WorldWideScience

Sample records for battery program recommendations

  1. NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Program: Wet Life of Nickel-Hydrogen (Ni-H2) Batteries. Volume 1, Part 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, David S.; Lee, Leonine S.; Manzo, Michelle A.

    2010-01-01

    This NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Systems Working Group was chartered within the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC). The Battery Working Group was tasked to complete tasks and to propose proactive work to address battery related, agency-wide issues on an annual basis. In its first year of operation, this proactive program addressed various aspects of the validation and verification of aerospace battery systems for NASA missions. Studies were performed, issues were discussed and in many cases, test programs were executed to generate recommendations and guidelines to reduce risk associated with various aspects of implementing battery technology in the aerospace industry. This document contains Part 3 - Volume I: Wet Life of Nickel-Hydrogen (Ni-H2) Batteries of the program's operations.

  2. NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Program: Generic Safety, Handling and Qualification Guidelines for Lithium-Ion (Li-Ion) Batteries; Availability of Source Materials for Lithium-Ion (Li-Ion) Batteries; Maintaining Technical Communications Related to Aerospace Batteries (NASA Aerospace Battery Workshop). Volume 1, Part 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzo, Michelle A.; Brewer, Jeffrey C.; Bugga, Ratnakumar V.; Darcy, Eric C.; Jeevarajan, Judith A.; McKissock, Barbara I.; Schmitz, Paul C.

    2010-01-01

    This NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Systems Working Group was chartered within the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC). The Battery Working Group was tasked to complete tasks and to propose proactive work to address battery related, agency-wide issues on an annual basis. In its first year of operation, this proactive program addressed various aspects of the validation and verification of aerospace battery systems for NASA missions. Studies were performed, issues were discussed and in many cases, test programs were executed to generate recommendations and guidelines to reduce risk associated with various aspects of implementing battery technology in the aerospace industry. This document contains Part 1 - Volume I: Generic Safety, Handling and Qualification Guidelines for Lithium-Ion (Li-Ion) Batteries, Availability of Source Materials for Lithium-Ion (Li-Ion) Batteries, and Maintaining Technical Communications Related to Aerospace Batteries (NASA Aerospace Battery Workshop).

  3. Local government household battery collection programs: Costs and benefits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shapek, Raymond A [Department of Public Administration, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL (United States)

    1995-10-01

    Nearly three billion dry-cell household batteries are discarded in the municipal waste stream annually. While the mercury content of newer batteries has been reduced, older batteries and the accumulated total of mercury and cadmium, as well as other metals in the newer batteries still constitute a potential health risk. Many communities have initiated collection programs to remove this source of contamination from the municipal waste stream, but most have not. Fourteen states have enacted legislation regulating the disposal of household batteries, while nine states require the collection of rechargeable batteries. This article describes the potential health risks associated with continued disposal and incineration of household dry-cell batteries, reviews a sampling of existing municipal collection programs in US communities, and examines the costs and benefits and program options of collection programs

  4. IPTV program recommendation based on combination strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Hao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available As a new interactive service technology, IPTV has been extensively studying in the field of TV pro-gram recommendation, but the sparse of the user-program rating matrix and the cold-start problem is a bottleneck that the program recommended accurately. In this paper, a flexible combination of two recommendation strategies proposed, which explored the sparse and cold-start problem as well as the issue of user interest change over time. This paper achieved content-based filtering section and collaborative filtering section according to the two combination strategies, which effectively solved the cold-start program and over the sparse problem and the problem of users interest change over time. The experimental results showed that this combinational recommendation system in optimal parameters compared by using any one of two combination strategies or not using any combination strategy at all, and the reducing range of MAE is [2.7%,3%].The increasing range of precision and recall is [13.8%95.5%] and [0,97.8%], respectively. The experiment showed better results when using combinational recommendation system in optimal parameters than using each combination strategies individually or not using any combination strategy.

  5. Utility battery storage systems program report for FY 94

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, P.C.

    1995-03-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico, conducts the Utility Battery Storage Systems Program, which is sponsored by the US Department of Energy`s Office of Energy Management. The goal of this program is to assist industry in developing cost-effective battery systems as a utility resource option by 2000. Sandia is responsible for the engineering analyses, contracted development, and testing of rechargeable batteries and systems for utility energy storage applications. This report details the technical achievements realized during fiscal year 1994.

  6. Geothermal Technologies Program Blue Ribbon Panel Recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2011-06-17

    The Geothermal Technologies Program assembled a geothermal Blue Ribbon Panel on March 22-23, 2011 in Albuquerque, New Mexico for a guided discussion on the future of geothermal energy in the United States and the role of the DOE Program. The Geothermal Blue Ribbon Panel Report captures the discussions and recommendations of the experts. An addendum is available here: http://www.eere.energy.gov/geothermal/pdfs/gtp_blue_ribbon_panel_report_addendum10-2011.pdf

  7. Mental Health and Mental Disorder Recommendation Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruchiwit, Manyat

    2017-12-01

    The characteristic differences among the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS) countries in terms of trade and investment, society and cultural values, medical information and technology, and the living and working environment have become major health problems in terms of mental disorders. The purpose of this article is to identify the gaps in those aspects, to propose mental health and mental disorder recommendation programs, and to recommend policies for policy makers and research investors. A comparative analysis and literature review of existing policy, including overviews of previous research were used to generate a synthesis of the existing knowledge of the mental health and mental disorder recommendation programs. The review results recommend mental health and mental disorder programs for policy makers, research investors, and stakeholders in order to strengthen the directions for implementing these programs in the future. The healthcare provision in each country will not be limited only to its citizens; the healthcare markets and target groups are likely to expand to the neighboring countries in the context of changes in domestic and international factors, which have both positive and negative impacts according to the political, economic, and social situations of the influencing countries.

  8. Recommended well drilling and testing program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, J.; Wilson, C.

    1978-07-01

    A well drilling and testing program is recommended by Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory to identify the hydrology of deep basalts in the Pasco Basin. The ultimate objective of this program is to assist in determining the feasibility of locating a nuclear waste repository on the Hanford Reservation. The recommended program has been staged for maximum effectiveness. In the first stage, six wells have been identified for drilling and testing which, when coupled with existing wells, will provide sufficient data for a preliminary overview of basin hydrology and a preliminary determination of the hydrologic suitability of the deep basalt for a repository site. The rate at which the first stage wells are drilled and tested will depend upon the date at which a preliminary determination of site suitability is required. It was assumed that a preliminary determination of suitability would be required in 1980, in which case all six first stage wells would be drilled in FY 1979. If the results of the first stage analysis are favorable for repository siting, tentative repository sites can be identified and a second stage hydrology program can be implemented to provide the necessary details of the flow system. To accomplish this stage, a number of deep wells would be required at locations both inside and outside the basin, with specific sites to be identified as the work progresses to obtain maximum utility of existing data. A program is recommended for testing in each new well and for completion of testing in each existing well. Recommended tests include borehole geophysics, pressure and permeability testing, geochemical sampling, tracer testing, hydrofracturing and borehole fracture logging. The entire data collection program is oriented toward providing the information required to establish and verify an accurate numerical model of the Pasco Basin

  9. NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Program: Wet Life of Nickel-Hydrogen (Ni-H2) Batteries. Volume 2, Part 3; Appendices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, David S,; Lee, Leonine S.; Manzo, Michelle A.

    2010-01-01

    This NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Systems Working Group was chartered within the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC). The Battery Working Group was tasked to complete tasks and to propose proactive work to address battery related, agency-wide issues on an annual basis. In its first year of operation, this proactive program addressed various aspects of the validation and verification of aerospace battery systems for NASA missions. Studies were performed, issues were discussed and in many cases, test programs were executed to generate recommendations and guidelines to reduce risk associated with various aspects of implementing battery technology in the aerospace industry. This document contains Part 3 - Volume II Appendices to Part 3 - Volume I.

  10. NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Program: Generic Safety, Handling and Qualification Guidelines for Lithium-Ion (Li-Ion) Batteries; Availability of Source Materials for Lithium-Ion (Li-Ion) Batteries; Maintaining Technical Communications Related to Aerospace Batteries (NASA Aerospace Battery Workshop). Volume 2, Part 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzo, Michelle A.; Brewer, Jeffrey C.; Bugga, Ratnakumar V.; Darcy, Eric C.; Jeevarajan, Judith A.; McKissock, Barbara I.; Schmitz, Paul C.

    2010-01-01

    This NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Systems Working Group was chartered within the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC). The Battery Working Group was tasked to complete tasks and to propose proactive work to address battery related, agency-wide issues on an annual basis. In its first year of operation, this proactive program addressed various aspects of the validation and verification of aerospace battery systems for NASA missions. Studies were performed, issues were discussed and in many cases, test programs were executed to generate recommendations and guidelines to reduce risk associated with various aspects of implementing battery technology in the aerospace industry. This report contains the Appendices to the findings from the first year of the program's operations.

  11. Status of the DOE Battery and Electrochemical Technology Program V

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, R.

    1985-06-01

    The program consists of two activities, Technology Base Research (TBR) managed by the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) and Exploratory Technology Development and Testing (EDT) managed by the Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). The status of the Battery Energy Storage Test (BEST) Facility is presented, including the status of the batteries to be tested. ECS program contributions to the advancement of the lead-acid battery and specific examples of technology transfer from this program are given. The advances during the period December 1982 to June 1984 in the characterization and performance of the lead-acid, iron/nickel-oxide, iron/air, aluminum/air, zinc/bromide, zinc/ferricyanide, and sodium/sulfur batteries and in fuel cells for transport are summarized. Novel techniques and the application of established techniques to the study of electrode processes, especially the electrode/electrolyte interface, are described. Research with the potential of leading to improved ceramic electrolytes and positive electrode container and current-collectors for the sodium/sulfur battery is presented. Advances in the electrocatalysis of the oxygen (air) electrode and the relationship of these advances to the iron/air and aluminum/air batteries and to the fuel cell are noted. The quest for new battery couples and battery materials is reviewed. New developments in the modeling of electrochemical cell and electrode performance with the approaches to test these models are reported.

  12. Utility battery storage systems. Program report for FY95

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, P.C.

    1996-03-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico, conducts the Utility Battery Storage Systems Program, which is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy`s Office of Utility Technologies. The goal of this program is to assist industry in developing cost-effective battery systems as a utility resource option by 2000. Sandia is responsible for the engineering analyses, contracted development, and testing of rechargeable batteries and systems for utility energy storage applications. This report details the technical achievements realized during fiscal year 1995.

  13. Freshmen Program Withdrawal: Types and Recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Bernardo

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available University program dropout is a problem that has important consequences not only for the student that leaves but also for the institution in which the withdrawal occurs. Therefore, higher education institutions must study the problem in greater depth to establish appropriate prevention measures in the future. However, most research papers currently focus primarily on the characteristics of students who leave university, rather than on those who choose to pursue alternative courses of study and therefore fail to take into account the different kinds of abandonment. The aim of this paper is to identify the different types of dropout to define their characteristics and propose some recommendations. Thus, an ex post facto study was carried out on a sample of 1,311 freshmen from a university in the north of Spain using data gathered using an ad-hoc designed questionnaire, applied by telephone or an online survey, and completed with data available in the university data warehouse. A descriptive analysis was performed to characterize the sample and identify five different groups, including 1. Students persisting in their initiated degree 2. Students who change of program (within the same university 3. Students transferring to a different university 4. Students enrolling in non-higher-education studies 5. Students that quit studying. Also, data mining techniques (decision trees were applied to classify the cases and generate predictive models to aid in the design of differentiated intervention strategies for each of the corresponding groups.

  14. Freshmen Program Withdrawal: Types and Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardo, Ana; Cervero, Antonio; Esteban, María; Tuero, Ellian; Casanova, Joana R.; Almeida, Leandro S.

    2017-01-01

    University program dropout is a problem that has important consequences not only for the student that leaves but also for the institution in which the withdrawal occurs. Therefore, higher education institutions must study the problem in greater depth to establish appropriate prevention measures in the future. However, most research papers currently focus primarily on the characteristics of students who leave university, rather than on those who choose to pursue alternative courses of study and therefore fail to take into account the different kinds of abandonment. The aim of this paper is to identify the different types of dropout to define their characteristics and propose some recommendations. Thus, an ex post facto study was carried out on a sample of 1,311 freshmen from a university in the north of Spain using data gathered using an ad-hoc designed questionnaire, applied by telephone or an online survey, and completed with data available in the university data warehouse. A descriptive analysis was performed to characterize the sample and identify five different groups, including 1. Students persisting in their initiated degree 2. Students who change of program (within the same university) 3. Students transferring to a different university 4. Students enrolling in non-higher-education studies 5. Students that quit studying. Also, data mining techniques (decision trees) were applied to classify the cases and generate predictive models to aid in the design of differentiated intervention strategies for each of the corresponding groups. PMID:28983263

  15. Recommendations for quality assurance programs in nuclear medicine facilities. Radiation recommendations series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segal, P.; Hamilton, D.R.

    1984-10-01

    The publication provides the elements that should be considered by nuclear medicine facilities to improve their existing programs or develop new quality assurance programs. The important administrative aspects of quality assurance programs are stressed. Each facility is encouraged to adopt those elements of the recommended program that are appropriate to its individual needs and resources

  16. A recommended program of tritium monitoring research and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nickerson, S.B.; Gerdingh, R.F.; Penfold, K.

    1982-10-01

    This report presents recommendations for programs of research and development in tritium monitoring instrumentation. These recommendations, if implemented, will offer Canadian industry the opportunity to develop marketable instruments. The major recommendations are to assist in the development and promotion of two Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories' monitors and an Ontario Hydro monitor, and to support research and development of a surface monitor

  17. Lithium-Ion Battery Program Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surampudi, S.; Huang, C. K.; Smart, M.; Davies, E.; Perrone, D.; Distefano, S.; Halpert, G.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this program is to develop rechargeable Li-ion cells for future NASA missions. Applications that would benefit from this project are: new millenium spacecraft; rovers; landers; astronaut equipment; and planetary orbiters. The approach of this program is: select electrode materials and electrolytes; identify failure modes and mechanisms and enhance cycle life; demonstrate Li-ion cell technology with liquid electrolyte; select candidate polymer electrolytes for Li-ion polymer cells; and develop Li-ion polymer cell technology.

  18. Recommendations for Implementing an Aquatic Plyometric Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Michael G.; Berry, David C.; Gilders, Roger; Bullard, Sue

    2001-01-01

    Describes the advantages of using plyometric programs in the water, explaining that they may provide athletes with several benefits (e.g., added resistance, which increases muscle strength, and getting a break from more monotonous drills on land). The paper discusses: the physical properties of water, aquatic rehabilitation that incorporates…

  19. Testing and development of electric vehicle batteries for EPRI Electric Transportation Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-11-01

    Argonne National Laboratory conducted an electric-vehicle battery testing and development program for the Electric Power Research Institute. As part of this program, eighteen battery modules previously developed by Johnson Controls, Inc. were tested. This type of battery (EV-2300 - an improved state-of-the-art lead-acid battery) was designed specifically for improved performance, range, and life in electric vehicles. In order to obtain necessary performance data, the batteries were tested under various duty cycles typical of normal service. This program, supported by the Electric Power Research Institute, consisted of three tasks: determination of the effect of cycle life vs peak power and rest period, determination of the impact of charge method on cycle life, and evaluation of the EV-2300 battery system. Two supporting studies were also carried out: one on thermal management of electric-vehicle batteries and one on enhanced utilization of active material in lead-acid batteries.

  20. Microgrid Reliability Modeling and Battery Scheduling Using Stochastic Linear Programming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardoso, Goncalo; Stadler, Michael; Siddiqui, Afzal; Marnay, Chris; DeForest, Nicholas; Barbosa-Povoa, Ana; Ferrao, Paulo

    2013-05-23

    This paper describes the introduction of stochastic linear programming into Operations DER-CAM, a tool used to obtain optimal operating schedules for a given microgrid under local economic and environmental conditions. This application follows previous work on optimal scheduling of a lithium-iron-phosphate battery given the output uncertainty of a 1 MW molten carbonate fuel cell. Both are in the Santa Rita Jail microgrid, located in Dublin, California. This fuel cell has proven unreliable, partially justifying the consideration of storage options. Several stochastic DER-CAM runs are executed to compare different scenarios to values obtained by a deterministic approach. Results indicate that using a stochastic approach provides a conservative yet more lucrative battery schedule. Lower expected energy bills result, given fuel cell outages, in potential savings exceeding 6percent.

  1. China Green Lights Program: A Review and Recommendations; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Jiang

    1999-01-01

    This report reviews the development of China's Green Lights Program in the last two years, and discusses the remaining barriers to the widespread adoption of efficient lighting technologies in China: chiefly quality, high initial costs, and lack of accurate information. A variety of policy options are recommended for the future expansion of China's Green Lights Program

  2. China Green Lights Program: A Review and Recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Jiang

    1999-06-10

    This report reviews the development of China's Green Lights Program in the last two years, and discusses the remaining barriers to the widespread adoption of efficient lighting technologies in China: chiefly quality, high initial costs, and lack of accurate information. A variety of policy options are recommended for the future expansion of China's Green Lights Program.

  3. Recommended programming practices to facilitate the portability of science computer programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    This standard recommends programming practices to facilitate the portability of computer programs prepared for scientific and engineering computations. These practices are intended to simplify implementation, conversion, and modification of computer programs

  4. Online Financial Education Programs: Theory, Research, and Recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinhee Kim

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Technological advances have created unprecedented opportunities for online financial education that can be used to improve financial literacy and money management practices. While online financial education programs have become popular, relevant research and theoretical frameworks have rarely been considered in the development of such programs. This article synthesizes lessons from literature and theories for the development of an effective online financial education program. Drawing from literature on financial literacy education and online education, implications and recommendations for integrating technology into online financial education programs for adults are discussed.

  5. Recommendation System of Program Based on REST Style

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Jin Bao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With the popularity of digital TV, TV programs have been on the increase no matter in both the number and species, which brought many choice to the users. Although the digital TV has increased largely in the selectivity, it has become a fussy process that users search for programs which they are interested in. So there is need to have an efficient program recommendation system to solve the problem that is “information overload” for users. It can not only help users to get the program which they require, but also bring convenience to people’s life. The program recommendation system named MyView is planned and designed, aimed to providing an efficient information platform. The system also involves intelligent recommendation. The information guide will trigger the recommendation engine after users registering information, the engine will accord to the data in the guide information to make the personalized program recommendation. The system was deployed in the Tomcat and Apache integration servers on my localhost, so it also belongs to the Web application based on J2EE platform. AJAX is used that can achieve a good user experience to develop web presentation layer on MyView PC browser with flexible interface performance. The background of business services uses the hierarchical form. MyView System uses the CXF framework and Hibernate to equip controller and data persistence layer in the Spring container. The overall framework of the system uses the REST style, in order to extend the performance and function later. Background service layer with uniform interface, marked by the URI resource. At the same time, HTTP requestion is submitted by the AJAX to obtain services provided by resources. Finally, we can analyze and summary the features of MyView System.

  6. International service learning programs: ethical issues and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisch, Rebecca A

    2011-08-01

    Inequities in global health are increasingly of interest to health care providers in developed countries. In response, many academic healthcare programs have begun to offer international service learning programs. Participants in these programs are motivated by ethical principles, but this type of work presents significant ethical challenges, and no formalized ethical guidelines for these activities exist. In this paper the ethical issues presented by international service learning programs are described and recommendations are made for how academic healthcare programs can carry out international service learning programs in a way that minimizes ethical conflicts and maximizes benefits for all stakeholders. Issues related to project sustainability and community involvement are emphasized. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. Status of the DOE battery and electrochemical technology program. III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, R.

    1982-02-01

    This report reviews the status of the Department of Energy Subelement on Electrochemical Storage Systems. It emphasizes material presented at the Fourth US Department of Energy Battery and Electrochemical Contractors' Conference, held June 2-4, 1981. The conference stressed secondary batteries, however, the aluminum/air mechanically rechargeable battery and selected topics on industrial electrochemical processes were included. The potential contributions of the battery and electrochemical technology efforts to supported technologies: electric vehicles, solar electric systems, and energy conservation in industrial electrochemical processes, are reviewed. The analyses of the potential impact of these systems on energy technologies as the basis for selecting specific battery systems for investigation are noted. The battery systems in the research, development, and demonstration phase discussed include: aqueous mobile batteries (near term) - lead-acid, iron/nickel-oxide, zinc/nickel-oxide; advanced batteries - aluminum/air, iron/air, zinc/bromine, zinc/ferricyanide, chromous/ferric, lithium/metal sulfide, sodium/sulfur; and exploratory batteries - lithium organic electrolyte, lithium/polymer electrolyte, sodium/sulfur (IV) chloroaluminate, calcium/iron disulfide, lithium/solid electrolyte. Supporting research on electrode reactions, cell performance modeling, new battery materials, ionic conducting solid electrolytes, and electrocatalysis is reviewed. Potential energy saving processes for the electrowinning of aluminum and zinc, and for the electrosynthesis of inorganic and organic compounds are included

  8. Monitoring program design recommendations for uranium mining communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-10-01

    Environmental radiological monitoring requirements and their rationale have been developed for operating uranium mine/mill sites including the pre-operational phase, and for non-operating tailings areas, in order to assess the radiological impact on the environment and follow long-term trends. These recommendations have been based on a review of regulatory standards, sources and nature of releases from mines, mills and tailings, and environmental pathway analysis. Media and measurements considered in the routine on-going programs include airborne radon, airborne particulates, external radiation, terrestrial biota, surface water, drinking water, ground water, fish and sediment. Program implementation guides are provided. An overview of sampling and field technique and specific recommendations have been made. (auth)

  9. Bipolar nickel-hydrogen battery development - A program review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzo, Michelle; Lenhart, Stephen; Hall, Arnold

    1989-01-01

    An overview of spacecraft power system design trends, focusing on higher power bus voltages and improved energy storage systems, is followed by a discussion of bipolar Ni/H2 battery development efforts. Several 10-cell batteries and one 50-cell battery are described, and performance results are presented. A comparison of individual-pressure-vessel and bipolar Ni/H2 technologies is used to suggest a new direction for bipolar Ni/H2 battery development efforts, toward a large number of passively cooled cells in parallel.

  10. Mass Optimization of Battery/Supercapacitors Hybrid Systems Based on a Linear Programming Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleury, Benoit; Labbe, Julien

    2014-08-01

    The objective of this paper is to show that, on a specific launcher-type mission profile, a 40% gain of mass is expected using a battery/supercapacitors active hybridization instead of a single battery solution. This result is based on the use of a linear programming optimization approach to perform the mass optimization of the hybrid power supply solution.

  11. Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Lijuan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fe3O4/carbon microspheres (Fe3O4/C were prepared by a facile hydrothermal reaction using cellulose and ferric trichloride as precursors. The resultant composite spheres have been investigated as anode materials for the lithium-ion batteries, and they show high capacity and good cycle stability (830mAhg−1 at a current density of 0.1C up to 70 cycles, as well as enhanced rate capability. The excellent electrochemical performance is attributed to the high structural stability and high rate of ionic/electronic conduction arising from the porous character and the synergetic effect of the carbon coated Fe3O4 structure and conductive carbon coating.

  12. Mission and status of the US Department of Energy's battery energy storage program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, J. E.; Hurwitch, J. W.; Landgrebe, A. R.; Hauser, S. G.

    1985-05-01

    The mission of the US Department of Energy's battery research program has evolved to reflect the changing conditions of the world energy economy and the national energy policy. The battery energy storage program supports the goals of the National Energy Policy Plan (FY 1984). The goals are to provide an adequate supply of energy at reasonable costs, minimize federal control and involvement in the energy marketplace, promote a balanced and mixed energy resource system, and facilitate technology transfer from the public to the private sector. This paper describes the history of the battery energy storage program and its relevance to the national interest. Potential market applications for battery energy storage are reviewed, and each technology, its goals, and its current technical status are described. The paper concludes by describing the strategy developed to ensure effective technology transfer to the private sector and reviewing past significant accomplishments.

  13. Sodium sulfur electric vehicle battery engineering program final report, September 2, 1986--June 15, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-06-01

    In September 1986 a contract was signed between Chloride Silent Power Limited (CSPL) and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) entitled ``Sodium Sulfur Electric Vehicle Battery Engineering Program``. The aim of the cost shared program was to advance the state of the art of sodium sulfur batteries for electric vehicle propulsion. Initially, the work statement was non-specific in regard to the vehicle to be used as the design and test platform. Under a separate contract with the DOE, Ford Motor Company was designing an advanced electric vehicle drive system. This program, called the ETX II, used a modified Aerostar van for its platform. In 1987, the ETX II vehicle was adopted for the purposes of this contract. This report details the development and testing of a series of battery designs and concepts which led to the testing, in the US, of three substantial battery deliverables.

  14. The mission and status of the U.S. Department of Energy's battery energy storage program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, J. E.; Landgrebe, A. R.; Hurwitch, J. W.; Hauser, S. G.

    1985-12-01

    Attention is given to the U.S. Department of Energy's battery energy storage program history, assessing the importance it has had in the national interest to date in industrial, vehicular, and electric utility load leveling applications. The development status of battery technology is also evaluated for the cases of sodium-sulfur, zinc-bromine, zinc-ferricyanide, nickel-hydrogen, aluminum-air, lithium-metal disulfide, and fuel cell systems. Development trends are projected into the foreseeable future.

  15. 77 FR 38743 - Energy Efficiency Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation Standards for Battery...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-29

    ... Efficiency Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation Standards for Battery Chargers and External Power Supplies AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION... Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Building Technologies Program, EE-2J, 1000 Independence Avenue SW...

  16. Evaluation of nuclear power plant environmental impact prediction, based on monitoring programs. Summary and recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gore, K.L.; Thomas, J.M.; Kannberg, L.D.; Watson, D.G.

    1977-02-01

    An evaluation of the effectivenss of non-radiological environmental monitoring programs is presented. The monitoring programs for Monticello, Haddam Neck, and Millstone Nuclear Generating Plants are discussed. Recommendations for improvements in monitoring programs are presented

  17. The Evaluator's Role in Recommending Program Closure: A Model for Decision Making and Professional Responsibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddy, Rebecca M.; Berry, Tiffany

    2009-01-01

    Evaluators face challenges when programs consistently fail to meet expectations for performance or improvement and consequently, evaluators may recommend that closing a program is the most prudent course of action. However, the evaluation literature provides little guidance regarding when an evaluator might recommend program closure. Given…

  18. Fissile material disposition program final immobilization form assessment and recommendation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cochran, S.G.; Dunlop, W.H.; Edmunds, T.A.; MacLean, L.M.; Gould, T.H.

    1997-01-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), in its role as the lead laboratory for the development of plutonium immobilization technologies for the Department of Energy's Office of Fissile Materials Disposition (MD), has been requested by MD to recommend an immobilization technology for the disposition of surplus weapons- usable plutonium. The recommendation and supporting documentation was requested to be provided by September 1, 1997. This report addresses the choice between glass and ceramic technologies for immobilizing plutonium using the can-in-canister approach. Its purpose is to provide a comparative evaluation of the two candidate technologies and to recommend a form based on technical considerations

  19. Report on Lithium Ion Battery Trade Studies to Support the Exploration Technology Development Program (ETDP) Energy Storage Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Robert D.; Kissock, Barbara I.; Bennett, William R.

    2010-01-01

    This report documents the results of two system related analyses to support the Exploration Technology Development Program (ETDP) Energy Storage Project. The first study documents a trade study to determine the optimum Li-ion battery cell capacity for the ascent stage battery for the Altair lunar lander being developed under the Constellation Systems program. The battery cell capacity for the Ultra High Energy (UHE) Li-ion battery initially chosen as the target for development was 35 A-hr; this study concludes that a 19.4 A-hr cell capacity would be more optimum from a minimum battery mass perspective. The second study in this report is an assessment of available low temperature Li-ion battery cell performance data to determine whether lowering the operating temperature range of the Li-ion battery, in a rover application, could save overall system mass by eliminating thermal control system mass normally needed to maintain battery temperature within a tighter temperature limit than electronics or other less temperature sensitive components. The preliminary assessment for this second study indicates that the reduction in the thermal control system mass is negated by an increase in battery mass to compensate for the loss in battery capacity due to lower temperature operating conditions.

  20. RECOMMENDED HVAC STANDARD OF THE FLORIDA RADON RESEARCH PROGRAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report contains the recommended language for the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) section of the "Florida Code for Radon-resistant Construction and Mitigation." t deals with elements of construction that relate to the HVAC of houses. ts primary intent is to p...

  1. Nickel-Hydrogen Battery Cell Life Test Program Update for the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Thomas B.

    2000-01-01

    NASA and Boeing North America are responsible for constructing the electrical power system for the International Space Station (ISS), which circles the Earth every 90 minutes in a low Earth orbit (LEO). For approximately 55 minutes of this orbit, the ISS is in sunlight, and for the remaining 35 minutes, the ISS is in the Earth s shadow (eclipse). The electrical power system must not only provide power during the sunlight portion by means of the solar arrays, but also store energy for use during the eclipse. Nickel-hydrogen (Ni/H2) battery cells were selected as the energy storage systems for ISS. Each battery Orbital Replacement Unit (ORU) comprises 38 individual series-connected Ni/H2 battery cells, and there are 48 battery ORU s on the ISS. On the basis of a limited Ni/H2 LEO data base on life and performance characteristics, the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field commenced testing through two test programs: one in-house and one at the Naval Surface Warfare Center in Crane, Indiana.

  2. Recommended research program for improving seismic safety of light-water nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-04-01

    Recommendations are presented for research areas concerned with seismic safety. These recommendations are based on an analysis of the answers to a questionnaire which was sent to over 80 persons working in the area of seismic safety of nuclear power plants. In addition to the answers of the 55 questionnaires which were received, the recommendations are based on ideas expressed at a meeting of an ad hoc group of professionals formed by Sandia, review of literature, current research programs, and engineering judgement

  3. Electromagnetic pulse research on electric power systems: Program summary and recommendations. Power Systems Technology Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, P.R.; McConnell, B.W.; Van Dyke, J.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Tesche, F.M. [Tesche (F.M.), Dallas, TX (United States); Vance, E.F. [Vance (E.F.), Fort Worth, TX (United States)

    1993-01-01

    A single nuclear detonation several hundred kilometers above the central United States will subject much of the nation to a high-altitude electromagnetic pulse (BENT). This pulse consists of an intense steep-front, short-duration transient electromagnetic field, followed by a geomagnetic disturbance with tens of seconds duration. This latter environment is referred to as the magnetohydrodynamic electromagnetic pulse (NMENT). Both the early-time transient and the geomagnetic disturbance could impact the operation of the nation`s power systems. Since 1983, the US Department of Energy has been actively pursuing a research program to assess the potential impacts of one or more BENT events on the nation`s electric energy supply. This report summarizes the results of that program and provides recommendations for enhancing power system reliability under HENT conditions. A nominal HENP environment suitable for assessing geographically large systems was developed during the program and is briefly described in this report. This environment was used to provide a realistic indication of BEMP impacts on electric power systems. It was found that a single high-altitude burst, which could significantly disturb the geomagnetic field, may cause the interconnected power network to break up into utility islands with massive power failures in some areas. However, permanent damage would be isolated, and restoration should be possible within a few hours. Multiple bursts would likely increase the blackout areas, component failures, and restoration time. However, a long-term blackout of many months is unlikely because major power system components, such as transformers, are not likely to be damaged by the nominal HEND environment. Moreover, power system reliability, under both HENT and normal operating conditions, can be enhanced by simple, and often low cost, modifications to current utility practices.

  4. LDA-Based Unified Topic Modeling for Similar TV User Grouping and TV Program Recommendation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyo, Shinjee; Kim, Eunhui; Kim, Munchurl

    2015-08-01

    Social TV is a social media service via TV and social networks through which TV users exchange their experiences about TV programs that they are viewing. For social TV service, two technical aspects are envisioned: grouping of similar TV users to create social TV communities and recommending TV programs based on group and personal interests for personalizing TV. In this paper, we propose a unified topic model based on grouping of similar TV users and recommending TV programs as a social TV service. The proposed unified topic model employs two latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA) models. One is a topic model of TV users, and the other is a topic model of the description words for viewed TV programs. The two LDA models are then integrated via a topic proportion parameter for TV programs, which enforces the grouping of similar TV users and associated description words for watched TV programs at the same time in a unified topic modeling framework. The unified model identifies the semantic relation between TV user groups and TV program description word groups so that more meaningful TV program recommendations can be made. The unified topic model also overcomes an item ramp-up problem such that new TV programs can be reliably recommended to TV users. Furthermore, from the topic model of TV users, TV users with similar tastes can be grouped as topics, which can then be recommended as social TV communities. To verify our proposed method of unified topic-modeling-based TV user grouping and TV program recommendation for social TV services, in our experiments, we used real TV viewing history data and electronic program guide data from a seven-month period collected by a TV poll agency. The experimental results show that the proposed unified topic model yields an average 81.4% precision for 50 topics in TV program recommendation and its performance is an average of 6.5% higher than that of the topic model of TV users only. For TV user prediction with new TV programs, the average

  5. 75 FR 36120 - Proposed Information Collection Request Submitted for Public Comment and Recommendations; Program...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-24

    ... Submitted for Public Comment and Recommendations; Program To Prevent Smoking Underground and in Hazardous... mine operators are required to develop programs to prevent persons from carrying smoking materials, matches, or lighters underground and to prevent smoking in hazardous areas, such as in or around oil...

  6. The pre-operational monitoring - how useful are recommendations of international organizations and various national programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihailovic, M.

    1980-01-01

    National legislation and the preoperational monitoring program around Nuclear Power Plant Krsko are described. The usefulness of international recommendations and various national preoperational monitoring programs is examined. Modifications are described which were introduced with the aim of identifying the site specific critical exposure pathways. The role of qualified and experienced experts is discussed. (H.K.)

  7. Evaluation and recommendations on U.C. Lawrence Livermore Labortory Quality Assurance Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, F.D.; Horner, M.H.

    1978-01-01

    A study was conducted of the University of California's Lawrence Livermore Laboratory Quality Assurance Program, which focused on training needs and recommendations tailored to the various on-going programs. Specific attention was directed to an assessment of the quality status for the MFTF facility and the capabilities of assigned quality project engineers. Conclusions and recommendations are presented which not only address the purpose of this study, but extend into other areas to provide insight and needs for a total cost effective application of a quality assurance program

  8. Teen Pregnancy Prevention Program Recommendations from Urban and Reservation Northern Plains American Indian Community Members

    OpenAIRE

    McMahon, Tracey R.; Hanson, Jessica D.; Griese, Emily R.; Kenyon, DenYelle Baete

    2015-01-01

    Despite declines over the past few decades, the United States has one of the highest rates of teen pregnancy compared to other industrialized nations. American Indian youth have experienced higher rates of teen pregnancy compared to the overall population for decades. Although it's known that community and cultural adaptation enhance program effectiveness, few teen pregnancy prevention programs have published on recommendations for adapting these programs to address the specific needs of Nort...

  9. A Recommender System for Programming Online Judges Using Fuzzy Information Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raciel Yera Toledo

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Programming online judges (POJs are an emerging application scenario in e-learning recommendation areas. Specifically, they are e-learning tools usually used in programming practices for the automatic evaluation of source code developed by students when they are solving programming problems. Usually, they contain a large collection of such problems, to be solved by students at their own personalized pace. The more problems in the POJ the harder the selection of the right problem to solve according to previous users performance, causing information overload and a widespread discouragement. This paper presents a recommendation framework to mitigate this issue by suggesting problems to solve in programming online judges, through the use of fuzzy tools which manage the uncertainty related to this scenario. The evaluation of the proposal uses real data obtained from a programming online judge, and shows that the new approach improves previous recommendation strategies which do not consider uncertainty management in the programming online judge scenarios. Specifically, the best results were obtained for short recommendation lists.

  10. Teaching and learning curriculum programs: recommendations for postgraduate pharmacy experiences in education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Eric A; Brown, Bonnie; Gettig, Jacob; Martello, Jay L; McClendon, Katie S; Smith, Kelly M; Teeters, Janet; Ulbrich, Timothy R; Wegrzyn, Nicole; Bradley-Baker, Lynette R

    2014-08-01

    Recommendations for the development and support of teaching and learning curriculum (TLC) experiences within postgraduate pharmacy training programs are discussed. Recent attention has turned toward meeting teaching- and learning-related educational outcomes through a programmatic process during the first or second year of postgraduate education. These programs are usually coordinated by schools and colleges of pharmacy and often referred to as "teaching certificate programs," though no national standards or regulation of these programs currently exists. In an effort to describe the landscape of these programs and to develop a framework for their basic design and content, the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy Pharmacy Practice Section's Task Force on Student Engagement and Involvement, with input from the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, reviewed evidence from the literature and conference proceedings and considered author experience and expertise over a two-year period. The members of the task force created and reached consensus on a policy statement and 12 recommendations to guide the development of best practices of TLC programs. The recommendations address topics such as the value of TLC programs, program content, teaching and learning experiences, feedback for participants, the development of a teaching portfolio, the provision of adequate resources for TLC programs, programmatic assessment and improvement, program transparency, and accreditation. TLC programs provide postgraduate participants with valuable knowledge and skills in teaching applicable to the practitioner and academician. Postgraduate programs should be transparent to candidates and seek to ensure the best experiences for participants through systematic program implementation and assessments. Copyright © 2014 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Recommended Resources for Planning to Evaluate Program Improvement Efforts (Including the SSIP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Center for Systemic Improvement at WestEd, 2015

    2015-01-01

    This document provides a list of recommended existing resources for state Part C and Part B 619 staff and technical assistance (TA) providers to utilize to support evaluation planning for program improvement efforts (including the State Systemic Improvement Plan, SSIP). There are many resources available related to evaluation and evaluation…

  12. RECOMMENDED FOUNDATION FILL MATERIALS CONSTRUCTION STANDARD OF THE FLORIDA RADON RESEARCH PROGRAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report summarizes the technical basis for a recommended foundation fill materials standard for new construction houses in Florida. he radon-control construction standard was developed by the Florida Radon Research Program (FRRP). ill material standards are formulated for: (1)...

  13. Recommended regulatory program plan for low-level radioactive waste management in Maryland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The National Program for Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management was instituted by the US Department of Energy to assist the states in carrying out this new federal policy. Based on the premise that the safe disposal of low-level waste is technologically feasible and that states have the necessary degree of authority to set management policy, the National Program is helping them to develop a responsive, comprehensive regulatory program. The State of Maryland is actively engaged with the National Program in its efforts to form a comprehensive management program. The purpose of this plan is to review existing statutory and regulatory program responsibilities and provide a recommended management scheme for low-level radioactive waste

  14. Pilot trial of IOM duty hour recommendations in neurology residency programs: unintended consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuh, L A; Khan, M A; Harle, H; Southerland, A M; Hicks, W J; Falchook, A; Schultz, L; Finney, G R

    2011-08-30

    To study the potential effect of the 2008 Institute of Medicine (IOM) work duty hour (WDH) recommendations on neurology residency programs. This study evaluated resident sleepiness, personal study hours, quality of life, and satisfaction and faculty satisfaction during a control month using the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education WDH requirements and during an intervention month using the IOM WDH recommendations. Resident participation in both schedules was mandatory, but both resident and faculty participation in the outcome measures was voluntary. Thirty-four residents (11 postgraduate year [PGY]-4, 9 PGY-3, and 14 PGY-2) participated. End-of-work shift sleepiness, mean weekly sleep hours, personal study hours, and hours spent in lectures did not differ between the control and intervention months. Resident quality of life measured by the Maslach Burnout Inventory declined for 1 subscore in the intervention month (p = 0.03). Resident education satisfaction declined during the intervention month for issues related to continuity of care, patient hand-offs, and knowledge of their patients. Faculty satisfaction declined during the intervention month, without a decline in quality of life. The results from 3 residency programs suggest that the IOM WDH recommendations may negatively affect neurology resident education. This study was limited by the short duration of implementation, negative bias against the IOM recommendations, and inability to blind faculty. Additional study of the IOM WDH recommendations is warranted before widespread implementation.

  15. Recommendations for pneumococcal immunization outside routine childhood immunization programs in Western Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castiglia, Paolo

    2014-10-01

    The global burden of pneumococcal diseases is high, with young children and adults≥50 years of age at highest risk of infection. Two types of vaccine are available for the prevention of pneumococcal diseases caused by specific Streptococcus pneumoniae serotypes: the pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV23) and the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7, PCV10, and PCV13). Despite pneumococcal immunization programs in adults and children, the burden in adults has remained high. Most European countries have national or local/regional vaccination recommendations. The objective of this review was to provide an overview of the government recommendations for pneumococcal vaccination outside routine childhood vaccination programs for 16 Western European countries as of August 2014. We found that recommendations for pneumococcal immunization across Europe are complex and vary greatly among countries in terms of age groups and risk groups recommended for vaccination, as well as which vaccine should be administered. Clarifying or simplifying these recommendations and improving their dissemination could help to increase pneumococcal vaccine uptake and decrease the high burden of pneumococcal diseases in adults, both through a direct effect of the vaccine and via a herd effect in unvaccinated individuals.

  16. Compensation programs after withdrawal of the recommendation for HPV vaccine in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuji, Koichiro; Nakada, Haruka

    2016-05-03

    HPV vaccinations were recommended with the backing of a Japanese government subsidy program in 2010, and were included in the National Immunization Program in April 2013. However, the Ministry of Health, Labour, and Welfare withdrew the recommendation for the HPV vaccination in June 2013. We investigated HPV vaccine injury compensation programs for both the national and local governments. Approximately 3.38 million girls were vaccinated, and 2,584 complained of health problems. The majority of these received the vaccine shot as a non-routine vaccination. In total, 98 people developed health problems and applied for assistance from 2011 to 2014, but no cases have been processed since October 2014. Several local governments are providing their own compensation program for cases of vaccine adverse reactions, but the number is extremely low (16 of 1,741 municipalities and 1 of 47 prefectures). The local governments that are providing compensation are largely those where HPV vaccine victim support groups are prominent. The confusion regarding the national program for HPV vaccine injury was caused by the discrepancy between the compensation programs for those vaccinated under the immunization law and for those who received voluntary vaccinations. The establishment of a new compensation program might be key to finding a lasting resolution.

  17. Savannah River Site (SRS) implementation program plan for DNFSB Recommendation 90-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talukdar, B.K.; Loceff, F.

    1993-01-01

    The Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) based on its review and evaluation of the content and implementation of standards relating to design, construction, operation, and decommissioning of Defense Nuclear Facilities has made the recommendations (90-2) which when implemented would assure comparable or equivalent levels of safety to the environment, public and workers as required for the commercial nuclear facilities. DOE has accepted the DNFSB 90-2 recommendations and have directed SRS and other M ampersand Os to implement them. This report discusses implementation program which commits to developing Requirement Identification Documents (RID's) for all defense nuclear facilities in the DOE complex

  18. Federal Educational Assistance Programs Available to Service Members: Program Features and Recommendations for Improved Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    results suggest a need to modify the original program design or the logic model (W.K. Kellogg Foundation, 2010). Figure 3.1 outlines the proposed RAND... Kellogg Foundation, 2004). This logic model also illustrates a number of broader impacts. The expectation is that, ultimately, these programs will...Veterans Affairs. W.K. Kellogg Foundation, Using Logic Models to Bring Together Planning, Evaluation, and Action: Logic Model Development Guide

  19. Report on the Concept Review Committee recommendations for proof-of-principle alternate concept programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-03-01

    The report is organized as follows: Section II contains a discussion of the meeting procedures used on October 16--18, 1978, and the rules employed for technical consultants and advisors to the CRC. Section III contains a discussion of the CRC recommendations and some of the factors taken into consideration by the Committee. Section IV briefly discusses where do we go from here in DOE's alternate concepts program

  20. Adherence to Radiology Recommendations in a Clinical CT Lung Screening Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshora, Sama; McKee, Brady J; Regis, Shawn M; Borondy Kitts, Andrea K; Bolus, Christopher C; McKee, Andrea B; French, Robert J; Flacke, Sebastian; Wald, Christoph

    2018-02-01

    Assess patient adherence to radiologist recommendations in a clinical CT lung cancer screening program. Patients undergoing CT lung cancer screening between January 12, 2012, and June 12, 2013, were included in this institutional review board-approved retrospective review. Patients referred from outside our institution were excluded. All patients met National Comprehensive Cancer Network Guidelines Lung Cancer Screening high-risk criteria. Full-time program navigators used a CT lung screening program management system to schedule patient appointments, generate patient result notification letters detailing the radiologist follow-up recommendation, and track patient and referring physician notification of missed appointments at 30, 60, and 90 days. To be considered adherent, patients could be no more than 90 days past due for their next recommended examination as of September 12, 2014. Patients who died, were diagnosed with cancer, or otherwise became ineligible for screening were considered adherent. Adherence rates were assessed across multiple variables. During the study interval, 1,162 high-risk patients were screened, and 261 of 1,162 (22.5%) outside referrals were excluded. Of the remaining 901 patients, 503 (55.8%) were male, 414 (45.9%) were active smokers, 377 (41.8%) were aged 65 to 73, and >95% were white. Of the 901 patients, 772 (85.7%) were adherent. Most common reasons for nonadherence were patient refusal of follow-up exam (66.7%), inability to successfully contact the patient (20.9%), and inability to obtain the follow-up order from the referring provider (7.8%); 23 of 901 (2.6%) were discharged for other reasons. High rates of adherence to radiologist recommendations are achievable for in-network patients enrolled in a clinical CT lung screening program. Copyright © 2017 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Critical evaluation of the nonradiological environmental technical specifications. Program description, summary, and recommendations. Vol. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, S.M.; Cunningham, P.A.; Gray, D.D.; Kumar, K.D.; Witten, A.J.

    1976-01-01

    A comprehensive study of the data collected as part of the environmental Technical Specifications program for eight nuclear power plants was conducted for the Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory commission. This report includes a summary of the screening phase in which the adequacy of the hydrothermal and ecological monitoring data for each plant were evaluated, and the summary and recommendations resulting from a detailed examination of the three nuclear power plants selected in the initial screening

  2. Certainty in Stockpile Computing: Recommending a Verification and Validation Program for Scientific Software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J.R.

    1998-11-01

    As computing assumes a more central role in managing the nuclear stockpile, the consequences of an erroneous computer simulation could be severe. Computational failures are common in other endeavors and have caused project failures, significant economic loss, and loss of life. This report examines the causes of software failure and proposes steps to mitigate them. A formal verification and validation program for scientific software is recommended and described.

