WorldWideScience

Sample records for battlefield medical applications

  1. Military applications of the laser weapons in the future battlefield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, Hasan; Adana, Saban; Yahsi, Erhan

    2013-05-01

    Contemporary operating environment requires a wide range of tools to respond to a myriad of regular and irregular threats. Accordingly, conventional weapons do not suffice in some cases. As technology improves exponentially, the dominance of conventional weapons is slowly fading away by the advances in laser technology. This study first outlines the characteristics of laser weapons, then provides the military applications of them in land, maritime, air and space domains and finally exhibits implications for battlefield functions. This study concludes that any country that is seeking primacy in military terms must allocate extra time and resources to obtain this emerging technology. Since it seems that there are not adequate studies about the military applications and operational concepts of the laser weapons, this study tries to increase awareness about their potential advantages.

  2. Battlefield acoustics

    CERN Document Server

    Damarla, Thyagaraju

    2015-01-01

    This book presents all aspects of situational awareness in a battlefield using acoustic signals. It starts by presenting the science behind understanding and interpretation of sound signals. The book then goes on to provide various signal processing techniques used in acoustics to find the direction of sound source, localize gunfire, track vehicles, and detect people. The necessary mathematical background and various classification and fusion techniques are presented. The book contains majority of the things one would need to process acoustic signals for all aspects of situational awareness in one location. The book also presents array theory, which is pivotal in finding the direction of arrival of acoustic signals. In addition, the book presents techniques to fuse the information from multiple homogeneous/heterogeneous sensors for better detection. MATLAB code is provided for majority of the real application, which is a valuable resource in not only understanding the theory but readers, can also use the code...

  3. Attu Battlefield

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This memo details the historical study and survey of the Attu battlefield locations. The objectives were to determine the historical value and study the feasibility...

  4. Trauma management on the battlefield: a modern approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, A

    1996-10-01

    With the development of British Army doctrine it is necessary to review the concepts underlying medical support to the modern battlefield. In particular, the provision of timely and balanced resuscitation to the high intensity battle is an issue requiring an understanding of both the tactical and the clinical demands. The wholesale application of civilian techniques and approaches to trauma management is not possible given the austerity of the battlefield clinical environment. The commitment to excellence and quality of care implicit in modern mainstream practice is of continuing relevance to the battlefield. A doctrinal approach involving the definition of desired clinical outcome and the constraints of operational feasibility, is proposed. Specifically, the introduction of a triad approach to trauma management is offered. The triad comprises readily available Battlefield Advanced Trauma Life Support (BATLS) skills, Surgical Resuscitation deployed forward and the provision of Field Intensive Care. Such an approach would marry together the clinically ideal with the tactically.

  5. High definition ultrasound imaging for battlefield medical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwok, K.S.; Morimoto, A.K.; Kozlowski, D.M.; Krumm, J.C.; Dickey, F.M. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rogers, B; Walsh, N. [Texas Univ. Health Science Center, San Antonio, TX (United States)

    1996-06-23

    A team has developed an improved resolution ultrasound system for low cost diagnostics. This paper describes the development of an ultrasound based imaging system capable of generating 3D images showing surface and subsurface tissue and bone structures. We include results of a comparative study between images obtained from X-Ray Computed Tomography (CT) and ultrasound. We found that the quality of ultrasound images compares favorably with those from CT. Volumetric and surface data extracted from these images were within 7% of the range between ultrasound and CT scans. We also include images of porcine abdominal scans from two different sets of animal trials.

  6. Medical Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Biscari, C

    2014-01-01

    The use of accelerators for medical applications has evolved from initial experimentation to turn-key devices commonly operating in hospitals. New applications are continuously being developed around the world, and the hadrontherapy facilities of the newest generation are placed at the frontier between industrial production and advanced R&D. An introduction to the different medical application accelerators is followed by a description of the hadrontherapy facilities, with special emphasis on CNAO, and the report closes with a brief outlook on the future of this field.

  7. Medical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boccara, A. Claude; Mordon, Serge

    2015-10-01

    In re-listening to the lectures of Charles Townes shortly after the invention of the laser (e.g., in the Boston Science Museum), one can already have a realistic vision of the potentialities of this new tool in the field of medical therapy, as evidenced by the use of the laser in ophthalmology to cure retinal detachment in the 1960's. Since then, applications have flourished in the domain of therapy. We will thus illustrate here only some of the main fields of application of medical lasers. On the opposite, the use of lasers in medical imaging is, with one exception in ophthalmology, still at the development level. It is becoming a diagnostic tool in addition to high performance imaging facilities that are often very expensive (such as CT scan, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and nuclear imaging). Even if progress is sometimes slow, one can now image with light inside the human body, in spite of the strong scattering of light by tissues, in the same way as a pathologist sees surgical specimens.

  8. Battlefield Electromagnetic Environments Office (BEEO)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Battlefield Electromagnetic Environments Office (BEEO) develops, maintains, and operates the Army Materiel Command (AMC) databases for spectrum management, per...

  9. Army requirements for micro and nanotechnology-based sensors in weapons health and battlefield environmental monitoring applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffin, Paul; Brantley, Christina; Edwards, Eugene; Hutcheson, Guilford

    2006-03-01

    The Army Aviation and Missile Research, Development, and Engineering Center (AMRDEC) and the Army Research Laboratory (ARL) have initiated a joint advanced technology demonstration program entitled "Prognostics/Diagnostics for the Future Force (PDFF)" with a key objective of developing low or no power embedded sensor suites for harsh environmental monitoring. The most critical challenge of the program is to specify requirements for the embedded sensor suites which will perform on-board diagnostics, maintain a history of sensor data, and forecast weapon health. The authors are currently collaborating with the PDFF program managers and potential customers to quantify the requirements for remotely operated, micro/nano-technology-based sensors for a host of candidate weapon systems. After requirements are finalized, current micro/nanotechnology-based temperature, humidity, g-shock, vibration and chemical sensors for monitoring the out-gassing of weapons propellant, as well as hazardous gaseous species on the battlefield and in urban environments will be improved to meet the full requirements of the PDFF program. In this paper, performance requirements such as power consumption, reliability, maintainability, survivability, size, and cost, along with the associated technical challenges for micro/nanotechnology-based sensor systems operating in military environments, are discussed. In addition, laboratory results from the design and testing of a wireless sensor array, which was developed using a thin film of functionalized carbon nanotube materials, are presented. Conclusions from the research indicate that the detection of bio-hazardous materials is possible using passive and active wireless sensors based on monitoring the reflected phase from the sensor.

  10. Medical applications of accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Rossi, Sandro

    1998-01-01

    At Present, about five thousands accelerators are devoted to biomedical applications. They are mainly used in radiotherapy, research and medical radioisotopes production. In this framework oncological hadron-therapy deserves particular attention since it represents a field in rapid evolution thanks to the joint efforts of laboratories with long experiences in particle physics. It is the case of CERN where the design of an optimised synchrotron for medical applications has been pursued. These lectures present these activities with particular attention to the new developments which are scientifically interesting and/or economically promising.

  11. Microfluidics for medical applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, van den Albert; Segerink, Loes

    2015-01-01

    Lab-on-a-chip devices for point of care diagnostics have been present in clinics for several years now. Alongside their continual development, research is underway to bring the organs and tissue on-a-chip to the patient, amongst other medical applications of microfluidics. This book provides the re

  12. Radioisotopes for medical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For more than 3 decades, the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation has been the country's main supplier of radioisotopes for medical applications. The use of radioisotopes in medicine has revolutionised the diagnosis, management and treatment of many serious diseases such as cancer, heart disease and stroke. It is also beginning to play a key role in neurological disorders such as Parkinson and Alzheimers disease and epilepsy. More recently there has been considerable growth in the application of nuclear medicine to treat sport-related injuries - especially wrist, ankle and knees where more common techniques do not always enable accurate diagnosis. Australia is a recognised leader in nuclear medicine. This can be partially attributed to the close relationship between ANSTO and the medical community in providing opportunities to develop and evaluate new agents to support more effective patient care. A list of commercial isotopes produced in the reactor or the cyclotron and used in medical applications is given. Nuclear medicine plays an important role in the clinical environment and the timely supply of radioisotopes is a key element. ANSTO will continue to be the premier supplier of currently available and developing isotopes to support the health and well being of the Australian community

  13. Radioisotopes for medical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carr, S. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia). Radiopharmaceuticals Division

    1998-03-01

    For more than 3 decades, the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation has been the country`s main supplier of radioisotopes for medical applications. The use of radioisotopes in medicine has revolutionised the diagnosis, management and treatment of many serious diseases such as cancer, heart disease and stroke. It is also beginning to play a key role in neurological disorders such as Parkinson and Alzheimers disease and epilepsy. More recently there has been considerable growth in the application of nuclear medicine to treat sport-related injuries - especially wrist, ankle and knees where more common techniques do not always enable accurate diagnosis. Australia is a recognised leader in nuclear medicine. This can be partially attributed to the close relationship between ANSTO and the medical community in providing opportunities to develop and evaluate new agents to support more effective patient care. A list of commercial isotopes produced in the reactor or the cyclotron and used in medical applications is given. Nuclear medicine plays an important role in the clinical environment and the timely supply of radioisotopes is a key element. ANSTO will continue to be the premier supplier of currently available and developing isotopes to support the health and well being of the Australian community 2 tabs., 1 fig.

  14. Microfluidics for medical applications

    OpenAIRE

    Berg, van den, T.J.T.P.; Segerink, Loes

    2015-01-01

    Lab-on-a-chip devices for point of care diagnostics have been present in clinics for several years now. Alongside their continual development, research is underway to bring the organs and tissue on-a-chip to the patient, amongst other medical applications of microfluidics. This book provides the reader with a comprehensive review of the latest developments in the application of microfluidics to medicine and is divided into three main sections. The first part of the book discusses the state-of...

  15. Revolutionary optical sensor for physiological monitoring in the battlefield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingsley, Stuart A.; Sriram, Sriram; Pollick, Andrea; Marsh, John

    2004-09-01

    SRICO has developed a revolutionary approach to physiological status monitoring using state-of-the-art optical chip technology. The company"s patent pending Photrode is a photonic electrode that uses unique optical voltage sensing technology to measure and monitor electrophysiological parameters. The optical-based monitoring system enables dry-contact measurements of EEG and ECG signals that require no surface preparation or conductive gel and non-contact measurements of ECG signals through the clothing. The Photrode applies high performance optical integrated circuit technology, that has been successfully implemented in military & commercial aerospace, missile, and communications applications for sensing and signal transmission. SRICO"s award winning Photrode represents a new paradigm for the measurement of biopotentials in a reliable, convenient, and non-intrusive manner. Photrode technology has significant applications on the battlefield for rapid triage to determine the brain dead from those with viable brain function. An ECG may be obtained over the clothing without any direct skin contact. Such applications would enable the combat medic to receive timely medical information and to make important decisions regarding identification, location, triage priority and treatment of casualties. Other applications for the Photrode include anesthesia awareness monitoring, sleep medicine, mobile medical monitoring for space flight, emergency patient care, functional magnetic resonance imaging, various biopotential signal acquisition (EMG, EOG), and routine neuro and cardio diagnostics.

  16. MEDEVAC: critical care transport from the battlefield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, R A

    2010-01-01

    In current military operations, the survival rates of critically injured casualties are unprecedented. An often hidden aspect of casualty care is safe transport from the point of injury to a field hospital and subsequently on to higher levels of care. This en route critical care, which is provided by flight medics under the most austere and rigorous conditions, is a crucial link in the care continuum. This article introduces the role and capabilities of US Army MEDEVAC and reflects the author's recent experience in Afghanistan as a flight medic. This article provides an assessment of the operational issues, medical capabilities, and transport experiences to provide a real-world view of critical care transport from the battlefield. The MEDEVAC helicopter environment is one of the most difficult, if not the most demanding, critical care environments. This overview brings to light a small but important piece of the care continuum.

  17. Battlefield triage life signs detection techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boric-Lubecke, Olga; Lin, Jenshan; Park, Byung-Kwon; Li, Changzhi; Massagram, Wansuree; Lubecke, Victor M.; Host-Madsen, Anders

    2008-04-01

    Getting to wounded soldiers on the battlefield is a precarious task, and medics have a very high casualty rate. It is therefore a vital importance to prioritize which soldiers to attend to first. The first step is to detect life signs - if a soldier is dead or alive, and prioritize recovery of live soldiers. The second step is to obtain vital signs from live soldiers, and use this to prioritize which are in most urgent need of attention. Our team at Kai Sensors, University of Hawaii and University of Florida is developing Doppler radar heart sensing technology that provides the means to detect life signs, respiration and/or heart beat, at a distance, even for subjects lying motionless, e.g., unconscious subjects, wearing body armor, and hidden from direct view. Since this technology can deliver heart rate information with high accuracy, it may also enable the assessment of a subject's physiological and psychological state based on heart rate variability (HRV) analysis. Thus, the degree of a subject's injury may also be determined. The software and hardware developments and challenges for life signs detection and monitoring for battlefield triage will be discussed, including heart signal detection from all four sides of the human body, detection in the presence of body armor, and the feasibility of HRV parameter extraction.

  18. Medical applications of semiconductor lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancha, Sylvia D.; Keipert, Andreas; Prairie, Michael W.

    1994-06-01

    The High Power Semiconductor Laser Technology (HPSLT) program is currently developing, in-house, a belt pack medical laser. This compact semiconductor laser device provides the field paramedic or physician a unique portable laser capability. The pack consists of a completely self-contained laser system that fits inside a belt pack. Several other medical applications being investigated by the HPSLT program include urological applications, photodynamic therapy, and ophthalmic applications.

  19. Polymeric Microspheres for Medical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ketie Saralidze

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic polymeric microspheres find application in a wide range of medical applications. Among other applications, microspheres are being used as bulking agents, embolic- or drug-delivery particles. The exact composition of the spheres varies with the application and therefore a large array of materials has been used to produce microspheres. In this review, the relation between microsphere synthesis and application is discussed for a number of microspheres that are used for different treatment strategies.

  20. A Framework for Intelligent Battlefield Treatment System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jian; Wu, Biao; Yi, Renjie; Zhu, Jie

    With the development of high technology weapon, the execution and precision of weapon have made great improvement, which arouse many new challenge for treatment of war wounds. It is very urgent to research how to reduce casualty of individual solider. However, researches focus only on daily application recently. This paper discusses Intelligent Battlefield Treatment System (IBTS), and designs the framework of the service-oriented system based on WCF. The system has the following functions: testing the physical condition of a solider, disposing the distress signals intelligently, dispatching rescuers and assisting self-rescue or mutual-rescue to the wounded. The IBTS characteristics of data aggregate, multi-platform operation and data sharing can improve the treatment efficiency.

  1. Medical application of EPR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selected applications of continuous-wave EPR in medicine are reviewed. This includes detection of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, pH measurements and oxymetry. Applications of EPR imaging are demonstrated on selected examples and future developments to faster imaging methods are discussed

  2. Applications of medical nanoparticles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yuan-gang; WANG Shi-bin; WENG Lian-jin

    2001-01-01

    @@ INTRODUCTION Nanoparticles, for their subcellular size, have been a important carrier in somefields. These fields include pharmacology, food, cosmetic, etc. Here, we focus onpresent applications of nanoparticles in drug carrier and gene carrier.

  3. Medical imaging technology and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Iniewski, Krzysztof

    2014-01-01

    The book has two intentions. First, it assembles the latest research in the field of medical imaging technology in one place. Detailed descriptions of current state-of-the-art medical imaging systems (comprised of x-ray CT, MRI, ultrasound, and nuclear medicine) and data processing techniques are discussed. Information is provided that will give interested engineers and scientists a solid foundation from which to build with additional resources. Secondly, it exposes the reader to myriad applications that medical imaging technology has enabled.

  4. Medical application of radioisotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Chang Woon; Lim, S. M.; Kim, E. H. [and others

    2000-05-01

    In this project, we studied following subjects: 1. Clinical research for radionuclide therapy 2. Development of in vitro assay method with radioisotope 3. Development of binary therapy; Boron neutron capture therapy and photodynamic therapy 4. Development of diagnostic methods in radionuclide imaging. The results can be applied for the following objectives: (1) Radionuclide therapy will be applied in clinical practice to treat the cancer patients or other diseases in multi-center trial (2) The newly developed monoclonal antibodies and biomolecules can be used in biology, chemistry or other basic life science research (3) The new methods for the analysis of therapeutic effects, such as dosimetry, and quantitative analysis methods of radioactivity, can be applied in basic research, such as radiation oncology and radiation biology (4) The result of the project will be expected to develop the new radioimmunoassay for drug monitoring following the clinical experiments (5) Boron porphyrin has been successfully labeled with iodine. This enables the pharmacodynamic study of the boron compound in human body (6) A method to evaluate the biological effect of neutrons on tumor cells has been developed (7) The establishment of macro- and microscopic dose assessment using alpha-track autoradiography (8) Clinical application of PDT in bladder cancers, oropharyngeal cancer and skin cancer (9) Radionuclide imaging of estrogen receptor in breast cancer, lipid metabolism, gene therapy, cancers, brain function and heart disease.

  5. Medical application of radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this project, we studied following subjects: 1. Clinical research for radionuclide therapy 2. Development of in vitro assay method with radioisotope 3. Development of binary therapy; Boron neutron capture therapy and photodynamic therapy 4. Development of diagnostic methods in radionuclide imaging. The results can be applied for the following objectives: 1) Radionuclide therapy will be applied in clinical practice to treat the cancer patients or other diseases in multi-center trial 2) The newly developed monoclonal antibodies and biomolecules can be used in biology, chemistry or other basic life science research 3) The new methods for the analysis of therapeutic effects, such as dosimetry, and quantitative analysis methods of radioactivity, can be applied in basic research, such as radiation oncology and radiation biology 4) The result of the project will be expected to develop the new radioimmunoassay for drug monitoring following the clinical experiments 5) Boron porphyrin has been successfully labeled with iodine. This enables the pharmacodynamic study of the boron compound in human body 6) A method to evaluate the biological effect of neutrons on tumor cells has been developed 7) The establishment of macro- and microscopic dose assessment using alpha-track autoradiography 8) Clinical application of PDT in bladder cancers, oropharyngeal cancer and skin cancer 9) Radionuclide imaging of estrogen receptor in breast cancer, lipid metabolism, gene therapy, cancers, brain function and heart disease

  6. CERN's role in medical applications

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2014-01-01

    Last week, CERN hosted the first meeting of the International Strategy Committee for medical applications. This Committee will help CERN establish its roadmap in the field of research and development activities for medical applications. Here the CERN Bulletin speaks with the Chair of the Committee as he shares his expectations and his vision.   Dr Michael Baumann is the Director of the Radiation Oncology department at the Carl Gustav Carus University Hospital in Dresden and of the Institute for Radiooncology of the Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (Germany). He has recently been appointed Chair of CERN’s International Strategy Committee for medical applications – the team of experts who will advise the CERN Medical Applications Study Group led by Steve Myers. “CERN has a tremendous record in physics and basic research,” says Baumann. “I think that it has a very important role in steering some of the R&D that cannot be done at universities ...

  7. MEDICAL APPLICATIONS OF BIOPOLYESTERS POLYHYDROXYALKANOATES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo-qiang Chen; Yang Wang

    2013-01-01

    Microbial polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are a family of biopolyesters produced by many wild type and engineered bacteria.PHAs have diverse structures accompanied by flexible thermal and mechanical properties.Combined with their in vitro biodegradation,cell and tissue compatibility,PHAs have been studied for medical applications,especially medical implants applications,including heart valve tissue engineering,vascular tissue engineering,bone tissue engineering,cartilage tissue engineering,nerve conduit tissue engineering as well as esophagus tissue engineering.Most studies have been conducted in the authors' lab in the past 20+ years.Recently,mechanism on PHA promoted tissue regeneration was revealed to relate to cell responses to PHA biodegradation products and cell-material interactions mediated by microRNA.Very importantly,PHA implants were found not to cause carcinogenesis during long-term implantation.Thus,PHAs should have a bright future in biomedical areas.

  8. Nuclear data for medical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear science plays an increasingly important role in medical applications, in particular the need for radioisotopes in both cancer therapy and diagnostic techniques is very well established. Over the previous thirty years, many laboratories have reported a significant body of experimental data relevant to medical radionuclide production, and international data centres have compiled most of these data. However, till late 90s no systematic effort had been devoted to their standardization and assembly. These needs are being addressed through three IAEA Coordinated Research Projects on Nuclear Data for the Production of Radionuclides that started in 1999. Monitor cross sections to be used in charged particle measurements have been also evaluated (see http://www-nds.iaea.org/medical/monitor reactions.html). A review of IAEA recommended cross sections for the production of medical radioisotopes will be presented. Theoretical modelling of nuclear reactions will be discussed both for nuclear data evaluation and validation. The role of the Recommended Input Parameter Library (RIPL) in defining the input for production codes like EMPIRE and TALYS will be highlighted. (author)

  9. Medical applications of virtual reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satava, R M

    1995-06-01

    Medical applications for virtual reality (VR) are just beginning to emerge. These include VR surgical simulators, telepresence surgery, complex medical database visualization, and rehabilitation. These applications are mediated through the computer interface and as such are the embodiment of VR as an integral part of the paradigm shift in the field of medicine. The Green Telepresence Surgery System consists of two components, the surgical workstation and remote worksite. At the remote site there is a 3-D camera system and responsive manipulators with sensory input. At the workstation there is a 3-D monitor and dexterous handles with force feedback. The VR surgical simulator is a stylized recreation of the human abdomen with several essential organs. Using a helmet mounted display and DataGlove, a person can learn anatomy from a new perspective by 'flying' inside and around the organs, or can practice surgical procedures with a scalpel and clamps. Database visualization creates 3-D images of complex medical data for new perspectives in analysis. Rehabilitation medicine permits impaired individuals to explore worlds not otherwise available to them, allows accurate assessment and therapy for their disabilities, and helps architects understand their critical needs in public or personal space. And to support these advanced technologies, the operating room and hospital of the future will be first designed and tested in virtual reality, bringing together the full power of the digital physician.

  10. Medical applications of synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ever since the first diagnostic x-ray was done in the United States on February 3, 1896, the application of ionizing radiation to the field of medicine has become increasingly important. Both in clinical medicine and basic research the use of x-rays for diagnostic imaging and radiotherapy is now widespread. Radiography, angiography, CAT and PETT scanning, mammography, and nuclear medicine are all examples of technologies developed to image the human anatomy. In therapeutic applications, both external and internal sources of radiation are applied to the battle against cancer. The development of dedicated synchrotron radiation sources has allowed exciting advances to take place in many of these applications. The new sources provide tunable, high-intensity monochromatic beams over a wide range of energies which can be tailored to specific programmatic needs. This paper surveys those areas of medical research in which synchrotron radiation facilities are actively involved

  11. Medical Applications of Synchrotron Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomlinson, W.

    1991-10-01

    Ever since the first diagnostic x-ray was done in the United States on February 3, 1896, the application of ionizing radiation to the field of medicine has become increasingly important. Both in clinical medicine and basic research the use of x-rays for diagnostic imaging and radiotherapy is now widespread. Radiography, angiography, CAT and PETT scanning, mammography, and nuclear medicine are all examples of technologies developed to image the human anatomy. In therapeutic applications, both external and internal sources of radiation are applied to the battle against cancer. The development of dedicated synchrotron radiation sources has allowed exciting advances to take place in many of these applications. The new sources provide tunable, high-intensity monochromatic beams over a wide range of energies which can be tailored to specific programmatic needs. This paper surveys those areas of medical research in which synchrotron radiation facilities are actively involved.

  12. Medical applications of magnet devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hale, J.R.

    1975-09-01

    The use of magnetic devices in medically-related applications has often been frustrated by insufficient magnetic force, or by an inappropriately designed device. Magnetic treatment systems are discussed generally, and two systems are described in detail. First, a superconducting magnet, with integral orientation system, intended for use in intravascular catheter guidance is described. The maximum field and gradient produced by this solenoid are 20,000 Oe, and 2250 Oe/cm, respectively. The system is both powerful and easy to use, by virtue of its completely portable design. The second is a magnetic traction device which has been successfully employed in the treatment of esophageal atresia.

  13. Rifle Pits at Little Bighorn Battlefield National Monument, Montana

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This is a vector polygon file showing the rifle pits used by the 7th Cavalry at the Reno-Benteen Battlefield at Little Bighorn Battlefield National Monument (LIBI)....

  14. Radiation protection in medical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The goal of this paper is to identify the areas in which radiation protection is actually needed and the relative importance of protection measures. A correlation between the different medical applications of the ionizing radiations and the associated risks, mainly due to ignorance, has been a constant throughout the history of mankind. At the beginning, the accidents were originated in research nuclear laboratories working on the atomic bomb, while the incidents occurred in medical areas because of virtual ignorance of the harmful effects on humans. The 60's were characterized by the oil fever, which produced innumerable accidents due to the practice of industrial radiography; in the 70's the use of radiations on medical applications was intensified, to such and extent that a new type of victim appeared: the patient. Unfortunately, during 80's and 90's the number of accidents in different medical practices has increased, projecting the occurred in Zaragoza (Spain) on 1990 with a linear accelerator for radiotherapy treatments. In some developed countries, foreseeing the probability of producing biological effects as a result of different radiology practices, more strict security rules are adopted to guarantee the application of the three principles of the radioprotection: justification, optimization and limitation of individual dose. In this way, in the U.S.A., the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Health Care Organization (JCAHO), favors a vigilance politics in the different departments of Radiodiagnostic and Nuclear Medicine to secure an effective management in security, communications and quality control, in which the medical physicists play an important role. One of the requirements for example is to attach the value of entrance exposition dose in the radiological diagnostic report. So, the doses in the different organs are compared with the tabulated doses. Basically, a quality control programme is designed to minimize the risks for patients

  15. 76 FR 50231 - Mobile Medical Applications Draft Guidance; Public Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-12

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Mobile Medical Applications Draft Guidance; Public Workshop... ``Mobile Medical Applications,'' how FDA should approach accessories and particularly mobile medical... guidance document entitled ``Mobile Medical Applications,'' how FDA should approach accessories...

  16. Medical applications of artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Agah, Arvin

    2013-01-01

    Enhanced, more reliable, and better understood than in the past, artificial intelligence (AI) systems can make providing healthcare more accurate, affordable, accessible, consistent, and efficient. However, AI technologies have not been as well integrated into medicine as predicted. In order to succeed, medical and computational scientists must develop hybrid systems that can effectively and efficiently integrate the experience of medical care professionals with capabilities of AI systems. After providing a general overview of artificial intelligence concepts, tools, and techniques, Medical Ap

  17. Medical applications of artificial olfactometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Nathan S. (Inventor); Severin, Erik J. (Inventor); Wong, Bernard (Inventor); Kelso, David M. (Inventor); Munoz, Beth C. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    The present invention provides methods for detecting the presence of an analyte indicative of various medical conditions, including halitosis, periodontal disease and other diseases are also disclosed.

  18. Operational advantages of using Cyber Electronic Warfare (CEW) in the battlefield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasar, Nurgul; Yasar, Fatih M.; Topcu, Yucel

    2012-06-01

    While cyberspace is emerging as a new battlefield, conventional Electronic Warfare (EW) methods and applications are likely to change. Cyber Electronic Warfare (CEW) concept which merges cyberspace capabilities with traditional EW methods, is a new and enhanced form of the electronic attack. In this study, cyberspace domain of the battlefield is emphazised and the feasibility of integrating Cyber Warfare (CW) concept into EW measures is researched. The SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats) analysis method is used to state the operational advantages of using CEW concept in the battlefield. The operational advantages of CEW are assessed by means of its effects on adversary air defense systems, communication networks and information systems. Outstanding technological and operational difficulties are pointed out as well. As a result, a comparison of CEW concept and conventional EW applications is presented. It is concluded that, utilization of CEW concept is feasible at the battlefield and it may yield important operational advantages. Even though the computers of developed military systems are less complex than normal computers, they are not subjected to cyber threats since they are closed systems. This concept intends to show that these closed systems are also open to the cyber threats. As a result of the SWOT analysis, CEW concept provides Air Forces to be used in cyber operations effectively. On the other hand, since its Collateral Damage Criteria (CDC) is low, the usage of cyber electronic attack systems seems to grow up.

  19. Real-time medical applications and telecommunications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stravs, M

    1999-01-01

    Telecommunications play an important role in telemedicine. Many forms of telecommunication services based on different telecommunication technologies are developed for various needs. The paper deals with complex real-time applications which demand high telecommunication requirements. At the beginning, medical applications are categorised and real-time applications qualified as multimedia applications. Requirements for multimedia elements are listed separately. Later on, short introduction of related telecommunication protocols is given. Real-time medical applications can show their ability in case of guaranteed quality of services delivered by telecommunication network as it is explained in the end.

  20. Polymer Based Biosensors for Medical Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cherré, Solène; Rozlosnik, Noemi

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this chapter is to give an overview about the newest developments in biosensors made of polymers for medical applications. Biosensors are devices that can recognize and detect a target with high selectivity. They are widely used in many fields such as medical diagnostic...

  1. Seminar Pediatrics. Medical and Technical Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Association of Biology and Nuclear Medicine has organized the 'Seminar Pediatrics - Medical and Technical Applications', held in Buenos Aires in May 2012, in order to collaborate with the scientific growth of nuclear medicine in pediatrics. The main topics covered were: management of pediatric patients and medical application in childhood, dosimetry in pediatric nuclear medicine, scope of radioisotope - studies in nephrourological pathologies, PET in pediatrics, among others.

  2. Medical applications of diamond particles & surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger J Narayan

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Diamond has been considered for use in several medical applications due to its unique mechanical, chemical, optical, and biological properties. In this paper, methods for preparing synthetic diamond surfaces and particles are described. In addition, recent developments involving the use of diamond in prostheses, sensing, imaging, and drug delivery applications are reviewed. These developments suggest that diamond-containing structures will provide significant improvements in the diagnosis and treatment of medical conditions over the coming years.

  3. Calibration services for medical applications of radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeWerd, L.A.

    1993-12-31

    Calibration services for the medical community applications of radiation involve measuring radiation precisely and having traceability to the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). Radiation therapy applications involve the use of ionization chambers and electrometers for external beams and well-type ionization chamber systems as well as radioactive sources for brachytherapy. Diagnostic x-ray applications involve ionization chamber systems and devices to measure other parameters of the x-ray machine, such as non-invasive kVp meters. Calibration laboratories have been established to provide radiation calibration services while maintaining traceability to NIST. New radiation applications of the medical community spur investigation to provide the future calibration needs.

  4. Development of a lightweight portable ventilator for far-forward battlefield combat casualty support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutchis, Protagoras N.; Smith, Dexter G.; Ko, Harvey W.; Wiesmann, William P.; Pranger, L. Alex

    1999-07-01

    Immediate medical provision substantially reduces the number of fatalities sustained during military operations. However, the shift from large-scale regional conflicts to smaller peacekeeping and humanitarian missions has reduced the military medical support infrastructure. Civilian emergency medical services have long emphasized the 'golden hour' during which a patient must receive definitive medical attention. Without on-scene medical support, injured soldiers must be transported significant distances before receiving advanced medical care, and rapid transport to a medical facility is not always a viable option. Technological solutions enable military medics to deliver advanced medical care on the battlefield. We report here on the development of a small lightweight portable respirator for the treatment of far- forward battlefield casualties. The Far Forward Life Support System (FFLSS) utilizes a combination of COTS (commercial off the shelf) components and custom designed systems to provide ventilatory support to injured combatants. It also incorporates a small IV fluid pump and IV fluids for resuscitation. A microcompressor control system monitors both system performance and patient parameters for system control. Telemetry to a pager-like device worn by the front line medic alerts of any anomalies in ventilator or patient parameters, which will add greatly to triage decisions and resource management. Novel elements of the FLSS design include oxygen generation, low-pressure air generation, available patient suction, and the absence of any high pressure air cylinders. A prototype developed for animal testing will be described in detail as well as further design requirements for the human rated prototype.

  5. Image Sensors in Security and Medical Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Artyomov, Evgeny; Fish, Alexander; Yadid-Pecht, Orly

    2007-01-01

    This paper briefly reviews CMOS image sensor technology and its utilization in security and medical applications. The role and future trends of image sensors in each of the applications are discussed. To provide the reader deeper understanding of the technology aspects the paper concentrates on the selected applications such as surveillance, biometrics, capsule endoscopy and artificial retina. The reasons for concentrating on these applications are due to their importance in our d...

  6. Improvements of cyberspace and effects to the battlefield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedıklı, Münir

    2014-06-01

    Wars previously being executed at land and sea have also become applicable in air and space due to the advancements of aircraft and satellite systems. Rapid improvements in information technologies have triggered the concept of cyberspace which is considered as the fifth dimension of war. While transferring information quickly from physical area to electronic/digital area, cyberspace has caused to emerge a lot of threats and methods like cyber-attack, cyber-crime, cyber war which are spreading too rapidly. Individuals, institutions and establishments have begun to take their own cyber security precautions to cope with these threats. This study gives information about the concepts and advances on cyberspace in order to raise comprehensive awareness. The study also focuses on the effects of these improvements in the battlefield, and analyzes them.

  7. Biomagnetics and bioimaging for medical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueno, Shoogo [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)]. E-mail: ueno@medes.m.u-tokyo.ac.jp; Sekino, Masaki [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)

    2006-09-15

    This paper reviews medical applications of the recently developed techniques in biomagnetics and bioimaging such as transcranial magnetic stimulation, magnetoencephalography, magnetic resonance imaging, cancer therapy based on magnetic stimulation, and magnetic control of cell orientation and cell growth. These techniques are leading medicine and biology into a new horizon through the novel applications of magnetism.

  8. River as a part of ground battlefield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vračar, Miodrag S.; Pokrajac, Ivan; Okiljević, Predrag

    2013-05-01

    The rivers are in some circumstances part of the ground battlefield. Microseisms induced at the riverbed or ground at the river surrounding might be consequence of military activities (military ground transports, explosions, troop's activities, etc). Vibrations of those fluid-solid structures are modeled in terms of solid displacement and change of fluid pressure. This time varying fluid pressure in river, which originates from ground microseisms, is possible to detect with hydrophones. Therefore, hydroacoustic measurements in rivers enables detecting, identification and localization various types of military noisy activities at the ground as and those, which origin is in the river water (hydrodynamics of water flow, wind, waves, river vessels, etc). In this paper are presented river ambient noise measurements of the three great rivers: the Danube, the Sava and the Tisa, which flows in north part of Serbia in purpose to establish limits in detection of the ground vibrations in relatively wide frequency range from zero to 20 kHz. To confirm statement that the river is a part of ground battlefield, and that hydroacoustic noise is possible to use in detecting and analyzing ground microseisms induced by civil or military activities, some previous collected data of hydroacoustic noise measurement in the rivers are used. The data of the river ambient noise include noise induced by civil engineering activities, that ordinary take place in large cities, noise that produced ships and ambient noise of the river when human activities are significantly reduced. The poly spectral method was used in analysis such events.

  9. Current trend of robotics application in medical

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olanrewaju, O. A.; Faieza, A. A.; Syakirah, K.

    2013-06-01

    The applications of robotics in recent years has emerged beyond the field of manufacturing or industrial robots itself. Robotics applications are now widely used in medical, transport, underwater, entertainment and military sector. In medical field, these applications should be emphasized in view of the increasing challenges due to the variety of findings in the field of medicine which requires new inventions to ease work process. The objective of this review paper is to study and presents the past and on-going research in medical robotics with emphasis on rehabilitation (assistive care) and surgery robotics which are certainly the two main practical fields where robots application are commonly used presently. The study found that, rehabilitation and surgery robotics applications grow extensively with the finding of new invention, as well as research that is being undertaken and to be undertaken. The importance of medical robot in medical industry is intended to offer positive outcomes to assist human business through a complicated task that involves a long period, accuracy, focus and other routines that cannot be accomplished by human ability alone.

  10. Current trend of robotics application in medical

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The applications of robotics in recent years has emerged beyond the field of manufacturing or industrial robots itself. Robotics applications are now widely used in medical, transport, underwater, entertainment and military sector. In medical field, these applications should be emphasized in view of the increasing challenges due to the variety of findings in the field of medicine which requires new inventions to ease work process. The objective of this review paper is to study and presents the past and on-going research in medical robotics with emphasis on rehabilitation (assistive care) and surgery robotics which are certainly the two main practical fields where robots application are commonly used presently. The study found that, rehabilitation and surgery robotics applications grow extensively with the finding of new invention, as well as research that is being undertaken and to be undertaken. The importance of medical robot in medical industry is intended to offer positive outcomes to assist human business through a complicated task that involves a long period, accuracy, focus and other routines that cannot be accomplished by human ability alone.

  11. Recent developments in photodetection for medical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Llosá, Gabriela, E-mail: gabriela.llosa@ific.uv.es

    2015-07-01

    The use of the most advanced technology in medical imaging results in the development of high performance detectors that can significantly improve the performance of the medical devices employed in hospitals. Scintillator crystals coupled to photodetectors remain to be essential detectors in terms of performance and cost for medical imaging applications in different imaging modalities. Recent advances in photodetectors result in an increase of the performance of the medical scanners. Solid state detectors can provide substantial performance improvement, but are more complex to integrate into clinical detectors due mainly to their higher cost. Solid state photodetectors (APDs, SiPMs) have made new detector concepts possible and have led to improvements in different imaging modalities. Recent advances in detectors for medical imaging are revised.

  12. Medical applications for biomaterials in Bolivia

    CERN Document Server

    Arias, Susan

    2015-01-01

    This book investigates the potential medical benefits natural biomaterials can offer in developing countries by analyzing the case of Bolivia. The book explores the medical and health related applications of Bolivian commodities: quinoa, barley, sugarcane, corn, sorghum and sunflower seeds. This book helps readers better understand some of the key health concerns facing countries like Bolivia and how naturally derived biomaterials and therapeutics could help substantially alleviate many of their problems.

  13. Physics for Medical Imaging Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Caner, Alesssandra; Rahal, Ghita

    2007-01-01

    The book introduces the fundamental aspects of digital imaging and covers four main themes: Ultrasound techniques and imaging applications; Magnetic resonance and MPJ in hospital; Digital imaging with X-rays; and Emission tomography (PET and SPECT). Each of these topics is developed by analysing the underlying physics principles and their implementation, quality and safety aspects, clinical performance and recent advancements in the field. Some issues specific to the individual techniques are also treated, e.g. choice of radioisotopes or contrast agents, optimisation of data acquisition and st

  14. Medical applications of electromagnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lai, Henry C; Singh, Narendra P, E-mail: hlai@u.washington.ed [Department of Bioengineering, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195-5061 (United States)

    2010-04-15

    In this article, we describe two possible applications of low-intensity non-ionizing electromagnetic fields (EMF) for the treatment of malaria and cancer, respectively. In malaria treatment, a low-intensity extremely-low frequency magnetic field can be used to induce vibration of hemozoin, a super-paramagnetic polymer particle, inside malaria parasites. This disturbance could cause free radical and mechanical damages leading to the death of the parasite. This concept has been tested in vitro on malaria parasites and found to be effective. This may provide a low cost effective treatment for malaria infection in humans. The rationale for cancer treatment using low-intensity EMF is based on two concepts that have been well established in the literature: (1) low-intensity non-thermal EMF enhances cytotoxic free radicals via the iron-mediated Fenton reaction; and (2) cancer cells have higher amounts of free iron, thus are more susceptible to the cytotoxic effects of EMF. Since normal cells contain minimal amount of free iron, the effect would be selectively targeting cancer cells. Thus, no adverse side effect would be expected as in traditional chemotherapy and radiation therapy. This concept has also been tested on human cancer cell and normal cells in vitro and proved to be feasible.

  15. Linacs for medical and industrial applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linear accelerators for medical and industrial applications have become an important commercial business. Microwave electron linacs for cancer radiation therapy and high-energy industrial radiography form the bulk of this market, but these, as well as induction linacs, are now being offered for radiation processing applications such as sterilization of disposable medical products, food preservation and material modifications. The radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) linac has now made the ion linac also practical for commercial applications in medicine and industry, including radiation therapy, isotope production, neutron production, materials modification, and energy transfer processes. Ion linacs for several of these applications will soon be commercially available. The market for both ion and electron linacs is expected to significantly grow in several exciting and important areas

  16. Medical image informatics infrastructure design and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, H K; Wong, S T; Pietka, E

    1997-01-01

    Picture archiving and communication systems (PACS) is a system integration of multimodality images and health information systems designed for improving the operation of a radiology department. As it evolves, PACS becomes a hospital image document management system with a voluminous image and related data file repository. A medical image informatics infrastructure can be designed to take advantage of existing data, providing PACS with add-on value for health care service, research, and education. A medical image informatics infrastructure (MIII) consists of the following components: medical images and associated data (including PACS database), image processing, data/knowledge base management, visualization, graphic user interface, communication networking, and application oriented software. This paper describes these components and their logical connection, and illustrates some applications based on the concept of the MIII. PMID:9509399

  17. Personality Perceptions of Medical School Applicants

    OpenAIRE

    Jelley, R. Blake; Parkes, Michael A.; Rothstein, Mitchell G.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To examine the extent to which medical school interviewers consider perceptions of applicant personality traits during a semi-structured panel interview, the interrater reliability of assessments, and the impact of such perceptions on individual admission decisions. Method Semi-structured panel interviews were conducted with applicants to the Doctor of Medicine Program at the University of Western Ontario in London, Canada. Interviewers also provided voluntary, ?research only? ratings...

  18. Personality Perceptions of Medical School Applicants

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell Rothstein

    2002-01-01

    Purpose To examine the extent to which medical school interviewers consider perceptions of applicant personality traits during a semi-structured panel interview, the interrater reliability of assessments, and the impact of such perceptions on individual admission decisions. Method Semi-structured panel interviews were conducted with applicants to the Doctor of Medicine Program at the University of Western Ontario in London, Canada. Interviewers also provided voluntary, research only ratings o...

  19. New Medical Applications Of Metal Vapor Lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Robert S.; McIntosh, Alexander I.

    1989-06-01

    The first medical application for metal vapor lasers has been granted marketing approval by the FDA. This represents a major milestone for this technology. Metalaser Technologies recently received this approval for its Vasculase unit in the treatment of vascular lesions such as port wine stains, facial telangiectasia and strawberry hemangiomas.

  20. Optical Fibre Pressure Sensors in Medical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Poeggel

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This article is focused on reviewing the current state-of-the-art of optical fibre pressure sensors for medical applications. Optical fibres have inherent advantages due to their small size, immunity to electromagnetic interferences and their suitability for remote monitoring and multiplexing. The small dimensions of optical fibre-based pressure sensors, together with being lightweight and flexible, mean that they are minimally invasive for many medical applications and, thus, particularly suited to in vivo measurement. This means that the sensor can be placed directly inside a patient, e.g., for urodynamic and cardiovascular assessment. This paper presents an overview of the recent developments in optical fibre-based pressure measurements with particular reference to these application areas.

  1. Historic Sites and Grave Markers at Litttle Bighorn Battlefield, Montana

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This is a vector point file showing the historic sites and grave markers at Little Bighorn Battlefield National Monument (LIBI). The coordinates for this dataset...

  2. Drain field at Little Bighorn Battlefield National Monument, Montana

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This is a vector polygon file showing the drain field that is part of the sewer system utility at Little Bighorn Battlefield National Monument (LIBI). The...

  3. Cattleguards at Little Bighorn Battlefield National Monument, Montana

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This is a vector point file showing the cattleguards at Little Bighorn Battlefield National Monument (LIBI). The coordinates for this dataset were collected using a...

  4. Monitoring Stations at Little Bighorn Battlefield National Monument, Montana

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This is a vector point file showing the monitoring stations at Little Bighorn Battlefield National Monument (LIBI). The coordinates for this dataset were collected...

  5. Parking Lots at Little Bighorn Battlefield National Monument, Montana

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This is a vector polygon file showing the parking lots at Little Bighorn Battlefield National Monument (LIBI). The coordinates for this dataset were collected using...

  6. Pullouts at Little Bighorn Battlefield National Monument, Montana

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This is a vector point file showing the road pullouts at Little Bighorn Battlefield National Monument (LIBI). The coordinates for this dataset were collected using...

  7. Gates at Little Bighorn Battlefield National Monument, Montana

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This is a vector point file showing the gates at Little Bighorn Battlefield National Monument (LIBI). The coordinates for this dataset were collected using a...

  8. Memorials (Polygons) at Little Bighorn Battlefield National Monument, Montana

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This is a vector polygon file showing the memorials at Little Bighorn Battlefield National Monument (LIBI). The coordinates for this dataset were collected using a...

  9. Prairie dog town at Little Bighorn Battlefield National Monument, Montana

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This is a vector polygon file showing the prairie dog town at Little Bighorn Battlefield National Monument (LIBI). The coordinates for this dataset were collected...

  10. Roads at Little Bighorn Battlefield National Monument, Montana

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This is a vector line file showing the roads at Little Bighorn Battlefield National Monument (LIBI). The coordinates for this dataset were collected using a Trimble...

  11. Trails at Little Bighorn Battlefield National Monument, Montana

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This is a vector line file showing the trails and paths at Little Bighorn Battlefield National Monument (LIBI). The coordinates for this dataset were collected...

  12. Telemedicine and mHealth odyssey: a journey from the battlefield to academia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poropatich, Ronald; Presson, Nora; Gilbert, Gary

    2016-05-01

    Since 1992, military medicine has considered the relevance, sustainability, and promise of telemedicine in the context of its mission and obligations for service members at home and in war zones. The US Army telemedicine program covers 22 time zones and generates over 5000 tele-consults per month for over 20 medical specialties. More recently the advances in mobile computing and increased adoption of the Smartphone with evolving capabilities for imaging and body-worn sensor integration has emerged in the field called mobile health, or mHealth. This presentation highlights the first 10 years of the U.S. Army mHealth program and includes how similar technologies have translated to wide-scale civilian health care implementation, including a relevant project for Veterans at the University of Pittsburgh. Examples include the successful US Army "mCare" program developed to augment soldier rehabilitation management with USbased geographically dispersed providers that utilizes secure mobile messaging and the soldier's own cell phone. Additional research interests will describe the use of smartphones on the battlefield enabling capture of operational medical data to improve casualty evacuation and outcome. A DoD-funded traumatic brain injury research project developed for Veterans at the University of Pittsburgh includes a mobile health application that demonstrates the effectiveness of communicating with patients through their personal mobile devices with care managers. Preliminary data for all the projects presented are encouraging for adoption and utilization of a mobile telemedicine platform to meet the complex needs of casualties injured or recovering from a broad range of injuries in unique geographic settings.

  13. Mammalian synthetic biology: emerging medical applications

    OpenAIRE

    Kis, Zoltán; Pereira, Hugo Sant'Ana; Homma, Takayuki; Pedrigi, Ryan M.; Krams, Rob

    2015-01-01

    In this review, we discuss new emerging medical applications of the rapidly evolving field of mammalian synthetic biology. We start with simple mammalian synthetic biological components and move towards more complex and therapy-oriented gene circuits. A comprehensive list of ON–OFF switches, categorized into transcriptional, post-transcriptional, translational and post-translational, is presented in the first sections. Subsequently, Boolean logic gates, synthetic mammalian oscillators and tog...

  14. Triplex DNA: Importance and its medical application

    OpenAIRE

    Noori Dalooei M; Mojoodi A

    1998-01-01

    Back in 1957, when investigators produced a triple-stranded form of DNA while studying synthetic nucleic acids, few researchers paid much attention to the discovery. However, triplex DNA was never entirely forgotton and especially since 1987 its structural and functional importance in biological systems as well as its medical applications and therapeutic potentional have been extensively studied. It was suggested that in triplex DNA, the third strand was hydrogen bonded and positioned in the ...

  15. Water-soluble fullerenes for medical applications

    OpenAIRE

    Rašović, I

    2016-01-01

    Research on fullerenes occupies a unique position in the scientific arena. Synthesis and characterisation of this nanomaterial blur the line between materials science and chemistry; careful tuning of the processing methods gives birth to a whole family of molecules and their functionalised derivatives, whose unusual properties at this nanoscopic scale can be exploited in cutting-edge technological applications. This review focuses on the functionalisation of fullerenes for use in medical appl...

  16. Medical imaging technology reviews and computational applications

    CERN Document Server

    Dewi, Dyah

    2015-01-01

    This book presents the latest research findings and reviews in the field of medical imaging technology, covering ultrasound diagnostics approaches for detecting osteoarthritis, breast carcinoma and cardiovascular conditions, image guided biopsy and segmentation techniques for detecting lung cancer, image fusion, and simulating fluid flows for cardiovascular applications. It offers a useful guide for students, lecturers and professional researchers in the fields of biomedical engineering and image processing.

  17. Optical parametric oscillators for medical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gloster, Lawrie A. W.; Golding, Paul S.; King, Terence A.

    1996-04-01

    In recent years optical parametric oscillators (OPOs) have undergone a renaissance largely due to the discovery of new nonlinear materials capable of wide continuous tuning ranges spanning from the UV to the near-infrared spectral regions. To date, however, OPOs have not been exploited in the medical field despite their advantages over the dye laser in terms of tuning range and solid state structure. We consider the development of an OPO based on barium borate (BBO) which can be tailored to suit applications in medicine. Converting the maximum number of pump photons to tunable signal and idler photons is of great importance to secure high-fluence radiation necessary for many treatments. With this in mind, we report on an all- solid-state system using BBO which has been optimized by computer modeling with the potential of delivering amplification factors of typically up to 20 over a continuous tuning range of 700 nm to 1000 nm. As an example of its biomedical application, we describe the selective excitation of biomolecules and chromophores for cell destruction using malachite green isothiocyanate labelled bacteria. The potential for development is reviewed towards other medical applications such as diagnostic sensing and phototherapy.

  18. Medical applications of diamond particles and surfaces.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narayan, R. J.; Boehm, R. D.; Sumant, A. V. (Center for Nanoscale Materials); (Univ. of California)

    2011-04-01

    Diamond has been considered for use in several medical applications due to its unique mechanical, chemical, optical, and biological properties. In this paper, methods for preparing synthetic diamond surfaces and particles are described. In addition, recent developments involving the use of diamond in prostheses, sensing, imaging, and drug delivery applications are reviewed. These developments suggest that diamond-containing structures will provide significant improvements in the diagnosis and treatment of medical conditions over the coming years. Diamond is an allotrope of carbon that is being considered for use in several medical applications. Ramachandran determined that the crystal structure of diamond consists of two close packed interpenetrating face centered cubic lattices; one lattice is shifted with respect to the other along the elemental cube space diagonal by one-quarter of its length. If one approximates carbon atoms as equal diameter rigid spheres, the filling of this construction is 34%. Due to the carbon-carbon distance (1.54 {angstrom}), diamond crystal exhibits the highest atomic density (1.76 x 10{sup 23} cm{sup -3}) of any solid. The very high bond energy between two carbon atoms (83 kcal/mol) and the directionality of tetrahedral bonds are the main reasons for the high strength of diamond. Diamond demonstrates the highest Vickers hardness value of any material (10,000 kg/mm{sup 2}). The tribological properties of diamond are also impressive; the coefficient of friction of polished diamond is 0.07 in argon and 0.05 in humid air. Diamond is resistant to corrosion except in an oxygen atmosphere at temperatures over 800 C. In addition, type IIa diamond exhibits the highest thermal conductivity of all materials (20 W cm{sup -1} K{sup -1} at room temperature).

  19. Medical diagnostic imaging systems: technology and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book attempts to assess the current status and future developments of the medical imaging industry. The first chapter contains brief descriptions, of the basic principles of various imaging modalities (radiologic, CT, nuclear, ultrasound, and thermography), and a chapter describing areas of clinical applications for each modality follows. Chapter 3 provides a profile of the industry, listing the various manufacturers of medical imaging products and their share of the market, based on 1976 to 1978 statistics. Chapter 4 describes briefly the current sources of research support (industry versus government agencies) but does not provide data either in absolute dollars or relative amounts. Chapters 5 to 14 cover a broad spectrum of advanced imaging systems by categories, including x-ray (5 and 6), CT (7 and 8), nuclear (9 and 10), ultrasound (11), thermography (12), NMR (13), and miscellaneous (14), and they may be considered the meat of the book because they provide the basis for predictions of future developments in the medical imaging industry

  20. Synchrotron radiation applications in medical research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The medical projects employing synchrotron radiation as discussed in this paper are, for the most part, still in their infancies and no one can predict the direction in which they will develop. Both the basic research and applied medical programs are sure to be advanced at the new facilities coming on line, especially the ESRF and Spring- 8. However, success is not guaranteed. There is a lot of competition from advances in conventional imaging with the development of digital angiography, computed tomography, functional magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound. The synchrotron programs will have to provide significant advantages over these modalities in order to be accepted by the medical profession. Advances in image processing and potentially the development of compact sources will be required in order to move the synchrotron developed imaging technologies into the clinical world. In any event, it can be expected that the images produced by the synchrotron technologies will establish ''gold standards'' to be targeted by conventional modalities. A lot more work needs to be done in order to bring synchrotron radiation therapy and surgery to the level of human studies and, subsequently, to clinical applications

  1. Nutritional and medical applications of spirulina microalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, S M; Khosravi-Darani, K; Mozafari, M R

    2013-06-01

    Spirulina spp. and its processing products are employed in agriculture, food industry, pharmaceutics, perfumery and medicine. Spirulina has several pharmacological activities such as antimicrobial (including antiviral and antibacterial), anticancer, metalloprotective (prevention of heavy-metal poisoning against Cd, Pb, Fe, Hg), as well as immunostimulant and antioxidant effects due to its rich content of protein, polysaccharide, lipid, essential amino and fatty acids, dietary minerals and vitamins. This article serves as an overview, introducing the basic biochemical composition of this algae and moves to its medical applications. For each application the basic description of disease, mechanism of damage, particular content of Spirulina spp. for treatment, in vivo and/or in vitro usage, factors associated with therapeutic role, problems encountered and advantages are given. PMID:23544470

  2. Portable mini gamma camera for medical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Porras, E; Benlloch, J M; El-Djalil-Kadi-Hanifi, M; López, S; Pavon, N; Ruiz, J A; Sánchez, F; Sebastiá, A

    2002-01-01

    A small, portable and low-cost gamma camera for medical applications has been developed and clinically tested. This camera, based on a scintillator crystal and a Position Sensitive Photo-Multiplier Tube, has a useful field of view of 4.6 cm diameter and provides 2.2 mm of intrinsic spatial resolution. Its mobility and light weight allow to reach the patient from any desired direction. This camera images small organs with high efficiency and so addresses the demand for devices of specific clinical applications. In this paper, we present the camera and briefly describe the procedures that have led us to choose its configuration and the image reconstruction method. The clinical tests and diagnostic capability are also presented and discussed.

