WorldWideScience

Sample records for battlescars global conflicts

  1. Globalization and domestic conflict

    OpenAIRE

    Michelle R. Garfinkel; Skaperdas, Stergios; Syropoulos, Constantinos

    2005-01-01

    We examine how globalization affects trade patterns and welfare when conflict prevails domestically. We do so in a simple model of trade, in which a natural resource like oil is contested by competing groups using real resources (”guns”). Thus, conflict is viewed as ultimately stemming from imperfect property-rights enforcement. When comparing autarky with free trade in such a setting, the gains from trade have to be weighed against the possibly higher resource costs of conflict. We find that...

  2. Globalization and Conflict Management in Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ilker Gumuseli

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Globalization has brought many changes on the education systems and schools. These changes will be exemplified from thebasis of school finance, employee rights, curriculum, administration, and school-environment relations in this study. The studyalso reviews common types of conflicts experienced at schools as a result of globalization and the ways in which conflict couldbe managed. Following topics were discussed in the article: ‘Conflicts emerged from perspectives towards globalization,conflicts emerged from cross cultural differences, conflicts sourced from changes in the teaching and learning processes,conflicts sourced from the standardization efforts, conflicts sourced from the change in school-parents relations, conflictssourced from the process of finance related activities and conflicts sourced from information, communication andeducational technologies’. This article argues that schools cannot be isolated from the effects of globalization. Therefore sinceconflict is a normal occurrence in schools, school administrators should discover constructive approaches through carefuldiagnosis and an approach that transforms the conflicting situations into constructive experiences for the school and theeducation.

  3. Conflict Networks: Collapsing the Global into the Local

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick Srnicek

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent decades have seen a dual and simultaneous shift in conflict trends. With the end of the Cold War and superpower support, conflicts have become increasingly intrastate and increasingly localized, dependent for their sustenance upon local assistance and national resources. Yet this localization of conflict has coincided with the increasingly international aspect of conflicts, with humanitarian intervention and UN peacekeeping becoming ever more prevalent. The aim of this paper is to provide a framework for understanding these shifting relations between the global and the local. This is accomplished through an analysis of actor-network theory and its rejoinders to reductionist understandings of conflict. Rather than reducing the eruption of violence down to greed, grievance, or ancient hatred, actor-network theory aims to examine conflict networks and their specific composition of local, material, and global actors. Three aspects of these networks are highlighted in particular: the personal networks of local individuals, the material actors, and theconflict network as a system. With these clarified the final section turns to an analysis of some of the primary modalities through which global actors relate and embed themselves within local networks.

  4. Impact of Globalization on Traditional African Religion and Cultural Conflict

    OpenAIRE

    Alphonse Kasongo

    2010-01-01

    This paper aims to discuss the impact of the paradigm of global culture on African tradition particularly on the role of African traditional women in conflict prevention and resolution. Global culture, a part of globalization, has not only transported the good side of the economic and social development across the globe but has also changed in the culture of host communities. Some changes include the mode of production and the way things are done, whileothers include the symbolic interaction ...

  5. Armed Conflict, Substance Use and HIV: A Global Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerridge, Bradley T; Saha, Tulshi D; Hasin, Deborah S

    2016-03-01

    Armed conflict is frequently assumed to be a contributor to the global HIV epidemic, but existing evidence is sparse. We examined the relationship between armed conflict between 2002 and 2008 and HIV disability life years (DALYs) in 2010 among WHO Member States. Using partial least squares analysis we also examined moderation of the armed conflict-HIV link by two susceptibility constructs (background risk, substance use) and one vulnerability mediator (numbers of refugees, people on ART, and total HIV spending). Background risk directly impacted HIV DALYs (p natural disasters on the populace in conflict-affected states. Integration of substance prevention/harm reduction programs within national HIV responses, attention to most-at-risk populations and increased surveillance/treatment of drug resistant HIV and TB is warranted. PMID:26286341

  6. Conflicts over natural resources in the Global South : conceptual approaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bavinck, M.; Pellegrini, L.; Mostert, E.

    2014-01-01

    Inhabitants of poor, rural areas in the Global South heavily depend on natural resources in their immediate vicinity. Conflicts over and exploitation of these resources - whether it is water, fish, wood fuel, minerals, or land - severely affect their livelihoods. The contributors to this volume leav

  7. Global Mental Health: concepts, conflicts and controversies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitley, Rob

    2015-08-01

    This paper introduces, describes and analyses the emerging concept of Global Mental Health (GMH). The birth of GMH can be traced to London, 2007, with the publication of a series of high-profile papers in The Lancet. Since then, GMH has developed into a movement with proponents, adherents, opponents, an ideology and core activities. The stated aims of the Movement for GMH are 'to improve services for people living with mental health problems and psychosocial disabilities worldwide, especially in low- and middle-income countries where effective services are often scarce'. GMH could be considered an attempt to right a historic wrong. During the colonial and post-colonial eras, the mental health of subject populations was accorded a very low priority. This was fuelled by scientific racism, which alleged that mental illness was uncommon in places such as Africa. As developing nations have made the epidemiological transition, the burden of mental illness has proportionately increased, with research suggesting a massive 'treatment gap' between those in need and those actually receiving formal mental health care. As such, much GMH research and action has been devoted to: (i) the identification and scale-up of cost-effective evidence-supported interventions that could be made more widely available; (ii) task-shifting of such intervention delivery to mental-health trained non-specialist Lay Health Workers. GMH has come under sustained critique. Critics suggest that GMH is colonial medicine come full circle, involving the top-down imposition of Western psychiatric models and solutions by Western-educated elites. These critiques suggest that GMH ignores the various indigenous modalities of healing present in non-Western cultures, which may be psychologically adaptive and curative. Relatedly, critics argue that GMH could be an unwitting Trojan horse for the mass medicalisation of people in developing countries, paving the way for exploitation by Big Pharma, while ignoring

  8. Globalization and Internal Conflicts : A Statistical Analysis of the Effects of Economic, Social, and Political Globalization on Different Forms of Internal Conflict

    OpenAIRE

    Rimstad, Johanne Eriksen

    2012-01-01

    Globalization is one of the most significant developments in the world today. At the same time that globalization is integrating the world, violent conflicts are to an increasing degree internal affairs, rather than international. Most of the previous research on the subject is concerned with economic globalization and civil war, but there is more to both globalization and internal conflict. I attempt to shed light on the relationship between the two using a broad, three-part definition of gl...

  9. Making sense of the global health crisis: policy narratives, conflict, and global health governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ney, Steven

    2012-04-01

    Health has become a policy issue of global concern. Worried that the unstructured, polycentric, and pluralist nature of global health governance is undermining the ability to serve emergent global public health interests, some commentators are calling for a more systematic institutional response to the "global health crisis." Yet global health is a complex and uncertain policy issue. This article uses narrative analysis to explore how actors deal with these complexities and how uncertainties affect global health governance. By comparing three narratives in terms of their basic assumptions, the way they define problems as well as the solutions they propose, the analysis shows how the unstructured pluralism of global health policy making creates a wide scope of policy conflict over the global health crisis. This wide scope of conflict enables effective policy-oriented learning about global health issues. The article also shows how exclusionary patterns of cooperation and competition are emerging in health policy making at the global level. These patterns threaten effective learning by risking both polarization of the policy debate and unanticipated consequences of health policy. Avoiding these pitfalls, the analysis suggests, means creating global health governance regimes that promote openness and responsiveness in deliberation about the global health crisis. PMID:22422655

  10. Impact of Globalization on Traditional African Religion and Cultural Conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alphonse Kasongo

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to discuss the impact of the paradigm of global culture on African tradition particularly on the role of African traditional women in conflict prevention and resolution. Global culture, a part of globalization, has not only transported the good side of the economic and social development across the globe but has also changed in the culture of host communities. Some changes include the mode of production and the way things are done, whileothers include the symbolic interaction or the appreciation ofhow social facts are to be seen and appreciated. For example, the change from collectivism social structure that characterizes African society to individualism structure that characterizes the market-oriented culture of western society. This change is without doubt that “Globalization is one of the most important and developed theories of the twentieth century” (Ritzer, 2008: 230. However, one aspect that justifies the importance of this development is the culture (termed civilization in other areas that the application of this concept transports from one location to another. This cultural aspect may be economic, marketing oriented, or just a change in rationale behavior of consumption and production. Nevertheless, this change questions the static existence of rapport, the role that traditional culture plays in the life of African communities, and the impact traditional religions still have on the essence of African culture.

  11. Global Agriculture Yields and Conflict under Future Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rising, J.; Cane, M. A.

    2013-12-01

    Aspects of climate have been shown to correlate significantly with conflict. We investigate a possible pathway for these effects through changes in agriculture yields, as predicted by field crop models (FAO's AquaCrop and DSSAT). Using satellite and station weather data, and surveyed data for soil and management, we simulate major crop yields across all countries between 1961 and 2008, and compare these to FAO and USDA reported yields. Correlations vary by country and by crop, from approximately .8 to -.5. Some of this range in crop model performance is explained by crop varieties, data quality, and other natural, economic, and political features. We also quantify the ability of AquaCrop and DSSAT to simulate yields under past cycles of ENSO as a proxy for their performance under changes in climate. We then describe two statistical models which relate crop yields to conflict events from the UCDP/PRIO Armed Conflict dataset. The first relates several preceding years of predicted yields of the major grain in each country to any conflict involving that country. The second uses the GREG ethnic group maps to identify differences in predicted yields between neighboring regions. By using variation in predicted yields to explain conflict, rather than actual yields, we can identify the exogenous effects of weather on conflict. Finally, we apply precipitation and temperature time-series under IPCC's A1B scenario to the statistical models. This allows us to estimate the scale of the impact of future yields on future conflict. Centroids of the major growing regions for each country's primary crop, based on USDA FAS consumption. Correlations between simulated yields and reported yields, for AquaCrop and DSSAT, under the assumption that no irrigation, fertilization, or pest control is used. Reported yields are the average of FAO yields and USDA FAS yields, where both are available.

  12. Synopsis: 2015 Global hunger index: Armed conflict and the challenge of hunger

    OpenAIRE

    von Grebmer, Klaus; Bernstein, Jill; Prasai, Nilam; Yin, Sandra; Yohannes, Yisehac; Towey, Olive; Sonntag, Andrea; Neubauer, Larissa; de Waal, Alex

    2015-01-01

    The 2015 Global Hunger Index (GHI) report—the tenth in an annual series—presents a multidimensional measure of national, regional, and global hunger. It shows that the world has made progress in reducing hunger since 2000, but still has a long way to go, with levels of hunger still serious or alarming in 52 countries. The theme of this year’s report is armed conflict and the challenge of hunger. Conflict and hunger are closely associated. Indeed, conflict is the main cause of persistent sever...

  13. Intrastate conflict in oil producing states: A threat to global oil supply?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper I investigate how often and how much outbreaks of intrastate conflict in oil producing states translates into oil supply shortfalls. The Libyan conflict that broke out in February 2011 highlighted the fear that intrastate conflict in oil producing states may imply shortfalls and ensuing volatile global oil prices. I argue, however, that it is far from certain that shortfalls following conflict outbreak will occur, since both sides in a conflict face incentives simultaneously to protect and maintain oil installations and to strike and destroy these. Based on a quantitative analysis of 39 intrastate wars in oil producing countries (1965-2007) I conclude that outbreak of conflict does not translate into production decline with any certainty. In fact, likelihoods are less than 50% for reductions to occur. In many cases growing production actually followed conflict outbreak. I conclude by investigating four characteristics of intrastate conflict that may explain when oil production is at risk during conflict: (1) proximity of oil producing fields to key battle zones, (2) duration of conflict, (3) separatism and the location of oil in separatist territory, and (4) the relative size of oil production. While the first three factors did not prove important, oil producer size could be significant. But further research is needed to establish this with greater certainty. - Highlights: → Oil shortfall during intrastate conflict is not a given. → Statistical analysis of 39 intrastate conflicts in oil producing countries since 1965. → Examination of four characteristics of intrastate conflict in oil producing countries. → Marginal significance related to large producers and production shortfall.

  14. Globalization and Conflict: Welfare, Distribution,and Political Unrest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranveig Gissinger

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The consequences of globalization for the development of a more peaceful world remain highly controversial. This article seeks to clarify the impact that the globalization of the economy may have on civil war and political instability. Liberals argue that countries heavily dependent on the global economy (whether measured by trade or investment are likely to experience higher economic growth, greater affluence, more democracy, and increasingly peaceful conditions at home and abroad. In stark contrast, most dependency theorists argue that high levels of trade and investment tend to generate greater economic inequality. Relative deprivation theory suggests that such inequality will increase the risk of political instability. From these two broad perspectives, a set of hypotheses is developed and tested on a global dataset for the period 1965-93. The consequences of an open economy prove to be quite complex. A high level of trade does generate more domestic peace; at the same time, direct foreign investment also creates conditions conducive to political instability. However, the consequences of trade are dependent on what is being exported. Exports of manufactured goods create high levels of welfare and equality, while exports of agricultural products promote poverty and inequality. Inequality emerges as but one of many factors which lead to political instability.

  15. Does infectious disease cause global variation in the frequency of intrastate armed conflict and civil war?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letendre, Kenneth; Fincher, Corey L; Thornhill, Randy

    2010-08-01

    Geographic and cross-national variation in the frequency of intrastate armed conflict and civil war is a subject of great interest. Previous theory on this variation has focused on the influence on human behaviour of climate, resource competition, national wealth, and cultural characteristics. We present the parasite-stress model of intrastate conflict, which unites previous work on the correlates of intrastate conflict by linking frequency of the outbreak of such conflict, including civil war, to the intensity of infectious disease across countries of the world. High intensity of infectious disease leads to the emergence of xenophobic and ethnocentric cultural norms. These cultures suffer greater poverty and deprivation due to the morbidity and mortality caused by disease, and as a result of decreased investment in public health and welfare. Resource competition among xenophobic and ethnocentric groups within a nation leads to increased frequency of civil war. We present support for the parasite-stress model with regression analyses. We find support for a direct effect of infectious disease on intrastate armed conflict, and support for an indirect effect of infectious disease on the incidence of civil war via its negative effect on national wealth. We consider the entanglements of feedback of conflict into further reduced wealth and increased incidence of disease, and discuss implications for international warfare and global patterns of wealth and imperialism. PMID:20377573

  16. Local Media in Global Conflict: Southeast Asian Newspapers and the Politics of Peace in Israel/Palestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yakubu Ozohu-Suleiman

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available It is often assumed that local media are a potential deescalating tool in global conflict. This study examines how four leading newspapers in Southeast Asia (Star of Malaysia, Philstar of the Philippines, Jakarta Post of Indonesia, and The Nation of Thailand reported the Israeli-Palestinian conflict during the year after the 2009 Gaza War. A census of 536 reports was coded for tones (to detect alignment, frames (to detect characterization of the conflict, and sources (to examine correlation with coverage tones. The results show fragmented alignment of the newspapers with Palestine and Israel. Conflict frames on offensives, fighting, threats, military strategies, demonization, death, and destruction were most prevalent. Coverage tones were significantly correlated with sources, suggesting that the potential of local media to serve as deescalating tools in global conflicts is subject to the varying political contexts in which they operate in relation to specific conflicts.

  17. Local Media in Global Conflict: Southeast Asian Newspapers and the Politics of Peace in Israel/Palestine

    OpenAIRE

    Yakubu Ozohu-Suleiman; Sidin Ahmad Ishak

    2015-01-01

    It is often assumed that local media are a potential deescalating tool in global conflict. This study examines how four leading newspapers in Southeast Asia (Star of Malaysia, Philstar of the Philippines, Jakarta Post of Indonesia, and The Nation of Thailand) reported the Israeli-Palestinian conflict during the year after the 2009 Gaza War. A census of 536 reports was coded for tones (to detect alignment), frames (to detect characterization of the conflict), and sources (to examine correlatio...

  18. Structure of global buyer-supplier networks and its implications for conflict minerals regulations

    CERN Document Server

    Mizuno, Takayuki; Watanabe, Tsutomu

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the structure of global inter-firm linkages using a dataset that contains information on business partners for about 400,000 firms worldwide, including all the firms listed on the major stock exchanges. Among the firms, we examine three networks, which are based on customer-supplier, licensee-licensor, and strategic alliance relationships. First, we show that these networks all have scale-free topology and that the degree distribution for each follows a power law with an exponent of 1.5. The shortest path length is around six for all three networks. Second, we show through community structure analysis that the firms comprise a community with those firms that belong to the same industry but different home countries, indicating the globalization of firms' production activities. Finally, we discuss what such production globalization implies for the proliferation of conflict minerals (i.e., minerals extracted from conflict zones and sold to firms in other countries to perpetuate fighting) through g...

  19. Managing the global commons decision making and conflict resolution in response to climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rayner, S. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Naegeli, W.; Lund, P. (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (USA))

    1990-07-01

    A workshop was convened to develop a better understanding of decision-making matters concerning management of the global commons and to resolve conflicts in response to climate change. This workshop report does not provide a narrative of the proceedings. The workshop program is included, as are the abstracts of the papers that were presented. Only the introductory paper on social science research by William Riebsame and the closing summary by Richard Rockwell are reprinted here. This brief report focuses instead on the deliberations of the working groups that developed during the workshop. 4 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Climate change, conflict and development in Sudan: global neo-Malthusian narratives and local power struggles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoeven, Harry

    2011-01-01

    Dystopian accounts of climate change posit that it will lead to more conflict, causing state failure and mass population movements. Yet these narratives are both theoretically and empirically problematic: the conflict–environment hypothesis merges a global securitization agenda with local manipulations of Northern fears about the state of planetary ecology. Sudan has experienced how damaging this fusion of wishful thinking, power politics and top-down development can be. In the 1970s, global resource scarcity concerns were used locally to impose the fata morgana of Sudan as an Arab-African breadbasket: in the name of development, violent evictions of local communities contributed to Sudan's second civil war and associated famines. Today, Darfur has been labelled ‘the world's first climate change conflict’, masking the long-term political-economic dynamics and Sudanese agency underpinning the crisis. Simultaneously, the global food crisis is instrumentalized to launch a dam programme and agricultural revival that claim to be African answers to resource scarcity. The winners, however, are Sudan's globalized Islamist elites and foreign investors, whilst the livelihoods of local communities are undermined. Important links exist between climatic developments and security, but global Malthusian narratives about state failure and conflict are dangerously susceptible to manipulations by national elites; the practical outcomes decrease rather than increase human security. In the climate change era, the breakdown of institutions and associated violence is often not an unfortunate failure of the old system due to environmental shock, but a strategy of elites in wider processes of power and wealth accumulation and contestation.

  1. Climate change, conflict and development in Sudan: global neo-Malthusian narratives and local power struggles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoeven, Harry

    2011-01-01

    Dystopian accounts of climate change posit that it will lead to more conflict, causing state failure and mass population movements. Yet these narratives are both theoretically and empirically problematic: the conflict–environment hypothesis merges a global securitization agenda with local manipulations of Northern fears about the state of planetary ecology. Sudan has experienced how damaging this fusion of wishful thinking, power politics and top-down development can be. In the 1970s, global resource scarcity concerns were used locally to impose the fata morgana of Sudan as an Arab-African breadbasket: in the name of development, violent evictions of local communities contributed to Sudan's second civil war and associated famines. Today, Darfur has been labelled ‘the world's first climate change conflict’, masking the long-term political-economic dynamics and Sudanese agency underpinning the crisis. Simultaneously, the global food crisis is instrumentalized to launch a dam programme and agricultural revival that claim to be African answers to resource scarcity. The winners, however, are Sudan's globalized Islamist elites and foreign investors, whilst the livelihoods of local communities are undermined. Important links exist between climatic developments and security, but global Malthusian narratives about state failure and conflict are dangerously susceptible to manipulations by national elites; the practical outcomes decrease rather than increase human security. In the climate change era, the breakdown of institutions and associated violence is often not an unfortunate failure of the old system due to environmental shock, but a strategy of elites in wider processes of power and wealth accumulation and contestation. PMID:22069801

  2. Global health in conflict. Understanding opposition to vitamin A supplementation in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Sarah K

    2012-07-01

    Vitamin A supplementation is a public health intervention that clinical trials have suggested can significantly improve child survival in the developing world. Yet, prominent scientists in India have questioned its scientific validity, opposed its implementation, and accused its advocates of corruption and greed. It is ironic that these opponents were among the pioneers of populationwide vitamin A supplementation for ocular health. Historically, complex interests have shaped vitamin A supplementation resistance in India. Local social and nutritional revolutions and shifting international paradigms of global health have played a role. Other resistance movements in Indian history, such as those in response to campaigns for bacillus Calmette-Guérin and novel vaccines, have been structured around similar themes. Public health resistance is shaped by the cultural and political context in which it develops. Armed with knowledge of the history of a region and patterns of past resistance, public health practitioners can better understand how to negotiate global health conflicts.

  3. Exploring the influence of the Global Fund and the GAVI Alliance on health systems in conflict-affected countries.

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, P.; Cummings, R.; Roberts, B.

    2015-01-01

    Background Global Health Initiatives (GHIs) respond to high-impact communicable diseases in resource-poor countries, including health systems support, and are major actors in global health. GHIs could play an important role in countries affected by armed conflict given these countries commonly have weak health systems and a high burden of communicable disease. The aim of this study is to explore the influence of two leading GHIs, the Global Fund and the GAVI Alliance, on the health systems of...

  4. Multi-Decadal Global Cooling and Unprecedented Ozone Loss Following a Regional Nuclear Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, M. J.; Toon, O. B.; Lee-Taylor, J. M.; Robock, A.

    2014-12-01

    We present the first study of the global impacts of a regional nuclear war with an Earth system model including atmospheric chemistry, ocean dynamics, and interactive sea-ice and land models (Mills et al., 2014). A limited, regional nuclear war between India and Pakistan in which each side detonates 50 15-kt weapons could produce about 5 Tg of black carbon. This would self-loft to the stratosphere, where it would spread globally, producing a sudden drop in surface temperatures and intense heating of the stratosphere. Using the Community Earth System Model with the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (CESM1(WACCM)), we calculate an e-folding time of 8.7 years for stratospheric black carbon, compared to 4-6.5 years for previous studies (figure panel a). Our calculations show that global ozone losses of 20-50% over populated areas, levels unprecedented in human history, would accompany the coldest average surface temperatures in the last 1000 years (figure panel c). We calculate summer enhancements in UV indices of 30-80% over Mid-Latitudes, suggesting widespread damage to human health, agriculture, and terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Killing frosts would reduce growing seasons by 10-40 days per year for 5 years. Surface temperatures would be reduced for more than 25 years, due to thermal inertia and albedo effects in the ocean and expanded sea ice. The combined cooling and enhanced UV would put significant pressures on global food supplies and could trigger a global nuclear famine. Knowledge of the impacts of 100 small nuclear weapons should motivate the elimination of the more than 17,000 nuclear weapons that exist today. Mills, M. J., O. B. Toon, J. Lee-Taylor, and A. Robock (2014), Multidecadal global cooling and unprecedented ozone loss following a regional nuclear conflict, Earth's Future, 2(4), 161-176, doi:10.1002/2013EF000205.

  5. Material power and normative conflict in global and local agrifood governance : the lessons of 'golden rice' in India

    OpenAIRE

    Fuchs, Doris; Glaab, Katharina

    2010-01-01

    "Sustainability aspects of the agrifood system play a pivotal role in today’s global governance at all levels of decision-making. Questions of food security and food safety, biodiversity or the fate of local practices and values reflect some of the sources of potential conflict between states, as well as between business, state, and civil society actors. This special section aims to investigate the interaction of global and local forces in shaping the sustainability of the agri...

  6. Contamination, misuse and abuse of the global oceans leading to ecosystem damage and destruction, health consequences and international conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    Unregulated uses of the oceans may threaten the global ecological balance, alter plant and animal life and significantly impact the global climatic systems. Recent plans to locate large scale structures on the oceans and to exploit the mineral riches of the seas pose even greater risk to the ecological system. Finally, increasing use of the oceans for large scale transport greatly enhances the probability of collision, polluting spills and international conflict.

  7. Politics of Preferential Development: Trans-global study of affirmative action and ethnic conflict in Fiji, Malaysia and South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Ratuva, Steven

    2013-01-01

    The book is a critical examination of affirmative action, a form of preferential development often used to address the situation of disadvantaged groups. It uses a trans-global approach, as opposed to the comparative approach, to examine the relationship between affirmative action, ethnic conflict and the role of the state in Fiji, Malaysia and South Africa. While affirmative action has noble goals, there are often intervening political and ideological factors in the form of ethno-nationalism...

  8. Relationship between ecology and security shown by the example of the Central Asian region and policy-oriented global approaches to prevent ecologically induced conflicts

    OpenAIRE

    Moskopp, Rainer

    1997-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited In order to ensure future security, the nations of the world must deal putatively with global-wide ecological problems. These problems include; ecological degradation and scarcity of resources, they demonstrate the explosive force of ecologically induced conflict. Many conflicts in the Central Asian region are the result of ecological transformation in combination with other sources of conflict. Preventive measures should be created at...

  9. Global Citizenship Education in Social Studies: Experiences of Turkish Teachers and Students in International Conflict and War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arife Figen Aksoy

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available With the impact of the media, international conflicts are increasingly becoming a part of both everyday life and global citizenship education. The purpose of this research was to understand the perceptions of students and teachers about the incidents of international conflict and war, how teachers present these issues in social studies course, and the problems teachers encounter in this process. This study was carried out as a qualitative case study research. The data were collected by participant observations carried out in Social Studies lessons and by semi-structured interviews with the participating teachers and students. The data were analyzed using interpretive thematic analysis. The findings from this study revealed that the teachers in this study acted in protective, emotional, rational and tentative modes while teaching the issues of international conflict and war. The study also found that the teachers’ behaviors while teaching controversial issues had an influence on the students’ knowledge, skills and attitudes on the subject. In addition, the students’ age and maturity level, gender, socio-economic and cultural level had an influence on learning about these issues. Finally, the findings indicated that the teachers who participated in this study did not have sufficient knowledge and experience in teaching controversial issues and international conflict and war.

  10. A Novel Calculus? Institutional Change, Globalization and Industrial Conflict in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheuer, Steen

    2006-01-01

    Collective industrial conflict in Europe has declined dramatically since the 1970s. This decline is the result of significant changes in institutional factors, influencing the calculations of employees and their organizations when considering strike action. Declining union density and changes...... in market protection seem major influences, while institutional and legal changes are important explanations of persistent major inter-country variance. This indicates a novel industrial conflict calculus for employees, which entails a more restricted use, but not the withering away of the strike....

  11. Material power or normative conflict : determinants of the interaction between global and local agrifood governance

    OpenAIRE

    Fuchs, Doris; Glaab, Katharina

    2010-01-01

    "We witness a constant interaction of global and local forces in the global agrifood system. This paper develops an analytical framework for the identification of the relative impact of these global versus local forces on the sustainability of the agrifood system. In pursuit of its objectives, the framework highlights material and ideational sources of power as important determinants of how the contest between global and local actors and norms in global agrifood governance plays out. With ...

  12. Are Educational Governance Reforms in a Post-Conflict Society Conforming to Global Standards? Examining the Application of Education Convergence Theory in an Internationally Supervised and Politicized Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatsu, Taro

    2016-01-01

    This article examines whether and to what extent educational reforms in a post-conflict society conform to "global (regional) standards," and explores the meaning of inconsistencies observed in the process of global reform transfer. Among the nations of the world, nowhere is the influence of external forces on educational reforms more…

  13. Global Fund collusion with liquor giant is a clear conflict of interest

    OpenAIRE

    Matzopoulos, Richard; Parry, Charles DH; Corrigall, Joanne; Myers, Jonny; Goldstein, Sue; London, Leslie

    2012-01-01

    Alcohol is the third leading contributor to death and disability in South Africa, where SABMiller is the major supplier of malt beer, the most popular beverage consumed. The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (Global Fund) has recently included SABMiller as a recipient of funding for an education intervention aimed at minimizing alcohol-related harm, including HIV prevention, among men in drinking establishments. Global Fund support for this initiative is cause for concern. I...

  14. Raw Violence in the DRC – Ethnic Conflict in a Globalized Era

    OpenAIRE

    Gregersen, Michelle Isabella; Jaatun, Philip Lee

    2014-01-01

    This project seeks to investigate the raw violence seen in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), where about 40% of the women are raped as a consequence of the ongoing conflict. In investigating the origins of the raw violence and how it to an extent can be perceived as a cultural accepted norm in the Congolese civil society, we have applied the modernization theory of Arjun Appadurai, the phenomenon of identity politics and Liminality theory. We found that the Congolese people have been ex...

  15. Multidecadal global cooling and unprecedented ozone loss following a regional nuclear conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Michael J.; Toon, Owen B.; Lee-Taylor, Julia; Robock, Alan

    2014-04-01

    We present the first study of the global impacts of a regional nuclear war with an Earth system model including atmospheric chemistry, ocean dynamics, and interactive sea ice and land components. A limited, regional nuclear war between India and Pakistan in which each side detonates 50 15 kt weapons could produce about 5 Tg of black carbon (BC). This would self-loft to the stratosphere, where it would spread globally, producing a sudden drop in surface temperatures and intense heating of the stratosphere. Using the Community Earth System Model with the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model, we calculate an e-folding time of 8.7 years for stratospheric BC compared to 4-6.5 years for previous studies. Our calculations show that global ozone losses of 20%-50% over populated areas, levels unprecedented in human history, would accompany the coldest average surface temperatures in the last 1000 years. We calculate summer enhancements in UV indices of 30%-80% over midlatitudes, suggesting widespread damage to human health, agriculture, and terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Killing frosts would reduce growing seasons by 10-40 days per year for 5 years. Surface temperatures would be reduced for more than 25 years due to thermal inertia and albedo effects in the ocean and expanded sea ice. The combined cooling and enhanced UV would put significant pressures on global food supplies and could trigger a global nuclear famine. Knowledge of the impacts of 100 small nuclear weapons should motivate the elimination of more than 17,000 nuclear weapons that exist today.

  16. Transnational orientations in a global media landscape: Youth, media, war and conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Eide

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This article reflects on the role of media in the re-imagination and reproduction (reconstruction of Norwegian identities and communities with a particular focus on how young people within diasporas follow news on war and conflict in their (or their parents’ countries of origin. The research employs focus groups with young people from the Pakistani, Afghan, and Tamil Diasporas, and also online surveys. The three groups share the experience of trying to build a life in another country (Norway, while their family and friends in the “homeland” experience political violence and civil war. We identify a notable sense of frustration and skepticism towards Norwegian media. The informants actively use international media and media from the homeland, and often find these more reliable and providing more relevant information than Norwegian media. They also voice a strong critique of the ways in which the media react when “the others” are victims of violence, and several participants react negatively towards the neglect of positive reporting from their respective homelands, and to media hostility towards Muslims.

  17. Global Fund collusion with liquor giant is a clear conflict of interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matzopoulos, Richard; Parry, Charles D H; Corrigall, Joanne; Myers, Jonny; Goldstein, Sue; London, Leslie

    2012-01-01

    Alcohol is the third leading contributor to death and disability in South Africa, where SABMiller is the major supplier of malt beer, the most popular beverage consumed. The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (Global Fund) has recently included SABMiller as a recipient of funding for an education intervention aimed at minimizing alcohol-related harm, including HIV prevention, among men in drinking establishments. Global Fund support for this initiative is cause for concern. It is debatable whether these men are the best target group for the intervention, whether a drinking establishment is the best location, and whether the educational intervention itself is effective. Our experience is that the liquor industry is inclined to support alcohol interventions that will not affect drinking rates at a population level. These interventions allow the industry to simultaneously fulfil social and legal obligations to address the harmful use of alcohol while ensuring that sales and profits are maintained. Providing funding for a highly profitable industry that could afford to fund its own interventions also reduces the funds available for less well-resourced organizations. Do we take it that the problem of "corporate capture" has now spread to one of the largest health funders in the world? PMID:22271967

  18. Determining the global maximum biofuel production potential without conflicting with food and feed consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pumkaew, Watcharapol

    This study tries to resolve the competition between food and biofuel by balancing the allocation between food and feed areas and biofuel areas for the entire world. The maximum energy production is calculated by determining the theoretical amount of energy that can be grown, once food and feed consumption is taken into account, based on the assumption that unprotected grass and woody lands and forest lands can be converted into cultivated lands. The total optimum land area for biofuel energy, 4,926.49 Mha, consists of corn, rapeseed, sugar beet, sugar cane, and grasses. When considering energy conversion efficiency, the maximum energy production is 520.5 EJ. Of this amount, 5.9 EJ can be identified with food and feed energy and 514.6 EJ can be identified with biofuel energy. This result is a theoretical value to illustrate the potential global land area for biofuel. The biofuel energy production per area of land in this study is calculated to be 0.12 EJ/Mha. With regards to the limitation in the degree of invasion by grass and woody land and forest land areas, if it is not more than 10 percent, the biofuel energy production can serve about 76 percent of energy demand for transportation in 2009. The total optimum land area is about 45 percent of global cultivated land area. Sensitivity analysis shows that the land area of corn, sweet sorghum, sugarcane, grass, and woody crops is sensitive to energy content. The land area of sweet sorghum and soybeans is sensitive to the land area for food and feed consumption. Also, the land area of corn, sugar beet, and sugarcane is sensitive to the potential crop land area. This study, done at the global level, can also apply in a local area by using local constraints.

  19. Scenarios of global agricultural biomass harvest reveal conflicts and trade-offs for bioenergy with CCS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Tom; Lenton, Tim

    2013-04-01

    We assess the quantitative potential for future land management to help rebalance the global carbon cycle by actively removing carbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere with simultaneous bio-energy offsets of CO2 emissions, whilst meeting global food demand, preserving natural ecosystems and minimising CO2 emissions from land use change. Four alternative future scenarios are considered out to 2050 with different combinations of high or low technology food production and high or low meat diets. Natural ecosystems are protected except when additional land is necessary to fulfil the dietary demands of the global population. Dedicated bio-energy crops can only be grown on land that is already under management but is no longer needed for food production. We find that there is only room for dedicated bio-energy crops if there is a marked increase in the efficiency of food production (sustained annual yield growth of 1%, shifts towards more efficient animals like pigs and poultry, and increased recycling of wastes and residues). If there is also a return to lower meat diets, biomass energy with carbon storage (BECS) as CO2 and biochar could remove up to 4.0 Pg C per year in 2050. With the current trend to higher meat diets there is only room for limited expansion of bio-energy crops after 2035 and instead BECS must be based largely on biomass residues, removing up to 1.5 Pg C per year in. A high-meat, low-efficiency future would be a catastrophe for natural ecosystems (and thus for the humans that depend on their services) with around 8.5 Gha under cultivation in 2050. When included in a simple earth system model with a technological mitigation CO2 emission baseline these produce atmospheric CO2 concentrations of ~ 450-525ppm in 2050. In addition we assess the potential for future biodiversity loss under the scenarios due to three interacting factors; energy withdrawal from ecosystems due to biomass harvest, habitat loss due to land-use change, and climate change

  20. Building Networks for Science: Conflict and Cooperation in Nineteenth-Century Global Marine Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achbari, Azadeh

    2015-06-01

    In the nineteenth-century globalizing world of colonial expansion and maritime trade, systematic study of ocean currents and winds became of increased concern in various seafaring nations. Both naval officers and university professors engaged in maritime meteorological and hydrographic research. In order to attract the attention of the state and obtain support for establishment of national scientific institutes, university professors teamed up with naval officers in building networks for maritime data collection, thus connecting practical utility to academic credentials. This paper looks into the combined efforts of the U.S. Navy lieutenant M. F. Maury and the Dutch naval officer M. H. Jansen in organizing the 1853 International Maritime Conference in Brussels, which aimed to develop a worldwide system of uniform atmospheric and marine observations. Such efforts, however, amounted to walking a tightrope between mutual interests and personal rivalries. The alliance between elite scientists and naval officers proved to be only temporary. Once the meteorological institutes were established, academically trained meteorologists gradually marginalized the role of naval officers in scientific research at the institutes, thereby establishing and securing their authority in maritime science.

  1. Utilization of Social Capital for Sustainable Development and Peacebuilding in Global Conflict Zones by Faith-Based Movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ihsan Yilmaz

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable development is a pattern of resource use which tries to meet human needs without dramatically harming the environment so that future generation can also benefit from these resources. In other words, sustainable development combines “concern for the carrying capacity of the natural systems with the social challenges facing humanity”.2 Sustainable development is conceptually broken into three parts: environmental sustainability, economic sustainability and socio-political sustainability or the simultaneous pursuit of economic prosperity, environmental quality and social equity. This paper focuses on how volunteer organizations can contribute to social equity and also economic prosperity in multi-ethnic societies and global conflict zones. Civil society can play a positive role in maintaining sustainable peace as civil society is a critical space where diversity and pluralism could be cherished and fostered. Social network of informed and responsible citizens furthers pluralism, democracy and peacebuilding. The study is based on a case documenting how faith-based movements can effectively utilize and direct social capital in order to achieve and/or maintain sustainable development and peace.

  2. Utilization of Social Capital for Sustainable Development and Peacebuilding in Global Conflict Zones by Faith-Based Movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ihsan Yilmaz

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable development is a pattern of resource use which tries to meet human needs without dramatically harming the environment so that future generation can also benefit from these resources. In other words, sustainable development combines "concern for the carrying capacity of the natural systems with the social challenges facing humanity".2 Sustainable development is conceptually broken into three parts: environmental sustainability, economic sustainability and socio-political sustainability or the simultaneous pursuit of economic prosperity, environmental quality and social equity. This paper focuses on how volunteer organizations can contribute to social equity and also economic prosperity in multi-ethnic societies and global conflict zones. Civil society can play a positive role in maintaining sustainable peace as civil society is a critical space where diversity and pluralism could be cherished and fostered. Social network of informed and responsible citizens furthers pluralism, democracy and peacebuilding. The study is based on a case documenting how faith-based movements can effectively utilize and direct social capital in order to achieve and/or maintain sustainable development and peace.

  3. ENVIRONMENTAL CONFLICT MEDIATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GABRIELA G. MIHUT

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available At a time of global economic crisis followed by resource crisis, a period in which the world seeks alternative resources through eco-investment, environmental conflicts are inevitable. Romania is among the few countries that do not pay enough attention to environmental conflicts and to the advantages to of solving them through mediation procedure. The present paper deals with areas in which conflicts can be applied in environmental mediation and its benefits.

  4. ENVIRONMENTAL CONFLICT MEDIATION

    OpenAIRE

    GABRIELA G. MIHUT

    2011-01-01

    At a time of global economic crisis followed by resource crisis, a period in which the world seeks alternative resources through eco-investment, environmental conflicts are inevitable. Romania is among the few countries that do not pay enough attention to environmental conflicts and to the advantages to of solving them through mediation procedure. The present paper deals with areas in which conflicts can be applied in environmental mediation and its benefits.

  5. Celebritizing Conflict

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richey, Lisa Ann; Budabin, Alexandra Cosima

    2016-01-01

    From serving as United Nations ambassadors to appearing as spokespersons for major NGO campaigns, global celebrities have become increasingly important in international development assistance. Acting as “aid celebrities,” they are indelibly linked with humanitarian work and public engagement.2 In......, conflict, and development in Africa.......From serving as United Nations ambassadors to appearing as spokespersons for major NGO campaigns, global celebrities have become increasingly important in international development assistance. Acting as “aid celebrities,” they are indelibly linked with humanitarian work and public engagement.2 In...... the policy realm, celebrity endorsement may shift attention, shape decisions, and build or erode key alliances. Meanwhile, the figure of the celebrity offers an enticing lens to refract critical issues of power, influence, and voice within neoliberal north-south relations. This essay, using emerging...

  6. Celebritizing Conflict

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richey, Lisa Ann; Budabin, Alexandra Cosima

    2016-01-01

    From serving as United Nations ambassadors to appearing as spokespersons for major NGO campaigns, global celebrities have become increasingly important in international development assistance. Acting as “aid celebrities,” they are indelibly linked with humanitarian work and public engagement.2 In......, conflict, and development in Africa.......From serving as United Nations ambassadors to appearing as spokespersons for major NGO campaigns, global celebrities have become increasingly important in international development assistance. Acting as “aid celebrities,” they are indelibly linked with humanitarian work and public engagement.2...... In the policy realm, celebrity endorsement may shift attention, shape decisions, and build or erode key alliances. Meanwhile, the figure of the celebrity offers an enticing lens to refract critical issues of power, influence, and voice within neoliberal north-south relations. This essay, using emerging...

