih jauh di atas standar vitamin C.

  12. Model Tata Kelola Komputasi Hijau Berbasis Dokumen untuk Universitas Bina Nusantara

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    Nuril Kusumawardhani Soeprapto Putri

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The lack of green computing governance model for environment of universities in Indonesia becomes one major factor to conduct this research. In fact, the teaching and learning activities in campuses depend on support of information system and information technology. Various studies on green computing were observed. However, the suitable model for green computing in the area of private university Indonesia has not been observed yet. Referring to Green ICT Framework by University of Michigan and Connection Research as well as green computing framework by Adcuent, the green computing model for private university in Indonesia was developed through this research. Although the research object was observed in Bina Nusantara University, Jakarta, Indonesia, it is adoptable for other private universities to evaluate their information system and information technology performance surround campuses. Green computing governance is part of information system and information technology strategic plan. Therefore, the management of university should fully concern towards this matter.

  13. Kelayakan Kualitas Perairan Sekitar Mangrove Center Tuban Untuk Aplikasi Alat Pengumpul Kerang Hijau (Perna viridis L.

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    Syarifah Hikmah Julinda Sari

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The coastal waters around the Mangrove Center Tuban, East Java is a potential habitat for the green mussel (Perna viridis L.. Therefore, the water quality of this area need to be assessment. The study was aimed to determine the feasibility of water quality in coastal water f Mangrove Center Tuban for application collecting gear of green mussels. The sampling was conducted by set up three stations randomly in studied area. Parameters was measured including temperature, pH, salinity, DO, depth, turbidity, BOD and TSS. The results showed that the coastal waters around the Mangrove Center Tuban, owned temperature that ranged from 29.10 to 30.67 0C, the pH ranged from 8.23 to 8.37, salinity ranged from 26.87 to 30.30 ‰, DO fall in the range of 6,63- 6.87 mg / L, the water depth at the time of measurement ranges from 40-85 cm. TSS ranged from 206.2 mg / L to 353.7 mg / L, BOD value between 4.05 to 12.2 mg / L, while the turbidity ranged from 134 to 400 NTU. Parameters that below the standard namely temperature, pH, DO, salinity and BOD, while TSS and turbidity were exceed the threshold quality standards set by the government.

  14. Pemanfaatan Limbah Cangkang Kerang Hijau (Perna Viridis Menjadi Kitin Sebagai Biokoagulan Air Sungai

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    Syamsidar HS

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the optimum weight of chitin that used as biocoagulant of river water. The water sample is taken from Kajenjeng river and the chitin used for research are isolated from green mussels (Perna viridis shell powder through three steps such as deproteination by NaOH 3%, demineralization by HCl 1,25 N and depigmentation by NaOCl 4%. Then, the obtained chitin are contacted into water with variation of 0,25 gram; 0,5 gram; 0,75 gram and 1 gram in an hour. The result showed that optimum weight of chitin for COD determination, total hardness, calcium and turbidity is 0,75 gram, while optimum weight of chitin for magnesium determination is 0,5 gram.

  15. KARAKTERISTIK FUNGSIONAL POLISAKARIDA PEMBENTUK GEL DAUN CINCAU HIJAU (Premna Oblongifolia Merr.

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    Samsu Udayana Nurdin

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of citric acid concentration on functional characteristics of polysaccharide forming gel (PFG of green cincau leaves (Premna Oblongifolia Merr. were evaluated. PFG of green cincau leaves were extracted through the use of citric acid (0,0%, 0,1%, 0,2%, 0,3%, 0,4%, and 0,5% w/v solution, precipitated using ethanol, and  followed by drying of the extracts.  The results showed that increasing of citric acid levels reduced the viscosity, water holding capacity, and bulking capacity of the PFGs. Oil holding capacity and water solubility were not affected by citric acid addition. The addition of 0.0% citric acid produced the highest viscosity, water holding capacity, and bulking capacity suggesting possible uses of the extract as dietary fibre with good laxative effect.   Key Words:  Green cincau leaves, functional characteristic, dietary fibre.

  16. Sebaran Ruang Terbuka Hijau dan Peluang Perbaikan Iklim Mikro di Semarang Barat

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    Dewi Liesnoor Setyowati

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the research was detecting green open space (GOS spread and micro climate  condition  at Semarang Barat,   with  vegetation  spread  and  street  lane  area as  the  object  of  the  research. Population  characteristic  consisted  of  vegetation  area spread, mainly on the shaded  trees composition and micro climate condition by using  purposive sampling technique. The research used descriptive ecologycal approach. The result described that Semarang Barat vegetation spread is included as sparse vegetation, predominantly  by  squat  vegetation  composition with  infrequent  tree  density. Micro climate conditon is categorized as contented climate, but on edge at the daylight.  The condition  is  infl uenced  by  least  along  the  street;  consequently  the micro  climate  of temperature is high with low humidity.  Semarang Barat GOS is 17,1%, so the spacious should be 10,0% enhanced to gain 27,1% GOS to create a better climate. It is suggested to increase squat vegetation composition and quantity along Semarang Barat streets, so vegetation diversity will recovered.Keywords: green open space, micro climate, Semarang Barat

  17. Pengaruh Berbagai Konsentrasi Dimethylsulfoxide terhadap Kualitas Semen Beku Ayam Hutan Hijau Post Thawing

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    Wayan Bebas

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The process of freezing and thawing on semen can lead to physical stress, often called cold shock, and couses the structural and biochemical damage that affecting cell function and ultimately lead to the death of the cell The aim of this study was to know the effect of the addition of various concentrations of dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO as the intracellular cryoprotectant in phosphate yolk diluent on the post thowing quality of the green jungle fowl semen. The study used eight green jungle fowl semens which were collected with massage techniques. Semen was evaluated macroscopically and microscopically. Good quality semen was diluted with phosphate yolk which was added four different concentration of DMSO, namely 4%, 6%, 8%, and 10%. Semen was then filled and sealed in a mini straw (0.25 mL with the concentration of 150.106 cells, and equilibrated at 4oC for 4 hours. The semen freezing was processed using conventional method. Evaluation was performed on post thawing semen. The evaluation of semen quality included the progressive motility and plasma membrane intact. Data were analyzed by analysis of variance. If there were any significant differences, the data were futher analyzed by Duncan test. The results showed that addition of DMSO concentration of 6% has resulted the progressive motility and intact plasma membrane higher significantly (P <0.05 than those of the addition of DMSO concentration 4%, 8%, and 10%.

  18. Model Kebijakan Pengelolaan Sampah Berbasis Partisipasi “Green Community” Mendukung Kota Hijau

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    Edy Suyanto

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Government policy in waste management nowadays does not consider the aspect of environment and local wisdom. Whereas, community support either good will or political will is needed. This research was conducted in Purwokerto by applying qualitative (triangulation and quantitative (survey, AHP method. The result shows that keriganpattern-based green community participation in green waste management including institution, empowerment, activities, cooperation, and funding is not effectively implemented. The policy model of green community-based green waste management to support green city reveals that AHP indicates the green community participation is the main aspect to take into account. The policy strategy to be done should consider green community,the local wisdom revitalization of kerigan pattern, extend waste bank, city park, tree bank, management revitalization, socialization of ‘picking up waste’ movement, waste deposit, waste insurance by emphasizing on ecoliteracy, ecodesign, and mental revolution

  19. Pengembangan Ruang Terbuka Hijau berdasarkan Distribusi Suhu Permukaan di Kabupaten Bandung

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    Siti Badriyah Rushayati

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Bandung Regency is experiencing increased of air temperature, particularly in the urban area. High air temperature in urban areas is caused by increasing built-up areas and declining green open space. Green open space should be built to lower air temperature and to create a comfortable micro climate. Green open space should be developed at locations with high air temperature to reach its efficacy. This research used spatial analysis to generate air temperature distribution map. The map was used as the basis in developing green open space. The map showed that green open spaces should be developed at several sub-districts, namely Margahayu, Margaasih, Dayeuhkolot, Baleendah, Bojongsoang, Rancaekek, Cileunyi, Pameungpeuk, and Majalaya sub-districts.

  20. Efek Paparan Musik dan Noise pada Karakteristik Morfologi dan Produktivitas Tanaman Sawi Hijau (Brassica Juncea

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    Joko Prasetyo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of present study was to investigate the effect of various sounds on the green mustard’s (Brassica Juncea morphology characteristic and productivity. The plant has been subjected to three various sound, namely classical music (rhythmic violin music, machine and traffic noise, and mixed sound (classical music and traffic noise with 70-75 dB sound pressure level, from germination to harvest for three hours (7-10 am. each day. Six parameters, i.e. germination, plant height, leaf width, leaf lenght, total plant lenght, and fresh weight, related with growth and productivity of plant were been monitored on regular basis.The results showed classical music improves germination up to 15% for 36 hours, plant height 13,5%, leaf width 14,8%, leaf length 14,2%, and wet weight 57,1%. In general, exposure to classical music gives the best results on the morphological characteristics and productivity of green mustard.

  1. Patogenisitas Cendawan Entomopatogen Beauveria bassiana (Deuteromycotina: Hyphomycetes pada Berbagai Stadia Kepik Hijau (Nezara viridula L.

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    Yusmani Prayogo

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Pathogenicity of  Beauveria bassiana Bals. Vuill. (Deuteromycotina:Hyphomycetes on various stages of eggs and nymphs of the green stink bug (Nezara viridula L. . The green stink bug (Nezara viridula L. is one of the important soybean pod-sucking bug besides brown stink bug (Riptortus linearis and  green stink bug (Piezodorus hybneri. Up to now, pest control mostlyrely on the chemical insecticides,  The objectiveof this experiment was to study the pathogenicity of Beauveria bassianaon various stages of eggs and nymphs of the  green stink bug.  Experiment was conducted in the laboratory of Entomology, Indonesian Legumes and Tuber Crops Research Institute (ILETRI Malang, from January to June 2011. The treatments consists of various eggs and nymphs stages of green stink bug. The results showed that B. bassiana was able to infect the eggs green stink bug both of the newly laid and the six days old eggs.   As a results of this infection, 96% eggs did not hatched.  The younger of eggs, the more susceptible to B. bassiana. The infected egg prolonged hatching periods to three days. B. bassianawas also toxic to all stages of  the green stink bug, especially to the first and second instarswith mortality  rate of 69-96%. The nymph of third, fourth, ad fifth instar and adult  stage were more tolerant to the B. bassiana infection. This study suggest that one way to control green stink bug be  the use of entomopathogen B. bassiana againts their ggs or younginstar.

  2. Kajian Beberapa Jamur Entomopatogenik pada Ulat Daun Kubis Hijau, Plutella xylostella

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    Tri Harjaka

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of entomopathogenic fungi for controlling Diamond Back Moth (DBM, Plutella xylostella L. still limited. Even though there are some entomopathogenic fungi could infect DBM. The aim of this research is to know the kind of entomopatogenic fungi on DBM to be used as biological control agent. Some isolates of  fungi were collected  from DBM infected by  the fungi  on field  in Central Java and  Yogyakarta. Fungi infecting DBM was  isolated, and cultured on Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA. Purification, identification and  infection tests were done to know  the potency of each fungal isolates. The results showed thatfive species of fungi infecting DBM, are Beauveria bassiana, Metarhizium anisopliae, Paecilomyces sp. Entomophthora sp.and Hirsutella sp.

  3. Karakteristik Kimia dan Organoleptik Flakes Kacang Hijau dengan Penambahan Bahan Pengisi dan Air

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    Maya Indra Rasyid

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available (Chemical and Organoleptic Characteristics of Mung Bean Flakes with The Addition of Fillers and Water  ABSTRACT. The objective of this research was to determine the chemical and organoleptic characteristics of mung bean flakes with the addition of fillers and water. The study was conducted using completely randomized design with two factors namely the addition of fillers and water. The results showed that the addition of fillers and water has significant (P≤0,01 effect on the water absorption ratio and protein levels of mung bean flakes. The best treatment was obtained by the mung bean flour without the addition of fillers with 150% of addition water with water absorption ratio of 204%, water content of 5,7%, protein of 22,01%, starch levels of 61,76%, organoleptic values of aroma of 2,61, color of 2,42, crispness of 2,72 and flavor of 2,83.

  4. Pengaruh Lama dan Waktu Peneduhan Terhadap Pertumbuhan dan Hasil Kacang Hijau Varietas Camar

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    Djoko Heru Pamungkas

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A study on the effect of length time shading (approx 70 % of sun rise intensity to the growth and yield of Camar mung bean variety was conducted in Nogotirto, Gamping, Yogyakarta. The experiment was arranged in a Randomized Complete Block Design with 3 replications. The treatment were 6 levels of length and time of shading of Camar mung bean variety, i.e.: shading at the whole life cycles (A, the first half life cycles (B, the second half life cycles (C, the first quarter life cycles (D, the second quarter life cycles (E and no shading at the whole life cycles or control (F.The result showed that the length and time of shading affected the growth and yield of Camar mung bean variety significantly except for the number of root - pimples, the number of effective root - pimples and weight of 100 grain per plant parameters. In accordance with the control, the shading at the first quarter and second quarter or at last life cycles gave no significant different in the growth and yield. The yield of that treatments ware 1.77, 1.72 and 1.82 tons seed per hectare. While in accordance with the control, the shading at the first half, the second half and at the whole life cycles gave the lower growth and yields. The decreasing at the yields were 28.95, 32.96 and 42.36 %.

  5. Analisis Usaha €“ Usaha Pemasaran dan Pengaruhnya terhadap Volume Penjualan Produk Batu Alam (Kasus Usaha Dagang Batu Alam Kota Pekanbaru)

    OpenAIRE

    ", Ruzikna; Muslia, Arini Muslia

    2015-01-01

    The study aimed to : (a) evaluate the bussiness marketting and sales volume effect on Natural Stones Product, and (b) evaluate the constraints on marketting the natural stones Product. The study used qualitative and describtive approach, till no requirement on hypothesis testing. Data collecting was conducted by proposing the quesioner, interview, and observation to bussinessmen of the natural stones product of Pekanbaru. The result, concluded the busssiness marketting on sales natural stones...

  6. DESIGNING COMPANY PERFORMANCE MEASUREMENT SYSTEM USING BALANCE SCORECARD APPROACH

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    Cecep Mukti Soleh

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to design how to measure company performance by using balance scorecard approach in coal transportation services industry. Depth interview was used to obtain qualitative data determination of strategic objectives, key performance indicators, strategic initiatives, and in charge units for each balanced scorecard perspectives while the quantitative data were obtained from weighting through questionnaires and analyzed using paired comparison to get a perspective what mostly affected the performance of the company. To measure the achievement of corporate performance, each KPI used (1 the scoring system with the methods that higher is better, lower is better and precise is better; (2 traffic light system with the help of green, yellow, red for identification of target achievement. This research result shows that in the balance scorecard perspective, the most influences on the overall performance of the company include the customer's perspective (31%, financial perspective (29%, internal business processes (21%, learning, and growth 19%. Keywords: balance scorecard, paired comparison, coal transportation serviceABSTRAKPenelitian ini bertujuan untuk merancang pengukuran kinerja perusahaan dengan menggunakan pendekatan balance scorecard di industri jasa pengangkutan batu bara. Data kualitatif diperoleh melalui indepth interview digunakan untuk menentukan sasaran strategik, indikator kinerja utama, inisiatif strategi dan penanggungjawab setiap divisi setiap perspektif balance scorecard, sedangkan data kuantitatif digunakan untuk pembobotan melalui kuesioner dan dianalisis dengan menggunakan metode paired comparisson untuk mendapatkan perspektif yang paling berpengaruh terhadap kinerja perusahaan. Ukuran pencapaian kinerja perusahaan dari setiap KPI menggunakan; (1 scoring system dengan bantuan metode higher is better, lower is better dan precise is better;(2 traffic light system dengan menggunakan bantuan warna hijau, kuning, merah

  7. Fission track thermochronology of Neogene plutons in the Principal Andean Cordillera of central Chile (33-35°S: Implications for tectonic evolution and porphyry Cu-Mo mineralization Termocronología mediante trazas de fision de plutones neógenos en la Cordillera Principal Andina de Chile central (33-35°S: Implicancias para la evolución tectónica y mineralización de pórfidos de Cu-Mo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Maksaev

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Apatite fission track data for Miocene plutons of the western slope of the Principal Andean Cordillera in central Chile (33-35°S define a distinct episode of enhanced crustal cooling through the temperature range of the apatite partial annealing zone (~125-60°C from about 6 to 3 Ma. This cooling episode is compatible with accelerated exhumation of the plutons at the time of Pliocene compressive tectonism, and mass wasting on the western slope of the Principal Andean Cordillera in central Chile. The timing coincides with the southward migration of the subducting Juan Fernández Ridge and the development of progressive subduction flattening northward of 33°S. It also corresponds to the time of active magmatic-hydrothermal processes and rapid unroofing of the world class Río Blanco-Los Bronces and El Teniente porphyry Cu-Mo deposits. Zircon fission track ages coincide with previous 40Ar/39Ar dates of the intrusions, and with some of the apatite fission track ages, being coherent with igneous-linked, rapid cooling following magmatic intrusion. The thermochronologic data are consistent with a maximum of about 8 km for Neogene exhumation of the plutons.Los datos de trazas de fision en apatita de plutones miocenos del flanco oeste de la Cordillera Principal de Chile central (33-35°S definen un episodio distintivo de enfriamiento acelerado a través del rango de temperatura de la zona de acortamiento parcial de trazas en apatita (~125-60°C entre los 6 a 3 Ma. Este episodio de enfriamiento es compatible con exhumación rápida de los plutones al tiempo del tectonismo compresivo plioceno y remociones en masa en el flanco oeste de la Cordillera Principal en Chile central. El período de tiempo coincide con la migración hacia el sur de la subducción de la Dorsal de Juan Fernández y con el desarrollo de un aplanamiento progresivo de la subducción hacia el norte de los 33°S. También corresponde al tiempo de actividad magmático-hidrotermal y r

  8. PENGGUNAAN SERBUK BATU TABAS SEBAGAI PENGGANTI SEBAGIAN SEMEN DALAM PEMBUATAN BETON

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    I W. Intara

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Research on the use of stone dust (SDT as a partial replacement of Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC has been carried out by using cylindrical concrete specimens with Ø = 150 mm and h = 300 mm. Specimens were made by using the ratio, in weight, of cementitious material : sand : crushed stone of 1.00 : 1.93 : 2.67. The water cementitious material ratio is of 0.52. The cementitious material is a mixture of OPC and SDT. The percentage of OPC replacement by SDT varied from 0%-25%. The distribution of grains of sand and crushed stone are designed according to SNI 03-2384-2000: gradation zone 2 for fine aggregate and gradation with a maximum diameter of 20 mm for coarse aggregate. The tests of compressive strength, elastic modulus, tensile strength and permeability on the cylindrical specimens were realized at 28 and 56 days. The result indicates that SDT shows a good pozzolanic reactivity in terms of compressive strength, elastic modulus, tensile strength and permeability. Therefore, it can be used as a component of Portland Cement Composite. The development of compressive strength, elastic modulus, tensile strength and permeability of concrete produced with a mixture of OPC and SDT depends on the amount of SDT used in the mixture and hydration time. The pozzolanic effect of SDT can only be seen at the age of 56 days. The optimal use of SDT as a partial replacement of OPC in concrete applications varied from 5%-10%.

  9. PENGGUNAAN SERBUK BATU TABAS SEBAGAI PENGGANTI SEBAGIAN SEMEN DALAM PEMBUATAN BETON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I W. Intara

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Research on the use of stone dust (SDT as a partial replacement of Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC has been carried out by using cylindrical concrete specimens with Ø = 150 mm and h = 300 mm. Specimens were made by using the ratio, in weight, of cementitious material : sand : crushed stone of 1.00 : 1.93 : 2.67. The water cementitious material ratio is of 0.52. The cementitious material is a mixture of OPC and SDT. The percentage of OPC replacement by SDT varied from 0%-25%. The distribution of grains of sand and crushed stone are designed according to SNI 03-2384-2000: gradation zone 2 for fine aggregate and gradation with a maximum diameter of 20 mm for coarse aggregate. The tests of compressive strength, elastic modulus, tensile strength and permeability on the cylindrical specimens were realized at 28 and 56 days. The result indicates that SDT shows a good pozzolanic reactivity in terms of compressive strength, elastic modulus, tensile strength and permeability. Therefore, it can be used as a component of Portland Cement Composite. The development of compressive strength, elastic modulus, tensile strength and permeability of concrete produced with a mixture of OPC and SDT depends on the amount of SDT used in the mixture and hydration time. The pozzolanic effect of SDT can only be seen at the age of 56 days. The optimal use of SDT as a partial replacement of OPC in concrete applications varied from 5%-10%.

  10. Pekerjaan, Nonpekerjaan, dan Psikologi Sosial sebagai Penyebab Kelelahan Operator Alat Berat di Industi Pertambangan Batu Bara

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    Indri Hapsari Susilowati

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Kelelahan merupakan salah satu faktor penyebab kecelakaan transportasi, ditandai dengan menurunnya kinerja fisik dan mental yang mengakibatkan kurangnya kewaspadaan karena rasa kantuk. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui faktor risiko dan faktor pendukung kelelahan pada operator alat berat. Penelitian dilakukan pada operator alat berat di 3 tambang batubara di Kalimantan (2 area di Kalimantan Timur dan 1 area di Kalimantan Selatan, melibatkan 353 operator alat berat yang bekerja dengan 3 sif. Hasilnya menunjukkan bahwa keluhan kelelahan semakin tinggi dengan meningkatnya usia, lama kerja, dan kerja pada sif 3 (malam hari. Kelelahan paling banyak dirasakan oleh operator dump truck (bagian hauling yang dipengaruhi oleh faktor-faktor pekerjaan (postur saat bekerja, faktor variasi pekerjaan, beban kerja dan vigilance dan faktor-faktor bukan pekerjaan (kondisi medan atau area tambang yang berisiko, penerangan yang kurang pada malam hari, dan rute yang selalu berubah. Faktor lainnya berkaitan dengan masalah sosial-psikologis, baik yang berhubungan dengan pekerjaan maupun lingkungan kerja, seperti waktu istirahat, standar gaji yang belum memadai, pengaturan jadwal cuti yang sering tidak jelas, dan masalah karier. Disimpulkan, secara umum kelelahan meningkat dengan bertambahnya usia dan lama kerja, dengan kelelahan yang lebih besar pada pekerja sif 3. Umumnya, penurunan waktu reaksi pekerja sif malam lebih besar daripada waktu reaksi pekerja sif siang. Fatigue is one of the causes of transportation accidents, characterized by reduced physical and mental performance resulting in reduced alertness due to drowsiness. The present study was to determine the risk factors and contributing factors of fatigue suffered by heavy equipment operators. The study was conducted at three coal mining sites in Kalimantan (2 areas in East Kalimantan and 1 area in South Kalimantan involving 353 heavy equipment operators who work in shifts. It was found that fatigue complaint is higher by older age, longer work, and work at shift 3 (night time. The fatigue is mostly complained by dump truck (hauling part operators which was influenced by work-related factors (work posture, job variety, workload, vigilance and non-work related factors (terrain or mine risk area, lack of lighting at night, and route track which is always changed. Another factors related with socio-psychological factors, either related with job or working environment, such as adequacy of rest time, remuneration system, leave system, and insecure career. It is concluded that in general the fatigues were increased as the worker ages were older and longer duration of work, with higher fatigues were suffered at shift 3. Generally, reduced reaction time among shift 3 workers is higher than that those of daytime shift.

  11. Pembangunan Desa Berbasis Potensi Lokal Agrowisata di Desa Bumiaji, Kota Batu, Jawa Timur

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    Irma Fitriana Ulfah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Rural development one of them to do with the development of local potential. Bumiaji village is a village with a variety of potential agrotourism, ranging from travel picking apples, oranges, pink crystals, flower travel, etawa breeding, and Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises result from the production of agro stretcher. This study examined the theory of sustainable development according to Von Stoker which includes three aspects: ecological, social and economic. The results showed that the process of development in the village Bumiaji has fulfilled the aspects of sustainable development, but in the process is still not able to walk up. Agriowisata potential is the main resource in conducting ecological development. From the social aspect, the potential for ecotourism has provided benefits and impacts to the land owner, the village government and local residents. Bumiaji economic development relies on natural resources and the production of paddy fields. This agro-tourism development can increase people's income and the expansion of the labor force, so that the welfare of the citizens can be increased. Rural development based on local potential agro-tourism should be developed. This can be done through human resource development, promotion and improvement of facilities and infrastructure.

  12. Faktor Risiko Manual Handling dengan Keluhan Nyeri Punggung Bawah Pembuat Batu Bata

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    Heru Subaris Kasjono

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available During done manual work handling for objects work hard, it will cause risk of injury or cause musculoskeletal systems. Risk assessment manual work handling with the methods indicators key-Leitmerkmal Method (LMM intended to know the relationship between time, burden, attitudes of the body, and working conditions manual handling with complaints of the lower back pain at all stages making bricks perceived maker bricks. The kind of research used is surveyed such data is cross sectional. The data taken by lower back pain questionnaire assisted examination physically by nurses and checklist Key-LMM. Analysis relations use the spearman. The results of research acquired at variable time manual handling based frequency raised or operation the transfer of on stage excavation raw materials, the formation and drying bricks there are relations with complaints of  low back pain with p value each are 0,039, 0,047, 0,038 while on the variables of working conditions manual handling in stage excavation raw materials obtained p value of 0,028 with so it can be said there was a correlation between working conditions manual handling with complaints low back pain. A variable load manual handling and attitudes of the body manual handling do not relate in significant to lower back pain all stages making bricks. Conclusion researchers that the variable time manual handling relate in significant with complaints lower back pain in stage excavation raw materials, the formation and drying bricks, while the phase processing raw materials that there was no correlation, in a variable load manual handling and attitudes of the body manual handling all these stage there was no correlation with complaints lower back pain, while variable working conditions manual handling only in stage excavation the raw materials there are relations with complaints lower back pain in the third stage other there was no correlation.

  13. Dominant risk factors for malaria at Puskesmas Labuhan Ruku, Talawi Batu Bara, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyanoer, P. C.

    2018-03-01

    Malaria is a disease which increases in number almost every year. Morbidity rate of malaria tends to decline from 4.1 to 0.85 per 1000 population at risk in 2005 to 2015. In North Sumatera alone three areas found with the highest incidences are District of Madina, Batubara, and Asahan. However such high number do not parallel with the utilization of health services in the area.This study is an analytic study withcase-controldesign to analyses the contribution of environmental and social factors that potentially cause malaria among people living in malaria-endemic areas. The recruited samples are 146 samples. All cases are registered patient at Puskesmas Labuhan Ruku while controls are from the neighboring area. The result showed that incidence of malaria is most affected by the habit of repellent used and being outside of the house in the evening.