  3. Commentary: Recommendations and remaining questions for health care leadership training programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoller, James K

    2013-01-01

    Effective leadership is critical for optimizing cost, access, and quality in health care. Creating a pipeline of effective health care leaders requires developing leadership competencies that differ from the usual criteria of clinical and scientific excellence by which physicians have traditionally been promoted to leadership positions. Specific competencies that differentiate effective leaders from average leaders, especially emotional intelligence and its component abilities, are essential for effective leadership.Adopting a long-standing practice from successful corporations, some health care institutions, medical societies, and business schools now offer leadership programs that address these differentiating leadership competencies. The author draws on experience with such programs through the Cleveland Clinic Academy to provide recommendations for health care leadership training and to identify unanswered questions about such programs.The author recommends that such training should be broadly available to all health care leadership communities (i.e., nurses, administrators, and physicians). A progressive curriculum, starting with foundational concepts and extending to coaching and feedback opportunities through experiential learning, recognizes the challenge of becoming an effective leader and the long time line needed to do so. Linking leadership courses to continuing medical education and to graduate credit opportunities is appealing to participants. Other recommendations focus on the importance of current leaders' involvement in nominating emerging leaders for participation, embedding leadership development discussions in faculty's professional reviews, and blending discussion of frameworks and theory with practical, experiential lessons. The author identifies questions about the benefits of formal health care leadership training that remain to be answered.

  4. The Skills, Competences, and Attitude toward Information and Communications Technology Recommender System: an online support program for teachers with personalized recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revilla Muñoz, Olga; Alpiste Penalba, Francisco; Fernández Sánchez, Joaquín

    2016-01-01

    Teachers deal with Information and Communications Technology (ICT) every day and they often have to solve problems by themselves. To help them in coping with this issue, an online support program has been created, where teachers can pose their problems on ICT and they can receive solutions from other teachers. A Recommender System has been defined and implemented into the support program to suggest to each teacher the most suitable solution based on her Skills, Competences, and Attitude toward ICT (SCAT-ICT). The support program has initially been populated with 70 problems from 86 teachers. 30 teachers grouped these problems into six categories with the card-sorting technique. Real solutions to these problems have been proposed by 25 trained teachers. Finally, 17 teachers evaluated the usability of the support program and the Recommender System, where results showed a high score on the standardized System Usability Scale.

  5. Accelerated test program for sealed nickel-cadmium spacecraft batteries/cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, L. A.

    1976-01-01

    The feasibility was examined of inducing an accelerated test on sealed Nickel-Cadmium batteries or cells as a tool for spacecraft projects and battery users to determine: (1) the prediction of life capability; (2) a method of evaluating the effect of design and component changes in cells; and (3) a means of reducing time and cost of cell testing.

  6. The effectiveness of scoliosis screening programs: methods for systematic review and expert panel recommendations formulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Literature on scoliosis screening is vast, however because of the observational nature of available data and methodological flaws, data interpretation is often complex, leading to incomplete and sometimes, somewhat misleading conclusions. The need to propose a set of methods for critical appraisal of the literature about scoliosis screening, a comprehensive summary and rating of the available evidence appeared essential. Methods To address these gaps, the study aims were: i) To propose a framework for the assessment of published studies on scoliosis screening effectiveness; ii) To suggest specific questions to be answered on screening effectiveness instead of trying to reach a global position for or against the programs; iii) To contextualize the knowledge through expert panel consultation and meaningful recommendations. The general methodological approach proceeds through the following steps: Elaboration of the conceptual framework; Formulation of the review questions; Identification of the criteria for the review; Selection of the studies; Critical assessment of the studies; Results synthesis; Formulation and grading of recommendations in response to the questions. This plan follows at best GRADE Group (Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development and Evaluation) requirements for systematic reviews, assessing quality of evidence and grading the strength of recommendations. Conclusions In this article, the methods developed in support of this work are presented since they may be of some interest for similar reviews in scoliosis and orthopaedic fields. PMID:23883346

  7. Assessment of current NRC/IE professional training program and recommendations for improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartley, H.J.; Hagerup, J.E.; Harrison, O.J.; Heyer, F.H.K.; Kaas, I.W.; Schwartz, E.G.

    1978-05-01

    This document is the General Research Corporation (GRC) report on Task III: to assess the current NRC/IE professional training program and to provide recommendations for improvement. The major objectives of this task were to determine the overall effectiveness of the NRC/IE training program and to provide recommendations for improvements where appropriate. The research involved a review of course manuals and of student critiques, observation in the classroom and person to person interviews; it also included an evaluation of the assignment of instructors to the Career Management Branch. Findings addressed refresher training, retread training and initial training--with emphasis on the last of these. Conclusions are that: (1) The curriculum provides, in general, types and levels of training needed; (2) the mix of training methods used is correct; and (3) the training management is effective. However, the training facilities do not reflect a commitment to quality instruction nor is assignment as instructor to the Career Management Branch attractive to inspectors. Recommendations presented in the report are based upon the findings; all lie within the implementing authority of Headquarters NRC/IE

  8. Analysis and recommendations for a reliable programming of software based safety systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunez McLeod, J.; Nunez McLeod, J.E.; Rivera, S.S.

    1997-01-01

    The present paper summarizes the results of several studies performed for the development of high software on i486 microprocessors, towards its utilization for control and safety systems for nuclear power plants. The work is based on software programmed in C language. Several recommendations oriented to high reliability software are analyzed, relating the requirements on high level language to its influence on assembler level. Several metrics are implemented, that allow for the quantification of the results achieved. New metrics were developed and other were adapted, in order to obtain more efficient indexes for the software description. Such metrics are helpful to visualize the adaptation of the software under development to the quality rules under use. A specific program developed to assist the reliability analyst on this quantification is also present in the paper. It performs the analysis of an executable program written in C language, disassembling it and evaluating its inter al structures. (author)

  9. Recommendations for strengthening the infrared technology component of any condition monitoring program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas, Jack R., Jr.; Young, R. K.

    1999-03-01

    This presentation provides insights of a long term 'champion' of many condition monitoring technologies and a Level III infra red thermographer. The co-authors present recommendations based on their observations of infra red and other components of predictive, condition monitoring programs in manufacturing, utility and government defense and energy activities. As predictive maintenance service providers, trainers, informal observers and formal auditors of such programs, the co-authors provide a unique perspective that can be useful to practitioners, managers and customers of advanced programs. Each has over 30 years experience in the field of machinery operation, maintenance, and support the origins of which can be traced to and through the demanding requirements of the U.S. Navy nuclear submarine forces. They have over 10 years each of experience with programs in many different countries on 3 continents. Recommendations are provided on the following: (1) Leadership and Management Support (For survival); (2) Life Cycle View (For establishment of a firm and stable foundation for a program); (3) Training and Orientation (For thermographers as well as operators, managers and others); (4) Analyst Flexibility (To innovate, explore and develop their understanding of machinery condition); (5) Reports and Program Justification (For program visibility and continued expansion); (6) Commitment to Continuous Improvement of Capability and Productivity (Through application of updated hardware and software); (7) Mutual Support by Analysts (By those inside and outside of the immediate organization); (8) Use of Multiple Technologies and System Experts to Help Define Problems (Through the use of correlation analysis of data from up to 15 technologies. An example correlation analysis table for AC and DC motors is provided.); (9) Root Cause Analysis (Allows a shift from reactive to proactive stance for a program); (10) Master Equipment Identification and Technology Application (To

  10. NASA's Exploration Technology Development Program Energy Storage Project Battery Technology Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Concha M.; Miller, Thomas B.; Mercer, Carolyn R.; Jankovsky, Amy L.

    2010-01-01

    Technical Interchange Meeting was held at Saft America s Research and Development facility in Cockeysville, Maryland on Sept 28th-29th, 2010. The meeting was attended by Saft, contractors who are developing battery component materials under contracts awarded through a NASA Research Announcement (NRA), and NASA. This briefing presents an overview of the components being developed by the contractor attendees for the NASA s High Energy (HE) and Ultra High Energy (UHE) cells. The transition of the advanced lithium-ion cell development project at NASA from the Exploration Technology Development Program Energy Storage Project to the Enabling Technology Development and Demonstration High Efficiency Space Power Systems Project, changes to deliverable hardware and schedule due to a reduced budget, and our roadmap to develop cells and provide periodic off-ramps for cell technology for demonstrations are discussed. This meeting gave the materials and cell developers the opportunity to discuss the intricacies of their materials and determine strategies to address any particulars of the technology.

  11. Cycle life test. Evaluation program for secondary spacecraft cells. [performance tests on silver zinc batteries, silver cadmium batteries, and nickel cadmium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harkness, J. D.

    1976-01-01

    Considerable research is being done to find more efficient and reliable means of starting electrical energy for orbiting satellites. Rechargeable cells offer one such means. A test program is described which has been established in order to further the evaluation of certain types of cells and to obtain performance and failure data as an aid to their continued improvement. The purpose of the program is to determine the cycling performance capabilities of packs of cells under different load and temperature conditions. The various kinds of cells tested were nickel-cadmium, silver-cadmium, and silver-zinc sealed cells. A summary of the results of the life cycling program is given in this report.

  12. Magnetic Fusion Advisory Committee report on recommended fusion program priorities and strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-09-01

    The Magnetic Fusion Advisory Committee recommends a new program strategy with the following principal features: (1) Initiation in FY86 of the Tokamak Fusion Core Experiment (TFCX), a moderate-cost tokamak reactor device (less than $1 B PACE) designed to achieve ignition and long-pulse equilibrium burn. Careful trade-off studies are needed before making key design choices in interrelated technology areas. Cost reductions relative to earlier plans can be realized by exploiting new plasma technology, by locating the TFCX at the TFTR site, and by assigning responsibility for complementary reactor engineering tasks to other sectors of the fusion program. (2) Potential utilization of the MFTF Upgrade to provide a cost-effective means for quasi-steady-state testing of blanket and power-system components, complementary to TFCX. This will depend on future assessments of the data base for tandem mirrors. (3) Vigorous pursuit of the broad US base program in magnetic confinement, including new machine starts, where appropriate, at approximately the present total level of support. (4) Utilization of Development and Technology programs in plasma and magnet technology in support of specific hardware requirements of the TFCX and of other major fusion facilities, so as to minimize overall program cost

  13. Promoting Mental Health in Unaccompanied Refugee Minors: Recommendations for Primary Support Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usama El-Awad

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available During the last years, the number of refugees around the world increased to about 22.5 million. The mental health of refugees, especially of unaccompanied minors (70% between the ages of 16 and 18 years who have been exposed to traumatic events (e.g., war, is generally impaired with symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder, depression, and anxiety. Several studies revealed (1 a huge variation among the prevalence rates of these mental problems, and (2 that post-migration stressors (e.g., language barriers, cultural differences might be at least as detrimental to mental health as the traumatic events in pre- and peri-flight. As psychotherapy is a limited resource that should be reserved for severe cases and as language trainings are often publicly offered for refugees, we recommend focusing on intercultural competence, emotion regulation, and goal setting and goal striving in primary support programs: Intercultural competence fosters adaptation by giving knowledge about cultural differences in values and norms. Emotion regulation regarding empathy, positive reappraisal, and cultural differences in emotion expression fosters both adaptation and mental health. Finally, supporting unaccompanied refugee minors in their goal setting and goal striving is necessary, as they carry many unrealistic wishes and unattainable goals, which can be threatening to their mental health. Building on these three psychological processes, we provide recommendations for primary support programs for unaccompanied refugee minors that are aged 16 to 18 years.

  14. Analysis of PGY-1 Pharmacy Resident Candidate Letters of Recommendation at an Academically Affiliated Residency Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Milena M; Masic, Dalila; Gettig, Jacob P

    2018-04-01

    Letters of recommendation (LORs) are a critical component for differentiating among similarly qualified pharmacy residency candidates. These letters contain information that is difficult to ascertain from curricula vitae and pharmacy school transcripts. LOR writers may use any words or phrases appropriate for each candidate as there is no set framework for LORs. The objective of this study was to characterize descriptive themes in postgraduate year 1 (PGY-1) pharmacy residency candidates' LORs and to examine which themes of PGY-1 pharmacy residency candidates' LORs are predictive of an interview invitation at an academically affiliated residency program. LORs for candidates from the Pharmacy Online Residency Centralized Application System (PhORCAS) from 2013 and 2014 for the Midwestern University PGY-1 Pharmacy Residency were analyzed. LOR characteristics and descriptive themes were collected. All scores for candidate characteristics and overall PhORCAS recommendation were also recorded. A total of 351 LORs for 111 candidates from 2013 (n = 47 candidates) and 2014 (n = 64 candidates) were analyzed; 36 (32.4%) total candidates were offered an interview. Themes that were identified as predictors of an interview included a higher median (interquartile range) number of standout words (3 words [1.3-4] vs 3.8 words [2.5-5.5], P < .01) and teaching references (3.7 words [2.7-6] vs 5.7 words [3.7-7.8], P = .01). For this residency program, standout words and teaching references were important when offering interviews.

  15. Promoting Mental Health in Unaccompanied Refugee Minors: Recommendations for Primary Support Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Awad, Usama; Petermann, Franz; Reinelt, Tilman

    2017-01-01

    During the last years, the number of refugees around the world increased to about 22.5 million. The mental health of refugees, especially of unaccompanied minors (70% between the ages of 16 and 18 years) who have been exposed to traumatic events (e.g., war), is generally impaired with symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder, depression, and anxiety. Several studies revealed (1) a huge variation among the prevalence rates of these mental problems, and (2) that post-migration stressors (e.g., language barriers, cultural differences) might be at least as detrimental to mental health as the traumatic events in pre- and peri-flight. As psychotherapy is a limited resource that should be reserved for severe cases and as language trainings are often publicly offered for refugees, we recommend focusing on intercultural competence, emotion regulation, and goal setting and goal striving in primary support programs: Intercultural competence fosters adaptation by giving knowledge about cultural differences in values and norms. Emotion regulation regarding empathy, positive reappraisal, and cultural differences in emotion expression fosters both adaptation and mental health. Finally, supporting unaccompanied refugee minors in their goal setting and goal striving is necessary, as they carry many unrealistic wishes and unattainable goals, which can be threatening to their mental health. Building on these three psychological processes, we provide recommendations for primary support programs for unaccompanied refugee minors that are aged 16 to 18 years. PMID:29104237

  16. A study of concept-based similarity approaches for recommending program examples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Roya; Brusilovsky, Peter

    2017-07-01

    This paper investigates a range of concept-based example recommendation approaches that we developed to provide example-based problem-solving support in the domain of programming. The goal of these approaches is to offer students a set of most relevant remedial examples when they have trouble solving a code comprehension problem where students examine a program code to determine its output or the final value of a variable. In this paper, we use the ideas of semantic-level similarity-based linking developed in the area of intelligent hypertext to generate examples for the given problem. To determine the best-performing approach, we explored two groups of similarity approaches for selecting examples: non-structural approaches focusing on examples that are similar to the problem in terms of concept coverage and structural approaches focusing on examples that are similar to the problem by the structure of the content. We also explored the value of personalized example recommendation based on student's knowledge levels and learning goal of the exercise. The paper presents concept-based similarity approaches that we developed, explains the data collection studies and reports the result of comparative analysis. The results of our analysis showed better ranking performance of the personalized structural variant of cosine similarity approach.

  17. Summary and recommendations of the NRC/INEL Activated Carbon Testing Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scarpellino, C.D.; Sill, C.W.

    1986-01-01

    The Committee on Nuclear Air and Gas Treatment (CONAGT) of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) sponsored an interlaboratory testing program, round-robin, of nuclear-grade activated carbon. The results of this round-robin revealed gross differences in penetration of radio-labeled methyl iodide as measured by the various laboratories when using Method A of the ASTM D-3803-79 Standard. These differences prompted the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to establish the NRC/INEL Activated Carbon Testing Program to determine the causes of these discrepancies and to provide recommendations that could lead to an accurate and reliable testing procedure that would ensure an adequate method for assessing the capability of activated carbon to remove radioiodine from gas streams within commercial nuclear power plants. The NRC/INEL Activated Carbon Testing Program has conducted formal and informal interlaboratory comparisons to identify problems with the test method and its application and to assess the effectiveness of changes to procedures and equipment voluntarily implemented by commercial laboratories to mitigate the disparity of test results. The results of the first formal NRC/INEL Interlaboratory Comparison (IC) essentially verified the CONAGT round-robin results despite the use of a detailed test protocol. This data indicated that many of the participating laboratories probably had been operating outside the ASTM specifications for relative humidity (RH) and flow. In addition, this process provided information which was used to modify the testing protocol employed for the second NRC/INEL Interlaboratory Comparison (IC-2) to make it more rugged and reliable. These changes to the protocol together with the results of INEL sensitivity testing are the basis for the recommendations presented

  18. Adaptation of New Colombian Food-based Complementary Feeding Recommendations Using Linear Programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tharrey, Marion; Olaya, Gilma A; Fewtrell, Mary; Ferguson, Elaine

    2017-12-01

    The aim of the study was to use linear programming (LP) analyses to adapt New Complementary Feeding Guidelines (NCFg) designed for infants aged 6 to 12 months living in poor socioeconomic circumstances in Bogota to ensure dietary adequacy for young children aged 12 to 23 months. A secondary data analysis was performed using dietary and anthropometric data collected from 12-month-old infants (n = 72) participating in a randomized controlled trial. LP analyses were performed to identify nutrients whose requirements were difficult to achieve using local foods as consumed; and to test and compare the NCFg and alternative food-based recommendations (FBRs) on the basis of dietary adequacy, for 11 micronutrients, at the population level. Thiamine recommended nutrient intakes for these young children could not be achieved given local foods as consumed. NCFg focusing only on meat, fruits, vegetables, and breast milk ensured dietary adequacy at the population level for only 4 micronutrients, increasing to 8 of 11 modelled micronutrients when the FBRs promoted legumes, dairy, vitamin A-rich vegetables, and chicken giblets. None of the FBRs tested ensured population-level dietary adequacy for thiamine, niacin, and iron unless a fortified infant food was recommended. The present study demonstrated the value of using LP to adapt NCFg for a different age group than the one for which they were designed. Our analyses suggest that to ensure dietary adequacy for 12- to 23-month olds these adaptations should include legumes, dairy products, vitamin A-rich vegetables, organ meat, and a fortified food.

  19. Application of principles of quality assurance recommended by ISO 9000 Standards to Regulatory Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jova Sed, Luis Andres; Bilbao Alfonso, Alejandro Victor

    2001-01-01

    For several years, the necessity of applying the programs of quality assurance to the radiation protection activities has been highlighted; however there has been little progress in this direction, even in the philosophical and methodological development of the topic. The objective of this work is to transmit some recommendations of how the Regulatory Authorities of developing countries can organize the quality assurance system of their own activity, following the main precepts of the international standard series ISO 9000. In very tight synthesis it describes the importance that has the definition of a policy of quality for a Regulatory Authority, the quality objectives, the definition of the responsibilities and attributions in relation with quality assurance, and others elements of the ISO 9000, and how to apply it. (author)

  20. Recommendations for scale-up of community-based misoprostol distribution programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Nuriya; Kapungu, Chisina; Carnahan, Leslie; Geller, Stacie

    2014-06-01

    Community-based distribution of misoprostol for prevention of postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) in resource-poor settings has been shown to be safe and effective. However, global recommendations for prenatal distribution and monitoring within a community setting are not yet available. In order to successfully translate misoprostol and PPH research into policy and practice, several critical points must be considered. A focus on engaging the community, emphasizing the safe nature of community-based misoprostol distribution, supply chain management, effective distribution, coverage, and monitoring plans are essential elements to community-based misoprostol program introduction, expansion, or scale-up. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Button batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swallowing batteries ... These devices use button batteries: Calculators Cameras Hearing aids Penlights Watches ... If a person puts the battery up their nose and breathes it further in, ... problems Cough Pneumonia (if the battery goes unnoticed) ...

  2. At-Risk Programs for Middle School and High School: Essential Components and Recommendations for Administrators and Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateman, Susan; Karr-Kidwell, PJ

    This paper provides an extensive literature review concerning at-risk students and their needs, identifies the essential components necessary for effective at-risk programming, and describes successful at-risk programs and recommendations for administrators and teachers at the middle- and high-school levels. The literature review presents research…

  3. 76 FR 31749 - Energy Conservation Program for Certain Consumer Appliances: Test Procedures for Battery Chargers...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    ... cellular telephones and portable media players such as MP3 players. D. Multiple-Voltage External Power... solid base for performing battery charger testing. (PG&E, Pub. Mtg. Tran., No. 2 at p. 14) PG&E, Delta-Q...

  4. Position paper: recommendations for a digital mammography quality assurance program V4.0.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heggie, J C P; Barnes, P; Cartwright, L; Diffey, J; Tse, J; Herley, J; McLean, I D; Thomson, F J; Grewal, R K; Collins, L T

    2017-09-01

    In 2001 the ACPSEM published a position paper on quality assurance in screen film mammography which was subsequently adopted as a basis for the quality assurance programs of both the Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists (RANZCR) and of BreastScreen Australia. Since then the clinical implementation of digital mammography has been realised and it has become evident that existing screen-film protocols were not appropriate to assure the required image quality needed for reliable diagnosis or to address the new dose implications resulting from digital technology. In addition, the advantages and responsibilities inherent in teleradiology are most critical in mammography and also need to be addressed. The current document is the result of a review of current overseas practice and local experience in these areas. At this time the technology of digital imaging is undergoing significant development and there is still a lack of full international consensus about some of the detailed quality control (QC) tests that should be included in quality assurance (QA) programs. This document describes the current status in digital mammography QA and recommends test procedures that may be suitable in the Australasian environment. For completeness, this document also includes a review of the QA programs required for the various types of digital biopsy units used in mammography. In the future, international harmonisation of digital quality assurance in mammography and changes in the technology may require a review of this document. Version 2.0 represented the first of these updates and key changes related to image quality evaluation, ghost image evaluation and interpretation of signal to noise ratio measurements. In Version 3.0 some significant changes, made in light of further experience gained in testing digital mammography equipment were introduced. In Version 4.0, further changes have been made, most notably digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) testing and QC have

  5. Environmental components of OCS policy committee recommendations regarding national oil spill prevention and response program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groat, C.G.; Thorman, J.

    1991-01-01

    The Exxon Valdez oil spill of March 24, 1989 resulted in thousands of pages of analytical reports assessing the environmental, organizational, legal, procedural, social, economic, and political aspects of the event. Even though the accident was a transportation incident, it had a major impact on the public and political perception of offshore oil operations. This caused the OCS Policy Committee, which advises the Secretary of the Interior and the Minerals Management Service on Outer Continental Shelf resource development and environmental matters, to undertake a review of the reports for the purpose of developing recommendations to the secretary for improvements in OCS operations that would insure maximum efforts to prevent spills and optimal ability to deal with any that occur. The Committee felt strongly that 'a credible national spill prevention and response program from both OCS and non-OCS oil spills in the marine environment is needed to create the political climate for a viable OCS program.' The report of the Committee described eight essential elements of this program; four of these focused on the environmental aspects of oil spills, calling for (1) adequate characterization of the marine and coastal environment, including both information and analysis, accessible to decision makers, (2) the capacity to restore economic and environmental resources as quickly as possible if damage occurs, (3) a mechanism for research on oil spill impacts, and (4) a meaningful role for all interested and responsible parties, including the public, in as many of these activities as possible, from spill prevention and contingency planning to environmental oversight of ongoing operations and participation in clean-up and restoration activities

  6. Electromagnetic pulse research on electric power systems: Program summary and recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, P.R.; McConnell, B.W.; Van Dyke, J.W. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Tesche, F.M. (Tesche (F.M.), Dallas, TX (United States)); Vance, E.F. (Vance (E.F.), Fort Worth, TX (United States))

    1993-01-01

    A single nuclear detonation several hundred kilometers above the central United States will subject much of the nation to a high-altitude electromagnetic pulse (BENT). This pulse consists of an intense steep-front, short-duration transient electromagnetic field, followed by a geomagnetic disturbance with tens of seconds duration. This latter environment is referred to as the magnetohydrodynamic electromagnetic pulse (NMENT). Both the early-time transient and the geomagnetic disturbance could impact the operation of the nation's power systems. Since 1983, the US Department of Energy has been actively pursuing a research program to assess the potential impacts of one or more BENT events on the nation's electric energy supply. This report summarizes the results of that program and provides recommendations for enhancing power system reliability under HENT conditions. A nominal HENP environment suitable for assessing geographically large systems was developed during the program and is briefly described in this report. This environment was used to provide a realistic indication of BEMP impacts on electric power systems. It was found that a single high-altitude burst, which could significantly disturb the geomagnetic field, may cause the interconnected power network to break up into utility islands with massive power failures in some areas. However, permanent damage would be isolated, and restoration should be possible within a few hours. Multiple bursts would likely increase the blackout areas, component failures, and restoration time. However, a long-term blackout of many months is unlikely because major power system components, such as transformers, are not likely to be damaged by the nominal HEND environment. Moreover, power system reliability, under both HENT and normal operating conditions, can be enhanced by simple, and often low cost, modifications to current utility practices.

  7. Labeling programs and efficiency standards to control the energy consumption of household appliances: current situation, main results and recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menanteau, Ph.

    2000-09-01

    To control the rise in electricity consumption for specific uses, the industrialized countries started by introducing special programs aimed at improving energy efficiency. Among the different instruments available, labeling programs and minimum energy performance standards (MEPS) have proved to be very effective. The first part of this document presents the current situation, the main results and recommendations concerning the labeling programs and efficiency standards to control the energy consumption of household appliances. This analyze is done for each country in details providing the name of the program or measure, the date of implementation, the objective and the main characteristics of the program, the impacts and evaluation. (A.L.B.)

  8. Aging evaluation of class 1E batteries: Seismic testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edson, J.L.

    1990-08-01

    This report presents the results of a seismic testing program on naturally aged class 1E batteries obtained from a nuclear plant. The testing program is a Phase 2 activity resulting from a Phase 1 aging evaluation of class 1E batteries in safety systems of nuclear power plants, performed previously as a part of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Nuclear Plant Aging Research Program and reported in NUREG/CR-4457. The primary purpose of the program was to evaluate the seismic ruggedness of naturally aged batteries to determine if aged batteries could have adequate electrical capacity, as determined by tests recommended by IEEE Standards, and yet have inadequate seismic ruggedness to provide needed electrical power during and after a safe shutdown earthquake (SSE) event. A secondary purpose of the program was to evaluate selected advanced surveillance methods to determine if they were likely to be more sensitive to the aging degradation that reduces seismic ruggedness. The program used twelve batteries naturally aged to about 14 years of age in a nuclear facility and tested them at four different seismic levels representative of the levels of possible earthquakes specified for nuclear plants in the United States. Seismic testing of the batteries did not cause any loss of electrical capacity. 19 refs., 29 figs., 7 tabs

  9. Early Site Permit Demonstration Program: Recommendations for communication activities and public participation in the Early Site Permit Demonstration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-01-27

    On October 24, 1992, President Bush signed into law the National Energy Policy Act of 1992. The bill is a sweeping, comprehensive overhaul of the Nation`s energy laws, the first in more than a decade. Among other provisions, the National Energy Policy Act reforms the licensing process for new nuclear power plants by adopting a new approach developed by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in 1989, and upheld in court in 1992. The NRC 10 CFR Part 52 rule is a three-step process that guarantees public participation at each step. The steps are: early site permit approval; standard design certifications; and, combined construction/operating licenses for nuclear power reactors. Licensing reform increases an organization`s ability to respond to future baseload electricity generation needs with less financial risk for ratepayers and the organization. Costly delays can be avoided because design, safety and siting issues will be resolved before a company starts to build a plant. Specifically, early site permit approval allows for site suitability and acceptability issues to be addressed prior to an organization`s commitment to build a plant. Responsibility for site-specific activities, including communications and public participation, rests with those organizations selected to try out early site approval. This plan has been prepared to assist those companies (referred to as sponsoring organizations) in planning their communications and public involvement programs. It provides research findings, information and recommendations to be used by organizations as a resource and starting point in developing their own plans.

  10. Early Site Permit Demonstration Program: Recommendations for communication activities and public participation in the Early Site Permit Demonstration Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    On October 24, 1992, President Bush signed into law the National Energy Policy Act of 1992. The bill is a sweeping, comprehensive overhaul of the Nation's energy laws, the first in more than a decade. Among other provisions, the National Energy Policy Act reforms the licensing process for new nuclear power plants by adopting a new approach developed by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in 1989, and upheld in court in 1992. The NRC 10 CFR Part 52 rule is a three-step process that guarantees public participation at each step. The steps are: early site permit approval; standard design certifications; and, combined construction/operating licenses for nuclear power reactors. Licensing reform increases an organization's ability to respond to future baseload electricity generation needs with less financial risk for ratepayers and the organization. Costly delays can be avoided because design, safety and siting issues will be resolved before a company starts to build a plant. Specifically, early site permit approval allows for site suitability and acceptability issues to be addressed prior to an organization's commitment to build a plant. Responsibility for site-specific activities, including communications and public participation, rests with those organizations selected to try out early site approval. This plan has been prepared to assist those companies (referred to as sponsoring organizations) in planning their communications and public involvement programs. It provides research findings, information and recommendations to be used by organizations as a resource and starting point in developing their own plans

  11. A Review of Eating Disorders in Athletes: Recommendations for Secondary School Prevention and Intervention Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, Tom

    2005-01-01

    The current review aims to evaluate the literature on eating disorders and athletes with the purpose of making recommendations for sport psychologists and other relevant personnel on how to proceed in identifying, managing, and preventing eating disorders in school settings. Whereas the intention of this review is to make recommendations for…

  12. Review of the Commission program for standardization of nuclear power plants and recommendations to improve standardization concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-02-01

    This is a report of a staff study describing the need and utility of specific changes to the Commission's standardization program. The various matters considered in the study include: (1) A discussion of industry use to date of the standardization program. (2) A discussion of the experience to date with each of the standardization concepts. (3) A review of public comments on the standardization program and the staff response to each principal comment. (4) A review of the need for standardization considering the likely number of license applications to be submitted in the coming years. (5) A discussion of the reference system concept, including review of applicable experience and recommended changes to the concept. (6) A discussion of the duplicate plant concept, including review of applicable experience and recommended changes to the concept. (7) A discussion of the manufacturing license concept, including review of applicable experience and recommended changes to the concept. (8) A discussion of the replicate plant concept, including review of applicable experience and recommended changes to the concept. (9) A discussion of the effective periods for approved designs under all four standardization concepts. (10) A description of continuing staff activities related to the standardization program

  13. Advanced solid state batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levasseur, A; Delmas, C; Menetrier, M; Hagenmuller, P

    1984-01-01

    Direct electrochemical storage of electricity is attractive because of its adaptability to vehicle traction as well as to stationary applications. Important advancements are necessary to improve primary or secondary batteries so far used. The aim of this study was to develop and to characterize materials for the next generation of advanced, rechargeable solid state batteries for vehicle transport and stationary storage applications. One of the best electricity storage systems was the lithium/intercalation compound secondary battery, though up to now the behavior of liquid organic electrolytes did not allow for good recycling in such systems. The research program for these batteries is described.

  14. Assessment of high-temperature battery systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sen, R K

    1989-02-01

    Three classes of high-temperature batteries are being developed internationally with transportation and stationary energy storage applications in mind: sodium/sulfur, lithium/metal sulfide, and sodium/metal chloride. Most attention is being given to the sodium/sulfur system. The Office of Energy Storage and Distribution (OESD) and the Office of Transportation Systems (OTS) of the US Department of Energy (DOE) are actively supporting the development of this battery system. It is anticipated that pilot-scale production facilities for sodium/sulfur batteries will be in operation in the next couple of years. The lithium/metal sulfide and the sodium/metal chloride systems are not receiving the same level of attention as the sodium/sulfur battery. Both of these systems are in an earlier stage of development than sodium/sulfur. OTS and OESD are supporting work on the lithium/iron sulfide battery in collaboration with the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI); the work is being carried out at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). The sodium/metal chloride battery, the newest member of the group, is being developed by a Consortium of South African and British companies. Very little DOE funds are presently allocated for research on this battery. The purpose of this assessment is to evaluate the present status of the three technologies and to identify for each technology a prioritized list of R and D issues. Finally, the assessment includes recommendations to DOE for a proposed high-temperature battery research and development program. 18 figs., 21 tabs.

  15. Electrochemical accumulators batteries; Accumulateurs electrochimiques batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ansart, F; Castillo, S; Laberty- Robert, C; Pellizon-Birelli, M [Universite Paul Sabatier, Lab. de Chimie des Materiaux Inorganiques et Energetiques, CIRIMAT, UMR CNRS 5085, 31 - Toulouse (France); and others

    2000-07-01

    It is necessary to storage the electric power in batteries to join the production and the utilization. In this domain progresses are done every days in the technics and also in the available materials. These technical days present the state of the art in this domain. Many papers were presented during these two days giving the research programs and recent results on the following subjects: the lithium batteries, the electrolytes performances and behaviour, lead accumulators, economic analysis of the electrochemical storage market, the batteries applied to the transportation sector and the telephones. (A.L.B.)

  16. Geochemistry Review Panel report on the SRP geochemistry program and draft geochemistry summary program plan (May, 1986) and discussion of panel recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-12-01

    The Geochemistry Review Panel (GRP) was established by the Salt Repository Project Office (SRPO) to help evaluate geochemistry-related issues in the US Department of Energy's nuclear waste repository program. The May 1986 meeting of the GRP reviewed the Salt Repository Program (SRP) geochemistry program developed by the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation (ONWI). This program is described in the Draft Geochemistry Plan of April 9, 1986. This report documents the GRP's comments and recommendations on this subject and the ONWI responses to the specific points raised by the GRP

  17. Results of a technical analysis of the Hubble Space Telescope nickel-cadmium and nickel-hydrogen batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzo, Michelle A.

    1991-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Program Office requested the expertise of the NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Systems Steering Committee (NAFBSSC) in the conduct of an independent assessment of the HST's battery system to assist in their decision of whether to fly nickel-cadmium or nickel-hydrogen batteries on the telescope. In response, a subcommittee to the NAFBSSC was organized with membership comprised of experts with background in the nickel-cadmium/nickel-hydrogen secondary battery/power systems areas. The work and recommendations of that subcommittee are presented.

  18. Battery Modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongerden, M.R.; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.H.M.

    2008-01-01

    The use of mobile devices is often limited by the capacity of the employed batteries. The battery lifetime determines how long one can use a device. Battery modeling can help to predict, and possibly extend this lifetime. Many different battery models have been developed over the years. However,

  19. Lithium Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Laboratory, Materials Science and Technology Division Lithium Batteries Resources with Additional thin-film lithium batteries for a variety of technological applications. These batteries have high essentially any size and shape. Recently, Teledyne licensed this technology from ORNL to make batteries for

  20. Virtual K-12 Public School Programs and Students with Disabilities: Issues and Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Eve

    2010-01-01

    This policy forum proceedings document contains a short introduction section that describes the current status of virtual public school programs in general and special education programs in particular. Next, this document provides a state-of-the-nation report that describes the exponential growth these programs and the evolving policy issues for…

  1. Batteries and Energy Storage | Argonne National Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content Argonne National Laboratory Toggle Navigation Toggle Search Energy Batteries Security User Facilities Science Work with Us Energy Batteries and Energy Storage Energy Systems Modeling Transportation SPOTLIGHT Batteries and Energy Storage Argonne's all- encompassing battery research program spans

  2. Mentoring advanced practice nurses in research: recommendations from a pilot program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Doris; Widger, Kimberley; Howell, Doris; Nelson, Sioban; Molassiotis, Alex

    2012-01-01

    Advanced Practice Nurses (APNs) need research skills to develop and advance their practice and, yet, many have limited access to research training and support following completion of their advanced degree. In this paper we report on the development, delivery, and evaluation of an innovative pilot program that combined research training and one-to-one mentorship for nine APNs in conducting research relevant to their practice. The program was organized within an academic institution and its affiliated hospitals in Toronto, Canada. Our experience with this program may assist those in other organizations to plan and deliver a similar program for APN research mentorship.

  3. Energy-efficient buildings program evaluations. Volume 1: Findings and recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, A.D.; Mayi, D.; Edgemon, S.D.

    1997-04-01

    This study was conducted for the US Department of Energy (DOE) by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). DOE operates the Building Standards and Guidelines Program (BSGP) to increase the effectiveness of building energy codes, standards, and guidelines. The main purpose of this report is to lay the groundwork for conducting an overall evaluation of the program and its effectiveness. Another purpose of this report is to summarize an extensive set of relevant evaluations and provide a building efficiency and program evaluation information resource for program designers, managers, and evaluators. This study presents information from 119 evaluations that have been conducted of both utility and code programs related to energy efficiency in new residential and commercial buildings. The authors used the information in these evaluations to identify major themes and lessons learned from utility and code programs. They also used the information to gain insights into appropriate evaluation methodologies and establish guidelines for designing future evaluations and an evaluation of the BSGP. The report presents general lessons about evaluating programs that have implications for future evaluations included the following. The evaluations provided the basis for developing an effective evaluation approach for residential building energy-efficiency codes and other energy-efficiency programs and other insights for conducting commercial building program evaluations. The findings for conducting effective evaluations are categorized by steps in the evaluation process.

  4. Lithium-ion Battery Demonstration for the 2007 NASA Desert Research and Technology Studies (Desert RATS) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, William; Baldwin, Richard

    2007-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) Electrochemistry Branch designed and produced five lithium-ion battery packs for demonstration in a portable life support system (PLSS) on spacesuit simulators. The experimental batteries incorporated advanced, NASA-developed electrolytes and included internal protection against over-current, over-discharge and over-temperature. The 500-gram batteries were designed to deliver a constant power of 38 watts over 103 minutes of discharge time (130 Wh/kg). Battery design details are described and field and laboratory test results are summarized.

  5. Applying Sleep Research to University Students: Recommendations for Developing a Student Sleep Education Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Franklin C.; Buboltz, Walter C., Jr.

    2002-01-01

    Many students are unaware that academic difficulties may be related to their sleep habits. This article introduces key elements of a student sleep education program that can be easily incorporated into many universities first-year orientation classes or as part of residential housing programs. (Author)

  6. Comprehensive School Physical Activity Programs: Recommendations for Physical Education Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoxia; Gu, Xiangli; Zhang, Tao; Keller, Jean; Chen, Senlin

    2018-01-01

    Comprehensive school physical activity programs (CSPAPs) aim to promote physical activity and healthy lifestyles among school-age children and adolescents. Physical educators are highly qualified individuals taking on the role of certified physical activity leaders. Physical education teacher education (PETE) programs should consider preparing…

  7. Analysis of batteries for use in photovoltaic systems. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Podder, A; Kapner, M

    1981-02-01

    An evaluation of 11 types of secondary batteries for energy storage in photovoltaic electric power systems is given. The evaluation was based on six specific application scenarios which were selected to represent the diverse requirements of various photovoltaic systems. Electrical load characteristics and solar insulation data were first obtained for each application scenario. A computer-based simulation program, SOLSIM, was then developed to determine optimal sizes for battery, solar array, and power conditioning systems. Projected service lives and battery costs were used to estimate life-cycle costs for each candidate battery type. The evaluation considered battery life-cycle cost, safety and health effects associated with battery operation, and reliability/maintainability. The 11 battery types were: lead-acid, nickel-zinc, nickel-iron, nickel-hydrogen, lithium-iron sulfide, calcium-iron sulfide, sodium-sulfur, zinc-chlorine, zinc-bromine, Redox, and zinc-ferricyanide. The six application scenarios were: (1) a single-family house in Denver, Colorado (photovoltaic system connected to the utility line); (2) a remote village in equatorial Africa (stand-alone power system); (3) a dairy farm in Howard County, Maryland (onsite generator for backup power); (4) a 50,000 square foot office building in Washington, DC (onsite generator backup); (5) a community in central Arizona with a population of 10,000 (battery to be used for dedicated energy storage for a utility grid-connected photovoltaic power plant); and (6) a military field telephone office with a constant 300 W load (trailer-mounted auxiliary generator backup). Recommendations for a research and development program on battery energy storage for photovoltaic applications are given, and a discussion of electrical interfacing problems for utility line-connected photovoltaic power systems is included. (WHK)

  8. Recommendations for the elaboration of a training program and personnel qualification of the regulatory body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medina Gironzini, E.; Bonacossa de Almeida, C.; Jimenez Rojas, M.; Pacheco Jimenez, R.; Prendes Alonso, M.; Tomas Zerquera, J.

    2013-01-01

    In this work are defined training methods and provides details on the qualifications of staff and the use of the method of the four quadrants where competencies are established: legal framework and regulatory responsibilities, technical disciplines, regulatory procedures and personal attributes. It is the first time that will make these recommendations in the region and is expected to be very useful for the regulator institutions

  9. Optimal stochastic short-term thermal and electrical operation of fuel cell/photovoltaic/battery/grid hybrid energy system in the presence of demand response program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majidi, Majid; Nojavan, Sayyad; Zare, Kazem

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • On-grid photovoltaic/battery/fuel cell system is considered as hybrid system. • Thermal and electrical operation of hybrid energy system is studied. • Hybrid energy system is used to reduce dependency on upstream grid for load serving. • Demand response program is proposed to manage the electrical load. • Demand response program is proposed to reduce hybrid energy system’s operation cost. - Abstract: In this paper, cost-efficient operation problem of photovoltaic/battery/fuel cell hybrid energy system has been evaluated in the presence of demand response program. Each load curve has off-peak, mid and peak time periods in which the energy prices are different. Demand response program transfers some amount of load from peak periods to other periods to flatten the load curve and minimize total cost. So, the main goal is to meet the energy demand and propose a cost-efficient approach to minimize system’s total cost including system’s electrical cost and thermal cost and the revenue from exporting power to the upstream grid. A battery has been utilized as an electrical energy storage system and a heat storage tank is used as a thermal energy storage system to save energy in off-peak and mid-peak hours and then supply load in peak hours which leads to reduction of cost. The proposed cost-efficient operation problem of photovoltaic/battery/fuel cell hybrid energy system is modeled by a mixed-integer linear program and solved by General algebraic modeling system optimization software under CPLEX solver. Two case studies are investigated to show the effects of demand response program on reduction of total cost.

  10. Experimental Assessment of Battery Cycle Life Within the SIMSTOCK Research Program Évaluation expérimentale de la durée de vie de la batterie dans le programme de recherche SIMSTOCK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gyan P.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The steadiness over time, of on-board Energy Storage Systems (ESS performances is a major issue fora successful and massive diffusion of electrified, hybrid and electric vehicles. Capacity fade and internal resistance increase due to ageing will directly affect vehicle range and performances. Therefore, ESS ageing forecasting remains an important area of investigations. Reaching this goal involves fundamental research on materials, experimentation, simulation and design by the end users. This paper describes the main results of a 3.5-year, 4.2 M€ collaborative research program on battery ageing, SIMSTOCK, which was finished in fall 2011. This program has involved 15 partners among which, research labs, ESS manufacturers, automotive components suppliers and vehicle manufacturers, with the support of the French agency ADEME. This paper will then focus mainly on modeling and simulation of a lithium-ion high power cell tested within the program. First, it describes the development of a numerical equivalent electrical circuit model of battery, associated with a calibration tool and its experimental validation. Secondly, it describes the construction of a Design of Experiments (DOE, its use and validation, for defining mathematical expressions, representing the battery model parameters evolutions, as a function of battery ageing. Thirdly, the paper details a mathematical method created with the aim to take into account the cycling and the calendar effects on battery characteristics during the experiment on tests benches. Finally, the battery model is integrated in a full hybrid vehicle model, on Imagine Lab AMESim simulation platform, to determine, with realistic driving conditions, the impact of battery ageing on the vehicle performance and fuel consumption. La stabilité dans le temps des performances des systèmes embarqués de stockage d’énergie (Energy Storage Systems, ESS est un enjeu majeur pour une diffusion massive et le succès des v

  11. Breaking out of the biomed box: an audit assessment and recommendations for an in-house biomedical engineering program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickey, David M; Jagiela, Steven; Fetters, Dennis

    2003-01-01

    In order to assess the current performance and to identify future growth opportunities of an in-house biomedical engineering (BME) program, senior management of Lehigh Valley Hospital (Allentown, Penn) engaged (in July 2001) the services of a clinical engineering consultant. Although the current in-house program was both functionally and financially sound, an independent audit had not been performed in over 4 years, and there were growing concerns by the BME staff related to the department's future leadership and long-term support from senior management. After an initial 2-month audit of the existing program, the consultant presented 41 separate recommendations for management's consideration. In order to refine and implement these recommendations, 5 separate committees were established to further evaluate a consolidated version of them, with the consultant acting as the facilitator for each group. Outcomes from each of the committees were used in the development of a formal business plan, which, upon full implementation, would not only strengthen and refine the current in-house service model but could also result in a substantial 3-year cost savings for the organization ($1,100,000 from existing operations, $500,000 in cost avoidance by in-sourcing postwarranty support of future capital equipment acquisitions). Another key outcome of the project was related to the development of a new master policy, titled the "Medical Equipment Management Program," complete with a newly defined state-of-the-art equipment scheduled inspection frequency model.

  12. Results and recommendations from the reactor chemistry and corrosion tasks of the reactor materials program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumann, E.W.; Ondrejcin, R.S.

    1990-11-01

    Within the general context of extended service life, the Reactor Materials Program was initiated in 1984. This comprehensive program addressed material performance in SRS reactor tanks and the primary coolant or Process Water System (PWS) piping. Three of the eleven tasks concerned moderator quality and corrosion mitigation. Definition and control of the stainless steel aqueous environment is a key factor in corrosion mitigation. The Reactor Materials Program systematically investigated the SRS environment and its effect on crack initiation and propagation in stainless steel, with the objective of improving this environment. The purpose of this report is to summarize the contributions of Tasks 6, 7 and 10 of the Reactor Materials Program to the understanding and control of moderator quality and its relationship to mitigation of stress corrosion cracking

  13. Impact of a pharmacy technician-centered medication reconciliation program on medication discrepancies and implementation of recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Sarah K; Sen, Sanchita; Murphy, Michelle; Pontiggia, Laura

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of a pharmacy-technician centered medication reconciliation (PTMR) program by identifying and quantifying medication discrepancies and outcomes of pharmacist medication reconciliation recommendations. A retrospective chart review was performed on two-hundred patients admitted to the internal medicine teaching services at Cooper University Hospital in Camden, NJ. Patients were selected using a stratified systematic sample approach and were included if they received a pharmacy technician medication history and a pharmacist medication reconciliation at any point during their hospital admission. Pharmacist identified medication discrepancies were analyzed using descriptive statistics, bivariate analyses. Potential risk factors were identified using multivariate analyses, such as logistic regression and CART. The priority level of significance was set at 0.05. Three-hundred and sixty-five medication discrepancies were identified out of the 200 included patients. The four most common discrepancies were omission (64.7%), non-formulary omission (16.2%), dose discrepancy (10.1%), and frequency discrepancy (4.1%). Twenty-two percent of pharmacist recommendations were implemented by the prescriber within 72 hours. A PTMR program with dedicated pharmacy technicians and pharmacists identifies many medication discrepancies at admission and provides opportunities for pharmacist reconciliation recommendations.