  3. Responsibility structure in medical radiation applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author discusses the various aspects of the responsibilities of physicians and clinical physicists with regard to radiation protection in medical applications of ionizing radiation. It becomes still clearer that the physician, who carries out the examination or the treatment, also has to bear the responsibility. this holds for the indication assessment as well as for optimization of the quality of the examination or treatment versus radiation burden of the patient, radiologic worker and thirds. Further it is clear that the physician in these will have to delegate specific tasks and responsibilities, whether or not in the elongated-arm construction. The clinical physicist is responsible in particular for the applications of the physical methods and watches the quality of the apparatus and methods used. As such he also is responsible for the technical workers, who take care of the preventive and corrective maintenance. The principal responsibility of the clinical physicist however lies in the field of standardization and calibration of medical-physical instruments. Besides this investigation into and development of new techniques, methods and apparatus come up, while also education and training of various profession groups involved need attention. (author). 6 refs.; 1 tab

  4. Management of Battlefield Injuries to the Skull Base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Jayne R; Brennan, Joseph

    2016-10-01

    High velocity skull base injuries on the battlefield are unique in comparison to most civilian sector trauma. With more than 43,000 United States military personnel injuries during Operations Iraqi Freedom (OIF) and Enduring Freedom (OEF), the most recent conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan have significantly expanded the understanding of the physiology of modern battlefield trauma and how to appropriately address these injuries. The acute care principles of effective triage, airway management, and hemorrhage control in these injuries can be life saving and are reviewed here. Specific injury patterns and battlefield examples are reviewed as well, with a review of some of the lessons learned while providing care in a deployed setting. Utilization of the knowledge learned in Iraq and Afghanistan, which have improved casualty care of deployed service members, can be used both in future military conflicts and in civilian trauma care. PMID:27648400

  5. A Study of an Intelligent Battlefield Damage Assessment System Based on a Multi-agent System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xiang-kai; DAI Wan-jun; TANG Yan-feng; WANG Jia-ning

    2008-01-01

    Battlefield damage assessment is the key to Battlefield Damage Assessment and Repair (BDAR).We present an Intelligent Battlefield Damage Assessment System (IBDAS) based on multi-agent system technology. We first establish the system framework, and then study the interior structure and workflow of a problem allocation agent. The result shows that, there are many advantages to resolve the problem of battlefield damage assessment by applying multi-agent system technology, and it will bring significant military benefit.

  6. Prediction of the pathogens that are the cause of pneumonia by the battlefield hypothesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Hirama

    Full Text Available Commensal organisms are frequent causes of pneumonia. However, the detection of these organisms in the airway does not mean that they are the causative pathogens; they may exist merely as colonizers. In up to 50% cases of pneumonia, the causative pathogens remain unidentified, thereby hampering targeting therapies. In speculating on the role of a commensal organism in pneumonia, we devised the battlefield hypothesis. In the "pneumonia battlefield," the organism-to-human cell number ratio may be an index for the pathogenic role of the organism. Using real-time PCR reactions for sputum samples, we tested whether the hypothesis predicts the results of bacteriological clinical tests for 4 representative commensal organisms: Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Pseudomonas spp., and Moraxella catarrhalis. The cutoff value for the organism-to-human cell number ratio, above which the pathogenic role of the organism was suspected, was set up for each organism using 224 sputum samples. The validity of the cutoff value was then tested in a prospective study that included 153 samples; the samples were classified into 3 groups, and each group contained 93%, 7%, and 0% of the samples from pneumonia, in which the pathogenic role of Streptococcus pneumoniae was suggested by the clinical tests. The results for Haemophilus influenzae, Pseudomonas spp., and Moraxella catarrhalis were 100%, 0%, and 0%, respectively. The battlefield hypothesis enabled legitimate interpretation of the PCR results and predicted pneumonia in which the pathogenic role of the organism was suggested by the clinical test. The PCR reactions based on the battlefield hypothesis may help to promote targeted therapies for pneumonia. The prospective observatory study described in the current report had been registered to the University Hospital Medical Information Network (UMIN registry before its initiation, where the UMIN is a registry approved by the International Committee of

  7. 78 FR 29390 - Applications; SHINE Medical Technologies, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Applications; SHINE Medical Technologies, Inc. AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION... Medical Technologies (SHINE) filed with the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) pursuant to...

  8. Medical Applications of Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sedentary lifestyle of human beings has resulted in various diseases and in turn we require a potential tool that can be used to address various issues related to human health. Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) is one such potential optical analytical tool that has become quite popular because of its distinctive features that include applicability to any type/phase of samples with almost no sample preparation. Several reports are available that discusses the capabilities of LIBS, suitable for various applications in different branches of science which cannot be addressed by traditional analytical methods but only few reports are available for the medical applications of LIBS. In the present work, LIBS has been implemented to understand the role of various elements in the formation of gallstones (formed under the empyema and mucocele state of gallbladder) samples along with patient history that were collected from Purvancal region of Uttar Pradesh, India. The occurrence statistics of gallstones under the present study reveal higher occurrence of gallstones in female patients. The gallstone occurrence was found more prevalent for those male patients who were having the habit of either tobacco chewing, smoking or drinking alcohols. This work further reports in-situ LIBS study of deciduous tooth and in-vivo LIBS study of human nail

  9. Medical applications of infrared thermography: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahiri, B. B.; Bagavathiappan, S.; Jayakumar, T.; Philip, John

    2012-07-01

    Abnormal body temperature is a natural indicator of illness. Infrared thermography (IRT) is a fast, passive, non-contact and non-invasive alternative to conventional clinical thermometers for monitoring body temperature. Besides, IRT can also map body surface temperature remotely. Last five decades witnessed a steady increase in the utility of thermal imaging cameras to obtain correlations between the thermal physiology and skin temperature. IRT has been successfully used in diagnosis of breast cancer, diabetes neuropathy and peripheral vascular disorders. It has also been used to detect problems associated with gynecology, kidney transplantation, dermatology, heart, neonatal physiology, fever screening and brain imaging. With the advent of modern infrared cameras, data acquisition and processing techniques, it is now possible to have real time high resolution thermographic images, which is likely to surge further research in this field. The present efforts are focused on automatic analysis of temperature distribution of regions of interest and their statistical analysis for detection of abnormalities. This critical review focuses on advances in the area of medical IRT. The basics of IRT, essential theoretical background, the procedures adopted for various measurements and applications of IRT in various medical fields are discussed in this review. Besides background information is provided for beginners for better understanding of the subject.

  10. PRIMA: An apparatus for medical application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper a proton Computed Radiography (pCR) apparatus for medical applications, realized by PRIMA (PRoton IMAging) Italian Collaboration, is described. The system is oriented to acquire tomography images and meets clinical demands for the use of protons in radiotherapy treatments. The approach proposed here is based on ‘single proton tracking’ method with Most Likely Path (MLP) reconstruction of the single particle. A pCR prototype, with a field of view of about 5×5 cm2 and an acquisition time of the order of 10 s (10 kHz, 105 events), has been developed and tested with a 62 MeV proton beam at the INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Sud (LNS). The apparatus architecture will be described and first proton radiographies will be shown.

  11. PRIMA: An apparatus for medical application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sipala, V., E-mail: valeria.sipala@ct.infn.it [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Universita degli Studi di Catania (Italy); INFN, sezione di Catania (Italy); Brianzi, M. [INFN, sezione di Firenze (Italy); Bruzzi, M. [INFN, sezione di Firenze (Italy); Dipartimento di Energetica, Universita degli Studi di Firenze (Italy); Bucciolini, M. [Dipartimento di Fisiopatologia Clinica, Universita degli Studi di Firenze (Italy); INFN, sezione di Firenze (Italy); Cirrone, G.A.P. [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud-INFN, Catania (Italy); Civinini, C. [INFN, sezione di Firenze (Italy); Cuttone, G. [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud-INFN, Catania (Italy); Lo Presti, D. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Universita degli Studi di Catania (Italy); INFN, sezione di Catania (Italy); Pallotta, S. [Dipartimento di Fisiopatologia Clinica, Universita degli Studi di Firenze (Italy); Randazzo, N. [INFN, sezione di Catania (Italy); Romano, F. [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud-INFN, Catania (Italy); Stancampiano, C. [INFN, sezione di Catania (Italy); Scaringella, M. [INFN, sezione di Firenze (Italy); Dipartimento di Energetica, Universita degli Studi di Firenze (Italy); Talamonti, C. [Dipartimento di Fisiopatologia Clinica, Universita degli Studi di Firenze (Italy); INFN, sezione di Firenze (Italy); Tesi, M. [Dipartimento di Energetica, Universita degli Studi di Firenze (Italy)

    2011-12-01

    In this paper a proton Computed Radiography (pCR) apparatus for medical applications, realized by PRIMA (PRoton IMAging) Italian Collaboration, is described. The system is oriented to acquire tomography images and meets clinical demands for the use of protons in radiotherapy treatments. The approach proposed here is based on 'single proton tracking' method with Most Likely Path (MLP) reconstruction of the single particle. A pCR prototype, with a field of view of about 5 Multiplication-Sign 5 cm{sup 2} and an acquisition time of the order of 10 s (10 kHz, 10{sup 5} events), has been developed and tested with a 62 MeV proton beam at the INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Sud (LNS). The apparatus architecture will be described and first proton radiographies will be shown.

  12. Pancreatin irradiation for medical and pharmaceutical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pancreatin is an enzyme mix conformed substance used in medical and pharmaceutical applications principally. Due to its origin and processing method, pancreatin possibly requires to undergo a decontamination process. Thus, sample of powered pancreatin were packed in polyethylene bags and gamma irradiated at 2, 3, 5, 6, 7, 8, 13 y 25 kGy. Microbiological and physico-chemical tests specified in the US Pharmacopea were performed to the irradiated samples and control in order to determine the optimum decontamination dose which will permit the commercial use of the product. It was determined that 5 kGy as minimum dose was adequate to reduce in 3 log cycles the initial bioburden of the product, which was composed principally by aerobic mesophiles, specifically sporulated bacilli. Moreover, results of assays involved loss of drying, enzymatic activity, colour and odour performed in irradiated samples showed no significant alterations respecting the control. (author)

  13. Tongue Color Analysis for Medical Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bob Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An in-depth systematic tongue color analysis system for medical applications is proposed. Using the tongue color gamut, tongue foreground pixels are first extracted and assigned to one of 12 colors representing this gamut. The ratio of each color for the entire image is calculated and forms a tongue color feature vector. Experimenting on a large dataset consisting of 143 Healthy and 902 Disease (13 groups of more than 10 samples and one miscellaneous group, a given tongue sample can be classified into one of these two classes with an average accuracy of 91.99%. Further testing showed that Disease samples can be split into three clusters, and within each cluster most if not all the illnesses are distinguished from one another. In total 11 illnesses have a classification rate greater than 70%. This demonstrates a relationship between the state of the human body and its tongue color.

  14. Medical Applications and Toxicities of Gallium Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher R. Chitambar

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Over the past two to three decades, gallium compounds have gained importance in the fields of medicine and electronics. In clinical medicine, radioactive gallium and stable gallium nitrate are used as diagnostic and therapeutic agents in cancer and disorders of calcium and bone metabolism. In addition, gallium compounds have displayed anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive activity in animal models of human disease while more recent studies have shown that gallium compounds may function as antimicrobial agents against certain pathogens. In a totally different realm, the chemical properties of gallium arsenide have led to its use in the semiconductor industry. Gallium compounds, whether used medically or in the electronics field, have toxicities. Patients receiving gallium nitrate for the treatment of various diseases may benefit from such therapy, but knowledge of the therapeutic index of this drug is necessary to avoid clinical toxicities. Animals exposed to gallium arsenide display toxicities in certain organ systems suggesting that environmental risks may exist for individuals exposed to this compound in the workplace. Although the arsenic moiety of gallium arsenide appears to be mainly responsible for its pulmonary toxicity, gallium may contribute to some of the detrimental effects in other organs. The use of older and newer gallium compounds in clinical medicine may be advanced by a better understanding of their mechanisms of action, drug resistance, pharmacology, and side-effects. This review will discuss the medical applications of gallium and its mechanisms of action, the newer gallium compounds and future directions for development, and the toxicities of gallium compounds in current use.

  15. View the information-based battlefield environment system from network-centric warfare (NCW)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chengbin; You, Xiong

    2007-06-01

    Battlefield environment is a general designation for all kinds of objective things and conditions which surround battlefield and affect military actions. With the development of modern high technology, and information technology, traditional battlefield environment is developing in the both factors of space and constitutive, and takes on an integrated tendency. The U.S. military consider that the war of information age is NCW, and to successfully implement the theory of the NCW capabilities, the four domains of warfare-physical, information, cognitive, social, and their relationship must be understood. According to the theory of system, this paper puts forward the conception of Battlefield Environment System and its tetrahedron structure. The correlation of constitutive factors in Generalized Battlefield Environment System and the relationship between Generalized Battlefield Environment System and NCW are analyzed. Moreover, the spatial scope and constitutive factors of Specific Battlefield Environment System are also discussed.

  16. Battlefield tracheal intubation training using virtual simulation: a multi center operational assessment of video laryngoscope technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boedeker, Ben H; Boedeker, Kirsten A; Bernhagen, Mary A; Miller, David J; Lacy, Timothy

    2011-01-01

    Airway management is an essential skill in providing care in trauma situations. The video laryngoscope is a tool which offers improvement in teaching airway management skills and in managing airways of trauma patients on the far forward battlefield. An Operational Assessment (OA) of videolaryngoscope technology for medical training and airway management was conducted by the Center for Advanced Technology and Telemedicine (at the University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE) for the US Air Force Modernization Command to validate this technology in the provision of Out of OR airway management and airway management training in military simulation centers. The value for both the training and performance of intubations was highly rated and the majority of respondents indicated interest in having a video laryngoscope in their facility. PMID:21335763

  17. Radioisotope Production for Medical and Physics Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mausner, Leonard

    2012-10-01

    Radioisotopes are critical to the science and technology base of the US. Discoveries and applications made as a result of the availability of radioisotopes span widely from medicine, biology, physics, chemistry and homeland security. The clinical use of radioisotopes for medical diagnosis is the largest sector of use, with about 16 million procedures a year in the US. The use of ^99Mo/^99mTc generator and ^18F make up the majority, but ^201Tl, ^123I, ^111In, and ^67Ga are also used routinely to perform imaging of organ function. Application of radioisotopes for therapy is dominated by use of ^131I for thyroid malignancies, ^90Y for some solid tumors, and ^89Sr for bone cancer, but production of several more exotic species such as ^225Ac and ^211At are of significant current research interest. In physics ^225Ra is of interest for CP violation studies, and the actinides ^242Am, ^249Bk, and ^254Es are needed as targets for experiments to create superheavy elements. Large amounts of ^252Cf are needed as a fission source for the CARIBU experiment at ANL. The process of radioisotope production is multidisciplinary. Nuclear physics input based on nuclear reaction excitation function data is needed to choose an optimum target/projectile in order to maximize desired isotope production and minimize unwanted byproducts. Mechanical engineering is needed to address issues of target heating, induced mechanical stress and material compatibility of target and claddings. Radiochemists are involved as well since chemical separation to purify the desired final radioisotope product from the bulk target and impurities is also usually necessary. Most neutron rich species are produced at a few government and university reactors. Other radioisotopes are produced in cyclotrons in the commercial sector, university/hospital based facilities, and larger devices at the DOE labs. The landscape of US facilities, the techniques involved, and current supply challenges will be reviewed.

  18. Triplex DNA: Importance and its medical application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noori Dalooei M

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available Back in 1957, when investigators produced a triple-stranded form of DNA while studying synthetic nucleic acids, few researchers paid much attention to the discovery. However, triplex DNA was never entirely forgotton and especially since 1987 its structural and functional importance in biological systems as well as its medical applications and therapeutic potentional have been extensively studied. It was suggested that in triplex DNA, the third strand was hydrogen bonded and positioned in the major groove of the Watson-Crick duplex. Protein binding assays show that triplex formation by HR21ap inhibits Sp1 binding to the Ha-ras promoter. These results suggest that the triplex formation by the Ha-ras promoter targed oligonucleotide may provide a means to specifically inhibit transcription of this oncogene in vivo. Triplex DNA can disrupt gene transcriptions and can be used as of this oncogene in vivo. Triplex DNA can disrupt gene transcriptions and can be used as a new strategy for treating viral diseases, such as AIDS, by blocking virus reproduction. As discussed in this article, for a number of reasons, interest in oligonucleotide designed for triplex helices on dsDNA is being steadily increased (including their potential artificial repressors of gene expression, mediator of site specific DNA cleavage and therapeutic use for genetic diseases, cancer and diseases caused by viruses.

  19. 15 CFR Notes Applicable to State... - Notes applicable to State of Understanding related to Medical Equipment:

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Understanding related to Medical Equipment: applicable Notes applicable to State of Understanding related to Medical Equipment: Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade... of Understanding—medical equipment: Commodities that are “specially designed for medical...

  20. Videography and student engagement: The potentials of battlefield tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raynald Harvey Lemelin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to present the findings from a collaborative study conducted by a research team consisting of university students and a course instructor visiting battlefields and memorials located in Western Europe. The goal of the course was to provide students with an experiential opportunity to learn about the First and Second World Wars, acquire insights into the management of battlefields, memorials and museums, participate in video interviews, and administer surveys on-site. Emphasizing the field component of the course, this paper discusses how visual ethnography can be used to provide a greater understanding of visitor motivations and enhanced tourism learning experiences. Also discussed are the strengths and weaknesses of conducting field research for a university undergraduate level course and the potential contributions that such approaches bring to learning and memory.

  1. Immunological battlefield in gastric cancer and role of immunotherapies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Minyu; Busuttil, Rita A; Pattison, Sharon; Neeson, Paul J; Boussioutas, Alex

    2016-01-01

    Like the wars predating the First World War where human foot soldiers were deemed tools in the battlefield against an enemy, so too are the host immune cells of a patient battling a malignant gastric cancer. Indeed, the tumour microenvironment resembles a battlefield, where the patient’s immune cells are the defence against invading tumour cells. However, the relationship between different immune components of the host response to cancer is more complex than an “us against them” model. Components of the immune system inadvertently work against the interests of the host and become pro-tumourigenic while other components soldier on against the common enemy – the tumour cell. PMID:27605873

  2. Assessing the effectiveness of the battlefield combat identification system

    OpenAIRE

    Grabski, Mark V.

    1999-01-01

    The Battlefield Combat Identification System (BCIS) was developed at the direction of the Joint Chiefs of Staff following the Gulf War to address the problem of direct fire fratricide. The system is designed to improve target identification and increase situational awareness for ground combat forces. The purpose of this thesis is to determine whether BCIS improves combat effectiveness. Additionally, this thesis provides a simulation tool that is utilized to assess the effectiveness of BCIS va...

  3. Piezoelectric materials and devices applications in engineering and medical sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Vijaya, M S

    2012-01-01

    Piezoelectric Materials and Devices: Applications in Engineering and Medical Sciences provides a complete overview of piezoelectric materials, covering all aspects of the materials starting from fundamental concepts. The treatment includes physics of piezoelectric materials, their characteristics and applications. The author uses simple language to explain the theory of piezoelectricity and introduce readers to the properties and design of different types of piezoelectric materials, such as those used in engineering and medical device applications.This book: Introduces various types of dielect

  4. Oxygen generator for medical applications (USIC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staiger, C. L.

    2012-03-01

    The overall Project objective is to develop a portable, non-cryogenic oxygen generator capable of supplying medical grade oxygen at sufficient flow rates to allow the field application of the Topical Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy (THOT{reg_sign}) developed by Numotech, Inc. This project was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy Global Initiatives for Proliferation Prevention (GIPP) and is managed by collaboration between Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), Numotech, Inc, and LLC SPE 'Spektr-Conversion.' The project had two phases, with the objective of Phase I being to develop, build and test a laboratory prototype of the membrane-pressure swing adsorber (PSA) system producing at 15 L/min of oxygen with a minimum of 98% oxygen purity. Phase II objectives were to further refine and identify the pre-requisites needed for a commercial product and to determine the feasibility of producing 15 L/min of oxygen with a minimum oxygen purity of 99%. In Phase I, Spektr built up the necessary infrastructure to perform experimental work and proceeded to build and demonstrate a membrane-PSA laboratory prototype capable of producing 98% purity oxygen at a flow rate of 5 L/min. Spektr offered a plausible path to scale up the process for 15 L/min. Based on the success and experimental results obtained in Phase I, Spektr performed work in three areas for Phase II: construction of a 15 L/min PSA; investigation of compressor requirements for the front end of the membrane/PSA system; and performing modeling and simulation of assess the feasibility of producing oxygen with a purity greater than 99%. Spektr successfully completed all of the tasks under Phase II. A prototype 15 L/min PSA was constructed and operated. Spektr determined that no 'off the shelf' air compressors met all of the specifications required for the membrane-PSA, so a custom compressor will likely need to be built. Modeling and simulation concluded that production of oxygen with purities greater

  5. Color Infrared Orthorectified Photomosaic Leaf-off for Petersburg National Battlefield Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Orthorectified color infrared ERDAS IMAGINE image of Petersburg National Battlefield. Produced from 92 color infrared photos taken February 28, 2002....

  6. Field Plot Points for Richmond National Battlefield Park Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This shapefile shows the location of vegetation sampling plots used for vegetation classification and mapping at Richmond National Battlefield Park.

  7. [Current problems of information technologies application for forces medical service].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, V V; Korneenkov, A A; Bogomolov, V D; Borisov, D N; Rezvantsev, M V

    2013-06-01

    The modern information technologies are the key factors for the upgrading of forces medical service. The aim of this article is the analysis of prospective information technologies application for the upgrading of forces medical service. The authors suggested 3 concepts of information support of Russian military health care on the basis of data about information technologies application in the foreign armed forces, analysis of the regulatory background, prospects of military-medical service and gathered experience of specialists. These three concepts are: development of united telecommunication network of the medical service of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation medical service, working out and implementation of standard medical information systems for medical units and establishments, monitoring the military personnel health state and military medical service resources. It is noted that on the assumption of sufficient centralized financing and industrial implementation of the military medical service prospective information technologies, by the year 2020 the united information space of the military medical service will be created and the target information support effectiveness will be achieved.

  8. Brain-Computer Interfaces : Beyond Medical Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erp, J.B.F. van; Lotte, F.; Tangermann, M.

    2012-01-01

    Brain-computer interaction has already moved from assistive care to applications such as gaming. Improvements in usability, hardware, signal processing, and system integration should yield applications in other nonmedical areas.

  9. Medical technology management: from planning to application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Y; Jahnke, E

    2005-01-01

    Appropriate deployment of technological innovation contributes to improvement in the quality of healthcare delivered, the containment of cost, and access to the healthcare system. Hospitals have been allocating a significant portion of their resources to procuring and managing capital assets; they are continuously faced with demands for new medical equipment and are asked to manage existing inventory for which they are not well prepared. To objectively manage their investment, hospitals are developing medical technology management programs that need pertinent information and planning methodology for integrating new equipment into existing operations as well as for optimizing costs of ownership of all equipment. Clinical engineers can identify technological solutions based on the matching of new medical equipment with hospital's objectives. They can review their institution's overall technological position, determine strengths and weaknesses, develop equipment-selection criteria, supervise installations, train users and monitor post procurement performance to assure meeting of goals. This program, together with cost accounting analysis, will objectively guide the capital assets decision-making process. Cost accounting analysis is a multivariate function that includes determining the amount, based upon a strategic plan and financial resources, of funding to be allocated annually for medical equipment acquisition and replacement. Often this function works closely with clinical engineering to establish equipment useful life and prioritization of acquisition, upgrade, and replacement of inventory within budget confines and without conducting time consuming, individual financial capital project evaluations. PMID:17282142

  10. Textile slow release systems with medical applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breteler, ten M.R.; Nierstrasz, V.A.; Warmoeskerken, M.M.C.G.

    2002-01-01

    In the development of medical drug delivery systems, attention has been increasingly focused on slow- or controlled delivery systems in order to achieve an optimal therapeutic effect. Since the administration of drugs often requires a defined or minimum effective dosage in the human body, more conve

  11. Medical Applications of Remote Electronic Browsing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadwick, Joseph

    The purposes of this study are to identify and define viable remote browsing techniques and the requirements for an interactive medical information system that would permit the use of such techniques. The main emphasis is in the areas of: (1) remote viewing of page material; and (2) remote interrogation of fact banks with question-answering…

  12. 77 FR 74168 - Information Collection: Youth Conservation Corps Application and Medical History

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-13

    ... Forest Service Information Collection: Youth Conservation Corps Application and Medical History AGENCY... information collection, OMB 0596- 0084, Youth Conservation Corps Application and Medical History. The... Corps Application and Medical History. OMB Number: 0596-0084. Expiration Date of Approval:...

  13. Interview: 21st century battlefield pain management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckenmaier, Colonel Chester 'trip'

    2013-07-01

    Colonel Chester 'Trip' Buckenmaier 3rd, MD, speaks to Dominic Chamberlain, Assistant Commissioning Editor: Colonel Buckenmaier is the current Director of the Defense and Veterans Center for Integrative Pain Management (MD, USA) and Fellowship Director of the Acute Pain Medicine and Regional Anesthesia program at Walter Reed National Military Medical Center in Washington DC (USA). He is an Associate Professor in Anesthesiology at the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences in Bethesda (MD, USA), and a Diplomat with the American Board of Anesthesiology. He attended Catawba College (NC, USA), on a Reserve Officers' Training Corps (ROTC) scholarship, graduating with a degree in Biology and Chemistry in 1986. He then attended East Carolina University in Greenville (NC, USA), receiving a Master in Science in Biology in 1988. In 1992, he graduated from the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, completing his Anesthesia Residency at Walter Reed. In addition, he completed a 1-year Fellowship in Regional Anesthesia at Duke University (NC, USA) in 2002, resulting in the creation of the only Acute Pain Medicine Fellowship in the US military at Walter Reed (Washington, DC, USA). In September 2003, he deployed with the 21st Combat Support Hospital to Balad (Iraq), and demonstrated that the use of advanced regional anesthesia can be accomplished in a forward deployed environment. He performed the first successful continuous peripheral nerve block for pain management in a combat support hospital. In April 2009, he deployed to Camp Bastion (Afghanistan) with the British military and ran the first acute pain service in a theater of war. The Defense and Veterans Center for Integrative Pain Medicine (DVCIPM) is dedicated to improving pain management throughout the continuum of care for service personnel and their families.

  14. Improved Strategies for Parallel Medical Image Processing Applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Kun; WANG Xiao-ying; LI San-li; CHEN Ying

    2008-01-01

    In order to meet the demands of high efficient and real-time computer assisted diagnosis as well as screening in medical area, to improve the efficacy of parallel medical image processing is of great importance. This article proposes improved strategies for parallel medical image processing applications,which is categorized into two genera. For each genus individual strategy is devised, including the theoretic algorithm for minimizing the exertion time. Experiment using mammograms not only justifies the validity of the theoretic analysis, with reasonable difference between the theoretic and measured value, but also shows that when adopting the improved strategies, efficacy of medical image parallel processing is improved greatly.

  15. Understanding the medical applications of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that the use of atomic energy for weapons of mass destruction and as a source for electric power is well known to the public and carries a negative connotation in many people's minds. The beneficial uses of nuclear energy in the biomedical field is not well appreciated and most people do not realize that modern medical practice could not exist without radioisotopes. Radioactive sources are essential for new drug research and development, radiation oncology, and the practice of Nuclear Medicine. The specialty of Nuclear Medicine utilizes radioisotopes in the diagnosis and treatment of human illness and is at the forefront of modern medical technology. Greater awareness of the beneficial uses of radioisotopes in the practice of medicine should improve the public's overall perception about the benefits of nuclear energy

  16. Neural networks: Application to medical imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Laurence P.

    1994-01-01

    The research mission is the development of computer assisted diagnostic (CAD) methods for improved diagnosis of medical images including digital x-ray sensors and tomographic imaging modalities. The CAD algorithms include advanced methods for adaptive nonlinear filters for image noise suppression, hybrid wavelet methods for feature segmentation and enhancement, and high convergence neural networks for feature detection and VLSI implementation of neural networks for real time analysis. Other missions include (1) implementation of CAD methods on hospital based picture archiving computer systems (PACS) and information networks for central and remote diagnosis and (2) collaboration with defense and medical industry, NASA, and federal laboratories in the area of dual use technology conversion from defense or aerospace to medicine.

  17. Optical properties of plastic materials for medical vision applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several types of optical polymer materials suitable for ophthalmic or medical vision applications have been studied. We have measured refractive indices of studied plastics at various wavelengths in the visible and near-infrared spectral regions. Important optical characteristics as Abbe numbers, dispersion coefficients and curves, principal and relative partial dispersion have been evaluated. Calculated refractometric data at many laser emission wavelengths used for medical surgery, therapy and diagnostics is included. As an example of a medical vision application of plastics, optical design of a micro-triplet for use in disposable endoscopes is presented.

  18. Current Advances in the Medical Application of Nanotechnology

    CERN Document Server

    Slevin, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Nanotechnology promises new medical therapies, more rapid and sensitive diagnostic and investigative tools for normal and diseased tissues, and new materials for tissue engineering. This e-book highlights the major current uses, new technologies and future perspectives of nanotechnology in relation to medical applications. Sections in this e-book include nanobiological approaches to imaging, diagnosis and treatment of disease using targeted monoclonal antibodies and siRNA, the medical use of nanomaterials, to nanoelectronic biosensors, and possible future applications of molecular nanotechnolo

  19. Medical applications of the nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nuclear Medicine School Foundation, in Mendoza (Argentina) was created in 1986 by the National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA) and is supported by the Government of the Mendoza Province, the CNEA, and the National University of Cuyo. The main activities of the school are medical diagnosis using nuclear techniques and the training of physicians and technicians in nuclear medicine. Teletherapy and brachytherapy are also performed. The use of the PET is described in some detail

  20. Some medical applications of example-based super-resolution

    OpenAIRE

    Zabih, Ramin

    2016-01-01

    Example-based super-resolution (EBSR) reconstructs a high-resolution image from a low-resolution image, given a training set of high-resolution images. In this note I propose some applications of EBSR to medical imaging. A particular interesting application, which I call "x-ray voxelization", approximates the result of a CT scan from an x-ray image.

  1. Residency Applicants Misinterpret Their United States Medical Licensing Exam Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Roger C.; Desbiens, Norman A.

    2009-01-01

    Proper interpretation of the results of the United States Medical Licensing Exam (USMLE) is important for program directors, residents, and faculty who advise applicants about applying for residency positions. We suspected that applicants often misinterpreted their performance in relationship to others who took the same examination. In 2005, 54…

  2. 75 FR 69125 - River Raisin National Battlefield Park, MI ; Account Number: 6495

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-10

    ... National Park Service River Raisin National Battlefield Park, MI ; Account Number: 6495 AGENCY: National Park Service, Department of the Interior. ACTION: Notification of a New National Park, River Raisin National Battlefield Park. SUMMARY: As authorized by Section 7003 of the Omnibus Public Land Management...

  3. Production of Thallium 201 for medical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the purpose of producing high purity carrier-free 201Tl, for medical use, a production and separation method was developed using the CV-28 Cyclotron of the Nuclear Engineering Institute in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. 201Pb was produced by 24 MeV proton bombardment of natural Tl and allowed to decay to 201Tl. In the separation process the target is dissolved in HNO3, the 201Pb produced is separated by Fe(OH)3 coprecipitation, and the Fe is latter separated by anion exchange. The 201Pb is permited to decay during 32 hrs. 201Tl is then separated from remaining Pb by anion exchange. The chemical separation is done in a remote processing cell using manipulators, tongs, electric and pneumatic systems. The thick target yield of 201Pb is 1.7 mCi/μAhr. At the moment the production is restricted to 4 mCi of 201Tl for each irradiation. (Author)

  4. Applications of computational tools in biosciences and medical engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Altenbach, Holm

    2015-01-01

     This book presents the latest developments and applications of computational tools related to the biosciences and medical engineering. It also reports the findings of different multi-disciplinary research projects, for example, from the areas of scaffolds and synthetic bones, implants and medical devices, and medical materials. It is also shown that the application of computational tools often requires mathematical and experimental methods. Computational tools such as the finite element methods, computer-aided design and optimization as well as visualization techniques such as computed axial tomography open up completely new research fields that combine the fields of engineering and bio/medical. Nevertheless, there are still hurdles since both directions are based on quite different ways of education. Often even the “language” can vary from discipline to discipline.

  5. Nickel-free austenitic stainless steels for medical applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Yang and Yibin Ren

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The adverse effects of nickel ions being released into the human body have prompted the development of high-nitrogen nickel-free austenitic stainless steels for medical applications. Nitrogen not only replaces nickel for austenitic structure stability but also much improves steel properties. Here we review the harmful effects associated with nickel in medical stainless steels, the advantages of nitrogen in stainless steels, and emphatically, the development of high-nitrogen nickel-free stainless steels for medical applications. By combining the benefits of stable austenitic structure, high strength and good plasticity, better corrosion and wear resistances, and superior biocompatibility compared to the currently used 316L stainless steel, the newly developed high-nitrogen nickel-free stainless steel is a reliable substitute for the conventional medical stainless steels.

  6. Ground-target detection in a virtual battlefield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gozard, Patrick; Cathala, Thierry

    2007-04-01

    To perform multi-sensors simulations, the French DGA/DET (Directorate for Technical Evaluation of the French Ministry of Defense) uses CHORALE (simulated Optronic Acoustic Radar battlefield). CHORALE enables the user to create virtual and realistic multi spectral 3D scenes, and generates the physical signal received by one or several sensors, typically an IR sensor or an acoustic sensor. This article presents how the expertise is made to evaluate smart ammunition to detect ground target with infrared sensor and shape detector in a virtual battlefield with the environment CHORALE and the workshop AMOCO. The scene includes background with trees, houses, roads, fields, targets, and the ammunition. Each tool is explained to understand the physics phenomena in the scene to take into account atmospheric transmission, radiative parameters of objects and counter-measure devices. Then numeric models are described as the 6 DOF ballistics models, sensor model according precise positions inside the ammunition as well as the different steps of calculation between industrial model and technical model to obtain the global simulation. Finally, this paper explains some results of the evaluation compared with the true behavior after tests on proving ground. Then future evolutions are presented to perform similar evaluation with other kind of intelligent ammunition in a real-time model.

  7. Ancient "Red Cliff" battlefield: a historical-geographic study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Xiugui

    2006-01-01

    The famous battle of Chibi,or "battle of Red Cliff",took place in 208 CE,the 13th year of the Jian'an period of the Eastern Han dynasty.This paper holds that the whole battle consisted of three inseparable stages,namely the initial clash at Chibi,the chase battle to Wulin,and Cao Cao's disorganized escape along Huarong Road.The Red Cliff battlefield thus extended across a distance of more than 300 li (150km).Even if the Chibi where the initial military engagement took place (that is,Chiji Hill,southwest of Wuchang in modern Wuhan City) has already disappeared,it should be restored to its proper historical position.The chase battle along the Yangzi River came to an end at Wulin,across the river is Chibi Hill in today's Chibi City.Although this Chibi is not the Chibi where the initial combat took place,it nonetheless forms an integral part of the ancient Chibi battlefield as a whole.The Huarong Road along which Cao Cao escaped runs through the middle of today's Jianghan Plain.Finally,the text aims to show that Chibi (Red Nose)1 Hill in modern Huangzhou City has nothing to do with the Chibi of the "battle of Red Cliff."

  8. Medical and industrial application of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    While dosimetry is not a radiation application, accurate dosage of radiation of utmost importance for all radiation applications. For both therapeutic and industrial applications it can be matter of life and death. For this reason, great efforts have been made to ensure that radiation dosages given to patients and used in all industrial applications are as near as possible to those prescribed. The World Health Organization (WHO) and the IAEA, together with many National Standard Laboratories and with the International Bureau of Weight and Measures, have been very active and successful during the last 20 years in ascertaining that normal cobalt-60 therapy unit. For this purpose, 63 Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratories have been established of which more than half are in developing countries. FRPS houses one of the Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratories. As accurate dosimetry is a prerequisite in radiotherapy, so it is in industrial exposures and all laboratories responsible for dosimetry have to make frequent intercomparisons with one of the Primary Standard Dosimetry Laboratories. The SSDL at FRPS hopes to commence this as soon as our new Harshaw 6600 TLD reader arrives. This has already been approved by the IAEA. Much high doses of radiation are used for some industrial applications, as discussed in a previous lecture, such as sterilization of rubber, and food preservation and newly developed techniques are being used for the assurance of the prescribed dose. IAEA provides assistance in this area also through the secondary standard dosimetry laboratories. The IAEA has a broad programme of assistance which includes the calibration of all instruments in the laboratories of the participants, be it for radiation protection, or high dose measurements

  9. Nickel-free austenitic stainless steels for medical applications

    OpenAIRE

    Ke Yang and Yibin Ren

    2010-01-01

    The adverse effects of nickel ions being released into the human body have prompted the development of high-nitrogen nickel-free austenitic stainless steels for medical applications. Nitrogen not only replaces nickel for austenitic structure stability but also much improves steel properties. Here we review the harmful effects associated with nickel in medical stainless steels, the advantages of nitrogen in stainless steels, and emphatically, the development of high-nitrogen nickel-free stainl...

  10. 76 FR 43689 - Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Mobile Medical Applications...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-21

    ... Staff; Mobile Medical Applications; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION... guidance entitled ``Mobile Medical Applications.'' FDA is issuing this draft guidance to inform... select software applications intended for use on mobile platforms (mobile applications or ``mobile...

  11. Nanomedicine: application of nanobiotechnology in medical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, K K

    2008-01-01

    Nanomedicine is the application of nanobiotechnologies to medicine. This article starts with the basics of nanobiotechnology, followed by its applications in molecular diagnostics, nanodiagnostics, and improvements in the discovery, design and delivery of drugs, including nanopharmaceuticals. It will improve biological therapies such as vaccination, cell therapy and gene therapy. Nanobiotechnology forms the basis of many new devices being developed for medicine and surgery such as nanorobots. It has applications in practically every branch of medicine and examples are presented of those concerning cancer (nanooncology), neurological disorders (nanoneurology), cardiovascular disorders (nanocardiology), diseases of bones and joints (nanoorthopedics), diseases of the eye (nanoophthalmology), and infectious diseases. Safety issues of in vivo use of nanomaterials are also discussed. Nanobiotechnology will facilitate the integration of diagnostics with therapeutics and facilitate the development of personalized medicine, i.e. prescription of specific therapeutics best suited for an individual. Many of the developments have already started and within a decade a definite impact will be felt in the practice of medicine.

  12. Present and perspective medical applications of microbial exopolysaccharides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misu - Moscovici

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Microbial exopolysaccharides (EPS have found outstanding medical applications since the mid-twentieth century, with the first clinical trials on dextran solutions as plasma expanders. Other EPS entered medicine firstly as conventional pharmaceutical excipients (e.g., xanthan - as suspension stabilizer, or pullulan – in capsules and oral care products. Polysaccharides, initially obtained from plant or animal sources, became easily available for a wide range of applications, especially when they were commercially produced by microbial fermentation. Alginates are used as anti-reflux, dental impressions, or as matrix for tablets. Hyaluronic acid and derivatives are used in surgery, arthritis treatment or wound healing. Bacterial cellulose is applied in wound dressings or scaffolds for tissue engineering. The development of drug controlled-release systems and of micro- and nanoparticulated ones, has opened a new era of medical applications for biopolymers. EPS and their derivatives are well suited potentially non-toxic, biodegradable drug carriers. Such systems concern rating and targeting of controlled release. Their large area of applications is explained by the available manifold series of derivatives, whose useful properties can be thereby controlled. From matrix inclusion to conjugates, different systems have been designed to solubilize, and to assure stable transport in the body, target accumulation and variable rate-release of a drug substance. From controlled drug delivery, EPS potential applications expanded to vaccine adjuvants and diagnostic imaging systems. Other potential applications are related to the bioactive (immunomodulator, antitumor, antiviral characteristics of EPS. The numerous potential applications still wait to be developed into commercial pharmaceuticals and medical devices. Based on previous and recent results in important medical-pharmaceutical domains, one can undoubtedly state that EPS medical applications have a

  13. Surface pretreatments for medical application of adhesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weber Michael

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Medical implants and prostheses (artificial hips, tendono- and ligament plasties usually are multi-component systems that may be machined from one of three material classes: metals, plastics and ceramics. Typically, the body-sided bonding element is bone. The purpose of this contribution is to describe developments carried out to optimize the techniques , connecting prosthesis to bone, to be joined by an adhesive bone cement at their interface. Although bonding of organic polymers to inorganic or organic surfaces and to bone has a long history, there remains a serious obstacle in realizing long-term high-bonding strengths in the in vivo body environment of ever present high humidity. Therefore, different pretreatments, individually adapted to the actual combination of materials, are needed to assure long term adhesive strength and stability against hydrolysis. This pretreatment for metal alloys may be silica layering; for PE-plastics, a specific plasma activation; and for bone, amphiphilic layering systems such that the hydrophilic properties of bone become better adapted to the hydrophobic properties of the bone cement. Amphiphilic layering systems are related to those developed in dentistry for dentine bonding. Specific pretreatment can significantly increase bond strengths, particularly after long term immersion in water under conditions similar to those in the human body. The bond strength between bone and plastic for example can be increased by a factor approaching 50 (pealing work increasing from 30 N/m to 1500 N/m. This review article summarizes the multi-disciplined subject of adhesion and adhesives, considering the technology involved in the formation and mechanical performance of adhesives joints inside the human body.

  14. Advanced Soldier Thermoelectric Power System for Power Generation from Battlefield Heat Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendricks, Terry J.; Hogan, Tim; Case, Eldon D.; Cauchy, Charles J.

    2010-09-01

    The U.S. military uses large amounts of fuel during deployments and battlefield operations. This project sought to develop a lightweight, small form-factor, soldier-portable advanced thermoelectric (TE) system prototype to recover and convert waste heat from various deployed military equipment (i.e., diesel generators/engines, incinerators, vehicles, and potentially mobile kitchens), with the ultimate purpose of producing power for soldier battery charging, advanced capacitor charging, and other battlefield power applications. The technical approach employed microchannel technology, a unique “power panel” approach to heat exchange/TE system integration, and newly-characterized LAST (lead-antimony-silver-telluride) and LASTT (lead-antimony-silver-tin-telluride) TE materials segmented with bismuth telluride TE materials in designing a segmented-element TE power module and system. This project researched never-before-addressed system integration challenges (thermal expansion, thermal diffusion, electrical interconnection, thermal and electrical interfaces) of designing thin “power panels” consisting of alternating layers of thin, microchannel heat exchangers (hot and cold) sandwiching thin, segmented-element TE power generators. The TE properties, structurally properties, and thermal fatigue behavior of LAST and LASTT materials were developed and characterized such that the first segmented-element TE modules using LAST / LASTT materials were fabricated and tested at hot-side temperatures = 400 °C and cold-side temperatures = 40 °C. LAST / LASTT materials were successfully segmented with bismuth telluride and electrically interconnected with diffusion barrier materials and copper strapping within the module electrical circuit. A TE system design was developed to produce 1.5-1.6 kW of electrical energy using these new TE modules from the exhaust waste heat of 60-kW Tactical Quiet Generators as demonstration vehicles.

  15. Some arachnidan peptides with potential medical application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ME De Lima

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The search for new active drugs that can alleviate or cure different diseases is a constant challenge to researchers in the biological area and to the pharmaceutical industry. Historically, research has focused on the study of substances from plants. More recently, however, animal venoms have been attracting attention and studies have been successful in addressing treatment of accidents. Furthermore, venoms and their toxins have been considered good tools for prospecting for new active drugs or models for new therapeutic drugs. In this review, we discuss some possibilities of using different toxins, especially those from arachnid venoms, which have shown some potential application in diseases involving pain, hypertension, epilepsy and erectile dysfunction. A new generation of drugs is likely to emerge from peptides, including those found in animal venoms.

  16. Wearable power Harvester for medical applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terlecka G.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Intelligent biomedical clothes combine health problem prevention, comfort, convenience, entertainment and communication with fashion and make everyday life easier. Homecare and healthcare applications wireless, mobile networks and wireless sensors improve the existing monitoring capabilities especially for the elderly, children, chronically ill and also for athletes. Sensor nodes are generally battery-powered devices. Batteries add size, weight and inconvenience to portable electronic devices and require periodical replacement. Nowadays the human power is an alternative and attractive energy source. Energy, which is generated during routine and seemingly insignificant human motions, shows promise as an alternative to power embedded wireless, mobile networks and wireless sensors. This paper describes the prototype of a smart garment and offers several alternative integration places of generator's parts, which are based on the principle of operation of the electromagnetic generator. Seven variants of location are proposed, which are tested and analysed. During the research, analysis of the most optimal placement of generator's part in garment has been performed.

  17. Exploiting for medical and biological applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giano, Michael C.

    Biotherapeutics are an emerging class of drug composed of molecules ranging in sizes from peptides to large proteins. Due to their poor stability and mucosal membrane permeability, biotherapeutics are administered by a parenteral method (i.e., syringe, intravenous or intramuscular). Therapeutics delivered systemically often experience short half-lives. While, local administration may involve invasive surgical procedures and suffer from poor retention at the site of application. To compensate, the patient receives frequent doses of highly concentrated therapeutic. Unfortunately, the off-target side effects and discomfort associated with multiple injections results in poor patient compliance. Therefore, new delivery methods which can improve therapeutic retention, reduce the frequency of administration and may aid in decreasing the off-target side effects is a necessity. Hydrogels are a class of biomaterials that are gaining interests for tissue engineering and drug delivery applications. Hydrogel materials are defined as porous, 3-dimensional networks that are primarily composed of water. Generally, they are mechanically rigid, cytocompatible and easily chemically functionalized. Collectively, these properties make hydrogels fantastic candidates to perform as drug delivery depots. Current hydrogel delivery systems physically entrap the target therapeutic which is then subsequently released over time at the site of administration. The swelling and degradation of the material effect the diffusion of the therapy from the hydrogel, and therefore should be controlled. Although these strategies provide some regulation over therapeutic release, full control of the delivery is not achieved. Newer approaches are focused on designing hydrogels that exploit known interactions, covalently attach the therapy or respond to an external stimulus in an effort to gain improved control over the therapy's release. Unfortunately, the biotherapeutic is typically required to be chemically

  18. DOE Center of Excellence in Medical Laser Applications. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacques, S.L. (Oregon Medical Laser Center, Portland, OR (United States))

    1998-01-01

    An engineering network of collaborating medical laser laboratories are developing laser and optical technologies for medical diagnosis and therapy and are translating the engineering into medical centers in Portland, OR, Houston, TX, and Galveston, TX. The Center includes the University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, the University of Texas-Austin, Texas A and M University, Rice University, the University Texas Medical Branch-Galveston, Oregon Medical Laser Center (Providence St. Vincent Medical Center, Oregon Health Sciences University, and Oregon Graduate Institute, Portland, OR), and the University of Oregon. Diagnostics include reflectance, fluorescence, Raman IR, laser photoacoustics, optical coherence tomography, and several new video techniques for spectroscopy and imaging. Therapies include photocoagulation therapy, laser welding, pulsed laser ablation, and light-activated chemotherapy of cancer (photodynamic therapy, or PDT). Medical applications reaching the clinic include optical monitoring of hyperbilirubinemia in newborns, fluorescence detection of cervical dysplasia, laser thrombolysis of blood clots in heart attack and brain stroke, photothermal coagulation of benign prostate hyperplasia, and PDT for both veterinary and human cancer. New technologies include laser optoacoustic imaging of breast tumors and hemorrhage in head trauma and brain stroke, quality control monitoring of dosimetry during PDT for esophageal and lung cancer, polarization video reflectometry of skin cancer, laser welding of artificial tissue replacements, and feedback control of laser welding.

  19. Radioprotection in the medical applications of the ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication presents information about of the radiological safety in the medical application of the ionizing radiation compiled in 11 chapter and 1 annex. The first four chapters are principally dedicated to technical uses in radioprotection, the external and internal irradiation and the biological radiation effects. The radioprotection principles, the individual monitoring techniques, and the radioprotection systems are developed afterwards in the followings three chapters. The second half of the document is dedicated entirely to the medical practices using ionizing radiations, specially to the radioprotection aspects in radiodiagnosis, nuclear medicine and radiotherapy. The final chapter is dedicated to radiological accidents happened worldwide in the field of the medical applications of the ionizing radiations. The annex, about of the regulatory area, established a set of standards, laws, decrees and other force regulations in radiological safety, related in radiodiagnosis, nuclear medicine and radiotherapy

  20. Research on medical applications of radioisotopes and radiation in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Australian Atomic Energy Commission (AAEC) produces and distributes commercially in Australia and abroad a range of radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals for medical applications. The AAEC carries out research and development on new and improved processes and procucts is collaboration with medical specialists in hospitals and research workers in other organisations. Examples of these processes and products are: a gel generator for production of 99mTc; radiopharmaceuticals for diagnosis of tumours and brain disease and therapy for arthritis; 64Cu for study of copper metabolism; and monoclonal antibodies for tumour diagnosis and therapy. New medical applications in Australia of neutron irradiation include the measurement of total body nitrogen and neutron capture in boron-labelled compounds in vivo for melanoma therapy. (author)

  1. Nickel-free Stainless Steel for Medical Applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yibin REN; Ke YANG; Bingchun ZHANG; Yaqing WANG; Yong LIANG

    2004-01-01

    BIOSS4 steel is essentially a nickel-free austenitic stainless steel developed by the Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, in response to nickel allergy problems associated with nickel-containing stainless steels that are widely used in medical applications. The high nitrogen content of this steel effectively maintains the austenitic stability and also contributes to the high levels of corrosion resistance and strength. BIOSS4 steel possesses a good combination of high strength and toughness, better corrosion resistance, and better blood compatibility, in comparison with the medical 316L stainless steel. Potential applications of BIOSS4 steel can include medical implantation material and orthodontic or orthopedic devices, as well as jewelries and other decorations.

  2. Information technology in medical education: current and future applications.

    OpenAIRE

    Mooney, G. A.; Bligh, J G

    1997-01-01

    Information technology has the potential to revolutionise the way medicine is learned by students and healthcare professionals. This potential was recognised by the General Medical Council in their 1993 report Tomorrow's doctors in which the need for future generations of doctors to be familiar with the application and scope of information technology is described. This paper focuses on the use of computers as aids to learning medicine and discusses two key applications of information technolo...

  3. APPLICATION OF COMPUTER TECHNOLOGIES IN TEACHING OF MEDICAL STUDENTS

    OpenAIRE

    O. V. Vorobeichikova

    2014-01-01

    he purpose of the given research are situational tasks from the point of view of algorithms of their decision and application of computer technologies for realization of similar algorithms. In the beginning the concept of a situational task and an opportunity of their use for training medical students is considered. The analysis of existing situational clinical tasks is spent and classification of algorithms of the decision is resulted. The opportunity of application of computer technologies ...