  7. Uneasy money: the Instituto Carlos Slim de la Salud, tobacco philanthropy and conflict of interest in global health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burch, Tiffany; Wander, Nathaniel; Collin, Jeff

    2010-12-01

    In May 2007, the Instituto Carso de la Salud-now Instituto Carlos Slim de la Salud (ICSS)-was endowed with US$500 million to focus on priority health issues in Latin America, notably issues of 'globalisation and non-communicable diseases'. ICSS was soon criticised, however, on the grounds that its funding was derived from tobacco industry profits and that its founder Carlos Slim Hélu remained an active industry principal. Collaboration with ICSS was said to run counter to the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. The Institute's then Executive President Julio Frenk disputed these charges. This research employs an archive of tobacco industry documents triangulated with materials from commercial, media, regulatory and NGO sources to examine the financial relations between Slim and the tobacco industry. The paper analyses Slim's continuing service to the industry and role in ICSS. It demonstrates a prima facie conflict of interest between ICSS's health mission and its founder's involvement in cigarette manufacturing and marketing, reflected on ICSS's website as a resounding silence on issues of tobacco and health. It is concluded that the reliance of international health agencies upon the commercial sector requires more robust institutional policies to effectively regulate conflicts of interest. PMID:21088061

  8. Review of Sex, Drugs and Body Counts: The Politics of Numbers in Global Crime and Conflict, edited by Peter Andreas and Kelly M. Greenhill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron G. Montgomery

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Andreas, Peter, and Greenhill, Kelly M. (Eds.. Sex, Drugs, and Body Counts: The Politics of Numbers in Global Crime and Conflict, (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2010. 287 pp. ISBN 978-0-8014-4861-4 (cloth; ISBN 978-0-8014-7618-1 (pbk.The ten scholarly papers in Sex, Drugs and Body Counts explore the generation and propagation of numbers that drive policy decisions in the U.S. government regarding human trafficking, drug trade, and armed conflict (including the war on terror. Each of these papers, written by different authors, provides an illuminating insight into how some of the numbers we hear or read in the news are derived. While the general message of the papers tends to be depressing, namely that the numbers driving U.S. policy vary from being slightly suspect to clearly fabricated, the book does provide positive examples of how accurate numbers can be obtained and how the numbers that are being used can be interpreted. As a teaching resource, the book provides instructors an opportunity to deepen their understanding of how quantitative data are used in U.S. policy, allowing them to explore these issues in class. Individual papers from the book could be used in a general education course (either in mathematics or in a field related to the topics as a way to introduce students to reading quantitatively dense material. In a course more focused on the topics of the book and with a more quantitatively literate audience, the entire book could probably be assigned as reading.

  9. Conflict: Organizational

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clegg, Stewart; Mikkelsen, Elisabeth Naima; Sewell, Graham

    2015-01-01

    This article examines four contemporary treatments of the problem of organizational conflict: social psychological, anthropological, neo-Darwinian, and neo-Machiavellian. Social psychological treatments of organizational conflict focus on the dyadic relationship between individual disputants....... In contrast, anthropological treatments take a more socially and historically embedded approach to organizational conflict, focusing on how organizational actors establish negotiated orders of understanding. In a break with the social psychological and anthropological approaches, neo-Darwinians explain...

  10. Mutable Conflicts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kublitz, Anja

    Within the field of ‘transnational conflicts’ a wide range of studies have explored how diasporas may contribute to or diminish conflicts within their homeland by sending remittances or weapons or by partaking in NGOs. A common assumption in this literature is that conflicts are linked to a...... specific place of origin and that movement of conflicts or peace can be described as relations between homeland and diaspora. Based on 16 months of fieldwork among Palestinians in Denmark this paper challenges this assumption and offers a different conceptualization of conflicts on the move. The Arabic...... everyday life in Denmark, and to single out specific contemporary political events like the publishing of the cartoons of the Prophet Muhammad, local clashes with the Danish police and the Israeli invasion of Gaza. The ethnography discloses that the Palestinian-Israeli conflict is not a chronological...

  11. Mutable Conflicts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kublitz, Anja

    The Arabic term al-Nakba literally means the catastrophe and is used in Palestinian national discourse to designate the outcome of the Arab-Israeli war of 1948, when the state of Israel was declared and more than 700,000 Palestinians became stateless. Among Palestinians in Denmark, though, the co...... off what is at hand within a specific milieu at a given time, such as contemporary conflicts, artefacts and people. It is this plasticity that enables the conflict to be recreated anew and to become meaningful in new settings and at different times....

  12. INTELLIGENT RESOLUTION OF COOPERATIVE CONFLICT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    First, the concept of cooperative conflict is presented, and the characteristic of cooperative air combat is researched. Then, four methods of conflict resolution are designed by way of the first order predicate logic, I.e., link-up, coordination, accommodation and integration, and corresponding examples are given. A 2 vs 2 air combat simulation was carried out; after conflict resolution, the loss ratio is dropped to 0.54 from the original 1.32, so the enhancement of effectiveness is notable. The present research findings are that the wide conflicts discover the essence of multi-fighter cooperation, I.e., to as fully as possible enhance the effectiveness of each fighter to attain global optimization, and that the possibility of conflict resolution shows the application prospect. The proposed method in this paper is a helpful try to the application of the Fifth Generation Computer in the new generation of C3I system.

  13. Globalization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范玮丽

    2008-01-01

    This paper mainly talks about the currently hot topic-globalization. Firstly, it brings out the general trend about globalization and how to better understand its implication. Secondly, it largely focuses on how to deal with it properly, especially for international marketers. Then, facing with the overwhelming trend, it is time for us to think about seriously what has globalization brought to us. Last but not least, it summarized the author's personal view about the future of globalization and how should we go.

  14. Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tulio Rosembuj

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available There is no singular globalization, nor is the result of an individual agent. We could start by saying that global action has different angles and subjects who perform it are different, as well as its objectives. The global is an invisible invasion of materials and immediate effects.

  15. Plotting Conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Margaret Ann; Wilkinson, John Provost

    1997-01-01

    Conflict management theory is illustrated in a series of hypothetical scenarios, typical of library situations. Each scenario is discussed in terms of a specific management theory and the theories are transposed into useful management tools by plotting each situation along relevant axes. (Author/AEF)

  16. Against Globalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philipsen, Lotte; Baggesgaard, Mads Anders

    2013-01-01

    In order to understand globalization, we need to consider what globalization is not. That is, in order to understand the mechanisms and elements that work toward globalization, we must, in a sense, read against globalization, highlighting the limitations of the concept and its inherent conflicts....... Only by employing this as a critical practice will we be analytically able to gain a dynamic understanding of the forces of globalization as they unfold today and as they have developed historically....

  17. Against globalization

    OpenAIRE

    Baggesgaard, Mads Anders; Philipsen, Lotte

    2013-01-01

    In order to understand globalization, we need to consider what globalization is not. That is, in order to understand the mechanisms and elements that work toward globalization, we must, in a sense, read against globalization, highlighting the limitations of the concept and its inherent conflicts. Only by employing this as a critical practice will we be analytically able to gain a dynamic understanding of the forces of globalization as they unfold today and as they have developed historically....

  18. Globalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plum, Maja

    Globalization is often referred to as external to education - a state of affair facing the modern curriculum with numerous challenges. In this paper it is examined as internal to curriculum; analysed as a problematization in a Foucaultian sense. That is, as a complex of attentions, worries, ways...... of reasoning, producing curricular variables. The analysis is made through an example of early childhood curriculum in Danish Pre-school, and the way the curricular variable of the pre-school child comes into being through globalization as a problematization, carried forth by the comparative practices of PISA...

  19. Caucasus Geopolitics: Modern Trends Conflicts and Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana V. Petrova

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The article studies major trends of Caucasus geopolitical situation development in terms of modern global politics, indicates major parties, settling conflicts in the region and their immediate interests in the Caucasus.

  20. Varieties of Organizational Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pondy, Louis R.

    1969-01-01

    The viewpoints and findings of the seven empirical studies of organizational conflict contained in this issue are compared and contrasted. A distinction is made between conflict within a stable organization structure and conflict aimed at changing the organization structure. (Author)

  1. Conflict resolution through regime formation : The Peruvian – Ecuadorian border conflict

    OpenAIRE

    Weibull, Carla Beatriz de Souza Lima

    2009-01-01

    Along 188 years Peru and Ecuador maintained an open dispute over their shared border line. A Conflict that started in 19th century based on Independency theories over South-American boundaries had its end in 1998 through a peaceful process of conflict resolution. The peace process was influenced by International Relation theories and ideas such as international regimes, globalization, integration, cooperation, social development and political regional traditions. The conflict resolution ...

  2. Conflict minerals from the Democratic Republic of the Congo: global tungsten processing plants, a critical part of the tungsten supply chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermúdez-Lugo, Omayra

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) analyzes supply chains to identify and define major components of mineral and material flows from ore extraction, through intermediate forms, to a final product. Two major reasons necessitate these analyses: (1) to identify risks associated with the supply of critical and strategic minerals to the United States and (2) to provide greater supply chain transparency so that policymakers have the information necessary to ensure domestic legislation compliance. This fact sheet focuses on the latter. The USGS National Minerals Information Center has been asked by governmental and non-governmental organizations to provide information on tin, tantalum, tungsten, and gold (collectively known as “3TG minerals”) processing facilities worldwide in response to U.S. legislation aimed at removing the link between the trade in these minerals and civil unrest in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Post beneficiation processing plants (smelters and refineries) of 3TG mineral ores and concentrates were identified by company and industry association representatives as being the link in the 3TG mineral supply chain through which these minerals can be traced to their source of origin (mine); determining the point of origin is critical to establishing a transparent conflict mineral supply chain. This fact sheet, the first in a series of 3TG mineral fact sheets, focuses on the tungsten supply chain by listing plants that consume tungsten concentrates to produce ammonium paratungstate and ferrotungsten worldwide.

  3. Unconsciously triggered conflict adaptation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon van Gaal

    Full Text Available In conflict tasks such as the Stroop, the Eriksen flanker or the Simon task, it is generally observed that the detection of conflict in the current trial reduces the impact of conflicting information in the subsequent trial; a phenomenon termed conflict adaptation. This higher-order cognitive control function has been assumed to be restricted to cases where conflict is experienced consciously. In the present experiment we manipulated the awareness of conflict-inducing stimuli in a metacontrast masking paradigm to directly test this assumption. Conflicting response tendencies were elicited either consciously (through primes that were weakly masked or unconsciously (strongly masked primes. We demonstrate trial-by-trial conflict adaptation effects after conscious as well as unconscious conflict, which could not be explained by direct stimulus/response repetitions. These findings show that unconscious information can have a longer-lasting influence on our behavior than previously thought and further stretch the functional boundaries of unconscious cognition.

  4. Politics and Power in Global Health: The Constituting Role of Conflicts; Comment on “Navigating Between Stealth Advocacy and Unconscious Dogmatism: The Challenge of Researching the Norms, Politics and Power of Global Health”

    OpenAIRE

    Clemet Askheim; Kristin Heggen; Eivind Engebretsen

    2016-01-01

    In a recent article, Gorik Ooms has drawn attention to the normative underpinnings of the politics of global health. We claim that Ooms is indirectly submitting to a liberal conception of politics by framing the politics of global health as a question of individual morality. Drawing on the theoretical works of Chantal Mouffe, we introduce a conflictual concept of the political as an alternative to Ooms’ conception. Using controversies surrounding medical treatment of AIDS patients in developi...

  5. Conflict-Triggered Top-Down Control: Default Mode, Last Resort, or No Such Thing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugg, Julie M.

    2014-01-01

    The conflict monitoring account posits that globally high levels of conflict trigger engagement of top-down control; however, recent findings point to the mercurial nature of top-down control in high conflict contexts. The current study examined the potential moderating effect of associative learning on conflict-triggered top-down control…

  6. Interparental Conflict and Adolescents' Romantic Relationship Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Valerie A.; Furman, Wyndol

    2010-01-01

    This study examined associations between interparental conflict and adolescents' romantic relationship conflict. High school seniors (N = 183) who lived with married parents completed questionnaires about their parents' marriage and their own romantic relationships. A subset of 88 adolescents was also observed interacting with their romantic…

  7. A Typology of Post-Conflict Environments

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Graham; Langer, Arnim; Stewart, Frances

    2011-01-01

    Despite the apparent decline in the global incidence of major armed conflict, there remain many countries in conflict and many others that are struggling with the legacy of recent violence. The majority of these countries are among the poorer and less developed ones. Increasing attention within the international community is therefore being paid to the inter-connections between sustainable peace-building and socioeconomic development within a “post-conflict” environment. Countries that are in...

  8. Globalisation and Conflicts: A Theoretical Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Bonginkosi Mamba; André C Jordaan; Matthew Clance

    2015-01-01

    This paper is aimed at providing insights into the interplay between globalisation and conflicts through a theoretical literature review. The motivation is drawn from a large number of debates advocating globalisation as being a double edged sword. The main argument is drawn from the Liberal premise that globalization, through integration and economic interdependence dampens the likelihood of conflicts, whilst the opposite holds for Structuralist theorists. The key highlight from the study is...

  9. Conflict or Consensus?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agger, Annika; Poulsen, Birgitte

    , interests. However, many public administrators have not been adequately exposed to the rationales of conflicts and the skills in resolving conflicts. The aim of this paper is to analyse the different types of conflicts that public administrators experience in formal processes of citizen involvement. Whereas...... as drivers for innovation, provided they are carefully managed. However, we claim that more focus on different types of conflicts and the handling of these conflicts is important in public administration and processes of citizen participation. The paper, thus, aims at connecting the knowledge from vast...... literature on conflicts and conflict solution with the field of public administration. The article calls for giving more attention to conflict studies on the part of public administration scholars. Hence, the paper has in addition to its analytical aim a prescriptive aim of providing those public...

  10. Politics and Power in Global Health: The Constituting Role of Conflicts: Comment on "Navigating Between Stealth Advocacy and Unconscious Dogmatism: The Challenge of Researching the Norms, Politics and Power of Global Health".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askheim, Clemet; Heggen, Kristin; Engebretsen, Eivind

    2015-10-15

    In a recent article, Gorik Ooms has drawn attention to the normative underpinnings of the politics of global health. We claim that Ooms is indirectly submitting to a liberal conception of politics by framing the politics of global health as a question of individual morality. Drawing on the theoretical works of Chantal Mouffe, we introduce a conflictual concept of the political as an alternative to Ooms' conception. Using controversies surrounding medical treatment of AIDS patients in developing countries as a case we underline the opportunity for political changes, through political articulation of an issue, and collective mobilization based on such an articulation.

  11. Politics and Power in Global Health: The Constituting Role of Conflicts; Comment on “Navigating Between Stealth Advocacy and Unconscious Dogmatism: The Challenge of Researching the Norms, Politics and Power of Global Health”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clemet Askheim

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In a recent article, Gorik Ooms has drawn attention to the normative underpinnings of the politics of global health. We claim that Ooms is indirectly submitting to a liberal conception of politics by framing the politics of global health as a question of individual morality. Drawing on the theoretical works of Chantal Mouffe, we introduce a conflictual concept of the political as an alternative to Ooms’ conception. Using controversies surrounding medical treatment of AIDS patients in developing countries as a case we underline the opportunity for political changes, through political articulation of an issue, and collective mobilization based on such an articulation.

  12. Politics and Power in Global Health: The Constituting Role of Conflicts: Comment on "Navigating Between Stealth Advocacy and Unconscious Dogmatism: The Challenge of Researching the Norms, Politics and Power of Global Health".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askheim, Clemet; Heggen, Kristin; Engebretsen, Eivind

    2016-02-01

    In a recent article, Gorik Ooms has drawn attention to the normative underpinnings of the politics of global health. We claim that Ooms is indirectly submitting to a liberal conception of politics by framing the politics of global health as a question of individual morality. Drawing on the theoretical works of Chantal Mouffe, we introduce a conflictual concept of the political as an alternative to Ooms' conception. Using controversies surrounding medical treatment of AIDS patients in developing countries as a case we underline the opportunity for political changes, through political articulation of an issue, and collective mobilization based on such an articulation. PMID:26927399

  13. CONSTRUCTIVE CONFLICT IN TEAMWORK

    OpenAIRE

    Sandra Brsec Rolih

    2013-01-01

    Conflict is a necessary part of teamwork. Without it, team synergy and creativity cannot be maximized. In fact, there would be no advantage to working together at all. Conflict can have both positive and negative outcomes. Negative outcomes from conflict that has not been properly managed can be very disruptive to teaming activities and possibly quite devastating to individual team members. The three most important principles behind the realization of the benefits of conflict are open communi...

  14. Conflict resolution in adolescent relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Doorn, M.D.

    2008-01-01

    Conflict is an inevitable feature of social relationships. When people interact, disagreements may arise. Especially in close relationships, people sometimes disagree. Although conflict might jeopardize relationships, conflict is not necessarily detrimental. The way conflicts are handled is importan

  15. Managing intercultural conflict effectively

    CERN Document Server

    Ting-Toomey, Stella

    2001-01-01

    In this volume, Ting-Toomey and Oetzel accomplish two objectives: to explain the culture-based situational conflict model, including the relationship among conflict, ethnicity, and culture; and, second, integrate theory and practice in the discussion of interpersonal conflict in culture, ethnic, and gender contexts. While the book is theoretically directed, it is also a down-to-earth practical book that contains ample examples, conflict dialogues, and critical incidents. Managing Intercultural Conflict Effectively helps to illustrate the complexity of intercultural conflict interactions and readers will gain a broad yet integrative perspective in assessing intercultural conflict situations. The book is a multidisciplinary text that draws from the research work of a variety of disciplines such as cross-cultural psychology, social psychology, sociology, marital and family studies, international management, and communication.

  16. Conflict in organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kesting, Peter; Smolinski, Remigiusz; Speakman, Ian

    2012-01-01

    : the repetitive character of routine, disagreement over the “validity” of the existing routines, disagreement concerning the definition of new targets, and resistance towards change processes. Further the authors point to the inherent tendency to routinize conflict management strategies and the risks...... that are associated with this process. As a result, this paper offers new insights into the causes and structure of conflicts triggered by change processes as well as into the management of repetitive conflicts....

  17. Corporate Conflicts of Interest

    OpenAIRE

    Joel S. Demski

    2003-01-01

    This paper surveys conflicts of interest in the corporate governance arena, with emphasis on auditors, boards of directors, analysts and investment bankers, regulators, management, attorneys and investors. Enron provides a host of examples as well. I stress the multifaceted nature of these conflicts, and the fact most research looks at some conflicts, such as auditor independence, absent the larger setting and potential interactions among various players. I further speculate herding behavior ...

  18. Russia-Georgia Conflict and Beyond

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Yujun; Ma Zongshi

    2008-01-01

    Yet another Post 9/11 historical event indicating a significant turning point in the Post-Cold War era, Russia-Georgia conflict represents a remarkable change in the international strategy of a resurgent Russia. It also signifies that former Soviet republics are still groping for a new identity and that a new round of realignment will persist in the vast Eurasia region. The conflict reveals declining U.S. global control, flawed European integration, and NATO embarrassment. To a certain extent, it exposes chaos brought about by international nonpolarity and world governance vacuum. It also highlights what serious consequences can a double standard inflict on the principles of international law. A reasonable arrangement for global security and economic growth is therefore challenging the resolve and wisdom of international strategists. Actually fierce geopolitical rivalry for energy resources is at work behind the Russia-Georgia conflict. This will further compound the international energy strategic environment.

  19. Cultural globalization and global flow of popular culture

    OpenAIRE

    ÇAPCIOĞLU, İhsan

    2008-01-01

    Globalization is a term referring to doing business on global scale beyond the national borders, to the processes of unifying and combining the communities and organizations within new time-place combinations, and making the world objectively and in a more connected way with the experiences of men. The dynamics concerning globalization give rise both to the conflicts due to binary oppositions on global scale and to the mutual transactions among each pole of these conflicts. Cultural globaliz...

  20. Juggling with network prospects and conflicts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gretzinger, Susanne; Leick, Birgit

    Innovation-based collaboration offers not only benefits in terms of value co-creation, but is also associated with major conflicts arising for various reasons. Firm-specific knowledge that constitutes the core competencies of notably small enterprises to build competitive advantage in the global...

  1. Multicultural team conflict management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Heinz

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the potential problems related to conflict resolution while cooperating in multicultural teams. Special attention is paid to specific character of such teams as well as to the concept of productive conflict and the ways of resolving it. The experiences gained in the Erasmus Intenstive Programme - Effective Working in Multicultural Teams were used.

  2. Multicultural team conflict management

    OpenAIRE

    Krystyna Heinz

    2014-01-01

    The article presents the potential problems related to conflict resolution while cooperating in multicultural teams. Special attention is paid to specific character of such teams as well as to the concept of productive conflict and the ways of resolving it. The experiences gained in the Erasmus Intenstive Programme - Effective Working in Multicultural Teams were used.

  3. Climate shocks and conflict

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papaioannou, Kostadis J.

    2016-01-01

    This paper offers a historical micro-level analysis of the impact of climate shocks on the incidence of civil conflict in colonial Nigeria (1912-1945). Primary historical sources on court cases, prisoners and homicides are used to capture conflict. To measure climate shocks we use the deviation f

  4. Mental Health and Conflict

    OpenAIRE

    Baingana, Florence

    2003-01-01

    Addressing mental health is gradually being recognized as an important development issue, especially in the case of conflict-affected countries. Although mental health issues have received increased attention in post-conflict settings, there has been a tendency to implicitly assume that the impact of trauma caused by mass violence (i) may be transitory and non-disabling, and (ii) that inte...

  5. High-Conflict Divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Janet R.

    1994-01-01

    Reviews available research studies of high-conflict divorce and its effects on children. Factors believed to contribute to high-conflict divorce are explored, and a model of their interrelationships is proposed. Dispute resolution, intervention, and prevention programs are discussed, and implications for social policy are outlined. (SLD)

  6. Conflicts in Anna Karenina

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨恋

    2011-01-01

    Anna Karenina is a huge classic tragedy which is created by Tolstoy. This paper mainly talks about the conflict in the classic fictional story of Anna Karenina, which involves the conflicts between religious ethics, capitalistic new ideas, bravery and limitation, love for son and love for a lover, plus the variances between rural custom culture and urban culture.

  7. Conflicts in Anna Karenina

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨恋

    2011-01-01

    Anna Karenina is a huge classic tragedy which is created by Tolstoy.This paper mainly talks about the conflict in the classic fictional story of Anna Karenina,which involves the conflicts between religious ethics,capitalistic new ideas,bravery and limitation,love for son and love for a lover,plus the variances between rural custom culture and urban culture.

  8. Conflicts as Aversive Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreisbach, Gesine; Fischer, Rico

    2012-01-01

    Theories of human action control deal with the question of how cognitive control is dynamically adjusted to task demands. The conflict monitoring theory of anterior cingulate (ACC) function suggests that the ACC monitors for response conflicts in the ongoing processing stream thereby triggering the mobilization of cognitive control. Alternatively,…

  9. Community Development in a Global Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Gary

    1998-01-01

    Raises issues related to incorporation of a global dimension in community development in the following areas: definition of community, globalization of economic power, hegemony of free markets, intercommunal conflicts, realignment of political power, and rapid global communication. (SK)

  10. Conflict Minerals and Corporate Social Responsibilities in Sweden : How do Swedish companies respond to the conflict minerals issue and what are the challenges?

    OpenAIRE

    Tahara, Yumiko

    2012-01-01

    This study focuses on one of the emerging issues in Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR), “conflict minerals”. The discussion of the “conflict minerals” issue is that the trade of “conflict minerals”, originating from the eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), helps to finance conflicts characterized by extreme violence including killing and rape, therefore, the downstream companies which indirectly buy these minerals should take actions (Global Witness, 2010).This study first seeks...

  11. The European Union and Military Conflict Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodt, Annemarie Peen

    This book provides the first comprehensive review of the European Union’s role in military conflict management beyond its borders and makes an important contribution to debates on the EU’s role in global security governance. The EU has launched five military operations within the framework of its...... are successful and explores the implications of its findings for the future theory and practice of military conflict management.......This book provides the first comprehensive review of the European Union’s role in military conflict management beyond its borders and makes an important contribution to debates on the EU’s role in global security governance. The EU has launched five military operations within the framework of its...... Common Security and Defence Policy with the explicit purpose to help manage violent conflicts beyond its borders. This book develops a definition and a set of criteria for success in military conflict management and applies this new analytical framework in a comparative case study of the five EU military...

  12. Exploring how Conflict Management Training Changes Workplace Conflicts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Elisabeth Naima

    2012-01-01

    conflicts change when enacted from the perspective of staff and management in a non-profit organisation that participated in conflict management training. The case study was constructed as a longitudinal investigation with ethnographic fieldwork as the primary method of inquiry. The training worked....... Some conflicts did not change through training, where the perpetual structural bases of the conflicts remained intact. Insights from the study call attention to the embedding of conflict in the organisation's social fabric. As a practical implication of the study, trainers in conflict management...... are recommended to give more weight to the structural dimensions of conflict and organisational level conflict management when putting training programmes together....

  13. Globalization strategy

    OpenAIRE

    SHIMIZU, RYUEI

    1992-01-01

    History of overseas strategies of Japanese firms can be divided into three periods; until 1960's, when import and export were the main focus; from 1970's to the first half of 1980's, when establishing overseas bases was a major interest for clear purposes of reducing labor cost, averting trade conflicts, or securing natural resources; and after 1985, when strategy started to be formulated from more global viewpoint in order to cope with new situation arising from stronger yen and Japan having...

  14. Family business conflicts

    OpenAIRE

    Yanes Ruiz, Eugenio José

    2014-01-01

    Treball Final de Grau en Administració d'Empreses. Codi: AE1049. Curs 2013-2014 The society usually perceives the conflicts like a negative aspect that represents a problem, but this is not certain, since the conflict by itself is not a problem. Within the companies a conflict does not have to consider a negative aspect, since what it really can be detrimental or beneficial for an organization it is the form and the time in which they solve. These factors really can create the true economi...

  15. Does the Middle East and North Africa Region Experience 'Conflict Traps'?

    OpenAIRE

    Lind, Lene; Steven A. Zyck

    2011-01-01

    The 2011 World Development Report (WDR) on 'Conflict, Security and Development' has reaffirmed global research that conflict is in many respects a self-perpetuating cycle. Put simply, factors related to the onset of conflict are reinforced by ensuing violence trapping countries in a cycle which is hard to break, with ominous implications for development assistance. The best known expositio...

  16. CAMPFIRE and human-wildlife conflicts in local communities bordering northern Gonarezhou National Park, Zimbabwe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gandiwa, E.; Heitkonig, I.M.A.; Lokhorst, A.M.; Prins, H.H.T.; Leeuwis, C.

    2013-01-01

    Human-wildlife conflicts are a global problem, and are occurring in many countries where human and wildlife requirements overlap. Conflicts are particularly common near protected areas where societal unrest is large. To ease conflict, integrated conservation and development projects (ICDPs) have bee

  17. Conflicts and Negotiations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Israel adopts a two-pronged strategy to dominate the Middle East situation Recently, Israel has had several conflicts with its Middle East neighbors. At the same time, however, it has prepared to begin direct negotiations with the Palestinians.

  18. High-conflict divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, J R

    1994-01-01

    This article reviews available research studies of high-conflict divorce and its effects on children. Interparental conflict after divorce (defined as verbal and physical aggression, overt hostility, and distrust) and the primary parent's emotional distress are jointly predictive of more problematic parent-child relationships and greater child emotional and behavioral maladjustment. As a group, children of high-conflict divorce as defined above, especially boys, are two to four times more likely to be clinically disturbed in emotions and behavior compared with national norms. Court-ordered joint physical custody and frequent visitation arrangements in high-conflict divorce tend to be associated with poorer child outcomes, especially for girls. Types of intervention programs and social policy appropriate for these kinds of families are presented.

  19. Ecosystemic Complexity Theory of Conflict: Understanding the Fog of Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brack, Greg; Lassiter, Pamela S.; Hill, Michele B.; Moore, Sarah A.

    2011-01-01

    Counselors often engage in conflict mediation in professional practice. A model for understanding the complex and subtle nature of conflict resolution is presented. The ecosystemic complexity theory of conflict is offered to assist practitioners in navigating the fog of conflict. Theoretical assumptions are discussed with implications for clinical…

  20. Approaches to Conflict and Conflict Resolution in Toddler Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashby, Nicole; Neilsen-Hewett, Cathrine

    2012-01-01

    The importance of conflict and its resolution for children's short- and long-term adjustment has been well established within the research literature. Conflict and conflict resolution differs according to a number of constructs, including age, gender and relationship status. The purpose of this study was to explore conflict origins, resolution…

  1. conflicts in international teams

    OpenAIRE

    Kurdovanidze, Salome

    2014-01-01

    This thesis aims to define international team and conflicts and identify the essential competencies for a manager and employee of international teams. It is argued that everyone in an international team should possess more skills and competencies than those who belong to homogeneous teams. As a result, representatives of international team must be able to understand culturally diverse backgrounds manage conflicts constructively, and comprehend different strategies to handle sensitive cases. T...

  2. Modernization and Islamist Conflict

    OpenAIRE

    Meierrieks, Daniel; Krieger, Tim

    2015-01-01

    This contribution studies the impact of modernization on the onset of Islamist conflict. To capture the multi-dimensional phenomenon of modernization, we create a unique modernization index. Our empirical analysis for 154 countries for the 1971-2006 period provides robust evidence that modernization rather than economic underdevelopment or a lack of democracy increases the likelihood of the onset of Islamist conflict. This relationship especially matters to Islamist groups that aim at a regim...

  3. Collective Identity and Conflict

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, Nanna Gorm; Pinhasi, Tami; Christensen, Jonas Juhl; Vahl, Hans Peter; Johannsen, Christina; Christensen, Julie Hellesøe; Stockner, Selma Maria; Adler, Tara Maria Sellner

    2009-01-01

    This project, “Collective Identity and Conflict”, is a largely theoretical approach to gaining an understanding of how identity groups are shaped and reinforced, and why opposing groups get into seemingly unsolvable conflicts. We create a synthesis of theory on collective identity and social conflict mechanisms by drawing upon the fields of social psychology, sociology and cultural studies. Our ambition is to construct a comprehensive body of knowledge, which will be helpful when analyzing an...

  4. Development, territory and inequality in nowadays' globalization: Current conflicts in the family farming sector in Northeast Misiones, Argentina Desarrollo, territorio y desigualdad en la globalización: Conflictos actuales en la agricultura familiar del nordeste de Misiones, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mabel Manzanal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we call into question the relationship between development, inequality and territory in the current context of globalization and within the framework of public policies designed, supposedly, to benefit those social actors with fewer resources.In order to do this, we focus on a case study in the northeast of the province of Misiones, Argentina. Here tobacco production, forestry and alternative family farming (AF (dedicated to food production are in dispute over the territory, leading to conflict over private land occupation. The analysis evidences: (a The territorial changes resulting from globalization processes in local areas. (b The ways in which these changes affect and limit the development proposals arising from public policy aimed at alleviating social inequality (... The study is based on a qualitative methodology focused on a case study and centered in interviews conducted during 2008 and 2009 to the main actors involved in the conflict over land in the northeast area of the province of Misiones, Argentina.The study shows the contradictions of public policy that proclaim productive growth and development in a legal framework for liberalization and deregulation in favor of large-scale transnational investment, underpinned by large-scale productive activities, highly demanding of land and water. Such investments, by contrast, have an insubstantial labor requirement (...En el presente trabajo buscamos poner en cuestión la relación entre desarrollo, desigualdad y territorio en el contexto actual de la globalización y en el marco de las políticas públicas dirigidas, supuestamente, a favorecer a los actores sociales de menores recursos. Para ello nos centramos en un estudio de caso en el nordeste de la provincia de Misiones, Argentina. Aquí la actividad tabacalera, la forestación y la agricultura familiar (AF alternativa (orientada a la producción de alimentos entran en disputa por el territorio, dando lugar a conflictos

  5. Data Conflict Resolution Using Trust Mappings

    CERN Document Server

    Gatterbauer, Wolfgang; 10.1145/1807167.1807193

    2010-01-01

    In massively collaborative projects such as scientific or community databases, users often need to agree or disagree on the content of individual data items. On the other hand, trust relationships often exist between users, allowing them to accept or reject other users' beliefs by default. As those trust relationships become complex, however, it becomes difficult to define and compute a consistent snapshot of the conflicting information. Previous solutions to a related problem, the update reconciliation problem, are dependent on the order in which the updates are processed and, therefore, do not guarantee a globally consistent snapshot. This paper proposes the first principled solution to the automatic conflict resolution problem in a community database. Our semantics is based on the certain tuples of all stable models of a logic program. While evaluating stable models in general is well known to be hard, even for very simple logic programs, we show that the conflict resolution problem admits a PTIME solution...

  6. Identities in Conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanika Ahuja

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Kashmir has witnessed violent conflict for many years, and India has been one of the main players in this conflict. This study used the method of drawings to assess how this ongoing conflict has shaped the identities of young Muslims in Kashmir. The identities they expressed were compared with those expressed by young Muslims in Delhi. At each location, one group of participants was asked to draw on the theme “Me and my country” while the other group was asked to draw whatever they desired. When allowed to draw what they wished, adolescents in Kashmir drew symbols of regional identity more often and symbols of India less often than adolescents in Delhi. “I dominant” identities were depicted only by the Delhi-based sample. Drawings from Kashmir did not represent high levels of violence or a fractured relationship with the Indian state. Possible reasons have been discussed.

  7. The NPD team conflict

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Zheng; Lin, Chih-Cheng; Tanev, Stoyan

    2012-01-01

    elaborates on the role of culture diversity and geographical dispersion in NPD team conflict. A simulation is conducted where organizations may be regarded as complex systems to affect the team conflict with a variety of influences. The results firstly indicate that there are two dimensions of NPD team...... conflict: stable and unstable dimensions with four elements: task characteristics, group members’ relationship, cultural diversity and geographical dispersion; secondly, there are two phenomena whereby the geographical dispersion influences the NPD team interaction, and the influence between cultural...... diversity and the geographical dispersion is unstable and depends on the situation. Moreover, in some of its aspects the finding regarding cultural diversity is different from Hofstede’s theory, while the effect of geographical dispersion changes with the difference in communication technology....

  8. Internal preconditions of civilized conflict in Ukraine

    OpenAIRE

    Skvorets, Volodymyr

    2015-01-01

    The objective factors that weakened the unity of the social organism of Ukraine were the background of the conflict in eastern Ukraine. Among them one should mention the historical and cultural heritage, based on civilizational characteristics of the region; the impact of globalization on international legal status of Ukraine characterized by the loss of its subjectivity and becoming an object of manipulation of the leading countries of the world; Ukraine ceased to express national and genera...

  9. Conflict and Tao.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Lyall

    What can philosophical Taoism teach us about interpersonal conflict and effective approaches for dealing with it? Examination of selected portions of the R. Hendricks translation of the "Lao-Tzu" or "Te-Tao Ching," and experiences recorded in fieldnotes while a member of a Taoist commune suggest a four-point protocol for managing interpersonal…

  10. Identities in Conflict

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Lars

    2015-01-01

    When Danish soldiers wage war abroad and far from home, family relations are strained. Both during the mission and after return, the soldier experiences civil life as unorderly and conflicting with the warrior mindset with its clear demarcations of friend/foe, peace and war, battletime and the time...

  11. Spousal Conflicts of Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Shana R.

    2005-01-01

    Romantic relationships bud and sometimes bloom in the school district workplace. When those relationships involve a sitting member of a school board or an administrator with responsibility for managing other employees, questions about a conflict of interest will be raised. Most states have laws prohibiting a public official from taking official…

  12. Resolving Conflicts Peacefully.

    Science.gov (United States)

    CRADLE: Center for Research and Development in Law-Related Education, Winston-Salem, NC.

    Focusing on the theme of conflict resolution, this booklet contains 22 lessons developed and used by classroom teachers at all grade levels. The lessons generally contain a brief overview, goals and objectives, student activities, and corresponding handouts or materials useful in implementing the lessons. Each lesson contains insights into methods…

  13. Conflict exposure and competitiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cecchi, Francesco; Leuveld, Koen; Voors, Maarten

    2016-01-01

    We use data from a street football tournament and a series of lab-in-field experiments in postconflict Sierra Leone to examine the impact of exposure to conflict violence on competitive behavior. We find that football players who experienced more intense exposure to violence are more likely to get a

  14. Islamophobia, Conflict and Citizenship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inman, Sally; Mc Cormack, Pip; Walker, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses some preliminary findings of the English part of a European Commission Fundamental Rights and Citizenship funded project "Children's Voices" (2011-2013) concerned with exploring and understanding children and young people's experiences of interethnic conflict and violence in primary and secondary schools. This is a…

  15. Leading through Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerzon, Mark

    2006-01-01

    This article talks about leading significant learning opportunities through conflict of ideas in a school system. Catalyzing school change can turn emotional differences of opinion into learning opportunities. Leaders who want to deal effectively with these challenging, often tense situations need to be more than good managers. They need to be…

  16. Intralocus sexual conflict

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Doorn, G. Sander; Schlichting, CD; Mousseau, TA

    2009-01-01

    Intralocus sexual conflict arises when there are sex-specific optima for a trait that is expressed in both sexes and when the constraint of a shared gene pool prevents males and females from reaching their optima independently. This situation may result in a negative intersexual correlation for fitn

  17. A Typology of Post-Conflict Environments: An Overview.

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Graham; Langer, Arnim; Stewart, Frances

    2008-01-01

    Despite the apparent decline in the global incidence of major armed conflict, there remain many countries in conflict and many others that are struggling with the legacy of recent violence. The majority of these countries are among the poorer and less developed ones. Increasing attention within the international community is therefore being paid to the inter-connections between sustainable peace-building and socioeconomic development within a “post-conflict” environment. Cou...

  18. The agrarian question and violence in Colombia: conflict and development

    OpenAIRE

    Thomson, Frances

    2011-01-01

    This article examines connections between Colombia’s internal armed conflict and agrarian questions. It pays attention to the country’s specific historical trajectory of agrarian change, the violent expression of social tensions that this elicited, and the particular ways in which these dynamics were influenced by a changing global context.This analysis of the intimate ties between violent conflict and agrarian questions in Colombia, both in terms of their historical development and their con...

  19. Forecasting civil conflict along the shared socioeconomic pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegre, Håvard; Buhaug, Halvard; Calvin, Katherine V.; Nordkvelle, Jonas; Waldhoff, Stephanie T.; Gilmore, Elisabeth

    2016-05-01

    Climate change and armed civil conflict are both linked to socioeconomic development, although conditions that facilitate peace may not necessarily facilitate mitigation and adaptation to climate change. While economic growth lowers the risk of conflict, it is generally associated with increased greenhouse gas emissions and costs of climate mitigation policies. This study investigates the links between growth, climate change, and conflict by simulating future civil conflict using new scenario data for five alternative socioeconomic pathways with different mitigation and adaptation assumptions, known as the shared socioeconomic pathways (SSPs). We develop a statistical model of the historical effect of key socioeconomic variables on country-specific conflict incidence, 1960-2013. We then forecast the annual incidence of conflict, 2014-2100, along the five SSPs. We find that SSPs with high investments in broad societal development are associated with the largest reduction in conflict risk. This is most pronounced for the least developed countries—poverty alleviation and human capital investments in poor countries are much more effective instruments to attain global peace and stability than further improvements to wealthier economies. Moreover, the SSP that describes a sustainability pathway, which poses the lowest climate change challenges, is as conducive to global peace as the conventional development pathway.

  20. Forecasting civil conflict along the shared socioeconomic pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegre, Håvard; Buhaug, Halvard; Calvin, Katherine V.; Nordkvelle, Jonas; Waldhoff, Stephanie T.; Gilmore, Elisabeth

    2016-05-01

    Climate change and armed civil conflict are both linked to socioeconomic development, although conditions that facilitate peace may not necessarily facilitate mitigation and adaptation to climate change. While economic growth lowers the risk of conflict, it is generally associated with increased greenhouse gas emissions and costs of climate mitigation policies. This study investigates the links between growth, climate change, and conflict by simulating future civil conflict using new scenario data for five alternative socioeconomic pathways with different mitigation and adaptation assumptions, known as the shared socioeconomic pathways (SSPs). We develop a statistical model of the historical effect of key socioeconomic variables on country-specific conflict incidence, 1960–2013. We then forecast the annual incidence of conflict, 2014–2100, along the five SSPs. We find that SSPs with high investments in broad societal development are associated with the largest reduction in conflict risk. This is most pronounced for the least developed countries—poverty alleviation and human capital investments in poor countries are much more effective instruments to attain global peace and stability than further improvements to wealthier economies. Moreover, the SSP that describes a sustainability pathway, which poses the lowest climate change challenges, is as conducive to global peace as the conventional development pathway.

  1. Irrational beliefs and marital conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möller, A T; de Beer, Z C

    1998-02-01

    To test the hypothesis that the major irrational evaluative beliefs postulated by Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy are related to marital conflict, 15 married couples participated in a thought-listing procedure. During this procedure, three idiosyncratic scenes portraying marital conflict and three control scenes free of conflict were identified for and presented to each member of the dyad. Analysis indicated that the conflict-portraying scenes were associated with significantly more irrational evaluative beliefs and significantly fewer rational cognitions than the control scenes.

  2. Information, Reputation and Ethic Conflict

    OpenAIRE

    Rohner, Dominic

    2006-01-01

    Empirical studies have found ethic cleavages to play an important role in the occurrence of civil conflict. Surprisingly, theoretical research on ethnic conflict has been very scarce. In the present contribution a theoretical model of reputation and ethnic conflict is built. Depending on the information structure and the reputation cost of defecting, economic interaction can either result in (peaceful) trade or in appropriative conflict. Ethnic divisions affect the reputation cost of defectio...

