WorldWideScience

Sample records for battlescars global conflicts

  1. Digital images and globalized conflict

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolette, Blaagaard; Mortensen, Mette; Neumayer, Christina

    2017-01-01

    As the number of digital images of globalized conflicts online grow, critical examination of their impact and consequence is timely. This editorial provides an overview of digital images and globalized conflict as a field of study by discussing regimes of visibility and invisibility, proximity...... of conflict-related images raise issues of knowledge production and research....

  2. Conflicts of the Global State

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hrubec, Marek

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 3 (2016), s. 378-392 ISSN 2159-8282 Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : global state * global * conflicts * critical theory * recognition Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion

  3. Digital Images and Globalized Conflict

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaagaard, Bolette; Mortensen, Mette; Neumayer, Christina

    2017-01-01

    As the number of digital images of globalized conflicts online grow, critical examination of their impact and consequence is timely. This editorial provides an overview of digital images and globalized conflict as a field of study by discussing regimes of visibility and invisibility, proximity...... and distance, and the multiplicity of images. It engages critically with these interlinking themes as they are addressed in the contributing articles to the Special Issue as well as beyond, asking how genres and tropes are reproduced, how power plays a role in access to images, and how the sheer quantity...... of conflict-related images raise issues of knowledge production and research....

  4. Globalization and Conflict Management in Schools

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Ilker Gumuseli; Ozge Hacifazlioglu

    2009-01-01

    Globalization has brought many changes on the education systems and schools. These changes will be exemplified from thebasis of school finance, employee rights, curriculum, administration, and school-environment relations in this study. The studyalso reviews common types of conflicts experienced at schools as a result of globalization and the ways in which conflict couldbe managed. Following topics were discussed in the article: ‘Conflicts emerged from perspectives towards globalization,confl...

  5. Globalization and Conflict Management in Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ilker Gumuseli

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Globalization has brought many changes on the education systems and schools. These changes will be exemplified from thebasis of school finance, employee rights, curriculum, administration, and school-environment relations in this study. The studyalso reviews common types of conflicts experienced at schools as a result of globalization and the ways in which conflict couldbe managed. Following topics were discussed in the article: ‘Conflicts emerged from perspectives towards globalization,conflicts emerged from cross cultural differences, conflicts sourced from changes in the teaching and learning processes,conflicts sourced from the standardization efforts, conflicts sourced from the change in school-parents relations, conflictssourced from the process of finance related activities and conflicts sourced from information, communication andeducational technologies’. This article argues that schools cannot be isolated from the effects of globalization. Therefore sinceconflict is a normal occurrence in schools, school administrators should discover constructive approaches through carefuldiagnosis and an approach that transforms the conflicting situations into constructive experiences for the school and theeducation.

  6. Globalization and Conflict: The African Experience | Okpalaobi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Africa to date has remained a victim of all economic and political reform agenda of the European dominated world, but now consummated in what has come to be known as globalization. These have thrown up a lot of conflicts in African. The struggle for economic resources has led to conflicts, electoral violence and ...

  7. GLOBALIZATION AND CONFLICT: THE AFRICAN EXPERIENCE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    ijah.v3i3.4. GLOBALIZATION AND CONFLICT: THE AFRICAN. EXPERIENCE ... deteriorating changes to most African sovereign states at the end of the cold war, ... the much needed cohesion in Africa, peace building and political stability be.

  8. Cyber Conflicts as a New Global Threat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Kosenkov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an attempt is made to analyze the potential threats and consequences of cyber conflicts and, in particular, the risks of a global cyber conflict. The material is based on a comprehensive analysis of the nature of cyber conflict and its elements from both technical and societal points of view. The approach used in the paper considers the societal component as an essential part of cyber conflicts, allowing basics of cyber conflicts often disregarded by researchers and the public to be highlighted. Finally, the conclusion offers an opportunity to consider cyber conflict as the most advanced form of modern warfare, which imposes the most serious threat and whose effect could be comparable to weapons of mass destruction.

  9. Low Intensity Conflict: Global Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motley, James Berry

    1987-01-01

    Examines the increase in low intensity conflict (LIC) such as terrorism and subversion, since World War II and discusses the United States ability to deal with it. States that LICs continue to increase, making U.S. involvement inevitable. Describes necessary preparations and actions for meeting this challenge. (GEA)

  10. Global nursing management. Avoiding conflicts of interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willers, Lisa

    2004-01-01

    Traditionally, the healthcare industry has been no stranger to some conflicts of interest. However, as healthcare responds to demands to contain costs and adapts business models that resemble those of the corporate world, new conflicts of interest arise. Nurse executives operating in healthcare systems today must have an understanding of conflicts of interest in order to promptly identify actual as well as potential conflicts. It is imperative that strategies are set in place to prevent or handle conflicts of interest as they occur in order to build trusting relationships with patients, suppliers, and communities.

  11. New sociopolitical forces: the globalization of conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethi, S P; Etemad, H; Luther, K A

    1986-01-01

    Not only must multinational corporations deal with governments of their home countries and various host countries, they must now contend with the pressures of change exerted through international organizations such as U.N.-based agencies and public interest groups. The Nestle infant formula controversy, more so than any other event, has crystallized the growing internationalization of conflicts.

  12. The Impact of Globalization on African Conflicts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    informal economy and legal trade is facilitated by contemporary economic and technological globalization , which has led to improved communications...Leone have portrayed. Globalization has both positive and negative effects. In the area of economics, rapid advance of technology , sharp decrease in...political aspects of globalization have led to a shifts of power from sovereign states to technologically advanced global elites and private multinational

  13. Responding to Globalization and Urban Conflict: Human Rights City Initiatives

    OpenAIRE

    Jackie Smith

    2018-01-01

    Expanding globalization and urbanization have intensified the threats to human rights for many vulnerable groups and have restricted resources available to the primary guarantors of these rights—local authorities. Human rights cities initiatives are bottom-up efforts to advance human rights implementation in local contexts. They are emerging around the world in response to the global pressures on cities that intensify urban inequality and conflict. In this article I discuss how global changes...

  14. Conflict Networks: Collapsing the Global into the Local

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick Srnicek

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent decades have seen a dual and simultaneous shift in conflict trends. With the end of the Cold War and superpower support, conflicts have become increasingly intrastate and increasingly localized, dependent for their sustenance upon local assistance and national resources. Yet this localization of conflict has coincided with the increasingly international aspect of conflicts, with humanitarian intervention and UN peacekeeping becoming ever more prevalent. The aim of this paper is to provide a framework for understanding these shifting relations between the global and the local. This is accomplished through an analysis of actor-network theory and its rejoinders to reductionist understandings of conflict. Rather than reducing the eruption of violence down to greed, grievance, or ancient hatred, actor-network theory aims to examine conflict networks and their specific composition of local, material, and global actors. Three aspects of these networks are highlighted in particular: the personal networks of local individuals, the material actors, and theconflict network as a system. With these clarified the final section turns to an analysis of some of the primary modalities through which global actors relate and embed themselves within local networks.

  15. The Impact of Globalization on African Conflicts

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Addo, Jonathan

    2003-01-01

    ... a cauldron of instability and economic deprivation. Globalization, which in simple terms means a worldwide network of interdependence, is a phenomenon, which emerged at the end of the Cold War and the advent of the information revolution...

  16. Global ecology. A new arena of political conflict

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sachs, W.

    1994-01-01

    The problem of global ecology has become a matter of public discussion since the UN Conference on Environment and Development, which was held at Rio de Janeiro in 1992. Now that it has become a topical issue, it is time to take a closer look. Behind the appeals for global responsibility, there are political and cultural conflicts which need to be detected and resolved. Wolfgang Sachs and his authors attempt to throw light on these conflicts. They show in what manner the well-known economic conflicts between the North and the South are reflected also in their environmental policy. The authors are from Germany, India, Pakistan, Great Britain, the Netherlands, the USA, and Uganda; each author discusses the problem of ecology and development from the view of his own country. (orig.) [de

  17. Conflicts over natural resources in the Global South : conceptual approaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bavinck, M.; Pellegrini, L.; Mostert, E.

    2014-01-01

    Inhabitants of poor, rural areas in the Global South heavily depend on natural resources in their immediate vicinity. Conflicts over and exploitation of these resources - whether it is water, fish, wood fuel, minerals, or land - severely affect their livelihoods. The contributors to this volume

  18. Globalized conflicts, globalized responses. Changing manners of contestation among indigenous communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benyei, Petra; Turreira Garcia, Nerea; Orta-Martínez, Martí

    2017-01-01

    In a globalized world, environmental conflicts affecting indigenous communities (including hunter-gatherer groups) have intensified and grown in their transnational character. These changes have affected the choice of manners of contestation of these groups, favouring in some cases the emergence...... activities and confront conflicts through a truly bottom-up approach. The chapter ends discussing how, despite the potential of such new manners of contestation, the power imbalances that currently underpin many indigenous conflicts are first to be addressed....

  19. Responding to Globalization and Urban Conflict: Human Rights City Initiatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackie Smith

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Expanding globalization and urbanization have intensified the threats to human rights for many vulnerable groups and have restricted resources available to the primary guarantors of these rights—local authorities. Human rights cities initiatives are bottom-up efforts to advance human rights implementation in local contexts. They are emerging around the world in response to the global pressures on cities that intensify urban inequality and conflict. In this article I discuss how global changes are impacting cities and their abilities to protect the basic rights of residents. I then discuss the human rights cities model as a strategic response of social movements to secure people’s basic needs and strengthen local mechanisms for addressing social conflicts. I provide detailed analysis based on participatory research with Pittsburgh’s Human Rights City Alliance between 2013 and 2016. Drawing from literature on international peacebuilding, I argue that human rights cities are an emergent model of peacebuilding and governance that can guide policy and planning at multiple levels. Human rights movements are challenging neoliberal globalization’s emphasis on economic growth and putting forward frameworks that prioritize the needs of people and communities. In their appeals to international human rights norms, human rights cities advocates both advance international law and governance while giving voice to inherent contradictions between human rights and the policies of economic globalization.

  20. Conflicts between domestic inequality and global poverty: lexicality versus proportionality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco García Gibson

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Current views on global justice often hold that affluent states are under at least two duties: a duty to reduce socioeconomic inequalities at home and a duty to reduce extreme poverty abroad. Potential duty conflicts deriving from resource scarcity can be solved in broadly two principled ways. The ‘lexical’ principle requires all disputed resources to be allocated to the weightiest duty. The ‘proportionality’ principle requires resources to be distributed between the two duties according to their relative weight (the weightiest duty receives the largest resource share, but the less weighty duty receives a share too. I argue that the proportionality principle is morally preferable. I show that it is sensitive to a number of factors that are intuitively relevant when solving duty conflicts: the number of affected individuals, the size of the benefits each individual could get, and the time it could take to eventually comply with the less weighty duty. Some argue that the lexical principle should nevertheless be preferred because domestic egalitarian duties are duties of justice, and they are therefore lexically prior to mere humanitarian duties to reduce global poverty. I reject this view by showing that duties of justice are not necessarily lexically prior to humanitarian duties, and that (even if they were duties to reduce global poverty can be regarded as duties of justice too.

  1. From Local Conflicts to Global Terrorism: Can Refugees and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... religious conflicts; sporadic short lived conflicts related to resource around livestock; and generalised violence which is banditry-related. This study is a historical investigation of the development of local conflicts, informal militia and security measures during the transition to political pluralism in Kenya between 1992-2002, ...

  2. Are You Oil or Sand? Resolving Conflict in Christian Global Healthcare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David L. Stevens

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Drawing from his experience as a cross-cultural health worker in Africa and his roll in training others for similar missionary service, the author discusses common sources of conflict at a local level inside a larger pressure chamber of political differences, economic tensions, religious extremism, corruption, crime and even armed conflict. Almost all Christians serving in global healthcare are providing care in the midst of some level of conflict. Conflict at the interpersonal level ultimately impacts the effectiveness of teams, organizations, institutions, governments and nations. He gives practical wisdom on handling conflict toward productive, cooperative and sustainable work leading to widespread healing impact.

  3. From Local Conflicts to Global Terrorism: Can Refugees and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sulaiman.adebowale

    2006-05-23

    May 23, 2006 ... have connected or caused the country to be a target of international terrorism. .... conflict system. This research seeks to address a major question that arises from this: What steps can be taken to begin to address the prob- lem from a conflict system .... Raising the scare level and raising the price of inactivity.

  4. Global Conflicts and the Macro-Regional Modernities: Interview with Marek Hrubec

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hrubec, Marek; Solík, M.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 1 (2015), s. 83-98 ISSN 1338-130X Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : global conflicts * injustice * recognition * macro-regions * modernities * critical theory * intercultural Subject RIV: AJ - Letters, Mass- media , Audiovision

  5. Global Agriculture Yields and Conflict under Future Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rising, J.; Cane, M. A.

    2013-12-01

    Aspects of climate have been shown to correlate significantly with conflict. We investigate a possible pathway for these effects through changes in agriculture yields, as predicted by field crop models (FAO's AquaCrop and DSSAT). Using satellite and station weather data, and surveyed data for soil and management, we simulate major crop yields across all countries between 1961 and 2008, and compare these to FAO and USDA reported yields. Correlations vary by country and by crop, from approximately .8 to -.5. Some of this range in crop model performance is explained by crop varieties, data quality, and other natural, economic, and political features. We also quantify the ability of AquaCrop and DSSAT to simulate yields under past cycles of ENSO as a proxy for their performance under changes in climate. We then describe two statistical models which relate crop yields to conflict events from the UCDP/PRIO Armed Conflict dataset. The first relates several preceding years of predicted yields of the major grain in each country to any conflict involving that country. The second uses the GREG ethnic group maps to identify differences in predicted yields between neighboring regions. By using variation in predicted yields to explain conflict, rather than actual yields, we can identify the exogenous effects of weather on conflict. Finally, we apply precipitation and temperature time-series under IPCC's A1B scenario to the statistical models. This allows us to estimate the scale of the impact of future yields on future conflict. Centroids of the major growing regions for each country's primary crop, based on USDA FAS consumption. Correlations between simulated yields and reported yields, for AquaCrop and DSSAT, under the assumption that no irrigation, fertilization, or pest control is used. Reported yields are the average of FAO yields and USDA FAS yields, where both are available.

  6. Globalization and mental health: The impact of war and armed conflict on families

    OpenAIRE

    Song, S.J.

    2015-01-01

    Globalization and armed conflict have created population shifts that displace people and families, bringing critical issues around humanitarian emergencies into our communities. More researchers have taken an interest in the global community, but there remains a paucity of mental health research on the problems of people in war-affected countries as well as countries that eventually house them. In this dissertation, I evaluate the impact of armed conflict in developmental phases across the li...

  7. Intrastate conflict in oil producing states: A threat to global oil supply?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toft, Peter, E-mail: peter.toft@ec.europa.eu [Institute for Energy, Joint Research Centre of the European Commission, Westerduinweg 3, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands)

    2011-11-15

    In this paper I investigate how often and how much outbreaks of intrastate conflict in oil producing states translates into oil supply shortfalls. The Libyan conflict that broke out in February 2011 highlighted the fear that intrastate conflict in oil producing states may imply shortfalls and ensuing volatile global oil prices. I argue, however, that it is far from certain that shortfalls following conflict outbreak will occur, since both sides in a conflict face incentives simultaneously to protect and maintain oil installations and to strike and destroy these. Based on a quantitative analysis of 39 intrastate wars in oil producing countries (1965-2007) I conclude that outbreak of conflict does not translate into production decline with any certainty. In fact, likelihoods are less than 50% for reductions to occur. In many cases growing production actually followed conflict outbreak. I conclude by investigating four characteristics of intrastate conflict that may explain when oil production is at risk during conflict: (1) proximity of oil producing fields to key battle zones, (2) duration of conflict, (3) separatism and the location of oil in separatist territory, and (4) the relative size of oil production. While the first three factors did not prove important, oil producer size could be significant. But further research is needed to establish this with greater certainty. - Highlights: > Oil shortfall during intrastate conflict is not a given. > Statistical analysis of 39 intrastate conflicts in oil producing countries since 1965. > Examination of four characteristics of intrastate conflict in oil producing countries. > Marginal significance related to large producers and production shortfall.

  8. Intrastate conflict in oil producing states: A threat to global oil supply?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toft, Peter

    2011-01-01

    In this paper I investigate how often and how much outbreaks of intrastate conflict in oil producing states translates into oil supply shortfalls. The Libyan conflict that broke out in February 2011 highlighted the fear that intrastate conflict in oil producing states may imply shortfalls and ensuing volatile global oil prices. I argue, however, that it is far from certain that shortfalls following conflict outbreak will occur, since both sides in a conflict face incentives simultaneously to protect and maintain oil installations and to strike and destroy these. Based on a quantitative analysis of 39 intrastate wars in oil producing countries (1965-2007) I conclude that outbreak of conflict does not translate into production decline with any certainty. In fact, likelihoods are less than 50% for reductions to occur. In many cases growing production actually followed conflict outbreak. I conclude by investigating four characteristics of intrastate conflict that may explain when oil production is at risk during conflict: (1) proximity of oil producing fields to key battle zones, (2) duration of conflict, (3) separatism and the location of oil in separatist territory, and (4) the relative size of oil production. While the first three factors did not prove important, oil producer size could be significant. But further research is needed to establish this with greater certainty. - Highlights: → Oil shortfall during intrastate conflict is not a given. → Statistical analysis of 39 intrastate conflicts in oil producing countries since 1965. → Examination of four characteristics of intrastate conflict in oil producing countries. → Marginal significance related to large producers and production shortfall.

  9. Globalization and mental health: The impact of war and armed conflict on families

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Song, S.J.

    2015-01-01

    Globalization and armed conflict have created population shifts that displace people and families, bringing critical issues around humanitarian emergencies into our communities. More researchers have taken an interest in the global community, but there remains a paucity of mental health research on

  10. [Private foundations Global Health Philanthropy: the problem of conflicts of interest].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Private foundations Global Health Philanthropy: the problem of conflicts of interest. Private foundations are in a position where they are granted several privileges and are very powerful and able to influence global health. A recent article published on Plos Medicine, analyzing five of the largest health foundations highlights the network of interests and conflicts. Many private health foundations have associations with private food and pharmaceutical corporations. In some instances, these corporations directly benefit from foundations grants, and foundations in turn are invested in the corporations to which they award these grants.

  11. Globalization and Conflict: Welfare, Distribution,and Political Unrest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranveig Gissinger

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The consequences of globalization for the development of a more peaceful world remain highly controversial. This article seeks to clarify the impact that the globalization of the economy may have on civil war and political instability. Liberals argue that countries heavily dependent on the global economy (whether measured by trade or investment are likely to experience higher economic growth, greater affluence, more democracy, and increasingly peaceful conditions at home and abroad. In stark contrast, most dependency theorists argue that high levels of trade and investment tend to generate greater economic inequality. Relative deprivation theory suggests that such inequality will increase the risk of political instability. From these two broad perspectives, a set of hypotheses is developed and tested on a global dataset for the period 1965-93. The consequences of an open economy prove to be quite complex. A high level of trade does generate more domestic peace; at the same time, direct foreign investment also creates conditions conducive to political instability. However, the consequences of trade are dependent on what is being exported. Exports of manufactured goods create high levels of welfare and equality, while exports of agricultural products promote poverty and inequality. Inequality emerges as but one of many factors which lead to political instability.

  12. The interpretation of Huntington's thesis of clash of civilizations as a tribal conflict of global proportions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nedeljković Zoran D.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The author of this paper attempted the interpretation of Huntington's thought that the clash of civilizations is tribal conflict of global proportions. In the first interpretation of the conflict, we think of civilization as a tribe in conflict with the other tribes, they mutually perceive each other as barbarians, denouncing each other's civilizational identity. In the second interpretation, the clash of civilizations is perceived as a clash of postmodern immigrant groups (tribes with the dominant culture of the local population within a state. In the age of the universal conflict, we see Huntington's pessimistic view of the social world and the temporary man, whom we characterize as a synthesis of immigrants, migrants and foreigners, as a kind of personification of the spirit of the times of postmodern twenty-first century.

  13. Confronting stillbirths and newborn deaths in areas of conflict and political instability: a neglected global imperative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Paul H; Darmstadt, Gary L

    2015-08-01

    Despite considerable improvements in reproductive and newborn health throughout the world, relatively poor outcomes persist in areas plagued by conflict or political instability. To assess the contribution of areas of conflict and instability to global patterns of stillbirths and newborn deaths and to identify opportunities for effective intervention in these areas. Analysis of the available data on stillbirths and neonatal mortality in association with conflict and governance indicators, and review of epidemiological and political literature pertaining to the provision of health and public services in areas of conflict and instability. Of the 15 countries with the highest neonatal mortality rates in the world, 14 are characterized by chronic conflict or political instability. If India and China are excluded, countries experiencing chronic conflict or political instability account for approximately 42% of all neonatal deaths worldwide. Efforts to address adverse reproductive and newborn outcomes in these areas must adapt recommended intervention protocols to the special security and governance conditions associated with unstable political environment. Despite troubling relative and absolute indicators, the special requirements of improving reproductive and neonatal outcomes in areas affected by conflict and political instability have not received adequate attention. New integrated political and technical strategies will be required. This should include moving beyond traditional approaches concerned with complex humanitarian emergencies. Rather, global efforts must be based on a deeper understanding of the specific governance requirements associated with protracted and widespread health requirements. A focus on women's roles, regional strategies which take advantage of relative stability and governance capacity in neighbouring states, virtual infrastructure, and assistance regimens directed specifically to unstable areas may prove useful.

  14. Local Media in Global Conflict: Southeast Asian Newspapers and the Politics of Peace in Israel/Palestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yakubu Ozohu-Suleiman

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available It is often assumed that local media are a potential deescalating tool in global conflict. This study examines how four leading newspapers in Southeast Asia (Star of Malaysia, Philstar of the Philippines, Jakarta Post of Indonesia, and The Nation of Thailand reported the Israeli-Palestinian conflict during the year after the 2009 Gaza War. A census of 536 reports was coded for tones (to detect alignment, frames (to detect characterization of the conflict, and sources (to examine correlation with coverage tones. The results show fragmented alignment of the newspapers with Palestine and Israel. Conflict frames on offensives, fighting, threats, military strategies, demonization, death, and destruction were most prevalent. Coverage tones were significantly correlated with sources, suggesting that the potential of local media to serve as deescalating tools in global conflicts is subject to the varying political contexts in which they operate in relation to specific conflicts.

  15. A Meta-Analysis of Human–Wildlife Conflict: South African and Global Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nimmi Seoraj-Pillai

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Human–wildlife conflict (HWC, due to competition for shared natural resources between people and wildlife, influences food security of people and the well-being of people and animals. HWC is a major concern in developing countries, affecting people of different socio-economic classes. We conducted a meta-analysis of the occurrence of published scientific reports on HWC globally and South Africa particularly, to identify vulnerable human communities and their farming practices in developing and developed countries, and vulnerable wildlife guilds. We accessed Institute for Scientific Information publications from 1994 to 2015. Local communities (people living contiguous with protected natural areas and commercial farmers jointly experienced the highest HWC incidences compared to subsistence farmers, possibly due to reporting bias for commercial farmers. Rural people in Africa and Asia experienced conflict with a diversity of mammals, confirming our expectation that developing countries could potentially experience regular encounters with wildlife. South Africa had more HWC cases than developed countries (e.g., in Australia and North America, yet the dichotomy between first world and third world economies in South Africa provides a regional exemplar of global patterns in HWC. Globally, HWC involved mainly mammals and birds, with carnivores and primates as the most high-scale conflict species and thus were a severely persecuted group. Our foundational research provides the first global assessment of HWC and showed that people in developing countries are vulnerable to HWC, perhaps related to reduced protection of livestock and crops against a larger guild of problem mammals. We suggest that a wider range of literature, including governmental and non-governmental publications, be surveyed to contribute to further research in this area of study.

  16. Global markets and the differential effects of climate and weather on conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, K. C.; Hsiang, S. M.; Cane, M. A.

    2011-12-01

    Both climate and weather have been attributed historically as possible drivers for violence. Previous empirical studies have either focused on isolating local idiosyncratic weather variation or have conflated weather with spatially coherent climatic changes. This paper provides the first study of the differential impacts of climate and weather variation by employing methods developed in earlier work linking the El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) with the onset of civil conflicts. By separating the effects of climate from local weather, we are able to test possible mechanisms by which atmospheric changes can cause violence. It is generally difficult to separate the effect of year-to-year climate variations from other global events that might drive conflict. We avoid this problem by examining the set of tropical countries that are strongly teleconnected to ENSO. For this region, the ENSO cycle parallels the common year-to-year pattern of violence. Using ENSO, we isolate the influence of climatic changes from other global determinants of violence and compare it with the effect of local weather variations. We find that while climate affects the onset of civil conflicts in teleconnected countries, local weather has no significant effect. Productivity overall as well as across major sectors is more affected by local weather than by climatic variation. This is particularly evident in the agricultural sector where total value and cereal yield decline much greater from a 1°C increase in local temperature than a 1°C increase in ENSO. However, when examining the effect on food prices, we find that ENSO is associated with a large and statistically significant increase in cereal prices but no effect from hotter local temperatures. Altogether, this evidence points toward the ability of global and regional commodity markets to insure against the effects of local weather variation and their limitations in containing losses from aggregate shocks such as El Nino events. We posit

  17. Managing the global commons decision making and conflict resolution in response to climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rayner, S. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Naegeli, W.; Lund, P. (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (USA))

    1990-07-01

    A workshop was convened to develop a better understanding of decision-making matters concerning management of the global commons and to resolve conflicts in response to climate change. This workshop report does not provide a narrative of the proceedings. The workshop program is included, as are the abstracts of the papers that were presented. Only the introductory paper on social science research by William Riebsame and the closing summary by Richard Rockwell are reprinted here. This brief report focuses instead on the deliberations of the working groups that developed during the workshop. 4 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Climate change, conflict and development in Sudan: global neo-Malthusian narratives and local power struggles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoeven, Harry

    2011-01-01

    Dystopian accounts of climate change posit that it will lead to more conflict, causing state failure and mass population movements. Yet these narratives are both theoretically and empirically problematic: the conflict–environment hypothesis merges a global securitization agenda with local manipulations of Northern fears about the state of planetary ecology. Sudan has experienced how damaging this fusion of wishful thinking, power politics and top-down development can be. In the 1970s, global resource scarcity concerns were used locally to impose the fata morgana of Sudan as an Arab-African breadbasket: in the name of development, violent evictions of local communities contributed to Sudan's second civil war and associated famines. Today, Darfur has been labelled ‘the world's first climate change conflict’, masking the long-term political-economic dynamics and Sudanese agency underpinning the crisis. Simultaneously, the global food crisis is instrumentalized to launch a dam programme and agricultural revival that claim to be African answers to resource scarcity. The winners, however, are Sudan's globalized Islamist elites and foreign investors, whilst the livelihoods of local communities are undermined. Important links exist between climatic developments and security, but global Malthusian narratives about state failure and conflict are dangerously susceptible to manipulations by national elites; the practical outcomes decrease rather than increase human security. In the climate change era, the breakdown of institutions and associated violence is often not an unfortunate failure of the old system due to environmental shock, but a strategy of elites in wider processes of power and wealth accumulation and contestation.

  19. Global health in conflict. Understanding opposition to vitamin A supplementation in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Sarah K

    2012-07-01

    Vitamin A supplementation is a public health intervention that clinical trials have suggested can significantly improve child survival in the developing world. Yet, prominent scientists in India have questioned its scientific validity, opposed its implementation, and accused its advocates of corruption and greed. It is ironic that these opponents were among the pioneers of populationwide vitamin A supplementation for ocular health. Historically, complex interests have shaped vitamin A supplementation resistance in India. Local social and nutritional revolutions and shifting international paradigms of global health have played a role. Other resistance movements in Indian history, such as those in response to campaigns for bacillus Calmette-Guérin and novel vaccines, have been structured around similar themes. Public health resistance is shaped by the cultural and political context in which it develops. Armed with knowledge of the history of a region and patterns of past resistance, public health practitioners can better understand how to negotiate global health conflicts.

  20. Exploring the influence of the Global Fund and the GAVI Alliance on health systems in conflict-affected countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Preeti; Cummings, Rachael; Roberts, Bayard

    2015-01-01

    Global Health Initiatives (GHIs) respond to high-impact communicable diseases in resource-poor countries, including health systems support, and are major actors in global health. GHIs could play an important role in countries affected by armed conflict given these countries commonly have weak health systems and a high burden of communicable disease. The aim of this study is to explore the influence of two leading GHIs, the Global Fund and the GAVI Alliance, on the health systems of conflict-affected countries. This study used an analytical review approach to identify evidence on the role of the Global Fund and the GAVI Alliance with regards to health systems support to 19 conflict-affected countries. Primary and secondary published and grey literature were used, including country evaluations from the Global Fund and the GAVI Alliance. The WHO heath systems building blocks framework was used for the analysis. There is a limited evidence-base on the influence of GHIs on health systems of conflict-affected countries. The findings suggest that GHIs are increasingly investing in conflict-affected countries which has helped to rapidly scale up health services, strengthen human resources, improve procurement, and develop guidelines and protocols. Negative influences include distorting priorities within the health system, inequitable financing of disease-specific services over other health services, diverting staff away from more essential health care services, inadequate attention to capacity building, burdensome reporting requirements, and limited flexibility and responsiveness to the contextual challenges of conflict-affected countries. There is some evidence of increasing engagement of the Global Fund and the GAVI Alliance with health systems in conflict-affected countries, but this engagement should be supported by more context-specific policies and approaches.

  1. Treating substance abuse as a consequence of conflict and displacement: a call for a more inclusive global mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Lucinda

    2014-01-01

    In settings of conflict and displacement, the provision of appropriate mental health services is essential. While most mental health research has focused on identifying rates of post-traumatic stress and other common disorders in post-conflict settings, there has been little recognition of substance abuse as both a cause and consequence of mental health problems. Problems that arise when people begin to abuse substances to cope with the severe stress of emergency situations include the depletion of finite family and community resources, violence, exploitation, neglect of children and other protection threats. As a case in point, refugee camps on the Thai-Burma border have become a fertile breeding ground for drug and alcohol addiction. A more inclusive view of global mental health--one that addresses the problems of substance use in post-conflict and displacement contexts--will better enable health professionals to make meaningful contributions to conflict resolution and longer-term peace-building processes.

  2. Material power and normative conflict in global and local agrifood governance : the lessons of 'golden rice' in India

    OpenAIRE

    Fuchs, Doris; Glaab, Katharina

    2010-01-01

    "Sustainability aspects of the agrifood system play a pivotal role in today’s global governance at all levels of decision-making. Questions of food security and food safety, biodiversity or the fate of local practices and values reflect some of the sources of potential conflict between states, as well as between business, state, and civil society actors. This special section aims to investigate the interaction of global and local forces in shaping the sustainability of the agri...

  3. Contamination, misuse and abuse of the global oceans leading to ecosystem damage and destruction, health consequences and international conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    Unregulated uses of the oceans may threaten the global ecological balance, alter plant and animal life and significantly impact the global climatic systems. Recent plans to locate large scale structures on the oceans and to exploit the mineral riches of the seas pose even greater risk to the ecological system. Finally, increasing use of the oceans for large scale transport greatly enhances the probability of collision, polluting spills and international conflict.

  4. Teaching about Ethnic Conflict: Global Issues. Ethnic Heritage Series, Volume 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamy, Steven L.

    The document presents background information and activities for use by secondary school social studies teachers as they incorporate material on ethnic conflict into the curriculum. Ethnic conflicts are interpreted as hostilities which are either solely based upon or accentuated by ethnic differences. Examples are violence in Northern Ireland,…

  5. Politics of Preferential Development: Trans-global study of affirmative action and ethnic conflict in Fiji, Malaysia and South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Ratuva, Steven

    2013-01-01

    The book is a critical examination of affirmative action, a form of preferential development often used to address the situation of disadvantaged groups. It uses a trans-global approach, as opposed to the comparative approach, to examine the relationship between affirmative action, ethnic conflict and the role of the state in Fiji, Malaysia and South Africa. While affirmative action has noble goals, there are often intervening political and ideological factors in the form of ethno-nationalism...

  6. Global Citizenship Education in Social Studies: Experiences of Turkish Teachers and Students in International Conflict and War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arife Figen Aksoy

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available With the impact of the media, international conflicts are increasingly becoming a part of both everyday life and global citizenship education. The purpose of this research was to understand the perceptions of students and teachers about the incidents of international conflict and war, how teachers present these issues in social studies course, and the problems teachers encounter in this process. This study was carried out as a qualitative case study research. The data were collected by participant observations carried out in Social Studies lessons and by semi-structured interviews with the participating teachers and students. The data were analyzed using interpretive thematic analysis. The findings from this study revealed that the teachers in this study acted in protective, emotional, rational and tentative modes while teaching the issues of international conflict and war. The study also found that the teachers’ behaviors while teaching controversial issues had an influence on the students’ knowledge, skills and attitudes on the subject. In addition, the students’ age and maturity level, gender, socio-economic and cultural level had an influence on learning about these issues. Finally, the findings indicated that the teachers who participated in this study did not have sufficient knowledge and experience in teaching controversial issues and international conflict and war.

  7. Anthropological discourses on the globalization of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in post-conflict societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghimi, Yavar

    2012-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a construct that has moved far beyond its origins in Veterans Administration hospitals after the Vietnam War. It is now commonly used in post-conflict societies by humanitarian agencies and researchers. This article looks at the ever-growing expansion of PTSD and reviews medical anthropologists' critiques of this cross-cultural dissemination of Western psychiatric knowledge. The article also reviews post-conflict ethnographies and their results, which often highlight a mismatch between local priorities and the psycho-social services being provided by outside agencies. Finally, the author highlights interventions that are currently being undertaken by humanitarian agencies in an attempt to bridge psychiatric expertise and local forms of healing. Although PTSD is a useful construct for conceptualizing the experience of those who have suffered traumatic events, it does not lend itself to universal cross-cultural application and should be cautiously applied in post-conflict societies.

  8. Material power or normative conflict : determinants of the interaction between global and local agrifood governance

    OpenAIRE

    Fuchs, Doris; Glaab, Katharina

    2010-01-01

    "We witness a constant interaction of global and local forces in the global agrifood system. This paper develops an analytical framework for the identification of the relative impact of these global versus local forces on the sustainability of the agrifood system. In pursuit of its objectives, the framework highlights material and ideational sources of power as important determinants of how the contest between global and local actors and norms in global agrifood governance plays out. With ...

  9. The Arab - Israeli Conflict: A Study of Global and Regional Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-06-01

    follows a legal approach. The political system is firit a body of rules, and therefore a normative* order. 5. Kaplan, p. 14, Emphasis added. 6. The...Israeli conflict, the truth, and consequently, the righteous- ness of their position, lies not with objective historicism , but with their respective...the right to buy land and settle it. All was agreed in their willingness to adopt any legal or semi legal arrangement or subter- fuge that would

  10. Energy policy of Eastern Asia. Demand, resources and conflicts in a global perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu, Xuewu; Kupfer, K.

    2006-01-01

    The power demand in Eastern Asia (especially in China, Japan and South Korea) increases rapidly while the amounts of raw materials decrease. The international cooperation in energetic and ecological aspects continues to fail. The contribution under consideration reports on strategies of East Asian countries according to the securing of power and according to potential conflicts in this region as well as worldwide. Additionally, the authors point out several solutions by means of cooperation and innovation in the area of renewable energy, for example

  11. When Globalization Causes Cultural Conflict: Leadership in the Context of an Egyptian/ American School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barakat, Maysaa; Brooks, Jeffrey S.

    2016-01-01

    There is ongoing debate about the benefits and dangers of globalization in education, yet it is not always clear how these dynamics manifest at the school level. Moreover, it is often unclear how leaders shape or respond to these dynamics in their day-to-day practice. This case highlights issues related to school culture and globalization as a…

  12. Classical and post-classical stages of development of ideas on global conflicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. S. Pilipenko

    2016-06-01

    Thus, in the history of the development of ideas about the nature of the conflict, it is possible to allocate three stages. The first stage is a classic, it representatives of which are O. Conte, K. Marx, G. Zimmel. The second stage is post-classical, represented by such scholars as P. Sztompka, G. lutsishin, N. Luhmann, M. Zelenkov, V. Zavalniuk. The third stage is multi-paradigmal, not formed yet, but actively developed by modern sociologists as I. Bekeshkina, Ye. Golovakha, A. Ruchka and other.

  13. Global Health Philanthropy and Institutional Relationships: How Should Conflicts of Interest Be Addressed?

    OpenAIRE

    Stuckler, David; Basu, Sanjay; McKee, Martin

    2011-01-01

    David Stuckler and colleagues examine five large private global health foundations and report on the scope of relationships between these tax-exempt foundations and for-profit corporations including major food and pharmaceutical companies.

  14. Politics and Power in Global Health: The Constituting Role of Conflicts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askheim, Clemet; Heggen, Kristin; Engebretsen, Eivind

    2016-01-01

    In a recent article, Gorik Ooms has drawn attention to the normative underpinnings of the politics of global health. We claim that Ooms is indirectly submitting to a liberal conception of politics by framing the politics of global health as a question of individual morality. Drawing on the theoretical works of Chantal Mouffe, we introduce a conflictual concept of the political as an alternative to Ooms’ conception. Using controversies surrounding medical treatment of AIDS patients in developing countries as a case we underline the opportunity for political changes, through political articulation of an issue, and collective mobilization based on such an articulation. PMID:26927399

  15. Global Conflicts Shattered World Peace: John Dewey's Influence on Peace Educators and Practitioners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohan, Audrey; Howlett, Charles F.

    2017-01-01

    The need to build an awareness of peace and of peace education is often a message that is difficult to share with the larger society. John Dewey, an acclaimed American philosopher and intellectual, used his public platform to espouse his ideas on democracy and peace as a resolution to global discord during the years preceding and during World Wars…

  16. Celebritizing Conflict

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richey, Lisa Ann; Budabin, Alexandra Cosima

    2016-01-01

    From serving as United Nations ambassadors to appearing as spokespersons for major NGO campaigns, global celebrities have become increasingly important in international development assistance. Acting as “aid celebrities,” they are indelibly linked with humanitarian work and public engagement.2 In......, conflict, and development in Africa....