  14. Analisis Biaya Manfaat Program Jaring Pengaman Sosial di Kabupaten Labuhan Batu

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    Esti Pancaningdyah

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This research is aimed at evaluating the program namely Local People Empowerment for Overcoming Economic Crisis Impact (Pemberdayaan Daerah dalam Mengatasi Dampak Krisis Ekonomi – PDM-DKE which relates to the social safety net program in six villages of Labuhanbatu Regency. Two basic cast-benefit analysis are used — the Net Benefit (NB and the Cost-Benefit Ratio (CBR --- to evaluate the program for two target groups in Labuhanbatu. In the contrary to the objective of the program, it is indicated that quite a large portion of the fund (35.78% was not used for empowering the smalls scales shops/stalls. The recipients from the poor people category was constitute only 19.18% of the total number, who gets about 10.97% of the total fund allocated. Using two scenarios for sensitivity analysis and 12 % per year for discounting, this research conclude that the PDM-DKE program is beneficial but the benefit was enjoyed more by no-low-income recipients. However, there might possibilities that the program create some non-quantifiable benefit. The following recommendation are put forward: 1 To ensure that the use of aid and the determination of the terget group are accordance with the original objective, there is a need for monitoring, supervision and guidance at every stage of the implementation up to the lowest level. 2 Allocation of the aid should be more selective in order to avoid deviations in the implementation. 3 Further research is necessary to investigate the implementation of the program in wider scope

  15. Instructional Model of Natural Science in Junior High Schools, Batu-Malang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantiwati, Yuni; Wahyuni, Sri; Permana, Fendy Hardian

    2017-01-01

    The instruction of Natural Science subject in junior high schools, as regulated by 2013 Curriculum, is to be taught in an integrated way, combining Biology, Physics, and Chemistry subjects. The assessment of which is called authentic assessment. This current study described the instructional system especially the assessment system of Natural…

  16. Efisiensi dan Kualitas Pembakaran Batu Bata Menggunakan Bahan Bakar Kayu dan Sekam

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    Sutrisno and Mujiyono

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The lack of wood-based burning materials becomes an obstacle in roof tile production processes. Sekam is an alternative burning material that needs to develop due to its burning capacity, large volume, and low price. The objective of this research is to reveal: (1 the difference of efficiency rate in burning process cost between wood-based burning materials and sekam, and (2 the difference of brick quality between those burnt by wood-based burning materials and sekam . Sampling area is determined by using purposive sampling method. It utilizes wood-based burning materials gathered from Dau and Mojosongo, and sekam gathered from Trowulan. Data are collected by using interviews, observation, documentation, and laboratory tests. Data are analyzed by using descriptive method, difference test (t-test, and covarian (F. The analyses results show that (1 there is no significant difference in cost efficiency between wood-based and ­ sekam -used burning processes, and (2 the sekam-used burning process tends to result better brick quality than those using wood-based burning materials.

  17. On three apparently new species of Birds from the islands Batu, Sumbawa and Alor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Finsch, O.

    1899-01-01

    Adult male. General colour above dark brown; bead above darker; lores and ear-region lighter and more greyish brown; chin whitish grey, throat and breast ashy grey, remainder underparts, axillaries and greater under wing-coverts white, the smaller ones along the carpal margin grey; sides washed with

  18. Municipal Awareness as an Integral Part for Enhancing Citizen Satisfaction of Malaysian Municipal Councils, Batu Pahat

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    Muhammad Umar Bello

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This research study critically analysed the existing literature on municipal awareness relevancy of municipal councils’ service delivery for the purpose of enhancing citizen satisfaction. The purpose of the study is the investigation of citizen satisfaction level of municipal services through the use of municipal awareness. The Material and methods were carried out using secondary data and were meticulously and critically analysed to come up with reliable results. The study shows the relevance of the public awareness, citizen satisfaction and municipal council performance in Malaysia. It is evidence in the research that citizen consent is important before municipal services should be provided in the local community. The research study highlighted many discrepancies in many kinds of literature related to the existing research study, evidence-based analysis were carried out to buttress importance and significance of the related study to the research work. The literature was reviewed to ascertain the current happening in the area of municipal council service delivery. The study shows that many municipal councils in Malaysia provide adequate and satisfactory services to their citizens’. The results of the study also revealed that municipal awareness plays an important role on citizen satisfactions of municipal service delivery. It is also evident that adequate provision of services has direct bearing with municipal councils. The study concludes that municipal service delivery can be enhanced through citizen awareness campaign, to sensitise the local community on various aspects of service delivery including maintenance of the facilities provided. The study also concludes that local Authorities lack of awareness section affects their performance in service delivery process. The study recommends that municipal councils need to consults the citizen for their needs and wants; awareness campaign needs to be regularly carried out to maintain cordial relationship between local Authorities and their citizen; it is also recommended that municipal services should be delivered the needed services by the local inhabitants’ after duly consultation.

  19. PENGEMBANGAN MEDIA BERBASIS MULTIMEDIA INTERAKTIF UNTUK MENINGKATKAN PEMAHAMAN SISWA MAN 2 BATU MATERI KINGDOM ANIMALIA

    OpenAIRE

    Feni Nur’ain; Lise Chamisijatin; Nurwidodo

    2015-01-01

    Learning biology plays an important role in the educational process as well as the development of technology, because biology has an effort for human to generate interest in science and technology development.Various issues that arise in school in biology learning materials associated with the Kingdom Animalia and the material is very much difficult for students to understand and time limitations in the learning process. So there should be used development of teaching media to overcome this. ...

  20. Pengembangan Media Berbasis Multimedia Interaktif Untuk Meningkatkan Pemahaman Siswa Man 2 Batu Materi Kingdom Animalia

    OpenAIRE

    Nur’ain, Feni; Chamisijatin, Lise; Nurwidodo

    2015-01-01

    Learning biology plays an important role in the educational process as well as the development of technology, because biology has an effort for human to generate interest in science and technology development.Various issues that arise in school in biology learning materials associated with the Kingdom Animalia and the material is very much difficult for students to understand and time limitations in the learning process. So there should be used development of teaching media to overcome this. ...

  1. Pengaruh Ekstrak Seledri (Apium Graveolens L.) terhadap Kelarutan Kalsium dalam Batu Ginjal

    OpenAIRE

    Dewi, Evie Kurnia Maya; Walanda, Daud K; Sabang, Sri Mulyani

    2016-01-01

    Celery (apium graveolens L.) contains chemicals that can be used as traditional medicine for various treatments. The research objective is to determine the effect of celery (apium graveolens L.) extractsin dissolving calcium kidney stones and calcium to determine the relationship between the concentration of extract of celery (apium graveolens L.) with the solubility of calcium in the kidney stones. Determination of the solubility of calcium in an extract of celery is by flame fotometer. The ...

  2. ANALISA LAJU KOROSI PADA PUMP IMPELLER DI INDUSTRI PERTAMBANGAN BATU BARA

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    Puguh Ogi Nur Rachman

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Korosi merupakan kerusakan material logam yang disebabkan reaksi antara logam dengan lingkungannya yang menghasilkan oksida logam dan sulfida logam atau hasil reaksi lainnya yang lebih dikenal sebagai pengkaratan. Stainless steel merupakan jenis baja yang tahan terhadap korosi karena memiliki unsur paduan minimal 18% chrom (Cr dan 8% nikel (Ni.Penelitian ini menggunakan tahanan polarisasi dengan menggunakan software 342 Sotcorr Corrosion Meansurement software yang dilengkapi dengan Potensiostat/Galvanostat 273, lalu dilakukan uji foto optik dengan pembesaran 50 kali, untuk mengetahui permukaan spesimen dengan perbesaran struktur pada stainless steel 304 tersebut. Objek penelitian menggunakan stainless steel 304 dengan ukuran spesimen 10 mm sebanyak 3 kali pengujian. Stainless steel AISI 304 mempunyai nilai masa jenis 7,94 gr/cm² dan berat ekuivalen 25,12 gr.Hasil dari metode tahanan polarisasi pada sample pertama didapatkan potensial korosi -336,54 mV dan laju korosi 0,0201 mpy, pada sample kedua potensial korosi -359,25 mV dan laju korosi 0,0266 mpy, selanjutnya pada sample terakhir didapatkan potensial korosi -353 mV dan laju korosi 0,0221 mpy

  3. Model and Characteristics of Micro Finance Institutions Based on SME Women in Batu City

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    Ike Kusdyah Rachmawati

    2017-03-01

    This study used exploratory research, descriptive, experimental and applied research conducted in stages for the development of a comprehensive model of microfinance accommodative Informants determined based on the information needs. Using a descriptive and qualitative analysis of the MFI deliberately selected examples illustrate the following: (A The existence of MFIs is recognized community has a strategic role as an intermediary in economic activity that has not affordable public services of banking institutions / conventional banks; (B service MFIs have demonstrated success, but success can still be in business economics. Skim MFI lending to businesses has not received the priority, it is characterized by a relatively small ceiling (budget allocation to support farming, which is less than 10% of the total ceiling of MFIs; (C A critical factor in the development of the agricultural sector MFI lies in the institutional legality, capability management, seed capital support, the economic viability of farming, farm characteristics and technical assistance clients / service users MFIs; (D To initiate the growth and development of agricultural MFIs needed guidance enhanced capabilities for HR candidates MFI managers, support the strengthening of capital and technical assistance to customers of credit users. Keywords: Financial Institutions Micro, Small Business Micro

  4. Solid Waste Composition and Quantification at Taman Melewar, Parit Raja, Batu Pahat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadir, A. A.; Abidin, S. S. S. Z.

    2016-07-01

    The poor management of solid waste is noticeable through the increasing of the solid waste each year and the difficulties in disposing the waste in the current available landfill. This study was undertaken to analyze the quantity and composition of waste generation in Taman melewar. Taman Melewar is a student residential area and this study is focusing on student's daily waste composition. The objective of this study was to identify the amount of solid waste generation, analyze and classify the composition of solid waste in Taman Melewar. The waste collection was conducted for 50 houses on a daily basis for two weeks. The average household waste generation rate was 0.082 kg/person/day. Organic waste was the major constituent of waste production. The average of organic waste represents about 72.4% followed by paper (9%), plastics film (5.5%), plastics rigid (4.7%), napkins (3.8%), tetrapek (1.3%), glass (1.1%), household hazardous waste (0.85%), textiles (0.52%), metal (0.51%) and rubber (0.34%). The moisture content was ranging from 27.67% to 28.68%. An evaluation was made based on student's behavior towards waste production and recycling. In conclusion, the results revealed that organic waste is the highest waste generated and recycling habits is also poor in Taman Melewar.

  5. PERANCANGAN FASILITAS KERJA PADA AKTIVITAS MEMAHAT DI INDUSTRI KECIL BATU ALAM

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    Maria Chandra Dewi Kurnianingtyas

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The techniques and the principles of work system can improve efficiency and work productivity. Work system consists of several work elements. They are man, material, environment, method, and equipment. The elements is interconnected each others. The elements was influent efficiency and work productivity. Efficiency is important in the work system. The purposes of the research is design of work facilitiess, so that can improve work productivity. Inefficiency of work motion and work facility can influent work productivity. Work posture can analyzed RULA method. The score of work postures were 5,6, and 7. The high scores have indicate that the facilities must be investigated and must be changed. The workers need to work facility to prevent musculoskeletal injury.

  6. EKSPRESI VERBAL PENDERITA APRAXIA WICARA: KASUS GANGGUAN WICARA MURID SDN 2 BATU PUTIH KAB. BOMBANA

    OpenAIRE

    Batmang Batmang

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This study aimed to obtain factual data of the verbal expression of speech apraxia people in order to know the forms of verbal expressions of patients with apraxia speech in terms of aspects of phonological, lexical aspect, and description of non-linguistic abilities. The study was conducted in SD Negeri 2 Batuputih, Southeast Sulawesi with a single subject, a fourth-grade student who suffered speech apraxia. This research was a case study that examined the behavior of language o...

  7. EKSPRESI VERBAL PENDERITA APRAXIA WICARA: KASUS GANGGUAN WICARA MURID SDN 2 BATU PUTIH KAB. BOMBANA

    OpenAIRE

    Batmang, Batmang

    2016-01-01

    AbstractThis study aimed to obtain factual data of the verbal expression of speech apraxia people in order to know the forms of verbal expressions of patients with apraxia speech in terms of aspects of phonological, lexical aspect, and description of non-linguistic abilities. The study was conducted in SD Negeri 2 Batuputih, Southeast Sulawesi with a single subject, a fourth-grade student who suffered speech apraxia. This research was a case study that examined the behavior of language of the...

  8. EKSPRESI VERBAL PENDERITA APRAXIA WICARA: KASUS GANGGUAN WICARA MURID SDN 2 BATU PUTIH KAB. BOMBANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batmang Batmang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study aimed to obtain factual data of the verbal expression of speech apraxia people in order to know the forms of verbal expressions of patients with apraxia speech in terms of aspects of phonological, lexical aspect, and description of non-linguistic abilities. The study was conducted in SD Negeri 2 Batuputih, Southeast Sulawesi with a single subject, a fourth-grade student who suffered speech apraxia. This research was a case study that examined the behavior of language of the speech apraxia patients. The techniques used in data collection are observation, recording, question and answer, and interviews. The instrument used in data collection is, the pictures of objects, field notes, interview guide, and voice recorder. The data analysis was done by using an error analysis and contrastive analysis. The results obtained: (1 in terms of phonological aspects, the speech apraxia patients tended to have difficulty in reciting the phoneme, (2 in terms of lexical aspect, the verbal expressions of the apraxia speech patients are not meaningful at all, what people said just the unmeaning sounds, (3 linguistically speech apraxia patients are unable to express themselves the meaningful words but the non-linguistic one, the observed patients did not show any symptoms of abnormality. Keywords: Apraxia speech, verbal expression, impaired speech   Abstrak Penelitian ini betujuan untuk memperoleh data faktual tentang ekspresi verbal penderita apraxia wicara agar dapat mengetahui bentuk-bentuk ekspresi verbal penderita apraxia wicara dalam hal aspek fonologi, aspek leksikal, dan gambaran tentang kemampuan non-linguistiknya. Penelitian dilakukan di SD Negeri 2 Batuputih, Sulawesi Tenggara dengan subjek tunggal seorang murid kelas IV yang menderita apraxia wicara. Penelitian ini mengkaji perilaku berbahasa pada penderita apraxia wicara. Teknik yang digunakan dalam pengumpulan data adalah: observasi, perekaman, tanya-jawab, dan wawancara. Alat yang digunakan dalam pengumpulan data adalah, gambar-gambar benda, catatan lapangan, panduan wawancara, dan alat perekam suara. Analisis data dilakukan dengan teknik analisis kesalahan dan analisis kontrastif. Hasil penelitian yang diperoleh: (1 dalam hal aspek fonologi penderita apraxia wicara cenderung mengalami kesulitan dalam melafalkan fonem; (2 dalam hal aspek leksikal, ekspresi verbal penderita apraxia wicara tidak memiliki makna sama sekali, apa yang diucapkan penderita hanyalah bunyi-bunyi yang tidak memiliki arti; (3 secara linguistik penderita apraxia wicara tidak mampu mengekspresikan diri dengan kata-kata yang bermakna tetapi secara non-linguistiknya, penderita yang diteliti tidak menunjukkan adanya gejala abnormalitas. Kata Kunci: Apraxia wicara, ekspresi verbal, gangguan wicara

  9. Drinking Water Quality of Water Vending Machines in Parit Raja, Batu Pahat, Johor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, N. H.; Yusop, H. M.

    2016-07-01

    An increased in demand from the consumer due to their perceptions on tap water quality is identified as one of the major factor on why they are mentally prepared to pay for the price of the better quality drinking water. The thought that filtered water quality including that are commercially available in the market such as mineral and bottled drinking water and from the drinking water vending machine makes they highly confident on the level of hygiene, safety and the mineral content of this type of drinking water. This study was investigated the vended water quality from the drinking water vending machine in eight locations in Parit Raja are in terms of pH, total dissolve solids (TDS), turbidity, mineral content (chromium, arsenic, cadmium, lead and nickel), total organic carbon (TOC), pH, total colony-forming units (CFU) and total coliform. All experiments were conducted in one month duration in triplicate samples for each sampling event. The results indicated the TDS and all heavy metals in eight vended water machines in Parit Raja area were found to be below the Food Act 1983, Regulation 360C (Standard for Packaged Drinking Water and Vended water, 2012) and Malaysian Drinking Water Quality, Ministry of Health 1983. No coliform was presence in any of the vended water samples. pH was found to be slightly excess the limit provided while turbidity was found to be 45 to 95 times more higher than 0.1 NTU as required by the Malaysian Food Act Regulation. The data obtained in this study would suggest the important of routine maintenance and inspection of vended water provider in order to maintain a good quality, hygienic and safety level of vended water.

  10. Studi Komposisi Mineral Tepung Batu Bukit Kamang Sebagai Bahan Baku Pakan Sumber Mineral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalil

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to determine mineral content of limestone originated from natural deposit of Bukit Kamang for feedstuff. Six samples were prepared and chemically analyzed. The first was limestone in meal form as a product of local milling industry. Another five samples were deposit components with different color of blackish, dark blue, blue, light blue and white. There was 21 kinds of mineral determined which were divided into 3 groups: macros (Ca, P, Mg, Na, K, Cl and S, trace minerals (Mn, Zn, Fe, Cu, Se, Co and Mo and toxic elements (As, F, Hg, Cd, Pb, Ni and Cr. The results showed that Bukit Kamang’s limestone contained considerable high essential minerals of Ca, Se, Fe and Mn. The limestone consisted of 38%-40% Ca, 388 ppm Se, 295 ppm Fe and 205 ppm Mn. There were two toxic elements detected: Pb and Cd, but their concentration was found relatively low: 28 and 7 ppm, respectively.

  11. ISOLASI DAN IDENTIFIKASI BAKTERI PEREDUKSI SULFAT PADA AREA PERTAMBANGAN BATU BARA MUARA ENIM, SUMATERA SELATAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muchamad Yusron

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Sulfate reducing bacteria utilize sulfate as their terminal electron acceptor and reduce it to sulphide. Acid mine drainage, by-products of mining activities, is an acidic sulfate-rich wastewater suitable habitat for sulfate reducing bacteria. Isolation and identification of sulfate reducing bacteria collected from Muara Enim coal mining, South Sumatra was carried out at Laboratory of Environmental Biotechnology, Indonesian Center for Biodiversity and Biotechnology (ICBB, Bogor, and Laboratory of Microbiology, Faculty of Veterinary, Bogor Agricultural University. Postgate B liquid media was used for isolation and purification via serial dilution. Physiological and biochemical characterization was done based on Bergeys Manual of Determinative Bacteriology. Fifteen pure isolates have been isolated with diverse characteristics. Eight isolates can sustain at pH 3, while the rest sustain at pH 4 or above. Sulfate reduction efficiency of each isolates were different, but increased as the pH increased. The bacteria are classified as Desulfovibrio sp., which is characterized straight rods, motile, non spore-forming and able to grow in simple organic carbon.

  12. Daya Terima Proporsi Kacang Hijau (Phaseolus Radiata L) Dan Bekatul (Rice Bran) Terhadap Kandungan Serat Pada Snack Bar

    OpenAIRE

    Pricilya, Vyatri; Wirjatmadi, Bambang; Andriani, Merryana

    2015-01-01

    Snack bar is a product made from cereal and nuts that usually consumed between meals. Commercial snack bar contains energy, protein, and fiber. The fiber content in it is usually 1 gram per 25 grams serving. The fiber content is relatively low because food categorized as high fi ber if it has 5 grams per 100 gram products. Therefore, a new innovation to improve its fi ber content is required. Green bean and rice bran are type of food with high fiber content that possible to be added in snack bar. T...

  13. DAYA TERIMA PROPORSI KACANG HIJAU (PHASEOLUS RADIATA L) DAN BEKATUL (RICE BRAN) TERHADAP KANDUNGAN SERAT PADA SNACK BAR

    OpenAIRE

    Pricilya, Vyatri; Wirjatmadi, Bambang; Andriani, Merryana

    2017-01-01

    Snack bar is a product made from cereal and nuts that usually consumed between meals. Commercial snack bar contains energy, protein, and fiber. The fiber content in it is usually 1 gram per 25 grams serving. The fiber content is relatively low because food categorized as high fi ber if it has 5 grams per 100 gram products. Therefore, a new innovation to improve its fi ber content is required. Green bean and rice bran are type of food with high fiber content that possible to be added in snack bar. T...

  14. PENGARUH IMPLEMENTASI STRATEGI PEMASARAN HIJAU DAN KARAKTERISTIK KONSUMEN TERHADAP PILIHAN PRODUK (Studi Empiris Pada Konsumen AMDK Di Surakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiyadi Wiyadi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze the effect of an implementation of green marketing strategies and consumer characteristics on product choice decision. Implementation of green marketing strategies such as: product, price, promotion, and distribution channel. The characteristics of consumer such as: consumer awareness, and gender. The research sample is 100 AMDK consumers in Surakarta taken by using purposive sampling technique. Many variables measured by using a Likert scale, exception for variable of gender and product choice decision. To determine the effect of product, price, promotion, distribution channel, consumer awareness, and gender variables on products choice decision used logistic regression analysis. Based on data analysis, product (B = 2,489, price (B = -3,278, and distribution (B = 2,882, and gender (B = -4161 significantly effect on AMDK product choice decision. While the promotion (B = -0,313 and consumer awareness (B = 1,861 not significantly effect on AMDK product choice decision.

  15. Respons Imunoglobulin-G dan Imunoglobulin-M Mencit yang Diberi Ekstrak Methanol Alga Biru Hijau dan Diinfeksi Dengan Takizoit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorta Basar Ida Simanjuntak

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasmosis is an infectious disease caused by Toxoplasma gondii. This disease could severelyaffect humans and animals. Up to now there has been no simple treatment to fight toxoplasmosis. Aprospective alternative treatment to overcome this problem is by increasing immunity of the body using animmunostimulant such as Spirulina platensis. The aims of this research were to observe the potency of S.platensis as an immunostimulant and to find the most potential fraction of S. Platensis that can increasethe responses of IgG and IgM antibodies againts toxoplasma. The responses of these antibodies weremeasured using ELISA method. The isolation of compounds from S. platensis using Preparative ThinLayer Chromatography (PTLC found three fractions which were a top fraction (I, a middle fraction (II,and a lower fraction (III. Forty-eight mice used in this research were divided into four different groupswith 12 mice in each group and treated differently. The top, middle, and lower fractions of S. platensis wereadministered orally to three groups of mice respectively at dose of 3mg/ml for each mouse while the micein the fourth group were kept as untreated controls. The treatment was conducted for 14 days consecutivelyand on the next day, all mice, including the controls, were challenged with tachizoit. The effect of S.platensisfractions on the responses of IgG and IgM antibodies were then measured at various time intervals, i.e. day0 (before infection and day 1, 2, and 3 after infection. The results showed that IgG response increased inthe day 0 (2.504 OD and the day 3 after infection (2.608 OD while IgM response increased in day 1 afterinfection (2.898 OD. In conclusion, S. platensis was an immunostimulant and the middle fraction (II of S.Platensis was the most potential fraction to increase immunity againts toxoplasma .

  16. Pemanfaatan Ruang Terbuka Hijau di Rumah Susun Studi Kasus : Rumah Susun Kebon Kacang dan Bendungan Hilir I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yosica Mariana

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available One solution for meeting the needs of habitable housing for people, especially the middle to bottom is vertical housing or flats, this makes the availability of residential demand is increasing. In the process of vertical residential development should not only be limited to the provision of the physical aspects of the building, but also must consider the availability of green open space, which is based on the Law of Indonesia no. 26 of 2007 on Spatial Planning. Provision of green open space in the flats environment are very essential since beside becoming a place for socializing, open spaces are also has ecological function as a water catchment. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between the user and the activities undertaken in theuse of green open space in the flat. The methods of research used is descriptive method to provide an overview of the user involvement and activities undertaken in the use of green open space. The results showed that the use ofgreen open spaces tend to be widely used by housewives and children paticularly in the morning and in the afternoon. The actvities include social interaction, play, sit and exercise.

  17. Pengaruh Konsentrasi Ekstrak Etanolik Daun Teh Hijau (Camellia sinesis L. dalam Sediaan Krim terhadap Sifat Fisik dan Aktivitas Antibakteri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naniek Widyaningrum

    2012-12-01

    Design and Method: In this study, green tea leaf extract condensed obtained by maceration using 50% ethanol solution. Cream formula that is made in five concentration ethanolic extract of green tea leaves 1%, 3%, 5%, 7%, and 9% use a modified formula antiacne cream. Cream tested physical properties include homogenity, percent separation, dispersive power and adhesion. During the antibacterial activity was also tested. The data obtained were analyzed statistically using the non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis test followed by Mann Whitney test with a level of 95%. Results: The preparation cream ethanolic leaf green tea extract at various concentrations have good homogenity and not separate, the greater concentration of cream ethanolic extract of green tea leaves get smaller power and energy dispersive adhesion, whereas the inhibitory against Staphylococcus aureus bacteria is getting biger. Conclusion: Cream ethanolic extract of green tea leaves that are comparable with the positive control (Ristra acne creaming the physical properties and the antibacterial activity at a concentration of 7% (Sains Medika, 4(2:147-156.

  18. STABILITAS EPIGALOKATEKIN GALAT DALAM KRIM EKSTRAK TEH HIJAU DENGAN VARIASI KONSENTRASI ANTIOKSIDAN VITAMIN C 1% DAN VITAMIN E 1%

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nining Sugihartini

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Epigallocatechingallate (EGCG in green tea extract has activity as an anti-inflammatory agent. On the other hand the stability of EGCG is poor because of the oxidation. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of Vitamine C and Vitamine E in formulation of green tea extract cream to the stabiliy of EGCG. The green tea extract was obtained from the extraction process by infundation followed by fractination with ethyl acetate as the solvent. The three formulas were compiled in similar composition with the concentration of vitamine C 1% (FI, Vitamine E 1% (FII and there was no Vitamine C and Vitamine E (FIII as a control. The EGCG level was determinated by TLC-densitometry methode. The stability parameter was determinated by calculated of the Q10 of each formula. The result of this study showed that the parameter of t90 of EGCG with Vitamine C 1%, Vitamine E 1% and control addition were 0.0108 hours, 0.0087 hours, 0.0084 hours, respectively. Stability of EGCG in green tea leaf extract cream with addition of the vitamin C 1% was higher than it stability with the addition of vitamin E 1%. The concentration of Vitamin C 1% was the optimum concentration as antioxidant in formulation of green tea extract cream.

  19. KEBIJAKAN PENGELOLAAN LINGKUNGAN KAWASAN INDUSTRI SESUAI PROPER KLHK PERINGKAT HIJAU (STUDI KASUS DI KAWASAN INDUSTRI JABABEKA BEKASI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Temmy Wikaningrum

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Environmental management in industrial estate is the strategic policy model which is needed to be developed referring to the Indonesian Government Decree number 24 year 2009, that state almost all of the new industrial developments should be located in industrial estate. The complexity in this environmental management was approached by “green rating” of PROPER’s criteria regulated by Ministry of Environment & Forestry (KLHK. PROPER is the assessment program of company performance rating in environmental management. Green rating is classified by PROPER in terms of beyond compliance performance. The result of the case study in Jababeka Industrial Estate (KIJA Bekasi, based on its environmental situational analysis year 2014 by multidimensional scaling (MDS method, showed that only the management dimension had a sustainability performance. The results of prospective analysis on leverage factors of MDS showed that the key factors of the environmental management model were (1 DRKPL (summary document of environmental management performance, (2 implementation of water conservation and reducing water pollution program, (3funding for water conservation, (4 monitoring and evaluation of community development program, (5 implementation of 3R (reduce, reuse, recycle programs of hazardous waste, (6 technology of 3R, and (7 benchmarking. Based on the key parameters and referred to the possibilities conditions, three scenarios have been developed to approach the implementative policy. The moderate scenario was recommended to be the right policy in term of consideration of technology, funding availability, time of implementation and organization skills.Keywords: environmental management, industrial estate, jababeka, proper KLHK

  20. Strategi Pemanfaatan Perairan Pesisir untuk Budi Daya Kerang Hijau (Perna viridis L. di Kuala Langsa, Provinsi Aceh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andi Sagita

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Development of green mussel culture currently still requires the determination of strategies in accordance with the potential and conditions of coastal areas as well as management culture system. This research aims to formulate strategies of the utilization coastal waters for green mussel culture in coastal Kuala Langsa, Aceh Province. Data collected to identify internal factors and external, including primary and secondary data, while the determination of respondents using purposive sampling method. SWOT Analysis is used for strategy determined while prioritizing strategy using Quantitative Strategies Planning Matrix (QSPM analysis. Based on SWOT analysis, identified 9 strength factors, 4 weakness factors, 6 opportunity factors, and 5 threat factors and 8 strategies, then the priority of strategies is determined with QSPM analysis, the sequence of the most important priority is: counseling and training to improve the management of green mussel culture for coastal communities (WO1; green mussel culture can be integrated with the involvement of coastal communities as stakeholders (WO2; optimization of coastal waters for green mussel culture is supported by ecology conditions (SO1; green mussel culture can be done with longline method with a density of 20 individuals/basket 5.30 l (SO3; site selection for culture and spat collection of green mussel should consider coastal oceanographic factors (ST1; controlling the level of waste disposal from the mainland so as not to pollute coastal areas (ST2; and to formulate practical guidance of management of green mussel culture based on the food security principle.