  14. Impact of a pharmacy technician-centered medication reconciliation program on medication discrepancies and implementation of recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kraus SK

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate the impact of a pharmacy-technician centered medication reconciliation (PTMR program by identifying and quantifying medication discrepancies and outcomes of pharmacist medication reconciliation recommendations. Methods: A retrospective chart review was performed on two-hundred patients admitted to the internal medicine teaching services at Cooper University Hospital in Camden, NJ. Patients were selected using a stratified systematic sample approach and were included if they received a pharmacy technician medication history and a pharmacist medication reconciliation at any point during their hospital admission. Pharmacist identified medication discrepancies were analyzed using descriptive statistics, bivariate analyses. Potential risk factors were identified using multivariate analyses, such as logistic regression and CART. The priority level of significance was set at 0.05. Results: Three-hundred and sixty-five medication discrepancies were identified out of the 200 included patients. The four most common discrepancies were omission (64.7%, non-formulary omission (16.2%, dose discrepancy (10.1%, and frequency discrepancy (4.1%. Twenty-two percent of pharmacist recommendations were implemented by the prescriber within 72 hours. Conclusion: A PTMR program with dedicated pharmacy technicians and pharmacists identifies many medication discrepancies at admission and provides opportunities for pharmacist reconciliation recommendations.

  15. Recommended HVAC standard of the Florida Radon Research Program. Final report, Mar-Sep 90

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cummings, J.B.

    1992-01-01

    The report contains the recommended language for the heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) section of the 'Florida Code for Radon-resistant Construction and Mitigation.' It deals with elements of construction that relate to the HVAC of houses. Its primary intent is to prevent pressure differentials in houses that can increase the transport of radon into houses. Three pathways of compliance are available to meet the requirements of the HVAC portion of the standards. The first is purely prescriptive. The second is a performance and prescriptive approach. The third is a marketplace approach

  16. Mixed-Integer-Linear-Programming-Based Energy Management System for Hybrid PV-Wind-Battery Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hernández, Adriana Carolina Luna; Aldana, Nelson Leonardo Diaz; Graells, Moises

    2017-01-01

    -side strategy, defined as a general mixed-integer linear programming by taking into account two stages for proper charging of the storage units. This model is considered as a deterministic problem that aims to minimize operating costs and promote self-consumption based on 24-hour ahead forecast data...

  17. Recommendations for Cycle II of National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,; Mallard, Gail E.; Armbruster, Jeffrey T.; Broshears, Robert E.; Evenson, Eric J.; Luoma, Samuel N.; Phillips, Patrick J.; Prince, Keith R.

    1999-01-01

    The Planning Team for the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program defines a successful NAWQA Program as one that makes a balanced contribution to study-unit issues, national issues, and to the pursuit of scientific knowledge. Using this criterion, NAWQA has been a success. The program has provided important new knowledge and understanding of scientific processes, and insights into the occurrence and distribution of contaminants that have been key to local and national policy decisions. Most of the basic design characteristics of NAWQA's first decade (1991-2000), hereafter called cycle I) remain appropriate as the program enters its second decade (cycle II) in 2001. In cycle II, the program has the opportunity to build on its successful base and to evolve to take advantage of the knowledge generated in cycle I. In addition to this expected evolution, NAWQA must also make some changes to compensate for the fact that program funding has not kept pace with inflation. An important theme for the second cycle of NAWQA will be the integration of knowledge across scales and across disciplines. The question that drove the NAWQA design in the first cycle was "How is water quality related to land use?" Cycle II will build upon what was learned in cycle I and use land-use and water-quality gradients to identify and understand potential sources of various constituents and the processes affecting transport and fate of those constituents and their effects on receptors. The understanding we gain from applying this approach will be relevant to the interests of policymakers, regulatory agencies, and resource managers.

  18. 21 CFR 1000.55 - Recommendation for quality assurance programs in diagnostic radiology facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... facilities where more than one department operates x-ray equipment, to the chief medical officer of the..., improved image quality, and/or financial savings will compensate for the resources required for the program... generally be delegated a basic quality assurance role by the practitioner in charge. Responsibility for...

  19. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Early Reading Programs: A Demonstration with Recommendations for Future Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollands, Fiona M.; Kieffer, Michael J.; Shand, Robert; Pan, Yilin; Cheng, Henan; Levin, Henry M.

    2016-01-01

    We review the value of cost-effectiveness analysis for evaluation and decision making with respect to educational programs and discuss its application to early reading interventions. We describe the conditions for a rigorous cost-effectiveness analysis and illustrate the challenges of applying the method in practice, providing examples of programs…

  20. Collective dose as a performance measure for occupational radiation protection programs: Issues and recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strom, D.J.; Harty, R.; Hickey, E.E.; Martin, J.B.; Peffers, M.S.; Kathren, R.L.

    1998-07-01

    Collective dose is one of the performance measures used at many US Department of Energy (DOE) contractor facilities to quantitatively assess the objectives of the radiation protection program. It can also be used as a management tool to improve the program for keeping worker doses as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA). Collective dose is used here to mean the sum of all total effective dose equivalent values for all workers in a specified group over a specified time. It is often used as a surrogate estimate of radiological risk. In principle, improvements in radiation protection programs and procedures will result in reduction of collective dose, all other things being equal. Within the DOE, most frequently, a single collective dose number, which may or may not be adjusted for workload and other factors, is used as a performance measure for a contractor. The purpose of this report is to evaluate the use of collective dose as a performance measure for ALARA programs at DOE sites

  1. Guidelines to the Development of Human Resources in Libraries: Rationale, Policies, Programs and Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Library Trends, 1971

    1971-01-01

    It is apparent that there are many roadblocks preventing the release of the human potential in our libraries. These guidelines take the position that a great deal can be done toward diagnosing and removing these roadblocks by establishing and developing meaningful policies and programs. (49 references) (Author/NH)

  2. iPrincipals: Innovative Themes, Strategies, and Recommendations of Ten Online University Educational Leadership Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcos, Teri A.; Loose, William V.

    2015-01-01

    This report, the second in a series, provides comparative empirical data on current state and national university trends around the thematic strategies and constructs ten fully online Educational Leadership programs engage within their innovative designs. Our 2014 iPrincipals report provided information on how one California University…

  3. Business intelligence and data warehouse programs in higher education institutions: current status and recommendations for improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Marinova

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to explore the current situation and the main challenges in existing Business Intelligence (BI and Data Warehouse (DW curricula. On the base of this research, certain recommendations for their improvement are made. At the same time, the paper gives concrete guidelines for the development of a clear and comprehensive graduate profile with knowledge, skills and social competence in the field of BI and DW. This is particularly beneficial for universities and other higher education institutions, that seek to offer courses with high quality content and tendencies, adequate to the latest education, in the concerned area. The paper is written within the Erasmus plus KA2 project “Developing the innovative methodology of teaching Business Informatics” (DIMBI, 2015-1-PL01-KA203-0016636.

  4. Recommended methods for evaluating the benefits of ECUT Program outputs. [Energy Conversion and Utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, L.O.; Winter, C.

    1986-03-01

    This study was conducted to define and develop techniques that could be used to assess the complete spectrum of positive effects resulting from the Energy Conversion and Utilization Technologies (ECUT) Program activities. These techniques could then be applied to measure the benefits from past ECUT outputs. In addition, the impact of future ECUT outputs could be assessed as part of an ongoing monitoring process, after sufficient time has elapsed to allow their impacts to develop.

  5. Accelerated testing of space batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccallum, J.; Thomas, R. E.; Waite, J. H.

    1973-01-01

    An accelerated life test program for space batteries is presented that fully satisfies empirical, statistical, and physical criteria for validity. The program includes thermal and other nonmechanical stress analyses as well as mechanical stress, strain, and rate of strain measurements.

  6. Recommendations for cervical cancer screening programs in developing countries: the need for equity and technological development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazcano-Ponce Eduardo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The cervical cancer screening programs (CCSP have not been very efficient in the developing countries. This explains the need to foster changes on policies, standards, quality control mechanisms, evaluation and integration of new screening alternatives considered as low and high cost, as well as to regulate colposcopy practices and the foundation of HPV laboratories. Cervical cancer (CC is a disease most frequently found in poverty-stricken communities and reflecting a problem of equity at both levels gender and regional, and this, is not only due to social and economic development inequalities, but to the infrastructure and human resources necessary for primary care. For this reason, the CCSP program must be restructured, a to primarily address unprivileged rural and urban areas; b to foster actions aimed at ensuring extensive coverage as well as a similar quality of that coverage in every region; c to use screening strategies in keeping with the availability of health care services. In countries with a great regional heterogeneity, a variety of screening procedures must be regulated and standardized, including a combination of assisted visual inspection, cervical cytology and HPV detection; d regional community intervention must be set up to assess the effectiveness of using HPV detection as an strategy in addition to cervical cytology (pap smear; e the practice of colposcopy must be regulated to prevent the use of it in healthy women at a population level, thus preventing unnecessary diagnosis and treatment which not only are expensive but also causes unnecessary anxiety to women at risk; f the operation of those clinical laboratories using HPV as a detection strategy must likewise be accredited and regulated and g the CCSP program for assuring health care quality should meet the expectations of its beneficiaries, and increase the knowledge in cervical cancer related matters. Finally, though a variety of clinical tests on prophylactic and

  7. Detecting and mitigating battery charger and inverter aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunther, W.E.; Lewis, R.; Subudhi, M.

    1988-08-01

    This report constitutes the second of the two-phase approach for assessing the safety and operational aspects of battery charger and inverter aging in nuclear power plants. This work, conducted by Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) under the auspices of the US NRC Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) Program, evaluated operating experience data, nuclear power plant maintenance practices, and plant design information to determine the impact of battery charger and inverter aging on safety, and the methods which should be used to detect aging degradation and mitigate its effects. A naturally aged inverter and battery charger were tested at BNL to evaluate the naturally aged condition, the effectiveness of condition monitoring techniques, and the practicality of implementing selected maintenance and monitoring recommendations. Temperature monitoring, component parameter measurements, and the periodic observation of critical circuit waveforms are viable methods for monitoring aging degradation. A maintenance program for battery chargers and inverters is recommended. As described in this report, the maintenance program incorporates inspection, monitoring, testing and repair activities which should be performed to detect and mitigate aging effects, and thereby assure the operational readiness of this important equipment throughout the plant's operating life. 32 refs., 43 figs., 19 tabs

  8. Dry cell battery poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batteries - dry cell ... Acidic dry cell batteries contain: Manganese dioxide Ammonium chloride Alkaline dry cell batteries contain: Sodium hydroxide Potassium hydroxide Lithium dioxide dry cell batteries ...

  9. Recommended analysis plan for the borehole plugging program potash core test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, S.J.

    1980-05-01

    A four-year old plugged potash core hole near the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site in southeastern New Mexico has been proposed for overcoring, in order to examine the behavior of known grout mix constituents in contact with a variety of rock types during an extended grout-curing interval. This report recommends that various geochemical analyses be applied to the core samples containing both grout and rock and the interface between the two. The methods to be used include optical petrography, electron microscopy, electron probe microanalysis, x-ray diffraction, thermal analysis (TGA, DSC, DTA) with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, and bulk chemical analysis. These analyses would allow identification of phases which have developed during grout curing, and provide evidence of reactions which may have taken place among constituents in the system grout-rock-groundwater. These reactions, and their sequence of occurrence will be compared with reactions predicted by thermodynamic modeling as the system seeks its lowest Gibbs' free energy. Identification of reactions which have the potential for compromising the integrity of a grout plug will receive special attention. Since not all such detrimental reactions can be observed directly in a human lifetime, due to kinetic inhibitions, and since a capability of time-dependent prediction of their degree of occurrence cannot be developed, thermodynamic modeling is the only known way of evaluating the long-term stability of a grout plug. The analysis of the plug-rock system will give an indication of in situ curing history of grout plug, and will allow an early occurrence of potentially detrimental reactions to be detected. Thus, this activity will be a case-study of suitability of certain grout mixtures for use in evaporites, as an example of evaluation of grouts for long-term compatability with a variety of rock types

  10. Professional Veterinary Programs' Perceptions and Experiences Pertaining to Emotional Support Animals and Service Animals, and Recommendations for Policy Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenfeld-Tacher, Regina M; Kogan, Lori R

    Given the unique nature of programs in professional veterinary medicine (PVM), the increasing numbers of students requesting accommodations for emotional support animals (ESAs) in higher education settings is of growing interest to student affairs and administrative staff in PVM settings. Since the legislation pertaining to this type of support animal differs from the laws governing disability service animals, colleges and universities now need to develop new policies and guidelines. Representatives from a sample of 28 PVM programs completed a survey about the prevalence of student requests for ESAs and service animals. PVM associate deans for academic affairs also reported their perceptions of this issue and the challenges these requests might pose within veterinary teaching laboratories and patient treatment areas. Responses indicated that approximately one third of PVM programs have received requests for ESAs (32.1%) in the last 2 years, 17.9% have had requests for psychiatric service animals, and 17.9% for other types of service animals. Despite this, most associate deans reported not having or not being aware of university or college policies pertaining to these issues. Most associate deans are interested in learning more about this topic. This paper provides general recommendations for establishing university or PVM program policies.

  11. Evaluation of an inpatient psychiatric hospital physician education program and adherence to American Diabetes Association practice recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koffarnus, Robin L; Mican, Lisa M; Lopez, Debra A; Barner, Jamie C

    2016-03-01

    This study evaluated adherence to American Diabetes Association (ADA) recommendations for diabetes monitoring following an educational intervention for physicians in an inpatient psychiatric hospital. This retrospective chart review was conducted in an inpatient psychiatric institution from July 1, 2010-January 15, 2011. A total of 120 subjects (60 subjects each in the pre- and post-intervention groups) meeting the inclusion criteria served as the study sample. Included subjects were admitted and discharged from an inpatient psychiatric institution within 90 days prior to (pre-intervention) and following (post-intervention) the physician education program. The medical staff was presented an educational program intervention, consisting of a 30 minute overview of the ADA 2010 Standards of Care recommendations and distribution of laminated treatment reminders. Electronic grouped order sets for patients with diabetes were also created and implemented. The primary outcome was change (pre-intervention to post-intervention) in frequency of hemoglobin A1c documentation on admission following the intervention. Secondary outcomes included the change in frequency of documentation of fasting plasma glucose, serum creatinine, urine creatinine/microalbumin ratio (UMA), fasting lipid profile (FLP), and change in days on sliding scale insulin. Regarding change in frequency of documentation of A1c values on admission, chi-square analysis revealed a significant increase from pre-intervention to post-intervention period of 30% (n = 18) to 61.7% (n = 37), respectively (p = 0.0005). Documentation of FLP also significantly increased [73.3% vs. 91.7% (p = 0.0082)]. There were no significant differences in the documentation of fasting plasma glucose, serum creatinine, and UMA or days treated with sliding scale insulin. The physician education program was successful in increasing the assessment of A1c values and lipid profiles for patients with diabetes mellitus in a psychiatric

  12. Recommendations for Guidelines for Environment-Specific Magnetic-Field Measurements, Rapid Program Engineering Project #2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Electric Research and Management, Inc.; IIT Research Institute; Magnetic Measurements; Survey Research Center, University of California; T. Dan Bracken, Inc.

    1997-03-11

    The purpose of this project was to document widely applicable methods for characterizing the magnetic fields in a given environment, recognizing the many sources co-existing within that space. The guidelines are designed to allow the reader to follow an efficient process to (1) plan the goals and requirements of a magnetic-field study, (2) develop a study structure and protocol, and (3) document and carry out the plan. These guidelines take the reader first through the process of developing a basic study strategy, then through planning and performing the data collection. Last, the critical factors of data management, analysis reporting, and quality assurance are discussed. The guidelines are structured to allow the researcher to develop a protocol that responds to specific site and project needs. The Research and Public Information Dissemination Program (RAPID) is based on exposure to magnetic fields and the potential health effects. Therefore, the most important focus for these magnetic-field measurement guidelines is relevance to exposure. The assumed objective of an environment-specific measurement is to characterize the environment (given a set of occupants and magnetic-field sources) so that information about the exposure of the occupants may be inferred. Ideally, the researcher seeks to obtain complete or "perfect" information about these magnetic fields, so that personal exposure might also be modeled perfectly. However, complete data collection is not feasible. In fact, it has been made more difficult as the research field has moved to expand the list of field parameters measured, increasing the cost and complexity of performing a measurement and analyzing the data. The guidelines address this issue by guiding the user to design a measurement protocol that will gather the most exposure-relevant information based on the locations of people in relation to the sources. We suggest that the "microenvironment" become the base unit of area in a study, with

  13. Rethinking Professional Study Programs and Continuing Education in the Euro-Mediterranean Region: Action Agenda and Recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim Moustaghfir

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available the newcompetitive and changing dynamics made knowledge resources the most strategic assets to create and sustain competitive advantage in today’s business landscape. Businesses and public organizations alike need knowledge workers to streamline their processes, differentiate their product and service offerings, and generate value for their stakeholders. The discrepancy between the demand for such distinctive profiles and the current supply of human resources is causing higher education institutions to rethink their learning practices and the process whereby knowledge resources are developed, applied, and renewed. This article analyzes these dynamics and sheds more light on the changes that are affecting the learning processes with regards to professional study programs and continuing education, particularly in the Euro-Mediterranean region. The article draws up an action agenda to make such programs more valuable emphasizing the role of innovative pedagogical approaches, the importance of instructional design, the adding-value of information technologies, and the required structural and human resource changes at the level of universities’ organizational design. Building on the participants’ input gathered during the Emuni’s 2013 HR&R Conference, the article suggests specific recommendations on how the Euro-Mediterranean universities can play a catalyst role in reshaping, leading, and implementing competitive and targeted professional study programs based on network-based structures and on mapping and leveraging different partners’ distinctive capabilities and core competences.

  14. Advanced energy design and operation technologies research: Recommendations for a US Department of Energy multiyear program plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brambley, M.R.; Crawley, D.B.; Hostetler, D.D.; Stratton, R.C.; Addision, M.S.; Deringer, J.J.; Hall, J.D.; Selkowitz, S.E.

    1988-12-01

    This document describes recommendations for a multiyear plan developed for the US Department of Energy (DOE) as part of the Advanced Energy Design and Operation Technologies (AEDOT) project. The plan is an outgrowth of earlier planning activities conducted for DOE as part of design process research under the Building System Integration Program (BSIP). The proposed research will produce intelligent computer-based design and operation technologies for commercial buildings. In this document, the concept is explained, the need for these new computer-based environments is discussed, the benefits are described, and a plan for developing the AEDOT technologies is presented for the 9-year period beginning FY 1989. 45 refs., 37 figs., 9 tabs.

  15. Preliminary recommendations on the design of the characterization program for the Hanford Site single-shell tanks: A system analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buck, J.W.; Peffers, M.S.; Hwang, S.T.

    1991-11-01

    The work described in this volume was conducted by Pacific Northwest Laboratory to provide preliminary recommendations on data quality objectives (DQOs) to support the Waste Characterization Plan (WCP) and closure decisions for the Hanford Site single-shell tanks (SSTs). The WCP describes the first of a two-phase characterization program that will obtain information to assess and implement disposal options for SSTs. This work was performed for the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC), the current operating contractor on the Hanford Site. The preliminary DQOs contained in this volume deal with the analysis of SST wastes in support of the WCP and final closure decisions. These DQOs include information on significant contributors and detection limit goals (DLGs) for SST analytes based on public health risk

  16. Recommended safety, reliability, quality assurance and management aerospace techniques with possible application by the DOE to the high-level radioactive waste repository program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bland, W.M. Jr.

    1985-05-01

    Aerospace SRQA and management techniques, principally those developed and used by the NASA Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center on the manned space flight programs, have been assessed for possible application by the DOE and the DOE-contractors to the high level radioactive waste repository program that results from the implementation of the NWPA of 1982. Those techniques believed to have the greatest potential for usefulness to the DOE and the DOE-contractors have been discussed in detail and are recommended to the DOE for adoption; discussion is provided for the manner in which this transfer of technology can be implemented. Six SRQA techniques and two management techniques are recommended for adoption by the DOE; included with the management techniques is a recommendation for the DOE to include a licensing interface with the NRC in the application of the milestone reviews technique. Three other techniques are recommended for study by the DOE for possible adaptation to the DOE program

  17. U.S. Department of Energy Vehicle Technologies Program: Battery Test Manual For Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christophersen, Jon P. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-09-01

    This battery test procedure manual was prepared for the United States Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Vehicle Technologies Office. It is based on technical targets for commercial viability established for energy storage development projects aimed at meeting system level DOE goals for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEV). The specific procedures defined in this manual support the performance and life characterization of advanced battery devices under development for PHEV’s. However, it does share some methods described in the previously published battery test manual for power-assist hybrid electric vehicles. Due to the complexity of some of the procedures and supporting analysis, future revisions including some modifications and clarifications of these procedures are expected. As in previous battery and capacitor test manuals, this version of the manual defines testing methods for full-size battery systems, along with provisions for scaling these tests for modules, cells or other subscale level devices. The DOE-United States Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC), Technical Advisory Committee (TAC) supported the development of the manual. Technical Team points of contact responsible for its development and revision are Renata M. Arsenault of Ford Motor Company and Jon P. Christophersen of the Idaho National Laboratory. The development of this manual was funded by the Unites States Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Vehicle Technologies Office. Technical direction from DOE was provided by David Howell, Energy Storage R&D Manager and Hybrid Electric Systems Team Leader. Comments and questions regarding the manual should be directed to Jon P. Christophersen at the Idaho National Laboratory (jon.christophersen@inl.gov).

  18. Teardown analysis of a ten cell bipolar nickel-hydrogen battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzo, M. A.; Gonzalez-Sanabria, O. D.; Herzau, J. S.; Scaglione, L. J.

    1984-01-01

    Design studies have identified bipolar nickel-hydrogen batteries as an attractive storage option for high power, high voltage applications. A pre-prototype Ni-H2 battery was designed, assembled and tested in the early phases of a concept verification program. The initial stack was built with available hardware and components from past programs. The stack performed well. After 2000 low-earth-orbit cycles the stack was dismantled in order to allow evaluation and analysis of the design and components. The results of the teardown analysis and recommended modifications are discussed.

  19. Development program of electrical vehicles of batteries in the UNAM; Programa de desarrollo de vehiculos electricos de baterias en la UNAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carmona Paredes, G.; Chicurel Uziel, R.; Chicurel Uziel, E.; Gutierrez Martinez, F. [Instituto de Ingenieria, UNAM, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2002-09-01

    Eight years ago, project to develop a small battery powered electric bus, known today as UNAM's Electric Vehicle, was started at the Engineering Institute. This project was followed by the design and construction, under an agreement with the Mexico City Government, of the Electrobus, a public transport vehicle that was recently put in operation and is being evaluated by the City's Electric Transportation Service. Two other projects, within the scope of UNAM's Electric Vehicle Development Program refer to light trucks: the Electrovira, characterized by exceptional maneuverability, and the Electric Delivery Vehicle. These projects are being carried out respectively by the Engineering Institute and the School of Engineering's Center for Design and Manufacture. Other parties that have collaborated in the program are: the School of Architecture's Center for Research in Industrial Design, the Instruments Center, and the School of Chemistry. Work is also being done on complementary aspects which include the development of an intelligent charger for large battery packs and of a dual electronic controller, a study of the dynamic performance of lead-acid batteries, the design of a battery monitoring system, and the search for new battery alternatives. [Spanish] Hace ocho anos, el Instituto de Ingenieria inicio el proyecto de desarrollo de un minibus electrico de baterias, conocido ahora como el Vehiculo Electrico UNAM. Este proyecto fue seguido de un convenio con el Gobierno del Distrito Federal para el diseno y construccion del Electrobus, un vehiculo para transporte publico que recientemente fue puesto en operacion para ser evaluado por el Servicio de Transporte Electrico del DF. Dos proyectos mas, enmarcados dentro del Programa de Desarrollo de Vehiculos Electricos, se refieren a vehiculos ligeros de carga como el Electrovira, caracterizado por su gran maniobrabilidad y el Vehiculo Electrico de Reparto. Estos proyectos se realizan respectivamente

  20. Understanding the function and performance of carbon-enhanced lead-acid batteries : milestone report for the DOE Energy Storage Systems Program (FY11 Quarter 4: July through September 2011).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Summer Rhodes; Shane, Rodney (East Penn Manufacturing, Lyon Station, PA); Enos, David George

    2011-10-01

    This report describes the status of research being performed under CRADA No. SC10/01771.00 (Lead/Carbon Functionality in VRLA Batteries) between Sandia National Laboratories and East Penn Manufacturing, conducted for the U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Storage Systems Program. The Quarter 4 Milestone was completed on time. The milestone entails the initiation of high rate, partial state of charge (HRPSoC) cycling of the carbon enhanced batteries. The morphology, porosity, and porosity distribution within the plates after 1k and 10k cycles were documented, illustrating the changes which take place in the early life of the carbon containing batteries, and as the battery approaches failure due to hard sulfation for the control battery. Longer term cycling on a subset of the received East Penn cells containing different carbons (and a control) continues, and will progress into FY12. Carbon has been explored as an addition to lead-acid battery electrodes in a number of ways. Perhaps the most notable to date has been the hybrid 'Ultrabattery' developed by CSIRO where an asymmetric carbon-based electrochemical capacitor is combined with a lead-acid battery into a single cell, dramatically improving high-rate partial-state-of-charge (HRPSoC) operation. As illustrated below, the 'Ultrabattery' is a hybrid device constructed using a traditional lead-acid battery positive plate (i.e., PbO2) and a negative electrode consisting of a carbon electrode in parallel with a lead-acid negative plate. This device exhibits a dramatically improved cycle life over traditional VRLA batteries, as well as increased charge power and charge acceptance. The 'Ultrabattery' has been produced successfully by both The Furukawa Battery Co. and East Penn Manufacturing. An example illustrating the dramatic improvement in cycle life of the Ultrabattery over a conventional VRLA battery is shown in a graph. In addition to the aforementioned hybrid device, carbon has

  1. Research program for seismic qualification of nuclear plant electrical and mechanical equipment. Task 3. Recommendations for improvement of equipment qualification methodology and criteria. Volume 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kana, D.D.; Pomerening, D.J.

    1984-08-01

    The Research Program for Seismic Qualification of Nuclear Plant Electrical and Mechanical Equipment has spanned a period of three years and resulted in seven technical summary reports, each of which covered in detail the findings of different tasks and subtasks, and have been combined into five NUREG/CR volumes. Volume 3 presents recommendations for improvement of equipment qualification methodology and procedural clarification/modification. The fifth category identifies issues where adequate information does not exist to allow a recommendation to be made

  2. Characterization of vanadium flow battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bindner, H.; Ekman, C.; Gehrke, O.; Isleifsson, F.

    2010-10-15

    This report summarizes the work done at Risoe DTU testing a vanadium flow battery as part of the project 'Characterisation of Vanadium Batteries' (ForskEl project 6555) with the partners PA Energy A/S and OI Electric A/S under the Danish PSO energy research program. A 15kW/120kWh vanadium battery has been installed as part of the distributed energy systems experimental facility, SYSLAB, at Risoe DTU. A test programme has been carried out to get hands-on experience with the technology, to characterize the battery from a power system point of view and to assess it with respect to integration of wind energy in the Danish power system. The battery has been in operation for 18 months. During time of operation the battery has not shown signs of degradation of performance. It has a round-trip efficiency at full load of approximately 60% (depending on temperature and SOC). The sources of the losses are power conversion in cell stacks/electrolyte, power converter, and auxiliary power consumption from pumps and controller. The response time for the battery is limited at 20kW/s by the ramp rate of the power converter. The battery can thus provide power and frequency support for the power system. Vanadium battery is a potential technology for storage based services to the power system provided investment and O and M cost are low enough and long term operation is documented. (Author)

  3. Food choices to meet nutrient recommendations for the adult Brazilian population based on the linear programming approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Quenia; Sichieri, Rosely; Darmon, Nicole; Maillot, Matthieu; Verly-Junior, Eliseu

    2018-06-01

    To identify optimal food choices that meet nutritional recommendations to reduce prevalence of inadequate nutrient intakes. Linear programming was used to obtain an optimized diet with sixty-eight foods with the least difference from the observed population mean dietary intake while meeting a set of nutritional goals that included reduction in the prevalence of inadequate nutrient intakes to ≤20 %. Brazil. Participants (men and women, n 25 324) aged 20 years or more from the first National Dietary Survey (NDS) 2008-2009. Feasible solution to the model was not found when all constraints were imposed; infeasible nutrients were Ca, vitamins D and E, Mg, Zn, fibre, linolenic acid, monounsaturated fat and Na. Feasible solution was obtained after relaxing the nutritional constraints for these limiting nutrients by including a deviation variable in the model. Estimated prevalence of nutrient inadequacy was reduced by 60-70 % for most nutrients, and mean saturated and trans-fat decreased in the optimized diet meeting the model constraints. Optimized diet was characterized by increases especially in fruits (+92 g), beans (+64 g), vegetables (+43 g), milk (+12 g), fish and seafood (+15 g) and whole cereals (+14 g), and reductions of sugar-sweetened beverages (-90 g), rice (-63 g), snacks (-14 g), red meat (-13 g) and processed meat (-9·7 g). Linear programming is a unique tool to identify which changes in the current diet can increase nutrient intake and place the population at lower risk of nutrient inadequacy. Reaching nutritional adequacy for all nutrients would require major dietary changes in the Brazilian diet.

  4. A nuclear power plant operator's view on the effects of ICRP recommendation 26 upon his radiation protection program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selleslagh, E.

    1981-01-01

    The effects of ICRP recommendation 26 on rules to be implemented by nuclear power plant operators in their radiation protection program, are examined from various points of view: legal and para-legal aspects such as implementation by local authorities and interference with the regulatory process, external and internal irradiation control and limitation, ALARA and cost-benefit aspects, and the record keeping and monitoring requirements. It appears that certain parts of ICRP 26 were not retained by Euratom and thus have little chance of appearing in modified European law. Nonetheless, they are applied through licensing practices. ICRP 26 itself either confirms existing practice, which was often more conservative than law, or relaxes limits, and provides a more logical context for non-whole body exposures. ALARA-rules and practices cause an additional administrative burden, but this already existed and provides useful data for the plant management. The problem of ''zero dose'' and of converting in vivo measurements to dose in case the intakes are unknown, are addressed briefly. It is concluded that ICRP 26 brings no real changes for radiation protection in nuclear power plants, except maybe some increased flexibility, and that the operators are pretty happy with it, but less so with the way it is being imposed on them. (author)

  5. The sustainability of new programs and innovations: a review of the empirical literature and recommendations for future research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiltsey Stirman Shannon

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The introduction of evidence-based programs and practices into healthcare settings has been the subject of an increasing amount of research in recent years. While a number of studies have examined initial implementation efforts, less research has been conducted to determine what happens beyond that point. There is increasing recognition that the extent to which new programs are sustained is influenced by many different factors and that more needs to be known about just what these factors are and how they interact. To understand the current state of the research literature on sustainability, our team took stock of what is currently known in this area and identified areas in which further research would be particularly helpful. This paper reviews the methods that have been used, the types of outcomes that have been measured and reported, findings from studies that reported long-term implementation outcomes, and factors that have been identified as potential influences on the sustained use of new practices, programs, or interventions. We conclude with recommendations and considerations for future research. Methods Two coders identified 125 studies on sustainability that met eligibility criteria. An initial coding scheme was developed based on constructs identified in previous literature on implementation. Additional codes were generated deductively. Related constructs among factors were identified by consensus and collapsed under the general categories. Studies that described the extent to which programs or innovations were sustained were also categorized and summarized. Results Although "sustainability" was the term most commonly used in the literature to refer to what happened after initial implementation, not all the studies that were reviewed actually presented working definitions of the term. Most study designs were retrospective and naturalistic. Approximately half of the studies relied on self-reports to assess

  6. The sustainability of new programs and innovations: a review of the empirical literature and recommendations for future research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The introduction of evidence-based programs and practices into healthcare settings has been the subject of an increasing amount of research in recent years. While a number of studies have examined initial implementation efforts, less research has been conducted to determine what happens beyond that point. There is increasing recognition that the extent to which new programs are sustained is influenced by many different factors and that more needs to be known about just what these factors are and how they interact. To understand the current state of the research literature on sustainability, our team took stock of what is currently known in this area and identified areas in which further research would be particularly helpful. This paper reviews the methods that have been used, the types of outcomes that have been measured and reported, findings from studies that reported long-term implementation outcomes, and factors that have been identified as potential influences on the sustained use of new practices, programs, or interventions. We conclude with recommendations and considerations for future research. Methods Two coders identified 125 studies on sustainability that met eligibility criteria. An initial coding scheme was developed based on constructs identified in previous literature on implementation. Additional codes were generated deductively. Related constructs among factors were identified by consensus and collapsed under the general categories. Studies that described the extent to which programs or innovations were sustained were also categorized and summarized. Results Although "sustainability" was the term most commonly used in the literature to refer to what happened after initial implementation, not all the studies that were reviewed actually presented working definitions of the term. Most study designs were retrospective and naturalistic. Approximately half of the studies relied on self-reports to assess sustainability or elements that

  7. Recommendations for Infant Feeding Policy and Programs in Dzimauli Region, South Africa: Results From the MAL-ED Birth Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushaphi, Lindelani Fhumudzani; Mahopo, Tjale Cloupas; Nesamvuni, Cebisa Noxolo; Baloyi, Brenda; Mashau, Ellen; Richardson, Jeniata; Dillingham, Rebecca; Guerrant, Richard; Ambikapathi, Ramya; Bessong, Pascal

    2017-09-01

    There is strong evidence that exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) in the first 6 months of life reduces the risk of diseases in infancy and in later life. To understand the maternal reasoning that influences optimum infant feeding practices of caregivers in semirural communities of Limpopo province. Nested qualitative study among mothers in an ongoing birth cohort study was conducted; structured and semi-structured interviews were used to collect data. Data from 234 infants after 6 months of follow-up was included for quantitative analysis. Four focus discussion groups comprising 7 to 10 caregivers were used to obtain perception of mothers on breastfeeding. A semi-structured interview guide was used to stimulate discussions. Thematic content analyses were conducted to identify the main themes that influence breastfeeding practices of caregivers. Over 90% of the caregivers initiated breastfeeding after delivery. However, less than 1% of mothers practiced EBF by 3 months, and none of the children were exclusively breastfed for up to 6 months. All caregivers introduced non-breast milk liquids and solids by the second month of child's life. Common reasons for introducing non-breast milk foods included insufficiency of breast milk production, going back to work or school, and influence by elderly women (mothers/mothers-in-law) and church members. Exclusive breastfeeding was not practiced in this community due to cultural and religious beliefs and misinformation. The involvement of elderly women and church members in infant feeding education and promotion programs and the dissemination of breastfeeding information through mobile phones to younger mothers are recommended.

  8. Research-Based Recommendations to Improve Child Nutrition in Schools and Out-of-School Time Programs. Research-to-Results Brief. Publication #2009-27

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wandner, Laura D.; Hair, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    This brief discusses aspects of healthy diets for children in elementary and middle school. It summarizes the current guidelines and recommendations for child nutrition and provides information for schools and out-of-school time programs about how to measure child nutrition. (Contains 27 endnotes.)

  9. Environmental assessment of batteries for photovoltaic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brouwer, J.M.; Lindeijer, E.W.

    1993-10-01

    A life cycle analysis (LCA) on 4 types of batteries for PV systems has been performed. in order to assess the environmental impacts of the various battery types, leading to recommendations for improvements in the production and use of batteries. The different battery types are compared on the basis of a functional unit: 240 kWh electric energy from PV modules delivered for household applications by one flat-plate lead-acid battery. An important product characteristic is the performance; in the study a Ni-Cd battery is taken to deliver 4 times as much energy as a flat plate battery (Pb-flat), a rod plate battery (Pb-rod) 3.4 times as much and a tubular plate battery (Pb-tube) 2.8 times as much. Environmental data was gathered from recent primary and secondary data in a database under internal quality control. Calculations were performed with an updated version of SIMAKOZA, a programme developed by the Centre of Environmental Science (CML), University of Leiden, Leiden, Netherlands. Of the types investigated, the Pb tube battery is to be preferred environmentally. Using one allocation method for recycling, the NiCd battery scores best on ozone depletion since no PVC is used (PVC production demands cooling with CFCs), on non-toxic waste and on disruption of ecosystems. The lead-bearing batteries score better on other aspects due to lower energy consumption during production and no emissions of cadmium. Using another allocation method for recycling the NiCd battery scores best on almost all environmental topics. Both allocation methods supplement each other. For resource depletion, regarding cadmium as an unavoidable by-product of zinc production renders NiCd batteries as much less problematic than lead/acid batteries, but taking account of the physical resources available would make the use of cadmium much more problematic than the use of lead. 37 figs., 20 tabs., 8 appendices, 109 refs

  10. Building a Communication, Education, an Outreach Program for the ShakeAlert National Earthquake Early Warning Program - Recommendations for Public Alerts Via Cell Phones

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGroot, R. M.; Long, K.; Strauss, J. A.

    2017-12-01

    The United States Geological Survey (USGS) and its partners are developing the ShakeAlert Earthquake Early Warning System for the West Coast of the United States. To be an integral part of successful implementation, ShakeAlert engagement programs and materials must integrate with and leverage broader earthquake risk programs. New methods and products for dissemination must be multidisciplinary, cost effective, and consistent with existing hazards education and communication efforts. The ShakeAlert Joint Committee for Communication, Education, and Outreach (JCCEO), is identifying, developing, and cultivating partnerships with ShakeAlert stakeholders including Federal, State, academic partners, private companies, policy makers, and local organizations. Efforts include developing materials, methods for delivery, and reaching stakeholders with information on ShakeAlert, earthquake preparedness, and emergency protective actions. It is essential to develop standards to ensure information communicated via the alerts is consistent across the public and private sector and achieving a common understanding of what actions users take when they receive a ShakeAlert warning. In February 2017, the JCCEO convened the Warning Message Focus Group (WMFG) to provide findings and recommendations to the Alliance for Telecommunications Industry Solutions on the use of earthquake early warning message content standards for public alerts via cell phones. The WMFG represents communications, education, and outreach stakeholders from various sectors including ShakeAlert regional coordinators, industry, emergency managers, and subject matter experts from the social sciences. The group knowledge was combined with an in-depth literature review to ensure that all groups who could receive the message would be taken into account. The USGS and the participating states and agencies acknowledge that the implementation of ShakeAlert is a collective effort requiring the participation of hundreds of

  11. Understanding the function and performance of carbon-enhanced lead-acid batteries : milestone report for the DOE Energy Storage Systems program (FY11 Quarter 2: January through March 2011).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shane, R. (East Penn Manufacturing, Lyon Station, PA); Enos, David George; Hund, Thomas D.

    2011-05-01

    This report describes the status of research being performed under CRADA No. SC10/01771.00 (Lead/Carbon Functionality in VRLA Batteries) between Sandia National Laboratories and East Penn Manufacturing, conducted for the U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Storage Systems Program. The Quarter 2 Milestone was completed on time. The milestone entails an ex situ analysis of the four carbons that have been added to the negative active material of valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries for the purposes of this study. The four carbons selected for this study were a graphitic carbon, a carbon black, an activated carbon, and acetylene black. The morphology, crystallinity, and impurity contents of each of the four carbons were analyzed; results were consistent with previous data. Cycling on a subset of the received East Penn cells containing different carbons (and a control) has been initiated. Carbon has been explored as an addition to lead-acid battery electrodes in a number of ways. Perhaps the most notable to date has been the hybrid 'Ultrabattery' developed by CSIRO where an asymmetric carbon-based electrochemical capacitor is combined with a lead-acid battery into a single cell, dramatically improving high-rate partial-state-of-charge (HRPSoC) operation. As illustrated below, the 'Ultrabattery' is a hybrid device constructed using a traditional lead-acid battery positive plate (i.e., PbO{sub 2}) and a negative electrode consisting of a carbon electrode in parallel with a lead-acid negative plate. This device exhibits a dramatically improved cycle life over traditional VRLA batteries, as well as increased charge power and charge acceptance. The 'Ultrabattery' has been produced successfully by both The Furukawa Battery Co. and East Penn Manufacturing. An example illustrating the dramatic improvement in cycle life of the Ultrabattery over a conventional VRLA battery is shown.

  12. Summary remarks and recommended reactions for an international data file for dosimetry applications for LWR, FBR, and MFR reactor research, development and testing programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McElroy, W.N.; Lippincott, E.P.; Grundl, J.A.; Fabry, A.; Dierckx, R.; Farinelli, U.

    1979-01-01

    The need for the use of an internationally accepted data file for dosimetry applications for light water reactor (LWR), fast breeder reactor (FBR), and magnetic fusion reactor (MFR) research, development, and testing programs continues to exist for the Nuclear Industry. The work of this IAEA meeting, therefore, will be another important step in achieving consensus agreement on an internationally recommended file and its purpose, content, structure, selected reactions, and associated uncertainy files. Summary remarks and a listing of recommended reactions for consideration in the formulation of an ''International Data File for Dosimetry Applications'' are presented in subsequent sections of this report

  13. The nuclear battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozier, K.S.; Rosinger, H.E.

    1988-01-01

    This paper reviews the evolution and present status of an Atomic Energy of Canada Limited program to develop a small, solid-state, passively cooled reactor power supply known as the Nuclear Battery. Key technical features of the Nuclear Battery reactor core include a heat-pipe primary heat transport system, graphite neutron moderator, low-enriched uranium TRISO coated-particle fuel and the use of burnable poisons for long-term reactivity control. An external secondary heat transport system extracts useful heat energy, which may be converted into electricity in an organic Rankine cycle engine or used to produce high-pressure steam. The present reference design is capable of producing about 2400 kW(t) (about 600 kW(e) net) for 15 full-power years. Technical and safety features are described along with recent progress in component hardware development programs and market assessment work. 19 refs

  14. Design and Implementation of a Pilot Obesity Prevention Program in a Low-Resource School: Lessons Learned and Research Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskin, Monica L.; Zunker, Christie; Worley, Courtney B.; Dial, Brenda; Kimbrough, Linda

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This paper seeks to describe the design, implementation, and lessons learned from an obesity prevention pilot program delivered in a low resource school in the USA. Design/methodology/approach: A planned program evaluation was conducted to: document explicitly the process of designing and implementing the program; and assess the…

  15. Joining Undergraduate Liberal Arts Colleges with a Graduate M.A.T. Program To Implement the Holmes and Carnegie Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Stephen S.

    This paper describes a combined B.A.-M.A.T. program, a project planned jointly by Kenyon College and Tufts University for the recruitment of outstanding liberal arts students who are interested in teaching careers. The program fulfills the requirements for teacher certification at the middle or secondary level in Massachusetts. The program offered…

  16. Batteries: Overview of Battery Cathodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doeff, Marca M

    2010-07-12

    The very high theoretical capacity of lithium (3829 mAh/g) provided a compelling rationale from the 1970's onward for development of rechargeable batteries employing the elemental metal as an anode. The realization that some transition metal compounds undergo reductive lithium intercalation reactions reversibly allowed use of these materials as cathodes in these devices, most notably, TiS{sub 2}. Another intercalation compound, LiCoO{sub 2}, was described shortly thereafter but, because it was produced in the discharged state, was not considered to be of interest by battery companies at the time. Due to difficulties with the rechargeability of lithium and related safety concerns, however, alternative anodes were sought. The graphite intercalation compound (GIC) LiC{sub 6} was considered an attractive candidate but the high reactivity with commonly used electrolytic solutions containing organic solvents was recognized as a significant impediment to its use. The development of electrolytes that allowed the formation of a solid electrolyte interface (SEI) on surfaces of the carbon particles was a breakthrough that enabled commercialization of Li-ion batteries. In 1990, Sony announced the first commercial batteries based on a dual Li ion intercalation system. These devices are assembled in the discharged state, so that it is convenient to employ a prelithiated cathode such as LiCoO{sub 2} with the commonly used graphite anode. After charging, the batteries are ready to power devices. The practical realization of high energy density Li-ion batteries revolutionized the portable electronics industry, as evidenced by the widespread market penetration of mobile phones, laptop computers, digital music players, and other lightweight devices since the early 1990s. In 2009, worldwide sales of Li-ion batteries for these applications alone were US$ 7 billion. Furthermore, their performance characteristics (Figure 1) make them attractive for traction applications such as

  17. FY2016 Advanced Batteries R&D Annual Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2017-08-31

    The Advanced Batteries research and development (R&D) subprogram within the DOE Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO) provides support and guidance for projects focusing on batteries for plug-in electric vehicles. Program targets focus on overcoming technical barriers to enable market success including: (1) significantly reducing battery cost, (2) increasing battery performance (power, energy, durability), (3) reducing battery weight & volume, and (4) increasing battery tolerance to abusive conditions such as short circuit, overcharge, and crush. This report describes the progress made on the research and development projects funded by the Battery subprogram in 2016. This section covers the Vehicle Technologies Office overview; the Battery subprogram R&D overview; Advanced Battery Development project summaries; and Battery Testing, Analysis, and Design project summaries. It also includes the cover and table of contents.

  18. Canadian consumer battery baseline study : final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-02-01

    This report provided information about the estimated number of consumer and household batteries sold, re-used, stored, recycled, and disposed each year in Canada. The report discussed the ways in which different batteries posed risks to human health and the environment, and legislative trends were also reviewed. Data used in the report were obtained from a literature review as well as through a series of interviews. The study showed that alkaline batteries are the most common primary batteries used by Canadians, followed by zinc carbon batteries. However, lithium primary batteries are gaining in popularity, and silver oxide and zinc air button cell batteries are also used in applications requiring a flat voltage and high energy. Secondary batteries used in laptop computers, and cell phones are often made of nickel-cadmium, nickel-metal-hydroxide, and lithium ion. Small sealed lead batteries are also commonly used in emergency lighting and alarm systems. Annual consumption statistics for all types of batteries were provided. Results of the study showed that the primary battery market is expected to decline. Total units of secondary batteries are expected to increase to 38.6 million units by 2010. The report also used a spreadsheet model to estimate the flow of consumer batteries through the Canadian waste management system. An estimated 347 million consumer batteries were discarded in 2004. By 2010, it is expected that an estimated 494 million units will be discarded by consumers. The study also considered issues related to lead, cadmium, mercury, and nickel disposal and the potential for groundwater contamination. It was concluded that neither Canada nor its provinces or territories have initiated legislative or producer responsibility programs targeting primary or secondary consumer batteries. 79 refs., 37 tabs., 1 fig

  19. Household batteries: Evaluation of collection methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seeberger, D.A.