  17. Conflict or Cooperation Over Global Warming Policy? AN Analysis Based on the Interaction of Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihara, Daniel Michael

    Response to climatic change due to global warming, rather than being the common response of humankind to a common problem, may well be the product of decisions made by countries with diverse and possibly divergent interests. This dissertation analyzes the interactions of countries with diverse interests. Each country's economic production is assumed to increase at a decreasing rate with respect to the country's own fossil fuel use and the country's climatic damage is assumed to increase at an increasing rate with respect to the sum of all countries' fossil fuel uses. Each country is assumed to seek to maximize its production minus its climatic damage. The analysis begins with a one-period, two-country case with a single fossil fuel and without binding agreements, without side-payments between countries, and without prior history of fossil fuel use. The cases implied by relaxing restrictions are then analyzed. The dissertation shows explictly how countries' global warming policy decisions could define a prisoners' dilemma game. It characterizes "cooperative" outcomes such as the Nash bargaining solution and Coasean bargaining. The dissertation compares non-side-payment outcomes with the side-payment outcomes implied by tradeable carbon emission quotas. In addition to qualitative results, the dissertation has the following quantitative analysis. First, it conducts a two-country simulation of a tradeable emission quota agreement. The simulation illustrates a case where reduction in carbon emissions, even with significant increase in world population, results in economic growth and manageable climatic damage. Second, based on World Resource Institute data on carbon emissions, carbon elasticities of GNP are estimated for 138 countries. The small estimated elasticities suggest that economic growth may not be greatly reduced by restricting fossil fuel use and that economic growth may depend primarily on non-fossil fuel factors. Overall, the dissertation creates a

  18. Scenarios of global agricultural biomass harvest reveal conflicts and trade-offs for bioenergy with CCS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Tom; Lenton, Tim

    2013-04-01

    We assess the quantitative potential for future land management to help rebalance the global carbon cycle by actively removing carbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere with simultaneous bio-energy offsets of CO2 emissions, whilst meeting global food demand, preserving natural ecosystems and minimising CO2 emissions from land use change. Four alternative future scenarios are considered out to 2050 with different combinations of high or low technology food production and high or low meat diets. Natural ecosystems are protected except when additional land is necessary to fulfil the dietary demands of the global population. Dedicated bio-energy crops can only be grown on land that is already under management but is no longer needed for food production. We find that there is only room for dedicated bio-energy crops if there is a marked increase in the efficiency of food production (sustained annual yield growth of 1%, shifts towards more efficient animals like pigs and poultry, and increased recycling of wastes and residues). If there is also a return to lower meat diets, biomass energy with carbon storage (BECS) as CO2 and biochar could remove up to 4.0 Pg C per year in 2050. With the current trend to higher meat diets there is only room for limited expansion of bio-energy crops after 2035 and instead BECS must be based largely on biomass residues, removing up to 1.5 Pg C per year in. A high-meat, low-efficiency future would be a catastrophe for natural ecosystems (and thus for the humans that depend on their services) with around 8.5 Gha under cultivation in 2050. When included in a simple earth system model with a technological mitigation CO2 emission baseline these produce atmospheric CO2 concentrations of ~ 450-525ppm in 2050. In addition we assess the potential for future biodiversity loss under the scenarios due to three interacting factors; energy withdrawal from ecosystems due to biomass harvest, habitat loss due to land-use change, and climate change

  19. The securitization of health in the context of the war on terror. National security and global health: the conflict of imperatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Ryoa

    2017-03-01

    In this article, I want to show that the securitization of health issues in the name of national interests led to the militarization of health care in the context of the war against terrorism. However, the connection between health and security also gave way to the emergence of the notion of human security, thus, converging with the human right to health approach and the cosmopolitan discourse on global health. These two perspectives on the relation between health and security lead to conflicting imperatives in the current state of counter-terrorism operations. I argue that when the securitization of health concerns in the name of national security conflicts with the provision of health care in the name of universal human rights, the higher moral end must trump the prudential one. Moreover, it is a duty to promote the human right to health when liberal democracies in foreign policies directly violate this moral ideal in the name of national security.

  20. Uneasy money: the Instituto Carlos Slim de la Salud, tobacco philanthropy and conflict of interest in global health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burch, Tiffany; Wander, Nathaniel; Collin, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    In May 2007, the Instituto Carso de la Salud—now Instituto Carlos Slim de la Salud (ICSS)—was endowed with US$500 million to focus on priority health issues in Latin America, notably issues of ‘globalisation and non-communicable diseases’. ICSS was soon criticised, however, on the grounds that its funding was derived from tobacco industry profits and that its founder Carlos Slim Hélu remained an active industry principal. Collaboration with ICSS was said to run counter to the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. The Institute's then Executive President Julio Frenk disputed these charges. This research employs an archive of tobacco industry documents triangulated with materials from commercial, media, regulatory and NGO sources to examine the financial relations between Slim and the tobacco industry. The paper analyses Slim's continuing service to the industry and role in ICSS. It demonstrates a prima facie conflict of interest between ICSS's health mission and its founder's involvement in cigarette manufacturing and marketing, reflected on ICSS's website as a resounding silence on issues of tobacco and health. It is concluded that the reliance of international health agencies upon the commercial sector requires more robust institutional policies to effectively regulate conflicts of interest. PMID:21088061

  1. Uneasy money: the Instituto Carlos Slim de la Salud, tobacco philanthropy and conflict of interest in global health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burch, Tiffany; Wander, Nathaniel; Collin, Jeff

    2010-12-01

    In May 2007, the Instituto Carso de la Salud-now Instituto Carlos Slim de la Salud (ICSS)-was endowed with US$500 million to focus on priority health issues in Latin America, notably issues of 'globalisation and non-communicable diseases'. ICSS was soon criticised, however, on the grounds that its funding was derived from tobacco industry profits and that its founder Carlos Slim Hélu remained an active industry principal. Collaboration with ICSS was said to run counter to the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. The Institute's then Executive President Julio Frenk disputed these charges. This research employs an archive of tobacco industry documents triangulated with materials from commercial, media, regulatory and NGO sources to examine the financial relations between Slim and the tobacco industry. The paper analyses Slim's continuing service to the industry and role in ICSS. It demonstrates a prima facie conflict of interest between ICSS's health mission and its founder's involvement in cigarette manufacturing and marketing, reflected on ICSS's website as a resounding silence on issues of tobacco and health. It is concluded that the reliance of international health agencies upon the commercial sector requires more robust institutional policies to effectively regulate conflicts of interest.

  2. Conflict, Space and Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Schoonderbeek

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Footprint 19 focuses on the more recent roles of architecture in the contemporary spaces of conflict. Departing from a spatial understanding of geopolitical, climatological and economical conflicts, the various contributions highlight the large scale and phenomenal transitions in the physical world and in society by extrapolating, through examples, the abundance of relations that can be traced between conflict, territory and architecture. Conflict areas often prove to be fertile grounds for innovation and for the emergence of new spatial forms. The issue reports on the state of perpetual global unrest in architecture through a series of articles and case studies that highlight the consequences of conflicts in the places and spaces that we inhabit. In the introduction, these are discussed as an interlinked global reality rather than as isolated incidents. In doing so, the contemporary spaces of conflict are positioned in the context of emerging global trends, conditions, and discourses in the attempt to address their indicative symptoms while reflecting on their underlying causes.

  3. Controlling Conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Update on Law-Related Education, 1991

    1991-01-01

    Presents a lesson plan for teaching students basic conflict resolution techniques. Calls upon students to identify issues that can lead to interpersonal confrontation, use active listening techniques, and analyze and select alternatives to conflict. Includes handouts, discussion topics, and an explanation of methods of conflict resolution. (SG)

  4. Global action to prevent war: a programme for government and grassroots efforts to stop war, genocide and other forms of deadly conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, J; Forsberg, R C; Mendlovitz, S

    2000-01-01

    At the end of history's bloodiest century and the outset of a new millennium, we have an opportunity to fulfil one of humanity's oldest dreams: making the world largely free of war. Global changes make this goal achievable. Nuclear weapons have shown the folly of war. For the first time, there is no war and no immediate prospect of war among the main military powers. For the first time, many proven measures to prevent armed conflict, distilled in the crucible of this century's wars, are available. If systematically applied, these measures can sharply decrease the frequency and violence of war, genocide, and other forms of deadly conflict. To seize the opportunity, nations should adopt a comprehensive programme to reduce conventional armaments and armed conflict. This programme will complement and strengthen efforts to eliminate nuclear arms. To assure its ongoing worldwide implementation, the conventional reduction programme should be placed in a treaty framework. We propose a four-phased process, with three treaties, each lasting five to ten years, to lay the groundwork for the fourth treaty, which will establish a permanent international security system. The main objectives of the treaties are to achieve: 1. A verified commitment to provide full transparency on conventional armed forces and military spending, not to increase forces during negotiations on arms reductions, and to increase the resources allocated to multilateral conflict prevention and peacekeeping. 2. Substantial worldwide cuts in national armed forces and military spending and further strengthening of United Nations and regional peacekeeping and peace-enforcement capabilities. 3. A trial of a watershed commitment by participating nations, including the major powers, not to deploy their armed forces beyond national borders except in a multilateral action under UN or regional auspices. 4. A permanent transfer to the UN and regional security organizations of the authority and capability for armed

  5. Review of Sex, Drugs and Body Counts: The Politics of Numbers in Global Crime and Conflict, edited by Peter Andreas and Kelly M. Greenhill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron G. Montgomery

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Andreas, Peter, and Greenhill, Kelly M. (Eds.. Sex, Drugs, and Body Counts: The Politics of Numbers in Global Crime and Conflict, (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2010. 287 pp. ISBN 978-0-8014-4861-4 (cloth; ISBN 978-0-8014-7618-1 (pbk.The ten scholarly papers in Sex, Drugs and Body Counts explore the generation and propagation of numbers that drive policy decisions in the U.S. government regarding human trafficking, drug trade, and armed conflict (including the war on terror. Each of these papers, written by different authors, provides an illuminating insight into how some of the numbers we hear or read in the news are derived. While the general message of the papers tends to be depressing, namely that the numbers driving U.S. policy vary from being slightly suspect to clearly fabricated, the book does provide positive examples of how accurate numbers can be obtained and how the numbers that are being used can be interpreted. As a teaching resource, the book provides instructors an opportunity to deepen their understanding of how quantitative data are used in U.S. policy, allowing them to explore these issues in class. Individual papers from the book could be used in a general education course (either in mathematics or in a field related to the topics as a way to introduce students to reading quantitatively dense material. In a course more focused on the topics of the book and with a more quantitatively literate audience, the entire book could probably be assigned as reading.

  6. Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tulio Rosembuj

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available There is no singular globalization, nor is the result of an individual agent. We could start by saying that global action has different angles and subjects who perform it are different, as well as its objectives. The global is an invisible invasion of materials and immediate effects.

  7. Globalization

    OpenAIRE

    Tulio Rosembuj

    2006-01-01

    There is no singular globalization, nor is the result of an individual agent. We could start by saying that global action has different angles and subjects who perform it are different, as well as its objectives. The global is an invisible invasion of materials and immediate effects.

  8. Globalization

    OpenAIRE

    Andru?cã Maria Carmen

    2013-01-01

    The field of globalization has highlighted an interdependence implied by a more harmonious understanding determined by the daily interaction between nations through the inducement of peace and the management of streamlining and the effectiveness of the global economy. For the functioning of the globalization, the developing countries that can be helped by the developed ones must be involved. The international community can contribute to the institution of the development environment of the gl...

  9. Conflict management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, M

    1988-01-01

    This case study illustrates alternative approaches to conflict resolution. Although the case is fictitious, it describes a situation that is common in the workplace, i.e., the attempt of a coworker to undermine the respect, power, and authority of another staff member. The purpose of this case is to not only identify several approaches to conflict resolution but also to illustrate why some approaches can be more effective than others. Clearly, conflict that is ignored and unresolved does not usually go away. It festers and eventually becomes an even more serious problem.

  10. Mutable Conflicts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kublitz, Anja

    term Nakba literally means catastrophe and usually refers to the Arab-Israeli war of 1948, when the state of Israel was declared and more than 700,000 Palestinians became stateless. Among Palestinians in Denmark, though, the concept of Nakba is used in two additional ways. Namely to embrace...... to a specific place of origin and that movement of conflicts or peace can be described as relations between homeland and diaspora. Based on 16 months of fieldwork among Palestinians in Denmark this paper challenges this assumption and offers a different conceptualization of conflicts on the move. The Arabic......Within the field of ‘transnational conflicts’ a wide range of studies have explored how diasporas may contribute to or diminish conflicts within their homeland by sending remittances or weapons or by partaking in NGOs. A common assumption in this literature is that conflicts are linked...

  11. Conflict: Organizational

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clegg, Stewart; Mikkelsen, Elisabeth Naima; Sewell, Graham

    2015-01-01

    This article examines four contemporary treatments of the problem of organizational conflict: social psychological, anthropological, neo-Darwinian, and neo-Machiavellian. Social psychological treatments of organizational conflict focus on the dyadic relationship between individual disputants....... In contrast, anthropological treatments take a more socially and historically embedded approach to organizational conflict, focusing on how organizational actors establish negotiated orders of understanding. In a break with the social psychological and anthropological approaches, neo-Darwinians explain...... the characteristics of organizational conflict by appealing to the concept of natural selection: all forms of organizational behavior, including conflictual relations, stem from the effects of heritable traits associated with a universal human nature. Finally, this article proposes a neo-Machiavellian view...

  12. Parenting Conflicts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... say, "You can't watch TV until your homework is finished"; but when she's away, Dad may ... difference Taking each other's feelings seriously Generating alternative solutions together Negotiating Remember, the way you handle conflict ...

  13. Emotional Dynamics in Conflict and Conflict Transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poder, Poul; Bramsen, Isabel

    2018-01-01

    Isabel Bramsen & Poul Poder 2018. Emotional Dynamics in Conflict and Conflict Transformation. Berghof Handbook for Conflict Transformation, Online Edition. Berlin: Berghof Foundation. Conflict and Conflict Transformation. Berghof Handbook for Conflict Transformation, Online Edition. Berlin: Berghof Foundation.

  14. Against Globalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philipsen, Lotte; Baggesgaard, Mads Anders

    2013-01-01

    In order to understand globalization, we need to consider what globalization is not. That is, in order to understand the mechanisms and elements that work toward globalization, we must, in a sense, read against globalization, highlighting the limitations of the concept and its inherent conflicts....... Only by employing this as a critical practice will we be analytically able to gain a dynamic understanding of the forces of globalization as they unfold today and as they have developed historically....

  15. Conflicts about Conflict of Interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Terrence

    2016-07-01

    Pharmaceutical representatives use detailing, gift giving, and the donation of free samples as a means to gain access to and influence over physicians. In biomedical ethics, there has been an ongoing debate as to whether these practices constitute an unethical conflict of interest (COI) on the part of the physician. Underlying this debate are the following antecedent questions: (1) what counts as a conflict of interest, (2) when are such conflicts unethical, and (3) how should the ethical physician respond to conflicts? This article distinguishes between two perspectives that have been developed on these issues: a reliable performance model (PM) and a trustworthiness model (TM). PM advocates argue that a conflict of interest can only be established by demonstrating that a particular influence is undermining the reliability of the physician's judgment, and this requires empirical evidence of negative patient outcomes. TM advocates, on the other hand, argue that because of the fiduciary nature of the patient-physician relationship, physicians have an obligation to develop and be worthy of patient trust. A COI, on this view, is a condition that undermines the warrant for patients to judge a physician as trustworthy. Although there is much that is right in the PM, it is argued that the TM does a better job of responsibly addressing the unique vulnerabilities of the patient. The TM is then applied to the practices of detailing, gift giving, and sample donation. It is concluded that these practices constitute an unethical conflict of interest.

  16. Confronting conflicts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agger, Annika

    in public policy conflicts? And how do they incorporate principles such as fairness, inclusive representation and autonomy? - How do public administrators balance between the demands of public authorities and the needs of multiple stakeholders involved in collaborative governance processes? Based...... practices of spatial planning and urban policy in order to answer questions such as: - What dilemmas, challenges and conflicts do public administrators experience in new forms of competing rationalities of governance processes and how do they cope with it? - How do they mediate between different interests...

  17. Mutable Conflicts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kublitz, Anja

    The Arabic term al-Nakba literally means the catastrophe and is used in Palestinian national discourse to designate the outcome of the Arab-Israeli war of 1948, when the state of Israel was declared and more than 700,000 Palestinians became stateless. Among Palestinians in Denmark, though, the co...... off what is at hand within a specific milieu at a given time, such as contemporary conflicts, artefacts and people. It is this plasticity that enables the conflict to be recreated anew and to become meaningful in new settings and at different times....

  18. Globalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plum, Maja

    Globalization is often referred to as external to education - a state of affair facing the modern curriculum with numerous challenges. In this paper it is examined as internal to curriculum; analysed as a problematization in a Foucaultian sense. That is, as a complex of attentions, worries, ways...... of reasoning, producing curricular variables. The analysis is made through an example of early childhood curriculum in Danish Pre-school, and the way the curricular variable of the pre-school child comes into being through globalization as a problematization, carried forth by the comparative practices of PISA...

  19. Globalization

    OpenAIRE

    F. Gerard Adams

    2008-01-01

    The rapid globalization of the world economy is causing fundamental changes in patterns of trade and finance. Some economists have argued that globalization has arrived and that the world is “flat†. While the geographic scope of markets has increased, the author argues that new patterns of trade and finance are a result of the discrepancies between “old†countries and “new†. As the differences are gradually wiped out, particularly if knowledge and technology spread worldwide, the t...

  20. Flexibility conflict?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delsen, L.W.M.; Bauer, F.; Groß, H.; Sieglen, G.

    2002-01-01

    The chapter deals with the presupposed conflict of interests between employers and employees resulting from a decoupling of operating hours and working times. It starts from the notion that both long operating hours and flexibility are relative concepts. As there is some discretion, the ultimate

  1. Conflict: Organizational

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clegg, Stewart; Mikkelsen, Elisabeth Naima; Sewell, Graham

    2015-01-01

    the characteristics of organizational conflict by appealing to the concept of natural selection: all forms of organizational behavior, including conflictual relations, stem from the effects of heritable traits associated with a universal human nature. Finally, this article proposes a neo-Machiavellian view...

  2. Why Do Policy Leaders Adopt Global Education Reforms? A Political Analysis of SBM Reform Adoption in Post-Conflict Bosnia and Herzegovina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatsu, Taro

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a political analysis of school-based management reform in Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH). School-based management (SBM), based on the principle of school autonomy and community participation, is a school governance system introduced in many parts of the world, including post-conflict nations. Such a phenomenon seems to follow the…

  3. Globalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plum, Maja

    Globalization is often referred to as external to education - a state of affair facing the modern curriculum with numerous challenges. In this paper it is examined as internal to curriculum; analysed as a problematization in a Foucaultian sense. That is, as a complex of attentions, worries, ways...... of reasoning, producing curricular variables. The analysis is made through an example of early childhood curriculum in Danish Pre-school, and the way the curricular variable of the pre-school child comes into being through globalization as a problematization, carried forth by the comparative practices of PISA....... It thus explores the systems of reason that educational comparative practices carry through time; focusing on the way configurations are reproduced and transformed, forming the pre-school child as a central curricular variable....

  4. Mutable Conflicts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kublitz, Anja

    The Arabic term al-Nakba literally means the catastrophe and is used in Palestinian national discourse to designate the outcome of the Arab-Israeli war of 1948, when the state of Israel was declared and more than 700,000 Palestinians became stateless. Among Palestinians in Denmark, though......, the concept of Nakba is used in two additional ways. Namely, to embrace their everyday life in Denmark, and to single out specific contemporary political events, like the publishing of the cartoons of the Prophet Muhammad in 2005, local clashes with the Danish police and the Israeli invasions of Lebanon...... off what is at hand within a specific milieu at a given time, such as contemporary conflicts, artefacts and people. It is this plasticity that enables the conflict to be recreated anew and to become meaningful in new settings and at different times....

  5. Dynamic Chaos, Conflicts in the Greater Middle East and Global Governance Mechanisms in the XXI Century (Proceedings of PFUR's Expert Seminars and Situational Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Andreevich Degterev

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article summarizes the experience of methodological expert seminars and case studies of international conflict of the Department of Theory and History of International Relations of the Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences at Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia. The background and the main stages of elaboration of PFUR’s integrated multidisciplinary methodology of situation analysis of international conflicts are described. The evolution of methodological approaches to conflict analysis used in the expert community, from classical methods, including the method of analytic hierarchy by T. Saati to the nonlinear dynamics of the processes of regional development and the perception of the international system as a non-equilibrium system are shown, as well as possibilities of use of approaches of the natural sciences (theory of complex systems in the modeling of international relations. Particular attention is paid to the results of PFUR's situational analysis 2015 “Greater Middle East: twenty years later (1994-2014”. The authors show us the methodology of situation analysis in details, including the matrix approach to the distribution of research topics and the method of ranking research tasks by difficulty level between different categories of participants (students, masters, postgraduate students, teachers. A special focus is made on proceedings of leading orientalists from Russia (Institute of Oriental Studies, Russian Academy of Science and foreign countries (Austria, UK. The directions of further improvement of PFUR's methods of situational analysis are provided.

  6. Conceptions of Conflict in Organizational Conflict Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Elisabeth Naima; Clegg, Stewart

    2017-01-01

    from a more reflexive approach and advance our understanding of conflict. In this essay, we emphasize how philosophical and political assumptions about conflict frame knowledge production within the field and we encourage future theory development to build on different notions of conflict to become......Diverse and often unacknowledged assumptions underlie organizational conflict research. In this essay, we identify distinct ways of conceptualizing conflict in the theoretical domain of organizational conflict with the aim of setting a new critical agenda for reflexivity in conflict research....... In doing so, we first apply a genealogical approach to study conceptions of conflict, and we find that three distinct and essentially contested conceptions frame studies of conflict at work. Second, we employ two empirical examples of conflict to illustrate how organizational conflict research can benefit...

  7. Climate change, conflict and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowles, Devin C; Butler, Colin D; Morisetti, Neil

    2015-10-01

    Future climate change is predicted to diminish essential natural resource availability in many regions and perhaps globally. The resulting scarcity of water, food and livelihoods could lead to increasingly desperate populations that challenge governments, enhancing the risk of intra- and interstate conflict. Defence establishments and some political scientists view climate change as a potential threat to peace. While the medical literature increasingly recognises climate change as a fundamental health risk, the dimension of climate change-associated conflict has so far received little attention, despite its profound health implications. Many analysts link climate change with a heightened risk of conflict via causal pathways which involve diminishing or changing resource availability. Plausible consequences include: increased frequency of civil conflict in developing countries; terrorism, asymmetric warfare, state failure; and major regional conflicts. The medical understanding of these threats is inadequate, given the scale of health implications. The medical and public health communities have often been reluctant to interpret conflict as a health issue. However, at times, medical workers have proven powerful and effective peace advocates, most notably with regard to nuclear disarmament. The public is more motivated to mitigate climate change when it is framed as a health issue. Improved medical understanding of the association between climate change and conflict could strengthen mitigation efforts and increase cooperation to cope with the climate change that is now inevitable. © The Royal Society of Medicine.

  8. [Scientific conflicts. Conflict over water].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietschmann, Herbert

    2005-01-01

    Scientific progress results from conflicts about the existence of new phenomena. Two theorems are formulated: Whatever is predicted by a sufficiently famous theorist will be discovered independently of whether it exists or not. Thus the criterion for existence of a phenomenon is not its discovery but rather its reproducibility! Whatever is "discovered" by a sufficiently famous experimentalist will be explained independently of its existence. Thus the criterion for understanding a phenomenon is not an explanation but rather the unanimous acceptance of one single explanation. It is argued that the optimal intention of scientists is to be critical but not rigid and at the same time open but not credulous. Since the intentions "open" and "critical" are in opposition, the historical path of science often oscillates between the two extremes "credulous" and "rigid". This is demonstrated by historical examples and applied to the special case of water.

  9. Healthy Conflict Management

    OpenAIRE

    Brower, Naomi

    2012-01-01

    Without healthy conflict management skills, conflict can often escalate or intensify over time. This fact sheet gives tips on utilizing key negotiation skills to help individuals effectively address and cope with conflict and potentially build stronger relationships with others.

  10. Varieties of Organizational Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pondy, Louis R.

    1969-01-01

    The viewpoints and findings of the seven empirical studies of organizational conflict contained in this issue are compared and contrasted. A distinction is made between conflict within a stable organization structure and conflict aimed at changing the organization structure. (Author)

  11. Managing Organizational Conflict

    OpenAIRE

    Mitali PATHAK

    2010-01-01

    The concept of conflict, being an outcome of behaviours, is an integral part of human life. Wherever there is a difference of opinion there are chances of conflict. Managing conflict effectively demands multifarious professional abilities and acumen. To resolve and manage conflict, the organisations must understand the causes, theories, approaches and strategies of conflict management. Conflict and stress are interlinked as they are dependent on each other. It is a psychological phenomenon th...

  12. Conflict minerals from the Democratic Republic of the Congo: global tungsten processing plants, a critical part of the tungsten supply chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermúdez-Lugo, Omayra

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) analyzes supply chains to identify and define major components of mineral and material flows from ore extraction, through intermediate forms, to a final product. Two major reasons necessitate these analyses: (1) to identify risks associated with the supply of critical and strategic minerals to the United States and (2) to provide greater supply chain transparency so that policymakers have the information necessary to ensure domestic legislation compliance. This fact sheet focuses on the latter. The USGS National Minerals Information Center has been asked by governmental and non-governmental organizations to provide information on tin, tantalum, tungsten, and gold (collectively known as “3TG minerals”) processing facilities worldwide in response to U.S. legislation aimed at removing the link between the trade in these minerals and civil unrest in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Post beneficiation processing plants (smelters and refineries) of 3TG mineral ores and concentrates were identified by company and industry association representatives as being the link in the 3TG mineral supply chain through which these minerals can be traced to their source of origin (mine); determining the point of origin is critical to establishing a transparent conflict mineral supply chain. This fact sheet, the first in a series of 3TG mineral fact sheets, focuses on the tungsten supply chain by listing plants that consume tungsten concentrates to produce ammonium paratungstate and ferrotungsten worldwide.

  13. Multidisciplinary perspectives on intercultural conflict: the ‘Bermuda Triangle’ of conflict, culture and communication.

    OpenAIRE

    Van Meurs, Nathalie; Spencer-Oatey, Helen

    2007-01-01

    A few decades ago, managers spent more than 20% of their time trying to resolve conflicts (Thomas and Schmidt 1976). Nowadays, conflicts are probably even more complex and time consuming to resolve, because technological advances, the world‟s exponential growth rate, and globalization have led to increased contact between culturally diverse people. Different norms, values, and language can make negotiating more stressful and less satisfactory (Brett and Okumura 1998), and conflict cannot be m...

  14. Understanding Conflict?...Maybe!

    OpenAIRE

    Anthony P. Johnson

    2008-01-01

    The premise of this paper is the study in the field of conflict andconflict resolution and that conflict and conflict resolution are usefulareas of focus in order to better understand human behavior. Additionally,I will present data that will highlight the notion that conflict is not in itselfa bad thing and that conflict has the capability to be utilized as a vehiclefor understanding the many contradictions that are necessarily present inour efforts to be social beings.

  15. Politics and Power in Global Health: The Constituting Role of Conflicts: Comment on "Navigating Between Stealth Advocacy and Unconscious Dogmatism: The Challenge of Researching the Norms, Politics and Power of Global Health".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askheim, Clemet; Heggen, Kristin; Engebretsen, Eivind

    2015-10-15

    In a recent article, Gorik Ooms has drawn attention to the normative underpinnings of the politics of global health. We claim that Ooms is indirectly submitting to a liberal conception of politics by framing the politics of global health as a question of individual morality. Drawing on the theoretical works of Chantal Mouffe, we introduce a conflictual concept of the political as an alternative to Ooms' conception. Using controversies surrounding medical treatment of AIDS patients in developing countries as a case we underline the opportunity for political changes, through political articulation of an issue, and collective mobilization based on such an articulation. © 2016 by Kerman University of Medical Sciences.

  16. The Context Is the Message?! Learning about the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict through Computerized Simulations in Different National Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampf, Ronit

    2016-01-01

    Two cross-national experimental studies examined the effects of PeaceMaker and Global Conflicts on knowledge acquisition and attitude change regarding the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. PeaceMaker and Global Conflicts are role-playing computerized simulations of this conflict. 248 undergraduate students from Turkey, Israel, Palestine and the US…

  17. Conflict-Triggered Top-Down Control: Default Mode, Last Resort, or No Such Thing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugg, Julie M.

    2014-01-01

    The conflict monitoring account posits that globally high levels of conflict trigger engagement of top-down control; however, recent findings point to the mercurial nature of top-down control in high conflict contexts. The current study examined the potential moderating effect of associative learning on conflict-triggered top-down control…

  18. Interparental Conflict and Adolescents' Romantic Relationship Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Valerie A.; Furman, Wyndol

    2010-01-01

    This study examined associations between interparental conflict and adolescents' romantic relationship conflict. High school seniors (N = 183) who lived with married parents completed questionnaires about their parents' marriage and their own romantic relationships. A subset of 88 adolescents was also observed interacting with their romantic…

  19. CONFLICT AND CONFLICT MANAGEMENT: A SPRINGBOARD ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Organisational conflict manifests in various forms and has differing causative factors. Social factors like inadequate motivation, political interference in labour issues and undue pressure exerted on the organisational structure by employers of labour often cause conflicts in organisations. No wonder Odoh (2006) detailed the.

  20. The European Union and Military Conflict Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodt, Annemarie Peen

    This book provides the first comprehensive review of the European Union’s role in military conflict management beyond its borders and makes an important contribution to debates on the EU’s role in global security governance. The EU has launched five military operations within the framework of its...... Common Security and Defence Policy with the explicit purpose to help manage violent conflicts beyond its borders. This book develops a definition and a set of criteria for success in military conflict management and applies this new analytical framework in a comparative case study of the five EU military...

  1. Heuristics in Conflict Resolution

    OpenAIRE

    Drescher, Christian; Gebser, Martin; Kaufmann, Benjamin; Schaub, Torsten

    2010-01-01

    Modern solvers for Boolean Satisfiability (SAT) and Answer Set Programming (ASP) are based on sophisticated Boolean constraint solving techniques. In both areas, conflict-driven learning and related techniques constitute key features whose application is enabled by conflict analysis. Although various conflict analysis schemes have been proposed, implemented, and studied both theoretically and practically in the SAT area, the heuristic aspects involved in conflict analysis have not yet receive...

  2. Mensenrechten in Conflict

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quirine Eijkman; M. Parlevliet

    2016-01-01

    Hoofdstuk 13 in Handboek Conflict. Titel: Mensenrechten in conflict. Inhoudsopgave: 13.1 Mensenrechten 13.2 Mensenrechtenschendingen als gevolg en oorzaak van conflict 13.3 Mensenrechten in conflictoplossing 13.4 Dilemmas in de praktijk 13.5 Conclusie

  3. Creative Conflict Resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prutzman, Priscilla

    1994-01-01

    The article presents several activities designed to sharpen students' listening and observation skills and help them practice finding and evaluating alternatives to classroom conflicts and conflicts they may encounter elsewhere. Activities include solution skits, role playing, reading and writing conflict stories, and making comic strips. (SM)

  4. Conflict resolution in adolescent relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Doorn, M.D.

    2008-01-01

    Conflict is an inevitable feature of social relationships. When people interact, disagreements may arise. Especially in close relationships, people sometimes disagree. Although conflict might jeopardize relationships, conflict is not necessarily detrimental. The way conflicts are handled is

  5. Conflicts and social impacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Sanne Vammen; Hansen, Anne Merrild; Nielsen, Helle

    2017-01-01

    of such conflicts, and the role social impacts play. The paper analyses in depth four cases of renewable energy projects, utilizing a conceptualization of conflict constituted by three elements: Attitude, behavior and contradictions. Through analysis of EIA reports and hearing responses as well as interviews......, the paper digs deeper to nuance what constitutes the conflicts and what role social impacts play.......The transition to renewable energy is currently in many places challenged by conflicts over specific projects. For example siting of onshore wind turbines often causes conflicts with local communities, sometimes leading to abandonment of the project or plan. This paper presents an analysis...

  6. Managing intercultural conflict effectively

    CERN Document Server

    Ting-Toomey, Stella

    2001-01-01

    In this volume, Ting-Toomey and Oetzel accomplish two objectives: to explain the culture-based situational conflict model, including the relationship among conflict, ethnicity, and culture; and, second, integrate theory and practice in the discussion of interpersonal conflict in culture, ethnic, and gender contexts. While the book is theoretically directed, it is also a down-to-earth practical book that contains ample examples, conflict dialogues, and critical incidents. Managing Intercultural Conflict Effectively helps to illustrate the complexity of intercultural conflict interactions and readers will gain a broad yet integrative perspective in assessing intercultural conflict situations. The book is a multidisciplinary text that draws from the research work of a variety of disciplines such as cross-cultural psychology, social psychology, sociology, marital and family studies, international management, and communication.

  7. Conflict or Consensus?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agger, Annika; Poulsen, Birgitte

    forms of institutional design of citizen participation processes, less attention has been paid to the role of public administrators, and their role in facilitating processes of citizen participation. Public administrators have to work with diverse groups of citizens with diverging, and often conflicting......, interests. However, many public administrators have not been adequately exposed to the rationales of conflicts and the skills in resolving conflicts. The aim of this paper is to analyse the different types of conflicts that public administrators experience in formal processes of citizen involvement. Whereas...... the literature of deliberative democracy claims that consensus is most often the result of rational deliberative processes, the claim of this paper is that conflicts is more likely a natural and integrated part of such deliberative acts. Conflicts are, thus, seen as inevitable. Also conflicts may function...

  8. Enhancing conflict competency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waite, Roberta; McKinney, Nicole S

    2014-01-01

    Professional nurses are taking on leadership roles of diverse healthcare teams. Development of conflict competence is essential, yet requires self-awareness and deliberate effort. Heightened awareness of one's preferred conflict style and cognizance of the implications of overuse and/or underuse of these styles is important. DESIGN/METHODOLOGICAL APPROACH: A pre-post survey design (N = 14) used paired sample T-test. Paired sample correlations and an overview of the paired sample test are reported. Students gained self-awareness about their preferred conflict style, recognized that each conflict style has its utility depending on any given situation, and demonstrated a difference in their most frequently used style. Limited data conveys conflict behavior styles among pre-licensure nursing; however, students can influence their own environments (either causing or fueling situations) by their personal conflict-handling styles. Early development of these skills can raise awareness and cultivate ease in the management of conflict within varied settings.

  9. The Impact of Globalization on African Conflicts

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Addo, Jonathan

    2003-01-01

    There is no region of this world that not experienced wars, but while many parts of the world have moved towards greater political and economic stability and co-operation, sub-Saharan Africa remains...

  10. Globalization strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Shimizu, Ryuei

    1992-01-01

    History of overseas strategies of Japanese firms can be divided into three periods; until 1960's, when import and export were the main focus; from 1970's to the first half of 1980's, when establishing overseas bases was a major interest for clear purposes of reducing labor cost, averting trade conflicts, or securing natural resources; and after 1985, when strategy started to be formulated from more global viewpoint in order to cope with new situation arising from stronger yen and Japan having...

  11. Resolving conflicts within organization

    OpenAIRE

    Augulytė, Rūta

    2016-01-01

    Interaction between individuals, whether it would be with colleagues, business partners or supervisors, is inevitable in every organisation. Collaborative work and aim for common goals encourages idea, experience and insight exchange. From time to time differences in opinions might arise, which result in value- related or intellectual clash, also known as a conflict. Therefore, it is paramount to know how to manage conflicts. In order to successfully overcome the conflicts, organisations shou...

  12. Committees and Conflict: Developing a Conflict Resolution Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaulding, Angela

    2002-01-01

    Describes development of conflict-resolution framework to address committee conflict. Describes several conflict-resolution strategies. Matches appropriate strategies with different types of committee conflict. For example, compromise is listed at the appropriate strategy to resolve interpersonal conflict. (Contains 24 references.) (PKP)

  13. The European Union and Military Conflict Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodt, Annemarie Peen

    This book provides the first comprehensive review of the European Union’s role in military conflict management beyond its borders and makes an important contribution to debates on the EU’s role in global security governance. The EU has launched five military operations within the framework of its...

  14. Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Culture, Conflict, and Negotiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-28

    negotiator cognition: Judgement accuracy and negotiation processes in individualistic and collectivistic cultures", Organizational Behavior and Human...Interdisciplinary perspectives on culture, conflict, and negotiation! LYNN IMAI and MICHELE J. GELFAND There is no doubt that many of the greatest...motivation, group dynamics. or globalization. The value - if not the necessity - of interdisciplinary perspectives is indisputable. Organizational

  15. ENSO influences the onset of violent conflicts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, K. C.; Hsiang, S. M.

    2009-12-01

    Climatic changes are frequently cited as a possible external driver of violent conflict in human societies. Qualitative studies suggest that climatic shifts may stress populations and be conducive to violent conflict. Statistical evidence has shown that anomalous local rainfall is correlated with the onset of conflict. This study finds that in addition to idiosyncratic weather events, climatic states also play a role in triggering violent conflict. El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO), the semi-periodic, oceanic Kelvin wave in the tropical Pacific, induces remote temperatures in the tropical free troposphere to rise. This ``ENSO teleconnection'' is not globally uniform and is felt most strongly in the tropical regions during the boreal winter. To determine the degree in which country-level climatic conditions are affected by ENSO, an absolute correlation measure between surface temperature and two ENSO indices was calculated for every country for the period 1949-2009. Countries with high levels of correlation are labeled “ENSO affected,” while countries with low correlation are labeled “ENSO unaffected”. Thus, historical variation in ENSO serves as a ``natural experiment'': if the state of ENSO influences conflict onset, it should be apparent for ENSO affected countries but not for unaffected countries. Using the UCDP/PRIO Armed Conflict Dataset, we find evidence of a large and statistically significant influence of ENSO on the onset of violent conflict. Between 1949-2009, the average probability of a conflict beginning in any country was 0.03. For the ENSO affected countries, we find that a 1°C rise in either NINO12 or NINO34 is associated with an increased probability of conflict onset by 0.015 (or 50% of the global country average). A relationship was not detected for the ENSO unaffected group of countries. This result is robust to a range of statistical models. Nonparametric methods (see figure) also indicate a marked difference in the response of ENSO

  16. Multicultural team conflict management

    OpenAIRE

    Krystyna Heinz

    2014-01-01

    The article presents the potential problems related to conflict resolution while cooperating in multicultural teams. Special attention is paid to specific character of such teams as well as to the concept of productive conflict and the ways of resolving it. The experiences gained in the Erasmus Intenstive Programme - Effective Working in Multicultural Teams were used.

  17. Multicultural team conflict management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Heinz

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the potential problems related to conflict resolution while cooperating in multicultural teams. Special attention is paid to specific character of such teams as well as to the concept of productive conflict and the ways of resolving it. The experiences gained in the Erasmus Intenstive Programme - Effective Working in Multicultural Teams were used.

  18. High-Conflict Divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Janet R.

    1994-01-01

    Reviews available research studies of high-conflict divorce and its effects on children. Factors believed to contribute to high-conflict divorce are explored, and a model of their interrelationships is proposed. Dispute resolution, intervention, and prevention programs are discussed, and implications for social policy are outlined. (SLD)

  19. Climate shocks and conflict

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papaioannou, Kostadis J.

    2016-01-01

    This paper offers a historical micro-level analysis of the impact of climate shocks on the incidence of civil conflict in colonial Nigeria (1912-1945). Primary historical sources on court cases, prisoners and homicides are used to capture conflict. To measure climate shocks we use the deviation

  20. Conflict in Cyber Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Karsten; Ringsmose, Jens

    Over the past two decades, a new man-made domain of conflict has materialized. Alongside armed conflict in the domains of land, sea, air, and space, hostilities between different types of political actors are now taking place in cyberspace. This volume addresses the challenges posed by cyberspace...

  1. Conflict and memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagoner, Brady; Brescó, Ignacio

    2016-01-01

    This introduction to the special issue on conflict and memory aims to underscore the importance of memory (whether individual and collective) in relation to intergroup conflicts. We argue that the way in which societies reconstruct and bring the past into the present—especially, the historical past......—is crucial when it comes to the study of intergroup conflict dynamics. In this regard, we also highlight the growing importance of memory studies within the area of social sciences as well as the multiple ways of approaching memory. Drawing from this wide theoretical framework, we introduce the articles...... of this issue, eight articles that tackle the role of memory in different conflicts, whether currently under way, in progress of being resolved, in postwar settings, or in contexts conflicts expected to happen do not arise....

  2. Dialectic and conflicts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højholt, Charlotte; Kousholt, Dorte

    to turn into conflicts and the conflicts have personal and existential meanings to the participant in social practice (related to their possibilities for conducting everyday life) and they are historical and political (related to societal questions about education). We draw on conceptualizations of social......In this paper, we aim to develop a dialectical approach to analyzing social conflicts concerning children’s school life. Public education can be seen as a common cause different parties at the same time are engaged in and conflicting about. We want to discuss this unity between the distribution...... practice as contradictory and developed through its contradictions (Lave, Dreier, Axel). The theoretical discussion will be illustrated through examples from conflicts between children and between parents - in relation to dealing with focus on the tasks of the school as well as flexibility in relation...