  3. Family conflicts and conflict resolution regarding food choices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Maria; Brunsø, Karen

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies on family decision‐making show that not only parents but also children participate actively in and achieve influence on the decision process, for instance during food buying. When decision‐making includes several active participants, conflicts may occur, but not much research deals...... with food‐related conflicts, conflict resolutions or specific influence techniques with a focus on parents and tweens in family decision‐making. This article focuses on parents and tweens’ joint decision processes in evaluation and choice of food, specifically conflicts and conflict resolution. Assumptions...

  4. Secure Attachment Conceptualizations: The Influence of General and Specific Relational Models on Conflict Beliefs and Conflict Resolution Styles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl C. Woolley

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Attachment theory focuses on the cognitive models that underlie our interactions with attachment figures. Global or generalized mental models are thought to develop on the basis of attachment models with parents and might form the initial basis of internal working models in novel relationships. However, as discrepant information presents itself in a new relationship, it is thought that specific relational models develop. When conflict arises it can threaten the attachment bonds of the relationship. An Internet survey of 134 individuals in couple relationships was conducted to test the influence of secure parental and partner attachment conceptualizations on romantic relationship variables (conflict beliefs and conflict resolution styles. Results indicated that for the most part relationship variables were influenced by current secure romantic attachment conceptualizations. Analyses also indicated differential gender results for positive problem solving in terms of secure parental and partner attachment. Secure parental attachment was also found to impact on the report of compliant behavior during conflict resolution. Lastly, the belief that arguing is threatening was found to be impacted by an interaction effect between parental and partner attachment. In general secure partner attachment was more predictive of conflict resolution behavior and conflict beliefs, than a global attachment model. However, it would appear that the global attachment model can be activated in the context of the current relationship under certain conditions. This research lends support to the notion that generalized and specific attachment representations impacts differently on close relationship functioning, and encourages a further mapping of relationship functions in this regard.

  5. Global Protest Against Nuclear Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    heroic conflict and the rise of movements. The contributions to this focus issue explore the so far under-researched transnational dimension of the conflict in a global perspective. They make visible for the first time relevant transfers of scientific knowledge and protest practices as well...... and able to cross borders, as well as the obstacles they were facing. Thus, this focus issue contributes to current academic debates in environmental history, the history of social movements as well as global and transnational history....

  6. Integrating agricultural expansion into conservation biogeography: conflicts and priorities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Dobrovolski

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Increasing food production without compromising biodiversity is one of the great challenges for humanity. The aims of my thesis were to define spatial priorities for biodiversity conservation and to evaluate conservation conflicts considering agricultural expansion in the 21st century. I also tested the effect of globalizing conservation efforts on both food production and biodiversity conservation. I found spatial conflicts between biodiversity conservation and agricultural expansion. However, incorporating agricultural expansion data into the spatial prioritization process can significantly alleviate conservation conflicts, by reducing spatial correlation between the areas under high impact of agriculture and the priority areas for conservation. Moreover, developing conservation blueprints at the global scale, instead of the usual approach based on national boundaries, can benefit both food production and biodiversity. Based on these findings I conclude that the incorporation of agricultural expansion as a key component for defining global conservation strategies should be added to the list of solutions for our cultivated planet.

  7. Overview of studies on the conflict method.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hondel, M. van de & Kraay, J.H.

    1978-01-01

    The conflict method is a method which observes those types of (serious) conflict behaviours by road users that are considered related to unsafe traffic behaviour. This international overview on the conflict method has collected several conflict techniques actually in use.

  8. Conflict engagement: workplace dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerardi, Debra

    2015-04-01

    This article is one in a series on conflict. It is part of an ongoing series on leadership coordinated by the American Organization of Nurse Executives (AONE), highlighting topics of interest to nurse managers and emerging nurse leaders. The AONE provides leadership, professional development, advocacy, and research to advance nursing practice and patient care, promote nursing leadership excellence, and shape public policy for health care.

  9. Democracy and International Conflict

    OpenAIRE

    Vesperoni, Alberto; Wärneryd, Karl

    2016-01-01

    During the past two centuries, western nations have successively extended the voting franchise to citizens of lower income. We explain this process of democratization as a rational way for incumbent elites to wage war effectively on other nations, as in a strategic game of international conflict handing over military spending decisions to citizens who face a lower tax cost of arming may confer a strategic delegation advantage. We find supporting empirical evidence in case studies of franchise...

  10. Economics and Conflict

    OpenAIRE

    Schneider, Gerald

    2010-01-01

    The thesis that war redistributes income within as well as between societies, and that this creates a destructive, bellicose incentive, has a distinguished idea history in Marxism and other critical approaches. In this essay, I will introduce these and contending theories that help us to understand the economic causes and consequences of violent conflict in general and the empirical evidence that has been assembled in support of, or in contradiction to, these conjectures. My survey starts out...

  11. Timing of cyber conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelrod, Robert; Iliev, Rumen

    2014-01-28

    Nations are accumulating cyber resources in the form of stockpiles of zero-day exploits as well as other novel methods of engaging in future cyber conflict against selected targets. This paper analyzes the optimal timing for the use of such cyber resources. A simple mathematical model is offered to clarify how the timing of such a choice can depend on the stakes involved in the present situation, as well as the characteristics of the resource for exploitation. The model deals with the question of when the resource should be used given that its use today may well prevent it from being available for use later. The analysis provides concepts, theory, applications, and distinctions to promote the understanding strategy aspects of cyber conflict. Case studies include the Stuxnet attack on Iran's nuclear program, the Iranian cyber attack on the energy firm Saudi Aramco, the persistent cyber espionage carried out by the Chinese military, and an analogous case of economic coercion by China in a dispute with Japan. The effects of the rapidly expanding market for zero-day exploits are also analyzed. The goal of the paper is to promote the understanding of this domain of cyber conflict to mitigate the harm it can do, and harness the capabilities it can provide.

  12. FUZZY PREFERENCES IN CONFLICTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mubarak S. AL-MUTAIRI; Keith W. HIPEL; Mohamed S. KAMEL

    2008-01-01

    A systematic fuzzy approach is developed to model fuzziness and uncertainties in the preferences of decision makers involved in a conflict. This unique fuzzy preference formulation is used within the paradigm of the Graph Model for Conflict Resolution in which a given dispute is modeled in terms of decision makers, each decision maker's courses of actions or options, and each decision maker's preferences concerning the states or outcomes which could take place. In order to be able to determine the stability of each state for each decision maker and the possible equilibria or resolutions, a range of solution concepts describing potential human behavior under conflict are defined for use with fuzzy preferences. More specifically, strong and weak definitions of stability are provided for the solution concepts called Nash, general metarational, symmetric metarational, and sequential stability. To illustrate how these solution concepts can be conveniently used in practice, they are applied to a dispute over the contamination of an aquifer by a chemical company located in Elmira, Ontario, Canada.

  13. Interocular conflict attracts attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paffen, Chris L E; Hessels, Roy S; Van der Stigchel, Stefan

    2012-02-01

    During binocular rivalry, perception alternates.between dissimilar images presented dichoptically. Since.its discovery, researchers have debated whether the phenomenon is subject to attentional control. While it is now clear that attentional control over binocular rivalry is possible, the opposite is less evident: Is interocular conflict (i.e., the situation leading to binocular rivalry) able to attract attention?In order to answer this question, we used a change blindness paradigm in which observers looked for salient changes in two alternating frames depicting natural scenes. Each frame contained two images: one for the left and one for the right eye. Changes occurring in a single image (monocular) were detected faster than those occurring in both images (binocular). In addition,monocular change detection was also faster than detection in fused versions of the changed and unchanged regions. These results show that interocular conflict is capable of attracting attention, since it guides visual attention toward salient changes that otherwise would remain unnoticed for longer. The results of a second experiment indicated that interocular conflict attracts attention during the first phase of presentation, a phase during which the stimulus is abnormally fused [added]. PMID:22167536

  14. Stimulus conflict triggers behavioral avoidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dignath, David; Eder, Andreas B

    2015-12-01

    According to a recent extension of the conflict-monitoring theory, conflict between two competing response tendencies is registered as an aversive event and triggers a motivation to avoid the source of conflict. In the present study, we tested this assumption. Over five experiments, we examined whether conflict is associated with an avoidance motivation and whether stimulus conflict or response conflict triggers an avoidance tendency. Participants first performed a color Stroop task. In a subsequent motivation test, participants responded to Stroop stimuli with approach- and avoidance-related lever movements. These results showed that Stroop-conflict stimuli increased the frequency of avoidance responses in a free-choice motivation test, and also increased the speed of avoidance relative to approach responses in a forced-choice test. High and low proportions of response conflict in the Stroop task had no effect on avoidance in the motivation test. Avoidance of conflict was, however, obtained even with new conflict stimuli that had not been presented before in a Stroop task, and when the Stroop task was replaced with an unrelated filler task. Taken together, these results suggest that stimulus conflict is sufficient to trigger avoidance.

  15. Conflict resolution in healthcare management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipcamon, James D; Mainwaring, Brian A

    2004-01-01

    Conflict causes decided tension in the workplace and often produces poor professional outcomes. A manager dealing with conflict can experience a crisis of confidence and often ends up second-guessing himself or herself, regardless of how a situation has been handled. In some organizations, conflict is not viewed positively or as an opportunity for improvement. In these organizations, most individuals will see conflict as being unproductive, unpleasant, and a waste of time and energy. Yet, conflict provides employees with critical feedback on how things are going. When viewed in a positive context, even personality conflicts may provide information to the healthcare manager about what is not working in the organization. If conflict is not directed and controlled, it can have damaging effects in the workplace, stifling the growth of departments and deflating employee morale. Our job as healthcare managers is to deal with conflict so that it does not decrease productivity or detract from the provision of patient-centered care. There are 4 general sources for interpersonal conflict: personal differences, informational deficiency, role incompatibility, and environmental stress. There are 5 common responses used in dealing with conflict: forcing, accommodating, avoiding, compromising, and collaborating. Healthcare managers should become comfortable with using all of these approaches.

  16. CONFLICT MANAGEMENT. SOME PROSPECTS ON THE LABOR CONFLICTS

    OpenAIRE

    Iulia Badoi

    2013-01-01

    Managers wish for harmony within their organizations, that the satisfied employees to work in well balanced teams in order to achieve the institutional goals without taking into account the individual and cultural differences, personal or group interests. Conflicts can be classified according to several criteria. This study aims to present the particularities of conflict resolution within labor relations. Starting from the analysis of the conflict concept viewed from several perspectives, inc...

  17. Identities in Conflict

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Dorte Jagetic

    2015-01-01

    When Danish soldiers wage war abroad and far from home, family relations are strained. Both during the mission and after return, the soldier experiences civil life as unorderly and conflicting with the warrior mindset with its clear demarcations of friend/foe, peace and war, battletime and the time......, that systems theory is both able and competent to analyze the missing gaps and empty spaces of the competing identities inside and outside the forms of peace and war. Through the use of Luhmannian systems theory and form analysis, the children and partners of war veterans give us the chance to observe...

  18. HIV/AIDS, conflict and security in Africa: rethinking relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Becker Joseph U

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The effect of conflict on HIV transmission and regional and global security has been the subject of much recent discussion and debate. Many long held assumptions regarding these relationships are being reconsidered. Conflict has long been assumed to contribute significantly to the spread of HIV infection. However, new research is casting doubt on this assumption. Studies from Africa suggest that conflict does not necessarily predispose to HIV transmission and indeed, there is evidence to suggest that recovery in the "post-conflict" state is potentially dangerous from the standpoint of HIV transmission. As well, refugee populations have been previously considered as highly infected vectors of HIV transmission. But in light of new investigation this belief is also being reconsidered. There has additionally been concern that high rates of HIV infection among many of the militaries of sub-Saharan Africa poses a threat to regional security. However, data is lacking on both dramatically elevated prevalence amongst soldiers and a possible negative effect on regional security. Nevertheless, HIV/AIDS remain a serious threat to population health and economic well being in this region. These issues are of vital importance for HIV programming and health sector development in conflict and "post-conflict" societies and will constitute formidable challenges to the international community. Further research is required to better inform the discussion of HIV, conflict, and security in sub-Saharan Africa.

  19. Personality as a determinant of work-family conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rekha A Priyadharshini

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Work – Family conflict (W-F Conflict as a bi-directional construct has been well researched in the past few decades.  Predominant W-F Conflict models involving work and family role characteristics, culture, values, facilitation and integration have been developed and tested.   However, models that capture the relationship between the individual characteristics as captured by the personality dimensions are very sparse.  Moreover, research on W-F Conflict in the Indian settings is very rare, though India has gained significant importance in the global arena.  This study hypothesizes that the personality dimensions captured on the Big 5-Dimensional scale predict the bi-directional nature of W-F Conflict.  We used structural equation modeling (SEM to predict W-F Conflict by the personality dimension.  Results suggest that the personality dimensions such as extraversion, conscientiousness, openness to experience, and agreeableness predict W-F Conflict.  Neuroticism does not appear to support our hypothesis which is contrary to predictions by extant literature.  

  20. Climate Change, Agricultural Production and Civil Conflict: Evidence from the Philippines

    OpenAIRE

    Crost, Benjamin; Duquennois, Claire; Felter, Joseph; Rees, Daniel I.

    2015-01-01

    Climate change is predicted to affect global rainfall patterns, but there is mixed evidence with regard to the effect of rainfall on civil conflict. Even among researchers who argue that rainfall reduces civil conflict, there is disagreement as to the underlying mechanism. Using data from the Philippines for the period 2001-2009, we exploit seasonal variation in the relationship between rainfall and agricultural production to explore the connection between rainfall and civil conflict. In the ...

  1. CAMPFIRE and human-wildlife conflicts in local communities bordering northern Gonarezhou National Park, Zimbabwe

    OpenAIRE

    Edson Gandiwa; Ignas M.A. Heitkönig; Anne M. Lokhorst; Herbert H T Prins; Cees Leeuwis

    2013-01-01

    Human-wildlife conflicts are a global problem, and are occurring in many countries where human and wildlife requirements overlap. Conflicts are particularly common near protected areas where societal unrest is large. To ease conflict, integrated conservation and development projects (ICDPs) have been implemented. The Communal Areas Management Programme for Indigenous Resources (CAMPFIRE) is an example of an ICDP. We hypothesized that (i) a higher perceived effectiveness of CAMPFIRE would be a...

  2. Tools for Productively Managing Conflict

    OpenAIRE

    Zucker, Deborah

    2012-01-01

    In scientific teams as in life, conflicts arise. This paper aims to provide an introduction to tools and skills to help in managing conflicts in practice. Using a structured approach enables the concerns and interests of all involved to be identified and clarified. It also permits a better understand yourself and others and will help empower those in conflict to find acceptable and workable resolutions.

  3. Information, Reputation and Ethnic Conflict

    OpenAIRE

    Rohner, D

    2006-01-01

    Empirical studies have found ethnic cleavages to play an important role in the occurrence of civil conflict. Surprisingly, theoretical research on ethnic con.ict has been very scarce. In the present contribution a theoretical model of reputation and ethnic conflict is built. Depending on the information structure and the reputation cost of defecting, economic interaction can either result in (peaceful) trade or in appropriative conflict. Ethnic divisions affect the reputation cost of defectio...

  4. Managing Conflicts in Relational Contracts

    OpenAIRE

    Jin Li; Niko Matouschek

    2013-01-01

    A manager and a worker are in an infinitely repeated relationship in which the manager privately observes her opportunity costs of paying the worker. We show that the optimal relational contract generates periodic conflicts during which effort and expected profits decline gradually but recover instantaneously. To manage a conflict, the manager uses a combination of informal promises and formal commitments that evolves with the duration of the conflict. Finally, we show that liquidity constrai...

  5. The cultural contagion of conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelfand, Michele; Shteynberg, Garriy; Lee, Tiane; Lun, Janetta; Lyons, Sarah; Bell, Chris; Chiao, Joan Y.; Bruss, C. Bayan; Al Dabbagh, May; Aycan, Zeynep; Abdel-Latif, Abdel-Hamid; Dagher, Munqith; Khashan, Hilal; Soomro, Nazar

    2012-01-01

    Anecdotal evidence abounds that conflicts between two individuals can spread across networks to involve a multitude of others. We advance a cultural transmission model of intergroup conflict where conflict contagion is seen as a consequence of universal human traits (ingroup preference, outgroup hostility; i.e. parochial altruism) which give their strongest expression in particular cultural contexts. Qualitative interviews conducted in the Middle East, USA and Canada suggest that parochial altruism processes vary across cultural groups and are most likely to occur in collectivistic cultural contexts that have high ingroup loyalty. Implications for future neuroscience and computational research needed to understand the emergence of intergroup conflict are discussed. PMID:22271785

  6. Resolving Conflicts between Agriculture and the Natural Environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J Tanentzap

    Full Text Available Agriculture dominates the planet. Yet it has many environmental costs that are unsustainable, especially as global food demand rises. Here, we evaluate ways in which different parts of the world are succeeding in their attempts to resolve conflict between agriculture and wild nature. We envision that coordinated global action in conserving land most sensitive to agricultural activities and policies that internalise the environmental costs of agriculture are needed to deliver a more sustainable future.

  7. Resolving Conflicts between Agriculture and the Natural Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanentzap, Andrew J; Lamb, Anthony; Walker, Susan; Farmer, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Agriculture dominates the planet. Yet it has many environmental costs that are unsustainable, especially as global food demand rises. Here, we evaluate ways in which different parts of the world are succeeding in their attempts to resolve conflict between agriculture and wild nature. We envision that coordinated global action in conserving land most sensitive to agricultural activities and policies that internalise the environmental costs of agriculture are needed to deliver a more sustainable future. PMID:26351851

  8. Resolving Conflicts between Agriculture and the Natural Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Tanentzap, Andrew J.; Lamb, Anthony; Walker, Susan; Farmer, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Agriculture dominates the planet. Yet it has many environmental costs that are unsustainable, especially as global food demand rises. Here, we evaluate ways in which different parts of the world are succeeding in their attempts to resolve conflict between agriculture and wild nature. We envision that coordinated global action in conserving land most sensitive to agricultural activities and policies that internalise the environmental costs of agriculture are needed to deliver a more sustainabl...

  9. Forests in Fragile and Conflict-Affected States

    OpenAIRE

    Harwell, Emily

    2011-01-01

    Recognizes in failed states or states at risk of becoming failed states the linkages between forests, armed conflict, poverty, and various aspects of state fragility. Forests are valuable for local subsistence livelihoods, timber, and other commercially valuable forest products, as well as ecosystem services including forest carbon and biodiversity. This makes the linkage between forests and fragile states significant to local poverty reduction, national and global trade, and global public go...

  10. Education Data in Conflict-Affected Countries: The Fifth Failure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montjourides, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Poor-quality, or completely absent, data deny millions of children the right to an education. This is often the case in conflict-ridden areas. The 2011 Education for All Global Monitoring Report (UNESCO 2011b) identified four failures that are holding back progress in education and damaging millions of children's lives: failures of protection,…

  11. Conflicts on Parade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McQuaid, Sara Dybris

    These three papers would speak (from a distance) to the themes of ‘Attacks on popular culture, culture debates and wars’, ‘The idea of ‘the people’ in politics and history’ and ‘The visual iconography of the popular (in media, the street, museums)’ from the vantage point of the Northern Irish...... rehearse a master commemorative narrative composed of a sectarian selection of events, reminding a group of its distinct social identity and historical development in a ritual performance (cf Zerubavel 1995, Connerton 1989). The protestant and loyalist master narrative commemorates a seamless sequence...... complicated notions of ‘the people’, and the place of popular culture in divided societies, as parades literally traverse terrains of political and social conflict. We start from a classical cultural studies position that a) culture is a site of struggle over meaning and b) to understand a particular aspect...

  12. Georges Bank conflict resolved

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robb, David W.

    1984-04-01

    The International Court of Justice has resolved the long-term conflict between the United States and Canada over claims to mineral and living resources lying along the countries' common Atlantic maritime border. On October 12, in a 4-1 decision, the World Court rejected the United States' claim to the entire Georges Bank area, a region of the Continental Shelf off Massachusetts and Nova Scotia that is a prime fishing ground and is believed to have good potential for oil and gas deposits as well. The disputed area is roughly the top third of the Georges Bank area. The court awarded each country approximately half of this disputed area. No appeals are allowed under this decision.

  13. Conflict Management Strategies in Workplace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄玉霞

    2011-01-01

    As we all know, it is inevitable to be confronted with verbal aggressiveness by employees, peers, and supervisors in the workplace. In order to avoid these conflict with others in the future workplace, this paper is to discuss about the management strategies dealing with these conflicts.

  14. Optimizing performance by stimulating conflict

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. van de Vliert; C.K.W. de Dreu

    1994-01-01

    To enhance the quality of group decision making, to promote affective acceptance of decisions by all participants involved, or to increase joint outcomes, a principal party or a third party may stimulate social conflict. We argue that when conflict focuses on identity issues, when tension level is h

  15. 76 FR 6110 - Conflict Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-03

    ... FR 80948 (December 23, 2010)]. The original comment period for Release No. 34-63547 is scheduled to... COMMISSION 17 CFR Parts 229 and 249 RIN 3235-AK84 Conflict Minerals AGENCY: Securities and Exchange... 1934 (the ``Exchange Act'') and would require any such issuer for which conflict minerals are...

  16. Reward Modulates Adaptations to Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braem, Senne; Verguts, Tom; Roggeman, Chantal; Notebaert, Wim

    2012-01-01

    Both cognitive conflict (e.g. Verguts & Notebaert, 2009) and reward signals (e.g. Waszak & Pholulamdeth, 2009) have been proposed to enhance task-relevant associations. Bringing these two notions together, we predicted that reward modulates conflict-based sequential adaptations in cognitive control. This was tested combining either a single…

  17. Climate Change, Conflict, and Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akresh, Richard

    2016-01-01

    We have good reason to predict that a warming climate will produce more conflict and violence. A growing contingent of researchers has been examining the relationship in recent years, and they've found that hotter temperatures and reduced rainfall are linked to increases in conflict at all scales, from interpersonal violence to war. Children are…

  18. Revisiting peace and conflict studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagmann, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    the broad variety of existing units of analysis, motivations, theories and methodologies of peace and conflict studies. Thirdly, I will propose a number of suggestions for a research attitude that, in absence of a better word, I subsume under the heading of ‘critical peace and conflict research’, striving...

  19. International Dimensions of Internal Conflict

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.W. Metternich; K.S. Gleditsch; H. Dorussen; A. Ruggeri

    2012-01-01

    Civil wars are by definition violent conflicts between a state and some form of non-state actors (Sambanis 2004b). Perhaps not surprisingly, most scholars have looked for features within countries to account for why such conflicts break out and how they evolve (Blattman and Miguel 2010). However, it

  20. Optimizing performance by conflict stimulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van de Vliert, E; De Dreu, C K W

    1994-01-01

    To enhance the quality of group decision making, to promote affective acceptance of decisions by all participants involved, or to increase joint outcomes, a principal party or a third party may stimulate social conflict. We argue that when conflict focuses on identity issues, when tension level is h

  1. Leadership Strategies for Managing Conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kormanski, Chuck

    1982-01-01

    Discusses the impact of conflict in small group development theory. Views conflict as a positive, normally occurring behavior and presents leadership strategies involving withdrawal, suppression, integration, compromise, and power. Examines situational contingencies and presents a rationale for strategy selection and intervention. (Author)

  2. Auditory Conflict Processing in ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Mourik, Rosa; Sergeant, Joseph A.; Heslenfeld, Dirk; Konig, Claudia; Oosterlaan, Jaap

    2011-01-01

    Background: Impaired cognitive control has been implicated as an important developmental pathway to attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Cognitive control is crucial to suppress interference resulting from conflicting information and can be measured by Stroop-like tasks. This study was conducted to gain insight into conflict processing…

  3. Structural embeddedness and intergroup conflict

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Takacs, K

    2001-01-01

    Social structure affects the likelihood of group conflicts, although it has been disregarded by previous explanations. This study extends the intergroup public goods game model and integrates the influence of structural embeddedness and social incentives in the analysis of harmful group conflict. Th

  4. Conflict in a changing climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carleton, T.; Hsiang, S. M.; Burke, M.

    2016-05-01

    A growing body of research illuminates the role that changes in climate have had on violent conflict and social instability in the recent past. Across a diversity of contexts, high temperatures and irregular rainfall have been causally linked to a range of conflict outcomes. These findings can be paired with climate model output to generate projections of the impact future climate change may have on conflicts such as crime and civil war. However, there are large degrees of uncertainty in such projections, arising from (i) the statistical uncertainty involved in regression analysis, (ii) divergent climate model predictions, and (iii) the unknown ability of human societies to adapt to future climate change. In this article, we review the empirical evidence of the climate-conflict relationship, provide insight into the likely extent and feasibility of adaptation to climate change as it pertains to human conflict, and discuss new methods that can be used to provide projections that capture these three sources of uncertainty.

  5. Considerations Regarding the Conflict Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurel Manolescu

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The conflict has always been present among people. It arises at the level of human relationships and has a specific form of expression, according to its evolutionary stage. Because of the fact that people are part of an organization, they bring the conflict with themselves. Any attempt of efficiently managing an organization without taking into account the fact that organizational conflicts are inevitable are bound to failure. In order to successfully handle conflicting situations, old habits and empirical pieces of knowledge are no longer sufficient. We therefore witness the birth of new theoretical concepts and innovative practices, as well as the coming into being of different strategies and approaches re garding conflict management which are based on a set of clear ideas that we will develop in the following article.

  6. APPROACH TO TEAM CONFLICT RESOLUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enes Huseinagić

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This work includes research of team conflict resolution styles in sports by basketball coaches. This research was conducted at the European Junior Basketball Championship B Division held from July 23 to August 2, 2009 in Sarajevo. Research tasks were created with the goal to establish styles for resolving team conflict by coaches in basketball, to determine dominating styles and with the help of a questionnaire to analyze opinion about correlation of the offered styles and their effectiveness. The questionnaire created by Kreitner and Kinicki (1998, has given answers on these hypotheses. Sample was comprised of 14 coaches from 24 basketball teams which took part in competition. The research was conducted through the questionnaire which covered five different conflict resolution styles: bonding, reconciling, imposing, avoiding and compromise. Coaches of tested teams who have dominating styles for resolving team conflicts caused by certain reasons, have shown that hypothesis relating to coach’s different adaptational styles of conflict resolution is completely confirmed.

  7. CONFLICT PERSONALITY AS A PARTICIPANT OF CONFLICT DISCOURSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyranyan Margarita Yuryevna

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The conflict discourse as a communicative event reveals the characteristics of its participants as linguistic personalities. In this respect, this study enables us to reveal and describe their personal and social features. Undoubtedly, the individual characteristics of participants, their cultural and ideological differences and similarities have a great impact on the interaction process in general and on the use of linguistic means in particular. To better understand the nature of conflict discourse, its causes and consequences, one should take into account that adverse behaviour depends on the personality type and the role the speaker plays in different situations. Conflict personality is referred to as an archetype, transcendental phenomenon common to everybody. The research revealed such key characteristics typical of conflict personality as: verbal (use of language units with "conflict" connotation, the "manipulation" of speech means that convey negative, conflict meaning in particular contexts and non-verbal (communicative aim, communication medium, pre- and post-supposition of the speaker and the listener, mode of behaviour. It also proved that conflict patterns of behavior may lead to confrontation and/or transfer of collaborative interaction into an adverse one.

  8. Critical Viewpoints on the Management of Conflict in Multi-National Construction Projects

    OpenAIRE

    Akiner, İlknur

    2014-01-01

    International construction markets are increasingly taking economic advantage of the global workforce. It is common on international projects to find multi-cultural project teams located in multiple countries. Conflict management is becoming ever more important due to the rapid changes that are common in the current construction business environment. Global change, cultural diversity within multi-national project teams, and complexity are a few of the reasons that managing conflict is a cr...

  9. The Role of Aggressive Personality and Family Relationships in Explaining Family Conflict

    OpenAIRE

    Horwitz, Briana N.; Ganiban, Jody M.; Spotts, Erica L.; Lichtenstein, Paul; Reiss, David; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated whether genetic and environmental influences on global family conflict are explained by parents’ personality, marital quality, and negative parenting. The sample comprised 876 same-sex pairs of twins, their spouse, and one adolescent child per twin from the Twin and Offspring Study in Sweden (TOSS). Genetic influences on aggressive personality were correlated with genetic influences on global family conflict. Nonshared environmental influences on marital quality and ne...

  10. Peace studies and conflict resolution: the need for transdisciplinarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galtung, Johan

    2010-02-01

    Peace studies seeks to understand the negation of violence through conflict transformation, cooperation and harmony by drawing from many disciplines, including psychology, sociology and anthropology, political science, economics, international relations, international law and history. This raises the problem of the complementarity, coexistence and integration of different systems of knowledge. In fact, all of the human and social sciences are products of the post-Westphalian state system and so reify the state and its internal and international system and focus on this as the main source of political conflict. Conflicts, however, can arise from other distinctions involving gender, generation, race, class and so on. To contribute to peace building and conflict resolution, the social sciences must be globalized, developing theories that address conflicts at the levels of interpersonal interaction (micro), within countries (meso), between nations (macro ), and between whole regions or civilizations (mega). Psychiatry and the "psy" disciplines can contribute to peace building and conflict resolution through understanding the interactions between processes at each of these levels and the mental health or illness of individuals.

  11. Intergenerational Conflicts among Latinos in Early Adulthood: Separating Values Conflicts with Parents from Acculturation Conflicts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Jessica; Basanez, Tatiana; Farahmand, Anahita

    2010-01-01

    An investigation of Latino and non-Latino college students sought to examine the ways in which perceived intergenerational conflicts with parents are related to acculturation, family dynamics, and psychosocial functioning. Participants reported the extent to which they experienced two types of intergenerational conflicts with parents:…

  12. Resolving conflicting safety cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several nuclear power plant sites have been wounded in the crossfire between two distinct corporate cultures. The traditional utility culture lies on one side and that of the nuclear navy on the other. The two corporate cultures lead to different perceptions of open-quotes safety culture.close quotes This clash of safety cultures obscures a very important point about nuclear plant operations: Safety depends on organizational learning. Organizational learning provides the foundation for a perception of safety culture that transcends the conflict between utility and nuclear navy cultures. Corporate culture may be defined as the knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs shared by employees of a given company. Safety culture is the part of corporate culture concerning shared attitudes and beliefs affecting individual or public safety. If the safety culture promotes behaviors that lead to greater safety, employees will tend to open-quotes do the right thingclose quotes even when circumstances and formal guidance alone do not ensure that actions will be correct. Safety culture has become particularly important to nuclear plant owners and regulators as they have sought to establish and maintain a high level of safety in today's plants

  13. The Alaskan gas pipeline conflict

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savich, P.; Fraser, N.M.; Hippel, K.W.

    1983-03-01

    A new conflict analysis technique is employed to study the dispute surrounding the selection of a natural gas pipeline route to transport gas from the American state of Alaska and also northern Canada to southern markets in the United States and Canada. The improved metagame analysis algorithm is the type of conflict analysis method that is used for providing a framework to study systematically the Alaskan gas pipeline controversy and to put the historical information into proper perspective. In addition, the methodology is utilized for predicting the possible feasible political solutions to the conflict.

  14. Conflict resolution vs. conflict escalation in online markets

    OpenAIRE

    Gary Bolton; Ben Greiner; Axel ockenfels

    2015-01-01

    Many online markets encourage traders to make good after an unsatisfactory transaction by offering the opportunity of withdrawing negative reputational feedback in a conflict resolution phase. Motivated by field evidence and guided by theoretical considerations, we use laboratory markets with two-sided moral hazard to show that this option, contrary to the intended purpose, produces an escalation of conflict in the form of strategically distorted reputation information and less trust and trus...

  15. Internal Globalization of Western Balkan

    OpenAIRE

    Vukotić Veselin

    2006-01-01

    What are potential and real effects of the globalization process on the economic connection between Western Balkan countries? What is the crucial change in relations between Western Balkan countries and its economies inexorably brought by globalization? What are the elements of political economy of Western Balkan globalization? What are reflections of the conflict between political and economic areas of Western Balkan? These are some of the issues discuses in this paper.

  16. Information system conflicts: causes and types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Boonstra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Conflicts are an inherent part of organizational life and managers deal with confrontations and conflicts on an almost daily basis. Information Systems (IS implementations are a type of change that often leads to open or hidden conflicts. Managers and others involved can only deal with such conflicts effectively if they understand the nature and causes of information system conflicts (IS conflicts. To contribute to such an understanding, this study focuses on the analysis of IS conflicts. In so doing, it aims to identify various types of IS conflicts and to develop a framework that can be helpful in assessing these conflicts. To this end, we have conducted a meta-ethnographic study – that is, we synthesized earlier case studies in which IS conflicts are described. We purposefully selected 11 descriptions of IS conflicts and we analyzed the topics, contexts, and processes of these conflicts. Based on this analysis, we propose a two-dimensional framework of IS conflicts that leads to a categorization involving four IS conflict types: task; implementation process; structure; and value conflicts. Based on the conflicts that were studied, this paper also reveals that, in reality, many IS conflicts have a hybrid form and develop from one type to another over time.

  17. 77 FR 56273 - Conflict Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-12

    ..., Release No. 34-63547 (Dec. 15, 2010) [75 FR 80948] (the ``Proposing Release''). \\5\\ Public Law 111-203... (Jan. 7, 2011) (``WGC I''). \\33\\ Conflict Minerals, Release No. 34-63793 (Jan. 28, 2011) [76 FR...

  18. Impact of conflict in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn Touré

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Since independence, few African countries have beenspared violence and armed conflict. Two West Africanresearch networks recently organised an internationalcolloquium to assess the impact and develop linkagesbetween education, peace and democracy.

  19. Extension agents and conflict narratives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bond, Jennifer Lauren

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This work investigated the narratives of development extensionists in relation to natural resource conflict, in order to understand the competing discourses surrounding the wicked problems of natural resource management in Laikipia County, Kenya. Methodology: Q methodology was used...

  20. Group conflict and faculty engagement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selmer, Jan; Jonasson, Charlotte; Lauring, Jakob

    2013-01-01

    assessed the effect of group trust, group relational conflict and group task conflict on indicators of behavioural, cognitive and emotional engagement. Our findings show a strong positive association between group trust and all academic staff engagement variables as well as a strong negative association...... between group relational conflict and all staff engagement variables. Task conflict was negatively associated with indicators of staff cognitive engagement. However, surprisingly, group trust did not have any moderating effect. Implications for educational organisation managers and policy makers......In educational settings, substantial scholarly interest has focused on student engagement as an antecedent for educational development and positive school outcomes. Very limited research, however, has focused on the engagement of academic staff members. This may be a crucial oversight because...

  1. APPROACH TO TEAM CONFLICT RESOLUTION

    OpenAIRE

    Enes Huseinagić; Adnan Hodžić

    2010-01-01

    This work includes research of team conflict resolution styles in sports by basketball coaches. This research was conducted at the European Junior Basketball Championship B Division held from July 23 to August 2, 2009 in Sarajevo. Research tasks were created with the goal to establish styles for resolving team conflict by coaches in basketball, to determine dominating styles and with the help of a questionnaire to analyze opinion about correlation of the offered styles and their effectiveness...

  2. Assimilation, Criminality and Ethnic Conflict

    OpenAIRE

    Dasgupta, Indraneel; Mukherjee, Diganta

    2014-01-01

    We examine the consequences, of integrating large minorities into productivity-relevant majority ethno-linguistic norms, for distribution, ethnic conflict and crime. We develop a two-community model where such assimilation generates social gains by: (a) facilitating economic interaction, and (b) dampening religious or racial conflict over symbolic and normative contents of the public sphere. However, integration shifts the distribution of both material and symbolic goods against the minority....

  3. Visual Rivalry Without Spatial Conflict

    OpenAIRE

    van Boxtel, Jeroen J. A.; Koch, Christof

    2012-01-01

    Visual rivalry has been extensively characterized in the literature. It is thought to require spatial conflict between overlapping visual presentations, even in studies that have found nonspatial (i.e. nonretinal) influences on rivalry. Unexpectedly, we identified visual rivalry in the complete absence of spatial conflict. Participants experienced visual rivalry when we placed a nonambiguous motion stimulus in a nonspatial (in our case, object-based) reference frame. Moreover, a stimulus that...

  4. Stockholder Conflicts and Dividend Payout

    OpenAIRE

    Berzins, Janis; Bøhren, Øyvind; Stacescu, Bogdan

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines how dividend policy influences conflicts of interest between majority and minority stockholders in a large sample of private firms with controlling blockholders. We find that a higher potential for stockholder conflicts is associated with higher payout. This tendency is stronger when the minority stockholder structure is diffuse and when the minority is not on the firm’s board. Minority-friendly payout is also associated with higher subsequent minority inves...

  5. Conflicts Over "Conflict": Preventing Fragmentation of International Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adarsh Ramanujan

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Public international law does not envisage a single source of law; nor does it contemplate a single supreme law-creating body. Conflict between various norms, whatever be their nature, is therefore an inevitability. Such conflicts are one of the many causes that affect the ability of the legal system to maintain stability and accountability. Resolving such conflicts is essential to ensure that any system does not fall under its own weight. The importance of resolving conflicts is amplified in the context of the public international law regime, which consists of a number of sub-systems, thereby resulting in a higher probability of conflicts. Equally important to the issue of resolving conflict is identifying when the solution is to be applied. After all, what good is any “ultimate answer” without identifying the “ultimate question”! In other words, one must first identify the existence of a conflict to resolve it. Very few publicists of international repute have, however, dealt with this issue, in particular, in sufficient substantive detail. Despite the limited number of opinions, there is, unfortunately, no consensus on this topic. The present comment portrays the author’s view on this issue. In this comment, the question has been analyzed with a very simple policy objective: avoiding fragmentation of international law. The author’s views are presented by way of critically examining the opinion of Joost Pauwelyn, a noted scholar in this field, who has most recently dealt with this issue in a comprehensive manner. Moulded into this crtique are three hypothetical scenarios that would allow the reader to grasp the significance of the question.

  6. Handling Conflict in the Work Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Ernest W.

    1997-01-01

    Discussion of workplace conflict management examines erroneous assumptions inherent in traditional reaction patterns, considers key elements of planning for conflict prevention, and some workplace strategies to help minimize conflicts. Several approaches to conflict management, and their outcomes, are highlighted, and stages of the…

  7. 32 CFR 776.6 - Conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Conflict. 776.6 Section 776.6 National Defense... Conflict. To the extent that a conflict exists between this part and the rules of other jurisdictions that... conflict between the rules contained in subpart B of this part and the rules of other jurisdictions...

  8. Anger Management in Parent-Adolescent Conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Susan B.

    1999-01-01

    Presents an outcome investigation of the role of anger management in parent-adolescent conflict. Eighteen parent-adolescent dyads were randomly assigned either to a conflict resolution group treatment or combined conflict management and conflict resolution group treatment. Findings suggest that the combination treatment group parents and teens…

  9. A holistic approach to natural resource conflict

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bond, Jennifer Lauren

    2014-01-01

    This article contributes to the field of natural resource conflict management by investigating the holistic context of a conflict case and argues against a simple resource scarcity-conflict thesis. The article takes point of departure in a pragmatic world view of conflicts in Laikipia County, Kenya...

  10. Information system conflicts : causes and types

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boonstra, Albert; de Vries, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Conflicts are an inherent part of organizational life and managers deal with confrontations and conflicts on an almost daily basis. IS implementations are a type of change that often leads to open or hidden conflicts. Managers and others involved can only deal with such conflicts effectively if they

  11. Sovereignty in Conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Besson

    2004-09-01

    implied by constitutional pluralism, while also enhancing the legitimacy of the European polity. This can be observed in the context of difficult issues such as constitutional conflicts, legislative cooperation and, finally, multi-level constitutionalism.

  12. New Technology and the Prevention of Violence and Conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Mancini

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Amid unprecedented growth in access to information communication technologies (ICTs, particularly in the developing world, how can international actors, governments, and civil society organizations leverage ICTs and the data they generate to more effectively prevent violence and conflict? New research shows that there is huge potential for innovative technologies to inform conflict prevention efforts, particularly when technology is used to help information flow horizontally between citizens and when it is integrated into existing civil society initiatives.1 However, new technologies are not a panacea for preventing and reducing violence and conflict. In fact, failure to consider the possible knock-on effects of applying a specific technology can lead to fatal outcomes in violent settings. In addition, employing new technologies for conflict prevention can produce very different results depending on the context in which they are applied and whether or not those using the technology take that context into account. This is particularly true in light of the dramatic changes underway in the landscapes of violence and conflict on a global level. As such, instead of focusing on supply-driven technical fixes, those undertaking prevention initiatives should let the context inform what kind of technology is needed and what kind of approach will work best.

  13. The Conflict Analysis Framework (CAF) : Identifying Conflict-Related Obstacles to Development

    OpenAIRE

    Shardesai, Shonali; Wam, Per

    2002-01-01

    The Conflict Analysis Framework (CAF), developed by the CPR Unit, aims to integrate sensitivity to conflict in Bank assistance, and to help Bank teams consider factors affecting both conflict and poverty when formulating development strategies, policies, and programs. Conflict sensitive approaches that take account of problem areas and potential sources of conflict may help to prevent the onset, ...