    1992-12-31

    While it is difficult to prove that a specific material is causing contamination in a landfill, tests have been conducted at waste-to-energy facilities that indicate that household batteries contribute significant amounts of heavy metals to both air emissions and ash residue. Hennepin County, MN, used a dual approach for developing and implementing a special household battery collection. Alternative collection methods were examined; test collections were conducted. The second phase examined operating and disposal policy issues. This report describes the results of the grant project, moving from a broad examination of the construction and content of batteries, to a description of the pilot collection programs, and ending with a discussion of variables affecting the cost and operation of a comprehensive battery collection program. Three out-of-state companies (PA, NY) were found that accept spent batteries; difficulties in reclaiming household batteries are discussed.

  20. Household batteries: Evaluation of collection methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seeberger, D.A.

    1992-01-01

    While it is difficult to prove that a specific material is causing contamination in a landfill, tests have been conducted at waste-to-energy facilities that indicate that household batteries contribute significant amounts of heavy metals to both air emissions and ash residue. Hennepin County, MN, used a dual approach for developing and implementing a special household battery collection. Alternative collection methods were examined; test collections were conducted. The second phase examined operating and disposal policy issues. This report describes the results of the grant project, moving from a broad examination of the construction and content of batteries, to a description of the pilot collection programs, and ending with a discussion of variables affecting the cost and operation of a comprehensive battery collection program. Three out-of-state companies (PA, NY) were found that accept spent batteries; difficulties in reclaiming household batteries are discussed.

  1. Used Battery Collection and Recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pistoia, G.; Wiaux, J.P.; Wolsky, S.P.

    2001-01-01

    This book covers all aspects of spent battery collection and recycling. First of all, the legislative and regulatory updates are addressed and the main institutions and programs worldwide are mentioned. An overview of the existing battery systems, of the chemicals used in them and their hazardous properties is made, followed by a survey of the major industrial recycling processes. The safety and efficiency of such processes are stressed. Particular consideration is given to the released emissions, i.e. to the impact on human health and the environment. Methods for the evaluation of this impact are described. Several chapters deal with specific battery chemistries: lead-acid, nickel-cadmium and nickel-metal hydride, zinc (carbon and alkaline), lithium and lithium-ion. For each type of battery, details are provided on the collection/recycling process from the technical, economic and environmental viewpoint. The chemicals recoverable from each process and remarketable are mentioned. A chapter deals with recovering of the large batteries powering electric vehicles, e.g. lead-acid, nickel-metal hydride and lithium-ion. The final chapter is devoted to the important topic of collecting batteries from used electrical and electronic equipment. The uncontrolled disposal of these devices still containing their batteries contributes to environmental pollution

  2. Exploring implementation of the 2010 Institute of Medicine’s Child and Adult Food Care Program recommendations for after-school snacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanney, Marilyn S; Glatt, Carissa

    2012-01-01

    Objective The aim of the present study was to explore the implementation of nutrition recommendations made in the 2010 Institute of Medicine (IOM) report, Child and Adult Care Food Program: Aligning Dietary Guidance for All, in school-based after-school snack programmes. Design A descriptive study. Setting One large suburban school district in Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA. Subjects None. Results Major challenges to implementation included limited access to product labelling and specifications inconsistent with the IOM’s Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP) recommendations, limited access to healthier foods due to current school district buying consortium agreement, and increased costs of wholegrain and lower-sodium foods and pre-packaged fruits and vegetables. Conclusions Opportunities for government and industry policy development and partnerships to support schools in their efforts to promote healthy after-school food environments remain. Several federal, state and industry leadership opportunities are proposed: provide product labelling that makes identifying snacks which comply with the 2010 IOM CACFP recommended standards easy; encourage compliance with recommendations by providing incentives to programmes; prioritize the implementation of paperwork and technology that simplifies enrolment and accountability systems; and provide support for food safety training and/or certification for non-food service personnel. PMID:22050891

  3. International Space Station Lithium-Ion Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Penni J.; Schwanbeck, Eugene; North, Tim; Balcer, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) primary Electric Power System (EPS) currently uses Nickel-Hydrogen (Ni-H2) batteries to store electrical energy. The electricity for the space station is generated by its solar arrays, which charge batteries during insolation for subsequent discharge during eclipse. The Ni-H2 batteries are designed to operate at a 35 depth of discharge (DOD) maximum during normal operation in a Low Earth Orbit. Since the oldest of the 48 Ni-H2 battery Orbital Replacement Units (ORUs) has been cycling since September 2006, these batteries are now approaching their end of useful life. In 2010, the ISS Program began the development of Lithium-Ion (Li-Ion) batteries to replace the Ni-H2 batteries and concurrently funded a Li-Ion ORU and cell life testing project. When deployed, they will be the largest Li-Ion batteries ever utilized for a human-rated spacecraft. This paper will include an overview of the ISS Li-Ion battery system architecture, the Li-Ion battery design and development, controls to limit potential hazards from the batteries, and the status of the Li-Ion cell and ORU life cycle testing.

  4. FY2016 Advanced Batteries R&D Annual Progress Report - Part 5 of 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2017-08-31

    The Advanced Batteries research and development (R&D) subprogram within the DOE Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO) provides support and guidance for projects focusing on batteries for plug-in electric vehicles. Program targets focus on overcoming technical barriers to enable market success including: (1) significantly reducing battery cost, (2) increasing battery performance (power, energy, durability), (3) reducing battery weight & volume, and (4) increasing battery tolerance to abusive conditions such as short circuit, overcharge, and crush. This report describes the progress made on the research and development projects funded by the Battery subprogram in 2016. This section cover Advanced Battery Materials Research (BMR) part 2, Battery500 Innovation Centers project summaries, and appendices.

  5. Novel Battery Management System with Distributed Wireless and Fiber Optic Sensors for Early Detection and Suppression of Thermal Runaway in Large Battery Packs, FY13 Q4 Report, ARPA-E Program: Advanced Management Protection of Energy Storage Devices (AMPE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmer, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Chang, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Zumstein, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Kovotsky, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Puglia, F. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Dobley, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Moore, G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Osswald, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Wolf, K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Kaschmitter, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Eaves, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2013-10-08

    Technology has been developed that enables monitoring of individual cells in highcapacity lithium-ion battery packs, with a distributed array of wireless Bluetooth 4.0 tags and sensors, and without proliferation of extensive wiring harnesses. Given the safety challenges facing lithium-ion batteries in electric vehicle, civilian aviation and defense applications, these wireless sensors may be particularly important to these emerging markets. These wireless sensors will enhance the performance, reliability and safety of such energy storage systems. Specific accomplishments to date include, but are not limited to: (1) the development of wireless tags using Bluetooth 4.0 standard to monitor a large array of sensors in battery pack; (2) sensor suites enabling the simultaneous monitoring of cell voltage, cell current, cell temperature, and package strain, indicative of swelling and increased internal pressure, (3) small receivers compatible with USB ports on portable computers; (4) software drivers and logging software; (5) a 7S2P battery simulator, enabling the safe development of wireless BMS hardware in the laboratory; (6) demonstrated data transmission out of metal enclosures, including battery box, with small variable aperture opening; (7) test data demonstrating the accurate and reliable operation of sensors, with transmission of terminal voltage, cell temperature and package strain at distances up to 110 feet; (8) quantification of the data transmission error as a function of distance, in both indoor and outdoor operation; (9) electromagnetic interference testing during operation with live, high-capacity battery management system at Yardney Technical Products; (10) demonstrated operation with live high-capacity lithium-ion battery pack during charge-discharge cycling; (11) development of special polymer-gel lithium-ion batteries with embedded temperature sensors, capable of measuring the core temperature of individual of the cells during charge-discharge cycling

  6. Battery Safety Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Ken

    2010-01-01

    Batteries commonly used in flashlights and other household devices produce hydrogen gas as a product of zinc electrode corrosion. The amount of gas produced is affected by the batteries' design and charge rate. Dangerous levels of hydrogen gas can be released if battery types are mixed, batteries are damaged, batteries are of different ages, or…

  7. Batteries for Electric Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conover, R. A.

    1985-01-01

    Report summarizes results of test on "near-term" electrochemical batteries - (batteries approaching commercial production). Nickel/iron, nickel/zinc, and advanced lead/acid batteries included in tests and compared with conventional lead/acid batteries. Batteries operated in electric vehicles at constant speed and repetitive schedule of accerlerating, coasting, and braking.

  8. Title I of the Higher Education Act of 1965: Evaluation of the Present Program: Recommendations for the Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whipple, James B.

    In this document, which points out weaknesses in evaluation procedures and offers a new approach to the subject, it is suggested that in the area of the United States studied, the Title 1 program is drifting without direction, leadership, or system. This makes evaluation impossible. Evaluation is sometimes a description of a program and often…

  9. Qualitative process evaluation of an Australian alcohol media literacy study: recommendations for designing culturally responsive school-based programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chloe S. Gordon

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alcohol media literacy programs seek to mitigate the potentially harmful effects of alcohol advertising on children’s drinking intentions and behaviours through equipping them with skills to challenge media messages. In order for such programs to be effective, the teaching and learning experiences must be tailored to their specific cultural context. Media in the Spotlight is an alcohol media literacy program aimed at 9 to 12 year old Australian children. This study evaluates the process and implementation of the program, outlining the factors that facilitated and inhibited implementation. From this evaluation, a pedagogical framework has been developed for health professionals implementing culturally responsive programs in school settings. Methods Process measures included: semi-structured interviews with teachers before and after the program was implemented (n = 11 interviews, program evaluation questionnaires completed by children (n = 166, lesson observations completed by teachers (n = 35 observations, and reflective journal entries completed by the researcher (n = 44 entries. A thematic analysis approach was used to analyse all of the data sets using NVivo. Inductive coding was used, whereby the findings were derived from the research objectives and multiple readings and interpretations of the data. Results Five key pedagogical considerations were identified that facilitated implementation. These were: connecting to the students’ life worlds to achieve cultural significance; empowering students with real-world skills to ensure relevance; ensuring programs are well structured with strong connections to the school curriculum; creating developmentally appropriate activities while providing a range of assessment opportunities; and including hands-on and interactive activities to promote student engagement. Three potential inhibitors to implementing the alcohol media literacy program in upper

  10. Qualitative process evaluation of an Australian alcohol media literacy study: recommendations for designing culturally responsive school-based programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Chloe S; Kervin, Lisa K; Jones, Sandra C; Howard, Steven J

    2017-02-02

    Alcohol media literacy programs seek to mitigate the potentially harmful effects of alcohol advertising on children's drinking intentions and behaviours through equipping them with skills to challenge media messages. In order for such programs to be effective, the teaching and learning experiences must be tailored to their specific cultural context. Media in the Spotlight is an alcohol media literacy program aimed at 9 to 12 year old Australian children. This study evaluates the process and implementation of the program, outlining the factors that facilitated and inhibited implementation. From this evaluation, a pedagogical framework has been developed for health professionals implementing culturally responsive programs in school settings. Process measures included: semi-structured interviews with teachers before and after the program was implemented (n = 11 interviews), program evaluation questionnaires completed by children (n = 166), lesson observations completed by teachers (n = 35 observations), and reflective journal entries completed by the researcher (n = 44 entries). A thematic analysis approach was used to analyse all of the data sets using NVivo. Inductive coding was used, whereby the findings were derived from the research objectives and multiple readings and interpretations of the data. Five key pedagogical considerations were identified that facilitated implementation. These were: connecting to the students' life worlds to achieve cultural significance; empowering students with real-world skills to ensure relevance; ensuring programs are well structured with strong connections to the school curriculum; creating developmentally appropriate activities while providing a range of assessment opportunities; and including hands-on and interactive activities to promote student engagement. Three potential inhibitors to implementing the alcohol media literacy program in upper-elementary school classrooms were identified. These included topic

  11. Battery charging stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergey, M.

    1997-12-01

    This paper discusses the concept of battery charging stations (BCSs), designed to service rural owners of battery power sources. Many such power sources now are transported to urban areas for recharging. A BCS provides the opportunity to locate these facilities closer to the user, is often powered by renewable sources, or hybrid systems, takes advantage of economies of scale, and has the potential to provide lower cost of service, better service, and better cost recovery than other rural electrification programs. Typical systems discussed can service 200 to 1200 people, and consist of stations powered by photovoltaics, wind/PV, wind/diesel, or diesel only. Examples of installed systems are presented, followed by cost figures, economic analysis, and typical system design and performance numbers.

  12. Nickel - iron battery. Nikkel - jern batteri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersen, H. A.

    1989-03-15

    A newer type of nickel-iron battery, (SAFT 6v 230 Ah monobloc), which could possibly be used in relation to electrically driven light road vehicles, was tested. The same test methods used for lead batteries were utilized and results compared favourably with those reached during other testings carried out, abroad, on a SAFT nickle-iron battery and a SAB-NIFE nickel-iron battery. Description (in English) of the latter-named tests are included in the publication as is also a presentation of the SAFT battery. Testing showed that this type of battery did not last as long as had been expected, but the density of energy and effect was superior to lead batteries. However energy efficiency was rather poor in comparison to lead batteries and it was concluded that nickel-iron batteries are not suitable for stationary systems where recharging under a constant voltage is necessary. (AB).

  13. Crewed Space Vehicle Battery Safety Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeevarajan, Judith A.; Darcy, Eric C.

    2014-01-01

    This requirements document is applicable to all batteries on crewed spacecraft, including vehicle, payload, and crew equipment batteries. It defines the specific provisions required to design a battery that is safe for ground personnel and crew members to handle and/or operate during all applicable phases of crewed missions, safe for use in the enclosed environment of a crewed space vehicle, and safe for use in launch vehicles, as well as in unpressurized spaces adjacent to the habitable portion of a space vehicle. The required provisions encompass hazard controls, design evaluation, and verification. The extent of the hazard controls and verification required depends on the applicability and credibility of the hazard to the specific battery design and applicable missions under review. Evaluation of the design and verification program results shall be completed prior to certification for flight and ground operations. This requirements document is geared toward the designers of battery systems to be used in crewed vehicles, crew equipment, crew suits, or batteries to be used in crewed vehicle systems and payloads (or experiments). This requirements document also applies to ground handling and testing of flight batteries. Specific design and verification requirements for a battery are dependent upon the battery chemistry, capacity, complexity, charging, environment, and application. The variety of battery chemistries available, combined with the variety of battery-powered applications, results in each battery application having specific, unique requirements pertinent to the specific battery application. However, there are basic requirements for all battery designs and applications, which are listed in section 4. Section 5 includes a description of hazards and controls and also includes requirements.

  14. Are we done yet? An assessment of the remaining barriers to increasing compact fluorescent lamp installations and recommended program strategies for reducing them

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasmussen, Tami; Canseco, Jennifer [KEMA Inc., Sustainable Market Strategies Group (United States); Rubin, Rob [San Diego Gas and Electric Company (United States); Teja, Anu [Northwest Energy Efficiency Alliance (United States)

    2007-07-01

    Residential energy efficiency lighting programs in active regions of the United States have been successful in dramatically increasing compact fluorescent lamp (CFL) purchases over the last decade - where currently a majority of households have one or more CFLs installed. However, in these regions CFLs are used in less than 10 percent of residential lamp sockets, and much untapped energy savings potential remains. Consumers in these active regions with CFLs already installed could expand their existing CFL installations by a factor of five. The reasons that they are not doing so include waiting for incandescent bulbs to burn out, issues with CFL performance, the need for specialty CFLs (which are expensive and not widely available) and the higher cost of CFLs.Programs in these active regions should consider the following recommendations for increasing CFL installations: encourage consumers to retrofit more CFLs and not to wait for incandescent bulbs to burn out; track and address CFL performance issues for the range of CFL products; broaden program strategies to address specialty CFLs; expand incentives to year-round and to more stores and products; and track market barriers at both the household and lamp socket level.In regions of the United States or countries with emerging residential CFL programs, program planners should consider the following recommendations: research the lighting market and introduce program strategies within existing market channels; focus first on the most basic style of CFLs that are designed to replace standard incandescent bulbs and move to specialty CFLs later; and track and monitor product quality from program inception.

  15. Vehicle Battery Safety Roadmap Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doughty, D. H.

    2012-10-01

    The safety of electrified vehicles with high capacity energy storage devices creates challenges that must be met to assure commercial acceptance of EVs and HEVs. High performance vehicular traction energy storage systems must be intrinsically tolerant of abusive conditions: overcharge, short circuit, crush, fire exposure, overdischarge, and mechanical shock and vibration. Fail-safe responses to these conditions must be designed into the system, at the materials and the system level, through selection of materials and safety devices that will further reduce the probability of single cell failure and preclude propagation of failure to adjacent cells. One of the most important objectives of DOE's Office of Vehicle Technologies is to support the development of lithium ion batteries that are safe and abuse tolerant in electric drive vehicles. This Roadmap analyzes battery safety and failure modes of state-of-the-art cells and batteries and makes recommendations on future investments that would further DOE's mission.

  16. Analysis of Florida Department Of Transportation Transit Corridor Program/Projects: Technical Memorandum Number Three - General Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-03-01

    CUTR interviewed FDOT personnel at both the Central Office and Distict Offices and agency personnel to discuss the strengths and weaknesses of the overall Transit Corridor Program, including the results of specific projects, as well as the FDOT proce...

  17. Accelerated battery-life testing - A concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccallum, J.; Thomas, R. E.

    1971-01-01

    Test program, employing empirical, statistical and physical methods, determines service life and failure probabilities of electrochemical cells and batteries, and is applicable to testing mechanical, electrical, and chemical devices. Data obtained aids long-term performance prediction of battery or cell.

  18. Recommendations to the NRC for review criteria for alternative methods of low-level radioactive waste disposal: Environmental monitoring and surveillance programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denham, D.H.; Stenner, R.D.; Eddy, P.A.; Jaquish, R.E.; Ramsdell, J.V. Jr.

    1988-07-01

    Licensing of a facility for low-level radioactive waste disposal requires the review of the environmental monitoring and surveillance programs. A set of review criteria is recommended for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff to use in each monitoring phase---preoperational, operational, and post operational---for evaluating radiological and selected nonradiological parameters in proposed environmental monitoring and surveillance programs at low-level waste disposal facilities. Applicable regulations, industry standards, and technical guidance on low-level radioactive waste are noted throughout the document. In the preoperational phase, the applicant must demonstrate that the environmental monitoring program identifies radiation levels and radionuclide concentrations at the site and also provides adequate basic data on the disposal site. Data recording and statistical analyses for this phase are addressed

  19. Radioactive battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deaton, R.L.; Silver, G.L.

    1975-01-01

    A radioactive battery is described that is comprised of a container housing an electrolyte, two electrodes immersed in the electrolyte and insoluble radioactive material disposed adjacent one electrode. Insoluble radioactive material of different intensity of radioactivity may be disposed adjacent the second electrode. If hydrobromic acid is used as the electrolyte, Br 2 will be generated by the radioactivity and is reduced at the cathode: Br 2 + 2e = 2 Br - . At the anode Br - is oxidized: 2Br - = Br 2 + 2e. (U.S.)

  20. Computer Aided Battery Engineering Consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pesaran, Ahmad

    2016-06-07

    A multi-national lab collaborative team was assembled that includes experts from academia and industry to enhance recently developed Computer-Aided Battery Engineering for Electric Drive Vehicles (CAEBAT)-II battery crush modeling tools and to develop microstructure models for electrode design - both computationally efficient. Task 1. The new Multi-Scale Multi-Domain model framework (GH-MSMD) provides 100x to 1,000x computation speed-up in battery electrochemical/thermal simulation while retaining modularity of particles and electrode-, cell-, and pack-level domains. The increased speed enables direct use of the full model in parameter identification. Task 2. Mechanical-electrochemical-thermal (MECT) models for mechanical abuse simulation were simultaneously coupled, enabling simultaneous modeling of electrochemical reactions during the short circuit, when necessary. The interactions between mechanical failure and battery cell performance were studied, and the flexibility of the model for various batteries structures and loading conditions was improved. Model validation is ongoing to compare with test data from Sandia National Laboratories. The ABDT tool was established in ANSYS. Task 3. Microstructural modeling was conducted to enhance next-generation electrode designs. This 3- year project will validate models for a variety of electrodes, complementing Advanced Battery Research programs. Prototype tools have been developed for electrochemical simulation and geometric reconstruction.

  1. Effects of combined high-intensity aerobic interval training program and Mediterranean diet recommendations after myocardial infarction (INTERFARCT Project): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado-Martín, Sara; Jayo-Montoya, Jon Ander; Matajira-Chia, Tatiana; Villar-Zabala, Beatriz; Goiriena, Juan José; Aispuru, G Rodrigo

    2018-03-02

    Exercise therapy has long been used for rehabilitation purposes after myocardial infarction (MI) and the benefit of regular physical exercise is also well-established. High-intensity interval training (HIIT) has been proposed to be more effective than continuous exercise for improving exercise capacity and health-related adaptations to low-volume (LV) and HIIT are also known. Furthermore, the Mediterranean diet (Mediet) has been widely reported to be a model of healthy eating for its contribution to a favorable health status and a better quality of life, reducing overall mortality. This study will investigate the effects of different HIIT programs (high-volume [HV] vs LV) and Mediet recommendations in clinical condition, cardiorespiratory fitness, biomarkers, ventricular function, and perception of quality of life after MI, and compared to an attention control group that is recommended to Mediet and physical activity without supervision sessions. In this randomized controlled trial, cardiorespiratory fitness, anthropometry, central and peripheral cardiovascular variables, biochemical and nutritional condition, and quality of life will be assessed before and after 16 weeks of intervention in 177 participants diagnosed with MI type 1. All participants will be randomly (1:1:1) assigned to the attention control group or two exercise groups (Mediet recommendations plus supervised aerobic exercise two days/week: (1) HV (40 min) HIIT group and (2) LV (20 min) HIIT group. This study will be the first clinical trial comparing the effects of two different volumes of HIIT programs with Mediet recommendations for people after MI. The results of this study will provide good evidence for physical rehabilitation in this population. ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02876952 . Registered on 24 August 2016.

  2. Recommender systems

    OpenAIRE

    Lu L.; Medo M.; Yeung C.H.; Zhang Y.-C.; Zhang Z.-K.; Zhou T.

    2012-01-01

    The ongoing rapid expansion of the Internet greatly increases the necessity of effective recommender systems for filtering the abundant information. Extensive research for recommender systems is conducted by a broad range of communities including social and computer scientists, physicists, and interdisciplinary researchers. Despite substantial theoretical and practical achievements, unification and comparison of different approaches are lacking, which impedes further advances. In this article...

  3. Second annual battery and electrochemical technology conference: agenda and technical presentations. [Arlington, Va. , June 5--7, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-05-01

    Papers were presented at this conference on the following topics: general overview of batteries and battery programs, near-term battery systems, fundamental research, advanced battery development, energy conservation in industrial electrochemical processes, and advanced battery research. This publication contains only the slides and viewgraphs used by the speakers in giving their presentations; there is no text. (RWR)

  4. A Survey of Knowledge and Attitudes towards Martial Arts: Recommendations for a Recruitment Program in Continuing Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaer, Barbara; Neal, Kathy

    A study examined the level of knowledge about and the types of attitudes toward martial arts. The primary objective of the study was to gather information that could be used in designing a recruitment program for a continuing education course in martial arts. A survey instrument was administered to 60 males and 52 females between the ages of 15…

  5. Recommendations for the Investigation and Delivery of Music Programs Aimed at Achieving Psychosocial Wellbeing Benefits in Mainstream Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crooke, Alexander Hew Dale; McFerran, Katrina Skewes

    2014-01-01

    The potential for music programs to promote psychosocial wellbeing in mainstream schools is recognised in both policy and research literature. Despite this recognition, there is a dearth of consistent research evidence supporting this link. Authors attribute this lack of consistent evidence to limitations in the areas of research design and…

  6. Understanding the function and performance of carbon-enhanced lead-acid batteries : milestone report for the DOE Energy Storage Systems program (FY11 Quarter 1: October through December 2010).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shane, R. (East Penn Manufacturing, Lyon Station, PA); Enos, David George; Hund, Thomas D.

    2011-05-01

    This report describes the status of research being performed under CRADA No. SC10/01771.00 (Lead/Carbon Functionality in VRLA Batteries) between Sandia National Laboratories and East Penn Manufacturing, conducted for the U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Storage Systems Program. The Quarter 1 Milestone was completed on time. The milestone entails conducting a thorough literature review to establish the current level of understanding of the mechanisms through which carbon additions to the negative active material improve valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries. Most studies have entailed phenomenological research observing that the carbon additions prevent/reduce sulfation of the negative electrode; however, no understanding is available to provide insight into why certain carbons are successful while others are not. Impurities were implicated in one recent review of the electrochemical behavior of carbon additions. Four carbon samples have been received from East Penn Manufacturing and impurity contents have been analyzed. Carbon has been explored as an addition to lead-acid battery electrodes in a number of ways. Perhaps the most notable to date has been the hybrid 'Ultrabattery' developed by CSIRO where an asymmetric carbon-based electrochemical capacitor is combined with a lead-acid battery into a single cell, dramatically improving high-rate partial-state-of-charge (HRPSoC) operation. As illustrated below, the 'Ultrabattery' is a hybrid device constructed using a traditional lead-acid battery positive plate (i.e., PbO{sub 2}) and a negative electrode consisting of a carbon electrode in parallel with a lead-acid negative plate. This device exhibits a dramatically improved cycle life over traditional VRLA batteries, as well as increased charge power and charge acceptance. The 'Ultrabattery' has been produced successfully by both The Furukawa Battery Co. and East Penn Manufacturing. An example illustrating the dramatic

  7. Genetic screening: programs, principles, and research--thirty years later. Reviewing the recommendations of the Committee for the Study of Inborn Errors of Metabolism (SIEM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simopoulos, A P

    2009-01-01

    Screening programs for genetic diseases and characteristics have multiplied in the last 50 years. 'Genetic Screening: Programs, Principles, and Research' is the report of the Committee for the Study of Inborn Errors of Metabolism (SIEM Committee) commissioned by the Division of Medical Sciences of the National Research Council at the National Academy of Sciences in Washington, DC, published in 1975. The report is considered a classic in the field worldwide, therefore it was thought appropriate 30 years later to present the Committee's modus operandi and bring the Committee's recommendations to the attention of those involved in genetics, including organizational, educational, legal, and research aspects of genetic screening. The Committee's report anticipated many of the legal, ethical, economic, social, medical, and policy aspects of genetic screening. The recommendations are current, and future committees should be familiar with them. In 1975 the Committee stated: 'As new screening tests are devised, they should be carefully reviewed. If the experimental rate of discovery of new genetic characteristics means an accelerating rate of appearance of new screening tests, now is the time to develop the medical and social apparatus to accommodate what later on may otherwise turn out to be unmanageable growth.' What a prophetic statement that was. If the Committee's recommendations had been implemented on time, there would be today a federal agency in existence, responsive and responsible to carry out the programs and support research on various aspects of genetic screening, including implementation of a federal law that protects consumers from discrimination by their employers and the insurance industry on the basis of genetic information. Copyright 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. From battery modeling to battery management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Notten, P.H.L.; Danilov, D.

    2011-01-01

    The principles of rechargeable battery operation form the basis of the electronic network models developed for Nickel-based aqueous battery systems, including Nickel Metal Hydride (NiMH), and non-aqueous battery systems, such as the well-known Li-ion. These electronic network models are based on

  9. PV-Battery Sizing for Stand-Alone Lighting Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Herteleer, Bert; Cappelle, Jan; Appels, Reinhart; Lefevre, Buvana; Driesen, Johan; Catthoor, Francky

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a follow-up and addition to a system sizing spreadsheet, detailed in [An autonomous photovoltaic system sizing program for office applications in Africa], with a focus on sizing or verifying the employability of an off-grid PV-battery system for night lighting. A dimensionless criterion, the Battery Usable Fraction UF_batt is defined, which aids both the calculations of systems and allows an approximate comparison of batteries, regardless of the employed battery chemistry....

  10. Develop improved battery charger (Turbo-Z Battery Charging System). Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-09-01

    The output of this project was a flexible control board. The control board can be used to control a variety of rapid battery chargers. The control module will reduce development cost of rapid battery charging hardware. In addition, PEPCO's proprietary battery charging software have been pre-programmed into the control microprocessor. This product is being applied to the proprietary capacitive charging system now under development.

  11. New recommendations of the ICRP and the ALARA program of the Nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padilla C, I.

    1991-01-01

    In view of the events happened in it finishes it decade, in the nuclear environment, it is necessary that any he/she practices that it involves exhibition to the radiation, real or potential, be detailed and systematically analyzed by the light of the current knowledge, capitalizing the generated experience. They think about three fundamental aspects in the campaign of radiological cultivation: 1. New methods of evaluation of equivalent dose. 2. Limit of individual dose, base of the change and control implications, and 3. Analysis philosophies and the application of the system of dose limitation. The program ALARA of the Laguna Verde Central from its installation in 1987 observes and it implements actions trending to optimize it practice of situation of potential and planned exhibition with the purpose of fulfilling the commitment settled down in the declaration of political of this program

  12. Journal Clubs in Sports Medicine Fellowship Programs: Results From a National Survey and Recommendations for Quality Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asif, Irfan M; Wiederman, Michael; Kapur, Rahul

    2017-11-01

    Journal club is a pervasive component of graduate medical education, yet there is no gold standard as to format and logistics. Survey of primary care sports medicine fellowship directors in the United States. Sixty-nine program directors completed the online questionnaire (40% response rate). There were some common aspects to journal club exhibited by a majority of programs, including the general format, required attendance by fellows and expected or required attendance by faculty, the expectation that participants had at least read the article before the meeting, and that meetings occurred during the workday in the work setting without provision of food. There was considerable variation on other aspects, including the objectives of journal club, who had primary responsibility for organizing the session, the criteria for selection of articles, who was invited to attend, and the perceived problems with journal club. This is the first survey investigating the current state of journal club in primary care sports medicine fellowship programs. Several opportunities for educational enhancements exist within journal clubs in primary care sports medicine, including the use of structured tools to guide discussion, providing mechanisms to evaluate the journal club experience as a whole, inviting multidisciplinary team members (eg, statisticians) to discussions, and ensuring that objectives are explicitly stated to participants.

  13. FY2016 Advanced Batteries R&D Annual Progress Report - Part 2 of 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2017-08-31

    The Advanced Batteries research and development (R&D) subprogram within the DOE Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO) provides support and guidance for projects focusing on batteries for plug-in electric vehicles. Program targets focus on overcoming technical barriers to enable market success including: (1) significantly reducing battery cost, (2) increasing battery performance (power, energy, durability), (3) reducing battery weight & volume, and (4) increasing battery tolerance to abusive conditions such as short circuit, overcharge, and crush. This report describes the progress made on the research and development projects funded by the Battery subprogram in 2016. This section covers the summaries of the Applied Batteries Research for Transportation Projects part 1.

  14. FY2016 Advanced Batteries R&D Annual Progress Report - Part 3 of 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2017-08-31

    The Advanced Batteries research and development (R&D) subprogram within the DOE Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO) provides support and guidance for projects focusing on batteries for plug-in electric vehicles. Program targets focus on overcoming technical barriers to enable market success including: (1) significantly reducing battery cost, (2) increasing battery performance (power, energy, durability), (3) reducing battery weight & volume, and (4) increasing battery tolerance to abusive conditions such as short circuit, overcharge, and crush. This report describes the progress made on the research and development projects funded by the Battery subprogram in 2016. This section covers the summaries of the Applied Batteries Research for Transportation Projects part 2.

  15. FY2016 Advanced Batteries R&D Annual Progress Report - Part 4 of 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2017-08-31

    The Advanced Batteries research and development (R&D) subprogram within the DOE Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO) provides support and guidance for projects focusing on batteries for plug-in electric vehicles. Program targets focus on overcoming technical barriers to enable market success including: (1) significantly reducing battery cost, (2) increasing battery performance (power, energy, durability), (3) reducing battery weight & volume, and (4) increasing battery tolerance to abusive conditions such as short circuit, overcharge, and crush. This report describes the progress made on the research and development projects funded by the Battery subprogram in 2016. This section covers Advanced Battery Materials Research (BMR) part 1.

  16. Technology status: Batteries and fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fordyce, J. S.

    1978-01-01

    The current status of research and development programs on batteries and fuel cells and the technology goals being pursued are discussed. Emphasis is placed upon those technologies relevant to earth orbital electric energy storage applications.

  17. Recommender systems

    CERN Document Server

    Kembellec, Gérald; Saleh, Imad

    2014-01-01

    Acclaimed by various content platforms (books, music, movies) and auction sites online, recommendation systems are key elements of digital strategies. If development was originally intended for the performance of information systems, the issues are now massively moved on logical optimization of the customer relationship, with the main objective to maximize potential sales. On the transdisciplinary approach, engines and recommender systems brings together contributions linking information science and communications, marketing, sociology, mathematics and computing. It deals with the understan

  18. Hot Idea or Hot Air: A Systematic Review of Evidence for Two Widely Marketed Youth Suicide Prevention Programs and Recommendations for Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yifeng; Kutcher, Stan; LeBlanc, John C.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Youth suicide is highly related to mental disorders. While communities and schools are marketed to with a plethora of suicide prevention programs, they often lack the capacity to choose evidence-based programs. Methods: We conducted a systematic review of two youth suicide prevention programs to help determine if the quality of evidence available justifies their wide spread dissemination. We searched Medline, PsycINFO, EMBASE, CINAHL, the Cochrane Library, Campbell Collaboration SPECTR database, SocIndex, Sociological Abstracts, Social Services Abstracts, ERIC, Social Work Abstracts, Research Library, and Web of Science, for relevant studies. We included studies/systematic reviews/meta-analysis that evaluated the effectiveness, cost-effectiveness, and/or safety of Signs of Suicide (SOS) and Yellow Ribbon (YR) suicide prevention programs that target adolescents. We applied the Office of Justice Program What Works Repository (OJP-R) to evaluate the quality of the included studies as effective, effective with reservation, promising, inconclusive evidence, insufficient evidence, and ineffective. Two SOS studies were ranked as “inconclusive evidence” based on the OJP-R. One SOS study was ranked as having “insufficient evidence” on OJP-R. The YR study was ranked as “ineffective” using OJP-R. We only included studies in peer-reviewed journals in English and therefore may have missed reports in grey literature or non-English publications. Results: We cannot recommend that schools and communities implement either the SOS or YR suicide prevention programs. Purchasers of these programs should be aware that there is no evidence that their use prevents suicide. Conclusions: Academics and organizations should not overstate the positive impacts of suicide prevention interventions when the evidence is lacking. PMID:26336375

  19. Pediatric obesity-related curricular content and training in dental schools and dental hygiene programs: systematic review and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divaris, Kimon; Bhaskar, Vaishnavi; McGraw, Kathleen A

    2017-06-01

    The authors conducted a systematic review to determine: a) What dental schools and dental hygiene programs are doing to promote knowledge and skills related to addressing childhood obesity and to reduce consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) and b) What else these schools and programs could do to better equip future oral health professionals to address childhood obesity and reduce consumption of SSBs. The authors searched PubMed, Scopus, Education Full Text (EBSCOHost), and ERIC (EBSCOHost) to identify peer-reviewed publications reporting on obesity or dietetic-related curricula in dental and dental hygiene education within the last 20 years. Three studies met inclusion and exclusion criteria. Outcomes of the identified studies were abstracted and summarized independently by two investigators. The first study describes a 2009 survey of pediatric dentistry residents. Approximately, half had received formal training yet they lacked essential knowledge or skills for managing children who were obese. The second study describes nutrition-related coursework offered in the second year of a predoctoral dental school curriculum in Saudi Arabia, and the third study reports on the development of an "oral health rotation" dietetic internship in a pediatric dentistry clinic, in the context of interprofessional education (IPE). Evidence of dental schools' and dental hygiene programs' efforts to address obesity and SSB consumption in children in their curricula is scant, while Commission on Dental Accreditation standards make sporadic mentions of diet and nutrition. Opportunities exist to leverage existing resources and innovative, experiential approaches, including IPE, to formally, and effectively address this important issue in predoctoral oral health education. © 2017 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  20. Policy recommendations on tacing and reducing program mismatch and perverse incentives present in earmarking sin tax to tobacco growing areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madeiline Joy Aloria

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Recognizing that the Philippine 1991 tobacco tax sharing law favoured the development of tobacco, the Sin Tax Law, a separate law on restructuring cigarette tax, expanded the use of such to also cover shifting farmers to viable alternative livelihood. Aside from health-driven supply reduction objectives, this is crucial as evidence shows that tobacco production is continuously declining starting decades ago, requiring to actively shift farmers. Methods Data on tobacco excise tax earmarking and utilization, farmers´ production and shifting behaviours, labor improvement and poverty alleviation indicators, and LGU capacity were analysed to determine potential program mismatches and perverse incentives. Supporting qualitative data were used to identify policy and structural gaps to address these. Results Financing livelihood projects becomes the least priority (only 6% average share i funds, as a result of LGU´s final allocation being determined by their share in total tobacco leaf production, which actually put pressure on their farmers to increase production volume. Meanwhile, infrastructure continue to get bulk of sin tax earmarking and are linked to its political benefits. Last, the provision of cooperative and agro-industrial projects in selected areas were shifting behaviour is heavy can still be improved. Conclusions As the two tobacco tax sharing laws fund both programs to develop tobacco and to shift tobacco farmers to other livelihood, a schizophrenic management exists. Key structural and policy ingredients have to be present to reverse this. First is the need to establish institutional support to manage alternative livelihood funds, in order to balance the powers of National Tobacco Administration over tobacco growing areas. Allocation should not be based on production volume but rather on a systemic or comprehensive welfare assessment of shifted farmers. As livelihood programs are most commonly coursed through civil society

  1. Experimental Lithium-Ion Battery Developed for Demonstration at the 2007 NASA Desert Research and Technology Studies (D-RATS) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, William R.; Baldwin, Richard S.

    2010-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) Electrochemistry Branch designed and built five lithium-ion battery packs for demonstration in spacesuit simulators as a part of the 2007 Desert Research and Technology Studies (D-RATS) activity at Cinder Lake, Arizona. The experimental batteries incorporated advanced, NASA-developed electrolytes and included internal protection against over-current, overdischarge and over-temperature. The 500-g experimental batteries were designed to deliver a constant power of 22 W for 2.5 hr with a minimum voltage of 13 V. When discharged at the maximum expected power output of 38.5 W, the batteries operated for 103 min of discharge time, achieving a specific energy of 130 Wh/kg. This report summarizes design details and safety considerations. Results for field trials and laboratory testing are summarized.

  2. DNA Commission of the International Society for Forensic Genetics: Recommendations on the validation of software programs performing biostatistical calculations for forensic genetics applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coble, M D; Buckleton, J; Butler, J M; Egeland, T; Fimmers, R; Gill, P; Gusmão, L; Guttman, B; Krawczak, M; Morling, N; Parson, W; Pinto, N; Schneider, P M; Sherry, S T; Willuweit, S; Prinz, M

    2016-11-01

    The use of biostatistical software programs to assist in data interpretation and calculate likelihood ratios is essential to forensic geneticists and part of the daily case work flow for both kinship and DNA identification laboratories. Previous recommendations issued by the DNA Commission of the International Society for Forensic Genetics (ISFG) covered the application of bio-statistical evaluations for STR typing results in identification and kinship cases, and this is now being expanded to provide best practices regarding validation and verification of the software required for these calculations. With larger multiplexes, more complex mixtures, and increasing requests for extended family testing, laboratories are relying more than ever on specific software solutions and sufficient validation, training and extensive documentation are of upmost importance. Here, we present recommendations for the minimum requirements to validate bio-statistical software to be used in forensic genetics. We distinguish between developmental validation and the responsibilities of the software developer or provider, and the internal validation studies to be performed by the end user. Recommendations for the software provider address, for example, the documentation of the underlying models used by the software, validation data expectations, version control, implementation and training support, as well as continuity and user notifications. For the internal validations the recommendations include: creating a validation plan, requirements for the range of samples to be tested, Standard Operating Procedure development, and internal laboratory training and education. To ensure that all laboratories have access to a wide range of samples for validation and training purposes the ISFG DNA commission encourages collaborative studies and public repositories of STR typing results. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  3. Collective knowledge: Using a Consensus Conference approach to develop recommendations for physical activity and nutrition programs for persons with Type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanya eBerry

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this consensus conference was to have a lay panel of persons with type 2 diabetes (T2D work in collaboration with an expert panel of diabetes professionals to develop strategies designed to improve dietary and physical activity adherence in persons with T2D. Lay panel participants were 15 people living with T2D. The seven experts had expertise in exercise management, cardiovascular risk factors, community-based lifestyle interventions, healthy weight strategies, the glycemic index, exercise motivation, and social, environmental and cultural interactions. All meetings were facilitated by a professional, neutral facilitator. During the conference each expert gave a 15-minute presentation answering questions developed by the lay panel and all panel members worked to generate suggestions for programs and ways in which the needs of persons with T2D may be better met. A subgroup of the lay panel used the suggestions created from the conference to generate a final list of recommendations. Recommendations were categorized into 1 diagnosis/awareness (e.g., increasing awareness about T2D in the general public, need for lifelong self-monitoring post-diagnosis; 2 education for the person with diabetes (e.g., periodic refresher courses, professionals (e.g., regular interactions between researchers and persons with T2D so researchers better understand the needs of the affected population, and the community (e.g., support for families and employers; and 3 ongoing support (e.g., peer support groups. The recommendations from the conference can be used by researchers to design and evaluate physical activity and nutrition programs. The results can also be of use to policy makers and health promoters interested in increasing adherence to physical activity and nutrition guidelines among persons with T2D.

  4. Development of food-based complementary feeding recommendations for 9- to 11-month-old peri-urban Indonesian infants using linear programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santika, Otte; Fahmida, Umi; Ferguson, Elaine L

    2009-01-01

    Effective population-specific, food-based complementary feeding recommendations (CFR) are required to combat micronutrient deficiencies. To facilitate their formulation, a modeling approach was recently developed. However, it has not yet been used in practice. This study therefore aimed to use this approach to develop CFR for 9- to 11-mo-old Indonesian infants and to identify nutrients that will likely remain low in their diets. The CFR were developed using a 4-phase approach based on linear and goal programming. Model parameters were defined using dietary data collected in a cross-sectional survey of 9- to 11-mo-old infants (n = 100) living in the Bogor District, West-Java, Indonesia and a market survey of 3 local markets. Results showed theoretical iron requirements could not be achieved using local food sources (highest level achievable, 63% of recommendations) and adequate levels of iron, niacin, zinc, and calcium were difficult to achieve. Fortified foods, meatballs, chicken liver, eggs, tempe-tofu, banana, and spinach were the best local food sources to improve dietary quality. The final CFR were: breast-feed on demand, provide 3 meals/d, of which 1 is a fortified infant cereal; > or = 5 servings/wk of tempe/tofu; > or = 3 servings/wk of animal-source foods, of which 2 servings/wk are chicken liver; vegetables, daily; snacks, 2 times/d, including > or = 2 servings/wk of banana; and > or = 4 servings/wk of fortified-biscuits. Results showed that the approach can be used to objectively formulate population-specific CFR and identify key problem nutrients to strengthen nutrition program planning and policy decisions. Before recommending these CFR, their long-term acceptability, affordability, and effectiveness should be assessed.

  5. Characterization of vanadium flow battery. Revised

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bindner, H.; Ekman, C.; Gehrke, O.; Isleifsson, F.

    2011-02-15

    This report summarizes the work done at Risoe-DTU testing a vanadium flow battery as part of the project ''Characterisation of Vanadium Batteries'' (ForskEl project 6555) with the partners PA Energy A/S and OI Electric A/S under the Danish PSO energy research program. A 15kW/120kWh vanadium battery has been installed as part of the distributed energy systems experimental facility, SYSLAB, at Risoe DTU. A test programme has been carried out to get hands-on experience with the technology, to characterize the battery from a power system point of view and to assess it with respect to integration of wind energy in the Danish power system. The battery has been in operation for 18 months. During time of operation the battery has not shown signs of degradation of performance. It has a round-trip efficiency at full load of approximately 60% (depending on temperature and SOC). The sources of the losses are power conversion in cell stacks/electrolyte, power converter, and auxiliary power consumption from pumps and controller. The efficiency was not influenced by the cycling of the battery. The response time for the battery is limited at 20kW/s by the ramp rate of the power converter. The battery can thus provide power and frequency support for the power system. The battery was operated together with a 11kW stall-regulated Gaia wind turbine to smooth the output of the wind turbine and during the tests the battery proved capable of firming the output of the wind turbine. Vanadium battery is a potential technology for storage based services to the power system provided investment and O and M cost are low enough and long term operation is documented. (Author)

  6. Battery waste management status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnett, B.M.; Sabatini, J.C.; Wolsky, S.

    1993-01-01

    The paper consists of a series of slides used in the conference presentation. The topics outlined in the slides are: an overview of battery waste management; waste management of lead acid batteries; lead acid recycling; typical legislation for battery waste; regulatory status in European countries; mercury use in cells; recent trends in Hg and Cd use; impact of batteries to air quality at MSW incinerators; impact of electric vehicles; new battery technologies; and unresolved issues

  7. Aging studies of batteries and transformers in class IE power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edson, J.L.; Roberts, E.W.

    1992-01-01

    A Phase I aging study of batteries used in 1E Power Systems of nuclear power plants concluded that significant aging effects for aged batteries are growth of positive plants, loosening of active material in plates that have grown, loss of active material caused by gassing and corrosion, and embrittlement of the lead grids and straps. These effects contribute to decreased electrical capacity and decreased seismic ruggedness which, during a seismic event, can lead to decreased electrical performance or complete failure. Subsequently a Phase II test program was conducted to determine if seismic ruggedness of aged batteries can be inadequate even if the electrical capacity is satisfactory, as determined by tests recommended by IEEE Std 450-1987, open-quote IEEE Recommended Practice for Maintenance, Testing, and Replacement of Large Storage Batteries for Generating Stations and Substations.close quotes In addition, a Phase I aging study of transformers in 1E Power Systems was performed to identify stressors and failure mechanisms, investigate whether transformers are showing the effects of aging as they grow older, and to determine if current surveillance methods are effective in mitigating aging effects. This paper presents the results of these studies

  8. Testing activities at the National Battery Test Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornstra, F.; Deluca, W. H.; Mulcahey, T. P.