  3. Darfur: rainfall and conflict

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kevane, Michael; Gray, Leslie

    2008-01-01

    Data on rainfall patterns only weakly corroborate the claim that climate change explains the Darfur conflict that began in 2003 and has claimed more than 200 000 lives and displaced more than two million persons. Rainfall in Darfur did not decline significantly in the years prior to the eruption of major conflict in 2003; rainfall exhibited a flat trend in the thirty years preceding the conflict (1972-2002). The rainfall evidence suggests instead a break around 1971. Rainfall is basically stationary over the pre- and post-1971 sub-periods. The break is larger for the more northerly rainfall stations, and is less noticeable for En Nahud. Rainfall in Darfur did indeed decline, but the decline happened over 30 years before the conflict erupted. Preliminary analysis suggests little merit to the proposition that a structural break several decades earlier is a reasonable predictor of the outbreak of large-scale civil conflict in Africa

  4. Assessing Psychodynamic Conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmonds, Joshua; Constantinides, Prometheas; Perry, J Christopher; Drapeau, Martin; Sheptycki, Amanda R

    2015-09-01

    Psychodynamic psychotherapies suggest that symptomatic relief is provided, in part, with the resolution of psychic conflicts. Clinical researchers have used innovative methods to investigate such phenomenon. This article aims to review the literature on quantitative psychodynamic conflict rating scales. An electronic search of the literature was conducted to retrieve quantitative observer-rated scales used to assess conflict noting each measure's theoretical model, information source, and training and clinical experience required. Scales were also examined for levels of reliability and validity. Five quantitative observer-rated conflict scales were identified. Reliability varied from poor to excellent with each measure demonstrating good validity. However a small number of studies and limited links to current conflict theory suggest further clinical research is needed.

  5. Fulani herdsmen's pastoral activities, conflict and conflict ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of crop farmers and nomads respectively had less than 20 years of farming experience Also the results showed that problems encountered by the crop farmers were crop destruction (22.89 %) and sexual harassment (20.65 %) while cattle theft (69.57 %) and language barrier (30.43 %) were those of the nomads. Conflicts ...

  6. The role of aggressive personality and family relationships in explaining family conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horwitz, Briana N; Ganiban, Jody M; Spotts, Erica L; Lichtenstein, Paul; Reiss, David; Neiderhiser, Jenae M

    2011-04-01

    This study investigated whether genetic and environmental influences on global family conflict are explained by parents' personality, marital quality, and negative parenting. The sample comprised 876 same-sex pairs of twins, their spouses, and one adolescent child per twin from the Twin and Offspring Study in Sweden. Genetic influences on aggressive personality were correlated with genetic influences on global family conflict. Nonshared environmental influences on marital quality and negative parenting were correlated with nonshared environmental influences on global family conflict. Results suggest that parents' personality and unique experiences within their family relationships are important for understanding genetic and environmental influences on global conflict in the home.

  7. Development, territory and inequality in nowadays' globalization: Current conflicts in the family farming sector in Northeast Misiones, Argentina Desarrollo, territorio y desigualdad en la globalización: Conflictos actuales en la agricultura familiar del nordeste de Misiones, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mabel Manzanal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we call into question the relationship between development, inequality and territory in the current context of globalization and within the framework of public policies designed, supposedly, to benefit those social actors with fewer resources.In order to do this, we focus on a case study in the northeast of the province of Misiones, Argentina. Here tobacco production, forestry and alternative family farming (AF (dedicated to food production are in dispute over the territory, leading to conflict over private land occupation. The analysis evidences: (a The territorial changes resulting from globalization processes in local areas. (b The ways in which these changes affect and limit the development proposals arising from public policy aimed at alleviating social inequality (... The study is based on a qualitative methodology focused on a case study and centered in interviews conducted during 2008 and 2009 to the main actors involved in the conflict over land in the northeast area of the province of Misiones, Argentina.The study shows the contradictions of public policy that proclaim productive growth and development in a legal framework for liberalization and deregulation in favor of large-scale transnational investment, underpinned by large-scale productive activities, highly demanding of land and water. Such investments, by contrast, have an insubstantial labor requirement (...En el presente trabajo buscamos poner en cuestión la relación entre desarrollo, desigualdad y territorio en el contexto actual de la globalización y en el marco de las políticas públicas dirigidas, supuestamente, a favorecer a los actores sociales de menores recursos. Para ello nos centramos en un estudio de caso en el nordeste de la provincia de Misiones, Argentina. Aquí la actividad tabacalera, la forestación y la agricultura familiar (AF alternativa (orientada a la producción de alimentos entran en disputa por el territorio, dando lugar a conflictos

  8. Ethnic Conflicts and Governmental Conflict Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-01

    sacrifices that she has made all these years. I would like to thank my parents and my little sister (Fikret, Nermin, and Nurgul) for their continuing...enthusiastic political speeches. It needs to go trough stages: infancy, adolescence , and adulthood.11 Thus, in Chapter IV, I discuss the value of...imminent conflict. In Sri Lanka, the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Elam—one of the most violent movements in the world, which seeks a Tamil state in northern

  9. Resolving Marital Conflicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Islami Hatixhe

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Couple relations are characterized as relations of an intimate nature dominated by constant interaction or strong interdependence and mutual influence of intense feelings between spouses. In marriages where there is conflict, there are typical examples of interaction, which result in high proportion of negative communicative acts that affect the quality of marital relationships such as: loss of confidence, the emergence of frustration, feelings of anxiety, discomfort, leading to escalation of marital conflicts. Communication as a variable has a large impact on the resolution of marital conflicts. The obtained results of our research indicate that the choice of different strategies of behavior in conflict situations among our respondents primarily depend on: the degree of persistence in the pursuit of its own interests and level of cooperation in addressing the interests of others.

  10. Approaches to Conflict and Conflict Resolution in Toddler Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashby, Nicole; Neilsen-Hewett, Cathrine

    2012-01-01

    The importance of conflict and its resolution for children's short- and long-term adjustment has been well established within the research literature. Conflict and conflict resolution differs according to a number of constructs, including age, gender and relationship status. The purpose of this study was to explore conflict origins, resolution…

  11. Playing With Conflict: Teaching Conflict Resolution through Simulations and Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Richard B.; Kirkpatrick, Kat

    2013-01-01

    Playing With Conflict is a weekend course for graduate students in Portland State University's Conflict Resolution program and undergraduates in all majors. Students participate in simulations, games, and experiential exercises to learn and practice conflict resolution skills. Graduate students create a guided role-play of a conflict. In addition…

  12. Ecosystemic Complexity Theory of Conflict: Understanding the Fog of Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brack, Greg; Lassiter, Pamela S.; Hill, Michele B.; Moore, Sarah A.

    2011-01-01

    Counselors often engage in conflict mediation in professional practice. A model for understanding the complex and subtle nature of conflict resolution is presented. The ecosystemic complexity theory of conflict is offered to assist practitioners in navigating the fog of conflict. Theoretical assumptions are discussed with implications for clinical…

  13. Women in conflict and indigenous conflict resolution among the Issa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article tries to show the impacts of conflict on women, the role of women in conflict and indigenous conflict resolution, and the participation of women in social institutions and ceremonies among the Issa and Gurgura clans of the Somali ethnic group. It explores the system of conflict resolution in these clans, and ...

  14. Religious fundamentalism and conflict

    OpenAIRE

    Muzaffer Ercan Yılmaz

    2006-01-01

    This study provides an analytical discussion for the issue of religious fundamentalism and itsrelevance to conflict, in its broader sense. It is stressed that religious fundamentalism manifests itself in twoways: nonviolent intolerance and violent intolerance. The sources of both types of intolerance and theirconnection to conflict are addressed and discussed in detail. Further research is also suggested on conditionsconnecting religion to nonviolent intolerance so as to cope with the problem...

  15. Juggling with network prospects and conflicts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gretzinger, Susanne; Leick, Birgit

    Innovation-based collaboration offers not only benefits in terms of value co-creation, but is also associated with major conflicts arising for various reasons. Firm-specific knowledge that constitutes the core competencies of notably small enterprises to build competitive advantage in the global...... market place collides with the need to develop knowledge bases and upgrade capabilities to innovate in collaborative networks. As a consequence, network asymmetries and emerging risks of networking reduce the chances to jointly create value. The present paper studies this context and highlights both...... the need and power of moderation and brokerage as appropriate tools for network managers to handle such conflicts. Using a case study of an innovation- and knowledge-based Danish windmill network, the paper investigates the prospects and conflicts in the process of value co-creation in a network context...

  16. Extreme weather and civil war in Somalia: Does drought fuel conflict through livestock price shocks?

    OpenAIRE

    Maystadt, Jean-Francois; Ecker, Olivier; Mabiso, Athur

    2013-01-01

    Climate change leads to more frequent and more intense droughts in Somalia. In a global context, weather shocks have been found to perpetuate poverty and fuel civil conflict. By relating regional and temporal variations in violent conflict outbreaks with drought incidence and severity, we show that this causality is valid also for Somalia at the local level. We find that livestock price shocks drive drought-induced conflicts through reducing the opportunity costs of conflict participation. Ou...

  17. Misconceptions about Classroom Conflict Resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchowski, Mary Anne

    1994-01-01

    Faced with the frustration of refereeing when they would rather teach, many educators are looking for alternative ways to deal with conflict in the classroom. This articles discusses the Children's Creative Response to Conflict (CCRC) conflict resolution approach and seeks to dispel some of the prevailing misconceptions about conflict resolution.…

  18. Managing conflict between large carnivores and livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Eeden, Lily M; Crowther, Mathew S; Dickman, Chris R; Macdonald, David W; Ripple, William J; Ritchie, Euan G; Newsome, Thomas M

    2018-02-01

    Large carnivores are persecuted globally because they threaten human industries and livelihoods. How this conflict is managed has consequences for the conservation of large carnivores and biodiversity more broadly. Mitigating human-predator conflict should be evidence-based and accommodate people's values while protecting carnivores. Despite much research into human and large-carnivore coexistence strategies, there have been few attempts to document the success of conflict-mitigation strategies on a global scale. We conducted a meta-analysis of global research on conflict mitigation related to large carnivores and humans. We focused on conflicts that arise from the threat large carnivores pose to livestock. We first used structured and unstructured searching to identify replicated studies that used before-after or control-impact design to measure change in livestock loss as a result of implementing a management intervention. We then extracted relevant data from these studies to calculate an overall effect size for each intervention type. Research effort and focus varied among continents and aligned with the histories and cultures that shaped livestock production and attitudes toward carnivores. Livestock guardian animals most effectively reduced livestock losses. Lethal control was the second most effective control, although its success varied the most, and guardian animals and lethal control did not differ significantly. Financial incentives have promoted tolerance of large carnivores in some settings and reduced retaliatory killings. We suggest coexistence strategies be location-specific, incorporate cultural values and environmental conditions, and be designed such that return on financial investment can be evaluated. Improved monitoring of mitigation measures is urgently required to promote effective evidence-based policy. © 2017 Society for Conservation Biology.

  19. [Conflict resolution: a new perspective].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobb, S B

    1991-03-01

    The field of conflict resolution has been focusing on certain implicit postulates related to the nature of three central concepts, namely: communication, conflict, and change. The present paper "undermines" so to speak, these three concepts by demonstrating the positivistic basis the field of conflict resolution features, even though recent contributions challenge such basis. A poststructural perspective on communication, conflict, and change is proposed as an alternative able to generate new tools and techniques for research as well as intervention in conflicts.

  20. The agrarian roots of contemporary violent conflict in Mindanao, Southern Philippines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vellema, S.; Borras Jr, S.M.; Lare Jr, F.

    2011-01-01

    The decades-old conflict in Mindanao, southern Philippines, is often framed as a Muslim–Christian conflict and reinterpreted as such within the US-led global war on terror, with the Muslim secessionist movement standing accused of providing a hub for international jihad. In the meantime, global

  1. Conflict, Memory, and Positioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brescó, Ignacio

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to bring the dialogical and multivoiced dimension of conflict to the fore in the study of how people remember a particular event in the past. Drawing from different case studies, it contains analyses of how subjects identifying with different political actors in the Basq...... with a discussion on the role of history teaching in promoting a more critical, reflexive, and pluralistic way of dealing with memory, and hence with conflict.......The aim of this paper was to bring the dialogical and multivoiced dimension of conflict to the fore in the study of how people remember a particular event in the past. Drawing from different case studies, it contains analyses of how subjects identifying with different political actors in the Basque...... conflict adopted their respective positions, and interpretation of the conflict, and how, in light of same, they reconstruct the failed peace process that took place in 2006 between the terrorist group ETA (Euzkadi ta Azcatasuna, or Basque Country and Freedom in English) and the Spanish government. Results...

  2. Education in conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, I

    1999-11-01

    The provision of education is affected in many different ways by political and civil unrest and armed conflict. During armed conflict, the lack of adequate financial support for the maintenance of school buildings, supplies and teacher's salaries becomes particularly acute. Other factors include the destruction of school buildings and other infrastructures in time of war, and the targeting of teachers by acts of violence. This paper explores the impact of conflict on the educational opportunities of men and women. Interventions to address the educational needs of children are also discussed. Among these programs are the Oxfam programs in Bhutan, Sri Lanka, Nicaragua, Bosnia, and Eritrea which have provided psychosocial support and human rights education to refugee and displaced women and children through the provision of educational material and by training teachers.

  3. Identities in Conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanika Ahuja

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Kashmir has witnessed violent conflict for many years, and India has been one of the main players in this conflict. This study used the method of drawings to assess how this ongoing conflict has shaped the identities of young Muslims in Kashmir. The identities they expressed were compared with those expressed by young Muslims in Delhi. At each location, one group of participants was asked to draw on the theme “Me and my country” while the other group was asked to draw whatever they desired. When allowed to draw what they wished, adolescents in Kashmir drew symbols of regional identity more often and symbols of India less often than adolescents in Delhi. “I dominant” identities were depicted only by the Delhi-based sample. Drawings from Kashmir did not represent high levels of violence or a fractured relationship with the Indian state. Possible reasons have been discussed.

  4. The NPD team conflict

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Zheng; Lin, Chih-Cheng; Tanev, Stoyan

    2012-01-01

    elaborates on the role of culture diversity and geographical dispersion in NPD team conflict. A simulation is conducted where organizations may be regarded as complex systems to affect the team conflict with a variety of influences. The results firstly indicate that there are two dimensions of NPD team......The complexities of new product development (NPD) teams present both opportunities and challenges to organizations. Very few researches have examined the combined effect of culture and geographical dispersion on teams. Especially, the role of distance still remains an open question. This paper...... conflict: stable and unstable dimensions with four elements: task characteristics, group members’ relationship, cultural diversity and geographical dispersion; secondly, there are two phenomena whereby the geographical dispersion influences the NPD team interaction, and the influence between cultural...

  5. Conflict in Cyber Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Karsten; Ringsmose, Jens

    hostility from theoretical, political, strategic and legal perspectives. In doing so, and in contrast to current literature, cyber-security is analysed through a multidimensional lens, as opposed to being treated solely as a military or criminal issues, for example. The individual chapters map out...... the different scholarly and political positions associated with various key aspects of cyber conflict and seek to answer the following questions: do existing theories provide sufficient answers to the current challenges posed by conflict in cyberspace, and, if not, could alternative approaches be developed......?; how do states and non-state actors make use of cyber-weapons when pursuing strategic and political aims?; and, how does the advent of conflict in cyberspace challenge our established legal framework? By asking important strategic questions on the theoretical, strategic, ethical and legal implications...

  6. GENDER CONFLICTS OF STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. F. Moskalyk

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Actuality of work. Student age has the most favourable conditions for psychological, biological and social development; however, there are reasons why such natural advantages over other social groups can be completely or partially levelled. One of them is the presence of conflicts in the life of a student, a special group, among which there are women. The causes of the emergence of gender conflicts in individual social groups and the strategies for their solution have not been sufficiently explored and require further study and, therefore, are relevant. Purpose of the article is to investigate the causes of gender conflicts among students as a separate social group and to develop measures to address them and prevent them. Methodology. The research conducted in the work is based on the analysis and generalization of the causes of the emergence of gender conflicts among students, the identification of the main sources of information that form the consciousness of children and adolescents, and also influence their attitude to gender equality. Originality. The nature of gender conflicts has been quite effectively studied for a long time. However, the scope of research is limited to the most numerous social groups, such as the family, labour collective, political and public organizations, etc. Being a dynamic and socio-demographic formation, the students perform an important function in society – it takes a direct part in the transformation of all spheres of the life activity of the society. Based on the study of the objective conditions of the social environment with certain models of socialization that form the consciousness of students from early childhood, a three-component system of influence was first proposed, which is aimed at overcoming gender inequality and preventing gender conflicts among students. At the same time, the interaction of the components of the system will allow to minimize the gender inequality index in our country

  7. Environmental Systems Conflict Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hipel, K. W.

    2017-12-01

    The Graph Model for Conflict Resolution (GMCR) is applied to a real-life groundwater contamination dispute to demonstrate how one can realistically model and analyze the controversy in order to obtain an enhanced understanding and strategic insights for permitting one to make informed decisions. This highly divisive conflict is utilized to explain a rich range of inherent capabilities of GMCR, as well as worthwhile avenues for extensions, which make GMCR a truly powerful decision technology for addressing challenging conflict situations. For instance, a flexible preference elicitation method called option prioritization can be employed to obtain the relative preferences of each decision maker (DM) in the dispute over the states or scenarios which can occur, based upon preference statements regarding the options or courses of actions available to the DMs. Solution concepts, reflecting the way a chess player thinks in terms of moves and counter-moves, are defined to mirror the ways humans may behave under conflict, varying from short to long term thinking. After ascertaining the best outcome that a DM can achieve on his or her own in a conflict, coalition analysis algorithms are available to check if a DM can fare even better via cooperating with others. The ability of GMCR to take into account emotions, strength of preference, attitudes, misunderstandings (referred to as hypergames), and uncertain preferences (unknown, fuzzy, grey and probabilistic) greatly broadens its scope of applicability. Techniques for tracing how a conflict can evolve over time from a status quo state to a final specified outcome, as well as how to handle hierarchical structures, such as when a central government interacts with its provinces or states, further enforces the comprehensive nature of GMCR. Within ongoing conflict research mimicking how physical systems are analyzed, methods for inverse engineering of preferences are explained for determining the preferences required by one or

  8. Intercultural conflict styles: literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batkhina A.A.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Analytical review of foreign psychological research on the international conflict styles is presented in this article. Intercultural conflict is understood as an interpersonal conflict between representatives of different cultures. The main models describing the intercultural conflict styles are analyzed: the dual concern model, the intercultural conflict styles inventory model, the face negotiation model. The publication provides a brief review of modern studies’ results of behavior predictors in the intercultural conflict; special attention is paid to the analysis of the influence of culture and intercultural communication apprehension on the choice of conflict styles. The importance of assessing the conflict styles effectiveness used in the situation of intercultural interaction is noted. In conclusion, unresolved problems and actual trends in the study of behavior in the intercultural conflict are designated.

  9. The Volatile Effect of Conflict Risk on Foreign Investment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umit Hacioglu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The opportunities of investment brought along by the global economic integrity might turn into a threat in an instant and undermine the underlying structures of national economies. It is necessary to analyze the conflict risk properly in terms of both portfolio investment and finance strategies. This is an important step to be included in the process of arriving to a rational decision. In that way, the existing investment risks could be priced more efficiently. It is proved on Collier and Starr models that there is a correlation between the conflict risk and unemployment, economic recession, inflation and fiscal discipline. In brief, the breakdown in the economic parameters increases the conflict risk and a progress occurring in the opposite way, decreases that risk. In this study, it is discussed the effects of the conflict risk for foreign investment availabilities. Keywords: Foreign direct investment; volatile effect; conflict risk; investment climate

  10. MODELLING PARTICIPATORY GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM FOR CUSTOMARY LAND CONFLICT RESOLUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Gyamera

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Since land contributes to about 73 % of most countries Gross Domestic Product (GDP, attention on land rights have tremendously increased globally. Conflicts over land have therefore become part of the major problems associated with land administration. However, the conventional mechanisms for land conflict resolution do not provide satisfactory result to disputants due to various factors. This study sought to develop a Framework of using Participatory Geographic Information System (PGIS for customary land conflict resolution. The framework was modelled using Unified Modelling Language (UML. The PGIS framework, called butterfly model, consists of three units namely, Social Unit (SU, Technical Unit (TU and Decision Making Unit (DMU. The name butterfly model for land conflict resolution was adopted for the framework based on its features and properties. The framework has therefore been recommended to be adopted for land conflict resolution in customary areas.

  11. [Types of conflicts and conflict management among Hungarian healthcare workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csupor, Éva; Kuna, Ágnes; Pintér, Judit Nóra; Kaló, Zsuzsa; Csabai, Márta

    2017-04-01

    Efficient communication, conflict management and cooperation are the key factors of a successful patient care. This study is part of an international comparative research. The aim of this study is to unfold conflicts among healthcare workers. 73 healthcare workers were interviewed using a standardized interview protocol. The in-person interviews used the critical incident method. 30 interviews (15 doctors, 15 nurses) were analysed with the Atlas.ti 7 content analysis software. The sources, types, effects of conflicts and conflict management strategies were investigated. The content analysis unfolded the specificities of conflicts in healthcare based on personal experiences. Organizational hierarchy was a substantial source of conflict, especially among physicians, which originates from implicit rules. As a result of the avoiding conflict management the conflicts remain partly unresolved which has negative individual and group effect. Our conceptual framework helps to develop a proper intervention specific to healthcare. Orv. Hetil., 2017, 158(16), 625-632.

  12. Conflict in organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kesting, Peter; Smolinski, Remigiusz; Speakman, Ian

    2012-01-01

    : the repetitive character of routine, disagreement over the “validity” of the existing routines, disagreement concerning the definition of new targets, and resistance towards change processes. Further the authors point to the inherent tendency to routinize conflict management strategies and the risks...

  13. Models of Conflict Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-03

    Research Office P.O. Box 12211 Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2211 social interaction, conflict strategy, machine learning REPORT DOCUMENTATION...community. [Hocker and Wilmot, 2013] We fight with our peers over cubicle spaces, with our relatives over what career path to take, with our partners on

  14. Sexual conflict in plants

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    However, among the very large diversity of reproductive systems of plants, dioecy gathers all the. *For correspondence. E-mail: prasad@biology.queensu.ca, bedhomme@biology.queensu.ca conditions to give rise to sexual conflict: separate sexes, dif- ferent fitness optima for males and females, and a common genome.

  15. Conflict exposure and competitiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cecchi, Francesco; Leuveld, Koen; Voors, Maarten

    2016-01-01

    We use data from a street football tournament and a series of lab-in-field experiments in postconflict Sierra Leone to examine the impact of exposure to conflict violence on competitive behavior. We find that football players who experienced more intense exposure to violence are more likely to get a

  16. Islamophobia, Conflict and Citizenship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inman, Sally; Mc Cormack, Pip; Walker, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses some preliminary findings of the English part of a European Commission Fundamental Rights and Citizenship funded project "Children's Voices" (2011-2013) concerned with exploring and understanding children and young people's experiences of interethnic conflict and violence in primary and secondary schools. This is a…

  17. Intralocus sexual conflict

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Doorn, G. Sander; Schlichting, CD; Mousseau, TA

    2009-01-01

    Intralocus sexual conflict arises when there are sex-specific optima for a trait that is expressed in both sexes and when the constraint of a shared gene pool prevents males and females from reaching their optima independently. This situation may result in a negative intersexual correlation for

  18. Interpretation as conflict resolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swart, Henriëtte de; Zwart, J.

    Semantic interpretation is not a simple process. When we want to know what a given sentence means, more is needed than just a simple ‘adding up’ of the meanings of the component words. Not only can the words in a sentence interact and conflict with each other, but also with the linguistic and

  19. Parental-Offspring Conflict

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kilner, R.M.; Hinde, C.A.

    2012-01-01

    Disputes between parents and their young might seem easy enough to spot in everyday human life, but the notion of a general, evolutionary conflict between offspring and their parents has proved surprisingly slippery (reviewed by Godfray 1995). Nevertheless, today, almost four decades since the

  20. Sexual conflict in plants

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    oby 1991; Scott et al. 1998; Adams et al. 2000; Brandvain and Haig 2005), indicating the extent of intralocus conflict in plants. In Arabidopsis thaliana, the imprinted loci are involved in seed provisioning (Scott et al. 1998; Adams et al. 2000), with paternally imprinted genes increasing seed size and maternally imprinted ...

  1. Peace, Conflict and Development

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    elaferriere

    After Vietnam, the term Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) entered into our vocabularies. PTSD is centered on the individual both in its definition and approaches to trauma treatment. Yet violent conflict affects not only the individual, but also whole so- cietal structures: communities, families, villages and cities, as well.

  2. Flexible conflict management: conflict avoidance and conflict adjustment in reactive cognitive control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dignath, David; Kiesel, Andrea; Eder, Andreas B

    2015-07-01

    Conflict processing is assumed to serve two crucial, yet distinct functions: Regarding task performance, control is adjusted to overcome the conflict. Regarding task choice, control is harnessed to bias decision making away from the source of conflict. Despite recent theoretical progress, until now two lines of research addressed these conflict-management strategies independently of each other. In this research, we used a voluntary task-switching paradigm in combination with response interference tasks to study both strategies in concert. In Experiment 1, participants chose between two univalent tasks on each trial. Switch rates increased following conflict trials, indicating avoidance of conflict. Furthermore, congruency effects in reaction times and error rates were reduced following conflict trials, demonstrating conflict adjustment. In Experiment 2, we used bivalent instead of univalent stimuli. Conflict adjustment in task performance was unaffected by this manipulation, but conflict avoidance was not observed. Instead, task switches were reduced after conflict trials. In Experiment 3, we used tasks comprising univalent or bivalent stimuli. Only tasks with univalent revealed conflict avoidance, whereas conflict adjustment was found for all tasks. On the basis of established theories of cognitive control, an integrative process model is described that can account for flexible conflict management. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  3. Does Zoning Winter Recreationists Reduce Recreation Conflict?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Aubrey D.; Vaske, Jerry J.; Squires, John R.; Olson, Lucretia E.; Roberts, Elizabeth K.

    2017-01-01

    Parks and protected area managers use zoning to decrease interpersonal conflict between recreationists. Zoning, or segregation, of recreation—often by non-motorized and motorized activity—is designed to limit physical interaction while providing recreation opportunities to both groups. This article investigated the effectiveness of zoning to reduce recreation conflict in the Vail Pass Winter Recreation Area in Colorado, USA. Despite a zoning management system, established groomed travel routes were used by both non-motorized recreationists (backcountry skiers, snowboarders, snowshoers) and motorized recreationists (snowmobilers). We hypothesized that persistent recreation conflict reported by non-motorized recreationists was the result of recreation occurring in areas of mixed non-motorized and motorized use, mostly along groomed routes. We performed a geospatial analysis of recreation [from Global Positioning System (GPS) points, n = 1,233,449] in the Vail Pass Winter Recreation Area to identify areas of mixed non-motorized and motorized use. We then surveyed non-motorized recreationists ( n = 199) to test whether reported conflict is higher for respondents who traveled in areas of mixed-use, compared with respondents traveling outside areas of mixed-use. Results from the geospatial analysis showed that only 0.7 % of the Vail Pass Winter Recreation Area contained recreation from both groups, however that area contained 14.8 % of all non-motorized recreation and 49.1 % of all motorized recreation. Survey analysis results showed higher interpersonal conflict for all five standard conflict variables among non-motorized respondents who traveled in areas of mixed-use, compared with those traveling outside mixed-use areas. Management implications and recommendations for increasing the effectiveness of zoning are provided.

  4. Forecasting civil conflict along the shared socioeconomic pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hegre, Håvard; Buhaug, Halvard; Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim; Calvin, Katherine V.

    2016-01-01

    Climate change and armed civil conflict are both linked to socioeconomic development, although conditions that facilitate peace may not necessarily facilitate mitigation and adaptation to climate change. While economic growth lowers the risk of conflict, it is generally associated with increased greenhouse gas emissions and costs of climate mitigation policies. Here, this study investigates the links between growth, climate change, and conflict by simulating future civil conflict using new scenario data for five alternative socioeconomic pathways with different mitigation and adaptation assumptions, known as the shared socioeconomic pathways (SSPs). We develop a statistical model of the historical effect of key socioeconomic variables on country-specific conflict incidence, 1960–2013. We then forecast the annual incidence of conflict, 2014–2100, along the five SSPs. We find that SSPs with high investments in broad societal development are associated with the largest reduction in conflict risk. This is most pronounced for the least developed countries—poverty alleviation and human capital investments in poor countries are much more effective instruments to attain global peace and stability than further improvements to wealthier economies. Moreover, the SSP that describes a sustainability pathway, which poses the lowest climate change challenges, is as conducive to global peace as the conventional development pathway.

  5. Forecasting civil conflict along the shared socioeconomic pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegre, Håvard; Buhaug, Halvard; Calvin, Katherine V.; Nordkvelle, Jonas; Waldhoff, Stephanie T.; Gilmore, Elisabeth

    2016-05-01

    Climate change and armed civil conflict are both linked to socioeconomic development, although conditions that facilitate peace may not necessarily facilitate mitigation and adaptation to climate change. While economic growth lowers the risk of conflict, it is generally associated with increased greenhouse gas emissions and costs of climate mitigation policies. This study investigates the links between growth, climate change, and conflict by simulating future civil conflict using new scenario data for five alternative socioeconomic pathways with different mitigation and adaptation assumptions, known as the shared socioeconomic pathways (SSPs). We develop a statistical model of the historical effect of key socioeconomic variables on country-specific conflict incidence, 1960-2013. We then forecast the annual incidence of conflict, 2014-2100, along the five SSPs. We find that SSPs with high investments in broad societal development are associated with the largest reduction in conflict risk. This is most pronounced for the least developed countries—poverty alleviation and human capital investments in poor countries are much more effective instruments to attain global peace and stability than further improvements to wealthier economies. Moreover, the SSP that describes a sustainability pathway, which poses the lowest climate change challenges, is as conducive to global peace as the conventional development pathway.

  6. Conflict and conflict resolution in Africa: Engaging the colonial factor

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    conflict is about the right of self-determination afforded other former European dependencies, the ..... part of Morocco. 5) Annexationist conflicts: Annexationist conflicts arise when one nation annexes another nation in part or wholly, or where two nations lock horns ..... Leadership for the common good: Tackling public.

  7. Conflicts and Conflict Resolution | OLOWU | IFE PsychologIA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conflicts and conflict resolution are current and relevant issues in contemporary world. The terrorist attack on the World Trade Center towers and the Pentagon in New York and Washington on the 11th September 2001 and the retaliatory strikes on the Taliban government in Afghanistan are very much with us. Conflict is ...

  8. Conflict in schools: student nurses' conflict management styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantek, Filiz; Gezer, Nurdan

    2009-01-01

    Unless conflicts between the students and the instructors can be successfully managed, they will certainly result in negative outcomes for the students. The conflict management styles of the students should be recognized in detail in order to attain positive outcomes in regard to the conflict management styles. The purpose of this study was to examine the conflict management styles used by nursing students in conflict with faculty members and the differences in use of style from the aspect of some variables. This study was conducted with 151 students in a public university nursing school. Data were collected using a personal information form and the Rahim Organizational Conflict Inventory II (ROCI II). The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, ANOVA, Tukey test, Kruskal Wallis test, Mann-Whitney U test and Cronbach alpha coefficient analyses. The students were found to use integrating (X=3.82) and obliging (X=3.81) styles the most, and dominating style (X=3.02) the least. In addition there were differences determined in management style between classes, frequency of experiencing conflict, and feeling of success in the conflict (pconflict resolution and that the frequency of experiencing conflict and the feeling of success in conflict had an effect on choice of style. It will be helpful to analyze the relationship between the causes of conflict between the student and the instructor in the practice field and the uses of conflict management styles.

  9. Conflict and conflict management: A springboard for success and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper investigates conflict and conflict management as a springboard for success and progress in organisations in Nigeria. In this paper, which is basically a literature review, the writer undertook a critical analysis of the causes and consequences of organisational conflict. He further attempted to review various ...

  10. Conflict Prevention and Resolution Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Conflict Prevention and Resolution Center is EPA's primary resource for services and expertise in the areas of consensus-building, collaborative problem solving, alternative dispute resolution, and environmental collaboration and conflict resolution.

  11. Religious Conflict, Attachment, and Psychopathology

    OpenAIRE

    Counted, Victor

    2017-01-01

    The presentation explores an alternative interpretation of religious conflict as an aspect of attachment-psychopathology. Paper was shared at the Religion, Conflict, and Peace Summer School, University of Groningen.

  12. Marital Conflicts and Parent-Adolescent Conflicts: The Mediator Role of Adolescents' Appraisals of Interparental Conflicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ایرج مختارنیا

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of mediating role of adolescents' appraisals from interparents conflict on the relationship of marital conflicts and parent-adolescent conflict. The study was descriptive correlational and the population of this study included students of Qods town of Tehran province. Sample size was 700 students that were selected by multistage random sampling. The data were collected by Parent-Adolescent Conflict Questionnaire (PACQ, Marital Conflict Scale (MCS and Children's Appraisals of Interparental Conflict Scale (CPIC. The results of structural equation modeling analysis showed that the theoretical model of the study included in the model was properly fitted with the data. This means that the variable of adolescent's appraisals of interparents’ conflict can be considered as a mediator variable in the relationship of marital conflict and parent-adolescent conflict. Furthermore, in this model all direct and indirect paths to predict parent-adolescent conflict were recognized. Therefore, marital conflict can predict parent-adolescent conflicts through mediating factors. Also, it can be concluded that the model of cognitive-contextual is capable of explaining the parent-adolescent conflicts.

  13. Secure Attachment Conceptualizations: The Influence of General and Specific Relational Models on Conflict Beliefs and Conflict Resolution Styles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl C. Woolley

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Attachment theory focuses on the cognitive models that underlie our interactions with attachment figures. Global or generalized mental models are thought to develop on the basis of attachment models with parents and might form the initial basis of internal working models in novel relationships. However, as discrepant information presents itself in a new relationship, it is thought that specific relational models develop. When conflict arises it can threaten the attachment bonds of the relationship. An Internet survey of 134 individuals in couple relationships was conducted to test the influence of secure parental and partner attachment conceptualizations on romantic relationship variables (conflict beliefs and conflict resolution styles. Results indicated that for the most part relationship variables were influenced by current secure romantic attachment conceptualizations. Analyses also indicated differential gender results for positive problem solving in terms of secure parental and partner attachment. Secure parental attachment was also found to impact on the report of compliant behavior during conflict resolution. Lastly, the belief that arguing is threatening was found to be impacted by an interaction effect between parental and partner attachment. In general secure partner attachment was more predictive of conflict resolution behavior and conflict beliefs, than a global attachment model. However, it would appear that the global attachment model can be activated in the context of the current relationship under certain conditions. This research lends support to the notion that generalized and specific attachment representations impacts differently on close relationship functioning, and encourages a further mapping of relationship functions in this regard.

  14. Conflict Resolution. Fact Sheet #55.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBoeuf, Donni; Delany-Shabazz, Robin V.

    By teaching young people how to manage conflict, conflict resolution education can reduce juvenile violence in juvenile facilities, schools, and communities, while providing lifelong decision-making skills. Conflict resolution programs also combat chronic truancy and reduce the number of suspensions and disciplinary referrals. Their potential for…

  15. Monitoring Financial Conflict of Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickson, Lorraine

    2016-01-01

    Conflict of interest is heavily intertwined with research. The purpose of this study was to examine the literature and regulations in order to describe efforts required to properly monitor and disclose conflict of interest as researchers become steadily involved in innovation and discovery. The public assumes that when a conflict is disclosed, it…

  16. Recreation conflicts on Mt. Evans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerry J. Vaske; Karin Wittmann; Susan Laidlaw; Maureen P. Donnelly

    1995-01-01

    This study examines recreation conflict at Mt. Evans, Colorado; a high visibility area that attracts both hunters and non-hunters. Two types of conflict were distinguished: goal interference and conflict of values. Data were obtained from a series of on-site and mailed surveys. For hunting related events (e.g. seeing an animal being shot, hearing...

  17. 76 FR 6110 - Conflict Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-03

    ... the issuer to exercise due diligence on the source and chain of custody of its conflict minerals...-10] RIN 3235-AK84 Conflict Minerals AGENCY: Securities and Exchange Commission. ACTION: Proposed rule...'') and would require any such issuer for which conflict minerals are necessary to the functionality or...

  18. 75 FR 80947 - Conflict Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-23

    ... exercise due diligence on the source and chain of custody of its conflict minerals. These due diligence... establishing the source and chain of custody of such minerals.'' Further, the Conflict Minerals Report must... measures it had taken to exercise due diligence on the source and chain of custody of its conflict minerals...

  19. Integrating agricultural expansion into conservation biogeography: conflicts and priorities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Dobrovolski

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Increasing food production without compromising biodiversity is one of the great challenges for humanity. The aims of my thesis were to define spatial priorities for biodiversity conservation and to evaluate conservation conflicts considering agricultural expansion in the 21st century. I also tested the effect of globalizing conservation efforts on both food production and biodiversity conservation. I found spatial conflicts between biodiversity conservation and agricultural expansion. However, incorporating agricultural expansion data into the spatial prioritization process can significantly alleviate conservation conflicts, by reducing spatial correlation between the areas under high impact of agriculture and the priority areas for conservation. Moreover, developing conservation blueprints at the global scale, instead of the usual approach based on national boundaries, can benefit both food production and biodiversity. Based on these findings I conclude that the incorporation of agricultural expansion as a key component for defining global conservation strategies should be added to the list of solutions for our cultivated planet.

  20. Freedom and european military conflicts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ks. Archimandryta Andrzej (Borkowski

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In the period of globalization, numerous armed conflicts and wars we often appeal to freedom and human rights. When we talk of freedom in the time we live in we usually mean it to be a possibility of free choice among various things. In contemporary common understanding freedom means choice. Such a definition is far insufficient to an Orthodox Christian. Freedom is something more than a simple difference between obviousness and indecision. Our spiritual attention needs to be directed towards something much more deeper. It should be directed to a struggle in order to overcome results of our fallen nature. According to contemporary understanding freedom is identified also with a possibility to do what is pleasing to ourselves. But such understanding is equally faulty. From theological point of view the term of true freedom denotes God’s grace and therefore human freedom is connected with and dependent on the absolute freedom of God. We do believe that God is the only giver of freedom and justice and He even exceeds them. God does not determine Himself. God simply exists. In such a way God has introduced Himself to Mores in the burning bush: „Εγώ ειμί ο Ών” (I am that I am. Ultimately all the contemporary crisises have their source in an absolute external freedom, freedom of flesh – having lost the notion of sin it transforms into a merciless, tyrannical lawlessness. Distinct manifestation of it are incessant armed conflicts in Europe.

  1. Exploring how Conflict Management Training Changes Workplace Conflicts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Elisabeth Naima

    2012-01-01

    While many organisations offer conflict management training to both staff and management, there has been little research investigating the changes resulting from such training. Using an interpretive framework of analysis, a qualitative case study was conducted to understand how 'sensemakings' about...... conflicts change when enacted from the perspective of staff and management in a non-profit organisation that participated in conflict management training. The case study was constructed as a longitudinal investigation with ethnographic fieldwork as the primary method of inquiry. The training worked....... Some conflicts did not change through training, where the perpetual structural bases of the conflicts remained intact. Insights from the study call attention to the embedding of conflict in the organisation's social fabric. As a practical implication of the study, trainers in conflict management...

  2. Conflict field energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krebsbach-Gnath, C.

    1981-01-01

    Violent social controversies characterize the treatment of the energy problem. Solutions of this conflict decisively depend on the knowledge and evaluation of the causes and the possible development. How is it possible to explain the opinions, views, and the attitude of the population to different kinds of energy. Which factors are decisive for the explosive effect and the stability of the conflict in the field of nulcear energy. What will happen when there arises a possible lack of energy. Which socio-political effects will such a lack have. Are there new proposals for solving problems in the nulcear-energy debate. The contributions of this book are results of scientific and empiric works. They provide perceptive approaches and analyses to the problems and by discussing them are useful in giving an orientation for political action. (orig.) [de

  3. Conflict in Tourism Development

    OpenAIRE

    Hampton, Mark P.; Lee, Tim Jeonglyeol; Riley, Michael

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyzes the political involvements and relationships that influenced the progress of a tourist heritage site in a Newly Industrialized Country. It explores the dynamics of collaboration and shows how the advantages can turn into conflict and inertia over time.\\ud Using evidence from South Korea it outlines the continuing discord among the interested groups, investigates the relationships that surround the developmental process, and\\ud demonstrates how perceptual differences became...

  4. Conflict engagement: workplace dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerardi, Debra

    2015-04-01

    This article is one in a series on conflict. It is part of an ongoing series on leadership coordinated by the American Organization of Nurse Executives (AONE), highlighting topics of interest to nurse managers and emerging nurse leaders. The AONE provides leadership, professional development, advocacy, and research to advance nursing practice and patient care, promote nursing leadership excellence, and shape public policy for health care.