  1. Identifikasi Barcode Tumbuhan Gedi Merah (Abelmoschus Manihot L. Medik) Dan Gedi Hijau (Abelmoschus Moschatus) Berdasarkan Gen MatK

    OpenAIRE

    Fattah, Yusuf R; Kamu, Vanda S; Runtuwene, Max R. J; Momuat, Lidya I

    2014-01-01

    Gedi (Abelmoschus L.) merupakan tumbuhan tropis. Tumbuhan ini memilki efek farmakologis. Masyarakat Minahasa mengkonsumsi daun gedi yang direbus tanpa diberi bumbu sebagai obat tradisional untuk menurunkan kadar kolesterol, antihipertensi dan antidiabetes. Suatu metode baru untuk mengidentifikasi dan menganalisis keanekaragaman genetika spesies telah dikembangkan dengan menggunakan potongan gen standar yang dikenal dengan teknik DNA barcoding. Salah satu gen yang terdapat pada tumbuhan yaitu ...

  2. KELAYAKAN REHABILITASI MANGROVE DENGAN TEKNIK GULUDAN DALAM PERSPEKTIF PERDAGANGAN KARBON DI KAWASAN HIJAU LINDUNG MUARA ANGKE, PROVINSI DKI JAKARTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isluyandari Woelan Yanuartanti

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Mitigation of climate change due to CO2 emissions, the forestry sector developed a REDD+ scheme. This study was conducted to examine financial feasibility of the mangrove rehabilitation with guludan technique, so that further funding of mangrove rehabilitation can be included into REDD+ scheme. Guludan technology was developed to overcome the deep water column for mangrove rehabilitation in the former pond area. This technique has been developed for mangrove species Avicennia marina with spacing 0.25 m x 0.25 m, 0.5 m x 0.5 m, and 1 m x 1 m. Based on diameter and height growth of 36 months planted seedlings of A.marina followed logistic model. CO2 sequestration 386.34 t/ha, 131.12 t/ha, and 26.75 t/ha in 0.25 m x 0.25 m, 0.5 m x 0.5 m, and 1 m x 1 m spacing. With CO2 sequestration selling price of €20,00/t CO2 and rehabilitated land area of 10 ha, this rehabilitation action using guludan technique is not financially feasible, because the criteria for a negative NPV, Net B/C< 1, and IRR < the investment rate, which is 12%. The alternative for this is by implementing material efficiency and increasing carbon selling price as much €54.5/t CO2 for the spacing 0.25 m x 0.25 m; €122/t CO2 for the spacing 0.5 m x 0.5 m; and €580/t CO2 for the spacing 1 m x 1 m.Keywords: Avicennia marina, guludan, CO2 sequestration, plant spacing, and financial feasibility

  3. Pencegahan hipertensi dan penebalan dinding aorta dengan pemberian kecambah kacang hijau (Phaseolus radiatus (L pada tikus putih Sprague Dawley

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    Novian Swasono Hadi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lifestyle changes with high-fat food consumption is one of the factors the risks of cardiovascular diseases like of coronary heart disease and atherosclerosis. A healthy diet and a balanced diet and consume foods that contain lots of antioxidants is one of the effective ways to prevent hyperlipidemia. Mung bean sprouts have properties that neutralize free radicals cause Hyperlipidemia and cardiovascular diseases because it is an antioxidant compound. Objective: The aim of this study was to determinate the effect of mung bean sprouts (Phaseolus radiatus (L to blood pressure and histopathology aorta of Sprague-Dawley male rats. Method: The type of study was experimental research using pre-post test controlled group design for blood pressure variable and post test only controlled group design histopathology aorta. The thirty-five of Sprague-Dawley male rats was eight weeks divided into 5 groups. The first group was given standard diet, group 2 was given a hight fat diet, the third group was given a high-fat diet and mung bean sprout 0,67 gram, group 4 was given a high-fat diet and mung bean 1,34 gram, and group 5 was given a high-fat diet and vitamin E doses of 23 IU. Results: Result of this study showed that after 4 weeks of treatment, increased in blood pressure systole in the given of  high fat diet higher than group who were given a high fat diet and mung bean sprout and also on group who were given high fat diet and vitamin E, but there is no difference effect a decrease in blood pressure between the provision of mung bean sprouts and vitamin E (p>0,05. Statistical analysis to thick the wall the aorta show the similarity meaningful in all the treatment group, it can be said that overall thick the wall the aorta in this research is not different. Conclusion: A dose of mung bean sprout 0,67 g is optimal doses in preventing a rise in blood pressure and prevent alterations histopathology Sprague-Dawley male rats.

  4. Daya Simpan Susu Kacang Hijau (Phaseolus radiatus L. dengan Persentase Penambahan Sari Jahe Merah (Zingiber officinale var. Rubrum

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    Meilla Dwi Andrestian

    2015-06-01

    Mung bean milk is one of the diversification of processed mung beans. The process of making mung bean milk using Ultra High Temperature (UHT is abundantly sold in the market. As another alternative to have a high shelf life, it needs the addition of natural preservatives such as red ginger. In general, this research aim was to determine the effect of addition of the percentage of red ginger extract (Zingiber officinale var. Rubrum on storability of green beans milk (Phaseolus radiatus L.. This research consisted of two phases, preliminary research and main research. The former stage was conducted to determine the best acceptability of nine treatment variations of red ginger extract addition. After preliminary research was made and it obtained the best results preferred by panelist, it was then followed by main research to determine the storability of green beans milk. From preliminary research, theres were three treatment preferred by panelists, namely P3 (0.75%, P5 (1.25% and P6 (1.5%. After that, those  treatments were tested for their storability in main research. From main research it showed that Q0 (control treatment can last for 0 day, Q1 treatment with the addition of red ginger extract 0,75% and Q2 (1.25% having storability for 1 day and Q3 (1.5% having the best treatment that had the longest storability (for 2 days. The more addition of red ginger extract, the longer storability of green beans milk. The best favored and longest storability of green beans milk was one added with red ginger extract of 1.5%. Keywords: Green Bean Milk, Storability, Red ginger

  5. Studi Pembuatan Makanan Pendamping Asi (Mp-asi) Menggunakan Campuran Tepung Kecambah Kacang Kedelai, Kacang Hijau, dan Beras

    OpenAIRE

    -, Purwanto; Hersoelistyorini, Wikanastri

    2011-01-01

    Beans (soy beans, green beans) and cereals (rice) in the form of sprouts can improve the digestibility during germination occurs due to hydrolysis of carbohydrates, proteins and fats into simpler compounds, so it is easy to digest. During this process a rapid increase in the amount of protein and vitamins, while fat content decreased. Sprouts in the form of flour can be used as an ingredient mixture of complementary food of Mother' Breast. The purpose of this study to determine levels of prot...

  6. Speciation and leachability of copper in mine tailings from porphyry copper mining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik K.; Yianatos, Juan B; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2005-01-01

    Mine tailing from the El Teniente-Codelco copper mine situated in VI Region of Chile was analysed in order to evaluate the mobility and speciation of copper in the solid material. Mine tailing was sampled after the rougher flotation circuits, and the copper content was measured to 1150mgkg^-^1 dry...... matter. This tailing was segmented into fractions of different size intervals: 0-38, 38-45, 45-53, 53-75, 75-106, 106-150, 150-212, and >212@mm, respectively. Copper content determination, sequential chemical extraction, and desorption experiments were carried out for each size interval in order...

  7. Detection of alteration associated with a porphyry copper deposit in southern Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, M. J.; Siegal, B. S.

    1977-01-01

    Computer processing of Landsat MSS data was performed using contrast stretching and band-to-band ratioing. A false color ratio composite picture showed color anomalies which coincided with known areas of alteration on and about Red Mountain. A helicopter survey of the study area was undertaken using a portable field reflectance spectrometer. One hundred fifty-six spectra were obtained in the 0.4 to 2.5 micrometer wavelength region. The spectra were digitized, and contour maps for 24 wavelength intervals were produced; no spectral anomalies were evident for the known altered areas. A contour map produced from the 1.6 and 2.2 micrometer ratio generally delineated the alteration areas. The 1.3, 1.6, and 2.2 micrometer wavelength data were canonically transformed using a transformation empirically derived from discriminant function analysis of altered and unaltered materials for the Goldfield, Nevada region, and a contour map was produced for the first canonical variable. The known areas of alteration were clearly defined on the contour map.

  8. SIKAP MASYARAKAT DI DESA BATU BUSUK, SUMATERA BARAT TERHADAP KONSERVASI HARIMAU SUMATERA (PANTHERA TIGRIS SUMATRAE) BERDASARKAN PENGETAHUANNYA

    OpenAIRE

    Suryanda, Ade; Komala, Ratna; Rahmawati, Suci

    2017-01-01

    Sumatran tiger are one of the potential biodiversity populations which continue to decline. One of the few causes of this can occur because of human activities and actions unfavorable to the environment. Therefore, people need to have an attitude of conservation of Sumatran tiger. One of the factors that influence the attitude is knowledge. The study aims to determine the correlation between knowledge with the attitude of the Sumatran tiger conservation. The research was conducted in the vill...

  9. Penerapan Model Pembelajaran Kooperatif Tipe Snowball Throwing untuk Meningkatkan Hasil Belajar IPA Siswa Kelas V Sds Pembangunan Bagan Batu

    OpenAIRE

    Harahap, Nuryani; ', Lazim N; Noviana, Eddy

    2017-01-01

    This research up on its low usufructs student studying braze v SDS Pembangunan Baganbatu. Initially, of 24 students which reach KKM just 9 person (37,5 %). Its low causal factor result studies student because of teacher be still that more active than student tend upon learning happens. So student have no chance to develop pengetahuanya. Therefore researcher applies one kooperatif learning model type Snowball Throwing which is one model which can help student in understands learning. Type lear...

  10. PENGUKURAN LAJU PENGENDAPAN DALAM PENENTUAN TOLERANSI PENAMBANGAN PASIR DAN BATU (sirtu (Studi Kasus di DAS Lukulo Hulu Jawa Tengah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saifudin Saifudin

    2016-10-01

    mengalami degradasi lingkungan, sedimentasi sungai Luk Ulo dimanfaatkan dan menghasilkan ketidakseimbangan DAS. Indikasi kerusakan DAS Likely ditonton dari tingkat ketinggian sedimentasi dan erosi. Tujuan penelitian ini untuk menentukan pertambangan pasir, sehingga keseimbangan ketersediaan pasir dan maksimalpertambangan pasir (sirtu dapat mengamati. Metode yang digunakan dalam penelitian iniadalah survei dan pengukuran sedimen, yaitu dengan asupan sampel airmempertimbangkan beban ditangguhkan dan juga pengukuran debit sungai setiap sub DAS. Parameter pengukuran sedimentasi adalah konsentrasi sedimen tersuspensi Cs (mg /l, debit Q (m3 / detik dan keluarnya Qs sedimen tersuspensi (gr / detik. Metode yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah survei dan pengukuran sedimentasi, yaitu dengan asupan sampel air mempertimbangkan beban ditangguhkan dan juga pengukuran debit sungai setiap sub DAS. Parameter pengukuran sedimentasi adalah konsentrasi sedimen tersuspensi Cs (mg / l, debit Q (m3 / detik dan keluarnya Qs sedimen tersuspensi (gr /detik. Dari hasil penelitian dapat diketahui bahwa beban sedimen harian di Luk Ulo hulu wathersed di hujan Oktober-November sebesar 1.438,36 ton / hari, sedangkan beban sedimen dalam satu tahun sebesar 194,43 ton / Hektar / tahun.

  11. Karakteristik Penderita Batu Kandung Kemih Dewasa Di Rumah Sakit Umum Pusat H. Adam Malik Medan Tahun 2013 - 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Mudatsir

    2017-01-01

    137041049 Background. The purpose of this research is to know the characteristic of bladder stone in adult patient at RSUP H. Adam Malik Medan from year 2013-2015. Method. This study used a retrospective descriptive method conducted in the Department of Surgery Division Urology RSUP H. Adam Malik Medan from January 1, 2013 to December 31, 2015. Data taken from medical records of inpatients and outpatients ? 18 years with a diagnosis of bladder stones . Results. Characteristics o...

  12. Geo Techno Park potential at Arjuno-Welirang Volcano hosted geothermal area, Batu, East Java, Indonesia (Multi geophysical approach)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maryanto, Sukir

    2017-11-01

    Arjuno Welirang Volcano Geothermal (AWVG) is located around Arjuno-Welirang Volcano in Malang, East Java, about 100 km southwest of Surabaya, the capital city of East Java province, and is still an undeveloped area of the geothermal field. The occurrence of solfatara and fumaroles with magmatic gasses indicated the existence of a volcanic geothermal system in the subsurface. A few hot springs are found in the Arjuno-Welirang volcanic complex, such as Padusan hot spring, Songgoriti hot spring, Kasinan hot spring, and Cangar hot spring. Multi geophysical observations in AWVG complex was carried out in order to explore the subsurface structure in supporting the plan of Geo Techno Park at the location. Gravity, Magnetic, Microearthquake, and Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) methods were used to investigate the major and minor active faulting zones whether hot springs circulation occurs in these zones. The gravity methods allowed us to locate the subsurface structure and to evaluate their geometrical relationship base on density anomaly. Magnetic methods allow us to discriminate conductive areas which could correspond to an increase in thermal fluid circulation in the investigated sites. Micro-earthquakes using particle motion analysis to locate the focal depth related with hydrothermal activity and electrical resistivity tomography survey offers methods to locate more detail subsurface structure and geothermal fluids near the surface by identifying areas affected by the geothermal fluid. The magnetic and gravity anomaly indicates the subsurface structure of AWVG is composed of basalt rock, sulfide minerals, sandstone, and volcanic rock with high minor active fault structure as a medium for fluid circulation. While using micro-earthquake data in AWVG shown shallow focal depth range approximate 60 meters which indicates shallow hydrothermal circulation in AWVG. The geothermal fluid circulation zones along the fault structure resulted in some hot springs in a central and north-western part of AWVG detected by the Electrical Resistivity Tomography, appear to be well correlated with corresponding features derived from the gravity, magnetic, and micro-earthquake survey. We just ongoing process to develop Arjuno Welirang Volcano & Geothermal Research Center (AWVGRC) located at Universitas Brawijaya Agro Techno Park, Cangar in the flank of Arjuno Welirang volcano complex. Due to our initial observations, AWVG has a great potential for a pilot project of an educational geo technopark development area.

  13. Pengaruh Pengembangan Produk Theme Park Dan Persepsi Harga Terhadap Kepuasan Wisatawan (Survei Pada Wisatawan Taman Rekreasi Selecta, Kota Batu)

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandha, Richan; Yaningwati, Fransisca; Azizah, Devi Farah

    2017-01-01

    Recreation park is a recreation area located in the outdoors without being limited by a building, or recreation-related environment and use of natural resources-oriented. New product lines are new products that are present at a tourist spot. The consummation of the products are products that are designed to replace old products that already exist. Re-positioning is to place a position unique product in the minds of tourists so that tourists are expected to have an impression against a particu...

  14. PENGARUH KEPUASAN DAN KEPERCAYAAN TERHADAP LOYALITAS PELANGGAN LEMBAGA PENGEMBANGAN DAN SERTIFIKASI BATU MULIA (LPSB DI MARTAPURA KABUPATEN BANJAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eni Hairany

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This  study  has  the  objective  of  identifying  and  analyzing  the  influence  of satisfaction and trust on customer loyalty LPSB Martapura Banjar District. Research  location  conducted  in  LPSB  Martapura  Banjar  Regency.  The population of this research is all the customers who use the services LPSB in requesting certificates, as well as scrap in 2012, according to the data contained in the report LPSB in 2012 as many as 124 people . Based on the results of hypothesis testing, with multiple linear regressions, get that  the  satisfaction  and  confidence  significantly  positive  effect  on  customer loyalty LPSB Martapura Banjar District. Partially, satisfaction and confidence significantly  positive  effect  on  customer  loyalty.  Between  two  variables, satisfaction variable is a variable that is the dominant influence on customer loyalty LPSB Martapura Banjar district.  Keywords: Satisfaction, Trust, Loyalty

  15. Faktor-faktor Penyebab Kenakalan Remaja (Studi Kasus Pengguna Narkoba Di Desa Perumnas Simalingkar Kecamatan Pancur Batu)

    OpenAIRE

    Hutabarat, Rio LF

    2014-01-01

    Juvenile comes from the latin word is adolensence which means to grow or grow into adulthood. The term adolensence has the meaning which more broadly includes the maturity of mental, emotional, social and physical abuse between the ages of 11 or 12 years up to 20 years. Juvenile delinquency is an act that violates the norms, rules or laws in a society that is done at the age of adolescence or transition period for both children and adults. Acts of uncontrolled juvenile delinquency will lead a...

  16. Studi Keanekaragaman Arthropoda Pada Lahan Pertanian Tumpangsari Untuk Inventarisasi Predator Pengendalian Hayati Di Kecamatan Bumiaji Kota Batu

    OpenAIRE

    Amin, Amania; Ibrohim, Ibrohim; Tuarita, Hawa

    2016-01-01

    Pertanian tumpangsari merupakan pola penanaman dua atau lebih tanaman yaitu tanaman semusim dan tanaman tahunan yang bertujuan dapat menekan populasi hama. Salah satu cara menekan populasi hama adalah dengan menggunakan musuh alami yang sebagian besar berasal dari Arthropoda. Terkait dengan hal tersebut dilakukan penelitian dengan tujuan untuk mengetahui: (1) indeks keanekaragaman, kemerataan, dan kekayaan Arthropoda pada lahan pertanian tumpangsari di Keca...

  17. ANALYSIS SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT OF TOMATO BEEF AGRIBUSSINESS (Case Studies in Tani Maju Group Dusun Junggo Kecamatan Bumiaji, Batu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Ratna Triyasari

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Main strength of agribusiness is the fulfillment of demand for agricultural products. However, this demand is often located in cities and industrial centers, whereas the production site of agribusiness is always far away from cities and industrial centers where the demand derives from. Indonesian farmers are lacking of competing ability, and therefore, it is hard to give better quality of supply and more punctuality of procurement. Punctuality is highly required by consumer and therefore, this research attempts to discuss punctuality. The objective of research is to analyze the performance of tomato beef supply chain management and the long-term relationship among the agencies of tomato beef supply chain management. To achieve this objective, research uses analysis methods of SCOR AHP and descriptive statistic. Result of research indicates that the performance of tomato beef supply chain management may be classified already as the good one but it can still be improved by establishing the main priority or the best solution alternative for supply chain management, which respectively is the making of long-term business contract. Therefore, long-term relationship among the agencies of tomato beef supply chain management will be stronger.

  18. AKTIVITAS PENGHAMBATAN PEMBENTUKAN BATU GINJAL (Antinefrolithiasis EKSTRAK ETANOL DAUN GEDI MERAH (Abelmoschus moschtus Medik PADA TIKUS PUTIH JANTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Triana Riandani Djamhuri

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Red Gedi (Abelmoschus moschatus Medik is a plant found only in tropical climate areas such as Africa and Asia. Some people’s experience in Manado stated that red gedi plants can be used to treat various types of disease, one of them was kidney stones. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the activity and the effective dose of red gedi leaf extract as an inhibitor of kidney stone formation. The extract was prepared by maceration using ethanol 96%. Inhibitory activity test of kidney stone formation was done by firstly dividing the labrats into 6 groups. Each group consisted of 3 male rats. Both the first group (Normal control and the second group (Negative control weregiven Na.CMC 0.5%; the third group (Positive control was given Batugin Elixir at a dose of 2.7 ml/kgBW; while the fourth, fifth, and sixth were respectively given red gedileaf extract at doses of 50, 100, and 150 mg/kgBW. After 2 hours, all treatment groups were induced with0.75% of ethylene glycol and 2% of ammonium chloride except for the normal control. Ratio of kidney weight and the level of calcium were then measured and calculated. Data obtained were statistically analyzed using ANOVA (Analysis Of variance and continued with LSD (Least Significantly Difference. It can be concluded that ethanol extract of red gedileaves had inhibitory activity of kidney stones formation in all dose variation and the most effective one was at a dose of 150 mg/kgBW

  19. Pengaruh Lama Perendaman Daun Teh Hijau Terhadap Konsentrasi Tanin Pada Pembuatan Frestea Green Tea Di PT. COCA-COLA Bottling Indonesia Unit Medan

    OpenAIRE

    Dewi, Cynthia Kumala

    2010-01-01

    Has conducted experiments on the effect of soaking time on the concentration of green tea tannin on the PT. Coca-Cola Bottling MEDAN INDONESIA UNIT. Determination of tannin concentration by using UV-visible spectrophotometer at λ max 550 nm where by the optimum immersion time is 20 minutes. 072401016

  20. Kebutuhan Luasan Areal Hutan Kota sebagai Rosot (Sink Gas CO2 untuk Mengantisipasi Penurunan Luasan Ruang Terbuka Hijau di Kota Bogor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dachlan N. Endes

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the need of the urban forest area as sink (sequestration of CO2 gas from fuel oil and gas in Bogor City. Analysis of dynamic system is used to determine the need. Powersim software with the license number PSSL-N999998-5NC2Y was used in this research. Satellite imagery in 2003, 2005 and 2007 were used to analyze the extent of green space and built space as well as percentage changes. This study revealed that the urban forest area required as well as the number of seedlings are varies according to time and the sink rate. Therefore, the selection of tree species based on the sink rate should really be considered. By using the very high-sink rate trees, the area needed for this purpose will be smaller and can also make lower the ambient concentration. On the other hand, when the use of high-sink trees, the ambient concentration of this gas will increase again and the urban forest area that needed will be larger.

  1. Effect of Irradiation of 60CO Gamma Rays on Growth of Garlic (Allium Sativum L) Plants Cv. Lumbu Hijau at Low Land Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismiyati Sutarto; Kumala Dewi; Arwin; Nurrohma

    2004-01-01

    Garlic originally come from the sub tropical area. In Indonesia, garlic is grown generally in high land area with an altitude between 1000 - 1600 m above sea level. Therefore, the area for growing and producing garlic is limited. Besides, genetic variation of garlic is very narrow since garlic belongs to vegetatively propagated crops. An effort for increasing genetic variation of garlic was done by exposing garlic cloves to gamma rays in order to obtain garlic mutant lines adapted to low land area. Garlic cloves were exposed to different doses of gamma rays 0 (untreated) 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 Gy at the Centre for Research and Development of Isotope and Radiation Technology. Each dose consisted of 150 garlic cloves. Untreated and irradiated garlic cloves were grown at Bandar Buat Experimental Station (50 m above sea level), Padang, West Sumatera. The experiment was arranged in a randomized block design with three replication. The parameter observed were percentage of grown plants and survival harvested plants, plant height, leaf number, chlorophyll content, number of stomata, plant age, number of cloves per bulbs, fresh, dry weight and diameter of bulbs. The result indicated that the dose of gamma rays 6 Gy is an advantage dose for obtaining well adapted garlic mutant lines in the low land area. (author)

  2. AKTIVITAS ANTIBAKTERI FRAKSI-FRAKSI EKSTRAK SIRIH HIJAU (Piper betle Linn TERHADAP PATOGEN PANGAN [Antibacterial Activity of Fractionated Green Sirih (Piper betle Linn Extract Against Food Pathogenic Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maggy T. Suhartono

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Fractionation of green sirih (Piper betle Linn extract by chromatography colom using the mixture of several solvents i.e. chloroform, ethanol and acetic acid (4:1:1 resulted in 17 fractions. All fractions showed antibacterial activities but only 2 fractions (fraction 3 and fraction 4 showed the highest inhibition towards the six tested bacteria Escherichia coli, Salmonella Typhimurium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus and Listeria monocytogenes. Among the tested bacteria, all fractions of green sirih extracts showed the most effective inhibition against, Salmonella Typhimurium with inhibition zone diameters ranging from 10 mm to 26 mm. Identification using GC-MS found that fraction 3 and fraction 4 contained chavicol; dodecanoic acid, myristic, palmitic and oleic acid.

  3. Kajian Hubungan Populasi Tanaman dengan Neraca Unsur Hara Nitrogen dan Fosfor pada Sistem Vertikultur Sawi Hijau (Brassica juncea L dan Kangkung (Ipomea reptana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I MADE PURNA WIDANA

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of Relationship Between Crop Density and The Balancing of Both Soil Nitrogenand Phosporus in Verticulture System of Mustard Green (Brassica juncea L and Kale(Ipomea reptana. The relationship between crops density and the balancing of both soilnitrogen and phosphorus in verticulture system remained to be important issue. A glasshouseexperiment had carried out from October 2014 to March 2015 in order to determine (1 theoptimum population density of both mustard greens (Brassica juncea L and kale (Ipomeareptana, (2 soil total-N or available-P balance, and (3 the relatiohships between plantspopulations and soil nutrients balance. A split plot experiment under complete block designwas applied to examine the effect of the main plot (crops type i.e. mustard green and kale andsub plot (crops population i.e 10, 15, 20,25, and 30 crops per planting container 0,12 m2 insize. The results showed that no optimal crops population density had achieved. Themaximum crops population was 30 for both mustard greens and kale. The soil total-N balancewas negative while these was positive for soil available-P balance of P and N negative. Alogarithmic relationships was calculated between soil total-N balance with mustard green,while linier patterns were significant for soil-N balance with kale and available-P balancewith both mustard greens and kale.

  4. Pengaruh pemberian kecambah kacang hijau (Phaseolus radiatus (L. terhadap kadar malondealdehid (MDA plasma dan jaringan hati tikus Sprague Dawley yang diberi pakan lemak tinggi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novidiyanto Novidiyanto

    2016-10-01

    Conclusion: Level of MDA plasma and liver tissue of rat in group P1 and P2 was lower than a level of MDA plasma and liver tissue of rat in group K1, but higher than the level of MDA plasma and liver tissue of rat in group P3. There was a very strong correlation between the level of MDA plasma and liver tissue of rat was given the mung bean sprouts and high-fat diet.

  5. Kajian Jumlah Biji per Lubang Tanam dan Paket Pupuk terhadap Pertumbuhan dan Hasil Kacang Hijau (Vigna radiata L. Varietas Vima-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I PUTU PANCA DIANTARA PUTRA

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Study of the Number of the Amount of Beed a Hole Planting and Packages Fertilizer onGrowth and Yield of Mung Bean (Vigna radiata L. Varieties Vima-1. Mung bean (Vignaradiata L. is one of bean plant – nuts for many consumption in Indonesia. The low productwas’nt cultivation techniques that supposed to, including the amount of seed each holeplanting and fertilizer giving them. The study aims to determine the amount seed hole theplanting and fertilizer best to the growth and yield of mung bean varieties vima-1. Researchcarried out in Subak Basangbe, Perean Kangin village, Baturiti – Tabanan, in October –December, 2014. The study was designed using a factorial randomized block design. The firstfactor the amount of seed a hole planting (1, 2, 3 seed, factor two of fertilizer (organicfertilizer compost, fertilizer chemical urea + TSP + KCl, organic fertilizer liquid biourin,organic fertilizer compost and fertilizer chemical urea + TSP + KCl, organic fertilizercompost and organic fertilizer liquid biourin, fertilizer chemical urea + TSP + KCl andorganic fertilizer liquid biourin. The growth of mung bean varieties Vima-1 is mainly ofplant height and number of leaves affected very real by the number of seeds planting hole andfertilizer package. Treatment of the amount of seed planting hole and fertilizer packages tovery significant effect on yield components, especially the number of pods and number ofseeds of plants on mung bean varieties Vima-1. Treatment of the amount of seed planting holeaffects most of the components of plant growth and yield components of mung bean. Thehighest yield on three planting seeds per hole that is 3,67 t / ha dry weight oven.