  4. Virtual Reality in Psychological, Medical and Pedagogical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichenberg, Christiane, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    This book has an aim to present latest applications, trends and developments of virtual reality technologies in three humanities disciplines: in medicine, psychology and pedagogy. Studies show that people in both educational as well as in the medical therapeutic range expect more and more that modern media are included in the corresponding demand…

  5. Multimedia Security System for Security and Medical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yicong

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation introduces a new multimedia security system for the performance of object recognition and multimedia encryption in security and medical applications. The system embeds an enhancement and multimedia encryption process into the traditional recognition system in order to improve the efficiency and accuracy of object detection and…

  6. Nanosilver particles in medical applications: synthesis, performance, and toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ge L

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Liangpeng Ge,1–5,* Qingtao Li,2,3,6,* Meng Wang,2,3 Jun Ouyang,6 Xiaojian Li,7 Malcolm MQ Xing2,31Chongqing Academy of Animal Sciences, Chongqing, People's Republic of China; 2Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Department of Biochemistry and Medical Genetics, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada; 3Manitoba Institute of Child Health, Winnipeg, Canada; 4Key Laboratory of Pig Industry Sciences, Ministry of Agriculture, Chongqing, People's Republic of China; 5Key Laboratory of Pig Industry Sciences, Chongqing, People's Republic of China; 6School of Basic Medical Science, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, People's Republic of China; 7Department of Plastic Surgery, Nanfang Hospital, Guangzhou, People's Republic of China*These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Nanosilver particles (NSPs, are among the most attractive nanomaterials, and have been widely used in a range of biomedical applications, including diagnosis, treatment, drug delivery, medical device coating, and for personal health care. With the increasing application of NSPs in medical contexts, it is becoming necessary for a better understanding of the mechanisms of NSPs' biological interactions and their potential toxicity. In this review, we first introduce the synthesis routes of NSPs, including physical, chemical, and biological or green synthesis. Then the unique physiochemical properties of NSPs, such as antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, and anti-inflammatory activity, are discussed in detail. Further, some recent applications of NSPs in prevention, diagnosis, and treatment in medical fields are described. Finally, potential toxicology considerations of NSPs, both in vitro and in vivo, are also addressed.Keywords: nanosilver particles, synthesis, biomedical application, toxicity

  7. Deprescribing: An Application to Medication Management in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bemben, Nina M

    2016-07-01

    Polypharmacy has been found to have potentially negative consequences for patients due to use of potentially inappropriate medications, as well as increased risk of drug interactions and adverse effects. Deprescribing has been proposed as a method of improving medication use throughout a patient's course of care. This article reviews the process of deprescribing and applies the process to medication classes commonly encountered by clinical pharmacists. This review of therapeutics included studies identified through a PubMed search and by review of the reference list of included studies. Relevant studies known to the author were also included. Previous studies have identified several classes of medications as a high priority for construction of evidence-based deprescribing guidelines. In the absence of currently available evidence-based clinical practice guidelines, this articles reviews applicable evidence and applies the deprescribing process to three high-priority medication classes: statins, cholinesterase inhibitors and bisphosphonates. Available evidence can be used to apply the deprescribing process to preventive medications for chronic diseases commonly encountered by clinical pharmacists. PMID:27263530

  8. Pulsed radio frequency energy (PRFE) use in human medical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Lifei; Kubat, Nicole J; Isenberg, Richard A

    2011-03-01

    A number of electromagnetic field-based technologies are available for therapeutic medical applications. These therapies can be broken down into different categories based on technical parameters employed and type of clinical application. Pulsed radio frequency energy (PRFE) therapy is a non invasive, electromagnetic field-based therapeutic that is based on delivery of pulsed, shortwave radio frequency energy in the 13-27.12 MHz carrier frequency range, and designed for local application to a target tissue without the intended generation of deep heat. It has been studied for use in a number of clinical applications, including as a palliative treatment for both postoperative and non postoperative pain and edema, as well as in wound healing applications. This review provides an introduction to the therapy, a summary of clinical efficacy studies using the therapy in specific applications, and an overview of treatment-related safety. PMID:21554100

  9. Medical Applications at CERN and the ENLIGHT Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dosanjh, Manjit; Cirilli, Manuela; Myers, Steve; Navin, Sparsh

    2016-01-01

    State-of-the-art techniques derived from particle accelerators, detectors, and physics computing are routinely used in clinical practice and medical research centers: from imaging technologies to dedicated accelerators for cancer therapy and nuclear medicine, simulations, and data analytics. Principles of particle physics themselves are the foundation of a cutting edge radiotherapy technique for cancer treatment: hadron therapy. This article is an overview of the involvement of CERN, the European Organization for Nuclear Research, in medical applications, with specific focus on hadron therapy. It also presents the history, achievements, and future scientific goals of the European Network for Light Ion Hadron Therapy, whose co-ordination office is at CERN. PMID:26835422

  10. Medical Applications at CERN and the ENLIGHT Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dosanjh, Manjit; Cirilli, Manuela; Myers, Steve; Navin, Sparsh

    2016-01-01

    State-of-the-art techniques derived from particle accelerators, detectors, and physics computing are routinely used in clinical practice and medical research centers: from imaging technologies to dedicated accelerators for cancer therapy and nuclear medicine, simulations, and data analytics. Principles of particle physics themselves are the foundation of a cutting edge radiotherapy technique for cancer treatment: hadron therapy. This article is an overview of the involvement of CERN, the European Organization for Nuclear Research, in medical applications, with specific focus on hadron therapy. It also presents the history, achievements, and future scientific goals of the European Network for Light Ion Hadron Therapy, whose co-ordination office is at CERN.

  11. Medical applications of model-based dynamic thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowakowski, Antoni; Kaczmarek, Mariusz; Ruminski, Jacek; Hryciuk, Marcin; Renkielska, Alicja; Grudzinski, Jacek; Siebert, Janusz; Jagielak, Dariusz; Rogowski, Jan; Roszak, Krzysztof; Stojek, Wojciech

    2001-03-01

    The proposal to use active thermography in medical diagnostics is promising in some applications concerning investigation of directly accessible parts of the human body. The combination of dynamic thermograms with thermal models of investigated structures gives attractive possibility to make internal structure reconstruction basing on different thermal properties of biological tissues. Measurements of temperature distribution synchronized with external light excitation allow registration of dynamic changes of local temperature dependent on heat exchange conditions. Preliminary results of active thermography applications in medicine are discussed. For skin and under- skin tissues an equivalent thermal model may be determined. For the assumed model its effective parameters may be reconstructed basing on the results of transient thermal processes. For known thermal diffusivity and conductivity of specific tissues the local thickness of a two or three layer structure may be calculated. Results of some medical cases as well as reference data of in vivo study on animals are presented. The method was also applied to evaluate the state of the human heart during the open chest cardio-surgical interventions. Reference studies of evoked heart infarct in pigs are referred, too. We see the proposed new in medical applications technique as a promising diagnostic tool. It is a fully non-invasive, clean, handy, fast and affordable method giving not only qualitative view of investigated surfaces but also an objective quantitative measurement result, accurate enough for many applications including fast screening of affected tissues.

  12. Field Plot Points for Washita Battlefield National Historic Site Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This metadata is for the 2005 vegetation data points (spatial database) created from the sample vegetation plots collected at Washita Battlefield National Historic...

  13. Waste Water Point Positions at Little Bighorn Battlefield National Monument, Montana

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This is a vector point file showing sewer manholes, septic tank, and dosing system positions that are part of the sewer system at Little Bighorn Battlefield...

  14. Spatial Vegetation Data for Richmond National Battlefield Park Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This shapefile is an vegetation map of Richmond National Battlefield Park, Virginia. It was developed by The Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation,...

  15. Accuracy Assessment Points for Washita Battlefield National Historic Site Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This metadata is for the 2006 accuracy assessment points (spatial database) created from the sample points collected at Washita Battlefield National Historic Site.

  16. Color Infrared Orthorectified Photomosaic for Fort Necessity National Battlefield Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Orthorectified color infrared ERDAS Imagine image of Fort Necessity National Battlefield. Produced from 41 color infrared photos taken April 13, 2003....

  17. Field Plot Points Modified for Fort Necessity National Battlefield Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Locations of vegetation classification sampling plots at Fort Necessity National Battlefield. In this data set, the X, Y coordinates for three plots have been...

  18. Color Infrared Orthorectified Photomosaic Leaf-on for Richmond National Battlefield Park Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Orthorectified color infrared ERDAS Imagine image of Richmond National Battlefield Park. Produced from 109 color infrared photos taken October 23, 2001....

  19. Accuracy Assessment Points for Richmond National Battlefield Park Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This shapefile depicts the locations of thematic accuracy assessment sampling points used in the vegetation mapping of Richmond National Battlefield Park. It was...

  20. Wetlands at Palo Alto Battlefield National Historic Site and Surrounding Areas, Texas

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This is a vector polygon coverage of wetlands at and surronding Palo Alto Battlefield National Historic Site, Texas. Roughly 20% of the park can be classified as...

  1. Battlefields Tourism: The status of heritage tourism in Dundee, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Merwe Clinton David van der

    2014-01-01

    Heritage tourism is a significant contemporary facet of tourism in many developing countries. This paper analyses the economic opportunities for battlefield- heritage tourism in South Africa by examining the battlefields route within KwaZulu-Natal. Through structured interviews with stakeholders and structured questionnaires with visitors and local residents, this research explores the understanding of heritage tourism as well as perceptions of its influence on the physical landscape and gaug...

  2. RF linear accelerators for medical and industrial applications

    CERN Document Server

    Hanna, Samy

    2012-01-01

    This unique resource offers you a clear overview of medical and industrial accelerators. Using minimal mathematics, this book focuses on offering thorough explanations of basic concepts surrounding the operation of accelerators. you find well illustrated discussions designed to help you use accelerator-based systems in a safer, more productive, and more reliable manner.This practical book details the manufacturing process for producing accelerators for medical and industrial applications. You become knowledgeable about the commonly encountered real-world manufacturing issues and potential sources of defects which help you avoid costly production problems. From principles of operation and the role of accelerators in cancer radiation therapy, to manufacturing techniques and future trends in accelerator design and applications, this easy-to-comprehend volume quickly brings you up-to-speed with the critical concepts you need to understand for your work in the field.

  3. Application of Knitted Fabrics in Technical and Medical Textiles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Károly; LáZáR

    2010-01-01

    Knitted fabrics and knitting technology play very important role on the fields of technical and medical textiles and their importance is ever greater. Experts estimate that their annual consumption is increasing by 3,8 % in average and it can reach about 24 million tons in 2010. Within this the consumption of each sector is increasing. Roughly one third of the world’s fibre consumption is used for production of technical textiles.The term "technical textiles" covers many fields of application that are mirrored in the terminology of Techtextil which is very much used generally when grouping these products. Techtextil differentiates 11 groups and knitted fabrics and products made by knitting technologies can be found in each of them.The lecture introduces such applications on many examples. We think that use of knitting technologies in the development of technical and medical textiles can help this sector to survive this difficult period of the European textile industry.

  4. Battlefield acupuncture: Opening the door for acupuncture in Department of Defense/Veteran's Administration health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Patricia Hinton; Pock, Arnyce; Ling, Catherine G; Kwon, Kyung Nancy; Vaughan, Megan

    2016-01-01

    Battlefield acupuncture is a unique auricular acupuncture procedure which is being used in a number of military medical facilities throughout the Department of Defense (DoD). It has been used with anecdotal published positive impact with warriors experiencing polytrauma, post-traumatic stress disorder, and traumatic brain injury. It has also been effectively used to treat warriors with muscle and back pain from carrying heavy combat equipment in austere environments. This article highlights the history within the DoD related to the need for nonpharmacologic/opioid pain management across the continuum of care from combat situations, during evacuation, and throughout recovery and rehabilitation. The article describes the history of auricular acupuncture and details implementation procedures. Training is necessary and partially funded through DoD and Veteran's Administration (VA) internal Joint Incentive Funds grants between the DoD and the VA for multidisciplinary teams as part of a larger initiative related to the recommendations from the DoD Army Surgeon General's Pain Management Task Force. Finally, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences School of Medicine and Graduate School of Nursing faculty members present how this interdisciplinary training is currently being integrated into both schools for physicians and advanced practice nurses at the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences. Current and future research challenges and progress related to the use of acupuncture are also presented. PMID:27601311

  5. Extending Medical Center Computer Application to Rural Health Clinics

    OpenAIRE

    Gottfredson, Douglas K.

    1983-01-01

    A paper entitled “A COMPUTER DATA BASE FOR CLINICIANS, MANAGERS AND RESEARCHERS,” presented during the 1981 SCAMC, described the Salt Lake VA Medical Center computer system. Since that time, two Rural Health Clinics each about 150 miles from Salt Lake City were established by the SL VAMC to reduce traveling distances and improve services for Veterans. Although many existing computer applications were available with no modifications, additional software was needed to support unique needs of th...

  6. Poly(hydroxy alkanoate)s in Medical Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Luef, K. P.; Stelzer, F.; Wiesbrock, F.

    2015-01-01

    This review summarizes the state-of-the-art knowledge of the usage of poly(hydroxy alkanoate)s in medical and sanitary applications. Depending on the monomers incorporated into the polymers and copolymers, this class of polymers exhibits a broad range of (thermo-)plastic properties, enabling their processing by, e.g., solution casting or melt extrusion. In this review, strategies for the polymer analogous modification of these materials and their surfaces are highlighted and correlated wit...

  7. Optical Coherence Tomography: Clinical Applications in Medical Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Abdullah Al-Mujaini; Upender K Wali; Sitara Azeem

    2013-01-01

    Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is a success story of scientific and technological co-operation between a physicist and a clinician. The concept of cross-sectional imaging revolutionalized the applicability of OCT in the medical profession. OCT is a non-contact, topographic, biomicroscopic device that provides high resolution, cross-sectional digital images of live biological tissues in vivo and in real time. OCT is based on the property of tissues to reflect and backscatter light involvin...

  8. Modern compact accelerators of cyclotron type for medical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, V.; Vorozhtsov, S.

    2016-09-01

    Ion beam therapy and hadron therapy are types of external beam radiotherapy. Recently, the vast majority of patients have been treated with protons and carbon ions. Typically, the types of accelerators used for therapy were cyclotrons and synchrocyclotrons. It is intuitively clear that a compact facility fits best to a hospital environment intended for particle therapy and medical diagnostics. Another criterion for selection of accelerators to be mentioned in this article is application of superconducting technology to the magnetic system design of the facility. Compact isochronous cyclotrons, which accelerate protons in the energy range 9-30 MeV, have been widely used for production of radionuclides. Energy of 230 MeV has become canonical for all proton therapy accelerators. Similar application of a carbon beam requires ion energy of 430 MeV/u. Due to application of superconducting coils the magnetic field in these machines can reach 4-5 T and even 9 T in some cases. Medical cyclotrons with an ironless or nearly ironless magnetic system that have a number of advantages over the classical accelerators are in the development stage. In this work an attempt is made to describe some conceptual and technical features of modern accelerators under consideration. The emphasis is placed on the magnetic and acceleration systems along with the beam extraction unit, which are very important from the point of view of the facility compactness and compliance with the strict medical requirements.

  9. Medical applications of nuclear physics and heavy-ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isotopes and accelerators, hallmarks of nuclear physics, are finding increasingly sophisticated and effective applications in the medical field. Diagnostic and therapeutic uses of radioisotopes are now a $10B/yr business worldwide, with over 10 million procedures and patient studies performed every year. This paper will discuss the use of isotopes for these applications. In addition, beams of protons and heavy ions are being more and more widely used clinically for treatment of malignancies. To be discussed here as well will be the rationale and techniques associated with charged-particle therapy, and the progress in implementation and optimization of these technologies for clinical use

  10. Medical applications of nuclear physics and heavy-ion beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso, Jose R.

    2000-08-01

    Isotopes and accelerators, hallmarks of nuclear physics, are finding increasingly sophisticated and effective applications in the medical field. Diagnostic and therapeutic uses of radioisotopes are now a $10B/yr business worldwide, with over 10 million procedures and patient studies performed every year. This paper will discuss the use of isotopes for these applications. In addition, beams of protons and heavy ions are being more and more widely used clinically for treatment of malignancies. To be discussed here as well will be the rationale and techniques associated with charged-particle therapy, and the progress in implementation and optimization of these technologies for clinical use.

  11. Novel Applications of Laser Doppler Vibration Measurements to Medical Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabatabai, Habib; Oliver, David E.; Rohrbaugh, John W.; Papadopoulos, Christopher

    2013-06-01

    Laser Doppler Vibrometry (LDV) has been widely used in engineering applications involving non-contact vibration and sound measurements. This technique has also been used in some biomedical applications including hearing research. The detectable frequencies are in the range of near-DC to 1 GHz or higher. This paper reviews applications of LDV in biomedical engineering and proposes new medical imaging applications based on measuring surface vibrations of tissues and organs. Tests were conducted on human skin using single point and scanning laser vibrometers. These tests suggest that skin vibrations due to the forcing excitation from the heart can be used in imaging of blood flow. The results of these tests illustrate the potential of such vibration measurements in a variety of diagnostic medical imaging applications including blood flow/restrictions, real-time monitoring of blood pressure variations, wound healing, muscle movements, etc. The fact that the measurements can be conducted remotely (non-contact) is an important benefit that adds to the promise of this approach.

  12. Assurance of the Maximum Destruction in Battlefield using Cost-Effective Approximation Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariha Tasmin Jaigirdar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Military Applications of Wireless Sensor Network in domains of maximizing security and gaining maximum benefits while attacking the opponent is a challenging and prominent area of research now-a-days. A commander’s goal in a battle field is not limited by securing his troops and the country but also to deliver proper commands to assault the enemies using the minimum number of resources. In this paper, we propose two efficient and low cost approximation algorithms—the maximum clique analysis and the maximum degree analysis techniques. Both of the techniques find the strategies of maximizing the destruction in a battlefield to defeat the opponent by utilizing limited resources. Experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithms in the prescribed areas of applications. Gaining the cost-effectiveness of the algorithms are also major concerns of this research. A comparative study explaining the number of resources required for commencing required level of destruction made to the opponents has been provided in this paper. The studies show that the maximum degree analysis technique is able to perform more destruction than the maximum clique analysis technique using same number of resources and requires relatively less computational complexity as well.

  13. Accelerators for Medical Applications Accelerators for Medical Application: What is so Special?

    CERN Document Server

    Schippers, J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Specific requirements of accelerators for radiation therapy with protons or ions will be discussed. The focus will be on accelerator design, operational and formal aspects. We will discuss the special requirements to reach a high reliability for patient treatments as well as an accurate delivery of the dose at the correct position in the patient using modern techniques like pencil beam scanning. It will be shown that the requirements of the accelerated beam differ from those in a nuclear physics laboratory. The way of operating such a medical device requires not only operators, but also the possibility to have a safe machine operation by non accelerator specialists at different operating sites (treatment rooms). It will be shown that the organisation and role of the control/interlock system can be considered as being the most dedicated in a particle-therapy providing facility.

  14. 基于云重心方法的海战场环境评估%Sea Battlefield Environment Assessment Based on Cloud-gravity-center Assessing Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴禹力; 郑有志

    2011-01-01

    Aimming at the current assessment methods of sea battlefield environment the cloud theory into the better assessment has been introduced .First,it gives the definition of the cloud model and the steps of this assessment method. Then,a system of assessment for the sea battlefield environment is constructed ith the cloud theory,and the eighted deviant quantity is calculated.Finally,the result ill be input to the cloud generator to find out the conclusion.According to the example,the result sho s it's a simple but applicable ay to essess the environment of sea battlefield.%针对当前海战场环境评估方法存在的问题与不足,引入云理论对其进行科学评估.首先,对云模型和云重心的评判步骤进行阐述.然后,建立海战场环境的云模型和评价指标体系,算出加权偏离度θ.最后,将结果输入云发生器得出评价结果.实验结果表明,该方法简单易行,可操作性强,为海战场环境评估提供了一种较好的途径.

  15. User Interface Design in Medical Distributed Web Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serban, Alexandru; Crisan-Vida, Mihaela; Mada, Leonard; Stoicu-Tivadar, Lacramioara

    2016-01-01

    User interfaces are important to facilitate easy learning and operating with an IT application especially in the medical world. An easy to use interface has to be simple and to customize the user needs and mode of operation. The technology in the background is an important tool to accomplish this. The present work aims to creating a web interface using specific technology (HTML table design combined with CSS3) to provide an optimized responsive interface for a complex web application. In the first phase, the current icMED web medical application layout is analyzed, and its structure is designed using specific tools, on source files. In the second phase, a new graphic adaptable interface to different mobile terminals is proposed, (using HTML table design (TD) and CSS3 method) that uses no source files, just lines of code for layout design, improving the interaction in terms of speed and simplicity. For a complex medical software application a new prototype layout was designed and developed using HTML tables. The method uses a CSS code with only CSS classes applied to one or multiple HTML table elements, instead of CSS styles that can be applied to just one DIV tag at once. The technique has the advantage of a simplified CSS code, and a better adaptability to different media resolutions compared to DIV-CSS style method. The presented work is a proof that adaptive web interfaces can be developed just using and combining different types of design methods and technologies, using HTML table design, resulting in a simpler to learn and use interface, suitable for healthcare services. PMID:27139407

  16. User Interface Design in Medical Distributed Web Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serban, Alexandru; Crisan-Vida, Mihaela; Mada, Leonard; Stoicu-Tivadar, Lacramioara

    2016-01-01

    User interfaces are important to facilitate easy learning and operating with an IT application especially in the medical world. An easy to use interface has to be simple and to customize the user needs and mode of operation. The technology in the background is an important tool to accomplish this. The present work aims to creating a web interface using specific technology (HTML table design combined with CSS3) to provide an optimized responsive interface for a complex web application. In the first phase, the current icMED web medical application layout is analyzed, and its structure is designed using specific tools, on source files. In the second phase, a new graphic adaptable interface to different mobile terminals is proposed, (using HTML table design (TD) and CSS3 method) that uses no source files, just lines of code for layout design, improving the interaction in terms of speed and simplicity. For a complex medical software application a new prototype layout was designed and developed using HTML tables. The method uses a CSS code with only CSS classes applied to one or multiple HTML table elements, instead of CSS styles that can be applied to just one DIV tag at once. The technique has the advantage of a simplified CSS code, and a better adaptability to different media resolutions compared to DIV-CSS style method. The presented work is a proof that adaptive web interfaces can be developed just using and combining different types of design methods and technologies, using HTML table design, resulting in a simpler to learn and use interface, suitable for healthcare services.

  17. Medical Application Using Multi Agent System - A Literature Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sougata Chakraborty

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we have projected on the involvement of multi-agent system in medical or health care domain. The objective of this study is to provide future researchers more resourceful and focused review of various research papers in this domain. Multi-agent system is most suitable for healthcare paradigm, as the properties of agent based systems deals with heterogeneous multiple agents. Data distribution and data management in a dynamic and distributed environment with multi-user cooperation, made multi-agent system more significant in this field. The disposition of this paper is classified on the basis of theoretical and application approach. We have tried to cover few relevant papers published on last decade. The main aim of this literature survey is to provide a complete road map on multi agent system based research on medical health care platform.

  18. Ionizing radiation sources used in medical applications in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preliminary data about ionizing radiation sources used in medical applications and obtained through a national programme by IRD/CNEN together with Brazilian health authorities are presented. The data presentation follows, as close as possible, recommendations given by the United Nations Scientific Committee on Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR). This programme has two main aims: First: to contribute for research in the field of ionizing radiation effects and risks including information about equipment quality control and procedures adopted by professionals working in Radiation Medicine. Second: to investigate the radiation protection status in Brazil, in order to give assistance to Brazilian health authorities for planning regional radiation programmes and training programmes for medical staffs. (F.E.). 13 refs, 19 figs, 34 tabs

  19. Medical and biological applications for ultrafast laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubatschowski, Holger; Heisterkamp, Alexander; Will, Fabian; Singh, Ajoy I.; Serbin, Jesper; Ostendorf, Andreas; Kermani, Omid; Heermann, R.; Welling, Herbert; Ertmer, Wolfgang

    2003-02-01

    Due to the low energy threshold of photodisruption with fs laser pulses, thermal and mechanical side effects are limited to the sub μm range. The neglection of side effects enables the use of ultrashort laser pulses in a broad field of medical applications. Moreover, the interaction process based on nonlinear absorption offers the opportunity to process transparent tissue three dimensionally inside the bulk. We demonstrate the feasibility of surgical procedures in different fields of medical interest: In ophthalmology intrastromal cutting and preparing of corneal flaps for refractive surgery in living animals is presented. Besides, the very low mechanical side effects enables the use of fs-laser in otoralyngology to treat ocecular bones. Moreover, the precise cutting quality can be used in fields of cardiovascular surgery for the treatment of arteriosclerosis as well as in dentistry to remove caries from dental hard tissue.

  20. Highlighting the medical applications of 3D printing in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafez, Mahmoud A; Abdelghany, Khaled; Hamza, Hosamuddin

    2015-12-01

    Computer-assisted designing/computer-assisted manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technology has enabled medical practitioners to tailor physical models in a patient and purpose-specific fashion. It allows the designing and manufacturing of templates, appliances and devices with a high range of accuracy using biocompatible materials. The technique, nevertheless, relies on digital scanning (e.g., using intraoral scanners) and/or digital imaging (e.g., CT and MRI). In developing countries, there are some technical and financial limitations of implementing such advanced tools as an essential portion of medical applications. This paper focuses on the surgical and dental use of 3D printing technology in Egypt as a developing country. PMID:26807414

  1. Medical applications at CERN and the ENLIGHT Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjit eDosanjh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available State-of-the-art techniques derived from particle accelerators, detectors, and physics computing are routinely used in clinical practice and medical research centres: from imaging technologies, to dedicated accelerators for cancer therapy and nuclear medicine, simulations and data analytics. Principles of particle physics themselves are the foundation of a cutting edge radiotherapy technique for cancer treatment: hadron therapy. This article is an overview of the involvement of CERN, the European Organization for Nuclear Research, in medical applications, with a specific focus on hadron therapy. It also presents the history, achievements, and future scientific goals of the European Network for Light Ion Hadron Therapy (ENLIGHT, whose coordination office is at CERN.

  2. Highlighting the medical applications of 3D printing in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafez, Mahmoud A; Abdelghany, Khaled; Hamza, Hosamuddin

    2015-12-01

    Computer-assisted designing/computer-assisted manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technology has enabled medical practitioners to tailor physical models in a patient and purpose-specific fashion. It allows the designing and manufacturing of templates, appliances and devices with a high range of accuracy using biocompatible materials. The technique, nevertheless, relies on digital scanning (e.g., using intraoral scanners) and/or digital imaging (e.g., CT and MRI). In developing countries, there are some technical and financial limitations of implementing such advanced tools as an essential portion of medical applications. This paper focuses on the surgical and dental use of 3D printing technology in Egypt as a developing country.

  3. Medical applications of ultra-short pulse lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, B M; Marion, J E

    1999-06-08

    The medical applications for ultra short pulse lasers (USPLs) and their associated commercial potential are reviewed. Short pulse lasers offer the surgeon the possibility of precision cutting or disruption of tissue with virtually no thermal or mechanical damage to the surrounding areas. Therefore the USPL offers potential improvement to numerous existing medical procedures. Secondly, when USPLs are combined with advanced tissue diagnostics, there are possibilities for tissue-selective precision ablation that may allow for new surgeries that cannot at present be performed. Here we briefly review the advantages of short pulse lasers, examine the potential markets both from an investment community perspective, and from the view. of the technology provider. Finally nominal performance and cost requirements for the lasers, delivery systems and diagnostics and the present state of development will be addressed.

  4. ``Low Power Wireless Technologies: An Approach to Medical Applications''

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellido O., Francisco J.; González R., Miguel; Moreno M., Antonio; de La Cruz F, José Luis

    Wireless communication supposed a great both -quantitative and qualitative, jump in the management of the information, allowing the access and interchange of it without the need of a physical cable connection. The wireless transmission of voice and information has remained in constant evolution, arising new standards like BluetoothTM, WibreeTM or ZigbeeTM developed under the IEEE 802.15 norm. These newest wireless technologies are oriented to systems of communication of short-medium distance and optimized for a low cost and minor consume, becoming recognized as a flexible and reliable medium for data communications across a broad range of applications due to the potential that the wireless networks presents to operate in demanding environments providing clear advantages in cost, size, power, flexibility, and distributed intelligence. About the medical applications, the remote health or telecare (also called eHealth) is getting a bigger place into the manufacturers and medical companies, in order to incorporate products for assisted living and remote monitoring of health parameteres. At this point, the IEEE 1073, Personal Health Devices Working Group, stablish the framework for these kind of applications. Particularly, the 1073.3.X describes the physical and transport layers, where the new ultra low power short range wireless technologies can play a big role, providing solutions that allow the design of products which are particularly appropriate for monitor people’s health with interoperability requirements.

  5. Scanning Micromirror Platform Based on MEMS Technology for Medical Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eakkachai Pengwang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This topical review discusses recent development and trends on scanning micromirrors for biomedical applications. This also includes a biomedical micro robot for precise manipulations in a limited volume. The characteristics of medical scanning micromirror are explained in general with the fundamental of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS for fabrication processes. Along with the explanations of mechanism and design, the principle of actuation are provided for general readers. In this review, several testing methodology and examples are described based on many types of actuators, such as, electrothermal actuators, electrostatic actuators, electromagnetic actuators, pneumatic actuators, and shape memory alloy. Moreover, this review provides description of the key fabrication processes and common materials in order to be a basic guideline for selecting micro-actuators. With recent developments on scanning micromirrors, performances of biomedical application are enhanced for higher resolution, high accuracy, and high dexterity. With further developments on integrations and control schemes, MEMS-based scanning micromirrors would be able to achieve a better performance for medical applications due to small size, ease in microfabrication, mass production, high scanning speed, low power consumption, mechanical stable, and integration compatibility.

  6. A Review of Semantic Network based System Architecture for Remote Medical Applications: Efficacy & Applicability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onkar S Kemkar

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the evolution of wireless communication and network technologies enables remote medical services to be available everywhere in the world. In this paper, a semantic network-based system architecture adopting wireless personal area network, body area network (BAN protocol and 3G communication networks for remote medical applications is proposed. In the proposed system, the number and type of medical sensors are scalable depending on individual needs. This feature allows the system to be flexibly applied in several medical applications. Furthermore, a differentiated service using priority scheduling and data compression is introduced. This scheme can not only reduce transmission delay for critical physiological signals and enhance bandwidth utilization at the same time, but also decrease power consumption of the hand-held personal server. Our research combines ubiquitous computing with mobile health technology. We use wireless sensors and smart phones to monitor the wellbeing of high risk patients.

  7. Distance transformations: fast algorithms and applications to medical image processing

    OpenAIRE

    Cuisenaire, O.

    1999-01-01

    Medical image processing is a demanding domain, both in terms of CPU and memory requirements. The volume of data to be processed is often large (a typical MRI dataset requires 10 MBytes) and many processing tools are only useful to the physician if they are available as real-time applications, i.e. if they run in a few seconds at most. Of course, a large part of these demands are - and will be - handled by the development of more powerful hardware. On the other hand, when faced with non-linea...

  8. A New Application of MSPIHT for Medical Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athmane ZITOUNI

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a new application for medical imaging to image compression based on the principle of Set Partitioning In Hierarchical Tree algorithm (SPIHT. Our approach called , the modified SPIHT (MSPIHT, distributes entropy differently than SPIHT and also optimizes the coding. This approach can produce results that are a significant improvement on the Peak Signal-to-Noise Ratio (PSNR and compression ratio obtained by SPIHT algorithm, without affecting the computing time. These results are also comparable with those obtained using the Set Partitioning In Hierarchical Tree (SPIHT and Joint Photographic Experts Group 2000 (JPG2 algorithms.

  9. Biocompatibility and applications of carbon nanotubes in medical nanorobots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, Andrei M; Lozovik, Yurii E; Fiorito, Silvana; Yahia, L'Hocine

    2007-01-01

    The set of nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS) based on relative motion of carbon nanotubes walls is proposed for use in medical nanorobots. This set includes electromechanical nanothermometer, jet nanoengine, nanosyringe (the last can be used simultaneously as nanoprobe for individual biological molecules and drug nanodeliver). Principal schemes of these NEMS are considered. Operational characteristics of nanothermometer are analyzed. The possible methods of these NEMS actuation are considered. The present-day progress in nanotechnology techniques which are necessary for assembling of NEMS under consideration is discussed. Biocompatibility of carbon nanotubes is analyzed in connection with perspectives of their application in nanomedicine.

  10. Visualisation of multi-dimensional medical images with application to brain electrical impedance tomography

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yan

    2007-01-01

    Medical imaging plays an important role in modem medicine. With the increasing complexity and information presented by medical images, visualisation is vital for medical research and clinical applications to interpret the information presented in these images. The aim of this research is to investigate improvements to medical image visualisation, particularly for multi-dimensional medical image datasets. A recently developed medical imaging technique known as Electrical Impedance Tomograp...

  11. Blended Training for Combat Medics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowlkes, Jennifer; Dickinson, Sandra; Lazarus, Todd

    2010-01-01

    Bleeding from extremity wounds is the number one cause of preventable death on the battlefield and current research stresses the importance of training in preparing every Soldier to use tourniquets. HapMed is designed to provide tourniquet application training to combat medics and Soldiers using a blended training solution encompassing information, demonstration, practice, and feedback. The system combines an instrumented manikin arm, PDA, and computer. The manikin arm provides several training options including stand-alone, hands-on skills training in which soldiers can experience the actual torque required to staunch bleeding from an extremity wound and be timed on tourniquet application. This is more realistic than using a block of wood to act as a limb, which is often how training is conducted today. Combining the manikin arm with the PDA allows instructors to provide scenario based training. In a classroom or field setting, an instructor can specify wound variables such as location, casualty size, and whether the wound is a tough bleed. The PDA also allows more detailed feedback to be provided. Finally, combining the manikin arm with game-based technologies, the third component, provides opportunities to build knowledge and to practice battlefield decision making. Not only do soldiers learn how to apply a tourniquet, but when to apply a tourniquet in combat. The purpose of the paper is to describe the learning science underlying the design of HapMed, illustrate the training system and ways it is being expanded to encompass other critical life-saving tasks, and report on feedback received from instructors and trainees at military training and simulation centers.

  12. A scanned beam THz imaging system for medical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Zachary D.; Li, Wenzao; Suen, Jon; Tewari, Priyamvada; Bennett, David; Bajwa, Neha; Brown, Elliott; Culjat, Martin; Grundfest, Warren; Singh, Rahul

    2011-10-01

    THz medical imaging has been a topic of increased interest recently due largely to improvements in source and detector technology and the identification of suitable applications. One aspect of THz medical imaging research not often adequately addressed is pixel acquisition rate and phenomenology. The majority of active THz imaging systems use translation stages to raster scan a sample beneath a fixed THz beam. While these techniques have produced high resolution images of characterization targets and animal models they do not scale well to human imaging where clinicians are unwilling to place patients on large translation stages. This paper presents a scanned beam THz imaging system that can acquire a 1 cm2 area with 1 mm2 pixels and a per-pixel SNR of 40 dB in less than 5 seconds. The system translates a focused THz beam across a stationary target using a spinning polygonal mirror and HDPE objective lens. The illumination is centered at 525 GHz with ~ 125 GHz of response normalized bandwidth and the component layout is designed to optically co-locate the stationary source and detector ensuring normal incidence across a 50 mm × 50 mm field of view at standoff of 190 mm. Component characterization and images of a test target are presented. These results are some of the first ever reported for a short standoff, high resolution, scanned beam THz imaging system and represent an important step forward for practical integration of THz medical imaging where fast image acquisition times and stationary targets (patients) are requisite.

  13. Features and application of wearable biosensors in medical care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajami, Sima; Teimouri, Fotooheh

    2015-01-01

    One of the new technologies in the field of health is wearable biosensor, which provides vital signs monitoring of patients, athletes, premature infants, children, psychiatric patients, people who need long-term care, elderly, and people in impassable regions far from health and medical services. The aim of this study was to explain features and applications of wearable biosensors in medical services. This was a narrative review study that done in 2015. Search conducted with the help of libraries, books, conference proceedings, through databases of Science Direct, PubMed, Proquest, Springer, and SID (Scientific Information Database). In our searches, we employed the following keywords and their combinations; vital sign monitoring, medical smart shirt, smart clothing, wearable biosensors, physiological monitoring system, remote detection systems, remote control health, and bio-monitoring system. The preliminary search resulted in 54 articles, which published between 2002 and 2015. After a careful analysis of the content of each paper, 41 sources selected based on their relevancy. Although the use of wearable in healthcare is still in an infant stage, it could have a magic effect on healthcare. Smart wearable in the technology industry for 2015 is one that is looking to be a big and profitable market. Wearable biosensors capable of continuous vital signs monitoring and feedback to the user will be significantly effective in timely prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and control of diseases. PMID:26958058

  14. Features and application of wearable biosensors in medical care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajami, Sima; Teimouri, Fotooheh

    2015-12-01

    One of the new technologies in the field of health is wearable biosensor, which provides vital signs monitoring of patients, athletes, premature infants, children, psychiatric patients, people who need long-term care, elderly, and people in impassable regions far from health and medical services. The aim of this study was to explain features and applications of wearable biosensors in medical services. This was a narrative review study that done in 2015. Search conducted with the help of libraries, books, conference proceedings, through databases of Science Direct, PubMed, Proquest, Springer, and SID (Scientific Information Database). In our searches, we employed the following keywords and their combinations; vital sign monitoring, medical smart shirt, smart clothing, wearable biosensors, physiological monitoring system, remote detection systems, remote control health, and bio-monitoring system. The preliminary search resulted in 54 articles, which published between 2002 and 2015. After a careful analysis of the content of each paper, 41 sources selected based on their relevancy. Although the use of wearable in healthcare is still in an infant stage, it could have a magic effect on healthcare. Smart wearable in the technology industry for 2015 is one that is looking to be a big and profitable market. Wearable biosensors capable of continuous vital signs monitoring and feedback to the user will be significantly effective in timely prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and control of diseases. PMID:26958058

  15. Novel light diffusing fiber for use in medical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klubben, W. Spencer; Logunov, Stephan L.; Fewkes, Edward J.; Mooney, Jeff; Then, Paul M.; Wigley, Peter G.; Schreiber, Horst; Matias, Kaitlyn; Wilson, Cynthia J.; Ocampo, Manuela

    2016-03-01

    Fiber-based cylindrical light diffusers are often used in photodynamic therapy to illuminate a luminal organ, such as the esophagus. The diffusers are often made of plastic and suffer from short diffusion lengths and low transmission efficiencies over a broad spectrum. We have developed FibranceTM, a glass-based fiber optic cylindrical diffuser which can illuminate a fiber from 0.5 cm to 10 meters over a broad wavelength range. With these longer illumination lengths, a variety of other medical applications are possible beyond photodynamic therapy. We present a number of applications for Fibrance ranging from in situ controllable illumination for Photodynamic Therapy to light guided anatomy highlighting for minimally invasive surgery to mitigating hospital acquired infections and more.

  16. Improvements in extremity dose assessment for ionising radiation medical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study aims at testing the INTE ring dosemeter based on MCP-Ns and TLD-100 detectors on users from the field of medical applications, namely radio-pharmacists, personnel at a cyclotron facility with corresponding FDG synthesis cells, interventional radiology technologists and radiologists. These users were chosen due to the fact that they have a significantly high risk of exposure to their hands. Following previous results, MCP-Ns TL thin material was used for radiology measurements, whereas TLD-100 was preferred for other applications. The dosemeters were tested to make sure that they were waterproof and that they could be sterilised properly prior to use. Results confirm the need to implement finger dosimetry, mainly for interventional radiologists as finger dose can be >50 times higher than whole-body dose and 3 times higher than wrist dose. (authors)

  17. APPLICATION OF COMPUTER TECHNOLOGIES IN TEACHING OF MEDICAL STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Vorobeichikova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available he purpose of the given research are situational tasks from the point of view of algorithms of their decision and application of computer technologies for realization of similar algorithms. In the beginning the concept of a situational task and an opportunity of their use for training medical students is considered. The analysis of existing situational clinical tasks is spent and classification of algorithms of the decision is resulted. The opportunity of application of computer technologies for realization of similar algorithms is considered. Among all existing algorithms of the decision one in which the algorithm can be applied to the decision of the same tasks of one class is especially allocated. The technology of construction of such algorithm is resulted and the description of a program complex which realizes such algorithm of the decision of situational tasks is given.

  18. [Bacterial genomics and metagenomics: clinical applications and medical relevance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diene, S M; Bertelli, C; Pillonel, T; Schrenzel, J; Greub, G

    2014-11-12

    New sequencing technologies provide in a short time and at low cost high amount of genomic sequences useful for applications such as: a) development of diagnostic PCRs and/or serological tests; b) detection of virulence factors (virulome) or genes/SNPs associated with resistance to antibiotics (resistome) and c) investigation of transmission and dissemination of bacterial pathogens. Thus, bacterial genomics of medical importance is useful to clinical microbiologists, to infectious diseases specialists as well as to epidemiologists. Determining the microbial composition of a sample by metagenomics is another application of new sequencing technologies, useful to understand the impact of bacteria on various non-infectious diseases such as obesity, asthma, or diabetes. Genomics and metagenomics will likely become a specialized diagnostic analysis.

  19. Stimuli-sensitive hydrogels for pharmaceutical and medical applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilić-Stojanović Snežana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogels are three-dimensional cross-linked hydrophilic polymers that swell in water and aqueous solutions without dissolving in them. They are very sensitive to environmental stimulus, which is manifested by a sharp phase transition. This feature is important for their application in the pharmaceutical field, especially for making formulations with controlled release of active ingredients, with the correction of the solubility, degradation and their toxicity reducing. Because of the compatibility with living tissues, hydrogels can be used in different medical purposes (for making contact lenses, stents, balloon catheters, artificial muscles, substitutes for arteries and veins, trachea, oviduct. This work presents methods (chemical and physical for obtaining hydrogels, their properties and sensitivity to environmental stimuli (temperature, pH, magnetic field, as well as their potential application in medicine and pharmacy.

  20. Energy minimization in medical image analysis: Methodologies and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Feng; Xie, Xianghua

    2016-02-01

    Energy minimization is of particular interest in medical image analysis. In the past two decades, a variety of optimization schemes have been developed. In this paper, we present a comprehensive survey of the state-of-the-art optimization approaches. These algorithms are mainly classified into two categories: continuous method and discrete method. The former includes Newton-Raphson method, gradient descent method, conjugate gradient method, proximal gradient method, coordinate descent method, and genetic algorithm-based method, while the latter covers graph cuts method, belief propagation method, tree-reweighted message passing method, linear programming method, maximum margin learning method, simulated annealing method, and iterated conditional modes method. We also discuss the minimal surface method, primal-dual method, and the multi-objective optimization method. In addition, we review several comparative studies that evaluate the performance of different minimization techniques in terms of accuracy, efficiency, or complexity. These optimization techniques are widely used in many medical applications, for example, image segmentation, registration, reconstruction, motion tracking, and compressed sensing. We thus give an overview on those applications as well. PMID:26186171

  1. 78 FR 59038 - Mobile Medical Applications; Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-25

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Mobile Medical Applications; Guidance for Industry and Food... ``Mobile Medical Applications.'' The FDA is issuing this guidance to inform manufacturers, distributors... applications intended for use on mobile platforms (mobile applications or ``mobile apps''). At this time,...

  2. [Design and application of implantable medical device information management system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Shaoping; Yin, Chunguang; Zhao, Zhenying

    2013-03-01

    Through the establishment of implantable medical device information management system, with the aid of the regional joint sharing of resources, we further enhance the implantable medical device traceability management level, strengthen quality management, control of medical risk. PMID:23777076

  3. [Design and application of implantable medical device information management system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Shaoping; Yin, Chunguang; Zhao, Zhenying

    2013-03-01

    Through the establishment of implantable medical device information management system, with the aid of the regional joint sharing of resources, we further enhance the implantable medical device traceability management level, strengthen quality management, control of medical risk.

  4. Wet chemical synthesis of quantum dots for medical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cepeda-Pérez, E. I.; López-Luke, T.; Pérez-Mayen, L.; Hidalgo, Alberto; de la Rosa, E.; Torres-Castro, Alejandro; Ceja-Fdez, Andrea; Vivero-Escoto, Juan; Gonzalez-Yebra, Ana L.

    2015-07-01

    In recent years the use of nanoparticles in medical applications has boomed. This is because the various applications that provide these materials like drug delivery, cancer cell diagnostics and therapeutics [1-5]. Biomedical applications of Quantum Dots (QDs) are focused on molecular imaging and biological sensing due to its optical properties. The size of QDs can be continuously tuned from 2 to 10 nm in diameter, which, after polymer encapsulation, generally increases to 5 - 20 nm diminishing the toxicity. The QDs prepared in our lab have a diameter between 2 to 7 nm. Particles smaller than 5 nm can interact with the cells [2]. Some of the characteristics that distinguish QDs from the commonly used fluorophores are wider range of emission, narrow and more sharply defined emission peak, brighter emission and a higher signal to noise ratio compared with organic dyes [6]. In this paper we will show our progress in the study of the interaction of quantum dots in live cells for image and Raman spectroscopy applications. We will also show the results of the interaction of quantum dots with genomic DNA for diagnostic purposes.

  5. Everybody is the Good One! Living History and Monuments at the Little Big Horn Battlefield Site

    OpenAIRE

    Sandra Busatta

    2007-01-01

    Two re-enactments are performed by Crow Indians and white re-enactors near and on the Little Big Horn Battlefield National Monument, as the Custer Battlefield was renamed after President G.W. Bush signed a bill in 1991, which approved the change of the name and the building of an Indian Memorial close to the monument on the mass grave on the Last Stand Hill. Little Big Horn has become a symbol for much more than a small stream near which a mere skirmish by military standards took place in sou...

  6. A backscattered x-ray imager for medical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Eric Jude L.; Dibianca, Frank A.; Shukla, Hemant; Gulabani, Daya

    2005-04-01

    Conventional X-ray radiographic systems rely on transmitted photons for the production of images. Backscatter imaging makes use of the more abundant scattered photons for image formation. Specifically, incoherently (Compton) scattered X-ray photons are detected and used for image formation in this modality of medical imaging. However, additional information is obtained when the transmitted X-ray photons are also detected and used. Transmission radiography produces a two-dimensional image of a three dimensional system, therefore image information from a shallower object is often contaminated by image information from underlying objects. Backscattered x-ray imaging largely overcomes this deficiency by imaging depth selectively, which reduces corruption of shallow imaging information by information from deeper objects lying under it. Backscattered x-ray imaging may be particularly useful for examining anatomical structures at shallow depths beneath the skin. Some typical applications for such imaging might be breast imaging, middle ear imaging, imaging of skin melanomas, etc. Previous investigations, by way of theoretical calculations and computational simulations into the feasibility of this kind of imaging have uncovered high-contrast and SNR parameters. Simulations indicate that this method can be used for imaging relatively high-density objects at depths of up to approximately five centimeters below the surface. This paper presents both theoretical and experimental SNR results on this new medical imaging modality.

  7. Risks and benefits of PVC in medical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanelli, R; Zuccato, E

    2002-01-01

    The safety of using PVC in the medical field has been recently challenged due to the toxic activity it allegedly exerts on exposed patients. The environmental repercussions of disposing of PVC, once its use has terminated, represent an additional point of debate, used to sustain the advisability of abolishing PVC. The reasons that have led some to request the abolition of PVC involve valid questions of principle, perhaps, but they lack a technical evaluation of the benefit-risk ratio and the possible consequences this action would have on patients and on healthcare personnel. The purpose of this paper is therefore to help bring the terms of the question back into the realm of evidence and proof, attempting to formulate a brief picture of what is known, in terms of PVC uses in the clinical field, evaluating the benefits and risks to human health and to the environment, also in relation to possible alternatives, and discussing the margins of uncertainty that emerge. Evidence supports the conclusion that PVC is an important weapon in the complex arsenal medicine has at its disposal to care for patients and cure diseases. Though its use can be considered safe, recent surveys have identified in some patients possibility of risks associated with DEHP, the principal plasticizer of PVC for medical applications. Studies are in progress to eliminate these margins of risk and increase the safety for patients. PMID:12426816

  8. CAS Accelerators for Medical Applications in Vösendorf, Austria

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Accelerator School

    2015-01-01

    The CERN Accelerator School (CAS) and MedAustron jointly organised a course on Accelerators for Medical Applications in Vösendorf, Austria between 26 May and 5 June 2015. The course was held at the Eventhotel Pyramide on the outskirts of Vienna, and was attended by 76 participants from 29 countries, coming from as far away as Canada, China, Lithuania, Thailand, Ukraine and Russia.       The intensive programme comprised 37 lectures. The emphasis was on using charged particle beams for cancer therapy and the programme began by covering the way in which particles interact with biological material, how this translates into the dose needed for treatment and how this dose is best delivered. The different accelerator options for providing the particles needed were then presented in some detail. The production of radioisotopes and how these are used for diagnostics and therapy was also covered, together with a look at novel acceleration techniques that may play a role i...

  9. Biomimetic Adhesive Materials Containing Cyanoacryl Group for Medical Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sueng Hwan Jo

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available For underwater adhesives with biocompatible and more flexible bonds using biomimetic adhesive groups, DOPA-like adhesive molecules were modified with cyanoacrylates to obtain different repeating units and chain length copolymers. The goal of this work is to copy the mechanisms of underwater bonding to create synthetic water-borne underwater medical adhesives through blending of the modified DOPA and a triblock copolymer (PEO-PPO-PEO for practical application to repair wet living tissues and bones, and in turn, to use the synthetic adhesives to test mechanistic hypotheses about the natural adhesive. The highest values in stress and modulus of the biomimetic adhesives prepared in wet state were 165 kPa and 33 MPa, respectively.

  10. Medical beam monitor—Pre-clinical evaluation and future applications

    CERN Document Server

    Frais-Kölbl, H; Schreiner, T; Georg, D; Pernegger, H

    2007-01-01

    Future medical ion beam applications for cancer therapy which are based on scanning technology will require advanced beam diagnostics equipment. For a precise analysis of beam parameters we want to resolve time structures in the range of microseconds to nanoseconds. A prototype of an advanced beam monitor was developed by the University of Applied Sciences Wiener Neustadt and its research subsidiary Fotec in co-operation with CERN RD42, Ohio State University and the Jožef Stefan Institute in Ljubljana. The detector is based on polycrystalline Chemical Vapor Deposition (pCVD) diamond substrates and is equipped with readout electronics up to 2 GHz analog bandwidth. In this paper we present the design of the pCVD-detector system and results of tests performed in various particle accelerator based facilities. Measurements performed in clinical high energy photon beams agreed within 1.2% with results obtained by standard ionization chambers.

  11. Information Skills Survey: Its Application to a Medical Course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Clark

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective ‐ To investigate the validity and reliability of the Information Skills Survey for Assessment of Information Literacy in Higher Education (CAUL ISS (Catts, “Administration Manual” for identifying the information literacy skills of first and fourth‐year medical students. The CAUL ISS is a standardised, 20 item self‐report inventory of information literacy skills of higher education students. It exists in two forms, namely a generic form and a law discipline specific form. This paper is concerned with the suitability of the generic form ofthe survey for use with medical students.Methods ‐ The generic form of the CAUL ISS was administered to 86 first‐year and 120 fourth‐year medical students and the reliabilities were computed. In addition, students were asked to respond to two open‐ended questions about their information literacy. Subsequently, having noted that the fourth‐year students rated themselves significantly more severely on seven of the 20 items, four of this cohort were interviewed to identify the extent to which the CAUL ISS addressed the range of their techniques for information use and to identify any specific content validity issues in the application of the CAUL ISS scale to this population.Results ‐ The reliability of the CAUL ISS was confirmed for both years, but the evidence from an analysis of the individual items and from the open‐ended questions and the interviews indicated that the fourth‐year students adopt a wider range of information gathering techniques, appropriate to their clinical experience than measured by the survey. The CAUL ISS demonstrated content validity for first‐year students but its scope was not sufficient for content validity for fourth‐year students. Further investigations are required todetermine the full scope of competencies required for content validity with the fourth‐year cohort.Conclusion‐ The evidence suggests that the generic form of the CAUL ISS is

  12. Laser Isotope Enrichment for Medical and Industrial Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard Bond

    2006-07-01

    Laser Isotope Enrichment for Medical and Industrial Applications by Jeff Eerkens (University of Missouri), Jay Kunze (Idaho State University), and Leonard Bond (Idaho National Laboratory) The principal isotope enrichment business in the world is the enrichment of uranium for commercial power reactor fuels. However, there are a number of other needs for separated isotopes. Some examples are: 1) Pure isotopic targets for irradiation to produce medical radioisotopes. 2) Pure isotopes for semiconductors. 3) Low neutron capture isotopes for various uses in nuclear reactors. 4) Isotopes for industrial tracer/identification applications. Examples of interest to medicine are targets to produce radio-isotopes such as S-33, Mo-98, Mo-100, W-186, Sn-112; while for MRI diagnostics, the non-radioactive Xe-129 isotope is wanted. For super-semiconductor applications some desired industrial isotopes are Si-28, Ga-69, Ge-74, Se-80, Te-128, etc. An example of a low cross section isotope for use in reactors is Zn-68 as a corrosion inhibitor material in nuclear reactor primary systems. Neutron activation of Ar isotopes is of interest in industrial tracer and diagnostic applications (e.g. oil-logging). . In the past few years there has been a sufficient supply of isotopes in common demand, because of huge Russian stockpiles produced with old electromagnetic and centrifuge separators previously used for uranium enrichment. Production of specialized isotopes in the USA has been largely accomplished using old ”calutrons” (electromagnetic separators) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. These methods of separating isotopes are rather energy inefficient. Use of lasers for isotope separation has been considered for many decades. None of the proposed methods have attained sufficient proof of principal status to be economically attractive to pursue commercially. Some of the authors have succeeded in separating sulfur isotopes using a rather new and different method, known as condensation

  13. Fatigue crack growth behavior of titanium foams for medical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: → Titanium foam with 60% porosity has higher Paris exponent than solid titanium. → High Paris exponents are most likely caused by crack closure and crack bridging. → Solid coating on titanium foam results in lower crack growth than uncoated foam. → The load ratio had a negligible effect on the FCG behavior of both materials. → Medical applications of titanium foams are not limited by their crack growth rate. - Abstract: There is an urgent need to understand the failure behavior of titanium foams because of their promising application as load-bearing implant materials in biomedical applications. Following our recent study on fracture toughness of titanium foams , this paper investigates the mode I fatigue crack propagation in 60% porous open pore titanium foams both with and without solid coated surface. Fatigue crack propagation tests were performed on compact tension specimens at load ratios of R = 0.1 and R = 0.5 and the fracture surfaces were examined using scanning electron microscopy. The crack growth rate, da/dN, versus the stress intensity factor range, ΔK, curves were measured and compared using two different techniques; image processing and compliance methods. The crack extension rates were well described by ΔK, using the Paris-power law approach. Coated and non-coated titanium foams with 60% porosity had a significantly higher Paris exponent than solid titanium, which can be explained by crack closure and crack bridging. It was also shown that the fatigue crack grows along the centerline, following the weakest path throughout the foam. The results obtained from this work provide important information for evaluating the structural integrity of porous titanium components in the future biomedical applications.

  14. The Research of Medical Safety Information Engineering in Hospital Application Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, Hao; Fan, Zhang; Li-nong, Yu; Jie, Wang; Jun, Fei; Ping, Hao; Ya-wei, Shen; Yue-jin, Chang

    Objective-Explore and research the application effect of medical security information engineering in the hospital. Methods-Based on the real examples of the medical security hidden danger, the transportation module system of medical security is set up. By the all survival cycle's theory and IOP modeling method, four modules of structure model are developed, which are disposal of medical hidden danger. Results-The medical information system is developed, which includes four-in-one modules of structure model of integrated medical security transportation system, disputes evaluation system, protocol handling system, medical case analysis and handling system. And it is applied in the implementation of hospital management. Conclusions-The application of the research in the implementation of hospital management can find security hidden danger of hospital timely, the objective existence of medical disputes problems timely. And it can solve medical disputes timely and appropriately, and achieve ideal result, which is worth popularizing and applying in the hospital management.