  5. Conflict engagement: collaborative processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerardi, Debra

    2015-05-01

    This article is one in a series on conflict. It is part of an ongoing series on leadership coordinated by the American Organization of Nurse Executives (AONE; www.aone.org), highlighting topics of interest to nurse managers and emerging nurse leaders. The AONE provides leadership, professional development, advocacy, and research to advance nursing practice and patient care, promote nursing leadership excellence, and shape public policy for health care.

  6. Email Adaptation for Conflict Handling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Joyce Yi‐Hui; Panteli, Niki; Bülow, Anne Marie

    2018-01-01

    This paper explores the context of email‐based communication in anestablished but fragile, inter‐organisational partnership, which wasoften overlain with conflict. Drawing upon adaptation theory, thisstudy explores how participants adapt to the use of email to handleconflict. Extensive data were...... the leanness of email in managing conflict, we found that underthe described conflict situation the very leanness of emailwas appreciated and thus, exploited by those concerned tomanage the conflict situation. Specifically, we identified 4 keyconflict‐triggered adaptation strategies, namely......, interactionavoidance, disempowering, blame‐protection, and image‐shelteringthat drove the ways in which email was adapted to maintainorganisational partnerships under conflict....

  7. Institutional conflicts in Jungian analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisold, K

    2001-04-01

    This paper explores how the institutional life of analytical psychology has been beset by its historical and continuing conflictual relationship with psychoanalysis. Stemming from a division in Jung's identity, that of the spiritual seeker and that of a mental health practitioner, the organizations of analytical psychology have repeatedly enacted that division, resulting in an unclear mission and considerable conflict. In England those conflicts have led to schisms; in America they have played out in internal conflicts within training institutes. Examples of areas of conflict are provided, along with suggestions for addressing these conflicts by recognizing them more openly.

  8. Flexible Conflict Management: Conflict Avoidance and Conflict Adjustment in Reactive Cognitive Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dignath, David; Kiesel, Andrea; Eder, Andreas B.

    2015-01-01

    Conflict processing is assumed to serve two crucial, yet distinct functions: Regarding task performance, control is adjusted to overcome the conflict. Regarding task choice, control is harnessed to bias decision making away from the source of conflict. Despite recent theoretical progress, until now two lines of research addressed these…

  9. Preventing Interstate Armed Conflict : whose responsibility?

    OpenAIRE

    Otunba, Ganiyu

    2010-01-01

    This is a study of interstate armed conflict prevention. The concept of conflict, armed conflict and conflict prevention is defined and explained in order to be able to investigate if there is any single institution saddled with the responsibility of preventing interstate armed conflict and also to verify if adequate efforts are been put in this area which is of importance to mankind. The relationship between conflict prevention, conflict management and conflict resolution is also discussed s...

  10. Stimulus conflict triggers behavioral avoidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dignath, David; Eder, Andreas B

    2015-12-01

    According to a recent extension of the conflict-monitoring theory, conflict between two competing response tendencies is registered as an aversive event and triggers a motivation to avoid the source of conflict. In the present study, we tested this assumption. Over five experiments, we examined whether conflict is associated with an avoidance motivation and whether stimulus conflict or response conflict triggers an avoidance tendency. Participants first performed a color Stroop task. In a subsequent motivation test, participants responded to Stroop stimuli with approach- and avoidance-related lever movements. These results showed that Stroop-conflict stimuli increased the frequency of avoidance responses in a free-choice motivation test, and also increased the speed of avoidance relative to approach responses in a forced-choice test. High and low proportions of response conflict in the Stroop task had no effect on avoidance in the motivation test. Avoidance of conflict was, however, obtained even with new conflict stimuli that had not been presented before in a Stroop task, and when the Stroop task was replaced with an unrelated filler task. Taken together, these results suggest that stimulus conflict is sufficient to trigger avoidance.

  11. Conflict management: importance and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKibben, Laurie

    2017-01-26

    Conflict is a consistent and unavoidable issue within healthcare teams. Despite training of nurse leaders and managers around areas of conflict resolution, the problem of staff relations, stress, sickness and retention remain. Conflict arises from issues with interpersonal relationships, change and poor leadership. New members of staff entering an already established healthcare team should be supported and integrated, to encourage mutual role respect between all team members and establish positive working relationships, in order to maximise patient care. This paper explores the concept of conflict, the importance of addressing causes of conflict, effective management, and the relevance of positive approaches to conflict resolution. Good leadership, nurturing positive team dynamics and communication, encourages shared problem solving and acceptance of change. Furthermore mutual respect fosters a more positive working environment for those in healthcare teams. As conflict has direct implications for patients, positive resolution is essential, to promote safe and effective delivery of care, whilst encouraging therapeutic relationships between colleagues and managers.

  12. When Task Conflict Becomes Personal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guenter, Hannes; van Emmerik, Hetty; Schreurs, Bert; Kuypers, Tom; van Iterson, Ad; Notelaers, Guy

    2016-01-01

    Although potentially beneficial, task conflict may threaten teams because it often leads to relationship conflict. Prior research has identified a set of interpersonal factors (e.g., team communication, team trust) that help attenuate this association. The purpose of this article is to provide an alternative perspective that focuses on the moderating role of performance-related factors (i.e., perceived team performance). Using social identity theory, we build a model that predicts how task conflict associates with growth in relationship conflict and how perceived team performance influences this association. We test a three-wave longitudinal model by means of random coefficient growth modeling, using data from 60 ongoing teams working in a health care organization. Results provide partial support for our hypotheses. Only when perceived team performance is low, do task conflicts relate with growth in relationship conflict. We conclude that perceived team performance seems to enable teams to uncouple task from relationship conflict. PMID:28190944

  13. When conflicts are good: nonconscious goal conflicts reduce confirmatory thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleiman, Tali; Hassin, Ran R

    2013-09-01

    In this article, we argue that nonconscious goal conflicts are accompanied by a mindset that has wide-ranging implications for reasoning and thinking in content areas that are not part of the conflict itself. Specifically, we propose that nonconscious goal conflicts induce a mode of processing information that increases the likelihood of approaching an issue from opposing perspectives. This hypothesis is examined by investigating the effects of nonconscious goal conflicts on confirmatory thinking, that is, a way of thinking that narrowly focuses on confirmation rather than on broader examination of information. In 5 experiments, we show that nonconscious goal conflicts significantly reduce confirmatory hypothesis testing (Experiments 1 through 3) and anchoring (Experiments 4 and 5). We further show that these effects result from a goal conflict by rejecting explanations based on priming of semantic opposites, and priming of multiple goals that do not conflict (Experiments 2 and 3), and by examining decision times as a conflict process variable (Experiment 5). Using various probes, we show that these changes in confirmatory judgments are not accompanied by changes in conflict phenomenology. Together, these results suggest that nonconscious goal conflicts attenuate the robust confirmatory thinking strategy that characterizes human thinking in numerous domains.

  14. 'Global' norms and 'local' agency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Björkdahl, Annika; Gusic, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    in post-conflict Kosovo provides the backdrop for the theoretical discussion that identifies friction in norm diffusion processes and the different agencies that are generated through encounters between global norms and local practices. We unpack the interplay between the 'global' and the 'local...

  15. Exploring how Conflict Management Training Changes Workplace Conflicts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Elisabeth Naima

    2012-01-01

    While many organisations offer conflict management training to both staff and management, there has been little research investigating the changes resulting from such training. Using an interpretive framework of analysis, a qualitative case study was conducted to understand how 'sensemakings' abo...... are recommended to give more weight to the structural dimensions of conflict and organisational level conflict management when putting training programmes together.......While many organisations offer conflict management training to both staff and management, there has been little research investigating the changes resulting from such training. Using an interpretive framework of analysis, a qualitative case study was conducted to understand how 'sensemakings' about...... conflicts change when enacted from the perspective of staff and management in a non-profit organisation that participated in conflict management training. The case study was constructed as a longitudinal investigation with ethnographic fieldwork as the primary method of inquiry. The training worked...

  16. Heritage, negotiation and conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Velho

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the issue of cultural heritage, focusing on the process of negotiating reality. It calls attention to the aspects of divergence and conflict derived from the distinct values and interests of the actors involved. A number of examples are cited, such as the registration of the Casa Branca candomblé terreiro in Salvador, Bahia, and the paradigmatic case of Copacabana. It aims to show that public heritage policies cannot be dissociated from the heterogeneity and complexity of social life.

  17. Dialectic and conflicts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højholt, Charlotte; Kousholt, Dorte

    are at one hand historical, and they demand situated handling and coordination in concrete situations to make things work. The involved experience the contradictions from different positions, types of responsibilities and with insight from different locations. In this way contradictions have potential...... practice as contradictory and developed through its contradictions (Lave, Dreier, Axel). The theoretical discussion will be illustrated through examples from conflicts between children and between parents - in relation to dealing with focus on the tasks of the school as well as flexibility in relation...

  18. Conflicts in Public Procurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Lindskog

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available During the last couple of years, there has been a tendency to include more and more political goals into public procurements, such as environmental and societal considerations. This can result in higher prices paid by the public sector compared with similar procurements in the private sector. The decision makers at local level are elected and should represent the interest of their communities and voters, which includes promoting regional/local companies and economic development. This task can sometimes get into conflict with public procurement law or the political goals of a central government. (original abstract

  19. Personality as a determinant of work-family conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rekha A Priyadharshini

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Work – Family conflict (W-F Conflict as a bi-directional construct has been well researched in the past few decades.  Predominant W-F Conflict models involving work and family role characteristics, culture, values, facilitation and integration have been developed and tested.   However, models that capture the relationship between the individual characteristics as captured by the personality dimensions are very sparse.  Moreover, research on W-F Conflict in the Indian settings is very rare, though India has gained significant importance in the global arena.  This study hypothesizes that the personality dimensions captured on the Big 5-Dimensional scale predict the bi-directional nature of W-F Conflict.  We used structural equation modeling (SEM to predict W-F Conflict by the personality dimension.  Results suggest that the personality dimensions such as extraversion, conscientiousness, openness to experience, and agreeableness predict W-F Conflict.  Neuroticism does not appear to support our hypothesis which is contrary to predictions by extant literature.  

  20. Motive attribution asymmetry for love vs. hate drives intractable conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waytz, Adam; Young, Liane L.; Ginges, Jeremy

    2014-01-01

    Five studies across cultures involving 661 American Democrats and Republicans, 995 Israelis, and 1,266 Palestinians provide previously unidentified evidence of a fundamental bias, what we term the “motive attribution asymmetry,” driving seemingly intractable human conflict. These studies show that in political and ethnoreligious intergroup conflict, adversaries tend to attribute their own group’s aggression to ingroup love more than outgroup hate and to attribute their outgroup’s aggression to outgroup hate more than ingroup love. Study 1 demonstrates that American Democrats and Republicans attribute their own party’s involvement in conflict to ingroup love more than outgroup hate but attribute the opposing party’s involvement to outgroup hate more than ingroup love. Studies 2 and 3 demonstrate this biased attributional pattern for Israelis and Palestinians evaluating their own group and the opposing group’s involvement in the current regional conflict. Study 4 demonstrates in an Israeli population that this bias increases beliefs and intentions associated with conflict intractability toward Palestinians. Finally, study 5 demonstrates, in the context of American political conflict, that offering Democrats and Republicans financial incentives for accuracy in evaluating the opposing party can mitigate this bias and its consequences. Although people find it difficult to explain their adversaries’ actions in terms of love and affiliation, we suggest that recognizing this attributional bias and how to reduce it can contribute to reducing human conflict on a global scale. PMID:25331879

  1. Motive attribution asymmetry for love vs. hate drives intractable conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waytz, Adam; Young, Liane L; Ginges, Jeremy

    2014-11-04

    Five studies across cultures involving 661 American Democrats and Republicans, 995 Israelis, and 1,266 Palestinians provide previously unidentified evidence of a fundamental bias, what we term the "motive attribution asymmetry," driving seemingly intractable human conflict. These studies show that in political and ethnoreligious intergroup conflict, adversaries tend to attribute their own group's aggression to ingroup love more than outgroup hate and to attribute their outgroup's aggression to outgroup hate more than ingroup love. Study 1 demonstrates that American Democrats and Republicans attribute their own party's involvement in conflict to ingroup love more than outgroup hate but attribute the opposing party's involvement to outgroup hate more than ingroup love. Studies 2 and 3 demonstrate this biased attributional pattern for Israelis and Palestinians evaluating their own group and the opposing group's involvement in the current regional conflict. Study 4 demonstrates in an Israeli population that this bias increases beliefs and intentions associated with conflict intractability toward Palestinians. Finally, study 5 demonstrates, in the context of American political conflict, that offering Democrats and Republicans financial incentives for accuracy in evaluating the opposing party can mitigate this bias and its consequences. Although people find it difficult to explain their adversaries' actions in terms of love and affiliation, we suggest that recognizing this attributional bias and how to reduce it can contribute to reducing human conflict on a global scale.

  2. HIV/AIDS, conflict and security in Africa: rethinking relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Joseph U; Theodosis, Christian; Kulkarni, Rick

    2008-09-22

    The effect of conflict on HIV transmission and regional and global security has been the subject of much recent discussion and debate. Many long held assumptions regarding these relationships are being reconsidered. Conflict has long been assumed to contribute significantly to the spread of HIV infection. However, new research is casting doubt on this assumption. Studies from Africa suggest that conflict does not necessarily predispose to HIV transmission and indeed, there is evidence to suggest that recovery in the "post-conflict" state is potentially dangerous from the standpoint of HIV transmission. As well, refugee populations have been previously considered as highly infected vectors of HIV transmission. But in light of new investigation this belief is also being reconsidered. There has additionally been concern that high rates of HIV infection among many of the militaries of sub-Saharan Africa poses a threat to regional security. However, data is lacking on both dramatically elevated prevalence amongst soldiers and a possible negative effect on regional security. Nevertheless, HIV/AIDS remain a serious threat to population health and economic well being in this region. These issues are of vital importance for HIV programming and health sector development in conflict and "post-conflict" societies and will constitute formidable challenges to the international community. Further research is required to better inform the discussion of HIV, conflict, and security in sub-Saharan Africa.

  3. CONFLICT MANAGEMENT. SOME PROSPECTS ON THE LABOR CONFLICTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulia Bădoi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Managers wish for harmony within their organizations, that the satisfied employees to work in well balanced teams in order to achieve the institutional goals without taking into account the individual and cultural differences, personal or group interests. Conflicts can be classified according to several criteria. This study aims to present the particularities of conflict resolution within labor relations. Starting from the analysis of the conflict concept viewed from several perspectives, including legal term, this paper aims to reveal the sources of labor disputes through statistical tools, to explain the development of the conflict and to propose solutions to reduce / solve conflicts. From the traditionalist perspective all conflicts are bad, being subsumed to terms of violence, anarchy, destruction, chaos, requiring major reality changes. Conflicts are seen as natural, normal, and cyclical from the human relations point of view. Moreover, inter-actionist perspective suggests encouraging for triggering conflicts because a group that is too long peaceful may become inert, listless and noncreative. This theory proposes to the leaders to maintain a level of conflict within institutions so that to be in the presence of a dynamic group, the manifestation of critical thinking, innovation and improvement of the human relationships’ quality.

  4. Extension agents and conflict narratives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bond, Jennifer Lauren

    2016-01-01

    conflict. Originality: This work contributes to a growing body of literature interested in the role of extension agents in conflict management. By applying Q methodology, this work has shown that while extension agents are involved in conflict management, their perceptions of these conflicts are subjective......Purpose: This work investigated the narratives of development extensionists in relation to natural resource conflict, in order to understand the competing discourses surrounding the wicked problems of natural resource management in Laikipia County, Kenya. Methodology: Q methodology was used...... to elicit the conflict narratives present among extension professionals. A concourse of 221 statements were devised from interviews and group discussions with key informants and a final sample of 49 statements was used for the sorting. Thirteen Q-sorts were undertaken with among rural extension...

  5. Giant oilfields and civil conflict

    OpenAIRE

    Yu-Hsiang Lei; Guy Michaels

    2012-01-01

    We use new data to examine the effects of giant oilfield discoveries around the world since 1946. On average, these discoveries increase per capita oil production and oil exports by up to 50 percent. But these giant oilfield discoveries also have a dark side: they increase the incidence of internal armed conflict by about 5-8 percentage points. This increased incidence of conflict due to giant oilfield discoveries is especially high for countries that had already experienced armed conflicts o...

  6. The cultural contagion of conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelfand, Michele; Shteynberg, Garriy; Lee, Tiane; Lun, Janetta; Lyons, Sarah; Bell, Chris; Chiao, Joan Y.; Bruss, C. Bayan; Al Dabbagh, May; Aycan, Zeynep; Abdel-Latif, Abdel-Hamid; Dagher, Munqith; Khashan, Hilal; Soomro, Nazar

    2012-01-01

    Anecdotal evidence abounds that conflicts between two individuals can spread across networks to involve a multitude of others. We advance a cultural transmission model of intergroup conflict where conflict contagion is seen as a consequence of universal human traits (ingroup preference, outgroup hostility; i.e. parochial altruism) which give their strongest expression in particular cultural contexts. Qualitative interviews conducted in the Middle East, USA and Canada suggest that parochial altruism processes vary across cultural groups and are most likely to occur in collectivistic cultural contexts that have high ingroup loyalty. Implications for future neuroscience and computational research needed to understand the emergence of intergroup conflict are discussed. PMID:22271785

  7. Internal globalization of Western Balkan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukotić Veselin

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available What are potential and real effects of the globalization process on the economic connection between Western Balkan countries? What is the crucial change in relations between Western Balkan countries and its economies inexorably brought by globalization? What are the elements of political economy of Western Balkan globalization? What are reflections of the conflict between political and economic areas of Western Balkan? These are some of the issues discuses in this paper.

  8. Managing multicultural teams:dealing with conflicts rising from different expectations and perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Haapanen, T. (Tiina)

    2015-01-01

    Abstract With globalization and the current direction towards more integrated and cooperating world of business, workplaces and especially teams are becoming increasingly diverse. Cultural diversity brings with it benefits to the team, but also disadvantages like misunderstandings and even conflicts. In this thesis I aimed to find what leaders of multicultural teams have to take into account to avoid conflicts rising from d...

  9. Resolving Conflicts between Agriculture and the Natural Environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J Tanentzap

    Full Text Available Agriculture dominates the planet. Yet it has many environmental costs that are unsustainable, especially as global food demand rises. Here, we evaluate ways in which different parts of the world are succeeding in their attempts to resolve conflict between agriculture and wild nature. We envision that coordinated global action in conserving land most sensitive to agricultural activities and policies that internalise the environmental costs of agriculture are needed to deliver a more sustainable future.

  10. Climate-Conflict Research: Some Reflections on the Way Forward

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-18

    T. The evolution of environment-conflict research: toward a livelihood framework. Global Envi- ron Polit 2012, 12:78–100. 7. Gemenne F, Barnett J...Levin SA. Trading-off fish biodiversity , food security, and hydropower in theMekong River Basin. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2012, 109:5609–5614. 52. Tol

  11. The Conflict Dimension of Environmental Degradation and the Case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Angela

    dynamic? in Crocker, C.A., Hampson, F.O. & Aall, P. (eds), Managing Global Chaos: Sources of and Responses to International Conflict. Susskind, L. & Ozanwa, C. 1984. Mediated Negotiation in the Public Sector, in American. Behavioral Scientist (Nov-Dec). Timberlake & Tinker 1985. Environmental Refugees: The origins ...

  12. Emotions and Language Teacher Identity: Conflicts, Vulnerability, and Transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Juyoung

    2016-01-01

    This study discusses how the shifting teaching context via globalization generates new demands for English language teachers, and how teachers' emotional responses to this shift affect their identity and practice. Based on interviews with five secondary English teachers in South Korea, the study presents these teachers' conflicted stories such as…

  13. Thinking Complexly about Men, Gender Role Conflict, and Counseling Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wester, Stephen R.

    2008-01-01

    O'Neil (2008) defines male gender role conflict (GRC) as a psychological state in which the socialized male gender role has negative consequences for the person or others. Building on this, many now realize that the mechanisms through which these negative consequences occur, rather than being global, are instead contextual. That is, different men…

  14. War News Radio: Conflict Education through Student Journalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hager, Emily

    2009-01-01

    In this essay Emily Hager presents an example of conflict education through student journalism. War News Radio is a student-organized and student-produced program developed at Swarthmore College in which participants produce for a global audience nonpartisan weekly radio shows and podcasts focused on the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. Hager shares…

  15. Gender and climate change-induced conflict in pastoral communities

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Clitmate change-induced conflict is a major global threat to human security and the environment. It has been projected that there is going to be an increase in climate changes resulting in increased droughts and floods in northern Kenya. Climate change impacts will be differently distributed among different regions, ages, ...

  16. 549 Conflicts in Africa: Meaning, Causes, Impact and Solution

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2010-10-17

    Oct 17, 2010 ... has been the general trend of events in Africa and has been retarding growth and development in the region (Global Coalition, 2004:7). b. Unemployment: Wars and conflicts in Africa have combined to compound the problem of unemployment in the continent. Today, throughout Africa, high rate of ...

  17. Mediation in political conflicts – Soft power or counter culture?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This book is essential reading for mediators employing alternative, non- conventional approaches in pursuit of peace, and containing conflict in our contracting global village. Its contributions range from historical initiatives by the likes of Pope Alexander VII in the 30 Years War, to mediators of some of the most intransigent ...

  18. Armed Conflict in Colombia : Different Resources Different Conflicts ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Most research on armed conflict in Colombia has focused on the narcotics trade. Little attention has been paid to the links between licit natural resources, and regional and local conflicts. This project will endeavor to shed light on how natural resources - specifically, coffee, oil, bananas, flowers, emeralds, coal and minerals ...

  19. Decentralized Planning for Pre-Conflict and Post-Conflict ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-10-02

    Oct 2, 2012 ... Furthermore, conflict is the means by which deprived groups seek to attain those rights and privileges which define one's opinion in the prevailing political order. Therefore, denial of these; what Darhrendorf. (1990:50) calls “entitlements,” is a denial of citizenship and an invitation to conflict. For the purpose ...

  20. Causes of Conflict and Conflict Resolution Styles among Bahir Dar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results from qualitative analysis indicated that the major sources of conflict were ethnicity, religious diversity, defying rules, and sexual and love affairs, in that order. Students reported that the major conflict resolution styles were compromise, avoiding, third-party mediation, and dominating. Results from quantitative analysis, ...

  1. Conflict generation, conflict management and self-organizing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The article argues that, at a time of increased agitation for local control, this study of conflict generation and conflict management presents a model for understanding ... in order to reduce the inherent dissonance between policy prescription and the reality of the local communities in Nigeria and, indeed, in Africa as a whole.

  2. Family conflicts and conflict resolution regarding food choices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Maria; Brunsø, Karen

    2011-01-01

    with food‐related conflicts, conflict resolutions or specific influence techniques with a focus on parents and tweens in family decision‐making. This article focuses on parents and tweens’ joint decision processes in evaluation and choice of food, specifically conflicts and conflict resolution. Assumptions......Previous studies on family decision‐making show that not only parents but also children participate actively in and achieve influence on the decision process, for instance during food buying. When decision‐making includes several active participants, conflicts may occur, but not much research deals...... are explored in an empirical study of Danish families with children. The main results show that during food buying family communication is open for opinion statements and discussions between parents and their tweens. However, not everything is that overt in family communication. One of the most interesting...

  3. How Important is Conflict Detection to the Conflict Resolution Task?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, Joey; Gabets, Cynthia; Gomez, Ashley; Edwards, Tamsyn; Bienert, Nancy; Claudatos, Lauren; Homola, Jeffrey R.

    2016-01-01

    To determine the capabilities and limitations of human operators and automation in separation assurance roles, the second of three Human-in-the-Loop (HITL) part-task studies investigates air traffic controllers ability to detect and resolve conflicts under varying task sets, traffic densities, and run lengths. Operations remained within a single sector, staffed by a single controller, and explored, among other things, the controllers conflict resolution performance in conditions with or without their involvement in the conflict detection task. Whereas comparisons of conflict resolution performance between these two conditions are available in a prior publication, this paper explores whether or not other subjective measures display a relationship to that data. Analyses of controller workload and situation awareness measures attempt to quantify their contribution to controllers ability to resolve traffic conflicts.

  4. Cognitive conflicts in major depression: Between desired change and personal coherence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feixas, Guillem; Montesano, Adrián; Compañ, Victoria; Salla, Marta; Dada, Gloria; Pucurull, Olga; Trujillo, Adriana; Paz, Clara; Muñoz, Dámaris; Gasol, Miquel; Saúl, Luis Ángel; Lana, Fernando; Bros, Ignasi; Ribeiro, Eugenia; Winter, David; Carrera-Fernández, María Jesús; Guàrdia, Joan

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The notion of intrapsychic conflict has been present in psychopathology for more than a century within different theoretical orientations. However, internal conflicts have not received enough empirical attention, nor has their importance in depression been fully elaborated. This study is based on the notion of cognitive conflict, understood as implicative dilemma (ID), and on a new way of identifying these conflicts by means of the Repertory Grid Technique. Our aim was to explore the relevance of cognitive conflicts among depressive patients. Design Comparison between persons with a diagnosis of major depressive disorder and community controls. Methods A total of 161 patients with major depression and 110 non-depressed participants were assessed for presence of IDs and level of symptom severity. The content of these cognitive conflicts was also analysed. Results Repertory grid analysis indicated conflict (presence of ID/s) in a greater proportion of depressive patients than in controls. Taking only those grids with conflict, the average number of IDs per person was higher in the depression group. In addition, participants with cognitive conflicts displayed higher symptom severity. Within the clinical sample, patients with IDs presented lower levels of global functioning and a more frequent history of suicide attempts. Conclusions Cognitive conflicts were more prevalent in depressive patients and were associated with clinical severity. Conflict assessment at pre-therapy could aid in treatment planning to fit patient characteristics. Practitioner points Internal conflicts have been postulated in clinical psychology for a long time but there is little evidence about its relevance due to the lack of methods to measure them. We developed a method for identifying conflicts using the Repertory Grid Technique. Depressive patients have higher presence and number of conflicts than controls. Conflicts (implicative dilemmas) can be a new target for intervention in

  5. Cognitive conflicts in major depression: between desired change and personal coherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feixas, Guillem; Montesano, Adrián; Compañ, Victoria; Salla, Marta; Dada, Gloria; Pucurull, Olga; Trujillo, Adriana; Paz, Clara; Muñoz, Dámaris; Gasol, Miquel; Saúl, Luis Ángel; Lana, Fernando; Bros, Ignasi; Ribeiro, Eugenia; Winter, David; Carrera-Fernández, María Jesús; Guàrdia, Joan

    2014-11-01

    The notion of intrapsychic conflict has been present in psychopathology for more than a century within different theoretical orientations. However, internal conflicts have not received enough empirical attention, nor has their importance in depression been fully elaborated. This study is based on the notion of cognitive conflict, understood as implicative dilemma (ID), and on a new way of identifying these conflicts by means of the Repertory Grid Technique. Our aim was to explore the relevance of cognitive conflicts among depressive patients. Comparison between persons with a diagnosis of major depressive disorder and community controls. A total of 161 patients with major depression and 110 non-depressed participants were assessed for presence of IDs and level of symptom severity. The content of these cognitive conflicts was also analysed. Repertory grid analysis indicated conflict (presence of ID/s) in a greater proportion of depressive patients than in controls. Taking only those grids with conflict, the average number of IDs per person was higher in the depression group. In addition, participants with cognitive conflicts displayed higher symptom severity. Within the clinical sample, patients with IDs presented lower levels of global functioning and a more frequent history of suicide attempts. Cognitive conflicts were more prevalent in depressive patients and were associated with clinical severity. Conflict assessment at pre-therapy could aid in treatment planning to fit patient characteristics. © 2014 The Authors. British Journal of Clinical Psychology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of the British Psychological Society.

  6. Optimizing performance by stimulating conflict

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Vliert, E.; de Dreu, C.K.W.

    1994-01-01

    To enhance the quality of group decision making, to promote affective acceptance of decisions by all participants involved, or to increase joint outcomes, a principal party or a third party may stimulate social conflict. We argue that when conflict focuses on identity issues, when tension level is

  7. Coping with public value conflicts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Graaf, G.; Huberts, L.W.J.C.; Smulders, R.

    2016-01-01

    Good governance involves managing conflicting values, leading to the main research question, which consists of three parts: Which public value profiles do public administrators have, which value conflicts do they experience, and which coping strategies are used? Here, previous literature on public

  8. Optimizing performance by conflict stimulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van de Vliert, E; De Dreu, C K W

    To enhance the quality of group decision making, to promote affective acceptance of decisions by all participants involved, or to increase joint outcomes, a principal party or a third party may stimulate social conflict. We argue that when conflict focuses on identity issues, when tension level is

  9. Conflict management in online relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Kumi

    2010-08-01

    With the diffusion of networked technology, personal relationships can be easily formed and maintained online today. Similar to a face-to-face situation, conflict is also seen in these online relationships. Early theories suggested that computer-mediated communication (CMC) tends to increase conflicts because of the lack of social-context cues, and CMC is not rich enough to manage conflict. As CMC has become part of our daily life, we often face conflict online, and thus we need to understand how people manage conflict online. This study explored how online users manage interpersonal conflict. Self-report survey data from 159 university students were analyzed to examine their conflict-management styles in association with the perceived closeness of the online relationship and a future intention toward the relationship. The results indicated that online users select cooperative management styles to handle conflict in their close relationships. In addition, online users avoid less cooperative styles when they want to continue the relationship.

  10. Worldview conflict in daily life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandt, M.J.; Crawford, Jarret; van Tongeren, D.R.

    2018-01-01

    Building on laboratory- and survey-based research probing the psychology of ideology and the experience of worldview conflict, we examined the association between worldview conflict and emotional reactions, psychological well-being, humanity esteem, and political ideology in everyday life using

  11. The Logic of Animal Conflict

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    It is not surprising that ani- mals are often in conflict because they compete for limited resources. What is surprising however is that such conflict is often re- solved by a trial of strength, followed by the weaker ani- mal surrendering resources to the stronger rival, with- out an injurious fight until. A sparring match between male ...

  12. Climate Change, Conflict, and Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akresh, Richard

    2016-01-01

    We have good reason to predict that a warming climate will produce more conflict and violence. A growing contingent of researchers has been examining the relationship in recent years, and they've found that hotter temperatures and reduced rainfall are linked to increases in conflict at all scales, from interpersonal violence to war. Children are…

  13. Trust Revision for Conflicting Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-01

    flicting evidence for various reasons, including errors and decep- tion. When conflicting evidence is received, some sources produce more accurate... conflicting opinions coming from different information sources . In the model, the analyst assigns a trust opinion to each of the information sources , where a

  14. Conflict, Space and Architecture : Introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoonderbeek, M.G.H.; Shoshan, M.

    2016-01-01

    Footprint 19 focuses on the more recent roles of architecture in the contemporary spaces of conflict. Departing from a spatial understanding of geopolitical, climatological and economical conflicts, the various contributions highlight the large scale and phenomenal transitions in the physical world

  15. 6 Steps to Conflict Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindt, Suzanne

    2006-01-01

    Adolescents struggle with many types of conflicts in their lives. They must define relationships with friends, teachers, parents, and themselves. Disagreements will arise, and without the proper training, many teens are left feeling angry, confused, or depressed. Teaching middle school students to deal with conflict productively at an early age…

  16. Peace and conflict in Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and conflict. Noting that the African concept of peace is much broader and deeper than the liberal notions, the author contextualises these approaches within the broad peace and conflict issues. He analyses four indigenous approaches: the jir mediation of the Tiv people of Nigeria, the shir process in Somaliland, the Mato.

  17. Conflict in Independent Catholic Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guernsey, Dan; Barott, James

    2008-01-01

    Independent Catholic schools are a growing phenomenon in the Catholic Church in America. This article provides a contextualized account of the phenomenon by examining via a field observation the experience of two independent Catholic schools in two different dioceses. These schools were founded in conflict and beset by continued conflict to the…

  18. Global Climate Change: Threat Multiplier for AFRICOM?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yackle, Terri A

    2007-01-01

    .... Whatever the catalyst for this abrupt climate change, stability for Africa hinges upon mitigating the effects of global climate change to prevent future conflicts such as Darfur, and the instability...

  19. Group conflict and faculty engagement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selmer, Jan; Jonasson, Charlotte; Lauring, Jakob

    2013-01-01

    engagement has been argued to lead to more satisfied, more productive and healthier staff. In this study, based on a sample consisting of 489 members of multicultural university departments, we set out to investigate the relationship between trust, conflict and academic staff engagement. More specifically we...... assessed the effect of group trust, group relational conflict and group task conflict on indicators of behavioural, cognitive and emotional engagement. Our findings show a strong positive association between group trust and all academic staff engagement variables as well as a strong negative association...... between group relational conflict and all staff engagement variables. Task conflict was negatively associated with indicators of staff cognitive engagement. However, surprisingly, group trust did not have any moderating effect. Implications for educational organisation managers and policy makers...

  20. Understanding and managing conservation conflicts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redpath, Steve M; Young, Juliette; Evely, Anna; Adams, William M; Sutherland, William J; Whitehouse, Andrew; Amar, Arjun; Lambert, Robert A; Linnell, John D C; Watt, Allan; Gutiérrez, R J

    2013-02-01

    Conservation conflicts are increasing and need to be managed to minimise negative impacts on biodiversity, human livelihoods, and human well-being. Here, we explore strategies and case studies that highlight the long-term, dynamic nature of conflicts and the challenges to their management. Conflict management requires parties to recognise problems as shared ones, and engage with clear goals, a transparent evidence base, and an awareness of trade-offs. We hypothesise that conservation outcomes will be less durable when conservationists assert their interests to the detriment of others. Effective conflict management and long-term conservation benefit will be enhanced by better integration of the underpinning social context with the material impacts and evaluation of the efficacy of alternative conflict management approaches. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The Role of Aggressive Personality and Family Relationships in Explaining Family Conflict

    OpenAIRE

    Horwitz, Briana N.; Ganiban, Jody M.; Spotts, Erica L.; Lichtenstein, Paul; Reiss, David; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated whether genetic and environmental influences on global family conflict are explained by parents’ personality, marital quality, and negative parenting. The sample comprised 876 same-sex pairs of twins, their spouse, and one adolescent child per twin from the Twin and Offspring Study in Sweden (TOSS). Genetic influences on aggressive personality were correlated with genetic influences on global family conflict. Nonshared environmental influences on marital quality and ne...

  2. CONFLICT PERSONALITY AS A PARTICIPANT OF CONFLICT DISCOURSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyranyan Margarita Yuryevna

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The conflict discourse as a communicative event reveals the characteristics of its participants as linguistic personalities. In this respect, this study enables us to reveal and describe their personal and social features. Undoubtedly, the individual characteristics of participants, their cultural and ideological differences and similarities have a great impact on the interaction process in general and on the use of linguistic means in particular. To better understand the nature of conflict discourse, its causes and consequences, one should take into account that adverse behaviour depends on the personality type and the role the speaker plays in different situations. Conflict personality is referred to as an archetype, transcendental phenomenon common to everybody. The research revealed such key characteristics typical of conflict personality as: verbal (use of language units with "conflict" connotation, the "manipulation" of speech means that convey negative, conflict meaning in particular contexts and non-verbal (communicative aim, communication medium, pre- and post-supposition of the speaker and the listener, mode of behaviour. It also proved that conflict patterns of behavior may lead to confrontation and/or transfer of collaborative interaction into an adverse one.

  3. Local Political Conflict and Pela Gandong Amidst the Religious Conflicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tonny SB Hoedodo

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Pela Gandong which is believed by Ambonese for its propitiational value is in fact failed to prevent horizontal conflict that victimized a big number of life and financial damages. However, Wayame villagem is found to survive from those conflicts, and the community of this village, comprising of Islam and Christian religious group, succeeds to maintain harmonious relation. The research aims at, first, describing the perception of Wayamae village community to Pela Gandong in the post-conflict period; second, analyzing the cultural competence of pela Gandong in conflict resolution in the era of technology. This research employed qualitative method, involving in-field data gathering based on official report, digging out information from the resource persons who were directly witnessing the conflict when it occured and other references obtained through Forum Group Discussion (FGD. An analysis was performed to seek answer concerning on how the community of Wayame village viewed Pela Gandong in post-conflict period, how it is – as a local wisdom – maintained in the middle of changing and how Pela Gandong was revitalized. Research showed that Pela Gandong was maintained by involving all elements such as customary community and the government. Pela Gandong grew as the icon of Ambonese society in settling conflicts by raising awareness that they are Eastern people, collectivistic in nature, and place kinship into priority.

  4. Peace studies and conflict resolution: the need for transdisciplinarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galtung, Johan

    2010-02-01

    Peace studies seeks to understand the negation of violence through conflict transformation, cooperation and harmony by drawing from many disciplines, including psychology, sociology and anthropology, political science, economics, international relations, international law and history. This raises the problem of the complementarity, coexistence and integration of different systems of knowledge. In fact, all of the human and social sciences are products of the post-Westphalian state system and so reify the state and its internal and international system and focus on this as the main source of political conflict. Conflicts, however, can arise from other distinctions involving gender, generation, race, class and so on. To contribute to peace building and conflict resolution, the social sciences must be globalized, developing theories that address conflicts at the levels of interpersonal interaction (micro), within countries (meso), between nations (macro ), and between whole regions or civilizations (mega). Psychiatry and the "psy" disciplines can contribute to peace building and conflict resolution through understanding the interactions between processes at each of these levels and the mental health or illness of individuals.

  5. Influence of Conflict Resolution Training on Conflict Handling Styles of College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waithaka, Abel Gitimu; Moore-Austin, Shante'; Gitimu, Priscilla N.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of conflict resolution skills training on conflict handling styles, and conflict orientation of college students. Conflict handling styles was measured by the Thomas-Kilmann MODE instrument, while Conflict orientation was measured by conflict orientation survey instrument. A sample of 135…

  6. How is environmental conflict addressed by SIA?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrow, C.J.

    2010-01-01

    The fields of Environmental Conflict Management (ECM), Environmental Conflict Resolution (ECR), and Peace and Conflict Impact Assessment (PCIA) have become well established; however, as yet there has not been much use of Social Impact Assessment (SIA) to manage environmental conflicts. ECM, ECR and PCIA are mainly undertaken when problems are advanced or, more likely, have run their course (post-conflict). This paper examines how conflict is addressed by SIA and whether there is potential to develop it for more proactive assessment of conflicts (pre-conflict or while things develop). SIA has the potential to identify and clarify the cause(s) of environmental and natural resources conflicts, and could possibly enable some avoidance or early mitigation. A promising approach may be for 'conflict-aware' SIA to watch for critical conflict stages or thresholds and to monitor stakeholders. Effective conflict-aware SIA might also significantly contribute to efforts to achieve sustainable development.

  7. THE DISSEMINATION AND COMMUNICATION OF ARMED CONFLICTS IN THE INTERNET AGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GEMA SÁNCHEZ MEDERO

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of new technologies, especially Internet, has come to revolutionize the dissemination and communication of armed conflicts. The Internet has emerged as a decisive factor for the information needs because it provides a diversification that can hardly be covered by other means. The different actors involved in an armed conflict are aware of it, try to adapt and take advantage by using the global network. Through this article the impact and effect that is generated by the global network in the dissemination and communication of conflicts as well as the role of each of the actors they are playing by using the net, is analyzed.