  6. PERIODE KRITIS KACANG HIJAU (Phaseolus aureus L. AKIBAT PERSAINGAN DENGAN GULMA DAN MACAM PENGOLAHAN TANAH PADA TANAH MEDITERAN MERAH DI DESA SOCAH KECAMATAN SOCAH BANGKALAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ainur Rafiq Amrullah

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Mung bean is one of leguminose plants planted in the third  order after soy bean and ground nut.  The presence of weeds on certain growth periode (critical periode and at certain population can cause to reduce the yield of this plant.  This research aimed to study the critical periode of mung bean as the affected by the presence of weeds on different soil tillage.  The study was carried out on horticulture station research, Socah District, Bangkalan Regency with red mediteran (Alfisol soil type. The research was arranged in a randomized block design with two factors. The first factor was the clear away weed consisted of  8 levels and the second factor was soil tillage method consisted two levels.  Result showed that there were significant interaction between the way in clearing away weeds and soil tillage treatment on the plant height, leaf area, leaf number, fresh and dry weight of plant, pod number, and dry weight of seed of plant.  Moreover,  the longer weeds present in assosiation with mung bean plant was the higher the effect of the weeds to reduce the yield. The higher yield was resulted from plant growing on the tilled soil. The critical periode of mung bean plant growing in the competition with weeds on untilled and tilled soil respectivelly was between 2 and 4 weeks after planting and between 6 and 8 weeks after planting.

  7. halogen Contents of igneous minerals as indicators of magmatic evolution of rocks associated with the Ray porphyry copper deposit, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Norman G.

    1976-01-01

    The contents of Cl, F, and H2O+ (calculated) in some hydrous igneous minerals in intrusive rocks of Laramide age (70-60 m.y.) near Ray, Ariz., appear to be related to the age and the chemistry of the whole-rock samples. Apatite and biotite in younger, more silicic rocks contain more F but less Cl and H2O+ than apatite and biotite in older, more mafic rock; the same relations hold for F and H2O+ in sphene. Correlations of the abundance of Cl, F, and H2O+ in hornblende with rock chemistry and age are not as strong as for apatite, biotite, and sphene; igneous (?) epidote does not contain Cl and F in amounts detectable by electron microprobe analysis. The contents of Cl, F, and H2O+ in whole-rock samples decrease with increasing differentiation index and decreasing age. Data for a single pluton of variable composition mirror the results for a suite of different plutons and dikes. The data are satisfactorily although not exclusively explained by postulating that the melts each contained progressively less Cl, F, and H2O and that the hydrons minerals consumed most of the Cl, F, and H2O in the magmas. The data may also be explained by postulating that (1) the stocks evolved Cl-bearing water during their ascent and crystallization, or that (2) Cl and H2O were concentrated during differentiation of the stocks but the minerals failed to record their buildup. Both alternative explanations find problems with and require special conditions to satisfy field, chemical, and experimental data. If many of the special conditions are not met, a nearby batholithic parent to the stocks is not a favorable source of the mineralized fluids at Ray. Propylitic alteration of biotite results in Cl-poor chlorites and may have provided some Cl to hydrothermal fluids; biotite may have also supplied some F to propylitizing fluids through alteration.

  8. Paleozoic magmatism and porphyry Cu-mineralization in an evolving tectonic setting in the North Qilian Orogenic Belt, NW China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Kun-Feng; Deng, Jun; Taylor, Ryan D.; Song, Kai-Rui; Song, Yao-Hui; Li, Quan-Zhong; Goldfarb, Richard J.

    2016-01-01

    The NWW-striking North Qilian Orogenic Belt records the Paleozoic accretion–collision processes in NW China, and hosts Paleozoic Cu–Pb–Zn mineralization that was temporally and spatially related to the closure of the Paleo Qilian-Qinling Ocean. The Wangdian Cu deposit is located in the eastern part of the North Qilian Orogenic Belt, NW China. Copper mineralization is spatially associated with an altered early Paleozoic porphyritic granodiorite, which intruded tonalites and volcaniclastic rocks. Alteration zones surrounding the mineralization progress outward from a potassic to a feldspar-destructive phyllic assemblage. Mineralization consists mainly of quartz-sulfide stockworks and disseminated sulfides, with ore minerals chalcopyrite, pyrite, molybdenite, and minor galena and sphalerite. Gangue minerals include quartz, orthoclase, biotite, sericite, and K-feldspar. Zircon LA-ICPMS U–Pb dating of the ore-bearing porphyritic granodiorite yielded a mean 206Pb/238U age of 444.6 ± 7.8 Ma, with a group of inherited zircons yielding a mean U–Pb age of 485 ± 12 Ma, consistent with the emplacement age (485.3 ± 6.2 Ma) of the barren precursor tonalite. Rhenium and osmium analyses of molybdenite grains returned model ages of 442.9 ± 6.8 Ma and 443.3 ± 6.2 Ma, indicating mineralization was coeval with the emplacement of the host porphyritic granodiorite. Rhenium concentrations in molybdenite (208.9–213.2 ppm) suggest a mantle Re source. The tonalities are medium-K calc-alkaline. They are characterized by enrichment of light rare-earth elements (LREEs) and large-ion lithophile elements (LILEs), depletion of heavy rare-earth elements (HREEs) and high-field-strength elements (HFSEs), and minor negative Eu anomalies. They have εHf(t) values in the range of +3.6 to +11.1, with two-stage Hf model ages of 0.67–1.13 Ga, suggesting that the ca. 485 Ma barren tonalites were products of arc magmatism incorporating melts from the mantle wedge and the lithosphere. In contrast, the 40-m.y.-younger ore-bearing porphyritic granodiorite is sub-alkaline and peraluminous. They are enriched in LREEs and LILEs, depleted in HFSEs, and show weak negative Eu anomalies. They displayεHf(t) values of captured or inherited zircons in the range of +8.5 to +10.0, and younger two-stage Hf model ages of 0.78 Ga and 0.86 Ga, similar to those of ca. 485 Ma tonalite. The ca. 445 Ma zircons have εHf(t) values of −2.1 to +9.9, with two-stage Hf model ages of 0.75–1.27 Ga. Moreover, they have relatively high oxygen fugacity than that of the precursor barren tonalite. The ca. 445 Ma magmas at Wangdian thus formed in a subduction setting, and incorporated melts from the subduction-modified lithosphere that had previously been enriched by additions of chalcophile and siderophile element-rich materials by the earlier magmatism and metasomatism during the Paleo Qilian-Qinling Ocean subduction event.

  9. Porphyry copper assessment of British Columbia and Yukon Territory, Canada: Chapter C in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihalasky, Mark J.; Bookstrom, Arthur A.; Frost, Thomas P.; Ludington, Steve

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey does regional, national, and global assessments of resources (mineral, energy, water, biologic) to provide science in support of land management and decision making. Mineral resource assessments provide a synthesis of available information about where mineral deposits are known and suspected to be in the Earth’s crust, which commodities may be present, and estimates of amounts of resources that may be present in undiscovered deposits.

  10. Porphyry copper assessment of northeast Asia: Far East Russia and northeasternmost China: Chapter W in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihalasky, Mark J.; Ludington, Stephen; Alexeiev, Dmitriy V.; Frost, Thomas P.; Light, Thomas D.; Briggs, Deborah A.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Wallis, John C.; Bookstrom, Arthur A.; Panteleyev, Andre

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey assesses resources (mineral, energy, water, environmental, and biologic) at regional, national, and global scales to provide science in support of land management and decision making. Mineral resource assessments provide a synthesis of available information about where mineral deposits are known and suspected to be in the Earth’s crust, which commodities may be present, and estimates of amounts of resources in undiscovered deposits.

  11. Microbial communities in a porphyry copper tailings impoundment and their impact on the geochemical dynamics of the mine waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaby, Nouhou; Dold, Bernhard; Pfeifer, Hans-Rudolf; Holliger, Christof; Johnson, D Barrie; Hallberg, Kevin B

    2007-02-01

    The distribution and diversity of acidophilic bacteria of a tailings impoundment at the La Andina copper mine, Chile, was examined. The tailings have low sulfide (1.7% pyrite equivalent) and carbonate (1.4% calcite equivalent) contents and are stratified into three distinct zones: a surface (0-70-80 cm) 'oxidation zone' characterized by low-pH (2.5-4), a 'neutralization zone' (70-80 to 300-400 cm) and an unaltered 'primary zone' below 400 cm. A combined cultivation-dependent and biomolecular approach (terminal restriction enzyme fragment length polymorphism and 16S rRNA clone library analysis) was used to characterize the indigenous prokaryotic communities in the mine tailings. Total cell counts showed that the microbial biomass was greatest in the top 125 cm of the tailings. The largest numbers of bacteria (10(9) g(-1) dry weight of tailings) were found at the oxidation front (the junction between the oxidation and neutralization zones), where sulfide minerals and oxygen were both present. The dominant iron-/sulfur-oxidizing bacteria identified at the oxidation front included bacteria of the genus Leptospirillum (detected by molecular methods), and Gram-positive iron-oxidizing acidophiles related to Sulfobacillus (identified both by molecular and cultivation methods). Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans was also detected, albeit in relatively small numbers. Heterotrophic acidophiles related to Acidobacterium capsulatum were found by molecular methods, while another Acidobacterium-like bacterium and an Acidiphilium sp. were isolated from oxidation zone samples. A conceptual model was developed, based on microbiological and geochemical data derived from the tailings, to account for the biogeochemical evolution of the Piuquenes tailings impoundment.

  12. Suhu dan Rasio Kukus Optimum pada Proses Gasifikasi Kukus Berkatalis K2CO3 terhadap Arang Batu bara Lignit Hasil Pirolisis dengan Laju Pemanasan Terkontrol

    OpenAIRE

    Tristantini, Dewi; Suwignjo, Ricky Kristanda

    2016-01-01

    In order to fulfill the raw material needs of Fischer Tropsch process for producing synthethic fuel (synfuel), high yield of synthesis gas (syngas) with H2/CO ratio ≈ 2.0 should be obtained from lignite coal gasification. Steam gasification can enhance H2 composition in syngas. Lower activation energy of gasification reaction can be obtained using K2CO3 catalyst during the process. Pyrolysis step with controlled heating rate will affect pore surface area of char which will influence the compo...

  13. DINAMIKA PENERAPAN KEWENANGAN PEMERINTAH KABUPATEN BERAU DALAM PENGELOLAAN PERTAMBANGAN BERDASARKAN PERDA NOMOR 17 TAHUN 2011 TENTANG PERTAMBANGAN MINERAL DAN BATU BARA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Amin, S.H. M.H

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available One form of state ownership rights, namely in the field of mining. Definition of "Mining" based on Law Number 4 Year 2009, affirmed as part or all phases of activity in the framework of research, management and exploitation of minerals or coal covering general investigation, exploration, feasibility study, construction, mining, processing and refining, transportation And sales and post mining activities. More specifically affirming the authority of regional governments in granting coal mining permits in Berau District before and after the coming into effect of Law No. 4 of 2009 on Mineral and Coal Mining. Obstacles and solutions in the granting of coal mining permits in Berau District after the enactment of Berau District Regulation No. 17 of 2011 on Mining and Coal. The research method used in this research is normative juridical and method of comparative law approach. The normative juridical approach is the approach by prioritizing the discussion on secondary data in the form of legal materials both primary, secondary and tertiary legal materials. The results of the discussion confirm that mineral and coal energy resources as assets to meet the needs of present and future generations as mandated in the Constitution of the State of the Republic of Indonesia 1945 XIV National Economic and Social Welfare Article 33 paragraph (3 and Article 33 Paragraph (4 where mining management does not entitle rights to control over natural resources, but the right to limited utilization is based on permission and is temporary with the understanding that natural resources are owned by all Indonesian people and used for the greatest prosperity of the people.

  14. Analisis Faktor-Faktor Yang Mempengaruhi Produksi Crude Palm Oil (CPO) Pada Perseroan Terbatas Perkebunan Nusantara (PTPN) III Kebun Sei Daun Labuhan Batu

    OpenAIRE

    Chairunnisa, T. Lyza Tahura

    2012-01-01

    This research is aimed to test and to analyze the effect of the factors production indicators such as capital, workforce, machine and raw material to crude palm oil production in PTP Nusantara III Kebun Sei Daun, either is simultaneously and partially. This research is to know to correlation of tandan buah segar to crude palm oil production. The population of research is financial report and production report of PTP Nusantara III Kebun Sei Daun by using time series data during 6 years, nam...

  15. Imobilisasi Tembaga (Cu dan Netralisasi Aktivitas Ion Hidrogen (pH pada Limbah Cair Industri Peleburan Emas Dengan Batu Gamping (Limestone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onny Setiani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this research were to determine the effectiveness of  limestones in neutralizing hydrogen ion activity (pH, immobilizing cooper (Cu and to implement a waste water treatment process from the gold molten industry using a cost-effective method to prevent the environment contamination from hazardous wastes. Before  implementing technology, a preliminary study was done to determine a simple and cost effective  method to neutralize pH, immobilize and sedimentation of Copper (Cu  using limestones (CaCO3. The results of laboratory examination in preliminary study  showed that limestones may decrease the concentration of Cu from 23,070 mg/L to 0.711 mg/L, TDS from 30,302 mgLl to 18,289 mg/L and neutralize pH from 1.0-3.0 to 7.0. This research demonstrate that limestones may provide a cost effective method to immobilize  Cu and neutralize contaminated wastewater of the gold molten industry. Since the technology  is very simple, it is  suggested  to be used by home scale or  small industry to protect the environment from toxic waste pollution.   Keywords: Immobilizing cooper, lime stone, neutralization, waste water.

  16. ANALISIS PEMBOBOTAN KEY PERFORMANCE INDICATOR (KPI DENGAN SCOR MODEL MENGGUNAKAN METODE ANALITICAL HIERARCHY PROCESS (AHP PRODUK KEJU MOZZARELLA DI CV BRAWIJAYA DAIRY INDUSTRY, JUNREJO KOTA BATU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariani Ariani

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis pembobotan Key performance Indicator dengan model SCOR menggunakan metode Analitical Hierarchy Process (AHP produk keju mozzarella di CV Brawijaya Dairy Industry. Hasil penelitian di peroleh 36 Key Performance Indicator yang disesuikan dengan model SCOR yaitu plan, source, deliver, make (process, dan return. Hasil pembobotan dengan menggunakan pembobotan AHP pada hierarki tingkat 1 yang memiliki bobot tertinggi adalah make (process dengan nilai bobot 0,534. Hal ini dikarenakan perusahaan mementingkan kualitas produk yang dipengaruhi oleh proses produksi. Pada hierarki tingkat 2 bobot tertinggi terdapat pada variabel reliability dengan total bobot 0,739. Sedangkan nilai bobot tertinggi pada hierarki tingkat 3 (Key Performance Indicator  adalah pada KPI 24 Kehandalan kinerja karyawan dalam mengolah menjadi produk jadi dengan total bobot 0,180.

  17. Gambaran Tingkat Pengetahuan Ibu dan Pemberian Makanan Pendamping Asi pada Anak Usia 6-24 Bulan di Kelurahan Kuto Batu Kota Palembang

    OpenAIRE

    Nurmaliani, Rizki; Febry, Fatmalina; Mutahar, Rini

    2010-01-01

    Background : Complementary feeding (MP-ASI) has an important role in meeting the needs and complement the nutrients children aged 6-24 months because breast milk could not meet the nutritional needs to achieve optimal growth. Low knowledge about provision of MP-ASI and the provision of MP-ASI that done uncorrectly can cause nutritional problems such as disruption of growth and development and less nutrition. The purpose of this research was to determine the mother's knowledge level and the g...

  18. SISTEM PEMBAGIAN WARISAN PADA MASYARAKAT MULTIKULTURAL: STUDI DI DESA TELUK PANJI II KECAMATAN KAMPUNG RAKYAT KABUPATEN LABUHAN BATU SELATAN SUMATERA UTARA

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    Khoirun Nisa

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Indonesian state is constituted of various races and cultures which reflect plural societies and create culture, art, and different customs as informal education of the society. Multicultural society is a society that acknowledges plurality as the matter of Indonesian nation. This kind of society can be easily found at Teluk Panji II village characterized as one of transmigration areas. Inter-cultural harmony is also depicted through marital system with different cultural background. For example, multicultural society will contribute to create equal position of different cultures. Multicultural society is relatively new term which is introduced by Canadian State around 1970s. This furthermore produces cultural fusion which bounds the relationship of plural society into multicultural one adhering to different kinship system. In sum, the law of inheritance implemented differs with those applied among families concluded through endogamy marriage.

  19. Evaluation of halal assurance system (HAS) implementation on bakery products processing in small and medium enterprises (case study in X Bakery Batu, East Java)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdani, C. G.; Chasanah, N. U.; Sucipto

    2018-03-01

    Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) have an important role to catch opportunities in the global halal market. To achieve halal standards, bakery SMEs need to implement Halal Assurance System (HAS). The objective of this research was to evaluate HAS applied by SMEs in bakery product processing. Evaluation was conducted by audit method in accordance to Indonesian Halal Assurance System (a guideline regarding the Fulfillment of Criteria of Halal Assurance System in Processing Industry – namely HAS 23101). The result of the evaluation shows that 44% of HAS criteria have been met. Halal team is the key of HAS management, therefore the team needs to be institutionally established. Halal policy need to be documented and announced to the public. Regular training will improve understanding and awareness of the importance of HAS responsibilities among stakeholders. With regard to bread ingredients, 85% products hold halal certificate from MUI (Indonesian Ulema Council). Halal Control Point (HCP) of production process can be derived from contamination of haram (not permitted by Islamic Law) and najis (dirty according to Islamic Law) in term of material, equipment, and packaging process. It requires top management commitment and cooperation of a good halal team to implement a sustainable halal system.

  20. Kebijakan Perlindungan Cagar Budaya dalam Melindungi Batu Granit Raksasa (Studi Kasus di Kecamatan Bunguran Timur Kabupaten Natuna Tahun 2011-2012)

    OpenAIRE

    Asrida, Wan; Juliasari, Fitri

    2015-01-01

    One giant granite natural resources capable of providing income and the potential for preservation as an iconic tourist destination. Of some rocks that have a large size, may have significance for the history of an area. Therefore there needs to be a safeguard. Safeguards related to what should be done by the Natuna regency administration, such as the Department of Tourism, Environment and Culture Department of Education, because the protection is closely related to the development of the sec...

  1. Pelaksanaan Dispensasi Nikah di Bawah Umur di Desa Kulim Jaya Kecamatan Lubuk Batu Jaya Kabupaten Indragiri Hulu Menurut Undang-undang Nomor 1 Tahun 1974 Tentang Perkawinan

    OpenAIRE

    Safari, Zui Zui Anita; Hanifah, Mardalena; Hasanah, Ulfia

    2015-01-01

    Underage marriage is a marriage that is performed by someone who has not met the minimum age limit for marriage . Underage marriage actually be done with specific reasons and must be accompanied by a decree of the Court of Religion according to the contents of Article 7 paragraph ( 2 ) of Law No. 1 of 1974 About Marriage ( hereinafter called the Marriage Act ) . In fact, in the village of Kulim Jaya there are still underage marriage that is not accompanied by a decree granting a dispensation ...

  2. PERENCANAAN DAN PENGEMBANGAN DESA WISATA BERBASIS MASYARAKAT DENGAN MODEL PARTISIPATORY RURAL APPRAISAL (STUDI PERENCANAAN DESA WISATA GUNUNGSARI, KECAMATAN BUMIAJI, KOTA BATU

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    Mohamad Nur Singgih

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Soetomo (2007, tourism development efforts which is local society oriented is still low and there are a lot of development failure because the policy holder still think partially. They only think about institution and sectorasl ego; society considered do not have the financial ability and quality skill to manage or participated directly in tourism nature and culture based activities.The aim of this research is 1 arrange the tourism rural activity area based on society sustainability tourism development. 2 Mapping the potentials, necessity and issues to plan the rural tourism development. 3 Empowering the societyto be responsible and play an active role toward planning and managing the rural tourism. This research is using qualitative descriptive with its variable rural tourism developmant plan. The data were collected by using observation, interview, documentation, and directional group discussion. The data analysis method is using appraisal rural partisipatory method consist of village history, seasonal calendar, daily lifes, village map, transect, livelihood analysis, and matrix ranking.

  3. Gambaran Masalah Kesehatan Reproduksi Dalam Kehamilan dan Persalinan Ibu yang Menikah Usia Dini di Desa Sidodadi Perkebunan Teluk Panji Kecamatan Kampung Rakyat Kabupaten Labuhan Batu Selatan Tahun 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Khairunisa, Nanda

    2016-01-01

    Early marriage is a marriage performed by the teen-age women aged 10-19 years. Early marriage is an informal union entered into by an individual before reaching the minimal ago limitation of marriage. The normal ade limitation of marriage based on the healthy age marriage is 25 years old for the male and 20 years old for the female Early marriage can cause reproductive health problems during pregnancy, childbirth and the baby was born. Reproductive health problems during pregnancy and chil...

  4. AKTIVITAS KOMBINASI EKSTRAK ETANOL DAUN SIRSAK (Annona muricata L. DAN DAUN PEGAGAN (Centella asiatica L.Urb TERHADAP KELARUTAN KALSIUM BATU GINJAL SECARA IN VITRO

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    Ni Wayan Swintari

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Soursop (Annona muricata L. and gotu kola (Centella asiatica L.Urb is a plant that can be used as a laxative medicine kidney stones. This is because of the content of bioactive compounds including flavonoids, especially the leaf section. The use of a combination of soursop leaf extract and gotu kola can improve their effectiveness in order to remove calcium kidney stones. Therefore, this study aims to determine the activity and to determine dose combination soursop leaf ethanol extract (SS and gotu kola leaf (GK which is effective for dissolving potassium kidney stones. Extracts prepared by maceration method using ethanol 96% then subsequently tested phytochemical screening and thin layer chromatography profiles on each extract. Results chromatogram showed the extract containing flavonoids. Testing the activity of the combination of soursop and gotu kola extract performed using seven treatments, combination 1 (SS 1% + GK 7.5% , a combination of 2 (SS  0.5% + GK 3.75%, the combination of 3 (SS 0, 25% + GK 1.875%, single soursop leaf extract (1%, single gotu kola extract (7.5%, negative control (aquadest and positive control (Batugin elixir. Kidney stones are then put as much as 100 mg in each treatment and incubated for 6 hours (37 ℃. Results filtrate then didestruksi and dissolved calcium levels measured using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The results showed the combination soursop leaf ethanol extract and gotu kola leaf extract with a combination of 2 (SS 0.5% + GK 3.75% is an effective combination of the ability to dissolve calcium kidney stones in vitro.

  5. Gambaran Angka Kejadian Gangguan Anxietas pada Warga Batu Busuk Kelurahan Padang Besi Kecamatan Lubuk Kilangan Kota Padang Akibat Banjir Bandang 24 Juli 2012

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    Rigo Junaidi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakAnxietas atau kecemasan disebabkan oleh faktor psikis dan fisik pada seseorang. Anxietas disebabkan faktor psikis yang timbul karena respons secara emosional atau psikis terhadap ancaman dari luar yang dianggap membahayakan dirinya, sedangkan faktor fisik bisa menjadi penyebab terjadinya kecemasan oleh karena penyakit tubuh dan obat-obatan yang digunakan. Survei komunitas menunjukkan sekitar 2-5% orang dewasa menderita gangguan anxietas menyeluruh, dengan prevelensi seumur hidup lebih dari 25%. Gangguan anxietas menyeluruh biasanya dimulai pada awal masa dewasa usia 15 dan 25 tahun, tetapi angka terus meningkat setelah usia 35 tahun. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengidentifikasi prevalensi. Hasil penelitian ini diharapkan dapat bermanfaat untuk menggambarkan jumlah kasus gangguan anxietas pada warga Kelurahan Padang Besi Kecamatan Lubuk Kilangan akibat banjir bandang 24 Juli 2012 di RT 2 RW 1 dan RT 6 RW 1 dengan menggunakan studi cross sectional. Penelitian ini menggunakan data primer melalui kusioner HAR-s yang dibagikan kepada warga sejak dari Maret sampai April 2013. Ditemukan sebagian warga mengalami anxietas, terutama di RT 2 RW 1 dengan golongan usia 21-40, berjenis kelamin wanita, pekerjaan ibu rumah tangga, sudah menikah dan kelompok dengan pendidikan tingkat SD.Kata kunci: anxietas, gambaran, banjir AbstractAnxiety caused by psychological and physical factors of the person. Anxiety due to psychological factors arising from emotional or psychological response to external threats are considered dangerous to themselves and physical factors could be the cause of anxiety such as illness and the drug using. The community survey shows about 2-5% of adults suffer from anxiety disorders, with a lifetime prevalence more than 25%. The anxiety disorder usually begins in early adulthood, 15 and 25 years old, but the incidence increase after the age of 35 years old.The objective of this study was to identify the prevalence. The results of this study are expected to be useful to describe the number of anxiety disorders incidence in Kelurahan Padang Besi Kecamatan Lubuk Kilangan by flash floods on July 24th, 2012 in RT 2 RW 1 and RT 6 RW 1 by using the cross sectional study. This study used primary data by using HAR-s questionnaire were distributed to residents in March-April 2013. It was found that some people experience anxiety, particularly in the RT 2 RW 1 with the 21-40 age group, female, housewife, married and elementary school of educational level.Keywords: anxiety, overview, flood

  6. Pengaruh Perubahan Merek National Menjadi Panasonic terhadap Keputusan Pembelian Konsumen di Wilayah Pemasaran Kelurahan Sumur Batu Teluk Betung Utara Bandar Lampung

    OpenAIRE

    Ratnawati, Eva; -, Herlina

    2009-01-01

    Rebranding of National to Panasonic is included name, logo, design and slogan changing. Rebranding make the product image changes and the consumer have to recognize the new brand from the brand before. The consumer perception of rebranding will affect the psychological response which performed by buying decision. Problem of the research shown the sales was decreased in market region of Bandar Lampung as long as five years.The research was purposed to know the dominant variable which influence...

  7. The gamma dose assessment and pH correlation for various soil types at Batu Pahat and Kluang districts, Johor, Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johar, Saffuwan Mohamed, E-mail: saffuwan@uthm.edu.my [Department of Science, Faculty of Science, Technology and Human Development, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (Malaysia); Embong, Zaidi [Department of Science, Faculty of Science, Technology and Human Development, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (Malaysia); Research Center for Soft Soil (RECESS), Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (Malaysia); Tajudin, Saiful Azhar Ahmad [Research Center for Soft Soil (RECESS), Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (Malaysia)

    2016-01-22

    An assessment of absorbed dose and radiation hazard index as well as its relationship with soil pH was performed in this study. The area was chosen due to its variety of soil types from the Alluvial and the Sedentary group. The radioactivity concentration levels and the soil acidity were measured using the Canberra GC3518 high pure germanium with a relative efficiency of 35% at 1.3 MeV and the Takemura Soil pH and Moisture Tester (DM15), respectively. Overall results show the Holyrood-Lunas soil of Alluvial group recorded the highest external terrestrial gamma radiation dose rate (TGRD) of 286.4±37.9 nGy h{sup −1} and radioactivity concentrations of 78.1±8.9 Bq kg{sup −1} ({sup 226}Ra), 410.5±55.4 Bq kg{sup −1} ({sup 232}Th) and 56.4±8.8 Bq kg{sup −1} ({sup 40}K), respectively, while the Peat soil of Alluvial group recorded the lowest TGRD of 4.4±2.7 nGy h{sup −1} and radioactivity concentrations of 4.8±1.7 Bq kg{sup −1} ({sup 226}Ra), 3.1±1.1 Bq kg{sup −1} ({sup 232}Th) and 6.1±2.0 Bq kg{sup −1} ({sup 40}K), respectively. The estimated mean outdoor annual effective dose, the mean radium equivalent activity (R{sub eq}) and the mean external (H{sub ext}) and internal hazard index (H{sub int}) associated with the alluvial and sedentary soil group were evaluated at 0.15 and 0.20 mSv, 280 and 364 Bq kg{sup −1}, H{sub ext} = 0.78 and 1.01, and H{sub int} = 0.93 and 1.26, respectively. Correlation analysis between 238U, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K with soil pH level for alluvial group was r = +0.68, +0.48 and 0, respectively, while for sedentary soil, the Pearson’s, r = −0.30, −0.90 and +0.14, respectively.