  15. Optical Coherence Tomography: Clinical Applications in Medical Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Al-Mujaini

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT is a success story of scientific and technological co-operation between a physicist and a clinician. The concept of cross-sectional imaging revolutionalized the applicability of OCT in the medical profession. OCT is a non-contact, topographic, biomicroscopic device that provides high resolution, cross-sectional digital images of live biological tissues in vivo and in real time. OCT is based on the property of tissues to reflect and backscatter light involving low-coherence interferometry. The spatial resolution of as little as 3 microns or even less has allowed us to study tissues almost at a cellular level. Overall, OCT is an invaluable adjunct in the diagnosis and follow up of many diseases of both anterior and posterior segments of the eye, primarily or secondary to systemic diseases. The digitalization and advanced software has made it possible to store and retrieve huge patient data for patient services, clinical applications and academic research. OCT has revolutionized the sensitivity and specificity of diagnosis, follow up and response to treatment in almost all fields of clinical practice involving primary ocular pathologies and secondary ocular manifestations in systemic diseases like diabetes mellitus, hypertension, vascular and neurological diseases, thus benefitting non-ophthalmologists as well. Systemically, OCT is proving to be a helpful tool in substantiating early diagnosis in diseases like multiple sclerosis and drug induced retinopathies by detecting early changes in morphology of the retinal nerve fiber layer.

  16. Medical applications of multi-wire proportional chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The adaption of Multi-Wire Proportional Chambers (MWPC) for medical applications has necessitated bi-dimensional readout. This is achieved by analysing signals induced onto the cathode planes. At a useful X-ray energy of 40 to 45 keV, just above the K absorption edge in Xenon, the efficiency and resolution are both optimized. Poor resolution events due to K shell fluorescent capture and Auger emission, or L shell photo-electron emission, may be rejected by using energy discrimination - resulting in approximately halving the efficiency to 8% for a 1.6 cm thick atmospheric pressure chamber, but with sub millimeter inherent resolution. This is still far inferior to film resolution, but the MWPC is useful when numbers are required for computation or retrieval. Short descriptions of the MWPC applications to bone density measurements and tomography are given. Its use when pressurized as a gamma camera is discussed, and it is concluded that it may prove useful as a portable special purpose camera, or as one with a very large area thus compensating for low efficiency. Developments with liquid filled chambers are given and also the promising positron imaging hybrid MWPC. (author)

  17. Closing The Gap: Improving Trauma Care On The Ukrainian Battlefield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacey, Stephen K; Jones, Peter H

    2016-01-01

    Since early 2014, Ukraine has been involved in a violent social and political revolution that has taken more than 7,000 lives. Many of these deaths were due to limited field medical care and prolonged evacuation times because the Ukrainian military has been slow to adopt standard combat medical processes. We deployed with the US Army's 173rd Airborne Brigade to train soldiers in the National Guard of Ukraine (NGU) on combat first aid. We discovered that a major deficiency limiting the quality of trauma care and evacuation is an endemic lack of prior coordination and planning. The responsibility for this coordination falls on military leaders; therefore, we delivered medical operations training to officers of the NGU unit and observed great improvement in medical care sustainment. We recommend systematic leader education in best medical practices be institutionalized at all levels of the Ukrainian Army to foster sustained improvement and refinement of trauma care. PMID:27045509

  18. MediSim: A Prototype VR System for Training Medical First Responders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stansfield, S.; Shawver, D.; Sobel, A.

    1997-12-31

    This paper presents a prototype virtual reality (VR) system for training medical first responders. The initial application is to battlefield medicine and focuses on the training of medical corpsmen and other front-line personnel who might be called upon to provide emergency triage on the battlefield. The system is built upon Sandia`s multi-user, distributed VR platform and provides an interactive, immersive simulation capability. The user is represented by an Avatar and is able to manipulate his virtual instruments and carry out medical procedures. A dynamic casualty simulation provides realistic cues to the patient`s condition (e.g. changing blood pressure and pulse) and responds to the actions of the trainee (e.g. a change in the color of a patient`s skin may result from a check of the capillary refill rate). The current casualty simulation is of an injury resulting in a tension pneumothorax. This casualty model was developed by the University of Pennsylvania and integrated into the Sandia MediSim system.

  19. Everybody is the Good One! Living History and Monuments at the Little Big Horn Battlefield Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Busatta

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Two re-enactments are performed by Crow Indians and white re-enactors near and on the Little Big Horn Battlefield National Monument, as the Custer Battlefield was renamed after President G.W. Bush signed a bill in 1991, which approved the change of the name and the building of an Indian Memorial close to the monument on the mass grave on the Last Stand Hill. Little Big Horn has become a symbol for much more than a small stream near which a mere skirmish by military standards took place in south-eastern Montana more than 130 years ago. The "battle" involved Custer, a man of marginal historical importance, and ironically it was crucial to the defeat of the resistant Sioux and their allies. In the aftermath of the battle, the US Army appropriated both the story and the battlefield, but their interpretation, once conventional, became hopelessly outmoded in the 1980s. Hence, the renaming of the battlefield and the building of the Indian Memorial attempted to convert it from a shrine to manifest destiny to a historical site where different people might construct multifaceted memory.

  20. Exploring Diversity at GCSE: Making a First World War Battlefields Visit Meaningful to All Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philpott, Joanne; Guiney, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Having already reflected on ways of improving their students' understanding of historical diversity at Key Stage 3, Joanne Philpott and Daniel Guiney set themselves the challenge of extending this to post-14 students by means of fieldwork activities at First World War battlefields sites. In addition, they wanted to link the study of past diversity…

  1. Resource Dependent Radio Allocation For Battlefield Communications - A Data Model Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregor Thomeczek

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Network Enabled Capability (NEC and the Land Open Systems Architecture (LOSA are novel approaches to enable interoperability between a heterogeneous collection of assets in the battlefield. These paradigms utilise an underlying network for cooperation between deployed battlefield equipment. NEC and LOSA have great potential to transform military communications and enhance integrated survivability as well as situational awareness, but the Achilles’ heel of NEC and LOSA is the wireless spectrum over which they must communicate. A noisy and dynamic battlefield wireless spectrum as well as an array of heterogeneous wireless communications equipment handling multiple types of data with different Quality of Service (QoS requirements requires a system which manages and allocates these communication resources effectively. This paper presents the High Availability Wireless Communications (HAWC system, a hardware agnostic communications controller middleware to manage any combination of existing and future multiband wireless resources. The system utilises a vehicle’s data model to gather information about available radio resources and enable LOSA by meeting communications data requirements and delivering appropriate QoS to the appropriate traffic in a fleet of vehicles. The functionality of the system is verified by using behavioural simulation on a virtual battlefield.

  2. Application of Irradiation. Application to polymer processing, exhaust gas treatment, sterilization of medical instruments and food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many fields such as industry, agriculture, medical treatment and environment use radiation. This report explained some examples of irradiation applications. Radiation source is 60Co γ-ray. Polymer industry use radiation for radiation curing (thermally stable polymer), tire, expanded polymer, radiation induced graft copolymerization and electron beam curing. On environmental conservation, radiation is used for elimination of NOx and SOx in exhaust combustion gas. In the medical treatment, radiation is applied to sterilization of medical instruments, that occupied about 50% volume, and blood for transfusion, which is only one method to prevent GVHD after transfusion. On agriculture, irradiation to spice, dry vegetable, frozen kitchen, potato and garlic are carried out in 30 countries. However, potato is only a kind food in Japan. Radiation breeding and pest control are put in practice. (S.Y.)

  3. Applications of terahertz (THz) technology to medical imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnone, Donald D.; Ciesla, Craig M.; Corchia, Alessandra; Egusa, S.; Pepper, Michael; Chamberlain, J. Martyn; Bezant, C.; Linfield, Edmund H.; Clothier, R.; Khammo, N.

    1999-09-01

    An imaging system has been developed based on pulses of Terahertz (THz) radiation generated and detected using all- optical effects accessed by irradiating semiconductors with ultrafast pulses of visible laser light. This technique, commonly referred to as T-Ray Imaging or THz Pulse Imaging (TPI), holds enormous promise for certain aspects of medical imaging. We have conducted an initial survey of possible medical applications of TPI and demonstrated that TPI images show good contrast between different animal tissue types. Moreover, the diagnostic power of TPI has been elicidated by the spectra available at each pixel in the image, which are markedly different for the different tissue types. This suggests that the spectral information inherent in TPI might be used to identify the type of soft and hard tissue at each pixel in an image and provide other diagnostic information not afforded by conventional imagin techniques. Preliminary TPI studies of pork skin show that 3D tomographic imaging of the skin surface and thickness is possible, and data from experiments on models of the human dermis are presented which demonstrate that different constituents of skin have different refractive indices. Lastly, we present the first THz image of human tissue, namely an extracted tooth. The time of flight of THz pulses through the tooth allows the thickness of the enamel to be determined, and is used to create an image showing the enamel and dentine regions. Absorption of THz pulses in the tooth allows the pulp cavity region to be identified. Initial evidence strongly suggests that TPI my be used to provide valuable diagnostic information pertaining to the enamel, dentine, and the pump cavity.

  4. [Application of information management system about medical equipment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hang, Jianjin; Zhang, Chaoqun; Wu, Xiang-Yang

    2011-05-01

    Based on the practice of workflow, information management system about medical equipment was developed and its functions such as gathering, browsing, inquiring and counting were introduced. With dynamic and complete case management of medical equipment, the system improved the management of medical equipment. PMID:21954586

  5. [Application of information management system about medical equipment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hang, Jianjin; Zhang, Chaoqun; Wu, Xiang-Yang

    2011-05-01

    Based on the practice of workflow, information management system about medical equipment was developed and its functions such as gathering, browsing, inquiring and counting were introduced. With dynamic and complete case management of medical equipment, the system improved the management of medical equipment.

  6. British dental surgery and the First World War: the treatment of facial and jaw injuries from the battlefield to the home front.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussey, K D

    2014-11-01

    When Britain went to war in 1914, the British Expeditionary Force was deployed without a single dentist. Initially considered combatants, the only dental professionals who could serve at the Front were medically qualified dental surgeons in the Royal Army Medical Corps. In treating the traumatic facial and jaw injuries caused by trench warfare, the dental surgeons of this era earned their place on specialist surgical teams and established the principles of oral and maxillofacial surgery. This article will examine the contribution of specialist dental surgeons to the management of facial and jaw wounds in the First World War along the chain of evacuation from the battlefield to the home front, using illustrative examples from the Hunterian Museum at the Royal College of Surgeons of England.

  7. A Flexible Model for Correlated Medical Costs, with Application to Medical Expenditure Panel Survey Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jinsong; Liu, Lei; Shih, Ya-Chen T.; Zhang, Daowen; Severini, Thomas A.

    2016-01-01

    We propose a flexible model for correlated medical cost data with several appealing features. First, the mean function is partially linear. Second, the distributional form for the response is not specified. Third, the covariance structure of correlated medical costs has a semiparametric form. We use extended generalized estimating equations to simultaneously estimate all parameters of interest. B-splines is used to estimate unknown functions, and a modification to Akaike Information Criterion is proposed for selecting knots in spline bases. We apply the model to correlated medical costs in the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS) dataset. Simulation studies are conducted to assess the performance of our method. PMID:26403805

  8. New applications of Antrad Medical's thawing technology : Applications within the clinical and laboratory segment

    OpenAIRE

    Truvé, Malin; Kilegran, Johanna

    2016-01-01

    Antrad Medical has developed an ultra-fast blood plasma thawing device named UFT100. The method is based on thawing with an oscillating electrical field and unlike water baths it is a dry method. Fast and homogeneous thawing is achieved. This project investigates new possible applications where this thawing technology could be used within the clinical and laboratory segment. The aim was to identify existing thawing and heating methods for a substance that can be improved and potentially repla...

  9. [Application of robotic technology to the needs in the medical service of the Armed Forces].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iudin, A B; Chepur, S V; shestakov, S V

    2013-06-01

    Application of robotic technology to the needs in the medical service of the Armed Forces. Further development of the medical service is inseparably associated with the implementation of robot technology into the practice of medical support of the Armed Forces of the Russian federation. For this purpose it is necessary to create a clinical scientific research centre of robot technology and interdepartmental scientific research simulation training center on the basis of the Kirov Military Medical Academy. It is also necessary to provide development of medical robotic complexes of tactical level of the medical service. PMID:24000639

  10. Laser heating of dielectric particles for medical and biological applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tribelsky, Michael I; Fukumoto, Yasuhide

    2016-07-01

    We consider the general problem of laser pulse heating of a spherical dielectric particle embedded in a liquid. The discussed range of the problem parameters is typical for medical and biological applications. We focus on the case, when the heat diffusivity in the particle is of the same order of magnitude as that in the fluid. We perform quantitative analysis of the heat transfer equation based on interplay of four characteristic scales of the problem, namely the particle radius, the characteristic depth of light absorption in the material of the particle and the two heat diffusion lengths: in the particle and in the embedding liquid. A new quantitative characteristic of the laser action, that is the cooling time, describing the temporal scale of the cooling down of the particle after the laser pulse is over, is introduced and discussed. Simple analytical formulas for the temperature rise in the center of the particle and at its surface as well as for the cooling time are obtained. We show that at the appropriate choice of the problem parameters the cooling time may be by many orders of magnitude larger the laser pulse duration. It makes possible to minimize the undesirable damage of healthy tissues owing to the finite size of the laser beam and scattering of the laser radiation, simultaneously keeping the total hyperthermia period large enough to kill the pathogenic cells. An example of application of the developed approach to optimization of the therapeutic effect at the laser heating of particles for cancer therapy is presented. PMID:27446706

  11. Lasers in medical applications: R and D mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study of the MEDLINE CDROM database, for the period 1969-2000 was undertaken. The purpose was, to identify core areas of research and development, in the field of applications of lasers to humans, along with other bibliometric indicators of research. A total of 34,833 records were retrieved, downloaded and analysed. The results indicate a steady increase in the number of publications every year, from 1970 onwards, with 1997 (2767 articles) and 1998 (2914 articles) being the most productive years. The most prolific contributors were J. Haut, with 95 publications to his credit, followed by M. Landthaler (82), G. Coscas (79), S.G. Bown (73) and P. Bjerring (70). Collaboration among the authors was high, with a maximum of 15 contributors observed in a few articles. The top ranking journal in the field was Ophthalmology, which published 769 articles starting from 1978. USA was way ahead as the country with the highest journal productivity (around 40% of the total number of records), followed by UK and Germany. A total of 103 articles were published from India. English was the preferred language of publication, with 75% of the records being published in English language. In the use of lasers for humans, maximum number of records were found for adult and middle aged populations. Research focussed on the eye and its various diseases. Lasers were found to be used for therapeutic purposes, in surgery and in the diagnosis of diseases. Carbon dioxide laser was most frequently used for medical applications. Though there were quite a few references on the adverse effects of lasers, the therapeutic effects far outweighed them. (author)

  12. Motion tracking in infrared imaging for quantitative medical diagnostic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Tze-Yuan; Herman, Cila

    2014-01-01

    In medical applications, infrared (IR) thermography is used to detect and examine the thermal signature of skin abnormalities by quantitatively analyzing skin temperature in steady state conditions or its evolution over time, captured in an image sequence. However, during the image acquisition period, the involuntary movements of the patient are unavoidable, and such movements will undermine the accuracy of temperature measurement for any particular location on the skin. In this study, a tracking approach using a template-based algorithm is proposed, to follow the involuntary motion of the subject in the IR image sequence. The motion tacking will allow to associate a temperature evolution to each spatial location on the body while the body moves relative to the image frame. The affine transformation model is adopted to estimate the motion parameters of the template image. The Lucas-Kanade algorithm is applied to search for the optimized parameters of the affine transformation. A weighting mask is incorporated into the algorithm to ensure its tracking robustness. To evaluate the feasibility of the tracking approach, two sets of IR image sequences with random in-plane motion were tested in our experiments. A steady-state (no heating or cooling) IR image sequence in which the skin temperature is in equilibrium with the environment was considered first. The thermal recovery IR image sequence, acquired when the skin is recovering from 60-s cooling, was the second case analyzed. By proper selection of the template image along with template update, satisfactory tracking results were obtained for both IR image sequences. The achieved tracking accuracies are promising in terms of satisfying the demands imposed by clinical applications of IR thermography.

  13. Application of diagnostic reference levels in medical practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourguignon, Michel [Faculty of Medicine of Paris, Deputy Director General, Nuclear Safety Authority (ASN), Paris (France)

    2006-07-01

    Diagnosis reference levels (D.R.L.) are defined in the Council Directive 97/43 EURATOM as 'Dose levels in medical radio diagnosis practices or in the case of radiopharmaceuticals, levels of activity, for typical examinations for groups of standards-sized patients or standards phantoms for broadly defined types of equipment. These levels are expected not to be exceeded for standard procedures when good and normal practice regarding diagnostic and technical performance is applied'. Thus D.R.L. apply only to diagnostic procedures and does not apply to radiotherapy. Radiation protection of patients is based on the application of 2 major radiation protection principles, justification and optimization. The justification principle must be respected first because the best way to protect the patient is not to carry a useless test. Radiation protection of the patient is a continuous process and local dose indicator values in the good range should not prevent the radiologist or nuclear medicine physician to continue to optimize their practice. (N.C.)

  14. Diversity, evolution and medical applications of insect antimicrobial peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mylonakis, Eleftherios; Podsiadlowski, Lars; Muhammed, Maged; Vilcinskas, Andreas

    2016-05-26

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are short proteins with antimicrobial activity. A large portion of known AMPs originate from insects, and the number and diversity of these molecules in different species varies considerably. Insect AMPs represent a potential source of alternative antibiotics to address the limitation of current antibiotics, which has been caused by the emergence and spread of multidrug-resistant pathogens. To get more insight into AMPs, we investigated the diversity and evolution of insect AMPs by mapping their phylogenetic distribution, allowing us to predict the evolutionary origins of selected AMP families and to identify evolutionarily conserved and taxon-specific families. Furthermore, we highlight the use of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans as a whole-animal model in high-throughput screening methods to identify AMPs with efficacy against human pathogens, including Acinetobacter baumanii and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus We also discuss the potential medical applications of AMPs, including their use as alternatives for conventional antibiotics in ectopic therapies, their combined use with antibiotics to restore the susceptibility of multidrug-resistant pathogens, and their use as templates for the rational design of peptidomimetic drugs that overcome the disadvantages of therapeutic peptides.The article is part of the themed issue 'Evolutionary ecology of arthropod antimicrobial peptides'. PMID:27160593

  15. Diversity, evolution and medical applications of insect antimicrobial peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mylonakis, Eleftherios; Podsiadlowski, Lars; Muhammed, Maged; Vilcinskas, Andreas

    2016-05-26

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are short proteins with antimicrobial activity. A large portion of known AMPs originate from insects, and the number and diversity of these molecules in different species varies considerably. Insect AMPs represent a potential source of alternative antibiotics to address the limitation of current antibiotics, which has been caused by the emergence and spread of multidrug-resistant pathogens. To get more insight into AMPs, we investigated the diversity and evolution of insect AMPs by mapping their phylogenetic distribution, allowing us to predict the evolutionary origins of selected AMP families and to identify evolutionarily conserved and taxon-specific families. Furthermore, we highlight the use of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans as a whole-animal model in high-throughput screening methods to identify AMPs with efficacy against human pathogens, including Acinetobacter baumanii and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus We also discuss the potential medical applications of AMPs, including their use as alternatives for conventional antibiotics in ectopic therapies, their combined use with antibiotics to restore the susceptibility of multidrug-resistant pathogens, and their use as templates for the rational design of peptidomimetic drugs that overcome the disadvantages of therapeutic peptides.The article is part of the themed issue 'Evolutionary ecology of arthropod antimicrobial peptides'.

  16. [The management of implantable medical device and the application of the internet of things in hospitals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Li; Xu, Liang

    2011-11-01

    Implantable medical device is a special product which belongs to medical devices. It not only possesses product characteristics in common, but also has specificity for safety and effectiveness. Implantable medical device must be managed by the relevant laws and regulations of the State Food and Drug Administration. In this paper, we have used cardiac pacemakers as an example to describe the significance of the management of implantable medical device products and the application of the internet of things in hospitals.

  17. Summaries of fiscal year 1994 projects in medical applications and biophysical research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report provides information on the research supported in Fiscal Year 1994 by the Medical Applications and Biophysical Research Division of the Office of Health and Environmental Research. A brief statement of the scope of the following areas is presented: dosimetry; measurement science; radiological and chemical physics; structural biology; human genome; and medical applications. Summaries of the research projects in these categories are presented

  18. 76 FR 55068 - Mobile Medical Applications Draft Guidance; Public Workshop; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-06

    ... FR 50231). The document announced a public workshop entitled ``Mobile ] Medical Applications Draft... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Mobile Medical Applications Draft Guidance; Public Workshop... Spring, MD 20993-0002, 301-796-9148. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: In FR Doc. 2011-20574, appearing on...

  19. Podcasting as a novel way to communicate with medical school applicants

    OpenAIRE

    Ferguson, Benjamin D.; Bister, Mary K.; Krapec, Joni N.

    2014-01-01

    Podcasting in medical education is becoming more widely used and may be a useful tool for communicating with applicants to medical school. Given recent trends in the popularity of podcasting and mobile media, we created a podcast to communicate more effectively with applicants to our medical school as well as with the broader premedical community. The purpose of this study was to characterize the listening habits and motivations of our audience and compare the podcast’s benefits to those of o...

  20. Various dedicated imaging systems for routine nuclear medical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The most essential problems of nuclear medical imaging are resolution, signal/noise ratio (S/N) and sensitivity. Nowadays, the vast majority of the Anger system gamma cameras in clinical application are using parallel projection. The main problem of this projection method is the highly dependence of the image quality on the distance from the collimator surface as well as any improvement in the resolution with the distance -i.e. reduction of image blur- significantly reduces sensitivity. The aim of our research and development work was to create imaging geometry, collimator and detector constructions optimized to particular organs (brain, heart, thyroid), where it is simultaneously possible to increase the resolution and sensitivity. Main concept of the imaging geometry construction is based on the size, location and shape of a particular organ. In case of brain SPECT imaging a multiple head (4 heads in cylinder symmetric approximation) arrangement with extra high intrinsic resolution (<2.5 mm) dedicated detector design provide feasible solution for routine clinical application. The imaging system was essentially designed for Tc-99m and I-123 isotopes. The application field can be easily extended for functional small animal research and new born baby studies. Very positive feedbacks were received from both technical (stability and reproducibility of the technical parameters) and clinical sides in the past 2 years routine applications. A unique, novel conception ultra compact dedicated dual head SPECT system has been created only for 2D, 3D nuclear cardiac applications for Tc-99m and T1-201 labeled radio-pharmaceuticals. The two rectangular detectors (with <2.6 mm intrinsic resolution) are mounted fix in 90 degree geometry and move inside the special formed gantry arrangement. The unique and unusual gantry is designed to keep the detector heads as close as possible to the patient, while the patient is not exposed by any moving part. This special construction also

  1. Digital Geologic Map of Palo Alto Battlefield National Historic Site and vicinity, Texas (NPS, GRD, GRE, PAAL, PAAL digital map)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — The Digital Geologic Map of Palo Alto Battlefield National Historic Site and vicinity, Texas is composed of GIS data layers complete with ArcMap 9.2 layer (.LYR)...

  2. Dose Tracker Application for Monitoring Crew Medication Usage, Symptoms, and Adverse Effects During Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wotring, Virginia; Smith, LaRona

    2015-01-01

    Medication usage records can be used as a relatively nonintrusive means of monitoring health. This has been attempted previously through crew medical records, but these records are incomplete from the perspective of a research pharmacologist. During the shuttle era, NASA operations did not include routine questioning of crewmembers about their medication use until after missions were complete. The (long!) questionnaire was on paper. Asking crewmembers to recall medication use from weeks before questioning made getting complete and accurate information virtually impossible. This study will document medication usage of crewmembers before and during their missions. It will capture previously unrecorded data regarding medication use during spaceflight, including side effect qualities, frequencies and severities. The research-oriented data will be collected for research purposes, separate from medical records. Dose Tracker employs an iOS application (app) for fast & easy collection of medication usage data from crewmember participants during their missions.

  3. Topical and effective hemostatic medicines in the battlefield

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yin-Juan; Gao, Bo; Liu, Xi-Wen

    2015-01-01

    Uncontrolled hemorrhage has been considered as one of the most important factors for causing death on the battlefront. If given timely and efficient hemostatic medicines in pre-hospital setting, patients will obtain more time and chance to wait for medical treatment so as to save their lives. However, there is not a certain answer about which kind of hemostatic drugs can achieve efficacious effect to hemostasis in the battle. This review aims to summarize effective hemostatic medicines applie...

  4. Lung sounds auscultation technology based on ANC-ICA algorithm in high battlefield noise environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛海军; 冯安吉; 万明习; 白培瑞

    2003-01-01

    AIM:To explore the more accurate lung sounds auscultation technology in high battlefield noise environment.METHODS: In this study, we restrain high background noise using a new method-adaptive noise canceling based on independent component analysis (ANC-ICA), the method, by incorporating both second-order and higher-order statistics can remove noise components of the primary input signal based on statistical independence.RESULTS:The algorithm retained the local feature of lung sounds while eliminating high background noise, and performed more effectively than the conventional LMS algorithm.CONCLUSION:This method can cancel high battlefield noise of lung sounds effectively thus can help diagnose lung disease more accurately.

  5. [The application and programming of digital potentiometers in medical instruments].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shao-zhou; Wang, Sheng-jun; Chen, Hong-wen

    2002-11-01

    Digital potentiometers have been used in medical instruments. This paper describes the structure and principle of a digital potentiometer, especially its interfacing with a single chip processor and its programming. PMID:16104330

  6. Radiation synthesis and potential application of nanogel as medical carrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation synthesis and potential applications of nanogels as medical carriers for targeting drugs and genetic therapy of cancers have been carried out in our group. In this presentation, superparamagnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles as the core of magnetic nanogel with high saturation magnetization and stability were prepared by partial reduction method. With N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAM), methacrylic acid (MAA) or acrylamide (AM) as monomer and N, N'-methylenebisacrylamide (MBA) as cross-linker, magnetic nanogels of different sizes with narrow size distribution were synthesized by in-situ photochemical polymerization in surfactant- and initiator-free aqueous suspension protected by N2. Effects of monomer concentration, cross-linker concentration, irradiation time and injection method of agents on size of the nanogels were investigated by PCS. The nanogels were further modified with methoxy poly(ethylene glycol) (MPEG) for better hydrophilicity and biocompatibility of the product. Perfomance of the magnetic nanogels was studied with UV, FT-IR, MR, PCS, SEM, TEM, AFM, ESR, XRD, and DSC, etc. Crystallography, magnetism and morphology of the magnetic nanogels in aqueous solution and in dried state were studied, too. Photochemical reaction mechanisms involved in the synthsis process were explored. With an external magnetic field, transportation of the MPEG-modified magnetic nanogels (MSN) in blood vessels could be checked. Drug distribution in vivo and targeting transportation were performed on mice and rabbits with the MSN labeled covalently with 188Re. The results show that it is feasible to use the 188Re-labled MSN in targeting therapy of cancers. Meanwhile, potential applications in targeting recognition and separation of gene with special series, immobilization of enzyme and tissue-specific magnetic resonance imaging as MRI contrast agents by use of amine magnetic nanogels have been explored. Genetic therapy is becoming increasingly important, and synthesis of nano

  7. A Novel Application of the MIRC Repository in Medical Education

    OpenAIRE

    Roth, Christopher J.; Weadock, William J.; DiPietro, Michael A.

    2005-01-01

    Medical students on the radiology elective in our institution create electronic presentations to present to each other as part of the requirements for the rotation. Access was given to previous students’ presentations via the web-based system, Medical Imaging Resource Center (MIRC) project, created and supported by the Radiological Society of North America (RSNA). RadPix Power 2 MIRC (Weadock Software, LLC, Ann Arbor, MI) software converted the Microsoft PowerPoint (Redmond, WA) presentations...

  8. A biomechanics-based articulation model for medical applications

    OpenAIRE

    Maciel, Anderson

    2005-01-01

    Computer Graphics came into the medical world especially after the arrival of 3D medical imaging. Computer Graphics techniques are already integrated in the diagnosis procedure by means of the visual tridimensional analysis of computer tomography, magnetic resonance and even ultrasound data. The representations they provide, nevertheless, are static pictures of the patients' body, lacking in functional information. We believe that the next step in computer assisted diagnosis and surgery plann...

  9. Application and preventive maintenance of neurology medical equipment in Isfahan alzahra hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parivash Alikhani

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: Survey of application and preventive maintenance of neurology medical equipment in Isfahan Alzahra hospital show there is no P.M system. Implementing a complete P.M system for this medical center is crucial to preventing cause problems for these medical equipment and decreasing maintenance costs and gaining uptime. Researchers of this article have tried to provide PM, use of texts, web and experts.

  10. Application of Computer Simulation Modeling to Medication Administration Process Redesign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan Huynh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The medication administration process (MAP is one of the most high-risk processes in health care. MAP workflow redesign can precipitate both unanticipated and unintended consequences that can lead to new medication safety risks and workflow inefficiencies. Thus, it is necessary to have a tool to evaluate the impact of redesign approaches in advance of their clinical implementation. This paper discusses the development of an agent-based MAP computer simulation model that can be used to assess the impact of MAP workflow redesign on MAP performance. The agent-based approach is adopted in order to capture Registered Nurse medication administration performance. The process of designing, developing, validating, and testing such a model is explained. Work is underway to collect MAP data in a hospital setting to provide more complex MAP observations to extend development of the model to better represent the complexity of MAP.

  11. A novel application of the MIRC repository in medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Christopher J; Weadock, William J; Dipietro, Michael A

    2005-06-01

    Medical students on the radiology elective in our institution create electronic presentations to present to each other as part of the requirements for the rotation. Access was given to previous students' presentations via the web-based system, Medical Imaging Resource Center (MIRC) project, created and supported by the Radiological Society of North America (RSNA). RadPix Power 2 MIRC (Weadock Software, LLC, Ann Arbor, MI) software converted the Microsoft PowerPoint (Redmond, WA) presentations to a MIRC-compatible format. The textual information on each slide is searchable across the entire MIRC database. Future students will be able to benefit from the work of their predecessors. PMID:15827829

  12. The role of electromagnetic separators in the production of radiotracers for bio-medical research and nuclear medical application

    CERN Document Server

    Beyer, Gerd-Jürgen

    2003-01-01

    With the growing complexity of positron emission tomography/single photon emission computed tomography imaging and the new developments in systemic radionuclide therapy there is a growing need for radioisotope preparations with higher radiochemical and radionuclidic purity that has not been achievable before. Especially important for the new applications is the specific activity of the radiotracer. Conventional methods in medical isotope production have reached their technical limitations. The role of isotope separators is discussed with examples of typical production and characterization experiments conducted at the ISOLDE and TRIUMF facilities. These preliminary experiments indicate that isotope separators have a definite role to play in the future for the production of radioisotopes for biomedical research and medical application.

  13. Robust Tactical Decision Making for Deep Uncertainty Battlefield Environment%深度不确定的战场环境下鲁棒战术决策方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈意; 胡笑旋

    2014-01-01

    针对日益复杂的战场环境研究了深度不确定战场环境下的战术决策问题。结合鲁棒决策的特征,提出一套将情景规划与定量方法融合于鲁棒决策分析方法中的决策流程;并结合战争复杂性、不确定性的特性,将深度不确定环境下的鲁棒决策方法应用于战术决策的制定当中,从战场情景规划到基于综合集成方法的鲁棒战术决策模型,给出了具体的生成过程。%In view of the increasingly complicated battlefield environment,the tactical decision of deep uncertainty battlefield circumstance is studied in this paper. With the characteristics of robust decision,a decision process is proposed in which we make scenario planning and quantitative method into robust decision analysis. The application of the method is done for tactical decision making as the complexity and uncertainty of war. The detailed generative process of battlefield scenario planning and robust tactical decision model based on comprehensive integration method is given.

  14. 76 FR 65216 - Beacon Medical Services, LLC, Aurora, CO; Notice of Negative Determination Regarding Application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-20

    ... (76 FR 40401). The workers of Beacon Medical Services are engaged in activities related ] to the... Employment and Training Administration Beacon Medical Services, LLC, Aurora, CO; Notice of Negative... apply for Trade Adjustment Assistance (TAA) applicable to workers and former workers of Beacon...

  15. Taking decision general theory and its application in the medical assistance field (I.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Alberto Corona Martínez

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Decision making is a necessary element in the medical work. This article is a part of a series of articles that is aimed at divulging some theoretical aspects about decision making and their concrete application in the medical assistance. This paper analyses the classic (rational and behavioural theories in decision making.

  16. Optical fiber sensors for medical applications: practical engineering considerations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijmans, J.A.C.; Cheng, L.K.; Wieringa, F.P.

    2008-01-01

    The advantages of optical fibers as medical sensors are recognized world wide nowadays. Insensitivity to electromagnetic disturbances and relative small dimensions are the most well known properties. The advantages of fiber optic sensors are especially valuable within environments with high temperat

  17. The Application of Partial Differential Equations in Medical Image Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Madadpour Inallou

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Mathematical models are the foundation of biomedical computing. Partial Differential Equations (PDEs in Medical Imaging is concerned with acquiring images of the body for research, diagnosis and treatment. Biomedical Image Processing and its influence has undergoing a revolution in the past decade. Image processing has become an important component in contemporary science and technology and has been an interdisciplinary research field attracting expertise from applied mathematics, biology, computer sciences, engineering, statistics, microscopy, radiologic sciences, physics, medicine and etc. Medical imaging equipment is taking on an increasingly critical role in healthcare as the industry strives to lower patient costs and achieve earlier disease prediction using noninvasive means. The subsections of medical imaging are categorized to two: Conventional (X-Ray and Ultrasound and Computed (CT, MRI, fMRI, SPECT, PET and etc. This paper is organized as fallow: First section describes some kind of image processing. Second section is about techniques and requirements, and in the next sections the proceeding of Analyzing, Smoothing, Segmentation, De-noising and Registration in Medical Image Processing Equipment by PDEs Framework will be regarded

  18. 21 CFR 515.10 - Medicated feed mill license applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Veterinary Medicine home page at http://www.fda.gov/cvm. (b) A completed medicated feed mill license must..., manufacturing, processing, packaging, and holding such animal feeds conform to current good manufacturing... (HFV-220), Center for Veterinary Medicine, Food and Drug Administration, 7500 Standish Pl.,...

  19. The Application of Medical Fiber on Medical Textile%医用纤维在医疗纺织品中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    漆春一

    2012-01-01

    介绍了一些医用纤维的基本性能及其在医疗纺织品中的应用,提出我们应该不断发展医用材料在医疗纺织品中的应用并不断进行创新。%The basic properties of some medical fiber and the application of some medical fiber on medical textile are introduced. The continuous development of the medical fiber on the application of medical textile is also mentioned, and the innovation should be done.

  20. Open Labyrinth – a Web Application for Medical Education Using Virtual Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tudor CĂLINICI

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present an application, implemented and used at “Iuliu Hatieganu” University of Medicine and Pharmacy Cluj Napoca for medical education, The application, called Open Labyrinth is an open source, web based application, developed using ASP technology, very useful for medical education using virtual patients technology. All the virtual patients developed using this application are MedBiquitos compliant. This application was implemented at University of Medicine and Pharmacy “Iuliu Haţieganu” Cluj-Napoca, part of eVip Project. There were developed four virtual patients, three of them were included in eVip database. The user friendly interface, the compliance with the standards, the level of IT knowledge request for the case developers make this application a useful tool for medical education at the clinical level.

  1. Synthesis and bio-medical application of the intelligent nano-gels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author presents a general view of the development in the field of intelligent nano-gel and its bio-medical application, introduces the methods about synthesizing the nano-gels and controlling the diameter size under 100 nm. Finally focuses on the on-off mechanism of the Nano-based Drug Delivery System (NDDS), and the bio-medical application such as gene therapy

  2. MediFrame: A Tablet Application to Plan, Inform, Remind and Sustain Older Adults Medication Intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Lea Gulstav; Grönvall, Erik; Verdezoto, Nervo

    2013-01-01

    treatment or a specific condition. In this paper, we discuss experiences from designing the tablet-based application MediFrame. MediFrame is a personal medication management system to support older adults in non-clinical settings such as the home. The paper describes the user-centered design process...... and the resulting tablet application. We show how MediFrame can be used to support adherence in medical treatments through fieldwork informed use scenarios. Based on early qualitative feedback, we also discuss lessons learned and how designers can support a holistic medication experience for an older adult...

  3. [Proposal for the teaching and application of informatics at medical schools].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juri, H; Sipowicz, O; Avila, R; Hernández, D; Palma, A

    1991-01-01

    Informatics is the discipline that process efficiently all the necessary data to obtain information. The data acquisition, processing and interpretation is realized through traditional as well as automated means. Medical Informatics is the union of all methods of informatics in medicine including the preparation of medical data required for the application of these methods. Due to the need to keep up with the increasing amount of data that modern medicine is receiving and efficiently process it to obtain meaningful information, we propose the creation of a department of Medical Informatics in our Medical School to: 1) Teach the basic principles of medical informatics to undergraduate and graduate students, including lectures in: Information technics, medical terminology, medical linguistics, international classification of diseases, Hospital informations Systems, practical application of computing in medicine as Oncocyn, Mycin, etc., as well as external data bases. 2) Help the health sciences personnel to obtain and transfer medical information through the National and International Electronic Networks of Medical Information. PMID:1843360

  4. UML based risk analysis - Application to a medical robot

    OpenAIRE

    Guiochet, Jérémie; Baron, Claude

    2004-01-01

    Medical robots perform complex tasks and share their working area with humans. Therefore , they belong to safety critical systems. In nowadays development process, safety is often managed by the way of dependability techniques. We propose a new global approach , based on the risk concept in order to guide designers along the safety analysis of such complex systems. Safety depends on risk management activity, which core is risk analysis. This one consists in three steps: system definition, haz...

  5. [Application of mind map in teaching of medical parasitology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hong-Chang; Shao, Sheng-Wen; Xu, Bo-Ying

    2012-12-30

    To improve the teaching quality of medical parasitology, mind map, a simple and effective learning method, was introduced. The mind map of each chapter was drawn by teacher and distributed to students before the class. It was helpful for teacher to straighten out the teaching idea, and for students to grasp the important learning points, perfect the class notes and improve learning efficiency. The divergent characteristics of mind map can also help to develop the students' innovation ability.

  6. Potential environmental implications of nano-enabled medical applications: critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahapatra, Indrani; Clark, J; Dobson, Peter J; Owen, Richard; Lead, Jamie R

    2013-01-01

    The application of nanotechnology and nanoscience for medical purposes is anticipated to make significant contributions to enhance human health in the coming decades. However, the possible future mass production and use of these medical innovations exhibiting novel and multifunctional properties will very likely lead to discharges into the environment giving rise to potentially new environmental hazards and risks. To date, the sources, the release form and environmental fate and exposure of nano-enabled medical products have not been investigated and little or no data exists, although there are a small number of currently approved medical applications and a number in clinical trials. This paper discusses the current technological and regulatory landscape and potential hazards and risks to the environment of nano-enabled medical products, data gaps and gives tentative suggestions relating to possible environmental hotspots. PMID:24592432

  7. Application of medical cannabis in patients with the neurodegeneration disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Kotuła

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Medical cannabis is the dried flowers of the female Cannabis sativa L. plant. Cannabis contains a number of active elements, including dronabinol (THC and cannabidiol (CBD. Dronabinol is usually the main ingredient. The body’s own cannabinoid system has been identified. The discovery of this system, which comprises endocannabinoids and receptors, confirmed that cannabis has a positive effect on certain illnesses and conditions. Two types of cannabinoid receptors have been identified: CB1 and CB2 receptors. The first type CB1 is mostly found in the central nervous system, modulate pain. It also has an anti-emetic effect, and has influence on the memory and the motor system. The second type of receptors CB2 is peripheral, and it is primarily found in immune system cells and it is responsible for the immunomodulatory effects of cannabinoids. Medical cannabis can help in cases of the neurodegeneration disorders, for example Parkinson’s disease, Huntington’s Disease, Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis. Patients generally tolerate medical cannabis well.

  8. Medical Applications of Non-Medical Research: Applications Derived from BES-Supported Research and Research at BES Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-07-01

    This publication contains stories that illustrate how the Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES) research and major user facilities have impacted the medical sciences in the selected topical areas of disease diagnosis, treatment (including drug development, radiation therapy, and surgery), understanding, and prevention.

  9. Application of Knitted Fabrics in Technical and Medical Textiles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Károly L(A)Z(A)R

    2010-01-01

    @@ Importance of technical textiles is great and increasing.Experts estimate that annual rising ratio of this application of textile materials is3.8 % in average and consumption in each filed of this group of applications is anticipated as growing.Roughly one third of the quantity of the world's fibre consumption is used in production of technical textiles.

  10. Multilevel Modeling and Policy Development: Guidelines and Applications to Medical Travel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Garzon, Eduardo; Zhukovsky, Peter; Haller, Elisa; Plakolm, Sara; Fink, David; Petrova, Dafina; Mahalingam, Vaishali; Menezes, Igor G.; Ruggeri, Kai

    2016-01-01

    Medical travel has expanded rapidly in recent years, resulting in new markets and increased access to medical care. Whereas several studies investigated the motives of individuals seeking healthcare abroad, the conventional analytical approach is limited by substantial caveats. Classical techniques as found in the literature cannot provide sufficient insight due to the nested nature of data generated. The application of adequate analytical techniques, specifically multilevel modeling, is scarce to non-existent in the context of medical travel. This study introduces the guidelines for application of multilevel techniques in public health research by presenting an application of multilevel modeling in analyzing the decision-making patterns of potential medical travelers. Benefits and potential limitations are discussed. PMID:27252672

  11. Three-Dimensional Printing and Medical Imaging: A Review of the Methods and Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marro, Alessandro; Bandukwala, Taha; Mak, Walter

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to review recent innovations on the process and application of 3-dimensional (3D) printed objects from medical imaging data. Data for 3D printed medical models can be obtained from computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and ultrasound using the Data Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) software. The data images are processed using segmentation and mesh generation tools and converted to a standard tessellation language (STL) file for printing. 3D printing technologies include stereolithography, selective laser sintering, inkjet, and fused-deposition modeling . 3D printed models have been used for preoperative planning of complex surgeries, the creation of custom prosthesis, and in the education and training of physicians. The application of medical imaging and 3D printers has been successful in providing solutions to many complex medical problems. As technology advances, its applications continue to grow in the future. PMID:26298798

  12. Multilevel Modeling and Policy Development: Guidelines and Applications to Medical Travel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Garzon, Eduardo; Zhukovsky, Peter; Haller, Elisa; Plakolm, Sara; Fink, David; Petrova, Dafina; Mahalingam, Vaishali; Menezes, Igor G; Ruggeri, Kai

    2016-01-01

    Medical travel has expanded rapidly in recent years, resulting in new markets and increased access to medical care. Whereas several studies investigated the motives of individuals seeking healthcare abroad, the conventional analytical approach is limited by substantial caveats. Classical techniques as found in the literature cannot provide sufficient insight due to the nested nature of data generated. The application of adequate analytical techniques, specifically multilevel modeling, is scarce to non-existent in the context of medical travel. This study introduces the guidelines for application of multilevel techniques in public health research by presenting an application of multilevel modeling in analyzing the decision-making patterns of potential medical travelers. Benefits and potential limitations are discussed. PMID:27252672

  13. A Critique of the Militarisation of Australian History and Culture Thesis: The Case of Anzac Battlefield Tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim McKay

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the militarisation of Australian history and culture thesis with specific reference to the increasing popularity of Anzac battlefield tourism. I argue that the militarisation thesis contains ontological and epistemological flaws that render it incapable of understanding the multifaceted ways in which Australians experience Anzac battlefield tours. I then argue that in order to study how Australians both at home and overseas respond to the upcoming Anzac Centenary researchers will need to deploy an empirically-grounded and multidisciplinary framework. I demonstrate how proponents of militarisation: (1 ignore the polymorphous properties of Anzac myths; (2 are complicit with constructions of ‘moral panics’ about young Australian tourists; (3 overlook the reflexive capacities of teachers, students and tourists with respect to military history and battlefield tours; and (4 disregard the complex and contradictory aspects of visits to battlefields. My counter-narrative relies both on Stuart Hall’s work on popular culture and empirical studies of battlefield tourism from myriad disciplines.

  14. Ethics and the comprehensive application of epistemology in medical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phaosavasdi, Sukhit; Taneepanichskul, Surasak; Tannirandorn, Yuen; Uerpairojkit, Boonchai; Thamkhantho, Manopchai; Pruksapong, Chumsak; Kanjanapitak, Aurchart; Phupong, Vorapong

    2005-12-01

    Our simple definition of ethics is good thought, speak and action. Epistemology means the hypothesis of facts about thought, speech and action. Medical practice is all means of medicine. Medicine classifies people into normal and abnormal. The abnormal are the sick. They loose some organs or those normal looking organs are dysfunctional. They are social problems, some can be treated, and some do not get the appropriate care. The problems of society of normal people are overeating and obesity, abortion, drug abuse, promiscuity, torture, terrorism, disobeying rules and order, corruption, brain-washing and unethical advertisements, etc. On the other hand, the social problems of the abnormal are down, deafness, blindness, dumb, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, diabetes mellitus and cancer, etc. An example of the social-doctor problem is the mal distribution of doctors in rural areas. It was reported by the ministry of public health that the ratio of doctor to population to be 1:800 in Bangkok and 1:5, 700 in some rural areas in the north eastern part of Thailand. The doctors, themselves, are at a high grade of worker and intelligent quotient. They know all the problem and, at the same time, create problems, both, faster than the general population can do. It affects good and bad in the society. In the past, present and the foreseeable future the medical students get their studies in the western style. Their medical schools are situated in big cities. These schools are old and famous. They learn their medical procedure in a big hospital of more than 400 beds in the inpatient department wards. Their instructors and professors are highly qualified, are middle class people and well accepted in the society. Their families are lovely and warm. Their children study in the first class schools in town. The medical students feel very happy and appreciate seeing their professors in television routinely at prime time. In conclusion, their professors are an example of role model

  15. Multilingual medical dialog system developed as smartphone/tablet application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Satoshi; Hasegawa, Akira; Takasu, Kento; Kojima, Takehito; Miyao, Masaru; Sugita, Namiho; Sakai, Yuki; Kato, Keisuke

    2013-01-01

    Along with the concomitant rise in foreign residents in Japan has come the need to improve understanding at several social levels. The need for clear communication is most immediate in the area of the emergency or health care fields. Several types of apps exist that can be used to assist with communication between Japanese medical staff and foreign patients. However, there are problems with ease of use. This study asked 34 subjects to evaluate three types of touch designs with the "ExLanguage Nurse" to improve the usability of such multilingual apps. Results indicate that touch designs on the apps are related to ease of usability.

  16. Industrial, agricultural, and medical applications of radiation metrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Photon and particle radiations (gamma rays, X-rays, bremsstrahlung, electrons and other charged particles, neutrons) from radioactive isotopes, X-ray tubes, and accelerators are now widely used in gauging, production control, and other monitoring and metrology devices where avoidance of mechanical contact is desirable. The general principles of radiation gauges, which rely on detection of radiation transmitted by the sample, or on detection of scattered or other secondary radiations produced in the sample, are discussed. Examples of such devices currently used in industrial, agricultural, and medical situations are presented, and some anticipated developments are mentioned. (author)

  17. Nano-Antenna For Terahertz (THz) Medical Imaging Applications Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — As a result of technological breakthroughs, research and applications in the Terahertz (THz) radiation system are experiencing explosive growth. The non-ionizing...

  18. Chemical treatment of radioactive liquid wastes from medical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work is a study about the treatment of the most important radioactive liquid wastes from medical usages, generated in medical institutions with nuclear medicine services. The radionuclides take in account are 32 P, 35 S, 125 I. The treatments developed and improved were specific chemical precipitations for each one of the radionuclides. This work involve to precipitate the radionuclide from the liquid waste, making a chemical compound insoluble in the aqueous phase, for this process the radionuclide stay in the precipitate, lifting the aqueous phase with a very low activity than the begin. The 32 P precipitated in form of Ca332 P O4 and Ca2 H 32 P O4 with a value for Decontamination Factor (DF) at the end of the treatment of 32. The 35 S was precipitated in form of Ba35 SO4 with a DF of 26. The 125 I was precipitated in Cu 125 I to obtain a DF of 24. The results of the treatments are between the limits given for the International Atomic Energy Agency and the 10 Code of Federal Regulation 20, for the safety release at the environment. (Author)

  19. Application of a medical image processing system in liver transplantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chi-Hua Fang; Xiao-Feng Li; Zhou Li; Ying-Fang Fan; Chao-Min Lu; Yan-Peng Huang; Feng-Ping Peng

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: At present, imaging is used not only to show the form of images, but also to make three-dimensional (3D) reconstructions and visual simulations based on original data to guide clinical surgery. This study aimed to assess the use of a medical image-processing system in liver transplantation surgery. METHODS: The data of abdominal 64-slice spiral CT scan were collected from 200 healthy volunteers and 37 liver cancer patients in terms of hepatic arterial phase, portal phase, and hepatic venous phase. A 3D model of abdominal blood vessels including the abdominal aorta system, portal vein system, and inferior vena cava system was reconstructed by an abdominal image processing system to identify vascular variations. Then, a 3D model of the liver was reconstructed in terms of hepatic segmentation and liver volume was calculated. The FreeForm modeling system with a PHANTOM force feedback device was used to simulate the real liver transplantation environment, in which the total process of liver transplantation was completed. RESULTS: The reconstructed model of the abdominal blood vessels and the liver was clearly demonstrated to be three-dimensionally consistent with the anatomy of the liver, in which the variations of abdominal blood vessels were identiifed and liver segmentation was performed digitally. In the model, liver transplantation was simulated subsequently, and different modus operandi were selected successfully. CONCLUSION: The digitized medical image processing system may be valuable for liver transplantation.

  20. Application of Functional Nano-Patterning to Polymer Medical Micro Implants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bissacco, Giuliano; Biondani, Francesco Giuseppe; Tang, P.T.;

    2015-01-01

    Improvement of cells adhesion to medical implants can be achieved through specific surface nano-patterns. The application of nano-patterns to planar surfaces can be obtained in a number of ways. However, the application of functional nano-patterns to complex 3D surfaces is a challenging task...

  1. Image-producing procedures for non-medical applications. Benefits, risks, radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A survey is given of image-producing procedures for non-medical applications, and this under technical, juridical and radiation protection aspects. The historical development of these procedures is also described. An example is given for today's practical application.

  2. Development of tunable Fabry-Perot spectral camera and light source for medical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaarre, M.; Kivi, S.; Panouillot, P. E.; Saari, H.; Mäkynen, J.; Sorri, I.; Juuti, M.

    2013-05-01

    VTT has developed a fast, tunable Fabry-Perot (FP) filter component and applied it in making small, lightweight spectral cameras and light sources. One application field where this novel technology is now tested is medical field. A demonstrator has been made to test the applicability of FP based spectral filtering in the imaging of retina in visible light wavelength area.

  3. User experience integrated life-style cloud-based medical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serban, Alexandru; Lupşe, Oana Sorina; Stoicu-Tivadar, Lăcrămioara

    2015-01-01

    Having a modern application capable to automatically collect and process data from users, based on information and lifestyle answers is one of current challenges for researchers and medical science. The purpose of the current study is to integrate user experience design (UXD) in a cloud-based medical application to improve patient safety, quality of care and organizational efficiency. The process consists of collecting traditional and new data from patients and users using online questionnaires. A questionnaire dynamically asks questions about the user's current diet and lifestyle. After the user will introduce the data, the application will formulate a presumptive nutritional plan and will suggest different medical recommendations regarding a healthy lifestyle, and calculates a risk factor for diseases. This software application, by design and usability will be an efficient tool dedicated for fitness, nutrition and health professionals.

  4. Mechanism of radiation formation of hydrogel and their medical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosiak, Janusz M.; Ulanski, Piotr [Technical University of Lodz (Poland). Inst. of Applied Radiation Chemistry

    1995-12-31

    Medical advances that have prolonged the average life span have generated more needs for new materials that can be used as tissue and organ replacement, drug delivery systems or components of devices related to therapy and diagnosis. One of the most promising classes of such materials seem to be hydrogels. They show usually good bio compatibility in the contact with blood, body fluids and living tissue. Gamma or electron beam irradiation, especially if combined with simultaneous sterilization of product, is a very useful tool for the formation of such type of materials. There are some differences between such polymers as poly(vinyl pyrrolidone), poly(ethylene oxide), poly(vinyl alcohol) or poly(acrylic acid) with respect to the localisation of radicals on their chains, their reactivity and transformation. (author). 6 refs., 2 tabs.

  5. SVM for density estimation and application to medical image segmentation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhao; ZHANG Su; ZHANG Chen-xi; CHEN Ya-zhu

    2006-01-01

    A method of medical image segmentation based on support vector machine (SVM) for density estimation is presented. We used this estimator to construct a prior model of the image intensity and curvature profile of the structure from training images. When segmenting a novel image similar to the training images, the technique of narrow level set method is used. The higher dimensional surface evolution metric is defined by the prior model instead of by energy minimization function. This method offers several advantages. First, SVM for density estimation is consistent and its solution is sparse. Second, compared to the traditional level set methods, this method incorporates shape information on the object to be segmented into the segmentation process.Segmentation results are demonstrated on synthetic images, MR images and ultrasonic images.