    The National Battery Test Laboratory (NBTL) is an Argonne National Laboratory facility for testing, evaluating, and studying advanced electric storage batteries. The facility tests batteries developed under Department of Energy programs and from private industry. These include batteries intended for future electric vehicle (EV) propulsion, electric utility load leveling (LL), and solar energy storage. Since becoming operational, the NBTL has evaluated well over 1400 cells (generally in the form of three- to six-cell modules, but up to 140-cell batteries) of various technologies. Performance characterization assessments are conducted under a series of charge/discharge cycles with constant current, constant power, peak power, and computer simulated dynamic load profile conditions. Flexible charging algorithms are provided to accommodate the specific needs of each battery under test. Special studies are conducted to explore and optimize charge procedures, to investigate the impact of unique load demands on battery performance, and to analyze the thermal management requirements of battery systems.

  9. Compliance to consensus recommendations, surgeon's experience, and introduction of a quality assurance and management program: influence on therapy of early-stage ovarian carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kommoss, Stefan; Harter, Philipp; Traut, Alexander; Strutas, Deivis; Riegler, Nina; Buhrmann, Christine; Gomez, Ruth; du Bois, Andreas

    2009-05-01

    State-of-the-art surgical staging and adjuvant chemotherapy in early-stage ovarian carcinoma have an impact on patient's outcome, but compliance to guidelines and consensus recommendations is still poor. This article reports on our results before and after introduction of a quality assurance and management program in our clinic in 2001. Patients with ovarian carcinoma limited to the pelvis who underwent primary surgery in our hospital from 1997 to October 2007 were eligible for this study. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to evaluate the impact of compliance with our management program and physician's experience in ovarian carcinoma surgery on achieving both standards of surgery and chemotherapy. In a total of 117 women, a significant impact on adherence to guideline-defined comprehensive surgical staging was found for poor Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (odds ratio [OR], 22.16; confidence interval [CI] 3.2-152.0; P = 0.002) and year of surgery before 2001 (OR, 47.60; CI, 9.20-245.22; P grading less than G3 (OR, 4.14; CI, 1.20-14.22; P = 0.02) was a statistically significant predictor for receiving standard adjuvant chemotherapy. Survival analyses showed a trend toward improved survival for patients having received guideline-adopted therapy, but event numbers were too low for adequate analyses. The introduction of a quality assurance program for treatment of ovarian carcinoma represents a major improvement of patient care. It led to a higher compliance with consensus recommendations and showed already a trend toward improved outcome. Further outcome research should focus on methods for implementation of guidelines in daily practice in institutions caring for patients with ovarian carcinoma.

  10. Production costs of the new French nuclear. SFEN contributions to Energy multi-year programming. Synthesis and recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2018-03-01

    This publication reports an analysis of the different parameters which make the nuclear option available for France by 2050. It aims at identifying the production cost of new nuclear production means, at identifying levers for action regarding building and financing to reach a sustainable competitiveness of the sector. This note is based on returns on experience from other industries and also on current EPR constructions in France, Finland and China. Thus, it focuses on third generation EPR. It discusses difficulties met during the first projects, states that managing the production is possible through the development of an industrial program, outlines the role of the State. The second part proposes a technical note which discusses building costs and delays of third generation reactors, outlines the importance of the building cost in the total electric power generation cost, shows that (based on an analysis of past building costs for second generation reactors) building costs can be mastered, discusses the expected evolution of EPR costs, evokes other factors influencing the kWh price, discusses the burden of investment financing in front of risks, discusses how to reduce market risks in order to attract investors (reform of carbon price, long term contracts for low carbon projects), and finally comments the consequences for the future nuclear investment which is required to renew the fleet

  11. Understanding the function and performance of carbon-enhanced lead-acid batteries : milestone report for the DOE energy storage systems program (FY11 Quarter 3: April through June 2011).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Summer Rhodes; Shane, Rodney (East Penn Manufacturing, Lyon Station, PA); Enos, David George

    2011-09-01

    This report describes the status of research being performed under CRADA No. SC10/01771.00 (Lead/Carbon Functionality in VRLA Batteries) between Sandia National Laboratories and East Penn Manufacturing, conducted for the U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Storage Systems Program. The Quarter 3 Milestone was completed on time. The milestone entails an ex situ analysis of a control as well as three carbon-containing negative plates in the raw, as cast form as well as after formation. The morphology, porosity, and porosity distribution within each plate was evaluated. In addition, baseline electrochemical measurements were performed on each battery to establish their initial performance. These measurements included capacity, internal resistance, and float current. The results obtained for the electrochemical testing were in agreement with previous evaluations performed at East Penn manufacturing. Cycling on a subset of the received East Penn cells containing different carbons (and a control) has been initiated.

  12. Machine Learning Based Diagnosis of Lithium Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibe-Ekeocha, Chinemerem Christopher

    The depletion of the world's current petroleum reserve, coupled with the negative effects of carbon monoxide and other harmful petrochemical by-products on the environment, is the driving force behind the movement towards renewable and sustainable energy sources. Furthermore, the growing transportation sector consumes a significant portion of the total energy used in the United States. A complete electrification of this sector would require a significant development in electric vehicles (EVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), thus translating to a reduction in the carbon footprint. As the market for EVs and HEVs grows, their battery management systems (BMS) need to be improved accordingly. The BMS is not only responsible for optimally charging and discharging the battery, but also monitoring battery's state of charge (SOC) and state of health (SOH). SOC, similar to an energy gauge, is a representation of a battery's remaining charge level as a percentage of its total possible charge at full capacity. Similarly, SOH is a measure of deterioration of a battery; thus it is a representation of the battery's age. Both SOC and SOH are not measurable, so it is important that these quantities are estimated accurately. An inaccurate estimation could not only be inconvenient for EV consumers, but also potentially detrimental to battery's performance and life. Such estimations could be implemented either online, while battery is in use, or offline when battery is at rest. This thesis presents intelligent online SOC and SOH estimation methods using machine learning tools such as artificial neural network (ANN). ANNs are a powerful generalization tool if programmed and trained effectively. Unlike other estimation strategies, the techniques used require no battery modeling or knowledge of battery internal parameters but rather uses battery's voltage, charge/discharge current, and ambient temperature measurements to accurately estimate battery's SOC and SOH. The developed

  13. Study on the combined influence of battery models and sizing strategy for hybrid and battery-based electric vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinto, Cláudio; Barreras, Jorge V.; de Castro, Ricardo

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a study of the combined influence of battery models and sizing strategy for hybrid and battery-based electric vehicles. In particular, the aim is to find the number of battery (and supercapacitor) cells to propel a light vehicle to run two different standard driving cycles....... Despite the same tendency, when a hybrid vehicle is taken into account, the influence of the battery models is dependent on the sizing strategy. In this work, two sizing strategies are evaluated: dynamic programming and filter-based. For the latter, the complexity of the battery model has a clear....... Three equivalent circuit models are considered to simulate the battery electrical performance: linear static, non-linear static and non-linear with first-order dynamics. When dimensioning a battery-based vehicle, less complex models may lead to a solution with more battery cells and higher costs...

  14. The battery market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deshpande, S.L.

    1991-01-01

    The worldwide battery market is estimated to be $21 billion annually at present. The geographical distribution of this market is shown in this paper. The American (North and South), Western Europe and Africa, and Asian and Australia represent equal markets of $6 billion each. The communist block countries (including Russia and China) are estimated to represent a $3 billion market. Automotive and consumer batteries constitute more than 80% of the world battery market. Industrial batteries make up the rest. Secondary (rechargeable) batteries (automotive, for example) have only 60% share of the world battery consumption. Primary batteries (most toy batteries that are the throw away type) exceed rechargeables by far in units. However, the larger size of rechargeable batteries makes their total value larger despite the small number of units

  15. Quick charge battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parise, R.J.

    1998-07-01

    Electric and hybrid electric vehicles (EVs and HEVs) will become a significant reality in the near future of the automotive industry. Both types of vehicles will need a means to store energy on board. For the present, the method of choice would be lead-acid batteries, with the HEV having auxiliary power supplied by a small internal combustion engine. One of the main drawbacks to lead-acid batteries is internal heat generation as a natural consequence of the charging process as well as resistance losses. This limits the re-charging rate to the battery pack for an EV which has a range of about 80 miles. A quick turnaround on recharge is needed but not yet possible. One of the limiting factors is the heat buildup. For the HEV the auxiliary power unit provides a continuous charge to the battery pack. Therefore heat generation in the lead-acid battery is a constant problem that must be addressed. Presented here is a battery that is capable of quick charging, the Quick Charge Battery with Thermal Management. This is an electrochemical battery, typically a lead-acid battery, without the inherent thermal management problems that have been present in the past. The battery can be used in an all-electric vehicle, a hybrid-electric vehicle or an internal combustion engine vehicle, as well as in other applications that utilize secondary batteries. This is not restricted to only lead-acid batteries. The concept and technology are flexible enough to use in any secondary battery application where thermal management of the battery must be addressed, especially during charging. Any battery with temperature constraints can benefit from this advancement in the state of the art of battery manufacturing. This can also include nickel-cadmium, metal-air, nickel hydroxide, zinc-chloride or any other type of battery whose performance is affected by the temperature control of the interior as well as the exterior of the battery.

  16. Integrating Group Counseling, Cell Phone Messaging, and Participant-Generated Songs and Dramas into a Microcredit Program Increases Nigerian Women’s Adherence to International Breastfeeding Recommendations123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flax, Valerie L.; Negerie, Mekebeb; Ibrahim, Alawiyatu Usman; Leatherman, Sheila; Daza, Eric J.; Bentley, Margaret E.

    2014-01-01

    In northern Nigeria, interventions are urgently needed to narrow the large gap between international breastfeeding recommendations and actual breastfeeding practices. Studies of integrated microcredit and community health interventions documented success in modifying health behaviors but typically had uncontrolled designs. We conducted a cluster-randomized controlled trial in Bauchi State, Nigeria, with the aim of increasing early breastfeeding initiation and exclusive breastfeeding among female microcredit clients. The intervention had 3 components. Trained credit officers led monthly breastfeeding learning sessions during regularly scheduled microcredit meetings for 10 mo. Text and voice messages were sent out weekly to a cell phone provided to small groups of microcredit clients (5–7 women). The small groups prepared songs or dramas about the messages and presented them at the monthly microcredit meetings. The control arm continued with the regular microcredit program. Randomization occurred at the level of the monthly meeting groups. Pregnant clients were recruited at baseline and interviewed again when their infants were aged ≥6 mo. Logistic regression models accounting for clustering were used to estimate the odds of performing recommended behaviors. Among the clients who completed the final survey (n = 390), the odds of exclusive breastfeeding to 6 mo (OR: 2.4; 95% CI: 1.4, 4.0) and timely breastfeeding initiation (OR: 2.6; 95% CI: 1.6, 4.1) were increased in the intervention vs. control arm. Delayed introduction of water explained most of the increase in exclusive breastfeeding among clients receiving the intervention. In conclusion, a breastfeeding promotion intervention integrated into microcredit increased the likelihood that women adopted recommended breastfeeding practices. This intervention could be scaled up in Nigeria, where local organizations provide microcredit to >500,000 clients. Furthermore, the intervention could be adopted more widely

  17. Integrating group counseling, cell phone messaging, and participant-generated songs and dramas into a microcredit program increases Nigerian women's adherence to international breastfeeding recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flax, Valerie L; Negerie, Mekebeb; Ibrahim, Alawiyatu Usman; Leatherman, Sheila; Daza, Eric J; Bentley, Margaret E

    2014-07-01

    In northern Nigeria, interventions are urgently needed to narrow the large gap between international breastfeeding recommendations and actual breastfeeding practices. Studies of integrated microcredit and community health interventions documented success in modifying health behaviors but typically had uncontrolled designs. We conducted a cluster-randomized controlled trial in Bauchi State, Nigeria, with the aim of increasing early breastfeeding initiation and exclusive breastfeeding among female microcredit clients. The intervention had 3 components. Trained credit officers led monthly breastfeeding learning sessions during regularly scheduled microcredit meetings for 10 mo. Text and voice messages were sent out weekly to a cell phone provided to small groups of microcredit clients (5-7 women). The small groups prepared songs or dramas about the messages and presented them at the monthly microcredit meetings. The control arm continued with the regular microcredit program. Randomization occurred at the level of the monthly meeting groups. Pregnant clients were recruited at baseline and interviewed again when their infants were aged ≥6 mo. Logistic regression models accounting for clustering were used to estimate the odds of performing recommended behaviors. Among the clients who completed the final survey (n = 390), the odds of exclusive breastfeeding to 6 mo (OR: 2.4; 95% CI: 1.4, 4.0) and timely breastfeeding initiation (OR: 2.6; 95% CI: 1.6, 4.1) were increased in the intervention vs. control arm. Delayed introduction of water explained most of the increase in exclusive breastfeeding among clients receiving the intervention. In conclusion, a breastfeeding promotion intervention integrated into microcredit increased the likelihood that women adopted recommended breastfeeding practices. This intervention could be scaled up in Nigeria, where local organizations provide microcredit to >500,000 clients. Furthermore, the intervention could be adopted more widely

  18. Biomedical applications of batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Latham, Roger [Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, De Montfort University, The Gateway, Leicester, LE1 9BH (United Kingdom); Linford, Roger [The Research Office, De Montfort University, The Gateway, Leicester, LE1 9BH (United Kingdom); Schlindwein, Walkiria [School of Pharmacy, De Montfort University, The Gateway, Leicester, LE1 9BH (United Kingdom)

    2004-08-31

    An overview is presented of the many ways in which batteries and battery materials are used in medicine and in biomedical studies. These include the use of batteries as power sources for motorised wheelchairs, surgical tools, cardiac pacemakers and defibrillators, dynamic prostheses, sensors and monitors for physiological parameters, neurostimulators, devices for pain relief, and iontophoretic, electroporative and related devices for drug administration. The various types of battery and fuel cell used for this wide range of applications will be considered, together with the potential harmful side effects, including accidental ingestion of batteries and the explosive nature of some of the early cardiac pacemaker battery systems.

  19. Recommendation for the continued development of the Radiation Protection Program of the Federal Minister for Environmental, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    During the last 5 years, this catalogue of topics served as a reference source for promoting research topics in radiation protection. The topics receiving support are listed. During the time between 1986 and 1990, a total of 222 projects have been supported at an overall expense of about 160 million DM. Research results show that considerable progress has been made in population protection and that of occupationally exposed individuals. SSK is submitting a request for radiation protection research programs to be supported by the Federal Minister for the Environment (BMU). All major previously and supplementary recommended research topics are divided into 10 subject areas. A brief survey of supplementary recommended topics is given. A detailed description of all so far supported research topics and of those to be promoted in future are listed together with respective substantiations. The proposals for new research topics - as far as they lie within the authority of BMU - were formulated by the SSK and its committees. (orig./DG) [de

  20. Gelled-electrolyte batteries for electric vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuphorn, H. (Accumulatorenfabrik Sonnenschein GmbH, Buedingen (Germany))

    1992-09-15

    Increasing problems of air pollution have pushed activities of electric vehicle projects world-wide and in spite of projects for developing new battery systems for high energy densities, today lead/acid batteries are almost the single system, ready for technical usage in this application. Valve-regulated lead/acid batteries with gelled electrolyte have the advantage that no maintenance is required and because the gel system does not cause problems with electrolyte stratification, no additional appliances for central filling or acid addition are required, which makes the system simple. Those batteries with high density active masses indicate high endurance results and field tests with 40 VW-CityStromers, equipped with 96 V/160 A h gel batteries with thermal management show good results during four years. In addition, gelled lead acid batteries possess superior high rate performance compared with conventional lead/acid batteries, which guarantees good acceleration results of the car and which makes the system recommendable for application in electric vehicles. (orig.).

  1. Gelled-electrolyte batteries for electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuphorn, Hans

    Increasing problems of air pollution have pushed activities of electric vehicle projects worldwide and in spite of projects for developing new battery systems for high energy densities, today lead/acid batteries are almost the single system, ready for technical usage in this application. Valve-regulated lead/acid batteries with gelled electrolyte have the advantage that no maintenance is required and because the gel system does not cause problems with electrolyte stratification, no additional appliances for central filling or acid addition are required, which makes the system simple. Those batteries with high density active masses indicate high endurance results and field tests with 40 VW-CityStromers, equipped with 96 V/160 A h gel batteries with thermal management show good results during four years. In addition, gelled lead/acid batteries possess superior high rate performance compared with conventional lead/acid batteries, which guarantees good acceleration results of the car and which makes the system recommendable for application in electric vehicles.

  2. Stationary battery guide: Design, application, and maintenance. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-11-01

    This guide has been prepared to assist a variety of users with stationary battery design, application, and maintenance. The following battery-related topics are discussed in detail: (1) fundamentals--how batteries are designed and how they work; (2) aging, degradation, and failures with an emphasis on how various maintenance tasks can prevent, detect, or repair certain degradation mechanisms; (3) applications--how batteries are designed for a specific purpose and how the battery industry has evolved; (4) sizing for different applications; (5) protection and charging; (6) periodic inspections and checks; (7) capacity discharge testing; (8) installation and replacement considerations; and (9) problems that can occur with battery systems. Since the original guide was published, new IEEE Recommended Practices related to stationary battery applications have been issued. This revision addresses those industry changes as well as some of the emerging issues related to the development of other industry documents. This guide has been prepared as a comprehensive reference source for stationary batteries and is intended to address the design, application, and maintenance needs of users. The technical discussions are at the application level. Fundamentals of battery design are covered in greater detail in this revision. More details related to internal cell materials, their operational relationship, and performance over the expected life of the battery cell are provided. This information has been included because many changes in battery cell materials, manufacturing and design processes are not always communicated to the user

  3. SUNRAYCE 95: Working safely with lead-acid batteries and photovoltaic power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DePhillips, M.P.; Moskowitz, P.D.; Fthenakis, V.M. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States). Biomedical and Environmental Assessment Group

    1994-05-27

    This document is a power system and battery safety handbook for participants in the SUNRAYCE 95 solar powered electric vehicle program. The topics of the handbook include batteries, photovoltaic modules, safety equipment needed for working with sulfuric acid electrolyte and batteries, battery transport, accident response, battery recharging and ventilation, electrical risks on-board vehicle, external electrical risks, electrical risk management strategies, and general maintenance including troubleshooting, hydrometer check and voltmeter check.

  4. Nickel-hydrogen CPV battery update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Kenneth R.; Zagrodnik, Jeffrey P.

    1993-01-01

    The multicell common pressure vessel (CPV) nickel hydrogen battery manufactured by Johnson Controls Battery Group, Inc. has completed full flight qualification, including random vibration at 19.5 g for two minutes in each axis, electrical characterization in a thermal vacuum chamber, and mass-spectroscopy vessel leak detection. A first launch is scheduled for late in 1992 or early 1993 by the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL). Specifics of the launch date are not available at this time due to the classified nature of the program. Release of orbital data for the battery is anticipated following the launch.

  5. Rechargeable batteries applications handbook

    CERN Document Server

    1998-01-01

    Represents the first widely available compendium of the information needed by those design professionals responsible for using rechargeable batteries. This handbook introduces the most common forms of rechargeable batteries, including their history, the basic chemistry that governs their operation, and common design approaches. The introduction also exposes reader to common battery design terms and concepts.Two sections of the handbook provide performance information on two principal types of rechargeable batteries commonly found in consumer and industrial products: sealed nickel-cad

  6. Micro Calorimeter for Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santhanagopalan, Shriram [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-08-01

    As battery technology forges ahead and consumer demand for safer, more affordable, high-performance batteries grows, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has added a patented Micro Calorimeter to its existing family of R&D 100 Award-winning Isothermal Battery Calorimeters (IBCs). The Micro Calorimeter examines the thermal signature of battery chemistries early on in the design cycle using popular coin cell and small pouch cell designs, which are simple to fabricate and study.

  7. Battery systems engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Rahn, Christopher D

    2012-01-01

    A complete all-in-one reference on the important interdisciplinary topic of Battery Systems Engineering Focusing on the interdisciplinary area of battery systems engineering, this book provides the background, models, solution techniques, and systems theory that are necessary for the development of advanced battery management systems. It covers the topic from the perspective of basic electrochemistry as well as systems engineering topics and provides a basis for battery modeling for system engineering of electric and hybrid electric vehicle platforms. This original

  8. Battery Aging and the Kinetic Battery Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongerden, M.R.; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.H.M.

    2016-01-01

    Batteries are omnipresent, and with the uprise of the electrical vehicles will their use will grow even more. However, the batteries can deliver their required power for a limited time span. They slowly degrade with every charge-discharge cycle. This degradation needs to be taken into account when

  9. RILEM technical committee 195-DTD recommendation for test methods for AD and TD of early age concrete Round Robin documentation report : program, test results and statistical evaluation

    CERN Document Server

    Bjøntegaard, Øyvind; Krauss, Matias; Budelmann, Harald

    2015-01-01

    This report presents the Round-Robin (RR) program and test results including a statistical evaluation of the RILEM TC195-DTD committee named “Recommendation for test methods for autogenous deformation (AD) and thermal dilation (TD) of early age concrete”. The task of the committee was to investigate the linear test set-up for AD and TD measurements (Dilation Rigs) in the period from setting to the end of the hardening phase some weeks after. These are the stress-inducing deformations in a hardening concrete structure subjected to restraint conditions. The main task was to carry out an RR program on testing of AD of one concrete at 20 °C isothermal conditions in Dilation Rigs. The concrete part materials were distributed to 10 laboratories (Canada, Denmark, France, Germany, Japan, The Netherlands, Norway, Sweden and USA), and in total 30 tests on AD were carried out. Some supporting tests were also performed, as well as a smaller RR on cement paste. The committee has worked out a test procedure recommenda...

  10. Recommendation of a More Effective Alternative to the NASA Launch Services Program Mission Integration Reporting System (MIRS) and Implementation of Updates to the Mission Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Michael R.

    2014-01-01

    Over the course of my internship in the Flight Projects Office of NASA's Launch Services Program (LSP), I worked on two major projects, both of which dealt with updating current systems to make them more accurate and to allow them to operate more efficiently. The first project dealt with the Mission Integration Reporting System (MIRS), a web-accessible database application used to manage and provide mission status reporting for the LSP portfolio of awarded missions. MIRS had not gone through any major updates since its implementation in 2005, and it was my job to formulate a recommendation for the improvement of the system. The second project I worked on dealt with the Mission Plan, a document that contains an overview of the general life cycle that is followed by every LSP mission. My job on this project was to update the information currently in the mission plan and to add certain features in order to increase the accuracy and thoroughness of the document. The outcomes of these projects have implications in the orderly and efficient operation of the Flight Projects Office, and the process of Mission Management in the Launch Services Program as a whole.

  11. [First results of a German second opinion program show high patient satisfaction and large discrepancies between initial therapy recommendations and second opinion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weyerstraß, Jan; Prediger, Barbara; Neugebauer, Edmund; Pieper, Dawid

    2018-02-23

    Although legally anchored, there are no empirical results from German second opinion programs. In this study, various aspects within a population of a second opinion program are examined. In this study patients were analyzed who sought a second opinion in the period from August 2011 to December 2016. Differences in patient characteristics, differentiated by agreement of first and second opinion, were analyzed using multivariate logistic regression. Patients' satisfaction and quality of life were examined one, three and six months after obtaining the second opinion. In total, 1,414 patients sought a second opinion. Most frequent medical indications were the knee (38.7 %), the back (26.8 %), the hip (11.7 %), and the shoulder (10.2 %). Except for the indication (p=0.035), no patient characteristic had influence on the conformation of the second opinion. Approximately two out of three initial recommendations were not confirmed by the specialists. 89 % of the patients were satisfied or very satisfied with the second opinion and the service offered. The second opinion offers patients the opportunity to seek an additional independent medical opinion and thus provide support for decision making. Further research is needed to examine the reasons for the high discrepancies between the first and second opinions. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  12. Electric Vehicle Battery Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2014-01-01

    A serious drawback to electric vehicles [batteries only] is the idle time needed to recharge their batteries. In this challenge, students can develop ideas and concepts for battery change-out at automotive service stations. Such a capability would extend the range of electric vehicles.

  13. International recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindell, Bo

    1986-01-01

    Full text: This short presentation will indicate the general radiation protection background to protective measures against foodstuffs contaminated with radioactive substances. A number of international organizations are involved in various aspects of radiation protection, for example, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), and the World Health Organization (WHO). Two international organizations, however, provide the basic background. These are the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR). UNSCEAR provides the scientific information on radiation levels and effects. It consists of 21 member countries, with truly international coverage. It issues reports to the UN General Assembly, including comprehensive scientific annexes. Its latest comprehensive report was issued in 1982, the next is expected to be published in 1988. That report will include an assessment of the radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident. The ICRP is a non-governmental organization. It has issued recommendations on radiation protection since 1928. The postulated biological basis for radiation protection recommendations involves two types of biological effects. The so-called non-stochastic effects, mainly due to cell death, appear only when the radiation doses exceed a certain threshold value. These effects, therefore, can only appear after high accidental exposures. After the Chernobyl accident, they only affected about 200 individuals involved in fire extinction and rescue work at the damaged nuclear power plant. Stochastic effects, with some simplification, may be seen as the result of initial changes in the genetic code of some surviving cells. If these cells are germ cells, this may lead to hereditary harm. If they are somatic cells, the result could be cancer

  14. Bipolar nickel-hydrogen battery development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehler, C. W.; Applewhite, A. Z.; Hall, A. M.; Russell, P. G.

    1985-01-01

    A comparison of the bipolar Ni-H2 battery with other energy systems to be used in future high-power space systems is presented. The initial design for the battery under the NASA-sponsored program is described and the candidate stack components are evaluated, including electrodes, separator, electrolyte reservoir plate, and recombination sites. The compressibility of the cell elements, electrolyte activation, and thermal design are discussed. Manufacturing and prototype test results are summarized.

  15. Lithium batteries for electric road vehicle applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Bo; Hallgren, B; Johansson, Arne; Selaanger, P [Catella Generics, Kista (Sweden)

    1996-12-31

    Lithium is one of the most promising negative electrode materials to be used for the manufacturing of batteries. It is the most electronegative material in the table of standard potentials and its low weight will facilitate a high gravimetric coulombic density. Theoretically, as high values as 6 kWh/kg could be reached for lithium based batteries. The aim of this study has been to make an inventory of what is internationally known about lithium batteries suitable for electric vehicle applications. It is representative for the development status by the summer of 1995. Both high and ambient temperature lithium batteries are described in the study even if the analysis is concentrated on the latter. Ambient temperature systems has gathered the major interest, especially from manufacturers in the `3Cs` market segment (Consumer electronics, Communications and Computers). There is no doubt, a bright future for lithium rechargeable batteries. Depending on the ambition of a national research programme, one can await the ongoing development of batteries for the 3Cs market segment or take the lead in a near-term or advanced system R and D for EV batteries. In the zero ambition EV battery programme, we recommend allocation of funds to follow the development within the 3Cs sector. The corresponding funding level is 1-2 MSEK/year granted to a stable receiver. In a low ambition EV programme, we recommend to keep a few groups active in the front-line of specific research areas. The purpose is to keep a link for communication open to the surrounding battery world. The cost level is 4-6 MSEK per year continually. In a high ambition programme we recommend the merging of Swedish resources with international EV battery R and D programmes, e.g. the EUCAR project. The research team engaged should be able to contribute to the progress of the overall project. The cost for the high ambition programme is estimated at the level 15-20 MSEK per year continually. 47 refs, 17 figs, 16 tabs

  16. Lithium batteries for electric road vehicle applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Bo; Hallgren, B.; Johansson, Arne; Selaanger, P. [Catella Generics, Kista (Sweden)

    1995-12-31

    Lithium is one of the most promising negative electrode materials to be used for the manufacturing of batteries. It is the most electronegative material in the table of standard potentials and its low weight will facilitate a high gravimetric coulombic density. Theoretically, as high values as 6 kWh/kg could be reached for lithium based batteries. The aim of this study has been to make an inventory of what is internationally known about lithium batteries suitable for electric vehicle applications. It is representative for the development status by the summer of 1995. Both high and ambient temperature lithium batteries are described in the study even if the analysis is concentrated on the latter. Ambient temperature systems has gathered the major interest, especially from manufacturers in the `3Cs` market segment (Consumer electronics, Communications and Computers). There is no doubt, a bright future for lithium rechargeable batteries. Depending on the ambition of a national research programme, one can await the ongoing development of batteries for the 3Cs market segment or take the lead in a near-term or advanced system R and D for EV batteries. In the zero ambition EV battery programme, we recommend allocation of funds to follow the development within the 3Cs sector. The corresponding funding level is 1-2 MSEK/year granted to a stable receiver. In a low ambition EV programme, we recommend to keep a few groups active in the front-line of specific research areas. The purpose is to keep a link for communication open to the surrounding battery world. The cost level is 4-6 MSEK per year continually. In a high ambition programme we recommend the merging of Swedish resources with international EV battery R and D programmes, e.g. the EUCAR project. The research team engaged should be able to contribute to the progress of the overall project. The cost for the high ambition programme is estimated at the level 15-20 MSEK per year continually. 47 refs, 17 figs, 16 tabs

  17. Potential use of battery packs from NCAP tested vehicles.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamb, Joshua; Orendorff, Christopher J.

    2013-10-01

    Several large electric vehicle batteries available to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration are candidates for use in future safety testing programs. The batteries, from vehicles subjected to NCAP crashworthiness testing, are considered potentially damaged due to the nature of testing their associated vehicles have been subjected to. Criteria for safe shipping to Sandia is discussed, as well as condition the batteries must be in to perform testing work. Also discussed are potential tests that could be performed under a variety of conditions. The ultimate value of potential testing performed on these cells will rest on the level of access available to the battery pack, i.e. external access only, access to the on board monitoring system/CAN port or internal electrical access to the battery. Greater access to the battery than external visual and temperature monitoring would likely require input from the battery manufacturer.

  18. Third International Conference on Batteries for Utility Energy Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-03-18

    This is a collection of essays presented at the above-named conference held at Kobe, Japan, from March 18 through 22, 1991. At the utility energy storage session, a power research program plan, operational and economic benefits of BESP (battery energy storage plant), the Moonlight Project, etc., were presented, respectively, by EPRI (Electric Power Research Institute) of the U.S., BEWAG Corporation of Germany, and NEDO (New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization) of Japan, etc. At the improved lead-acid batteries session, the characteristics of improved lead-acid batteries, load levelling and life cycle, problems in BESP, comparisons and tests, etc., were presented by Japan, Italy, the U.S., etc. At the advanced batteries session, presentations were made about the sodium-sulfur battery, zinc-bromine battery, redox battery, etc. Furthermore, there were sessions on consumer energy systems, control and power conditioning technology, and commercialization and economic studies. A total 53 presentations were made. (NEDO)

  19. Change in weight and body composition in obese subjects following a hypocaloric diet plus different training programs or physical activity recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benito, Pedro J; Bermejo, Laura M; Peinado, Ana B; López-Plaza, Bricia; Cupeiro, Rocío; Szendrei, Barbara; Calderón, Francisco J; Castro, Eliane A; Gómez-Candela, Carmen

    2015-04-15

    The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of different physical activity programs, in combination with a hypocaloric diet, on anthropometric variables and body composition in obese subjects. Ninety-six obese (men: n = 48; women: n = 48; age range: 18-50 yr) participated in a supervised 22-wk program. They were randomized into four groups: strength training (S; n = 24), endurance training (E; n = 26), combined strength + endurance training (SE; n = 24), and physical activity recommendations (C; n = 22). In addition, all groups followed the same hypocaloric diet. At baseline and at the end of the intervention, dietetic and physical activity variables were assessed using validated questionnaires. Anthropometric variables were recorded along with body composition variables measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry techniques. At the end of the intervention, significant improvements were seen within groups in terms of body weight (S: -9.21 ± 0.83 kg; E: -10.55 ± 0.80 kg; SE: -9.88 ± 0.85 kg; C: -8.69 ± 0.89 kg), and total fat mass (S: -5.24 ± 0.55%; E: -5.35 ± 0.55%; SE: -4.85 ± 0.56%; C: -4.89 ± 0.59%). No differences were seen between groups at this time in terms of any other anthropometric or body composition variables examined. All groups increased their total physical activity in metabolic equivalents (MET) per week during the intervention, but with no difference between groups (S: 976 ± 367 MET-min/wk; E: 954 ± 355 MET-min/wk; SE: 1 329 ± 345 MET-min/wk; C: 763 ± 410 MET-min/wk). This study shows that, when combined with a hypocaloric diet, exercise training and adherence to physical activity recommendations are equally effective at reducing body weight and modifying body composition in the treatment of obesity (Clinical Trials Gov. number: NCT01116856). Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  20. Educational intervention together with an on-line quality control program achieve recommended analytical goals for bedside blood glucose monitoring in a 1200-bed university hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Margalet, Víctor; Rodriguez-Oliva, Manuel; Sánchez-Pozo, Cristina; Fernández-Gallardo, María Francisca; Goberna, Raimundo

    2005-01-01

    Portable meters for blood glucose concentrations are used at the patients bedside, as well as by patients for self-monitoring of blood glucose. Even though most devices have important technological advances that decrease operator error, the analytical goals proposed for the performance of glucose meters have been recently changed by the American Diabetes Association (ADA) to reach nurses in a 1200-bed University Hospital to achieve recommended analytical goals, so that we could improve the quality of diabetes care. We used portable glucose meters connected on-line to the laboratory after an educational program for nurses with responsibilities in point-of-care testing. We evaluated the system by assessing total error of the glucometers using high- and low-level glucose control solutions. In a period of 6 months, we collected data from 5642 control samples obtained by 14 devices (Precision PCx) directly from the control program (QC manager). The average total error for the low-level glucose control (2.77 mmol/l) was 6.3% (range 5.5-7.6%), and even lower for the high-level glucose control (16.66 mmol/l), at 4.8% (range 4.1-6.5%). In conclusion, the performance of glucose meters used in our University Hospital with more than 1000 beds not only improved after the intervention, but the meters achieved the analytical goals of the suggested ADA/National Academy of Clinical Biochemistry criteria for total error (<7.9% in the range 2.77-16.66 mmol/l glucose) and optimal total error for high glucose concentrations of <5%, which will improve the quality of care of our patients.

  1. Preventive maintenance basis: Volume 24 -- Battery -- flooded lead-acid (lead-calcium, lead antimony, plante). Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worledge, D.; Hinchcliffe, G.

    1997-12-01

    US nuclear power plants are implementing preventive maintenance (PM) tasks with little documented basis beyond fundamental vendor information to support the tasks or their intervals. The Preventive Maintenance Basis project provides utilities with the technical basis for PM tasks and task intervals associated with 40 specific components such as valves, electric motors, pumps, and HVAC equipment. This document provides a program of preventive maintenance tasks suitable for application to flooded lead-acid batteries. The PM tasks that are recommended provide a cost-effective way to intercept the causes and mechanisms that lead to degradation and failure. They can be used in conjunction with material from other sources, to develop a complete PM program or to improve an existing program. This document provides a program of preventive maintenance (PM) tasks suitable for application to flooded lead-acid batteries. The PM tasks that are recommended provide a cost-effective way to intercept the causes and mechanisms that lead to degradation and failure. They can be used, in conjunction with material from other sources, to develop a complete PM program or to improve an existing program. Users of this information will be utility managers, supervisors, system engineers, craft technicians, and training instructors responsible for developing, optimizing, or fine-tuning PM programs

  2. Hubble Space Telescope nickel-hydrogen battery testing: An update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitt, Thomas H.; Brewer, Jeffrey C.

    1995-01-01

    The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) began testing the HST Ni-H2 Six Battery Test and the 'Flight Spare Battery' Tests approximately one year before the launch of the HST. These tests are operated and reported on by the MSFC, but are managed and funded by Goddard Space Flight Center in direct support of the HST program. The HST Ni-H2 batteries are built from Eagle Picher RNH-90-3 cells. The HST EPS (electrical power system) is a direct energy transfer power system. The HST Ni-H2 Six Battery Test is a breadboard of the HST EPS. The batteries in the test are composed of test module cells and packaged into three battery modules identical to the flight modules. This test is the HST EPS testbed. The 'Flight Spare Battery' Test is a simulation of one of the six battery channels on the HST. The cells in the test are from the flight spare lot of cells, which are the same lot of cells that three of the six HST flight batteries are made from. This test is the battery life test for the HST program.

  3. Nickel hydrogen/nickel cadmium battery trade studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadnick, S. J.

    1983-01-01

    Nickel Hydrogen cell and battery technology has matured to the point where a real choice exists between Nickel Hydrogen and Nickel Cadmium batteries for each new spacecraft application. During the past few years, a number of spacecraft programs have been evaluated at Hughes with respect to this choice, with the results being split about fifty-fifty. The following paragraphs contain criteria which were used in making the battery selection.

  4. Testing Conducted for Lithium-Ion Cell and Battery Verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Concha M.; Miller, Thomas B.; Manzo, Michelle A.

    2004-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center has been conducting in-house testing in support of NASA's Lithium-Ion Cell Verification Test Program, which is evaluating the performance of lithium-ion cells and batteries for NASA mission operations. The test program is supported by NASA's Office of Aerospace Technology under the NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Systems Program, which serves to bridge the gap between the development of technology advances and the realization of these advances into mission applications. During fiscal year 2003, much of the in-house testing effort focused on the evaluation of a flight battery originally intended for use on the Mars Surveyor Program 2001 Lander. Results of this testing will be compared with the results for similar batteries being tested at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, the Air Force Research Laboratory, and the Naval Research Laboratory. Ultimately, this work will be used to validate lithium-ion battery technology for future space missions. The Mars Surveyor Program 2001 Lander battery was characterized at several different voltages and temperatures before life-cycle testing was begun. During characterization, the battery displayed excellent capacity and efficiency characteristics across a range of temperatures and charge/discharge conditions. Currently, the battery is undergoing lifecycle testing at 0 C and 40-percent depth of discharge under low-Earth-orbit (LEO) conditions.

  5. Lifetime Improvement by Battery Scheduling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongerden, M.R.; Schmitt, Jens B.; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.H.M.

    The use of mobile devices is often limited by the lifetime of their batteries. For devices that have multiple batteries or that have the option to connect an extra battery, battery scheduling, thereby exploiting the recovery properties of the batteries, can help to extend the system lifetime. Due to

  6. Lifetime improvement by battery scheduling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongerden, M.R.; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.H.M.

    The use of mobile devices is often limited by the lifetime of its battery. For devices that have multiple batteries or that have the option to connect an extra battery, battery scheduling, thereby exploiting the recovery properties of the batteries, can help to extend the system lifetime. Due to the

  7. Lithium-thionyl chloride battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, D.; Bowden, W.; Hamilton, N.; Cubbison, D.; Dey, A. N.

    1981-04-01

    The main objective is to develop, fabricate, test, and deliver safe high rate lithium-thionyl chloride batteries for various U.S. Army applications such as manpack ratios and GLLD Laser Designators. We have devoted our efforts in the following major areas: (1) Optimization of the spirally wound D cell for high rate applications, (2) Development of a 3 inch diameter flat cylindrical cell for the GLLD laser designator application, and (3) Investigation of the reduction mechanism of SOCl2. The rate capability of the spirally wound D cell previously developed by us has been optimized for both the manpack radio (BA5590) battery and GLLD laser designator battery application in this program. A flat cylindrical cell has also been developed for the GLLD laser designator application. It is 3 inches in diameter and 0.9 inch in height with extremely low internal cell impedance that minimizes cell heating and polarization on the GLLD load. Typical cell capacity was found to be 18.0-19.0 Ahr with a few cells delivering up to about 21.0 Ahr on the GLLD test load. Study of the reduction mechanism of SOCl2 using electrochemical and spectroscopic techniques has also been carried out in this program which may be directly relevant to the intrinsic safety of the system.

  8. Recycling abandoned lead battery sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montgomery, A.H.

    1993-01-01

    In the past, automobile batteries were recycled principally for their lead content. The waste generated at battery wrecking facilities consisted of spent acid, crushed casings (ebonite and plastic), and where secondary smelting was involved, matte, slag, and carbon from the smelting process. These waste products were generally disposed in an on-site in a landfill or stored in piles. If the facility shut down because further commercial operations were not financially viable, the waste piles remained to be addressed at a later date through remedial action or reclamation programs. There are many of these facilities in the US. Nationally, about 28 sites have been discovered by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) under the Superfund program and are under investigation or administrative orders for remedial action. A major remediation effort is now underway at the Gould Superfund Site in Portland, Oregon, which was operated as a secondary smelting facility between 1949 and 1981. This paper describes the nature of the contamination at the Gould site and the work conducted by Canonie Environmental Services Corp. (Canonie) to develop a process which would treat the waste from battery wrecking operations and produce revenue generating recyclable products while removing the source contamination (lead) from the site. The full-scale commercial plant is now operating and is expected to achieve a throughput rate of between 200 and 250 tons per day in the coming weeks

  9. Personalized professional content recommendation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Songhua

    2015-10-27

    A personalized content recommendation system includes a client interface configured to automatically monitor a user's information data stream transmitted on the Internet. A hybrid contextual behavioral and collaborative personal interest inference engine resident to a non-transient media generates automatic predictions about the interests of individual users of the system. A database server retains the user's personal interest profile based on a plurality of monitored information. The system also includes a server programmed to filter items in an incoming information stream with the personal interest profile and is further programmed to identify only those items of the incoming information stream that substantially match the personal interest profile.

  10. A Desalination Battery

    KAUST Repository

    Pasta, Mauro; Wessells, Colin D.; Cui, Yi; La Mantia, Fabio

    2012-01-01

    Water desalination is an important approach to provide fresh water around the world, although its high energy consumption, and thus high cost, call for new, efficient technology. Here, we demonstrate the novel concept of a "desalination battery", which operates by performing cycles in reverse on our previously reported mixing entropy battery. Rather than generating electricity from salinity differences, as in mixing entropy batteries, desalination batteries use an electrical energy input to extract sodium and chloride ions from seawater and to generate fresh water. The desalination battery is comprised by a Na 2-xMn 5O 10 nanorod positive electrode and Ag/AgCl negative electrode. Here, we demonstrate an energy consumption of 0.29 Wh l -1 for the removal of 25% salt using this novel desalination battery, which is promising when compared to reverse osmosis (∼ 0.2 Wh l -1), the most efficient technique presently available. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  11. A desalination battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasta, Mauro; Wessells, Colin D; Cui, Yi; La Mantia, Fabio

    2012-02-08

    Water desalination is an important approach to provide fresh water around the world, although its high energy consumption, and thus high cost, call for new, efficient technology. Here, we demonstrate the novel concept of a "desalination battery", which operates by performing cycles in reverse on our previously reported mixing entropy battery. Rather than generating electricity from salinity differences, as in mixing entropy batteries, desalination batteries use an electrical energy input to extract sodium and chloride ions from seawater and to generate fresh water. The desalination battery is comprised by a Na(2-x)Mn(5)O(10) nanorod positive electrode and Ag/AgCl negative electrode. Here, we demonstrate an energy consumption of 0.29 Wh l(-1) for the removal of 25% salt using this novel desalination battery, which is promising when compared to reverse osmosis (~ 0.2 Wh l(-1)), the most efficient technique presently available. © 2012 American Chemical Society

  12. A Desalination Battery

    KAUST Repository

    Pasta, Mauro

    2012-02-08

    Water desalination is an important approach to provide fresh water around the world, although its high energy consumption, and thus high cost, call for new, efficient technology. Here, we demonstrate the novel concept of a "desalination battery", which operates by performing cycles in reverse on our previously reported mixing entropy battery. Rather than generating electricity from salinity differences, as in mixing entropy batteries, desalination batteries use an electrical energy input to extract sodium and chloride ions from seawater and to generate fresh water. The desalination battery is comprised by a Na 2-xMn 5O 10 nanorod positive electrode and Ag/AgCl negative electrode. Here, we demonstrate an energy consumption of 0.29 Wh l -1 for the removal of 25% salt using this novel desalination battery, which is promising when compared to reverse osmosis (∼ 0.2 Wh l -1), the most efficient technique presently available. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  13. Aging Management Guideline for commercial nuclear power plants: Battery chargers, inverters and uninterruptible power supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, R.; Stroinski, M.; Giachetti, R.

    1994-02-01

    This Aging Management Guideline (AMG) describes recommended methods for effective detection and mitigation of age-related degradation mechanisms in BWR and PWR commercial nuclear power plant battery chargers, inverters and uninterruptible power supplies important to license renewal. The intent of this AMG is to assist plant maintenance and operations personnel in maximizing the safe, useful life of these components. It also supports the documentation of effective aging management programs required under the License Renewal Rule 10 CFR Part 54. This AMG is presented in a manner that allows personnel responsible for performance analysis and maintenance to compare their plant-specific aging mechanisms (expected or already, experienced) and aging management program activities to the more generic results and recommendations presented herein

  14. Aging management guideline for commercial nuclear power plants-stationary batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, R.; Shao, J.; Krencicki, G.; Giachetti, R.

    1994-03-01

    The Aging Management Guideline (AMG) describes recommended methods for effective detection and mitigation of age-related degradation mechanisms in BWR and PWR commercial nuclear power plant stationary batteries important to license renewal. The intent of this AMG is to assist plant maintenance and operations personnel in maximizing the safe, useful life of these components. It also supports the documentation of effective aging management programs required under the License Renewal Rule 10 CFR Part 54. This AMG is presented in a manner that allows personnel responsible for performance analysis and maintenance to compare their plant-specific aging mechanisms (expected or already experienced) and aging management program activities to the more generic results and recommendations presented herein

  15. Data-driven battery product development: Turn battery performance into a competitive advantage.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sholklapper, Tal [Voltaiq, Inc.

    2016-04-19

    Poor battery performance is a primary source of user dissatisfaction across a broad range of applications, and is a key bottleneck hindering the growth of mobile technology, wearables, electric vehicles, and grid energy storage. Engineering battery systems is difficult, requiring extensive testing for vendor selection, BMS programming, and application-specific lifetime testing. This work also generates huge quantities of data. This presentation will explain how to leverage this data to help ship quality products faster using fewer resources while ensuring safety and reliability in the field, ultimately turning battery performance into a competitive advantage.

  16. Polyoxometalate flow battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Travis M.; Pratt, Harry D.

    2016-03-15

    Flow batteries including an electrolyte of a polyoxometalate material are disclosed herein. In a general embodiment, the flow battery includes an electrochemical cell including an anode portion, a cathode portion and a separator disposed between the anode portion and the cathode portion. Each of the anode portion and the cathode portion comprises a polyoxometalate material. The flow battery further includes an anode electrode disposed in the anode portion and a cathode electrode disposed in the cathode portion.

  17. Lithium battery management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Thomas J [Waukesha, WI

    2012-05-08

    Provided is a system for managing a lithium battery system having a plurality of cells. The battery system comprises a variable-resistance element electrically connected to a cell and located proximate a portion of the cell; and a device for determining, utilizing the variable-resistance element, whether the temperature of the cell has exceeded a predetermined threshold. A method of managing the temperature of a lithium battery system is also included.