  8. The gamma dose assessment and pH correlation for various soil types at Batu Pahat and Kluang districts, Johor, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johar, Saffuwan Mohamed; Embong, Zaidi; Tajudin, Saiful Azhar Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    An assessment of absorbed dose and radiation hazard index as well as its relationship with soil pH was performed in this study. The area was chosen due to its variety of soil types from the Alluvial and the Sedentary group. The radioactivity concentration levels and the soil acidity were measured using the Canberra GC3518 high pure germanium with a relative efficiency of 35% at 1.3 MeV and the Takemura Soil pH and Moisture Tester (DM15), respectively. Overall results show the Holyrood-Lunas soil of Alluvial group recorded the highest external terrestrial gamma radiation dose rate (TGRD) of 286.4±37.9 nGy h-1 and radioactivity concentrations of 78.1±8.9 Bq kg-1 (226Ra), 410.5±55.4 Bq kg-1 (232Th) and 56.4±8.8 Bq kg-1 (40K), respectively, while the Peat soil of Alluvial group recorded the lowest TGRD of 4.4±2.7 nGy h-1 and radioactivity concentrations of 4.8±1.7 Bq kg-1 (226Ra), 3.1±1.1 Bq kg-1 (232Th) and 6.1±2.0 Bq kg-1 (40K), respectively. The estimated mean outdoor annual effective dose, the mean radium equivalent activity (Req) and the mean external (Hext) and internal hazard index (Hint) associated with the alluvial and sedentary soil group were evaluated at 0.15 and 0.20 mSv, 280 and 364 Bq kg-1, Hext = 0.78 and 1.01, and Hint = 0.93 and 1.26, respectively. Correlation analysis between 238U, 232Th and 40K with soil pH level for alluvial group was r = +0.68, +0.48 and 0, respectively, while for sedentary soil, the Pearson's, r = -0.30, -0.90 and +0.14, respectively.

  9. Strategi pembangunan pariwisata internasional berbasis pertanian organik “shining batu”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf Adam Hilman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural potential and also local knowledge possessed by Batu, a great asset that can be implied to improve the welfare of the community, through the program "Shining Batu". This study aims to look at how the tourism development strategy undertaken by the City of Batu. This study used qualitative methods, with some data collection techniques, such as: interviews, documentation, Batu via Program "Shining Batu" want to change Batu become central areas of organic farming, based tourism International, therefore, the development program of the region, the perceived has a lot of benefits to the people of Batu. At the core strategies that do include several steps, namely: mapping the existing potential, then design and validate the rule of law as the foundation for the implementation of the program, which is the umbrella law, after which it then processes Sounding program through the activities - the activities and the media.

  10. PARAMETER KINETIKA INAKTIVASI TERMAL DAN ISOLASI Staphylococcus aureus PADA MINUMAN DARI GEL CINCAU HIJAU DAN ROSELA [Thermal Inactivation Kinetics Parameter and Isolation of Staphylococcus aureus on Drink from Green Grass Jelly and Roselle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eko Hari Purnomo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Information about heat resistance (D and z values of target bacteria is needed for the thermal process design on drink from Green Grass Jelly (Premna oblongifolia Merr. and Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L., so it can guarantee quality and safety of the product. The objectives of this research were to isolate Staphylococcus aureus from commercial green grass jelly and to determine the D and z values of Staphylococcus aureus (from commercial product and standard clinical isolate ATCC 25923 on heating menstruum of green grass jelly and roselle. Isolation of S. aureus was done by inoculation in selective medium, D and z values of Staphylococcus aureus were assessed by heating at constant temperatures of 57, 53, 49, and 45°C during the time interval 2.5, 5, 10, and 15 minutes. The results showed that one isolate (Isolate A gave positive response of Staphylococcus aureus in isolation tests and had similar percentage with the reference culture of 41.8% using the API Staph Kit. Heat resistance of Staphylococcus aureus (represented as D value isolated from green grass jelly at constant heating temperature of D45, D49, D53 and D57 were 32.3, 17.9, 4.6, and 1.5 minutes. On the other hand, D value of isolates ATCC 25923 (standard clinical isolate at constant heating temperature of D45, D49, D53 and D57 were 18.5, 6.8, 2.9, and 1.4 minutes. The z value of isolates A and ATCC 25923 were 8.8°C and 10.8°C. Smaller z value of isolate A showed that pasteurization process can be accelerated and optimized with increasing the temperature slightly but has the same lethality effect.

  11. Perencanaan dan Analisis Biaya Investasi antara Perkerasan Kaku dengan Perkerasan Lentur pada Jalur Trans Jakarta Busway: Studi Kasus pada Trans Jakarta Busway Koridor 8 antara Halte Pondok Indah 2 hingga Halte Permata Hijau

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    Eduardi Prahara

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Types of rigid pavement for road has been widely used in Indonesia, ranging from toll roads to the outer town road. Rigid pavement is considered more powerful than the flexible pavement. In other words, rigid pavement is expected to have a longer service life and minimal maintenance. The construction cost for rigid pavement is more expensive compared to flexible pavement. While the need for rigid pavement maintenance is cheaper than for flexible pavement. Seen from investment point of view, rigid pavement is more profitable than flexible pavement, because the annual fee required for rigid pavement is less. Due to the comparations, an analysis is performed in this study to select which type of pavement is best used in the future.

  12. PENGARUH PENAMBAHAN LAKASE DARI JAMUR TIRAM PUTIH (Pleurotus ostreatus TERHADAP AKTIVITAS ANTIOKSIDAN TEH HIJAU [Effect of The Addition of Laccase from White Oyster Mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus Towards Antioxidant Activity of Green Tea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tagor M. Siregar1*

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Laccase is one of the enzymes that can be used in organic synthesis using aromatic compounds (polyphenols and aminofenol as substrates. Polyphenol compound in green tea is flavan-3-ols or catechin which are susceptible to enzymatic reaction with laccase. In this research laccase isolated from white oyster mushroom was added into the green tea extract. Addition of laccase is expected to yield products with a higher antioxidant activity. Prior to it’s use, laccase activity was determined and had a specific activity of 0.54 Unit/mg. The green tea extract was prepared using methanol and water as solvents. The antioxidant activity was evaluated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical-scavenging activity method and the total flavonoid content was assayed by spectrophotometry. Antioxidant compounds are identified by using UV-Vis spectrophotometry and GC-MS. Addition of laccase into green tea extract resulted in precipitates showing a significant increase in flavonoid content and antioxidant activity. Use of methanol as solvent resulted in extract with higher antioxidant activity and total flavonoid than that extracted with water. Qualitative analysis with spectrophotometer UV-Vis and GC-MS showed that the new components in the precipitates were a variety of dimeric products with increased molecular weight and antioxidant activity. Addition of laccase into green tea extract has yielded products with higher antioxidant activity.

  13. KAJlAN EKONOMI PEMANFAATAN KAWASAN STADION KRIDOSONO SEBAGAI RUANG HIJAU KOTA YOGYAKARTA (Economic Study for Utilization of Kridosono Stadium Area as An Urban Green Space of Yogyakarta Municipality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amiluhur Soeroso

    2010-07-01

    Objective of the study is measuring economy feasibility of Kridosono urban park as a public goods that expected directly addresses the issues of natural environmental quality. Data were obtained from interviews toward local resident of Yogyakarta municipality. Hereafter, willingness to pay (WTP toward demand models were estimated by contingent valuation method (CVM and used to derive total consumer surplus. The results indicate that economic value of Kridosono Stadium land is about US$ 27 million (IDR 257 billion per annum, more than its market price i.e. amount US$ 7.8 million or IDR 74 billion. Thus, the study gives stakeholders knowledge of decision making for managing, funding and alocating resources. Utilization part of Kridosono Stadium land as urban park will give bigger benefit than it would be this for commercial interest. Auspicious is hanging on the urban park, because it will help eliminate greenhouse gases i.e. Carbon dioxide, Methane, Nitrous oxide, Hydro-fluorocarbons, Perflurocarbon and Sulfur hexafluoride which is produced by motor vehicle.

  14. Analisis Kesiapan Industri Manufaktur Teknologi Informasi dan Komunikasi (TIK Dalam Negeri Untuk Mendukung Implementasi Green-ICT Pada Sektor Telekomunikasi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diah Yuniarti

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Industri TIK merupakan bagian dari industri masa depan yang terdiri atas industri perangkat, infrastruktur/jaringan dan aplikasi/konten. Akhir-akhir ini, aspek lingkungan menjadi pertimbangan dalam menciptakan kesinambungan industri, termasuk industri TIK atau yang dikenal dengan istilah TIK hijau. Implementasi TIK Hijau pada penyelenggara telekomunikasi masih menemui beberapa kendala yaitu efisiensi rendah dan investasi tinggi pada penggunaan perangkat TIK berbasis energi alternatif. Selain itu, rencana implementasi TIK Hijau di lembaga pemerintah maupun swasta masih dibayangi isu terkait kekuatan industri dalam negeri. Penelitian ini bertujuan mengukur kesiapan industri manufatur TIK dalam negeri untuk mendukung implementasi TIK Hijau pada sektor telekomunikasi. Pendekatan penelitian menggunakan pendekatan kuantitatif berdasarkan indikator attitude, policy, practice, technology dan governance yang dimodifikasi pada Green IT Readiness Model oleh Molla, Alemayehu, et.al. Berdasarkan analisis LSR, secara umum lima responden industri manufaktur dikategorikan memiliki sikap positif. Indikator yang perlu mendapatkan perhatian dari responden yang tergolong memiliki sikap negatif adalah indikator policy dan governance.

  15. Fluid Inclusion Analysis of other Host Minerals besides Quartz: Application to Granite-Related Quartz-Topaz Veins and Garnet Skarns in Porphyry Copper-Gold Ore Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Schlöglova, Katerina

    2018-01-01

    Fluid inclusions are the only available samples of paleo-fluids responsible for crystallization of hydrothermal minerals including ore phases. Analysis of fluid inclusions implicitly assumes that the inclusions have preserved their chemical composition since the time of their entrapment. There is, however, an increasing evidence from experimental work and analytical studies of natural samples showing that inclusions hosted in quartz – a ubiquitous host in many ore-forming systems – can experi...

  16. Late Triassic porphyritic intrusions and associated volcanic rocks from the Shangri-La region, Yidun terrane, Eastern Tibetan Plateau: Adakitic magmatism and porphyry copper mineralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bai-Qiu; Zhou, Mei-Fu; Li, Jian-Wei; Yan, Dan-Ping

    2011-11-01

    Early Mesozoic porphyritic intrusions in the Shangri-La region, southern Yidun terrane, SW China, are spatially associated with andesites and dacites. These intrusions are composed of diorite and quartz diorite, and are closely related to copper mineralization. LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb ages of the intrusions range from 230 to 215 Ma. The associated andesites and dacites are interlayered with slates and sandstones and have ages of around 220 Ma. All of the intrusive and extrusive rocks have similar, highly fractionated REE patterns and high La/Yb (13-49) ratios with no prominent Eu anomalies. They display pronounced negative Nb-Ta and Ti anomalies on primitive mantle-normalized spidergrams. Their SiO2 contents range from 56.6 to 67.1 wt.%, Al2O3 from 14.2 to 17.4 wt.% and MgO from1.9 to 4.2 wt.%. All the rocks have high Sr (258-1980 ppm), and low Y (13-21 ppm) with high Sr/Y ratios (29-102). These features suggest that both the volcanic rocks and porphyritic intrusions were derived from adakitic magmas. They have similar initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.7058 to 0.7077) and εNd (- 1.88 to - 4.93) values, but belong to high silica (HSA) and low silica adakitic rocks (LSA). The HSA represent an early stage of magmatism (230 to 215 Ma) and were derived from oceanic slab melts with limited interaction with the overlying mantle wedge during ascent. At 215 Ma, more extensive interaction produced the LSA. We propose that the early adakitic magmas (HSA) formed by flat subduction leading to melting of oceanic slab, whereas subsequent slab break-off caused the significant interaction between slab melts and the mantle wedge and thus the generation of the later adakitic magmas (LSA).

  17. A deposit scale mineral prospectivity analysis: A comparison of various knowledge-driven approaches for porphyry copper targeting in Seridune, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abedi, Maysam; Mostafavi Kashani, Seyed Bagher; Norouzi, Gholam-Hossain; Yousefi, Mahyar

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, an application of a knowledge-driven mineral prospectivity mapping (MPM) approach so-called ;the evidential belief functions (EBFs) using Dempster-Shafer's rule of combination; is proposed. This technique is used to weight and integrate a large scale exploration dataset in order to localize prospects for definition of further exploration drilling sites. In this study, exploration datasets of Seridune copper deposit in the Kerman province, SE Iran used for the methodology. In this regard, geophysical evidence layers extracted from interpretation of magnetic and electrical surveys, geological evidence layers derived via the geological datasets (i.e. lithology, fault and alteration), and geochemical evidence maps were generated and integrated for MPM. Furthermore, various MPM approaches including outranking, index overlay and fuzzy logic methods were examined for comparison with the introduced method. To evaluate and compare the efficiency of the methods, the productivity of the drilled boreholes (Cu concentration multiplied by its ore thickness along each drilled borehole) was used to validate the generated prospectivity models. The results showed higher efficiency of the Dempster-Shafer's model in comparison with the prospectivity models generated using other MPM approaches.

  18. Analisis Yuridis Mengenai Tanggung Jawab Sosial Perusahaan Terhadap Masyarakat Ditinjau Dari Undang-Undang Nomor 25 Tahun 2007 Tentang Penanaman Modal (Studi Penelitian di PT INALUM di Kabupaten Batu Bara)

    OpenAIRE

    Sihotang, Fakhrul Rozi

    2011-01-01

    The presence of an investment to the area for develop once for capital will be impact to the people and the environment. Most companies are only take the benefit from capital vine without thinking about the social responsibilities to the public. Many exploitation of natural resources and environmental destruction around the operating company (investor). Law Number 25 Year 2007 regarding Investment in Article 15 letter (b) and Article 17 governs the obligations of investors in the implementati...

  19. Development of Learning Devices through Problem Based Learning Model Based on the Context of Aceh Cultural to Improve Mathematical Communication Skills and Social Skills of SMPN 1 Muara Batu Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aufa, Mahrani; Saragih, Sahat; Minarni, Ani

    2016-01-01

    The purposes of this study were:1) Developed problem-based on learning tools in the cultural context of Aceh (PBM-BKBA) who meet the criteria are valid, practical and effective; 2) Described the improvement of communication capabilities mathematics and social skills of students using the PBM-BKBA developed; and 3) Described the process of student…

  20. High resolution, high sensitivity imaging and analysis of minerals and inclusions (fluid and melt) using the new CSIRO-GEMOC nuclear microprobe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, C.G.; McInnes, B.M.; Van Achterbergh, E.; Williams, P.J.; Dong, G.; Zaw, K.

    1999-01-01

    .g. Yankee Lode, Mole Granite, NSW [Heinrich el al., 1993] and Batu Hijau, Indonesia [McInnes et al., 1999]), and the high concentrations of some elements in many ore-related fluid inclusions [e.g. Pb ∼4 wt% at Hellyer, Tasmania (Khin Zaw et al., 1996) and Ba ∼9 wt% at Starra, Cloncurry district, Queensland (Williams et al., 2000)]. Now, using the NMP, the internal contents of individual fluid inclusions can be imaged to show clearly that these elements reside within the fluid inclusions, and to discrimination against solid phases outside the inclusion volume. Melt Inclusion Analysis and Imaging Samples of melts and fluids, responsible for metasomatic change and evolution of the earth's upper mantle are often preserved as inclusions in xenoliths. However, their quench textures can often conceal rare minor phases that concentrate important trace elements (e.g. HFSE and REE). The penetration of MeV protons enables the detection of these contributions to ∼40 μm depth, thus providing a tool to determine reliable melt composition, with detection sensitivities down to 0.2 ppm, and to image spatial variation in component elements at 1-2 μm resolution. Copyright (1999) Geological Society of Australia

  1. Aktivitas Zymomonas mobilis pada produk etanol dari buah semu jambu mete (Anacardium occidentale dengan variasi sumber nitrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AKHMAD MUSTOFA

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Mustofa A, Suranto. 2010. Aktivitas Zymomonas mobilis pada produk etanol daribuah semu jambu mete (Anacardium occidentale dengan variasi sumber nitrogen. Bioteknologi 7: 1-9. Penelitian ini bertujuan mengetahui kemampuan Zymomonas mobilis dalam memproduksi etanol melalui proses fermentasi batch (selama 24, 48 dan 72 jam, menggunakan sumber karbon sari buah jambu mete (varietas merah, hijau dan kuning dan sumber nitrogen berupa urea, ammonium sulfat, ekstrak kecambah kacang hijau dan ekstrak kacang koro (Mucuna pruriens. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa varietas buah jambu mete hijau dengan sumber nitrogen ammonium sulfat dan lama fermentasi 24 jam memberikan hasil etanol yang paling optimal. Pada perlakuan tersebut diperoleh nilai pH 5,87, kadar gula reduksi 7,64 g/100 mL (tingkat konsumsi 48,44%, jumlah bakteri 8,0x107 (µ = 0,154 dan etanol sebesar 33,02 g/L (Ye = 90,19%.

  2. Ecosystem health in mineralized terrane: Data from podiform chromite (Chinese Camp mining district, California), quartz alunite (Castle Peak and Masonic mining districts, Nevada/California), and Mo/Cu porphyry (Battle Mountain mining district, Nevada) deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steve W. Blecker; Lisa L. Stillings; Michael C. Amacher; James A. Ippolito; Nicole M. DeCrappeo

    2010-01-01

    The myriad definitions of soil/ecosystem quality or health are often driven by ecosystem and management concerns, and they typically focus on the ability of the soil to provide functions relating to biological productivity and/or environmental quality (Doran and Parkin, 1994; Karlen and others, 1997). A variety of attempts have been made to create indices that quantify...

  3. Oceanic anoxic events, subduction style and molybdenum mineralization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-dong Sun

    2016-09-01

    Molybdenum deposits of the Eastern Pacific margin can be classified into three types: porphyry-Cu-Mo, high-F porphyry and low-F porphyry-Mo deposits. Large and superlarge porphyry-Cu-Mo deposits are usually associated with ridge subductions, and thus formed through partial melting of subducted oceanic crust and metamorphosed Mo-rich sedimentary material due to subduction erosion. The high-F porphyry-Mo deposits (e.g., Climax-type were likely formed by partial melting of subducted and thus metamorphosed Mo-enriched sediments during slab rollback (usually associated with A-type granite. Low-F porphyry-Mo deposits were formed through direct partial melting of metamorphosed Mo-enriched sediments entrained into the mantle wedge through subduction erosion at slightly shallower depths (usually associated with arc granite. Porphyry-Cu (Au deposits in the southwest Pacific margin are all associated with subduction of backarc basins younger than the last OAE (55.8 Ma. Therefore, porphyry Cu (Au deposits in the southwest Pacific margin have no economic levels of Mo. The oxygen fugacity of northwest Pacific is lower than ΔFMQ +2, which inhibits the formation of porphyry deposits.

  4. Journal of Earth System Science | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    These dates, integrated with previous geochronological data and field investigations, indicate that the second-stage quartz monzonitic porphyry has a close spatial and temporal relationship with the large Pulang porphyry copper deposit. These age data, geochemical and Sr–Nd isotopic results suggest that the Pulang ...

  5. Carboniferous-Permian tectonic transition envisaged in two magmatic episodes at the Kuruer Cu-Au deposit, Western Tianshan (NW China)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jie; Li, Nuo; Qi, Nan; Guo, Jian-Ping; Chen, Yan-Jing

    2018-03-01

    The Western Tianshan in NW China is one of the most important gold provinces in the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB). The recently discovered Kuruer Cu-Au deposit has been interpreted to represent a transition from high-sulfidation epithermal to porphyry mineralization system. In this study, we present new LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb ages for the many magmatic rock types at Kuruer, including the Dahalajunshan Formation andesitic tuff (333.2 ± 1.6 Ma), diorite porphyry (269.7 ± 2.0 Ma), slightly-altered (264.4 ± 2.6 Ma) and intensively-altered (270.5 ± 2.5 Ma) albite porphyry. These ages reveal two distinct magmatic episodes: The Early Carboniferous Dahalajunshan Formation (wall rocks) andesitic tuff samples contain narrow ranges of SiO2 (60.29-61.28 wt.%), TiO2 (0.96-0.98 wt.%), Al2O3 (16.55-16.57 wt.%) and Fe2O3T (5.36-5.57 wt.%). The tuff is characterized by LREE enrichment and HFSE depletion, as well as LREE/HREE enrichment ((La/Yb)N = 8.31-8.76) and negative Eu anomalies (δEu = 0.64-0.76). Zircon εHf (t) values are 5.4-8.2, and two-stage Hf model ages (TDM2) are 821-1016 Ma, indicating partial melting of a moderately depleted mantle wedge with Precambrian continental crustal input. The ore-forming Middle Permian diorite porphyry and (quartz) albite porphyry have variable major oxide compositions (e.g., SiO2 = 53.09-53.12 wt.% for the diorite porphyry, 70.84-78.03 wt.% for the albite porphyry, and 74.07-75.03 wt.% for the quartz albite porphyry) but similar chondrite-normalized REE and primitive mantle-normalized multi-element patterns. These porphyries display LREE enrichment and HFSE depletion, as well as elevated LREE/HREE enrichment and negative Eu anomalies. The positive zircon εHf(t) values (11.7-15.9 for the diorite porphyry, 8.9-14.9 for the albite porphyry) and young two-stage Hf model ages (TDM2) (282-542 Ma for the diorite porphyry, 337-717 Ma for the albite porphyry) indicate a major juvenile continental crustal involvement. We propose that the

  6. Sebaran Potensi Budaya Prasejarah di Enrekang, Sulawesi Selatan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernadeta Kuswarini Wardaninggar

    2016-12-01

    Kabupaten Enrekang merupakan salah satu daerah yang terletak di bagian utara Sulawesi Selatan yang memiliki wilayah perbukitan dan pegunungan. Potensi temuan-temuan prasejarah di Enrekang diperoleh dari serangkaian kegiatan survei permukaan dengan teknik pencuplikan sampel yang menunjukkan ciri-ciri teknologi prasejarah. Temuan-temuan survei adalah lukisan cap tangan di dinding tebing karst, gua-gua dengan temuan artefak batu, tulang, tembikar dan wadah kubur dari kayu yang disebut mandu atau duni. Selain itu juga ditemukan situs megalitik di atas puncak gunung yang memiliki peninggalan seperti lumpang batu, fragmen tembikar dan susunan batu yang merupakan pembatas daerah permukiman. Secara makro, Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui sebaran situs-situs prasejarah dalam rangka memahami karakter budaya Enrekang. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa Enrekang memiliki diversitas budaya prasejarah yang memiliki aksesibiltas dengan sumber daya alam yang sekaligus menunjang permukiman manusia masa praneolitik hingga persentuhan budaya Austronesia sekitar 3,500 tahun yang lalu dengan pemanfaatan sumber-sumber alamnya.

  7. PENENTUAN PANJANG GELOMBANG SINAR MENGGUNAKAN INTERFERENSI CELAH GANDA SEDERHANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moh. Nashir Tsalatsin

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Telah dilakukan penelitian  penentuan panjang gelombang sinar menggunakan interferensi celah ganda sederhana,  Peneliti menggunakan peralatan yang sederhana, di mana peralatan tersebut bisa ditemuakan disekitar, seperti sterefom, bohlam,kertas mika berwarana, kayu dan lem. Proses pengujian dilakukan dengan bohlam sebagai sumber cahaya, bohlam yang dipakai adalah bohlam halogen berwarana putih, mika berwarna dijadikan sebagai filter, kertas sebagai celah. Cara kerjanya yaitu dengan meletakan filter di depan kertas HVS yang sudah diseset sedikit kemudian setelah cahaya polykromatik melewati filter berwarana  maka ada warna yang diserah dan ada warna yang diteruskan, warna yang diteruskan akan menghasilkan pola gelap dan pola terang, peneliti menggunakan dua warna mika yaitu merah dan hijau. Panjang gelombang dari  tiap mika berbeda, Berdasarkan hasil penelitian diperoleh panjang gelombang untuk sinar hijau adalah 711 nm dan untuk panjang gelombang sinar merah adalah 506 nm.

  8. Implementasi Sistem Pengukuran Kinerja Aktivitas, Green Supply Chain Management (Gscm (Studi Kasus: Kud “Dau”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Wafdah Lazuardian

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available KUD "DAU" merupakan salah satu sektor industri yang memiliki aktivitas supply chain dalam memproduksi susu pasteurisasi yang diberi nama Dau Fresh Milk. Selama ini, KUD "DAU" belum pernah membuat pengukuran kinerja manajemen rantai pasokan yang ramah lingkungan. Oleh karena itu, diperlukan suatu metode yang diterapkan dalam mengukur kinerja SCM yang ramah lingkungan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengukur tingkat pencapaian kinerja manajemen rantai pasokan KUD "DAU" yang ramah lingkungan. Metode yang digunakan untuk mengukur kinerja SCM adalah metode pendekatan hijau ramah lingkungan untuk manajemen rantai pasokan (GSCM. Model pengukuran kinerja GSCM terdiri dari kegiatan pengadaan hijau, green manufacturing, green distribution logistics. Pengamatan diperoleh dari sejumlah 44 indikator yang mengukur indikator kinerja utama yang valid. Dari pengukuran tersebut dapat diberikan rekomendasi perbaikan indikator kinerja yang memiliki kategori merah traffic light system.

  9. SISTEM PENGENDALI LAMPU LALULINTAS BERBASIS LOGIKA FUZZY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Agung Nugroho

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Fuzzy Logic Control sebagai salah satu aplikasi kecerdasan buatan telah  mampu memberikan kontribusi untuk menyelesaikan masalah traffic system di jalan raya.   Salah satu implementasi sistem fuzzy logic control adalah untuk mengendalikan lampu indikator lalulintas. System lampu lalulintas yang dikendalikan dengan menggunakan fuzzy logic control sangat efektif untuk menguraikan permasalahan kemacetan yang terlalu lama karena menunggu waktu lampu hijau menyala. Untuk merealisasikan fuzzy logic control pada sistem pengendalian lampu lalu lintas maka memerlukan tools yaitu sensor photoelectric pada setiap ruas persimpangan dan mikrokontroller Arduino Mega 2560 untuk mengimplementasikan sistem fuzzy kedalam bahasa program yang bisa diterima oleh hardware yaitu lampu lalulintas. Pada penelitian ini menggunakan simulasi 4 buah persilangan jalan sebagai model dengan jumlah kendaraan yang dimodelkan terbanyak adalah 25 kendaraan dengan waktu paling lama 60 detik. Pada hasil pengujian telah dapat membuktikan perubahan jumlah kendaraan pada setiap persimpangan menentukan lama waktu lampu hijau menyala pada persimpangan terpadat kendaraan tersebut.

  10. Kajian Kehidupan Masyarakat Kampung Lama sebagai Potensi Keberlanjutan Lingkungan Permukiman Kelurahan Gabahan Semarang

    OpenAIRE

    Azahro, Mustovia; Yuliastuti, Nany

    2013-01-01

    Kelurahan Gabahan merupakan kelurahan paling padat di Kecamatan Semarang Tengah, kepadatan mencapai 26.544 jiwa/km2 (BPS Kota Semarang, 2011). Kepadatan bangunan yang tinggi serta minimnya ruang terbuka hijau menyebabkan penurunan kualitas lingkungan. Dalam kaitannya dengan perkembangan Kota Semarang, Kelurahan Gabahan pernah menjadi pusat Pemerintahan pada tahun 1659. Lokasinya yang berada di pusat kota mengakibatkan Kelurahan Gabahan mengalami tantangan dalam menghadapi tekanan pembangunan...