  14. The Effects of Marital Conflict on Korean Children's Appraisal of Conflict and Psychological Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Kyung Ja; Lee, Soojin; Park, Soo Hyun

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the effects of marital conflict on Korean children's psychological adjustment and appraisal of hypothetical marital conflict situations. Children between the ages of 10 and 12 were divided into "high-conflict" (n = 58) and "low-conflict" (n = 58) groups based on their self-reported degree of perceived interparental conflict in…

  15. Sustainable prevention of resource conflicts. Conflict risks for access and use of raw materials (report 1); Rohstoffkonflikte nachhaltig vermeiden. Konfliktrisiken bei Zugang und Nutzung von Rohstoffen (Teilbericht 1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taenzler, Dennis; Westerkamp, Meike [Adelphi Research, Berlin (Germany); Supersberger, Nikolaus; Ritthoff, Michael; Bleischwitz, Raimund [Wuppertal Institut fuer Klima, Umwelt, Energie GmbH, Wuppertal (Germany)

    2011-04-15

    Inequalities of resources ownership and the consequences of the exploitation of non-renewable resources have always caused violent conflicts of varying intensity. The resulting interdependence between conflicts on the one hand and resources on the other hand - discussed here under the term of conflict-resources nexus - is complex and requires a detailed theoretical and conceptional assessment. The risks of conflict vary as a function of the constellations of actors and the existing political, economic and social boundary conditions. These risks are often globally linked and reflect the flow of resources between consumer countries, transit countries, and producer countries. Conflicts in producer countries may endanger the supply of raw materials to consumer countries. Whether the raw material is an energetic resource like natural gas, petroleum, or coal, or a non-energetic resource like coltane or copper: There are many who demand that Germany should adapt to stronger competition and shorter supply and should also be aware of the possibility of conflicts about raw materials. This part-report of the project 'Sustainable Prevention of Resource Conflicts' presents important theoretical and conceptional considerations on the risk of conflict in the raw materials sector. On this basis, further reports will present case studies, scenarios, and preventive strategies. (orig./RHM)

  16. How to Preempt Team Conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toegel, Ginka; Barsoux, Jean-Louis

    2016-06-01

    Team conflict can add value or destroy it. Good conflict fosters respectful debate and yields mutually agreed-upon solutions that are often far superior to those first offered. Bad conflict occurs when team members simply can't get past their differences, killing productivity and stifling innovation. Destructive conflict typically stems not from differences of opinion but from a perceived incompatibility between the way certain team members think and act. The conventional approach to working through such conflict is to respond to clashes as they arise. But this approach routinely fails because it allows frustrations to build for too long, making it difficult to reset negative impressions and restore trust. In their research on team dynamics and experience working with executive teams, Toegel and Barsoux have found a proactive approach to be much more effective. In this article, they introduce a methodology that focuses on how people look, act, speak, think, and feel. Team leaders facilitate five conversations--one focused on each category--before the team gets under way, to build a shared understanding of the process, rather than the content, of work and lay the foundation for effective collaboration. PMID:27491198

  17. How to Preempt Team Conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toegel, Ginka; Barsoux, Jean-Louis

    2016-06-01

    Team conflict can add value or destroy it. Good conflict fosters respectful debate and yields mutually agreed-upon solutions that are often far superior to those first offered. Bad conflict occurs when team members simply can't get past their differences, killing productivity and stifling innovation. Destructive conflict typically stems not from differences of opinion but from a perceived incompatibility between the way certain team members think and act. The conventional approach to working through such conflict is to respond to clashes as they arise. But this approach routinely fails because it allows frustrations to build for too long, making it difficult to reset negative impressions and restore trust. In their research on team dynamics and experience working with executive teams, Toegel and Barsoux have found a proactive approach to be much more effective. In this article, they introduce a methodology that focuses on how people look, act, speak, think, and feel. Team leaders facilitate five conversations--one focused on each category--before the team gets under way, to build a shared understanding of the process, rather than the content, of work and lay the foundation for effective collaboration.

  18. Mechanistic understanding of human-wildlife conflict through a novel application of dynamic occupancy models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Varun R; Medhi, Kamal; Nichols, James D; Oli, Madan K

    2015-08-01

    Crop and livestock depredation by wildlife is a primary driver of human-wildlife conflict, a problem that threatens the coexistence of people and wildlife globally. Understanding mechanisms that underlie depredation patterns holds the key to mitigating conflicts across time and space. However, most studies do not consider imperfect detection and reporting of conflicts, which may lead to incorrect inference regarding its spatiotemporal drivers. We applied dynamic occupancy models to elephant crop depredation data from India between 2005 and 2011 to estimate crop depredation occurrence and model its underlying dynamics as a function of spatiotemporal covariates while accounting for imperfect detection of conflicts. The probability of detecting conflicts was consistently conflicts from factors that influence how they are observed, thereby allowing more reliable inference on mechanisms underlying observed conflict patterns. We found that factors associated with increased crop accessibility and availability (e.g., distance to forests and rainfall patterns) were key drivers of elephant crop depredation dynamics. Such an understanding is essential for rigorous prediction of future conflicts, a critical requirement for effective conflict management in the context of increasing human-wildlife interactions. PMID:25757801

  19. Local Water Conflict and Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermann, Roberto Rivas; Hooper, Catherine; Munk Ravnborg, Helle

    2011-01-01

    In 2007 the Danish Institute for International Studies (DIIS) launched the research programme “Competing for Water: Understanding conflict and cooperation in local water governance”. Along with partners in five developing countries (Bolivia, Mali, Nicaragua, Vietnam and Zambia), the programme aims...... to contribute to “sustainable local water governance in support of the rural poor and otherwise disadvantaged groups in developing countries by improving the knowledge among researchers and practitioners of the nature, extent and intensity of local water conflict and cooperation and their social, economic...... al, 2007; Nguyen, 2007; Mweemba, C.E. 2007). The purpose of these overviews was to position the research findings on the extent and nature of local-level water-related conflict and cooperation in the context of ongoing efforts to improve the policy, legal and administrative water governance framework...

  20. Global environmental policy; Globale Umweltpolitik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varwick, J. (ed.)

    2008-07-01

    For some years, the interest in global environmental problems and global environmental policy increased substantially. In order to prevent a sustainable and irreversible damage of the global ecological systems, it requires an ecological restructuring of the economy of the industrial nations and a environmental compatible development in the developing countries. Under this aspect, the book under consideration dedicates itself to this problem by means of five scientific contributions: (a) The principle sustainability (Felix Ekardt); (b) Climate change as a world problem (Andreas Rechkemmer); (c) The role of the pioneer of the European Union in the international climate policy: Successes and challenges (Sebastian Oberthuer); (d) Cause for conflict water (Tobias Lindenberg); (e) Environmental political instruments in theory and practice (Johanna Reichenbach/Till Requate). Instruction practice also is concerned with a cross section topic consisting of environmental and European politics: Competent instructions concerning to the European Union - an instruction series for the secondary school I (George Wiesseno, Valentin Eck). Two forum contributions go beyond the topic: (a) Against rigid (society-)political borders in the science (Tim Engartner); (b) Elections in Hamburg - Schwarz-Gruen as new coalition model for the federation? In the column 'the current topic' Gotthard Breit reports on the protests against China on the occasion of the Olympic Games 2008. The author focuses some strangenesses in the debate and pleads for a sober view of the topic. With a report on 'the Beutelsbacher discussions' at 18th to 20th February, 2008, Timo Web finishes this book.

  1. Conflict Management Training in China: The Value of Cooperative Conflict Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tjosvold, Dean; Ding, Daniel

    2001-01-01

    Asserts the value of a theory for conflict management training and summarizes the theory of cooperative and competitive conflict and its empirical base. Outlines the theory's specific implications for conflict management training in China. (EV)

  2. Modeling and Controlling Interstate Conflict

    CERN Document Server

    Marwala, Tshilidzi

    2007-01-01

    Bayesian neural networks were used to model the relationship between input parameters, Democracy, Allies, Contingency, Distance, Capability, Dependency and Major Power, and the output parameter which is either peace or conflict. The automatic relevance determination was used to rank the importance of input variables. Control theory approach was used to identify input variables that would give a peaceful outcome. It was found that using all four controllable variables Democracy, Allies, Capability and Dependency; or using only Dependency or only Capabilities avoids all the predicted conflicts.

  3. A Simple Model of Conflict

    OpenAIRE

    Ille, Sebastian

    2013-01-01

    This paper develops a simple dynamic, non-symmetric game between two player populations that can be generalised to a large variety of conflicts. One population attempts to re-write a current (social) contract in its favour, whereas the other prefers to maintain the status quo. In the model's initial set up, the free-rider problem obstructs the occurrence of a conflict, leading to a low probability of a successful turn-over. The normative and conventional framework, in which players interact, ...

  4. Conflict, Ideology and Foreign Aid

    OpenAIRE

    Arcand, Jean-Louis; Bah, Adama; Labonne, Julien

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we present a rent-seeking model of conflict, which highlights the role of ideology in determining whether the government or the rebels take the initiative. We use the model to interpret the impact of a large-scale Community-Driven Development project on civil conflict in the Philippines. The country is characterized by the presence of two rebel groups, the New People's Army (NPA) and the Moro Islamic Liberation Front (MILF), with two distinct ideologies. We use a unique geo-ref...

  5. Specificity of peer conflicts in adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Danijela

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of the survey conducted on the sample of 530 adolescents are presented in this paper. The sample included two age groups (13 and 16 years. The research was realized in 11 town and 26 schools. The method of the retrospection of the conflict contents, with one week retrospection interval, was used to research the perception of the conflict characteristics. The distinctive characteristics and the effects of the peer conflicts in adolescence have been identified by comparing them to the conflicts with friends, romantic partners, siblings and teachers. According to the results peer conflicts have certain specificity. Although less frequent than conflicts with parents and siblings, the peer conflicts in adolescence are widen phenomenon - on average, the adolescents get in conflict with their peers more than 13 times in a week, almost twice in a day. The most frequent causes are teasing and inappropriate jokes, deliberate provoking, gossips, insults and not respecting the differences in opinion. Peers follow the teachers as the least important persons in the conflict. Compared to the conflicts in other types of the social relations, the conflicts with peers are the least uncomfortable. Yielding is the least, competition the most present resolution strategy in peer conflicts. As well as the most conflicts in this age conflicts with peers are short time episode.

  6. The Geopolitical Setting of Conflict Diamonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haggerty, S. E.

    2002-05-01

    ) in the Earth's mantle, are old (about 3 Ga), and are emplaced volcanically into continental crust (cratons), at specific times geologically. Clusters of diamond volcanoes are common throughout the world, and in Africa spill over into several countries. Although there are subtle distinctions in geology, geophysics, and geochemistry of diamondiferous settings globally, these differences decrease within provinces (1000 sq km), and are minor at the district level (10-100 sq km). For diamonds: clear, sharp edged octahedra are typical of Siberia; pink stones are mostly from W. Australia; Cape yellow and blue diamonds occur in South Africa and India; corroded and etched diamonds are prevalent in E. Africa; and fibrous diamonds, once considered the domain of the Congo Republic and Sierra Leone were recently discovered in the non conflict, Slave Province, Canada. These examples are neither craton nor site specific. Is there a non destructive analytical method to uniquivocally identify diamonds regionally, or ideally at a more localized level? The intrinsic approach (vs applied) is challenging because geographical boundaries do not correspond to geological contacts. Spectroscopy, trace elements, isotopes, mineral inclusions, and the conductivities of diamonds show some promise but the overlaps are large. Refinements will evolve and analytical innovations will develop. However, legally acquired conflict diamonds are needed on which to perform basic experiments, establish background levels, and develop a data base for global comparisons. US assistance, UN permission, and funding (e.g. NSF, DOD) are urgently required if this geoscientific initiative is to move forward in stopping the flow of conflict diamonds into the hands of terrorist organizations. We have a scientific obligation to society.

  7. Behavioral Responses to Interpersonal Conflict in Decision Making Teams: A Clarification of the Conflict Phenomenon

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Felice Amanda

    2009-01-01

    Interpersonal conflict in organizations plays an important role in performance, but the exact nature of that role remains unclear. Among conflict researchers a shift has occurred from believing that all conflict is debilitating for organizational performance to the realization that there are both positive and negative aspects of conflict. Contemporary research adopts a distinction between task conflict and relationship conflict. Conceptually, a positive relationship has been proposed between ...

  8. Conflict Prevention through Post Conflict Housing Reconstruction: Good Practices and Lessons Learned

    OpenAIRE

    Seneviratne, Krisanthi; Amaratunga, Dilanthi; Haigh, Richard

    2015-01-01

    The concept of ‘DRR’ within natural and technological disasters context conform to the concept of ‘conflict prevention and peace building’ within conflicts or wars context. Similar to DRR measures within disaster context, it is important to study conflict prevention measures within conflicts or wars. This paper presents such measures within post conflict housing reconstruction. Literature identifies a number of implications of post conflict housing reconstruction contributes on development...

  9. Co-adaptability solution to conflict events in construction projects by segmented hierarchical algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU XueLiang; LU Mei

    2008-01-01

    In order to seek the co-adaptability solution to conflict events in construction en-gineering projects,a new method referred to as segmented hierarchical algorithm is proposed in this paper by means of comparing co-adaptability evolution process of conflict events to the stackelberg model.By this new algorithm,local solutions to the first-order transformation of co-adaptability for conflict events can be ob-tained,based upon which,a global solution to the second-order transformation of co-adaptability for conflict events can also be decided by judging satisfaction de-gree of local solutions.The research results show that this algorithm can be used not only for obtaining co-adaptability solution to conflict events efficiently,but also for other general decision-making problems with multi-layers and multi-subsidi-aries in project management field.

  10. Adding Conflict Resolution Features to a Query Language for Database Federations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai-Uwe Sattler

    2000-11-01

    Full Text Available A main problem of data integration is the treatment of conflicts caused by different modeling of realworld entities, different data models or simply by different representations of one and the same object. During the integration phase these conflicts have to be identified and resolved as part of the mapping between local and global schemata. Therefore, conflict resolution affects the definition of the integrated view as well as query transformation and evaluation, in this paper we present a SQL extension for defining and querying database federations. This language addresses in particular the resolution of integration conflicts by providing mechanisms for mapping attributes, restructuring relations as well as extended integration operations. Finally, the application of these resolution strategies is briefly explained by presenting a simple conflict resolution method.

  11. Co-adaptability solution to conflict events in construction projects by segmented hierarchical algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In order to seek the co-adaptability solution to conflict events in construction engineering projects, a new method referred to as segmented hierarchical algorithm is proposed in this paper by means of comparing co-adaptability evolution process of conflict events to the stackelberg model. By this new algorithm, local solutions to the first-order transformation of co-adaptability for conflict events can be obtained, based upon which, a global solution to the second-order transformation of co-adaptability for conflict events can also be decided by judging satisfaction degree of local solutions. The research results show that this algorithm can be used not only for obtaining co-adaptability solution to conflict events efficiently, but also for other general decision-making problems with multi-layers and multi-subsidi-aries in project management field.

  12. Secure Attachment Conceptualizations: The Influence of General and Specific Relational Models on Conflict Beliefs and Conflict Resolution Styles

    OpenAIRE

    Cheryl C. Woolley; Dave Clarke; Karin du Plessis

    2007-01-01

    Attachment theory focuses on the cognitive models that underlie our interactions with attachment figures. Global or generalized mental models are thought to develop on the basis of attachment models with parents and might form the initial basis of internal working models in novel relationships. However, as discrepant information presents itself in a new relationship, it is thought that specific relational models develop. When conflict arises it can threaten the attachment bonds of the relatio...

  13. James Bond and Global Health Diplomacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevany, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    In the 21st Century, distinctions and boundaries between global health, international politics, and the broader interests of the global community are harder to define and enforce than ever before. As a result, global health workers, leaders, and institutions face pressing questions around the nature and extent of their involvement with non-health endeavors, including international conflict resolution, counter-terrorism, and peace-keeping, under the global health diplomacy (GHD) paradigm. PMID:26673467

  14. James Bond and Global Health Diplomacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Kevany

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the 21st Century, distinctions and boundaries between global health, international politics, and the broader interests of the global community are harder to define and enforce than ever before. As a result, global health workers, leaders, and institutions face pressing questions around the nature and extent of their involvement with non-health endeavors, including international conflict resolution, counter-terrorism, and peace-keeping, under the global health diplomacy (GHD paradigm.

  15. Do climate extreme events foster violent civil conflicts? A coincidence analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleussner, Carl-Friedrich; Donges, Jonathan F.; Donner, Reik V.

    2014-05-01

    Civil conflicts promoted by adverse environmental conditions represent one of the most important potential feedbacks in the global socio-environmental nexus. While the role of climate extremes as a triggering factor is often discussed, no consensus is yet reached about the cause-and-effect relation in the observed data record. Here we present results of a rigorous statistical coincidence analysis based on the Munich Re Inc. extreme events database and the Uppsala conflict data program. We report evidence for statistically significant synchronicity between climate extremes with high economic impact and violent conflicts for various regions, although no coherent global signal emerges from our analysis. Our results indicate the importance of regional vulnerability and might aid to identify hot-spot regions for potential climate-triggered violent social conflicts.

  16. Internal Conflicts in Muslim Societies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashiq Ali Shah

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of psychological theories and the social dynamics of the society help identify salient attributes and processes relevant to conflict among Muslims. The psychodynamic concept of personality and frustration-aggression hypothesis account for the socialization practices in the Muslim societies, emotional instability, unfavorable evaluation of those holding a different viewpoint and venting out one's aggression on the weaker. The tendency of the Muslims to praise their sect/tribe/religious group leads to a groupthink situation that polarizes intergroup relationships. The acts of categorization in group and out group, as postulated by the social identity theory, contribute towards the distorted perception of each other. The Islamic notions of brotherhood, unity and ethnic identity as means of personal identification and social interaction seems to have been forgotten by the Muslims. Though the Western social-psychological constructs are helpful in understanding the causes of conflict among Muslims, they are not germane to Muslim societies. The group belongingness and group favouritism is not necessarily a tool of discrimination and conflict but is an essential component of one's survival in a collectivist society. The Western theories also do not address the economic and political circumstances responsible for the multitude of conflicts among Muslims.

  17. The replication-transcription conflict

    OpenAIRE

    Soultanas, Panos

    2011-01-01

    In response to environmental and nutritional stimuli, a whole array of proteins remodel genome architecture, activate or transcribe genes, suppress genes, repair lesions and base-modifications, faithfully replicate and safely separate the parental and daughter genomes during cell division. Negotiating and resolving conflicts of genome trafficking is essential for genome stability.

  18. Sexual conflict and life histories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wedell, N.; Kvarnemo, C.; Lessells, C.M.; Tregenza, T.

    2006-01-01

    There is burgeoning interest in the costs of mating and in how this leads to sex differences in the optimal mating rate. Here, we attempt to look beyond an exclusive focus on matings to examine the fundamental conflicts that arise out of the fact that sexual reproduction involves investment in offsp

  19. Games, the Socialization of Conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton-Smith, Brian

    The function of games in a society is discussed in this paper. An earlier definition of games as a concretistic way of processing information of cultural antitheses is enlarged to include a more bio-adaptive definition: the game is also a socialization of conflict. This view is compared and contrasted with those of Sigmund Freud and G. H. Mead.…

  20. Discussing Conflict in Contemporary China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miletic, Tania; Bretherton, Diane

    2016-01-01

    The research suggests there is a gap in the peace studies and conflict resolution literature, with little representation or understanding of Chinese perspectives. In a project to address this gap, the researchers conducted interviews individually with 30 participants identified as "emerging leaders," who came from diverse universities…

  1. Intragroup Conflict during Study Abroad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodycott, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Co-national groups of individuals from the same country can provide members with psychological and sociocultural support when coping with the stresses of studying abroad. This article examines intragroup task and relationship conflict that occurred in one co-national group during a 14-week short-term study abroad program. Findings reveal the…

  2. The paradox of intragroup conflict

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wit, Franciscus Remendus Cornelis de

    2013-01-01

    During group decision making, people often experience disagreements in which they need to choose between their own viewpoint and the viewpoint of another group member, for example, when cabinet members disagree about the best decision to tackle a crisis. These intragroup conflicts often pose a parad

  3. Conflict translates environmental and social risk into business costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franks, Daniel M; Davis, Rachel; Bebbington, Anthony J; Ali, Saleem H; Kemp, Deanna; Scurrah, Martin

    2014-05-27

    Sustainability science has grown as a field of inquiry, but has said little about the role of large-scale private sector actors in socio-ecological systems change. However, the shaping of global trends and transitions depends greatly on the private sector and its development impact. Market-based and command-and-control policy instruments have, along with corporate citizenship, been the predominant means for bringing sustainable development priorities into private sector decision-making. This research identifies conflict as a further means through which environmental and social risks are translated into business costs and decision making. Through in-depth interviews with finance, legal, and sustainability professionals in the extractive industries, and empirical case analysis of 50 projects worldwide, this research reports on the financial value at stake when conflict erupts with local communities. Over the past decade, high commodity prices have fueled the expansion of mining and hydrocarbon extraction. These developments profoundly transform environments, communities, and economies, and frequently generate social conflict. Our analysis shows that mining and hydrocarbon companies fail to factor in the full scale of the costs of conflict. For example, as a result of conflict, a major, world-class mining project with capital expenditure of between US$3 and US$5 billion was reported to suffer roughly US$20 million per week of delayed production in net present value terms. Clear analysis of the costs of conflict provides sustainability professionals with a strengthened basis to influence corporate decision making, particularly when linked to corporate values. Perverse outcomes of overemphasizing a cost analysis are also discussed.

  4. Conflict translates environmental and social risk into business costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franks, Daniel M; Davis, Rachel; Bebbington, Anthony J; Ali, Saleem H; Kemp, Deanna; Scurrah, Martin

    2014-05-27

    Sustainability science has grown as a field of inquiry, but has said little about the role of large-scale private sector actors in socio-ecological systems change. However, the shaping of global trends and transitions depends greatly on the private sector and its development impact. Market-based and command-and-control policy instruments have, along with corporate citizenship, been the predominant means for bringing sustainable development priorities into private sector decision-making. This research identifies conflict as a further means through which environmental and social risks are translated into business costs and decision making. Through in-depth interviews with finance, legal, and sustainability professionals in the extractive industries, and empirical case analysis of 50 projects worldwide, this research reports on the financial value at stake when conflict erupts with local communities. Over the past decade, high commodity prices have fueled the expansion of mining and hydrocarbon extraction. These developments profoundly transform environments, communities, and economies, and frequently generate social conflict. Our analysis shows that mining and hydrocarbon companies fail to factor in the full scale of the costs of conflict. For example, as a result of conflict, a major, world-class mining project with capital expenditure of between US$3 and US$5 billion was reported to suffer roughly US$20 million per week of delayed production in net present value terms. Clear analysis of the costs of conflict provides sustainability professionals with a strengthened basis to influence corporate decision making, particularly when linked to corporate values. Perverse outcomes of overemphasizing a cost analysis are also discussed. PMID:24821758

  5. Does conflict shatter trust or does trust obliterate conflict? Revisiting the relationships between team diversity, conflict, and trust

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Curseu, P.; Schruijer, S.G.L.

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the interplay between trust and conflict as antecedents of team effectiveness. In the first cross-sectional study, two alternative path models are tested in a sample of 174 teams (897 participants) with the emergent states of task conflict, relationship conflict, and trust acti

  6. Links between Conflict Management Research and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roloff, Michael E.

    2009-01-01

    This paper explicates the implications of my research on conflict management for self improvement and for practitioners who work to improve the conflict management of others. I also note how my experiences with practitioners have informed my research.

  7. Conflict and Social Change: Three Sociological Traditions

    OpenAIRE

    Mihail Rarita

    2012-01-01

    To a considerable number of sociologists, conflict is of utmost importance in explaining social evolution. The present paper deals with three established orientations, which constitute the unavoidable point of departure for any contemporary approach of conflict and social change: Durkheim treats social conflict as a symptom of a dysfunction; Weber and Simmel consider it as a normal social relation, while Marx sees social conflict as the driving force of the entire society. Despite their diver...

  8. Economic Performance Over the Conflict Cycle

    OpenAIRE

    Nicholas Staines

    2004-01-01

    The paper finds a significant shift in the economic characteristics of civil conflicts during the1990s. Conflicts have become shorter but with more severe contractions and a stronger recovery of growth. The overall length and cost of the conflict cycle has probably declined. The stance of macroeconomic policy was an important factor while the underlying "conflict process" remained unchanged. This shift seems related to changes in aid flows since the Cold War: donors became disinclined to prov...

  9. Natural Resources, Conflict and Growth Nexus

    OpenAIRE

    Shahida Wizarat

    2013-01-01

    Using panel data and GMM estimators we find that conflict and less developed countries (LDCs) natural resources have a positive and significant impact on GDP in the developed countries (DCs), while the lagged value of the conflict coefficient has a negative and significant impact on GDP in the LDCs for the period 1980-2006. In the conflict model using panel data and GMM estimates on oil, gas and coal production in the LDCs have a profound impact on world conflict.

  10. On building methodological and theoretical frameworks to examine the interrelationships between environmental change and armed conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Den Hoek, J.

    2014-12-01

    Relationships between environmental change and armed conflict have long been studied. Sometimes referred to as 'warfare' or 'conflict' ecology, much of this scholarship has come in response to local-level perceptions of landscape or livelihood changes that result from regional armed conflict. However, such studies have, first, typically focused on spatiotemporally acute and readily detectable environmental change, like deforestation, to the exclusion of protracted and more subtle environmental changes, like agricultural degradation; second, been limited to situational conflicts or circumstances, thereby inhibiting broader theoretical development; and, third, often only considered the environmental consequences rather than the environmental or climatic circumstances that may contribute to conflict. As a result, there is little opportunity for methodological or theoretical cohesion between studies. In this presentation, I synthesize findings from three case studies examining the interrelationships between agricultural change and armed conflict in the semi-arid landscapes of northwest Pakistan, Palestine, and southern Syria. Using coarse through very high resolution remotely sensed imagery, socio-economic and demographic data, conflict databases, open-source programming, and building on theoretical underpinnings of political ecology and conflict studies, I present methods and modeling approaches that aid in overcoming data scarcity and disparity between scales of analysis and integrate environmental and conflict data in spatiotemporally explicit ways. Results from these case studies illuminate the interrelationships between both protracted and acute agricultural change and armed conflict, and have broad relevance for understanding the means by which environment, conflict, and livelihoods are linked, a nexus that will only become tighter with the advance of global climate change.

  11. Organizational Conflicts Perceived by Marketing Executives

    OpenAIRE

    Ikeda, Ana Akemi; Modesto Veludo-de-Oliveira, Tania; Cortez Campomar, Marcos

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses the conflict phenomenon and examines some strategies to overcome it. Concepts are discussed and employed for the development of an exploratory field survey carried out with Brazilian marketing executives. Results show that conflicts are more felt in the marketing area itself and in near and related areas. Communication is the main source of conflict, followed by different expectations and organizational structure.

  12. Context, Not Conflict, Drives Cognitive Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlaghecken, Friederike; Martini, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    Theories of cognitive control generally assume that perceived conflict acts as a signal to engage inhibitory mechanisms that suppress subsequent conflicting information. Crucially, an absence of conflict is not regarded as being a relevant signal for cognitive control. Using a cueing, a priming, and a Simon task, we provide evidence that conflict…

  13. Observed Infant Reactions during Live Interparental Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du Rocher Schudlich, Tina D.; White, Clare R.; Fleischhauer, Emily A.; Fitzgerald, Kelly A.

    2011-01-01

    Associations between interparental conflict and infant reactions were examined. Infants' history of exposure to interparental conflict and infant reactive temperament were examined as moderators. A community sample of 74 infants, aged 6-14 months, participated with their parents. Behavioral observations were made of parents' marital conflict and…

  14. Conflict Management: Difficult Conversations with Difficult People

    OpenAIRE

    Overton, Amy R.; Lowry, Ann C.

    2013-01-01

    Conflict occurs frequently in any workplace; health care is not an exception. The negative consequences include dysfunctional team work, decreased patient satisfaction, and increased employee turnover. Research demonstrates that training in conflict resolution skills can result in improved teamwork, productivity, and patient and employee satisfaction. Strategies to address a disruptive physician, a particularly difficult conflict situation in healthcare, are addressed.

  15. Conflict Resolution Practices of Arctic Aboriginal Peoples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Gendron; C. Hille

    2013-01-01

    This article presents an overview of the conflict resolution practices of indigenous populations in the Arctic. Among the aboriginal groups discussed are the Inuit, the Aleut, and the Saami. Having presented the conflict resolution methods, the authors discuss the types of conflicts that are current

  16. Conflict in medical teams: opportunity or danger?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.L. Greer; O. Saygi; H. Aaldering; C.K.W. de Dreu

    2012-01-01

    Objectives  Intragroup conflicts often occur when people are called upon to collaborate in the accomplishment of a task. For example, when surgeons and nurses work together during an operation, conflicts may emerge because of differences in functional understanding. Whether these conflicts are benef

  17. Coping with Conflict in Educational Circles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nebgen, Mary K.

    1979-01-01

    The author presents ideas on what the school administrator should know in order to successfully manage conflict situations so that the conflict does not impede school functioning, and suggests that proper handling of the inevitable conflict situations that arise can bring about group cohesiveness and unity. (KC)

  18. Marital Conflict in Stepfamilies: Effects on Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Marilyn; Ganong, Lawrence

    1987-01-01

    Clinical research shows that children have emotional investments in stepfamilies and are negatively affected by marital conflict, which can actually be greater than between couples without stepchildren. Stepchildren's perceptions of conflict heightens their need for affection. Views of parents and children about conflict do not necessarily…

  19. Sibling Conflict Resolution Skills: Assessment and Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Brett W.; Roberts, Mark W.

    2009-01-01

    Sibling conflict can rise to the level of a clinical problem. In Phase 1 a lengthy behavioral role-play analog sampling child reactions to normal sibling conflicts was successfully shortened. In Phase 2 normal children who lacked sibling conflict resolution skills were randomly assigned to a Training or Measurement Only condition. Training…

  20. Conflict management: difficult conversations with difficult people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overton, Amy R; Lowry, Ann C

    2013-12-01

    Conflict occurs frequently in any workplace; health care is not an exception. The negative consequences include dysfunctional team work, decreased patient satisfaction, and increased employee turnover. Research demonstrates that training in conflict resolution skills can result in improved teamwork, productivity, and patient and employee satisfaction. Strategies to address a disruptive physician, a particularly difficult conflict situation in healthcare, are addressed. PMID:24436688

  1. Conflict Management Styles of Turkish Managers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkalp, Enver; Sungur, Zerrin; Ozdemir, Aytul Ayse

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study is to determine Turkish managers conflict styles in different sectors, namely durable consumer goods, aviation, automotive and banking. Design/methodology/approach: A total of 130 managers conflict management styles were assessed by applying the Rahim's 1983 Organizational Conflict Inventory-II. Findings: First,…

  2. Eradication of poliomyelitis in countries affected by conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangermann, R H; Hull, H F; Jafari, H; Nkowane, B; Everts, H; Aylward, R B

    2000-01-01

    The global initiative to eradicate poliomyelitis is focusing on a small number of countries in Africa (Angola, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Liberia, Sierra Leone, Somalia, Sudan) and Asia (Afghanistan, Tajikistan), where progress has been hindered by armed conflict. In these countries the disintegration of health systems and difficulties of access are major obstacles to the immunization and surveillance strategies necessary for polio eradication. In such circumstances, eradication requires special endeavours, such as the negotiation of ceasefires and truces and the winning of increased direct involvement by communities. Transmission of poliovirus was interrupted during conflicts in Cambodia, Colombia, El Salvador, Peru, the Philippines, and Sri Lanka. Efforts to achieve eradication in areas of conflict have led to extra health benefits: equity in access to immunization, brought about because every child has to be reached; the revitalization and strengthening of routine immunization services through additional externally provided resources; and the establishment of disease surveillance systems. The goal of polio eradication by the end of 2000 remains attainable if supplementary immunization and surveillance can be accelerated in countries affected by conflict. PMID:10812729

  3. Friendship Conflict, Conflict Responses, and Instability: Unique Links to Anxious and Angry Forms of Rejection Sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croft, Carissa D.; Zimmer-Gembeck, Melanie J.

    2014-01-01

    Rejection sensitivity (RS) instigates conflict and prompts maladaptive conflict responses within romantic relationships. We tested whether RS had similar effects within friendships (N = 262, X[subscript age] = 11.7) by investigating whether (a) RS was associated with more frequent conflict, (b) two RS forms prompted different conflict responses,…

  4. Family conflict tendency and ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederhofer, H; Hackenberg, B; Lanzendörfer, K

    2004-04-01

    A lack of perseverance, poor attention, and poorly modulated behaviour are important criteria of Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder (ADHD). Instructions often have to be repeated, sometimes even by different family members before a child with ADHD attends and complies. We hypothesised that a child with ADHD might cause less disagreement in families with almost no conflicts. Responses to the Mannheim Parents Interview and teacher's form of the Conners scale completed by families of 15 boys (ages 6 to 12 years), diagnosed with ADHD were compared with those of a matched, healthy control group of 15 boys. Parents completed a form assessing the family's cooperation and child-rearing practices. Having few family conflicts, i.e., almost no Verbal Disagreement may reduce Physical Punishment and Anger and Disregard and augment the Openness to another's needs and, for that reason, have protective effects on children's behaviour modulation. PMID:15154188

  5. CONFLICTS BETWEEN TOURISTS AND HUNTERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionica Soare

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Tourism recreational outdoors bring revenue for the major economies of many states, for example communities should contribute with more than 800 billion dollars annually on U.S. economy, where three out of four Americans participate actively in the open air at recreation each year, as well as as well as hiking, biking, camping, wildlife generates an enormous economic power and a multiplier effect in major sectors of the economy. Empirical Research reveals a ambiguity of the feelings and attitudes concerning the relationship and potential for real conflicts between hunting recreational-sports and leisure and other activities of tourism recreational outdoors. Quantitative methods of analysis have revealed many common items, the reasons for and the environment, which are shared by both classes. An investigation carried out by means of interviews and questionnaires revealed three key elements which offers the potential of conflict: group characteristics, behavior and use of weapons for killing of animals.

  6. Nonlocality and conflicting interest games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappa, Anna; Kumar, Niraj; Lawson, Thomas; Santha, Miklos; Zhang, Shengyu; Diamanti, Eleni; Kerenidis, Iordanis

    2015-01-16

    Nonlocality enables two parties to win specific games with probabilities strictly higher than allowed by any classical theory. Nevertheless, all known such examples consider games where the two parties have a common interest, since they jointly win or lose the game. The main question we ask here is whether the nonlocal feature of quantum mechanics can offer an advantage in a scenario where the two parties have conflicting interests. We answer this in the affirmative by presenting a simple conflicting interest game, where quantum strategies outperform classical ones. Moreover, we show that our game has a fair quantum equilibrium with higher payoffs for both players than in any fair classical equilibrium. Finally, we play the game using a commercial entangled photon source and demonstrate experimentally the quantum advantage. PMID:25635538

  7. Technological risks and social conflicts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research on acceptance, perception and assessment of risks clearly shows that perception of risk by the public is based more on subjective assessments than on scientifically objective risk values. Risk perception by the public is influenced by a number of factors. Risk is still a central point in the conflict and always plays a major role in the opposition toward dangerous technologies. Risk forms the thematic focus for the controversy. The development of the actual conflict, the positions, interests, adaptation problems and processes of the various societal institutions, the conditions, prospects, and forms of antinuclear protest and the subjects and structures, symmetries and changes of argument in the public discussion on nuclear energy are analyzed and represented in detail in this report. (orig./HSCH)

  8. Interactive behavior in conflict situations

    OpenAIRE

    Quant, M.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis deals with interactive behavior in conflict situations. The first chapters consider several issues in relation to bankruptcy theory. Thereafter, several operations research problems are modeled within the framework of cooperative game theory. The main focus is on what is optimal for a group of cooperating players and how to divide cost savings or benefits achieved by cooperation. Finally, the last chapter is about non-cooperative game theory, treating properness and protectiveness...

  9. Introduction to "Conflict and Aggression"

    OpenAIRE

    Pagani, Camilla; Farnicka, Marzanna; Liberska, Hanna; Ramirez, J. Martin

    2014-01-01

    During the XXXVII CICA we will be talking about Developmental and Social Conditions of Conflict and Aggression. All participants will have the opportunity to listen to two keynote speakers, eight sessions of scientific presentations, one poster session and two panel discussions. All these kinds of activities will be focused on a variety of types of conditionings of aggression and violence, on methods to measure readiness for aggression and on the practical implications of this knowledge to be...

  10. Stakeholder conflicts and dividend policy

    OpenAIRE

    Bøhren, Øyvind; Josefsen, Morten G.; Steen, Pål E.

    2012-01-01

    This paper compares the dividend policy of owner-controlled firms with that of firms where the owners are a minority relative to non-owner employees, customers, and community citizens. We find that regardless of whether owners or non-owners control the firm, the strong stakeholder uses the dividend payout decision to mitigate rather than to intensify the conflict of interest with the weak stakeholder. Hence, the higher the potential agency cost as reflected in the firm’s stakeh...

  11. Parent-adolescent conflict: an empirical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, J A

    1987-01-01

    Conflict between parents and adolescents is usually seen as a normal and necessary part of human development. However, treatment approaches for problematic conflict differ depending on several variables including theoretical orientation of the clinician. This article compares and contrasts psychoanalytic, systems, and social learning theories in order to determine the empirical support for each. In addition, several issues inherent in parent-adolescent conflict are reviewed including developmental stage theory, parenting styles, peer pressures, communications skills, marital conflict, drugs, school, and sex. Several studies and reviews of the literature are examined for common conclusions. Finally, an integrated and empirically supported model to explain parent-adolescent conflict is described.

  12. [Conflict and deficit in etiopathogenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solimano, Alberto Luis

    2010-01-01

    Currently, there is a proliferation of theories and theoretical languages in the field of Mental Health. These different languages, with their accompanying discourse, can be a great source of confusion for the therapist, who is often forced to use them in clinical practice. The purpose of this paper is to describe and compare two principal theories in an attempt to integrate their different theoretical languages and approaches. To this end, two approaches in etiopathogenia, conflict and deficit, characteristic of two principal models, namely the medical-psychiatric model and the psychoanalytic-psychodynamic model, are described and compared. Firstly, deficit and psychic conflict are defined in the context of psychopathology. Secondly, Freud's complemental series is described and suggested as a model to enable the inclusion of both concepts in the etiopathology of mental disease. Thirdly, the diagnostic process is examined to illustrate how each model operates using a different methodology to collect data. In the field of psychiatry, clinical observation involves finding generalities to classify the disease in a nosography. In contrast, psychoanalysis investigates the conflict in the therapeutic relationship, and thus preserves the singularity of the subject. Finally, it is suggested that both models may be necessary and complementary, as they are both instrumental in the treatment of mental illness. PMID:21188311

  13. Conflicting Interpretations of Scientific Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galamba, Arthur

    2016-05-01

    Not surprisingly historical studies have suggested that there is a distance between concepts of teaching methods, their interpretations and their actual use in the classroom. This issue, however, is not always pitched to the personal level in historical studies, which may provide an alternative insight on how teachers conceptualise and engage with concepts of teaching methods. This article provides a case study on this level of conceptualisation by telling the story of Rómulo de Carvalho, an educator from mid-twentieth century Portugal, who for over 40 years engaged with the heuristic and Socratic methods. The overall argument is that concepts of teaching methods are open to different interpretations and are conceptualised within the melting pot of external social pressures and personal teaching preferences. The practice and thoughts of Carvalho about teaching methods are scrutinised to unveil his conflicting stances: Carvalho was a man able to question the tenets of heurism, but who publicly praised the heurism-like "discovery learning" method years later. The first part of the article contextualises the arrival of heurism in Portugal and how Carvalho attacked its philosophical tenets. In the second part, it dwells on his conflicting positions in relation to pupil-centred approaches. The article concludes with an appreciation of the embedded conflicting nature of the appropriation of concepts of teaching methods, and of Carvalho's contribution to the development of the philosophy of practical work in school science.

  14. Beyond territory and scarcity - exploring conflicts over natural resource management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ressources management, enviromental degradation, natural resources, conflicts, boundaries, Africa......Ressources management, enviromental degradation, natural resources, conflicts, boundaries, Africa...

  15. Conflict Resolution in Organization through Strategic Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Zafar

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study reveals the conflict Resolution in organization through Strategic management. There are different causes of conflicts within Organization and impact of conflicts on organization performance. The past decade researches identify the negative relation of conflict with employee performance. The research methodology was case study approach of different National and Multinational companies. The aim of study is to alleviate conflicts in organization through strategic management for enhancing organizational performance and managing change in order to attain competitive edge in this dynamic era. This paper covers the role of strategic management in resolving and minimizing conflict that brings positive impact on organization. Conflict in the workplace just seems to be a fact of life. The fact that conflict exists, however, is not necessarily a bad thing: As long as it is resolved effectively, it can lead to personal and professional growth. Conflict in the workplace is a painful reality and a key reason for poor productivity and frustration. Conflict does not magically go away and only gets worse when ignored. So to resolve conflicts strategic management is important.