  6. A Review of Wireless Body Area Networks for Medical Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Ullah, Sana; Ullah, Niamat; Saleem, Shahnaz; Higgins, Henry; Kwak, Kyung Sup; 10.4236/ijcns.2009.28093

    2010-01-01

    Recent advances in Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) technology, integrated circuits, and wire-less communication have allowed the realization of Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs). WBANs promise unobtrusive ambulatory health monitoring for a long period of time, and provide real-time updates of the patients status to the physician. They are widely used for ubiquitous healthcare, entertainment, and military applications. This paper reviews the key aspects of WBANs for numerous applications. We present a WBAN infrastructure that provides solutions to on-demand, emergency, and normal traffic. We further discuss in-body antenna design and low-power MAC protocol for a WBAN. In addition, we briefly outline some of the WBAN applications with examples. Our discussion realizes a need for new power-efficient solutions towards in-body and on-body sensor networks.

  7. Cellulose for medical applications: Past, present, and future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoenich, N.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Films and tubes manufactured from cellulose have historically been used in the treatment of renal failure, but their use for this purpose has declined in recent years in favour of films manufactured from synthetic material blends. As the clinical application of cellulose for dialysis declines, new applications for its use are emerging, of which the most promising appears to be the use of microbial cellulose synthesized by Acetobacter xylinum as a novel wound healing system and as a scaffold for tissue regeneration.

  8. An integrated medical image database and retrieval system using a web application server.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Pengyu; Hashiba, Masao; Akazawa, Kouhei; Yamakawa, Tomoko; Matsuto, Takayuki

    2003-08-01

    We developed an Integrated Medical Image Database and Retrieval System (INIS) for easy access by medical staff. The INIS mainly consisted of four parts: specific servers to save medical images from multi-vendor modalities of CT, MRI, CR, ECG and endoscopy; an integrated image database (DB) server to save various kinds of images in a DICOM format; a Web application server to connect clients to the integrated image DB and the Web browser terminals connected to an HIS system. The INIS provided a common screen design to retrieve CT, MRI, CR, endoscopic and ECG images, and radiological reports, which would allow doctors to retrieve radiological images and corresponding reports, or ECG images of a patient simultaneously on a screen. Doctors working in internal medicine on average accessed information 492 times a month. Doctors working in cardiological and gastroenterological accessed information 308 times a month. Using the INIS, medical staff could browse all or parts of a patient's medical images and reports.

  9. Chemical design of biocompatible iron oxide nanoparticles for medical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Daishun; Hyeon, Taeghwan

    2013-05-27

    Iron oxide nanoparticles are one of the most versatile and safe nanomaterials used in medicine. Recent progress in nanochemistry enables fine control of the size, crystallinity, uniformity, and surface properties of iron oxide nanoparticles. In this review, the synthesis of chemically designed biocompatible iron oxide nanoparticles with improved quality and reduced toxicity is discussed for use in diverse biomedical applications.

  10. Country status of application, manufacturing and sterilization of single-use medical products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper reviews the current status of application of single-use medical products in Malaysia. The status of their manufacturing and sterilization is also discussed. The increasing production of such items calls for a more reliable and efficient sterilization technique in particular, radiation sterilization. In line with the demand and the effort to increase local production of medical products, UTN would be providing irradiation service together with research and development in this particular field by 1988. (author)

  11. Multilevel Modeling and Policy Development: Guidelines and Applications to Medical Travel

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia-Garzon, Eduardo; Zhukovsky, Peter; Haller, Elisa; Plakolm, Sara; Fink, David; Petrova, Dafina; Mahalingam, Vaishali; Menezes, Igor G.; Ruggeri, Kai

    2016-01-01

    Medical travel has expanded rapidly in recent years, resulting in new markets and increased access to medical care. Whereas several studies investigated the motives of individuals seeking healthcare abroad, the conventional analytical approach is limited by substantial caveats. Classical techniques as found in the literature cannot provide sufficient insight due to the nested nature of data generated. The application of adequate analytical techniques, specifically multilevel modeling, is scar...

  12. Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy bioanalytical, biomolecular and medical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Procházka, Marek

    2016-01-01

    This book gives an overview of recent developments in RS and SERS for sensing and biosensing considering also limitations, possibilities and prospects of this technique. Raman scattering (RS) is a widely used vibrational technique providing highly specific molecular spectral patterns. A severe limitation for the application of this spectroscopic technique lies in the low cross section of RS. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy overcomes this problem by 6-11 orders of magnitude enhancement compared with the standard RS for molecules in the close vicinity of certain rough metal surfaces. Thus, SERS combines molecular fingerprint specificity with potential single-molecule sensitivity. Due to the recent development of new SERS-active substrates, labeling and derivatization chemistry as well as new instrumentations, SERS became a very promising tool for many varied applications, including bioanalytical studies and sensing. Both intrinsic and extrinsic SERS biosensing schemes have been employed to...

  13. Copula bivariate probit models: with an application to medical expenditures

    OpenAIRE

    Winkelmann, Rainer

    2011-01-01

    The bivariate probit model is frequently used for estimating the eff*ect of an endogenous binary regressor (the "treatment") on a binary health outcome variable. This paper discusses simple modifi*cations that maintain the probit assumption for the marginal distributions while introducing non-normal dependence using copulas. In an application of the copula bivariate probit model to the effect of insurance status on the absence of ambulatory health care expenditure, a model based on the Frank ...

  14. Preface to Special Topic: Plasmas for Medical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keidar, Michael; Robert, Eric

    2015-12-01

    Intense research effort over last few decades in low-temperature (or cold) atmospheric plasma application in bioengineering led to the foundation of a new scientific field, plasma medicine. Cold atmospheric plasmas (CAP) produce various chemically reactive species including reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS). It has been found that these reactive species play an important role in the interaction of CAP with prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells triggering various signaling pathways in cells.

  15. Preface to Special Topic: Plasmas for Medical Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keidar, Michael, E-mail: keidar@gwu.edu [Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Department of Neurological Surgery, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20052 (United States); Robert, Eric [GREMI, CNRS/Université d' Orleans, 45067 Orléans Cedex 2 (France)

    2015-12-15

    Intense research effort over last few decades in low-temperature (or cold) atmospheric plasma application in bioengineering led to the foundation of a new scientific field, plasma medicine. Cold atmospheric plasmas (CAP) produce various chemically reactive species including reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS). It has been found that these reactive species play an important role in the interaction of CAP with prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells triggering various signaling pathways in cells.

  16. Application of scintillating fiber gamma ray detectors for medical imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The recently developed plastic scintillating fiber technology started the development of a new generation of high spatial and time resolution gamma ray detectors for medical imaging, such as positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). A scintillating fiber PET module consisting of two 5 x 5 x 2.5 cm3 detector stacks made of parallel 1.0 mm diameter fiber, separated by 20 cm, each viewed by a Hamamatsu R2486 position sensitive photomultiplier was developed and tested. The time resolution of the coincidence system is 10 nsec. The spatial resolution and efficiency of this module turned out to be 2.3 mm (FWHM) and 2.0%, respectively, and independent of the location of the 22Na testing source inside a sphere of 2 cm radius around the center of the two fiber stacks. The effects of gammas scattered in a 15 cm diameter water filled glass cylinder into which the 22Na was immersed did not change the spatial resolution of the system

  17. Carbon nano tubes -Buckypaper- radiation studies for medical physics application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alanazi, A.; Alkhorayef, M.; Dalton, A.; Bradley, D. A. [University of Surrey, Department of Physics, College for Nuclear and Radiation Physics, Guildford, Surrey GR2 7XH (United Kingdom); Alzimami, K. [King Saud University, Department of Radiological Sciences, P. O. Box 10219, Riyadh 11433 (Saudi Arabia); Abuhadi, N., E-mail: a.alanazi@surrey.ac.uk [Jazan University, Faculty of Medical Applied Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology Department, P. O. Box 114, Jazan (Saudi Arabia)

    2015-10-15

    Radiation dosimetry underpins safe and effective clinical applications of radiation. Many materials have been used to measure the radiation dose deposited in human tissue, their radiation response requiring the application of correction factors to account for various influencing factors, including sensitivity to dose and energy dependence. In regard to the latter, account needs to be taken of difference from the effective atomic number of human tissue, soft or calcified. Graphite ion chambers and semiconductor diode detectors have been used to make measurements in phantoms but these active devices represent a clear disadvantage when considered for in vivo dosimetry. In both circumstances, dosimeters with atomic number similar to human tissue are needed. Carbon nano tubes have properties that potentially meet the demand, requiring low voltage in active devices and an atomic number similar to adipose tissue. In this study, single-wall carbon nano tubes buckypaper has been used to measure the beta particle dose deposited from a strontium-90 source, the medium displaying thermoluminescence at potentially useful sensitivity. As an example, the samples show a clear response for a dose of 2 Gy. This finding suggests that carbon nano tubes can be used as a passive dosimeter specifically for the high levels of radiation exposures used in radiation therapy. Furthermore, the finding points towards further potential applications such as for space radiation measurements, not least because the medium satisfies a demand for light but strong materials of minimal capacitance. (Author)

  18. Fundamentals and applications of neutron imaging (applications part 10). Applications of neutron imaging to medical field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Described is the application of neutron (Nt) imaging in 3 objects, small animals and excised organs, odontology, and BNCT (boron Nt capture therapy). Nt radiography (NR) uses the fast and thermal Nt. For the former Nt, NR is done by transferring the permeation image on In-leaf to X-ray film or by direct imaging on nitro-cellulose film; and for the latter, by imaging on X-ray film through Gd-converter, by transfer of the image on In- or Dy-leaf to the film or by use of (BaFBr-Gd2O3) Nt imaging plate. NR in animals can image air-containing organs like the lung. For human excised organs, NR can give images of wet tissues in hard organs like malignant tumors in the bone due to a large and small Nt cross sections of H and Ca, respectively. Excised gallstones (cholesterol- and Ca-derived) have been subjected to NR. NR of the pancreatic cancer has been reported with fast Nt. Many studies of NR have been reported in odontology, involving animals', human normal, treated and prosthetic teeth. NR can give information different in nature from X-ray radiography and further development of NR in odontology is expected as one of nondestructive tests. In BNCT-related field, NCAR (NC autoradiography) has been applied for seeing the distribution of 10B in the tumor-bearing mouse given a B compound. Thermal and cold Nts are irradiated on the mouse whole body section and yielded (4He+7Li) radioactivity is detected by CR-39 plastic track detector undergone with various etching treatments. The distribution in the body and tumor can be observed by NCAR and by the recently-developed, versatile high speed image acquisition microscope, respectively. Micro-dosimetry on the CR-39 is thought possible by the latter microscope. (R.T.)

  19. Designing a Battlefield Fire Support System Using Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System Based Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerim Goztepe

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Fire support of the maneuver operation is a continuous process. It begins with the receiving the task by the maneuver commander and continues until the mission is completed. Yet it is a key issue in combat in the way gain success. Therefore, a real-time mannered solution to fire support problem is a vital component of tactical warfare to the sequence that auxiliary forces or logistic support arrives at the theatre. A new method for deciding on combat fire support is proposed using adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS in this paper. This study addresses the design of an ANFIS as an efficient tool for real-time decision-making in order to produce the best fire support plan in battlefield. Initially, criteria that are determined for the problem are formed by applying ANFIS method. Then, the ANFIS structure is built up by using the data related to selected criteria. The proposed method is illustrated by a sample fire support planning in combat. Results showed us that ANFIS is valid especially for small unit fire support planning and is useful to decrease the decision time in battlefield.Defence Science Journal, 2013, 63(5, pp.497-501, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.63.3716

  20. Designing a Battlefield Fire Support System Using Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System Based Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerim Goztepe

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Fire support of the maneuver operation is a continuous process. It begins with the receiving the task by the maneuver commander and continues until the mission is completed. Yet it is a key issue in combat in the way gain success. Therefore, a real-time mannered solution to fire support problem is a vital component of tactical warfare to the sequence that auxiliary forces or logistic support arrives at the theatre. A new method for deciding on combat fire support is proposed using adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS in this paper. This study addresses the design of an ANFIS as an efficient tool for real-time decision-making in order to produce the best fire support plan in battlefield. Initially, criteria that are determined for the problem are formed by applying ANFIS method. Then, the ANFIS structure is built up by using the data related to selected criteria. The proposed method is illustrated by a sample fire support planning in combat. Results showed us that ANFIS is valid especially for small unit fire support planning and is useful to decrease the decision time in battlefield.

  1. Ethics of emergent information and communication technology applications in humanitarian medical assistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Matthew; Pringle, John; Christen, Markus; Eckenwiler, Lisa; Schwartz, Lisa; Davé, Anushree

    2016-07-01

    New applications of information and communication technology (ICT) are shaping the way we understand and provide humanitarian medical assistance in situations of disaster, disease outbreak or conflict. Each new crisis appears to be accompanied by advancements in humanitarian technology, leading to significant improvements in the humanitarian aid sector. However, ICTs raise ethical questions that warrant attention. Focusing on the context of humanitarian medical assistance, we review key domains of ICT innovation. We then discuss ethical challenges and uncertainties associated with the development and application of new ICTs in humanitarian medical assistance, including avoiding harm, ensuring privacy and security, responding to inequalities, demonstrating respect, protecting relationships, and addressing expectations. In doing so, we emphasize the centrality of ethics in humanitarian ICT design, application and evaluation. PMID:27481835

  2. Ethics of emergent information and communication technology applications in humanitarian medical assistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Matthew; Pringle, John; Christen, Markus; Eckenwiler, Lisa; Schwartz, Lisa; Davé, Anushree

    2016-07-01

    New applications of information and communication technology (ICT) are shaping the way we understand and provide humanitarian medical assistance in situations of disaster, disease outbreak or conflict. Each new crisis appears to be accompanied by advancements in humanitarian technology, leading to significant improvements in the humanitarian aid sector. However, ICTs raise ethical questions that warrant attention. Focusing on the context of humanitarian medical assistance, we review key domains of ICT innovation. We then discuss ethical challenges and uncertainties associated with the development and application of new ICTs in humanitarian medical assistance, including avoiding harm, ensuring privacy and security, responding to inequalities, demonstrating respect, protecting relationships, and addressing expectations. In doing so, we emphasize the centrality of ethics in humanitarian ICT design, application and evaluation.

  3. Deployment of a Grid-based Medical Imaging Application

    CERN Document Server

    Amendolia, S R; Frate, C; Gálvez, J; Hassan, W; Hauer, T; Manset, D; McClatchey, R; Odeh, M; Rogulin, D; Solomonides, T; Warren, R

    2005-01-01

    The MammoGrid project has deployed its Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA)-based Grid application in a real environment comprising actual participating hospitals. The resultant setup is currently being exploited to conduct rigorous in-house tests in the first phase before handing over the setup to the actual clinicians to get their feedback. This paper elaborates the deployment details and the experiences acquired during this phase of the project. Finally the strategy regarding migration to an upcoming middleware from EGEE project will be described. This paper concludes by highlighting some of the potential areas of future work.

  4. Recommendations and guidelines for safe medical laser application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Thomas H.

    1996-12-01

    The better understanding of generation of by-products during laser application allows a rough risk assessment, which in turn results in a number of recommendations and guidelines. The main attention is directed to smoke evacuation systems in connection with sufficient room ventilation, both being obligatory for any invasive laser therapy. Minimal requirements and optimal use of such units are discussed and practical examples are presented. The important role of personal protection measures is pointed out. These measures are not new and more or less practiced in the past. However, they have been justified now in detail by the comprehensive investigations during the STILMED project.

  5. Copula bivariate probit models: with an application to medical expenditures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkelmann, Rainer

    2012-12-01

    The bivariate probit model is frequently used for estimating the effect of an endogenous binary regressor (the 'treatment') on a binary health outcome variable. This paper discusses simple modifications that maintain the probit assumption for the marginal distributions while introducing non-normal dependence using copulas. In an application of the copula bivariate probit model to the effect of insurance status on the absence of ambulatory health care expenditure, a model based on the Frank copula outperforms the standard bivariate probit model. PMID:22025413

  6. Development of medical application methods using radiation. Radionuclide therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Chang Woon; Lim, S. M.; Kim, E.H.; Woo, K. S.; Chung, W. S.; Lim, S. J.; Choi, T. H.; Hong, S. W.; Chung, H. Y.; No, W. C. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute. Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Seoul, (Korea, Republic of); Oh, B. H. [Seoul National University. Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hong, H. J. [Antibody Engineering Research Unit, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-04-01

    In this project, we studied following subjects: 1. development of monoclonal antibodies and radiopharmaceuticals 2. clinical applications of radionuclide therapy 3. radioimmunoguided surgery 4. prevention of restenosis with intracoronary radiation. The results can be applied for the following objectives: (1) radionuclide therapy will be applied in clinical practice to treat the cancer patients or other diseases in multi-center trial. (2) The newly developed monoclonal antibodies and biomolecules can be used in biology, chemistry or other basic life science research. (3) The new methods for the analysis of therapeutic effects, such as dosimetry, and quantitative analysis methods of radioactivity, can be applied in basic research, such as radiation oncology and radiation biology.

  7. Management of the quality in medical applications with sealed sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work a model of Quality management based on the ISO 9001:2000 that it includes the application of some established approaches by the IAEA 50-C/SG-Q standard is proposed, so that the different focuses from both standards are joined and achieved: the client satisfaction and certification of the quality system, and structure behavior, components and systems at secure form with a minimum of accidents. This model incorporates a program of radiological protection that emphasizes the installation of a safety culture, (Author)

  8. Development of medical application methods using radiation. Radionuclide therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this project, we studied following subjects: 1. development of monoclonal antibodies and radiopharmaceuticals 2. clinical applications of radionuclide therapy 3. radioimmunoguided surgery 4. prevention of restenosis with intracoronary radiation. The results can be applied for the following objectives: 1) radionuclide therapy will be applied in clinical practice to treat the cancer patients or other diseases in multi-center trial. 2) The newly developed monoclonal antibodies and biomolecules can be used in biology, chemistry or other basic life science research. 3) The new methods for the analysis of therapeutic effects, such as dosimetry, and quantitative analysis methods of radioactivity, can be applied in basic research, such as radiation oncology and radiation biology

  9. Battlefield MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espy, Michelle [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging is the best method for non-invasive imaging of soft tissue anatomy, saving countless lives each year. It is regarded as the gold standard for diagnosis of mild to moderate traumatic brain injuries. Furthermore, conventional MRI relies on very high, fixed strength magnetic fields (> 1.5 T) with parts-per-million homogeneity, which requires very large and expensive magnets.

  10. Medical Application of Spirulina platensis Derived C-Phycocyanin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qian; Huang, Yinghong; Zhang, Ronghua; Cai, Tiange; Cai, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Along with the development of marine biological pharmaceutical research, high-effective and low-toxic drugs and functional foods isolated from marine organisms have become a new field of pharmacy and bromatology. The pharmacological actions, such as anti-inflammation, antioxidation, antitumor, immunological enhancement, and hepatorenal protection of C-phycocyanin (C-PC) from Spirulina platensis, have been reported, and C-PC has important value of development and utilization either as drug or as functional food. There are many researches about the various pharmacological actions and mechanisms of C-PC, but related reports are only to some extent integrated deeply and accurately enough, which put some limitations to the further application of C-PC in medicine. Particularly, with the improvement of living standards and attention to health issues, C-PC being a functional food is preferred by more and more people. C-PC is easy to get, safe, and nontoxic; thus, it has a great potential of research and development as a drug or functional food. Here, the separation and purification, physicochemical properties, physiological and pharmacological activities, safety, and some applications are reviewed to provide relevant basis for the development of natural medicine and applied products. PMID:27293463

  11. Medical Application of Spirulina platensis Derived C-Phycocyanin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Along with the development of marine biological pharmaceutical research, high-effective and low-toxic drugs and functional foods isolated from marine organisms have become a new field of pharmacy and bromatology. The pharmacological actions, such as anti-inflammation, antioxidation, antitumor, immunological enhancement, and hepatorenal protection of C-phycocyanin (C-PC from Spirulina platensis, have been reported, and C-PC has important value of development and utilization either as drug or as functional food. There are many researches about the various pharmacological actions and mechanisms of C-PC, but related reports are only to some extent integrated deeply and accurately enough, which put some limitations to the further application of C-PC in medicine. Particularly, with the improvement of living standards and attention to health issues, C-PC being a functional food is preferred by more and more people. C-PC is easy to get, safe, and nontoxic; thus, it has a great potential of research and development as a drug or functional food. Here, the separation and purification, physicochemical properties, physiological and pharmacological activities, safety, and some applications are reviewed to provide relevant basis for the development of natural medicine and applied products.

  12. Application of Computational Physics: Blood Vessel Constrictions and Medical Infuses

    CERN Document Server

    Suprijadi,; Subekti, Petrus; Viridi, Sparisoma

    2013-01-01

    Application of computation in many fields are growing fast in last two decades. Increasing on computation performance helps researchers to understand natural phenomena in many fields of science and technology including in life sciences. Computational fluid dynamic is one of numerical methods which is very popular used to describe those phenomena. In this paper we propose moving particle semi-implicit (MPS) and molecular dynamics (MD) to describe different phenomena in blood vessel. The effect of increasing the blood pressure on vessel wall will be calculate using MD methods, while the two fluid blending dynamics will be discussed using MPS. Result from the first phenomenon shows that around 80% of constriction on blood vessel make blood vessel increase and will start to leak on vessel wall, while from the second phenomenon the result shows the visualization of two fluids mixture (drugs and blood) influenced by ratio of drugs debit to blood debit. Keywords: molecular dynamic, blood vessel, fluid dynamic, movin...

  13. A μ-biomimetic flow sensor for medical and pharmaceutical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepniak, Simon; Bleckmann, Horst; Herzog, Hendrik; Klein, Adrian; Schulze, Elisabeth; Taetzner, Simon; Steltenkamp, Siegfried

    2015-08-01

    Flow sensing is pivotal in many medical and pharmaceutical applications. Most commercial flow sensors are either expensive, complex, or consume a lot of energy, while low cost sensors usually lack sensitivity, robustness, or long-term stability. In addition, the maintenance and sterilization of most commercial flow sensors is difficult to perform. Here, we present a new μ-biomimetic flow sensor based on the fish lateral line. It measures flow velocity and detects the transition between laminar and turbulent flow, thereby fulfilling most requirements for medical and pharmaceutical applications. Additionally, it has a modular setup featuring a screened or passive bypass configuration, enabling it not only to meter flow in medical applications but also under harsh or well-defined environmental conditions, such as found in pharmaceutical applications. The sensor is robust and can be easily cleaned. Individual parts of the sensor can even be replaced or sterilized. In sum, this sensor opens up a whole new field of applications in the area of medical and pharmaceutical related flow monitoring.

  14. Point Application of Medicated Cakes for Treatment of Asthma in Children—— A Report of 60 Cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Lisheng; Wang Mingming; Chen Huili

    2006-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the therapeutic effects of point application of medicated cakes for prevention and treatment of recurrent asthma in children.Methods:Point application of medicated cakes was performed in 60 asthmatic children at the remission stage,with its effect compared with that of ketotifen used in the control group of 30 cases.Results:With a total effective rate of 85%,the point application of medicated cakes was found to be superior to that of the control group(P<0.05).Conclusion:Point application of medicated cakes is a simple,effective and safe therapy for asthmatic children.

  15. Diffusing fiber tips for high-power medical laser applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Christoph H.; Spaniol, Stefan B.; Abraham, Volkhard; Ashraf, Naim; Neuberger, Wolfgang; Ertmer, Wolfgang

    1995-01-01

    For most applications in laser medicine suitable delivery systems are required. We developed fiber optic based diffusing tips especially for photodynamic therapy (PDT) and laser induced thermotherapy (LITT). To realize an adequate emitting cylindrical diffuser the fiber core was abraded by a precision cutter. Hence, the use of scattering media such as TiO2-doped polymers is avoided. Because the diffuser size is mainly determined by the manipulated fiber and a surrounding glass capillary, one can realize small diameters ((phi) approximately equals 3 mm). The laser light is distributed mainly by surface scattering and total reflection at the fiber air boundary. Because the use of absorbing media is avoided, it is possible to apply high laser power as necessary in LITT and pulsed PDT. We produced diffusing tips with lengths of several centimeters and typical diameters of 3 mm. By controlling the fiber-shaping process, a homogeneous intensity profile or even special designs can be achieved. The control is done by either on-line camera surveillance or calculated predictions. A delivery system especially for the photodynamical treatment of female cervix dysplasia has been designed.

  16. Radioactive implants for medical applications; Radioaktive Implantate fuer medizinische Anwendungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schubert, M.

    2008-07-01

    The long-term success of surgery is often diminished by excessive wound healing, which makes another intervention necessary. Locally applied radionuclides with short range radiation can prevent such benign hyperproliferation. As pure electron emitter with a half-life of 14.3 days and a mean energy of 694.9 keV (E{sub max}=1710.48 keV) {sup 32}P is a suitable radionuclide which can be produced from the stable {sup 31}P by the capture of thermal neutrons (1 x 10{sup 14} /s/cm{sup 2}) in a nuclear reactor. After a typical irradiation time (14 days) the ratio of {sup 32}P to {sup 31}P is 1.4 x 10{sup -5} to 1. Implants made of polymer and/or bioabsorbable material functioning as a carrier of the radioactive emitter allow - as opposed to metallic implants - for new applications for this type of radiotherapy. In this thesis a manufacturing method for previously not available organic, radioactive implants has been developed and a corresponding dosimetry system has been established. By means of ion implantation, {sup 32}P ions with up to 180 keV can be shot some 100 nm deep into organic implant materials. For a typical dose (15 Gy over 7 days, 1 mm distance from the implant) an activity of 75 kBq is needed corresponding to 1.3 x 10{sup 11} {sup 32}P ions. The sputter ion gun, which has been optimized for this application, creates an ion beam with high beam current (> 14 {mu}A P{sup -}) and low emittance (< 4 {pi} mm mrad {radical}(MeV)). Because of the good beam quality also small implants (<1 mm{sup 2}) can be manufactured with high efficiency. The unintentionally co-implanted portion of molecules and nuclides of the same mass (e.g. {sup 31}PH, {sup 16}O{sub 2} and {sup 32}S) could be reduced from approximately 500 to 50 by an improvement of the isotope selection at {sup 32}P beam creation. Hence, in comparison with the best hitherto existing implantation methods, the radiation dose of the implant could be reduced by an order of magnitude. With regard to the beta

  17. Review of Positive Psychology Applications in Clinical Medical Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macaskill, Ann

    2016-09-07

    This review examines the application of positive psychology concepts in physical health care contexts. Positive psychology aims to promote well-being in the general population. Studies identifying character strengths associated with well-being in healthy populations are numerous. Such strengths have been classified and Positive Psychology Interventions (PPIs) have been created to further develop these strengths in individuals. Positive psychology research is increasingly being undertaken in health care contexts. The review identified that most of this research involves measuring character strengths and their association with health outcomes in patients with a range of different conditions, similar to the position in positive psychology research on non-clinical populations. More recently, PPIs are beginning to be applied to clinical populations with physical health problems and this research, although relatively scarce, is reviewed here for cancer, coronary heart disease, and diabetes. In common with PPIs being evaluated in the general population, high quality studies are scarce. Applying PPIs to patients with serious health conditions presents significant challenges to health psychologists. They must ensure that patients are dealt with appropriately and ethically, given that exaggerated claims for PPIs are made on the internet quite frequently. This is discussed along with the need for more high quality research.

  18. Development of Porous Piezoceramics for Medical and Sensor Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erling Ringgaard

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of porosity to modify the functional properties of piezoelectric ceramics is well known in the scientific literature as well as by the industry, and porous ceramic can be seen as a 2-phase composite. In the present work, examples are given of applications where controlled porosity is exploited in order to optimise the dielectric, piezoelectric and acoustic properties of the piezoceramics. For the optimisation efforts it is important to note that the thickness coupling coefficient kt will be maximised for some non-zero value of the porosity that could be above 20%. On the other hand, with a good approximation, the acoustic velocity decreases linearly with increasing porosity, which is obviously also the case for the density. Consequently, the acoustic impedance shows a rather strong decrease with porosity, and in practice a reduction of more than 50% may be obtained for an engineered porous ceramic. The significance of the acoustic impedance is associated with the transmission of acoustic signals through the interface between the piezoceramic and some medium of propagation, but when the porous ceramic is used as a substrate for a piezoceramic thick film, the attenuation may be equally important. In the case of open porosity it is possible to introduce a liquid into the pores, and examples of modifying the properties in this way are given.

  19. Nano forsterite biocomposites for medical applications: Mechanical properties and bioactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furtos, Gabriel; Naghiu, Marieta-Adriana; Declercq, Heidi; Gorea, Maria; Prejmerean, Cristina; Pana, Ovidiu; Tomoaia-Cotisel, Maria

    2016-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to obtain and to investigate nano forsterite and nano forsterite biocomposites for biomedical application. New self-curing forsterite biocomposites were obtained by mixing nano forsterite powder (5, 15, 30, 50, 70 wt %) with 2,2-bis[4-(2-hydroxy-3-methacryloyloxypropoxy)-phenyl]propane (bis-GMA) and triethyleneglycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA) monomers. The new nano forsterite biocomposites were investigated for mechanical properties: compressive strength (CS) (143-147.12 MPa), compressive modulus (CM) (1.67-2.75 GPa), diametral tensile strength (DTS) (27.33-31.55 MPa), flexural strength (FS) (59.47-83.20 MPa) and flexural modulus (FM) (2.05-8.60 GPa). Increases of CS, DTS, FS with increasing amount of forsterite were observed up to 50 wt %. The highest CM and FM values were registered for 70 wt % and a direct correlation between the forsterite volume fraction (%) was observed. SEM micrographs revealed the morphology of surface of fractured biocomposites after CS test. XPS indicated that these biocomposites promoted the hydroxyapatite formation on their surface immersed in simulated body fluid (SBF). AFM images showed that the growth of the hydroxyapatite layer occurs with a preferred orientation on the surface of forsterite biocomposites after immersion in SBF. Incorporation of nano forsterite in the polymer matrix (bis-GMA/TEGDMA) did show osteoblast adhesion and proliferation was improved on nano forsterite biocomposites. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 104B: 1290-1301, 2016.

  20. Properties of titanium-alloyed DLC layers for medical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joska, Ludek; Fojt, Jaroslav; Cvrcek, Ladislav; Brezina, Vitezslav

    2014-01-01

    DLC-type layers offer a good potential for application in medicine, due to their excellent tribological properties, chemical resistance, and bio-inert character. The presented study has verified the possibility of alloying DLC layers with titanium, with coatings containing three levels of titanium concentration prepared. Titanium was present on the surface mainly in the form of oxides. Its increasing concentration led to increased presence of titanium carbide as well. The behavior of the studied systems was stable during exposure in a physiological saline solution. Electrochemical impedance spectra practically did not change with time. Alloying, however, changed the electrochemical behavior of coated systems in a significant way: from inert surface mediating only exchange reactions of the environment in the case of unalloyed DLC layers to a response corresponding rather to a passive surface in the case of alloyed specimens. The effect of DLC layers alloying with titanium was tested by the interaction with a simulated body fluid, during which precipitation of a compound containing calcium and phosphorus--basic components of the bone apatite--occurred on all doped specimens, in contrast to pure DLC. The results of the specimens' surface colonization with cells test proved the positive effect of titanium in the case of specimens with a medium and highest content of this element.

  1. DOE Center of Excellence in Medical Laser Applications. Final report, December 1, 1994--November 30, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacques, S.L.

    1998-01-01

    An engineering network of collaborating medical laser laboratories are developing laser and optical technologies for medical diagnosis and therapy and are translating the engineering into medical centers in Portland OR, Houston TX, and Galveston TX. The Center includes the University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, the University of Texas-Austin, Texas A and M University, Rice University, the University Texas Medical Branch-Galveston, Oregon Medical Laser Center (Providence St. Vincent Medical Center, Oregon Health Sciences University, and Oregon Graduate Institute, Portland, OR), and the University of Oregon. Diagnostics include reflectance, fluorescence, Raman IR, laser photoacoustics, optical coherence tomography, and several new video techniques for spectroscopy and imaging. Therapies include photocoagulation therapy, laser welding, pulsed laser ablation, and light-activated chemotherapy of cancer (photodynamic therapy, or PDT). Medical applications reaching the clinic include optical monitoring of hyperbilirubinemia in newborns, fluorescence detection of cervical dysplasia, laser thrombolysis of blood clots in heart attack and brain stroke, photothermal coagulant of benign prostate hyperplasia, and PDT for both veterinary and human cancer. New technologies include laser optoacoustic imaging of breast tumors and hemorrhage in head trauma and brain stroke, quality control monitoring of dosimetry during PDT for esophageal and lung cancer, polarization video reflectometry of skin cancer, laser welding of artificial tissue replacements, and feedback control of laser welding.

  2. Internet of Vehicles for E-Health Applications in View of EMI on Medical Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Lin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless technologies are pervasive to support ubiquitous healthcare applications. However, RF transmission in wireless technologies can lead to electromagnetic interference (EMI on medical sensors under a healthcare scenario, and a high level of EMI may lead to a critical malfunction of medical sensors. In view of EMI to medical sensors, we propose a joint power and rate control algorithm under game theoretic framework to schedule data transmission at each of wireless sensors. The objective of such a game is to maximize the utility of each wireless user subject to the EMI constraints for medical sensors. We show that the proposed game has a unique Nash equilibrium and our joint power and rate control algorithm would converge to the Nash equilibrium. Numerical results illustrate that the proposed algorithm can achieve robust performance against the variations of mobile hospital environments.

  3. Medical imaging in clinical applications algorithmic and computer-based approaches

    CERN Document Server

    Bhateja, Vikrant; Hassanien, Aboul

    2016-01-01

    This volume comprises of 21 selected chapters, including two overview chapters devoted to abdominal imaging in clinical applications supported computer aided diagnosis approaches as well as different techniques for solving the pectoral muscle extraction problem in the preprocessing part of the CAD systems for detecting breast cancer in its early stage using digital mammograms. The aim of this book is to stimulate further research in medical imaging applications based algorithmic and computer based approaches and utilize them in real-world clinical applications. The book is divided into four parts, Part-I: Clinical Applications of Medical Imaging, Part-II: Classification and clustering, Part-III: Computer Aided Diagnosis (CAD) Tools and Case Studies and Part-IV: Bio-inspiring based Computer Aided diagnosis techniques. .

  4. Magnetic nanoparticles for medical applications: Progress and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetic nanoparticles present unique properties that make them suitable for applications in biomedical field such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), hyperthermia and drug delivery systems. Magnetic hyperthermia involves heating the cancer cells by using magnetic particles exposed to an alternating magnetic field. The cell temperature increases due to the thermal propagation of the heat induced by the nanoparticles into the affected region. In order to increase the effectiveness of the treatment hyperthermia can be combined with drug delivery techniques. As a spectroscopic technique MRI is used in medicine for the imaging of tissues especially the soft ones and diagnosing malignant or benign tumors. For this purpose ZnxCo1−xFe2O4 ferrite nanoparticles with x between 0 and 1 have been prepared by co-precipitation method. The cristallite size was determined by X-ray diffraction, while the transmission electron microscopy illustrates the spherical shape of the nanoparticles. Magnetic characterizations of the nanoparticles were carried out at room temperature by using a vibrating sample magnetometer. The specific absorption rate (SAR) was measured by calorimetric method at different frequencies and it has been observed that this value depends on the chemical formula, the applied magnetic fields and the frequency. The study consists of evaluating the images, obtained from an MRI facility, when the nanoparticles are dispersed in agar phantoms compared with the enhanced ones when Omniscan was used as contrast agent. Layer-by-layer technique was used to achieve the necessary requirement of biocompatibility. The surface of the magnetic nanoparticles was modified by coating it with oppositely charged polyelectrolites, making it possible for the binding of a specific drug

  5. Medical application of in vivo neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohn, S.H.; Ellis, K.J.; Vartsky, D.; Zanzi, I.; Aloia, J.F.

    1978-01-01

    The clinical usefulness of total body neutron activation analysis (TBNAA) was clearly established at an IAEA panel meeting in Vienna in 1972. It is best demonstrated by the studies involving the measurement of total-body calcium. This measurement provides data useful for the diagnosis and management of metabolic bone disorders. It should be emphasized, however, that while most of the applications to date have involved calcium and phosphorus, the measurement of sodium, chlorine and nitrogen also appear to be useful clinically. Total-body calcium measurements utilizing TBNAA have been used in studies of osteoporosis to establish absolute and relative deficits of calcium in patients with this disease in comparison to a normal contrast population. Changes in total-body calcium (skeletal mass) have also been useful for quantitating the efficacy of various therapies in osteoporosis. Serial measurements over periods of years provide long-term balance data by direct measurement with a higher precision (+- 2%) than is possible by the use of any other technique. In the renal osteodystrophy observed in patients with renal failure, disorders of both calcium and phosphorus, as well as electrolyte disturbances, have been studied. The measure of total-body levels of these elements gives the clinician useful data upon which to design dialysis therapy. The measurement of bone changes in endocrine dysfunction has been studied, particularly in patients with thyroid and parathyroid disorders. In parathyroidectomy, the measurement of total-body calcium, post-operatively, can indicate the degree of bone resorption. Skeletal metabolism and body composition in acromegaly and Cushing's disease have also been investigated by TBNAA. Levels of cadmium in liver and kidney have also been measured in-vivo by prompt-gamma neutron activation and associated with hypertension, emphysema and cigarette smoking.

  6. Improvements in extremity dose assessment in ionizing radiation medical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Whole-body personal dosimetry is well established for the individual monitoring of radiation workers. Legal dosimetry is usually based on TL or film passive dosimeters worn on the trunk and evaluated by an authorised dosimetric service. However, although extremity and skin dosimetry is required by law for any practice where extremities or skin are the critical organs, the development of extremity dosemetry has not been as well established. Only a few European dosimetry services offer this service. Moreover, there is hardly any recommendation on the most suitable place for wearing this type of dosemeter. The present paper aims at testing the INTE-UPC ring dosemeter based on MCPNs and TLD-100 detectors on some users from the field of medicine, namely manual brachytherapy operators, nuclear medicine technologists from a radiopharmaceutical unit, personnel at a cyclotron facility with the corresponding FDG synthesis cells, radiographers and surgeons participating in interventional radiology. The staff were chosen due to the fact that they had a significantly high risk of exposure to their hands. According to previous results, MCPNs TL thin material is used in the radiology measurements, whereas TLD100 is preferred for the other applications. Prior to use, the dosemeters were tested for waterproof and cold sterilisation sensitivity. Preliminary results confirm the need to implement extremity dosimetry in the above- mentioned jobs, where finger dose can be of the order of 40 times the whole body dose and 3 times the wrist dose. Selection of an appropriate dosemeter can mean changes in the classification of the worker as category A or B. The study shows good correlation between workload and integrated dose, and small differences between experienced workers' dose. As a conclusion, some guidelines for radiation protection optimization are presented. (author)

  7. Medical application of in vivo neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The clinical usefulness of total body neutron activation analysis (TBNAA) was clearly established at an IAEA panel meeting in Vienna in 1972. It is best demonstrated by the studies involving the measurement of total-body calcium. This measurement provides data useful for the diagnosis and management of metabolic bone disorders. It should be emphasized, however, that while most of the applications to date have involved calcium and phosphorus, the measurement of sodium, chlorine and nitrogen also appear to be useful clinically. Total-body calcium measurements utilizing TBNAA have been used in studies of osteoporosis to establish absolute and relative deficits of calcium in patients with this disease in comparison to a normal contrast population. Changes in total-body calcium (skeletal mass) have also been useful for quantitating the efficacy of various therapies in osteoporosis. Serial measurements over periods of years provide long-term balance data by direct measurement with a higher precision (+- 2%) than is possible by the use of any other technique. In the renal osteodystrophy observed in patients with renal failure, disorders of both calcium and phosphorus, as well as electrolyte disturbances, have been studied. The measure of total-body levels of these elements gives the clinician useful data upon which to design dialysis therapy. The measurement of bone changes in endocrine dysfunction has been studied, particularly in patients with thyroid and parathyroid disorders. In parathyroidectomy, the measurement of total-body calcium, post-operatively, can indicate the degree of bone resorption. Skeletal metabolism and body composition in acromegaly and Cushing's disease have also been investigated by TBNAA. Levels of cadmium in liver and kidney have also been measured in-vivo by prompt-gamma neutron activation and associated with hypertension, emphysema and cigarette smoking

  8. Coating of gold nanoparticles for medical application: UV-VIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Espinosa, Juan Carlos; Ramírez, Nayem Amtanus Chequer; Funes Oliva, Luis Enrique; Córdova Fraga, Teodoro; Bernal Alvarado, Jesús; Reyes Pablo, Aldelmo; Núñez, Anita Rosa Elvira

    2014-11-01

    The use of nanostructured materials has gained strength in recent years in the biomedical area; new applications such as the detection of components in living cells have been used in pharmaceutical area, specifically to study the interaction of various antitumor drugs in living tissues, the detection of genes that are closely related to some type of cancer, as well as the detections of protein biomarkers for diseases also have been studied in various research laboratories around of the world. In this work, we characterize the variation of the absorbance of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) coated with different concentration of Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) protein. We use GNPS of 60 nm of the trademark-TED PELLA, the BSA protein trademark of Sigma Aldrich and based on that proposed protocol by Chithrani et al., 2009 with purposes to obtain an alternative model to determine the optimal stability of the nanoparticles coated with the protein. The colloidal solutions were prepared with BSA at different concentrations (0.25, 0.5, 0.75 and 1% M/V), and were centrifuged at 15,000 rpm for 90 minutes (centrifuge Model Z383K) and a constant temperature of 25 °C. All the spectra sets were obtained within the range from 400 to 700 nm using an UV-VIS spectrophotometer (Thermo Scientific Model 51118650). The results showed a R2 of 0.99 for an exponential curve correlation between the concentration of BSA, and the absorbance measured. We found at higher concentrations of BSA, there is a decrease in the intensity of the absorption spectra in the plasmon resonance. This preliminary model obtained can be used in the stabilization of gold nanoparticles with different proteins of biomedical interest in future experiments and support for functionalization of GNPs with specific membrane markers.

  9. Magnetic nanoparticles for medical applications: Progress and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doaga, A.; Cojocariu, A. M.; Constantin, C. P.; Hempelmann, R.; Caltun, O. F.

    2013-11-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles present unique properties that make them suitable for applications in biomedical field such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), hyperthermia and drug delivery systems. Magnetic hyperthermia involves heating the cancer cells by using magnetic particles exposed to an alternating magnetic field. The cell temperature increases due to the thermal propagation of the heat induced by the nanoparticles into the affected region. In order to increase the effectiveness of the treatment hyperthermia can be combined with drug delivery techniques. As a spectroscopic technique MRI is used in medicine for the imaging of tissues especially the soft ones and diagnosing malignant or benign tumors. For this purpose ZnxCo1-xFe2O4 ferrite nanoparticles with x between 0 and 1 have been prepared by co-precipitation method. The cristallite size was determined by X-ray diffraction, while the transmission electron microscopy illustrates the spherical shape of the nanoparticles. Magnetic characterizations of the nanoparticles were carried out at room temperature by using a vibrating sample magnetometer. The specific absorption rate (SAR) was measured by calorimetric method at different frequencies and it has been observed that this value depends on the chemical formula, the applied magnetic fields and the frequency. The study consists of evaluating the images, obtained from an MRI facility, when the nanoparticles are dispersed in agar phantoms compared with the enhanced ones when Omniscan was used as contrast agent. Layer-by-layer technique was used to achieve the necessary requirement of biocompatibility. The surface of the magnetic nanoparticles was modified by coating it with oppositely charged polyelectrolites, making it possible for the binding of a specific drug.

  10. Physics and medical applications of cold atmospheric plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keidar, Michael

    2013-09-01

    Recent progress in atmospheric plasmas led to the creation of cold plasmas with ion temperature close to room temperature. Varieties of novel plasma diagnostic techniques were applied in a quest to understand physics of cold plasmas. In particular it was established that the streamer head charge is about 108 electrons, the electrical field in the head vicinity is about 107 V/m, and the electron density of the streamer column is about 1019 m3. We have demonstrated the efficacy of cold plasma in a pre-clinical model of various cancer types (lung, bladder, breast, head, neck, brain and skin). Both in-vitro andin-vivo studies revealed that cold plasmas selectively kill cancer cells. We showed that: (a) cold plasma application selectively eradicates cancer cells in vitro without damaging normal cells. (b) Significantly reduced tumor size in vivo. Cold plasma treatment led to tumor ablation with neighbouring tumors unaffected. These experiments were performed on more than 10 mice with the same outcome. We found that tumors of about 5mm in diameter were ablated after 2 min of single time plasma treatment. The two best known cold plasma effects, plasma-induced apoptosis and the decrease of cell migration velocity can have important implications in cancer treatment by localizing the affected area of the tissue and by decreasing metastasic development. In addition, cold plasma treatment has affected the cell cycle of cancer cells. In particular, cold plasmainduces a 2-fold increase in cells at the G2/M-checkpoint in both papilloma and carcinoma cells at ~24 hours after treatment, while normal epithelial cells (WTK) did not show significant differences. It was shown that reactive oxygen species metabolism and oxidative stress responsive genes are deregulated. We investigated the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) with cold plasma treatment as a potential mechanism for the tumor ablation observed.

  11. What Features of Smartphone Medication Applications Are Patients with Chronic Diseases and Caregivers Looking for?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yisi; Wang, Liuyu; Chang, Polun; Lamb, Karen V; Cui, Yanyan; Wu, Ying

    2016-01-01

    We explored the desired features of medication applications for patients with chronic disease and their caregivers with a questionnaire survey, 50 from patients and 50 from their caregivers. Although the majority of people (75%) are willing to use medication apps, the actual usage rate is quite low (11%). Worrying about privacy of personal information seems to be the main reason of not using applications. The overall score desired for use was 3.29 ± 1.02 (out of 5). Searching medications and diseases and assistance with making doctors' appointments are the most wanted categories. Online shopping for drugs and delivery were the least desired items. The main concerns for people who do not want certain features include: they are not useful, worrying about buying counterfeit drugs and reliability of content. Compared with patients, caregivers seems to be more concerned on nutrition tips for chronic illness, fall detection, and privacy protection (P < 0.05 for all).

  12. What Features of Smartphone Medication Applications Are Patients with Chronic Diseases and Caregivers Looking for?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yisi; Wang, Liuyu; Chang, Polun; Lamb, Karen V; Cui, Yanyan; Wu, Ying

    2016-01-01

    We explored the desired features of medication applications for patients with chronic disease and their caregivers with a questionnaire survey, 50 from patients and 50 from their caregivers. Although the majority of people (75%) are willing to use medication apps, the actual usage rate is quite low (11%). Worrying about privacy of personal information seems to be the main reason of not using applications. The overall score desired for use was 3.29 ± 1.02 (out of 5). Searching medications and diseases and assistance with making doctors' appointments are the most wanted categories. Online shopping for drugs and delivery were the least desired items. The main concerns for people who do not want certain features include: they are not useful, worrying about buying counterfeit drugs and reliability of content. Compared with patients, caregivers seems to be more concerned on nutrition tips for chronic illness, fall detection, and privacy protection (P < 0.05 for all). PMID:27332254

  13. Scalable medical data compression and transmission using wavelet transform for telemedicine applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Wen-Jyi; Chine, Ching-Fung; Li, Kuo-Jung

    2003-03-01

    In this paper, a novel medical data compression algorithm, termed layered set partitioning in hierarchical trees (LSPIHT) algorithm, is presented for telemedicine applications. In the LSPIHT, the encoded bit streams are divided into a number of layers for transmission and reconstruction. Starting from the base layer, by accumulating bit streams up to different enhancement layers, we can reconstruct medical data with various signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) and/or resolutions. Receivers with distinct specifications can then share the same source encoder to reduce the complexity of telecommunication networks for telemedicine applications. Numerical results show that, besides having low network complexity, the LSPIHT attains better rate-distortion performance as compared with other algorithms for encoding medical data.

  14. Use of a Rich Internet Application Solution to Present Medical Images

    OpenAIRE

    Hsiao, Chia-Hung; Shiau, Cheng-Ying; Yu-ming LIU; Chao, Max Min; Lien, Chung-Yueh; Chen, Chi-Hsien; Yen, Sang-Hue; Tang, Shih-Tsang

    2011-01-01

    Browser with Rich Internet Application (RIA) Web pages could be a powerful user interface for handling sophisticated data and applications. Then the RIA solutions would be a potential method for viewing and manipulating the most data generated in clinical processes, which can accomplish the main functionalities as general picture archiving and communication system (PACS) viewing systems. The aim of this study is to apply the RIA technology to present medical images. Both Digital Imaging and C...

  15. Peculiarities of medical sociology: application of social theories in analyzing health and medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Kaminskas, Raimundas; Darulis, Žilvinas

    2007-01-01

    Objective. To reveal the peculiarities of medical sociology introducing the application of social theories in analyzing public health and medicine. Methods. Comparative and descriptive analysis of scientific references found and current situation. Results. During the last decade of the 20th century, the discussions about the sociology of health and medicine as separate discipline and its practical applications became more active. Main factors determined the growing importance of discipl...

  16. Ratio Plot and Ratio Regression with Applications to Social and Medical Sciences

    OpenAIRE

    Böhning, Dankmar

    2016-01-01

    We consider count data modeling, in particular, the zero-truncated case as it arises naturally in capture–recapture modeling as the marginal distribution of the count of identifications of the members of a target population. Whereas in wildlife ecology these distributions are often of a well-defined type, this is less the case for social and medical science applications since study types are often entirely observational. Hence, in these applications, violations of the assumptions underlying c...

  17. Nanotechnology in medical applications: state-of-the-art in materials and devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roszek B; Jong WH de; Geertsma RE; BMT

    2005-01-01

    Nanotechnology is an extremely powerful emerging technology, which is expected to have a substantial impact on medical technology now and in the future. The potential impact of novel nanomedical applications on disease diagnosis, therapy, and prevention is foreseen to change health care in a fundame

  18. 75 FR 29403 - Special Issuance of Airman Medical Certificates to Applicants Being Treated With Certain...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-26

    ... published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-78) or you may visit http://DocketsInfo.dot.gov . Docket: To read...) Accessing the Government Printing Office's Web page at http://www.gpoaccess.gov/fr/index.html . You can also... Administration 14 CFR Part 67 Special Issuance of Airman Medical Certificates to Applicants Being Treated...

  19. The application of digital medical 3D printing technology on tumor operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jimin; Jiang, Yijian; Li, Yangsheng

    2016-04-01

    Digital medical 3D printing technology is a new hi-tech which combines traditional medical and digital design, computer science, bio technology and 3D print technology. At the present time there are four levels application: The printed 3D model is the first and simple application. The surgery makes use of the model to plan the processing before operation. The second is customized operation tools such as implant guide. It helps doctor to operate with special tools rather than the normal medical tools. The third level application of 3D printing in medical area is to print artificial bones or teeth to implant into human body. The big challenge is the fourth level which is to print organs with 3D printing technology. In this paper we introduced an application of 3D printing technology in tumor operation. We use 3D printing to print guide for invasion operation. Puncture needles were guided by printed guide in face tumors operation. It is concluded that this new type guide is dominantly advantageous.

  20. Medical applications of membranes: Drug delivery, artificial organs and tissue engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stamatialis, Dimitrios F.; Papenburg, Bernke J.; Gironès, Miriam; Saiful, Saiful; Bettahalli, Srivatsa N.M.; Schmitmeier, Stephanie; Wessling, Matthias

    2008-01-01

    This paper covers the main medical applications of artificial membranes. Specific attention is given to drug delivery systems, artificial organs and tissue engineering which seem to dominate the interest of the membrane community this period. In all cases, the materials, methods and the current stat

  1. Advances in solid state laser technology for space and medical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byvik, C. E.; Buoncristiani, A. M.

    1988-01-01

    Recent developments in laser technology and their potential for medical applications are discussed. Gas discharge lasers, dye lasers, excimer lasers, Nd:YAG lasers, HF and DF lasers, and other commonly used lasers are briefly addressed. Emerging laser technology is examined, including diode-pumped lasers and other solid state lasers.

  2. Medical rescue of naval combat:challenge and future

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai Jin; Li-Jun Hou; Xiao-Bing Fu

    2015-01-01

    There has been no large-scale naval combat in the last 30 years. With the rapid development of battleships, weapons manufacturing and electronic technology, naval combat will present some new characteristics. Additionally, naval combat is facing unprecedented challenges. In this paper, we discuss the topic of medical rescue at sea: what chal-lenges we face and what we could do. The contents discussed in this paper contain battlefield self-aid buddy care, clinical skills, organized health services, medical training and future medical research programs. We also discuss the characteristics of modern naval combat, medical rescue challenges, medical treatment highlights and future develop-ments of medical rescue at sea.