  11. Penilaian Kerentanan Habitat Mangrove di Kelurahan Mangunharjo, Kecamatan Tugu, Kota Semarang terhadap Variabel Oseanografi Berdasarkan Metode Cvi (Coastal Vulnerability Index)

    OpenAIRE

    Wahyudi, Agus; Hendrarto, Boedi; Hartoko, Agus

    2014-01-01

    Mangrove merupakan tumbuhan atau vegetasi pantai tropis yang hidup di wilayah pesisir yang luas dan terbuka. Hutan mangrove disebut juga sabuk hijau karena mangrove berfungsi sebagai pelindung pantai dari hantaman gelombang laut. Habitat mangrove memiliki beberapa sifat atau karakteristik yang khusus diantaranya salinitas, pasang surut, angin, dan substrat yang berlumpur. Kerentanan variabel oseanografi di habitat mangrove dan pembukaan lahan kawasan hutan mangrove menjadi lahan tambak budida...

  12. Sifat Fisis Dan Stabilisasi Dimensi Beberapa Jenis Bambu Komersial

    OpenAIRE

    Barly, Barly; Ismanto, Agus; Martono, Dominicus; Abdurachman, Abdurachman; Andianto, Andianto

    2012-01-01

    Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk memperoleh formula yang dapat digunakan untuk memperbaiki sifatfisis dan stabilitas dimensi bambu agar optimal penggunaannya sebagai bahan konstruksi. Hasilpenelitian menunjukkan panjang batang, jumlah ruas dan panjang ruas pada tiap jenis bambu nilainyabervariasi. Kadar air bambu segar bervariasi bergantung jenis, yaitu bambu hijau atau ater (236,15%),mayan (181,52% ), tali (117,32% ), hitam (111,83%). Kerapatan bambu bervariasi, yaitu bambu tali(0,93), andong ...

  13. Rancang Bangun Sistem Pengolah Sinyal Remote Display Pada Marine Radar Menggunakan Matlab

    OpenAIRE

    Rudy Yuwono, ST., M.Sc., Sahirul Alam., Dwi Fadila Kurniawan, ST., MT

    2013-01-01

    Salah satu contoh marine radar adalah Furuno 1932 Mark-2, yang merupakan jenis radar pulsa X-band non-doppler. Kelemahan radar ini adalah tampilannya yang menggunakan monitor crt monokrom warna hijau. Pada paper ini akan dibahas mengenai pembuatan sistem display radar menggunakan Matlab dengan kelebihan dalam menampilkan target dengan gradasi warna berdasarkan kuat sinyal radar yang dipantulkannya. Tahapan pertama dalam mengolah sinyal radar adalah proses sampling untuk mendapatkan data sinya...

  14. Antipredator Behaviour of Limnonectes blythii (Boulenger, 1920) (Anura: Dicroglossidae) from Kedah, Peninsular Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Shahriza Shahrudin

    2016-01-01

    The frog Limnonectes blythii was collected at different locations in Kedah, Peninsular Malaysia, three from Sungai Sedim Recreational Forest, two from Bukit Hijau Recreational Forest, and two from Ulu Paip Recreational Forest. Nine antipredator mechanisms were displayed by this species, including fleeing, hiding among leaf litter, diving into water, bladder discharge, defensive call, feigning death, crouching, inflating the body, and body-raising. The two latter actions were accompanied by a ...

  15. Agronomic Performance of Green Beans (Vigna Radiata L.) Grown Under Different Shade Levels

    OpenAIRE

    Kamal, Muhammad

    2008-01-01

    Penampilan Agronomi Tanaman Kacang Hijau yang Ditanam Pada Tingkat Naungan BerbedaABSTRAK. Intensitas cahaya rendah akibat adanya naungan merupakan salah satu kendala utama dalam pengembangan tanaman pangan sebagai tanaman sela pada areal perkebunan. Pemahaman yang lebih baik terhadap karakter agronomi tanaman pangan pada kondisi naungan sangat membantu dalam pengelolaan tanaman pangan sebagai tanaman sela secara produktif. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengevaluasi penampilan agronomi beber...

  16. Pengaturan Lampu Lalu Lintas Secara Nirkabel Bertenaga Surya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanang Warihandoko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Lampu lalu lintas merupakan sarana yang penting untuk mengatur kendaraan yang melintasi persimpangan. Tetapi pada lampu lalu lintas banyak terdapat permasalahan, misalnya kondisi persimpangan dekat sungai, dekat perlintasan kereta api atau persimpangan tidak simetris sehingga penggunaan kabel tidak efektif digunakan. Oleh karena itu pada penelitian ini telah dikembangkan sebuah sistem kontrol lampu lalu lintas secara nirkabel menggunakan perangkat Xbee  dengan topologi jaringan point to multipoint untuk komunikasi antara kontrol utama lampu lalu lintas dengan setiap lampu lalu lintas  di persimpangan. Sistem ini  menggunakan ip kamera untuk mengetahui kepadatan setiap persimpangan sehingga dapat mengatur waktu hijau secara efektif. Algoritma haar cascade clasifier digunakan untuk menghitung jumlah kendaraan di setiap persimpangan dan memberikan input ke kontrol utama lampu lalu lintas untuk mengatur waktu hijau. Sistem dilengkapi dengan monitoring via web server menggunakan thingspeak.com  untuk mengetahui tegangan pada baterai. Pengujian dilakukan dengan meletakkan setiap lampu dengan jarak 100 meter dari kontrol utama lampu lalu lintas. Untuk penggunaan Baterai 50 AH dengan  beban  lampu lalu lintas dan modul xbee dapat digunakan selama 8 hari tanpa pengisian. Penentuan waktu hijau efektif di simpang empat  adalah antara 15 sampai 28 detik untuk setiap banyak antrian kendaraan, dengan kesalahan deteksi kendaraaan dalam kondisi antrian adalah 45%

  17. Uji aktivitas antioksidan ekstrak air dan ekstrak metanol beberapa varian buah kenitu (Chrysophyllum cainito L. dari daerah Jember

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moch. Amrun H.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Star apple or Chrysophyllum cainito L., family Sapotaceae; which is indigenous in Central America has been grown locally arround Jember, East Java. Ethnobotanical data exhibits its medicinal properties such as: soothing inflammation in laringitis and pneumonia, treatment for diabetes mellitus and cancer remedy which are related to free radical mechanism. Therefore, it is necessary to determine its free radical scavenger activity. There are three types of Jember’s star apple fruit (local name: kenitu: big size, green color with round shape (kenitu hijau bulat; medium size, green color with oval shape (kenitu hijau lonjong; and small size, red purplish color with round shape (kenitu merah bulat. Previous research shown that both water and methanol extracts of kenitu hijau lonjong has DPPH free radical scavenger activity as its antioxidant capacity. In recent research the DPPH free radical scavenger activity was performed on both water and methanol extract of these three types of kenitu. The results showed that kenitu merah bulat exhibits the highest antioxidant activity of these three types with IC50 = 426.118 and 169.094 ppm for methanol and water extracts sequentially in 60th minutes.

  18. Regional mapping of hydrothermally altered igneous rocks along the Urumieh-Dokhtar, Chagai, and Alborz Belts of western Asia using Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data and Interactive Data Language (IDL) logical operators: a tool for porphyry copper exploration and assessment: Chapter O in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mars, John L.; Zientek, M.L.; Hammarstrom, J.M.; Johnson, K.M.; Pierce, F.W.

    2014-01-01

    Regional maps of phyllic and argillic hydrothermal alteration were compiled using Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data and logical operator algorithms. The area mapped extends from northwestern Iran to southeastern Pakistan and includes volcanic and magmatic arcs that make up the Urumieh-Dokhtar volcanic belt (UDVB), the Chagai volcanic belt (CVB), and the central part of the Alborz magmatic belt (AMB). The volcanic belts span the Zagros-Makran transform zone and the present day Baluchistan (Makran) volcanic arc. ASTER visible near infrared (VNIR) data contain three bands between 0.52 and 0.86 micrometers (μm) and the short-wave infrared (SWIR) data consist of six bands spanning 1.6 to 2.43 μm with 15-meter (m), and 30-m resolution, respectively.

  19. Dynamic Economic Dispatch Pada Sistem Kelistrikan Microgrid Dengan Penambahan Media Penyimpan Energi Menggunakan Quadratic Programming

    OpenAIRE

    Fakhruddin Wirakusuma; Heri Suryoatmojo; Rony Seto Wibowo

    2017-01-01

    Kebutuhan daya listrik saat ini meningkat pesat seiring dengan perkembangan teknologi. Peningkatan kebutuhan daya listrik ini bertolak belakang dengan menipisnya ketersediaan sumber energy minyak dan batu bara. Permasalahan ini berdampak pada ketahanan listrik nasional. Untuk memenuhi kebutuhan daya listrik yang besar dengan cakupan wilayah yang luas diperlukan pembangkit tersebar berskala kecil. Pembangkit tersebar ini diupayakan bersumber pada energi terbarukan untuk meminimalkan pemakaian ...

  20. Physics Laboratory Investigation of Vocational High School Field Stone and Concrete Construction Techniques in the Central Java Province (Indonesia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purwandari, Ristiana Dyah

    2015-01-01

    The investigation aims in this study were to uncover the observations of infrastructures and physics laboratory in vocational high school for Stone and Concrete Construction Techniques Expertise Field or Teknik Konstruksi Batu dan Beton (TKBB)'s in Purwokerto Central Java Province, mapping the Vocational High School or Sekolah Menengah Kejuruan…

  1. The Late Cretaceous Middle Fork caldera, its resurgent intrusion, and enduring landscape stability in east-central Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacon, Charles R.; Dusel-Bacon, Cynthia; Aleinikoff, John N.; Slack, John F.

    2014-01-01

    Dissected caldera structures expose thick intracaldera tuff and, uncommonly, cogenetic shallow plutons, while remnants of correlative outflow tuffs deposited on the pre-eruption ground surface record elements of ancient landscapes. The Middle Fork caldera encompasses a 10 km × 20 km area of rhyolite welded tuff and granite porphyry in east-central Alaska, ∼100 km west of the Yukon border. Intracaldera tuff is at least 850 m thick. The K-feldspar megacrystic granite porphyry is exposed over much of a 7 km × 12 km area having 650 m of relief within the western part of the caldera fill. Sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe with reverse geometry (SHRIMP-RG) analyses of zircon from intracaldera tuff, granite porphyry, and outflow tuff yield U-Pb ages of 70.0 ± 1.2, 69.7 ± 1.2, and 71.1 ± 0.5 Ma (95% confidence), respectively. An aeromagnetic survey indicates that the tuff is reversely magnetized, and, therefore, that the caldera-forming eruption occurred in the C31r geomagnetic polarity chron. The tuff and porphyry have arc geochemical signatures and a limited range in SiO2 of 69 to 72 wt%. Although their phenocrysts differ in size and abundance, similar quartz + K-feldspar + plagioclase + biotite mineralogy, whole-rock geochemistry, and analytically indistinguishable ages indicate that the tuff and porphyry were comagmatic. Resorption of phenocrysts in tuff and porphyry suggests that these magmas formed by thermal rejuvenation of near-solidus or solidified crystal mush. A rare magmatic enclave (54% SiO2, arc geochemical signature) in the porphyry may be similar to parental magma and provides evidence of mafic magma and thermal input.

  2. Geochemistry and zircon U-Pb geochronology of the Pulang complex, Yunnan province, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pang, Zhenshan; Du, Yangsong; Cao, Yi; Gao, Fuping; Wang, Gongwen; Dong, Qian

    2014-01-01

    The Pulang complex is located tectonically at the southern margin of the Yidun-Zhongdian island arc belt in Yunnan province, China, and is closely related to formation of the Pulang copper deposit, which is the largest copper deposit in Asia. The Pulang complex can be divided into three intrusion stages based on contact relationships and petrological characteristics: (1) a first stage of quartz dioritic porphyry; (2) a second stage of quartz monzonitic porphyry; and (3) a third stage of granodioritic porphyry. The crystallization ages of these intrusion stages were determined by single-zircon U-Pb dating, yielding ages of 221.0 ± 1.0, 211.8 ± 0.5, and 206.3 ± 0.7 Ma for the first, second, and third stages, respectively. These dates, integrated with previous geochronological data and field investigations, indicate that the second-stage quartz monzonitic porphyry has a close spatial and temporal relationship with the large Pulang porphyry copper deposit. These age data, geochemical and Sr-Nd isotopic results suggest that the Pulang complex formed in the Indo-Chinese epoch (257∼ 205 Ma) by multiphase intrusion of a mixture of mantle- and crust-derived magmas. (author)

  3. Geochronological constraints on Cretaceous-Paleocene volcanism in South Westland, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, C.J.; Cooper, A.F.; Palin, J.M.; Nathan, S.

    2005-01-01

    Cretaceous and Paleocene sedimentation in South Westland, New Zealand, is recorded in the Otumotu Formation, Tauperikaka Coal Measures, Whakapohai Sandstone, Arnott Basalt, Buttress Conglomerate, and Tokakoriri Formation, originally named and mapped by Nathan in 1977. Within this stratigraphic sequence, the name Buttress Conglomerate was used to describe volcanic conglomerates at Porphyry and Buttress Points that contained rounded clasts of plagioclasephyric intermediate volcanic rocks. Stratigraphically, the volcanic conglomerate at Porphyry Point forms sharp contacts with the underlying Arnott Basalt (Haumurian) and overlying Tokakoriri Formation (Teurian). The volcanic conglomerate at Buttress Point, however, is entirely fault-bounded. Clasts from each unit were collected and U-Pb zircon dated using the TIMS and ELA-ICP-MS methods. A trachyandesite clast collected at Buttress Point gives an age of 96.9 ± 1.6 Ma, whereas a rhyolite clast collected at Porphyry Point gives an age of 61.4 ± 0.8 Ma. Petrological, geochemical, and stratigraphic data suggest that erosion of the clasts closely followed volcanism, and that these ages accurately reflect the depositional ages of the conglomerates. Conglomerates at Porphyry and Buttress Points have been formally renamed the Porphyry Point Member of the Tokakoriri Formation and the Buttress Point Conglomerate, respectively. (author). 49 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs

  4. Studi evaluasi penerapan Community Based Tourism (CBT sebagai pendukung agrowisata berkelanjutan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Endah Nurhidayati

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of government in the development of Community Based Tourism (CBT is very important to strengthen communities around the tourism destination. Government has significant role to ensure that the community has accesses, opportunities and an important power in the development of tourism. The objectives of this research are: (1 describe the government's perception of the  Community Based Tourism (CBT development, (2 identifying government policies to support the Community Based Tourism (CBT implementation in Batu City, East Java, and (3 describe the constraints that occur in the implementation of Community based Tourism (CBT in Batu City, East Java. This study uses qualitative approach by analyzing critical reality, being constructed locally and specifically. The study was conducted in Batu City, East Java. Perceptions of government on the implementation of community-based tourism reflected the mindset of the individual. The community-based tourism development in Batu city is considered the same as rural tourism development. The Government supervise the development of tourism products, especially the tourist village. To support the existence of a tourist village Department of Tourism and Creative Economy   help develop and market promotion. Barriers to the implementation of community-based tourism development with regard to the internal aspects of the government: the quality of human resources decision makers in the Batu Government do not possess educational background of tourism, government people less creative design programs and somewhat forced, the lack of trust the government to local communities, government is not able to map the condition social community related to the system's internal decision-making in the community that are less able to intervene in all components of society, a narrow understanding of CBT, and yet solid government policy coordination between stakeholders. While the external barriers are lack of insight into the

  5. Antipredator Behaviour of Limnonectes blythii (Boulenger, 1920 (Anura: Dicroglossidae from Kedah, Peninsular Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahriza Shahrudin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The frog Limnonectes blythii was collected at different locations in Kedah, Peninsular Malaysia, three from Sungai Sedim Recreational Forest, two from Bukit Hijau Recreational Forest, and two from Ulu Paip Recreational Forest. Nine antipredator mechanisms were displayed by this species, including fleeing, hiding among leaf litter, diving into water, bladder discharge, defensive call, feigning death, crouching, inflating the body, and body-raising. The two latter actions were accompanied by a defensive call. These observations document for the first time antipredator behaviour in L. blythii.

  6. BIOAKUMULASI DAN DISTRIBUSI CD PADA AKAR DAN PUCUK 3 JENIS TANAMAN FAMILI BRASSICACEAE: IMPLEMENTASINYA UNTUK FITOREMEDIASI (Cadmium Bioaccumulation and Distribution in Root and Shoot of 3 Crops of Brassicaceae: Implication For Phytoremediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rini Susana

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Effisiensi tanaman untuk fitoremediasi salah satunya ditentukan oleh besarnya akumulasi logam dalam biomassa tanaman yang dipanen. Akumulasi kadmium pada organ berbagai jenis tanaman menunjukkan respon yang beragam, Sebuah percobaan pot telah dilakukan pada 3 jenis tanaman famili Brassicaceae yaitu sawi hijau (Brassica rapa var. parachinensis , sawi putih (Brassica rapa var. Pekinensis dan kailan (Brassica oleracea var. Alboglabra pada tanah gambut yang dikontaminasi kadmium (Cd dengan tujuan mempelajari bioakumulasi Cd pada akar dan pucuk dari ketiga jenis tanaman tersebut dan menentukan jenis yang lebih potensial untuk fitoremediasi. Kontaminan Cd dicampurkan pada tanah dengan tingkatan dosis yang berbeda yaitu tanpa kontaminan, 2 mgkg-1 Cd, 4 mgkg-1 Cd, 8 mgkg-1 Cd, 16 mgkg-1 Cd dan 32 mgkg-1 Cd, dan tanah tersebut digunakan sebagai media tumbuh tanaman (5kg/polibag. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan kandungan Cd pada organ akar sawi hijau, sawi putih dan kailan lebih besar dari pucuk. Ketiga tanaman termasuk tanaman akumulator Cd. Kailan mempunyai kemampuan akumulasi Cd (BCF yang lebih besar dari sawi hijau dan sawi putih, tetapi mempunyai kemampuan transfer Cd ke pucuk (TF paling kecil. Sawi hijau dan sawi putih dengan biomassa yang besar dan mempunyai kemampuan transfer Cd ke pucuk yang jauh lebih besar dari kailan, lebih potensial digunakan untuk fitoremediasi tanah yang tercemar Cd. ABSTRACT Plant efficiency for phytoremediation depend on total amount of metal content in the harvestable tissues of plant biomass. Cadmium accumulation in the organs of various plant species showed varying responses. Field experiment was carried out with 3 crops of family Brassicaceae, i.e. Brassica rapa var. parachinensis, Brassica rapa var. Pekinensis and Brassica oleracea var. Alboglabra on Cd-contaminated peat soil. Contaminant Cd and soil were mixed in different dosages i.e. 2 mgkg-1 Cd, 4 mgkg-1 Cd, 8 mgkg-1 Cd, 16 mgkg-1 Cd and 32 mgkg-1 Cd and

  7. Asphalt wear and pollution transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindgren, Asa [Division of Traffic Engineering, Lulea University of Technology Lulea (Sweden)

    1996-09-06

    Studded tires cause extensive wear of road surfaces during winter producing small particles. Besides transporting different adsorbed pollutants these particles also discharge metal ions by their own natural content. The major part (95%) of the asphalt is composed of stone fractions. The rest consists mainly of bitumen, which contains trace quantities of metals. Laboratory studies in this study have demonstrated different adsorbing properties of metal ions, as well as differences in adsorption when comparing stone materials. Two stone materials, a gabbro and a porphyry, have been tested for their adsorption properties concerning Pb, Cu, Zn and Cd. The gabbro showed better adsorption capacity than the porphyry. Gabbro has coarser grains, it is softer, and also has a higher content of most metals compared to the porphyry. In all tests lead and copper are more adsorbed than zinc and cadmium. All metal ions are released at about the same pH ({approx}4)

  8. Struktur Geologi Daerah Longsor di Gunung Pawinihan, Kabupaten Banjarnegara, Jawa Tengah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asmoro Widagdo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Fenomena longsor dapat terjadi dengan berbagai faktor pengontrol. Permasalahan yang di kaji dalam penelitian ini terutama adalah untuk mengetahui hubungan struktural antar lapisan batuan di daerah penelitian. Kondisi struktur dapat menjadi pemicu bagi fenomena longsor. Metode penelitian dilakukan dengan pengamatan dan pemetaan lapangan. Pengukuran struktur geologi berupa kedudukan lapisan batuan dan penentuan hubungan stratigrafis antar batuan dilakukan dilapangan. Pengukuran kelerengan topografi dilakukan di peta dan dilapangan. Daerah penelitian tersusun atas batu lempung dengan sisipan pasir karbonatan sebagai batuan yang tua dan juga tersusun atas breksi sebagai yang lebih muda. Batu lempung sebagai batuan yang mudah tererosi baik secara kimia maupun fisika. Erosi aktif pada batulempung memicu pergerakan masa breksi diatasnya. Hadirnya mata air pada kontak lempung-breksi juga memicu terjadinya longsor. Dengan demikian longsor di daerah penelitian dipicu oleh adanya kontak ketidakselarasan antara batuan breksi segar dan lapuk dengan batulempung di bawahnya.

  9. Analisa Pengaruh Ukuran Partikel terhadap Patahan Gritcone pada Vertical Roller Mill Dengan Simulasi Explicit Dynamic (Ls-Dyna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Arsyad Putra Pratama

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Polysius vertical roller mill (Polysius VRM adalah alat penggiling yang digunakan di PT Holcim Indonesia Tuban Plant untuk menggiling batu bara yang digunakan sebagai bahan bakar kiln pada tahap produksi semen. Pada pengoperasiannya sering terjadi kegegalan pada bagian Gritcone. Komponen ini mengarahkan batu bara yang ukurannya tidak sesuai lolos penyaringan oleh separator kembali ke grinding table untuk digiling kembali. Dengan menggunakan simulasi Explicit Dynamuc Ls- Dyna melalui software ANSYS dapat diketahui ketebalan Gritcone setelah satu siklus. Pada simulasi kali ini diperoleh ketebalan gritcone setelah satu kali siklus dengan hasil sebagai Ketebalan gritcone minimum pada Persebaran 75 % dan 100 % adalah 0.00998403 m dan 0.00999324 m. Ketebalan gritcone maksimum pada Persebaran 75 % dan 100 % adalah 0.00998715 m dan 0.0099775 m.

  10. ASPEK ADAPTASI DAN AKULTURASI BUDAYA DI SITUS BUMI RONGSOK, TASIKMALAYA Aspects Of Adaption And Cultural Acculturation In Bumi Rongsok Sites, Tasikmalaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudarti Prijono

    2016-07-01

    Abstrak Keberadaan Situs Bumi Rongsok di Desa Papayan, Kecamatan Jatiwaras, Tasikmalaya serta beberapa bentuk tinggalan budayanya, memunculkan beberapa permasalahan yang perlu dikaji aspek arkeologisnya. Tinggalan arkeologis yang terdapat di situs tersebut di antaranya lahan berbentuk perbukitan berundak, kubur batu,  lumpang batu, jirat kubur bercorak Islam, dan berbatasan langsung dengan hutan dan saluran air. Berlatar temuan tersebut maka dibahas mengenai aspek adaptasi dan akulturasi budayanya. Untuk menjelaskan kedua aspek tersebut digunakan metode studi komparatif. Studi dilaksanakan dengan membandingkan terhadap obyek serupa dengan di situs yang berbeda, masa yang berbeda, atau dari kebudayaan yang berbeda untuk menjawab permasalahan tersebut di atas. Di akhir artikel diperoleh simpulan bahwa keberadaan situs Bumi Rongsok berkaitan dengan aspek adaptasi terhadap lingkungan alam. Bangunan kubur berundak di situs ini menggambarkan adanya akulturasi budaya yang pernah berlangsung di situs tersebut.   Kata Kunci: bukit, kubur, punden berundak, akulturasi

  11. TADRIS MAHARAH AL-KALAM FI MADRASAH TSUNAIYYAH AL-LUGHAH AL-STANAWIYAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahkholid Nasution

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Giving the name Bilingual of the Madrasah Aliyah Bilingual Batu this a characteristic of this madrasah among madrasah-madrasah aliyah especially in Batu City. Bilingual in question is the use of the Arabic language and English as the language of instruction in these madrasah. Pay attention to the peculiarities of the madrasah, the writer wanted to dig further information about the development process of learning the Arabic language at the school, especially in the field of speaking skills (Maharah Kalam. Therefore, the approach used in writing this article is a qualitative approach with descriptive - evaluative method. It can be concluded that in general the process of the development of the Arabic language at the school has been following the principles of the development of the Arabic language to non-Arabs, but there are still many shortcomings and problems were found, including the media, environment and human resources are inadequate.

  12. Penghunian, Pemanfaatan, dan Interaksi Pcndukung Situs-Situs di Kawasan Danau Ranau Lampung Barat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Laili

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract, The archeological research that was conducted in the banks of Ranau Lake. West Lampung had been result some of conclusions and can be classified as religious sites, settlement sites and both. As religious sites they are Hujung Cumalagi, Batu Andak Kenihang. Johor. Way Lumbok. Batin Katung. and Si Pahit Lidah. and as settlement sites are Langkat. Batu l.umpang land 2. while sites considered as both religious and settlement is Tanjung Raya. The estima­tion of period that goes along the usage of the banks of Ranau Lake was based on relative chronology and ceramics dale. As a result, the sites could 've been occupied at least in 7 - 19 M and the presence of some megalithic traditions could be lies in the banks since late prehistoiy until history. Ceramics found that also lies there giving notes that these people has been interact with their outside place. Kata Kunci: penghunian, interaksi, Danau Ranau, situs

  13. Seaweed composition from Bintulu coast of Sarawak, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawawi, Mohd Hafizbillah; Idris, Mohd Hanafi; Kamal, Abu Hena Mustafa; King, Wong Sing

    2014-08-01

    Species composition of seaweed and distribution were investigated in the coastal waters of Bintulu, Sarawak. The seaweed samples were collected during low tide between May 2011 and May 2012 from the six different stations. In total 54 species of seaweeds were identified from study areas of Bintulu coastal waters. Among them, 23 species were from Rhodophyta with 11 families, 15 species were from Phaeophyta with 2 families and 16 species were from Chlorophyta with 10 families: Seventeen species of seaweeds were recorded from the Tanjung Batu, while 23 species from Pantai Telekom, 14 species from Golden Beach, 26 species from Kuala Similajau, 12 species from Kuala Nyalau and 21 species from Batu Mandi. Seaweeds abundance was high in rocky substrate and Rhodophyta (11 families and 23 species) was the common and highest group of seaweeds in this coastal areas. Present study recorded high diversified seaweed species at the rocky shore area compare to reef area.

  14. Penggunaan Bottom Ash Yang Telah Diolah Untuk Pembuatan Beton Hvfa Mutu Menengah

    OpenAIRE

    Christian, Yohanes; Wirananda, Andry; Antoni, Antoni; Hardjito, Djwantoro

    2017-01-01

    Bottom ash merupakan limbah pembakaran batu bara dari PLTU. Di Indonesia pemanfaatan bottom ash sebagai material konstruksi belum maksimal. Terdapat potensi penggunaan bottom ash sebagai pengganti agregat halus pada beton. Dalam penelitian ini, bottom ash akan diberikan treatment ayak dan tumbuk sebelum digunakan sebagai pengganti agregat halus pada beton high volume fly ash (HVFA). Pengujian awal dilakukan dengan menguji karakteristik dari pasir Lumajang dan bottom ash yang akan dipakai sepe...

  15. Pemanfaatan Bottom Ash Dan Fly Ash Tipe C Sebagai Bahan Pengganti Dalam Pembuatan Paving Block

    OpenAIRE

    Klarens, Kevin; Indranata, Michael; Antoni, Antoni; Hardjito, Djwantoro

    2016-01-01

    PT. PLTU Paiton menghasilkan 7.5 ton fly ash dan 2.5 ton bottom ash setiap jam. Pemanfaatan bottom ash masih sangat minimal, sehingga mengakibatkkan timbunan bottom ash yang semakin meningkat, dan cendrung mencemari lingkungan dan kesehatan. Berdasarkan alasan tersebut maka perlu adanya USAha untuk memanfaatkan limbah batu bara, salah satunya melalui pembuatan paving block. Sampel tahap pertama terbuat dari campuran semen dan bottom ash (lolos ayakan 2 atau 5 mm) dengan perbandingan massa 1:3...