  18. Nonleaking battery terminals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snider, W. E.; Nagle, W. J.

    1972-01-01

    Three different terminals were designed for usage in a 40 ampere/hour silver zinc battery which has a 45% KOH by weight electrolyte in a plastic battery case. Life tests, including thermal cycling, electrical charge and discharge for up to three years duration, were conducted on these three different terminal designs. Tests for creep rate and tensile strength were conducted on the polyphenylene oxide plastic battery cases. Some cases were unused and others containing KOH electrolyte were placed on life tests. The design and testing of nonleaking battery terminals for use with a KOH electrolyte in a plastic case are considered.

  19. Battery Thermal Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keyser, Matthew A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-08-08

    The operating temperature is critical in achieving the right balance between performance, cost, and life for both Li-ion batteries and ultracapacitors. The chemistries of advanced energy-storage devices - such as lithium-based batteries - are very sensitive to operating temperature. High temperatures degrade batteries faster while low temperatures decrease their power and capacity, affecting vehicle range, performance, and cost. Understanding heat generation in battery systems - from the individual cells within a module, to the inter-connects between the cells, and across the entire battery system - is imperative for designing effective thermal-management systems and battery packs. At NREL, we have developed unique capabilities to measure the thermal properties of cells and evaluate thermal performance of battery packs (air or liquid cooled). We also use our electro-thermal finite element models to analyze the thermal performance of battery systems in order to aid battery developers with improved thermal designs. NREL's tools are used to meet the weight, life, cost, and volume goals set by the U.S. Department of Energy for electric drive vehicles.

  20. Ballistic negatron battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prasad, M.S.R. [Koneru Lakshmiah Univ.. Dept. of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Green fields, Vaddeswaram (India)

    2012-07-01

    If we consider the Statistics there is drastic increase in dependence of batteries from year to year, due to necessity of power storage equipment at homes, power generating off grid and on grid Wind, PV systems, etc.. Where wind power is leading in renewable sector, there is a need to look at its development. Considering the scenario in India, most of the wind resource areas are far away from grid and the remaining areas which are near to grid are of low wind currents which is of no use connecting these equipment directly to grid. So, there is a need for a power storage utility to be integrated, such as the BNB (Ballistic Negatron Battery). In this situation a country like India need a battery which should be reliable, cheap and which can be industrialized. So this paper presents the concept of working, design, operation, adaptability of a Ballistic Negatron Battery. Unlike present batteries with low energy density, huge size, more weight, more charging time and low resistant to wear level, this Ballistic Negatron Battery comes with, 1) High energy storage capability (many multiples more than the present most advanced battery). 2) Very compact in size. 3) Almost negligible in weight compared to present batteries. 4) Charges with in very less time. 5) Never exhibits a wear level greater than zero. Seems like inconceivable but adoptable with simple physics. This paper will explains in detail the principle, model, design, construction and practical considerations considered in making this battery. (Author)

  1. Synthesis of battery grade reduced silver powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qadeer, R.; Hameed, M.; Ikram, S.; Munir, A.

    2002-01-01

    Process for production of battery grade reduced silver powder, an active positive material for zinc-silver oxide batteries, having specific characteristics has been optimized and the synthesized reduced silver powder was characterized. Results reveal that the values of bulk density (1.25 0.1 g/cm3) and activity (73.27 %) of synthesized reduced silver powder lies within the recommended range for use as battery material. It has purity ≥ 98% and contains Fe and Cu as traces in the concentration range of 30 5 ppm and 15 7 ppm respectively. Others determined values of surface and pores parameters are: surface area 2.6 .4 m2/g: pore volume 3.10 cm3/g: pore diameter 0.043 mu m and porosity 20%. XRD studies reveal that reduced silver powder has a cubic structure. (author)

  2. Towards an Ultimate Battery Thermal Management System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Mohammad Rezwan; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2017-01-01

    The prevailing standards and scientific literature offer a wide range of options for the construction of a battery thermal management system (BTMS). The design of an innovative yet well-functioning BTMS requires strict supervision, quality audit and continuous improvement of the whole process....... It must address all the current quality and safety (Q&S) standards. In this review article, an effective battery thermal management is sought considering the existing battery Q&S standards and scientific literature. The article contains a broad overview of the current existing standards and literature...... on a generic compliant BTMS. The aim is to assist in the design of a novel compatible BTMS. Additionally, the article delivers a set of recommendations to make an effective BTMS....

  3. Thermal analysis of a LiFePo4 Battery

    OpenAIRE

    Balanguer Escolano, David

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this final thesis project was to study and test a 3,3V LiFePo4 battery in outer space conditions to be able to determine its working range, its limitations and its problems. To do so a measuring set-up to read and estimate the capacity of a battery was built and programmed. Then the LiFePo4 battery was tested at different temperatures between -20°C and 40°C in a vacuum chamber at a pressure under 100 microbars. The results showed that the battery can still operate prope...

  4. A cost-emission model for fuel cell/PV/battery hybrid energy system in the presence of demand response program: ε-constraint method and fuzzy satisfying approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nojavan, Sayyad; Majidi, Majid; Najafi-Ghalelou, Afshin; Ghahramani, Mehrdad; Zare, Kazem

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Cost-emission performance of PV/battery/fuel cell hybrid energy system is studied. • Multi-objective optimization model for cost-emission performance is proposed. • ε-constraint method is proposed to produce Pareto solutions of multi-objective model. • Fuzzy satisfying approach selected the best optimal solution from Pareto solutions. • Demand response program is proposed to reduce both cost and emission. - Abstract: Optimal operation of hybrid energy systems is a big challenge in power systems. Nowadays, in addition to the optimum performance of energy systems, their pollution issue has been a hot topic between researchers. In this paper, a multi-objective model is proposed for economic and environmental operation of a battery/fuel cell/photovoltaic (PV) hybrid energy system in the presence of demand response program (DRP). In the proposed paper, the first objective function is minimization of total cost of hybrid energy system. The second objective function is minimization of total CO_2 emission which is in conflict with the first objective function. So, a multi-objective optimization model is presented to model the hybrid system’s optimal and environmental performance problem with considering DRP. The proposed multi-objective model is solved by ε-constraint method and then fuzzy satisfying technique is employed to select the best possible solution. Also, positive effects of DRP on the economic and environmental performance of hybrid system are analyzed. A mixed-integer linear program is used to simulate the proposed model and the obtained results are compared with weighted sum approach to show the effectiveness of proposed method.

  5. Design of a nickel-hydrogen battery simulator for the NASA EOS testbed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gur, Zvi; Mang, Xuesi; Patil, Ashok R.; Sable, Dan M.; Cho, Bo H.; Lee, Fred C.

    1992-01-01

    The hardware and software design of a nickel-hydrogen (Ni-H2) battery simulator (BS) with application to the NASA Earth Observation System (EOS) satellite is presented. The battery simulator is developed as a part of a complete testbed for the EOS satellite power system. The battery simulator involves both hardware and software components. The hardware component includes the capability of sourcing and sinking current at a constant programmable voltage. The software component includes the capability of monitoring the battery's ampere-hours (Ah) and programming the battery voltage according to an empirical model of the nickel-hydrogen battery stored in a computer.

  6. Toxicity of materials used in the manufacture of lithium batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Archuleta, M.M.

    1994-05-01

    The growing interest in battery systems has led to major advances in high-energy and/or high-power-density lithium batteries. Potential applications for lithium batteries include radio transceivers, portable electronic instrumentation, emergency locator transmitters, night vision devices, human implantable devices, as well as uses in the aerospace and defense programs. With this new technology comes the use of new solvent and electrolyte systems in the research, development, and production of lithium batteries. The goal is to enhance lithium battery technology with the use of non-hazardous materials. Therefore, the toxicity and health hazards associated with exposure to the solvents and electrolytes used in current lithium battery research and development is evaluated and described.

  7. Diagnosing battery behavior with an expert system in Prolog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirkwood, N.; Weeks, D.J.

    1986-01-01

    Power for the Hubble Space Telescope comes from a system of 20 solar panel assemblies (SPAs) and six nickel-cadmium batteries. The HST battery system is simulated by the HST Electrical Power System (EPS) testbed at Marshall Space Flight Center. The Nickel Cadmium Battery Expert System (NICBES) is being used to diagnose faults of the testbed system, evaluate battery status and provide decision support for the engineer. Extensive telemetry of system operating conditions is relayed through a DEC LSI-11, and sent on to an IBM PC-AT. A BASIC program running on the PC monitors the flow of data, figures cell divergence and recharge ratio and stores these values, along with other selected data, for use by the expert system. The expert system is implemented in the logic programming language Prolog. It has three modes of operation: fault diagnosis, status and advice, and decision support. An alert or failure of the system will trigger a diagnosis by the system to assist the operator. The operator can also request battery status information as well as a number of plots and histograms of recent battery behavior. Trends in EOC and EOD voltage, recharge ratio and divergence are used by the expert system in its analysis of battery status. A future enhancement to the system includes the statistical prediction of battery life. Incorporating learning into the expert system is another possible enhancement; This is a difficult task, but one which could promise great rewards in improved battery performance

  8. Optimal energy management strategy for self-reconfigurable batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouchhima, Nejmeddine; Schnierle, Marc; Schulte, Sascha; Birke, Kai Peter

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel energy management strategy for multi-cell high voltage batteries where the current through each cell can be controlled, called self-reconfigurable batteries. An optimized control strategy further enhances the energy efficiency gained by the hardware architecture of those batteries. Currently, achieving cell equalization by using the active balancing circuits is considered as the best way to optimize the energy efficiency of the battery pack. This study demonstrates that optimizing the energy efficiency of self-reconfigurable batteries is no more strongly correlated to the cell balancing. According to the features of this novel battery architecture, the energy management strategy is formulated as nonlinear dynamic optimization problem. To solve this optimal control, an optimization algorithm that generates the optimal discharge policy for a given driving cycle is developed based on dynamic programming and code vectorization. The simulation results show that the designed energy management strategy maximizes the system efficiency across the battery lifetime over conventional approaches. Furthermore, the present energy management strategy can be implemented online due to the reduced complexity of the optimization algorithm. - Highlights: • The energy efficiency of self-reconfigurable batteries is maximized. • The energy management strategy for the battery is formulated as optimal control problem. • Developing an optimization algorithm using dynamic programming techniques and code vectorization. • Simulation studies are conducted to validate the proposed optimal strategy.

  9. Battery energy storage system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tol, C.S.P.; Evenblij, B.H.

    2009-01-01

    The ability to store electrical energy adds several interesting features to a ships distribution network, as silent power, peak shaving and a ride through in case of generator failure. Modern intrinsically safe Li-ion batteries bring these within reach. For this modern lithium battery applications

  10. Silicon Betavoltaic Batteries Structures

    OpenAIRE

    V.N. Murashev; S.A. Legotin; O.I. Rabinovich; O.R. Abdulaev; U.V. Osipov

    2015-01-01

    For low-power miniature energy creation sources the particular interest is nickel Ni63. This paper discusses the main types of betavoltaic battery structures with the prospects for industrial application using - isotope of nickel Ni63. It is shown that the prospects for improving the effective efficiency are planar multijunction betavoltaic batteries.

  11. Deep diode atomic battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anthony, T.R.; Cline, H.E.

    1977-01-01

    A deep diode atomic battery is made from a bulk semiconductor crystal containing three-dimensional arrays of columnar and lamellar P-N junctions. The battery is powered by gamma rays and x-ray emission from a radioactive source embedded in the interior of the semiconductor crystal

  12. Lithium Battery Diaper Ulceration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maridet, Claire; Taïeb, Alain

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of lithium battery diaper ulceration in a 16-month-old girl. Gastrointestinal and ear, nose, and throat lesions after lithium battery ingestion have been reported, but skin involvement has not been reported to our knowledge. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Battery Pack Thermal Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pesaran, Ahmad

    2016-06-14

    This presentation describes the thermal design of battery packs at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. A battery thermal management system essential for xEVs for both normal operation during daily driving (achieving life and performance) and off-normal operation during abuse conditions (achieving safety). The battery thermal management system needs to be optimized with the right tools for the lowest cost. Experimental tools such as NREL's isothermal battery calorimeter, thermal imaging, and heat transfer setups are needed. Thermal models and computer-aided engineering tools are useful for robust designs. During abuse conditions, designs should prevent cell-to-cell propagation in a module/pack (i.e., keep the fire small and manageable). NREL's battery ISC device can be used for evaluating the robustness of a module/pack to cell-to-cell propagation.

  14. Transit bus applications of lithium ion batteries : progress and prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-31

    This report provides an overview of diverse transit bus applications of advanced Lithium Ion Batteries (LIBs). The report highlights and illustrates several FTA programs that fostered the successful development, demonstration, and deployment of fuel-...

  15. Staff Report to the Senior Department Official on Recognition Compliance Issues. Recommendation Page: Council on Accreditation of Nurse Anesthesia Educational Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Department of Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The Council on Accreditation of Nurse Anesthesia Educational Programs (COA) accredits institutions and programs that prepare nurses to become practicing nurse anesthetists. Currently the agency accredits 105 programs located in 35 states, the District of Columbia and Puerto Rico, including three single purpose freestanding institutions. The…

  16. A method of computer modelling the lithium-ion batteries aging process based on the experimental characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czerepicki, A.; Koniak, M.

    2017-06-01

    The paper presents a method of modelling the processes of aging lithium-ion batteries, its implementation as a computer application and results for battery state estimation. Authors use previously developed behavioural battery model, which was built using battery operating characteristics obtained from the experiment. This model was implemented in the form of a computer program using a database to store battery characteristics. Batteries aging process is a new extended functionality of the model. Algorithm of computer simulation uses a real measurements of battery capacity as a function of the battery charge and discharge cycles number. Simulation allows to take into account the incomplete cycles of charge or discharge battery, which are characteristic for transport powered by electricity. The developed model was used to simulate the battery state estimation for different load profiles, obtained by measuring the movement of the selected means of transport.

  17. Thermal management of batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbard, H. F.; Chen, C.-C.

    Control of the internal temperature during high rate discharge or charge can be a major design problem for large, high energy density battery systems. A systematic approach to the thermal management of such systems is described for different load profiles based on: thermodynamic calculations of internal heat generation; calorimetric measurements of heat flux; analytical and finite difference calculations of the internal temperature distribution; appropriate system designs for heat removal and temperature control. Examples are presented of thermal studies on large lead-acid batteries for electrical utility load levelling and nickel-zinc and lithium-iron sulphide batteries for electric vehicle propulsion.

  18. HST Replacement Battery Initial Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krol, Stan; Waldo, Greg; Hollandsworth, Roger

    2009-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) original Nickel-Hydrogen (NiH2) batteries were replaced during the Servicing Mission 4 (SM4) after 19 years and one month on orbit.The purpose of this presentation is to highlight the findings from the assessment of the initial sm4 replacement battery performance. The batteries are described, the 0 C capacity is reviewed, descriptions, charts and tables reviewing the State Of Charge (SOC) Performance, the Battery Voltage Performance, the battery impedance, the minimum voltage performance, the thermal performance, the battery current, and the battery system recharge ratio,

  19. Battery Technology Stores Clean Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Headquartered in Fremont, California, Deeya Energy Inc. is now bringing its flow batteries to commercial customers around the world after working with former Marshall Space Flight Center scientist, Lawrence Thaller. Deeya's liquid-cell batteries have higher power capability than Thaller's original design, are less expensive than lead-acid batteries, are a clean energy alternative, and are 10 to 20 times less expensive than nickel-metal hydride batteries, lithium-ion batteries, and fuel cell options.

  20. Progress in aqueous rechargeable batteries

    OpenAIRE

    Jilei Liu; Chaohe Xu; Zhen Chen; Shibing Ni; Ze Xiang Shen

    2018-01-01

    Over the past decades, a series of aqueous rechargeable batteries (ARBs) were explored, investigated and demonstrated. Among them, aqueous rechargeable alkali-metal ion (Li+, Na+, K+) batteries, aqueous rechargeable-metal ion (Zn2+, Mg2+, Ca2+, Al3+) batteries and aqueous rechargeable hybrid batteries are standing out due to peculiar properties. In this review, we focus on the fundamental basics of these batteries, and discuss the scientific and/or technological achievements and challenges. B...

  1. Advanced secondary batteries: Their applications, technological status, market and opportunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, M.

    1989-03-01

    Program planning for advanced battery energy storage technology is supported within the NEMO Program. Specifically this study had focused on the review of advanced battery applications; the development and demonstration status of leading battery technologies; and potential marketing opportunity. Advanced secondary (or rechargeable) batteries have been under development for the past two decades in the U.S., Japan, and parts of Europe for potential applications in electric utilities and for electric vehicles. In the electric utility applications, the primary aim of a battery energy storage plant is to facilitate peak power load leveling and/or dynamic operations to minimize the overall power generation cost. In the application for peak power load leveling, the battery stores the off-peak base load energy and is discharged during the period of peak power demand. This allows a more efficient use of the base load generation capacity and reduces the need for conventional oil-fired or gas-fire peak power generation equipment. Batteries can facilitate dynamic operations because of their basic characteristics as an electrochemical device capable of instantaneous response to the changing load. Dynamic operating benefits results in cost savings of the overall power plant operation. Battery-powered electric vehicles facilitate conservation of petroleum fuel in the transportation sector, but more importantly, they reduce air pollution in the congested inner cities.

  2. Linking High Risk Postpartum Women with a Technology Enabled Health Coaching Program to Reduce Diabetes Risk and Improve Wellbeing: Program Description, Case Studies, and Recommendations for Community Health Coaching Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athavale, Priyanka; Thomas, Melanie; Delgadillo-Duenas, Adriana T; Leong, Karen; Najmabadi, Adriana; Harleman, Elizabeth; Rios, Christina; Quan, Judy; Soria, Catalina; Handley, Margaret A

    2016-01-01

    Background . Low-income minority women with prior gestational diabetes mellitus (pGDM) or high BMIs have increased risk for chronic illnesses postpartum. Although the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) provides an evidence-based model for reducing diabetes risk, few community-based interventions have adapted this program for pGDM women. Methods . STAR MAMA is an ongoing randomized control trial (RCT) evaluating a hybrid HIT/Health Coaching DPP-based 20-week postpartum program for diabetes prevention compared with education from written materials at baseline. Eligibility includes women 18-39 years old, ≥32 weeks pregnant, and GDM or BMI > 25. Clinic- and community-based recruitment in San Francisco and Sonoma Counties targets 180 women. Sociodemographic and health coaching data from a preliminary sample are presented. Results . Most of the 86 women included to date (88%) have GDM, 80% were identified as Hispanic/Latina, 78% have migrant status, and most are Spanish-speaking. Women receiving the intervention indicate high engagement, with 86% answering 1+ calls. Health coaching callbacks last an average of 9 minutes with range of topics discussed. Case studies presented convey a range of emotional, instrumental, and health literacy-related supports offered by health coaches. Discussion . The DPP-adapted HIT/health coaching model highlights the possibility and challenge of delivering DPP content to postpartum women in community settings. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02240420.

  3. High temperature battery. Hochtemperaturbatterie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulling, M.

    1992-06-04

    To prevent heat losses of a high temperature battery, it is proposed to make the incoming current leads in the area of their penetration through the double-walled insulating housing as thermal throttle, particularly spiral ones.

  4. Summary of 2017 NASA Workshop on Assessment of Advanced Battery Technologies for Aerospace Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Ajay

    2018-01-01

    A workshop on assessment of battery technologies for future aerospace applications was held in Cleveland, OH on August 16-17. The focus of the workshop, hosted by NASA GRC, was to assess (1) the battery needs for future aerospace missions, (2) the state of battery technology and projected technology advances, and (3) the need for additional investments for future aerospace missions. The workshop had 109 attendees that included internationally recognized technology leaders from academia and national laboratories, high level executives from government and industry, small businesses, and startup companies. A significant portion of the workshop was focused on batteries for electrified aircraft. The presentation will summarize the finding on the state of battery technologies for electrified aircraft and will include assessment of current state of battery technology, gaps in battery technology for application in electrified aircraft, and recommended technology development options for meeting near-term and long-term needs of electrified aircraft.

  5. COGME 1995 Physician Workforce Funding Recommendations for Department of Health and Human Services' Programs. Council on Graduate Medical Education, 7th Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Council on Graduate Medical Education.

    This report presents specific recommendations to the Department of Health and Human Services and Congress from the Council on Graduate Medical Education that address Medicare's direct and indirect graduate medical education (GME) payments and the monies allocated by the Public Health Service that is targeted toward physician education and primary…

  6. A Rechargeable Hydrogen Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christudas Dargily, Neethu; Thimmappa, Ravikumar; Manzoor Bhat, Zahid; Devendrachari, Mruthunjayachari Chattanahalli; Kottaichamy, Alagar Raja; Gautam, Manu; Shafi, Shahid Pottachola; Thotiyl, Musthafa Ottakam

    2018-04-27

    We utilize proton-coupled electron transfer in hydrogen storage molecules to unlock a rechargeable battery chemistry based on the cleanest chemical energy carrier molecule, hydrogen. Electrochemical, spectroscopic, and spectroelectrochemical analyses evidence the participation of protons during charge-discharge chemistry and extended cycling. In an era of anthropogenic global climate change and paramount pollution, a battery concept based on a virtually nonpolluting energy carrier molecule demonstrates distinct progress in the sustainable energy landscape.

  7. Metal-air battery research and development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrin, E.; Cooper, J. F.

    1982-05-01

    This report summarizes the activities of the Metal-air Battery Program during the calendar year 1981. The principal objective is to develop a refuelable battery as an automotive energy source for general-purpose electric vehicles and to conduct engineering demonstrations of its ability to provide vehicles with the range, acceleration, and rapid refueling capability of current internal-combustion-engine automobiles. The second objective is to develop an electrically-rechargeable battery for specific-mission electric vehicles, such as commuter vehicles, that can provide low-cost transportation. The development progression is to: (1) develop a mechanically rechargeable aluminum-air power cell using model electrodes, (2) develop cost-effective anode and cathode materials and structures as required to achieve reliability and efficiency goals, and to establish the economic competitiveness of this technology, and (3) develop and integrated propulsion system utilizing the power cell.

  8. Recommended radiological controls for tritium operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansfield, G.

    1992-01-01

    This informal report presents recommendations for an adequate radiological protection program for tritium operations. Topics include hazards analysis, facility design, personnel protection equipment, training, operational procedures, radiation monitoring, to include surface and airborne tritium contamination, and program management

  9. Canine-Assisted Reading Programs for Children with Special Educational Needs: Rationale and Recommendations for the Use of Dogs in Assisting Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Suk-chun

    2017-01-01

    A canine-assisted reading program, a form of animal-assisted intervention (AAI), is a goal-oriented program that incorporates trained animals--particularly canines--in formal human services. In recent decades, the positive effects of human-animal interaction in supporting the social, psychological, and physiological needs of humans have been…

  10. Strain measurement based battery testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jeff Qiang; Steiber, Joe; Wall, Craig M.; Smith, Robert; Ng, Cheuk

    2017-05-23

    A method and system for strain-based estimation of the state of health of a battery, from an initial state to an aged state, is provided. A strain gauge is applied to the battery. A first strain measurement is performed on the battery, using the strain gauge, at a selected charge capacity of the battery and at the initial state of the battery. A second strain measurement is performed on the battery, using the strain gauge, at the selected charge capacity of the battery and at the aged state of the battery. The capacity degradation of the battery is estimated as the difference between the first and second strain measurements divided by the first strain measurement.

  11. Lithium use in batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goonan, Thomas G.

    2012-01-01

    Lithium has a number of uses but one of the most valuable is as a component of high energy-density rechargeable lithium-ion batteries. Because of concerns over carbon dioxide footprint and increasing hydrocarbon fuel cost (reduced supply), lithium may become even more important in large batteries for powering all-electric and hybrid vehicles. It would take 1.4 to 3.0 kilograms of lithium equivalent (7.5 to 16.0 kilograms of lithium carbonate) to support a 40-mile trip in an electric vehicle before requiring recharge. This could create a large demand for lithium. Estimates of future lithium demand vary, based on numerous variables. Some of those variables include the potential for recycling, widespread public acceptance of electric vehicles, or the possibility of incentives for converting to lithium-ion-powered engines. Increased electric usage could cause electricity prices to increase. Because of reduced demand, hydrocarbon fuel prices would likely decrease, making hydrocarbon fuel more desirable. In 2009, 13 percent of worldwide lithium reserves, expressed in terms of contained lithium, were reported to be within hard rock mineral deposits, and 87 percent, within brine deposits. Most of the lithium recovered from brine came from Chile, with smaller amounts from China, Argentina, and the United States. Chile also has lithium mineral reserves, as does Australia. Another source of lithium is from recycled batteries. When lithium-ion batteries begin to power vehicles, it is expected that battery recycling rates will increase because vehicle battery recycling systems can be used to produce new lithium-ion batteries.

  12. [Compliance with current dietary recommendations and geographical variability of diet in women participating in 7 screening programs for breast cancer in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Arenzana, N; Navarrete-Muñoz, E M; Vázquez-Carrete, J A; Moreno, M P; Vidal, C; Salas, D; Ederra, M; Pedraz, C; Collado-García, F; Sánchez-Contador, C; González-Román, I; García-López, M; Miranda, J; Peris, M; Moreo, P; Santamariña, C; Pérez-Gómez, B; Vioque, J; Pollán, M

    2011-01-01

    A healthy diet is especially important during menopause, a period which increases the risk of various health problems. We analyzed the diet of periand postmenopausal Spanish women and the degree of compliance with current recommendations. We studied 3574 women 45-68 years old who attended breast cancer screening programmes in 7 centres (A Coruña, Barcelona, Burgos, Palma de Mallorca, Pamplona, Valencia and Zaragoza). Diet information was collected using a food frequency questionnaire validated for the Spanish population. For the assessment of compliance with current guidelines we used the recommendations by the Spanish Society of Community Nutrition for food groups intake and by the Spanish Federation of Nutrition, Food and Dietetics for energy, vitamins and minerals intake. The 29% of women were obese and 42% overweight. The average caloric intake was 2.053 kcal (SD 480). The general energy profile was: 43% of the energy from the carbohydrates, 36% from fats, and 20% from proteins. There was a low vitamin D intake in all centres of the study, with an overall mean intake of 2.14 mg/day. A deficit of vitamin E intake in A Coruña and Burgos was also detected. Intake of dairy products and vegetables was high in all the study centers. The consumption of fruits and vegetables was very heterogeneous, with high intakes observed in Mallorca and Valencia and low for both food groups in A Coruña. The olive oil intake was high in all centers except Burgos with 74.3% of the women studied below the recommended 3 servings per day. A diet with less fat and protein and a higher consumption of vegetables, nuts and foods rich in carbohydrate might balance the energy intake and improve the quality of the diet correcting the low intakes of vitamins D and E. These recommendations are especially important in cities far from the Mediterranean coast where more breaches have been detected over the current recommendations with a lower adherence to the Mediterranean diet.

  13. Latest position in battery techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staeger, H J

    1960-03-17

    A short survey of the development of electrochemical properties as batteries is followed by an account of the construction, properties, and fields of application of lead, iron--nickel, and silver--zinc batteries, and their more recent developments, such as the hollow-rod plates in lead batteries, sintered plates, and sealed batteries. The work in progress on fuel cells is discussed and different practical cells are compared. There is no battery which is the best for all applications, each system has its own advantages or disadvantages. The lead battery in its different forms still remains the most universally applied.

  14. High Energy Batteries for Hybrid Buses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruce Lu

    2010-12-31

    EnerDel batteries have already been employed successfully for electric vehicle (EV) applications. Compared to EV applications, hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) bus applications may be less stressful, but are still quite demanding, especially compared to battery applications for consumer products. This program evaluated EnerDel cell and pack system technologies with three different chemistries using real world HEV-Bus drive cycles recorded in three markets covering cold, hot, and mild climates. Cells were designed, developed, and fabricated using each of the following three chemistries: (1) Lithium nickel manganese cobalt oxide (NMC) - hard carbon (HC); (2) Lithium manganese oxide (LMO) - HC; and (3) LMO - lithium titanium oxide (LTO) cells. For each cell chemistry, battery pack systems integrated with an EnerDel battery management system (BMS) were successfully constructed with the following features: real time current monitoring, cell and pack voltage monitoring, cell and pack temperature monitoring, pack state of charge (SOC) reporting, cell balancing, and over voltage protection. These features are all necessary functions for real-world HEV-Bus applications. Drive cycle test data was collected for each of the three cell chemistries using real world drive profiles under hot, mild, and cold climate conditions representing cities like Houston, Seattle, and Minneapolis, respectively. We successfully tested the battery packs using real-world HEV-Bus drive profiles under these various climate conditions. The NMC-HC and LMO-HC based packs successfully completed the drive cycles, while the LMO-LTO based pack did not finish the preliminary testing for the drive cycles. It was concluded that the LMO-HC chemistry is optimal for the hot or mild climates, while the NMC-HC chemistry is optimal for the cold climate. In summary, the objectives were successfully accomplished at the conclusion of the project. This program provided technical data to DOE and the public for assessing

  15. Current developments at Giprokoks for coke-battery construction and reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    V.I. Rudyka; Y.E. Zingerman; V.B. Kamenyuka; O.N. Surenskii; G.E. Kos' kova; V.V. Derevich; V.A. Gushchin [Giprokoks, the State Institute for the Design of Coke-Industry Enterprises, Kharkov (Ukraine)

    2009-07-15

    Approaches developed at Giprokoks for coke-battery construction and reconstruction are considered. Recommendations regarding furnace construction and reconstruction are made on the basis of Ukrainian and world experience.

  16. SSTI- Lewis Spacecraft Nickel-Hydrogen Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobias, R. F.

    1997-01-01

    Topics considered include: NASA-Small Spacecraft Technology Initiative (SSTI) objectives, SSTI-Lewis overview, battery requirement, two cells Common Pressure Vessel (CPV) design summary, CPV electric performance, battery design summary, battery functional description, battery performance.

  17. Circulating current battery heater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashtiani, Cyrus N.; Stuart, Thomas A.

    2001-01-01

    A circuit for heating energy storage devices such as batteries is provided. The circuit includes a pair of switches connected in a half-bridge configuration. Unidirectional current conduction devices are connected in parallel with each switch. A series resonant element for storing energy is connected from the energy storage device to the pair of switches. An energy storage device for intermediate storage of energy is connected in a loop with the series resonant element and one of the switches. The energy storage device which is being heated is connected in a loop with the series resonant element and the other switch. Energy from the heated energy storage device is transferred to the switched network and then recirculated back to the battery. The flow of energy through the battery causes internal power dissipation due to electrical to chemical conversion inefficiencies. The dissipated power causes the internal temperature of the battery to increase. Higher internal temperatures expand the cold temperature operating range and energy capacity utilization of the battery. As disclosed, either fixed frequency or variable frequency modulation schemes may be used to control the network.

  18. Used batteries - REMINDER

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    With colder weather drawing in, it is quite likely that older car batteries will fail. On this subject, the Safety Commission wishes to remind everyone that CERN is not responsible for the disposal of used batteries from private vehicles. So please refrain from abandoning them on pavements or around or inside buildings. Used batteries can be disposed of safely, free-of-charge and without any damage to the environment at waste disposal sites (déchetteries) close to CERN in both France (Ain and Haute-Savoie) and in the Canton of Geneva in Switzerland (Cheneviers). Since the average car battery lasts a number of years, this only represents a small effort on your part over the whole lifetime of your vehicle. Most people don't need reminding that car batteries contain concentrated sulphuric acid, which can cause severe burns. Despite this, we frequently find them casually dumped in scrap metal bins! For more information, please contact R. Magnier/SC-GS 160879 We all have a responsibility for safety and th...

  19. Battery charging control methods, electric vehicle charging methods, battery charging apparatuses and rechargeable battery systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuffner, Francis K [Richland, WA; Kintner-Meyer, Michael C. W. [Richland, WA; Hammerstrom, Donald J [West Richland, WA; Pratt, Richard M [Richland, WA

    2012-05-22

    Battery charging control methods, electric vehicle charging methods, battery charging apparatuses and rechargeable battery systems. According to one aspect, a battery charging control method includes accessing information regarding a presence of at least one of a surplus and a deficiency of electrical energy upon an electrical power distribution system at a plurality of different moments in time, and using the information, controlling an adjustment of an amount of the electrical energy provided from the electrical power distribution system to a rechargeable battery to charge the rechargeable battery.

  20. Conclusions and recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrette, M.

    1997-01-01

    The paper presents conclusions and recommendations at the closing session of the NEA/OECD Workshop held at Fontenay-aux-Roses on 12-14 June 1995. The conclusions refer to issues like: public reaction to foodstuffs containing radioisotope concentrations under the danger standards, possible non-adherence of manufacturers, processors, distributors, et al, to the instructions and guidance from radiation protection specialists, integration of all the food chain factors in the elaboration of the emergency intervention programs, etc. Among the most significant recommendations the following may be mentioned: 1. Differences between different intervention levels and the maximum admissible levels agreed upon by national, regional or international nutrition authorities should be further studied; 2. Problems created by the Chernobyl accident (as for instance, the methods of treatment of food chain products containing unacceptable radioactivity concentrations) are still present and must be solved; 3. Further studies should be done on the socio-cultural aspects of the communication, particularly on the information in rural environment; 4. The preventive measures in agriculture should be implemented as rapidly as possible; 5. In elaborating programmes of agriculture countermeasures, the management of contaminated media, particularly, of forests and their effect on agriculture

  1. A Battery Charger and State of Charge Indicator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latos, T. S.

    1984-01-01

    A battery charger which has a full wave rectifier in series with a transformer isolated 20 kHz dc-dc converter with high frequency switches, which are programmed to actively shape the input dc line current to be a mirror image of the ac line voltage is discussed. The power circuit operates at 2 kW peak and 1 kW average power. The BC/SCI has two major subsystems: (1) the battery charger power electronics with its controls; and (2) a microcomputer subsystem which is used to acquire battery terminal data and exercise the state of charge software programs. The state of charge definition employed is the energy remaining in the battery when extracted at a 10 kW rate divided by the energy capacity of a fully charged new battery. The battery charger circuit is an isolated boost converter operating at an internal frequency of 20 kHz. The switches selected for the battery charger are the single most important item in determining its efficiency. The combination of voltage and current requirements dictate the use of high power NPN Darlington switching transistors. The power circuit topology is a three switch design which utilizes a power FET on the center tap of the isolation transformer and the power Darlingtons on each of the two ends. An analog control system is employed to accomplish active input current waveshaping as well as the necessary regulation.

  2. Microfluidic redox battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jin Wook; Goulet, Marc-Antoni; Kjeang, Erik

    2013-07-07

    A miniaturized microfluidic battery is proposed, which is the first membraneless redox battery demonstrated to date. This unique concept capitalizes on dual-pass flow-through porous electrodes combined with stratified, co-laminar flow to generate electrical power on-chip. The fluidic design is symmetric to allow for both charging and discharging operations in forward, reverse, and recirculation modes. The proof-of-concept device fabricated using low-cost materials integrated in a microfluidic chip is shown to produce competitive power levels when operated on a vanadium redox electrolyte. A complete charge/discharge cycle is performed to demonstrate its operation as a rechargeable battery, which is an important step towards providing sustainable power to lab-on-a-chip and microelectronic applications.

  3. Battery Monitoring and Charging System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thivierge, Daniel P

    2007-01-01

    A battery monitoring device for a battery having cells grouped in modules. The device includes a monitoring circuit for each module which monitors the voltage in each cell and the overall module voltage...

  4. Research, development, and demonstration of lead-acid batteries for electric vehicle propulsion. Annual report, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-03-01

    The progress and status of Eltra's Electric Vehicle Battery Program during FY-80 are presented under five divisional headings: Research on Components and Processes; Development of Cells and Modules for Electric Vehicle Propulsion; Sub-Systems; Pilot Line Production of Electric Vehicle Battery Prototypes; and Program Management.

  5. Slim Battery Modelling Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borthomieu, Y.; Prevot, D.

    2011-10-01

    Saft has developed a life prediction model for VES and MPS cells and batteries. The Saft Li-ion Model (SLIM) is a macroscopic electrochemical model based on energy (global at cell level). The main purpose is to predict the battery performances during the life for GEO, MEO and LEO missions. This model is based on electrochemical characteristics such as Energy, Capacity, EMF, Internal resistance, end of charge voltage. It uses fading and calendar law effects on energy and internal impedance vs. time, temperature, End of Charge voltage. Based on the mission profile, satellite power system characteristics, the model proposes the various battery configurations. For each configuration, the model gives the battery performances using mission figures and profiles: power, duration, DOD, end of charge voltages, temperatures during eclipses and solstices, thermal dissipations and cell failures. For the GEO/MEO missions, eclipse and solstice periods can include specific profile such as plasmic propulsion fires and specific balancing operations. For LEO missions, the model is able to simulate high power peaks to predict radar pulses. Saft's main customers have been using the SLIM model available in house for two years. The purpose is to have the satellite builder power engineers able to perform by themselves in the battery pre-dimensioning activities their own battery simulations. The simulations can be shared with Saft engineers to refine the power system designs. This model has been correlated with existing life and calendar tests performed on all the VES and MPS cells. In comparing with more than 10 year lasting life tests, the accuracy of the model from a voltage point of view is less than 10 mV at end Of Life. In addition, thethe comparison with in-orbit data has been also done. b This paper will present the main features of the SLIM software and outputs comparison with real life tests. b0

  6. Summary of development and recommendations for a quality assurance program for the procurement and manufacture of urban mass transit operating equipment and systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witkin, S. A.

    1976-01-01

    A viable quality program for the urban mass transit industry, and a management approach to ensure compliance with the program are outlined. Included are: (1) a set of guidelines for quality assurance to be imposed on transit authorities, and a management approach to ensure compliance with them; (2) a management approach to be used by the transit authorities (properties) for assuring compliance with the QA guidelines; and (3) quality assurance guidelines to be imposed by properties and umta for procurement of hardware and systems.

  7. Impact resistant battery enclosure systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutsui, Waterloo; Feng, Yuezhong; Chen, Weinong Wayne; Siegmund, Thomas Heinrich

    2017-10-31

    Battery enclosure arrangements for a vehicular battery system. The arrangements, capable of impact resistance include plurality of battery cells and a plurality of kinetic energy absorbing elements. The arrangements further include a frame configured to encase the plurality of the kinetic energy absorbing elements and the battery cells. In some arrangements the frame and/or the kinetic energy absorbing elements can be made of topologically interlocked materials.

  8. Lithium-ion batteries

    CERN Document Server

    Yoshio, Masaki; Kozawa, Akiya

    2010-01-01

    This book is a compilation of up-to-date information relative to Li-Ion technology. It provides the reader with a single source covering all important aspects of Li-Ion battery operations. It fills the gap between the old original Li-Ion technology and present state of the technology that has developed into a high state of practice. The book is designed to provide a single source for an up-to-date description of the technology associated with the Li-Ion battery industry. It will be useful to researchers interested in energy conversion for the direct conversion of chemical energy into electrica

  9. Automotive battery technology

    CERN Document Server

    Watzenig, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The use of electrochemical energy storage systems in automotive applications also involves new requirements for modeling these systems, especially in terms of model depth and model quality. Currently, mainly simple application-oriented models are used to describe the physical behavior of batteries. This book provides a step beyond of state-of-the-art modeling showing various different approaches covering following aspects: system safety, misuse behavior (crash, thermal runaway), battery state estimation and electrochemical modeling with the needed analysis (pre/post mortem). All this different approaches are developed to support the overall integration process from a multidisciplinary point-of-view and depict their further enhancements to this process.

  10. Effect of Nutrition Education Program on the Recommended Weight Gain in during Pregnancy Application of Health Belief Model: A Randomaized Cilinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohebi M.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Nutrition in pregnancy has an important role in fetus and mother health, and also in the pregnancy outcome. One of the significant changes related to nutrition is weight gain of pregnant women as one of the influencing indicators which is measured by Body Mass Index (BMI. This study was conducted to determine nutritional education effect upon pregnancy weight gain in pregnant women on the basis of health belief model (HBM in Gonabad, Iran.Methods: This is a quasi-experimental randomized and controlled study on 110 pregnant women referring to health centers in Gonabad, Iran. They were divided into experimental and control groups who participated in the study, in the year of 2009. The data of two groups were collected by reliable and valid questionnaires during the first part of pregnancy care in pre-test stage. Then, two educational sessions were held for the experimental group. Post test was done for both groups in the last stage of pregnancy care, and the data were analyzed by paired T, T independent, the correlation coefficient, Mann-Whitney, and Chi-square. A p<0.05 was considered to be significant.Results: No significant differences were found between the education, parity, abortion, jobs and the mean age of the two groups. After the intervention, the mean score of knowledge, perceived susceptibility, severity, threat, benefits and barriers and nutritional behavior in the experimental group, significantly changed in the control group (p<0.01. Moreover, statistical analyses showed a significant difference between the two groups in gaining recommended weight in pregnancy.Conclusion: While 77.78% of the experimental group members achieved recommend MBI, just 32.29% of those in the control group had a gain in this criterion. This study proved that HBM application in nutritional education was successfully effective to gain recommended weight in pregnancy, so that increasing suitable weight gain reached maximum and un

  11. Administrative and Teacher Efforts for Elementary Emotionally Disturbed and Behaviorally-Disordered Students: A Literary Review and Recommendations for an Inclusion Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rife, Racheal M.; Karr-Kidwell, PJ

    This paper reviews the literature on inclusion of children with emotional and behavioral disorders in regular education classrooms and proposes implementation of an inclusion program at one elementary school in Texas. The literature review covers the following aspects of inclusion: teacher selection and their expectations, professional…

  12. Establishing Proficiency Levels for the Delaware Student Testing Program in Science and Social Studies, Grades 4 & 6. Report and Recommendations to the Delaware State Board of Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaware State Dept. of Education, Dover. Assessment and Accountability Branch.

    This document contains the results of a standard setting conducted in January 2002 on the Delaware Student Testing Program (DSTP) Science and Social Studies tests at grades 4 and 6. Each standard setting process entailed convening four groups, one for each grade level and content area, and each group met for 2 days. At the standard setting judges…

  13. Battery switch for downhole tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boling, Brian E.

    2010-02-23

    An electrical circuit for a downhole tool may include a battery, a load electrically connected to the battery, and at least one switch electrically connected in series with the battery and to the load. The at least one switch may be configured to close when a tool temperature exceeds a selected temperature.

  14. Recycling of batteries after storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Posthumus, W.

    1997-06-01

    An overview is given of the types and composition of batteries and their waste processing techniques that are operational or under development. Attention is paid to the demands of the waste processing techniques with respect to the quality of the collected batteries. Finally the storage of batteries is discussed. 18 refs

  15. Batteries, from Cradle to Grave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael J.; Gray, Fiona M.

    2010-01-01

    As battery producers and vendors, legislators, and the consumer population become aware of the consequences of inappropriate disposal of batteries to landfill sites instead of responsible chemical neutralization and reuse, the topic of battery recycling has begun to appear on the environmental agenda. In the United Kingdom, estimates of annual…

  16. Control of doses delivered to patients in medical imagery. Progress report of the program of actions recommended by the ASN. January 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    This report proposes an overview and an assessment of the various actions recommended by the ASN (the French Nuclear Safety Authority) for a better management of doses delivered to patients in the case of medical imagery. It indicates and discusses the progress noticed: actions which have been already performed, actions which are currently in progress, and actions which are still to be launched. These actions concern various aspects: the practice quality and safety (quality and safety management), the organisation, human resources and training, equipment and installation safety, radio-vigilance practices, relationships with patients, knowledge of practices and of exposures of patients and workers. Some highlights are outlined: some persistent lacks in human resources, some encouraging initiatives in the field of training, some progresses in the field of practice quality and safety, and some limited results regarding equipment (notably MRI) and installation safety

  17. Earthquake risk reduction in the United States: An assessment of selected user needs and recommendations for the National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    This Assessment was conducted to improve the National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program (NEHRP) by providing NEHRP agencies with information that supports their user-oriented setting of crosscutting priorities in the NEHRP strategic planning process. The primary objective of this Assessment was to take a ``snapshot`` evaluation of the needs of selected users throughout the major program elements of NEHRP. Secondary objectives were to conduct an assessment of the knowledge that exists (or is being developed by NEHRP) to support earthquake risk reduction, and to begin a process of evaluating how NEHRP is meeting user needs. An identification of NEHRP`s strengths also resulted from the effort, since those strengths demonstrate successful methods that may be useful to NEHRP in the future. These strengths are identified in the text, and many of them represent important achievements since the Earthquake Hazards Reduction Act was passed in 1977.

  18. Promoting fruit and vegetable consumption in different lifestyle groups: Recommendations for program development based on behavioral research and consumer media data

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeJoy, David M.; Lance, Charles E.

    2014-01-01

    Fruit and vegetable consumption impacts the etiology of cardiovascular disease as well as many different types of cancers. Still, Americans' consumption of fruit and vegetables is low. This article builds on initial research that assessed the validity of using a consumer-based psychographic audience segmentation in tandem with the theory of planned behavior to explain differences among individuals' consumption of fruit and vegetables. In this article, we integrate the findings from our initial analyses with media and purchase data from each audience segment. We then propose distinct, tailored program suggestions for reinventing social marketing programs focused on increasing fruit and vegetable consumption in each segment. Finally, we discuss the implications of utilizing a consumer-based psychographic audience segmentation versus more traditional readiness-to-change social marketing segmentation. Differences between these two segmentation strategies, such as the ability to access media usage and purchase data, are highlighted and discussed. PMID:18935880

  19. Promoting fruit and vegetable consumption in different lifestyle groups: recommendations for program development based on behavioral research and consumer media data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della, Lindsay J; DeJoy, David M; Lance, Charles E

    2008-01-01

    Fruit and vegetable consumption affects the etiology of cardiovascular disease as well as many different types of cancers. Still, Americans' consumption of fruit and vegetables is low. This article builds on initial research that assessed the validity of using a consumer-based psychographic audience segmentation in tandem with the theory of planned behavior to explain differences among individuals' consumption of fruit and vegetables. In this article, we integrate the findings from our initial analyses with media and purchase data from each audience segment. We then propose distinct, tailored program suggestions for reinventing social marketing programs focused on increasing fruit and vegetable consumption in each segment. Finally, we discuss the implications of utilizing a consumer-based psychographic audience segmentation versus a more traditional readiness-to-change social marketing segmentation. Differences between these two segmentation strategies, such as the ability to access media usage and purchase data, are highlighted and discussed.