  8. Resolving conflicting safety cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slider, J.E.; Patterson, M.

    1993-01-01

    Several nuclear power plant sites have been wounded in the crossfire between two distinct corporate cultures. The traditional utility culture lies on one side and that of the nuclear navy on the other. The two corporate cultures lead to different perceptions of open-quotes safety culture.close quotes This clash of safety cultures obscures a very important point about nuclear plant operations: Safety depends on organizational learning. Organizational learning provides the foundation for a perception of safety culture that transcends the conflict between utility and nuclear navy cultures. Corporate culture may be defined as the knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs shared by employees of a given company. Safety culture is the part of corporate culture concerning shared attitudes and beliefs affecting individual or public safety. If the safety culture promotes behaviors that lead to greater safety, employees will tend to open-quotes do the right thingclose quotes even when circumstances and formal guidance alone do not ensure that actions will be correct. Safety culture has become particularly important to nuclear plant owners and regulators as they have sought to establish and maintain a high level of safety in today's plants

  9. Environmental conflicts and philosophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bugallo, Alicia Irene

    2006-01-01

    In 1998 the Yungas forest of Argentina became the subject of tremendous debates, caused by the construction of the Norandino Gas-pipeline. Apart from technical and financial considerations, the discussion of constructing the duct confronted the different actors in questions of great ethical relevance. Environmental activists assumed positions that not only consider persons, but also the rest of living beings as morally relevant. An untenable strong anthropocentrism, which is a predominant attitude in our developed societies, was questioned. The final implementation of the Yungas Biosphere Reserve showed the conflictive process as a 'witness case' in which the will to dialogue and the wise rationality have predominated, with the application of a new active conservationist, which make it possible to make compatible human development with care of the environment. The incorporation of socio-cultural topics to conservation imply a true conceptual and methodological revolution, taking into account the intangible and not quantifiable elements of action and human spirit, the different perceptions of each population, their development way and life quality, their ambitions, the sense of belonging or of self-realization feeling

  10. Caesarean delivery: conflicting interests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osuna, Eduardo; Pérez Cárceles, Maria Dolores; Sánchez Ferrer, Maria Luisa; Machado, Francisco

    2015-12-01

    Within the maternal-fetal relationship, interests may sometimes diverge. In this paper, a pregnant woman's refusal to undergo a caesarean delivery, which was recommended both to save the life of the fetus and to minimize risks to her, is described. The legal aspects involved in the conflict between maternal autonomy and fetal well-being are analysed. The patient requested an abortion because of the poor condition of the fetus; however, according to Spanish legislation, the possibility of abortion was rejected as the pregnancy was in its 27th week. The woman still persisted in her refusal to accept a caesarian delivery. After the medical team sought guidance on the course to follow, the Duty Court authorized a caesarean delivery against the wishes of the patient. From a legal point of view, at stake were the freedom of the woman - expressed by the decision to reject a caesarean delivery - and the life of the unborn child. In clinical treatment, the interests of the fetus are generally aligned with those of the pregnant woman. When they are not, it is the pregnant woman's autonomy that should be respected, and coercion should form no part of treatment, contrary to the decision of this court. Copyright © 2015 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Conflict and human African trypanosomiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrang-Ford, Lea; Lundine, Jamie; Breau, Sebastien

    2011-02-01

    Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT) has reemerged in sub-Saharan Africa as a disease of major public health importance. The success of HAT elimination in sub-Saharan Africa is subject to the feasibility of controlling, eliminating, or mitigating the determinants of incidence in affected countries. Conflict has been widely recognized and cited as a contributing factor to the resurgence of HAT in many countries, as well as to continuing HAT incidence in politically unstable and resource-poor regions. Despite extensive anecdotal and qualitative recognition of the role of conflict, there has been no quantitative research of this topic at the population level in affected African countries. We characterize the qualitative and quantitative associations between HAT incidence and conflict-related processes in HAT-affected African countries over the past 30 years. HAT and conflict-related data were collected for 35 affected countries in sub-Saharan Africa for the years 1976-2004. Descriptive and univariate inferential statistics, as well as negative binomial regression modeling, are used to assess the associations between HAT and conflict. A space-time scan statistic is used to identify significant incidence clusters. Clusters of HAT incidence over the past 30 years have predominantly coincided with periods of conflict or socio-political instability. HAT cases occurred significantly more often in countries and during years with conflict, high political terror, and internationalized civil war. The results indicate a lag period between the start of conflict events and a peak in incidence of approximately 10 years. We recommend explicit consideration and quantification of socio-political measures such as conflict and terror indices in GIS (Geographic Information Systems)-based risk assessments for HAT policy and intervention. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. School Conflicts, Spiral of Conflict and (Why Not? Mediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klever Paulo Leal Filpo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This scientific paper contains partial results of ethnographic research, held in the city of Petropolis, Rio de Janeiro. It intends to examine conflicts that arise in schools of this town as well as the judicial and non-judicial mechanisms triggered to manage them. It contains some interviews and case studies which show that mediation is not frequently used to administrate this special kind of conflicts. People are used to submit their disputes directly to Judiciary Branch. The article seeks to identify the reasons why, despite all the national movement towards consensual conflict solutions, many school conflicts are solved through local justice, with important consequences for everyone involved. From this perspective, it presents a contrast between the Argentine and Brazilian traditions in the use of school mediation. The article also demonstrates the empirical incidence of the "spiral of conflict", recommending the extension of the debate on the most appropriate ways to deal with school conflicts, given their specific and unique characteristics.

  13. Leishmaniasis, conflict, and political terror: A spatio-temporal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Isha; Berrang-Ford, Lea

    2016-10-01

    Leishmaniasis has been estimated to cause the ninth largest burden amongst global infectious diseases. Occurrence of the disease has been anecdotally associated with periods of conflict, leading to its referral as a disease of 'guerrilla warfare.' Despite this, there have been few studies that quantitatively investigate the extent to which leishmaniasis coincides with conflict or political terror. This study employed a longitudinal approach to empirically test for an association between cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis incidence with occurrence of conflict and political terror at the national level, annually for 15 years (1995-2010). Leishmaniasis incidence data were collected for 54 countries, and combined with UCDP/PRIO Armed Conflict and Amnesty International political terror datasets. Mixed effects negative binomial regression models clustered at the country-level were constructed to evaluate the incidence rate ratios against the predictors, while controlling for wealth. Additionally, to understand how and why conflict-terror may be associated with leishmaniasis incidence, we conducted a historical analysis. We identify and discuss posited causal mechanisms in the literature, and critically assessed pathways by which leishmaniasis might occur in places and times of conflict-terror. There was a significant dose-response relationship for disease incidence based on increasing levels of conflict and terror. Country-years experiencing very high levels of conflict-terror were associated with a 2.38 times higher [95% CI: 1.40-4.05] and 6.02 times higher [95% CI: 2.39-15.15] incidence of cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis, respectively. Historical analysis indicated that conflict and terror contribute to-or coincide with-leishmaniasis incidence through processes of population displacement and health system deterioration. This research highlights the potentially increased risks for cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis incidence in areas of high conflict

  14. Impact of conflict in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn Touré

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Since independence, few African countries have beenspared violence and armed conflict. Two West Africanresearch networks recently organised an internationalcolloquium to assess the impact and develop linkagesbetween education, peace and democracy.

  15. Impact of conflict in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Kathryn Touré

    2006-01-01

    Since independence, few African countries have beenspared violence and armed conflict. Two West Africanresearch networks recently organised an internationalcolloquium to assess the impact and develop linkagesbetween education, peace and democracy.

  16. Conflict Resolution for Contrasting Cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Clifford C.; Lipp, G. Douglas

    1998-01-01

    A seven-step process can help people from different cultures understand each other's intentions and perceptions so they can work together harmoniously: problem identification, problem clarification, cultural exploration, organizational exploration, conflict resolution, impact assessment, and organizational integration. (JOW)

  17. THE CONFLICT IN THE SCHOOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Pérez-Archundia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to provide the school community, the necessary tools to view the conflict from the perspective of education for peace, as an axis of personal and institutional transformation and growth, also promote the ability to transform the conflict peaceful means. The methodology used in the construction of this paper focused on documentary research, using techniques of content analysis and the study of modern society, noting the presence of conflicts in the schools and according to the way it treats will transform or cause violence, this phenomenon raises the need to incorporate social action education system with a clear intention to allow transform the conflict from a continuous, systematic and ongoing process.

  18. Armed Conflict, Gender, and Schooling

    OpenAIRE

    Buvinić, Mayra; Das Gupta, Monica; Shemyakina, Olga N.

    2014-01-01

    The impact of armed conflict on gender differentials in schooling appears to be highly context-specific, as the review of the literature and the findings from the three studies in this symposium reveal. In some settings boys' schooling is more negatively affected than that of girls. In others, the reverse is the case. Effects are largely shaped by events surrounding a conflict, pre-war gender differences in educational attainments, and education and labor market opportunities in the absence o...

  19. Conflicted Pasts and National Identities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    With reference to current theories of cultural memory, the book explores how memories of war and conflict are passed from generation to generation, how these complex processes have transformed and shaped collective identities, and how they still inform national "conversations".......With reference to current theories of cultural memory, the book explores how memories of war and conflict are passed from generation to generation, how these complex processes have transformed and shaped collective identities, and how they still inform national "conversations"....

  20. Conflict in medical teams: opportunity or danger?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Lindred L; Saygi, Ozum; Aaldering, Hillie; de Dreu, Carsten K W

    2012-10-01

      Intragroup conflicts often occur when people are called upon to collaborate in the accomplishment of a task. For example, when surgeons and nurses work together during an operation, conflicts may emerge because of differences in functional understanding. Whether these conflicts are beneficial or detrimental to team outcomes has been the source of much debate. From one perspective, a conflict that stems from differences in members' functional understanding may enhance team members' understanding and performance of the task at hand. By contrast, such a conflict may cause hostility, emotionality and distraction from actual task accomplishment.   This study reviews findings on the relationships between intragroup conflict and team outcomes, discusses potential conflict resolution strategies for intragroup conflicts and explores how these link to the field of medical education.   Three primary types of conflict have been distinguished, involving, respectively, task-, process- and relationship-associated conflict. Both process conflict, or conflict about the logistics of task accomplishment, and relationship conflict, or conflict about interpersonal incompatibilities, have been shown to detract from effective team functioning. Task conflict, or conflict about the content of the task itself, is also generally negative for team functioning, but under certain conditions its negative effects may be minimised. For example, when teams can clearly separate task issues from relationship issues, task conflicts are less destructive for team outcomes. However, achieving such a separation in practice, and thereby realising the benefits of task conflict, is quite difficult to achieve.   Intragroup conflicts pose a challenge to effective team functioning. In the education of medical professionals, effective training in conflict management skills and their application to specific team conflict dynamics, such as with reference to how to resolve task as opposed to relationship

  1. Environmental changes and violent conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernauer, Thomas; Böhmelt, Tobias; Koubi, Vally

    2012-03-01

    This letter reviews the scientific literature on whether and how environmental changes affect the risk of violent conflict. The available evidence from qualitative case studies indicates that environmental stress can contribute to violent conflict in some specific cases. Results from quantitative large-N studies, however, strongly suggest that we should be careful in drawing general conclusions. Those large-N studies that we regard as the most sophisticated ones obtain results that are not robust to alternative model specifications and, thus, have been debated. This suggests that environmental changes may, under specific circumstances, increase the risk of violent conflict, but not necessarily in a systematic way and unconditionally. Hence there is, to date, no scientific consensus on the impact of environmental changes on violent conflict. This letter also highlights the most important challenges for further research on the subject. One of the key issues is that the effects of environmental changes on violent conflict are likely to be contingent on a set of economic and political conditions that determine adaptation capacity. In the authors' view, the most important indirect effects are likely to lead from environmental changes via economic performance and migration to violent conflict.

  2. Genomic Signatures of Sexual Conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasimatis, Katja R; Nelson, Thomas C; Phillips, Patrick C

    2017-10-30

    Sexual conflict is a specific class of intergenomic conflict that describes the reciprocal sex-specific fitness costs generated by antagonistic reproductive interactions. The potential for sexual conflict is an inherent property of having a shared genome between the sexes and, therefore, is an extreme form of an environment-dependent fitness effect. In this way, many of the predictions from environment-dependent selection can be used to formulate expected patterns of genome evolution under sexual conflict. However, the pleiotropic and transmission constraints inherent to having alleles move across sex-specific backgrounds from generation to generation further modulate the anticipated signatures of selection. We outline methods for detecting candidate sexual conflict loci both across and within populations. Additionally, we consider the ability of genome scans to identify sexually antagonistic loci by modeling allele frequency changes within males and females due to a single generation of selection. In particular, we highlight the need to integrate genotype, phenotype, and functional information to truly distinguish sexual conflict from other forms of sexual differentiation. © The American Genetic Association 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Emotional conflict in interpersonal interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruz, María; Tudela, Pío

    2011-01-15

    Facial displays of emotions can help to infer the mental states of other individuals. However, the expectations we generate on the basis of people's emotions can mismatch their actual behaviour in certain circumstances, which generates conflict. In the present study, we explored the neural mechanisms of emotional conflict during interpersonal interactions. Participants had to accept or reject economic offers made by several partners who displayed emotional expressions. On every trial, a cue informed participants of whether they could trust the emotion of their partner or not. Trustworthy (low-conflict) partners with happy facial expressions were cooperative and those with angry expressions did not cooperate. Untrustworthy (high-conflict) partners, on the other hand, cooperated when their expression was angry and did not cooperate when they displayed a happy emotion. Behavioural responses were faster for trustworthy than for untrustworty partners. High-conflict partners activated the anterior cingulate and the anterior insula. In turn, trustworthy partners were associated with activations in the left precuneus. Our results suggest that the emotion displayed by another person affects our decision-making in social contexts. When emotional expressions are linked to their natural consequences, they engage ToM processes. In contrast, untrustworthy emotional expressions engage conflict-related brain regions. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Environmental changes and violent conflict

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernauer, Thomas; Böhmelt, Tobias; Koubi, Vally

    2012-01-01

    This letter reviews the scientific literature on whether and how environmental changes affect the risk of violent conflict. The available evidence from qualitative case studies indicates that environmental stress can contribute to violent conflict in some specific cases. Results from quantitative large-N studies, however, strongly suggest that we should be careful in drawing general conclusions. Those large-N studies that we regard as the most sophisticated ones obtain results that are not robust to alternative model specifications and, thus, have been debated. This suggests that environmental changes may, under specific circumstances, increase the risk of violent conflict, but not necessarily in a systematic way and unconditionally. Hence there is, to date, no scientific consensus on the impact of environmental changes on violent conflict. This letter also highlights the most important challenges for further research on the subject. One of the key issues is that the effects of environmental changes on violent conflict are likely to be contingent on a set of economic and political conditions that determine adaptation capacity. In the authors' view, the most important indirect effects are likely to lead from environmental changes via economic performance and migration to violent conflict. (letter)

  5. Negotiating peace across identities : are identity conflicts especially intractable and resistant to conflict management?

    OpenAIRE

    Humberset, Arne

    2005-01-01

    This Master s Thesis develops the concept of identity conflict on the basis of needs- and identity-based approaches to conflict resolution. These various theoretical perspectives share the assumption that identity conflicts make up a particularly intractable type of conflict that is not amendable to conventional methods of conflict management. The concept of identity conflict incorporates several key assumptions from the needs- and identity-based approaches to conflict resolution. First it as...

  6. James Bond and Global Health Diplomacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Kevany

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the 21st Century, distinctions and boundaries between global health, international politics, and the broader interests of the global community are harder to define and enforce than ever before. As a result, global health workers, leaders, and institutions face pressing questions around the nature and extent of their involvement with non-health endeavors, including international conflict resolution, counter-terrorism, and peace-keeping, under the global health diplomacy (GHD paradigm.

  7. Catalunya a l'aldea global

    OpenAIRE

    Pes, Àngel

    1999-01-01

    Small societies must also adapt to an increasingly integrated world, econmmically, culturally and politically. Globalization is a polifaceted phenomenon transforming the world into a global village. Three examples of globalisation are the rapidly extended financial crisis, with the threat of global recession; the arrest of Pinochet in London on a Spanish warrant, marking the birth of a global public opinion; and the acceptance of differences as a way to solve conflicts both in Nor...

  8. Sovereignty in Conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Besson

    2004-09-01

    implied by constitutional pluralism, while also enhancing the legitimacy of the European polity. This can be observed in the context of difficult issues such as constitutional conflicts, legislative cooperation and, finally, multi-level constitutionalism.

  9. 32 CFR 776.6 - Conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Conflict. 776.6 Section 776.6 National Defense... Conflict. To the extent that a conflict exists between this part and the rules of other jurisdictions that... conflict between the rules contained in subpart B of this part and the rules of other jurisdictions shall...

  10. Information system conflicts : causes and types

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boonstra, Albert; de Vries, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Conflicts are an inherent part of organizational life and managers deal with confrontations and conflicts on an almost daily basis. IS implementations are a type of change that often leads to open or hidden conflicts. Managers and others involved can only deal with such conflicts effectively if they

  11. IDENTIFYING THE CRITICAL CAUSES OF CONFLICT IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Completing construction projects entails inputs from various professional disciplines; this makes projects prone to conflicts. It has been acknowledged that management of conflict is crucial to improving project performance. Thus, understanding the causes of conflicts in construction project will ease the process of conflict ...

  12. CONFLICT MANAGEMENT IN SCHOOL ORGANISATION IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GRACE

    in one way or the other working together as a team for a purpose of achieving common goal which the ... Intergroup conflicts occur between two different groups such as two trade unions, two departments or management and the ... management and line staff conflict, labour management conflict etc (Inter Group conflict). ➢.

  13. New Technology and the Prevention of Violence and Conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Mancini

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Amid unprecedented growth in access to information communication technologies (ICTs, particularly in the developing world, how can international actors, governments, and civil society organizations leverage ICTs and the data they generate to more effectively prevent violence and conflict? New research shows that there is huge potential for innovative technologies to inform conflict prevention efforts, particularly when technology is used to help information flow horizontally between citizens and when it is integrated into existing civil society initiatives.1 However, new technologies are not a panacea for preventing and reducing violence and conflict. In fact, failure to consider the possible knock-on effects of applying a specific technology can lead to fatal outcomes in violent settings. In addition, employing new technologies for conflict prevention can produce very different results depending on the context in which they are applied and whether or not those using the technology take that context into account. This is particularly true in light of the dramatic changes underway in the landscapes of violence and conflict on a global level. As such, instead of focusing on supply-driven technical fixes, those undertaking prevention initiatives should let the context inform what kind of technology is needed and what kind of approach will work best.

  14. CLIMATE CHANGE AND COMMUNITY ENVIRONMENTAL CONFLICTS: ARE THEY CORRELATED?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achmad Romsan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Climate change and global warming affect major change in freshwater availability and season uncertainty which hamper all part of the globe. Although the phenomenon is not new but it needs concerns from all the government of States around the world to  address the problem. If notthe drought and water shortages will directly and indirectly be the world problem and finally will ignite conflict over resources.Pollution and environmental degradation will also affect the sustainability of community’s economic activities. In Indonesia, since the enforcement of the first Environmental Management Act of 1982 up to the third Environmental Management Act of 2019, there have been forty one conflicts involving community and industries and palm plantation companies. All the conflicts are brought before the courts. Herein, industries and plantations are blamed for responsible for river water pollution and environmental degradation. Unfortunately, there is very little information in Indonesia obtained from the research reports, journals, news papers, magazines whether climate change and global warming also responsible for the occurrence of community environmental conflict. From the second data sources obtained from outsite Indonesia it is found that there is a link between climate change and community environmental disputes. The objectives of this paper tryto examine whether the cases submitted and solved by the District Courtsalso have some connection with the climate change phenomenon. Other objectives are to recommend to the Government of Indonesia to strengthen the existing regulations dealing with the climate change

  15. Role of conflict in decision making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellman, H.S.

    1986-01-01

    In the siting process for a low-level waste disposal facility, there is a place for conflict, negotiation, arbitration, and public involvement. Contrary to popular belief, conflict is good. It signals pluralism and demonstrates a distribution of power. Conflict should not be eliminated because it is a dynamic method of decision-making. Conflict causes negotiation, which leads to compromise. Conflict is the product of the legitimacy of dissent

  16. Intra-organizational conflict: Origin and cost

    OpenAIRE

    David Zetland

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the origin and cost of conflict within the Metropolitan Water District of Southern California (MET), a cooperative of 26 member agencies delivering water to nearly 20 million people. Conflict within MET has existed for over 30 years, but increasing population and decreasing water supplies mean that this conflict is becoming more costly in terms of direct conflict, policies that misallocate water, and expenditure on unnecessary infrastructure. Although conflict exists wit...

  17. Fighting over forest : toward a shared analysis of livelihood conflicts and conflict management in Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derkyi, M.A.A.; Ros-Tonen, M.A.F.; Kyereh, B.; Dietz, A.J.

    2014-01-01

    Conflicts undermine forest-based livelihoods for the rural poor. Conflict management is key to preventing such conflicts. This article analyzes actor perceptions of forest- and tree-related conflicts and conflict management in Ghana's high forest zone. It also assesses a phased methodology that

  18. Fighting over forest: toward a shared analysis of livelihood conflicts and conflict management in Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derkyi, M.A.A.; Ros-Tonen, M.A.F.; Kyereh, B.; Dietz, T.

    2014-01-01

    Conflicts undermine forest-based livelihoods for the rural poor. Conflict management is key to preventing such conflicts. This article analyzes actor perceptions of forest- and tree-related conflicts and conflict management in Ghana's high forest zone. It also assesses a phased methodology that

  19. Sustainable prevention of resource conflicts. Conflict risks for access and use of raw materials (report 1); Rohstoffkonflikte nachhaltig vermeiden. Konfliktrisiken bei Zugang und Nutzung von Rohstoffen (Teilbericht 1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taenzler, Dennis; Westerkamp, Meike [Adelphi Research, Berlin (Germany); Supersberger, Nikolaus; Ritthoff, Michael; Bleischwitz, Raimund [Wuppertal Institut fuer Klima, Umwelt, Energie GmbH, Wuppertal (Germany)

    2011-04-15

    Inequalities of resources ownership and the consequences of the exploitation of non-renewable resources have always caused violent conflicts of varying intensity. The resulting interdependence between conflicts on the one hand and resources on the other hand - discussed here under the term of conflict-resources nexus - is complex and requires a detailed theoretical and conceptional assessment. The risks of conflict vary as a function of the constellations of actors and the existing political, economic and social boundary conditions. These risks are often globally linked and reflect the flow of resources between consumer countries, transit countries, and producer countries. Conflicts in producer countries may endanger the supply of raw materials to consumer countries. Whether the raw material is an energetic resource like natural gas, petroleum, or coal, or a non-energetic resource like coltane or copper: There are many who demand that Germany should adapt to stronger competition and shorter supply and should also be aware of the possibility of conflicts about raw materials. This part-report of the project 'Sustainable Prevention of Resource Conflicts' presents important theoretical and conceptional considerations on the risk of conflict in the raw materials sector. On this basis, further reports will present case studies, scenarios, and preventive strategies. (orig./RHM)

  20. Improving Multiple Fault Diagnosability using Possible Conflicts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daigle, Matthew J.; Bregon, Anibal; Biswas, Gautam; Koutsoukos, Xenofon; Pulido, Belarmino

    2012-01-01

    Multiple fault diagnosis is a difficult problem for dynamic systems. Due to fault masking, compensation, and relative time of fault occurrence, multiple faults can manifest in many different ways as observable fault signature sequences. This decreases diagnosability of multiple faults, and therefore leads to a loss in effectiveness of the fault isolation step. We develop a qualitative, event-based, multiple fault isolation framework, and derive several notions of multiple fault diagnosability. We show that using Possible Conflicts, a model decomposition technique that decouples faults from residuals, we can significantly improve the diagnosability of multiple faults compared to an approach using a single global model. We demonstrate these concepts and provide results using a multi-tank system as a case study.

  1. Interaction before conflict and conflict resolution in pre-school boys with language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, Laura; Jansson, Liselotte; Ljungberg, Tomas; Hedenbro, Monica

    2006-01-01

    Children with language impairment (LI) experience social difficulties, including conflict management. The factors involved in peer-conflict progression in pre-school children with LI, and which of these processes may differ from pre-school children with typical language development (TL), is therefore examined. To describe the relationship between opponents interacting before conflict, aberrant conflict causes, the conflict-resolution strategy reconciliation (i.e. friendly contact between former opponents shortly following conflict termination), and conflict outcome in the form of social interaction after a conflict has run its course. It is hypothesized that without social interaction before conflict, children with LI will experience increased difficulties attaining reconciliation. Unstructured play of 11 boys with LI (4-7 years old), at a specialized language pre-school, and 20 boys with TL (4-6 years old), at mainstream pre-schools, were video filmed. Conflicts were identified and recorded according to a validated coding system. Recorded conflict details include social interaction between conflict in the pre-conflict period, behavioural sequences constituting conflict cause (conflict period), reconciliatory behaviours in the post-conflict period, and social interaction between former opponents in the succeeding non-conflict period. The group's mean proportion of individual children's conflicts in which specific behavioural sequences occurred were calculated and compared between and within the groups. When conflicts with and without pre-conflict social interaction were analysed separately, aberrant caused conflicts occurred more often in LI group conflicts than in TL group conflicts. However, in conflicts without social interaction in the pre-conflict period, boys with LI exhibit reconciliatory behaviours in, and reconcile a comparatively smaller proportion of, conflicts. Social interaction in the succeeding non-conflict period was proportionately less for boys

  2. How to Preempt Team Conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toegel, Ginka; Barsoux, Jean-Louis

    2016-06-01

    Team conflict can add value or destroy it. Good conflict fosters respectful debate and yields mutually agreed-upon solutions that are often far superior to those first offered. Bad conflict occurs when team members simply can't get past their differences, killing productivity and stifling innovation. Destructive conflict typically stems not from differences of opinion but from a perceived incompatibility between the way certain team members think and act. The conventional approach to working through such conflict is to respond to clashes as they arise. But this approach routinely fails because it allows frustrations to build for too long, making it difficult to reset negative impressions and restore trust. In their research on team dynamics and experience working with executive teams, Toegel and Barsoux have found a proactive approach to be much more effective. In this article, they introduce a methodology that focuses on how people look, act, speak, think, and feel. Team leaders facilitate five conversations--one focused on each category--before the team gets under way, to build a shared understanding of the process, rather than the content, of work and lay the foundation for effective collaboration.

  3. Nuclear power and political conflict

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitschelt, H.

    1979-01-01

    The paper is limited to the first phase of conflict up to 1977. The various forms of controversy on the issue of nuclear energy are examined. The conflict is explained as being the result of relevant research and (energy) infrastructure policies. The first task of such an investigation is to analyse the depoliticization of nuclear energy policy which took place over a period of nearly 20 years (1955-1973/4). This depoliticization and non-decisionmaking on the social consequences of nuclear energy have laid the foundations for the development of the conflict which occured in the first cycle of the nuclear energy conflict. The second task is to highlight the social structure of the opposition movement, its forms of struggle, and the response of the state apparatus, The crisis of the nuclear power policy has led to a more or less distinct paralysis of the state apparatus because the political and industrial decisionmaking processes in this area were not designed to cope with social conflicts. In fact, their very structure had excluded the possibility of political opposition to a specific technology. (orig./HP) [de

  4. Modulation of conflicts in the Stroop effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shichel, Ido; Tzelgov, Joseph

    2017-10-24

    The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the unique contribution of task conflict, semantic conflict and response conflict to the Stroop effect and to test how these conflicts are modulated by manipulating the proportion of neutral trials, known to affect the magnitude of the Stroop effect. In the first experiment, we employed the two-to-one paradigm (De Houwer, 2003) while adding neutral illegible stimuli, and in the second experiment, we employed two colors and four word colors. In both experiments, we created four congruency conditions (neutral, congruent and two kind of incongruent conditions-those that include response conflict and those that do not), which allowed decomposing the Stroop effect into three orthogonal conflicts. In both experiments, we also manipulated the proportion of neutral trials. Task conflict was defined by the contrast between illegible neutrals and color words, semantic conflict by the contrast between congruent and incongruent stimuli, and response conflict by contrasting the two kinds of incongruent stimuli. Our results showed that all conflicts contributed to the Stroop effect. Task conflict and semantic conflict were modulated by the proportion of neutrals but response conflict was not. These findings imply that task conflict and semantic conflict are part of the control loop of the Stroop effect, as conceptualized by Botvinick et al.'s (2001) conflict monitoring model. There is no clear evidence of the response conflict being part of the loop. To complete the picture, we also analyzed the conflicts in the Stroop task using the traditional dependent contrasts approach and found the basic pattern of results was similar. Thus, the main advantage of the orthogonal comparisons approach is the possibility to estimate the unique contribution of the conflicts contributing to the Stroop effect and their modulation of the Stroop phenomenon. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Strategic Forum, Number 7: Population, Resources, and Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-09-01

    next 20 Latin America and China ; by the 1980s, into years as a result of decreasing population growth South Asia; and in the 1990s into Africa and the...projects that progress slows, population growth will be at the the next doubling of the global population will high scenario, also shown in the graph...AD-A285 048 St mic FORUM INSTITUTE FOR NATIONAL STRATEGIC STUDIES NUMBER 7, SEPTEMBER 1994 Population , Resources, and Conflict Workshop Summary The

  6. Revisiting peace and conflict studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagmann, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    In this article, I will first draw attention to the surprising, but ultimately problematic trajectory of peace studies from the period of the Cold War to the present day. This is a trajectory from ‘peace’ as a critique of dominant geopolitics to one of ‘peace’ that has become part of the very...... dominant geopolitics it initially set out to criticise. Secondly, I will map – undoubtedly in cursory and incomplete fashion – the scholarly communities and literatures dealing with questions of peace and conflict. Rather than a literature review or an attempt at synthesis, my purpose is to highlight...... the broad variety of existing units of analysis, motivations, theories and methodologies of peace and conflict studies. Thirdly, I will propose a number of suggestions for a research attitude that, in absence of a better word, I subsume under the heading of ‘critical peace and conflict research’, striving...

  7. Local Water Conflict and Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermann, Roberto Rivas; Hooper, Catherine; Munk Ravnborg, Helle

    2011-01-01

    In 2007 the Danish Institute for International Studies (DIIS) launched the research programme “Competing for Water: Understanding conflict and cooperation in local water governance”. Along with partners in five developing countries (Bolivia, Mali, Nicaragua, Vietnam and Zambia), the programme aims...... to contribute to “sustainable local water governance in support of the rural poor and otherwise disadvantaged groups in developing countries by improving the knowledge among researchers and practitioners of the nature, extent and intensity of local water conflict and cooperation and their social, economic...... al, 2007; Nguyen, 2007; Mweemba, C.E. 2007). The purpose of these overviews was to position the research findings on the extent and nature of local-level water-related conflict and cooperation in the context of ongoing efforts to improve the policy, legal and administrative water governance framework...

  8. Technological risks and social conflicts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conrad, J.; Krebsbach-Gnath, C.

    1980-12-01

    This volume of materials is part of the report on 'Technological risks and social conflicts. Political risk strategies in the field of nuclear power'. The interested reader who wants to deepen his knowledge on the results and reasoning of the main report, will here find detailed explanations and brief drafts of subprojects; fundamental aspects of problems are presented in detail, and theoretical-conceptional, methodological and scientific-political points of view are explained. Furthermore it contains general reflections on the application-oriented research by order, a review of the status of risk research, historical considerations on the nuclear energy conflict, and finally explanations are attempted for the nuclear energy conflict. (orig./HSCH) [de

  9. Regional conflicts and nuclear fears

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subrahmanyam, K.

    1984-01-01

    The real danger of nuclear weapons in the Third World is not that developing countries will acquire them, but that advanced countries will intervene in Third World affairs with them. Nuclear weapons can play a part in Third World conflicts in two ways: a recognized nuclear weapon power can threaten to use the weapon in the conflict situation or a clandestine nuclear power may do so. In noting that most conflicts in the Third World can be sustained only through support from the developing countries, the author complains that the Non-Proliferation Treaty is pernicious because it legitimizes the use of nuclear weapons by a few weapon powers. He urges a two-step effort to pressure the North Atlantic Treaty Organization and the United Nations to make nuclear weapons illegal. 17 references

  10. Conflict Negotiation and Autonomy Processes in Adolescent Romantic Relationships: An Observational Study of Interdependency in Boyfriend and Girlfriend Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIsaac, Caroline; Connolly, Jennifer; McKenney, Katherine S.; Pepler, Debra; Craig, Wendy

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the association between conflict negotiation and the expression of autonomy in adolescent romantic partners. Thirty-seven couples participated in a globally coded conflict interaction task. Actor-partner interdependence models (APIM) were used to quantify the extent to which boys' and girls' autonomy was linked solely to their…

  11. The Geopolitical Setting of Conflict Diamonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haggerty, S. E.

    2002-05-01

    ) in the Earth's mantle, are old (about 3 Ga), and are emplaced volcanically into continental crust (cratons), at specific times geologically. Clusters of diamond volcanoes are common throughout the world, and in Africa spill over into several countries. Although there are subtle distinctions in geology, geophysics, and geochemistry of diamondiferous settings globally, these differences decrease within provinces (1000 sq km), and are minor at the district level (10-100 sq km). For diamonds: clear, sharp edged octahedra are typical of Siberia; pink stones are mostly from W. Australia; Cape yellow and blue diamonds occur in South Africa and India; corroded and etched diamonds are prevalent in E. Africa; and fibrous diamonds, once considered the domain of the Congo Republic and Sierra Leone were recently discovered in the non conflict, Slave Province, Canada. These examples are neither craton nor site specific. Is there a non destructive analytical method to uniquivocally identify diamonds regionally, or ideally at a more localized level? The intrinsic approach (vs applied) is challenging because geographical boundaries do not correspond to geological contacts. Spectroscopy, trace elements, isotopes, mineral inclusions, and the conductivities of diamonds show some promise but the overlaps are large. Refinements will evolve and analytical innovations will develop. However, legally acquired conflict diamonds are needed on which to perform basic experiments, establish background levels, and develop a data base for global comparisons. US assistance, UN permission, and funding (e.g. NSF, DOD) are urgently required if this geoscientific initiative is to move forward in stopping the flow of conflict diamonds into the hands of terrorist organizations. We have a scientific obligation to society.

  12. Irrigated agriculture and wildlife conservation: conflict on a global scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. Dennis Lemly; Richard T. Kingsford; Julian R. Thompson

    2000-01-01

    The demand for water to support irrigated agriculture has led to the demise of wetlands and their associated wildlife for decades. This thirst for water is so pervasive that many wetlands considered to be hemispheric reserves for waterbirds have been heavily affected, for example, the California and Nevada wetlands in North America, the Macquarie Marshes in Australia,...

  13. Conflict and Cooperation in the Global Arena: A Historical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article reviews the periods of crises and rapprochement in Nigeria's relations with France. The historical landmarks in their diplomatic ties are suggestive of the iron laws that govern international relations. These laws favour the strong and sanction the weak. France's pre-eminent status in the international arena during ...

  14. An overview of industrial tree plantation conflicts in the global South: conflicts, trends, and resistance struggles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Overbeek (Wilfridus); M. Kröger (Markus); J. Gerber (Julien-François)

    2012-01-01

    markdownabstractOver the past two decades, industrial tree plantations (ITPs), typically large-scale, intensively managed, even-age monoculture plantations, mostly exotic trees like fast-growing eucalyptus, pine and acacia species, but also rubber and oil palm, all destined for industrial processe s

  15. Conflict and conflict resolution in Africa: Engaging the colonial factor

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    concluded by French-speaking African leaders with France at independence are cases in point. In many cases, these ... have the French military stationed in the countries or continue to call on France for military intervention as in the recent ..... Greece to accept conditions he did not approve. In Africa, the idea of conflict.

  16. Beyond Masculinity: Gender, Conflict and Post-Conflict ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Masculinity and femininity debates of armed conflict in Africa have always regarded men as fighters and women as passive victims of war. The exclusion of women from the armed forces in most traditional societies originated from the assumption that women are a weaker sex and therefore cannot manage military life.

  17. Relating Climate and Enviornmental Stress to Conflict... or Cooperation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, C. P.

    2016-12-01

    There are many factors which contribute to social unrest, including governance, economy, access to resources and others. As global climate change progresses, many regions and nations, particularly those that are most vulnerable and least resilient, will face increasing challenges with respect to water and food scarcity. Increasing population and demand for water, combined with declining access to groundwater, will greatly increase exisiting vulnerability. Syria, Yemen and other countries serve as examples of nations that have experienced increasing both environmental stress and conflict. The Syria case in particular has had clear global repercussions, most notably contributing to a global refugee crisis. However, there are also examples of nations that have experienced increasing environmental stress that instead demonstrated transboundary water cooperation rather than conflict. An important and emerging body of work is that which seeks to better understand and characterize real-time resilience and vulnerability in order to better mitigate the consequences of future regional climate change. Prediction of potential conflict is a formidable challenge, one that is highly complex and multivariate, operating on many different temporal and spatial scales.

  18. Specificity of peer conflicts in adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Danijela

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of the survey conducted on the sample of 530 adolescents are presented in this paper. The sample included two age groups (13 and 16 years. The research was realized in 11 town and 26 schools. The method of the retrospection of the conflict contents, with one week retrospection interval, was used to research the perception of the conflict characteristics. The distinctive characteristics and the effects of the peer conflicts in adolescence have been identified by comparing them to the conflicts with friends, romantic partners, siblings and teachers. According to the results peer conflicts have certain specificity. Although less frequent than conflicts with parents and siblings, the peer conflicts in adolescence are widen phenomenon - on average, the adolescents get in conflict with their peers more than 13 times in a week, almost twice in a day. The most frequent causes are teasing and inappropriate jokes, deliberate provoking, gossips, insults and not respecting the differences in opinion. Peers follow the teachers as the least important persons in the conflict. Compared to the conflicts in other types of the social relations, the conflicts with peers are the least uncomfortable. Yielding is the least, competition the most present resolution strategy in peer conflicts. As well as the most conflicts in this age conflicts with peers are short time episode.

  19. Behavioral Responses to Interpersonal Conflict in Decision Making Teams: A Clarification of the Conflict Phenomenon

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Felice Amanda

    2009-01-01

    Interpersonal conflict in organizations plays an important role in performance, but the exact nature of that role remains unclear. Among conflict researchers a shift has occurred from believing that all conflict is debilitating for organizational performance to the realization that there are both positive and negative aspects of conflict. Contemporary research adopts a distinction between task conflict and relationship conflict. Conceptually, a positive relationship has been proposed between ...

  20. Adding Conflict Resolution Features to a Query Language for Database Federations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai-Uwe Sattler

    2000-11-01

    Full Text Available A main problem of data integration is the treatment of conflicts caused by different modeling of realworld entities, different data models or simply by different representations of one and the same object. During the integration phase these conflicts have to be identified and resolved as part of the mapping between local and global schemata. Therefore, conflict resolution affects the definition of the integrated view as well as query transformation and evaluation, in this paper we present a SQL extension for defining and querying database federations. This language addresses in particular the resolution of integration conflicts by providing mechanisms for mapping attributes, restructuring relations as well as extended integration operations. Finally, the application of these resolution strategies is briefly explained by presenting a simple conflict resolution method.

  1. Hydro-hegemony or water security community? Collective action, cooperation and conflict in the SADC transboundary security complex

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Meissner, Richard

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In an anarchical global environment, the conflict potential of shared water resources has made rivers subject to high politics (i.e. security). While researchers and diplomats consider regional treaties as cooperation indicators (Wold 1995), unequal...

  2. New Approach to Conflicts within and between Belief Functions

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel, Milan

    2009-01-01

    This study deals with conflicts of belief functions. Internal conflicts of belief functions and conflicts between belief functions are described and analyzed here. Differences of belief functions are distinguished from conflicts between them. Three new different approaches to conflicts are presented: combinational, plausibility and comparative. The presented approaches to conflicts are compared to Liu's interpretation of conflicts.