  16. Perceptual conflict between vision and touch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, T

    1976-06-01

    Although most of the studies support the conclusion that a perceptual conflict may be resolved in the visual dominance, a few suggest its prematurity and methodological problems. In the present study, the conflict was made by the instruction and the trick in order to keep the S's naivety, and the degree of conflict was varied. wthe visual comparison (vision), the haptic comparison (touch), the visual-haptic comparison (drawing by a pencil), and the haptic-visual comparison (production by the plasticine) were used as the comparison procedures. The result was that the perceptual conflict was resolved in a compromise between vision and touch. However, as the degree of conflict became greater, the judgements in the conflict tended to depend upon the comparison procedures. And in such a conflict taht the visual size was smaller than the tactual, the vision dominance tended to occur, and vice versa. PMID:988361

  17. Cooperative measures to mitigate Asia-Pacific maritime conflicts.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chai, Wen-Chung (Taiwan Navy)

    2003-05-01

    The economies of East Asia are predominantly export based and, therefore, place special emphasis on the security of the sea lines of communication (SLOCs). Due to economic globalization, the United States shares these concerns. Cooperative measures by the concerned parties could reduce the potential for disruption by maritime conflicts. Primary threats against the SLOCs are disputes over the resources under the seas, disputes over some small island groups, disputes between particular parties (China-Taiwan and North-South Korea), or illegal activities like smuggling, piracy, or terrorism. This paper provides an overview on these threats, issue by issue, to identify common elements and needed cooperation. Cooperation on other topics such as search and rescue, fisheries protection, and oil spill response may help support improved relations to prevent maritime conflicts. Many technologies can help support maritime cooperation, including improved communications links, tracking and emergency beacon devices, and satellite imaging. Appropriate technical and political means are suggested for each threat to the SLOCs.

  18. The Value of Conflict in Stable Social Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Pramukkul, Pensri; West, Bruce J; Grigolini, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    A cooperative network model of sociological interest is examined to determine the sensitivity of the global dynamics to having a fraction of the members behaving uncooperatively, that is, being in conflict with the majority. We study a condition where in the absence of these uncooperative individuals, the contrarians, the control parameter exceeds a critical value and the network is frozen in a state of consensus. The network dynamics change with variations in the percentage of contrarians, resulting in a balance between the value of the control parameter and the percentage of those in conflict with the majority. We show that the transmission of information from a network $B$ to a network $A$, with a small fraction of lookout members in $A$ who adopt the behavior of $B$, becomes maximal when both networks are assigned the same critical percentage of contrarians.

  19. Conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pad ma rin chen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A myes Bya khyung, dignified and magnificent, towers among its shorter peers behind the capital city of Reb gong. Frequently, Heaven seems to scatter white flowers on the mountain peak, making it splendidly picturesque. The mid slopes of the mountain were once covered with dense forest where countless animals thrived. Locals dared not go there alone or without weapons, in fear of being attacked by animals. However, they often did go there in small groups, as the forest was the main source of fuel for local people. At the foot of the mountain is an immense grassland full of valuable herbs and diverse flowers, which emit an overpowering fragrance. Babbling brooks flow from springs on the grassland, and quench the thirst of both people and livestock. From their ancestors, the people of Reb gong had inherited the belief that the mountain is a deity called A myes Bya khyung. This deity has the most exalted position among local deities in Reb gong. People respectfully burn juniper and offer sweet food to this deity before they themselves eat anything. While doing this, they also express their innermost feelings to the deity, and ask for whatever they want. Some religious devotees read scriptures in meditation caves on this mountain. Since early times, generations of smiling nomads had happily shared this pastureland, herding together and helping one another. Every year, they all gathered together to celebrate various sacred rituals. Marriage relationships between the tribes were also established. Consequently, other communities admired them and hoped their life would one day be as pleasant. In this way, Blon che Village was established, its reputation grew, and it became known throughout Reb gong. Years passed swiftly and social transformations occurred one after another. The number of nomads increased. Household requirements increased and greed ended that once happy life.

  20. Legitimacy and Strategic Communication in Globalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmstrøm, Susanne Maria; Falkheimer, Jesper; Gade Nielsen, Astrid

    2010-01-01

    for strategic communication. As globalizing organizations increasingly face conflicting perceptions of legitimacy, new challenges to strategic communication arise. Different types of societal constitution breed different legitimating corporate settings. Taking as the empirical example the transnational...... Scandinavian dairy group Arla Foods, three fundamentally different legitimacy conflicts and their interplay with strategic communication are analyzed: between Western and Middle-East values; between former and present ideals as society changes from solid to fluid modernity; and between the neighboring...

  1. Members' needs, intragroup conflict, and group performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Jinseok S; Choi, Jin Nam

    2014-05-01

    Focusing on "what people want in their group" as a critical antecedent of intragroup conflict, the present study theorizes and empirically investigates the relationships among the psychological needs of group members, intragroup conflict, and group performance. It attends to the within-group average and dispersion of members' psychological needs and examines the effects stemming from group composition of needs on multiple types of conflict. The analyses based on multisource data from 145 organizational teams revealed significant relationships between the groups' composition with respect to the members' need for achievement and task conflict, need for affiliation and relationship conflict, and need for power and status conflict. Some of these relationships were moderated by open communication among members. The analyses also demonstrated that when the 3 types of conflict were considered together, task conflict was a positive predictor of group performance, whereas relationship conflict was a negative predictor. The findings highlight the motivational aspects of intragroup conflict, revealing the multilevel dynamics of the psychological needs in social settings. PMID:24661275

  2. A Mathematical Analysis of Conflict Prevention Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddalon, Jeffrey M.; Butler, Ricky W.; Munoz, Cesar A.; Dowek, Gilles

    2009-01-01

    In air traffic management, conflict prevention information refers to the guidance maneuvers, which if taken, ensure that an aircraft's path is conflict-free. These guidance maneuvers take the form of changes to track angle or ground speed. Conflict prevention information may be assembled into prevention bands that advise the crew on maneuvers that should not be taken. Unlike conflict resolution systems, which presume that the aircraft already has a conflict, conflict prevention systems show conflicts for any maneuver, giving the pilot confidence that if a maneuver is made, then no near-term conflicts will result. Because near-term conflicts can lead to safety concerns, strong verification of information correctness is required. This paper presents a mathematical framework to analyze the correctness of algorithms that produce conflict prevention information incorporating an arbitrary number of traffic aircraft and with both a near-term and intermediate-term lookahead times. The framework is illustrated with a formally verified algorithm for 2-dimensional track angle prevention bands.

  3. Climate change, natural disasters, and the risk of violent conflict

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slettebak, Rune Thorkildsen

    2012-07-01

    This PhD project aims to assess the relation between natural disasters triggered by extreme weather events and the risk of violent conflict. The focus on these natural disasters stems from expectations that climate change will increase the frequency and severity of extreme weather events, combined with frequent suggestions that climate change in general and natural disasters in particular can be expected to trigger more violent conflicts. A number of conflict types, ranging from riots to civil war, are tested. Case studies have found examples where environmental factors have contributed to triggering conflict. However, without systematic assessments, we do not know whether these cases are exceptions or parts of a common pattern. Learning more about this is a prime aim of this thesis. As the effects of climate change are still mainly in the future, I turn to the past for learning more about these connections. Although future relations may differ from those in the past, learning from history is considered the best way of increasing our basis of knowledge on what to expect from the future. The thesis tests two opposing theoretical traditions against each other. On one side is the environmental security literature, which holds that environmentally induced adversity is likely to increase the risk of violent conflict. The other, relatively unknown tradition, called disaster sociology, expects adversity to stimulate altruistic behavior and replace past ascribed identities with new 'communities of sufferers' in the disaster aftermath. In a violent conflict setting, this argument is read as that disasters should reduce conflict risk. Four analyses have been conducted. The first has a global coverage, two focus on India and the last one on Indonesia. The first analysis aims to uncover general trends, while the three others use cases where environmentally driven violence is considered particularly likely, and disaggregated analytical designs that should be well

  4. Perceptions of Geography Students in the USA and Egypt on Global Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Edrees Sultan; Gandy, S. Kay

    2015-01-01

    The study aimed to compare the perceptions of Egyptian and US students on global issues. The authors developed a survey of global issues and administered it to sample of 321 Geography students in the USA and Egypt. The survey tapped five issues: global citizenship, cultural diversity, global conflicts, nuclear arms race, and global warming. The…

  5. Models of conflict and cooperation

    CERN Document Server

    Gillman, Rick

    2009-01-01

    Models of Conflict and Cooperation is a comprehensive, introductory, game theory text for general undergraduate students. As a textbook, it provides a new and distinctive experience for students working to become quantitatively literate. Each chapter begins with a "dialogue" that models quantitative discourse while previewing the topics presented in the rest of the chapter. Subsequent sections develop the key ideas starting with basic models and ending with deep concepts and results. Throughout all of the sections, attention is given to promoting student engagement with the material through re

  6. Globally Collaborative Experiential Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi UTSUMI

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The Global University System (GUS [Utsumi, et al, 2003] is a worldwide initiative to create advanced telecommunications infrastructure for access to educational resources across national and cultural boundaries for global peace. GUS aims to create a worldwide consortium of universities to provide the underdeveloped world with access to 21st Century education via broadband Internet technologies. The aim is to achieve “education and healthcare for all,” anywhere, anytime and at any pace. The GUS works in the major regions of the globe with partnerships of higher education and healthcare institutions. Learners in these regions will be able to take their courses from member institutions around the world to receive a GUS degree. These learners and their professors from partner institutions will also form a global forum for exchange of ideas and information and for conducting collaborative research and development with emerging global GRID computer network technology. Globally Collaborative Environmental Peace Gaming (GCEPG project [Utsumi, 2003] with a globally distributed computer simulation system, focusing on the issue of environment and sustainable development in developing countries, is to train would-be decision-makers in crisis management, conflict resolution, and negotiation techniques basing on “facts and figures.” The GUS will supply game players from around the world.

  7. A New Fusion Method for Conflicting Evidence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭颖; 沈怀荣; 马永一

    2011-01-01

    A new conflicting evidence fusion method is proposed for the deficiency of Dempster' s rule which can not fuse the conflicting evidence. Evidence is divided into three categories: believable evidence, non-conflicting evidence and con- flicting evidence. The influences of these three categories of evidences on fusion results when discounted are analyzed respectively. On these bases, the evidence distance and the conjunctive conflict are utilized in sequence to recognize the be- lievable evidence and non-conflicting evidence. The discounting factors of these two categories of evidences are set to one, which keeps the evidences support the true hypothesis to the greatest degree, and makes the fusion results focus onto the true hypothesis. Examples of some missile fault diagnosis show that the new method can effectively fuse the conflicting evidences, and is suited to fuse the relievable evidences. The new method improves the reliability and rationality of fusion re- sults compared with traditional methods.

  8. Political power, control and organizational conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Eslampanah

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available There used to be an assumption that any conflict has negative and destructive influences and we must remove it from the system. However, recent studies indicate that conflict is the result of interaction with different people having various personalities, social and cultural behaviors and this is an unavoidable issue. The existence of conflict is not necessarily a bad thing; in fact, there are many evidences, which show that organizations with no conflict may fail. In other words, people who work for business units with no conflict are most likely so disparate that they cannot fit themselves to environmental conditions. In this paper, we discuss how to handle a conflict in any organization and lead the business units to organizations that are more productive.

  9. Parvenus and conflict in elite cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael Lindsay, D; Schachter, Ariela; Porter, Jeremy R; Sorge, David C

    2014-09-01

    Previous studies find that greater workplace diversity leads to higher degrees of conflict in low and medium-status workgroups. This paper examines whether similar dynamics operate in elite cohorts. We use data from a survey of White House Fellows (N=475) to look at how the presence of parvenus-individuals from underrepresented groups in elite environments-change the rate at which fellows reported conflict with each other and with the director of the program. We find that there is no unified "parvenu experience." Analysis of the interaction between race and cohort diversity reveals inflection points consistent with Kanter's (1977) theory of tokenism, but the effects of increasing diversity diverge: for Hispanics, conflict with the director increases with diversity, while for Asians, conflict falls with diversity. While other groups' level of conflict with their peers stays roughly constant, Asians' reported level of conflict with their peers increases with diversity. PMID:24913951

  10. Exploring relations between task conflict and informational conflict in the Stroop task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Entel, Olga; Tzelgov, Joseph; Bereby-Meyer, Yoella; Shahar, Nitzan

    2015-11-01

    In this study, we tested the proposal that the Stroop task involves two conflicts--task conflict and informational conflict. Task conflict was defined as the latency difference between color words and non-letter neutrals, and manipulated by varying the proportion of color words versus non-letter neutrals. Informational conflict was defined as the latency difference between incongruent and congruent trials and manipulated by varying the congruent-to-incongruent trial ratio. We replicated previous findings showing that increasing the ratio of incongruent-to-congruent trials reduces the latency difference between the incongruent and congruent condition (i.e., informational conflict), as does increasing the proportion of color words (i.e., task conflict). A significant under-additive interaction between the two proportion manipulations (congruent vs. incongruent and color words vs. neutrals) indicated that the effects of task conflict and informational conflict were not additive. By assessing task conflict as the contrast between color words and neutrals, we found that task conflict existed in all of our experimental conditions. Under specific conditions, when task conflict dominated behavior by explaining most of the variability between congruency conditions, we also found negative facilitation, thus demonstrating that this effect is a special case of task conflict. PMID:25420632

  11. [Conflict management in the workplace].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mola Sanna, Bruna; Igual Ayerbe, Blanca

    2010-02-01

    Our sanitary system and our health organizations have to confront the conflicts which have derived from the successive social and sanitary changes which have developed over the most recent decades. These new realities in the health fields oblige the professionals dedicated to them, the administrators of our organizations, the politicians, and society in general, as those who make use of the health services provided, to search for strategies and resources for the prevention, and transformation of those conflicts which can develop due to these situations, having as their final objective to preserve the basic principle of universal health care which is included in our Constitution. For this reason, the authors propose a profile for mediators in the health field, understanding that for mediation to really be useful, and to avoid or reduce improper litigation in our health system, values which belong to the culture of peace should be introduced into the culture of our health organizations. To that end, it is essential to count on not only professional mediators but also on an elenchus of natural mediators and informal mediators.

  12. Specificity of peer conflicts in adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Petrović Danijela

    2009-01-01

    The results of the survey conducted on the sample of 530 adolescents are presented in this paper. The sample included two age groups (13 and 16 years). The research was realized in 11 town and 26 schools. The method of the retrospection of the conflict contents, with one week retrospection interval, was used to research the perception of the conflict characteristics. The distinctive characteristics and the effects of the peer conflicts in adolescence have been identified by comparing them to ...

  13. Conflicts in the pastoral Turkana area

    OpenAIRE

    Wolff Clausen, Thomas; Knudsen, Lotte; Courage Imonitie, Eromosele

    2015-01-01

    Speculating the triggers of conflicts, in general, is complicated. Over time, there have been diverse debates on the drivers of violent conflict, in pastoral areas and the conceptualisation of novel ideologies. The paper identifies and examines the core factors that trigger, and drive the conflict in the Turkana area. A political and ecologically marginal arid area, occupied by nomads in Northern Kenya and Southern Ethiopia. This review finds that both environmental stresses brought about by ...

  14. Conflicts of interest: The ethical viewpoint

    OpenAIRE

    Argandoña, Antonio

    2004-01-01

    Conflicts of interest are a very widespread ethical problem which, precisely for that reason, deserves special attention, both from a legal viewpoint and from the point of view of ethics applied to organizations and professions. In this paper we use the conceptual framework of agency theory to explain what constitutes a conflict of interest. This enables us to identify what causes conflicts of interest and analyze the ethical criteria to be applied to them and the solutions commonly proposed....

  15. Environmental conflicts, environmental justice and valuation

    OpenAIRE

    MARTÍNEZ ALIER, Joan

    2001-01-01

    In this article some historical and contemporary environmental conflicts are described. The international environmental liability of mining corporations is discussed. Comparisons are made with conflicts in the United States and in South Africa which fall under the rubric of the Environmental Justice movement. Such conflicts are fought out in many languages, and the economic valuation of damages is only one of such languages. Who has the power to impose particular languages of valuation? Who r...

  16. On the theory of ethnic conflict

    OpenAIRE

    Francesco Caselli

    2007-01-01

    We present a theory of ethnic conflict in which coalitions formed along ethnic lines compete for the economy's resources. The role of ethnicity is to enforce coalition membership: in ethnically homogeneous societies members of the losing coalition can defect to the winners at low cost, and this rules out conflict as an equilibrium outcome. We derive a number of implications of the model relating social, political, and economic indicators such as the incidence of conflict, the distance among e...

  17. Doubts and Dogmatism in Conflict Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Alessandro Riboni

    2010-01-01

    This paper studies a game of conflict where two individuals fight in order to choose a policy. Intuitively, conflicts will be less violent if individuals entertain the possibility that their opponent may be right. Why is it so difficult to observe this attitude? To answer this question, this paper considers a model of indoctrination where altruistic advisors (such as, preachers or parents), after receiving signals from Nature, send messages to the participants in the conflict. In some cases, ...

  18. Four Levels of Moral Conflict in ISD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vartiainen, Tero

    This study introduces a literature-based classification of moral conflicts in information systems development (ISD). The classification describes what moral conflicts an IS professional confronts in ISD as a whole and includes intentional, functional, managerial, and societal levels. The internal structure of moral conflicts is exemplified by means of a philosophical and a business ethics theory. The limitations of the study are considered and practical implications for the teaching of computer ethics are discussed.

  19. The Mediterranean as a Zone of Conflicts

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Balta

    1997-01-01

    Understanding that the Mediterranean is a region whose most well-known specificity is the existence of conflicts, Paul Balta’s article revises the principal antagonisms and their respective causes, distinguishing between the conflicts that have their origin in the distant past and those which are characteristic of the second half of the twentieth century. On one side are the inherited conflicts from the past and their links to the three monotheistic denominations which weigh in the imaginatio...

  20. Taking Stock of EU Military Conflict Management

    OpenAIRE

    Annemarie Peen Rodt

    2011-01-01

    Over the last decade, the EU has established itself as a player in the international field of conflict management. Both its civilian missions and military operations have played a significant part in this development. This article takes a closer look at the EU’s military endeavours in conflict management. It presents a theoretically grounded definition and a corresponding set of criteria for success in military conflict management and evaluates the operations accordingly. The article provides...

  1. Predicting Future Conflict under REDD+ Implementation

    OpenAIRE

    Chandra Silori; Dil B. Khatri; Harisharan Luintel; Naya Sharma Paudel; Toon De Bruyn; Yurdi Yasmi; David Gritten; Ahmad Dhiaulhaq; Toral Patel; Regan Suzuki

    2013-01-01

    With the current complexity of issues facing forest and land management, the implementation of the REDD+ initiative comes with significant risks, including conflict. While the exact nature and shape of conflict in REDD+ implementation is difficult to pinpoint, this study aims to build a preliminary predictive framework to identify possible sources of impairment that may result in conflict over management of forests and natural resources. The framework was developed from an extensive literatur...

  2. Conflict Resolution at Work for Dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Scott, Vivian

    2010-01-01

    A practical workplace guide to handling conflict effectively. Managing employees and encouraging them to work together toward a common goal is an essential skill that all leaders should possess. Conflict Resolution at Work For Dummies provides the tools and advice you need to restore peace, train your colleagues to get along better with others, prevent conflicts from ever starting, and maintain better productivity while boosting morale.: One of the only trade publications that takes the manager's perspective on how to address conflicts, resolve disputes, and restore peace and productivity to t

  3. Significance of Conflict Talk in interpersonal Relationships

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柯建华; 罗丹

    2016-01-01

    Conflict talks occur in almost every field of human life such as medicine, school, court, and some other social organizations where the interaction results are of much significance to the conversationalists, or in others words, to their status in the organization and honor in the society. A lot of conflicts go unresolved. Oppositional exchanges in a conflict may be used by participants to achieve certain goals, for instance, exploring and developing verbal skills as candidates in a debate competition do, and maintaining social hierarchies within groups or organizations such as leaders giving orders in an institution. Dealing with conflict helps to promote interpersonal relationships.

  4. Conflict Resolution in Headquarters-Subsidiary Relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumar, Rajesh; Gammelgaard, Jens

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate the role of regulatory fit and moral emotions, that is, contempt and anger, in influencing conflict resolution between the headquarters and subsidiary boundary spanners. We develop a theoretical framework, which integrates literature on international business and headquarters......-subsidiary relationships with regulatory focus, moral emotions, and conflict resolution. The chapter outlines the relationships between the regulatory focus of a headquarters’ boundary spanner, and his or her manner of engagement, conflict sensitivity, violation of code, moral emotions, and the way conflicts are resolved...

  5. Conflicts in libraries: a basic element?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoko Inoue, Mary

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The article specifically detaches the main kinds and causes of conflicts in organizations and in libraries. It presents a conceptual vision of conflict, the types of conflicts, the sources and the techniques of conflict resolution.

    El artículo separa específicamente los clases y las causas principales de conflictos en organizaciones y en bibliotecas. Presenta una visión conceptual del conflicto, de los tipos de conflictos, de las fuentes y de las técnicas de la resolución del conflicto.

  6. Intergroup conflict and rational decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Tur, Vicente; Peñarroja, Vicente; Serrano, Miguel A; Hidalgo, Vanesa; Moliner, Carolina; Salvador, Alicia; Alacreu-Crespo, Adrián; Gracia, Esther; Molina, Agustín

    2014-01-01

    The literature has been relatively silent about post-conflict processes. However, understanding the way humans deal with post-conflict situations is a challenge in our societies. With this in mind, we focus the present study on the rationality of cooperative decision making after an intergroup conflict, i.e., the extent to which groups take advantage of post-conflict situations to obtain benefits from collaborating with the other group involved in the conflict. Based on dual-process theories of thinking and affect heuristic, we propose that intergroup conflict hinders the rationality of cooperative decision making. We also hypothesize that this rationality improves when groups are involved in an in-group deliberative discussion. Results of a laboratory experiment support the idea that intergroup conflict -associated with indicators of the activation of negative feelings (negative affect state and heart rate)- has a negative effect on the aforementioned rationality over time and on both group and individual decision making. Although intergroup conflict leads to sub-optimal decision making, rationality improves when groups and individuals subjected to intergroup conflict make decisions after an in-group deliberative discussion. Additionally, the increased rationality of the group decision making after the deliberative discussion is transferred to subsequent individual decision making.

  7. Dangerous ideas. Five beliefs that propel groups toward conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eidelson, Roy J; Eidelson, Judy I

    2003-03-01

    The toll in death, suffering, and displacement caused by conflicts engaging groups defined by ethnicity, nationality, religion, or other social identities has reached staggering proportions over the past decade. With expertise in research and intervention, psychologists have critical contributions to make to more fully understanding and more effectively confronting this distressing global phenomenon. The authors focus on the parallels between the core beliefs of individuals and the collective worldviews of groups that may operate to trigger or constrain violent struggles. On the basis of a review of relevant literatures, 5 belief domains--superiority, injustice, vulnerability, distrust, and helplessness--are identified as particularly important for further study.

  8. Realities of Work Life Balance in Nigeria: Perceptions of Role Conflict and Coping Beliefs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babatunde Akanji

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to explore the perceptions of Work-Life Balance (WLB practices in a developing nation of Nigeria. Evidently, on the threshold of widened globalization propensities, work-life research is beginning to spread outside the western context. Thus, a qualitative approach was employed by conducting 61 in-depth interviews with Nigerian employees (41 women and 20 men working in frontline employments in the banking, telecommunications and insurance sectors about their perceptions of WLB. The findings showed that though conflict situations existed more than work-family enrichment, but under different circumstances due to the long legacy of national challenges facing Nigeria. The apparent role conflicts have generated various coping strategies adapted by participants of study to moderate their perceived work-life conflict and this paper seeks to add to the compendium of WLB discourse on a global scale by examining key barriers detected to hinder its workable practices in Nigeria.

  9. International Baccalaureate as a Litmus Test Revealing Conflicting Values and Power Relations in the Israeli Education System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yemini, Miri; Dvir, Yuval

    2016-01-01

    This study comprises a comprehensive attempt to reveal the power relations and conflicting interests within the local-global nexus of the Israeli public education system. The perceptions of different stakeholders were explored, in regard to the implementation of the International Baccalaureate Diploma Program as an example of a globally oriented…

  10. LITERARY TEXT AS A SOURCE FOR UNDERSTANDING CONFLICTS IN CONTEMPORARY REALITY (POLITICAL VIOLENCE AND TERRORISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Voronchenko

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Political violence in the modern world is developing in many ways and in forms that are more radical than ever before. In the second half of the last century, and the start of this current one, the ethno-social conflicts (terrorism being the most extreme have been one of the most pressing global issues of our time.Various aspects of ethno-social conflict, with terrorism as an extreme form of political violence, are now the subject of artistic interpretation for contemporary authors. The study of literary text for understanding conflicts in the contemporary reality is significant, since writers consider certain factual material in their works. These writers strive to emphasize and describe personal and social layers of ethno-social conflicts, to reveal their peculiarities and consequences.This study compiles a theoretical framework for the study of literary text as a source for understanding the conflicts of contemporary reality. It uses a complex approach that provides a profound analysis of causes and effects, and the nature and content of political and ethno-social conflicts, including the principles of political studies and comparative literature.The authors of this present study conclude that the great concern of the world’s writers about ethno-social issues and conflicts is the inter-ethnic and inter-cultural contradictions that closely connect to the crisis of multiculturalism in the USA and Western Europe. Contemporary writers focus on themes, like the islamization of Europe, inter-confessional conflicts, total changes in inter-ethnic relations, fragmentation of the single universal cultural space, and social and cultural transformation leading to conflicts. Examples include Andrei Volos’ Maskavskaya Mecca, and Elena Chudinova’s The Mosque of Notre Dame. Some authors ponder over the terrorism as an extremist reaction to social injustice or inner personal, cultural, and religious contradictions, as seen in John Updike’s Terrorist

  11. Armed-conflict risks enhanced by climate-related disasters in ethnically fractionalized countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleussner, Carl-Friedrich; Donges, Jonathan F; Donner, Reik V; Schellnhuber, Hans Joachim

    2016-08-16

    Social and political tensions keep on fueling armed conflicts around the world. Although each conflict is the result of an individual context-specific mixture of interconnected factors, ethnicity appears to play a prominent and almost ubiquitous role in many of them. This overall state of affairs is likely to be exacerbated by anthropogenic climate change and in particular climate-related natural disasters. Ethnic divides might serve as predetermined conflict lines in case of rapidly emerging societal tensions arising from disruptive events like natural disasters. Here, we hypothesize that climate-related disaster occurrence enhances armed-conflict outbreak risk in ethnically fractionalized countries. Using event coincidence analysis, we test this hypothesis based on data on armed-conflict outbreaks and climate-related natural disasters for the period 1980-2010. Globally, we find a coincidence rate of 9% regarding armed-conflict outbreak and disaster occurrence such as heat waves or droughts. Our analysis also reveals that, during the period in question, about 23% of conflict outbreaks in ethnically highly fractionalized countries robustly coincide with climatic calamities. Although we do not report evidence that climate-related disasters act as direct triggers of armed conflicts, the disruptive nature of these events seems to play out in ethnically fractionalized societies in a particularly tragic way. This observation has important implications for future security policies as several of the world's most conflict-prone regions, including North and Central Africa as well as Central Asia, are both exceptionally vulnerable to anthropogenic climate change and characterized by deep ethnic divides. PMID:27457927

  12. Integrity at CERN – Conflict of Interest Policy

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2015-01-01

    In 2014, a working group was established to develop a policy on conflicts of interest at CERN and to review the related obligations under Article S I.3.13 of the Staff Rules and Regulations. The group was composed of the Director for Administration and General Infrastructure, the heads of the Human Resources Department, the Internal Audit and the Legal Service, and other representatives from these services.   In March 2015, the Director-General approved the working group’s recommendation to adopt a global conflict of interest prevention and management policy that is based on established best practices, that further implements CERN’s core value of integrity, and that, like the CERN Code of Conduct, applies to all CERN contributors. The Conflict of Interest Policy, together with implementation guidelines, was presented to the Enlarged Directorate in April and approved by the Director-General for entry into force on 10 April 2015. It has been integrated with the existing A...

  13. The Conflict Pyramid: A Holistic Approach to Structuring Conflict Resolution in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakvoort, Ilse

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines how the conflict pyramid, originally defined and used by Richard Cohen, can be used as a model to describe the relations between different conflict resolution education programs and activities included in the programs. The central questions posed in the paper are: How can Richard Cohen's conflict pyramid be used as a model for…

  14. Learning from Conflicting Texts: The Role of Intertextual Conflict Resolution in Between-Text Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Keiichi

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined the effect of intertextual conflict resolution on learning from conflicting texts. In two experiments, participants read sets of two texts under the condition of being encouraged either to resolve a conflict between the texts' arguments (the resolution condition) or to comprehend the arguments (the comprehension…

  15. Political Economy of Conflict: The Social Contract and Conflict in Pakistan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.A. Abdullah (Syed Aamer)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe main concern of this thesis is to analyze conflict in Pakistan, mainly the ethnopolitical conflict. It builds a case that conflict in Pakistan has been a product of the weakening of its social contract. This is both a qualitative and quantitative work which relies on both primary and

  16. Conflict cultures in organizations: How leaders shape conflict cultures and their organizational-level consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J. Gelfand; L.M. Leslie; K. Keller; C.K.W. de Dreu

    2012-01-01

    Anecdotal evidence abounds that organizations have distinct conflict cultures, or socially shared norms for how conflict should be managed. However, research to date has largely focused on conflict management styles at the individual and small group level, and has yet to examine whether organization

  17. The Relationship of Interpersonal Conflict Handling Styles and Marital Conflicts Among Iranian Divorcing Couples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navidian, Ali; Bahari, Farshad; Kermansaravi, Fatihe

    2014-01-01

    Background: Various research studies have suggested that among other variables that couples remain married if they successfully manage their interactions (marital communication based on acceptance of individual differences, problem solving skills, forgiveness, collaborative decision making, empathy and active listening) and constructively manage conflict. Purpose: The study was aimed at examining the relation of conflict handling styles and marital conflicts among divorcing couples. Methods: As a descriptive–comparative study 60 couples out of 440 couples referred to the Crisis Intervention Center of the Isfahan Well-being Organization have selected. The tools implemented were Marital Conflicts (Barati & Sanaei, 1996) and Interpersonal Conflict Handling Styles Questionnaires (Thomas-Kilman, 1975). Their total reliabilities were, respectively, 0.74 and 0.87. Results: Findings showed that there are no significant differences among their conflict handling styles and marital conflicts. Also, there was positive correlation between avoidance and competition styles and negative one between compromise, accommodation, and cooperation styles with marital conflicts. That is, these styles reduced couples’ conflicts. Finally, wives had tendency to apply accommodation style and husbands tended to use accommodation and cooperation styles to handle their conflicts. Conclusions: It is suggested to be studied couples’ views toward their own styles to handle marital conflicts and holding training courses to orient couples with advantages and disadvantages of marital conflict handling styles. PMID:25363128

  18. Understanding Conflict Dynamics: A Comparative Analysis of Ethno-Separatist Conflicts in India and the Philippines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reed, A.G.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis is a comparative analysis of three contemporary separatist conflicts in Asia: The Naga Insurgency, the Punjab Crisis and the Moro Rebellion. The objective of this thesis is the understanding of conflict dynamics: how and why conflicts escalate or de-escalate over time. Previous research

  19. Intragroup conflict and the interpersonal leadership circumplex: matching leadership behaviors to conflict types

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.C. Homan; M. Redeker; R.E. de Vries

    2014-01-01

    Conflicts have been found to often negatively affect the functioning of teams (De Wit et al., 2012), which makes the effective management of conflicts crucial. Because of their influential positions, leaders might hold the key to successful conflict management in teams (Yukl, 2010). We will zoom in

  20. The dissociable neural dynamics of cognitive conflict and emotional conflict control: An ERP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Song; Li, Yu; Kong, Xia; He, Qiaolin; Liu, Jia; Qiu, Jiang

    2016-04-21

    This study investigated differences in the neural time-course of cognitive conflict and emotional conflict control, using event-related potentials (ERPs). Although imaging studies have provided some evidence that distinct, dissociable neural systems underlie emotional and nonemotional conflict resolution, no ERP study has directly compared these two types of conflict. Therefore, the present study used a modified face-word Stroop task to explore the electrophysiological correlates of cognitive and emotional conflict control. The behavioral data showed that the difference in response time of congruency (incongruent condition minus the congruent condition) was larger in the cognitive conflict task than in the emotional conflict task, which indicated that cognitive conflict was stronger than the emotional conflict in the present tasks. Analysis of the ERP data revealed a main effect of task type on N2, which may be associated with top-down attention. The N450 results showed an interaction between cognitive and emotional conflict, which might be related to conflict detection. In addition, we found the incongruent condition elicited a larger SP than the congruent condition, which might be related to conflict resolution. PMID:26987720

  1. Interparental Conflict in Context: Exploring Relations between Parenting Processes and Children's Conflict Appraisals

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBoard-Lucas, Renee L.; Fosco, Gregory M.; Raynor, Sarah R.; Grych, John H.

    2010-01-01

    Children's appraisals of conflict are a mechanism by which parental discord can lead to child maladjustment. The cognitive-contextual framework proposes that parent-child relationships may affect how children perceive conflict, but this idea has rarely been examined empirically. This study investigated relations between conflict appraisals,…

  2. The dissociable neural dynamics of cognitive conflict and emotional conflict control: An ERP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Song; Li, Yu; Kong, Xia; He, Qiaolin; Liu, Jia; Qiu, Jiang

    2016-04-21

    This study investigated differences in the neural time-course of cognitive conflict and emotional conflict control, using event-related potentials (ERPs). Although imaging studies have provided some evidence that distinct, dissociable neural systems underlie emotional and nonemotional conflict resolution, no ERP study has directly compared these two types of conflict. Therefore, the present study used a modified face-word Stroop task to explore the electrophysiological correlates of cognitive and emotional conflict control. The behavioral data showed that the difference in response time of congruency (incongruent condition minus the congruent condition) was larger in the cognitive conflict task than in the emotional conflict task, which indicated that cognitive conflict was stronger than the emotional conflict in the present tasks. Analysis of the ERP data revealed a main effect of task type on N2, which may be associated with top-down attention. The N450 results showed an interaction between cognitive and emotional conflict, which might be related to conflict detection. In addition, we found the incongruent condition elicited a larger SP than the congruent condition, which might be related to conflict resolution.

  3. Family therapy, conflicts and change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Musaeus, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Given the relative lack of sociocultural approaches to therapy, this presentation aims to contribute to a sociocultural understanding of motivation and socio-emotional problems in children and families undergoing family therapy. The study was designed as a case study using semi structured...... interviews with 15 families undergoing family therapy delivered by a communal agency in Denmark.   Using notions of crisis interlinked with institutions and everyday lives (Hedegaard) framed by historical, contentious struggles (Holland and Lave), a model of conflict, violence, learning and motivation...... will be sketched pertaining to the area of family therapy. The study argues for the importance of a holistic, non-mechanical (Valsiner) approach to motivation for change in understanding how "at risk" or "problematic" children and youth (who are for instance experiencing school absenteeism, domestic violence...

  4. Floodplain conflicts: regulation and negotiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Pardoe

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In the continuing shift from engineered solutions towards more holistic methods of managing flood risk, spatial planning has become the primary focus of a conflict between land and water, water and people. In attempting to strike a balance between making space for water and making space for people, compromises are required. Through five case studies in the UK, this paper analyses the effectiveness of Planning Policy Statement 25 (PPS 25 and the processes of negotiation that it promotes. This assessment allows us to draw conclusions on the nature of the compromises this kind of negotiation can achieve and the implications of this for flood risk management. What emerges is that the beneficial impacts of decisions to develop floodplain areas are given a proper hearing and sensible conditions imposed, rather than arguments to prevent such development remaining unchallenged.

  5. Communication strategies for conflict management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current debates in Swiss nuclear power policy about the power increase in one nuclear generating unit and about a repository for radioactive waste are used as models for strategic decisionmaking. For this purpose, two independent, but complementary, schools of thought are combined: First, a sensitivity model is employed to analyze societal mechanisms in a coherent, holistic frame of reference; secondly, a meta-analysis concentrates on the process of conflict management among the Federal Government, the managers of the electricity utilities, their political opponents, and the public. The way in which the participating groups make decisions and implement them is of critical importance to their behavior in the next phase. This is the stage at which models show how the behavior of the players will develop over time. The establishment of a highly flexible strategic knowledge base illustrates how the findings made can be employed in designing successful communication strategies. (orig.)

  6. Conflicts in the therapeutic field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonino Aprea

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available How the analytical knowledge that compare human consciousness with that, even more disturbing, moving behind his fifth can be said to be “for peace”? It can be - and this will be the contribution of the proposal - the same tortuous and enigmatic of therapeutic practice, with its hesitations and his impulses, to outline a path crossing and overcoming the conflict? May, finally, peace, in the sense of feasibility of intra-and interpersonal dialectic instead of tearing and hostileconfrontation with oneself and with the other, to be a reference in some crucial pivot of ethical therapeutic work? To these questions the intervention seeks to answer retracing some of the highlights of almost three years of therapeutic work with a young woman and her family.

  7. Dynamics of conflicts in Wikipedia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taha Yasseri

    Full Text Available In this work we study the dynamical features of editorial wars in Wikipedia (WP. Based on our previously established algorithm, we build up samples of controversial and peaceful articles and analyze the temporal characteristics of the activity in these samples. On short time scales, we show that there is a clear correspondence between conflict and burstiness of activity patterns, and that memory effects play an important role in controversies. On long time scales, we identify three distinct developmental patterns for the overall behavior of the articles. We are able to distinguish cases eventually leading to consensus from those cases where a compromise is far from achievable. Finally, we analyze discussion networks and conclude that edit wars are mainly fought by few editors only.

  8. Conflict-Directed Backjumping Revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, X; 10.1613/jair.788

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, many improvements to backtracking algorithms for solving constraint satisfaction problems have been proposed. The techniques for improving backtracking algorithms can be conveniently classified as look-ahead schemes and look-back schemes. Unfortunately, look-ahead and look-back schemes are not entirely orthogonal as it has been observed empirically that the enhancement of look-ahead techniques is sometimes counterproductive to the effects of look-back techniques. In this paper, we focus on the relationship between the two most important look-ahead techniques---using a variable ordering heuristic and maintaining a level of local consistency during the backtracking search---and the look-back technique of conflict-directed backjumping (CBJ). We show that there exists a "perfect" dynamic variable ordering such that CBJ becomes redundant. We also show theoretically that as the level of local consistency that is maintained in the backtracking search is increased, the less that backjumping will be a...

  9. Gender conflict and worldview defence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritsche, Immo; Jonas, Eva

    2005-12-01

    Applying social identity and terror management theory assumptions to gender conflict we predicted that mortality salience (MS) would lead to an increase in pro-women attitudes in women and a decrease in these attitudes in men. After a MS versus control manipulation, 32 female and 24 male university students evaluated (fictitious) courses in psychology dealing with and supporting the promotion of women. In accordance with our prediction the results showed a significant interaction between sex and MS, indicating that men and women differed in their judgment only under MS but not in the control condition. Whereas men reacted with an increased negative evaluation of the pro-women courses following MS, women on the other hand showed an increased positive evaluation of the courses. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

  10. Private Law: rights, duties & conflicts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    When the International Association of IT Lawyers (IAITL) held its first international conference in 2006 in Hamburg, it could never have been envisaged just how successful the programme would become as a firm 'not to be missed' date of the calendar of increasing numbers of academics and others...... working and researching in the key areas of law, security and privacy in IT, international trade and private law. Now, in 2010 and some seven conferences later, the event moves to Barcelona and embraces for the first time the three conference tracks just described. The papers in this work have all been...... and continue to offer an informed and relevant contribution to the policy making agenda. As Chair of the Conference Committee, I am once more very proud to endorse this work "Private Law: Rights, Duties & Conflicts" to all those seeking an up to date and informed evaluation of the leading issues. This work...

  11. 31 CFR 31.211 - Organizational conflicts of interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... conflicts of interest. (3) Terminating or refraining from business relationships that give rise to conflicts... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Organizational conflicts of interest... ASSET RELIEF PROGRAM Conflicts of Interest § 31.211 Organizational conflicts of interest. (a)...

  12. Methods for Addressing Conflict in Cotaught Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conderman, Greg

    2011-01-01

    As a service delivery option for students with disabilities, coteaching continues to gain popularity. Successful coteaching largely rests upon the compatibility of coteachers. Sometimes conflict may occur when two teachers with different backgrounds and views work closely together. This article focuses on why conflict is inevitable in cotaught…

  13. Student Teams Learning to Cope with Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Janet; Neal, Joan C.; Waner, Karen K.