  20. Remote RF Battery Charging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, H.J.; Pop, V.; Op het Veld, J.H.G.; Vullers, R.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    The design of a remote RF battery charger is discussed through the analysis and design of the subsystems of a rectenna (rectifying antenna): antenna, rectifying circuit and loaded DC-to-DC voltage (buck-boost) converter. Optimum system power generation performance is obtained by adopting a system

  1. Intelligent automotive battery systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witehira, P.

    A single power-supply battery is incompatible with modern vehicles. A one-cmbination 12 cell/12 V battery, developed by Power Beat International Limited (PBIL), is described. The battery is designed to be a 'drop in' replacement for existing batteries. The cell structures, however, are designed according to load function, i.e., high-current shallow-discharge cycles and low-current deep-discharge cycles. The preferred energy discharge management logic and integration into the power distribution network of the vehicle to provide safe user-friendly usage is described. The system is designed to operate transparent to the vehicle user. The integrity of the volatile high-current cells is maintained by temperature-sensitive voltage control and discharge management. The deep-cycle cells can be fully utilized without affecting startability under extreme conditions. Electric energy management synchronization with engine starting will provide at least 6% overall reduction in hydrocarbon emissions using an intelligent on-board power-supply technology developed by PBIL.

  2. USED BATTERIES-REMINDER

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Note from the TIS Division: Although it is not an obligation for CERN to collect, store and dispose of used batteries from private vehicles, they are often found abandoned on the site and even in the scrap metal bins. As well as being very dangerous (they contain sulphuric acid which is highly corrosive), this practise costs CERN a non-negligible amount of money to dispose of them safely. The disposal of used batteries in the host state could not be simpler, there are 'déchetteries' in neighbouring France at Saint-Genis, Gaillard and Annemasse as well as in other communes. In Geneva Canton the centre de traitement des déchets spéciaux, at Cheneviers on the river Rhône a few kilometers from CERN, will dispose of your batterie free of charge. So we ask you to use a little common sense and to help protect the environnement from the lead and acid in these batteries and even more important, to avoid the possibility of a colleague being seriously injured. It doesn't take m...

  3. Weston Standard battery

    CERN Multimedia

    This is a Weston AOIP standard battery with its calibration certificate (1956). Inside, the glassware forms an "H". Its name comes from the British physicist Edward Weston. A standard is the materialization of a given quantity whose value is known with great accuracy.

  4. High energy battery. Hochenergiebatterie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehm, H.; Beyermann, G.; Bulling, M.

    1992-03-26

    In a high energy battery with a large number of individual cells in a housing with a cooling medium flowing through it, it is proposed that the cooling medium should be guided so that it only affects one or both sides of the cells thermally.

  5. Environmental, health, and safety issues of sodium-sulfur batteries for electric and hybrid vehicles. Volume 1, Cell and battery safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohi, J M

    1992-09-01

    This report is the first of four volumes that identify and assess the environmental, health, and safety issues involved in using sodium-sulfur (Na/S) battery technology as the energy source in electric and hybrid vehicles that may affect the commercialization of Na/S batteries. This and the other reports on recycling, shipping, and vehicle safety are intended to help the Electric and Hybrid Propulsion Division of the Office of Transportation Technologies in the US Department of Energy (DOE/EHP) determine the direction of its research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) program for Na/S battery technology. The reports review the status of Na/S battery RD&D and identify potential hazards and risks that may require additional research or that may affect the design and use of Na/S batteries. This volume covers cell design and engineering as the basis of safety for Na/S batteries and describes and assesses the potential chemical, electrical, and thermal hazards and risks of Na/S cells and batteries as well as the RD&D performed, under way, or to address these hazards and risks. The report is based on a review of the literature and on discussions with experts at DOE, national laboratories and agencies, universities, and private industry. Subsequent volumes will address environmental, health, and safety issues involved in shipping cells and batteries, using batteries to propel electric vehicles, and recycling and disposing of spent batteries. The remainder of this volume is divided into two major sections on safety at the cell and battery levels. The section on Na/S cells describes major component and potential failure modes, design, life testing and failure testing, thermal cycling, and the safety status of Na/S cells. The section on batteries describes battery design, testing, and safety status. Additional EH&S information on Na/S batteries is provided in the appendices.

  6. Battery Separator Characterization and Evaluation Procedures for NASA's Advanced Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Richard S.; Bennet, William R.; Wong, Eunice K.; Lewton, MaryBeth R.; Harris, Megan K.

    2010-01-01

    To address the future performance and safety requirements for the electrical energy storage technologies that will enhance and enable future NASA manned aerospace missions, advanced rechargeable, lithium-ion battery technology development is being pursued within the scope of the NASA Exploration Technology Development Program s (ETDP's) Energy Storage Project. A critical cell-level component of a lithium-ion battery which significantly impacts both overall electrochemical performance and safety is the porous separator that is sandwiched between the two active cell electrodes. To support the selection of the optimal cell separator material(s) for the advanced battery technology and chemistries under development, laboratory characterization and screening procedures were established to assess and compare separator material-level attributes and associated separator performance characteristics.

  7. Flow Battery Solution for Smart Grid Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2014-11-30

    To address future grid requirements, a U.S. Department of Energy ARRA Storage Demonstration program was launched in 2009 to commercialize promising technologies needed for stronger and more renewables-intensive grids. Raytheon Ktech and EnerVault received a cost-share grant award from the U.S. Department of Energy to develop a grid-scale storage system based on EnerVault’s iron-chromium redox flow battery technology.

  8. Using Survival Analysis to Evaluate Medical Equipment Battery Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhajda, David

    2016-01-01

    As hospital medical device managers obtain more data, opportunities exist for using the data to improve medical device management, enhance patient safety, and evaluate costs of decisions. As a demonstration of the ability to use data analytics, this article applies survival analysis statistical techniques to assist in making decisions on medical equipment maintenance. The analysis was performed on a large amount of data related to failures of an infusion pump manufacturer's lithium battery and two aftermarket replacement lithium batteries from one hospital facility. The survival analysis resulted in statistical evidence showing that one of the third-party batteries had a lower survival curve than the infusion pump manufacturer's battery. This lower survival curve translates to a shorter expected life before replacement is needed. The data suggested that to limit unexpected failures, replacing batteries at a two-year interval, rather than the current industry recommendation of three years, may be warranted. For less than $5,400 in additional annual cost, the risk of unexpected battery failures can be reduced from an estimated 28% to an estimated 7%.

  9. State Student Financial Aid. Report and Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florida State Postsecondary Education Planning Commission, Tallahassee.

    This report presents the results of a review of all state student financial aid programs in Florida and presents recommendations concerning program consolidation. The review was designed to address a variety of aid-related issues, including unexpended financial aid resources, program consolidation, budget request and aid distribution procedures,…

  10. Semantically Enhanced Recommender Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Montiel, Manuela; Aldana-Montes, José F.

    Recommender Systems have become a significant area in the context of web personalization, given the large amount of available data. Ontologies can be widely taken advantage of in recommender systems, since they provide a means of classifying and discovering of new information about the items to recommend, about user profiles and even about their context. We have developed a semantically enhanced recommender system based on this kind of ontologies. In this paper we present a description of the proposed system.

  11. Modeling for Battery Prognostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Chetan S.; Goebel, Kai; Khasin, Michael; Hogge, Edward; Quach, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    For any battery-powered vehicles (be it unmanned aerial vehicles, small passenger aircraft, or assets in exoplanetary operations) to operate at maximum efficiency and reliability, it is critical to monitor battery health as well performance and to predict end of discharge (EOD) and end of useful life (EOL). To fulfil these needs, it is important to capture the battery's inherent characteristics as well as operational knowledge in the form of models that can be used by monitoring, diagnostic, and prognostic algorithms. Several battery modeling methodologies have been developed in last few years as the understanding of underlying electrochemical mechanics has been advancing. The models can generally be classified as empirical models, electrochemical engineering models, multi-physics models, and molecular/atomist. Empirical models are based on fitting certain functions to past experimental data, without making use of any physicochemical principles. Electrical circuit equivalent models are an example of such empirical models. Electrochemical engineering models are typically continuum models that include electrochemical kinetics and transport phenomena. Each model has its advantages and disadvantages. The former type of model has the advantage of being computationally efficient, but has limited accuracy and robustness, due to the approximations used in developed model, and as a result of such approximations, cannot represent aging well. The latter type of model has the advantage of being very accurate, but is often computationally inefficient, having to solve complex sets of partial differential equations, and thus not suited well for online prognostic applications. In addition both multi-physics and atomist models are computationally expensive hence are even less suited to online application An electrochemistry-based model of Li-ion batteries has been developed, that captures crucial electrochemical processes, captures effects of aging, is computationally efficient

  12. Advanced Battery Manufacturing (VA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stratton, Jeremy

    2012-09-30

    LiFeBATT has concentrated its recent testing and evaluation on the safety of its batteries. There appears to be a good margin of safety with respect to overheating of the cells and the cases being utilized for the batteries are specifically designed to dissipate any heat built up during charging. This aspect of LiFeBATT’s products will be even more fully investigated, and assuming ongoing positive results, it will become a major component of marketing efforts for the batteries. LiFeBATT has continued to receive prismatic 20 Amp hour cells from Taiwan. Further testing continues to indicate significant advantages over the previously available 15 Ah cells. Battery packs are being assembled with battery management systems in the Danville facility. Comprehensive tests are underway at Sandia National Laboratory to provide further documentation of the advantages of these 20 Ah cells. The company is pursuing its work with Hybrid Vehicles of Danville to critically evaluate the 20 Ah cells in a hybrid, armored vehicle being developed for military and security applications. Results have been even more encouraging than they were initially. LiFeBATT is expanding its work with several OEM customers to build a worldwide distribution network. These customers include a major automotive consulting group in the U.K., an Australian maker of luxury off-road campers, and a number of makers of E-bikes and scooters. LiFeBATT continues to explore the possibility of working with nations that are woefully short of infrastructure. Negotiations are underway with Siemens to jointly develop a system for using photovoltaic generation and battery storage to supply electricity to communities that are not currently served adequately. The IDA has continued to monitor the progress of LiFeBATT’s work to ensure that all funds are being expended wisely and that matching funds will be generated as promised. The company has also remained current on all obligations for repayment of an IDA loan and lease

  13. LithoRec. Recycling of lithium-ion batteries. Within the R and D program ''Promotion of research and development in the field of electric mobility''. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwade, Arno; Baerwaldt, Gunnar

    2012-01-01

    In the project ''LithoRec - Recycling of lithium-ion batteries'' several methods were evaluated for recycling of traction batteries. The planning of dismantling of the battery systems in LithoRec comprised besides the pure system planning also first investigations of the automation of dismantling steps, inter alia, with the prototypical realization of a gripper system for the removal of the battery cells. Processes for disassembling the cells and separating the active materials of the metal foils has been investigated in the laboratory and established with respect to the shredding of the cells in the pilot-plant scale. For hydrometallurgical treatment of separated coating powder of lithium-ion batteries in LithoRec a pilot plant has been realized. Ecological and economical balances on the basis of investigations carried out in the laboratory or pilot plant scale showed positive results. For the separation of the battery systems to the levels of the cathodic active material powder, a consistent approach was developed, which showed very good results in laboratory equipment. [de

  14. U.S. DOE FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies Advanced Technology Development Program for Lithium-Ion Batteries: Gen 2 Performance Evaluation Interim Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jon P. Christophersen; Chet Motloch; Ira D. Bloom; Vince Battaglia; Ganesan Nagasubramanian; Tien Q. Duong

    2003-02-01

    The Advanced Technology Development Program is currently evaluating the performance of the second generation of Lithium-ion cells (i.e., Gen 2 cells). The 18650-size Gen 2 cells consist of a baseline chemistry and one variant chemistry. These cells were distributed over a matrix consisting of three states-of-charge (SOC) (60, 80, and 100% SOC), four temperatures (25, 35, 45, and 55°C), and three life tests (calendar-, cycle-, and accelerated-life). The calendar-life cells are clamped at an opencircuit voltage corresponding to 60% SOC and undergo a once-per-day pulse profile. The cycle-life cells are continuously pulsed using a profile that is centered around 60% SOC. The accelerated-life cells are following the calendar-life test procedures, but using the cycle-life pulse profile. Life testing is interrupted every four weeks for reference performance tests (RPTs), which are used to quantify changes in capacity, resistance, and power. The RPTs consist of a C1/1 and C1/25 static capacity tests, a low-current hybrid pulse power characterization test, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy at 60% SOC. Capacity-, power-, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy-based performance results are reported.

  15. Grain Boundary Engineering of Lithium-Ion-Conducting Lithium Lanthanum Titanate for Lithium-Air Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Titanate for Lithium-Air Batteries by Victoria L Blair, Claire V Weiss Brennan, and Joseph M Marsico Approved for public...Air Batteries by Victoria L Blair and Claire V Weiss Brennan Weapons and Materials Research Directorate, ARL Joseph M Marsico Rochester...Titanate for Lithium-Air Batteries 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Victoria L Blair, Claire V

  16. Arrays of Synthetic Atoms: Nanocapacitor Batteries with Large Energy Density and Small Leak Currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-28

    AFRL-RV-PS- AFRL-RV-PS- TR-2017-0169 TR-2017-0169 ARRAYS OF SYNTHETIC ATOMS: NANOCAPACITOR BATTERIES WITH LARGE ENERGY DENSITY AND SMALL LEAK...1-0247 Arrays of Synthetic Atoms: Nanocapacitor Batteries with Large Energy Density and Small Leak Currents 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...large dielectric strength to a nanoscale rechargeable battery . We fabricated arrays of one-, two- and three-dimensional synthetic atoms and comparison

  17. Batteries and accumulators in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-12-01

    The present report gives an overview of the batteries and accumulators market in France in 2011 based on the data reported through ADEME's Register of Batteries and accumulators. In 2001, the French Environmental Agency, known as ADEME, implemented a follow-up of the batteries and accumulators market, creating the Observatory of batteries and accumulators (B and A). In 2010, ADEME created the National Register of producers of Batteries and Accumulators in the context of the implementation of the order issued on November 18, 2009. This is one of the four enforcement orders for the decree 2009-1139 issued on September 22, 2009, concerning batteries and accumulators put on the market and the disposal of waste batteries and accumulators, and which transposes the EU-Directive 2006/66/CE into French law. This Register follows the former Observatory for batteries and accumulators. This Register aims to record the producers on French territory and to collect the B and A producers and recycling companies' annual reporting: the regulation indeed requires that all B and A producers and recycling companies report annually on the Register the quantities of batteries and accumulators they put on the market, collect and treat. Based on this data analysis, ADEME issues an annual report allowing both the follow-up of the batteries and accumulators market in France and communication regarding the achievement of the collection and recovery objectives set by EU regulation. This booklet presents the situation in France in 2011

  18. Batteries not included

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, M.

    2001-09-08

    This article traces the development of clockwork wind-up battery chargers that can be used to recharge mobile phones, laptop computers, torches or radio batteries from the pioneering research of the British inventor Trevor Baylis to the marketing of the wind-up gadgets by Freeplay Energy who turned the idea into a commercial product. The amount of cranking needed to power wind-up devices is discussed along with a hand-cranked charger for mobile phones, upgrading the phone charger's mechanism, and drawbacks of the charger. Details are given of another invention using a hand-cranked generator with a supercapacitor as a storage device which has a very much higher capacity for storing electrical charge.

  19. Batteries not included

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, M.

    2001-01-01

    This article traces the development of clockwork wind-up battery chargers that can be used to recharge mobile phones, laptop computers, torches or radio batteries from the pioneering research of the British inventor Trevor Baylis to the marketing of the wind-up gadgets by Freeplay Energy who turned the idea into a commercial product. The amount of cranking needed to power wind-up devices is discussed along with a hand-cranked charger for mobile phones, upgrading the phone charger's mechanism, and drawbacks of the charger. Details are given of another invention using a hand-cranked generator with a supercapacitor as a storage device which has a very much higher capacity for storing electrical charge

  20. Block copolymer battery separator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, David; Balsara, Nitash Pervez

    2016-04-26

    The invention herein described is the use of a block copolymer/homopolymer blend for creating nanoporous materials for transport applications. Specifically, this is demonstrated by using the block copolymer poly(styrene-block-ethylene-block-styrene) (SES) and blending it with homopolymer polystyrene (PS). After blending the polymers, a film is cast, and the film is submerged in tetrahydrofuran, which removes the PS. This creates a nanoporous polymer film, whereby the holes are lined with PS. Control of morphology of the system is achieved by manipulating the amount of PS added and the relative size of the PS added. The porous nature of these films was demonstrated by measuring the ionic conductivity in a traditional battery electrolyte, 1M LiPF.sub.6 in EC/DEC (1:1 v/v) using AC impedance spectroscopy and comparing these results to commercially available battery separators.

  1. Trust for intelligent recommendation

    CERN Document Server

    Bhuiyan, Touhid

    2013-01-01

    Recommender systems are one of the recent inventions to deal with the ever-growing information overload in relation to the selection of goods and services in a global economy. Collaborative Filtering (CF) is one of the most popular techniques in recommender systems. The CF recommends items to a target user based on the preferences of a set of similar users known as the neighbors, generated from a database made up of the preferences of past users. In the absence of these ratings, trust between the users could be used to choose the neighbor for recommendation making. Better recommendations can b

  2. Miniaturized nuclear battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adler, K.; Ducommun, G.

    1976-01-01

    The invention relates to a miniaturized nuclear battery, consisting of several in series connected cells, wherein each cell contains a support which acts as positive pole and which supports on one side a β-emitter, above said emitter is a radiation resisting insulation layer which is covered by an absorption layer, above which is a collector layer, and wherein the in series connected calls are disposed in an airtight case

  3. WEEE and portable batteries in residual household waste: Quantification and characterisation of misplaced waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bigum, Marianne, E-mail: mkkb@env.dtu.dk [Technical University of Denmark, Department of Environmental Engineering, Miljøvej 113, 2500 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Petersen, Claus, E-mail: claus_petersen@econet.dk [Econet A/S, Strandboulevarden 122, 5, 2100 København Ø (Denmark); Christensen, Thomas H., E-mail: thho@env.dtu.dk [Technical University of Denmark, Department of Environmental Engineering, Miljøvej 113, 2500 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Scheutz, Charlotte, E-mail: chas@env.dtu.dk [Technical University of Denmark, Department of Environmental Engineering, Miljøvej 113, 2500 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • We analyse 26.1 Mg of residual waste from 3129 Danish households. • We quantify and characterise misplaced WEEE and portable batteries. • We compare misplaced WEEE and batteries to collection through dedicated schemes. • Characterisation showed that primarily small WEEE and light sources are misplaced. • Significant amounts of misplaced batteries were discarded as built-in WEEE. - Abstract: A total of 26.1 Mg of residual waste from 3129 households in 12 Danish municipalities was analysed and revealed that 89.6 kg of Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE), 11 kg of batteries, 2.2 kg of toners and 16 kg of cables had been wrongfully discarded. This corresponds to a Danish household discarding 29 g of WEEE (7 items per year), 4 g of batteries (9 batteries per year), 1 g of toners and 7 g of unidentifiable cables on average per week, constituting 0.34% (w/w), 0.04% (w/w), 0.01% (w/w) and 0.09% (w/w), respectively, of residual waste. The study also found that misplaced WEEE and batteries in the residual waste constituted 16% and 39%, respectively, of what is being collected properly through the dedicated special waste collection schemes. This shows that a large amount of batteries are being discarded with the residual waste, whereas WEEE seems to be collected relatively successfully through the dedicated special waste collection schemes. Characterisation of the misplaced batteries showed that 20% (w/w) of the discarded batteries were discarded as part of WEEE (built-in). Primarily alkaline batteries, carbon zinc batteries and alkaline button cell batteries were found to be discarded with the residual household waste. Characterisation of WEEE showed that primarily small WEEE (WEEE directive categories 2, 5a, 6, 7 and 9) and light sources (WEEE directive category 5b) were misplaced. Electric tooth brushes, watches, clocks, headphones, flashlights, bicycle lights, and cables were items most frequently found. It is recommended that these

  4. Geologic report and recommendations for the cobalt mission to Morocco sponsored by The Trade and Development Program of the International Development Cooperation Agency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foose, M.P.; Rossman, D.L.

    1982-01-01

    A mission sponsored by the Trade and Development Program (TDP) of the International Development Cooperation Agency (IDCA) went to Morocco to evaluate the possibility of finding additional sources of cobalt in that country, as well as other types of mineralization. Information obtained during this trip shows Morocco to be a country for which much geologic information is available and in which there are many favorable target areas for future exploration. Work in the Bou Azzer district (Morocco's principal cobalt district) shows that much excellent geologic work has been done in searching for additional deposits. However, a number of useful approaches to locate cobalt have not been tried, and their use might be successful. The potential for undiscovered deposits in the Bou Azzer region seems very high. The cobalt mineralization in the Siroua uplift is different from that in the Bou Azzer district. However, geologic similarities between the two areas suggest that a genetic link may exist between the two types of mineralization. This further indicates that cobalt deposits of the Bou Azzer types might be present in the Siroua region. Examination of the Bleida copper mine shows it to be a well-exposed volcanic hosted stratabound copper deposit. Large unexplored areas containing similar rocks occur near this deposit and may contain as yet undiscovered copper mineralization.

  5. Electric batteries and the environment. Die Batterie und die Umwelt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiller, F; Hartinger, L; Kiehne, H A; Niklas, H; Schiele, R; Steil, H U

    1987-01-01

    The book deals with the production, use and waste management of batteries (accumulators and primary batteries), with regard to protection of the environment. Legal, technical and medical aspects are shown. There are numerous electro-chemical systems, but only few proved to be really good in practice. Most batteries contain lead, cadmium or mercury and must therefore be eliminated in a way doing no harm to the environment. Large quantities of the above named heavy metals are today already being recovered by means of appropriate procedures. The reduction of these heavy metals in batteries is also described to be a contribution to the protection of the environment. (orig.) With 67 figs.

  6. Nuclear battery materials and application of nuclear batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao Shaochang; Lu Zhenming; Fu Xiaoming; Liang Tongxiang

    2006-01-01

    Nuclear battery has lots of advantages such as small volume, longevity, environal stability and so on, therefore, it was widely used in aerospace, deep-sea, polar region, heart pacemaker, micro-electromotor and other fields etc. The application of nuclear battery and the development of its materials promote each other. In this paper the development and the latest research progress of nuclear battery materials has been introduced from the view of radioisotope, electric energy conversion and encapsulation. And the current and potential applications of the nuclear battery are also summarized. (authors)

  7. Wireless battery management control and monitoring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zumstein, James M.; Chang, John T.; Farmer, Joseph C.; Kovotsky, Jack; Lavietes, Anthony; Trebes, James Edward

    2018-01-16

    A battery management system using a sensor inside of the battery that sensor enables monitoring and detection of various events in the battery and transmission of a signal from the sensor through the battery casing to a control and data acquisition module by wireless transmission. The detection of threshold events in the battery enables remedial action to be taken to avoid catastrophic events.

  8. 49 CFR 173.159 - Batteries, wet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Batteries, wet. 173.159 Section 173.159... Batteries, wet. (a) Electric storage batteries, containing electrolyte acid or alkaline corrosive battery fluid (wet batteries), may not be packed with other materials except as provided in paragraphs (g) and...

  9. Roussely report: recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2010-01-01

    A summary of the Roussely report on how to reinforce and support French nuclear industry, has been made public. This report recommends a series of measures. The main measures are: 1) the quick achievement in the best conditions possible of the Olkiluoto plant, 2) to assure the construction of Flamanville-3 under the best conditions of cost and delay, 3) to benefit totally from the feedback experiences of the construction of Olkiluoto and Flamanville-3 for the construction of Penly-3 and of the English program of EPR, 4) to confirm EDF as a leader for French industrial bids proposing nuclear power plants, 5) to diversify the offer of reactors for international bids, 6) to set a common body of rules for all the employees working in the nuclear sector in France, 7) to support the extension of service life of power reactors up to 60 years if safety is not at stake, 8) to promote French safety regulations at an international scale, and 9) to create a university of nuclear engineering. (A.C.)

  10. Site Recommendation Subsurface Layout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    C.L. Linden

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to develop a Subsurface Facility layout that is capable of accommodating the statutory capacity of 70,000 metric tons of uranium (MTU), as well as an option to expand the inventory capacity, if authorized, to 97,000 MTU. The layout configuration also requires a degree of flexibility to accommodate potential changes in site conditions or program requirements. The objective of this analysis is to provide a conceptual design of the Subsurface Facility sufficient to support the development of the Subsurface Facility System Description Document (CRWMS M andO 2000e) and the ''Emplacement Drift System Description Document'' (CRWMS M andO 2000i). As well, this analysis provides input to the Site Recommendation Consideration Report. The scope of this analysis includes: (1) Evaluation of the existing facilities and their integration into the Subsurface Facility design. (2) Identification and incorporation of factors influencing Subsurface Facility design, such as geological constraints, thermal loading, constructibility, subsurface ventilation, drainage control, radiological considerations, and the Test and Evaluation Facilities. (3) Development of a layout showing an available area in the primary area sufficient to support both the waste inventories and individual layouts showing the emplacement area required for 70,000 MTU and, if authorized, 97,000 MTU

  11. Recommended HSE-7 documents hierarchy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, R.B.; Jennrich, E.A.; Lund, D.M.; Danna, J.G.; Davis, K.D.; Rutz, A.C.

    1990-01-01

    This report recommends a hierarchy of waste management documents at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL or ''Laboratory''). The hierarchy addresses documents that are required to plan, implement, and document waste management programs at Los Alamos. These documents will enable the waste management group and the six sections contained within that group to satisfy requirements that are imposed upon them by the US Department of Energy (DOE), DOE Albuquerque Operations, US Environmental Protection Agency, various State of New Mexico agencies, and Laboratory management

  12. 76 FR 6180 - First Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225: Rechargeable Lithium Batteries and Battery Systems...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-03

    ... 225: Rechargeable Lithium Batteries and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Sizes AGENCY: Federal... Lithium Batteries and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Sizes. SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to advise the public of a meeting of RTCA Special Committee 225: Rechargeable Lithium Batteries and Battery...

  13. 76 FR 22161 - Second Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225: Rechargeable Lithium Batteries and Battery Systems...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-20

    ... Committee 225: Rechargeable Lithium Batteries and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Sizes AGENCY: Federal... Lithium Batteries and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Sizes. SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to advise the public of a meeting of RTCA Special Committee 225: Rechargeable Lithium Batteries and Battery...

  14. 76 FR 38741 - Third Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225: Rechargeable Lithium Batteries and Battery Systems...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    ... 225: Rechargeable Lithium Batteries and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Sizes AGENCY: Federal... Lithium Batteries and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Sizes. SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to advise the public of a meeting of RTCA Special Committee 225: Rechargeable Lithium Batteries and Battery...

  15. 78 FR 55773 - Fourteenth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-11

    ... Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size AGENCY: Federal... Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size. SUMMARY... Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size DATES: The meeting...

  16. 78 FR 16031 - Twelfth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-13

    ... Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size AGENCY: Federal... Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size. SUMMARY... Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size. DATES: The meeting...

  17. 77 FR 39321 - Eighth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-02

    ... Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Sizes AGENCY: Federal... Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Sizes. SUMMARY... 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Sizes. DATES: The meeting will...

  18. 77 FR 8325 - Sixth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Batteries and Battery Systems...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-14

    ... 225, Rechargeable Lithium Batteries and Battery Systems, Small and Medium Size AGENCY: Federal... Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Batteries and Battery Systems, Small and Medium Size. SUMMARY: The FAA..., Rechargeable Lithium Batteries and Battery Systems, Small and Medium Size. DATES: The meeting will be held...

  19. 76 FR 54527 - Fourth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225: Rechargeable Lithium Batteries and Battery Systems...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    ... Committee 225: Rechargeable Lithium Batteries and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Sizes AGENCY: Federal... Lithium Batteries and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Sizes. SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to advise the public of a meeting of RTCA Special Committee 225: Rechargeable Lithium Batteries and Battery...

  20. 78 FR 6845 - Eleventh Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-31

    ... Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size AGENCY: Federal... Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size. SUMMARY... Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size. DATES: The meeting...

  1. 77 FR 20688 - Seventh Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Batteries and Battery Systems...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-05

    ... Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Batteries and Battery Systems, Small and Medium Size AGENCY: Federal... Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Batteries and Battery Systems, Small and Medium Size. SUMMARY: The FAA..., Rechargeable Lithium Batteries and Battery Systems, Small and Medium Size. DATES: The meeting will be held May...

  2. Alkaline batteries for hybrid and electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haschka, F.; Warthmann, W.; Benczúr-Ürmössy, G.

    Forced by the USABC PNGV Program and the EZEV regulation in California, the development of hybrid vehicles become more strong. Hybrids offer flexible and unrestricted mobility, as well as pollution-free driving mode in the city. To achieve these requirements, high-power storage systems are demanded fulfilled by alkaline batteries (e.g., nickel/cadmium, nickel/metal hydride). DAUG has developed nickel/cadmium- and nickel/metal hydride cells in Fibre Technology of different performance types (up to 700 W/kg peak power) and proved in electric vehicles of different projects. A special bipolar cell design will meet even extreme high power requirements with more than 1000 W/kg peak power. The cells make use of the Recom design ensuring high power charge ability at low internal gas pressure. The paper presents laboratory test results of cells and batteries.

  3. Alkaline batteries for hybrid and electric vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haschka, F.; Warthmann, W.; Benczur-Uermoessy, G. [DAUG Deutsche Automobilgesellschaft, Esslingen (Germany)

    1998-03-30

    Forced by the USABC PNGV Program and the EZEV regulation in California, the development of hybrid vehicles become more strong. Hybrids offer flexible and unrestricted mobility, as well as pollution-free driving mode in the city. To achieve these requirements, high-power storage systems are demanded fulfilled by alkaline batteries (e.g. nickel/cadmium, nickel/metal hydride). DAUG has developed nickel/cadmium- and nickel/metal hydride cells in Fibre Technology of different performance types (up to 700 W/kg peak power) and proved in electric vehicles of different projects. A special bipolar cell design will meet even extreme high power requirements with more than 1000 W/kg peak power. The cells make use of the Recom design ensuring high power charge ability at low internal gas pressure. The paper presents laboratory test results of cells and batteries. (orig.)

  4. Environmental, health, and safety issues of sodium-sulfur batteries for electric and hybrid vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohi, J.M.

    1992-09-01

    This report is the first of four volumes that identify and assess the environmental, health, and safety issues involved in using sodium-sulfur (Na/S) battery technology as the energy source in electric and hybrid vehicles that may affect the commercialization of Na/S batteries. This and the other reports on recycling, shipping, and vehicle safety are intended to help the Electric and Hybrid Propulsion Division of the Office of Transportation Technologies in the US Department of Energy (DOE/EHP) determine the direction of its research, development, and demonstration (RD D) program for Na/S battery technology. The reports review the status of Na/S battery RD D and identify potential hazards and risks that may require additional research or that may affect the design and use of Na/S batteries. This volume covers cell design and engineering as the basis of safety for Na/S batteries and describes and assesses the potential chemical, electrical, and thermal hazards and risks of Na/S cells and batteries as well as the RD D performed, under way, or to address these hazards and risks. The report is based on a review of the literature and on discussions with experts at DOE, national laboratories and agencies, universities, and private industry. Subsequent volumes will address environmental, health, and safety issues involved in shipping cells and batteries, using batteries to propel electric vehicles, and recycling and disposing of spent batteries. The remainder of this volume is divided into two major sections on safety at the cell and battery levels. The section on Na/S cells describes major component and potential failure modes, design, life testing and failure testing, thermal cycling, and the safety status of Na/S cells. The section on batteries describes battery design, testing, and safety status. Additional EH S information on Na/S batteries is provided in the appendices.

  5. Characterization of Vanadium Flow Battery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bindner, Henrik W.; Krog Ekman, Claus; Gehrke, Oliver

    of wind energy in the Danish power system. The battery has been in operation for 18 months. During time of operation the battery has not shown signs of degradation of performance. It has a round-trip efficiency at full load of approximately 60% (depending on temperature and SOC). The sources of the losses...... are power conversion in cell stacks/electrolyte, power converter, and auxiliary power consumption from pumps and controller. The response time for the battery is limited at...

  6. Nickel Hydrogen Battery Expert System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Yvette B.; Mccall, Kurt E.

    1992-01-01

    The Nickel Cadmium Battery Expert System-2, or 'NICBES-2', which was used by the NASA HST six-battery testbed, was subsequently converted into the Nickel Hydrogen Battery Expert System, or 'NICHES'. Accounts are presently given of this conversion process and future uses being contemplated for NICHES. NICHES will calculate orbital summary data at the end of each orbit, and store these files for trend analyses and rules-generation.

  7. Air and metal hydride battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lampinen, M.; Noponen, T. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Lab. of Applied Thermodynamics

    1998-12-31

    The main goal of the air and metal hydride battery project was to enhance the performance and manufacturing technology of both electrodes to such a degree that an air-metal hydride battery could become a commercially and technically competitive power source for electric vehicles. By the end of the project it was possible to demonstrate the very first prototype of the air-metal hydride battery at EV scale, achieving all the required design parameters. (orig.)

  8. Membranes in Lithium Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Min; Hou, Junbo

    2012-01-01

    Lithium ion batteries have proven themselves the main choice of power sources for portable electronics. Besides consumer electronics, lithium ion batteries are also growing in popularity for military, electric vehicle, and aerospace applications. The present review attempts to summarize the knowledge about some selected membranes in lithium ion batteries. Based on the type of electrolyte used, literature concerning ceramic-glass and polymer solid ion conductors, microporous filter type separators and polymer gel based membranes is reviewed. PMID:24958286

  9. Membranes in Lithium Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junbo Hou

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Lithium ion batteries have proven themselves the main choice of power sources for portable electronics. Besides consumer electronics, lithium ion batteries are also growing in popularity for military, electric vehicle, and aerospace applications. The present review attempts to summarize the knowledge about some selected membranes in lithium ion batteries. Based on the type of electrolyte used, literature concerning ceramic-glass and polymer solid ion conductors, microporous filter type separators and polymer gel based membranes is reviewed.

  10. High energy density lithium batteries

    CERN Document Server

    Aifantis, Katerina E; Kumar, R Vasant

    2010-01-01

    Cell phones, portable computers and other electronic devices crucially depend on reliable, compact yet powerful batteries. Therefore, intensive research is devoted to improving performance and reducing failure rates. Rechargeable lithium-ion batteries promise significant advancement and high application potential for hybrid vehicles, biomedical devices, and everyday appliances. This monograph provides special focus on the methods and approaches for enhancing the performance of next-generation batteries through the use of nanotechnology. Deeper understanding of the mechanisms and strategies is

  11. Battery Post-Test Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Post-test diagnostics of aged batteries can provide additional information regarding the cause of performance degradation, which, previously, could be only inferred...

  12. Trends in Cardiac Pacemaker Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkateswara Sarma Mallela

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Batteries used in Implantable cardiac pacemakers-present unique challenges to their developers and manufacturers in terms of high levels of safety and reliability. In addition, the batteries must have longevity to avoid frequent replacements. Technological advances in leads/electrodes have reduced energy requirements by two orders of magnitude. Micro-electronics advances sharply reduce internal current drain concurrently decreasing size and increasing functionality, reliability, and longevity. It is reported that about 600,000 pacemakers are implanted each year worldwide and the total number of people with various types of implanted pacemaker has already crossed 3 million. A cardiac pacemaker uses half of its battery power for cardiac stimulation and the other half for housekeeping tasks such as monitoring and data logging. The first implanted cardiac pacemaker used nickel-cadmium rechargeable battery, later on zinc-mercury battery was developed and used which lasted for over 2 years. Lithium iodine battery invented and used by Wilson Greatbatch and his team in 1972 made the real impact to implantable cardiac pacemakers. This battery lasts for about 10 years and even today is the power source for many manufacturers of cardiac pacemakers. This paper briefly reviews various developments of battery technologies since the inception of cardiac pacemaker and presents the alternative to lithium iodine battery for the near future.

  13. A VRLA battery simulation model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pascoe, Phillip E.; Anbuky, Adnan H.

    2004-01-01

    A valve regulated lead acid (VRLA) battery simulation model is an invaluable tool for the standby power system engineer. The obvious use for such a model is to allow the assessment of battery performance. This may involve determining the influence of cells suffering from state of health (SOH) degradation on the performance of the entire string, or the running of test scenarios to ascertain the most suitable battery size for the application. In addition, it enables the engineer to assess the performance of the overall power system. This includes, for example, running test scenarios to determine the benefits of various load shedding schemes. It also allows the assessment of other power system components, either for determining their requirements and/or vulnerabilities. Finally, a VRLA battery simulation model is vital as a stand alone tool for educational purposes. Despite the fundamentals of the VRLA battery having been established for over 100 years, its operating behaviour is often poorly understood. An accurate simulation model enables the engineer to gain a better understanding of VRLA battery behaviour. A system level multipurpose VRLA battery simulation model is presented. It allows an arbitrary battery (capacity, SOH, number of cells and number of strings) to be simulated under arbitrary operating conditions (discharge rate, ambient temperature, end voltage, charge rate and initial state of charge). The model accurately reflects the VRLA battery discharge and recharge behaviour. This includes the complex start of discharge region known as the coup de fouet

  14. Guidelines on Lithium-ion Battery Use in Space Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mckissock, Barbara; Loyselle, Patricia; Vogel, Elisa

    2009-01-01

    This guideline discusses a standard approach for defining, determining, and addressing safety, handling, and qualification standards for lithium-ion (Li-Ion) batteries to help the implementation of the technology in aerospace applications. Information from a variety of other sources relating to Li-ion batteries and their aerospace uses has been collected and included in this document. The sources used are listed in the reference section at the end of this document. The Li-Ion chemistry is highly energetic due to its inherent high specific energy and its flammable electrolyte. Due to the extreme importance of appropriate design, test, and hazard control of Li-ion batteries, it is recommended that all Government and industry users and vendors of this technology for space applications, especially involving humans, use this document for appropriate guidance prior to implementing the technology.

  15. Research, development and demonstration of nickel-zinc batteries for electric vehicle propulsion. Annual report, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-06-01

    Activities in a program to develop a Ni/Zn battery for electric vehicle propulsion are reported. Aspects discussed include battery design and development, nickel cathode study, and basic electrochemistry. A number of engineering drawings are supplied. 61 figures, 11 tables. (RWR)

  16. Research, development and demonstration of nickel-zinc batteries for electric vehicle propulsion. Annual report, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-10-01

    The work carried out under the Yardney Contract with ANL for R, D and D on nickel zinc batteries over the past year was directed in three major areas: (1) elucidating the failure modes of the nickel-zinc battery system; (2) improving performance of the system; and (3) effecting a cost reduction program. Progress on the three areas is reported. (TFD)

  17. Model-Based Design and Integration of Large Li-ion Battery Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Kandler; Kim, Gi-Heon; Santhanagopalan, Shriram; Shi, Ying; Pesaran, Ahmad; Mukherjee, Partha; Barai, Pallab; Maute, Kurt; Behrou, Reza; Patil, Chinmaya

    2015-11-17

    This presentation introduces physics-based models of batteries and software toolsets, including those developed by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Computer-Aided Engineering for Electric-Drive Vehicle Batteries Program (CAEBAT). The presentation highlights achievements and gaps in model-based tools for materials-to-systems design, lifetime prediction and control.

  18. Lithium/thionyl chloride batteries for the small intercontinental ballistic missile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, V. D. A.; Wilson, J. P.; Bruckner, J.; Inenaga, B.; Hall, J. C.

    The Small ICBM (SICBM) requires two batteries for flight testing; while power for the instrumentation and range safety system (IRSS) is furnished by a five-function battery set, the guidance and control system is powered by a three-function airborne power supply (APS). The activated stand requirements of the IRSS are met by the use of LiAlCl4/SOCl2 electrolyte in all cells. The APS cells employ a slightly acidic electrolyte. The SICBM's IRSS battery has already completed a formal certification program, and is accordingly the first spaceflight-qualified reserve Li battery.

  19. Optimised battery capacity utilisation within battery management systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilkins, S.; Rosca, B. (Bogdan); Jacob, J.; Hoedmaekers, E.

    2015-01-01

    Battery Management Systems (BMSs) play a key role in the performance of both hybrid and fully electric vehicles. Typically, the role of the BMS is to help maintain safety, performance, and overall efficiency of the battery pack. One important aspect of its operation is the estimation of the state of

  20. Development of nickel hydrogen battery expert system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiva, Sajjan G.

    1990-01-01

    The Hubble Telescope Battery Testbed employs the nickel-cadmium battery expert system (NICBES-2) which supports the evaluation of performances of Hubble Telescope spacecraft batteries and provides alarm diagnosis and action advice. NICBES-2 also provides a reasoning system along with a battery domain knowledge base to achieve this battery health management function. An effort to modify NICBES-2 to accommodate nickel-hydrogen battery environment in testbed is described.

  1. Battery Cell Balancing System and Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Francis J. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A battery cell balancing system is operable to utilize a relatively small number of transformers interconnected with a battery having a plurality of battery cells to selectively charge the battery cells. Windings of the transformers are simultaneously driven with a plurality of waveforms whereupon selected battery cells or groups of cells are selected and charged. A transformer drive circuit is operable to selectively vary the waveforms to thereby vary a weighted voltage associated with each of the battery cells.

  2. Solar photovoltaic charging of high voltage nickel metal hydride batteries using DC power conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Nelson A.; Gibson, Thomas L.

    There are an increasing number of vehicle choices available that utilize batteries and electric motors to reduce tailpipe emissions and increase fuel economy. The eventual production of electricity and hydrogen in a renewable fashion, such as using solar energy, can achieve the long-term vision of having no tailpipe environmental impact, as well as eliminating the dependence of the transportation sector on dwindling supplies of petroleum for its energy. In this report we will demonstrate the solar-powered charging of the high-voltage nickel-metal hydride (NiMH) battery used in the GM 2-mode hybrid system. In previous studies we have used low-voltage solar modules to produce hydrogen via the electrolysis of water and to directly charge lithium-ion battery modules. Our strategy in the present work was to boost low-voltage PV voltage to over 300 V using DC-DC converters in order to charge the high-voltage NiMH battery, and to regulate the battery charging using software to program the electronic control unit supplied with the battery pack. A protocol for high-voltage battery charging was developed, and the solar to battery charging efficiency was measured under a variety of conditions. We believe this is the first time such high-voltage batteries have been charged using solar energy in order to prove the concept of efficient, solar-powered charging for battery-electric vehicles.

  3. Battery case. Batteriegehaeuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harnischmacher, F; Externbrink, H

    1982-08-28

    A battery cell for explosion proof or underground weatherproof portable lamps has a Kammerhof valve inserted in an opening in the cell lid. The Kammerhof valve is closed by means of a stopper made of sintered metal, whose outside dimensions are selected and whose pores are of such a size that the openings provided by the pores comply with VDE Regulation 0170/0171 regarding length and width. The stopper prevents ignition due to a short-circuit passing through to the outside into an environment containing explosive gas.

  4. OARSI Clinical Trials Recommendations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAlindon, T. E.; Driban, J. B.; Henrotin, Y.

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this document is to update the original OARSI recommendations specifically for the design, conduct, and reporting of clinical trials that target symptom or structure modification among individuals with knee osteoarthritis (OA). To develop recommendations for the design, conduct...

  5. Ubiquitous Multicriteria Clinic Recommendation System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Toly

    2016-05-01

    Advancements in information, communication, and sensor technologies have led to new opportunities in medical care and education. Patients in general prefer visiting the nearest clinic, attempt to avoid waiting for treatment, and have unequal preferences for different clinics and doctors. Therefore, to enable patients to compare multiple clinics, this study proposes a ubiquitous multicriteria clinic recommendation system. In this system, patients can send requests through their cell phones to the system server to obtain a clinic recommendation. Once the patient sends this information to the system, the system server first estimates the patient's speed according to the detection results of a global positioning system. It then applies a fuzzy integer nonlinear programming-ordered weighted average approach to assess four criteria and finally recommends a clinic with maximal utility to the patient. The proposed methodology was tested in a field experiment, and the experimental results showed that it is advantageous over two existing methods in elevating the utilities of recommendations. In addition, such an advantage was shown to be statistically significant.

  6. [Organizational recommendations for day surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bontemps, Gilles

    2014-03-01

    In France, the delayed development of day surgery compared to other countries led the ANAP and the HAS in 2011 to enter into a joint work program to provide some reference guide for hospitals to change their practices to outpatient. In this context, organizational guidelines and operational tools were published in May 2013. The method of construction of the recommendations resulting from an original work that combined a three-fold approach: field vision by identifying the highlights of 15 hospitals selected for their representative performance and analyzing the risks of five voluntary hospitals, mobilization organizational theories from the social sciences, using 53 professional experts. The work concluded on 16 organizational recommendations under four forms (basic principles, strategic elements, operational elements and perspectives). These recommendations are accompanied by tools and guides diagnosis and implementation, as well as productions for further reflection. These organizational recommendations confirmed the specificity of day surgery, which is not related to the act, but to the organization, management and optimization of different flows of a hospital (patient flow, professional flows, logistical, informational…). The performance of a day surgery organization is linked to its ability to control its flow and anticipation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Battery system with temperature sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Steven J.; Trester, Dale B.

    2012-11-13

    A battery system to monitor temperature includes at least one cell with a temperature sensing device proximate the at least one cell. The battery system also includes a flexible member that holds the temperature sensor proximate to the at least one cell.

  8. Which battery model to use?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongerden, M.R.; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.H.M.

    2009-01-01

    The use of mobile devices like cell phones, navigation systems or laptop computers is limited by the lifetime of the included batteries. This lifetime depends naturally on the rate at which energy is consumed; however, it also depends on the usage pattern of the battery. Continuous drawing of a high

  9. Redox Flow Batteries, a Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knoxville, U. Tennessee; U. Texas Austin; U, McGill; Weber, Adam Z.; Mench, Matthew M.; Meyers, Jeremy P.; Ross, Philip N.; Gostick, Jeffrey T.; Liu, Qinghua

    2011-07-15

    Redox flow batteries are enjoying a renaissance due to their ability to store large amounts of electrical energy relatively cheaply and efficiently. In this review, we examine the components of redox flow batteries with a focus on understanding the underlying physical processes. The various transport and kinetic phenomena are discussed along with the most common redox couples.