  3. The impact of preparatory activities on medical school selection outcomes: a cross-sectional survey of applicants to the university of Adelaide medical school in 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Selection into medical school is highly competitive with more applicants than places. Little is known about the preparation that applicants undertake for this high stakes process. The study aims to determine what preparatory activities applicants undertake and what difficulties they encounter for each stage of the application process to medical school and in particular what impact these have on the outcome. Methods A cross-sectional survey of 1097 applicants who applied for a place in the University of Adelaide Medical School in 2007 and participated in the UMAT (Undergraduate Medicine and Health Sciences Admission Test) and oral assessment components of the selection process. The main outcome measures were an offer of an interview and offer of a place in the medical school and were analysed using logistic regression. Results The odds of a successful outcome increased with each additional preparatory activity undertaken for the UMAT (odds ratio 1.22, 95% confidence interval 1.11 to 1.33; P students most appropriate for medical school and the course they provide. Our results indicate that performance in the selection processes can be improved by training. However, if these preparatory activities may be limited to those who can access them, the playing field is not even and increasing equity of access to medical schools will not be achieved. PMID:24289521

  4. Radiation protection and dosimetry issues in the medical applications of ionizing radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz, Pedro

    2014-11-01

    The technological advances that occurred during the last few decades paved the way to the dissemination of CT-based procedures in radiology, to an increasing number of procedures in interventional radiology and cardiology as well as to new techniques and hybrid modalities in nuclear medicine and in radiotherapy. These technological advances encompass the exposure of patients and medical staff to unprecedentedly high dose values that are a cause for concern due to the potential detrimental effects of ionizing radiation to the human health. As a consequence, new issues and challenges in radiological protection and dosimetry in the medical applications of ionizing radiation have emerged. The scientific knowledge of the radiosensitivity of individuals as a function of age, gender and other factors has also contributed to raising the awareness of scientists, medical staff, regulators, decision makers and other stakeholders (including the patients and the public) for the need to correctly and accurately assess the radiation induced long-term health effects after medical exposure. Pediatric exposures and their late effects became a cause of great concern. The scientific communities of experts involved in the study of the biological effects of ionizing radiation have made a strong case about the need to undertake low dose radiation research and the International System of Radiological Protection is being challenged to address and incorporate issues such as the individual sensitivities, the shape of dose-response relationship and tissue sensitivity for cancer and non-cancer effects. Some of the answers to the radiation protection and dosimetry issues and challenges in the medical applications of ionizing radiation lie in computational studies using Monte Carlo or hybrid methods to model and simulate particle transport in the organs and tissues of the human body. The development of sophisticated Monte Carlo computer programs and voxel phantoms paves the way to an accurate

  5. [The surgeon and the Emperor--a humanitarian on the battlefield].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinsod, M

    1998-11-01

    The Baron Dominique-Jean Larrey, one of the greatest names in military surgery, participated as Chief Surgeon in all the Napoleonic campaigns. He developed the concept of early evacuation from the battlefield, and of immediate treatment of the wounded, even under fire. He implemented improved surgical techniques and improved wound care that were followed by surgeons all over Europe. His devotion to wounded soldiers crossed national boundaries and became a way of life. Here is an account of Larrey's involvement in the aftermath of the Battles of Lutzen and Bautzen (May-June 1813), when many soldiers were accused of self-mutilation and were about to be executed. He dared to oppose, singlehanded, the Emperor, the highest military authorities and their concurring physicians and surgeons, armed only by his undisputed honesty, professional authority and exceptional reputation won over years of devotion to wounded soldiers. Larrey saved the lives of many soldiers and set an example of unbent ethical integrity. PMID:10911440

  6. Efficient UAV Path Planning with Multiconstraints in a 3D Large Battlefield Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiwei Zhan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study introduces an improved A* algorithm for the real-time path planning of Unmanned Air Vehicles (UAVs in a 3D large-scale battlefield environment to solve the problem that UAVs require high survival rates and low fuel consumption. The algorithm is able to find the optimal path between two waypoints in the target space and comprehensively takes factors such as altitude, detection probability, and path length into account. It considers the maneuverability constraints of the UAV, including the safety altitude, climb rate, and turning radius, to obtain the final flyable path. Finally, the authors test the algorithm in an approximately 2,500,000 square meter area containing radars, no-fly zones, and extreme weather conditions to measure its feasibility, stability, and efficiency.

  7. Military morality transformed: weapons and soldiers on the nineteenth-century battlefield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Gervase

    2011-01-01

    The increased lethality of nineteenth-century “arms of precision” caused military formations to disperse in combat, transforming the ordinary soldier from a near automaton, drilled to deliver random fire under close supervision, into a moral agent who exercised a degree of choice about where, when, and how to fire his weapon. The emerging autonomy of the soldier became a central theme in contemporary tactical debates, which struggled to reconcile the desire for discipline with the individual initiative necessary on the battlefield. This tactical conundrum offers revealing insights about human aggression and mass violence. Its dark legacy was the propagation of military values into civilian society, thus paving the way for the political soldiers of the twentieth century. PMID:21584989

  8. A web-application that extends functionality of medical device for tumor treatment by means of electrochemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electrochemotherapy (ECT) is a novel method for efficient tumor treatment in clinical environment. It combines local drug delivery and application of short high voltage pulses, which permeabilize the plasma membrane by electroporation. Drug can enter only the cells with permeabilzed membrane. Recently, medical device CliniporatorTM for controlled electroporation was developed. Here, we present a web-application that extends the functionality of this medical device. The aim of the application is to collect, store and to allow the analysis of every ECT application using this medical device. The application helps transferring data collected by device during the electroporation process to the central database, and enables filling of medical records through the web-forms. The application is based on technologies ASP, HTML, Flash, JavaScript, XML and others. The application main advantages are easy and rapid data access, scalability and independence of client computer operating system as well as easy application debugging and upgrading. (author)

  9. Optimization of armored fighting vehicle crew performance in a net-centric battlefield

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeen, William P.; Espenant, Mark

    2002-08-01

    Traditional display, control and situational awareness technologies may not allow the fighting vehicle commander to take full advantage of the rich data environment made available in the net-centric battle field of the future. Indeed, the sheer complexity and volume of available data, if not properly managed, may actually reduce crew performance by overloading or confusing the commander with irrelevant information. New techniques must be explored to understand how to present battlefield information and provide the commander with continuous high quality situational awareness without significant cognitive overhead. Control of the vehicle's many complex systems must also be addressed the entire Soldier Machine Interface must be optimized if we are to realize the potential performance improvements. Defence Research and Development Canada (DRDC) and General Dynamics Canada Ltd. have embarked on a joint program called Future Armoured Fighting Vehicle Systems Technology Demonstrator, to explore these issues. The project is based on man-in-the-loop experimentation using virtual reality technology on a six degree-of-freedom motion platform that simulates the motion, sights and sounds inside a future armoured vehicle. The vehicle commander is provided with a virtual reality vision system to view a simulated 360 degree multi-spectrum representation of the battlespace, thus providing enhanced situational awareness. Graphic overlays with decision aid information will be added to reduce cognitive loading. Experiments will be conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of virtual control systems. The simulations are carried out in a virtual battlefield created by linking our simulation system with other simulation centers to provide a net-centric battlespace where enemy forces can be engaged in fire fights. Survivability and lethality will be measured in successive test sequences using real armoured fighting vehicle crews to optimize overall system effectiveness.

  10. Evaluation of critical thinking application in medical ultrasound practice among sonographers in south-eastern Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To investigate the application of critical thinking (CT) in medical ultrasound by sonographers in south-eastern Nigeria as a measure of the quality of practice. Methods: A semi-structured questionnaire based on six elements of CT was distributed to 82 sonographers selected through a simple random sampling. The questionnaire investigated the application of the elements of interpretation, analysis, evaluation, inference, explanation and self-regulation involved in CT by medical sonographers. The data for each respondent were categorized into age, experience and the elements of CT. Statistical analyses were done using mean and Spearman's Rank correlation. Results: The overall mean score of the practitioners on all the elements of CT application was 8.65 ± 6.76 against a total of 60. The application of CT did not show any correlation with age or clinical experience using Spearman's Rank correlation (r = -0.017; p > 0.05 and r = -0.086; p > 0.05, respectively). Conclusions: The results show that there is poor application of CT by medical sonographers in the locality which may impact negatively on the outcome of this diagnostic process. Increase in the number of formal training programmes in sonography and inclusion of CT skills in the curriculum are recommended

  11. Dissemination of medical applications of nuclear energy with virtual reality technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work makes use of Virtual Reality technology to disseminate medical applications of nuclear energy, with educational purposes. Virtual Reality is an effective learning tool, since navigation and interaction in virtual worlds can improve motivation in the learning process. With this technology, learning can be achieved in a clearer, joyful and more objective way. Among the existing medical applications of nuclear energy, this work focuses on the use of radiopharmaceuticals. The goal is to simulate this application in a virtual environment, for educational purposes, and to show the absorption of a radiopharmaceutical by the human body, during a diagnostics or treatment procedure. An example has been chosen, for Iodine radiopharmaceutical, which has affinity with the thyroid, and then concentrates in this organ. During the simulation, the concentration of the radioactive Iodine in the thyroid can be emphasized, and in the sequence, the virtual patient can be shown during the imaging procedure. (author)

  12. A clean bill of health for CERN’s medical applications office

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    Many of you will have had the opportunity to follow the seminar on medical applications given by two members of our new International Strategy Committee for medical applications on 20 November. This occasion gives me a good opportunity to take stock of what’s been achieved since we set up our office for medical applications under Steve Myers almost a year ago.   It’s already an impressive list of achievements, and one that’s poised to grow. The International Strategy Committee is perhaps the most visible part of it. Meeting for the first time last week, the Committee will help us focus and prioritise our efforts so we can extract the maximum benefit. The existence of the office itself is already a major step in this direction: today, instead of having seven separate medical initiatives at CERN, we have a single coordinated approach and each component benefits. Let’s take a look at the current state of progress. The study to develop LEIR into the OPENM...

  13. PLZT-Modified Relaxor Piezoelectric Ceramic System for Medical Diagnostic Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koduri Ramam

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The piezoelectric ceramic system [Pb0.978–yLa0.012Ba0.01Sry][(Zr0.534Ti0.4660.987Nb0.008]O3 (PLBSZNT has been fabricated for use in medical diagnostics applications. The fundamental pre-requisites are high-density, high dielectric constant and high piezoelectric properties that serve as compatible ceramic materials for medical diagnostic applications. It is essential for sensitive transducers that the piezoelectric ceramics must efficiently convert between electrical and mechanical energy, and so the electromechanical coupling coefficients should be high, as the fabrication process of tiny elements for medical arrays must be carried out without damaging the material and its properties. In our study, Sr-modified PLBZNT had shown single ferroelectric tetragonal phase. An analysis of different Sr doping concentration is reported, and the high dielectric permittivity, low dielectric loss along with high electromechanical properties indicate that PLBSZNT is suitable for medical diagnostic applications as well as sensors and actuators.

  14. Medical applications of nanoparticles in biological imaging, cell labeling, antimicrobial agents, and anticancer nanodrugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ravina; Nalwa, Hari Singh

    2011-08-01

    This article reviews the applications of nanotechnology in the fields of medical and life sciences. Nanoparticles have shown promising applications from diagnosis to treatment of various types of diseases including cancer. In this review, we discuss the applications of nanostructured materials such as nanoparticles, quantum dots, nanorods, nanowires, and carbon nanotubes in diagnostics, biomarkers, cell labeling, contrast agents for biological imaging, antimicrobial agents, drug delivery systems, and anticancer nanodrugs for treatment of cancer and other infectious diseases. The adverse affects of nanoparticles on human skin from daily use in cosmetics and general toxicology of nanoscale materials are also reviewed. PMID:21870454

  15. [The Application of the Fault Tree Analysis Method in Medical Equipment Maintenance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongbin

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, the traditional fault tree analysis method is presented, detailed instructions for its application characteristics in medical instrument maintenance is made. It is made significant changes when the traditional fault tree analysis method is introduced into the medical instrument maintenance: gave up the logic symbolic, logic analysis and calculation, gave up its complicated programs, and only keep its image and practical fault tree diagram, and the fault tree diagram there are also differences: the fault tree is no longer a logical tree but the thinking tree in troubleshooting, the definition of the fault tree's nodes is different, the composition of the fault tree's branches is also different.

  16. Rough-fuzzy pattern recognition applications in bioinformatics and medical imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Maji, Pradipta

    2012-01-01

    Learn how to apply rough-fuzzy computing techniques to solve problems in bioinformatics and medical image processing Emphasizing applications in bioinformatics and medical image processing, this text offers a clear framework that enables readers to take advantage of the latest rough-fuzzy computing techniques to build working pattern recognition models. The authors explain step by step how to integrate rough sets with fuzzy sets in order to best manage the uncertainties in mining large data sets. Chapters are logically organized according to the major phases of pattern recognition systems dev

  17. Medical applications of synchrotron radiation at the National Synchrotron Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The overriding features of the synchrotron beams which make them applicable to medical research are their extremely high intensity and broadband energy spectrum. Several orders of magnitude separate the smooth, continuous spectrum of the synchrotron from the sharply peaked characteristic emission spectrum of a conventional source. Basically, the high intensity and tunability allow monochromatic beams to be generated at virtually any energy. The standard problem of beam hardening in both medical imaging and therapy is eliminated by the monochromatic beams since the energy spectrum does not change with passage through tissue. The tunable spectrum allows enhancement of images and therapeutic dose by selection of the most effective energy for a given procedure

  18. Application of Medical Internet of Things in the Medical Waste Management%医疗物联网在医疗垃圾管理中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    骆荦

    2014-01-01

    随着近年来不断出现新的大型突发性公共卫生事件,医疗废物处理问题备受到了社会的广泛关注。医疗废物管理不仅是医院管理的难题,而且也是一个重要的公共卫生问题。随着信息技术尤其是医疗物联网的发展,基于RFID的物联网医疗垃圾处理管理系统采用射频识别技术、网络技术,对医疗垃圾产生、回收、运输、处理等全过程进行监控追踪。我院通过实施医疗物联网在医疗垃圾管理中的应用,实现了垃圾的电子标签化管理、电子监控和在线监测等,对医疗垃圾处理进行全程监管。%In recent years, the continuous emergence of new large public health emergencies, medical waste disposal problem preparation has been widespread concern in society. Medical waste management is not only the problem of hospital management, but also an important public health problem. Along with the information technology, especial y the development of medical Internet of things, RFID Internet of things based on medical waste management system uses a network of radio frequency identification technology, technology, the whole process of medical waste generation, recycling, transportation, processing, monitoring and tracking. Our hospital through the implementation of medical Internet of things applications in medical waste management, realize the electronic label management, waste electronic monitoring and online monitoring, process monitoring of medical waste disposal.In recent years, the continuous emergence of new large public health emergencies, medical waste disposal problem preparation has been widespread concern in society. Medical waste management is not only the problem of hospital management, but also an important public health problem. Along with the information technology, especially the development of medical Internet of things, RFID Internet of things based on medical waste management system uses a network of radio

  19. Security Issues in Healthcare Applications Using Wireless Medical Sensor Networks: A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoon-Jae Lee

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Healthcare applications are considered as promising fields for wireless sensor networks, where patients can be monitored using wireless medical sensor networks (WMSNs. Current WMSN healthcare research trends focus on patient reliable communication, patient mobility, and energy-efficient routing, as a few examples. However, deploying new technologies in healthcare applications without considering security makes patient privacy vulnerable. Moreover, the physiological data of an individual are highly sensitive. Therefore, security is a paramount requirement of healthcare applications, especially in the case of patient privacy, if the patient has an embarrassing disease. This paper discusses the security and privacy issues in healthcare application using WMSNs. We highlight some popular healthcare projects using wireless medical sensor networks, and discuss their security. Our aim is to instigate discussion on these critical issues since the success of healthcare application depends directly on patient security and privacy, for ethic as well as legal reasons. In addition, we discuss the issues with existing security mechanisms, and sketch out the important security requirements for such applications. In addition, the paper reviews existing schemes that have been recently proposed to provide security solutions in wireless healthcare scenarios. Finally, the paper ends up with a summary of open security research issues that need to be explored for future healthcare applications using WMSNs.

  20. Medical decision support and medical informatics education: roots, methods and applications in czechoslovakia and the czech republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvárová, Jana

    2013-01-01

    The paper describes the history of medical informatics in Czechoslovakia and the Czech Republic. It focuses on the topics of medical informatics education and decision support methods and systems. Several conferences held in Czechoslovakia and in the Czech Republic organized in cooperation with IMIA or EFMI are described. Support of European Union and Czech agencies in several European and national projects focused on medical informatics topics highly contributed to medical informatics development in Czechoslovakia and the Czech Republic and to the establishment of the European Center for Medical Informatics, Statistics and Epidemiology as the joint workplace of Charles University in Prague and Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic in 1994.

  1. A flexible mobile-device biosensing instrumentation platform for point-of-care medical diagnostics applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patou, François; Pfreundt, Andrea; Zulfiqar, Azeem;

    2014-01-01

    C medical diagnostics context necessitates considering broader requirements, notably in terms of usability, flexibility, and integration capabilities. These characteristics call for multi-disciplinary design methodologies inspired from the field of systems engineering and constitute the motivations...... helping to address this challenge. Specifically, Lab-on-Chip (LoC) devices have a key role to play in the advent of Point-of-Care (PoC) medical applications, driving a shift of the medical diagnostics paradigm and the transition from a centralized, technical, high-throughput biological sample analysis...... programmable electrical readout from LoCs potentially comprehending varied transducers addressing different targeted biological markers. A smart-phone/tablet docking-station embeds the hardware interface necessary for the implementation of a smart-phone digital lock-in amplifier. The platform is tested...

  2. Recent development of radiation measurement instrument for industrial and medical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, Sueki; Ohmori, Koichi; Mito, Yoshio; Tanoue, Toshiya; Yano, Shigeki; Tokumori, Kenji; Toyofuku, Fukai; Kanda, Shigenobu

    2001-02-01

    Recently, computer imaging technology has developed very high-quality image and fast processing time. X-rays have been used for many purposes such as medical diagnosis and analyzing the structure of industrial materials. However, as X-rays are hazardous to the human body, it is desirable to reduce its exposed dose to a minimum. For this purpose, it is necessary to use a semiconductor radiation detector with a high efficiency for X-rays. We have developed photon-counting CdTe array detector system for medical and industrial use. The bone densitometer for Dual Energy X-ray Absorptometry (DEXA) has been developed to make diagnosis of osteoporosis, and it is developed to analyze a material element for industrial use. Recently, we have developed a monochromatic X-ray CT using a 256 ch CdTe array detector. We found that the array detector systems are very useful for medical and industrial applications.

  3. Algorithms for Image Analysis and Combination of Pattern Classifiers with Application to Medical Diagnosis

    CERN Document Server

    Georgiou, Harris

    2009-01-01

    Medical Informatics and the application of modern signal processing in the assistance of the diagnostic process in medical imaging is one of the more recent and active research areas today. This thesis addresses a variety of issues related to the general problem of medical image analysis, specifically in mammography, and presents a series of algorithms and design approaches for all the intermediate levels of a modern system for computer-aided diagnosis (CAD). The diagnostic problem is analyzed with a systematic approach, first defining the imaging characteristics and features that are relevant to probable pathology in mammo-grams. Next, these features are quantified and fused into new, integrated radio-logical systems that exhibit embedded digital signal processing, in order to improve the final result and minimize the radiological dose for the patient. In a higher level, special algorithms are designed for detecting and encoding these clinically interest-ing imaging features, in order to be used as input to ...

  4. E-SAP: Efficient-Strong Authentication Protocol for Healthcare Applications Using Wireless Medical Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoon-Jae Lee

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available A wireless medical sensor network (WMSN can sense humans’ physiological signs without sacrificing patient comfort and transmit patient vital signs to health professionals’ hand-held devices. The patient physiological data are highly sensitive and WMSNs are extremely vulnerable to many attacks. Therefore, it must be ensured that patients’ medical signs are not exposed to unauthorized users. Consequently, strong user authentication is the main concern for the success and large scale deployment of WMSNs. In this regard, this paper presents an efficient, strong authentication protocol, named E-SAP, for healthcare application using WMSNs. The proposed E-SAP includes: (1 a two-factor (i.e., password and smartcard professional authentication; (2 mutual authentication between the professional and the medical sensor; (3 symmetric encryption/decryption for providing message confidentiality; (4 establishment of a secure session key at the end of authentication; and (5 professionals can change their password. Further, the proposed protocol requires three message exchanges between the professional, medical sensor node and gateway node, and achieves efficiency (i.e., low computation and communication cost. Through the formal analysis, security analysis and performance analysis, we demonstrate that E-SAP is more secure against many practical attacks, and allows a tradeoff between the security and the performance cost for healthcare application using WMSNs.

  5. The Application of Use Case Modeling in Designing Medical Imaging Information Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction. The essay at hand is aimed at examining the application of use case modeling in analyzing and designing information systems to support Medical Imaging services. Methods. The application of use case modeling in analyzing and designing health information systems was examined using electronic databases (Pubmed, Google scholar) resources and the characteristics of the modeling system and its effect on the development and design of the health information systems were analyzed. Results. Analyzing the subject indicated that Provident modeling of health information systems should provide for quick access to many health data resources in a way that patients' data can be used in order to expand distant services and comprehensive Medical Imaging advices. Also these experiences show that progress in the infrastructure development stages through gradual and repeated evolution process of user requirements is stronger and this can lead to a decline in the cycle of requirements engineering process in the design of Medical Imaging information systems. Conclusion. Use case modeling approach can be effective in directing the problems of health and Medical Imaging information systems towards understanding, focusing on the start and analysis, better planning, repetition, and control

  6. E-SAP: efficient-strong authentication protocol for healthcare applications using wireless medical sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Pardeep; Lee, Sang-Gon; Lee, Hoon-Jae

    2012-01-01

    A wireless medical sensor network (WMSN) can sense humans' physiological signs without sacrificing patient comfort and transmit patient vital signs to health professionals' hand-held devices. The patient physiological data are highly sensitive and WMSNs are extremely vulnerable to many attacks. Therefore, it must be ensured that patients' medical signs are not exposed to unauthorized users. Consequently, strong user authentication is the main concern for the success and large scale deployment of WMSNs. In this regard, this paper presents an efficient, strong authentication protocol, named E-SAP, for healthcare application using WMSNs. The proposed E-SAP includes: (1) a two-factor (i.e., password and smartcard) professional authentication; (2) mutual authentication between the professional and the medical sensor; (3) symmetric encryption/decryption for providing message confidentiality; (4) establishment of a secure session key at the end of authentication; and (5) professionals can change their password. Further, the proposed protocol requires three message exchanges between the professional, medical sensor node and gateway node, and achieves efficiency (i.e., low computation and communication cost). Through the formal analysis, security analysis and performance analysis, we demonstrate that E-SAP is more secure against many practical attacks, and allows a tradeoff between the security and the performance cost for healthcare application using WMSNs. PMID:22438729

  7. 医疗大数据的应用%The Application of Medical Big Data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱蕊; 彭龑

    2015-01-01

    近几年来,医疗数据的类型和规模正以前所未有的速度增长,医疗卫生领域已迎来"大数据时代"潮流.本文介绍了大数据的概念、特点和医疗大数据的来源,分析医疗大数据在医药研发、临床诊断、医生评价、个人健康管理新模式等方面的机遇,综述其在技术应用及具体实施中遇到的挑战.%In recent years,the type and scale of medical and health data have been expanding rapidly, which means the era of big data has coming. In this paper, the concept and characteristics of big data were introduced, and the source of medical big data was described. In addition, we analyzed the application of medical big data in medical research, clinical diagnosis, physician evaluation, personal health management, etc. Finally, we summarized the challenges in its application and implementation.

  8. An integrated medical image database and retrieval system using a web application server.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Pengyu; Hashiba, Masao; Akazawa, Kouhei; Yamakawa, Tomoko; Matsuto, Takayuki

    2003-08-01

    We developed an Integrated Medical Image Database and Retrieval System (INIS) for easy access by medical staff. The INIS mainly consisted of four parts: specific servers to save medical images from multi-vendor modalities of CT, MRI, CR, ECG and endoscopy; an integrated image database (DB) server to save various kinds of images in a DICOM format; a Web application server to connect clients to the integrated image DB and the Web browser terminals connected to an HIS system. The INIS provided a common screen design to retrieve CT, MRI, CR, endoscopic and ECG images, and radiological reports, which would allow doctors to retrieve radiological images and corresponding reports, or ECG images of a patient simultaneously on a screen. Doctors working in internal medicine on average accessed information 492 times a month. Doctors working in cardiological and gastroenterological accessed information 308 times a month. Using the INIS, medical staff could browse all or parts of a patient's medical images and reports. PMID:12909158

  9. MO-A-9A-01: Innovation in Medical Physics Practice: 3D Printing Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    3D printing, also called additive manufacturing, has great potential to advance the field of medicine. Many medical uses have been exhibited from facial reconstruction to the repair of pulmonary obstructions. The strength of 3D printing is to quickly convert a 3D computer model into a physical object. Medical use of 3D models is already ubiquitous with technologies such as computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. Thus tailoring 3D printing technology to medical functions has the potential to impact patient care. This session will discuss applications to the field of Medical Physics. Topics discussed will include introduction to 3D printing methods as well as examples of real-world uses of 3D printing spanning clinical and research practice in diagnostic imaging and radiation therapy. The session will also compare 3D printing to other manufacturing processes and discuss a variety of uses of 3D printing technology outside the field of Medical Physics. Learning Objectives: Understand the technologies available for 3D Printing Understand methods to generate 3D models Identify the benefits and drawbacks to rapid prototyping / 3D Printing Understand the potential issues related to clinical use of 3D Printing

  10. MO-A-9A-01: Innovation in Medical Physics Practice: 3D Printing Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehler, E [University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Perks, J [UC Davis Medical Center, Sacramento, CA (United States); Rasmussen, K [East Carolina University, Greenville, NC (United States); Bakic, P [University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2014-06-15

    3D printing, also called additive manufacturing, has great potential to advance the field of medicine. Many medical uses have been exhibited from facial reconstruction to the repair of pulmonary obstructions. The strength of 3D printing is to quickly convert a 3D computer model into a physical object. Medical use of 3D models is already ubiquitous with technologies such as computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. Thus tailoring 3D printing technology to medical functions has the potential to impact patient care. This session will discuss applications to the field of Medical Physics. Topics discussed will include introduction to 3D printing methods as well as examples of real-world uses of 3D printing spanning clinical and research practice in diagnostic imaging and radiation therapy. The session will also compare 3D printing to other manufacturing processes and discuss a variety of uses of 3D printing technology outside the field of Medical Physics. Learning Objectives: Understand the technologies available for 3D Printing Understand methods to generate 3D models Identify the benefits and drawbacks to rapid prototyping / 3D Printing Understand the potential issues related to clinical use of 3D Printing.

  11. Relative risk analysis in regulating the use of radiation-emitting medical devices. A preliminary application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, E.D.; Banks, W.W.; Altenbach, T.J.; Fischer, L.E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1995-09-01

    This report describes a preliminary application of an analysis approach for assessing relative risks in the use of radiation- emitting medical devices. Results are presented on human-initiated actions and failure modes that are most likely to occur in the use of the Gamma Knife, a gamma irradiation therapy device. This effort represents an initial step in a US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) plan to evaluate the potential role of risk analysis in regulating the use of nuclear medical devices. For this preliminary application of risk assessment, the focus was to develop a basic process using existing techniques for identifying the most likely risk contributors and their relative importance. The approach taken developed relative risk rankings and profiles that incorporated the type and quality of data available and could present results in an easily understood form. This work was performed by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory for the NRC.

  12. Early-career researchers in medical applications @ CERN | 6 June | Main Auditorium

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

      Discover how technological advances for high-energy physics have become essential tools for modern medicine. CERN seeks to answer fundamental questions about the Universe, and this mission naturally contributes to advancing the frontiers of technology. State-of-the-art techniques developed for particle accelerators, detectors, and physics computing have applications beyond the high-energy physics community in the medical field. These applications now have an essential role in clinical practices and medical research centres: from imaging devices, accelerator-technology dedicated to cancer therapy, to simulations and data science tools. This knowledge transfer from the high energy physics community to innovation in other fields is an inherent component of CERN’s mission and culture. It fuels scientific collaboration and technological advances, and drives innovation. In addition, it motivates future generations of scientists, and contributes to the public awareness of the impact of fu...

  13. Relative risk analysis in regulating the use of radiation-emitting medical devices. A preliminary application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes a preliminary application of an analysis approach for assessing relative risks in the use of radiation- emitting medical devices. Results are presented on human-initiated actions and failure modes that are most likely to occur in the use of the Gamma Knife, a gamma irradiation therapy device. This effort represents an initial step in a US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) plan to evaluate the potential role of risk analysis in regulating the use of nuclear medical devices. For this preliminary application of risk assessment, the focus was to develop a basic process using existing techniques for identifying the most likely risk contributors and their relative importance. The approach taken developed relative risk rankings and profiles that incorporated the type and quality of data available and could present results in an easily understood form. This work was performed by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory for the NRC

  14. Summaries of research projects for fiscal years 1996 and 1997, medical applications and biophysical research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    The Medical Applications and Biophysical Research Division of the Office of Biological and Environmental Research supports and manages research in several distinct areas of science and technology. The projects described in this book are grouped by the main budgetary areas: General Life Sciences (structural molecular biology), Medical Applications (primarily nuclear medicine) and Measurement Science (analytical chemistry instrumentation), Environmental Management Science Program, and the Small Business Innovation Research Program. The research funded by this division complements that of the other two divisions in the Office of Biological and Environmental Research (OBER): Health Effects and Life Sciences Research, and Environmental Sciences. Most of the OBER programs are planned and administered jointly by the staff of two or all three of the divisions. This summary book provides information on research supported in these program areas during Fiscal Years 1996 and 1997.

  15. A Compact, Versatile Six-Port Radar Module for Industrial and Medical Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Sarah Linz; Gabor Vinci; Sebastian Mann; Stefan Lindner; Francesco Barbon; Weigel, R.; Alexander Koelpin

    2013-01-01

    The Six-port receiver has been intensively investigated in the last decade to be implemented as an alternative radar architecture. Plenty of current scientific publications demonstrate the effectiveness and versatility of the Six-port radar for special industrial, automotive, and medical applications, ranging from accurate contactless vibration analysis, through automotive radar calibration, to remote breath and heartbeat monitoring. Its highlights, such as excellent phase discrimination, tri...

  16. Provisioning of medical quality of services for HSDPA and mobile WiMAX in healthcare applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Istepanian, Robert H; Philip, Nada Y

    2009-01-01

    Mobile healthcare, or m-health, is an evolutionary concept that provides both mobility and an 'always connected' healthcare functionality. The development of this concept depends on how best the available bandwidth in (HSDPA/HSUPA) and emerging (Mobile WiMAX) networks can be correlated with the relevant medical quality of services issues. In this paper we address and discuss some of these issues and challenges. We also provide an example of a bandwidth demanding application to verify such provision mechanisms.

  17. Plasma Sources for Medical Applications - A Comparison of Spot Like Plasmas and Large Area Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weltmann, Klaus-Dieter

    2015-09-01

    Plasma applications in life science are currently emerging worldwide. Whereas today's commercially available plasma surgical technologies such as argon plasma coagulation (APC) or ablation are mainly based on lethal plasma effects on living systems, the newly emerging therapeutic applications will be based on selective, at least partially non-lethal, possibly stimulating plasma effects on living cells and tissue. Promising results could be obtained by different research groups worldwide revealing a huge potential for the application of low temperature atmospheric pressure plasma in fields such as tissue engineering, healing of chronic wounds, treatment of skin diseases, tumor treatment based on specific induction of apoptotic processes, inhibition of biofilm formation and direct action on biofilms or treatment of dental diseases. The development of suitable and reliable plasma sources for the different therapies requires an in-depth knowledge of their physics, chemistry and parameters. Therefore much basic research still needs to be conducted to minimize risk and to provide a scientific fundament for new plasma-based medical therapies. It is essential to perform a comprehensive assessment of physical and biological experiments to clarify minimum standards for plasma sources for applications in life science and for comparison of different sources. One result is the DIN-SPEC 91315, which is now open for further improvements. This contribution intends to give an overview on the status of commercial cold plasma sources as well as cold plasma sources still under development for medical use. It will discuss needs, prospects and approaches for the characterization of plasmas from different points of view. Regarding the manageability in everyday medical life, atmospheric pressure plasma jets (APPJ) and dielectric barrier discharges (DBD) are of special interest. A comprehensive risk-benefit assessment including the state of the art of commercial sources for medical use

  18. Content-Based Medical Image Retrieval: A Survey of Applications to Multidimensional and Multimodality Data

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Ashnil; Kim, Jinman; Cai, Weidong; Fulham, Michael; Feng, Dagan

    2013-01-01

    Medical imaging is fundamental to modern healthcare, and its widespread use has resulted in the creation of image databases, as well as picture archiving and communication systems. These repositories now contain images from a diverse range of modalities, multidimensional (three-dimensional or time-varying) images, as well as co-aligned multimodality images. These image collections offer the opportunity for evidence-based diagnosis, teaching, and research; for these applications, there is a re...

  19. How do medical school applicants respond to the requirement for 'work experience'? An exploration of 'going abroad'

    OpenAIRE

    Collins, Stephen,; Timm, Anja

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Arranging work experience prior to medical school can for many potential applicants prove extremely difficult, with access to clinical settings often considered the ideal type. Potential applicants struggle to interpret the official guidance from medical schools1, making the application process intensely unsettling. Anecdotal evidence suggests that some UK-based candidates have been responding to these perceived requirements by paying to undertake commerc...

  20. The Use of the Newsreel and Aerial Photographs for Creating the Map “Borodino Battlefield During the Great Patriotic War of 1941–1945”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alevtina A. Paramonova

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The author presents the results of how newsreel and aerial photographs as valuable historical documents were jointly used for creating the map “Borodino Battlefield During the Great Patriotic War of 1941–1945”. Particular attention is paid to the use of the frames of the German newsreel for the detection and identification of anti-tank earthen barriers and military fortifications of the Mozhaisk defensive line at Borodino battlefield.

  1. Validation and verification of MCNP6 as a new simulation tool useful for medical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mashnik, Stepan G [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2011-01-06

    MCNP6, the latest and most advanced LANL transport code, representing a merger of MCNP5 and MCNPX has been Validated and Verified (V&V) against different experimental data and results by other codes relevant to medical applications. In the present work, we V&V MCNP6 using mainly the latest modifications of the Cascade-Exciton Model (CEM) and of the Los Alamos version of the Quark-Gluon String Model (LAQGSM) event generators CEM03.02 and LAQGSM03.03. We found that MCNP6 describes well data of interest for medical applications measured on both thin and thick targets and agrees very well with similar results obtained with other codes; MCNP6 may be a very useful tool for medical applications We plan to make MCNP6 available to the public via RSICC at Oak Ridge in the middle of 2011 but we are allowed to provide it to friendly US Beta-users outside LANL already now.

  2. Physical properties and concepts for applications of attenuation-based fiber optic dosimeters for medical instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dependence of the losses induced by ionizing radiation on the ambient conditions is studied for lead glass fibers in the parameter range of relevance for medical technology. On the basis of these results, a concept is developed for a fiber-optic dosimeter system and initial measuring results are communicated using an experimental arrangement of this type of dosimeter system under application-oriented conditions. Some applications of this system in radiotherapy are shown which are not feasible with conventional dosimeters at all or only in exceptional cases and which can contribute to safe handling and more effective use in radiotherapy

  3. Nanodiamonds for Medical Applications: Interaction with Blood in Vitro and in Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Lin-Wei; Lin, Yu-Chung; Perevedentseva, Elena; Lugovtsov, Andrei; Priezzhev, Alexander; Cheng, Chia-Liang

    2016-01-01

    Nanodiamonds (ND) have emerged to be a widely-discussed nanomaterial for their applications in biological studies and for medical diagnostics and treatment. The potentials have been successfully demonstrated in cellular and tissue models in vitro. For medical applications, further in vivo studies on various applications become important. One of the most challenging possibilities of ND biomedical application is controllable drug delivery and tracing. That usually assumes ND interaction with the blood system. In this work, we study ND interaction with rat blood and analyze how the ND surface modification and coating can optimize the ND interaction with the blood. It was found that adsorption of a low concentration of ND does not affect the oxygenation state of red blood cells (RBC). The obtained in vivo results are compared to the results of in vitro studies of nanodiamond interaction with rat and human blood and blood components, such as red blood cells and blood plasma. An in vivo animal model shows ND injected in blood attach to the RBC membrane and circulate with blood for more than 30 min; and ND do not stimulate an immune response by measurement of proinflammatory cytokine TNF-α with ND injected into mice via the caudal vein. The results further confirm nanodiamonds' safety in organisms, as well as the possibility of their application without complicating the blood's physiological conditions. PMID:27420044

  4. MARVIN: a medical research application framework based on open source software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolph, Tobias; Puls, Marc; Anderegg, Christoph; Ebert, Lars; Broehan, Martina; Rudin, Adrian; Kowal, Jens

    2008-08-01

    This paper describes the open source framework MARVIN for rapid application development in the field of biomedical and clinical research. MARVIN applications consist of modules that can be plugged together in order to provide the functionality required for a specific experimental scenario. Application modules work on a common patient database that is used to store and organize medical data as well as derived data. MARVIN provides a flexible input/output system with support for many file formats including DICOM, various 2D image formats and surface mesh data. Furthermore, it implements an advanced visualization system and interfaces to a wide range of 3D tracking hardware. Since it uses only highly portable libraries, MARVIN applications run on Unix/Linux, Mac OS X and Microsoft Windows. PMID:18541330

  5. Principles for new optical techniques in medical diagnostics for mHealth applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsam, Joshua Michael

    Medical diagnostics is a critical element of effective medical treatment. However, many modern and emerging diagnostic technologies are not affordable or compatible with the needs and conditions found in low-income and middle-income countries and regions. Resource-poor areas require low-cost, robust, easy-to-use, and portable diagnostics devices compatible with telemedicine (i.e. mHealth) that can be adapted to meet diverse medical needs. Many suitable devices will need to be based on optical technologies, which are used for many types of biological analyses. This dissertation describes the fabrication and detection principles for several low-cost optical technologies for mHealth applications including: (1) a webcam based multi-wavelength fluorescence plate reader, (2) a lens-free optical detector used for the detection of Botulinum A neurotoxin activity, (3) a low cost micro-array reader that allows the performance of typical fluorescence based assays demonstrated for the detection of the toxin staphylococcal enterotoxin (SEB), and (4) a wide-field flow cytometer for high throughput detection of fluorescently labeled rare cells. This dissertation discusses how these technologies can be harnessed using readily available consumer electronics components such as webcams, cell phones, CCD cameras, LEDs, and laser diodes. There are challenges in developing devices with sufficient sensitivity and specificity, and approaches are presented to overcoming these challenges to create optical detectors that can serve as low cost medical diagnostics in resource-poor settings for mHealth.

  6. Application of COMPONT Medical Adhesive Glue for Tension-Reduced Duraplasty in Decompressive Craniotomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yujia; Wang, Gesheng; Liu, Jialin; Du, Yong; Wang, Lei; Wang, Xiaoyong

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the application of medical adhesive glue for tension-reduced duraplasty in decompressive craniotomy. Material/Methods A total of 56 cases were enrolled for this study from Jan 2013 to May 2015. All patients underwent decompressive craniotomy and the dura was repaired in all of them with tension-reduced duraplasty using the COMPONT medical adhesive to glue artificial dura together. The postoperative complications and the healing of dura mater were observed and recorded. Results No wound infection, epidural or subdural hematoma, cerebrospinal fluid leakage, or other complications associated with the procedure occurred, and there were no allergic reactions to the COMPONT medical adhesive glue. The second-phase surgery of cranioplasty was performed at 3 to 6 months after the decompressive craniotomy in 32 out of the 56 cases. During the cranioplasty we observed no adherence of the artificial dura mater patch to the skin flap, no residual COMPONT glue, or hydropic or contracture change of tissue at the surgical sites. Additionally, no defect or weakening of the adherence between the artificial dura mater patch and the self dura matter occurred. Conclusions COMPONT medical adhesive glue is a safe and reliable tool for tension-reduced duraplasty in decompressive craniotomy. PMID:27752035

  7. Medical applications of stable isotopes: mass spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes the content of the Symposium entitled Medical Applications of Stable Isotopes, co-sponsored by the American College of Nuclear Physicians and the U.S. Department of Energy and held on January 25, 1982, in Tucson, Arizon. Within the overall framework of clinical biochemistry and clinical pharmacokinetics, the two technologies of mass spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance were reviewed and analyzed in terms of their potential in the area of medical applications of stable isotopes. It was observed that nuclear medicine could perhaps be more accurately redefined as diagnostic imaging and functional measurement, utilizing both the traditional unstable (radioactive) isotopes and stable isotopes. This seems appropriate and perhaps necessary because nuclear medicine scientists and physicians have crossed traditional professional lines, promptly adapted to new technologies, stimulated the clinical application of computer techniques, justified and utilized complex and expensive instrumentation, and are quite experienced in the physical and mathematical basis of isotope (stable and unstable) preparation, handling, and use in in vivo clinical applications

  8. Medical application of fuzzy logic: fuzzy patient state in arterial hypertension analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blinowska, Aleksandra; Duckstein, Lucien

    1993-12-01

    A few existing applications of fuzzy logic in medicine are briefly described and some potential applications are reviewed. The problem of classification of patient states and medical decision making is discussed more in detail and illustrated by the example of a fuzzy rule based model developed to elicit, analyze and reproduce the opinions of multiple medical experts in the case of arterial hypertension. The goal was to reproduce the average coded answers using an adequate fuzzy procedure, here a fuzzy rule. State categories and the initial set of experimental parameters were defined according to medical practice. The fuzzy set membership functions were then assessed for each parameter in each category and a small subset of representative and pertinent parameters selected for each question. The data were split into two sets of 50 patient files each, the calibration set and the validation set. Two evaluation criteria were used: the sum of squared deviations and the sum of deviations. Fuzzy rules were then sought that reproduced the target, which was the average coded answer. Only one fuzzy rule `and' appeared to be necessary to describe the patient state in a continuous way and to approach the target as closely as the majority of experts.

  9. Evaluation of the US Army DT-236 battlefield personnel dosimetry system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Performance characteristics of the US Army DT-236 battlefield personnel dosimetry system were evaluated using the Health Physics Research Reactor at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The DT-236 dosimeter is designed to measure total (neutron plus gamma) radiation dose using a radiophotoluminescent (RPL) detector for gamma rays and a silicon diode for fast neutrons. Areas considered in this evaluation included preirradiation dose indication; accuracy and precision of total, gamma, and neutron dose measurements; fading; angular response; temperature dependence; and relative dosimeter response in air and on various body locations. Experimental results for a variety of radiation fields and dose levels indicate that the existing system overestimates total, neutron, and gamma radiation doses in air by about 20 to 60% relative to reference values. Associated measurement precisions were about +-5% of the means for doses above approximately 0.5 Gy. Fading characteristics, angular dependence, and temperature dependence of the RPL and diode systems were consistent with results expected based on detector characteristics and previous performance studies. Recommendations to improve existing reader performance and measurement accuracy are also presented

  10. Telementoring and teleparamedic communication platforms and robotic systems for battlefield biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jannson, Tomasz P.; Kostrzewski, Andrew A.; Zeltser, Gregory; Forrester, Thomas

    2000-08-01

    A new approach to C4, in the form of supercomputer-path soft communication and computing (SC2), provides enabling technology baseline for teleparamedic and telementoring communication platforms and robotic systems. In particular, this new information technology offers full-duplex 2-D and/or 3-D wireless communication and interactive telepresence, as well as remotely-controlled semi-automatic sensing, within so-called telementoring scheme, being the specific brand of telemedicine. In this paper, we discuss the SC2 capabilities, including: 20-times, higher than prior art, compression of digital multimedia data (especially including digital video) with computing power higher than the of 100 Pentiums. The further extension of SC2- technologies, combined with nearly-autonomous teleparamedic scheme, will be also discussed.

  11. A novel classification and online platform for planning and documentation of medical applications of additive manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuomi, Jukka; Paloheimo, Kaija-Stiina; Vehviläinen, Juho; Björkstrand, Roy; Salmi, Mika; Huotilainen, Eero; Kontio, Risto; Rouse, Stephen; Gibson, Ian; Mäkitie, Antti A

    2014-12-01

    Additive manufacturing technologies are widely used in industrial settings and now increasingly also in several areas of medicine. Various techniques and numerous types of materials are used for these applications. There is a clear need to unify and harmonize the patterns of their use worldwide. We present a 5-class system to aid planning of these applications and related scientific work as well as communication between various actors involved in this field. An online, matrix-based platform and a database were developed for planning and documentation of various solutions. This platform will help the medical community to structurally develop both research innovations and clinical applications of additive manufacturing. The online platform can be accessed through http://www.medicalam.info.

  12. Design & Performance of Wearable Ultra Wide Band Textile Antenna for Medical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Nikhil; Singh, Ashutosh Kumar; Singh, Vinod Kumar

    2015-02-01

    The concept of wearable products such as textile antenna are being developed which are capable of monitoring, alerting and demanding attention whenever hospital emergency is needed, hence minimizing labour and resource. In the proposed work by using textile material as a substrate the ultra wideband antenna is designed especially for medical applications.Simulated and measured results here shows that the proposed antenna design meets the requirements of wide working bandwidth and provides 13.08 GHz bandwidth with very small size, washable (if using conductive thread for conductive parts) and flexible materials. Results in terms of bandwidth, radiation pattern, return loss as well as gain and efficiency are presented to validate the usefulness of the current proposed design. The work done here has many implications for future research and it could help patients with such flexible and comfortable medical monitoring techniques.

  13. MCNP6 Simulation of Reactions of Interest to FRIB, Medical, and Space Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Mashnik, Stepan G

    2014-01-01

    The latest, production, version of the Los Alamos Monte Carlo N-Particle transport code MCNP6 has been used to simulate a variety of particle-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus reactions of academic and applied interest to the Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB), medical isotope production, space-radiation shielding, cosmic-ray propagation, and accelerator applications, including several reactions induced by radioactive isotopes, analyzing production of both stable and radioactive residual nuclei. Here, we discuss examples of validation and verification of MCNP6 compared to recent neutron spectra measured at the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba, Japan; to spectra of light fragments from several reactions measured recently at GANIL, France; INFN Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania, Italy; COSY of the Julich Research Center, Germany; and to cross sections of products from several reactions measured lately at GSI, Darmstadt, Germany; ITEP, Moscow, Russia; LANSCE, LANL, Los Alamos, USA. As a rule, MCNP6 provi...

  14. Atomic layer deposition of TiO2 thin films on nanoporous alumina templates: Medical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Roger J.; Monteiro-Riviere, Nancy A.; Brigmon, Robin L.; Pellin, Michael J.; Elam, Jeffrey W.

    2009-06-01

    Nanostructured materials may play a significant role in controlled release of pharmacologic agents for treatment of cancer. Many nanoporous polymer materials are inadequate for use in drug delivery. Nanoporous alumina provides several advantages over other materials for use in controlled drug delivery and other medical applications. Atomic layer deposition was used to coat all the surfaces of a nanoporous alumina membrane in order to reduce the pore size in a controlled manner. Neither the 20 nm nor the 100 nm TiO2-coated nanoporous alumina membranes exhibited statistically lower viability compared to the uncoated nanoporous alumina membrane control materials. Nanostructured materials prepared using atomic layer deposition may be useful for delivering a pharmacologic agent at a precise rate to a specific location in the body. These materials may serve as the basis for “smart” drug delivery devices, orthopedic implants, or self-sterilizing medical devices.

  15. New trends in medical and service robots theory and integrated applications

    CERN Document Server

    Bleuler, Hannes; Rodic, Aleksandar; Vaida, Calin; Pisla, Adrian; First International Workshop on Medical and Service Robots

    2014-01-01

    This book contains mainly the selected papers of the First International Workshop on Medical and Service Robots, held in Cluj-Napoca, Romania, in 2012. The high quality of the scientific contributions is the result of a rigorous selection and improvement based on the participants’ exchange of opinions and extensive peer-review. This process has led to the publishing of the present collection of 16 independent valuable contributions and points of view and not as standard symposium or conference proceedings.  The addressed issues are: Computational Kinematics, Mechanism Design, Linkages and Manipulators, Mechanisms for Biomechanics, Mechanics of Robots, Control Issues for Mechanical Systems, Novel Designs, Teaching Methods, all of these being concentrated around robotic systems for medical and service applications.  The results are of interest to researchers and professional practitioners as well as to Ph.D. students in the field of mechanical and electrical engineering.  This volume marks the start of a s...

  16. Establishment and application of medication error classification standards in nursing care based on the International Classification of Patient Safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Ping Zhu

    2014-09-01

    Conclusion: Application of this classification system will help nursing administrators to accurately detect system- and process-related defects leading to medication errors, and enable the factors to be targeted to improve the level of patient safety management.

  17. Design and Implementation of a Laser-Based Ammonia Breath Sensor for Medical Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Owen, Kyle

    2012-06-01

    Laser-based sensors can be used as non-invasive monitoring tools to measure parts per billion (ppb) levels of trace gases. Ammonia sensors are useful for applications in environmental pollutant monitoring, atmospheric and combustion kinetic studies, and medical diagnostics. This sensor was specifically designed to measure ammonia in exhaled breath to be used as a medical diagnostic and monitoring tool, however, it can also be extended for use in other applications. Although ammonia is a naturally occurring species in exhaled breath, abnormally elevated levels can be an indication of adverse medical conditions. Laser-based breath diagnostics have many benefits since they are cost effective, non-invasive, painless, real time monitors. They have the potential to improve the quality of medical care by replacing currently used blood tests and providing immediate feedback to physicians. This sensor utilizes a Quantum Cascade Laser and Wavelength Modulation Spectroscopy with second harmonic normalized by first harmonic detection in a 76 m multi-pass absorption cell to measure ppb levels of ammonia with improved sensitivity over previous sensors. Initial measurements to determine the ammonia absorption line parameters were performed using direct absorption spectroscopy. This is the first experimental study of the ammonia absorption line transitions near 1103.46 cm1 with absorption spectroscopy. The linestrengths were measured with uncertainties less than 10%. The collisional broadening coefficients for each of the ammonia lines with nitrogen, oxygen, water vapor, and carbon dioxide were also measured, many of which had uncertainties less than 5%. The sensor was characterized to show a detectability limit of 10 ppb with an uncertainty of less than 5% at typical breath ammonia levels. Initial breath test results showed that some of the patients with chronic kidney disease had elevated ammonia levels while others had ammonia levels in the same range as expected for healthy

  18. Radiological protection, safety and security issues in the industrial and medical applications of radiation sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz, Pedro

    2015-11-01

    The use of radiation sources, namely radioactive sealed or unsealed sources and particle accelerators and beams is ubiquitous in the industrial and medical applications of ionizing radiation. Besides radiological protection of the workers, members of the public and patients in routine situations, the use of radiation sources involves several aspects associated to the mitigation of radiological or nuclear accidents and associated emergency situations. On the other hand, during the last decade security issues became burning issues due to the potential malevolent uses of radioactive sources for the perpetration of terrorist acts using RDD (Radiological Dispersal Devices), RED (Radiation Exposure Devices) or IND (Improvised Nuclear Devices). A stringent set of international legally and non-legally binding instruments, regulations, conventions and treaties regulate nowadays the use of radioactive sources. In this paper, a review of the radiological protection issues associated to the use of radiation sources in the industrial and medical applications of ionizing radiation is performed. The associated radiation safety issues and the prevention and mitigation of incidents and accidents are discussed. A comprehensive discussion of the security issues associated to the global use of radiation sources for the aforementioned applications and the inherent radiation detection requirements will be presented. Scientific, technical, legal, ethical, socio-economic issues are put forward and discussed.

  19. Role of Radiation Processing in Production of Hydrogels for Medical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Darwis

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Recently, hydrophilic polymer gel (hydrogel for application in medical fields has attracted much attention of researchers due to its unique properties which can resemble human living organs. Wound dressing, contact lenses and drug delivery system are among their applications in medical field. High energy radiation especially gamma ray and electron beam is often used for synthesis and modification of hydrogel. Through radiation crosslinking and or grafting process, hydrogel with specialty properties for specific application can be made. The advantage of radiation synthesized hydrogel over conventional methods is very pure products are obtained since the present of chemical initiators are not required; The preparation of sample does not require special sterile production rooms but still enables to obtain a sterile product; The irradiation process is easily controlled; Synthetis of new polymers and bulk or surface modification of commercial products can be accomplished with additional advantage of possibility of a concurrent sterilization. The future prospect of hydrogel seems to be in tissue engineering and diagnostic fields

  20. The effects of proton radiation on UHMWPE material properties for space flight and medical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Chad S.; Lucas, Eric M.; Marro, Justin A.; Kieu, Tri M.; DesJardins, John D.

    2011-11-01

    Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene (UHMWPE) is a polymer widely used as a radiation shielding material in space flight applications and as a bearing material in total joint replacements. As a long chain hydrocarbon based polymer, UHMWPE's material properties are influenced by radiation exposure, and prior studies show that gamma irradiation is effective for both medical sterilization and increased wear resistance in total joint replacement applications. However, the effects of space flight radiation types and doses on UHMWPE material properties are poorly understood. In this study, three clinically relevant grades of UHMWPE (GUR 1020, GUR 1050, and GUR 1020 blended with Vitamin E) were proton irradiated and tested for differences in material properties. Each of the three types of UHMWPE was irradiated at nominal doses of 0 Gy (control), 5 Gy, 10 Gy, 20 Gy, and 35 Gy. Following irradiation, uniaxial tensile testing and thermal testing using Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA) were performed. Results show small but significant changes in several material properties between the control (0 Gy) and 35 Gy samples, indicating that proton irradiation could have a effect on the long term performance of UHMWPE in both medical and space flight applications.

  1. Evaluation of the Segmentation by Multispectral Fusion Approach with Adaptive Operators : Application to Medical Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamiche Chaabane

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available With the development of acquisition image techniques, more and more image data from different sources of image become available. Multi-modality image fusion seeks to combine information from different images to obtain more inferences than can be derived from a single modality. In medical imaging based application fields, image fusion has emerged as a promising research area since the end of the last century. The paper presents the evaluation of the segmentation of MR images using the multispectral fusion approach in the possibility theory context . Some results are presented and discussed.

  2. Provisioning of medical quality of services for HSDPA and mobile WiMAX in healthcare applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Istepanian, Robert H; Philip, Nada Y

    2009-01-01

    Mobile healthcare, or m-health, is an evolutionary concept that provides both mobility and an 'always connected' healthcare functionality. The development of this concept depends on how best the available bandwidth in (HSDPA/HSUPA) and emerging (Mobile WiMAX) networks can be correlated with the relevant medical quality of services issues. In this paper we address and discuss some of these issues and challenges. We also provide an example of a bandwidth demanding application to verify such provision mechanisms. PMID:19963726

  3. [The application of forensic medical knowledge for the reconstruction of historical events].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalev, A V; Molin, Yu A; Gorshkov, A N; Smolyanitsky, A G; Mazurova, E A; Vorontsov, G A

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to summarize the results of many year investigations on the application of forensic medical methods and experience for the reconstruction of historical events including identification of the ancient Russian saints' hallows and statesmen's remains, elucidation of the genuine causes of death of the members of the Russian Imperial House of Romanovs based on the recently discovered archival materials, restoration of the character of the injuries suffered by Aleksander II, M.I. Kutuzov, P. Demidov, G. Gapon., and G. Rasputin, the attribution A.S. Pushkin's memorial belongings based on the biological traces, and the like.