  16. Explorasi Hubungan antara Personaliti Islamik dan Gaya Keibubapaan

    OpenAIRE

    NOORAINI OTHMAN; SALASIAH KHAIROLLAH

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to identify the parenting styles which influence the Islamic personality among students from one of the secondary school in Batu Pahat district, Johor. Using strata random sampling technique, a total of 302 students from form 1 to form 6 of the secondary school was chosen as the respondents. This correlational study used questionnaire as an instrument for its data collection. The data analysis was done using the descriptive and inferential statistical analysis with th...

  17. Manajemen Strategi Pengembangan Pariwisata dengan Pendekatan Blue Ocean Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Muzha, Vianda Kushardianti

    2015-01-01

    Persaingan industri pariwisata di Indonesia saat ini sangatlah ketat, setiap daerah berlomba untuk menonjolkan keunikannya tersendiri. Dengan adanya persaingan yang sangat ketat tersebut, Kota Batu berusaha keluar dari persaingan (red ocean) dengan menciptkan inovasi baru melalui konsep Blue Ocean Strategy. Blue Ocean Strategy adalah istilah dalam ilmu manajemen strategi yang merujuk pada siasat untuk menciptakan pasar baru yang belum dipenuhi persaingan yang ketat. Blue Ocean Strategy pada d...

  18. Pemetaan Kedudukan dan Materi Muatan Peraturan Mahkamah Konstitusi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudi Rudi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk memetakan kedudukan dan materi muatan Peraturan Mahkamah Konstitusi (PMK dalam sistem peraturan perundang-undangan di Indonesia. Penelitian ini menggunakan studi normatif yang menggunakan batu uji kelembagaan negara. Penelitian ini menemukan bahwa kedudukan PMK harus ditinjau dari aspek kelembagaan negara sehingga bisa disimpulkan bahwa kedudukan PMK setingkat dengan Peraturan Presiden. Selain itu, penelitian ini menghasilkan pemetaan materi muatan yang harus diatur dalam PMK

  19. Potensi Pemanfaatan Isolat Bakteri Kitinolltik Lokal Untuk Pengendalian Hayati Jamur

    OpenAIRE

    Suryanto, Dwi; Munir, Erman

    2008-01-01

    A study on isolation of chitinolytic bacteria and an assay on their chitinolytic activity have been conducted. The purpose of the study was to isolate chitinolytic bacteria and to examine their chitinolytic activity, and also to know their potential in inhibiting growth of Fuforium semitectum, Ganoderma boninense, and Penicillium citrinum. The bacteria were isolated from soil of North Sumatra (Asahan, Deli Serdang, Labuhan Batu, Langkat, Medan, Padang Sidempuan, Tapanuli Utara, Toba Samosir)....

  20. Desain dan Implementasi Peringatan Dini Banjir Menggunakan Data Mining dengan Wireless Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roni Putra

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is develop a warning system of early flood and weather information. This research was inspired by not stabilize weather condition of Indonesian. It will cause disaster such as flood because of the hight rainfall, as happened in Padang. Batu Busuk is one of the flood-prone area and galodo but there is no information about the weather, rainfall, humidity, temperature and wind speed and direction. The aim of this study is giving weather data and forecast information of the potential flood with variable rainfall, temperature, humidity, wind direction and wind speed which can be access realtime and up to date wherever and whenever via the webpage online. To determine the potential for flooding prediction by used data mining with a method of Alogritma C4.5 its can be result of decision tree. In this study using XBee S2PRO for sender and recipient with mesh topology which consists of a rainfall sensor components, SHT11, wind speed and direction as well as the arduino. Data storage and processing of information using the Raspberry Pi as a mini computer server. The result of sensor SHT11 measurement is a little difference with really measurement such as: 2.09% temperature, relative humidity of 0.59%, 3.87% wind speed, wind direction and precipitation 0% 6.32%. Meanwhile, the results of experiment in Batu Busuk proved the same weather conditions between EWS tool with the situation in Batu Busuk during the four day, where on March 22, 2016 at 5:35 PM information system Early Warning System (EWS issued a warning system would be the potential for flood and after it be floded Batu Busuk.

  1. Characterization and Evaluation of Novel Film Forming Polymer for Drug Delivery

    OpenAIRE

    Mundada, Artish; Satturwar, Prashant; Fulzele, Suniket; Joshi, Sudhir; Dorle, Avinash

    2011-01-01

    DB is a whitish to yellowish resin, characterized initially in terms of solubility, acid value, molecular weight (Mw), polydispersity index (Mw/Mn) and glass transition temperature (Tg). Neat plasticized films of DB (Damar Batu) are investigated for mechanical, water vapor transmission and moisture absorption properties. To improve the mechanical properties of the free films dibutyl sebacate, a hydrophobic plasticizer was added to film composition. The biomaterial was further investigated for...

  2. Pengaruh Umur Buah Dan Faktor Iklim Terhadap Serangan Penggerek Buah Jeruk Citripestis Sagitiferella Mr. (Lepidoptera:Pyralidae)

    OpenAIRE

    -, Muryati

    2007-01-01

    . Muryati. 2007. The Effect of Fruit Maturity and Climatic Factors on Damage Intensity of Citrus Fruit by Fruit borer Citripestis sagitiferella (Lepidoptera:Pyralidae).The objective of this research was to understand the effect of fruit maturity and climatic factors on damage intensity of citrus fruit by fruit borer C. sagitiferella. The experiment was conducted at Batu, Malang from August 2001 to July 2002. The experiment to observe the fruit damage by citrus fruit borer on several fruit mat...

  3. Studi Arus Dan Sebaran Sedimen Dasar Di Perairan Teluk Ujungbatu Kabupaten Jepara

    OpenAIRE

    Priherdika, Genda; Satriadi, Alfi; Setiyono, Heryoso

    2014-01-01

    Perairan Teluk Ujungbatu Kabupaten Jepara merupakan pantai yang rentan terhadap proses erosi dan sedimentasi yang disebabkan karena faktor fisik ataupun sifat dari material sedimen. Untuk mengetahui kecepatan dan arah arus yang selalu berlawanan arah setiap tahun sehingga dapat mempengaruhi sebaran sedimen dasar di sekitar pantai, diperlukan beberapa analisa mengenai kondisi arus dan pola sebaran sedimen dasar di perairan Teluk Unjung Batu. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui k...

  4. POTENSI PEKTIN KULIT PISANG KEPOK (Musa paradisiaca forma typica) UNTUK MENYERAP LOGAM BERAT KADMIUM (Cd)

    OpenAIRE

    Bana, Vera Stianita Sarce

    2015-01-01

    Kadmium (Cd) merupakan salah satu logam berat yang sangat berbahaya dalam sistem lingkungan hidup. Kadmium biasanya dihasilkan melalui pabrik pupuk fosfat dan buangan dari industri yang menggunakan bahan bakar batu bara dan minyak. Penggunaan bahan biologis sebagai penyerap logam berat menjadi salah satu alternatif pengolahan limbah cair logam berat. Bahan biologis yang digunakan adalah pektin yang diekstrak dari kulit pisang kepok (Musa paradisiaca forma typica). Pektin mer...

  5. Efektivitas dan Efisiensi Penggunaan Faktor Produksi Usahatani Cabai Besar di Desa Baturiti Kecamatan Baturiti Tabanan

    OpenAIRE

    SANGURJANA, I GEDE WEGANANDA FAJAR; WIDYANTARA, I WAYAN; DEWI, IDA AYU LISTIA

    2016-01-01

    The Effectiveness and Efficiency of The Usage of Production Factors in Chili Farming at Baturiti Village, Baturiti District, Tabanan Big Chili (Capsicum annuum L.) is a potential commodity of horticulture in Bali. One of Chili producer areas in Bali is Baturiti village, Baturiti district, Tabanan regency. This study aims to find out the influence of production factors, effectiveness and efficiency of USAge of production factors to optimalizing production. The research was carried out at Batu...

  6. Nurses’ Intention and Behavior in Reporting Adverse Event: Application of Theory of Planned Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Putu Ekayani

    2017-02-01

    Data menunjukkan bahwa secara global jumlah pelaporan insiden keselamatan pasien masih rendah, begitu juga di Rumah Sakit Baptis Batu, Jawa Timur. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh antara sikap, norma subjektif, dan perceived behavioral control (PBC terhadap niat dan untuk menentukan hubungan antara PBC dan niat terhadap perilaku perawat dalam melaporkan kejadian tidak diharapkan (KTD. Penelitian ini menggunakan pendekatan potong lintang dan dilakukan di Rumah Sakit Baptis Batu pada tanggal 16-31 Maret 2016. Pengambilan data dilakukan dengan menggunakan kuesioner yang dibagikan kepada 82 (dari 85 perawat yang bekerja di Rumah Sakit Baptis Batu. Data dianalisis menggunakan regresi linier berganda dan korelasi Spearman. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa sikap (B = 0.496; nilai p = 0.000 dan PBC (B = 0.766; nilai p = 0.037 secara signifikan memengaruhi niat untuk melaporkan KTD, sedangkan norma subjektif (B= -0.087; nilai p = 0.540 tidak berpengaruh terhadap niat melaporkan KTD. Tidak terdapat hubungan antara PBC (r = 0.037; nilai p = 0.739 dan niat (r = 0.031; nilai p = 0.783 terhadap perilaku melaporkan KTD. Temuan ini menunjukkan bahwa niat perawat dalam melaporkan KTD dipengaruhi oleh sikap dan PBC, bukan norma subjektif. Sebaliknya, niat dan PBC tidak berhubungan dengan perilaku melaporkan KTD.

  7. STUDI BESARNYA EROSI PADA AREAL REKLAMASI TAMBANG BATUBARA DI PT ARUTMIN INDONESIA KABUPATEN KOTABARU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Yamani

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available PT Arutmin Indonesia sebagai perusahaan batu bara yang besar, telah berusaha melaksanakan kaidah pertambangan yang berwawasan lingkungan, yakni dengan melaksanakan kegiatan reklamasi pasca penambangan batu baranya. Erosi yang terjadi pada lahan yang sudah direklamasi merupakan masalah utama yang dihadapi, khususnya dalam upaya konservasi dan rehabilitasi lahan. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui besarnya erosi dan besarnya tingkat bahaya erosi (TBE pada berbagai tipe unit lahan yang sudah direklamasi di PT. Arutmin Tambang Senakin. Dari hasil penelitian ini diharapkan dapat memberikan informasi yang berguna kepada pihak-pihak terkait sebagai bahan pertimbangan dalam kegiatan reklamasi lahan dan upaya kegiatan konservasi tanah dan air, khususnya pada areal bekas tambang batubara. Metode yang digunakan adalah metode USLE oleh Wischmeler dan Smith. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan erosi yang terjadi pada Unit Lahan I sebesar 39,11 ton/ha/tahun merupakan erosi yang tertinggi dibandingkan dengan Unit Lahan lainnya, sedangkan Unit Lahan V dengan nilai IBE 34,41 ton/ha/tahun termasuk dalam TBE ekstrim. Kata kunci : Tambang batu bara, Reklamasi, Erosi

  8. Penapisan Senyawa Hemagglutinin dari Makroalga Asal Pantai Binuangeun, Banten, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurrahmi Dewi Fajarningsih

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Sebagai bagian dari penelitian penapisan lektin dari makroalga Indonesia, 17 esktrak protein makroalga yang dikoleksi dari Pantai Binuangeun, Banten telah diuji aktivitas hemagglutinasinya terhadap eritrosit kelinci dan eritrosit manusia golongan A, B, O, masing-masing dengan perlakuan enzim dan native. Ekstraksi dilakukan dengan menggunakan 2 jenis buffer, yaitu Phosphate Buffer Saline (PBS dan Tris Buffer Saline (TBS pH 7. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pada beberapa sampel, ekstrak yang dihasilkan kedua buffer, menunjukkan aktivitas hemagglutinasi yang berbeda walaupun kadar total protein ekstrak makroalga yang diekstraksi dengan PBS dan TBS tidak berbeda. Sebagian besar ekstrak makroalga yang diuji mampu mengagglutinasi setidaknya satu jenis sel eritrosit yang digunakan. Secara umum, kelompok makroalga hijau memperlihatkan aktivitas hemagglutinasi yang lebih rendah dibandingkan kelompok makroalga merah dan coklat. Meskipun ekstrak Padina australis (makroalga coklat memberikan hasil hemagglutinasi eritrosit kelinci negatif, namun ekstrak tersebut positif menghemagglutinasi eritrosit golongan darah B dan O. Di antara 8 makroalga hijau yang diuji, hanya dua sampel yang menunjukkan aktivitas hemagglutinasi, yaitu Chaetomorpha crassa dan Halimeda macroloba. Keempat ekstrak makroalga merah yang diuji menunjukkan aktivitas hemagglutinasi yang kuat terhadap eritrosit kelinci. Ekstrak makroalga merah Gracilaria lichenoides dan Gelidiella acerosa aktif terhadap semua jenis eritrosit uji. Sementara itu, hanya ekstrak Laurencia tronoi yang menunjukkan aktivitas hemagglutinasi terhadap eritrosit golongan darah A.

  9. AKTIVITAS ANTIMIKROBA YOGURT BERBASIS AIR KELAPA MENGHAMBAT BAKTERI PATOGEN SECARA IN VITRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindawati S. A.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Yogurt merupakan minuman susu yang difermentasi dengan menggunakan bakteri asam laktat Lactobacillus bulgaricus dan Streptococcus thermophyllus sebagai starter. Tujuan penelitian untuk mengetahui kemampuan tertinggi dari yogurt berbasis air kelapa dalam menghambat pertumbuhan bakteri pathogen (Salmonella, Staphylococcus, Klebsiela pneumonia dan E.coli secara in vitro. Penelitian ini menggunakan rancangan acak lengkap (RAL dengan empat perlakuan dan empat ulangan. Keempat perlakuan tersebut: Ko: susu skim 12%+air; K1: susu skim 12%+air kelapa gading; K2: susu skim 12%+kelapa gading bulan; K3: susu skim 12%+air kelapa hijau. Peubah yang diamati adalah aktivitas antimikroba yogurt terhadap bakteri pathogen (Salmonellatyphi, Staphylococcus, Klebsiella pneumonia dan E.coli, total plate count (TPC, total bakteri asam laktat dan E,coli. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa aktivitas antimikroba tertinggi diperoleh pada yogurt berbasis air kelapa bulan terhadap bakeri Salmonella typhi dan Staphylococcus masing-masing sebesar 0,21 dan 0,26 cm dengan total bakteri asam laktat1,1×107 cfu/mL sedangkan untuk Klebsiella pneumonia dan E.coli diperoleh pada yogurt berbasis air kelapa gading sebesar 0,38 dan 0,64 mm dengan total bakteri asam laktat 3,1×106 cfu/mL.Dari hasil penelitian dapat disimpulkan bahwa yogurt berbasis air kelapa gading, bulan, hijau dan tanpa air kelapa memiliki aktivitas antimikroba berspektrum luas (menghambat bakteri gram positif dan negatif.

  10. Variasi morfologi, karyotipe dan pola pita protein pada berbagai varietas kamboja jepang (Adenium obesum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DWI HASTUTI

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Hastuti D, Suranto, Setyono P. 2009. Variasi morfologi, karyotipe dan pola pitaprotein pada berbagai varietas kamboja jepang (Adenium obesum. Bioteknologi 6:88-95. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui variasi Adenium obesum dari enam varietas yaitu obesum, cery, red lucas, red fanta , white bigben, dan harry potter berdasarkan sifat morfologi, karyotipe, serta pola pita protein. Preparat kromosom dibuat dengan metode squash semi permanen dengan bahan ujung akar tanaman dan pola pita protein dilakukan dengan metode SDS-PAGE. Data kualitatif meliputi bentuk dan warna daun dan bunga dari masing-masing varietas. Data morfometri antara varietas dianalisis dengan analisis sidaik ragam (ANAVA, dilanjutkan dengan uji jarak berganda Duncan (DMRT, pada taraf 5% terbukti terdapat beda nyata antar varietas. Pola pita protein akar, batang, daun serta semua organ dianalisis secara kualitatif menggunakan analisis kelompok hierarkhis Average Linkage (between Groups dalam program SPSS 10.0. Hasilnya menunjukkan bahwa keenam varietas memiliki karakter morfologi yang bervariasi, yaitu warna daun hijau muda sampai hijau tua, tidak berbulu, tulang daun polos, sedangkan warna mahkota merah muda sampai merah tua, walaupun ada yang putih dan kuning. Jumlah kromosom semua sama yaitu n =22, dimana panjang absolut kromosom berkisar antara 2,56-5,13 µm. Pola pita protein yang terbentuk secara kualitatif terdapat variasi ketebalan di antara keenam varietas, yang menunjukkan adanya perbedaan kandungan proteinnya.

  11. ANALISIS PENGELOLAAN LINGKUNGAN PERMUKIMAN DI KABUPATEN SOPPENG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakhrani Rauf

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini  bertujuan untuk mendeskripsikan pengelolaan lingkungan permukiman di Kabupaten Soppeng pada aspek: (1 penyediaan dan penanganan lahan terbuka hijau (open space; (2 penyediaan dan penanganan drainase; (3  penanganan sampah; (4 penyediaan dan penanganan pembuangan veses (septic tank. Jenis penelitian ini adalah penelitian kuantitatif dengan pendekatan survei.  Sampel wailayah penelitian ini adalah satu RW di ibu kota kabupaten dan satu RW di desa yang dipilih dengan metode purpossive sampling,  yaitu RW yang sudah maju di ibu kota kabupaten dan RW yang tertinggal di desa. Responden sebanyak 50 kepala keluarga yakni masing-masing 25 kepala keuarga di setiap RW, dipilih dengan  systematic random sampling.  Teknik pengumpulan data yang dilakukan adalah melakukan observasi langsung dan dilengkapi dengan wawancara terhadap responden. Analisis yang digunakan adalah analisis deskriptif. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pengelolaan lingkungan permukiman di Kabupaten Soppeng pada aspek: (1 ketersediaan dan penanganan lahan terbuka hijau (open space ditemukan belum memadai; (2 ketersediaan drainase (air kotor dan air hujan ditemukan belum memadai; (3 Penanganan sampahbelum memadai; dan (4 penanganan veses dan penyediaan septic tankbelum memadai.

  12. Directives for Mangrove Forest and Coastal Forest Rehabilitation in Earthquake and Tsunami Disaster Area in the Provinces of Manggroe Aceh Darussalam and Sumatera Utara (Nias Island, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecep Kusmara

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Peristiwa gempa bumi dan tsunami yang melanda Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam (NAD dan Pulau Nias Sumatera Utara pada bulan Desember 2004 telah mengakibatkan rusaknya sebagian besar hutan mangrove dan hutan pantai di kedua wilayah tersebut. Berhubung kedua tipe hutan tersebut sangat penting untuk menopang kelangsungan hidup penduduk pantai, maka penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mendapatkan arahan rehabilitasi hutan mangrove dan pantai yang rusak akibat tsunami di NAD dan Pulau Nias. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa wilayah pantai yang tanahnya berupa tanah mineral yang bukan lumpur dengan salinitas yang tinggi (di atas 10 0/00 seyogyanya ditanami oleh jenis mangrove eklusif (Rhizophora stylosa, R. apiculata, Sonneratia alba, Ceriops tagal dan Aegeciros floridum dan mangrove asosiat (Osbornea octodonta dan Scyphiphora sp., tanah bukan lumpur dengan salinitas rendah oleh berbagai jenis pohon hutan pantai (Casuarina equisetifolia, dan lain-lain, tanah lumpur bersalinitas tinggi oleh Avicenia spp. dan R. Mucronata; dan tanah gambut seyogyanya ditanami oleh Bruguiera gymnorrizha. Adapun lebar  jalur hijau vegetasi yang disarankan adalah minimal 225 m untuk wilayah NAD dan 211 m untuk wilayah pulau Nias. Untuk merealisasikan kegiatan rehabilitasi vegetasi pantai yang bersifat multitahun di NAD dan Nias maka kegiatan rehabilitasi tersebut harus ditempatkan dalam rangka pembangunan daerah Kata kunci: hutan mangrove, hutan pantai, jalur hijau, mangrove asosiat, mangrove eksklusif

  13. Jurnalisme Tabloid di Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diyah Hayu Rahmitasari

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Many scholars have criticised tabloid journalism because it often contains drama and sensationalism. However, tabloid journalism actually cater the taste of the readers who were ignored by mainstream newspapers. This article is based on a research analyse Pos Kota and Lampu Hijau, relying on content analysis of the papers’ editions in December 2011 and January 2012, as well as interviews with the editors and journalists. The analyses conclude that tabloid journalism in Indonesia is an urban phenomenon focuses on local issues and targets urban workers as their core readers and has been most successful in Jakarta and its surrounds. Abstrak: Jurnalisme tabloid merupakan terminologi yang sering diperdebatkan, dikritisi dan dicaci. Padahal, bentuk jurnalisme ini sebenarnya melayani selera pembaca yang cenderung diabaikan oleh jurnalisme arus utama. Artikel ini dibuat berdasarkan penelitian atas isi Pos Kota dan Lampu Hijau periode Desember 2011-Januari 2012, serta wawancara dengan editor dan jurnalis. Hasil analisis menunjukkan bahwa jurnalisme tabloid di Indonesia adalah jurnalisme yang fokus pada isu-isu lokal dan menyasar para pekerja urban sebagai pembaca utamanya sehingga meraih sukses di kota-kota besar terutama Jakarta dan sekitarnya.

  14. Pengaruh Aerasi dan Sumber Nutrien terhadap Kemampuan Alga Filum Chlorophyta dalam Menyerap Karbon (Carbon Sink untuk Mengurangi Emisi CO2 di Kawasan Perkotaan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lancur Setoaji

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian terkait mitigasi pemanasan global, khususnya dalam penyerapan karbon dioksida (CO2, menjadi fokus utama di kalangan ilmuwan dunia. Secara alamiah, karbon dioksida dapat diserap oleh tumbuhan hijau, laut, karbonasi batuan kapur, dan alga. Pigmen hijau dalam alga atau klorofil dapat menyerap karbon dioksida dalam proses fotosintesis. Alga memiliki pertumbuhan yang sangat cepat sehingga cocok digunakan sebagai carbon sink. Penelitian terkait carbon sink ini bertujuan untuk menentukan kemampuan rata-rata serapan CO2 oleh alga di kawasan perkotaan dan menentukan pengaruh aerasi dan variasi sumber N terhadap pertumbuhan dan perkembangan alga. Penelitian ini dilakukan dalam skala laboratorium menggunakan reaktor dengan proses batch. Sampel alga yang digunakan didapatkan dari hasil pengembangbiakan yang bersumber dari perairan di kawasan perkotaan. Penelitian ini menggunakan dua variabel uji, yaitu aerasi dan sumber nutrien. Jumlah karbon dioksida yang diserap didapatkan dari perbandingan stoikiometri pada reaksi fotosintesis.  Berdasarkan perbandingan stoikiometri tersebut diketahui bahwa 1 gram sel alga yang terbentuk sebanding dengan 1,92 gram CO2 yang diserap. Dari hasil penelitian, alga dengan penambahan pupuk urea dapat menyerap 4,87 mg CO2/hari dalam kondisi tanpa aerasi atau 3,84 mg CO2/hari dengan aerasi. Sedangkan alga dengan penambahan pupuk NPK dapat menyerap 3,61 mg CO2/hari dalam kondisi tanpa aerasi atau 3,01 mg CO2/hari dengan aerasi.

  15. Characteristics and 40Ar/39Ar geochronology of the Erdenet Cu-Mo deposit, Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavalieris, Imants; Khashgerel, Bat-Erdene; Morgan, Leah; Undrakhtamir, Alexander; Borohul, Adiya

    2017-01-01

    The Early to Middle Triassic Erdenet porphyry Cu-Mo deposit, in northern Mongolia, developed in a continent-continent arc collision zone, within the Central Asian orogenic belt. The porphyry system is related to multiple intrusions of crystal-crowded biotite granodiorite porphyry, which formed a composite stock about 900 m in diameter, with multiple porphyritic microgranodiorite dikes. Wall rocks are Late Permian to Early Triassic, medium-grained granodiorite, with similar whole-rock geochemistry, mineralogy, and composition to the granodiorite porphyry. Whole-rock analysis of the granodiorite porphyry and wall rocks shows that these rocks cannot be discriminated, but both have depleted middle heavy rare earth elements and Y, typical of fertile porphyry magmatic suites.At the current pit level (1,250 m elev), early porphyry-style quartz veins (A and B type) are locally infilled by pyrite-chalcopyrite, with subordinate bornite, but most of the chalcopyrite occurs in D veins that constitute more than 50% of the Cu grade (~0.5 wt % Cu). The 0.3 wt % Cu shell resembles a molar tooth, enveloping the granodiorite porphyry, with deeper roots extending down the wal-rock contacts. Molybdenite occurs in monomineralic veins, and in finely laminated to massive quartz-molybdenite veins.The most important alteration is quartz-muscovite, which occurs as relatively coarse (100–500 μm) alteration selvages (1–5 cm) that envelop D veins. The D veins cut illite ± kaolinite-smectite (or intermediate argillic) alteration. Intermediate argillic alteration, together with abundant pink anhydrite (commonly hydrated to gypsum), extends from at least 1,300- to 900-m elevation in the deepest drill holes, and has overprinted early potassic alteration, or relatively unaltered red granodiorite. Meter-wide zones of kaolinite cut the anhydrite-gypsum at all levels. There is an abrupt transition outward from the intermediate argillic alteration to chlorite-epidote (propylitic) alteration, at

  16. Geochemistry of sericite and chlorite in well 14-2 Roosevelt Hot Springs geothermal system and in mineralized hydrothermal systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballantyne, J.M.

    1980-06-01

    Chemical compositions of chlorite and sericite from one production well in the Roosevelt geothermal system have been determined by electron probe methods and compared with compositions of chlorite and sericite from porphyry copper deposits. Modern system sericite and chlorite occur over a depth interval of 2 km and a temperature interval of 250/sup 0/C.

  17. Zircon U–Pb geochronology and geochemistry of rhyolitic tuff ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    of the igneous rocks associated with porphyry Ag–Pb–Zn deposits in the Lengshuikeng ore district, SE. China. The Lengshuikeng ... geochemical data for the Jurassic igneous rocks from the Lengshuikeng ore district imply that during the. Late Jurassic, SE China on ...... and Wu (1991); CHUR is chondritic uniform reservoir.

  18. Continental Scientific Drilling Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    anomalies ar more complex and controversial. Thin- ning of the lithosphere in regions of extensional tectonics implies mechanical A:h ofmam, fena les tha...porphyry-copper districts (i.e., a volcanic setting, locally strong sericitic and argillic alteration, and the occur- rence of breccia pipes and

  19. MORPHOMETRY OF ZIRCON FROM BETLIAR GRANITE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakabská Katarína

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available Morphometrical analyse has been provided, using the method of [10] , on zircon from granite porphyry at Betliar. The result of this investigation indicate a comagmatic origin of Betliar and other granite bodies in the Gemericum. The source materila for at the granite magma formation originated by hybridization of crust-mantle rocks.

  20. Os isotopes and cooper sources for stratiform (mantos) cooper deposits of Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munizaga, Francisco; Ruiz, Joaquin; Freydier, Claire

    1998-01-01

    The sources of copper have been determined by studying trace elements osmium and rhenium as well as osmium isotope ratio in copper-bearing porphyry of Chuquicamata, el Teniente and Andacollo and in the stratiform copper deposits of Mantos Blancos, El Soldado, Cerro Negro and Talcuna

  1. Tracking rare orchids (Orchidaceae) in Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald A. Coleman

    2001-01-01

    Twenty-six native orchid species occur in Arizona, and 14 are considered rare with fewer than 100 occurrences in the state. The author is conducting three studies covering four of the wild orchids: Stenorrhynchos michuacanum, Hexalectris revoluta, Malaxis porphyry, and M. tenuis. The studies are ongoing so only interim results are available. Interim results indicate...

  2. International strategic mineral issues summary report: tungsten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Antony B.T.; Sinclair, W. David; Amey, Earle B.