    2005-01-01

    Because employers want workers who can successfully run meetings and manage teams with diverse characteristics, conflict management is a skill that every business graduate should possess. The purpose of the study was to identify the most popular and effective ways that students used to manage conflicts when working on team projects. A survey was…

  14. The cultural conflict in Daisy Miller

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岳娜

    2014-01-01

    This thesis, taking Daisy Miller as an example, concentrates on the cultural conflict between the new and old continents reflected in this work, presenting the conflict between two cultures, that is, American innocence and European sophistication from the perspective of settings.

  15. HERITAGE, CONFLICT AND THE DYNAMICS OF MEMORY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laarse, van der R.

    2014-01-01

    ICOMOS-UK Christmas Lecture 2014: 3rd December 2014: HERITAGE, CONFLICT AND THE DYNAMICS OF MEMORY, Professor Rob van der Laarse The world is increasingly full of conflicts: how do these colour our perceptions of places associated with historical events not just immediately but over decades if not c

  16. Japanese Children's Reasoning about Conflicts with Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Hiroyuki

    2009-01-01

    Ninety-five Japanese children (aged 6-12) were interviewed using hypothetical stories to examine their reasoning about parent-child conflicts. Participants were most likely to reject parental authority and to support child's discretion in conflict situations where the parent interfered in the child's personal choice and gave the child commands…

  17. Conflict as a Catalyst for Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jehangir, Rashne R.

    2012-01-01

    The author challenges her students and herself to engage with tough issues like class, race, gender, disability, and homophobia. In this article, she discusses how she helps them learn from, and even embrace, the conflict that inevitably arises. Constructive management of classroom conflict begins with creating a cooperative learning environment…

  18. Sex Determination, Sex Ratios, and Genetic Conflict

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werren, John H.; Beukeboom, Leo W.

    1998-01-01

    Genetic mechanisms of sex determination are unexpectedly diverse and change rapidly during evolution. We review the role of genetic conflict as the driving force behind this diversity and turnover. Genetic conflict occurs when different components of a genetic system are subject to selection in oppo

  19. Marital Conflict and Disruption of Children's Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sheikh, Mona; Buckhalt, Joseph, A.; Mize, Jacquelyn; Acebo, Christine

    2006-01-01

    Marital conflict was examined as a predictor of the quality and quantity of sleep in a sample of healthy 8 to 9 year-olds. Parents and children reported on marital conflict, the quantity and quality of children's sleep were examined through an actigraph worn for 7 consecutive nights, and child sleepiness was derived from child and mother reports.…

  20. Conflict management and participation in community forestry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skutsch, M.M.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper consideration is first given to how community forestry practitioners have commonly understood the term participation, and why the concept of conflict does not seem to have overlapped with notions of participation. Failure to perceive conflict as inherent in participation is shown to ha

  1. The Times and the Northern Ireland Conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zouhaïr Abassi

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: In societies in conflict the role of the media is supposed to be neutral and to report conflicts fairly and with balanced analyses. By their public debates on conflicts they are also supposed to take part in pacifying societies and in helping to bring peace. Cottle (1997, for instance, explained that even though some findings related to the British media and its reporting of the Northern Ireland conflict were relevant, he argued that they needed revision. Consequently, he proposed new paradigms of media studies. Elliott (1977 and Curtis(1996 showed that the British media concentrated on violence in general and on republican violence in particular. Moreover, they argued that the British media neglected social and political contexts in their reporting of the conflict. The aim of this paper is then to examine some aspects of how the British media cover the Northern Ireland conflict. We studied the coverage of the Northern Ireland conflict by The (London Times (1990-1995. We used a discourse analysis method to study the paper’s discourse structure in its representation of the Northern Ireland conflict.

  2. The Inharmonious Conflicts in Robert Frost's Poetry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨苗

    2015-01-01

    Robert Frost is one of the most distinguished poets,most of his poems are about the inharmonious relationship between nature and men,Conflicts are like a“thread”appearing in his poems.Frost’s true philosophy on men and life contributes to his wisdom and artistic poems.Frost tries to illustrate the conflict between nature and men in philosophy concern.

  3. CULTURAL DIVERSITY: A GLOBAL CHALLENGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina LECA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available XXI century is the century of globalization, a century dominated by multinational organizations supremacy which gradually expanded to conquer the world through their products and services. In every industry working professionals need to interact with people from other ethnic and nationals groups, at home, job and around the world. Decisively all meant for companies and organizations, in addition to innovation and development the source of possible conflicts. Therefore what does cultural diversity mean and how it should be managed?

  4. Conflicts in A Streetcar Named Desire

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    禹雪含

    2014-01-01

    A conflict is a disagreement, struggle, controversy or fight which usually provides the plot for a story. It is the promi-nent element of a work and the basis for everything else included in the work of literature. In the drama A Streetcar Named Desire of Tennessee Williams, several kinds of conflicts are proficiently and artistically revealed. This paper touches on different kinds of conflicts, including those between fantasy and reality, female and male, desire and death, the exterior and inner world, the south and the north. Conflicts are of great literary importance in this play. Firstly, they function to propel the plot and create an over-arching tension. Secondly, they are used to represent themes which are applied to greater contexts. Thirdly, conflicts go through the whole play and make it a united whole.

  5. Patient-clinician conflict: causes and compromises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lask, Bryan

    2003-03-01

    Conflict is an everyday phenomenon, a part of everyday life. It is hardly surprising that it also occurs in a clinical setting, not only between clinicians and within teams, but also between patients, their families and clinicians. This is all the more the likely in a setting that deals with a chronic disease such as CF. The physical, emotional, social and practical burdens of the illness are such that coping mechanisms are stretched to their limits. Disagreements, misunderstandings, impaired trust and different expectations may all challenge the patient-clinician relationship. In a context in which children and adolescents form at least half the clientele, the potential for conflict is intensified because of the involvement of parents. This paper emphasises the normality of such conflicts, and using case illustrations, explains the reasons for conflicts and explores how best to resolve them. The basic principles of conflict-resolution are outlined, and useful techniques, readily applicable in everyday practice, are described. PMID:15463846

  6. Authentic moral conflicts and students' moral development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fu Wei-li

    2006-01-01

    This research deals with the different psychological processes people undergo when they experience firsthand authentic moral conflicts.It also discusses the value of authentic moral conflicts in students' moral development,and reasons for the ineffectiveness of moral education in China.The main reason for the unsatisfactory effects of moral education in China over a period of time lies in the predominance of virtual moral education.In authentic situations,the proper arrangement of moral conflicts requires careful analysis of values hidden in the prearranged or generated moral conflicts so as to utilize,guide,and control them properly.Such arrangement of moral conflicts should be adapted to students' life experience for deepening their understanding of the moral aspects of life.Also,special attention should be attached to students' varied requirements,thus leaving enough options and space for their independent participation in activities of moral education.

  7. Taking Stock of EU Military Conflict Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annemarie Peen Rodt

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decade, the EU has established itself as a player in the international field of conflict management. Both its civilian missions and military operations have played a significant part in this development. This article takes a closer look at the EU’s military endeavours in conflict management. It presents a theoretically grounded definition and a corresponding set of criteria for success in military conflict management and evaluates the operations accordingly. The article provides a comprehensive review of all the EU military conflict management operations to date. The analysis is structured and focused around the criteria for success, which provides a more nuanced picture of the Union’s operational achievements throughout its first decade in military conflict management.

  8. Work-family conflict and family-work conflict in aspects of sex and intergenerational differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Sylwia Lubrańska

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: This paper presents the results of the study concerning mutual relations between work–family conflict and family– work conflict in the context of age and sex. Material and Methods: The study included 223 subjects (115 women, 108 men, 74 mothers and 61 fathers, aged 21–63. The Work–Family and Family–Work Conflicts Questionnaire and socio-demographic questionnaire were used as the survey tools. To verify hypotheses the correlation analysis and the Mann-Whitney U-test were used. Results: It has been found that a stronger work–family conflict is experienced by the examined men and fathers and a stronger family–work conflict is observed among parents. The results of the statistical analysis showed that there is a significant relationship between the number of working hours per day and work–family conflict and family–work conflict. Work–family conflict among mothers is significantly correlated with the income. The family–work conflict is stronger in the middle adulthood group. Conclusions: There is a significant relationship between sex and age and work–family conflict and family–work conflict. Med Pr 2014;65(4:521–533

  9. The nexus of oil, conflict, and climate change vulnerability of pastoral communities in northwest Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, J.; Locham, R.; Weinzierl, T.; Vivekananda, J.; Scheffran, J.

    2015-11-01

    Turkana, in northwest Kenya, is the country's poorest and least developed county. Pastoralism in Turkana is well adapted to the harsh climatic conditions, but an increase in drought frequency associated with global climate change and intensifying violent conflicts between pastoral groups poses significant challenges for local communities. The conflicts are especially violent in the border region between the Turkana and the Pokot communities. In this very region significant oil reserves have recently been found. The first aim of this paper is to analyse how the oil exploration affects the communities' vulnerability to climate change. Secondly, the paper explores the risk of the oil explorations creating new conflicts or aggravating existing ones. The primary method of the study is qualitative field research supplemented with a geo-spatial analysis of conflict data. The field research was conducted in October 2013 and April 2014 in three villages with different levels of engagement with the oil exploration. At the time of the research, oil exploration was expected close to Lokwamosing, while it had recently started in the vicinity of Lopii and had been ongoing for a longer time close to Nakukulas. The findings suggest that the oil exploration increases the community's vulnerability to climate change. Further, unmet community expectations for water, employment and development pose a significant risk for violent conflict between local communities and the operating oil company. Intercommunal conflict over water and land could increase as well.

  10. The nexus of oil, conflict, and climate change vulnerability of pastoral communities in Northwest Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Schilling

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Turkana, in northwest Kenya, is the country's poorest and least developed county. Pastoralism in Turkana is well adapted to the harsh climatic conditions but an increase in drought frequency associated with global climate change and intensifying violent conflicts between pastoral groups, poses significant challenges for local communities. The conflicts are especially violent in the border region between the Turkana and the Pokot communities. In this very region significant oil reserves have been found recently. The first aim of this paper is to analyse how the oil exploration affects the communities' vulnerability to climate change. Secondly, the paper explores the risk of the oil explorations to create new conflicts or aggravate existing ones. The primary method of the study is qualitative field research supplemented with a geo-spatial analysis of conflict data. The field research was conducted in October 2013 and April 2014 in three villages with different levels of engagement with the oil exploration. At the time of the research, oil exploration was expected close to Lokwamosing while it had recently started in the vicinity of Lopii and had been ongoing for a longer time close to Nakukulas. The findings suggest that the oil exploration increases the community's vulnerability to climate change. Further, unmet community expectations for water, employment and development pose a significant risk for violent conflict between local communities and the operating oil company. Intercommunal conflict over water and land could increase as well.

  11. Contemporary Challenges for Education in Conflict Affected Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Smith

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The importance of education to human development is emphasised by its central place in achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs and reflected in the global initiative Education for All (EFA aimed at securing primary education for all children by the year 2015. There are many impediments to the achievement of universal primary education. These include lack of priority to education on the part of national governments such as, insufficient spending as a percentage of GNP or inequitable distribution of funding and resources. Significant barriers to education, particularly within low income countries, include poverty, child labour, distance from school, unequal access due to gender or cultural factors and the existence of conflict. Although the number of out-of-school primary-age children in the world has fallen in recent years, there has been little improvement in conflict affected countries. These countries are home to half of all children out of school (currently 28.5 million out of 57 million children, yet they receive less than one-fifth of education aid. This paper draws on research for the 2011 EFA Global Monitoring Report to highlight a number of significant challenges for education in these countries and the contribution that education might make to longer term peacebuilding.

  12. On Academic Conflict in Medical Research Articles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xiao-mei; CHEN Ning; NIE Wen-xin

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the distribution of academic conflicts, if any, in medical research articles. Methods: Twenty-seven and 25 medical research articles in the field of internal medicine were selected from English and Chinese respectable jour⁃nals, respectively. Then, the speech acts that reflected a conflict between a scientist’s knowledge claim and another scientist’s knowledge claim were manually searched and recorded in each paper. Data were analyzed using non-parametric Chi-test. Results:There were 123 academic conflicts recorded in the English corpus and 49 Academic Conflicts in the Chinese corpus. Significant difference was observed in the overall frequency of academic conflicts between the English and Chinese medical discourse (p=0.001). Besides, as for the distribution within research articles, introduction and discussion sections were the sections where Aca⁃demic Conflict speech acts were most likely to occur in both corpra. Conclusion: The Chinese scholars are less likely to criticize peers. Introduction and discussion sections were the sections where Academic Conflict speech acts were most likely to occur. Our results are in agreement with previous results and confirmed the claim that highly different cultures vary in their discourse prefer⁃ences. Our findings are of pedagogical significance.

  13. GLOBALIZATION PROCESSES IN MODERN WORLD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Enshina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article offers to consideration processes of globalization in the modern world which are continuous process, going many years, but, only in the seventies last century have been revealed as problems. This article considers several options of terms globalization that allows analyzing in more detail a phenomenon "globalization". Article considers formation of scientific discipline as "global studies" which directly help to study better this process and to correct many conflict aspects. In article economic, social, cultural and spiritual prospects of globalization process are analyzed. Economic processes are affected rather in detail, so are the main aspect in the integration process allowing overcoming more steadily an imbalance paradigm. Consideration of the Common Economic Space is very important for all globalization process as stability and harmony of economy of the states is guarantee of successful modernization of political space. In article the presumable algorithm of action which will help to overcome in more detail and harmoniously complex local problems, entries into globalization process for many countries is theoretically created. In this regard the author reveals positive and negative aspects of globalization, with the help whom, it is possible to create algorithmic chains on harmonious development of globalization for each state. The modern states very closely interact with each other that, on the one hand, promotes successful and fast integration of political spaces, but, on the other hand, catastrophic consequences are promoted, namely by losses of the identity, the traditions, custom and norms, that is pernicious for any nation.

  14. Case-based Reasoning in Conflict Negotiation in Concurrent Engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Case-based reasoning (CBR) is a kind of analogous reasoning that is widely used in artificial intelligence. Conflicts are pervasive in Concurrent Engineering design environment. Conflict negotiation is necessary when conflicts occur. It is difficult to resolve conflicts due to several reasons. An approach to resolving conflicts by case-based reasoning is proposed in this paper. The knowledge representation of conflict negotiation cases, the judgment of case similarity, the retrieval model of cases, the management of case bases, and the process of case-based conflict negotiation are studied. The implementation structure of the Case-based Conflict Solving System (CCSS) is also given.

  15. Conflict cultures in organizations: how leaders shape conflict cultures and their organizational-level consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelfand, Michele J; Leslie, Lisa M; Keller, Kirsten; de Dreu, Carsten

    2012-11-01

    Anecdotal evidence abounds that organizations have distinct conflict cultures, or socially shared norms for how conflict should be managed. However, research to date has largely focused on conflict management styles at the individual and small group level, and has yet to examine whether organizations create socially shared and normative ways to manage conflict. In a sample of leaders and members from 92 branches of a large bank, factor analysis and aggregation analyses show that 3 conflict cultures-collaborative, dominating, and avoidant-operate at the unit level of analysis. Building on Lewin, Lippitt, and White's (1939) classic work, we find that leaders' own conflict management behaviors are associated with distinct unit conflict cultures. The results also demonstrate that conflict cultures have implications for macro branch-level outcomes, including branch viability (i.e., cohesion, potency, and burnout) and branch performance (i.e., creativity and customer service). A conflict culture perspective moves beyond the individual level and provides new insight into the dynamics of conflict management in organizational contexts.

  16. Conflict cultures in organizations: how leaders shape conflict cultures and their organizational-level consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelfand, Michele J; Leslie, Lisa M; Keller, Kirsten; de Dreu, Carsten

    2012-11-01

    Anecdotal evidence abounds that organizations have distinct conflict cultures, or socially shared norms for how conflict should be managed. However, research to date has largely focused on conflict management styles at the individual and small group level, and has yet to examine whether organizations create socially shared and normative ways to manage conflict. In a sample of leaders and members from 92 branches of a large bank, factor analysis and aggregation analyses show that 3 conflict cultures-collaborative, dominating, and avoidant-operate at the unit level of analysis. Building on Lewin, Lippitt, and White's (1939) classic work, we find that leaders' own conflict management behaviors are associated with distinct unit conflict cultures. The results also demonstrate that conflict cultures have implications for macro branch-level outcomes, including branch viability (i.e., cohesion, potency, and burnout) and branch performance (i.e., creativity and customer service). A conflict culture perspective moves beyond the individual level and provides new insight into the dynamics of conflict management in organizational contexts. PMID:23025807

  17. ISLAM IN THE CAUCASUS AND ITS IMPACT ON CONFLICT POTENTIAL IN THE REGION AND IN RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhmet A. Yarlykanov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Islam in the Caucasus cannot be described in black and white colors as official and non-official, traditional and non-traditional Islam. Islam is now playing a more distinctive role in the social and political life of the republics in the North Caucasus. However, its role in the conflicts cannot be explained by Islam itself which plays the role of disguise for the real reasons of the conflicts. The article examines strengthening of Islam on the Caucasus, as well as its globalization, and politization and the rise of jihadism. It analyses complex relations among its many different forms and schools.

  18. Formal Verification of Safety Buffers for Sate-Based Conflict Detection and Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herencia-Zapana, Heber; Jeannin, Jean-Baptiste; Munoz, Cesar A.

    2010-01-01

    The information provided by global positioning systems is never totally exact, and there are always errors when measuring position and velocity of moving objects such as aircraft. This paper studies the effects of these errors in the actual separation of aircraft in the context of state-based conflict detection and resolution. Assuming that the state information is uncertain but that bounds on the errors are known, this paper provides an analytical definition of a safety buffer and sufficient conditions under which this buffer guarantees that actual conflicts are detected and solved. The results are presented as theorems, which were formally proven using a mechanical theorem prover.

  19. Simultaneous Minimization of Capacity and Conflict Misses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhiyuan Li

    2007-01-01

    Loop tiling (or loop blocking) is a well-known loop transformation to improve temporal locality in nested loops which perform matrix computations. When targeting caches that have low associativities, one of the key challenges for loop tiling is to simultaneously minimize capacity misses and conflict misses. This paper analyzes the effect of the tile size and the array-dimension size on capacity misses and conflict misses. The analysis supports the approach of combining tile-size selection (to minimize capacity misses) with array padding (to minimize conflict misses).

  20. Doubts and Dogmatism in Conflict Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Gordon, Sidartha; Riboni, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    Conflicts are likely less violent if individuals entertain the possibility that the opponent may be right. Why is it so difficult to observe this attitude? In this paper, we consider a game of conflict where two opponents fight in order to impose their preferred policy. Before entering the conflict, one opponent (the agent) trusts the information received by his principal. The principal wants to a↵ect the agent’s e↵ort, but he also cares that the agent selects the correct policy and that he h...

  1. Review on Personality Conflicts of Interest

    OpenAIRE

    Odigbo Ikechukwu Aloysius

    2013-01-01

    Personality conflict is seen as an inevitably and unavoidable since two or more people were coming together to do something in common.  The characteristic or behavior one’s constitutes maybe unlikely be abnormal to another, that is the reason conflicts were always be prone to happen as error, mistakes and abnormal socialstimuli that affect others which can lead to casters trophies and human unrest.Personality conflict may be individual fight for their personal goal and loss of sight in their ...

  2. Identity Conflict with Cross-Border Spillovers

    OpenAIRE

    Bakshi, Dripto; Dasgupta, Indraneel

    2016-01-01

    We model simultaneous inter and within identity-group conflict in two territories connected by cross-territorial spill-overs. Within each territory, two groups contest the division of a group-specific public good, and all members contest the division of group income. Each group has a cross-border affiliate. Greater success (share) of its affiliate 'spills over' into higher efficiency of a group in inter-group conflict. We find that inter-group and total conflict move together within a territo...

  3. Nuclear Proliferation as a Global Values Issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Jack L.

    1990-01-01

    Presents a classroom activity designed to involve students in critical thinking and values inquiry concerning the horizontal nuclear proliferation. Provides a set of global values, explaining the conflict between them and nuclear proliferation. Uses indicators, hypothesis development, and testing. Provides sources for material evidence to use in…

  4. Conflicts of interest in translational research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Disis Mary L

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Translational research requires a team approach to scientific inquiry and product development. Translational research teams consist of basic and clinical scientists who can be members of both academic and industrial communities. The conception, pre-clinical testing, and clinical evaluation of a diagnostic or therapeutic approach demands an intense interaction between investigators with diverse backgrounds. As the barriers between industry and academia are removed, issues of potential conflict of interest become more complex. Translational researchers must become aware of the situations which constitute conflict of interest and understand how such conflicts can impact their research programs. Finally, the translational research community must participate in the dialogue ongoing in the public and private sectors and help shape the rules that will govern conflicts that arise during the evolution of their research programs.

  5. Idendity and identity conflict in the workplace

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.E. Horton (Kate); P.S. Bayerl (Saskia); G. Belschak-Jacobs (Gabriele)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ As individuals, we define ourselves according to various characteristics that include our values and beliefs. This gives us our identity. As organisations become increasingly complex, understanding the concept of identity conflict may mean the difference between success

  6. Social Management of Cultural Conflict Resolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Hong-Mei

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to integrate the cultural concepts of basic social value judgments and make the members of society to form an active participation in the consensus, the study use the multi-form subculture and multi-value conflict form in the society as study aim to analysis of that the heterogeneous culture not only will not deconstruct the society but also will bring society to obtain the compatible capacity towards the same. This study indicates that the cultural inertia safeguard their own interests can easily turn into the fuse of conflict in different cultural patterns interactive cooperation of social management. The subcultures collision of the main of pluralistic society management, collectivism and individualistic culture conflict is the main form of social cultural conflict management, the emergence and impact of different cultures is an important driving force for progress and cultural shape.

  7. Social Metabolism and Environmental Conflicts in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Martinez-Alier

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper explains the methods for counting the energy and material flows in the economy, and gives the main results of the Material Flows for the economy of India between 1961 and 2008 as researched by Simron Singh et al (2012. Drawing on work done in the EJOLT project, some illustrations are given of the links between the changing social metabolism and ecological distribution conflicts, looking at responses in Odisha to bauxite mining, at conflicts on sand mining, at disputes on waste management options in Delhi and at ship dismantling in Alang, Gujarat. The aim is to show how a history of social metabolism, of socio-environmental conflicts, and of the changing valuation languages deployed by various social actors in such conflicts, could be written in a common framework.

  8. Terminal Area Conflict Detection and Resolution Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Savita Arora

    2011-01-01

    This poster will describe analysis of a conflict detection and resolution tool for the terminal area called T-TSAFE. With altitude clearance information, the tool can reduce false alerts to as low as 2 per hour.

  9. Kohlberg and the Resolution of Moral Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bressler, Marvin

    1976-01-01

    Author challenged Lawrence Kohlberg's theory of moral development with its conjoint moral standards. One's knowledge of the principle of moral justice, he said, does not offer him directives for dealing with specific moral conflicts. (Editor/RK)

  10. Review of traffic conflicts technique studies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hondel, M. van den & Kraay, J.H.

    1979-01-01

    A review of literature concerning traffic conflicts technique studies is presented. The 101 references arranged alphabetically by authors' names are given with abstract. The procedure used in compiling this survey is outlined.

  11. INFORMATION-BASED CONFLICT IN AFRICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett Van Niekerk

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available For a long time, the African continent was regarded as the ‘Dark Continent’. The rapid assimilation of information technologies into the African economies has placed Africa firmly on a trajectory that will see it compete and integrate with the developed world. As nations and organisations become more information-centric, it is natural that conflicts and competition amongst the various nations or organisations will become increasingly information-based. In this article, the authors reflect upon information-based conflict in Africa. Areas of information conflict that are discussed include censorship, communications intercepts, the use of information and communications to instigate violence and uprisings, and the possibility of cyberwarfare. The article shows that the use of technology to conduct information conflict in Africa is prevalent, and that it is likely to increase.

  12. Hypergame Analysis of the Lake Biwa Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Norio; Hipel, Keith W.; Oka, Yoshiharu

    1985-07-01

    When there are misunderstandings among participants in a water resources conflict, hypergame analysis can be used to systematically model the conflict and predict the compromise resolutions. In order to demonstrate the efficacy of using hypergame analysis for studying water resources management problems, it is applied to the Lake Biwa conflict in Japan. This dispute constitutes a typical example of a water allocation conflict where downstream users would like more water from the upstream controllers of the major source of the water. Furthermore, each participant or player in the Lake Biwa dispute has misperceptions about the other players' preferences. Besides predicting the different resolutions which each of the players envisioned, hypergame analysis correctly forecasts the compromise resolution that occurred historically.

  13. Conflicting logics in Public Private Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Helle Aarøe

    The article explores the interplay between conflicting logics, when private firms interact with potential public customers, as the firms aim to commercialize welfare innovations developed through Public Private Innovation (PPI) projects. Commercialization of welfare innovations in healthcare may ...... as there is an expressed need for these within the healthcare system. As such, the article contributes to institutional logics theory by addressing the call for research in conflicting logics.......The article explores the interplay between conflicting logics, when private firms interact with potential public customers, as the firms aim to commercialize welfare innovations developed through Public Private Innovation (PPI) projects. Commercialization of welfare innovations in healthcare may...... that they are faced with a NIH logic which is in conflict with their own market logic involving intensions to commercialize broadly within the healthcare system. The firms experience difficulties in commercializing and thus diffusing welfare innovations, which, for them, seem to be counter intuitive...

  14. Social conflict within and between groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.K.W. de Dreu

    2014-01-01

    Intergroup competition and conflict create pervasive problems in human society, giving rise to such phenomena as prejudice, terrorism, ethnic cleansing, and interstate war. Citizens, policy makers, social workers, schoolteachers, and politicians wrestle with these problems, and with difficult questi

  15. Issues/conflicts at Browns Park NWR

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document provides historic view on issues and conflicts pertaining to Moffat County, Colorado State Land Board and Vermillion Livestock Ranch.

  16. Congo: Evaluating the Post-Conflict state

    OpenAIRE

    De Boeck, Filip

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this seminar is to bring researchers, experts and policy-makers together and discuss the nature of the post-conflict Congolese state. Discussions will focus on a number of critical issues, including security governance, management of natural resources, local peace efforts and external interventions. Programme Day 1: The process of state building 9.15-9.30 Introduction 9.30-11.00 Panel 1: Evaluating the post-conflict state Speakers: Jean Omasombo – Royal Mus...

  17. The Dynamics of Conflict in Southern Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Engvall, Anders; Andersson, Magnus

    2014-01-01

    The prolonged insurgency in Southern Thailand has claimed thousands of victims since the outbreak of major violence in 2004. Drawing on a unique data-set covering all violent incidents since 2004, a hot spot analysis shows that the bulk of the violence is concentrated in clusters of sub-districts forming hotbeds of conflict. Drivers of conflict are identified through a comparative analysis of the hotspots of violence with less violent areas. The analysis shows that identity manifested in lang...

  18. Understanding the integrative approach to conflict management

    OpenAIRE

    Rognes, Jørn Kjell; Schei, Vidar

    2010-01-01

    Purpose – Integration is an active search for information about facts and interests – motivated by a willingness to find mutually satisfactory agreements – and is usually necessary for creating high quality settlements in conflicts. The purpose of this paper is to examine the integrative approach to conflicts. Design/methodology/approach – Surveys, scenario studies, and experiments were used to explore factors relating to an integrative approach. First, how integration affected vari...

  19. Crime and Social Conflict in India

    OpenAIRE

    Sofia Amaral; Siddhartha Bandyopadhyay; Samrat Bhattacharyais; Rudra Sensarmais

    2014-01-01

    This article has two goals. First, using district-level panel data we identify key determinants of violent crime, nonviolent crime, and crime against women in India, 1990-2007. Second, using district-level variation in regard to Maoist-driven social conflict, we examine how social conflict affects crime and its determinants. In addition to conventional determinants of crime (e.g., law enforcement and economic variables), we examine how variation in sex ratios affects crime. We also study whet...

  20. Democracy, Conflict and Development - Three Cases.

    OpenAIRE

    Stewart, Frances; Sullivan, Meghan

    1998-01-01

    This paper explores the connections between democracy, peace and development in three cases of recent history - Uganda, Kenya and Sri Lanka. It is shown that there are no simple and universal relationships. The experience of all three countries shows that democratic institutions are not sufficient to prevent conflict and can foment it in sharply divided societies. The case of Sri lanka suggests that redesigning democratic institutions in order to reduce conflict can fail to do so and may actu...

  1. Methods for Measuring Aggregate Costs of Conflict

    OpenAIRE

    Gardeazabal, Javier

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews the methods for measuring the economic cost of conflict. Estimating the economic costs of conflict requires a counterfactual calculation, which makes this a very difficult task. Social researchers have resorted to different estimation methods depending on the particular effect in question. The method used in each case depends on the units being analyzed (firms, sectors, regions or countries), the outcome variable under study (aggregate output, market valuation of firms, mar...

  2. Seeds of Distrust: Conflict in Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Rohner, Dominic; Thoenig, Mathias; Zilibotti, Fabrizio

    2012-01-01

    We study the effect of civil conflict on social capital, focusing on the experience of Ugandaduring the last decade. Using individual and county-level data, we document large causal effects on trust and ethnic identity of an exogenous outburst of ethnic conflicts in 2002-05. We exploit two waves of survey data from Afrobarometer 2000 and 2008, including information on socioeconomic characteristics at the individual level, and geo-referenced measures of fi ghting events from ACLED.Our identifi...

  3. Seeds of distrust: Conflict in Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Rohner, Dominic; Thoenig, Mathias; Zilibotti, Fabrizio

    2011-01-01

    We study the effect of civil conflict on social capital, focusing on the experience of Uganda during the last decade. Using individual and county-level data, we document causal effects on trust and ethnic identity of an exogenous outburst of ethnic conflicts in 2002-04. We exploit two waves of survey data from Afrobarometer 2000 and 2008, including information on socioeconomic characteristics at the individual level, and geo-referenced measures of fighting events from ACLED. Our identificatio...

  4. Railway Station Role in Composing Urban Conflicts

    OpenAIRE

    Elisa Conticelli; Simona Tondelli

    2011-01-01

    Despite railway infrastructure was the structural framework on which modern European States were developed, contributing to unify territories and to the establishment of Nations, right from the beginning, the relationship between railway and city has been characterized by physical, functional and social conflicts, mainly because of a lack of integration between infrastructural and urban policies, which have been produced strong conflicts during decades. These critical situations have concentr...

  5. Consequences of Work–Family Conflict

    OpenAIRE

    Nohe, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    Most employees are challenged to combine work and family roles. Although both roles can provide self-esteem, self-fulfillment, and happiness, they can also interfere with each other making it more difficult to fulfill work and family demands. Work–family conflict is the construct that captures interference between work and family roles. High work–family conflict has been associated with potential consequences such as low health, high turnover intentions, and low job performance. My main aim i...

  6. Conflict, public communication, and radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Of the technical, political, and social problems associated with radioactive waste management, least is known about the latter two. Lay persons tend to generalize negative attitudes about other nuclear activity to radioactive waste management. Thus, conflict appears inevitable between the general public, citizen action groups, and decision-makers on radioactive waste management. The basis of conflict can be found in the value orientation of certain groups and in differing perceptions of risk. The paper is in three parts. First the sources of conflict over radioactive waste management issues are reviewed. The negative attitudes and fears of the public toward different types of projects involving radioactivity, value conflicts, and differential perceptions of risk are cited as sources. Next are discussed the consequences of conflict in terms of sociological theory. Finally, discussed is how conflict can be directed and managed to produce an informed decision-making process. When the public is sensitized to an issue, when prevailing attitudes on the issue are negative, and when perceived risks are high - all of which are characteristic of waste management issues - specific steps should be taken to establish a legitimate process of communication and interaction between the public and the sponsor agency. When conflict is recognized as inevitable, the goal of a communications programs is no longer to avoid it. It is to use the increased awareness to increase knowledge about waste management issues and public participation in decisions so that the final solution is acceptable at some level to all parties. Other benefits, such as increased agency/group cohesion, can also be realized as consequence of conflict

  7. Intrafamilial conflict and parental investment: a synthesis.

    OpenAIRE

    Parker, Geoff A.; Royle, Nick J; Hartley, Ian R

    2002-01-01

    We outline and develop current theory on how inherent genetic conflicts of interest between the various family members can affect the flow of parental investment from parents to offspring, and discuss the problems for empirical testing that this generates. The parental investment pattern realized in nature reflects the simultaneous resolution of all the conflicts between the family players. This depends on the genetic mechanism, the mating system and reproductive constraints, on whether extra...

  8. Interbirth intervals: Intrafamilial, intragenomic and intrasomatic conflict

    OpenAIRE

    Haig, David

    2014-01-01

    Background and objectives: Interbirth intervals (IBIs) mediate a trade-off between child number and child survival. Life history theory predicts that the evolutionarily optimal IBI differs for different individuals whose fitness is affected by how closely a mother spaces her children. The objective of the article is to clarify these conflicts and explore their implications for public health. Methodology: Simple models of inclusive fitness and kin conflict address the evolution of human birth-...

  9. Firm exit and armed conflict in Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Camacho, Andriana; Rodriguez, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    This paper uses two unique panel data sets to study the causal effect that armed conflict has over entrepreneurial activity in Colombia. Using a fixed effect estimation methodology at the plant level and controlling for the possible endogeneity of armed conflict through the use of instrumental variables, we find that a one standard deviation in the number of guerrilla and paramilitary attacks in a municipality increases the probability of firm exit in 8.1 percentage points. This effect is str...

  10. Towards a theology of conflict transformation: a study of religious conflict in contemporary Nigerian society

    OpenAIRE

    Akanji, Israel Adelani

    2011-01-01

    Nigeria, the most populous country in Africa, is bedevilled with various conflicts which have been exacerbated by the multiplicity and diversity which characterize the nation. The country is a multi-ethnic, multicultural, multiregional and multi-religious society. And while such arrays of features are not peculiar to Nigeria, managing them has greatly propped up various conflicts, with religious conflict emerging as one of the most devastating of all. It would appear as though,...

  11. Conflict Management in Natural Resources - A study of Land, Water and Forest Conflicts in Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Upreti, B.R.

    2001-01-01

    This book is based on the research into natural resource (NR)-conflict carried out between 1997 and 2000 in the Dolakha district of central Nepal, and in several reference sites around the country. The study focussed especially on land, water and forest/pasture conflicts and their resolution/management practices. Five inter-connected conflict cases related to irrigation, Guthi -land, spring water source and forest-pasture land were examined and compared with eleven reference groups. The study...

  12. Global Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Peter Ping

    2013-01-01

    Global strategy differs from domestic strategy in terms of content and process as well as context and structure. The content of global strategy can contain five key elements, while the process of global strategy can have six major stages. These are expounded below. Global strategy is influenced...... by rich and complementary local contexts with diverse resource pools and game rules at the national level to form a broad ecosystem at the global level. Further, global strategy dictates the interaction or balance between different entry strategies at the levels of internal and external networks....

  13. [Potential conflicts of interest in biomedical publications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Vigil, José Luis

    2014-01-01

    In human communication and personal relations, there is the possibility of dissent and have a conflict related to the perception or acceptance of the content of a message. To reach an agreement, it is important that the communication between people is horizontal and bidirectional while the issue is being discussed, in order to bring together the interlocutors' expectations and interests. In the administration of services and goods, friendship and nepotism have been the most frequent forms of potential conflicts of interest. These behaviors arise when a person, like a civil servant or employee, feels influenced by personal considerations when he is doing his work and when he is making decisions. The conflict of perceived interested can be so harmful to the reputation and confidence of an organization, as the real existence of a conflict of interest. In some countries, the law obliges organisms to have codes of ethics that cover these aspects. Thus, it is desirable the incorporation of ethical principles and "moral competences" in the curricula of health professionals. Actually, in medicine and biomedical investigation, conflicts of interest are a condition related to clinicians and researchers, who distort their results and work to obtain personal or financial benefits. In the generation and transmission of knowledge, the circumstances determine if a conflict of interest exists, not the methodology, either the results of the investigation, not even the technology used on their diffusion. PMID:24878089

  14. Ombud's corner: Zen and conflict resolution

    CERN Multimedia

    Vincent Vuillemin

    2012-01-01

    “In order to reduce conflict in our lives we must first address our inner battles. To stop our reactive behavior, we need to make peace with ourselves. This is where conflict resolution truly begins.”*   Most of the people coming to the Ombuds sincerely believe that the conflict they are in is due to the other party. They do not see that they play a key role in creating the external circumstances which lead to such a conflict. Thus, paying attention early on to your emotions and your body language, as well as recording your thoughts (positive and negative), can be very interesting. In other words, observe yourself. A close, intuitive and clear understanding of who we are will help us to avoid projecting our own feelings onto others or feeling too soon as though we may be under attack. In such positive circumstances, we can then face conflicts in an open way, instead of reacting with fight or flight. Each conflict can give us an opportunity to ga...

  15. The evolved function of the oedipal conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josephs, Lawrence

    2010-08-01

    Freud based his oedipal theory on three clinical observations of adult romantic relationships: (1) Adults tend to split love and lust; (2) There tend to be sex differences in the ways that men and women split love and lust; (3) Adult romantic relationships are unconsciously structured by the dynamics of love triangles in which dramas of seduction and betrayal unfold. Freud believed that these aspects of adult romantic relationships were derivative expressions of a childhood oedipal conflict that has been repressed. Recent research conducted by evolutionary psychologists supports many of Freud's original observations and suggests that Freud's oedipal conflict may have evolved as a sexually selected adaptation for reproductive advantage. The evolution of bi-parental care based on sexually exclusive romantic bonds made humans vulnerable to the costs of sexual infidelity, a situation of danger that seriously threatens monogamous bonds. A childhood oedipal conflict enables humans to better adapt to this longstanding evolutionary problem by providing the child with an opportunity to develop working models of love triangles. On the one hand, the oedipal conflict facilitates monogamous resolutions by creating intense anxiety about the dangers of sexual infidelity and mate poaching. On the other hand, the oedipal conflict in humans may facilitate successful cheating and mate poaching by cultivating a talent for hiding our true sexual intentions from others and even from ourselves. The oedipal conflict in humans may be disguised by evolutionary design in order to facilitate tactical deception in adult romantic relationships. PMID:20840647

  16. Conflict as driver of pluricentric coordination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Governance theory and planning theory share a tendency to either overlook the role of conflicts in coordination processes or view them as a disruptive force that must be modified or neutralized. In effect, there is little research into the productive role of conflicts in constructing and reconstr......Governance theory and planning theory share a tendency to either overlook the role of conflicts in coordination processes or view them as a disruptive force that must be modified or neutralized. In effect, there is little research into the productive role of conflicts in constructing...... and reconstructing the institutional conditions that make coordination possible. The productive role of conflicts is particularly visible in times of radical change that calls for a recasting of the sedimented world views and practices of the involved actors, as well as the relationship between them. A case study...... of the formation of new pluricentric regional governance arenas in Denmark provides important insights into how conflicts contribute to a gradual recasting of the institutional conditions that make coordination possible....

  17. Can conflict be energizing? a study of task conflict, positive emotions, and job satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todorova, Gergana; Bear, Julia B; Weingart, Laurie R

    2014-05-01

    Scholars have assumed that the presence of negative emotions during task conflict implies the absence of positive emotions. However, emotions researchers have shown that positive and negative emotions are not 2 ends of a bipolar continuum; rather, they represent 2 separate, orthogonal dimensions. Drawing on affective events theory, we develop and test hypotheses about the effects of task conflict on positive emotions and job satisfaction. To this end, we distinguish among the frequency, intensity, and information gained from task conflict. Using field data from 232 employees in a long-term health care organization, we find that more frequent mild task conflict expression engenders more information acquisition, but more frequent intense task conflict expression hinders it. Because of the information gains from mild task conflict expression, employees feel more active, energized, interested, and excited, and these positive active emotions increase job satisfaction. The information gained during task conflict, however, is not always energizing: It depends on the extent to which the behavioral context involves active learning and whether the conflict is cross-functional. We discuss theoretical implications for conflict, emotions, and job satisfaction in organizations.

  18. Climatic Consequences of Nuclear Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robock, A.

    2011-12-01

    A nuclear war between Russia and the United States could still produce nuclear winter, even using the reduced arsenals of about 4000 total nuclear weapons that will result by 2017 in response to the New START treaty. A nuclear war between India and Pakistan, with each country using 50 Hiroshima-sized atom bombs as airbursts on urban areas, could produce climate change unprecedented in recorded human history. This scenario, using much less than 1% of the explosive power of the current global nuclear arsenal, would produce so much smoke from the resulting fires that it would plunge the planet to temperatures colder than those of the Little Ice Age of the 16th to 19th centuries, shortening the growing season around the world and threatening the global food supply. Crop model studies of agriculture in the U.S. and China show massive crop losses, even for this regional nuclear war scenario. Furthermore, there would be massive ozone depletion with enhanced ultraviolet radiation reaching the surface. These surprising conclusions are the result of recent research (see URL) by a team of scientists including those who produced the pioneering work on nuclear winter in the 1980s, using the NASA GISS ModelE and NCAR WACCM GCMs. The soot is self-lofted into the stratosphere, and the effects of regional and global nuclear war would last for more than a decade, much longer than previously thought. Nuclear proliferation continues, with nine nuclear states now, and more working to develop or acquire nuclear weapons. The continued environmental threat of the use of even a small number of nuclear weapons must be considered in nuclear policy deliberations in Russia, the U.S., and the rest of the world.