  4. Mechanical and corrosion properties of binary Mg-Dy alloys for medical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Lei, E-mail: lei.yang@hzg.de [Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht, Institute of Materials Research, Max-Planck-Str. 1, D-21502 Geesthacht (Germany); Huang Yuanding; Peng Qiuming; Feyerabend, Frank; Kainer, Karl Ulrich; Willumeit, Regine; Hort, Norbert [Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht, Institute of Materials Research, Max-Planck-Str. 1, D-21502 Geesthacht (Germany)

    2011-12-15

    Microstructure, mechanical and corrosion properties of binary magnesium-dysprosium (Mg-5, 10, 15, 20 wt.% Dy) alloys were investigated for medical applications. In the as-cast condition, the distribution of Dy is quite inhomogeneous. Mg-10Dy alloy exhibits a moderate tensile and compression yield strength, and the best elongation and corrosion resistance. After T4 (solutionizing) treatment, the distribution of Dy becomes homogeneous. The tensile and compression yield strength of all Mg-Dy alloys decreases. The elongation remains unchanged, while the corrosion resistance is largely improved after T4 treatment.

  5. Development of a PVA Hydrogel for Bioprosthetic Heart Valve Stent and Other Medical Applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Z.F.Zhang; A.J.Hui; D.R.Boughner; G.Campbell; W.K.Wan

    2000-01-01

    Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) hydrogel (15%w/w) was processed by freezing and thawing from one through six thermal cycles to obtain wide range of mechanical properties. The materials were tested under uniaxial tension and results show that matching mechanical properties to that of porcine aortic root can be achieved. A fatigue machine for elastomer materials and tissues was built and fatigue test on PVA sample was carried out. The test results show that the PVA has good fatigue property. The stent prototype was designed and successfully made by mold casting method. Some potential medical applications are discussed.

  6. Non-linear quantization for arbitrary distributions and applications to Medical Image Processing

    CERN Document Server

    Tannous, C

    2002-01-01

    We report the development of a scalar quantization approach that helps build tables of decision and reconstruction levels for any probability density function (pdf). Several example pdf's are used for illustration: Uniform, Gaussian, Laplace, one-sided Rayleigh, and Gamma (One sided and double-sided symmetrical). The main applications of the methodology are principally aimed at Multiresolution Image compression where generally the Stretched Exponential pdf is encountered. Specialising to this important case, we perform quantization and information entropy calculations from selected medical MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) pictures of the human brain. The image histograms are fitted to a Stretched exponential model and the corresponding entropies are compared.

  7. A standard CMOS high-voltage transmitter for ultrasound medical imaging applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Hyouk-Kyu

    2014-03-01

    A high-voltage (HV) transmitter for ultrasound medical imaging applications is designed using 0.18-µm CMOS (complementary metal oxide semiconductor) technology. The proposed HV transmitter achieves high integration by employing standard CMOS transistors in a stacked configuration with dynamic gate biasing circuit while successfully driving the capacitive output load with an HV pulse without device breakdown reliability issues. The HV transmitter, which includes the output driver and voltage level-shifters, generates up to 30-Vp-p pulses at 1.25 MHz frequency and occupies 0.035 mm² of layout area.

  8. Current Trends on Medical and Pharmaceutical Applications of Inkjet Printing Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scoutaris, Nicolaos; Ross, Steven; Douroumis, Dennis

    2016-08-01

    Inkjet printing is an attractive material deposition and patterning technology that has received significant attention in the recent years. It has been exploited for novel applications including high throughput screening, pharmaceutical formulations, medical devices and implants. Moreover, inkjet printing has been implemented in cutting-edge 3D-printing healthcare areas such as tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Recent inkjet advances enabled 3D printing of artificial cartilage and skin, or cell constructs for transplantation therapies. In the coming years inkjet printing is anticipated to revolutionize personalized medicine and push the innovation portfolio by offering new paths in patient - specific treatments. PMID:27174300

  9. Use of modulated excitation signals in ultrasound. Part II: Design and performance for medical imaging applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Misaridis, Thanassis; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2005-01-01

    For pt.I, see ibid., vol.52, no.2, p.177-91 (2005). In the first paper, the superiority of linear FM signals was shown in terms of signal-to-noise ratio and robustness to tissue attenuation. This second paper in the series of three papers on the application of coded excitation signals in medical....... The method is evaluated first for resolution performance and axial sidelobes through simulations with the program Field II. A coded excitation ultrasound imaging system based on a commercial scanner and a 4 MHz probe driven by coded sequences is presented and used for the clinical evaluation of the coded...

  10. Methods for producing Cu-67 radioisotope with use of a ceramic capsule for medical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehst, David A.; Willit, James L.

    2016-04-12

    The present invention provides a method for producing Cu67 radioisotope suitable for use in medical applications. The method comprises irradiating a metallic zinc-68 (Zn68) target within a sealed ceramic capsule with a high energy gamma ray beam. After irradiation, the Cu67 is isolated from the Zn68 by any suitable method (e.g. chemical and or physical separation). In a preferred embodiment, the Cu67 is isolated by sublimation of the zinc in a ceramic sublimation tube to afford a copper residue containing Cu67. The Cu67 can be further purified by chemical means.

  11. High duty-cycle, high-efficiency QCW stacks for medical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindsvater, A.; Schröder, M.; Werner, E.; Seidel, S.; Wölz, M.; Loyo-Maldonado, V.

    2016-03-01

    Laser stacks emitting short light pulses are ideally suited for medical and cosmetic applications. Developing enhanced, stable and reliable assembly processes, Jenoptik is reaching for higher energy densities and lower manufacturing costs. In this paper an improved technology for actively cooled QCW stacks is presented. Based on simulations and experimental data, the impacts on the laser stack performance are described and shown as power-current and thermal impedance plots. We show that the bar-to-bar pitch can be reduced from 1.7 mm to 1.2 mm without detrimental thermal effects for pulse durations up to 100 ms.

  12. Application of RFID technology in patient tracking and medication traceability in emergency care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Pérez, María; Cabrero-Canosa, Mariano; Vizoso Hermida, José; Carrajo García, Lino; Llamas Gómez, Daniel; Vázquez González, Guillermo; Martín Herranz, Isabel

    2012-12-01

    One of the most important factors that directly affects the quality of health care is patient safety. Minimize the occurrence of adverse events is one of the main challenges for health professionals. This requires continuous tracking of the patient by different areas and services, a process known as traceability and proper patient identification and medication prescribed. This article presents an information system for patient tracking and drugs developed for the Emergency Department of Hospital A Coruña. The systems use RFID technology to perform various tasks: (1) locate patients in different areas; (2) measure patient care times and waiting times; (3) identify unitary doses of medication; and (4) ensure the correct matching between the patient and the medication prescribed by the doctor. The hardware infrastructure as well as the optimal configuration of devices interconnected via a wireless network was determined by conducting a detailed coverage study. To support all the functionality needed, specific tools were designed and integrated with proprietary software applications. The RFID system was evaluated positively by staff from different professional profiles involved in its development or subsequent implementation.

  13. Application of medical physical culture at extensive superficial burns of the I–II degree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vjacheslav Meleshkov

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to study and prove purpose of medical physical culture at extensive superficial burns of the I–II degree for normalization of exchange processes, the prevention of the developments of stagnation connected with the compelled decrease in physical activity. Materials and Methods: analysis and generalization of scientific and methodical literature. Results: the main means of physical rehabilitation – medical physical culture is considered; its application at treatment of patients with extensive superficial burns of the I–II degree is proved; techniques of medical physical culture in the period of little burn shock and in the period of a sharp toksemy are described in detail. Conclusions: it is established that occupation duration remedial gymnastics depends on a condition of the patient and objectives. In each occupation the all-strengthening, breathing and special exercises, as a rule, have to be applied. The most important feature of a technique of occupations at a burn disease is need of repeated performance during the day of the special exercises directed on prevention or elimination of malfunction of the musculoskeletal device

  14. Algorithms for Image Analysis and Combination of Pattern Classifiers with Application to Medical Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiou, Harris

    2009-10-01

    Medical Informatics and the application of modern signal processing in the assistance of the diagnostic process in medical imaging is one of the more recent and active research areas today. This thesis addresses a variety of issues related to the general problem of medical image analysis, specifically in mammography, and presents a series of algorithms and design approaches for all the intermediate levels of a modern system for computer-aided diagnosis (CAD). The diagnostic problem is analyzed with a systematic approach, first defining the imaging characteristics and features that are relevant to probable pathology in mammo-grams. Next, these features are quantified and fused into new, integrated radio-logical systems that exhibit embedded digital signal processing, in order to improve the final result and minimize the radiological dose for the patient. In a higher level, special algorithms are designed for detecting and encoding these clinically interest-ing imaging features, in order to be used as input to advanced pattern classifiers and machine learning models. Finally, these approaches are extended in multi-classifier models under the scope of Game Theory and optimum collective deci-sion, in order to produce efficient solutions for combining classifiers with minimum computational costs for advanced diagnostic systems. The material covered in this thesis is related to a total of 18 published papers, 6 in scientific journals and 12 in international conferences.

  15. Applications of the Generalized X-ray Diffraction Enhanced Imaging in the Medical Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksimenko, Anton; Hashimoto, Eiko; Ando, Masami; Sugiyama, Hiroshi

    2007-01-01

    The X-ray Diffraction Enhanced Imaging (DEI) is the analyzer-based X-ray imaging technique which allows extraction of the "pure refraction" and "apparent absorption" contrasts from two images taken on the opposite sides of the rocking curve of the analyzing crystal. The refraction contrast obtained by this method shows many advantages over conventional absorption contrast. It was successfully applied in medicine, technique and other fields of science. However, information provided by the method is rather qualitative than quantitative. This happens because either side of the rocking curve of the analyzer is approximated as a straight line what limits the ranges of applicability and introduces additional error. One can easily overcome this problem considering the rocking curve as is instead of it's Taylor's expansion. This report is dedicated to the application of this idea in medical imaging and especially computed tomography based on the refraction contrast. The results obtained via both methods are presented and compared.

  16. Neural Mechanisms of Inhibitory Response in a Battlefield Scenario: A Simultaneous fMRI-EEG Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Li-Wei; Shih, Yi-Cheng; Chikara, Rupesh Kumar; Chuang, Ya-Ting; Chang, Erik C.

    2016-01-01

    The stop-signal paradigm has been widely adopted as a way to parametrically quantify the response inhibition process. To evaluate inhibitory function in realistic environmental settings, the current study compared stop-signal responses in two different scenarios: one uses simple visual symbols as go and stop signals, and the other translates the typical design into a battlefield scenario (BFS) where a sniper-scope view was the background, a terrorist image was the go signal, a hostage image was the stop signal, and the task instructions were to shoot at terrorists only when hostages were not present but to refrain from shooting if hostages appeared. The BFS created a threatening environment and allowed the evaluation of how participants’ inhibitory control manifest in this realistic stop-signal task. In order to investigate the participants’ brain activities with both high spatial and temporal resolution, simultaneous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and electroencephalography (EEG) recordings were acquired. The results demonstrated that both scenarios induced increased activity in the right inferior frontal gyrus (rIFG) and presupplementary motor area (preSMA), which have been linked to response inhibition. Notably, in right temporoparietal junction (rTPJ) we found both higher blood-oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) activation and synchronization of theta-alpha activities (4–12 Hz) in the BFS than in the traditional scenario after the stop signal. The higher activation of rTPJ in the BFS may be related to morality judgments or attentional reorienting. These results provided new insights into the complex brain networks involved in inhibitory control within naturalistic environments. PMID:27199708

  17. QuickStrike ASOC Battlefield Simulation: Preparing the War Fighter to Win

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Richard L.

    2010-01-01

    The QuickStrike ASOC (Air Support Operations Center) Battlefield Simulation fills a crucial gap in USAF and United Kingdom Close Air Support (CAS) and airspace manager training. The system now provides six squadrons with the capability to conduct total-mission training events whenever the personnel and time are available. When the 111th ASOC returned from their first deployment to Afghanistan they realized the training available prior to deployment was inadequate. They sought an organic training capability focused on the ASOC mission that was low cost, simple to use, adaptable, and available now. Using a commercial off-the-shelf simulation, they developed a complete training system by adapting the simulation to their training needs. Through more than two years of spiral development, incorporating lessons learned, the system has matured, and can now realistically replicate the Tactical Operations Center (TOC) in Kabul, Afghanistan, the TOC supporting the mission in Iraq, or can expand to support a major conflict scenario. The training system provides a collaborative workspace for the training audience and exercise control group via integrated software and workstations that can easily adapt to new mission reqUirements and TOC configurations. The system continues to mature. Based on inputs from the war fighter, new capabilities have been incorporated to add realism and simplify the scenario development process. The QuickStrike simulation can now import TBMCS Air Tasking Order air mission data and can provide air and ground tracks to a common operating picture; presented through either C2PC or JADOCS. This oranic capability to practice team processes and tasks and to conduct mission rehearsals proved its value in the 111 h ASOS's next deployment. The ease of scenario development and the simple to learn and intuitive gamelike interface enables the squadrons to develop and share scenarios incorporating lessons learned from every deployment. These war fighters have now

  18. Utility of admission physiology in the surgical triage of isolated ballistic battlefield torso trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan J Morrison

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: An assessment of hemodynamic stability is central to surgical decision-making in the management of battlefield ballistic torso trauma (BBTT. Aims: To analyse the utility of admission physiological parameters in characterising hemodynamic stability. Settings and Design: A retrospective analysis of consecutive admissions, with BBTT, to forward surgical facility in Afghanistan. Materials and Methods: The cohorts′ admission physiology, need for operative intervention, and mortality data were collected retrospectively. The cohort was divided into patients requiring surgery for Life-Threatening Torso Hemorrhage (LTTH and those not requiring immediate surgery (non-LTTH. Statistical Analysis: Parameters were compared using two sample t tests, Mann-Whitney, Fisher′s exact, and Chi-square tests. Receiver operator characteristic curves were used to identify significant parameters and determine optimum cut-off values. Results: A total of 103 patients with isolated BBTT were identified: 44 in the LTTH group and 59 in the non-LTTH group. The mean New Injury Severity Score ± Standard Deviation (NISS±SD was 28±14 and 13±12, respectively. The heart rate, systolic blood pressure (SBP, pulse pressure, shock index (SI=heart rate/SBP and base excess were analysed. SI correlated best with the need for surgical torso hemorrhage control, P<0.05. An optimal cut-off of 0.9 was identified, producing a positive and negative predictive value of 81% and 82%, respectively. Conclusions: Shock index (SI is a useful parameter for helping military surgeons triage BBTT, identifying patients requiring operative torso hemorrhage control. SI performance requires a normal physiological response to hypovolemia, and thus should always be considered in clinical context.

  19. Crataegus monogyna Jacq. and C. oxyacantha L. Medical applications of quercetin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Chwil

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The genus Crataegus L. is one of the most numerous genus in the plants’ world, including more than 1200 species. The most common is hawthorn monogyna (C. monogyna Jacq.. The specie is native to Europe, northern Africa and Southwestern Asia. It is common for polish flora. C. oxyacantha L. (syn. C. laevigata (Poir. DC. is rare to Poland, mostly found among the Vistula valley and the San valley. The aim of the present study was the analysis of the impact of quercetin on humans organisms, contained in the flowers of two species of Crataegus, as well as its medical applications. Flowers of mentioned species contain quercetin. Quercetin, is a plant-derived flavonoid, which with its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties has many medical applications. It has been effectively used against a wide variety of diseases and therapies. Due to its protective mechanisms it induces cardioprotection against doxorubicin, which is commonly used to treat neoplasms. Moreover quercetin inhibits the cytochrome P-450 – the subfamily of CYP1A enzymes involved in the activation of many carcinogens, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and heterocyclic amines. The antimicrobial and antiinflammatory properties of quercetin were evaluated positively against Helicobacter pylori, as well as against viral proliferation (Polio, Herpes simplex. More than that, the substance was found to be antiallergenic by inhibition of inflammatory activity of mast cells and basophiles.

  20. Nanostructured Titanium-10 wt% 45S5 Bioglass-Ag Composite Foams for Medical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Jurczyk

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents an investigation on the effectiveness of nanostructured titanium-10 wt% 45S5 Bioglass-1 wt% Ag composite foams as a novel class of antibacterial materials for medical applications. The Ti-based composite foams were prepared by the combination of mechanical alloying and a “space-holder” sintering process. In the first step, the Ti-10 wt% 45S5 Bioglass-1 wt% Ag powder synthesized by mechanical alloying and annealing mixed with 1.0 mm diameter of saccharose crystals was finally compacted in the form of pellets. In the next step, the saccharose crystals were dissolved in water, leaving open spaces surrounded by metallic-bioceramic scaffold. The sintering of the scaffold leads to foam formation. It was found that 1:1 Ti-10 wt% 45S5 Bioglass-1 wt% Ag/sugar ratio leads to porosities of about 70% with pore diameter of about 0.3–1.1 mm. The microstructure, corrosion resistance in Ringer’s solution of the produced foams were investigated. The value of the compression strength for the Ti-10 wt% 45S5 Bioglass-1 wt% Ag foam with 70% porosity was 1.5 MPa and the Young’s modulus was 34 MPa. Silver modified Ti-10 wt% 45S5 Bioglass composites possess excellent antibacterial activities against Staphylococcus aureus. Porous Ti-10 wt% 45S5 Bioglass-1 wt% foam could be a possible candidate for medical implants applications.

  1. Fabrication and characterizations of thin film metallic glasses: Antibacterial property and durability study for medical application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, Jinn P., E-mail: jpchu@mail.ntust.edu.tw [Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei 10607, Taiwan (China); Liu, Tz-Yah; Li, Chia-Lin; Wang, Chen-Hao [Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei 10607, Taiwan (China); Jang, Jason S.C. [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, National Taiwan Central University, Jhongli 32001, Taiwan (China); Chen, Ming-Jen; Chang, Shih-Hsin; Huang, Wen-Chien [Mackay Memorial Hospital, Taipei 10449, Taiwan (China)

    2014-06-30

    Metallic glasses with the disordered atomic structure have unique properties of high strength, high toughness, good corrosion and abrasion resistances. These materials are thus potentially useful for medical application. In this work, we evaluate the antibacterial property and durability of materials sputter-coated with Zr-based (Zr{sub 53}Cu{sub 33}Al{sub 9}Ta{sub 5}) and Cu-based (Cu{sub 48}Zr{sub 42}Ti{sub 4}Al{sub 6}) thin film metallic glasses (TFMGs). Good adhesive coating of Zr-based TFMG on the dermatome gives rise to blade sharpness improvement of ∼ 27%, substantial surface roughness reduction of ∼ 66% and smoother incised wound on the pig skin. As compared to 48.8° on the bare Si wafer, the water contact angles of 119.5° and 106.6° for Zr- and Cu-based TFMGs, respectively, reveal the hydrophobic characteristic of the coated surfaces. The bacterial adhesion of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus to both Zr- and Cu-based TFMGs is hindered to different extents. - Highlights: • Thin film metallic glass (TFMG) coatings are evaluated for medical application. • Good adhesive TFMG on the dermatome yields blade sharpness improvement of ∼ 27%. • A reduction of ∼ 66% in surface roughness is observed after coating with TFMG. • Water contact angle measurement reveals the hydrophobic characteristic for TFMGs. • Bacterial adhesion of E. coli and S. aureus to TFMGs is hindered.

  2. Biodegradable poly lactone-family polymer and their applications in medical field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poly lactone-family polymers such as poly lactide, poly glycolide and polycaprolactone are kind aliphatic polyester. Since they can degrade by hydrolysis reaction under all the ph condition and possess biocompatibility, biodegradability and other good properties, especially they included not peptide bond in their molecules, they are non-antigen and non-immunization, as well as have no-toxicity and no-stimulation. So they are interested biomaterials and very useful in medical field. However the properties of all of the homo-poly lactones can not be changed in a large range, the limited properties result in limited applications of these homo-poly lactones. Based on macromolecular design, a series of copolylactones such as poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA), poly(glycolide-co-lactide-co-caprolactone) tri- component copolymer (PGLC), tri- and multi-block poly lactide/poly(ethylene oxide) copolymer (TPLE and BPLE), as well as polycaprolactone/poly lactide/poly(ethylene oxide) copolymer (PCEL) et al were synthesized by copolymerization among various lactone monomers or lactone monomers with poly(ethylene glycol). These copolylactones have wide range of degradation life from several months to years and different mechanical properties. After plasma treatment the surface property of the copolylactones were improved further and cell affinity of the copolylactones was improved obviously. The applications of these poly lactone-family polymers in medical field for used as drug carrier in drug delivery system, and as cell scaffold in tissue engineering were discussed

  3. Fabrication and characterizations of thin film metallic glasses: Antibacterial property and durability study for medical application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metallic glasses with the disordered atomic structure have unique properties of high strength, high toughness, good corrosion and abrasion resistances. These materials are thus potentially useful for medical application. In this work, we evaluate the antibacterial property and durability of materials sputter-coated with Zr-based (Zr53Cu33Al9Ta5) and Cu-based (Cu48Zr42Ti4Al6) thin film metallic glasses (TFMGs). Good adhesive coating of Zr-based TFMG on the dermatome gives rise to blade sharpness improvement of ∼ 27%, substantial surface roughness reduction of ∼ 66% and smoother incised wound on the pig skin. As compared to 48.8° on the bare Si wafer, the water contact angles of 119.5° and 106.6° for Zr- and Cu-based TFMGs, respectively, reveal the hydrophobic characteristic of the coated surfaces. The bacterial adhesion of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus to both Zr- and Cu-based TFMGs is hindered to different extents. - Highlights: • Thin film metallic glass (TFMG) coatings are evaluated for medical application. • Good adhesive TFMG on the dermatome yields blade sharpness improvement of ∼ 27%. • A reduction of ∼ 66% in surface roughness is observed after coating with TFMG. • Water contact angle measurement reveals the hydrophobic characteristic for TFMGs. • Bacterial adhesion of E. coli and S. aureus to TFMGs is hindered

  4. Medical Application of Free Electron Laser Trasmittance using Hollow Optical Fiber

    CERN Document Server

    Suzuki, Sachiko; Ishii, Katsonuri

    2004-01-01

    Mid-infrared Free Electron Laser (FEL) is expected as new application for biomedical surgery. However, delivery of MIR-FEL into the body is difficult because the common glass optical fibers have strong absorption at MIR region. A good operational and flexible line for FEL is required at medical field. A Hollow optical fiber is developed for IR laser and high-power laser delivery. We evaluated the fiber for FEL transmission line. This fiber is coated with cyclic olefin polymer (COP) and silver thin film on the inside of glass capillary tube. It is 700 μm-bore and 1m in lengths. The fiber transmission loss of the measured wavelength region of 5.5 μm to 12 μm is less than 1dB/m when the fiber is straight and 1.2 dB/m when bent to radius of 20 cm. Additionally, the output beam profile and the pulse structure is not so different form incidence beam. In conclusion, the fiber is suitable for delivery of the FEL energy for applications in medical and laser surgery.

  5. Smartphone Medical Applications for Women’s Health: What Is the Evidence-Base and Feedback?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Derbyshire

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Smartphone medical applications have a major role to play in women’s health with their roles being very broad, ranging from improving health behaviours to undertaking personalised tests. Objective(s. Using Medline, Web of Knowledge, and the PRISMA guidelines 15 randomized controlled trials (RCTs were identified, with mobile interventions being tested on 1603 females, in relation to key aspects of health. Using a similar systematic approach an iPhone database search identified 47 applications (apps developed to improve women’s health. Findings. Ten RCTs used text messaging or app interventions to support weight loss, with significant improvements being observed in eight studies. For other aspects of women’s health RCTs are needed to determine possible health benefits. iPhone store data analysis identified that a substantial number of women’s health apps did not have star ratings or feedback comments (68 and 49 per cent, resp., raising concerns about their validity. Conclusion. Peer-review systems, supporting statements of evidence, or certification standards would be beneficial in maintaining the quality and credibility of future health-focused apps. Patient groups should also ideally be involved in the development and testing of mobile medical apps.

  6. The Evolution and Role Changes of The Australian Military Medic: A Review of The Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Kristina Griffin

    2014-01-01

    Many ancient armies tried to reduce morbidity and mortality on the battlefield through the provision of first aid, the objective of this aid being to prevent further injury and relieve pain until medical help arrived, with the foundation of organised and trained first aid having its origins in this military environment (1). The most successful were the Romans, under Emperor Augustus (63BC-18AD), who developed advanced military medical services to support their legions (2). Included in these ...

  7. Modeling and simulation of multi-physics multi-scale transport phenomenain bio-medical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a short overview of some of our most recent work that combines the mathematical modeling, advanced computer simulations and state-of-the-art experimental techniques of physical transport phenomena in various bio-medical applications. In the first example, we tackle predictions of complex blood flow patterns in the patient-specific vascular system (carotid artery bifurcation) and transfer of the so-called 'bad' cholesterol (low-density lipoprotein, LDL) within the multi-layered artery wall. This two-way coupling between the blood flow and corresponding mass transfer of LDL within the artery wall is essential for predictions of regions where atherosclerosis can develop. It is demonstrated that a recently developed mathematical model, which takes into account the complex multi-layer arterial-wall structure, produced LDL profiles within the artery wall in good agreement with in-vivo experiments in rabbits, and it can be used for predictions of locations where the initial stage of development of atherosclerosis may take place. The second example includes a combination of pulsating blood flow and medical drug delivery and deposition controlled by external magnetic field gradients in the patient specific carotid artery bifurcation. The results of numerical simulations are compared with own PIV (Particle Image Velocimetry) and MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) in the PDMS (silicon-based organic polymer) phantom. A very good agreement between simulations and experiments is obtained for different stages of the pulsating cycle. Application of the magnetic drug targeting resulted in an increase of up to ten fold in the efficiency of local deposition of the medical drug at desired locations. Finally, the LES (Large Eddy Simulation) of the aerosol distribution within the human respiratory system that includes up to eight bronchial generations is performed. A very good agreement between simulations and MRV (Magnetic Resonance Velocimetry) measurements is

  8. Modeling and simulation of multi-physics multi-scale transport phenomenain bio-medical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenjereš, Saša

    2014-08-01

    We present a short overview of some of our most recent work that combines the mathematical modeling, advanced computer simulations and state-of-the-art experimental techniques of physical transport phenomena in various bio-medical applications. In the first example, we tackle predictions of complex blood flow patterns in the patient-specific vascular system (carotid artery bifurcation) and transfer of the so-called "bad" cholesterol (low-density lipoprotein, LDL) within the multi-layered artery wall. This two-way coupling between the blood flow and corresponding mass transfer of LDL within the artery wall is essential for predictions of regions where atherosclerosis can develop. It is demonstrated that a recently developed mathematical model, which takes into account the complex multi-layer arterial-wall structure, produced LDL profiles within the artery wall in good agreement with in-vivo experiments in rabbits, and it can be used for predictions of locations where the initial stage of development of atherosclerosis may take place. The second example includes a combination of pulsating blood flow and medical drug delivery and deposition controlled by external magnetic field gradients in the patient specific carotid artery bifurcation. The results of numerical simulations are compared with own PIV (Particle Image Velocimetry) and MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) in the PDMS (silicon-based organic polymer) phantom. A very good agreement between simulations and experiments is obtained for different stages of the pulsating cycle. Application of the magnetic drug targeting resulted in an increase of up to ten fold in the efficiency of local deposition of the medical drug at desired locations. Finally, the LES (Large Eddy Simulation) of the aerosol distribution within the human respiratory system that includes up to eight bronchial generations is performed. A very good agreement between simulations and MRV (Magnetic Resonance Velocimetry) measurements is obtained

  9. Interpretation of medical imaging data with a mobile application: a mobile digital imaging processing environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Kuan eLin

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Digital Imaging Processing (DIP requires data extraction and output from a visualization tool to be consistent. Data handling and transmission between the server and a user is a systematic process in service interpretation. The use of integrated medical services for management and viewing of imaging data in combination with a mobile visualization tool can be greatly facilitated by data analysis and interpretation. This paper presents an integrated mobile application and digital imaging processing service, called M-DIP. The objective of the system is to (1 automate the direct data tiling, conversion, pre-tiling of brain images from Medical Imaging NetCDF (MINC, Neuroimaging Informatics Technology Initiative (NIFTI to RAW formats; (2 speed up querying of imaging measurement; and (3 display high level of images with three dimensions in real world coordinates. In addition, M-DIP provides the ability to work on a mobile or tablet device without any software installation using web-based protocols. M-DIP implements three levels of architecture with a relational middle- layer database, a stand-alone DIP server and a mobile application logic middle level realizing user interpretation for direct querying and communication. This imaging software has the ability to display biological imaging data a multiple zoom levels and to increase its quality to meet users expectations. Interpretation of bioimaging data is facilitated by an interface analogous to online mapping services using real world coordinate browsing. This allows mobile devices to display multiple datasets simultaneously from a remote site. M-DIP can be used as a measurement repository that can be accessed by any network environment, such as a portable mobile or tablet device. In addition, this system and combination with mobile applications are establishing a virtualization tool in the neuroinformatics field to speed interpretation services.

  10. Iron-oxide-supported nanocarbon in lithium-ion batteries, medical, catalytic, and environmental applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuček, Jiří; Kemp, Kingsley Christian; Kim, Kwang Soo; Zbořil, Radek

    2014-08-26

    Owing to the three different orbital hybridizations carbon can adopt, the existence of various carbon nanoallotropes differing also in dimensionality has been already affirmed with other structures predicted and expected to emerge in the future. Despite numerous unique features and applications of 2D graphene, 1D carbon nanotubes, or 0D fullerenes, nanodiamonds, and carbon quantum dots, which have been already heavily explored, any of the existing carbon allotropes do not offer competitive magnetic properties. For challenging applications, carbon nanoallotropes are functionalized with magnetic species, especially of iron oxide nature, due to their interesting magnetic properties (superparamagnetism and strong magnetic response under external magnetic fields), easy availability, biocompatibility, and low cost. In addition, combination of iron oxides (magnetite, maghemite, hematite) and carbon nanostructures brings enhanced electrochemical performance and (photo)catalytic capability due to synergetic and cooperative effects. This work aims at reviewing these advanced applications of iron-oxide-supported nanocarbon composites where iron oxides play a diverse role. Various architectures of carbon/iron oxide nanocomposites, their synthetic procedures, physicochemical properties, and applications are discussed in details. A special attention is devoted to hybrids of carbon nanotubes and rare forms (mesoporous carbon, nanofoam) with magnetic iron oxide carriers for advanced environmental technologies. The review also covers the huge application potential of graphene/iron oxide nanocomposites in the field of energy storage, biomedicine, and remediation of environment. Among various discussed medical applications, magnetic composites of zero-dimensional fullerenes and carbon dots are emphasized as promising candidates for complex theranostics and dual magneto-fluorescence imaging.

  11. Iron-oxide-supported nanocarbon in lithium-ion batteries, medical, catalytic, and environmental applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuček, Jiří; Kemp, Kingsley Christian; Kim, Kwang Soo; Zbořil, Radek

    2014-08-26

    Owing to the three different orbital hybridizations carbon can adopt, the existence of various carbon nanoallotropes differing also in dimensionality has been already affirmed with other structures predicted and expected to emerge in the future. Despite numerous unique features and applications of 2D graphene, 1D carbon nanotubes, or 0D fullerenes, nanodiamonds, and carbon quantum dots, which have been already heavily explored, any of the existing carbon allotropes do not offer competitive magnetic properties. For challenging applications, carbon nanoallotropes are functionalized with magnetic species, especially of iron oxide nature, due to their interesting magnetic properties (superparamagnetism and strong magnetic response under external magnetic fields), easy availability, biocompatibility, and low cost. In addition, combination of iron oxides (magnetite, maghemite, hematite) and carbon nanostructures brings enhanced electrochemical performance and (photo)catalytic capability due to synergetic and cooperative effects. This work aims at reviewing these advanced applications of iron-oxide-supported nanocarbon composites where iron oxides play a diverse role. Various architectures of carbon/iron oxide nanocomposites, their synthetic procedures, physicochemical properties, and applications are discussed in details. A special attention is devoted to hybrids of carbon nanotubes and rare forms (mesoporous carbon, nanofoam) with magnetic iron oxide carriers for advanced environmental technologies. The review also covers the huge application potential of graphene/iron oxide nanocomposites in the field of energy storage, biomedicine, and remediation of environment. Among various discussed medical applications, magnetic composites of zero-dimensional fullerenes and carbon dots are emphasized as promising candidates for complex theranostics and dual magneto-fluorescence imaging. PMID:25000534

  12. Healthcare on the Battlefield : in search of a legal and ethical framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toebes, Brigit

    2014-01-01

    During armed conflicts healthcare workers or medical personnel often work under extremely difficult and dangerous circumstances. In such situations doctors and nurses, hospitals and medical units are at a serious risk of being attacked. Medical personnel also face complex ethical dilemmas when it co

  13. The Medical Staff Ride: an education tool for military medical leadership development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bricknell, Martin C M

    2016-08-01

    This paper provides a description of the Medical Staff Ride as an educational tool for military medical leadership. It is based upon two Medical Staff Rides covering the Somme Campaign 1916 and the Normandy Campaign 1944. It describes the key educational activity 'The Stand' at which history and current issues are brought together through study of a particular location on the historical battlefield. The Medical Staff Ride can be divided into six distinct phases, each of which have common question sets for analysis by attendees. The Medical Staff Ride can be shown to have valuable educational outcomes that are efficient in time and cost, and effective in achieving personal learning. The supporting Readers for the two Medical Staff Rides covered by this paper are available as electronic supplement to this edition of the journal. PMID:26115999

  14. Application of Web 2.0 Tools in Medical Librarianship to Support Medicine 2.0

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Vishwa Mohan

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available It is almost a decade that social networking technology along with its tools such as blogs, wikis, slidesharing/videosharing and photosharing softwares, podcasts, RSS feeds, mashups, folksonomies, and bookmarks has developed its influence on all human fields of study/activity. It is obvious that these tools are increasingly growing, in different languages, regions and fields, due to social dynamic and liberal characteristic of Web 2.0 technologies. Medical sciences and library science also are not exception to this influence. Consequently, library 2.0 and newly coined concepts of Medicine 2.0, and Health 2.0 have become the buzzwords in the Internet culture. In spite of proliferation of such social tools listed above, there is no aggregation and harmony for the utilization of the potential of these technologies in specific subject areas and the sources of information on the Web is almost proliferating and uncontrolled. This gives rise to the problem of webliographic control due to which the information seekers find difficulties in information retrieval. The paper presents application of Web 2.0 in medical libraries to support Medicine 2.0 emphasizing the above-mentioned problems. Considering the nature of an original article the experience of the authors, as a medical librarian and a faculty member in Library and Information Science, through observation of the needs, problems and prospects, played an important role in forming the idea and presentation. The study also used secondary data collected from related literatures. Standardization and webliographic control would solve the problem. In addition, governmental support and creating awareness at the management level in the organizations is also crucial.

  15. Ionizing and non Ionizing radiation damage in a large area CMOS active pixel sensor for medical applications

    OpenAIRE

    Esposito, Michela; Anaxagoras, Thalis; Price, Tony; Manolopoulos, Spyros; Evans, Philip; Wells, Kevin; Allinson, Nigel

    2015-01-01

    Currently, large-area medical sensors are based on amorphous flat panel technology. Sensors based on monolithic CMOS APS can offer many advantages in terms of image quality and reduced dose requirements. One constraint on the take-up of APS has been their restricted operating life due to radiation damage. Here we present a new wafer scale CMOS APS, designed for medical applications and hardened-by-design with reference to its performance in typical operating environments. The detector was ...

  16. The Use of Hospital Information Systems Data Base with Word Processing and Other Medical Records System Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Rusnak, James E.

    1982-01-01

    The approach frequently used to introduce computer technology into a hospital Medical Records Department is to implement a Word Processing System. Word processing is a form of computer system application that is intended to improve the department's productivity by improving the medical information transcription process. The effectiveness of the Word Processing System may be further enhanced by installing system facilities to provide access to data processing file information in the Hospital's...

  17. Development of a multi-spectral imaging system for medical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe the development of a multi-spectral imaging (MSI) system based on a rapid-scanning solid-state device, an acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF), for wavelength selection and a two-dimensional charge-coupled device for detection. The MSI device is designed for in vivo optical detection in medical diagnostic applications. Unlike conventional grating spectrometers, the AOTF is a miniature solid-state device that has no moving parts, and can be rapidly tuned to any wavelength within its operating range. The large aperture of the AOTF and its high spatial resolution allows the optical image from an imaging fibre optic probe to be recorded by the detector. These characteristics, combined with their small size, make AOTFs important new alternatives to conventional monochromators, especially for spectral imaging in biomedical applications. The MSI can also be used for dual-modality diagnostics to detect both fluorescence and diffuse reflectance images. The usefulness and potential of the MSI system is illustrated in several applications of biomedical interest, such as reflectance fluorescence imaging of skin and brain tissues

  18. Rough-Set-Based Attribute Dependencies: Foundations and Bio-Medical Data Applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dominik Slezak

    2006-01-01

    Theory of rough sets, proposed by Zdzislaw Pawlak in 1982, is a model of approximate reasoning. In applications, rough set methodology focuses on approximate representation of knowledge derivable from data. It leads to significant results in many areas including, for example, finance, industry, multimedia, medicine, and most recently bioinformatics. One of the key notions of rough sets is a reduct, an optimal subset of attributes providing enough information about pre-defined target concepts or whole data sources. Proposed originally within the framework of rough set approximations, it was extended regarding different application needs, using concepts of, for example, Boolean reasoning, Bayesian reasoning, and information theory. There have been developed efficient tools extracting reducts from data, based, for instance, on greedy heuristics and evolutionary algorithms. In this talk, we present foundations of rough sets, as well as current trends in rough-setbased attribute reduction, understood as the means for representation of multi-attribute approximate dependencies in real-world data. We pay a special attention to case studies of rough set applications to bio-medical problems, including MRI segmentation, geneexpression data analysis, as well as the cancer therapy survival analysis.

  19. [Mobile applications for the health sector: apps to support scientific information and medical practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poltronieri, Elisabetta; Barbaro, Annarita; Gentili, Donatella; Napolitani, Federica

    2013-01-01

    The market of mobile applications (apps) and wireless technology infrastructures is rapidly widening and diversifying to better meet users' needs. Over the last few years, the use of mobile technologies and applications has been increasingly expanding in many professional fields. Research and academic institutions, hospitals, and drug companies are heavily investing in this sector, also in Italy, even though the offer seems to be still limited at the moment. As far as the industry of scientific publishing is concerned, the main Italian publishing groups show an increasing interest in developing apps aiming at spreading their own products, following the example of international publishing companies. The purpose of this paper is to provide a general overview of the mobile applications and services available in the domain of scientific information relating to health disciplines and medical practice, especially within the Italian context. This study intends to inform professionals and users in the health sector about the benefits offered by the mobile technology, and to help them to become familiar with these tools. The two main online markets (iTunes and Google Play) have been analysed; search engines for apps and Italian STM publishers' websites have also been considered. Within this fast moving scenery, innovation is supported by the pressing demand for mobile access technology which has increased enormously. Not surprisingly, the most promising target of mobile technology is represented by scientific information tools relating to health. PMID:23585438

  20. A Novel Method for Enhancing Network Monitoring in Remote Medical Applications Using Software Defined Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Parsaei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The most important way for providing health in a large population, particularly developing countries, is developing efficient health care services such that everyone can use the services equally and justly. Telemedicine is a new area which uses modern communication technology for exchanging medical information. This communication might be between a patient and a doctor or two medical centers for consultation. Implementation of a Telemedicine system requires creating the necessary infrastructures, among which network monitoring is one of the most important ones. From hundreds to thousands of computers, hubs to switched networks, and Ethernet to either ATM or 10Gbps Ethernet, administrators need more sophisticated network traffic monitoring and analysis tools in order to deal with development. These tools are needed, not only to fix network problems on time, but also to prevent network failure, to detect inside and outside threats, and make good decisions for network planning. In this paper, a comprehensive survey on Telemedicine and network monitoring is performed. Afterward, network monitoring techniques and methods in current networks are discussed. Finally, an efficient architecture based on Software Defined Networks (SDNs in remote surgical applications is presented which significantly improves monitoring of the communication networks. The results showed the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  1. Generating useful images for medical applications from the Visible Korean Human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jin Seo; Jung, Yong-Wook; Lee, Jun Won; Shin, Dong Sun; Chung, Min Suk; Riemer, Martin; Handels, Heinz

    2008-12-01

    For the Visible Korean Human (VKH), a male cadaver was serially ground off to acquire the serially sectioned images (SSIs) of a whole human body. Thereafter, more than 700 structures in the SSIs were outlined to produce detailed segmented images; the SSIs and segmented images were volume- and surface-reconstructed to create three-dimensional models. For outlining and reconstruction, popular software (Photoshop, MRIcro, Maya, AutoCAD, 3ds max, and Rhino) was mainly used; the technique can be reproduced by other investigators for creating their own images. For refining the segmentation and volume reconstruction, the VOXEL-MAN system was used. The continuously upgraded technique was applied to a female cadaver's pelvis to produce the SSIs with 0.1mm sized intervals and 0.1mm x 0.1mm sized pixels. The VKH data, distributed worldwide, encouraged researchers to develop virtual dissection, virtual endoscopy, and virtual lumbar puncture contributing to medical education and clinical practice. In the future, a virtual image library including all the Visible Human Project data, Chinese Visible Human data, and VKH data will hopefully be established where users will be able to download one of the data sets for medical applications. PMID:18782644

  2. ATOMIC LAYER DEPOSITION OF TITANIUM OXIDE THIN FILMS ONNANOPOROUS ALUMINA TEMPLATES FOR MEDICAL APPLICATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brigmon, R.

    2009-05-05

    Nanostructured materials may play a significant role in controlled release of pharmacologic agents for treatment of cancer. Many nanoporous polymer materials are inadequate for use in drug delivery. Nanoporous alumina provides several advantages over other materials for use in controlled drug delivery and other medical applications. Atomic layer deposition was used to coat all the surfaces of the nanoporous alumina membrane in order to reduce the pore size in a controlled manner. Both the 20 nm and 100 nm titanium oxide-coated nanoporous alumina membranes did not exhibit statistically lower viability compared to the uncoated nanoporous alumina membrane control materials. In addition, 20 nm pore size titanium oxide-coated nanoporous alumina membranes exposed to ultraviolet light demonstrated activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. Nanostructured materials prepared using atomic layer deposition may be useful for delivering a pharmacologic agent at a precise rate to a specific location in the body. These materials may serve as the basis for 'smart' drug delivery devices, orthopedic implants, or self-sterilizing medical devices.

  3. Fair access to medicine? Retrospective analysis of UK medical schools application data 2009-2012 using three measures of socioeconomic status

    OpenAIRE

    Steven, Kathryn; Dowell, Jon; Jackson, Cathy; Guthrie, Bruce

    2016-01-01

    Background Medical students have historically largely come from more affluent parts of society, leading many countries to seek to broaden access to medical careers on the grounds of social justice and the perceived benefits of greater workforce diversity. The aim of this study was to examine variation in socioeconomic status (SES) of applicants to study medicine and applicants with an accepted offer from a medical school, comparing the four UK countries and individual medical schools. Methods...

  4. Development of a Peristaltic Micropump for Bio-Medical Applications Based on Mini LIPCA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Thanh Tung Nguyen; My Pham; Nam Seo Goo

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the design, fabrication, and experimental characterization of a peristaltic micropump. The micropump is composed of two layers fabricated from Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) material. The first layer has a rectangular channel and two valve seals. Three rectangular mini lightweight piezo-composite actuators are integrated in the second layer, and used as actuation parts.Two layers are bonded, and covered by two Polymethyl Methacrylate (PMMA) plates, which help increase the stiffness of the micropump.A maximum flow rate of 900 uL·min-1 and a maximum backpressure of 1.8 kPa are recorded when water is used as pump liquid. We measured the power consumption of the micropump. The micropump is found to be a prom- ising candidate for bio-medical application due to its bio-compatibility, portability, bidirectionality, and simple effective design.

  5. A Real time Data Acquisition and Monitoring Device for Medical Applications based on Android Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jithin Krishnan

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available An android based real time data acquisition and monitoring device is presented here. The system finds its initial application in medical field .it serves as a remote monitor for measuring and analysing along with logging of data from patients. The system comprises of two parts. A data acquisition (DaQ part connected to patient side and an android based display device on the receiving end. The Data Acquisition part contains sensors for picking up the vital signs from the patients, signal conditioning circuits and a Bluetooth transceiver to transmit data wirelessly to the display device. The Display Device then displays the data received from the transmitter in a readable form and also logs the data into a excel form so that it can be taken out digitally and analysed.

  6. A CMOS analog front-end for silicon pixel detectors for γ imaging in medical application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent works we presented the γ0, a chip expressely designed for γ imaging in medical application. The chip was designed to be the anode of an Integrated Silicon Pixel Array (ISPA) tube. This chip consists of a matrix of 1024 pixels each 135u by 135u, each pixel comprises a CSA, designed to handle signals of few thousand electrons, a shaper, a discriminator and a 10 bit event buffer. The chip addresses many issues that are essential for the realization of cheap and fast detectors. Particularly it integrates a DAC controlled biasing network and an energy discrimination system. In this work, we present the test system and the first test results for the γ0

  7. Application of artificial neural network for medical image recognition and diagnostic decision making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An artificial neural network has been applied for pattern recognition and used as a tool in an expert system. The purpose of this study is to examine the potential usefulness of the neural network approach in medical applications for image recognition and decision making. The authors designed multilayer feedforward neural networks with a back-propagation algorithm for our study. Using first-pass radionuclide ventriculograms, we attempted to identify the right and left ventricles of the heart and the lungs by training the neural network from patterns of time-activity curves. In a preliminary study, the neural network enabled identification of the lungs and heart chambers once the network was trained sufficiently by means of repeated entries of data from the same case

  8. Cyclotron Produced Radionuclides: Emerging Positron Emitters for Medical Applications: 64Cu and 124I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The growing number of medical cyclotrons and positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) centres as well as the proven high clinical utility of fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) in cancer patients has led to interest in possibilities for the use of PET tracers which are in different stages of clinical evaluation. This publication presents the outcome of an IAEA coordinated research project on this topic and provides a comprehensive overview of the technologies involved in the production of copper-64 and iodine-124, techniques on preparation of targets, irradiation of targets under high beam currents, target processing, target recovery and labelling. It provides guidance to enhance copper-64 and iodine-124 production and applications. This book will appeal to scientists and technologists involved in putting cyclotron based radioisotope production into practice, as well as postgraduate students in the field

  9. Development of a peristaltic micropump for bio-medical applications based on mini LIPCA

    CERN Document Server

    Pham, My; Goo, Nam Seo

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the design, fabrication, and experimental characterization of a peristaltic micropump. The micropump is composed of two layers fabricated from polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) material. The first layer has a rectangular channel and two valve seals. Three rectangular mini lightweight piezo-composite actuators are integrated in the second layer, and used as actuation parts. Two layers are bonded, and covered by two polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) plates, which help increase the stiffness of the micropump. A maximum flow rate of 900 mokroliter per min and a maximum backpressure of 1.8 kPa are recorded when water is used as pump liquid. We measured the power consumption of the micropump. The micropump is found to be a promising candidate for bio-medical application due to its bio-compatibility, portability, bidirectionality, and simple effective design.

  10. Separation and recovery of ruthenium from radioactive liquid waste for specific medical applications - wealth from waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent past, 106Ru has emerged as one of the promising β- emitting radionuclide used in brachytherapy for the treatment of choroidal melanoma and retinoblastoma due to its favorable nuclear decay characteristics. A plaque with low amount of 106Ru activity of the order of 12 - 26 MBq (0.3 - 0.7 mCi ) is suitable for the above treatment and can be used for an adequate duration of 1-2 years due to suitable half-life (T1/2 = 1.02 y). In order to undertake the preparation of 106Ru plaque, an indigenous availability of this radionuclide with acceptable purity was explored from radioactive liquid waste having wide spectrum of fission products in line with wealth from waste strategy. Process methodology has been developed and standardized at Process Control Laboratory of Waste Immobilization Plant (WIP), Trombay for separation of 106Ru from radioactive liquid waste for intended medical application. (author)

  11. The application and evaluation of adaptive hypermedia techniques in Web-based medical education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muan Hong Ng

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the design issues involved in delivering Web-based learning materials. An existing application in the medical domain - JointZone - is used to illustrate how personalization and an interactive environment can be incorporated into Web-based learning. This work applies the combination of an adaptive hypermedia, situated-learning approach and hypermedia linking concepts to facilitate online learning. A usability study was carried out on the work described and an evaluation was undertaken to measure the effect of personalization on various learning factors. The evaluation outcome was analysed subjectively and objectively. The results proved to be contradictory but, nevertheless, the work gives new insights into the use of technology to support learning

  12. Photon counting pixel and array in amorphous silicon technology for large area digital medical imaging applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdandoost, Mohammad Y.; Shin, Kyung W.; Safavian, Nader; Taghibakhsh, Farhad; Karim, Karim S.

    2010-04-01

    A single photon counting Voltage Controlled Oscillator (VCO) based pixel architecture in amorphous silicon (a-Si) technology is reported for large area digital medical imaging. The VCO converts X-ray generated input charge into an output oscillating frequency signal. Experimental results for an in-house fabricated VCO circuit in a-Si technology are presented and external readout circuits to extract the image information from the VCO's frequency output are discussed. These readout circuits can be optimized to reduce the fixed pattern noise and fringing effects in an imaging array containing many such VCO pixels. Noise estimations, stability simulations and measurements for the fabricated VCO are presented. The reported architecture is particularly promising for large area photon counting applications (e.g. low dose fluoroscopy, dental computed tomography (CT)) due to its very low input referred electronic noise, high sensitivity and ease of fabrication in low cost a-Si technology.

  13. A Novel Simplified Mathematical Model for Antennas used in Medical Imaging Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper a new technique is proposed to model the current across a monopole antenna and thereby the radiation fields of the antenna can be calculated. Generally, the Method of Moments (MOM) technique is used for this purpose whereby the integral equations are discretised to find the fields of an antenna. The proposed model requires only the knowledge of three parameters (Initial Current I0, Damping coefficient a and the radial parameter τ) and hence considerably reduces the computational time and space as its results do not depend on the number of functions involved. The new technique is also developed to take account of the conductivity property of the surrounding medium. Hence this technique can be used in field prediction for antennas employed in medical imaging applications. Initial results obtained from the new technique show good correlation in comparison with the MOM technique.

  14. A Novel Simplified Mathematical Model for Antennas used in Medical Imaging Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernando, M J; Elsdon, M; Busawon, K; Smith, D, E-mail: michael.fernando@northumbria.ac.uk [School of Computing, Engineering and Information Sciences, Ellison Bldg, University of Northumbria, Newcastle NE1 8ST (United Kingdom)

    2010-11-01

    In this paper a new technique is proposed to model the current across a monopole antenna and thereby the radiation fields of the antenna can be calculated. Generally, the Method of Moments (MOM) technique is used for this purpose whereby the integral equations are discretised to find the fields of an antenna. The proposed model requires only the knowledge of three parameters (Initial Current I{sub 0}, Damping coefficient a and the radial parameter {tau}) and hence considerably reduces the computational time and space as its results do not depend on the number of functions involved. The new technique is also developed to take account of the conductivity property of the surrounding medium. Hence this technique can be used in field prediction for antennas employed in medical imaging applications. Initial results obtained from the new technique show good correlation in comparison with the MOM technique.

  15. The attractions of medicine: the generic motivations of medical school applicants in relation to demography, personality and achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katona Cornelius

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The motivational and other factors used by medical students in making their career choices for specific medical specialities have been looked at in a number of studies in the literature. There are however few studies that assess the generic factors which make medicine itself of interest to medical students and to potential medical students. This study describes a novel questionnaire that assesses the interests and attractions of different aspects of medical practice in a varied range of medical scenarios, and relates them to demographic, academic, personality and learning style measures in a large group of individuals considering applying to medical school. Methods A questionnaire study was conducted among those attending Medlink, a two-day conference for individuals considering applying to medical school for a career in medicine. The main outcome measure was the Medical Situations Questionnaire, in which individuals ranked the attraction of three different aspects of medical practise in each of nine detailed, realistic medical scenarios in a wide range of medical specialities. As well as requiring clear choices, the questionnaire was also designed so that all of the possible answers were attractive and positive, thereby helping to eliminate social demand characteristics. Factor analysis of the responses found four generic motivational dimensions, which we labelled Indispensability, Helping People, Respect and Science. Background factors assessed included sex, ethnicity, class, medical parents, GCSE academic achievement, the 'Big Five' personality factors, empathy, learning styles, and a social desirability scale. Results 2867 individuals, broadly representative of applicants to medical schools, completed the questionnaire. The four generic motivational factors correlated with a range of background factors. These correlations were explored by multiple regression, and by path analysis, using LISREL to assess direct and

  16. Immersive virtual reality platform for medical training: a "killer-application".

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    The Medical Readiness Trainer (MRT) integrates fully immersive Virtual Reality (VR), highly advanced medical simulation technologies, and medical data to enable unprecedented medical education and training. The flexibility offered by the MRT environment serves as a practical teaching tool today and in the near future the will serve as an ideal vehicle for facilitating the transition to the next level of medical practice, i.e., telepresence and next generation Internet-based collaborative learning. PMID:10977542

  17. Special Effects Simulation in Virtual Battlefield Environment Based on Particle System%基于粒子系统的虚拟战场环境特殊效果模拟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋道琛; 汪继文

    2012-01-01

    The combat system has the economic,scientific,real-time,interactive function is other training mode incomparable advantages in the application of military training and military exercises,can improve efficiency and reduce training costs,and increase security of the soldiers in the training process. Virtual battlefield environment is a very basic combat system platform,and is deserving of study. The most effective method of modeling of irregular dynamic shape objects in the virtual battlefield environment simulation, is particle systems. In this paper delves into the basic principles of particle systems, applies particle systems approach to build a battlefield explosion blast effects model to achieve specific process, then analyses explosive particles suffered power to create a physical model of particle explosion. Experimental results show that this simulation method is simple and effective, realism and real-time is better.%作战系统在军事训练和军事演习的应用上具有经济性、科学性、实时性、交互性等其他训练模式无法比拟的优点,能够提高军事训练的效率,减少训练的成本,增加战士在训练过程中的安全性.虚拟战场环境是作战系统的一个非常基础的平台,值得研究探讨.在虚拟战场环境模拟中,对不规则动态形状物体建模的最有效的方法是粒子系统.而文中深入研究了粒子系统的基本原理,应用粒子系统的方法构建了一个战场爆炸模型来实现爆炸效果的具体实现过程,并分析爆炸粒子所受的动力来建立爆炸粒子的物理模型.实验结果表明这一模拟方法简单有效,逼真度和实时性效果较好.