  3. Measuring teamwork and conflict among emergency medical technician personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, P Daniel; Weaver, Matthew D; Weaver, Sallie J; Rosen, Michael A; Todorova, Gergana; Weingart, Laurie R; Krackhardt, David; Lave, Judith R; Arnold, Robert M; Yealy, Donald M; Salas, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    We sought to develop a reliable and valid tool for measuring teamwork among emergency medical technician (EMT) partnerships. We adapted existing scales and developed new items to measure components of teamwork. After recruiting a convenience sample of 39 agencies, we tested a 122-item draft survey tool (EMT-TEAMWORK). We performed a series of exploratory factor analyses (EFAs) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) to test reliability and construct validity, describing variation in domain and global scores using descriptive statistics. We received 687 completed surveys. The EFAs identified a nine-factor solution. We labeled these factors 1) Team Orientation, 2) Team Structure & Leadership, 3) Partner Communication, Team Support, & Monitoring, 4) Partner Trust and Shared Mental Models, 5) Partner Adaptability & Back-Up Behavior, 6) Process Conflict, 7) Strong Task Conflict, 8) Mild Task Conflict, and 9) Interpersonal Conflict. We tested a short-form (30-item SF) and long-form (45-item LF) version. The CFAs determined that both the SF and the LF possess positive psychometric properties of reliability and construct validity. The EMT-TEAMWORK-SF has positive internal consistency properties, with a mean Cronbach's alpha coefficient ≥0.70 across all nine factors (mean = 0.84; minimum = 0.78, maximum = 0.94). The mean Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the EMT-TEAMWORK-LF was 0.87 (minimum = 0.79, maximum = 0.94). There was wide variation in weighted scores across all nine factors and the global score for the SF and LF. Mean scores were lowest for the Team Orientation factor (48.1, standard deviation [SD] 21.5, SF; 49.3, SD 19.8, LF) and highest (more positive) for the Interpersonal Conflict factor (87.7, SD 18.1, for both SF and LF). We developed a reliable and valid survey to evaluate teamwork between EMT partners.

  4. Measuring teamwork and conflict among Emergency Medical Technician personnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, P. Daniel; Weaver, Matthew D.; Weaver, Sallie J.; Rosen, Michael A.; Todorova, Gergana; Weingart, Laurie R.; Krackhardt, David; Lave, Judith R.; Arnold, Robert M.; Yealy, Donald M.; Salas, Eduardo

    2011-01-01

    Objective We sought to develop a reliable and valid tool for measuring teamwork among Emergency Medical Technician (EMT) partnerships. Methods We adapted existing scales and developed new items to measure components of teamwork. After recruiting a convenience sample of 39 agencies, we tested a 122-item draft survey tool. We performed a series of Exploratory Factor Analyses (EFA) and Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) to test reliability and construct validity, describing variation in domain and global scores using descriptive statistics. Results We received 687 completed surveys. The EFA analyses identified a 9-factor solution. We labeled these factors [1] Team Orientation, [2] Team Structure & Leadership, [3] Partner Communication, Team Support, & Monitoring, [4] Partner Trust and Shared Mental Models, [5] Partner Adaptability & Back-Up Behavior, [6] Process Conflict, [7] Strong Task Conflict, [8] Mild Task Conflict, and [9] Interpersonal Conflict. We tested a short form (30-item SF) and long form (45-item LF) version. The CFA analyses determined that both the SF and LF versions possess positive psychometric properties of reliability and construct validity. The EMT-TEAMWORK-SF has positive internal consistency properties with a mean Cronbach’s alpha coefficient ≥0.70 across all 9-factors (mean=0.84; min=0.78, max=0.94). The mean Cronbach’s alpha coefficient for the EMT-TEAMWORK-LF version was 0.87 (min=0.79, max=0.94). There was wide variation in weighted scores across all 9 factors and the global score for the SF and LF versions. Mean scores were lowest for the Team Orientation factor (48.1, SD 21.5 SF; 49.3 SD 19.8 LF) and highest (more positive) for the Interpersonal Conflict factor (87.7 SD 18.1 for both SF and LF). Conclusions We developed a reliable and valid survey to evaluate teamwork between EMT partners. PMID:22128909

  5. The Logic of Animal Conflict

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    many apparently altruistic behaviours seen in animals. Maynard Smith took up the challenge of providing an explanation for animal conflicts from the individual rather than the species point of view. Along with George R Price he used game theory, originally developed by economists, to formulate the concept of Evolutionarily ...

  6. Conflict Avoidance and University Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagliacozzo, Daisy M.

    The conditions that intensify conflict avoidance by the central administration in making strategic decisions, and the consequences of such avoidance for the management of college affairs, are discussed. The implication of an emerging decision-making style for adapting the organization to changing environments is also considered. Some of the…

  7. The paradox of intragroup conflict

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wit, Franciscus Remendus Cornelis de

    2013-01-01

    During group decision making, people often experience disagreements in which they need to choose between their own viewpoint and the viewpoint of another group member, for example, when cabinet members disagree about the best decision to tackle a crisis. These intragroup conflicts often pose a

  8. Discussing Conflict in Contemporary China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miletic, Tania; Bretherton, Diane

    2016-01-01

    The research suggests there is a gap in the peace studies and conflict resolution literature, with little representation or understanding of Chinese perspectives. In a project to address this gap, the researchers conducted interviews individually with 30 participants identified as "emerging leaders," who came from diverse universities…

  9. Internal Conflicts in Muslim Societies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashiq Ali Shah

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of psychological theories and the social dynamics of the society help identify salient attributes and processes relevant to conflict among Muslims. The psychodynamic concept of personality and frustration-aggression hypothesis account for the socialization practices in the Muslim societies, emotional instability, unfavorable evaluation of those holding a different viewpoint and venting out one's aggression on the weaker. The tendency of the Muslims to praise their sect/tribe/religious group leads to a groupthink situation that polarizes intergroup relationships. The acts of categorization in group and out group, as postulated by the social identity theory, contribute towards the distorted perception of each other. The Islamic notions of brotherhood, unity and ethnic identity as means of personal identification and social interaction seems to have been forgotten by the Muslims. Though the Western social-psychological constructs are helpful in understanding the causes of conflict among Muslims, they are not germane to Muslim societies. The group belongingness and group favouritism is not necessarily a tool of discrimination and conflict but is an essential component of one's survival in a collectivist society. The Western theories also do not address the economic and political circumstances responsible for the multitude of conflicts among Muslims.

  10. CONFLICT" IN „JOS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    increasingly from road traffic accidents." * Recently, however, there has been an increase in conflicts, with resultant increase in bilateral blindness from ocular injuries" " There has, therefore, been an increasing number of persons who have become blind as a result of ocular trauma. Also, time lost from work, and the cost of.

  11. Games, the Socialization of Conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton-Smith, Brian

    The function of games in a society is discussed in this paper. An earlier definition of games as a concretistic way of processing information of cultural antitheses is enlarged to include a more bio-adaptive definition: the game is also a socialization of conflict. This view is compared and contrasted with those of Sigmund Freud and G. H. Mead.…

  12. The Logic of Animal Conflict

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 10; Issue 11. The Logic of Animal Conflict. Raghavendra Gadagkar. Article-in-a-Box Volume 10 Issue 11 November 2005 pp 5-5. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/010/11/0005-0005 ...

  13. Intragroup Conflict during Study Abroad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodycott, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Co-national groups of individuals from the same country can provide members with psychological and sociocultural support when coping with the stresses of studying abroad. This article examines intragroup task and relationship conflict that occurred in one co-national group during a 14-week short-term study abroad program. Findings reveal the…

  14. Conflict translates environmental and social risk into business costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franks, Daniel M.; Davis, Rachel; Bebbington, Anthony J.; Ali, Saleem H.; Kemp, Deanna; Scurrah, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Sustainability science has grown as a field of inquiry, but has said little about the role of large-scale private sector actors in socio-ecological systems change. However, the shaping of global trends and transitions depends greatly on the private sector and its development impact. Market-based and command-and-control policy instruments have, along with corporate citizenship, been the predominant means for bringing sustainable development priorities into private sector decision-making. This research identifies conflict as a further means through which environmental and social risks are translated into business costs and decision making. Through in-depth interviews with finance, legal, and sustainability professionals in the extractive industries, and empirical case analysis of 50 projects worldwide, this research reports on the financial value at stake when conflict erupts with local communities. Over the past decade, high commodity prices have fueled the expansion of mining and hydrocarbon extraction. These developments profoundly transform environments, communities, and economies, and frequently generate social conflict. Our analysis shows that mining and hydrocarbon companies fail to factor in the full scale of the costs of conflict. For example, as a result of conflict, a major, world-class mining project with capital expenditure of between US$3 and US$5 billion was reported to suffer roughly US$20 million per week of delayed production in net present value terms. Clear analysis of the costs of conflict provides sustainability professionals with a strengthened basis to influence corporate decision making, particularly when linked to corporate values. Perverse outcomes of overemphasizing a cost analysis are also discussed. PMID:24821758

  15. Conflict translates environmental and social risk into business costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franks, Daniel M; Davis, Rachel; Bebbington, Anthony J; Ali, Saleem H; Kemp, Deanna; Scurrah, Martin

    2014-05-27

    Sustainability science has grown as a field of inquiry, but has said little about the role of large-scale private sector actors in socio-ecological systems change. However, the shaping of global trends and transitions depends greatly on the private sector and its development impact. Market-based and command-and-control policy instruments have, along with corporate citizenship, been the predominant means for bringing sustainable development priorities into private sector decision-making. This research identifies conflict as a further means through which environmental and social risks are translated into business costs and decision making. Through in-depth interviews with finance, legal, and sustainability professionals in the extractive industries, and empirical case analysis of 50 projects worldwide, this research reports on the financial value at stake when conflict erupts with local communities. Over the past decade, high commodity prices have fueled the expansion of mining and hydrocarbon extraction. These developments profoundly transform environments, communities, and economies, and frequently generate social conflict. Our analysis shows that mining and hydrocarbon companies fail to factor in the full scale of the costs of conflict. For example, as a result of conflict, a major, world-class mining project with capital expenditure of between US$3 and US$5 billion was reported to suffer roughly US$20 million per week of delayed production in net present value terms. Clear analysis of the costs of conflict provides sustainability professionals with a strengthened basis to influence corporate decision making, particularly when linked to corporate values. Perverse outcomes of overemphasizing a cost analysis are also discussed.

  16. Political and humanitarian mechanisms of international settlement of the conflict in Syria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zubchenko Sergiy Oleksandrovich

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with some aspects of the Syrian conflict and its impact on security in regional and global context. It defines problematic factors that contribute an escalation of tensions, hinder the implementation of political initiatives to end the fighting in Syria and have negative influence on the overall situation in SAR. Humanitarian diplomatic mechanisms for creating an auspicious environment for peaceful settlement of the conflict are offered in accordance with international law.

  17. Conflict financing and the recurrence of intra-state armed conflict: what can be done from the perspective of conflict financing to prevent the recurrence of intra-state armed conflict ?

    OpenAIRE

    Wennmann, Achim; Krause, Keith

    2008-01-01

    This thesis develops a better understanding of the relationship between conflict financing and the recurrence of intra-state armed conflict. It contributes to research on armed conflict by analysing conflict recurrence from the perpective of conflict financing and developing a comprehensive approach to conflict financing and an estimation tool for the cost of armed conflict. In addition, it elaborates a framework for the relationship between conflict financing and conflict dynamics which is a...

  18. Contested Land: An Analysis of Multi-Layered Conflicts in Jambi Province, Sumatra, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Beckert

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the lowland areas of Sumatra, conflicts over land and natural resources are increasing as fundamental land use transformation processes take place and the region is gradually integrated into globalized markets. Set against the background of the conflict arena of Bungku village, Jambi province, this paper describes and analyzes the struggle for land between a group of indigenous people, the Batin Sembilan, and an oil palm company, PT Asiatic Persada. By highlighting the path dependency of land conflicts, the article shows that access to land results from concurring but ambivalent institutional regimes and power asymmetries, leading to an ostensible state of equilibrium in a post-frontier area.

  19. Does conflict shatter trust or does trust obliterate conflict? Revisiting the relationships between team diversity, conflict, and trust

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Curseu, P.; Schruijer, S.G.L.

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the interplay between trust and conflict as antecedents of team effectiveness. In the first cross-sectional study, two alternative path models are tested in a sample of 174 teams (897 participants) with the emergent states of task conflict, relationship conflict, and trust

  20. Globally Collaborative Experiential Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi UTSUMI

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The Global University System (GUS [Utsumi, et al, 2003] is a worldwide initiative to create advanced telecommunications infrastructure for access to educational resources across national and cultural boundaries for global peace. GUS aims to create a worldwide consortium of universities to provide the underdeveloped world with access to 21st Century education via broadband Internet technologies. The aim is to achieve “education and healthcare for all,” anywhere, anytime and at any pace. The GUS works in the major regions of the globe with partnerships of higher education and healthcare institutions. Learners in these regions will be able to take their courses from member institutions around the world to receive a GUS degree. These learners and their professors from partner institutions will also form a global forum for exchange of ideas and information and for conducting collaborative research and development with emerging global GRID computer network technology. Globally Collaborative Environmental Peace Gaming (GCEPG project [Utsumi, 2003] with a globally distributed computer simulation system, focusing on the issue of environment and sustainable development in developing countries, is to train would-be decision-makers in crisis management, conflict resolution, and negotiation techniques basing on “facts and figures.” The GUS will supply game players from around the world.

  1. Conflict interaction management as a cultural phenomenon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Е L Ryabova

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The article provides the definition for the concept of conflict interaction culture, reveals its functions as well as the structure of its elements and components. Conflict interactions are also examined in the paper.

  2. Conflict in organizations : Beyond effectiveness and performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Dreu, Carsten K W; Beersma, Bianca

    Conflict theory and research has traditionally focused on conflict management strategies, in relation to individual and work-team effectiveness and productivity. Far less attention has been devoted to "soft" outcomes including job satisfaction, organizational commitment, turnover intentions, and

  3. Post-Conflict Strategic Requirements Workshop

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Menk, Peter

    2001-01-01

    ... nations and the United Nations. The purpose of the Post-Conflict Strategic Requirements Workshop was to examine the United States military ground forces role in the post-conflict phase of operations...

  4. CROSS CULTURAL CONFLICT RESOLUTION STYLES: DATA REVISITED

    OpenAIRE

    Nuray ALAGÖZLÜ

    2017-01-01

    The way conflicts are solved is thought to be culturally learned (Hammer, 2005); therefore, this is reflected through language use. Conflicts, as inevitable parts of communication, naturally mirror cultural differences. Intercultural conflict styles have been studied so far by various researchers. How conflicts are initiated, maintained and escalated or terminated are all culture bound (Leung, 2002) and all the related stages vary from one culture to another. In the related literature, there ...

  5. Determinants of Conflict in the Philippines

    OpenAIRE

    Durante, III, Jesus P.

    2012-01-01

    Conflict has many causes. Assertions have been made about the relationship of conflict with several factors based on theories, beliefs and principles. Identifying and explaining the determinants of armed conflict in the Philippines is expected to lead to better comprehension and insights on its resolution. Four independent variables are examined as predictors of conflict: ethnicity, poverty, governance, and literacy. The research primarily utilizes empirical data and projects it in map overla...

  6. Conflict Management Strategies for Rangeland Resources

    OpenAIRE

    Rasmussen, G.A.

    1995-01-01

    Metadata only record Numerous strategies have been developed to cope with conflicts. Collaborative processes are one group of conflict management strategies used. When successful these processes have several common features: they are voluntary, build trust, develop a shared vision, and use consensus. These techniques have often led to false expectations because the source of the conflict was ignored or adequately trained facilitators were not used. The source of the conflict (lack of infor...

  7. Justice in Post-Conflict Settings: Islamic Law and Muslim Communities as Stakeholders in Transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corri Zoli

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This essay is one of the first collaborative efforts to identify the underlying norms embedded in diverse traditions of Islamic law as these apply to contemporary Muslim communities experiencing conflict or transitioning from conflict. This long overdue endeavor draws upon comparative legal analyses, postconflict justice traditions, global governance, and empirical conflict studies to explore why Islamic legal norms are not often used as a resource for restraint and guidance in contemporary conflict settings. In exploring this puzzle, the authors make the case for strengthening commensurate Islamic and international conflict norms for complex conflicts and postconflict tradition. We also situate Islamic postconflict justice norms—which are too often confined to religious and natural law discussions—into contemporary problems of security policy, conflict prevention, and problems of governance. We indicate the many benefits of such a comparative approach for citizens of diverse Muslim and Arabs states and communities, trying to build pathways out of conflict, and for humanitarian and human rights practitioners working in such arenas toward similar goals. An additional, important benefit in excavating such shari’a norms is in providing the intellectual basis to counter politicized, extremist, and instrumentalist uses of Islamic law to justify extreme uses of political violence across the Middle East, Central and South Asian, and African regions.

  8. Eradication of poliomyelitis in countries affected by conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangermann, R H; Hull, H F; Jafari, H; Nkowane, B; Everts, H; Aylward, R B

    2000-01-01

    The global initiative to eradicate poliomyelitis is focusing on a small number of countries in Africa (Angola, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Liberia, Sierra Leone, Somalia, Sudan) and Asia (Afghanistan, Tajikistan), where progress has been hindered by armed conflict. In these countries the disintegration of health systems and difficulties of access are major obstacles to the immunization and surveillance strategies necessary for polio eradication. In such circumstances, eradication requires special endeavours, such as the negotiation of ceasefires and truces and the winning of increased direct involvement by communities. Transmission of poliovirus was interrupted during conflicts in Cambodia, Colombia, El Salvador, Peru, the Philippines, and Sri Lanka. Efforts to achieve eradication in areas of conflict have led to extra health benefits: equity in access to immunization, brought about because every child has to be reached; the revitalization and strengthening of routine immunization services through additional externally provided resources; and the establishment of disease surveillance systems. The goal of polio eradication by the end of 2000 remains attainable if supplementary immunization and surveillance can be accelerated in countries affected by conflict.

  9. Use of multicriteria decision analysis to address conservation conflicts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, A L; Bryce, R; Redpath, S M

    2013-10-01

    Conservation conflicts are increasing on a global scale and instruments for reconciling competing interests are urgently needed. Multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA) is a structured, decision-support process that can facilitate dialogue between groups with differing interests and incorporate human and environmental dimensions of conflict. MCDA is a structured and transparent method of breaking down complex problems and incorporating multiple objectives. The value of this process for addressing major challenges in conservation conflict management is that MCDA helps in setting realistic goals; entails a transparent decision-making process; and addresses mistrust, differing world views, cross-scale issues, patchy or contested information, and inflexible legislative tools. Overall we believe MCDA provides a valuable decision-support tool, particularly for increasing awareness of the effects of particular values and choices for working toward negotiated compromise, although an awareness of the effect of methodological choices and the limitations of the method is vital before applying it in conflict situations. © 2013 Society for Conservation Biology.

  10. Conflict Between Economic Growth and Environmental Protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czech, Bryan

    2012-01-09

    The conflict between economic growth and environmental protection may not be reconciled via technological progress. The fundamentality of the conflict ultimately boils down to laws of thermodynamics. Physicists and other scholars from the physical sciences are urgently needed for helping the public and policy makers grasp the conflict between growth and environmental protection.

  11. Rectifying Horizontal Inequalities: Lessons from African Conflict

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the conflict, and the action taken after violent conflict ceased. Section three will be dedicated to the lessons learned from the Malian and the Rwandan experience, including policy recommendations that should be instituted for any nation where horizontal inequalities are a major catalyst of conflict. Introduction. As a new ...

  12. University Students' Perceptions of Conflict Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scorzelli, James F.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the perceptions of American and international students on conflict resolution, and to determine if the students were willing to participate in conflict resolution. A survey was given to 226 students at an eastern university that asked them to identify a major international conflict and whether they felt…

  13. Regional International Organizations as Conflict Managers: The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There has been, especially since the end of the cold war, greater emphasis on the roles of regional international organizations in conflict management. With the increased spate of armed conflicts over the past two decades, demand for conflict management has consequentially increased. Though interstate wars evidently ...

  14. Conflict Management Styles of Turkish Managers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkalp, Enver; Sungur, Zerrin; Ozdemir, Aytul Ayse

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study is to determine Turkish managers conflict styles in different sectors, namely durable consumer goods, aviation, automotive and banking. Design/methodology/approach: A total of 130 managers conflict management styles were assessed by applying the Rahim's 1983 Organizational Conflict Inventory-II. Findings: First,…

  15. Conflict Resolution Practices of Arctic Aboriginal Peoples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gendron, R.; Hille, C.

    2013-01-01

    This article presents an overview of the conflict resolution practices of indigenous populations in the Arctic. Among the aboriginal groups discussed are the Inuit, the Aleut, and the Saami. Having presented the conflict resolution methods, the authors discuss the types of conflicts that are

  16. Sibling Conflict Resolution Skills: Assessment and Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Brett W.; Roberts, Mark W.

    2009-01-01

    Sibling conflict can rise to the level of a clinical problem. In Phase 1 a lengthy behavioral role-play analog sampling child reactions to normal sibling conflicts was successfully shortened. In Phase 2 normal children who lacked sibling conflict resolution skills were randomly assigned to a Training or Measurement Only condition. Training…

  17. Language and indiginous conflict management | Fasan | Indilinga ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Language and indiginous conflict management. ... Indilinga: African Journal of Indigenous Knowledge Systems ... It also examines the connection between language and conflict management, how language as a communicative tool can and has been employed in the management of conflict among the Yoruba, within the ...

  18. Toward a Theory of Conflict and Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting-Toomey, Stella

    Viewing conflict as a communication process and culture as a system of symbols and meanings allows conflict to be seen as embedded in the normative system of culture. Conflict is functional when it maintains the fundamental norms and values of the culture, regulates an appropriate degree of stability in the system, and takes place in a normative…

  19. Orwellian risks in European conflict prevention discourse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wilde, J.H.

    2006-01-01

    Conflict prevention has been the nomenclature of a non-military type of security policy, but that is changing. During the Cold War, the OSCE was a forum for conflict prevention at an interstate level. After the Cold War, OSCE conflict prevention turned to domestic affairs, comparable to NGO

  20. Conflict Resolution: Four Steps Worth Taking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, Ella M. Glenn

    2000-01-01

    States that teachers should understand their own assumptions about conflict and their approaches to it. Proposes a four-step model for conflict resolution: (1) identify the problem without blame; (2) brainstorm alternatives together; (3) agree on a solution; and (4) evaluate the result. Includes a section of conflict resolution resources by Steven…

  1. Conflict Resolution between Friends during Middle Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Anupama

    2008-01-01

    The author interviewed 74 children (ages 8.5-11.5 years) in an exploratory study of interpersonal conflict resolution between children. Results suggest that children (a) most frequently used assertion and discussion as conflict resolution strategies, (b) used more than one strategy in a single conflict, and (c) used a strategy that corresponded to…

  2. Environmental conflicts: Key issues and management implications

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Environmental conflicts: Key issues and management implications. 15 or not managed, conflicts are likely to escalate and intensify. White et al. (2009:244) state: 'What distinguishes conflicts from mere disagreement is thus a behavioural expression of formerly latent attitudes where one party is perceived to take action at the ...

  3. Cross-Cultural Conflicts within Sports Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stura, Claudia; Johnston, Linda M.

    2018-01-01

    Since sports are increasingly used a way to bring formerly conflicting parties together post-conflict, more work needs to be done to ensure that sports are actually conducted in a way that promotes peace rather than exacerbates the conflict. Since many sports-for-peace programs cross cultural boundaries, this exploratory study was conducted to…

  4. Conflict: How to Beat the Odds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Patricia L.

    1993-01-01

    Conflict between people can arise over breakdowns in communication, work policies and practices, adversarial management, and personality conflict. A conflict-resolution plan involves defining the problem, collecting the facts and opinions, considering all solutions proposed, implementing the solutions, and evaluating the situation. (MLF)

  5. Conflict in medical teams: opportunity or danger?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greer, L.L.; Saygi, O.; Aaldering, H.; de Dreu, C.K.W.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives  Intragroup conflicts often occur when people are called upon to collaborate in the accomplishment of a task. For example, when surgeons and nurses work together during an operation, conflicts may emerge because of differences in functional understanding. Whether these conflicts are

  6. Conflict Management: Difficult Conversations with Difficult People

    OpenAIRE

    Overton, Amy R.; Lowry, Ann C.

    2013-01-01

    Conflict occurs frequently in any workplace; health care is not an exception. The negative consequences include dysfunctional team work, decreased patient satisfaction, and increased employee turnover. Research demonstrates that training in conflict resolution skills can result in improved teamwork, productivity, and patient and employee satisfaction. Strategies to address a disruptive physician, a particularly difficult conflict situation in healthcare, are addressed.

  7. Regional International Organizations as Conflict Managers: The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. There has been, especially since the end of the cold war, greater emphasis on the roles of regional international organizations in conflict management. With the increased spate of armed conflicts over the past two decades, demand for conflict management has consequentially increased. Though interstate wars.

  8. Theorizing the Land - Violent Conflict Nexus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen, M. van; Haar, G. van der

    2016-01-01

    While disputes over land are prominent in many situations of protracted violent conflict, questions remain about the precise relationships between land and violent conflict. Political ecology and legal anthropology have rightly questioned dominant approaches in theorizing land-related conflict that

  9. Theorizing the Land-Violent Conflict Nexus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen, Van Mathijs; Haar, Van Der G.

    2016-01-01

    While disputes over land are prominent in many situations of protracted violent conflict, questions remain about the precise relationships between land and violent conflict. Political ecology and legal anthropology have rightly questioned dominant approaches in theorizing land-related conflict

  10. Public Health Crisis in War and Conflict - Health Security in Aggregate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, John; Zelený, Tomáš; Subramaniam, Rammika; Bencko, Vladimír

    2017-03-01

    Public health status of populations is multifactorial and besides other factors it is linked to war and conflict. Public health crisis can erupt when states go to war or are invaded; health security may be reduced for affected populations. This study reviews in aggregate multiple indices of human security, human development and legitimacy of the state in order to describe a predictable global health portrait. Paradigm shift of large global powers to that non-state actors and proxies impact regional influence through scaled conflict and present major global health challenges for policy makers. Small scale conflict with large scale violence threatens health security for at-risk populations. The paper concludes that health security is directly proportional to state security. Copyright© by the National Institute of Public Health, Prague 2017

  11. The Effects of Marital Conflict on Korean Children's Appraisal of Conflict and Psychological Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Kyung Ja; Lee, Soojin; Park, Soo Hyun

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the effects of marital conflict on Korean children's psychological adjustment and appraisal of hypothetical marital conflict situations. Children between the ages of 10 and 12 were divided into "high-conflict" (n = 58) and "low-conflict" (n = 58) groups based on their self-reported degree of perceived…

  12. Health Education in Practice: Employee Conflict Resolution Knowledge and Conflict Handling Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackett, Alexis; Renschler, Lauren; Kramer, Alaina

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to determine if a brief workplace conflict resolution workshop improved employee conflict resolution knowledge and to examine which conflict handling strategies (Yielding, Compromising, Forcing, Problem-Solving, Avoiding) were most used by employees when dealing with workplace conflict. A pre-test/post-test control…

  13. Friendship Conflict, Conflict Responses, and Instability: Unique Links to Anxious and Angry Forms of Rejection Sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croft, Carissa D.; Zimmer-Gembeck, Melanie J.

    2014-01-01

    Rejection sensitivity (RS) instigates conflict and prompts maladaptive conflict responses within romantic relationships. We tested whether RS had similar effects within friendships (N = 262, X[subscript age] = 11.7) by investigating whether (a) RS was associated with more frequent conflict, (b) two RS forms prompted different conflict responses,…

  14. Interpersonal Conflicts and Styles of Managing Conflicts among Students at Bahir Dar University, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazezew, Arega; Neka, Mulugeta

    2017-01-01

    Interpersonal conflict happens everywhere and at any time and is inherent in all societies. However, the methods of managing such conflict are quite different from one organisation to the other. The general objective of the study was to assess interpersonal conflicts and styles of managing conflicts among students at Bahir Dar University.…

  15. Examining the longitudinal relations among adolescents' conflict management with parents and conflict frequency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Missotten, Lies Christine; Luyckx, Koen; Branje, Susan J. T.; Hale, William W.; Meeus, W.H.J.

    2017-01-01

    Parent-adolescent conflicts are not necessarily detrimental for adolescent development. The way adolescents handle conflicts with parents is of crucial importance. The present five-wave longitudinal study (N = 1313) focuses on how adolescents' conflict management behaviors and conflict frequency

  16. Examining the longitudinal relations among adolescents' conflict management styles with parents and conflict frequency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Missotten, L.; Luyckx, K.; Branje, S.J.T.; Hale, W.W.; Meeus, W.H.J.

    2017-01-01

    Parent-adolescent conflicts are not necessarily detrimental for adolescent development. The way adolescents handle conflicts with parents is of crucial importance. The present five-wave longitudinal study (N = 1313) focuses on how adolescents' conflict management behaviors and conflict frequency

  17. Family conflict tendency and ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederhofer, H; Hackenberg, B; Lanzendörfer, K

    2004-04-01

    A lack of perseverance, poor attention, and poorly modulated behaviour are important criteria of Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder (ADHD). Instructions often have to be repeated, sometimes even by different family members before a child with ADHD attends and complies. We hypothesised that a child with ADHD might cause less disagreement in families with almost no conflicts. Responses to the Mannheim Parents Interview and teacher's form of the Conners scale completed by families of 15 boys (ages 6 to 12 years), diagnosed with ADHD were compared with those of a matched, healthy control group of 15 boys. Parents completed a form assessing the family's cooperation and child-rearing practices. Having few family conflicts, i.e., almost no Verbal Disagreement may reduce Physical Punishment and Anger and Disregard and augment the Openness to another's needs and, for that reason, have protective effects on children's behaviour modulation.

  18. The biology of cultural conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berns, Gregory S.; Atran, Scott

    2012-01-01

    Although culture is usually thought of as the collection of knowledge and traditions that are transmitted outside of biology, evidence continues to accumulate showing how biology and culture are inseparably intertwined. Cultural conflict will occur only when the beliefs and traditions of one cultural group represent a challenge to individuals of another. Such a challenge will elicit brain processes involved in cognitive decision-making, emotional activation and physiological arousal associated with the outbreak, conduct and resolution of conflict. Key targets to understand bio-cultural differences include primitive drives—how the brain responds to likes and dislikes, how it discounts the future, and how this relates to reproductive behaviour—but also higher level functions, such as how the mind represents and values the surrounding physical and social environment. Future cultural wars, while they may bear familiar labels of religion and politics, will ultimately be fought over control of our biology and our environment. PMID:22271779

  19. CONFLICTS BETWEEN TOURISTS AND HUNTERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionica Soare

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Tourism recreational outdoors bring revenue for the major economies of many states, for example communities should contribute with more than 800 billion dollars annually on U.S. economy, where three out of four Americans participate actively in the open air at recreation each year, as well as as well as hiking, biking, camping, wildlife generates an enormous economic power and a multiplier effect in major sectors of the economy. Empirical Research reveals a ambiguity of the feelings and attitudes concerning the relationship and potential for real conflicts between hunting recreational-sports and leisure and other activities of tourism recreational outdoors. Quantitative methods of analysis have revealed many common items, the reasons for and the environment, which are shared by both classes. An investigation carried out by means of interviews and questionnaires revealed three key elements which offers the potential of conflict: group characteristics, behavior and use of weapons for killing of animals.

  20. Technological risks and social conflicts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conrad, J.; Krebsbach-Gnath, C.

    1980-12-01

    Research on acceptance, perception and assessment of risks clearly shows that perception of risk by the public is based more on subjective assessments than on scientifically objective risk values. Risk perception by the public is influenced by a number of factors. Risk is still a central point in the conflict and always plays a major role in the opposition toward dangerous technologies. Risk forms the thematic focus for the controversy. The development of the actual conflict, the positions, interests, adaptation problems and processes of the various societal institutions, the conditions, prospects, and forms of antinuclear protest and the subjects and structures, symmetries and changes of argument in the public discussion on nuclear energy are analyzed and represented in detail in this report. (orig./HSCH) [de

  1. Feeling the conflict: the crucial role of conflict experience in adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desender, Kobe; Van Opstal, Filip; Van den Bussche, Eva

    2014-03-01

    In the study reported here, we examined the role of conflict experience in cognitive adaptation to conflict. Although the experience of conflict is generally neglected in theoretical models of cognitive control, we demonstrated that it plays a critical role in cognitive adaptation. Using a masked-priming paradigm, we showed that conflict adaptation was present only after trials on which participants experienced response conflict. Furthermore, when subjective experience did not coincide with actual conflict, adaptation effects in the error rates were observed after the experience of conflict, not after response conflict. We conclude that the experience of conflict, and not response conflict per se, is the crucial factor underlying cognitive adaptation effects. The current findings provide a new perspective on the question of why the human cognitive system exerts cognitive control, and they suggest that a crucial role of subjective experience is to allow for top-down control of behavior.

  2. Law of Armed Conflict Deskbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    in the international system, States could expect other States not to interfere in their internal affairs. Human rights law, however, pierced the “ veil ...transactions of individuals and corporations .”4 B. States. International law developed to regulate relations between States, and States are the focus of the...conflict. Whenever international law operates to regulate the conduct of a State, it must pierce the shield of sovereignty. The LOAC is therefore

  3. Civil Power in Irregular Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    food delivery, resolving tribal quarrels, agribusiness conflicts, education system start-up and quality, irrigation disputes, fuel oil distribution...Iraqi Army. It was the army, not the police, that had achieved a reputation of looking out for the people, due to the active leadership, productivity...humanitarian operations, medical services programs, ration distribution, or disaster relief is not only essential to developing the reputation of public

  4. Conflict Engagement: A Relational Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerardi, Debra

    2015-07-01

    This article is one in a series on conflict. It is part of an ongoing series on leadership coordinated by the American Organization of Nurse Executives (AONE; www.aone.org), highlighting topics of interest to nurse managers and emerging nurse leaders. The AONE provides leadership, professional development, advocacy, and research to advance nursing practice and patient care, promote nursing leadership excellence, and shape public policy for health care.

  5. Dynamics of Conflicts in Wikipedia

    OpenAIRE

    Yasseri, Taha; Sumi, Robert; Rung, Andras; Kornai, Andras; Kertesz, Janos

    2012-01-01

    In this work we study the dynamical features of editorial wars in Wikipedia (WP). Based on our previously established algorithm, we build up samples of controversial and peaceful articles and analyze the temporal characteristics of the activity in these samples. On short time scales, we show that there is a clear correspondence between conflict and burstiness of activity patterns, and that memory effects play an important role in controversies. On long time scales, we identify three distinct ...

  6. An Era of Persistent Conflict?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-14

    peace, and the ―fluctuating and intensely- coloured memory of past wars or past periods‖ influences this.71 Blainey concludes, though, that ―normally...war would be precarious, especially if prolonged.76 Thus the theories support the current mood and would seem to diminish the likelihood of conflict...almost certainly affect the public enthusiasm for war. Therefore, while the current mood may reflect war weariness, this factor‘s susceptibility to

  7. Teaching Alternatives to Violence in the Resolution of Conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Loretta

    1983-01-01

    Offers basic understandings about conflict and the steps in conflict resolution. Lists resources useful in helping elementary, middle, and secondary teachers develop an intentional approach to educating students about conflict and dealing with the conflicts students experience. (LAL)

  8. Conflicting Interpretations of Scientific Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galamba, Arthur

    2016-05-01

    Not surprisingly historical studies have suggested that there is a distance between concepts of teaching methods, their interpretations and their actual use in the classroom. This issue, however, is not always pitched to the personal level in historical studies, which may provide an alternative insight on how teachers conceptualise and engage with concepts of teaching methods. This article provides a case study on this level of conceptualisation by telling the story of Rómulo de Carvalho, an educator from mid-twentieth century Portugal, who for over 40 years engaged with the heuristic and Socratic methods. The overall argument is that concepts of teaching methods are open to different interpretations and are conceptualised within the melting pot of external social pressures and personal teaching preferences. The practice and thoughts of Carvalho about teaching methods are scrutinised to unveil his conflicting stances: Carvalho was a man able to question the tenets of heurism, but who publicly praised the heurism-like "discovery learning" method years later. The first part of the article contextualises the arrival of heurism in Portugal and how Carvalho attacked its philosophical tenets. In the second part, it dwells on his conflicting positions in relation to pupil-centred approaches. The article concludes with an appreciation of the embedded conflicting nature of the appropriation of concepts of teaching methods, and of Carvalho's contribution to the development of the philosophy of practical work in school science.

  9. Intergenerational conflict in nursing preceptorship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Vicki; Myrick, Florence; Yonge, Olive

    2013-09-01

    Within the preceptorship model of clinical teaching/learning, the creation of a cohesive relationship between a preceptor and a nursing student highly influences the overall success of the experience. Invariably, preceptors and students tend to be of different generations and as such, there exists within this context the potential for generational misunderstandings and conflict. A phenomenological study guided by van Manen's approach to human science research was conducted. The aim of this study is to explore the phenomenon of preceptorship in the intergenerational context. A purposive sample of seven preceptors and seven nursing students was recruited from an undergraduate nursing program. The collective experience of all participants was illuminated through three key themes: being affirmed, being challenged, and being on a pedagogical journey. In this article we focus on encountering conflict, a key subtheme of being challenged, and one that emerged from the participants' narratives. The study findings suggest that interpersonal conflict continues to be a reality in our profession, owing to which a collective effort must be made by nurse educators, practicing nurses, and nursing students to effect change and create a more cohesive culture. The findings have the potential to enhance generational understanding and foster a more cohesive culture in clinical practice settings. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Brazil and International Conflict Resolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alla Yuryevna Borzova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers features of Brazilian participation in peacekeeping missions under the auspices of the United Nations related to the commitment to preventive diplomacy in resolving the conflict, the combination of diplomacy and peace-building efforts and rehabilitation of the economies of countries-participants of the conflict. Brazil put forward the initiative “Supporters of mediation”, that adds the concept of the United Nations “Responsibility to Protect” (R2P with the concept “Responsibility while protecting” (RwhileP. Brazil advocates for human rights. It marked Brazil's position on the rejection of humanitarian intervention, since the use of force leads to increased violence and instability, which manifested itself in the situation in the Middle East, and mass migration. For the country is characterized the analysis of the sources of conflict, adherence to international law, and understanding of the relationship between security and sustainable development, which is reflected in Brazil's foreign policy strategy, national security strategy.

  11. Ethics of conducting research in conflict settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mills Edward J

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Humanitarian agencies are increasingly engaged in research in conflict and post-conflict settings. This is justified by the need to improve the quality of assistance provided in these settings and to collect evidence of the highest standard to inform advocacy and policy change. The instability of conflict-affected areas, and the heightened vulnerability of populations caught in conflict, calls for careful consideration of the research methods employed, the levels of evidence sought, and ethical requirements. Special attention needs to be placed on the feasibility and necessity of doing research in conflict-settings, and the harm-benefit ratio for potential research participants.

  12. Beyond territory and scarcity - exploring conflicts over natural resource management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ressources management, enviromental degradation, natural resources, conflicts, boundaries, Africa......Ressources management, enviromental degradation, natural resources, conflicts, boundaries, Africa...

  13. The conciliation of collective labour conflicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulia BĂDOI

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The present article envisages presenting the conciliation as a resolution procedure for the conflicts of interests/collective labour conflicts. The conciliation was stipulated as a resolution procedure for the conflicts of interests/collective labour conflicts even from the first acts that regulated this domain, being foreseen as a mandatory phase within the process of solving this type of conflicts. The subject of conciliation was approached before within the doctrine, from this juridical institution development point of view, the used research methods being the observation and the comparative analysis. The legislator adapted the procedure for the resolution of conflicts of interests/ collective labour conflicts in accordance with the social and economic development of the labour relations and identified other means of resolution, such as the mediation, the arbitrage or the strike, when the conciliation didn’t lead to the end of the conflict. The present paper aims is to realize an assessment over the historical development of the labour conflicts conciliation and to draw up a study on the statistical data concerning these conflicts. The study may be used within the research activity, its contribution being set up by the updated presentation of the statistical data and on the legislation within the field of labour conflicts conciliation.

  14. CROSS CULTURAL CONFLICT RESOLUTION STYLES: DATA REVISITED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuray ALAGÖZLÜ

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The way conflicts are solved is thought to be culturally learned (Hammer, 2005; therefore, this is reflected through language use. Conflicts, as inevitable parts of communication, naturally mirror cultural differences. Intercultural conflict styles have been studied so far by various researchers. How conflicts are initiated, maintained and escalated or terminated are all culture bound (Leung, 2002 and all the related stages vary from one culture to another. In the related literature, there have been attempts to describe different conflict handling classifications. Using Hammer’s (2005 categorization that was found to be more refined and summative, conflict resolution styles of Turkish and American College students were explored using Discourse Completion Tests (DCT with eight conflict situations where the respondents were required to write verbal solutions to overcome the conflicts described in the test. Those utterances were categorized according to Directness/Indirectness Scale modified from Hammer’s (2005 “International Conflict Style Inventory (ICSI” that classifies intercultural conflict resolution styles as high/low level of directness and high/low level of emotional expressiveness. It is believed that the study provides insight into intercultural communication as there are culturally generalizable (etic and learned patterns of conflict resolution styles pertinent to different cultures (Hammer, 2009, p. 223; Ting-Toomey, 1994.