  19. Understanding Social Conflicts Between Forestry and Nature Protection Sectors: Case Study Velebit Mountain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konrad Kiš

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: The last couple of decades brought significant changes in forest and nature protection policy worldwide. Rising environmental awareness, over-utilization of scarce natural resources and global climate change set high goals for the forest and nature protection policy makers. This paper is about a case study of relations among various stakeholders on Velebit Mountain, a coast-by mountain in Central Croatia. Velebit Mountain is both: a nature protection area and a forest exploitation site, which raises various conflicts between these two sectors and major stakeholders. Purpose of this research was to investigate the relations among various interest groups and coalition parties, their opinions, aspirations and interests and, especially, the way to resolve issues or manage conflicts. Material and Methods: This case-study research was conducted in form of interviews held with the representatives of each of the defined stakeholder groups within the target area, i.e. Velebit Mountain Nature Park. Interviews consisted of several groups of questions (introductory part, conflicts, conflict management and policy development, while stakeholder groups included "Croatian Forests ltd.", a state-owned company in charge of the management of state forests, Nature Park Velebit, National Park Paklenica, National Park "Northern Velebit", hunters' associations, private forest owners, fishermen associations, representatives of the local administration and mountaineers' associations. The questionnaire consisted of open-ended questions regarding various issues divided into these four groups. The data was analyzed by using the NVivo qualitative data analysis software. Theoretical framework used in this research was Walker and Daniels' Social Conflict Theory (1997, p.13 which describes types of conflicts, ways to address them and typical sources of occurring conflicts. Results and Conclusion: The results showed which the most salient conflict

  20. Talking back in the Israeli-Palestinian conflict: Rational dialogue or emotional shouting match?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elie Friedman

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The Internet has facilitated a broad global conversation among citizens, enabling cross-cultural dialogue on a range of issues, in particular through Web 2.0 tools. This study analyzes the nature of the talkback discourse on news web sites within the framework of the Palestinian-Israeli conflict. The study's findings demonstrated that several talkback writers engage in rational-critical discussion of issues essential to the conflict, although they often use rational arguments to de-legitimize conflicting opinions. Talkback dialogue is characterized by engaged discussion, though the majority of respondents engage in dialogue with the article, rather than with other talkback writers. The findings showed that talkback discourse enables a lively, eclectic, and inclusive version of a public sphere, which facilitates the exchange of heterogeneous opinions, though favoring exhibitionism over engagement.

  1. Internally displaced "victims of armed conflict" in Colombia: the trajectory and trauma signature of forced migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shultz, James M; Garfin, Dana Rose; Espinel, Zelde; Araya, Ricardo; Oquendo, Maria A; Wainberg, Milton L; Chaskel, Roberto; Gaviria, Silvia L; Ordóñez, Anna E; Espinola, Maria; Wilson, Fiona E; Muñoz García, Natalia; Gómez Ceballos, Angela Milena; Garcia-Barcena, Yanira; Verdeli, Helen; Neria, Yuval

    2014-10-01

    While conflict-induced forced migration is a global phenomenon, the situation in Colombia, South America, is distinctive. Colombia has ranked either first or second in the number of internally displaced persons for 10 years, a consequence of decades of armed conflict compounded by high prevalence of drug trafficking. The displacement trajectory for displaced persons in Colombia proceeds through a sequence of stages: (1) pre-expulsion threats and vulnerability, (2) expulsion, (3) migration, (4) initial adaptation to relocation, (5) protracted resettlement (the end point for most forced migrants), and, rarely, (6) return to the community of origin. Trauma signature analysis, an evidence-based method that elucidates the physical and psychological consequences associated with exposures to harm and loss during disasters and complex emergencies, was used to identify the psychological risk factors and potentially traumatic events experienced by conflict-displaced persons in Colombia, stratified across the phases of displacement. Trauma and loss are experienced differentially throughout the pathway of displacement.

  2. Concept of Conflict within New Economy Environment and Its Impact on the Market Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umit Hacioglu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The success of economic transition for countries mainly requires economic and politic stability. However the conflict paradigm affects the nature of economic transition. In this process, innovations have changed product technologies which have been required by economic growth. Presently, automation in standardized production industry is used as if it will take over the wage labor. Crises brought uniformities into agenda. Computer integrated manufacturing appeared in the midst of 1990s. However, production still tended to move to other countries with cheaper labor. The study focuses on interaction between the conflict and market mechanism in the light of the knowledge-based economic development.Keywords: new economy; conflict risk; globalization; financial system; market mechanism

  3. The ebola crisis : challenges for global health law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toebes, Brigit

    2015-01-01

    he recent Ebola crisis has caused approximately 20.000 deaths so far. Compared to other global health crises, including the deaths caused by armed conflicts and chronic diseases, this is still a small amount. Yet, from a global and domestic health law and governance perspective, this crisis raises a

  4. Balkans globalization

    OpenAIRE

    Petronela-Sonia Nedea

    2010-01-01

    The following definition is one frequently used about globalization: "Globalization represents the process through which geographical distance becomes a less important factor concerning the development and stability of socio-cultural, political and economic cross border relations". Globalization is considered to be a two way process: the world is integrating, is globalizing but in the same time it becomes more and more differentiated, it becomes regionalized.

  5. PEMANASAN GLOBAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivi Triana

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Pemanasan global (global warming pada dasarnya merupakan fenomena peningkatan temperature global dari tahun ke tahun karena terjadinya efek rumah kaca (greenhouse effect yang disebabkan oleh meningkatnya emisi gas-gas seperti karbondioksida (CO2, metana (CH4, dinitrooksida (N2O dan CFC sehingga energy matahari terperangkap dalam atmosfer bumi. Berbagai literatur menunjukkan kenaikan temperatur global termasuk Indonesia yang terjadi pada kisaran 1,5 – 40 °C pada akhir abad 21.

  6. PEMANASAN GLOBAL

    OpenAIRE

    Vivi Triana

    2008-01-01

    Pemanasan global (global warming) pada dasarnya merupakan fenomena peningkatan temperature global dari tahun ke tahun karena terjadinya efek rumah kaca (greenhouse effect) yang disebabkan oleh meningkatnya emisi gas-gas seperti karbondioksida (CO2), metana (CH4), dinitrooksida (N2O) dan CFC sehingga energy matahari terperangkap dalam atmosfer bumi. Berbagai literatur menunjukkan kenaikan temperatur global termasuk Indonesia yang terjadi pada kisaran 1,5 – 40 °C pada akhir abad 21.

  7. Managing relationship conflict and the effectiveness of organizational teams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.K.W. de Dreu; A.E.M. van Vianen

    2001-01-01

    Past research has revealed that team effectiveness and satisfaction suffer when teams experience relationship conflict - conflict related to interpersonal issues, political norms and values, and personal taste. This study examined how teams should respond to these conflicts. Three types of conflict

  8. 7 CFR 800.199 - Conflict-of-interest provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conflict-of-interest provisions. 800.199 Section 800... Delegations, Designations, Approvals, Contracts, and Conflicts of Interest § 800.199 Conflict-of-interest...) Prohibited conflicts of interest. Unless waived on a case-by-case basis by the Administrator under section...

  9. Underreporting of conflicts of interest in clinical practice guidelines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bindslev, Julie Bolette Brix; Schroll, Jeppe; Gøtzsche, Peter C;

    2013-01-01

    Conflicts of interest affect recommendations in clinical guidelines and disclosure of such conflicts is important. However, not all conflicts of interest are disclosed. Using a public available disclosure list we determined the prevalence and underreporting of conflicts of interest among authors...

  10. Constructing a conflict resolution program for health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter-O'Grady, Tim

    2004-01-01

    Resolving conflict throughout organizations requires a programmatic infrastructure and a committed management team. Leaders must recognize the need to approach conflict by building a format for learning, creating and managing an effective conflict management program. Careful attention to the elements of design and the stages of development can make all the difference in building a sustainable and useful conflict management approach. PMID:15600105

  11. 42 CFR 455.240 - Conflict of interest resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... though the conflict of interest exists and a request for waiver is approved in accordance with 48 CFR 9... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Conflict of interest resolution. 455.240 Section... § 455.240 Conflict of interest resolution. (a) Review Board: CMS may establish a Conflicts of...

  12. The Relationship of Principal Conflict Management Style and School Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucher, Miriam Miley

    2013-01-01

    Using a mixed-methods design, this study examined conflict management styles of elementary school principals in South Carolina and the relationship of conflict management style and school climate. The Rahim Organizational Conflict Inventory-II, Form B, which identifies five styles of managing conflict, was used to determine principal conflict…

  13. Substantive and relational effectiveness of organizational conflict behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Euwema, M C; Van de Vliert, E; Bakker, A B

    2003-01-01

    In this observation study the theory of conglomerated conflict behavior is tested. The impact of seven conflict behaviors on substantive and relational conflict outcomes is examined through multiple independent observations of 103 Dutch nurse managers handling a standardized conflict. Results show t

  14. A Power Development Model for Managing and Preventing Conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowher, Salene J.

    1996-01-01

    Describes a model for understanding and applying conflict management strategies using a personal power development theory. Adds conflict management styles to this theory to address the growing need for effective conflict management in higher education. Explains the approaches to conflict in each stage of the model and provides a case study. (RJM)

  15. 24 CFR 572.415 - Conflict of interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) Other Federal Requirements § 572.415 Conflict of interest. (a) Conflict of interest. In addition to the conflict of interest requirements in OMB Circular A-110 1 and 24 CFR part 85, no person who is an employee... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Conflict of interest....

  16. A Contingency Model of Conflict and Team Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Jason D.; Zhu, Jing; Duffy, Michelle K.; Scott, Kristin L.; Shih, Hsi-An; Susanto, Ely

    2011-01-01

    The authors develop and test theoretical extensions of the relationships of task conflict, relationship conflict, and 2 dimensions of team effectiveness (performance and team-member satisfaction) among 2 samples of work teams in Taiwan and Indonesia. Findings show that relationship conflict moderates the task conflict-team performance…

  17. Population conference: consensus and conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willson, P D

    1984-01-01

    The United Nations-sponsored International Conference on Population held in Mexico City was both a rejection and an affirmation of a new policy of the Reagan administration. The policy denies international family planning funds to nongovernmental organizations that perform or actively promote abortion as a family planning method in other nations. A compromise statement was accepted urging governments to take appropriate measures to discourage abortion as a family planning method and when possible to provide for the humane treatment and counseling of women ho resorted to abortion. The statement on abortion was 1 of 88 reccomendations approved by the conference. The commitment expressed in the 10-year-old World Population Plan of Action to the rights and responsiblity to all people as reaffirmed. The conference also endorsed family life education and sex education as well as suitable family planning, information and services for adolescents, with due consideration given to the role, rights and obligations of parents. Increased support for international population and family planning programs was urged and World Bank President, Clausen, urged a 4-fold increase in international funding by the year 2000. Most of the conference's recommendations re devoted to the broad range of population policy issues, including morbidity and mortality, international and internal migration, the relationship between population and economic development and the status of women. The purpose of the recommendations is to increase the momentum of international support. The Mexico City conference was characterized by a remarkable degree of consensus about population policies with respect to integration with economic development, the need to respect individual rights and the recognition that all nations have sovereign rights to develop and implement their own population policies. Conflict and controversy arose in the areas of the arms race and the Middle East. The US position on abortion funding

  18. Global Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brophy, Michael

    1991-01-01

    Approaches taken by a school science department to implement a global science curriculum using a range of available resources are outlined. Problems with current curriculum approaches, alternatives to an ethnocentric curriculum, advantages of global science, and possible strategies for implementing a global science policy are discussed. (27…

  19. Armed conflicts have an impact on the spread of tuberculosis: the case of the Somali Regional State of Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gele Abdi A

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A pessimistic view of the impact of armed conflicts on the control of infectious diseases has generated great interest in the role of conflicts on the global TB epidemic. Nowhere in the world is such interest more palpable than in the Horn of Africa Region, comprising Ethiopia, Somalia, Eritrea, Djibouti, Kenya and Sudan. An expanding literature has demonstrated that armed conflicts stall disease control programs through distraction of health system, interruption of patients' ability to seek health care, and the diversion of economic resources to military ends rather than health needs. Nonetheless, until very recently, no research has been done to address the impact of armed conflict on TB epidemics in the Somali Regional State (SRS of Ethiopia. Methods This study is based on the cross-sectional data collected in 2007, utilizing structured questionnaires filled-out by a sample of 226 TB patients in the SRS of Ethiopia. Data was obtained on the delay patients experienced in receiving a diagnosis of TB, on the biomedical knowledge of TB that patients had, and the level of self-treatment by patients. The outcome variables in this study are the delay in the diagnosis of TB experienced by patients, and extent of self-treatment utilized by patients. Our main explanatory variable was place of residence, which was dichotomized as being in 'conflict zones' and in 'non-conflict zones'. Demographic data was collected for statistical control. Chi-square and Mann-Whitney tests were used on calculations of group differences. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine the association between outcome and predictor variables. Results Two hundred and twenty six TB patients were interviewed. The median delay in the diagnosis of TB was 120 days and 60 days for patients from conflict zones and from non-conflict zones, respectively. Moreover, 74% of the patients residing in conflict zones undertook self-treatment prior to their diagnosis. The

  20. A strategic flight conflict avoidance approach based on a memetic algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guan Xiangmin; Zhang Xuejun; Han Dong; Zhu Yanbo; Lv Ji; Su Jing

    2014-01-01

    Conflict avoidance (CA) plays a crucial role in guaranteeing the airspace safety. The cur-rent approaches, mostly focusing on a short-term situation which eliminates conflicts via local adjust-ment, cannot provide a global solution. Recently, long-term conflict avoidance approaches, which are proposed to provide solutions via strategically planning traffic flow from a global view, have attracted more attentions. With consideration of the situation in China, there are thousands of flights per day and the air route network is large and complex, which makes the long-term problem to be a large-scale combinatorial optimization problem with complex constraints. To minimize the risk of premature convergence being faced by current approaches and obtain higher quality solutions, in this work, we present an effective strategic framework based on a memetic algorithm (MA), which can markedly improve search capability via a combination of population-based global search and local improve-ments made by individuals. In addition, a specially designed local search operator and an adaptive local search frequency strategy are proposed to improve the solution quality. Furthermore, a fast genetic algorithm (GA) is presented as the global optimization method. Empirical studies using real traffic data of the Chinese air route network and daily flight plans show that our approach outper-formed the existing approaches including the GA based approach and the cooperative coevolution based approach as well as some well-known memetic algorithm based approaches.

  1. Conflict management: a primer for doctors in training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltman, D C; O'Dea, N A; Kidd, M R

    2006-01-01

    Conflict in the health arena is a growing concern and is well recognised for doctors in training. Its most extreme expression, workplace violence is on the increase. There is evidence that many conflicts remain unsatisfactorily resolved or unresolved, and result in ongoing issues for staff morale. This paper describes the nature of conflict in the health care system and identifies the difference between conflict and disagreement. Using a conflict resolution model, strategies for dealing with conflict as it arises are explored and tips are provided on how to effectively manage conflict to a satisfactory resolution for all parties.

  2. STUDY ON CONFLICT MANAGEMENT FOR COLLABORATIVE DESIGN SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Modern-day products are usually designed cooperatively by groups of experts, each with his own areas of expertise. Because of different viewpoint, evaluation standard and domain knowledge of these design groups in collaborative design system, conflict is unavoidable. In this paper, an integration conflict management system (ICMS) was presented from the aspect of all life cycle. A hierarchical constraint network was introduced to detect the conflicts. Three conflict types were classified in ICMS and different type of conflict was submitted to different resolution strategy, constraint relaxation to data conflict and knowlegdge based reasoning to knowledge conflict or schema conflict. To those conflicts hard to be resolved with the above two strategies, an arbitration was used for the conflict resolution. ICMS also provided interface with other collaborative systems such as CAE, CAD to improve the efficiency of collaborative design system.

  3. CAMPFIRE and Human-Wildlife Conflicts in Local Communities Bordering Northern Gonarezhou National Park, Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Gandiwa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Human-wildlife conflicts are a global problem, and are occurring in many countries where human and wildlife requirements overlap. Conflicts are particularly common near protected areas where societal unrest is large. To ease conflict, integrated conservation and development projects (ICDPs have been implemented. The Communal Areas Management Programme for Indigenous Resources (CAMPFIRE is an example of an ICDP. We hypothesized that (i a higher perceived effectiveness of CAMPFIRE would be associated with a decline in human-wildlife conflicts, and (ii local communities with higher perceived effectiveness of CAMPFIRE programs would have more favorable attitudes towards problematic wild animals. Four focus group discussions and interviews with 236 respondents were conducted in four local communities adjacent to northern Gonarezhou National Park, Zimbabwe from December 2010 to August 2011. Moreover, we included data on recorded incidences of human-wildlife conflicts and CAMPFIRE financial returns to study communities between 2000 and 2010. Our results indicate that local communities showed considerable differences in how CAMPFIRE effectiveness was perceived. Local communities with higher ratings of CAMPFIRE effectiveness generally perceived a decline in human-wildlife conflicts, although some people had experienced problems with wild animals. Attitudes towards main problematic wild animals varied across the study communities and were partly associated with perceived CAMPFIRE effectiveness. Our findings partly support both of our study hypotheses. Contextual factors across the four local communities seemed to influence the perceived effectiveness of CAMPFIRE programs and attitudes towards problematic wildlife species. We recommend that decisions and actions regarding the control of problem animals be devolved to the community level in order to help reduce human-wildlife conflicts in community-based natural resources management programs.

  4. Global usability

    CERN Document Server

    Douglas, Ian

    2011-01-01

    The concept of usability has become an increasingly important consideration in the design of all kinds of technology. As more products are aimed at global markets and developed through internationally distributed teams, usability design needs to be addressed in global terms. Interest in usability as a design issue and specialist area of research and education has developed steadily in North America and Europe since the 1980's. However, it is only over the last ten years that it has emerged as a global concern. Global Usability provides an introduction to the important issues in globalizing des

  5. A strategic conflict avoidance approach based on cooperative coevolutionary with the dynamic grouping strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Xiangmin; Zhang, Xuejun; Wei, Jian; Hwang, Inseok; Zhu, Yanbo; Cai, Kaiquan

    2016-07-01

    Conflict avoidance plays a crucial role in guaranteeing the safety and efficiency of the air traffic management system. Recently, the strategic conflict avoidance (SCA) problem has attracted more and more attention. Taking into consideration the large-scale flight planning in a global view, SCA can be formulated as a large-scale combinatorial optimisation problem with complex constraints and tight couplings between variables, which is difficult to solve. In this paper, an SCA approach based on the cooperative coevolution algorithm combined with a new decomposition strategy is proposed to prevent the premature convergence and improve the search capability. The flights are divided into several groups using the new grouping strategy, referred to as the dynamic grouping strategy, which takes full advantage of the prior knowledge of the problem to better deal with the tight couplings among flights through maximising the chance of putting flights with conflicts in the same group, compared with existing grouping strategies. Then, a tuned genetic algorithm (GA) is applied to different groups simultaneously to resolve conflicts. Finally, the high-quality solutions are obtained through cooperation between different groups based on cooperative coevolution. Simulation results using real flight data from the China air route network and daily flight plans demonstrate that the proposed algorithm can reduce the number of conflicts and the average delay effectively, outperforming existing approaches including GAs, the memetic algorithm, and the cooperative coevolution algorithms with different well-known grouping strategies.

  6. Interpersonal Conflict: A Substantial Factor to Organizational Failure

    OpenAIRE

    Malikeh Beheshtifar; Elham Zare

    2013-01-01

    Interpersonal conflict is conflict that occurs between two or more individuals that work together in groups or teams. This is a conflict that occurs between two or more individuals. Many individual differences lead to interpersonal conflict, including personalities, culture, attitudes, values, perceptions, and the other differences. Conflict arises due to a variety of factors. Individual differences in goals, expectations, values, proposed courses of action, and suggestions about how to best ...

  7. The validity of partition as a solution to ethnic conflict

    OpenAIRE

    Wigmore-Shepherd, Daniel Sebastian

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the effectiveness of partition in ceasing violence during ethnic conflict. Wigmore-Shepherd’s 2012 study argued that ethnic conflict is often due to the congruence between ethnic and political identity, allowing political conflicts to become ‘ethnicised’ and ethnic conflict to eclipse the original political dispute. Therefore this paper hypothesises that ethnic homogenisation via partition can allow the original political conflict to re-emerge in a potentially violent mann...

  8. DAILY MORALITY UNDERSTANDING BASED ON LIVED MORAL CONFLICTS IN TURKEY

    OpenAIRE

    Cesur, S; F. Kahraman; TURGUT, İ.; DEVECİ, E.; ALTINAL, B.E.; AYGÜL, Z.; YETKİNOĞLU, Ö.

    2010-01-01

    Having two steps, this research aims is to do an introductory research about how moral conflict is conceptualized in a sample from Turkey. It was seen that above %80 of the respondents shared some conflicts as important moral issues. Although all these themes are mentioned as important moral conflicts, their frequency of living mentioned by the %71 of the respondents was as "never lived". Some conflicts derived from the previous step were not seen as moral conflicts in this second step ...

  9. Frequency of conflicts in construction project procurement: A correlation analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Martin O. Dada

    2013-01-01

    Conflicts occur on construction projects and may degenerate into unpleasant situations such as claims, lawsuits and project abandonment. This research investigated the frequency and correlates of conflicts in identified conflict centers on projects procured with either the traditional method or integrated methods. Conflicts were measured in terms of their frequencies of occurrence. Five internal conflict centers on construction projects were identified and used. Questionnaires were administer...

  10. The Modalities to Resolve Conflicts of Interest between Stakeholders

    OpenAIRE

    Georgescu Cristina Elena

    2012-01-01

    The corporate governance is a complex system of relations and interactions, between various interest groups within and outside a company, aiming to maximize its own expectations. This paper discusses the relation between stakeholders and the means of resolving the conflicts between them. We intend to present main types of conflicts emerging within a company, such us: the shareholders-managers conflict, the shareholders-creditors conflict and the conflict between shareholders. Finnaly, we also...

  11. The Role of Organizational Humanistic Social Support in Decreasing the Interference of Work Problems on Employees’ Family Conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azman Ismail

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Despite an increased interest in humanistic touch in global organizational support, the nature of helping processes rendered by supervisor and coworkers is still vague. The study was performed to examine the relationship between organizational humanistic social support and work interference with family conflict using 100 usable questionnaires gathered from academic staff in a Malaysian public institution of higher learning in Borneo. The findings of SmartPLS path model indicated that humanistic touch in term of supervisory support significantly correlated with work interference with family conflict. Similarly, humanistic touch of coworker support significantly correlated with work interference with family conflict. This result shows that the readiness of supervisors and coworkers to amply offer material and moral support in performing task have reduced the intrusion of work problems in employees’ family affairs and enriched their skills to decrease family conflicts. In addition, discussion, implications and conclusion are elaborated.

  12. Astronomical Heritage and Aboriginal People: Conflicts and Possibilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín López, Alejandro

    2015-08-01

    In this presentation we will address the issues relating to the astronomical heritage of contemporary aboriginal groups and othe minorities. We will deal specially with the intangible astronomical heritage and their particularities. We will study (from the ethnographic experience with Aboriginal groups, Creoles and Europeans in the Argentine Chaco) the conflicts referring to the different ways, in which the native's knowledge and practice are categorized by the natives themselves, by the scientists, the state politicians, the professional artists and NGOs. We will address several cases to illustrate this kind of conflicts. We will analyze the complexities of patrimonial policies when it are applied to practices and representations of contemporary communities involved in power relations with national states and the global system. The essentialization of identities, the folklorization of representations and practices, the fossilization of aboriginal peoples are some of the risks of give the label of "cultural heritage" without a careful consideration of each specific case.In particular we will suggest possible forms by which he international scientific community could collaborate to improve the agenda of national states instead of reproducing colonial prejudices. In this way we will contribute to promote the respect for ethnic and religious minorities.

  13. Conflict and empowerment in bikers groups from Guadalajara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Pérez Viramontes

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper is the final report resulting from having dabbled in the analysis of the conflicts that arise within groups and between the various groups that claim the use of bicycles in Guadalajara, and the context in which they develop. When looking for different purposes and from different perspectives on what it means to use this means of transport, are generated rifts and disagreements among the stakeholders involved in this movement, with implications for theconsolidation of a cycling culture in the city. Considering that one of the claims pursued with such studies is to generate knowledge relevant for those seeking processes that build social transformation or alternatives to the current development crisis that we live on a global level, we understand that conflicts given on the use of bicycles in public spaces, far from being a problem, are opportunities to build such alternatives. From information gathered in the dialogue with stakeholders related to cycling in Guadalajara, presented below are some ideas that arise in relation to these issues.

  14. Opinions from the front lines of cat colony management conflict.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Nils Peterson

    Full Text Available Outdoor cats represent a global threat to terrestrial vertebrate conservation, but management has been rife with conflict due to differences in views of the problem and appropriate responses to it. To evaluate these differences we conducted a survey of opinions about outdoor cats and their management with two contrasting stakeholder groups, cat colony caretakers (CCCs and bird conservation professionals (BCPs across the United States. Group opinions were polarized, for both normative statements (CCCs supported treating feral cats as protected wildlife and using trap neuter and release [TNR] and BCPs supported treating feral cats as pests and using euthanasia and empirical statements. Opinions also were related to gender, age, and education, with females and older respondents being less likely than their counterparts to support treating feral cats as pests, and females being less likely than males to support euthanasia. Most CCCs held false beliefs about the impacts of feral cats on wildlife and the impacts of TNR (e.g., 9% believed feral cats harmed bird populations, 70% believed TNR eliminates cat colonies, and 18% disagreed with the statement that feral cats filled the role of native predators. Only 6% of CCCs believed feral cats carried diseases. To the extent the beliefs held by CCCs are rooted in lack of knowledge and mistrust, rather than denial of directly observable phenomenon, the conservation community can manage these conflicts more productively by bringing CCCs into the process of defining data collection methods, defining study/management locations, and identifying common goals related to caring for animals.

  15. Opinions from the front lines of cat colony management conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, M Nils; Hartis, Brett; Rodriguez, Shari; Green, Matthew; Lepczyk, Christopher A

    2012-01-01

    Outdoor cats represent a global threat to terrestrial vertebrate conservation, but management has been rife with conflict due to differences in views of the problem and appropriate responses to it. To evaluate these differences we conducted a survey of opinions about outdoor cats and their management with two contrasting stakeholder groups, cat colony caretakers (CCCs) and bird conservation professionals (BCPs) across the United States. Group opinions were polarized, for both normative statements (CCCs supported treating feral cats as protected wildlife and using trap neuter and release [TNR] and BCPs supported treating feral cats as pests and using euthanasia) and empirical statements. Opinions also were related to gender, age, and education, with females and older respondents being less likely than their counterparts to support treating feral cats as pests, and females being less likely than males to support euthanasia. Most CCCs held false beliefs about the impacts of feral cats on wildlife and the impacts of TNR (e.g., 9% believed feral cats harmed bird populations, 70% believed TNR eliminates cat colonies, and 18% disagreed with the statement that feral cats filled the role of native predators). Only 6% of CCCs believed feral cats carried diseases. To the extent the beliefs held by CCCs are rooted in lack of knowledge and mistrust, rather than denial of directly observable phenomenon, the conservation community can manage these conflicts more productively by bringing CCCs into the process of defining data collection methods, defining study/management locations, and identifying common goals related to caring for animals. PMID:22970269

  16. Team Conflict in ICT-Rich Environments: Roles of Technologies in Conflict Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Ana-Paula

    2008-01-01

    This study looks at how an information and communication technologies (ICT)-rich environment impacts team conflict and conflict management strategies. A case study research method was used. Three teams, part of a graduate class in instructional design, participated in the study. Data were collected through observations of team meetings, interviews…

  17. Where Cognitive Conflict Arises from?: The Structure of Creating Cognitive Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gyoungho; Yi, Jinseog

    2013-01-01

    In this study, our basic contention was that it is essential for researchers to answer the question, "Where does cognitive conflict really arise from?" with more precision than has heretofore been attempted. First, we examined how the term "cognitive conflict" has been treated in the existing literature and try to pinpoint some difficulties,…

  18. 45 CFR 73.735-903 - Action if conflicts of interest or possible conflicts are noted.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Action if conflicts of interest or possible conflicts are noted. 73.735-903 Section 73.735-903 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... the problem), and other factors which the reviewing official deems relevant. In no case,...

  19. In the Face of Conflict: Work-Life Conflict and Desired Work Hour Adjustments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Jeremy

    2005-01-01

    This study helps integrate the work-life and work hours literatures by examining competing predictions about the relationship between work-life conflict and the desire for paid work. Using data from the 1997 National Study of the Changing Workforce (N = 2,178), I find that work-life conflict makes women want to decrease the number of hours they…

  20. Conflict Management in Natural Resources - A study of Land, Water and Forest Conflicts in Nepal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Upreti, B.R.

    2001-01-01

    This book is based on the research into natural resource (NR)-conflict carried out between 1997 and 2000 in the Dolakha district of central Nepal, and in several reference sites around the country. The study focussed especially on land, water and forest/pasture conflicts and their resolution/managem

  1. Cohesion from Conflict: Does Intergroup Conflict Motivate Intragroup Norm Enforcement and Support for Centralized Leadership?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benard, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Classic work suggests that intergroup conflict increases intragroup cohesion and cooperation. But how do group members respond when their peers refuse to cooperate? Simmel ([1908] 1955) argued that groups in conflict quell dissent by sanctioning group members and supporting centralized leadership systems. This claim has important implications, but…

  2. Global climate change and international security.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karas, Thomas H.

    2003-11-01

    This report originates in a workshop held at Sandia National Laboratories, bringing together a variety of external experts with Sandia personnel to discuss 'The Implications of Global Climate Change for International Security.' Whatever the future of the current global warming trend, paleoclimatic history shows that climate change happens, sometimes abruptly. These changes can severely impact human water supplies, agriculture, migration patterns, infrastructure, financial flows, disease prevalence, and economic activity. Those impacts, in turn, can lead to national or international security problems stemming from aggravation of internal conflicts, increased poverty and inequality, exacerbation of existing international conflicts, diversion of national and international resources from international security programs (military or non-military), contribution to global economic decline or collapse, or international realignments based on climate change mitigation policies. After reviewing these potential problems, the report concludes with a brief listing of some research, technology, and policy measures that might mitigate them.

  3. The politics of global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The probable warming of the world over the next few decades due to human activity presents a unique threat. The threat of global warming has been brought about by the activities of the entire human race, and only action by a large part of the human race can slow down the process or halt it. Other unwanted effects of industrial activity are trans-national, and require international agreements to regulate them, most obviously radioactivity from nuclear power accidents, acid rain and river pollution; but climatic change, unlike these, is global. International negotiations are going on now to deal with the problem of global warming, mostly by reducing the emission of gases that contribute to it. These are preliminary, yet already different perceptions and conflicting interests are emerging. The aim of the present negotiations is a convention for the UN Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) to be held in June 1992, the so-called ''Earth Summit''. (author)

  4. Measuring Conflict Functions in Generalized Power Space

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Lifang; GUAN Xin; DENG Yong; HAN Deqiang; HE You

    2011-01-01

    One of the most important open issues is that the classical conflict coefficient in D-S evidence theory (DST) cannot correctly determine the conflict degree between two pieces of evidence.This drawback greatly limits the use of DST in real application systems.Early researches mainly focused on the improvement of Dempster's rule of combination (DRC).However, the current research shows it is very important to define new conflict coefficients to determine the conflict degree between two or more pieces of evidence.The evidential sources of information are considered in this work and the definition of a conflict measure function (CMF) is proposed for selecting some useful CMFs in the next fusion work when sources are available at each instant.Firstly, the definition and theorems of CMF are put forward.Secondly, some typical CMFs are extended and then new CMFs are put forward.Finally, experiments illustrate that the CMF based on Jousselme and its similar ones are the best suited ones.

  5. Conflict management styles in the health professions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sportsman, Susan; Hamilton, Patti

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine prevalent conflict management styles chosen by students in nursing and to contrast these styles with those chosen by students in allied health professions. The associations among the level of professional health care education and the style chosen were also determined. A convenience sample of 126 students in a comprehensive university completed the Thomas-Kilmann Conflict Mode Instrument (TKI), which requires respondents to choose behaviors most characteristic of their response to conflict and classifies these behaviors as one of five styles. There was no significant difference between the prevalent conflict management styles chosen by graduate and undergraduate nursing students and those in allied health. Some of the students were already licensed in their discipline; others had not yet taken a licensing exam. Licensure and educational level were not associated with choice of styles. Women and men had similar preferences. The prevalent style for nursing students was compromise, followed by avoidance. In contrast, avoidance, followed by compromise and accommodation, was the prevalent style for allied health students. When compared to the TKI norms, slightly more than one half of all participants chose two or more conflict management styles, commonly avoidance and accommodation at the 75th percentile or above. Only 9.8% of the participants chose collaboration at that level. Implications for nurse educators, researchers, and administrators are discussed. PMID:17540319

  6. The Mediterranean as a Zone of Conflicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Balta

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available Understanding that the Mediterranean is a region whose most well-known specificity is the existence of conflicts, Paul Balta’s article revises the principal antagonisms and their respective causes, distinguishing between the conflicts that have their origin in the distant past and those which are characteristic of the second half of the twentieth century. On one side are the inherited conflicts from the past and their links to the three monotheistic denominations which weigh in the imagination of the peoples. The inheritances that mark Mediterranean societies recall the denominational fractures among Christianity, Judaism and Islam, as well as the schisms between the Catholic and Eastern Orthodox camps and the Sunnis and the Shiites. Highlighting these types of clashes are the Arab-Israeli dispute, the conflicts in ex-Yugoslavia, and ethnic-religious antagonisms like the existing one between Greece and Turkey. On the other hand, among the open and potential conflicts characteristic of the second half of the twentieth century the author mentions those inherited from the colonization era (fundamentally territorial in nature, those belonging to community (for example, Lebanonand minority issues (Kosovo, Basques, Corsicans, Kurds and Berbers, and those stemming from the appropriation of Islam for political ends and the lack of respect for Human Rights and religious beliefs, economic disparities, demographic and emigration concerns, the turf struggle over control of natural resources such as petroleum, gas and fresh water, and the effects of the rivalry between Europe and the United States in the Mediterranean region.

  7. Community conflict in the nuclear power issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the first of a two part discussion the purpose of which is to demonstrate that a frankly structural, or network, approach to the analysis of community decision-making allows an observer to anticipate and manage community response to specific policies. Here I am concerned with anticipating community response. In part two (Burt, 1978), I am concerned with conflict resolution strategies. The specific policy used as illustration is siting nuclear power facilities. Published accounts of siting nuclear facilities are used to identify basic social parameters of the nuclear power issue as a community conflict. Changes in the form and content of relations in the network among opponents and proponents of a facility are described. Subsequently, the description is used to specify a causal model of the manner in which conflict escalation is promoted or inhibited by the characteristics and leadership structure of a community in which a nuclear facility is proposed. Hypotheses are derived predicting what types of communities can be expected to become embroiled in conflict and the process that conflict escalation will follow

  8. Community conflict in the nuclear power issue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burt, R.S.

    1978-05-01

    This is the first of a two part discussion the purpose of which is to demonstrate that a frankly structural, or network, approach to the analysis of community decision-making allows an observer to anticipate and manage community response to specific policies. Here I am concerned with anticipating community response. In part two (Burt, 1978), I am concerned with conflict resolution strategies. The specific policy used as illustration is siting nuclear power facilities. Published accounts of siting nuclear facilities are used to identify basic social parameters of the nuclear power issue as a community conflict. Changes in the form and content of relations in the network among opponents and proponents of a facility are described. Subsequently, the description is used to specify a causal model of the manner in which conflict escalation is promoted or inhibited by the characteristics and leadership structure of a community in which a nuclear facility is proposed. Hypotheses are derived predicting what types of communities can be expected to become embroiled in conflict and the process that conflict escalation will follow.

  9. Conflict Resolution Automation and Pilot Situation Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dao, Arik-Quang V.; Brandt, Summer L.; Bacon, Paige; Kraut, Josh; Nguyen, Jimmy; Minakata, Katsumi; Raza, Hamzah; Rozovski, David; Johnson, Walter W.

    2010-01-01

    This study compared pilot situation awareness across three traffic management concepts. The Concepts varied in terms of the allocation of traffic avoidance responsibility between the pilot on the flight deck, the air traffic controllers, and a conflict resolution automation system. In Concept 1, the flight deck was equipped with conflict resolution tools that enable them to fully handle the responsibility of weather avoidance and maintaining separation between ownship and surrounding traffic. In Concept 2, pilots were not responsible for traffic separation, but were provided tools for weather and traffic avoidance. In Concept 3, flight deck tools allowed pilots to deviate for weather, but conflict detection tools were disabled. In this concept pilots were dependent on ground based automation for conflict detection and resolution. Situation awareness of the pilots was measured using online probes. Results showed that individual situation awareness was highest in Concept 1, where the pilots were most engaged, and lowest in Concept 3, where automation was heavily used. These findings suggest that for conflict resolution tasks, situation awareness is improved when pilots remain in the decision-making loop.

  10. Conflict in Yemen: From Ethnic Fighting to Food Riots

    CERN Document Server

    Gros, Andreas; Bar-Yam, Yaneer

    2012-01-01

    Yemen is considered a global terrorist base for Al-Qaeda and in recent years rampant violence is threatening social order. Here we show that the socio-economic origins of violence recently changed. Prior to 2008, violence can be attributed to inter-group conflict between ethnically and religiously distinct groups. Starting in 2008, increasing global food prices triggered a new wave of violence that spread to the endemically poor southern region with demands for government change and economic concessions. This violence shares its origins with many other food riots and the more recent Arab Spring. The loss of social order and the opportunities for terror organizations can be best addressed by directly eliminating the causes of violence. Inter-group violence can be addressed by delineating within-country provinces for local autonomy of ethnic and religious groups. The impact of food prices can be alleviated by direct food price interventions, or by addressing the root causes of global food price increases in US ...

  11. Mining and social conflict in the province of Buenos Aires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustina Girado

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The effects of extractive mining-exporter model, developed in Argentina in the light of neoliberal policies in the 1990s, is resisted by different local communities, who question both hegemonic narratives neo-development speech, as the existing governmental and business representations regarding the use and exploitation of the territory and environment. From a socio-anthropological perspective this article reflects on the social conflict generated in two middle-sized cities of the province of Buenos Aires (Tandil and Olavarría in relation to the canteril exploitation of Tandilia´s mountain system. At the same time, it allows the debate about the differential place of the environment, specifically the mountains, which occupies in different city projects and, for the other one, on specific linkages and relations among global processes, the positioning of national governments and local resistance.

  12. Living with climate change: avoiding conflict through adaptation in Malawi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørstad, H.; Webersik, C.

    2015-11-01

    In recent years, research on climate change and human security has received much attention among policy makers and academia alike. Communities in the Global South that rely on an intact resource base will especially be affected by predicted changes in temperature and precipitation. The objective of this article is to better understand under what conditions local communities can adapt to anticipated impacts of climate change and avoid conflict over the loss of resources. The empirical part of the paper answers the question to what extent local communities in the Chilwa Basin in Malawi have experienced climate change and how they are affected by it. Further, it assesses one of Malawi's adaptation projects designed to build resilience to a warmer and more variable climate, and points to some of its limitations. This research shows that not all adaptation strategies are suited to cope with a warmer and more variable climate.

  13. Restoration of ecosystem services and biodiversity: conflicts and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullock, James M; Aronson, James; Newton, Adrian C; Pywell, Richard F; Rey-Benayas, Jose M

    2011-10-01

    Ecological restoration is becoming regarded as a major strategy for increasing the provision of ecosystem services as well as reversing biodiversity losses. Here, we show that restoration projects can be effective in enhancing both, but that conflicts can arise, especially if single services are targeted in isolation. Furthermore, recovery of biodiversity and services can be slow and incomplete. Despite this uncertainty, new methods of ecosystem service valuation are suggesting that the economic benefits of restoration can outweigh costs. Payment for Ecosystem Service schemes could therefore provide incentives for restoration, but require development to ensure biodiversity and multiple services are enhanced and the needs of different stakeholders are met. Such approaches must be implemented widely if new global restoration targets are to be achieved.

  14. ON DIDACTIC MANAGEMENT OF SOCIOCOGNITIVE CONFLICT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iuliana ZAHARIA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Development is a process that requires conflict (‘disequilibrium’. The dialogue allows to co- create new meaning through mutual understanding and reciprocal communications between two or more parties. ‘New meaning’ can threaten ‘old meaning’ that is inextricably embedded in cultural discourse. Sociocognitive conflict is one product or form of the meeting of the ‘incommensurable’ or ‘irreconcilable’ aspects of diverse cultures/ interpretations of the same values. This meeting is a transformative process but the transformation is not always satisfying or mutually enriching, at least in the short term. The meeting of multiple knowledge systems may enrich perspectives, but also can impoverish perspectives and cause a retreat from dialogue into the social and cognitive security of the familiar.This paper brings in strategies and methods for positively managing sociocognitive conflict in the classroom.