  18. Sterilized PP/HMSPP cushion foams for medical and food packaging applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treatment with gamma radiation is becoming a common process for the sterilization of packages, mostly made of natural or synthetic plastics, used in aseptic processing of foods and pharmaceuticals. Packaging materials may be irradiated either prior or after filling; the irradiation prior to filling is usually chosen for dairy products, processed food, beverages, pharmaceuticals and medical devices. Cushion foams are used to help protect fragile items during moving transport. Shock, vibration and damage are avoided by the cushioning effect and chances of product damage are reduced. It is easy to use and perforated for easy tearing. Cushion foams are employed to wrap glasses, plates, crockery, lamps, electronics and other breakable items. This paper presents special cushion foams to be used for medical and food packaging applications; so, these foams will be gamma irradiated before getting in contact with these special articles. Foams were previously produced from a 50% blending Polypropylene homopolymer / High Melt Strength Polypropylene (HMSPP) thereof, that presented following results for properties assessed: melt flow index, 230 deg C - 3.67 g/10 minutes; crystallinity = 47%; melt strength, at 200 deg C = 7.3 cN. This admixture was further fed into the barrel of a single-screw extruder, Rheomex 332 p, equipped with 3:1,33 d screw and 19/33 special screw for foaming, with standard controller and monitored panel, temperature controller (2 channels), melt temperature (2 channels) and melt pressure (4 channels). By using a 175/200/210/220/165/25 (deg C) profile temperature, and after attaining a homogeneous melting, a given amount of physical blowing agent (nitrogen) was injected and mixed with the polymer melt stream to produce the foam. Foamed extrudate was subjected to sterilization radiation doses: 25, 50, 75 and 100 kGy and further evaluated as per: appearance (whiteness / yellowness) and temperature dependent oxidative-induction time (TOIT) tests, by comparing

  19. Sterilized PP/HMSPP cushion foams for medical and food packaging applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardoso, Elisabeth C.L.; Lima, L. Filipe C.P.; Parra, Duclerc F.; Lugao, Ademar B.; Bueno, N.R.; Gasparin, Eleosmar, E-mail: ablugao@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Treatment with gamma radiation is becoming a common process for the sterilization of packages, mostly made of natural or synthetic plastics, used in aseptic processing of foods and pharmaceuticals. Packaging materials may be irradiated either prior or after filling; the irradiation prior to filling is usually chosen for dairy products, processed food, beverages, pharmaceuticals and medical devices. Cushion foams are used to help protect fragile items during moving transport. Shock, vibration and damage are avoided by the cushioning effect and chances of product damage are reduced. It is easy to use and perforated for easy tearing. Cushion foams are employed to wrap glasses, plates, crockery, lamps, electronics and other breakable items. This paper presents special cushion foams to be used for medical and food packaging applications; so, these foams will be gamma irradiated before getting in contact with these special articles. Foams were previously produced from a 50% blending Polypropylene homopolymer / High Melt Strength Polypropylene (HMSPP) thereof, that presented following results for properties assessed: melt flow index, 230 deg C - 3.67 g/10 minutes; crystallinity = 47%; melt strength, at 200 deg C = 7.3 cN. This admixture was further fed into the barrel of a single-screw extruder, Rheomex 332 p, equipped with 3:1,33 d screw and 19/33 special screw for foaming, with standard controller and monitored panel, temperature controller (2 channels), melt temperature (2 channels) and melt pressure (4 channels). By using a 175/200/210/220/165/25 (deg C) profile temperature, and after attaining a homogeneous melting, a given amount of physical blowing agent (nitrogen) was injected and mixed with the polymer melt stream to produce the foam. Foamed extrudate was subjected to sterilization radiation doses: 25, 50, 75 and 100 kGy and further evaluated as per: appearance (whiteness / yellowness) and temperature dependent oxidative-induction time (TOIT) tests, by comparing

  20. Access Scheme for Controlling Mobile Agents and its Application to Share Medical Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Yu-Ting; Chen, Tzer-Shyong; Chen, Tzer-Long; Chung, Yu-Fang; Chen, Yu- Xin; Hwang, Jen-Hung; Wang, Huihui; Wei, Wei

    2016-05-01

    This study is showing the advantage of mobile agents to conquer heterogeneous system environments and contribute to a virtual integrated sharing system. Mobile agents will collect medical information from each medical institution as a method to achieve the medical purpose of data sharing. Besides, this research also provides an access control and key management mechanism by adopting Public key cryptography and Lagrange interpolation. The safety analysis of the system is based on a network attacker's perspective. The achievement of this study tries to improve the medical quality, prevent wasting medical resources and make medical resources access to appropriate configuration.

  1. An Overview of the Medical Applications of Marine Skeletal Matrix Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, M. Azizur

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the medicinal potential of marine organisms has attracted increasing attention. This is due to their immense diversity and adaptation to unique ecological niches that has led to vast physiological and biochemical diversification. Among these organisms, marine calcifiers are an abundant source of novel proteins and chemical entities that can be used for drug discovery. Studies of the skeletal organic matrix proteins of marine calcifiers have focused on biomedical applications such as the identification of growth inducing proteins that can be used for bone regeneration, for example, 2/4 bone morphogenic proteins (BMP). Although a few reports on the functions of proteins derived from marine calcifiers can be found in the literature, marine calcifiers themselves remain an untapped source of proteins for the development of innovative pharmaceuticals. Following an overview of the current knowledge of skeletal organic matrix proteins from marine calcifiers, this review will focus on various aspects of marine skeletal protein research including sources, biosynthesis, structures, and possible strategies for chemical or physical modification. Special attention will be given to potential medical applications and recent discoveries of skeletal proteins and polysaccharides with biologically appealing characteristics. In addition, I will introduce an effective protocol for sample preparation and protein purification that includes isolation technology for biopolymers (of both soluble and insoluble organic matrices) from coralline algae. These algae are a widespread but poorly studied group of shallow marine calcifiers that have great potential for marine drug discovery. PMID:27626432

  2. Recent advances of basic materials to obtain electrospun polymeric nanofibers for medical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manea, L. R.; Hristian, L.; Leon, A. L.; Popa, A.

    2016-08-01

    The most important applications of electrospun polymeric nanofibers are by far those from biomedical field. From the biological point of view, almost all the human tissues and organs consist of nanofibroas structures. The examples include the bone, dentine, cartilage, tendons and skin. All these are characterized through different fibrous structures, hierarchically organized at nanometer scale. Electrospinning represents one of the nanotechnologies that permit to obtain such structures for cell cultures, besides other technologies, such as selfassembling and phase separation technologies. The basic materials used to produce electrospun nanofibers can be natural or synthetic, having polymeric, ceramic or composite nature. These materials are selected depending of the nature and structure of the tissue meant to be regenerated, namely: for the regeneration of smooth tissues regeneration one needs to process through electrospinning polymeric basic materials, while in order to obtain the supports for the regeneration of hard tissues one must mainly use ceramic materials or composite structures that permit imbedding the bioactive substances in distinctive zones of the matrix. This work presents recent studies concerning basic materials used to obtain electrospun polymeric nanofibers, and real possibilities to produce and implement these nanofibers in medical bioengineering applications.

  3. An Overview of the Medical Applications of Marine Skeletal Matrix Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Azizur Rahman

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the medicinal potential of marine organisms has attracted increasing attention. This is due to their immense diversity and adaptation to unique ecological niches that has led to vast physiological and biochemical diversification. Among these organisms, marine calcifiers are an abundant source of novel proteins and chemical entities that can be used for drug discovery. Studies of the skeletal organic matrix proteins of marine calcifiers have focused on biomedical applications such as the identification of growth inducing proteins that can be used for bone regeneration, for example, 2/4 bone morphogenic proteins (BMP. Although a few reports on the functions of proteins derived from marine calcifiers can be found in the literature, marine calcifiers themselves remain an untapped source of proteins for the development of innovative pharmaceuticals. Following an overview of the current knowledge of skeletal organic matrix proteins from marine calcifiers, this review will focus on various aspects of marine skeletal protein research including sources, biosynthesis, structures, and possible strategies for chemical or physical modification. Special attention will be given to potential medical applications and recent discoveries of skeletal proteins and polysaccharides with biologically appealing characteristics. In addition, I will introduce an effective protocol for sample preparation and protein purification that includes isolation technology for biopolymers (of both soluble and insoluble organic matrices from coralline algae. These algae are a widespread but poorly studied group of shallow marine calcifiers that have great potential for marine drug discovery.

  4. An Overview of the Medical Applications of Marine Skeletal Matrix Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, M Azizur

    2016-09-12

    In recent years, the medicinal potential of marine organisms has attracted increasing attention. This is due to their immense diversity and adaptation to unique ecological niches that has led to vast physiological and biochemical diversification. Among these organisms, marine calcifiers are an abundant source of novel proteins and chemical entities that can be used for drug discovery. Studies of the skeletal organic matrix proteins of marine calcifiers have focused on biomedical applications such as the identification of growth inducing proteins that can be used for bone regeneration, for example, 2/4 bone morphogenic proteins (BMP). Although a few reports on the functions of proteins derived from marine calcifiers can be found in the literature, marine calcifiers themselves remain an untapped source of proteins for the development of innovative pharmaceuticals. Following an overview of the current knowledge of skeletal organic matrix proteins from marine calcifiers, this review will focus on various aspects of marine skeletal protein research including sources, biosynthesis, structures, and possible strategies for chemical or physical modification. Special attention will be given to potential medical applications and recent discoveries of skeletal proteins and polysaccharides with biologically appealing characteristics. In addition, I will introduce an effective protocol for sample preparation and protein purification that includes isolation technology for biopolymers (of both soluble and insoluble organic matrices) from coralline algae. These algae are a widespread but poorly studied group of shallow marine calcifiers that have great potential for marine drug discovery.

  5. Application-driven strategies for efficient transfer of medical images over very high speed networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsafadi, Yasser H.; McNeill, Kevin M.; Martinez, Ralph

    1993-09-01

    The American College of Radiology (ACR) and the National Electrical Manufacturing Association (NEMA) in 1982 formed the ACR-NEMA committee to develop a standard to enable equipment from different vendors to communicate and participate in a picture archiving and communications system (PACS). The standard focused mostly on interconnectivity issues and communication needs of PACS. It was patterned after the international standards organization open systems interconnection (ISO/OSI) reference model. Three versions of the standard appeared, evolving from simple point-to-point specification of connection between two medical devices to a complex standard of a network environment. However, fast changes in network software and hardware technologies makes it difficult for the standard to keep pace. This paper compares two versions of the ACR-NEMA standard and then describes a system that is used at the University of Arizona Intensive Care Unit. In this system, the application should specify the interface to network services and grade of service required. These provisions are suggested to make the application independent from evolving network technology and support true open systems.

  6. Study of detonation nanodiamond - plasma polymerized hexamethildisiloxan composites for medical application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramatarova, L. D.; Krasteva, N. A.; Radeva, E. I.; Pecheva, E. V.; Dimitrova, R. P.; Hikov, T. A.; Mitev, D. P.; Hristova, K. T.; Altankov, G.

    2010-11-01

    The present study reports on how detonation nanodiamond (DND) - plasma poly(hexamethyldisiloxane) composites (PPHMDS) affect osteoblast cell behavior. It has been established that various modified DND nanoparticles (Ag-DND and Si-DND) can be readily integrated into virtually all polymer matrices. In particular, PPHDMS composites have been developed over the past few years because of the variety of their application as medical devices and implants. By incubation of MG-63 osteoblast-like cells on the surface of DND (Ag-DND and Si-DND) - PPHMDS composite, we tested the hypothesis that DND-based polymer composites can influence the adhesion behavior of MG-63 osteoblast-like cells. Morphological and structural characterization of DND, Ag-DND and Si-DND powders was carried out by XRD, HRTEM and EDS. For the study of the composite layers, deposited on cover glass (CG), FTIR spectroscopy has been performed in order to determine if the DND nanofiller can potentially modify the structural and chemical dynamics of the polymer matrix. The kinetic of static water contact angle of composite surfaces as a function of the as-used nanofiller DND's in polymer matrix was measured The results with MG-63 osteoblast-like cells suggest the potential of using DND-based polymer composites for application in engineering implantable scaffolds and devices.

  7. Response of a hybrid pixel detector (MEDIPIX3) to different radiation sources for medical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chumacero, E. Miguel; De Celis Alonso, B.; Martínez Hernández, M. I.; Vargas, G.; Moreno Barbosa, E., E-mail: emoreno.emb@gmail.com [Facultad de Ciencias Físico Matemáticas, Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla, Av. San Claudio y Rio Verde, Puebla (Mexico); Moreno Barbosa, F. [Hospital General del Sur Hospital de la Mujer, Puebla (Mexico)

    2014-11-07

    The development in semiconductor CMOS technology has enabled the creation of sensitive detectors for a wide range of ionizing radiation. These devices are suitable for photon counting and can be used in imaging and tomography X-ray diagnostics. The Medipix[1] radiation detection system is a hybrid silicon pixel chip developed for particle tracking applications in High Energy Physics. Its exceptional features (high spatial and energy resolution, embedded ultra fast readout, different operation modes, etc.) make the Medipix an attractive device for applications in medical imaging. In this work the energy characterization of a third-generation Medipix chip (Medipix3) coupled to a silicon sensor is presented. We used different radiation sources (strontium 90, iron 55 and americium 241) to obtain the response curve of the hybrid detector as a function of energy. We also studied the contrast of the Medipix as a measure of pixel noise. Finally we studied the response to fluorescence X rays from different target materials (In, Pd and Cd) for the two data acquisition modes of the chip; single pixel mode and charge summing mode.

  8. Recent Advances in Dendritic Macromonomers for Hydrogel Formation and Their Medical Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghobril, Cynthia; Rodriguez, Edward K; Nazarian, Ara; Grinstaff, Mark W

    2016-04-11

    Hydrogels represent one of the most important classes of biomaterials and are of interest for various medical applications including wound repair, tissue engineering, and drug release. Hydrogels possess tunable mechanical properties, biocompatibility, nontoxicity, and similarity to natural soft tissues. The need for hydrogels with specific properties, based on the design requirements of the in vitro, in vivo, or clinical application, motivates researchers to develop new synthetic approaches and cross-linking methodologies to form novel hydrogels with unique properties. The use of dendritic macromonomers represents one elegant strategy for the formation of hydrogels with specific properties. Specifically, the uniformity of dendrimers combined with the control of their size, architecture, density, and surface groups make them promising cross-linkers for hydrogel formation. Over the last two decades, a large variety of dendritic-based hydrogels are reported for their potential use in the clinic. This review describes the state of the art with these different dendritic hydrogel formulations including their design requirements, the synthetic routes, the measurement and determination of their properties, the evaluation of their in vitro and in vivo performances, and future perspectives.

  9. Medical applications of shortwave FM radar: Remote monitoring of cardiac and respiratory motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostov, K.; Liptsen, E.; Boutchko, R.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This article introduces the use of low power continuous wave frequency modulated radar for medical applications, specifically for remote monitoring of vital signs in patients. Methods: Gigahertz frequency radar measures the electromagnetic wave signal reflected from the surface of a human body and from tissue boundaries. Time series analysis of the measured signal provides simultaneous information on range, size, and reflective properties of multiple targets in the field of view of the radar. This information is used to extract the respiratory and cardiac rates of the patient in real time. Results: The results from several preliminary human subject experiments are provided. The heart and respiration rate frequencies extracted from the radar signal match those measured independently for all the experiments, including a case when additional targets are simultaneously resolved in the field of view and a case when only the patient’s extremity is visible to the radar antennas. Conclusions: Micropower continuous wave FM radar is a reliable, robust, inexpensive, and harmless tool for real-time monitoring of the cardiac and respiratory rates. Additionally, it opens a range of new and exciting opportunities in diagnostic and critical care medicine. Differences between the presented approach and other types of radars used for biomedical applications are discussed. PMID:20384270

  10. Clinical application of Medical Resonance Therapy Music in high-risk pregnancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidorenko, V N

    2000-01-01

    Music is an ancient method for healing. In the year 550 B.C., Pythagoras from Greece developed a concept for the use of music in medicine, esteeming music higher than many other medical treatments. The Medical Resonance Therapy Music (MRT-Music) of the German classical composer and musicologist Peter Huebner is built on this concept of Pythagorean music medicine. Its therapeutic effect may be best explained by the natural phenomenon of resonance between the harmony laws of the microcosm of music and the biological laws of the body. Results received after application of MRT-Music indicate multiple positive effects on the organism of pregnant women both with a healthy pregnancy as with a pathologic one, reducing the rate of premature births very effectively. Furthermore, MRT-Music came out to be an effective method in the complex therapy of late gestoses and a nearly irreplaceable method for preoperative preparation of pregnant woman for caesarean section. It demonstrated a powerful anti-stress effect and allowed to reduce the amount of administered pain-killers to pregnant women by the factor 1.5 to 2.0, thus reducing the negative pharmacological load to the foetus. It furthermore reduced labour time and shortened hospital stay. It helped to create optimal conditions for the course of pregnancy and heightened pain sensitivity threshold by means of improving the functional, hormonal, and psycho-emotional conditions of pregnant and lying-in women. Thus, the labour process became more natural, the delivery non-traumatic, and motherhood more happy and safe. PMID:11286372

  11. Introduction of the HAM-Nat examination - applicants and students admitted to the Medical Faculty in 2012-2014

    OpenAIRE

    Werwick, K; Winkler-Stuck, K; Hampe, W; Albrecht, P; Robra, BP

    2015-01-01

    Background/aim: In the 2012/13 winter semester, the Magdeburg Medical Faculty introduced a test of knowledge for the selection of applicants. The Hamburg Assessment Test for Medicine - Natural Sciences (HAM-Nat) comprises a multiple-choice test with questions on the aspects of biology, physics, chemistry and mathematics relevant to medicine, which was specifically developed for the selection of medicine applicants. The aim is to study how the HAM-Nat influences student selection, the reasons...

  12. Introduction of the HAM-Nat examination – applicants and students admitted to the Medical Faculty in 2012-2014

    OpenAIRE

    Werwick, Katrin; Winkler-Stuck, Kirstin; Hampe, Wolfgang; Albrecht, Peggy; Robra, Bernt-Peter

    2015-01-01

    Background/aim: In the 2012/13 winter semester, the Magdeburg Medical Faculty introduced a test of knowledge for the selection of applicants. The Hamburg Assessment Test for Medicine - Natural Sciences (HAM-Nat) comprises a multiple-choice test with questions on the aspects of biology, physics, chemistry and mathematics relevant to medicine, which was specifically developed for the selection of medicine applicants. The aim is to study how the HAM-Nat influences student selection, the reasons ...

  13. Remembering the First World War: Using a Battlefield Tour of the Western Front to Help Pupils Take a More Critical Approach to What They Encounter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Jerome

    2014-01-01

    The first year of the government's First World War Centenary Battlefield Tours Programme is now under way, allowing increasing numbers of students from across Britain to visit Western Front battle sites. As its Programme Director, Jerome Freeman has sought to encourage teachers to make these visits meaningful and historically rigorous. He…

  14. 基于DMEA的航空地面电源车战场损伤研究%Battlefield Damage Research of Aerial Power Supply Vehicle Based on DMEA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张洋铭; 韩固勇; 罗广旭; 林中军

    2013-01-01

    The battlefield damage research of equipment is the important content of equipment service and performance improvement. Damage mode and effects analysis in battlefield damage research method was introduced. The analysis method was applied in battlefield damage research of aerial power supply vehicle. The mode and effects of the aerial power supply vehicle were analyzed and the corresponding maintaining method was put forward. The purpose was to provide guidance for battlefield repair.%  装备的战场损伤研究是装备维修以及性能改进的重要内容。文中主要介绍了战场损伤研究方法中的损坏模式及影响分析方法,并将此方法应用于航空地面电源车的战场损伤研究,提出了其战场损伤的主要模式及影响分析,并根据损伤模式提出了相应的抢修方案,为其战场抢修工作提供了一定的指导。

  15. Production and Clinical Applications of Radiopharmaceuticals and Medical Radioisotopes in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalilian, Amir Reza; Beiki, Davood; Hassanzadeh-Rad, Arman; Eftekhari, Arash; Geramifar, Parham; Eftekhari, Mohammad

    2016-07-01

    During past 3 decades, nuclear medicine has flourished as vibrant and independent medical specialty in Iran. Since that time, more than 200 nuclear physicians have been trained and now practicing in nearly 158 centers throughout the country. In the same period, Tc-99m generators and variety of cold kits for conventional nuclear medicine were locally produced for the first time. Local production has continued to mature in robust manner while fulfilling international standards. To meet the ever-growing demand at the national level and with international achievements in mind, work for production of other Tc-99m-based peptides such as ubiquicidin, bombesin, octreotide, and more recently a kit formulation for Tc-99m TRODAT-1 for clinical use was introduced. Other than the Tehran Research Reactor, the oldest facility active in production of medical radioisotopes, there is one commercial and three hospital-based cyclotrons currently operational in the country. I-131 has been one of the oldest radioisotope produced in Iran and traditionally used for treatment of thyrotoxicosis and differentiated thyroid carcinoma. Since 2009, (131)I-meta-iodobenzylguanidine has been locally available for diagnostic applications. Gallium-67 citrate, thallium-201 thallous chloride, and Indium-111 in the form of DTPA and Oxine are among the early cyclotron-produced tracers available in Iran for about 2 decades. Rb-81/Kr-81m generator has been available for pulmonary ventilation studies since 1996. Experimental production of PET radiopharmaceuticals began in 1998. This work has culminated with development and optimization of the high-scale production line of (18)F-FDG shortly after installation of PET/CT scanner in 2012. In the field of therapy, other than the use of old timers such as I-131 and different forms of P-32, there has been quite a significant advancement in production and application of therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals in recent years. Application of (131)I

  16. Field evaluations of residual pesticide applications and misting system on militarily relevant materials against medically important mosquitoes in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    A key strategy to reduce insect-borne disease is to reduce contact between disease vectors and hosts. In the current study, residual pesticide application and misting system were applied on militarily relevant materials and evaluated against medically important mosquitoes. Field evaluations were car...

  17. Potential application of item-response theory to interpretation of medical codes in electronic patient records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dregan Alex

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Electronic patient records are generally coded using extensive sets of codes but the significance of the utilisation of individual codes may be unclear. Item response theory (IRT models are used to characterise the psychometric properties of items included in tests and questionnaires. This study asked whether the properties of medical codes in electronic patient records may be characterised through the application of item response theory models. Methods Data were provided by a cohort of 47,845 participants from 414 family practices in the UK General Practice Research Database (GPRD with a first stroke between 1997 and 2006. Each eligible stroke code, out of a set of 202 OXMIS and Read codes, was coded as either recorded or not recorded for each participant. A two parameter IRT model was fitted using marginal maximum likelihood estimation. Estimated parameters from the model were considered to characterise each code with respect to the latent trait of stroke diagnosis. The location parameter is referred to as a calibration parameter, while the slope parameter is referred to as a discrimination parameter. Results There were 79,874 stroke code occurrences available for analysis. Utilisation of codes varied between family practices with intraclass correlation coefficients of up to 0.25 for the most frequently used codes. IRT analyses were restricted to 110 Read codes. Calibration and discrimination parameters were estimated for 77 (70% codes that were endorsed for 1,942 stroke patients. Parameters were not estimated for the remaining more frequently used codes. Discrimination parameter values ranged from 0.67 to 2.78, while calibration parameters values ranged from 4.47 to 11.58. The two parameter model gave a better fit to the data than either the one- or three-parameter models. However, high chi-square values for about a fifth of the stroke codes were suggestive of poor item fit. Conclusion The application of item response

  18. Unhappiness and dissatisfaction in doctors cannot be predicted by selectors from medical school application forms: A prospective, longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferguson E

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Personal statements and referees' reports are widely used on medical school application forms, particularly in the UK, to assess the suitability of candidates for a career in medicine. However there are few studies which assess the validity of such information for predicting unhappiness or dissatisfaction with a career in medicine. Here we combine data from a long-term prospective study of medical student selection and training, with an experimental approach in which a large number of assessors used a paired comparison technique to predict outcome. Methods Data from a large-scale prospective study of students applying to UK medical schools in 1990 were used to identify 40 pairs of doctors, matched by sex, for whom personal statements and referees' reports were available, and who in a 2002/3 follow-up study, one pair member was very satisfied and the other very dissatisfied with medicine as a career. In 2005, 96 assessors, who were experienced medical school selectors, doctors, medical students or psychology students, used information from the doctors' original applications to judge which member of each pair of doctors was the happier, more satisfied doctor. Results None of the groups of assessors were significantly different from chance expectations in using applicants' personal statements and the referees' reports to predict actual future satisfaction or dissatisfaction, the distribution being similar to binomial expectations. However judgements of pairs of application forms from pairs of doctors showed a non-binomial distribution, indicating consensus among assessors as to which doctor would be the happy doctor (although the consensus was wrong in half the cases. Assessors taking longer to do the task concurred more. Consensus judgements seem mainly to be based on referees' predictions of academic achievement (even though academic achievement is not actually a valid predictor of happiness or satisfaction. Conclusion

  19. Application of Electron Accelerators in Conjunction with Microwave Sources in Medical Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electron beams (EB) are presently used, in addition to the routine conventional radiotherapy techniques, for cancer specialized therapies (intensity modulated radiation therapy [1] and total body electron irradiation [2]), the irradiation of blood and blood components, vaccine preparation, and other. Microwaves (MW) are presently used for therapeutic applications in cardiology, urology, surgery, ophthalmology, cancer therapy, and others, and for diagnostic applications such as cancer detection, organ imaging, and more [3]. The reported data show that low dose-all body irradiation with ionizing as well as with nonionizing irradiation may enhance the tumoricidal effects of radiation or chemotherapy, overcome acquired drug resistance and can stimulate certain components of the immune system that may aid in destroying cancer cells. These data suggested that application of low-dose total body EB + MW irradiation in conjunction with chemotherapy could contribute by novel effects to the cancer therapies. In view of this argument two specifically designed radiation exposure devices (REDs) were carried out for separate, successive and simultaneous irradiation with EB of 6.23 MeV and MW of 2.45 GHz in vivo (RED-vivo) and in vitro (RED-vitro) for the following medical studies: 1) The effects of low-dose EB + MW total body irradiation without/with drugs administration on the C57 BL/6 mice bearing malignant melanoma (MM); 2) The effects of separate and simultaneous MW and EB irradiation on MM cells culture without/with drugs incubation and on human blood components (proteins and cells) irradiated in samples of integral blood from healthy donors and from donors with MM. Both REDs consist of the following units: 1) An accelerated EB source: ALIN-10 electron linear accelerator of 6.23 MeV and adjustable absorbed dose rate from 0.002 Gy s-1 up to 70 Gy s-1 (built in the NILPRP, Bucharest, Romania); 2) A special designed exposure chamber that permits inside separate, successive or

  20. The innovations with the medical applications of white LEDs and the breakthrough for new business

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Jun-ichi; Itoh, Kazuhiro; Nishimura, Motohiro; Kawakami, Youichi; Tsuji, Kiyotsugu

    2006-02-01

    The distance between the LED and the surface of the target organ is about 4-5 cm, and we think this will become the "ultimate super-localized LED lighting". In an experiment with swine, we placed a LED module at the tip of the retractor. When compared to endoscopic lighting, this method illuminated the entire thoracic cavity more brightly. Since the light is emitted from the cylinder-shaped camera component, the light is unidirectional, and the shadows from the surgical instruments are moved to the side of the incision. Retractor LED lights provided enough light in the thoracic cavity. we believe that "medical white LEDs" can contribute in clinical settings as a light source for performing safe operations with bright surgical fields in the near future. Also, we use our LEDs for new real business. In the summer of 2004, LED lighting was world first used in the 1200 year-old Gion Festival for the first time in history as "a lighting device that does not destroy cultural assets by light heat". And the next is "Lighting at the "Diva status at diva gate" and the "Thousand Armed Avalokiteshwara in innermost sanctuary in the main hall" at Kiyomizudera in Kyoto". It was a great success, and we were invited back in the spring of 2005 and for future applications. We think this is the first real application of LEDs as an outdoor lighting device. The number of people who visit Kiyomizudera is 4000,000 annually, and LEDs were adopted to illuminate the diva gate.

  1. High power laser diodes at 14xx nm wavelength range for industrial and medical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telkkälä, Jarkko; Boucart, Julien; Krejci, Martin; Crum, Trevor; Lichtenstein, Norbert

    2014-03-01

    We report on the development of the latest generation of high power laser diodes at 14xx nm wavelength range suitable for industrial applications such as plastics welding and medical applications including acne treatment, skin rejuvenation and surgery. The paper presents the newest chip generation developed at II-VI Laser Enterprise, increasing the output power and the power conversion efficiency while retaining the reliability of the initial design. At an emission wavelength around 1440 nm we applied the improved design to a variety of assemblies exhibiting maximum power values as high as 7 W for broad-area single emitters. For 1 cm wide bars on conductive coolers and for bars on active micro channel coolers we have obtained 50 W and 72 W in continuous wave (cw) operation respectively. The maximum power measured for a 1 cm bar operated with 50 μs pulse width and 0.01% duty cycle was 184 W, demonstrating the potential of the chip design for optimized cooling. Power conversion efficiency values as high as 50% for a single emitter device and over 40% for mounted bars have been demonstrated, reducing the required power budget to operate the devices. Both active and conductive bar assembly configurations show polarization purity greater than 98%. Life testing has been conducted at 95 A, 50% duty cycle and 0.5 Hz hard pulsed operation for bars which were soldered to conductive copper CS mounts using our hard solder technology. The results after 5500 h, or 10 million "on-off" cycles show stable operation.

  2. A Compact, Versatile Six-Port Radar Module for Industrial and Medical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Linz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Six-port receiver has been intensively investigated in the last decade to be implemented as an alternative radar architecture. Plenty of current scientific publications demonstrate the effectiveness and versatility of the Six-port radar for special industrial, automotive, and medical applications, ranging from accurate contactless vibration analysis, through automotive radar calibration, to remote breath and heartbeat monitoring. Its highlights, such as excellent phase discrimination, trivial signal processing, low circuit complexity, and cost, have lately drawn the attention of companies working with radar technology. A joint project involving the University of Erlangen-Nuremberg and InnoSenT GmbH (Innovative Sensor Technology led to the development of a highly accurate, compact, and versatile Six-port radar module aiming at a reliable high-integration of all subcomponents such as antenna, Six-port front-end, baseband circuitry, and digital signal processing in one single package. Innovative aspects in the RF front-end design as well as in the integration strategy are hereby presented, together with a system overview and measurement results.

  3. Combined numerical and linguistic knowledge representation and its application to medical diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meesad, Phayung; Yen, Gary G.

    2002-07-01

    In this study, we propose a novel hybrid intelligent system (HIS) which provides a unified integration of numerical and linguistic knowledge representations. The proposed HIS is hierarchical integration of an incremental learning fuzzy neural network (ILFN) and a linguistic model, i.e., fuzzy expert system, optimized via the genetic algorithm. The ILFN is a self-organizing network with the capability of fast, one-pass, online, and incremental learning. The linguistic model is constructed based on knowledge embedded in the trained ILFN or provided by the domain expert. The knowledge captured from the low-level ILFN can be mapped to the higher-level linguistic model and vice versa. The GA is applied to optimize the linguistic model to maintain high accuracy, comprehensibility, completeness, compactness, and consistency. After the system being completely constructed, it can incrementally learn new information in both numerical and linguistic forms. To evaluate the system's performance, the well-known benchmark Wisconsin breast cancer data set was studied for an application to medical diagnosis. The simulation results have shown that the prosed HIS perform better than the individual standalone systems. The comparison results show that the linguistic rules extracted are competitive with or even superior to some well-known methods.

  4. Analysis and Modeling of Linear-Switched Reluctance for Medical Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Francois Llibre

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the analysis, the modeling and the control of a linear-switched reluctance motor. The application under consideration is medical, and the actuator is to be used as a left ventricular assist device. The actuator has a cylindrical or tubular shape, with a mechanical unidirectional valve placed inside the mover, which provides a pulsatile flow of blood. The analytical expression of the effort based on the linear behavior of the actuator is given. The identification of the characteristics of the prototype actuator and the principle of position control is performed. A modeling of the actuator is proposed, taking into account the variation of inductance with respect to the position. The closed-loop position control of the actuator is performed by simulation. A controller with integral action and anticipatory action is implemented in order to compensate the effects of disturbing efforts and tracking deviations. Moreover, a magic switch is performed in the controller to avoid overshoots. The results show that the closed-loop response of the actuator is satisfactory.

  5. A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF OPTIMIZATION TECHNIQUES FOR ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORK IN BIO MEDICAL APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Saishanmuga Raja

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study we compare the performance of three evolutionary algorithms such as Genetic Algorithm (GA Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO and Ant-Colony Optimization (ACO which are used to optimize the Artificial Neural Network (ANN. Optimization of Neural Networks improves speed of recall and may also improve the efficiency of training. Here we have used the Ant colony optimization, Particle Swarm Optimization and Genetic Algorithm to optimize the artificial neural networks for applications in medical image processing (extraction and compression. The aim of developing such algorithms is to arrive at near-optimum solutions to large-scale optimization problems, for which traditional mathematical techniques may fail. This study compares the efficiency and results of the three evolutionary algorithms. We have compared these algorithms based on processing time, accuracy and time taken to train Neural Networks. The results show that the Genetic Algorithm outperformed the other two algorithms. This study helps researchers to get an idea of selecting an optimization algorithm for configuring a neural network.

  6. A force-controllable macro-micro manipulator and its application to medical robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzwell, Neville I.; Uecker, Darrin R.; Wang, Yulun

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes an 8-degrees-of-freedom macro-micro robot. This robot is capable of performing tasks that require accurate force control, such as polishing, finishing, grinding, deburring, and cleaning. The design of the macro-micro mechanism, the control algorithms, and the hardware/software implementation of the algorithms are described in this paper. Initial experimental results are reported. In addition, this paper includes a discussion of medical surgery and the role that force control may play. We introduce a new class of robotic systems collectively called Robotic Enhancement Technology (RET). RET systems introduce the combination of robotic manipulation with human control to perform manipulation tasks beyond the individual capability of either human or machine. The RET class of robotic systems offers new challenges in mechanism design, control-law development, and man/machine interface design. We believe force-controllable mechanisms such as the macro-micro structure we have developed are a necessary part of RET. Work in progress in the area of RET systems and their application to minimally invasive surgery is presented, along with future research directions.

  7. CRISPR-Cas9 for medical genetic screens: applications and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Hui-Ying; Ji, Li-Juan; Gao, Ai-Mei; Liu, Ping; He, Jing-Dong; Lu, Xiao-Jie

    2016-02-01

    CRISPR-Cas9 (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats-CRISPR associated nuclease 9) systems have emerged as versatile and convenient (epi)genome editing tools and have become an important player in medical genetic research. CRISPR-Cas9 and its variants such as catalytically inactivated Cas9 (dead Cas9, dCas9) and scaffold-incorporating single guide sgRNA (scRNA) have been applied in various genomic screen studies. CRISPR screens enable high-throughput interrogation of gene functions in health and diseases. Compared with conventional RNAi screens, CRISPR screens incur less off-target effects and are more versatile in that they can be used in multiple formats such as knockout, knockdown and activation screens, and can target coding and non-coding regions throughout the genome. This powerful screen platform holds the potential of revolutionising functional genomic studies in the near future. Herein, we introduce the mechanisms of (epi)genome editing mediated by CRISPR-Cas9 and its variants, introduce the procedures and applications of CRISPR screen in functional genomics, compare it with conventional screen tools and at last discuss current challenges and opportunities and propose future directions.

  8. The physical and physiological aspects of xenon isotopes in nuclear medical applicants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method for trapping radioactive xenon waste from nuclear medical departments has been investigated. Adsorption of xenon acivitaded charcoal was found to be an efficient trapping method. A large gain in capacity was found when the trap was refrigerated, and permitted a large number of patient investigations before break-through of xenon occurred. By heating charcoal traps to 250-350 degrees C, adsorbed xenon gas is freed and is thus made available for re-use. A technique for room-air monitoring of xenon-leakage from patient investigations is described, where the room-air is continously pumped through a small charcoal filter, mounted close to a detector. The low gammaenergy of Xe-133, 81 keV, introduces problems for in vivo measurements due to the small differences in the energies of the primary and Compton-scattered photons. Influence of scatter and of hemispheric cross-talk was studied for cerebral blood-flow measurements. It was shown that substantial artefacts are introduced in the calculation of regional gray matter flow. The applicability of the xenon-washout technique for liver blood-flow measurements in rat was investigated. (author)

  9. Depth of Interaction Enhanced Gamma-Ray Imaging for Medical Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Lerche, C W

    2006-01-01

    A novel design for an inexpensive depth of interaction capable detector for gamma rays, suitable for nuclear medical applications, especially Positron Emission Tomography, has been developed. The design takes advantage of the strong correlation between the width of the scintillation light distribution in continuous crystals and the depth of interaction of the gamma-ray. For measuring the distribution width, an inexpensive modification of the commonly used charge dividing circuits that allows analogue and instantaneous computation of the 2nd moment has been developed and is presented in this work. The method has been tested with a detector made of a continuous LSO-scintillator of dimensions 42x42x10 cubic mm and optically coupled to the compact large area position sensitive photomultiplier H8500 from Hamamatsu. The mean resolution in all non-trivial moments was found to be smaller than 5% but their direct use as estimates for the three-dimensional photoconversion position turned out to be unsuitable. Standard ...

  10. Nanoparticles Biosynthesized by Fungi and Yeast: A Review of Their Preparation, Properties, and Medical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Boroumand Moghaddam

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the field of nanotechnology, the use of various biological units instead of toxic chemicals for the reduction and stabilization of nanoparticles, has received extensive attention. Among the many possible bio resources, biologically active products from fungi and yeast represent excellent scaffolds for this purpose. Since fungi and yeast are very effective secretors of extracellular enzymes and number of species grow fast and therefore culturing and keeping them in the laboratory are very simple. They are able to produce metal nanoparticles and nanostructure via reducing enzyme intracellularly or extracellularly. The focus of this review is the application of fungi and yeast in the green synthesis of inorganic nanoparticles. Meanwhile the domain of biosynthesized nanoparticles is somewhat novel; the innovative uses in nano medicine in different areas including the delivery of drug, cancer therapy, antibacterial, biosensors, and MRI and medical imaging are reviewed. The proposed signaling pathways of nanoparticles induced apoptosis in cancerous cells and anti-angiogenesis effects also are reviewed. In this article, we provide a short summary of the present study universally on the utilization of eukaryotes like yeast and fungi in the biosynthesis of nanoparticles (NPs and their uses.

  11. Evolving a Bayesian Classifier for ECG-based Age Classification in Medical Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggins, M; Saad, A; Litt, B; Vachtsevanos, G

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To classify patients by age based upon information extracted from their electro-cardiograms (ECGs). To develop and compare the performance of Bayesian classifiers. METHODS AND MATERIAL: We present a methodology for classifying patients according to statistical features extracted from their ECG signals using a genetically evolved Bayesian network classifier. Continuous signal feature variables are converted to a discrete symbolic form by thresholding, to lower the dimensionality of the signal. This simplifies calculation of conditional probability tables for the classifier, and makes the tables smaller. Two methods of network discovery from data were developed and compared: the first using a greedy hill-climb search and the second employed evolutionary computing using a genetic algorithm (GA). RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: The evolved Bayesian network performed better (86.25% AUC) than both the one developed using the greedy algorithm (65% AUC) and the naïve Bayesian classifier (84.75% AUC). The methodology for evolving the Bayesian classifier can be used to evolve Bayesian networks in general thereby identifying the dependencies among the variables of interest. Those dependencies are assumed to be non-existent by naïve Bayesian classifiers. Such a classifier can then be used for medical applications for diagnosis and prediction purposes.

  12. High-precision gamma-ray spectroscopy for enhancing production and application of medical isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCutchan, E. A.; Sonzogni, A. A.; Smith, S. V.; Muench, L.; Nino, M.; Greene, J. P.; Carpenter, M. P.; Zhu, S.; Chillery, T.; Chowdhury, P.; Harding, R.; Lister, C. J.

    2015-10-01

    Nuclear medicine is a field which requires precise decay data for use in planning radionuclide production and in imaging and therapeutic applications. To address deficiencies in decay data, sources of medical isotopes were produced and purified at the Brookhaven Linear Isotope Producer (BLIP) then shipped to Argonne National Laboratory where high-precision, gamma-ray measurements were performed using Gammasphere. New decay schemes for a number of PET isotopes and the impact on dose calculations will be presented. To investigate the production of next-generation theranostic or radiotherapeutic isotopes, cross section measurements with high energy protons have also been explored at BLIP. The 100-200 MeV proton energy regime is relatively unexplored for isotope production, thus offering high discovery potential but at the same time a challenging analysis due to the large number of open channels at these energies. Results of cross sections deduced from Compton-suppressed, coincidence gamma-ray spectroscopy performed at Lowell will be presented, focusing on the production of platinum isotopes by irradiating natural platinum foils with 100 to 200 MeV protons. DOE Isotope Program is acknowledged for funding ST5001030. Work supported by the US DOE under Grant DE-FG02-94ER40848 and Contracts DE-AC02-98CH10946 and DE-AC02-06CH11357.

  13. Douglas Hanahan: The daunting complexity of cancer: understanding the battlefield is a step towards winning the war

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2014-01-01

    The Inaugural Grace-CERN Lecture The daunting complexity of cancer: understanding the battlefield is a step towards winning the war  Douglas Hanahan, Ph.D. Director, Swiss Institute for Experimental Cancer Research (ISREC)  Professor of Molecular Oncology, School of Life Sciences, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Lausanne (EPFL) Vice Director, Swiss Cancer Center Lausanne Synopsis (version francaise ci-dessous) Cancer is a disease with hundreds of variations, both in affected organs and in responses to different therapies.  Modern human cancer research is producing an avalanche of data about the distinctive genetic aberrations of its specific types, further accentuating the diversity and vast complexity of the disease. There is hope that elucidating its mechanisms will lead to more informed and more effective therapeutic strategies.  Understanding the enemy is paramount, and yet tumors arising in different organs can be so different as to de...

  14. From the battlefield to the laboratory: the use of clinical data analysis in developing models of lower limb blast injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramasamy, Arul; Newell, N; Masouros, S

    2014-06-01

    A key weapon in the insurgents' armamentarium against coalition and local security forces in Iraq and Afghanistan has been the use of anti-vehicle mines and improvised explosive devices (IEDs). Often directed against vehicle-borne troops, these devices, once detonated, transfer considerable amounts of energy through the vehicle to the occupants. This results in severe lower limb injuries that are frequently limb threatening. Fundamental to designing novel mitigation strategies is a requirement to understand the injury mechanism by developing appropriate injury modelling tools that are underpinned by the analysis of contemporary battlefield casualty data. This article aims to summarise our understanding of the clinical course of lower limb blast injuries from IEDs and its value in developing unique injury modelling test-beds to evaluate and produce the next generation of protective equipment for reducing the devastating effects of blast injury.

  15. Medical-Grade Channel Access and Admission Control in 802.11e EDCA for Healthcare Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Sunghwa; Park, Kyung-Joon; Park, Eun-Chan

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we deal with the problem of assuring medical-grade quality of service (QoS) for real-time medical applications in wireless healthcare systems based on IEEE 802.11e. Firstly, we show that the differentiated channel access of IEEE 802.11e cannot effectively assure medical-grade QoS because of priority inversion. To resolve this problem, we propose an efficient channel access algorithm. The proposed algorithm adjusts arbitrary inter-frame space (AIFS) in the IEEE 802.11e protocol depending on the QoS measurement of medical traffic, to provide differentiated near-absolute priority for medical traffic. In addition, based on rigorous capacity analysis, we propose an admission control scheme that can avoid performance degradation due to network overload. Via extensive simulations, we show that the proposed mechanism strictly assures the medical-grade QoS and improves the throughput of low-priority traffic by more than several times compared to the conventional IEEE 802.11e. PMID:27490666

  16. Battlefield Situation Sensing System for Physiological Information%战场态势生理信息感知系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘军

    2011-01-01

    针对战场态势感知对人员信息采集的要求,设计了一种战场态势生理信息感知系统。该系统结合无线传感器网络,可穿戴技术,以CC2430芯片为核心,利用多生理传感器采集士兵生理信息,实现了心电、呼吸、体温和肢体运动的实时监测,并通过RS-232接口与微机连接,显示实时分析结果。经实验测试,结果与设计相符,数据误差不大于0.5%,系统功耗为240mW,通信距离为150m。该系统较好地满足了实时、准确、长时间监测的要求。%Battlefield situation Sensing requires collecting persons' information. In view of this, a battlefield situation sensing system of physiological information is designed. It combines wireless sensor networks, ZigBee and wearable technology, uses CC2430 as its core hardware and introduces many kinds of physiological sensors to collect soldiers' physiological information. ECG, respiration, temperature and status of soldiers are monitored at any time. It connects the circuit with personal computer by RS-232, and displays real time analysis results. The experiment shows that the results are accord with objective data, the error is less than 0.5% , the system power consumption is 240 mW, the communication distance is up to 150 m. The system meets the requirements of real time, accurate and long time monitoring exactly.

  17. Application of the structured history taking of medication use tool to optimise prescribing for older patients and reduce adverse events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullinan, Shane; O'Mahony, Denis; Byrne, Stephen

    2016-04-01

    Background Older patients, due to polypharmacy, co-morbidities and often multiple prescribing doctors are particularly susceptible to medication history errors, leading to adverse drug events, patient harm and increased costs. Medication reconciliation at the point of admission to hospital can reduce medication discrepancies and adverse events. The Structured HIstory taking of Medication use (SHiM) tool was developed to provide a structure to the medication reconciliation process. There has been very little research with regards to SHiM, it's application to older patients and it's potential to reduce adverse events. Objective To determine whether application of SHiM could optimise older patients' prescriptions on admission to hospital, and in-turn reduce adverse events, compared to standard care. Setting A sub-study of a large clinical trial involving hospital inpatients over the age of 65 in five hospitals across Europe. Method A modified version of SHiM was used to obtain accurate drug histories for patients after the attending physician had obtained a medication list via standard methods. Discrepancies between the two lists were recorded and classified, and the clinical relevance of the discrepancies was determined. Whether discrepancies in patients' medication histories, as revealed by SHiM, resulted in actual clinical consequences was then investigated. As this study was carried out during the observation phase of the clinical trial, results were not communicated to the medical teams. Main outcome measure Discrepancies between medication lists and whether these resulted in clinical consequences. Results SHiM was applied to 123 patients. The mean age of the participants was 78 (±6). 200 discrepancies were identified. 90 patients (73 %) had at least one discrepancy with a median of 1.0 discrepancies per patient (IQR 0.00-2.25). 53 (26.5 %) were classified as 'unlikely to cause patient discomfort or clinical deterioration', 145 (72.5 %) as 'having potential

  18. Synthesis and applications of magnetic nanoparticles for biorecognition and point of care medical diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandhu, Adarsh [Electronics-Inspired Interdisciplinary Research Institute (EIIRIS), Toyohashi University of Technology, 1-1 Hibarigaoka, Tempaku, Toyohashi 441-8580 (Japan); Handa, Hiroshi [Integrated Research Institute, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Yokohama 226-8503 (Japan); Abe, Masanori [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 O-okayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8552 (Japan)

    2010-11-05

    Functionalized magnetic nanoparticles are important components in biorecognition and medical diagnostics. Here, we present a review of our contribution to this interdisciplinary research field. We start by describing a simple one-step process for the synthesis of highly uniform ferrite nanoparticles (d = 20-200 nm) and their functionalization with amino acids via carboxyl groups. For real-world applications, we used admicellar polymerization to produce 200 nm diameter 'FG beads', consisting of several 40 nm diameter ferrite nanoparticles encapsulated in a co-polymer of styrene and glycidyl methacrylate for high throughput molecular screening. The highly dispersive FG beads were functionalized with an ethylene glycol diglycidyl ether spacer and used for affinity purification of methotrexate-an anti-cancer agent. We synthesized sub-100 nm diameter magnetic nanocapsules by exploiting the self-assembly of viral capsid protein pentamers, where single 8, 20, and 27 nm nanoparticles were encapsulated with VP1 pentamers for applications including MRI contrast agents. The FG beads are now commercially available for use in fully automated bio-screening systems. We also incorporated europium complexes inside a polymer matrix to produce 140 nm diameter fluorescent-ferrite beads (FF beads), which emit at 618 nm. These FF beads were used for immunofluorescent staining for diagnosis of cancer metastases to lymph nodes during cancer resection surgery by labeling tumor cell epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFRs), and for the detection of brain natriuretic peptide (BNP)-a hormone secreted in excess amounts by the heart when stressed-to a level of 2.0 pg ml{sup -1}. We also describe our work on Hall biosensors made using InSb and GaAs/InGaAs/AlGaAs 2DEG heterostructures integrated with gold current strips to reduce measurement times. Our approach for the detection of sub-200 nm magnetic bead is also described: we exploit the magnetically induced capture of micrometer

  19. Synthesis and applications of magnetic nanoparticles for biorecognition and point of care medical diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Functionalized magnetic nanoparticles are important components in biorecognition and medical diagnostics. Here, we present a review of our contribution to this interdisciplinary research field. We start by describing a simple one-step process for the synthesis of highly uniform ferrite nanoparticles (d = 20-200 nm) and their functionalization with amino acids via carboxyl groups. For real-world applications, we used admicellar polymerization to produce 200 nm diameter 'FG beads', consisting of several 40 nm diameter ferrite nanoparticles encapsulated in a co-polymer of styrene and glycidyl methacrylate for high throughput molecular screening. The highly dispersive FG beads were functionalized with an ethylene glycol diglycidyl ether spacer and used for affinity purification of methotrexate-an anti-cancer agent. We synthesized sub-100 nm diameter magnetic nanocapsules by exploiting the self-assembly of viral capsid protein pentamers, where single 8, 20, and 27 nm nanoparticles were encapsulated with VP1 pentamers for applications including MRI contrast agents. The FG beads are now commercially available for use in fully automated bio-screening systems. We also incorporated europium complexes inside a polymer matrix to produce 140 nm diameter fluorescent-ferrite beads (FF beads), which emit at 618 nm. These FF beads were used for immunofluorescent staining for diagnosis of cancer metastases to lymph nodes during cancer resection surgery by labeling tumor cell epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFRs), and for the detection of brain natriuretic peptide (BNP)-a hormone secreted in excess amounts by the heart when stressed-to a level of 2.0 pg ml-1. We also describe our work on Hall biosensors made using InSb and GaAs/InGaAs/AlGaAs 2DEG heterostructures integrated with gold current strips to reduce measurement times. Our approach for the detection of sub-200 nm magnetic bead is also described: we exploit the magnetically induced capture of micrometer sized 'probe beads

  20. TOPICAL REVIEW: Synthesis and applications of magnetic nanoparticles for biorecognition and point of care medical diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhu, Adarsh; Handa, Hiroshi; Abe, Masanori

    2010-11-01

    Functionalized magnetic nanoparticles are important components in biorecognition and medical diagnostics. Here, we present a review of our contribution to this interdisciplinary research field. We start by describing a simple one-step process for the synthesis of highly uniform ferrite nanoparticles (d = 20-200 nm) and their functionalization with amino acids via carboxyl groups. For real-world applications, we used admicellar polymerization to produce 200 nm diameter 'FG beads', consisting of several 40 nm diameter ferrite nanoparticles encapsulated in a co-polymer of styrene and glycidyl methacrylate for high throughput molecular screening. The highly dispersive FG beads were functionalized with an ethylene glycol diglycidyl ether spacer and used for affinity purification of methotrexate—an anti-cancer agent. We synthesized sub-100 nm diameter magnetic nanocapsules by exploiting the self-assembly of viral capsid protein pentamers, where single 8, 20, and 27 nm nanoparticles were encapsulated with VP1 pentamers for applications including MRI contrast agents. The FG beads are now commercially available for use in fully automated bio-screening systems. We also incorporated europium complexes inside a polymer matrix to produce 140 nm diameter fluorescent-ferrite beads (FF beads), which emit at 618 nm. These FF beads were used for immunofluorescent staining for diagnosis of cancer metastases to lymph nodes during cancer resection surgery by labeling tumor cell epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFRs), and for the detection of brain natriuretic peptide (BNP)—a hormone secreted in excess amounts by the heart when stressed—to a level of 2.0 pg ml - 1. We also describe our work on Hall biosensors made using InSb and GaAs/InGaAs/AlGaAs 2DEG heterostructures integrated with gold current strips to reduce measurement times. Our approach for the detection of sub-200 nm magnetic bead is also described: we exploit the magnetically induced capture of micrometer sized 'probe