  15. Evolution of the interpersonal conflict paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandeep K. Dhami

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Using Brunswik's (1952 lens model framework, Hammond (1965 proposed interpersonal conflict theory to explain the nature, source, and resolution of disagreement or ``cognitive conflict'' between parties performing judgment tasks. An early review by Brehmer (1976 highlighted the potential of this approach in, for example, understanding the structure of cognitive conflicts, and the effect of task and person variables on judgment policy change and conflict resolution. However, our bibliographic and content reviews from 1976 to the present day demonstrate that research on cognitive conflict using the lens model has declined sharply, while research on ``task conflict'' has grown dramatically. There has also been a shift to less theoretical precision and methodological rigor. We discuss possible reasons for these developments, and suggest ways in which lens model research on cognitive conflict can be revitalized by borrowing from recent theoretical and methodological advances in the field of judgment and decision making.

  16. Ethnicity and conflict: theory and facts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteban, Joan; Mayoral, Laura; Ray, Debraj

    2012-05-18

    Over the second half of the 20th century, conflicts within national boundaries became increasingly dominant. One-third of all countries experienced civil conflict. Many (if not most) such conflicts involved violence along ethnic lines. On the basis of recent theoretical and empirical research, we provide evidence that preexisting ethnic divisions do influence social conflict. Our analysis also points to particular channels of influence. Specifically, we show that two different measures of ethnic division--polarization and fractionalization--jointly influence conflict, the former more so when the winners enjoy a "public" prize (such as political power or religious hegemony), the latter more so when the prize is "private" (such as looted resources, government subsidies, or infrastructures). The available data appear to strongly support existing theories of intergroup conflict. Our argument also provides indirect evidence that ethnic conflicts are likely to be instrumental, rather than driven by primordial hatreds.

  17. BACKGROUND AND SUBSTANCE OF DETECTION OF ECOLOGICAL CONFLICTS IN THE ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataliia Chupryna

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to study the nature of ecological conflicts in the economy, which, subject to globalization enable (or impossible to solve pollution and the destruction of all elements of the environment. Identify ecological conflicts in the economy borders, which will be decisive in shaping their capabilities and develop alternatives to overcome ecological conflicts. Methodology. The study is based on an analysis of the state of the ecological component of the Ukrainian economy in recent years and the results of the country's industrial enterprises. The work of industrial enterprises may provoke the creation of ecological conflicts. Research findings of leading scientists in this field are also used. Results of the research have made it possible to determine the nature of the identification of ecological conflicts in the economy. Ensure the development and dissemination of ecological conflicts in the dynamics. Developed by constructing a map of ecological conflicts makes it possible to analyze the components of ecological conflicts in more detail and to develop management actions aimed at eliminating environmental conflict in the economy. The necessity of engaging potential ecological conflicts in the future by setting its limits in the economy. Practical implications. Environmental problem, namely a warning or ecological conflicts optimal solution is a prerequisite for the country's development as an integral state with a healthy population that can live in the country and to use its resources freely (within the legislation. However, overcoming ecological conflicts not paid enough attention to both at the state and local level. The main stages of analysis and possible options for the development ecological conflicts become the basis for the formation of government priorities towards the greening of the main industries in the economy. Features of occurrence of each individual environmental conflict, the implementation of research on

  18. Cooperative measures to mitigate Asia-Pacific maritime conflicts.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chai, Wen-Chung (Taiwan Navy)

    2003-05-01

    The economies of East Asia are predominantly export based and, therefore, place special emphasis on the security of the sea lines of communication (SLOCs). Due to economic globalization, the United States shares these concerns. Cooperative measures by the concerned parties could reduce the potential for disruption by maritime conflicts. Primary threats against the SLOCs are disputes over the resources under the seas, disputes over some small island groups, disputes between particular parties (China-Taiwan and North-South Korea), or illegal activities like smuggling, piracy, or terrorism. This paper provides an overview on these threats, issue by issue, to identify common elements and needed cooperation. Cooperation on other topics such as search and rescue, fisheries protection, and oil spill response may help support improved relations to prevent maritime conflicts. Many technologies can help support maritime cooperation, including improved communications links, tracking and emergency beacon devices, and satellite imaging. Appropriate technical and political means are suggested for each threat to the SLOCs.

  19. Global warning, global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benarde, M.A.

    1992-01-01

    This book provides insights into the formidable array of issues which, in a warmer world, could impinge upon every facet of readers lives. It examines climatic change and long-term implications of global warming for the ecosystem. Topics include the ozone layer and how it works; the greenhouse effect; the dangers of imbalance and its effects on human and animal life; disruptions to the basic ecology of the planet; and the real scientific evidence for and against aberrant climatic shifts. The author also examines workable social and political programs and changes that must be instituted to avoid ecological disaster

  20. Troublemaking carnivores: conflicts with humans in a diverse assemblage of large carnivores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea T. Morehouse

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Human-wildlife conflicts are a global conservation and management challenge. Multipredator systems present added complexity to the resolution of human-wildlife conflicts because mitigation strategies often are species-specific. Documenting the type and distribution of such conflicts is an important first step toward ensuring that subsequent management and mitigation efforts are appropriately targeted. We reviewed 16 years of records of complaints about two species of strict carnivores, wolves (Canis lupus and cougars (Puma concolor, and two species of omnivores, grizzly bears (Ursus arctos and black bears (Ursus americanus in southwestern Alberta and evaluated the temporal and spatial distribution of these complaints. Conflicts were most frequently associated with bears (68.7% of complaint records, reflecting a diversity of conflict types attributable to their omnivorous diets. Although grizzly bears killed and injured livestock, the majority of conflicts with bears were attributable to attractants (grain and dead livestock for grizzly bears, garbage for black bears. In contrast, wolf and cougar incidents were almost exclusively related to killing or injury of livestock. Complaints for both bear species have increased over the past 16 years while cougar and wolf complaints have remained relatively constant. Grizzly bear and cougar conflicts have been expanding into private lands used for agriculture. Although community driven, targeted mitigation measures have helped reduce conflicts with grizzly bears at the site level, conflicts at the broader scale have continued to increase and continued work is necessary. Long-term human-carnivore coexistence clearly is possible, facilitated by continued monitoring and local efforts to mitigate conflicts.

  1. CULTURAL DIVERSITY: A GLOBAL CHALLENGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina LECA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available XXI century is the century of globalization, a century dominated by multinational organizations supremacy which gradually expanded to conquer the world through their products and services. In every industry working professionals need to interact with people from other ethnic and nationals groups, at home, job and around the world. Decisively all meant for companies and organizations, in addition to innovation and development the source of possible conflicts. Therefore what does cultural diversity mean and how it should be managed?

  2. Conflict Resolution in Computer Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. P. Mojarov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A conflict situation in computer systems CS is the phenomenon arising when the processes have multi-access to the shared resources and none of the involved processes can proceed because of their waiting for the certain resources locked by the other processes which, in turn, are in a similar position. The conflict situation is also called a deadlock that has quite clear impact on the CS state.To find the reduced to practice algorithms to resolve the impasses is of significant applied importance for ensuring information security of computing process and thereupon the presented article is aimed at solving a relevant problem.The gravity of situation depends on the types of processes in a deadlock, types of used resources, number of processes, and a lot of other factors.A disadvantage of the method for preventing the impasses used in many modern operating systems and based on the preliminary planning resources required for the process is obvious - waiting time can be overlong. The preventing method with the process interruption and deallocation of its resources is very specific and a little effective, when there is a set of the polytypic resources requested dynamically. The drawback of another method, to prevent a deadlock by ordering resources, consists in restriction of possible sequences of resource requests.A different way of "struggle" against deadlocks is a prevention of impasses. In the future a prediction of appearing impasses is supposed. There are known methods [1,4,5] to define and prevent conditions under which deadlocks may occur. Thus the preliminary information on what resources a running process can request is used. Before allocating a free resource to the process, a test for a state “safety” condition is provided. The state is "safe" if in the future impasses cannot occur as a result of resource allocation to the process. Otherwise the state is considered to be " hazardous ", and resource allocation is postponed. The obvious

  3. Intragroup conflicts and efficiency of production group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidorenkov A.V.

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Analysis results of relationships of three levels of the conflict (interpersonal, microgroup and group on two types (the job and subject with indicators of subjectively perceived performance and social effectiveness of small groups and informal subgroups are provided. On selection of 42 work groups (N=334 employees it is established that performance efficiency of group according to the experts has inverse relation from all levels and types of the conflict, and by estimates of members of group — from two types of the microgroup conflict. The same type of effectiveness of informal subgroups on one indicator has inverse relation from the group conflict, and on another — from the interpersonal and microgroup conflict. Social effectiveness of group is connected with the interpersonal and group conflict, and informal subgroups are connected with the interpersonal and microgroup conflict. Levels and types of the conflict cause efficiency of group and subgroup not only separately, but also in a combination with each other. Six regression models, four of which display relationships at the same time of several levels and types of the conflict with performance effectiveness of group, and two — with social effectiveness of subgroup are revealed. Mediated and direct relationships of levels and types of the conflict with efficiency of group and subgroup are established.

  4. Naturalistically observed conflict and youth asthma symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobin, Erin T; Kane, Heidi S; Saleh, Daniel J; Naar-King, Sylvie; Poowuttikul, Pavadee; Secord, Elizabeth; Pierantoni, Wayne; Simon, Valerie A; Slatcher, Richard B

    2015-06-01

    To investigate the links between naturalistically observed conflict, self-reported caregiver-youth conflict, and youth asthma symptoms. Fifty-four youth with asthma (age range: 10-17 years) wore the Electronically Activated Recorder (EAR) for a 4-day period to assess interpersonal conflict and caregiver-youth conflict as they occur in daily life. Conflict also was assessed with baseline self-report questionnaires and daily diaries completed by youth participants and their caregivers. Asthma symptoms were assessed using daily diaries, baseline self-reports, and wheezing, as coded from the EAR. EAR-observed measures of conflict were strongly associated with self-reported asthma symptoms (both baseline and daily diaries) and wheezing coded from the EAR. Further, when entered together in regression analyses, youth daily reports of negative caregiver-youth interactions and EAR-observed conflict uniquely predicted asthma symptoms; only EAR-observed conflict was associated with EAR-observed wheezing. These findings demonstrate the potential impact of daily conflict on youth asthma symptoms and the importance of assessing conflict as it occurs in everyday life. More broadly, they point to the importance of formulating a clear picture of family interactions outside of the lab, which is essential for understanding how family relationships "get under the skin" to affect youth health. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Joke as a means of conflict settling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yana A. Sadovnikova

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the use of jokes as one of the verbal means of deintensification of confrontation. The examples from modern English works of art illustrating the use of jokes at different stages of the conflict are presented. As a rule, a joke can be used in open and post-conflict phases, the latent phase of the conflict is not expressed. The use of jokes on the open stage of the conflict can create a kind of tipping point to change the course of the conflict, and thereby help to resolve it. On the post-conflict stage, a joke helps to build relationships that can be important preventing renewed conflict. The article draws attention to the combination of other means of deintensification confrontation with a joke to achieve the best result in the conflict settlement process. The verbal means can be referred to the apology and change of subject, non-verbal gestures and kisses, para-verbal — soothing tone. All of these funds, if used in conjunction with a joke, contribute to a successful resolution of the conflict. They can also enhance the effect of the joke, which is especially important in the case of non-verbal means. The author notes that the effectiveness of the joke depends on both sides — how well one of the interviewees apply the tool and how the second would take it. In the case of a failed joke, the conflict is likely to increase.

  6. Members' needs, intragroup conflict, and group performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Jinseok S; Choi, Jin Nam

    2014-05-01

    Focusing on "what people want in their group" as a critical antecedent of intragroup conflict, the present study theorizes and empirically investigates the relationships among the psychological needs of group members, intragroup conflict, and group performance. It attends to the within-group average and dispersion of members' psychological needs and examines the effects stemming from group composition of needs on multiple types of conflict. The analyses based on multisource data from 145 organizational teams revealed significant relationships between the groups' composition with respect to the members' need for achievement and task conflict, need for affiliation and relationship conflict, and need for power and status conflict. Some of these relationships were moderated by open communication among members. The analyses also demonstrated that when the 3 types of conflict were considered together, task conflict was a positive predictor of group performance, whereas relationship conflict was a negative predictor. The findings highlight the motivational aspects of intragroup conflict, revealing the multilevel dynamics of the psychological needs in social settings. (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  7. Globalization, Globalisation

    OpenAIRE

    Wilfred J. Ethier

    2002-01-01

    This paper addresses a complex of globalization issues: the effect of globalization on the skill premium; the effect of globalization on unemployment; the relative importance of globalization and exogenous technical change; the effect of globalization on the ability of national governments to conduct independent social policies. Thinking about these topics has been dominated by a large empirical literature concluding that trade has played a relatively minor role in the rise of the skill premi...

  8. Models of conflict and cooperation

    CERN Document Server

    Gillman, Rick

    2009-01-01

    Models of Conflict and Cooperation is a comprehensive, introductory, game theory text for general undergraduate students. As a textbook, it provides a new and distinctive experience for students working to become quantitatively literate. Each chapter begins with a "dialogue" that models quantitative discourse while previewing the topics presented in the rest of the chapter. Subsequent sections develop the key ideas starting with basic models and ending with deep concepts and results. Throughout all of the sections, attention is given to promoting student engagement with the material through re

  9. Conflict Termination : A Selected Bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-01

    Science 55, no. 1 (January 2011): 149-169. JSTOR Findley, Michael G. "Bargaining and the Interdependent Stages of Civil War Resolution." Journal of...Library print holdings begin with 1957. Also available online 1957-2010 in JSTOR ; 1999-present from Sage Journal of Peace Research. Library print...holdings begin with 2000. Also available online 1964- 2010 in JSTOR ; 1999-present from Sage Studies in Conflict and Terrorism. Library print holdings begin with 1992. Also available online 1997-present from Taylor & Francis

  10. CONFLICTS PREVENTION IN TEAM- WORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean de PERSON

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Building a trust atmosphere and mobilization in a team or an organizationremains the dream of every manager. This article analyses the internalmechanism of a conflict through life positions diagram in which direction anddominance diagrams appear. The first diagonal, the dominance one, revealsan animal behavior, the latter including both positive aspirations (++ quarter,and also deceptions (-- quarter.Passing over crisis situations requires from managers to outrun, through theirstyle and actions the dominance diagonal and pass to a game with reciprocalgaining (++ quarter, based on trust, that color relations between people andrelease their energy.

  11. Interdependence, issue importance, and the 2009 Russia-Ukraine gas conflict

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yusin

    2017-01-01

    The primary aim of this paper is to explain the 2009 Russia-Ukraine gas conflict. In particular, it attempts to identify the causal mechanisms between their interdependence in the gas sphere and the gas conflict. The paper first shows that existing theories in the study of international relations have limitations in accounting for that conflict. Therefore, a theoretical framework drawing insights from Armstrong's model on dependence-political compliance and Crescenzi's exit model is proposed to explain it. Relying on this framework, this paper demonstrates that the 2009 Russia-Ukraine gas conflict took place through two critical causal mechanisms. In the contexts of the 2008 global financial crisis and Ukraine's anti-Russian policy, Russia and Ukraine both considered issues involved in the gas trade such as debts, prices, transit tariffs, and Ukraine's pipeline system to be very important. Therefore, when Russia issued demands with economic threats, Ukraine refused to comply. - Highlights: • This paper explains the 2009 Russia-Ukraine gas conflict. • It shows the causal mechanisms between their interdependent gas relations and the conflict. • The conflict took place through two critical causal mechanisms. • Russia and Ukraine considered the issues involved in the gas trade to be critical. • Thus, when Russia issued demands with economic threats, Ukraine refused to comply.

  12. Intrapersonal conflict in goals and values of patients with unipolar depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stangier, Ulrich; Ukrow, Uwe; Schermelleh-Engel, Karin; Grabe, Martin; Lauterbach, Wolf

    2007-01-01

    Although increased conflicts between attitudes and beliefs about certain goals or values are often discussed as important factors in depression, there are only few empirical studies investigating these relations among patients with depressive disorders. In the present study, we used the Intrapersonal Conflict Test to assess cognitive inconsistencies in goals or values. A total of 53 inpatients with unipolar depression and 24 nondepressed controls (inpatients of an internal and a surgery ward) participated in the study. In addition to the Intrapersonal Conflict Test, patients completed the Beck Depression Inventory, the Dysfunctional Attitude Scale, the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems as well as the Problem Solving Inventory. Compared with controls, patients with depressive disorders showed significantly higher scores for global inconsistencies, inconsistencies within different goals/values, as well as between goals/values and their perceived realization. Significant correlations were found between conflict measures and the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems, as well as the Problem Solving Inventory. Path analyses show that group differences in intrapersonal conflicts were partially mediated by interpersonal problems but not by depressive symptoms or cognitive vulnerability factors. Given the cross-sectional design of the study, the findings of this exploratory study do not allow for conclusions regarding the role of intrapersonal conflicts in the development and course of depression. Nevertheless, the high levels of intrapersonal conflicts observed in the study suggest that inconsistencies in goals or values should be considered in the psychological treatment of depression. Copyright 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Language conflict in the bilingual brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Heuven, Walter J B; Schriefers, Herbert; Dijkstra, Ton; Hagoort, Peter

    2008-11-01

    The large majority of humankind is more or less fluent in 2 or even more languages. This raises the fundamental question how the language network in the brain is organized such that the correct target language is selected at a particular occasion. Here we present behavioral and functional magnetic resonance imaging data showing that bilingual processing leads to language conflict in the bilingual brain even when the bilinguals' task only required target language knowledge. This finding demonstrates that the bilingual brain cannot avoid language conflict, because words from the target and nontarget languages become automatically activated during reading. Importantly, stimulus-based language conflict was found in brain regions in the LIPC associated with phonological and semantic processing, whereas response-based language conflict was only found in the pre-supplementary motor area/anterior cingulate cortex when language conflict leads to response conflicts.

  14. AIRCRAFT CONFLICTS RESOLUTION BY COURSE MANEUVERING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В. Харченко

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Enhancement of requirements for air traffic efficiency at increasing of flights intensity determines the necessity of development of new optimization methods for aircraft conflict resolutions. The statement of problem of optimal conflict resolutions at Cooperative Air Traffic Management was done. The method for optimal aircraft conflict  resolution by course maneuvering has been  developed. The method using dynamic programming provides planning of aircraft conflict-free trajectory with minimum length. The decomposition of conflict resolution process on phases and stages, definition of states, controls and recursive  equations for generation of optimal course control program were done. Computer modeling of aircraft conflict resolution by developed method was done

  15. Conflict of interest in clinical research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravindra B Ghooi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Increased focus on ethical review of research demands a number of improvements in the existing system. Although these are being implemented, some factors that have received less attention in the past could be examined. One of these is conflict of interest. Such conflicts could exist for investigators, ethics committee (EC members, and even the regulators. Guidance for identification and management of conflicts has been issued by many countries and Indian rules also speak about these conflicts. Greater clarity would help investigators and ECs manage conflicts more effectively. It is admitted that conflicts cannot be done away with, but their timely identification, disclosure, and management can reduce their impact and bring more transparency and accountability to trials in this country.

  16. [Conflict management in the workplace].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mola Sanna, Bruna; Igual Ayerbe, Blanca

    2010-02-01

    Our sanitary system and our health organizations have to confront the conflicts which have derived from the successive social and sanitary changes which have developed over the most recent decades. These new realities in the health fields oblige the professionals dedicated to them, the administrators of our organizations, the politicians, and society in general, as those who make use of the health services provided, to search for strategies and resources for the prevention, and transformation of those conflicts which can develop due to these situations, having as their final objective to preserve the basic principle of universal health care which is included in our Constitution. For this reason, the authors propose a profile for mediators in the health field, understanding that for mediation to really be useful, and to avoid or reduce improper litigation in our health system, values which belong to the culture of peace should be introduced into the culture of our health organizations. To that end, it is essential to count on not only professional mediators but also on an elenchus of natural mediators and informal mediators.

  17. Exploring relations between task conflict and informational conflict in the Stroop task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Entel, Olga; Tzelgov, Joseph; Bereby-Meyer, Yoella; Shahar, Nitzan

    2015-11-01

    In this study, we tested the proposal that the Stroop task involves two conflicts--task conflict and informational conflict. Task conflict was defined as the latency difference between color words and non-letter neutrals, and manipulated by varying the proportion of color words versus non-letter neutrals. Informational conflict was defined as the latency difference between incongruent and congruent trials and manipulated by varying the congruent-to-incongruent trial ratio. We replicated previous findings showing that increasing the ratio of incongruent-to-congruent trials reduces the latency difference between the incongruent and congruent condition (i.e., informational conflict), as does increasing the proportion of color words (i.e., task conflict). A significant under-additive interaction between the two proportion manipulations (congruent vs. incongruent and color words vs. neutrals) indicated that the effects of task conflict and informational conflict were not additive. By assessing task conflict as the contrast between color words and neutrals, we found that task conflict existed in all of our experimental conditions. Under specific conditions, when task conflict dominated behavior by explaining most of the variability between congruency conditions, we also found negative facilitation, thus demonstrating that this effect is a special case of task conflict.

  18. EEG neural oscillatory dynamics reveal semantic and response conflict at difference levels of conflict awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jun; Zhang, Qinglin; Van Gaal, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Although previous work has shown that conflict can be detected in the absence of awareness, it is unknown how different sources of conflict (i.e., semantic, response) are processed in the human brain and whether these processes are differently modulated by conflict awareness. To explore this issue, we extracted oscillatory power dynamics from electroencephalographic (EEG) data recorded while human participants performed a modified version of the Stroop task. Crucially, in this task conflict awareness was manipulated by masking a conflict-inducing color word preceding a color patch target. We isolated semantic from response conflict by introducing four color words/patches, of which two were matched to the same response. We observed that both semantic as well as response conflict were associated with mid-frontal theta-band and parietal alpha-band power modulations, irrespective of the level of conflict awareness (high vs. low), although awareness of conflict increased these conflict-related power dynamics. These results show that both semantic and response conflict can be processed in the human brain and suggest that the neural oscillatory mechanisms in EEG reflect mainly “domain general” conflict processing mechanisms, instead of conflict source specific effects. PMID:26169473

  19. EEG neural oscillatory dynamics reveal semantic and response conflict at difference levels of conflict awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jun; Zhang, Qinglin; Van Gaal, Simon

    2015-07-14

    Although previous work has shown that conflict can be detected in the absence of awareness, it is unknown how different sources of conflict (i.e., semantic, response) are processed in the human brain and whether these processes are differently modulated by conflict awareness. To explore this issue, we extracted oscillatory power dynamics from electroencephalographic (EEG) data recorded while human participants performed a modified version of the Stroop task. Crucially, in this task conflict awareness was manipulated by masking a conflict-inducing color word preceding a color patch target. We isolated semantic from response conflict by introducing four color words/patches, of which two were matched to the same response. We observed that both semantic as well as response conflict were associated with mid-frontal theta-band and parietal alpha-band power modulations, irrespective of the level of conflict awareness (high vs. low), although awareness of conflict increased these conflict-related power dynamics. These results show that both semantic and response conflict can be processed in the human brain and suggest that the neural oscillatory mechanisms in EEG reflect mainly "domain general" conflict processing mechanisms, instead of conflict source specific effects.

  20. International Baccalaureate as a Litmus Test Revealing Conflicting Values and Power Relations in the Israeli Education System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yemini, Miri; Dvir, Yuval

    2016-01-01

    This study comprises a comprehensive attempt to reveal the power relations and conflicting interests within the local-global nexus of the Israeli public education system. The perceptions of different stakeholders were explored, in regard to the implementation of the International Baccalaureate Diploma Program as an example of a globally oriented…

  1. Rethinking the 'global' in global health: a dialectic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozorgmehr, Kayvan

    2010-10-28

    Current definitions of 'global health' lack specificity about the term 'global'. This debate presents and discusses existing definitions of 'global health' and a common problem inherent therein. It aims to provide a way forward towards an understanding of 'global health' while avoiding redundancy. The attention is concentrated on the dialectics of different concepts of 'global' in their application to malnutrition; HIV, tuberculosis & malaria; and maternal mortality. Further attention is payed to normative objectives attached to 'global health' definitions and to paradoxes involved in attempts to define the field. The manuscript identifies denotations of 'global' as 'worldwide', as 'transcending national boundaries' and as 'holistic'. A fourth concept of 'global' as 'supraterritorial' is presented and defined as 'links between the social determinants of health anywhere in the world'. The rhetorical power of the denotations impacts considerably on the object of 'global health', exemplified in the context of malnutrition; HIV, tuberculosis & malaria; and maternal mortality. The 'global' as 'worldwide', as 'transcending national boundaries' and as 'holistic' house contradictions which can be overcome by the fourth concept of 'global' as 'supraterritorial'. The 'global-local-relationship' inherent in the proposed concept coheres with influential anthropological and sociological views despite the use of different terminology. At the same time, it may be assembled with other views on 'global' or amend apparently conflicting ones. The author argues for detaching normative objectives from 'global health' definitions to avoid so called 'entanglement-problems'. Instead, it is argued that the proposed concept constitutes an un-euphemistical approach to describe the inherently politicised field of 'global health'. While global-as-worldwide and global-as-transcending-national-boundaries are misleading and produce redundancy with public and international health, global

  2. Resources for Conflict: Constraint or Wealth?

    OpenAIRE

    Kyung Hwan Baik; Subhasish M. Chowdhury; Abhijit Ramalingam

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the effects of the availability of resources that can be expended in conflict on conflict intensity. We run a between-subjects Tullock contest in which we vary the contest budget from Low to Medium to High, while keeping the Nash equilibrium bid the same. We find an `inverted U-shaped' relationship between resource availability and conflict intensity. While standard error correction models can explain the first part of the relationship by attributing resources as constraint, th...

  3. Critical Issues and Perspectives in Conflict Resolution

    OpenAIRE

    Saletan, Ira

    1984-01-01

    The equitable, rational resolution of conflict is unarguably a gen­ eric objective of planning-whether the conflict concerns the appropriate use of physical and social resources or the relative power of individuals in the decision-making process. Thus it is not surprising to find that alternative forms of conflict resolution which promise more optimal outcomes than traditional regulatory and legal mechanisms find their adherents among planning practitioners and educators. However, few questio...

  4. Four Levels of Moral Conflict in ISD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vartiainen, Tero

    This study introduces a literature-based classification of moral conflicts in information systems development (ISD). The classification describes what moral conflicts an IS professional confronts in ISD as a whole and includes intentional, functional, managerial, and societal levels. The internal structure of moral conflicts is exemplified by means of a philosophical and a business ethics theory. The limitations of the study are considered and practical implications for the teaching of computer ethics are discussed.

  5. Authoritarian Regimes, Domestic Stability, and International Conflict

    OpenAIRE

    Bae, Joonbum

    2015-01-01

    This dissertation addresses the argument that there may not be room for cooperation in relations with (and in between) states with authoritarian systems of rule because international conflicts may strengthen their hold on power. To this end, it asks 1) whether authoritarian regimes benefit in terms of their duration in power from conflict, 2) whether conflicts stabilize domestic politics by moderating the violence involved during regime transitions (in terms of how they fall), and also 3) whe...

  6. On Operations Research, Ethics and Value Conflicts

    OpenAIRE

    Wenstøp, Fred; Koppang, Haavard

    2009-01-01

    A post-print of an article originally published in Omega, vol 37 (6), 2009. The paper addresses the question of how Operations Research ought to handle decision problems that involve value conflicts. First, we note that early OR was essentially value free with a mechanistic systems perspective, although some voiced concern that an analyst should not detach herself from the consequences of her work. Then we propose a value conflict scale, which we use to assess the conflict levels in a smal...

  7. Trade Costs, Conflicts, and Defense Spending

    OpenAIRE

    Seitz, Michael; Tarasov, Alexander; Zakharenko, Roman

    2013-01-01

    This paper develops a quantitative model of trade, military conflicts, and defense spending. Trade liberalization between two countries reduces probability of an armed conflict between them, causing both to cut defense spending. This in turn causes a domino effect on defense spending by other countries. As a result, both countries and the rest of the world are better off. We estimate the model using data on trade, conflicts, and military spending. We find that, after reduction of costs of tra...

  8. Religious diversity, intolerance and civil conflict

    OpenAIRE

    Gomes, Joseph Flavian

    2013-01-01

    We compute new measures of religious diversity and intolerance and study their effects on civil conflict. Using a religion tree that describes the relationship between different religions, we compute measures of religious diversity at three different levels of aggregation. We find that religious diversity is a significant and robust correlate of civil conflict. While religious fractionalization significantly reduces conflict, religious polarization increases it. This is most robust at the sec...

  9. Global Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Peter Ping

    2013-01-01

    Global strategy differs from domestic strategy in terms of content and process as well as context and structure. The content of global strategy can contain five key elements, while the process of global strategy can have six major stages. These are expounded below. Global strategy is influenced...... by rich and complementary local contexts with diverse resource pools and game rules at the national level to form a broad ecosystem at the global level. Further, global strategy dictates the interaction or balance between different entry strategies at the levels of internal and external networks....

  10. Realities of Work Life Balance in Nigeria: Perceptions of Role Conflict and Coping Beliefs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babatunde Akanji

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to explore the perceptions of Work-Life Balance (WLB practices in a developing nation of Nigeria. Evidently, on the threshold of widened globalization propensities, work-life research is beginning to spread outside the western context. Thus, a qualitative approach was employed by conducting 61 in-depth interviews with Nigerian employees (41 women and 20 men working in frontline employments in the banking, telecommunications and insurance sectors about their perceptions of WLB. The findings showed that though conflict situations existed more than work-family enrichment, but under different circumstances due to the long legacy of national challenges facing Nigeria. The apparent role conflicts have generated various coping strategies adapted by participants of study to moderate their perceived work-life conflict and this paper seeks to add to the compendium of WLB discourse on a global scale by examining key barriers detected to hinder its workable practices in Nigeria.

  11. Conflict Resolution at Work for Dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Scott, Vivian

    2010-01-01

    A practical workplace guide to handling conflict effectively. Managing employees and encouraging them to work together toward a common goal is an essential skill that all leaders should possess. Conflict Resolution at Work For Dummies provides the tools and advice you need to restore peace, train your colleagues to get along better with others, prevent conflicts from ever starting, and maintain better productivity while boosting morale.: One of the only trade publications that takes the manager's perspective on how to address conflicts, resolve disputes, and restore peace and productivity to t

  12. Pharmacists' experience of conflict in community practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Zubin; Gregory, Paul A M; Martin, J Craig

    2010-03-01

    Interpersonal conflict may be characterized as intellectual disagreement with emotional entanglement. While interpersonal conflict has been studied and described in different health care settings, there is little research that focuses on community pharmacists and the ways in which they experience conflict in professional practice. To describe and characterize the experience of interpersonal conflict within community pharmacy practice. A self-reporting narrative log was developed in which actively recruited pharmacists reported and reflected upon their day-to-day experiences of interpersonal conflict in professional practice. Focus groups of pharmacists were convened following data analysis to provide context and confirmation of identified themes. Based on this analysis, an explanatory model for interpersonal conflict in community pharmacy practice was generated. Participants were actively recruited from community pharmacy settings in the Toronto (Canada) area. A total of 41 community pharmacists participated. Interpersonal conflict in pharmacy practice is ubiquitous and results from diverse triggers. A conflict stance model was developed, based on the worldview and the communication style of the individual pharmacist. Specific conflict stances identified were: imposing, thwarting, settling, and avoiding. Further testing and refinement of this model is required. Crown Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Conflicts in libraries: a basic element?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoko Inoue, Mary

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The article specifically detaches the main kinds and causes of conflicts in organizations and in libraries. It presents a conceptual vision of conflict, the types of conflicts, the sources and the techniques of conflict resolution.

    El artículo separa específicamente los clases y las causas principales de conflictos en organizaciones y en bibliotecas. Presenta una visión conceptual del conflicto, de los tipos de conflictos, de las fuentes y de las técnicas de la resolución del conflicto.

  14. A holistic approach to natural resource conflict

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bond, Jennifer Lauren

    2014-01-01

    This article contributes to the field of natural resource conflict management by investigating the holistic context of a conflict case and argues against a simple resource scarcity-conflict thesis. The article takes point of departure in a pragmatic world view of conflicts in Laikipia County, Kenya...... through a likert-type questionnaire survey (N = 352), semi-structured interviews, extensive field notes and participant observation. Using an adapted version of the Unifying Negotiation Framework (UNF) to conduct an in-depth context analysis, the article shows the multitude of ecological, social...

  15. Legitimacy and Strategic Communication in Globalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmstrøm, Susanne Maria; Falkheimer, Jesper; Gade Nielsen, Astrid

    2010-01-01

    In global corporate practice, a focus on the micro- or meso-dimension does not suffice. Analyses are required which see corporate legitimacy also in relation to society's constitution. Legitimating notions regulate the interrelation between organization and society, and set the premises for strat......In global corporate practice, a focus on the micro- or meso-dimension does not suffice. Analyses are required which see corporate legitimacy also in relation to society's constitution. Legitimating notions regulate the interrelation between organization and society, and set the premises...... for strategic communication. As globalizing organizations increasingly face conflicting perceptions of legitimacy, new challenges to strategic communication arise. Different types of societal constitution breed different legitimating corporate settings. Taking as the empirical example the transnational...... Scandinavian welfare states of Sweden and Denmark. By relating legitimating notions to society's constitution and forms of social coordination generic patterns are identified in the multitudinous diversity of legitimacy conflicts within which global organizations are embedded....

  16. Globalization & technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Narula, Rajneesh

    Technology and globalization are interdependent processes. Globalization has a fundamental influence on the creation and diffusion of technology, which, in turn, affects the interdependence of firms and locations. This volume examines the international aspect of this interdependence at two levels...

  17. Mechanistic understanding of human-wildlife conflict through a novel application of dynamic occupancy models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Varun R; Medhi, Kamal; Nichols, James D; Oli, Madan K

    2015-08-01

    Crop and livestock depredation by wildlife is a primary driver of human-wildlife conflict, a problem that threatens the coexistence of people and wildlife globally. Understanding mechanisms that underlie depredation patterns holds the key to mitigating conflicts across time and space. However, most studies do not consider imperfect detection and reporting of conflicts, which may lead to incorrect inference regarding its spatiotemporal drivers. We applied dynamic occupancy models to elephant crop depredation data from India between 2005 and 2011 to estimate crop depredation occurrence and model its underlying dynamics as a function of spatiotemporal covariates while accounting for imperfect detection of conflicts. The probability of detecting conflicts was consistently <1.0 and was negatively influenced by distance to roads and elevation gradient, averaging 0.08-0.56 across primary periods (distinct agricultural seasons within each year). The probability of crop depredation occurrence ranged from 0.29 (SE 0.09) to 0.96 (SE 0.04). The probability that sites raided by elephants in primary period t would not be raided in primary period t + 1 varied with elevation gradient in different seasons and was influenced negatively by mean rainfall and village density and positively by distance to forests. Negative effects of rainfall variation and distance to forests best explained variation in the probability that sites not raided by elephants in primary period t would be raided in primary period t + 1. With our novel application of occupancy models, we teased apart the spatiotemporal drivers of conflicts from factors that influence how they are observed, thereby allowing more reliable inference on mechanisms underlying observed conflict patterns. We found that factors associated with increased crop accessibility and availability (e.g., distance to forests and rainfall patterns) were key drivers of elephant crop depredation dynamics. Such an understanding is essential for

  18. Armed-Conflict Risks Enhanced by Climate-Related Disasters in Ethnically Fractionalized Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donner, R. V.; Schleussner, C. F.; Donges, J. F.; Schellnhuber, J.

    2016-12-01

    Social and political tensions keep on fueling armed conflicts around the world. Although each conflict is the result of an individual context-specific mixture of interconnected factors, ethnicity appears to play a prominent and almost ubiquitous role in many of them. This overall state of affairs is likely to be exacerbated by anthropogenic climate change and in particular climate-related natural disasters. Ethnic divides might serve as predetermined conflict lines in case of rapidly emerging societal tensions arising from disruptive events like natural disasters. Here, we hypothesize that climate-related disaster occurrence enhances armed-conflict outbreak risk in ethnically fractionalized countries. Using event coincidence analysis, we test this hypothesis based on data on armed-conflict outbreaks and climate-related natural disasters for the period 1980-2010. Globally, we find a coincidence rate of 9% regarding armed-conflict outbreak and disaster occurrence such as heat waves or droughts. Our analysis also reveals that, during the period in question, about 23% of conflict outbreaks in ethnically highly fractionalized countries robustly coincide with climatic calamities. Although we do not report evidence that climate-related disasters act as direct triggers of armed conflicts, the disruptive nature of these events seems to play out in ethnically fractionalized societies in a particularly tragic way. This observation has important implications for future security policies as several of the world's most conflict-prone regions, including North and Central Africa as well as Central Asia, are both exceptionally vulnerable to anthropogenic climate change and characterized by deep ethnic divides.

  19. Cost of Conflicts in the Common Market for Eastern and Southern ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA) aims to promote social and economic development in the region. Conflicts, particularly in the area of the ... to improve lives and livelihoods. Five world-class research teams are working to develop vaccines for neglected livestock diseases in the Global South.

  20. From Education for Peace to Education in Conflict: Changes in UNESCO Discourse, 1945-2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerch, Julia C.; Buckner, Elizabeth

    2018-01-01

    Since the turn of the twenty-first century, the global education community has focused significant attention on the promotion of education in fragile and conflict-affected contexts, embodied in the growth of a new sub-field called Education in Emergencies. This article points out the surprising distinction of this new sub-field from the more…

  1. Transforming Cultural Conflict in the Foreign Language Classroom: The Case of Arabic at Defense Language Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Tyler; Trosky, Abram; Tawadrous, Adel

    2018-01-01

    This paper considers the impact of global and national political polarisation on perspectives of instructors and learners in Arabic classrooms at Defense Language Institute Foreign Language Center (DLIFLC) in the United States with particular interest in understanding cultural conflicts that occur between instructors and learners. Instructors and…

  2. A MODEL OF THE CONFLICT LINGUISTIC PERSONALITY IN EVERYDAY CONFLICT DISCOURSE

    OpenAIRE

    Belova E. V.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study is to describe the concept of conflict linguistic personality and construct a model of linguistic identity. By summing up common features of the individual personalities we have created the model of conflict linguistic personality, based on three levels: verbal-semantic, cognitive and pragmatic. 1. Verbal - semantic level. Unlike other subtypes of conflict discourse, everyday conflict discourse is characterized by slang, invective, obscene vocabulary. Another feature of e...

  3. EEG neural oscillatory dynamics reveal semantic and response conflict at difference levels of conflict awareness

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, J.; Zhang, Q.; van Gaal, S.

    2015-01-01

    Although previous work has shown that conflict can be detected in the absence of awareness, it is unknown how different sources of conflict (i.e., semantic, response) are processed in the human brain and whether these processes are differently modulated by conflict awareness. To explore this issue, we extracted oscillatory power dynamics from electroencephalographic (EEG) data recorded while human participants performed a modified version of the Stroop task. Crucially, in this task conflict a...

  4. Integrity at CERN – Conflict of Interest Policy

    CERN Document Server

    HR Department

    2015-01-01

    In 2014, a working group was established to develop a policy on conflicts of interest at CERN and to review the related obligations under Article S I.3.13 of the Staff Rules and Regulations. The group was composed of the Director for Administration and General Infrastructure, the heads of the Human Resources Department, the Internal Audit and the Legal Service, and other representatives from these services.   In March 2015, the Director-General approved the working group’s recommendation to adopt a global conflict of interest prevention and management policy that is based on established best practices, that further implements CERN’s core value of integrity, and that, like the CERN Code of Conduct, applies to all CERN contributors. The Conflict of Interest Policy, together with implementation guidelines, was presented to the Enlarged Directorate in April and approved by the Director-General for entry into force on 10 April 2015. It has been integrated with the existing A...