  15. Reputation and the evolution of conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElreath, Richard

    2003-02-01

    The outcomes of conflicts in many human societies generate reputation effects that influence the nature of later conflicts. Those willing to escalate over even trivial offenses are considered honorable whereas those who do not are considered dishonorable (Nisbett & Cohen, 1996). Here I extend Maynard Smith's hawk-dove model of animal conflict to explore the logic of a strategy which uses reputation about its opponents to regulate its behavior. I show that a reputation-based strategy does well when (1) the value of the resource is large relative to the cost of losing a fight, (2) communities are stable, and (3) reputations are well known but subject to some amount of error. Reputation-based strategies may thus result in greater willingness to fight, but less fighting at equilibrium, depending upon the nature of the contests and the local socioecology. Additionally, this strategy is robust in the presence of poor knowledge about reputation.

  16. Managing conflicts between users in Wikipedia

    CERN Document Server

    Jacquemin, Bernard; Poudat, Céline; Hurault-Plantet, Martine; Auray, Nicolas

    2008-01-01

    Wikipedia is nowadays a widely used encyclopedia, and one of the most visible sites on the Internet. Its strong principle of collaborative work and free editing sometimes generates disputes due to disagreements between users. In this article we study how the wikipedian community resolves the conflicts and which roles do wikipedian choose in this process. We observed the users behavior both in the article talk pages, and in the Arbitration Committee pages specifically dedicated to serious disputes. We first set up a users typology according to their involvement in conflicts and their publishing and management activity in the encyclopedia. We then used those user types to describe users behavior in contributing to articles that are tagged by the wikipedian community as being in conflict with the official guidelines of Wikipedia, or conversely as being well featured.

  17. Sources of marital conflict in five cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, Lisa M; Nowak, Nicole; Weisfeld, Glenn E; Weisfeld, Carol C; Shattuck, Kraig S; Imamoğlu, Olcay E; Butovskaya, Marina; Shen, Jiliang

    2015-01-05

    This analysis of previously collected data examined four fitness-relevant issues for their possible role in marital conflict. These were sex, finances, division of labor, and raising children, selected in light of their pertinence to sex differences in reproductive strategies. Over 2,000 couples in five diverse cultures were studied. Marital conflict was assessed by the Problems with Partner scale, which was previously shown to demonstrate measurement invariance across cultures and genders. All four issues were significantly related to perceived marital problems in almost all cases. Thus, conflict tended to arise around issues relevant to reproductive strategies. A few cultural idiosyncrasies emerged and are discussed. In all cultures, wives reported more problems than husbands. Another important issue was kindness. The results suggest that a key factor in marital success or failure may be kindness necessary to sustain this prolonged and intimate relationship of cooperation for raising one's offspring.

  18. Social inequalities and environmental conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David N. Pellow

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is organized around two points. The first concerns the literature on environmental justice (EJ studies and its lack of incorporation of social scientific theories and concepts concerning racism. This is surprising, given EJ studies' strong interest in challenging a form of racism - environmental racism. This, in turn, allows for a critique of theories of racism for their lack of attention to the ways in which society-environment relations structure racist practices and discourses, and a critique of scholars who have understated the continuing impact of racism on communities of color. The second point concerns the degree to which modernization has led to an improvement in the environmental impacts associated with market economies and their production systems. Drawing on ecological modernization, risk society, and the treadmill of production theories, I argue that, as with popular and scholarly views on racism, many scholars have overstated the level of progress society has made on this front. I also argue that this is largely because - via practices such as environmental racism and globalization - many of the worst dimensions of the market economy's externalities are out of sight and out of mind (due largely to spatial and residential segregation and international hazardous waste exports, making it possible to either ignore or dismiss claims to the contrary.

  19. Crónica de un conflicto anunciado: Tres centrales termoeléctricas a carbón en un hotspot de biodiversidad de importancia mundial Chronicle of a foretold conflict: Three coal-fired power plants in a biodiversity hotspot of global significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. FRANCISCO CÁRCAMO

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available El aumento de la demanda energética chilena en los últimos años ha promovido la creación de una gran cantidad de proyectos de generación eléctrica. La posible instalación de tres centrales termoeléctricas a carbón al norte de la Región de Coquimbo y en las inmediaciones de áreas definidas como claves para la conservación y manejo de la biodiversidad marina (e.g., reservas marinas, áreas de manejo y explotación de recursos bentónicos y terrestre (e.g., reserva nacional, sitios prioritarios, ha generado conflictos sociales y controversias sobre su ubicación y compatibilidad con los usos propuestos para el área. El presente comentario plantea el conflicto que se origina entre la necesidad de cubrir los requerimientos energéticos de Chile y la implementación de iniciativas de conservación y manejo de recursos naturales. Se describe la importancia y relevancia ecológica y económica del área de posible instalación de las termoeléctricas y se revisan los principales impactos reportados para este tipo de tecnología sobre la salud humana y ecosistémica. Finalmente, se proponen enfoques y herramientas que pueden asistir en la toma de decisiones y en la resolución de conflictos.In recent years, Chilean increasing energy needs have promoted the creation of many initiatives to generate electricity. The possible installation of three coal-fired power plants in the coastal area north of the Region of Coquimbo and close to areas identified as key to the conservation and management of marine (e.g., marine reserves, management and exploitation areas for benthic resources and terrestrial (e.g., national reserve, priority sites biodiversity, has generated social conflicts and raised concerns about the location and compatibility with others proposed uses for the area. This commentary proposes the conflict that arises between the need to cope with Chile's energy needs and the implementation of conservation and management of natural

  20. Tactical Conflict Detection in Terminal Airspace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Huabin; Robinson, John E.; Denery, Dallas G.

    2010-01-01

    Air traffic systems have long relied on automated short-term conflict prediction algorithms to warn controllers of impending conflicts (losses of separation). The complexity of terminal airspace has proven difficult for such systems as it often leads to excessive false alerts. Thus, the legacy system, called Conflict Alert, which provides short-term alerts in both en-route and terminal airspace currently, is often inhibited or degraded in areas where frequent false alerts occur, even though the alerts are provided only when an aircraft is in dangerous proximity of other aircraft. This research investigates how a minimal level of flight intent information may be used to improve short-term conflict detection in terminal airspace such that it can be used by the controller to maintain legal aircraft separation. The flight intent information includes a site-specific nominal arrival route and inferred altitude clearances in addition to the flight plan that includes the RNAV (Area Navigation) departure route. A new tactical conflict detection algorithm is proposed, which uses a single analytic trajectory, determined by the flight intent and the current state information of the aircraft, and includes a complex set of current, dynamic separation standards for terminal airspace to define losses of separation. The new algorithm is compared with an algorithm that imitates a known en-route algorithm and another that imitates Conflict Alert by analysis of false-alert rate and alert lead time with recent real-world data of arrival and departure operations and a large set of operational error cases from Dallas/Fort Worth TRACON (Terminal Radar Approach Control). The new algorithm yielded a false-alert rate of two per hour and an average alert lead time of 38 seconds.

  1. Friendship and gender in preschoolers’ conflicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania M. Sperb

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Investigated the role of friendship and gender on conflict episodes of 48 preschoolers aged approximately 5 years and 8 months. Children were organized in dyads of same-sex friends and non-friends. Conflict situations were coded according to incidence, type, termination strategies, and finalizations. Gender differences were detected for type of conflict, with girls using more reasons for oppositions than boys. Termination strategies were used with a joint effect of friendship and gender: girl-friends preferred the tactic of standing firm whereas boy-friends chose more negotiation as means to deal with a disagreement, compared to the non-friend dyads. As for the results on conflict finalizations, friendship relations accounted for a significant difference found for agreement, while gender showed to be related to the use of disengagement among girls. Combined analysis between termination strategies and conflict finalizations indicated two significant differences: the first was related to friendship, through which children used more negotiation leading to agreement; the second showed a joint effect of friendship and gender, where non-friend girls tended to negotiate to reach disengagement, more often that non-friend boys. Findings for termination strategies – with girl-friends being more incisive and firm with their partners – diverge from the results provided by empirical literature, where boys are described as more autonomy- and domain oriented, and girls are prone to intimacy and social well-being in their relationships. Results are discussed with basis on previous studies conducted on conflict among preschoolers with considerations about the effects of gender and type of relationship.

  2. Global Sourcing

    OpenAIRE

    Stančíková, Katarína

    2013-01-01

    The subject of this bachelor thesis is to examine the Global Sourcing purchasing strategy as an instrument of reducing the acquisition costs of the company. Globalization has brought increased competition and pressure on reduction of purchase prices in all sectors of the world economy. The use of international trade market is currently an integral part of almost every business strategy. The concept of Global Sourcing consists not only in the use of international markets and the acquisition of...

  3. Multistakeholder Initiatives in Corporate Social Responsibility: The OECD Guidance and Conflict Minerals

    OpenAIRE

    Johns, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, war has raged in the Democratic Republic of Congo between various military bodies, bringing death and devastation to millions of innocent civilians. The conflict has been fuelled by the country‟s abundant mineral wealth, with factions exploiting state weakness and taking control of a large proportion of the mining sector. One of the largest purchasers of the Congo‟s minerals is the global electronics industry. NGOs and civil society have subsequently accused electronics compa...

  4. Risk Analysis of Sino-American Military Conflict: The Trends in China-US Military Relationship

    OpenAIRE

    Šetina, Martin

    2014-01-01

    The ascent of China to a global power status has created a new wave of theoretical discourse on what this means for the future of international relations. The general consensus on a unipolar order of international relations is slowly giving way to discourse. The time of polarity shift in the system is associated with a likely conflict between the descending hegemon and the ascending power (Snyder 2002; Mearsheimer 2010). This theoretical background suggest that in the future, we might witness...

  5. Comparison of the nutritional-toxicological conflict related to seafood consumption in different regions worldwide

    OpenAIRE

    Sioen, I.; De Henauw, S.; Camp, J.; Volatier, J.-L.; Leblanc, J.-C.

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses the seafood consumption worldwide as well as the related nutritional–toxicological conflict. An exposure assessment was performed using seafood consumption data from the Global Environment Monitoring System and nutrient and contaminant concentration data. The data indicated that the region of Japan, Korea, Madagascar and Philippines have the highest seafood consumption, followed by the Nordic–Baltic countries and South-East Asia. In Japan, Korea, Madagascar, Philippines...

  6. South African private security contractors active in armed conflicts: citizenship, prosecution and the right to work

    OpenAIRE

    Maritz, M.; Bosch, S.

    2011-01-01

    South Africa has adopted two pieces of legislation since 1998 aimed at restricting one of the fastest growing sectors of the global economy: the private security industry. Not only is this legislation completely unique, but it appears wholly at odds with international opinion. In this article we place private security contractors (PSCs) under the microscope of international law, exploring the role they play in armed conflicts, and the status afforded them by international humanitarian law (IH...

  7. TIPNIS ¿Environmental or territorial conflict?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica Barroso Mendizábal

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The 8th Indigenous People March in Bolivia started in August 2011 to the defense and recognition of the rights of indigenous peoples and their territories, also as a response to government plans to build a transoceanic highway through the Isiboro Secure Indigenous Territory and National Park (known by its Spanish acronym TIPNIS. Despite it has been more than two decades since these nations have been claiming and demanding that laws are enforced, the fight over the land is still the main issue. This paper proposes to think the conflict around TIPNIS mainly on the basis of a land problem and secondary as an environmental conflict.

  8. Proportional Conflict Redistribution Rules for Information Fusion

    OpenAIRE

    Smarandache, Florentin; Dezert, Jean

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we propose five versions of a Proportional Conflict Redistribution rule (PCR) for information fusion together with several examples. From PCR1 to PCR2, PCR3, PCR4, PCR5 one increases the complexity of the rules and also the exactitude of the redistribution of conflicting masses. PCR1 restricted from the hyper-power set to the power set and without degenerate cases gives the same result as the Weighted Average Operator (WAO) proposed recently by J{\\o}sang, Daniel and Vannoorenber...

  9. 'Great power' intervention in African armed conflicts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Gorm Rye

    2015-01-01

    to contribute to understanding the changing geopolitical environment and the current conditions for conflict management in Africa. The focus is not on trade and aid. The paper launches the hypothesis that the explanations why the US, China and the EU have intervened are basically identical. In spite......This paper asks why the United States (US), China and the European Union (EU) have intervened in a number of armed conflicts in Africa in the twenty-first century. Scrutiny and comparison of the motivations and interests of the three non-African actors in intervening in African crises are assumed...

  10. How social impact assessment can contribute to conflict management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potential for conflict is omnipresent in all projects, and even in all human interactions, and conflict itself leads to many second-order social impacts. This article examines the contribution of the methodological approach used in social impact assessment (SIA) to conflict management. We view conflict as a process that has its own dynamic, and is to be expected in all situations. By using game theory (prisoner's dilemma), we describe and conceptualize this process and highlight the importance of communication in managing conflict. We demonstrate the potential use of SIA in preventing, managing and resolving conflict. Emphasis is placed on the participatory character of SIA and the role of public media. In contrast to existing literature, our focus is not restricted to the typical fields of study of SIA (e.g. environmental conflicts), but understands conflict itself as a field of application. In this sense, conflict-sensitive SIA can be understood both as an extension to the SIA tool kit and a broadening of the scope of SIA application. -- Highlights: • Conflict is omnipresent and creates both positive and negative social impacts. • Conflict itself represents a possible field of application for SIA. • Conflict escalation is a process that can be modeled in a game-theoretic framework. • There needs to be concerted effort to prevent escalation to avoid harmful outcomes. • Conflict-sensitive SIA can support conflict management and sustainable resolution

  11. How social impact assessment can contribute to conflict management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prenzel, Paula V., E-mail: p.v.prenzel@student.rug.nl; Vanclay, Frank, E-mail: frank.vanclay@rug.nl

    2014-02-15

    The potential for conflict is omnipresent in all projects, and even in all human interactions, and conflict itself leads to many second-order social impacts. This article examines the contribution of the methodological approach used in social impact assessment (SIA) to conflict management. We view conflict as a process that has its own dynamic, and is to be expected in all situations. By using game theory (prisoner's dilemma), we describe and conceptualize this process and highlight the importance of communication in managing conflict. We demonstrate the potential use of SIA in preventing, managing and resolving conflict. Emphasis is placed on the participatory character of SIA and the role of public media. In contrast to existing literature, our focus is not restricted to the typical fields of study of SIA (e.g. environmental conflicts), but understands conflict itself as a field of application. In this sense, conflict-sensitive SIA can be understood both as an extension to the SIA tool kit and a broadening of the scope of SIA application. -- Highlights: • Conflict is omnipresent and creates both positive and negative social impacts. • Conflict itself represents a possible field of application for SIA. • Conflict escalation is a process that can be modeled in a game-theoretic framework. • There needs to be concerted effort to prevent escalation to avoid harmful outcomes. • Conflict-sensitive SIA can support conflict management and sustainable resolution.

  12. Infertility and Subjective Well-Being: The Mediating Roles of Self-Esteem, Internal Control, and Interpersonal Conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbey, Antonia; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Examined relationship between self-esteem, perceived control, interpersonal conflict between spouses, global and intimacy life quality, and stress produced by infertility in 185 married infertile couples. Found that fertility problem stress had indirect negative effects on life quality via its mediating effects on self-esteem, internal control,…

  13. 78 FR 26099 - Notice Seeking Exemption Under the Small Business Investment Act, Conflicts of Interest; VPC SBIC...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-03

    ... debt financing to Global Employment Holdings, Inc., 10375 Park Meadows Drive, Suite 475, Littleton, CO... amended (``the Act''), in connection with the financing of a small concern, has sought an exemption under Section 312 of the Act and Section 107.730, Financings which Constitute Conflicts of Interest of the...

  14. Injuries and surgical needs of children in conflict and disaster: From Boston to Haiti and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trudeau, Maeve O; Rothstein, David H

    2016-02-01

    Comprehensive care of patients in conflict and disaster requires coordination of medical, social, and public health agencies. Pediatric patients in these settings comprise a particularly vulnerable group subject to disruption of social networks and separation from family, inadequate surgical care due to lack of surgeon, anesthetist, and nursing specialization, and a general lack of advocacy within the global public health agenda. In the recent upswell of attention to the global surgical burden of disease and deficiencies in necessary infrastructure, the needs of pediatric surgical patients remain underappreciated and underemphasized amid calls for improvement in global surgical health. Experience in recent natural and man-made disasters has demonstrated that pediatric patients makeup a significant proportion of those injured, and has perhaps refocused our need to better characterize the surgical needs of children in conflict and disaster. In addition to treat such patients, we recognize the unmet challenges of improving pediatric emergency and surgical infrastructures in the low- and middle-income country settings where conflict and disaster occur most often, and continuing to advocate for vulnerable children worldwide and keep them out of harm's way.

  15. Injuries and surgical needs of children in conflict and disaster: From Boston to Haiti and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trudeau, Maeve O; Rothstein, David H

    2016-02-01

    Comprehensive care of patients in conflict and disaster requires coordination of medical, social, and public health agencies. Pediatric patients in these settings comprise a particularly vulnerable group subject to disruption of social networks and separation from family, inadequate surgical care due to lack of surgeon, anesthetist, and nursing specialization, and a general lack of advocacy within the global public health agenda. In the recent upswell of attention to the global surgical burden of disease and deficiencies in necessary infrastructure, the needs of pediatric surgical patients remain underappreciated and underemphasized amid calls for improvement in global surgical health. Experience in recent natural and man-made disasters has demonstrated that pediatric patients makeup a significant proportion of those injured, and has perhaps refocused our need to better characterize the surgical needs of children in conflict and disaster. In addition to treat such patients, we recognize the unmet challenges of improving pediatric emergency and surgical infrastructures in the low- and middle-income country settings where conflict and disaster occur most often, and continuing to advocate for vulnerable children worldwide and keep them out of harm's way. PMID:26831135

  16. Unconsciously triggered emotional conflict by emotional facial expressions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Jiang

    Full Text Available The present study investigated whether emotional conflict and emotional conflict adaptation could be triggered by unconscious emotional information as assessed in a backward-masked affective priming task. Participants were instructed to identify the valence of a face (e.g., happy or sad preceded by a masked happy or sad face. The results of two experiments revealed the emotional conflict effect but no emotional conflict adaptation effect. This demonstrates that emotional conflict can be triggered by unconsciously presented emotional information, but participants may not adjust their subsequent performance trial-by trial to reduce this conflict.

  17. Conflict and Conflict Mangement in the Cross-border Provision of Healthcare Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinsen, Dorte Sindbjerg

    2009-01-01

    Welfare regulation in the European Union continues to crawl forward despite salient conflicts of interests. This article addresses the fundamental puzzle of how regulatory competences may expand into the core of the welfare state and how conflicts are, eventually, managed in such processes....... It analyses the EU cross-border provision of healthcare services and argues that the interplay between the Commission and the Court constitutes a powerful dynamic in generating new regulatory activities and in finding ways to set conflicts aside. The Commission draws on formulations offered by the Court...

  18. Global Uddannelse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Niels Rosendal

    Antologien handler om "demokratiproblemer i den globale sammenhæng" (del I) og "demokratiproblemer i uddannelse og for de offentligt ansatte" (del II), bundet sammen af et mellemstykke, der rækker ud mod begge poler både det globale og det lokale ved at knytte det til forholdet mellem marked...

  19. Born globals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henning Otte

    2013-01-01

    Internationalisering er ofte en gradvis proces, men nogle typer af nyetablerede små og mellemstore virksomheder formår at blive globale på kort tid......Internationalisering er ofte en gradvis proces, men nogle typer af nyetablerede små og mellemstore virksomheder formår at blive globale på kort tid...

  20. Global fordeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busck, Ole Gunni

    2015-01-01

    Øgede globale økologiske distributionskonflikter i kraft af neoliberal globalisering drevet af kravet om økonomisk vækst......Øgede globale økologiske distributionskonflikter i kraft af neoliberal globalisering drevet af kravet om økonomisk vækst...

  1. Gendering Globalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siim, Birte

    2009-01-01

    The current global financial situation bluntly and brutally brings home the fact that the global and local are closely connected in times of opportunity as well as crises. The articles in this issue of Asia Insights are about ontra-action between Asia, particularly China, and the Nordic countries...

  2. Global warming-setting the stages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most of us have heard or read about global warming. However, the messages we receive are often in conflict, raising more questions than answer. Is global warming a good or a bad thing? has it already started or is it part of our future? Are we, or are we not doing anything about it? Should we be concerned? This primer on Global Warming is designed to clear up some of this confusion by providing basic scientific information on global warming issue. It is clear that there is still much to learn about global warming. However, it is also clear that there is a lot that we already know - and that dose provide cause for concern. We must understand the global warming issue if we are to make wise decisions and take responsible actions in response to the challenges and opportunities posed by global warming. Chapter 1 of 'the primer on global Warming' set the stage with a brief overview of science of global warming within the context of climate change. In addition, it introduces the specific issues that surround the global warming problem. As far as the science of global warming is concerned the following questions are discussed. What is global climate? Is climate change natural? What causes climate to vary on a global scale? How does the composition of the atmosphere relate to climate change. but there are also certain issues discussed here which surround the global warming such as: If climate varies naturally, why is there a concern about 'global warming'? What are the potential consequences of 'global warning'. What human activities contribute to 'global warming'. (Author)

  3. Global NATO or global partnerships?

    OpenAIRE

    Koschut, Simon

    2007-01-01

    "NATO needs to define its global purpose if it wishes to address global threats. What is the prospect of NATO going global and how will it affect NATO's future course? In the run-up to the NATO Summit in Riga in November 2006, a debate on both sides of the Atlantic has now evolved over NATO's global engagement that touches on the very foundations of NATO's original purpose and definition. Critically, the debate is no longer about wether NATO should go 'out of area or out of business' but whet...

  4. Global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canada's Green Plan strategy for dealing with global warming is being implemented as a multidepartmental partnership involving all Canadians and the international community. Many of the elements of this strategy are built on an existing base of activities predating the Green Plan. Elements of the strategy include programs to limit emissions of greenhouse gases, such as initiatives to encourage more energy-efficient practices and development of alternate fuel sources; studies and policy developments to help Canadians prepare and adapt to climate change; research on the global warming phenomenon; and stimulation of international action on global warming, including obligations arising out of the Framework Convention on Climate Change. All the program elements have been approved, funded, and announced. Major achievements to date are summarized, including improvements in the Energy Efficiency Act, studies on the socioeconomic impacts of global warming, and participation in monitoring networks. Milestones associated with the remaining global warming initiatives are listed

  5. Global Mindsets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuada, John Ernest

    Global Mindsets: Exploration and Perspectives seeks to tackle a topic that is relatively new in research and practice, and is considered by many to be critical for firms seeking to conduct global business. It argues that multiple mindsets exist (across and within organizations), that they operate...... in a global context, and that they are dynamic and undergo change and action. Part of the mindset(s) may depend upon place, situation and context where individuals and organizations operate. The book will examine the notion of "mindset" is situational and dynamic, especially in a global setting, why...... it is important for future scholars and managers and how it could be conceptualized. Global Mindsets: Exploration and Perspectives is split into two major sections; the first examines where the literature currently is with respect to the knowledge in the field and what conceptual frameworks guide the thinking...

  6. Neighborhood conflicts: the role of social categorization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ufkes, E.G.; Otten, S.; Zee, van der K. I.; Giebels, E.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose – In a multicultural context, this study aims to investigate the effect of ingroup versus outgroup categorization and stereotypes on residents' emotional and behavioral reactions in neighbor-to-neighbor conflicts. Based on the literature on the “black sheep effect”, the authors predicted tha

  7. Conflict in writing: Actions and objects.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galbraith, David; Baaijen, Veerle Marije; Cislaru, Georgeta

    2015-01-01

    This chapter argues that writing involves an interaction between conflicting cognitive systems, one designed for the construction of mental objects and the other for the taking of actions. It characterises the construction of mental objects as a problem-solving process involving the retrieval of con

  8. Content, Conflict, Control: Semantics and Subversion

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, John

    2011-01-01

    Lee, J. 2011. Content, Conflict, Control: Semantics and Subversion. In Trausan-Matu, S. (ed). First International K-Teams Workshop on Semantics and Collaborative Technologies for the Web. Politehnica University of Bucharest, June 2011, pp.5-11. ISBN 978-606-515-268-7.

  9. Conflict, Power, and Violence in Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Kristin L.

    2010-01-01

    Research on conflict, power, and violence in families in the 2000s developed a promising focus on the interconnections between types of violence and between the experience of violence and locations in larger structures of power and inequality. I examine research on poly-victimization, typologies of violence, dyadic research, and links between…

  10. Identity and identity conflict in the workplace

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.E. Horton (Kate); P.S. Bayerl (Saskia); G. Belschak-Jacobs (Gabriele)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractAs individuals, we define ourselves according to various characteristics that include our values and beliefs. This gives us our identity. As organisations become increasingly complex, understanding the concept of identity conflict may mean the difference between success and failure.

  11. Cultivating conflict and pluralism through dialogical deconstruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heymann, F.; Wals, A.

    2002-01-01

    The dialectic between divergence of interests, values and worldviews and the need for shared resolutions of natural resource management issues is explored. The conflicts that emerge when trying to resolve natural resource management issues, are prerequisites, rather than barriers, to reaching soluti

  12. Second-Stage Sampling for Conflict Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Himelein, Kristen; Eckman, Stephanie; Murray, Siobhan; Bauer, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    The collection of survey data from war zones or other unstable security situations is vulnerable to error because conflict often limits the implementation options. Although there are elevated risks throughout the process, this paper focuses specifically on challenges to frame construction and sample selection. The paper uses simulations based on data from the Mogadishu High Frequency Surve...

  13. 78 FR 49267 - Conflict of Interest Waiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION Conflict of Interest Waiver AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Notice of waiver of section 4(b) of the Communications Act of 1934. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that the...

  14. Best Practice Rules about Conflict of Interest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王昊

    2011-01-01

    @@ 1.Study and describe the Best Practice Rules of the Dutch Corporate Governance Code concerning conflict of Interest Best Practice Rules coIne from the UK corporate governance,which could prevent the worst cases of abuse of rights in company law.

  15. Forces and Particles: Concepts Again in Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, George

    1973-01-01

    Traces the historical developments in physics leading to the present conflict of fundamental beliefs about the nature of the physical world. It has been recently proposed that the concept of fundamental particles (corpuscularianism) be replaced with a full-blown field dynamical theory. (JR)

  16. [Conflicts and vector-borne diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bygbjerg, Ib Christian

    2010-01-01

    Based on literature and personal experiences, vector-borne diseases and conflicts are reviewed. Simple rapid diagnostic tests for three important parasitoses are available. Resort is often made to case definitions and to presumptive treatment. Resistance is an emerging problem. Vaccines are still...

  17. Identifying latent conflict in collective bargaining

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achterkamp, M; Akkerman, A

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to find indicators of the substantive incentives for industrial conflict. We argue that collective decision-making models can be helpful in developing such a measurement tool. These indicators will enable scholars in industrial relations to distinguish the substantive

  18. 76 FR 61046 - TARP Conflicts of Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-03

    ..., 2009 (``Interim Rule'') (74 FR 3431). Treasury invited the public to submit comments on the Interim... rule's provisions are available at 74 FR 3431. The interim rule defines organizational and personal... 31 CFR Part 31 RIN 1505-AC05 TARP Conflicts of Interest AGENCY: Departmental Offices,...

  19. The Kenyan Political Conflict and Children's Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kithakye, Mumbe; Morris, Amanda Sheffield; Terranova, Andrew M.; Myers, Sonya S.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined pre- and postconflict data from 84 children, ages 3-7 years, living in Kibera, Kenya, during the December 2007 political conflict. Results indicate that children's disaster experiences (home destruction, death of a parent, parent and child harm) are associated with adjustment difficulties and that emotion regulation is an…

  20. The dynamic nature of conflict in Wikipedia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandica, Y.; Sampaio dos Aidos, F.; Carvalho, J.

    2014-10-01

    The voluntary process of Wikipedia edition provides an environment in which the outcome is clearly a collective product of interactions involving a large number of people. We propose a simple agent-based model, developed from real data, to reproduce the collaborative process of Wikipedia edition. With a small number of simple ingredients, our model mimics several interesting features of real human behaviour, namely in the context of edit wars. We show that the level of conflict is determined by a tolerance parameter, which measures the editors' capability to accept different opinions and to change their own opinion. We propose to measure conflict with a parameter based on mutual reverts, which increases only in contentious situations. Using this parameter, we find a distribution for the inter-peace periods that is heavy tailed. The effects of wiki-robots in the conflict levels and in the edition patterns are also studied. Our findings are compared with previous parameters used to measure conflicts in edit wars.

  1. Advertising, Parent-child conflict and

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijzen, M.A.; Valkenburg, P.M.

    2007-01-01

    It is often assumed that advertising contributes to conflicts between parents and children. The underlying idea here is that advertising encourages children to ask for the advertised products. Because parents do not want to comply with all these product requests, they have to say no to their childre

  2. Cultural Connections: An Alternative to Conflict Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traore, Rosemary

    2008-01-01

    In today's increasingly polyglot classrooms, interpersonal and inter-group conflicts often arise out of mutual misunderstandings between different collections of students, some based on language or status differences but many more generated by emotionally charged misconceptions. As such, peer mediation and peaceful solutions to student arguments…

  3. Parent-offspring conflict in mate preferences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buunk, Abraham P.; Park, Justin H.; Dubbs, Shelli L.

    2008-01-01

    Prevailing evolutionary approaches to human mating have largely ignored the fact that mating decisions are heavily influenced by parents and other kin. This is significant because parents and children often have conflicting mate preferences. We provide a brief review of how parents have influenced t

  4. Parent Mediation Empowers Sibling Conflict Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Hildy S.; Lazinski, Marysia J.

    2014-01-01

    Research Findings: For the current study, formal mediation procedures were adapted for families and parents were trained and asked to mediate their children's disputes; control group parents intervened as they normally would. Conflict negotiations with parents and their children (ages 3½-11 years) occurring 3 and 7 weeks following training,…

  5. Solution space diagram in conflict detection scenarios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rahman, S.M.A.; Borst, C.; Mulder, M.; Van Paassen, M.M.

    2015-01-01

    This research investigates the use of Solution Space Diagram (SSD) as a measure of sector complexity and also as a predictor of performance and workload, focusing on the scenarios regarding Air Traffic Controller (ATCO)’s ability to detect future conflicts. A human-in-the-loop experiment with varyin

  6. Reducing normative conflicts in information security

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieters, Wolter; Coles-Kemp, Lizzie

    2011-01-01

    Security weaknesses often stem from users trying to comply with social expectations rather than following security procedures. Such normative conflicts between security policies and social norms are therefore undesirable from a security perspective. It has been argued that system developers have a "

  7. Gandhi: An Alternative for Conflict Resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Kathleen M.

    Designed to expose high school students to an alternative method of conflict resolution, this lesson revolves around the Indian movement for independence from Great Britain and the principles of non-violence advocated by Mahatma Gandhi which helped make that movement successful. The activities presented are designed to fit into a general world…

  8. The dynamic nature of conflict in Wikipedia

    CERN Document Server

    Gandica, Y; Carvalho, J

    2014-01-01

    The voluntary process of Wikipedia edition provides an environment where the outcome is clearly a collective product of interactions involving a large number of people. We propose a simple agent-based model, developed from real data, to reproduce the collaborative process of Wikipedia edition. With a small number of simple ingredients, our model mimics several interesting features of real human behaviour, namely in the context of edit wars. We show that the level of conflict is determined by a tolerance parameter, which measures the editors' capability to accept different opinions and to change their own opinion. We propose to measure conflict with a parameter based on mutual reverts, which increases only in contentious situations. Using this parameter, we find a distribution for the inter-peace periods that is heavy-tailed. The effects of wiki-robots in the conflict levels and in the edition patterns are also studied. Our findings are compared with previous parameters used to measure conflicts in edit wars.

  9. Transboundary water conflict resolution mechanisms: toward convergence between theory and practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayia, Ahmed; Madani, Kaveh

    2016-04-01

    Transboundary waters are expected be one of the biggest challenges for human development over the next decades. The growing global water scarcity and interdependence among water-sharing countries have created tensions over shared water resources around the world. Therefore, interest in studying transboundary water conflict resolution has grown over the last decades. This research focuses on transboundary water resources conflict resolution mechanisms. A more a specific concern is to explore the mechanisms of allocating of transboundary water resources among riparian states. The literature of transboundary water resources conflict has brought various approaches for allocating of transboundary water resources among riparian countries. Some of these approaches have focused on the negotiation process, such the Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR). Other approaches have analysed the economic dimension of transboundary water disputes, in an attempt to identify optimal economic criteria for water allocation, such as the "social planner" approach and the "water market" approach. A more comprehensive approach has been provided by game theory that has brought together the economic and political dimensions of the water dispute management. The study attempts to provide a map for the relation between theory and practice in the field of transboundary water conflict resolution. Therefore, it explores the approaches that have been used to analyse real transboundary water disputes management. Moreover, it examines the approaches that have been suggested in literature as mechanisms of transboundary water conflict resolution. Finally, it identifies the techniques that have been used in practice to solve transboundary water conflicts and attempts to evaluate the sustainability of the resulting regulatory institutional arrangements.

  10. Nanotechnologies and global survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitrović Veselin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The rapid development of science and technology from the mid-20th century, on one hand, and increasing world population as well as decreasing of natural resources on the other has raised the risk of escalating social conflicts. Regarding this facts, it is inevitable to admit that the future of mankind lies in acceptable moral and social implementation of this technologies. Having that in mind, many questions have been generated about responsible applications of nanotechnologies: about the positive and negative effects of their usage, about patterns of their socio-spatial distribution both at global and national level, about economic development of states who use those technologies, and their possible effect of individual health and biosphere preservation. Regarding those questions, it is necessary to use knowledge of nature science as well as knowledge of philosophy, sociology, etc., in order to analyze the level of development and life conditions in human communities and differentiate between “mere”, “miserable”, “idealistic“, “irresponsible“ and “acceptable“ survival. Starting from sociological context and following Potter’s concepts, this article argues for the concept of consurvivality that is durable, acceptable, sustainable, realistic and global.

  11. Transcending intractable conflict in health care: an exploratory study of communication and conflict management among anesthesia providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jameson, Jessica Katz

    2003-01-01

    This paper explores the contrast between the longstanding, intractable conflict between two anesthesia providers and the cooperation of many individual nurse anesthetists and anesthesiologists working side-by-side to provide safe, effective anesthesia. Analysis of interview transcripts reveals that communication among anesthesia nurses and anesthesiologists may enact or transcend the conflict. This article proposes recommendations for improving communication between anesthesiologists and certified registered nurse anesthetists in particular and de-escalating intractable conflict in general. It also contributes to communication theory in intractable conflict by examining how individual, interpersonal conflict management interactions lead to either transcendence or enactment of the larger group conflict.

  12. Social inequalities and environmental conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David N. Pellow

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is organized around two points. The first concerns the literature on environmental justice (EJ studies and its lack of incorporation of social scientific theories and concepts concerning racism. This is surprising, given EJ studies' strong interest in challenging a form of racism - environmental racism. This, in turn, allows for a critique of theories of racism for their lack of attention to the ways in which society-environment relations structure racist practices and discourses, and a critique of scholars who have understated the continuing impact of racism on communities of color. The second point concerns the degree to which modernization has led to an improvement in the environmental impacts associated with market economies and their production systems. Drawing on ecological modernization, risk society, and the treadmill of production theories, I argue that, as with popular and scholarly views on racism, many scholars have overstated the level of progress society has made on this front. I also argue that this is largely because - via practices such as environmental racism and globalization - many of the worst dimensions of the market economy's externalities are out of sight and out of mind (due largely to spatial and residential segregation and international hazardous waste exports, making it possible to either ignore or dismiss claims to the contrary.Este artigo está organizando em torno de duas questões. A primeira diz respeito à literatura sobre estudos a respeito da justiça ambiental e sua ausência de incorporação de teorias sociais e conceitos científicos que digam respeito ao racismo. Isso é surpreendente tendo em vista o forte interesse dos estudos sobre justiça ambiental em desafiar uma forma de racismo - o racismo ambiental. Isso, por sua vez, permite uma crítica das teorias sobre o racismo por sua falta de atenção às formas em que as relações sociedade-meio ambiente estruturam práticas e discursos

  13. Conflict, memory and positioning. Studying the dialogical and multivoiced dimension of the Basque conflict

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brescó, Ignacio

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to bring the dialogical and multivoiced dimension of conflict to the fore in the study of how people remember a particular event in the past. Drawing from different case studies, it contains analyses of how subjects identifying with different political actors in the Basque...... conflict adopted their respective positions, and interpretation of the conflict, and how, in light of same, they reconstruct the failed peace process that took place in 2006 between the terrorist group ETA (Euzkadi ta Azcatasuna, or Basque Country and Freedom in English) and the Spanish government. Results...... show that the positioning adopted by participants gives rise to a certain form of interpreting the conflict, which, in turn, affects how the peace process is remembered. This occurs within a particular argumentative context in which each version constitutes an implicit response to a competing...

  14. Conflict and Conflictmanagement in Strategic Urban Projects (Conflict en conflictmanagement bij strategische ruimtelijke projecten)

    OpenAIRE

    Coppens, Tom

    2011-01-01

    Conflict en conflict management in strategic urban projectsIntroductionLarge strategic spatial projects can meet fierce public opposition, as recently was overwhelmingly demonstrated in the case of the unfortunate Oosterweel project in Antwerp. Due to an increasing criticism of citizens and local action groups, the plan for an expensive prestigious double deck viaduct over the port of Antwerp was rejected by a public referendum. The Antwerp case showed how well organized local opposition was ...

  15. 24 CFR 401.310 - Conflicts of interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... approve in writing a PAE's proposal to eliminate a conflict of interest. (e) Conflicts of interest that... one or more personal, business, or financial interests or relationships that would cause a...

  16. Psychology and Conservation Conflicts: Classified Bibliography of Special Topics

    OpenAIRE

    Blumberg, Herbert H.

    2013-01-01

    This document is ancillary to the following chapter but can also be used independently: Blumberg, Herbert H. (In press). Psychology and conflicts. In S. Redpath & J. C. Young (Eds.), Conservation conflicts. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.

  17. The Efficacy of Conflict-Mediation Training in Elementary Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Karen

    2003-01-01

    Conflict resolution training teaches students to manage interpersonal conflict more constructively. This approach to safe schools has benefits but needs more research to demonstrate effectiveness. Alberta's Safe and Caring Schools project is a replicable example. (Contains 25 references.) (SK)

  18. Suppression of social conflict and evolutionary transitions to cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cant, Michael A

    2012-02-01

    Evolutionary conflict arises at all levels of biological organization and presents a barrier to the evolution of cooperation. This barrier can be overcome by mechanisms that reduce the disparity between the fitness optima of subunits, sometimes called the "battleground" of conflict. An alternative, unstudied possibility is that effort invested in conflict is unprofitable. This possibility has received little attention because most existing models of social conflict assume that fitness depends on the ratio of players' conflict efforts, so that "peaceful" outcomes featuring zero conflict effort are evolutionarily unstable. Here I show that peaceful outcomes are stable where success depends on the difference rather than the ratio of efforts invested in conflict. These difference form models are particularly appropriate to model strategies of suppression or policing. The model suggests that incomplete information and asymmetries in strength can act to eliminate costly conflict within groups, even among unrelated individuals, and thereby facilitate the evolution of cooperation.

  19. Contingency learning is not affected by conflict experience: Evidence from a task conflict-free, item-specific Stroop paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Yulia; Tzelgov, Joseph

    2016-02-01

    A contingency learning account of the item-specific proportion congruent effect has been described as an associative stimulus-response learning process that has nothing to do with controlling the Stroop conflict. As supportive evidence, contingency learning has been demonstrated with response conflict-free stimuli, such as neutral words. However, what gives rise to response conflict and to Stroop interference in general is task conflict. The present study investigated whether task conflict can constitute a trigger or, alternatively, a booster to the contingency learning process. This was done by employing a "task conflict-free" condition (i.e., geometric shapes) and comparing it with a "task conflict" condition (i.e., neutral words). The results showed a significant contingency learning effect in both conditions, refuting the possibility that contingency learning is triggered by the presence of a task conflict. Contingency learning was also not enhanced by the task conflict experience, indicating its complete insensitivity to Stroop conflict(s). Thus, the results showed no evidence that performance optimization as a result of contingency learning is greater under conflict, implying that contingency learning is not recruited to assist the control system to overcome conflict.

  20. Global Rome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    movements. The contributors engage with themes of contemporary urban studies–the global city, the self-made city, alternative modernities, capital cities and nations, urban change from below, and sustainability. Global Rome serves as a provocative introduction to the Eternal City and makes an original......Is 21st-century Rome a global city? Is it part of Europe's core or periphery? This volume examines the “real city” beyond Rome's historical center, exploring the diversity and challenges of life in neighborhoods affected by immigration, neoliberalism, formal urban planning, and grassroots social...