    1998-01-01

    Scheelite and wolframite are the principal minerals currently mined for tungsten. Both occur in hard-rock deposits; wolframite is also recovered from placer deposits. Most current mine production of tungsten is from vein/stockwork, skarn, porphyry, and strata-bound deposits. Minor amounts are produced from disseminated, pegmatite, breccia, and placer deposits.

  3. A poly(pyrrole-Cobalt(II)deuteroporphyrin) electrode for the potentiometric determination of nitrite

    OpenAIRE

    Cosnier, Serge; Gondran, Chantal; Wessel, Rudolf; Montforts, Franz-Peter; Wedel, Michael

    2003-01-01

    The electrochemical properties of a new Co(II) deuteroporphyrin substituted by two electropolymerizable pyrrole groups has been investigated in organic solvent. This functionalization has allowed the preparation of the first example of a cobalt deuteroporphyrin film by oxidative electropolymerization. The resulting conducting polypyrrole film exhibits the regular electroactivity of cobalt deuteroporphyrin. Compared to conventional cobalt porphyrin electrochemistry, the replacement of porphyri...

  4. (2008) SWJ:121-126 Evolutionary Trend of The Jarawa Younger ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. Ahmed

    2008) SWJ:121-126. Evolutionary Trend of The Jarawa Younger Granite. TABLE 1. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF HORNBLENDE PORPHYRY GRANITES. Sample. No. Oxide (%). K2O CaO MgO FeO Fe2O3. AL2O3 Na2O PbO. JA-HP.

  5. The distribution of radon in tunnels with different geological characteristics in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Xiaoyan, E-mail: lxyan421@hotmail.co [School of Geographic and Biologic Sciences, Guizhou Normal University, GuiYang 550001 (China); Song Bo [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Guilin University of Technology, Guilin 541004 (China); Zheng Baoshan [Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, GuiYang 550002 (China); Wang Yan [Institute of Rock and Soil Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430071 (China); Wang Xue [Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, GuiYang 550002 (China)

    2010-05-15

    In China, as the economy is developing and the population is expanding, some underground buildings have been used as supermarkets, restaurants and entertainment places. Tunnels in mountains are one type of underground building, and the radon ({sup 222}Rn) level in tunnels is an important issue. Radon levels in different type tunnels appear to differ, and relatively higher levels of {sup 222}Rn are associated with particular types of bedrock. The {sup 222}Rn levels in tunnels in five different geological characteristics were analyzed. Those built in granite had the highest {sup 222}Rn levels with a geometric mean (GM) of 280 Bq m{sup -3}, while those built in limestone (GM: 100 Bq m{sup -3}) and andesitic porphyry (GM: 96 Bq m{sup -3}) were lower. The sequence of {sup 222}Rn concentrations was: granite > tuff > quartz sandstone > limestone > andesitic porphyry, and the {sup 222}Rn in granite was statistically significantly higher than in limestone and andesitic porphyry. Tunnels built in granite, tuff, quartz sandstone, limestone tended to have higher {sup 222}Rn concentrations in summer than in winter, while the reverse tendency was true in andesitic porphyry tunnels. Only the difference in limestone was statistically significant.

  6. Re–Os geochronology of Cu and W–Mo deposits in the Balkhash metallogenic belt, Kazakhstan and its geological significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuanhua Chen

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The Central Asian metallogenic domain (CAMD is a multi-core metallogenic system controlled by boundary strike-slip fault systems. The Balkhash metallogenic belt in Kazakhstan, in which occur many large and super-large porphyritic Cu–Mo deposits and some quartz vein- and greisen-type W–Mo deposits, is a well-known porphyritic Cu–Mo metallogenic belt in the CAMD. In this paper 11 molybdenite samples from the western segment of the Balkhash metallogenic belt are selected for Re–Os compositional analyses and Re–Os isotopic dating. Molybdenites from the Borly porphyry Cu deposit and the three quartz vein-greisen W–Mo deposits—East Kounrad, Akshatau and Zhanet—all have relatively high Re contents (2712–2772 μg/g for Borly and 2.267–31.50 μg/g for the other three W–Mo deposits, and lower common Os contents (0.670–2.696 ng/g for Borly and 0.0051–0.056 ng/g for the other three. The molybdenites from the Borly porphyry Cu–Mo deposit and the East Kounrad, Zhanet, and Akshatau quartz vein- and greisen-type W–Mo deposits give average model Re–Os ages of 315.9 Ma, 298.0 Ma, 295.0 Ma, and 289.3 Ma respectively. Meanwhile, molybdenites from the East Kounrad, Zhanet, and Akshatau W–Mo deposits give a Re–Os isochron age of 297.9 Ma, with an MSWD value of 0.97. Re–Os dating of the molybdenites indicates that Cu–W–Mo metallogenesis in the western Balkhash metallogenic belt occurred during Late Carboniferous to Early Permian (315.9–289.3 Ma, while the porphyry Cu–Mo deposits formed at ∼316 Ma, and the quartz vein-greisen W–Mo deposits formed at ∼298 Ma. The Re–Os model and isochron ages thus suggest that Late Carboniferous porphyry granitoid and pegmatite magmatism took place during the late Hercynian movement. Compared to the Junggar-East Tianshan porphyry Cu metallogenic belt in northwestern China, the formation of the Cu–Mo metallogenesis in the Balkhash metallogenic belt occurred between that of

  7. Permian magmatic sequences of the Bilihe gold deposit in central Inner Mongolia, China: Petrogenesis and tectonic significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chunhua; Nie, Fengjun

    2015-08-01

    The Bilihe gold deposit is located in the eastern section of the Ondor Sum-Yanji Suture at the southern margin of the Xing'an-Mongolian Orogenic Belt (XMOB) and the northern margin of the North China Craton (NCC), central Inner Mongolia. The magmatic rocks in the ore district are generally high-K calc-alkaline, enriched in LREE, Zr, and Hf, and depleted in HREE, Nb, Ta, and P. The magmatic evolution sequences are norite gabbro → granodiorite porphyry → granite or norite gabbro → andesite → dacite porphyry → granodiorite, which show a trend of decreasing TiO2, FeO, MgO, CaO, and P2O5 with increasing SiO2. In the Bilihe ore district, hydrothermal processes were coeval with granitic magmatism for a period of ~ 17 Myr (272-255 Ma). The ages of the granite, granodiorite porphyry, granodiorite, and dacite porphyry are 271.5-264.1 Ma, 269.8-255.8 Ma, 268.3 Ma, and 268.6-259.4 Ma, respectively. The magmatic rocks contain magmatic, hydrothermal, and magmatic-hydrothermal zircons. The magmatic zircons have δCe > 4, La 2.5; the hydrothermal zircons have δCe 3 ppm, and SmN/LaN < 2.5. The Nb/Ta and Zr/Hf ratios of granodiorite are 12.7-14.99 and 40.2-46.56, respectively. The Zr/Hf ratios successively increase in the sequence of granite (27.4-29.02) → granodiorite porphyry (29.19-32.18) → dacite porphyry (33.54-38.5) → norite gabbro (36.75-38.37), and their Nb/Ta ratios are 9.09-12.38. Zircons in granodiorite yield ε Hf (t) values of - 0.29 to - 56 (n = 13) and 2.07-7.62 (n = 5), and they give a Hf two-stage model age (tDM2) of 807-4765 Ma. The ε Hf (t) values of the zircons in granite, granodiorite porphyry, and dacite porphyry are - 0.46 to 8.03, 3.17 to 10.32, and - 0.78 to 6.58, respectively, and their Hf tDM2 ages are 787-1324 Ma, 638-1091 Ma, and 868-1343 Ma, respectively. Dehydration partial melting of subducted oceanic crust resulted in the formation of dacite porphyry; partial melting of depleted mantle resulted in the formation of norite gabbro

  8. Amino Acids Content in Mangosteen Fruit as Affected by Tree Ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eko Setiawan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Kita meneliti perbedaan kandungan dan komposisi asam amino pada buah manggis yang dipanen dari pohon yang berbeda umur dari kebun Manggis di Bogor pada tahun 2012. Pohon manggis dengan umur yang berbeda (muda, sekitar 20 tahun; sedang, sekitar umur 35 tahun; dan tua, sekitar 50 tahundipilih untuk diambil buahnya. Buah dari tiap pohon dipanen pada kondisi masak hijau spot kuning-merah. Pada buah dari semua umur pohon, asam amino yang dominan adalah γ-aminobutyric acid dan alanine. Total kandungan asam amino tertinggi terdapat pada buah yang dipetik dari pohon umur muda dari pada  buah yang dipetik dari pohon umur sedang dan tuaKata kunci: asam amino, GABA, kandungan, manggis

  9. ANCAMAN DI BALIK HASIL LAUT DI PERAIRAN TELUK JAKARTA TERHADAP KESEHATAN MASYARAKAT

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    Satmoko Wisaksono

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Tidak dapat dipungkiri dan disangsikan bahwa bahan makanan yang berasal dari hasil perikanan laut mempunyai kadar nilai gizi tinggi. lkan laut misalnya selain dagingnya mudah dicerna, juga kandungan protein, vitamin, mineral serta lemak tak jenuh sangat diperlukan untuk pertumbuhan dan kecerdasan. Jenis-jenis ikan laut segar yang banyak dikonsumsi dan disajikan di restoran seafood adalah ikan tongkol, tengiri, kakap, kerang, cumi, sotong, udang, kepiting, rajungan, dan lain sebagainya.Hasil penelitian yang dilakukan oleh Yayasan Lembaga Konsumen Indoneia (YLKI bekerjasama dengan IPB tahun 1997 menunjukkan bahwa contoh komoditi hasil laut yang diperoleh mengandung logam berat Hg adalah dari kelompok kerang-kerangan (Bivalvia yaitu kerang darah, hijau dan tahu.

  10. MISKONSEPSI DALAM MATERI IPA SEKOLAH DASAR

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    Dek Ngurah Laba Laksana

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendeskripsikan miskonsepsi yang terjadi pada calon guru dalam materi IPA di sekolah dasar. Penelitian ini menggunakan pendekatan kualitatif untuk memaparkan lebih dalam mengenai jenis miskonsepsi yang terjadi. Subjek dalam penelitian ini adalah calon guru SD. Jumlah subjek yang dijadikan responden adalah 64 orang, yang terdiri dari 44 orang calon guru perempuan dan 20 orang laki-laki. Hasil penelitian yang diperoleh adalah sebagai berikut. (1 terjadi miskonsepsi dalam berbagai konsep IPA di sekolah dasar, (2 konsep-konsep yang dominan mengalami miskonsepsi dengan persentase lebih dari 60% adalah (a konsep zat-zat yang diperlukan dalam proses fotosintesis tumbuhan hijau, b konsep fotosintesis membutuhkan cahaya, 3 konsep massa jenis zat, dan 4 konsep gerak jatuh bebas.

  11. KELIMPAHAN DAN KOMPOSISI FITOPLANKTON DI WADUK SELOREJO KECAMATAN NGANTANG KABUPATEN MALANG

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    Asus Maizar Suryanto

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian dilakukan di waduk Selorejo pada bulan April-Mei 2008. Tujuannya adalah untuk mengetahui kelimpahan dan komposisi fitoplankton di waduk Selorejo. Metode yang digunakan adalah metode survei dengan pengambilan data primer dan sekunder. Pengambilan sampel dilakukan sebanyak 3 kali setiap minggu pada 4 stasiun. Kelimpahan fitoplankton berkisar antara 120 – 930 ind/ml. Data kualitas air diperoleh suhu perairan yaitu berkisar antara 24 – 260C, kecerahan 32 – 55 cm, warna air warna hijau dan coklat keruh, pH 8 – 9, nitrat 0,33 – 1,04 mg/l, dan fosfat 0,9 – 0,55 mg/l. Sebagai usaha untuk menjaga kondisi perairan waduk Selorejo disarankan perlunya penanganan dan upaya manajemen bagi masyarakat sekitar tentang pemanfaatan dan pelestarian perairan sungai dan juga waduk Selorejo bagi kehidupan manusia. Kata Kunci : Fitoplankton, Waduk Selorejo, Kualitas Air 

  12. Rhenium

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, David A.; Seal, Robert R.; Polyak, Désirée E.; Schulz, Klaus J.; DeYoung,, John H.; Seal, Robert R.; Bradley, Dwight C.

    2017-12-19

    Rhenium is one of the rarest elements in Earth’s continental crust; its estimated average crustal abundance is less than 1 part per billion. Rhenium is a metal that has an extremely high melting point and a heat-stable crystalline structure. More than 80 percent of the rhenium consumed in the world is used in high-temperature superalloys, especially those used to make turbine blades for jet aircraft engines. Rhenium’s other major application is in platinum-rhenium catalysts used in petroleum refining.Rhenium rarely occurs as a native element or as its own sulfide mineral; most rhenium is present as a substitute for molybdenum in molybdenite. Annual world mine production of rhenium is about 50 metric tons. Nearly all primary rhenium production (that is, rhenium produced by mining rather than through recycling) is as a byproduct of copper mining, and about 80 percent of the rhenium obtained through mining is recovered from the flue dust produced during the roasting of molybdenite concentrates from porphyry copper deposits. Molybdenite in porphyry copper deposits can contain hundreds to several thousand grams per metric ton of rhenium, although the estimated rhenium grades of these deposits range from less than 0.1 gram per metric ton to about 0.6 gram per metric ton.Continental-arc porphyry copper-(molybdenum-gold) deposits supply most of the world’s rhenium production and have large inferred rhenium resources. Porphyry copper mines in Chile account for about 55 percent of the world’s mine production of rhenium; rhenium is also recovered from porphyry copper deposits in the United States, Armenia, Kazakhstan, Mexico, Peru, Russia, and Uzbekistan. Sediment-hosted strata-bound copper deposits in Kazakhstan (of the sandstone type) and in Poland (of the reduced-facies, or Kupferschiefer, type) account for most other rhenium produced by mining. These types of deposits also have large amounts of identified rhenium resources. The future supply of rhenium is likely

  13. GEO-ARKEOLOGI TERAS PURBA BENGAWAN SOLO DI SEKITAR KABUPATEN BOJONEGORO, JAWA TIMUR The Geo-archaeology of Ancient Terrace of Bengawan Solo in Bojonegoro Surrounding Regency, East Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Arif

    2016-07-01

    Abstrak Pemetaan teras purba Bengawan Solo merupakan kajian geo-arkeologi tahap awal yang dilakukan di beberapa lokasi di wilayah kabupaten Bojonegoro, Jawa Timur. Permasalahannya adalah ditemukannya indikasi keberadaan peralatan batu paleolitik dan fosil-fosil vertebrata di beberapa teras purba di wilayah ini. Oleh karena itu, tujuan dari kegiatan ini adalah mendapatkan gambaran sebaran teras purba Bengawan Solo berumur Kuarter serta memberikan usulan kepada para ahli arkeologi dalam merancang kegiatan pencarian sisa-sisa budaya manusia antara lain peralatan batu paleolitik maupun sisa-sisa fosil rangka manusia dan hewan pada suatu teras purba. Metode yang dipakai di dalam penelitian ini adalah metode pemetaan geologi, deskripsi profil sedimen, pengambilan contoh-contoh sedimen (termasuk fosil hewan untuk keperluan analisa sedimentologi dan analisa kimia. Di daerah penelitian yang terletak di kabupaten Bojonegoro dijumpai tiga teras yaitu Teras Menden (berumur sub-Resen, Jipangulu (berumur Holosen Awal dan Ngandong (berumur Plestosen Atas. Teras Menden dijumpai di Payaman, Teras Jipangulu di Prangi dan Wotangare dan Teras Ngandong dijumpai di Prangi dan di desa Kedung. Berdasarkan bukti stratigrafinya ketiga teras tersebut disusun oleh lapisan pasir ukuran kasar hingga kerikilan di bagian bawah dan berubah menjadi pasir lempungan dan lempung pasiran di bagian atas. Fenomena ini menunjukkan bahwa ketiga teras tersebut dibentuk oleh sungai yang berkelok-kelok yaitu Bengawan Solo purba. Kedudukan masing-masing teras purba di daerah penelitian yang diukur dari Bengawan Solo adalah 2-3 m (Teras Menden, 5-7 m (Teras Jipangulu dan >8 m (Teras Ngandong. Berdasarkan hasil kajian teras purba ini diusulkan agar para ahli arkeologi lebih memfokuskan kepada perlapisan sedimen yang berukuran kasar dalam sistem endapan sungai purba berumur Kuarter untuk mencari sisa-sisa budaya manusia paleolitikum seperti peralatan batu maupun sisa-sisa fosil rangka manusia dan hewan.   Kata

  14. PEMODELAN PENYEBARAN BATUAN POTENSIAL PEMBENTUK ASAM PADA KAWASAN PENAMBANGAN BATUBARA TAMBANG TERBUKA DI MUARA LAWA, KABUPATEN KUTAI BARAT, KALIMANTAN TIMUR (Modeling Distribution of Rock Potential Acid Forming in Open Pit Coal Mining Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shalaho Dina Devy

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Dampak penambangan batubara tambang terbuka adalah munculnya Air Asam Tambang (AAT di sekitar lingkungan penambangan yang mempengaruhi kualitas air tambang, biota air, kualitas air dan tanah. Oleh karena itu, informasi awal untuk mengantisipasi dampak tersebut, yaitu identifikasi batuan yang berpotensi asam dan memodelkan penyebarannya. Kajian geologi dan mineralogi batuan berperan dalam mengetahui penyebaran batuan Potential Acid Forming (PAF dan Non Acid Forming (NAF. Kawasan tambang yang digunakan sebagai model penelitian berada di Kecamatan Muara Lawa, Kabupaten Kutai Barat, Kalimantan Timur. Hasil dari penelitian mengindikasikan, bahwa dominasi PAF berada di lapisan batu lempung kemudian diikuti batu lanau dan batu pasir dengan penyebaran mengikuti struktur sinklin yang terbatas di lapisan bawah (floor dan lapisan antara (inter burden pada batubara. Sementara itu, batuan NAF menyebar menempati daerah selain batuan PAF. ABSTRACT The impact of open pit coal mining is the emergence of Acid Mine Water (AMD around the mining environment that affect the quality of the mine water, aquatic biota, water and soil quality. Therefore, early information to anticipate these impacts is the identification potential acid rock and distribution model as a guide for the mining plan. Geological and geochemical study of rocks is important in knowing the distribution of rock Potential Acid Formning (PAF and Non Acid Forming (NAF. Mining area which is used as a research model was in Muara Lawa, West Kutai regency, East Kalimantan province. The results of the study indicate, that the dominance of PAF are in layers followed by siltstone, claystone and sandstone with the distribution of rock following the syncline structure in the bottom (floor layer and in the inter-burden layer on coal. Meanwhile, rock NAF spread in areas other than rock PAF.

  15. ANALISIS KONSEP GREEN ROOF PADA KAMPUS SCHOOL OF ART, DESIGN AND MEDIA NTU SINGAPORE DAN PERPUSTAKAAN UI DEPOK

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    Ratna Dewi Nur'aini

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK. Jakarta termasuk salah satu kota yang terletak di daerah beriklim tropis. Sebagai ibukota negara, Jakarta mempunyai kepadatan penduduk sangat tinggi, lahan terbuka hijau semakin berkurang. Banyak sekali ditemukan bangunan yang menggunakan Air Conditioning (AC sehingga akan menimbulkan global warming. Bangunan pendidikan merupakan salah satu bangunan yang perlu didesain sedemikian rupa sehingga menjadi nyaman dan tidak merusak lingkungan, yang akan mendukung terciptanya sumber daya manusia yang berkualitas. Perlu adanya kajian konsep green building pada bangunan-bangunan yang mempunyai fungsi pendidikan di daerah iklim tropis untuk menjadi sumber referensi yang nantinya bisa diterapkan di kota Jakarta pada khususnya. Pada penelitian ini kajian green building difokuskan pada analisis tentang green roof pada bangunan pendidikan. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah mengidentifikasi konsep green roof bangunan kampus School of Art, Design and Media NTU Singapore dan bangunan Perpustakaan UI Depok dan menganalisisnya untuk dapat diterapkan di Kota Jakarta pada khususnya. Metode yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah deskriptif kualitatif. Lokasi penelitian ini adalah kampus Nanyang Technological University School of Art, Design and Media Singapura dan Gedung Perpustakaan Universitas Indonesia Depok yang menggunakan aplikasi green roof. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa sistem berkelanjutan telah menjadi salah satu kebijakan prioritas di kota Singapura dan Jakarta. Green roof tidak hanya merupakan upaya untuk menciptakan arsitektur berkelanjutan, tetapi juga dari segi estetika. Green roof merupakan salah satu aplikasi konsep green building yang tepat untuk diaplikasikan pada bangunan–bangunan pendidikan yang ada di Jakarta sebagai kota yang memiliki kepadatan bangunan tinggi dan lahan terbuka hijau yang sangat terbatas. Kata kunci:bangunan pendidikan,greenroof, iklim tropis, Kampus NTU, Perpustakaan UI Depok

  16. KONSEP BARU TOTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENT MANAGEMENT (TQEM UNTUK MENGUJI KINERJA LINGKUNGAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yana Ulfah

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis sebuah model mengontrol orientasi (Penelitian ini menguji pengaruh moderating dari Total Quality Manajemen Lingkungan Hidup (TQEM pada hubungan antara manajemen rantai pasokan hijau (GSCM dan kinerja lingkungan (EP. Premis penelitian adalah bahwa upaya organisasi total dari manajemen puncak dan karyawan memfasilitasi pelaksanaan GSCM, yang pada akhirnya meningkatkan kinerja hijau. Kerangka sampel termasuk unit bisnis strategis dari perusahaan atas industri otomotif dan elektronik di Indonesia. Sebanyak 200 kuesioner dikirimkan bersama dengan surat lamaran dan ongkos kiri. Hasil temuan menggambarkan GSCM yang positif pada lingkungan hidup kinerja TQEM Dan ini menunjukkan efek moderat yang kuat pada kinerja lingkungan hidup ada minimisasi limbah dan berbahaya minimalisasi bahan. Studi ini menunjukkan bahwa penting untuk mempertimbangkan penerapan TQEM dalam hal dukungan manajemen puncak, keterlibatan karyawan, pemasok dan koordinasi untuk melengkapi praktek GSCM. Temuan ini penting untuk kedua peneliti dan praktisi karena menunjukkan perlunya upaya terpadu program tersebut.This research examines the moderating influence of Total Quality Environmental Management (TQEM on the relationship between green supply chain management (GSCM and environmental performance (EP. The premise of the study is that the total organizational effort from top management and employees decide to facilitate the implementation of GSCM, which in turn increases the green performance. Sample frame includes a strategic business unit of the company’s automotive and electronics industries in Indonesia. The findings illustrate the positive GSCM performance environment TQEM and it shows a strong moderate effect on the environmental performance of existing hazardous waste minimization and minimization of material. This study concludes that it is important to consider the application of TQEM in terms of top management support

  17. KESTABILAN IODIUM DALAM GARAM PADA BERBAGAI TIPE DAN RESEP MASAKAN

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    Ance Murdiana Dahro

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Dalam jangka panjang fortifikasi garam dianggap cara yang paling tepat guna dan ekonomis untuk menanggulangi masalah kekurangan iodium. Dalam kaitan tersebut perlu diketahui kestabilan iodium dalam garam yang ditambahkan kedalam masakan dari berbagai tipe dan resep di tingkat lapangan. Sampel berupa masakan yang berasal dari 6 kota di 6 provinsi di Indonesia, banyak dikonsumsi dan dijual di tempat yang banyak dikunjungi orang. Penentuan sampel masakan dilakukan setelah pengujian garam yang digunakan dengan menggunakan pereaksi Iodinatest buatan Indofarma. Bila setelah penambahan pereaksi pada garam timbul warna ungu menandakan bahwa garam tersebut mengandung iodium, masakan ituu kemudian ditetapkan sebagai sampel. Jumlah garam yang ditambahkan diketahui dari wawancara dengan penjual makanan tersebut. Jumlah iodium dalam garam yang ditambahkan kedalam masakan diketahui setelah dilakukan analisis garam di laboratorium. Dari iodium yang tersisa dalam makanan dapat dihitung jumlah iodium yang hilang. Dibuat pula beberapa masakan serupa dengan menggunakan resep asli di laboratorium (simulasi. Pelepasan iodium dari makanan dilakukan melalui dua tahap yaitu digestasi kering lalu dilanjutkan dengan digestasi cara basah. Penetapan iodium dilakukan dengan reaksi "Sandell Kolthoff'. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa jumlah iodium yang tersisa pada umumnya amat rendab (dibawah 50 ug/100 gram masakan. Tiap jenis masakan bervariasi dalam keasaman, jenis dan jumlah bumbu yang ditambahkan. Iodium yang rusak/hilang dari masakan tipe asam yang dimasak atau tidak dimasak (contoh kuah empek-empek atau asinan sekitar 60-85%, dari masakan bersantan tapi dimasak tidak lama (contoh soto santan sekitar 40-50%, dari masakan bersantan dikeringkan (contoh rendang sekitar 60-70%, dari masakan yang digoreng (contoh sambal hijau sekitar 45-60%, dari masakan yang diolah tidak lama (contoh sayur tettu, rujak cingur sekitar 40-50%, sedangkan dari masakan yang dimasak lebih dari

  18. RESEARCH ON MOBILE CONSUMER HABIT AND ATTITUDE TOWARDS FEMTOCELL SERVICES

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    Novika Chandra Astuti

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Femtocell is the new technology that may offer competitive value to mobile service providers for increasing their market share, retain the consumers and lower the operational cost ini providing the better signal especially inside building (indoor. This study investigate the habit and attitude of mobile consumers int two specific areas in Bandung; Buah Batu Regency and Mitra Dago-Antapani, toward the use of femtocell value and services. This study also considers the marketing implication the success of femtocell deployment in the future

  19. Deteksi dan Identifikasi Dickeya sp. sebagai Organisme Pengganggu Tumbuhan Karantina A2 pada Tanaman Kentang di Jawa

    OpenAIRE

    Haerani Haerani; Abdjad Asih Nawangsih; Tri Asmira Damayanti

    2015-01-01

    Erwinia chrysanthemi (currently Dickeya sp.) is one of the A2 quarantine pest that must be concerned of its distribution on potato in Indonesia. The aim of this study is to detect and identify E. chrysanthemi from potato in Java. A total of 400 samples of potato plants showing symptoms of soft rot were obtained from several potato areas in Pangalengan and Garut (West Java), Dieng (Central Java), and Batu-Malang (East Java). Disease incidence was determined by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorb...

  20. Analisis Teknologi Artefak Obsidian Danau Bandung Purba

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    Anton Ferdianto

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Stone tool's was one of a kind that prehistory man use and made, where is purpose or un purpose to help their daily life's. There's lot of stone material that man could use to make stone tool and one of them is Obsidian. An archaeological survei had been conduct in Bandung Basin and Obsidian artifact was found there. Analysis from Obsidian artifact that found in several site in Bandung basin in this case classification and typology was throughout in these research, and conclude that the knapping stone technology in Bandung Basin area was quite high. Keywords: alat batu, danau bandung, obsidian

  1. Accident Analysis and Highway Safety

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    Omar Noorliyana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Since 2010, Federal Route FT050 (Jalan Batu Pahat-Kluang has undergone many changes, including the improvement of geometric features (i.e., construction of median, dedicated U-turns and additional lanes and upgrading the quality of the road surface. Unfortunately, even with these enhancements, accidents continue to occur along this route. This study covered both accident analysis and blackspot study. Accident point weightage was used to identify blackspot locations. The results reveal hazardous road locations and blackspot ranking along the route.

  2. KETERAMPILAN METAKOGNITIF DAN HASIL BELAJAR KOGNITIF SISWA DENGAN PEMBELAJARAN READING CONCEPT MAP-TIMED PAIR SHARE (REMAP-TMPS

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    Fatia Rosyida

    2016-04-01

    Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui pengaruh pembelajaran Reading-Concept Map-Timed Pair Share (Remap-TmPS terhadap keterampilan metakognitif dan hasil belajar kognitif. Jenis penelitian ini adalah eksperimen semu dengan desain penelitian Pretes-Po