  5. PEMANASAN GLOBAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivi Triana

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Pemanasan global (global warming pada dasarnya merupakan fenomena peningkatan temperature global dari tahun ke tahun karena terjadinya efek rumah kaca (greenhouse effect yang disebabkan oleh meningkatnya emisi gas-gas seperti karbondioksida (CO2, metana (CH4, dinitrooksida (N2O dan CFC sehingga energy matahari terperangkap dalam atmosfer bumi. Berbagai literatur menunjukkan kenaikan temperatur global termasuk Indonesia yang terjadi pada kisaran 1,5 – 40 °C pada akhir abad 21.

  6. Options in Education, Transcript for February 23, 1976: Conflict in Theory, Conflict in Research, and Conflict in Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George Washington Univ., Washington, DC. Inst. for Educational Leadership.

    "Options in Education" is a radio news program which focuses on issues and developments in education. This transcript contains discussions of conflict in theory--education in America, difficulties in dramatizing today's racism, and children's relationships in a predominately black school; conflict in research--marijuana and sexual…

  7. Global Europa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian

    2010-01-01

    at the mythology of ‘global Europa' - the EU in the world. It concludes with a reflection on the way in which the many diverse myths of global Europa compete for daily attention, whether as lore, ideology, or pleasure. In this respect the mythology of global Europa is part of our everyday existence, part of the EU...

  8. Chimpanzees, conflicts and cognition : The functions and mechanisms of chimpanzee conflict resolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koski, S.E.

    2007-01-01

    In this thesis I studied conflict resolution in captive chimpanzees of the Arnhem Zoo, NL. Specifically, I investigated the occurrence and functions of various post-conflict strategies. Furthermore, I addressed the likely proximate cognitive and emotional mechanisms used in post-conflict

  9. Language Policy, Ethnic Conflict, and Conflict Resolution: Albanian in the Former Yugoslavia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The 1990s disintegration of Yugoslavia was marked by vicious ethnic conflict in several parts of the region. In this paper, I consider the role of policy towards the Albanian language in promoting and perpetuating conflict. I take three case studies from the former Yugoslavia in which conflict between ethnic Albanians and the dominant group…

  10. Political Economy of Conflict: The Social Contract and Conflict in Pakistan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.A. Abdullah (Syed Aamer)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe main concern of this thesis is to analyze conflict in Pakistan, mainly the ethnopolitical conflict. It builds a case that conflict in Pakistan has been a product of the weakening of its social contract. This is both a qualitative and quantitative work which relies on both primary and

  11. Intragroup conflict and the interpersonal leadership circumplex: matching leadership behaviors to conflict types

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Homan, A.C.; Redeker, M.; de Vries, R.E.; Ayoko, O.B.; Ashkanasy, N.M.; Jehn, K.A.

    2014-01-01

    Conflicts have been found to often negatively affect the functioning of teams (De Wit et al., 2012), which makes the effective management of conflicts crucial. Because of their influential positions, leaders might hold the key to successful conflict management in teams (Yukl, 2010). We will zoom in

  12. The relationship of interpersonal conflict handling styles and marital conflicts among Iranian divorcing couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navidian, Ali; Bahari, Farshad; Kermansaravi, Fatihe

    2014-08-15

    Various research studies have suggested that among other variables that couples remain married if they successfully manage their interactions (marital communication based on acceptance of individual differences, problem solving skills, forgiveness, collaborative decision making, empathy and active listening) and constructively manage conflict. The study was aimed at examining the relation of conflict handling styles and marital conflicts among divorcing couples. As a descriptive -comparative study 60 couples out of 440 couples referred to the Crisis Intervention Center of the Isfahan Well-being Organization have selected. The tools implemented were Marital Conflicts (Barati & Sanaei, 1996) and Interpersonal Conflict Handling Styles Questionnaires (Thomas-Kilman, 1975). Their total reliabilities were, respectively, 0.74 and 0.87. Findings showed that there are no significant differences among their conflict handling styles and marital conflicts. Also, there was positive correlation between avoidance and competition styles and negative one between compromise, accommodation, and cooperation styles with marital conflicts. That is, these styles reduced couples' conflicts. Finally, wives had tendency to apply accommodation style and husbands tended to use accommodation and cooperation styles to handle their conflicts. It is suggested to be studied couples' views toward their own styles to handle marital conflicts and holding training courses to orient couples with advantages and disadvantages of marital conflict handling styles.

  13. The Conflict Management Strategies of School Administrators While Conflicting with Their Supervisors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özyildirim, Gülnar; Kayikçi, Kemal

    2017-01-01

    Conflict is everywhere as there are conflicts at educational organizations. One of the most affected groups from conflicts is administrators who are bridges between teachers and parents, supervisors. The aims of this study are to determine which strategies the school administrators use and how often they use these strategies and whether their…

  14. Learning from Conflicting Texts: The Role of Intertextual Conflict Resolution in Between-Text Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Keiichi

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined the effect of intertextual conflict resolution on learning from conflicting texts. In two experiments, participants read sets of two texts under the condition of being encouraged either to resolve a conflict between the texts' arguments (the resolution condition) or to comprehend the arguments (the comprehension…

  15. The Conflict Pyramid: A Holistic Approach to Structuring Conflict Resolution in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakvoort, Ilse

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines how the conflict pyramid, originally defined and used by Richard Cohen, can be used as a model to describe the relations between different conflict resolution education programs and activities included in the programs. The central questions posed in the paper are: How can Richard Cohen's conflict pyramid be used as a model for…

  16. Gossiping as a response to conflict with the boss: Alternative conflict management behavior?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, M.T.M.; Beersma, B.; van Leeuwen, J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose – The current paper aims to argue that it is important for conflict management research to start focusing on leader–follower conflict as a “special case” of conflict because the relationship between leaders and followers is, by definition, characterized by divergence of interest and, second,

  17. EEG neural oscillatory dynamics reveal semantic and response conflict at difference levels of conflict awareness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jiang, J.; Zhang, Q.; van Gaal, S.

    2015-01-01

    Although previous work has shown that conflict can be detected in the absence of awareness, it is unknown how different sources of conflict (i.e., semantic, response) are processed in the human brain and whether these processes are differently modulated by conflict awareness. To explore this issue,

  18. A Review of Kenya´s Post-Conflict Peace Building and Conflict Management Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Owiso, Michael

    2018-01-01

    Conflict management and peacebuilding demands a deep understanding and analysis of the conflict and the circumstances surrounding it. This is because the causes may be complex, nuanced and may involve both short term and long term issues. Kenya is characterized by different forms of conflict rang...

  19. Perceptions of intragroup conflict : The effect of coping strategies on conflict transformation and escalation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pluut, H.; Curseu, P.L.

    2013-01-01

    In this longitudinal study, we contribute to the contingency models of intragroup conflict by examining the moderating role of coping strategies in the evolution of conflict over time. We conceptualize coping strategy as a configural group property and focus on whether task conflict evolves into

  20. Conflict cultures in organizations: How leaders shape conflict cultures and their organizational-level consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gelfand, M.J.; Leslie, L.M.; Keller, K.; de Dreu, C.K.W.

    2012-01-01

    Anecdotal evidence abounds that organizations have distinct conflict cultures, or socially shared norms for how conflict should be managed. However, research to date has largely focused on conflict management styles at the individual and small group level, and has yet to examine whether

  1. Conflicting Rationales in Public Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mik-Meyer, Nanna

    . to emphasize the effects of outside factors on professional work. This current paper contributes to this discussion by focusing on three sets of factors of particular importance in welfare work and which originate from the bureaucracy, the market and psychology. Thus, bureaucratic principles and discretion...... exist side by side with performance measurement targets of New Public Management, other market values such as free choice and individual responsibility of the citizens as well as goals of co-production, personalisation and other empowerment techniques. The paper highlights how these multiple factors......Everyday life in public organizations is influenced by conflicting rationales that do not always fit with the norms and ethics of the professions working in these organizations. Scholars use concepts such as ‘organizational professionalism’, ‘hybrid professionalism’, ‘situated professionalism’ etc...

  2. Conflicts in the therapeutic field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonino Aprea

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available How the analytical knowledge that compare human consciousness with that, even more disturbing, moving behind his fifth can be said to be “for peace”? It can be - and this will be the contribution of the proposal - the same tortuous and enigmatic of therapeutic practice, with its hesitations and his impulses, to outline a path crossing and overcoming the conflict? May, finally, peace, in the sense of feasibility of intra-and interpersonal dialectic instead of tearing and hostileconfrontation with oneself and with the other, to be a reference in some crucial pivot of ethical therapeutic work? To these questions the intervention seeks to answer retracing some of the highlights of almost three years of therapeutic work with a young woman and her family.

  3. Communication strategies for conflict management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlange, L.E.

    1994-01-01

    The current debates in Swiss nuclear power policy about the power increase in one nuclear generating unit and about a repository for radioactive waste are used as models for strategic decisionmaking. For this purpose, two independent, but complementary, schools of thought are combined: First, a sensitivity model is employed to analyze societal mechanisms in a coherent, holistic frame of reference; secondly, a meta-analysis concentrates on the process of conflict management among the Federal Government, the managers of the electricity utilities, their political opponents, and the public. The way in which the participating groups make decisions and implement them is of critical importance to their behavior in the next phase. This is the stage at which models show how the behavior of the players will develop over time. The establishment of a highly flexible strategic knowledge base illustrates how the findings made can be employed in designing successful communication strategies. (orig.) [de

  4. Family therapy, conflicts and change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Musaeus, Peter

    2007-01-01

    interviews with 15 families undergoing family therapy delivered by a communal agency in Denmark.   Using notions of crisis interlinked with institutions and everyday lives (Hedegaard) framed by historical, contentious struggles (Holland and Lave), a model of conflict, violence, learning and motivation...... will be sketched pertaining to the area of family therapy. The study argues for the importance of a holistic, non-mechanical (Valsiner) approach to motivation for change in understanding how "at risk" or "problematic" children and youth (who are for instance experiencing school absenteeism, domestic violence......Given the relative lack of sociocultural approaches to therapy, this presentation aims to contribute to a sociocultural understanding of motivation and socio-emotional problems in children and families undergoing family therapy. The study was designed as a case study using semi structured...

  5. The semiosis of family conflict

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Musaeus, Peter; Brinkmann, Svend

    2011-01-01

    by family members in attempts to break a cycle of conflict—violence but they also exacerbate negative emotions, which we see in the case of conflict. The article develops a critique of the practice of punishment and reward. By analyzing psychotherapy as signs and technologies of the self impacting family......This is a case study of a blended family undergoing home-based psychotherapy. The study uses sociocultural theory (Vygotsky) and semiotic cultural psychology (Valsiner) in order to understand the appropriation and usage of signs as regulators of behavior. Furthermore, the article draws upon...... Foucault’s genealogical approach and Rose’s notion of Psydiscourse. It is argued that this approach is fruitful for understanding psychotherapy as a governing discourse that influences contemporary families. Technologies of the self, such as psychotherapy and signs like ‘time-out’ and ‘stop,’ are used...

  6. Dynamics of conflicts in Wikipedia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taha Yasseri

    Full Text Available In this work we study the dynamical features of editorial wars in Wikipedia (WP. Based on our previously established algorithm, we build up samples of controversial and peaceful articles and analyze the temporal characteristics of the activity in these samples. On short time scales, we show that there is a clear correspondence between conflict and burstiness of activity patterns, and that memory effects play an important role in controversies. On long time scales, we identify three distinct developmental patterns for the overall behavior of the articles. We are able to distinguish cases eventually leading to consensus from those cases where a compromise is far from achievable. Finally, we analyze discussion networks and conclude that edit wars are mainly fought by few editors only.

  7. Dynamics of conflicts in Wikipedia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasseri, Taha; Sumi, Robert; Rung, András; Kornai, András; Kertész, János

    2012-01-01

    In this work we study the dynamical features of editorial wars in Wikipedia (WP). Based on our previously established algorithm, we build up samples of controversial and peaceful articles and analyze the temporal characteristics of the activity in these samples. On short time scales, we show that there is a clear correspondence between conflict and burstiness of activity patterns, and that memory effects play an important role in controversies. On long time scales, we identify three distinct developmental patterns for the overall behavior of the articles. We are able to distinguish cases eventually leading to consensus from those cases where a compromise is far from achievable. Finally, we analyze discussion networks and conclude that edit wars are mainly fought by few editors only.

  8. Floodplain conflicts: regulation and negotiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Pardoe

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In the continuing shift from engineered solutions towards more holistic methods of managing flood risk, spatial planning has become the primary focus of a conflict between land and water, water and people. In attempting to strike a balance between making space for water and making space for people, compromises are required. Through five case studies in the UK, this paper analyses the effectiveness of Planning Policy Statement 25 (PPS 25 and the processes of negotiation that it promotes. This assessment allows us to draw conclusions on the nature of the compromises this kind of negotiation can achieve and the implications of this for flood risk management. What emerges is that the beneficial impacts of decisions to develop floodplain areas are given a proper hearing and sensible conditions imposed, rather than arguments to prevent such development remaining unchallenged.

  9. Global usability

    CERN Document Server

    Douglas, Ian

    2011-01-01

    The concept of usability has become an increasingly important consideration in the design of all kinds of technology. As more products are aimed at global markets and developed through internationally distributed teams, usability design needs to be addressed in global terms. Interest in usability as a design issue and specialist area of research and education has developed steadily in North America and Europe since the 1980's. However, it is only over the last ten years that it has emerged as a global concern. Global Usability provides an introduction to the important issues in globalizing des

  10. Communal conflict, civil war, and the state: Complexities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article analyses communal conflict, which we define as violent conflict between non-state groups that are organised along a shared communal identity, and how such conflicts relate to state-based violence. We argue that a deeper understanding of communal conflicts, the different types of dynamics and conflict issues, ...

  11. A Face Concern Approach to Conflict Management A Malaysian Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Raduan c. Rose; Waitchalla R. Suppiah; Jegak Uli; Jamilah Othman

    2006-01-01

    This study presents a review of conflict management from a face concern approach. It presents the various definitions on conflict and types of conflict. It further looks at how face negotiation theory explains the use of various conflict management styles in individualist and collectivist cultures. In addition, it provides some insight into conflict management from a Malaysian perspective.

  12. Conflict diamonds — unfinished business | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-07-22

    Jul 22, 2011 ... In March 2002, an international meeting in Ottawa, Canada concluded a remarkable agreement to end "conflict" or "blood" diamonds. Conflict diamonds have been used by rebels in Sierra Leone, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, and Angola to buy weapons and to fuel horrific wars that have so far, ...

  13. Conflict Style Differences between Individualists and Collectivists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Deborah A.; Fink, Edward L.

    2002-01-01

    Investigates fundamental beliefs regarding cross-cultural differences in conflict styles. Indicates that assumptions regarding the relationship of culture to conflict style preferences may not be valid. Finds that, among 188 graduate students from 31 countries residing in the United States, collectivists prefer compromising and integrating more…

  14. Conflicts between Two Religious Cultures: Achieving Reconciliation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Religion Dept

    In conflict analysis, anyone wishing to manage a conflict should begin by looking closely at what is really ... societies in Igbo traditional society greatly embarrassed the Igbo evangelists and majority of the Igbo Christians. This action led them to employing every force of argument to convince their European counterparts that ...

  15. Children's Understanding of the Ulysses Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Katherine S.; Keil, Frank C.; Bloom, Paul

    2005-01-01

    Two studies explored children's understanding of how the presence of conflicting mental states in a single mind can lead people to act so as to subvert their own desires. Study 1 analyzed explanations by children (4-7 years) and adults of behaviors arising from this sort of "Ulysses conflict" and compared them with their understanding of…

  16. The Times and the Northern Ireland Conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zouhaïr Abassi

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: In societies in conflict the role of the media is supposed to be neutral and to report conflicts fairly and with balanced analyses. By their public debates on conflicts they are also supposed to take part in pacifying societies and in helping to bring peace. Cottle (1997, for instance, explained that even though some findings related to the British media and its reporting of the Northern Ireland conflict were relevant, he argued that they needed revision. Consequently, he proposed new paradigms of media studies. Elliott (1977 and Curtis(1996 showed that the British media concentrated on violence in general and on republican violence in particular. Moreover, they argued that the British media neglected social and political contexts in their reporting of the conflict. The aim of this paper is then to examine some aspects of how the British media cover the Northern Ireland conflict. We studied the coverage of the Northern Ireland conflict by The (London Times (1990-1995. We used a discourse analysis method to study the paper’s discourse structure in its representation of the Northern Ireland conflict.

  17. Regional Integration and Conflict Management in Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FIRST LADY

    conflict management in these three conflict-ridden countries. The principal reasons for its incapacity to act were lack of resources, political will and resolute leadership. Other factors responsible for the failure of most previous integration schemes in Africa lie in both the scarcity of resources to finance projects and integration ...

  18. Sex Determination, Sex Ratios, and Genetic Conflict

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werren, John H.; Beukeboom, Leo W.

    1998-01-01

    Genetic mechanisms of sex determination are unexpectedly diverse and change rapidly during evolution. We review the role of genetic conflict as the driving force behind this diversity and turnover. Genetic conflict occurs when different components of a genetic system are subject to selection in

  19. Trends in outdoor recreation activity conflicts

    Science.gov (United States)

    John J. Lindsay

    1980-01-01

    Conflict caused by outdoor recreation activity groups competing for the same physical and psychological space has given rise to recreation resource planning, allocation and management problems. Research has shown recreation managers can expect certain types of users to be involved in significant conflict about 25 percent of their occupancy time. Well planned and...

  20. Management of Conflicts within Beer Drinking Settings

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    toshiba

    2017-10-07

    Oct 7, 2017 ... the following aspects; prominent conflicts experienced in beer drinking places, causes of the conflicts and .... levels with some quarters reporting that 35% of men and 25% of women in Zimbabwe consume alcohol (GoZ ..... Katzenstein D. A. 1996, Risk factors for HIV infection at enrollment in an urban male.

  1. Student Teams Learning to Cope with Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Janet; Neal, Joan C.; Waner, Karen K.

    2005-01-01

    Because employers want workers who can successfully run meetings and manage teams with diverse characteristics, conflict management is a skill that every business graduate should possess. The purpose of the study was to identify the most popular and effective ways that students used to manage conflicts when working on team projects. A survey was…

  2. Methods for Addressing Conflict in Cotaught Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conderman, Greg

    2011-01-01

    As a service delivery option for students with disabilities, coteaching continues to gain popularity. Successful coteaching largely rests upon the compatibility of coteachers. Sometimes conflict may occur when two teachers with different backgrounds and views work closely together. This article focuses on why conflict is inevitable in cotaught…

  3. Environmental conflicts: Key issues and management implications ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Environmental crises and problems throughout the world are widespread and increasing rapidly. In relation to these concerns, the article discusses the following aspects: people and the environment, environmental conflicts, climate change and environmental conflicts, and management implications. The section on people ...

  4. A Dialectical Analysis of Organizational Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourenco, Susan V.; Glidewell, John C.

    1975-01-01

    Uses a dialectical analysis to explain the conflict over social control between a local television station and its company headquarters. Conflict centered around the perceived abuse of legitimate authority by the parent organization. Resolution seemed to be in the direction of a synthesis. (Author)

  5. Conflict and Bias in Heuristic Judgment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Sudeep

    2017-01-01

    Conflict has been hypothesized to play a key role in recruiting deliberative processing in reasoning and judgment tasks. This claim suggests that changing the task so as to add incorrect heuristic responses that conflict with existing heuristic responses can make individuals less likely to respond heuristically and can increase response accuracy.…

  6. Sustainable Agricultural Development and Environment: Conflicts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Inevitably conflicts and contradictions arise. This paper focuses on the inherent conflicts and contradictions which come in the way of operationalising the concept of sustainable development in the context of Rwandan agriculture. The importance of this paper emerges from the backdrop of the state, politics and society in ...

  7. Conflict Avoidance in a University Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsky, Allan E.; Wood, Lorinda

    2005-01-01

    This ethnographic study explores patterns of conflict avoidance among university students, professors, administrators and staff. Analysis of their narratives of conflict avoidance suggests that avoidance can be beneficial in some circumstances, depending upon personality issues, cost?benefit analysis, power imbalance, type of work, length of…

  8. Interpersonal Conflicts In Ghanaian University Libraries | Kofi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results indicate that personality differences, superior/subordinate relationships, power struggle and competition are responsible for interpersonal conflicts in Ghanaian university libraries. It then makes recommendations on how to manage the various types of interpersonal conflicts within university libraries. Keywords: ...

  9. Rethinking Ethnic Conflict: Somalia and Fiji.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFerson, Hazel M.

    1996-01-01

    Compares and contrasts the recent years of ethnic conflict in Somali and Fiji. The widely divergent reactions of both populations dispels the belief that ethnic pluralism is both a necessary and sufficient condition for violent conflict in a society. Provides succinct portraits of both societies and their cultures. (MJP)

  10. Moral conflicts between groups of agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooi, Barteld; Tamminga, A.

    Two groups of agents, G1 and G2, face a *moral conflict* if G1 has a moral obligation and G2 has a moral obligation, such that these obligations cannot both be fulfilled. We study moral conflicts using a multi-agent deontic logic devised to represent reasoning about sentences like 'In the interest

  11. Egocentrism drives misunderstanding in conflict and negotiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chambers, J.R.; de Dreu, C.K.W.

    2014-01-01

    A key barrier to conflict resolution is that parties exaggerate the degree to which the other side's interests oppose their own side's interests. Here we examine egocentrism as a fundamental source of such biased conflict perceptions. We propose that parties rely on their own interests and

  12. Science in conflict over nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tschiedel, R.

    1977-01-01

    This book intends to establish an orientation theory of science in order to solve the conflict over the peaceful uses of nuclear power in West Germany. The reason for this conflict is that everybody is concerned either about the job situation or about the environmental effects. This concern has failed to mobilize people until now but mobilization is possible. (GL) [de

  13. KILLING, VIEWED FROM A CONFLICT RESOLUTION PERSPECTIVE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DODO

    2017-07-01

    Jul 1, 2017 ... sub-ethnic groups had a distinguishable way of resolving their social, political and economic conflicts that were defined ... argument brings the issue about how various societies define parameters for different .... endogenous conflict resolution stand-point, the practice has been common and effective in most.

  14. Everyday Marital Conflict and Child Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, E. Mark; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C.; Papp, Lauren M.

    2004-01-01

    Children's immediate aggressive responding to exposure to marital conflict was examined. Participants were 108 families with 8- to 16-year-old children (53 boys, 55 girls), with diary records of children's reactions to marital conflict in the home completed by 103 mothers (n = 578 records) and 95 fathers (n = 377 records) during a 15-day period.…

  15. Getting to Resolution: Turning Conflict into Collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Stewart

    The book provides specific guidelines and step-by-step instructions for crafting collaborative agreements and for resolving conflicts using a proven seven-step conflict-resolution model: (1) the attitude of resolution; (2) telling your story; (3) listening for a preliminary vision of resolution; (4) getting current and complete; (5) reaching…

  16. Intergroup Conflicts and Customary Mediation: Experiences from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Recently scholars around the globe have given attention to conflict prevention, management and resolution. A considerable body of literature has been added to our academic libraries mostly by scholars from the Western societies. Conflicts in the developing areas by contrast are only minimally researched. For quite some ...

  17. Water Resource Conflicts in the Middle East.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Christine

    1997-01-01

    Analyzes the causes and conditions of the major sources of conflict concerning the three major international river basins in the Middle East: the Tigris-Euphrates, the Nile, and the Jordan-Yarmuk. Investigates possible solutions. Includes maps and population statistics of the major countries involved in the conflict. (MJP)

  18. Ritual as a source of conflict

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langer, R.; Quartier, T.; Simon, U.; Snoek, J.; Wiegers, G.; Grimes, R.L.; Hüsken, U.; Simon, U.; Venbrux, E.

    2011-01-01

    This chapter assembles four cases and asks: under what conditions do publicly mediatized rituals and ritualized practices become a source of conflict? In the first case, the authors show that when Freemasons, using pamphlets as their medium, exposed imprecations in a ritual oath, conflict emerged,

  19. Indigenous knowledge and communal conflict resolution: Evidence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper discusses an experience of relying on indigenous knowledge to resolve a communal conflict between two Nigerian local communities. The authors were working in one of the communities when conflict erupted, and had to initiate moves to restore peace and normality. They relied largely on information on the ...

  20. Perceptions of School Conflict by Nebraska Superintendents

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeTurk, Theodore J.

    2010-01-01

    Conflict is a natural and pervasive, but often misunderstood, force that thrives in all human societies. Conflict is an inherent part of the school environment because of the labor-intensive nature of the school setting. As district leaders, school superintendents are surrounded daily by diverse groups of people who have their own needs and…

  1. Sexual violence; post-conflict; Sierra Leone

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    opperwjj

    and economic domains as a result of the conflict have evidently disempowered women and girls with a profound .... providers to explore views about sexual violence, focusing on community perceptions of the nature of ... Sierra Leone with conflicting views from victims, community leaders and service providers. Most health ...

  2. Low-intensity conflict in multinational corporations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauring, Jakob; Andersen, Poul Houman; Storgaard, Marianne

    2017-01-01

    in four Danish MNCs. Findings: They describe consequences of low-intensity conflict and identify three types of actions by headquarters’ representatives that could lead to the development of low-intensity conflicts, namely, ignoring, bypassing and educating. Originality/value: Very few studies have dealt...

  3. Managing Workplace Conflict in the School Environment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    How such differences are managed determines the impact they can have on productivity and therefore organizational goals. Recognizing and addressing the factors that give rise to potential conflicts can have a positive impact on the workplace and productivity. Conflict, if constructively handled, can be very helpful in ...

  4. Conflicts in Tropical Africa: Typology, Reasons, Consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga A. Smirnova

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Since 1990s, the number of states conflicts decreased and they started saying that the classical wars disappeared but at the same time, the number of internal conflicts increased dramatically. The end of colonial regime in Africa didn’t bring peace to the region – the new wave of internal conflicts and civil wars overwhelmed the region. In the given article the authors analyze political and complicated socio-economic situation in the Tropical Africa, describe the conflicts in this zone, their typology, results and factors. The authors attempt to analyze internal and external causes of conflicts in the studied region, taking into account all elements of each conflict and their interdependence. The subject of the article is the conflict as the social element presenting the important part of international reality. It is noted that the crisis in the region influences every part of economic, social, and political spheres, so the solution is not possible without structural changes. In this connection, conflicts are the logical results of regional crisis as well as uncertain activity of international society. This situation provokes the large wave of migrants from the region and inside it. The countries the Tropical Africa can’t guarantee any suitable level of life for the citizens, and the situation can’t be resolved without active role of international community.

  5. Interpersonal conflict, agreeableness, and personality development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen-Campbell, Lauri A; Gleason, Katie A; Adams, Ryan; Malcolm, Kenya T

    2003-12-01

    This multimethod research linked the Big-Five personality dimensions to interpersonal conflict in childhood. Agreeableness was the personality dimension of focus because this dimension has been associated with maintaining positive interpersonal relations in adolescents and adults. In two studies, elementary school children were assessed on the Big-Five domains of personality. Study 1 (n=276) showed that agreeableness was uniquely associated with endorsements of conflict resolution tactics in children as well as parent and teacher reports of coping and adjustment. Study 2 (n=234) revealed that children's perceptions of themselves and others during conflict was influenced by their agreeableness regardless of their partner's agreeableness. Observers also reported that pairs higher in agreeableness had more harmonious, constructive conflicts. Overall findings suggest that of the Big-Five dimensions, agreeableness is most closely associated with processes and outcomes related to interpersonal conflict and adjustment in children.

  6. Professional Responsibility and Conflict of Interest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lois Eveleth

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available When conflicts of interests arise for the professional, s/he should be aided in their resolution by a long-standing body of knowledge called ethics. Ethics provides an array of concepts, vocabulary, and strategies to aid in both the understanding and the resolution of such challenges. Central here are two concepts, viz. responsibility and conflict of interest. Responsibility emerges incrementally from a person’s knowledge, freedom, and deliberation. Conflicts of interest are either simple or complex: simple, when a principle conflicts with human wants; complex, when two or more principles are mutually inconsistent. An analysis of these two concepts leads us to the claim that a professional, to remain such, even while embracing an ever-expanding burden of responsibility, needs a conceptual framework for resolving conflicts of interest.

  7. Effective conflict resolution strategies for SRAF placement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganjugunte, Shashidhara K.; Strecker, Norbert; Jayaram, Srividya; LaCour, Pat; Torunoglu, Ilhami

    2015-07-01

    Sub-Resolution Assist Features (SRAFs) have emerged as a key technology to enable semiconductor manufacturing for advanced technology nodes. SRAF placement is required to adhere to manufacturability constraints (MRC). MRC specifications are distance and size constraints specified by the user to ensure SRAFs are not detrimental to the final target shapes being printed. Conceptually, SRAF placement can be divided into two steps - SRAF candidate generation and SRAF candidate cleanup or conflict resolution. SRAFs generated as candidates may not adhere to MRC constraints. It is during the cleanup/conflict resolution process that the MRC constraints are enforced. In this paper we focus on the latter phase - cleanup. The goal of the cleanup phase is to retain as much of the initial candidates as possible, and, if necessary, transform them to adhere to MRC conditions. An SRAF is said to be in conflict with another shape if it violates the distance MRC constraint. One can model these conflicts using a conflict graph G=(V,E), whose vertices V correspond to geometric shapes involved in a conflict and an edge is present in E, between two vertices if the corresponding shapes are involved in a conflict. A weight is associated with each vertex that could, for example, correspond to area of the corresponding shape. The goal of conflict resolution then, is to find a transformation of the vertices so that the resulting graph is conflict free while maximizing the weight of vertices retained. This can be viewed as a generalization of the computationally hard problem of finding the largest independent set of candidates, albeit allowing for transformation. The transformations we allow include deletion, splitting, resizing, merge, and bounded translation. In this paper, we describe an approach which classifies the conflicts and apply appropriate transformations to achieve effective SRAF placement. Further, we demonstrate that such a strategy reduces the number of rules to be specified by

  8. MODELING PROBABILISTIC CONFLICT OF TECHNOLOGICAL SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. B. Desyatov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently for the study of conflict increasingly used method of mathematical optical modeling. Its importance stems from the fact that experimental research such conflicts rather time-consuming and complex. However, existing approaches to the study of conflict do not take into account the stochastic nature of the systems, suffers from conceptual incompleteness. There is a need to develop models, algorithms and principles, in order to assess the conflict, to choose conflict resolution to ensure that not the worst of conditions. For stochastic technological systems as a utility function, we consider the probability of achieving a given objective. We assume that some system S1 is in conflict with the system S2, (SR2R К SR1R, if q(SR1R,SR2Rconflict of random events, achieving some target States. Then-when, if and joint dependent random events, then the probability the conflict between events (And In can be defined in two ways: Definition 1. Between A and b is observed probabilistic conflict of the first kind (А К1 B, if P(A/Bconflict of the second kind (А К2 B, if P(A/B

  9. Street conflict mediation to prevent youth violence: conflict characteristics and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehill, Jennifer M; Webster, Daniel W; Vernick, Jon S

    2013-06-01

    Mediation of potentially violent conflicts is a key component of CeaseFire, an effective gun violence-prevention programme. To describe conflicts mediated by outreach workers (OW) in Baltimore's CeaseFire replication, examine neighbourhood variation, and measure associations between conflict risk factors and successful nonviolent resolution. A cross-sectional study was conducted using records for 158 conflicts mediated between 2007 and 2009. Involvement of youth, gangs, retaliation, weapons and other risk factors were described. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used for data-reduction purposes before the relationship between conflict risk components and mediation success was assessed with multivariate logistic regression. Most conflicts involved 2-3 individuals. Youth, persons with a history of violence, gang members and weapons were commonly present. OWs reported immediate, nonviolent resolution for 65% of mediated conflicts; an additional 23% were at least temporarily resolved without violence. PCA identified four dimensions of conflict risk: the risk-level of individuals involved; whether the incident was related to retaliation; the number of people involved; and shooting likelihood. However, these factors were not related to the OW's ability to resolve the conflict. Neighbourhoods with programme-associated reductions in homicides mediated more gang-related conflicts; neighbourhoods without programme-related homicide reductions encountered more retaliatory conflicts and more weapons.

  10. Part 2, Conflict management. Managing low-to-mid intensity conflict in the health care setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschenbrener, C A; Siders, C T

    1999-01-01

    Physician executives face low to mid-level intensity conflicts, day-to-day issues and problems associated with pressures and changes in the health care environment. Such conflicts can be sorted on the basis of relationship, duration, and intensity. The authors apply the five major modes of conflict management--competition, avoidance, compromise, accommodation, and collaboration--to specific scenarios taken from their work in health care and suggest guidelines for managing conflicts with peers, supervisees, and authority figures. Thorough preparation and a portfolio of skills build flexibility through the conflict management process. In part 1 of this article series, the authors presented the conflict management checklist, a diagnostic tool for assessing conflict in organizations.

  11. A preliminary report on defenses and conflicts associated with borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, J C; Cooper, S H

    1986-01-01

    The authors present preliminary psychodynamic findings from a naturalistic study of borderline personality disorder compared to antisocial personality disorder and bipolar type II (depression with hypomania) affective disorder. An independent psychodynamic interview of each subject was videotaped from which ratings were made of the presence of 22 defense mechanisms and 11 psychodynamic conflicts. A factor analysis of ratings from 81 subjects supported the separation of borderline (splitting, projective identification) from narcissistic defenses (devaluation, omnipotence, idealization, mood-incongruent denial). While certain groups of defenses were associated with each diagnosis, defense ratings did not significantly discriminate the three diagnostic groups, suggesting a limit to their diagnostic value. Among 27 subjects rated, borderline personality was strongly associated with two conflicts: separation-abandonment, and a global conflict over the experience and expression of emotional needs and anger. Antisocial personality was psychodynamically distinct and more heterogeneous. Bipolar type II was associated with two hypothesized depressive conflicts: dominant other and dominant goal. Chronic depression, which was more common in both personality disorder groups than in bipolar type II, was associated with a third depressive conflict, overall gratification inhibition. Overall, conflicts were powerful discriminators of the three diagnostic groups. The heuristic value of these findings is discussed.

  12. The ebola crisis : challenges for global health law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toebes, Brigit

    2015-01-01

    he recent Ebola crisis has caused approximately 20.000 deaths so far. Compared to other global health crises, including the deaths caused by armed conflicts and chronic diseases, this is still a small amount. Yet, from a global and domestic health law and governance perspective, this crisis raises a

  13. Conflict resolution styles in the nursing profession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losa Iglesias, Marta Elena; Becerro de Bengoa Vallejo, Ricardo

    2012-12-01

    Managers, including those in nursing environments, may spend much of their time addressing employee conflicts. If not handled properly, conflict may significantly affect employee morale, increase turnover, and even result in litigation, ultimately affecting the overall well-being of the organization. A clearer understanding of the factors that underlie conflict resolution styles could lead to the promotion of better management strategies. The aim of this research was to identify the predominant conflict resolution styles used by a sample of Spanish nurses in two work settings, academic and clinical, in order to determine differences between these environments. The effects of employment level and demographic variables were explored as well. Descriptive cross-sectional survey study. Our sample consisted of professional nurses in Madrid, Spain, who worked in either a university setting or a clinical care setting. Within each of these environments, nurses worked at one of three levels: full professor, assistant professor, or scholarship professor in the academic setting; and nursing supervisor, registered staff nurse, or nursing assistant in the clinical setting. Conflict resolution style was examined using the standardized Thomas-Kilmann Conflict Mode Instrument, a dual-choice questionnaire that assesses a respondent's predominant style of conflict resolution. Five styles are defined: accommodating, avoiding, collaborating, competing, and compromising. Participants were asked to give answers that characterized their dominant response in a conflict situation involving either a superior or a subordinate. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to examine the relationship between workplace setting and conflict resolution style. The most common style used by nurses overall to resolve workplace conflict was compromising, followed by competing, avoiding, accommodating, and collaborating. There was a significant overall difference in styles between nurses who worked

  14. Conflict transformation: A longitudinal investigation of the relationships between different types of intragroup conflict and the moderating role of conflict resolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greer, L.L.; Jehn, K.A.; Mannix, E.A.

    2008-01-01

    In this longitudinal study, the authors examine the relationships between task, relationship, and process conflict over time. They also look at the role of conflict resolution in determining whether certain forms of intragroup conflict are related to the appearance of other forms of conflict over

  15. Modern Conflicts Features in Latin America. The Role of the OAS in the Settlement of the Falklands Conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yana I. Strashko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is an attempt to give careful examination to the issue of intergovernmental conflicts and the OAS's (The Organization of American states activity on ensuring security in Latin America in particular. The article's focus on last decades is not accidental. The 30-40th of the XX century were marked by major military conflicts in South America that, however, were sidelined after the Second World War. Created on the verge of the Cold war the OAS was considered by the States as a barrier to the spread of communist threat in the Western Hemisphere and in such a capacity the organization went on up to detente policy implementation. All the time the OAS had to challenge different crises. By the time the bipolar world order seized to exist the OAS had had another mission. It was no longer the provision of international security but the local conflicts management including long-standing territorial disputes. The difference in approach to Organization's role and status between the US and Latin American states became distinct in the same period. The former persist in protection of freedoms and the Western way of life against global threats such as international terrorism (especially after 9/11, drug trafficking, gunrunning, money laundering and others crimes (especially those involving violence. The latter are trying to engage the OAS potential to protect their own national and regional interests while becoming integrated into a new global economic and political relations system. Trying to meet the modern challenges the OAS not only creates new bodies, but also makes significant changes in its statutory documents, which unlike the UN makes it more responsive to internal crises. Besides there is a distinct tendency of the Organization's becoming more independent from the US.

  16. SHADOW GLOBALIZATION

    OpenAIRE

    Larissa Mihaylovna Kapitsa

    2014-01-01

    The article reviews some development trends brought about by globalization, particularly, a growing tax evasion and tax avoidance, an expansion of illicit financial flows and the proliferation of a global criminal network. The author draws attention to some new phenomena, particularly, cosmopolitanization of some parts of national elites and a deepening divide between national interests and the private interests of elites as a consequence of financial globalization. Modern mass media, both Ru...

  17. Global Mindset

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Olav Jull

    2016-01-01

    The concept of Global Mindset (GM) – the way to think about the global reality – is on the agenda of multinational companies concomitant with the increase in global complexity, uncertainty and diversity. In spite of a number of studies, the concept is still fluid and far from a managerial...... way of thinking about the global business reality. The other extreme is a GM as an organizational capability and process with a GM in a continuous state of becoming – and thus in a continuously alignment with a dynamic context. In addition, we argue for what we call “situational capabilities”, i...

  18. The role of the educator in resolving conflicts

    OpenAIRE

    Kolar, Tjaša

    2014-01-01

    In my thesis I have studied the conflicts between children in primary education, and the role of the teacher in solving these conflicts. The theoretical part of my paper consist of the definition of conflict, types of conflicts, reasons for outburst of conflict situations as well as consequences which may occur due to unsolved or inappropriately solved conflicts. I have introduced the role of the teacher and adequate measures which a professional worker can take to resolve these conflic...

  19. The relationship between interpersonal conflict and workplace bullying

    OpenAIRE

    Leon-Perez, J. M.; Medina, F. J.; Arenas, A.; Munduate, L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose - This paper examines the role that conflict management styles play in the relationship between interpersonal conflict and workplace bullying. Design - A survey study was conducted among 761 employees from different organizations in Spain. Findings - Results suggest that an escalation of the conflict process from task-related to relationship conflict may explain bullying situations to some extent. Regarding conflict management, attempts to actively manage conflict through problem solv...

  20. COUNTEREXAMPLE IN COGNITIVE CONFLICT AS FACTOR INFLUENCING CONCEPTUAL CHANGE

    OpenAIRE

    Sutopo Sutopo

    2014-01-01

    When a teacher trying to use anomaly phenomenon to encourage conceptual change, he/she will use model process cognitive conflict to anticipate how students may experience cognitive conflict. It can help teacher not to let students have conflict. Conflict Cognitive defined as conflict between structure cognitive (i.e, structure organized knowledge in brain) with the environment (for example, an experiment, demonstration, opinions of peers, books, or other), or conflict between concept in the c...