  10. Vesicle-based rechargeable batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanish, I.; Singh, A. [Center for Bio/Molecular Science and Engineering, Naval Research Laboratory, 4555 Overlook Ave., S.W., Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Lowy, D.A. [Nova Research, Inc., 1900 Elkin St., Alexandria, VA 22308 (United States); Hung, C.W. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States)

    2005-05-02

    Vesicle-based rechargeable batteries can be fabricated by mounting polymerized vesicles filled with ferrocyanide or ferricyanide to a conductive surface. The potential can be adjusted by changing the concentration ratio of hydroquinone and benzoquinone bound to the vesicle membranes. These batteries show promise as a means of supplying portable power for future autonomous nanosystems. (Abstract Copyright [2005], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  11. Batteries: Polymers switch for safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amine, Khalil

    2016-01-11

    Ensuring safety during operation is a major issue in the development of lithium-ion batteries. Coating the electrode current collector with thermoresponsive polymer composites is now shown to rapidly shut the battery down when it overheats, and to quickly resume its function when normal operating conditions return

  12. Computer controlled testing of batteries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiper, A.C.J.; Einerhand, R.E.F.; Visscher, W.

    1989-01-01

    A computerized testing device for batteries consists of a power supply, a multiplexer circuit connected to the batteries, a protection circuit, and an IBM Data Aquisition and Control Adapter card, connected to a personal computer. The software is written in Turbo-Pascal and can be easily adapted to

  13. Power management of remote microgrids considering battery lifetime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalise, Santosh

    Currently, 20% (1.3 billion) of the world's population still lacks access to electricity and many live in remote areas where connection to the grid is not economical or practical. Remote microgrids could be the solution to the problem because they are designed to provide power for small communities within clearly defined electrical boundaries. Reducing the cost of electricity for remote microgrids can help to increase access to electricity for populations in remote areas and developing countries. The integration of renewable energy and batteries in diesel based microgrids has shown to be effective in reducing fuel consumption. However, the operational cost remains high due to the low lifetime of batteries, which are heavily used to improve the system's efficiency. In microgrid operation, a battery can act as a source to augment the generator or a load to ensure full load operation. In addition, a battery increases the utilization of PV by storing extra energy. However, the battery has a limited energy throughput. Therefore, it is required to provide balance between fuel consumption and battery lifetime throughput in order to lower the cost of operation. This work presents a two-layer power management system for remote microgrids. First layer is day ahead scheduling, where power set points of dispatchable resources were calculated. Second layer is real time dispatch, where schedule set points from the first layer are accepted and resources are dispatched accordingly. A novel scheduling algorithm is proposed for a dispatch layer, which considers the battery lifetime in optimization and is expected to reduce the operational cost of the microgrid. This method is based on a goal programming approach which has the fuel and the battery wear cost as two objectives to achieve. The effectiveness of this method was evaluated through a simulation study of a PV-diesel hybrid microgrid using deterministic and stochastic approach of optimization.

  14. The DELTA 181 lithium thionyl chloride battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Ralph M.; Brown, Lawrence E.; Leigh, A. P.

    In 1986, the Johns Hopkins University/Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL) undertook the development of a sensor module for the DELTA 181 spacecraft, a low earth orbit (LEO) mission of less than two months duration. A large lithium thionyl chloride battery was developed as the spacecraft's primary power source, the first known such use for this technology. The exceptionally high energy density of the lithium thionyl chloride cell was the primary driver for its use, resulting in a completed battery with a specific energy density of 120 Wh/lb. Safety requirements became the primary driver shaping all aspects of the power system design and development due to concerns about the potential hazards of this relatively new, high-energy technology. However, the program was completed without incident. The spacecraft was launched on February 8, 1988, from Kennedy Space Center (KSC) with over 60,000 Wh of battery energy. It reentered on April 2, 1988, still operating after 55 days, providing a successful, practical, and visible demonstration of the use of this technology for spacecraft applications.

  15. Multiphysics Modelling of Sodium Sulfur Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Jerry Hunter

    Due to global climate change and the desire to decrease greenhouse gas emissions, large scale energy storage has become a critical issue. Renewable energy sources such as wind and solar will not be a viable energy source unless the storage problem is solved. One of the practical and cost effective solutions for this problem is sodium sulfur batteries. These batteries are comprised of liquid electrode materials suspended in porous media and operate at relatively high temperatures (>300°C). The sodium anode and the sulfur/sodium-polysulfide cathode are separated by a solid electrolyte made of beta-alumina or NASICON material. Due to the use of porous materials in the electrodes, capillary pressure and the combination of capillary action and gravity become important. Capillary pressure has a strong dependence on the wetting phase (liquid electrode material) saturation; therefore sharp concentration gradients can occur between the inert gas and the electrode liquid, especially within the cathode. These concentration gradients can have direct impacts on the electrodynamics of the battery as they may produce areas of high electrical potential variation, which can decrease efficiency and even cause failures. Then, thermal management also becomes vital since the electrochemistry and material properties are sensitive to temperature gradients. To investigate these phenomena in detail and to attempt to improve upon battery design a multi-dimensional, multi-phase code has been developed and validated in this study. Then a porous media flow model is implemented. Transport equations for charge, mass and heat are solved in a time marching fashion using finite volume method. Material properties are calculated and updated as a function of time. The porous media model is coupled with the continuity equation and a separate diffusion equation for the liquid sodium in the melt. The total mass transport model is coupled with charge transport via Faraday's law. Results show that

  16. Progress in aqueous rechargeable batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jilei Liu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decades, a series of aqueous rechargeable batteries (ARBs were explored, investigated and demonstrated. Among them, aqueous rechargeable alkali-metal ion (Li+, Na+, K+ batteries, aqueous rechargeable-metal ion (Zn2+, Mg2+, Ca2+, Al3+ batteries and aqueous rechargeable hybrid batteries are standing out due to peculiar properties. In this review, we focus on the fundamental basics of these batteries, and discuss the scientific and/or technological achievements and challenges. By critically reviewing state-of-the-art technologies and the most promising results so far, we aim to analyze the benefits of ARBs and the critical issues to be addressed, and to promote better development of ARBs.

  17. New developments in battery technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, J

    1982-01-01

    Practical, high energy density alternatives to the lead-acid battery are considered for both vehicular and utility load-leveling use, in view of year 2000 potential markets. After demonstrating the high costs and low energy densities and life cycles of lead/acid, nickel/iron and nickel/zinc systems, as well as batteries using gaseous electrodes such as the nickel/hydrogen system employed by communication satellites and those taking advantage of light metals like lithium and sodium, a description is given of the design features and operational characteristics of the sodium/sulfur battery. Attention is given to both internal and external sodium volume battery configurations, both of which employ beta alumina as a solid electrolyte with high sodium ion conductivity, and molten sodium and sulfur at 350 C. It is the thermal insulation of the sodium/sulfur battery that makes its application to electric vehicles difficult, despite a very high energy density.

  18. Nickel-hydrogen battery; Nikkeru/suiso batteri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuwajima, S. [National Space Development Agency, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-07-01

    In artificial satellites, electric power is supplied from batteries loaded on them, when sun light can not be rayed on the event of equinoxes. Thus, research and development was started as early as 1970s for light and long-life batteries. Nickel-hydrogen batteries have been used on practical satellites since middle of 1980s. Whereas the cathode reaction of this battery is the same as that of a conventional nickel-cadmium battery, the anode reaction is different in that it involves decomposition and formation of water, generating hydrogen and consuming it. Hydrogen is stored in a state of pressurized gas within the battery vessel. The shape of this vessel is of a bomb, whose size for the one with capacity of 35 Ah is 8cm in diameter and 18cm in length. On a satellite, this one is assembled into a set of 16 ones. National Space Development Agency of Japan has been conducting the evaluation test for nickel-hydrogen batteries in a long term range. It was made clear that the life-determinant factor is related to the inner electrode, not to the vessel. Performance data on long-term endurance of materials to be used have been accumulated also in the agency. 2 figs.

  19. Battery Aging, Battery Charging and the Kinetic Battery Model : A First Exploration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongerden, Marijn R.; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.; Bertrand, Nathalie; Bortolussi, Luca

    2017-01-01

    Rechargeable batteries are omnipresent and will be used more and more, for instance for wearables devices, electric vehicles or domestic energy storage. However, batteries can deliver power only for a limited time span. They slowly degrade with every charge-discharge cycle. This degradation needs to

  20. Development of the lithium polymer battery for the GM Precept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rouillard, R.; Richard, M.; Pomerleau, D.; St-Germain, P.; St-Pierre, C. [Argo-Tech Productions Inc., Boucherville, PQ (Canada); Gastonguay, L.; Choquette, Y. [Hydro-Quebec, Montreal, PQ (Canada). Research Inst

    2000-07-01

    The role that Hydro-Quebec and Argo-Tech played in the development of the GM Precept was discussed. The prototype hybrid electric-powered vehicle is a 5-passenger family sedan developed by General Motors. It is expected to achieve 80 mpg efficiency and emit fewer exhaust gases. The car's energy storage system uses lithium polymer battery (LPB) technology developed jointly by Hydro-Quebec and Argo-Tech. The development team had to meet the objectives of the GM Precept program using a unique electrochemical configuration, module and pack design. This included battery management and thermal management systems. The performance targets and parameters for the prototype were established by the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV) program. In 1993, the United States Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC) issued a contract to Hydro-Quebec to further develop their ongoing research on the LPB for EV applications. This included improvements in base chemistry as well as in the development processes and manufacturing technologies needed to produce a high-performance, low-cost electric-vehicle battery, under a series of USABC cost-shared contracts. The design and performance data of the LPB in addition to tests at the cell level suggest that the commercialization of the LPB battery is achievable. Focus is now being placed on reproducibility and robustness. Commercialization is planned for 2005. refs., tabs., figs.

  1. Recommender Systems for Learning

    CERN Document Server

    Manouselis, Nikos; Verbert, Katrien; Duval, Erik

    2013-01-01

    Technology enhanced learning (TEL) aims to design, develop and test sociotechnical innovations that will support and enhance learning practices of both individuals and organisations. It is therefore an application domain that generally covers technologies that support all forms of teaching and learning activities. Since information retrieval (in terms of searching for relevant learning resources to support teachers or learners) is a pivotal activity in TEL, the deployment of recommender systems has attracted increased interest. This brief attempts to provide an introduction to recommender systems for TEL settings, as well as to highlight their particularities compared to recommender systems for other application domains.

  2. 1990 recommendations of ICRP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, R.H.

    1991-01-01

    The Main Commission of ICRP finalised its new recommendations during its November 1990 meeting. The recommendations will appear in the Annals of the ICRP in 1991 as Publication 60. This paper represents a personal summary of these recommendations. It covers the basic biological risk estimates and the conceptual framework of the system of radiological protection, the definition of radiation detriment and its use both in the definition of radiation quantities and in the establishment of the dose limits adopted by the Main Commissions. (author)

  3. Development and Testing of an UltraBattery-Equipped Honda Civic Hybrid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sally (Xiaolei) Sun; Tyler Gray; Pattie Hovorka; Jeffrey Wishart; Donald Karner; James Francfort

    2012-08-01

    standard lead-acid unit experienced significant degradation after only 6,273 cycles. The high-carbon, ALABC battery manufactured in Project C3 also was tested under the advanced HEV schedule. Its performance was significantly better than the standard lead-acid unit, but was still inferior compared with the UltraBattery. The batteries supplied by Exide as part of the C3 Project performed well under the HEV screening test, especially at high temperatures. The results suggest that higher operating temperatures may improve the performance of lead-acid-based technologies operated under HEV conditions—it is recommended that life studies be conducted on these technologies under such conditions.

  4. Local food-based complementary feeding recommendations developed by the linear programming approach to improve the intake of problem nutrients among 12-23-month-old Myanmar children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlaing, Lwin Mar; Fahmida, Umi; Htet, Min Kyaw; Utomo, Budi; Firmansyah, Agus; Ferguson, Elaine L

    2016-07-01

    Poor feeding practices result in inadequate nutrient intakes in young children in developing countries. To improve practices, local food-based complementary feeding recommendations (CFR) are needed. This cross-sectional survey aimed to describe current food consumption patterns of 12-23-month-old Myanmar children (n 106) from Ayeyarwady region in order to identify nutrient requirements that are difficult to achieve using local foods and to formulate affordable and realistic CFR to improve dietary adequacy. Weekly food consumption patterns were assessed using a 12-h weighed dietary record, single 24-h recall and a 5-d food record. Food costs were estimated by market surveys. CFR were formulated by linear programming analysis using WHO Optifood software and evaluated among mothers (n 20) using trial of improved practices (TIP). Findings showed that Ca, Zn, niacin, folate and Fe were 'problem nutrients': nutrients that did not achieve 100 % recommended nutrient intake even when the diet was optimised. Chicken liver, anchovy and roselle leaves were locally available nutrient-dense foods that would fill these nutrient gaps. The final set of six CFR would ensure dietary adequacy for five of twelve nutrients at a minimal cost of 271 kyats/d (based on the exchange rate of 900 kyats/USD at the time of data collection: 3rd quarter of 2012), but inadequacies remained for niacin, folate, thiamin, Fe, Zn, Ca and vitamin B6. TIP showed that mothers believed liver and vegetables would cause worms and diarrhoea, but these beliefs could be overcome to successfully promote liver consumption. Therefore, an acceptable set of CFR were developed to improve the dietary practices of 12-23-month-old Myanmar children using locally available foods. Alternative interventions such as fortification, however, are still needed to ensure dietary adequacy of all nutrients.

  5. Probabilistic approaches to recommendations

    CERN Document Server

    Barbieri, Nicola; Ritacco, Ettore

    2014-01-01

    The importance of accurate recommender systems has been widely recognized by academia and industry, and recommendation is rapidly becoming one of the most successful applications of data mining and machine learning. Understanding and predicting the choices and preferences of users is a challenging task: real-world scenarios involve users behaving in complex situations, where prior beliefs, specific tendencies, and reciprocal influences jointly contribute to determining the preferences of users toward huge amounts of information, services, and products. Probabilistic modeling represents a robus

  6. A flexible model for economic operational management of grid battery energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fares, Robert L.; Webber, Michael E.

    2014-01-01

    To connect energy storage operational planning with real-time battery control, this paper integrates a dynamic battery model with an optimization program. First, we transform a behavioral circuit model designed to describe a variety of battery chemistries into a set of coupled nonlinear differential equations. Then, we discretize the differential equations to integrate the battery model with a GAMS (General Algebraic Modeling System) optimization program, which decides when the battery should charge and discharge to maximize its operating revenue. We demonstrate the capabilities of our model by applying it to lithium-ion (Li-ion) energy storage operating in Texas' restructured electricity market. By simulating 11 years of operation, we find that our model can robustly compute an optimal charge-discharge schedule that maximizes daily operating revenue without violating a battery's operating constraints. Furthermore, our results show there is significant variation in potential operating revenue from one day to the next. The revenue potential of Li-ion storage varies from approximately $0–1800/MWh of energy discharged, depending on the volatility of wholesale electricity prices during an operating day. Thus, it is important to consider the material degradation-related “cost” of performing a charge-discharge cycle in battery operational management, so that the battery only operates when revenue exceeds cost. - Highlights: • A flexible, dynamic battery model is integrated with an optimization program. • Electricity price data is used to simulate 11 years of Li-ion operation on the grid. • The optimization program robustly computes an optimal charge-discharge schedule. • Variation in daily Li-ion battery revenue potential from 2002 to 2012 is shown. • We find it is important to consider the cost of a grid duty cycle

  7. Open stack thermal battery tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, Kevin N. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Roberts, Christine C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Grillet, Anne M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Headley, Alexander J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Fenton, Kyle [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wong, Dennis [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ingersoll, David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-04-17

    We present selected results from a series of Open Stack thermal battery tests performed in FY14 and FY15 and discuss our findings. These tests were meant to provide validation data for the comprehensive thermal battery simulation tools currently under development in Sierra/Aria under known conditions compared with as-manufactured batteries. We are able to satisfy this original objective in the present study for some test conditions. Measurements from each test include: nominal stack pressure (axial stress) vs. time in the cold state and during battery ignition, battery voltage vs. time against a prescribed current draw with periodic pulses, and images transverse to the battery axis from which cell displacements are computed. Six battery configurations were evaluated: 3, 5, and 10 cell stacks sandwiched between 4 layers of the materials used for axial thermal insulation, either Fiberfrax Board or MinK. In addition to the results from 3, 5, and 10 cell stacks with either in-line Fiberfrax Board or MinK insulation, a series of cell-free “control” tests were performed that show the inherent settling and stress relaxation based on the interaction between the insulation and heat pellets alone.

  8. X-Ray Absorption Structural and Electrochemical Investigations of Novel Materials for Advanced Batteries and Ultracapacitors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mansour, Azzam

    1998-01-01

    The program objectives are as follows: Synthesize and characterize the chemistry and structure of a new class of tin-based amorphous oxides suitable for use as anode material in rechargeable Li-ion batteries...

  9. The automotive battery of the future—the role of electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellaway, M. J.

    The automotive battery is being asked to carry out more challenging duties than ever before. Many of these duties are a result of new types of electrical load. The way in which a battery is operated and managed within a vehicle can be optimized significantly through the use of battery-related electronics with embedded software. Potential benefits include extended life, early warning of deterioration and failure, greater availability and an improved match to the vehicle's requirements. The impact of electronics in other areas shows that there is considerable potential to go much further in this direction with battery systems. There are, however, important system-wide issues to be considered. The battery system must conform to a wide range of standards and practices applicable to automotive electronic systems and embedded software. The automotive industry is itself trying to come to terms with the inherent difficulties involved in developing, qualifying and upgrading complex networks of software-based controllers within the vehicle. The battery system must be compatible with the results of these initiatives. Cost will always be a major influence, but the cost model is different from that familiar to battery producers. This study outlines the main areas where the battery industry must consider a change from being a component to a system supplier, and makes some recommendations for an industry wide approach to smooth the transition.

  10. Aqueous lithium air batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visco, Steven J.; Nimon, Yevgeniy S.; De Jonghe, Lutgard C.; Petrov, Alexei; Goncharenko, Nikolay

    2017-05-23

    Aqueous Li/Air secondary battery cells are configurable to achieve high energy density and prolonged cycle life. The cells include a protected a lithium metal or alloy anode and an aqueous catholyte in a cathode compartment. The aqueous catholyte comprises an evaporative-loss resistant and/or polyprotic active compound or active agent that partakes in the discharge reaction and effectuates cathode capacity for discharge in the acidic region. This leads to improved performance including one or more of increased specific energy, improved stability on open circuit, and prolonged cycle life, as well as various methods, including a method of operating an aqueous Li/Air cell to simultaneously achieve improved energy density and prolonged cycle life.

  11. 75 FR 63 - Hazardous Materials: Revision to Requirements for the Transportation of Batteries and Battery...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-04

    ... contained in equipment, fuel cell systems must not charge batteries during transport; (3) For transportation... 2137-AE54 Hazardous Materials: Revision to Requirements for the Transportation of Batteries and Battery... batteries and battery-powered devices. This final rule corrects several errors in the January 14, 2009 final...

  12. Cost reductions in nickel-hydrogen battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauchamp, Richard L.; Sindorf, Jack F.

    1987-01-01

    Significant progress was made toward the development of a commercially marketable hydrogen nickel oxide battery. The costs projected for this battery are remarkably low when one considers where the learning curve is for commercialization of this system. Further developmental efforts on this project are warranted as the H2/NiO battery is already cost competitive with other battery systems.

  13. Maximizing System Lifetime by Battery Scheduling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongerden, M.R.; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.H.M.; Bohnenkamp, H.C.; Katoen, Joost P.

    2009-01-01

    The use of mobile devices is limited by the battery lifetime. Some devices have the option to connect an extra battery, or to use smart battery-packs with multiple cells to extend the lifetime. In these cases, scheduling the batteries over the load to exploit recovery properties usually extends the

  14. 46 CFR 169.668 - Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Batteries. 169.668 Section 169.668 Shipping COAST GUARD... § 169.668 Batteries. (a) Each battery must be in a location that allows the gas generated in charging to... this section, a battery must not be located in the same compartment with a gasoline tank or gasoline...

  15. 77 FR 28259 - Mailings of Lithium Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-14

    ... POSTAL SERVICE 39 CFR Part 111 Mailings of Lithium Batteries AGENCY: Postal Service TM . ACTION... international mailing of lithium batteries and devices containing lithium batteries. This prohibition also extends to the mailing of lithium batteries to and from an APO, FPO, or DPO location. However, this...

  16. Radioisotope battery for particular application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Tianjian; Liang Daihua; Cai Jianhua; Dai Zhimin; Xia Huihao; Wang Jianhua; Sun Sen; Yu Guojun; Wang Xiao; Wang Dongxing; Liu Xin

    2010-01-01

    Radioisotope battery, as a new type of power source, was developed in 1960s. It is advantageous in terms of long working life, high reliability, flexibility to rugged environment, maintenance free, and high capacity rate, hence its unique applications in space, isolated terrestrial or ocean spots, deep waters, and medicine. In this paper, we analysz the primary performances and classification of radioisotope thermoelectric generator, as well as characteristic, basic principle,and structure of radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG), which is the most popular in application of radioisotope battery in space, undersea, terrestrial and medicine. A prospect for development and application of radioisotope battery in the 21 st century is given, too. (authors)

  17. Battery Ownership Model - Medium Duty HEV Battery Leasing & Standardization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, Ken; Smith, Kandler; Cosgrove, Jon; Prohaska, Robert; Pesaran, Ahmad; Paul, James; Wiseman, Marc

    2015-12-01

    Prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy, this milestone report focuses on the economics of leasing versus owning batteries for medium-duty hybrid electric vehicles as well as various battery standardization scenarios. The work described in this report was performed by members of the Energy Storage Team and the Vehicle Simulation Team in NREL's Transportation and Hydrogen Systems Center along with members of the Vehicles Analysis Team at Ricardo.

  18. Lithium-thionyl chloride battery design concepts for maximized power applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, P.; Marincic, N.

    The need for primary batteries configured to deliver maximized power has been asserted by many different procuring activities. Battery Engineering Inc. has developed some specific design concepts and mastered some specialized techniques utilized in the production of this type of power source. The batteries have been successfully bench tested during the course of virtually all of these programs, with ultimate success coming in the form of two successful test launches under the USAF Plasma Effects Decoy Program. This paper briefly discusses some of these design concepts and the rationale behind them.

  19. A Hybrid Recommender System Based on User-Recommender Interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Heng-Ru; Min, Fan; He, Xu; Xu, Yuan-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Recommender systems are used to make recommendations about products, information, or services for users. Most existing recommender systems implicitly assume one particular type of user behavior. However, they seldom consider user-recommender interactive scenarios in real-world environments. In this paper, we propose a hybrid recommender system based on user-recommender interaction and evaluate its performance with recall and diversity metrics. First, we define the user-recommender interaction...

  20. Optimal Battery Utilization Over Lifetime for Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicle to Maximize Fuel Economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patil, Chinmaya; Naghshtabrizi, Payam; Verma, Rajeev; Tang, Zhijun; Smith, Kandler; Shi, Ying

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents a control strategy to maximize fuel economy of a parallel hybrid electric vehicle over a target life of the battery. Many approaches to maximizing fuel economy of parallel hybrid electric vehicle do not consider the effect of control strategy on the life of the battery. This leads to an oversized and underutilized battery. There is a trade-off between how aggressively to use and 'consume' the battery versus to use the engine and consume fuel. The proposed approach addresses this trade-off by exploiting the differences in the fast dynamics of vehicle power management and slow dynamics of battery aging. The control strategy is separated into two parts, (1) Predictive Battery Management (PBM), and (2) Predictive Power Management (PPM). PBM is the higher level control with slow update rate, e.g. once per month, responsible for generating optimal set points for PPM. The considered set points in this paper are the battery power limits and State Of Charge (SOC). The problem of finding the optimal set points over the target battery life that minimize engine fuel consumption is solved using dynamic programming. PPM is the lower level control with high update rate, e.g. a second, responsible for generating the optimal HEV energy management controls and is implemented using model predictive control approach. The PPM objective is to find the engine and battery power commands to achieve the best fuel economy given the battery power and SOC constraints imposed by PBM. Simulation results with a medium duty commercial hybrid electric vehicle and the proposed two-level hierarchical control strategy show that the HEV fuel economy is maximized while meeting a specified target battery life. On the other hand, the optimal unconstrained control strategy achieves marginally higher fuel economy, but fails to meet the target battery life.

  1. Towards Safer Lithium-Ion Batteries

    OpenAIRE

    Herstedt, Marie

    2003-01-01

    Surface film formation at the electrode/electrolyte interface in lithium-ion batteries has a crucial impact on battery performance and safety. This thesis describes the characterisation and treatment of electrode interfaces in lithium-ion batteries. The focus is on interface modification to improve battery safety, in particular to enhance the onset temperature for thermally activated reactions, which also can have a negative influence on battery performance. Photoelectron Spectroscopy (PES) ...

  2. Understanding and managing the effects of battery charger and inverter aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunther, W.; Aggarwal, S.

    1992-01-01

    An aging assessment of battery chargers and inverters was conducted under the auspices of the NRC's Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) Program. The intentions of this program are to resolve issues related to the aging and service wear of equipment and systems at operating reactor facilities and to assess their impact on safety. Inverters and battery chargers are used in nuclear power plants to perform significant functions related to plant safety and availability. The specific impact of a battery charger or inverter failure varies with plant configuration. Operating experience data have demonstrated that reactor trips, safety injection system actuations, and inoperable emergency core cooling systems have resulted from inverter failures; and dc bus degradation leading to diesel generator inoperability or loss of control room annunication and indication have resulted from battery and battery charger failures. For the battery charger and inverter, the aging and service wear of subcomponents have contributed significantly to equipment failures. This paper summarizes the data and then describes methods that can be used to detect battery charger and inverter degradation prior to failure, as well as methods to minimize the failure effects. In both cases, the managing of battery charger and inverter aging is emphasized. 5 refs

  3. Prognostics in Battery Health Management

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Batteries represent complex systems whose internal state vari- ables are either inaccessible to sensors or hard to measure un- der operational conditions. This work...

  4. Electroactive materials for rechargeable batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Huiming; Amine, Khalil; Abouimrane, Ali

    2015-04-21

    An as-prepared cathode for a secondary battery, the cathode including an alkaline source material including an alkali metal oxide, an alkali metal sulfide, an alkali metal salt, or a combination of any two or more thereof.

  5. Transparent lithium-ion batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Y.; Jeong, S.; Hu, L.; Wu, H.; Lee, S. W.; Cui, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Transparent devices have recently attracted substantial attention. Various applications have been demonstrated, including displays, touch screens, and solar cells; however, transparent batteries, a key component in fully integrated transparent

  6. Flexible Hybrid Battery/Pseudocapacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Dennis S.; Paley, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Batteries keep devices working by utilizing high energy density, however, they can run down and take tens of minutes to hours to recharge. For rapid power delivery and recharging, high-power density devices, i.e., supercapacitors, are used. The electrochemical processes which occur in batteries and supercapacitors give rise to different charge-storage properties. In lithium ion (Li+) batteries, the insertion of Li+, which enables redox reactions in bulk electrode materials, is diffusion controlled and can be slow. Supercapacitor devices, also known as electrical double-layer capacitors (EDLCs) store charge by adsorption of electrolyte ions onto the surface of electrode materials. No redox reactions are necessary, so the response to changes in potential without diffusion limitations is rapid and leads to high power. However, the charge in EDLCs is confined to the surface, so the energy density is lower than that of batteries.

  7. Programming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, M.A.

    1982-01-01

    The programmer's task is often taken to be the construction of algorithms, expressed in hierarchical structures of procedures: this view underlies the majority of traditional programming languages, such as Fortran. A different view is appropriate to a wide class of problem, perhaps including some problems in High Energy Physics. The programmer's task is regarded as having three main stages: first, an explicit model is constructed of the reality with which the program is concerned; second, this model is elaborated to produce the required program outputs; third, the resulting program is transformed to run efficiently in the execution environment. The first two stages deal in network structures of sequential processes; only the third is concerned with procedure hierarchies. (orig.)

  8. Summary (and) recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This report looks at the Health and Safety record at the Atomic Weapons Establishment at Aldermaston. The last outside report was by Pochin in 1978 which recommended that staffing for health physicists and maintenance staff should be increased and that some buildings where solid and liquid radioactive wastes were processed should be replaced. A new facility to process contaminated heavy equipment was also recommended. This report finds that none of the recommendations have been fully implemented. It also lists accidents, fires and worker contamination. It is concluded that some of the problems are that nuclear weapons production is inherently unsafe and cannot be made safe, that the secrecy surrounding the establishments' safety record is not good for improving it and finally the report calls for production at Aldermaston to be halted. (UK)

  9. Archetypal Game Recommender Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sifa, Rafet; Bauckhage, C.; Drachen, Anders

    2014-01-01

    Contemporary users (players, consumers) of digital games have thousands of products to choose from, which makes nding games that t their interests challenging. Towards addressing this challenge, in this paper two dierent formulations of Archetypal Analysis for Top-L recommender tasks using implicit...... feedback are presented: factor- and neighborhood-oriented models. These form the rst application of rec- ommender systems to digital games. Both models are tested on a dataset of 500,000 users of the game distribution platform Steam, covering game ownership and playtime data across more than 3000 games....... Compared to four other recommender models (nearest neighbor, two popularity mod- els, random baseline), the archetype based models provide the highest recall rates showing that Archetypal Analysis can be successfully applied for Top-L recommendation purposes...

  10. OARSI Clinical Trials Recommendations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emery, C. A.; Roos, Ewa M.; Verhagen, E.

    2015-01-01

    The risk of post-traumatic osteoarthritis (PTOA) substantially increases following joint injury. Research efforts should focus on investigating the efficacy of preventative strategies in high quality randomized controlled trials (RCT). The objective of these OARSI RCT recommendations is to inform...... the design, conduct and analytical approaches to RCTs evaluating the preventative effect of joint injury prevention strategies. Recommendations regarding the design, conduct, and reporting of RCTs evaluating injury prevention interventions were established based on the consensus of nine researchers...... internationally with expertise in epidemiology, injury prevention and/or osteoarthritis (OA). Input and resultant consensus was established through teleconference, face to face and email correspondence over a 1 year period. Recommendations for injury prevention RCTs include context specific considerations...

  11. Recommending Multidimensional Queries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacometti, Arnaud; Marcel, Patrick; Negre, Elsa

    Interactive analysis of datacube, in which a user navigates a cube by launching a sequence of queries is often tedious since the user may have no idea of what the forthcoming query should be in his current analysis. To better support this process we propose in this paper to apply a Collaborative Work approach that leverages former explorations of the cube to recommend OLAP queries. The system that we have developed adapts Approximate String Matching, a technique popular in Information Retrieval, to match the current analysis with the former explorations and help suggesting a query to the user. Our approach has been implemented with the open source Mondrian OLAP server to recommend MDX queries and we have carried out some preliminary experiments that show its efficiency for generating effective query recommendations.

  12. Solid polymer electrolyte lithium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamgir, Mohamed; Abraham, Kuzhikalail M.

    1993-01-01

    This invention pertains to Lithium batteries using Li ion (Li.sup.+) conductive solid polymer electrolytes composed of solvates of Li salts immobilized in a solid organic polymer matrix. In particular, this invention relates to Li batteries using solid polymer electrolytes derived by immobilizing solvates formed between a Li salt and an aprotic organic solvent (or mixture of such solvents) in poly(vinyl chloride).

  13. Nickel-Hydrogen Battery Reconditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Erik L.

    1997-01-01

    Reconditioning has traditionally been used as a means of maintaining the performance of normal cells and batteries. This paper describes methods and results in which reconditioning was used to improve the performance of nickel-hydrogen batteries. The following method are discussed: (1) SS/L reconditioning implementation; (2) Superbird reconditioning - pressure/capacity growth; (3) INTELSAT 7/7A reconditioning - cell voltage plateaus and life testing; and (4) N-Star reconditioning - cell voltage plateaus (capacity fading and recovery).

  14. Iron-Air Rechargeable Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Sri R. (Inventor); Prakash, G.K. Surya (Inventor); Kindler, Andrew (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Embodiments include an iron-air rechargeable battery having a composite electrode including an iron electrode and a hydrogen electrode integrated therewith. An air electrode is spaced from the iron electrode and an electrolyte is provided in contact with the air electrode and the iron electrodes. Various additives and catalysts are disclosed with respect to the iron electrode, air electrode, and electrolyte for increasing battery efficiency and cycle life.

  15. Modeling the Lithium Ion Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summerfield, John

    2013-01-01

    The lithium ion battery will be a reliable electrical resource for many years to come. A simple model of the lithium ions motion due to changes in concentration and voltage is presented. The battery chosen has LiCoO[subscript 2] as the cathode, LiPF[subscript 6] as the electrolyte, and LiC[subscript 6] as the anode. The concentration gradient and…

  16. Integrated Inverter And Battery Charger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rippel, Wally E.

    1988-01-01

    Circuit combines functions of dc-to-ac inversion (for driving ac motor in battery-powered vehicle) and ac-to-dc conversion (for charging battery from ac line when vehicle not in use). Automatically adapts to either mode. Design of integrated inverter/charger eliminates need for duplicate components, saves space, reduces weight and cost of vehicle. Advantages in other applications : load-leveling systems, standby ac power systems, and uninterruptible power supplies.

  17. Programming

    OpenAIRE

    Jackson, M A

    1982-01-01

    The programmer's task is often taken to be the construction of algorithms, expressed in hierarchical structures of procedures: this view underlies the majority of traditional programming languages, such as Fortran. A different view is appropriate to a wide class of problem, perhaps including some problems in High Energy Physics. The programmer's task is regarded as having three main stages: first, an explicit model is constructed of the reality with which the program is concerned; second, thi...

  18. New Insulin Delivery Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frid, Anders H; Kreugel, Gillian; Grassi, Giorgio; Halimi, Serge; Hicks, Debbie; Hirsch, Laurence J; Smith, Mike J; Wellhoener, Regine; Bode, Bruce W; Hirsch, Irl B; Kalra, Sanjay; Ji, Linong; Strauss, Kenneth W

    2016-09-01

    Many primary care professionals manage injection or infusion therapies in patients with diabetes. Few published guidelines have been available to help such professionals and their patients manage these therapies. Herein, we present new, practical, and comprehensive recommendations for diabetes injections and infusions. These recommendations were informed by a large international survey of current practice and were written and vetted by 183 diabetes experts from 54 countries at the Forum for Injection Technique and Therapy: Expert Recommendations (FITTER) workshop held in Rome, Italy, in 2015. Recommendations are organized around the themes of anatomy, physiology, pathology, psychology, and technology. Key among the recommendations are that the shortest needles (currently the 4-mm pen and 6-mm syringe needles) are safe, effective, and less painful and should be the first-line choice in all patient categories; intramuscular injections should be avoided, especially with long-acting insulins, because severe hypoglycemia may result; lipohypertrophy is a frequent complication of therapy that distorts insulin absorption, and, therefore, injections and infusions should not be given into these lesions and correct site rotation will help prevent them; effective long-term therapy with insulin is critically dependent on addressing psychological hurdles upstream, even before insulin has been started; inappropriate disposal of used sharps poses a risk of infection with blood-borne pathogens; and mitigation is possible with proper training, effective disposal strategies, and the use of safety devices. Adherence to these new recommendations should lead to more effective therapies, improved outcomes, and lower costs for patients with diabetes. Copyright © 2016 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The game changing 'Battery'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallace, Paula

    2012-01-01

    Full text: A new energy storage system with the potential to change the way the world utilises electricity has been developed in South Australia. “ With the capability and flexibility to store energy generated by solar or wind power or capture off-peak power for later use, the ZEN Freedom Power Bank offers benefits to householders, businesses and utilities,” ZEN Energy Systems chief executive officer Richard Turner said. He recently represented Australia by invitation at the International Cleantech Forum in San Fransisco and used the spotlight to feature the technology he believes is a world-first and the 'holy grail' of renewable energy. The system is comprised of hi-density storage lithium ion batteries linked to innovative 'active' battery balancing and control software, allowing both 'on-grid' and 'off-grid' management options. The electronic software has been designed in a joint development project with ZEN sister company, US-based Greensmith Energy Management Systems. The units will be assembled in Australia for supply to the local market as well as for export. “This technology enables low cost, large format 'dumb' lithium ion cells to perform as effectively as, or better than, high cost 'smart' cells, virtually halving the cost of the batteries or providing twice the storage capacity for the same cost,” Turner said. “The control software then enables centralised control of large communities of systems to manage peak demand or other issues within the public power grid. The base residential/business system will be capable of managing and storing 20 kilowatt hours of energy per day, which is the daily consumption of an average Australian home. For larger properties, additional 20kWh energy storage modules can be easily added,” Turner explained. “Reliance on the public grid is greatly reduced and it provides up to 24-hour energy backup if the grid goes down.” In the future, the Power Bank will be electric vehicle charge station-ready, allowing

  20. NATO Conference on Materials for Advanced Batteries

    CERN Document Server

    Broadhead, J; Steele, B

    1980-01-01

    The idea of a NATO Science Committee Institute on "Materials for Advanced Batteries" was suggested to JB and DWM by Dr. A. G. Chynoweth. His idea was to bring together experts in the field over the entire spectrum of pure research to applied research in order to familiarize everyone with potentially interesting new systems and the problems involved in their development. Dr. M. C. B. Hotz and Professor M. N. Ozdas were instrumental in helping organize this meeting as a NATO Advanced Science Institute. An organlzlng committee consisting of the three of us along with W. A. Adams, U. v Alpen, J. Casey and J. Rouxel organized the program. The program consisted of plenary talks and poster papers which are included in this volume. Nearly half the time of the conference was spent in study groups. The aim of these groups was to assess the status of several key aspects of batteries and prospects for research opportunities in each. The study groups and their chairmen were: Current status and new systems J. Broadhead Hig...

  1. Review of ICRP recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldfinch, E.P.

    1987-01-01

    Events in both the scientific world and in the public domain have added pressure to review the recommendations of the ICRP on which radiation protection legislation in most countries is founded. A brief editorial pleads for clarity in ICRP recommendations, suggests the use solely of cumulative with age individual occupational dose limits, suggests that collective doses including both occupational and to the public should be kept as low as reasonably achievable, judged on quantitative economic grounds, and suggests the setting of a probability for serious accidents which may be disregarded in planning. (UK)

  2. Carbon-enhanced VRLA batteries.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enos, David George; Hund, Thomas D.; Shane, Rod (East Penn Manufacturing, Lyon Station, PA)

    2010-10-01

    The addition of certain forms of carbon to the negative plate in valve regulated lead acid (VRLA) batteries has been demonstrated to increase the cycle life of such batteries by an order of magnitude or more under high-rate, partial-state-of-charge operation. Such performance will provide a significant impact, and in some cases it will be an enabling feature for applications including hybrid electric vehicles, utility ancillary regulation services, wind farm energy smoothing, and solar photovoltaic energy smoothing. There is a critical need to understnd how the carbon interacts with the negative plate and achieves the aforementioned benefits at a fundamental level. Such an understanding will not only enable the performance of such batteries to be optimzied, but also to explore the feasibility of applying this technology to other battery chemistries. In partnership with the East Penn Manufacturing, Sandia will investigate the electrochemical function of the carbon and possibly identify improvements to its anti-sulfation properties. Shiomi, et al. (1997) discovered that the addition of carbon to the negative active material (NAM) substantially reduced PbSO{sub 4} accumulation in high rate, partial state of charge (HRPSoC) cycling applications. This improved performance with a minimal cost. Cycling applications that were uneconomical for traditional VRLA batteries are viable for the carbon enhanced VRLA. The overall goal of this work is to quantitatively define the role that carbon plays in the electrochemistry of a VRLA battery.

  3. Optimization of station battery replacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jancauskas, J.R.; Shook, D.A.

    1994-01-01

    During a loss of ac power at a nuclear generating station (including diesel generators), batteries provide the source of power which is required to operate safety-related components. Because traditional lead-acid batteries have a qualified life of 20 years, the batteries must be replaced a minimum of once during a station's lifetime, twice if license extension is pursued, and more often depending on actual in-service dates and the results of surveillance tests. Replacement of batteries often occurs prior to 20 years as a result of systems changes caused by factors such as Station Blackout Regulations, control system upgrades, incremental load growth, and changes in the operating times of existing equipment. Many of these replacement decisions are based on the predictive capabilities of manual design basis calculations. The inherent conservatism of manual calculations may result in battery replacements occurring before actually required. Computerized analysis of batteries can aid in optimizing the timing of replacements as well as in interpreting service test data. Computerized analysis also provides large benefits in maintaining the as-configured load profile and corresponding design margins, while also providing the capability of quickly analyze proposed modifications and response to internal and external audits

  4. Design Optimization of Radionuclide Nano-Scale Batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoenfeld, D.W.; Tulenko, J.S.; Wang, J.; Smith, B.

    2004-01-01

    Radioisotopes have been used for power sources in heart pacemakers and space applications dating back to the 50's. Two key properties of radioisotope power sources are high energy density and long half-life compared to chemical batteries. The tritium battery used in heart pacemakers exceeds 500 mW--hr, and is being evaluated by the University of Florida for feasibility as a MEMS (MicroElectroMechanical Systems) power source. Conversion of radioisotope sources into electrical power within the constraints of nano-scale dimensions requires cutting-edge technologies and novel approaches. Some advances evolving in the III-V and II-IV semiconductor families have led to a broader consideration of radioisotopes rather free of radiation damage limitations. Their properties can lead to novel battery configurations designed to convert externally located emissions from a highly radioactive environment. This paper presents results for the analytical computational assisted design and modeling of semiconductor prototype nano-scale radioisotope nuclear batteries from MCNP and EGS programs. The analysis evaluated proposed designs and was used to guide the selection of appropriate geometries, material properties, and specific activities to attain power requirements for the MEMS batteries. Plans utilizing high specific activity radioisotopes were assessed in the investigation of designs employing multiple conversion cells and graded junctions with varying band gap properties. Voltage increases sought by serial combination of VOC s are proposed to overcome some of the limitations of a low power density. The power density is directly dependent on the total active areas

  5. Technical feasibility for commercialization of lithium ion battery as a substitute dry battery for motorcycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurniyati, Indah; Sutopo, Wahyudi; Zakaria, Roni; Kadir, Evizal Abdul

    2017-11-01

    Dry battery on a motorcycle has a rapid rate of voltage drop, life time is not too long, and a long charging time. These are problems for users of dry battery for motorcycle. When the rate in the voltage decreases, the energy storage in the battery is reduced, then at the age of one to two years of battery will be dead and cannot be used, it makes the user should replace the battery. New technology development of a motorcycle battery is lithium ion battery. Lithium ion battery has a specification that has been tested and possible to replace dry battery. Characteristics of lithium ion battery can answer the question on the dry battery service life, the rate of decrease in voltage and charging time. This paper discusses about the technical feasibility for commercialization of lithium ion battery for motorcycle battery. Our proposed methodology of technical feasibility by using a goldsmith commercialization model of the technical feasibility and reconfirm the technical standard using the national standard of motorcycle battery. The battery has been through all the stages of the technical feasibility of the goldsmith model. Based on the results of the study, lithium ion batteries have the minimum technical requirements to be commercialized and has been confirmed in accordance with the standard motorcycle battery. This paper results that the lithium ion battery is visible to commercialized by the technical aspect.

  6. Privacy enhanced recommender system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erkin, Zekeriya; Erkin, Zekeriya; Beye, Michael; Veugen, Thijs; Lagendijk, Reginald L.

    2010-01-01

    Recommender systems are widely used in online applications since they enable personalized service to the users. The underlying collaborative filtering techniques work on user’s data which are mostly privacy sensitive and can be misused by the service provider. To protect the privacy of the users, we

  7. Recommendations for Alternative Credit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenderman, Ed; And Others

    Following a review of the mathematics topics taught in accounting, electronics, auto, food and clothing, and metals courses at Linn-Benton Community College, Albany, Oregon, recommendations were made to grant one semester of mathematics credit for completing a two-year sequence of these courses. The other required semester of mathematics should be…

  8. Towards Geosocial Recommender Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Graaff, V.; van Keulen, Maurice; de By, R.A.; de By, Rolf A.

    2012-01-01

    The usage of social networks sites (SNSs), such as Facebook, and geosocial networks (GSNs), such as Foursquare, has increased tremendously over the past years. The willingness of users to share their current locations and experiences facilitate the creation of geographical recommender systems based

  9. Search and Recommendation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogers, Toine

    2014-01-01

    In just a little over half a century, the field of information retrieval has experienced spectacular growth and success, with IR applications such as search engines becoming a billion-dollar industry in the past decades. Recommender systems have seen an even more meteoric rise to success with wide...

  10. Chapter 10: Management recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah M. Finch; Janie Agyagos; Tracy McCarthey; Robert M. Marshall; Scott H. Stoleson; Mary J. Whitfield

    2000-01-01

    This chapter was developed over a series of meetings using a group-consensus process. Our recommendations are based on published results, on information compiled in the previous chapters, on expert opinion, and on unpublished data of conservation team members. This chapter is available as temporary guidance until the Recovery Plan for the southwestern willow flycatcher...

  11. Privacy in Recommender Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeckmans, Arjan; Beye, Michael; Erkin, Zekeriya; Erkin, Zekeriya; Hartel, Pieter H.; Lagendijk, Reginald; Tang, Qiang; Ramzan, Naeem; van Zwol, Roelof; Lee, Jong-Seok; Clüver, Kai; Hua, Xian-Sheng

    In many online applications, the range of content that is offered to users is so wide that a need for automated recommender systems arises. Such systems can provide a personalized selection of relevant items to users. In practice, this can help people find entertaining movies, boost sales through

  12. The ICRP 2007 recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streffer, C.

    2007-01-01

    The last comprehensive International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) recommendations have been published in 1991(1). Since that time new data in physics and biology that are relevant for radiological protection have appeared in the scientific literature. Also, the general thinking about safety standards at the workplace as well as for the protection of the public has developed. Thus, a review of the recommendations is needed. However, as the present standards have worked well, these new recommendations should build on the present ones. Only a process of further development should take place allowing for the following key points: - new biological and physical information and trends in the setting of safety standards; - improvement in the presentation of the recommendations; as much stability in the recommendations as is consistent with the new information and environmental aspects will be included. The fundamental principles of radiological protection will remain the same as they have been described in ICRP publication 60(1): Justification: Actions involving new exposures or changes in exposures of individuals have to be justified in advance. A positive net benefit must result. Optimisation: Exposures should be as low as reasonably achievable and should be optimised in relation to with dose constraints. Dose limits: The values will not to be changed from Publication 60. Dose constraints: Development of the concept proposed in Publication 60 will be explained. The ICRP Committees have prepared foundation documents in the fields for which they are responsible and their members have the corresponding expertise. These foundation documents will support the decisions and explain the various statements of the Main Commission in a broader sense. Some of them will be published as Annexes to the recommendations (Annex A: Biological and Epidemiological Information on Health Risks Attributable to Ionising Radiation; Annex B: Quantities used in Radiological

  13. The ICRP 2007 recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Streffer, C. [Chairman of ICRP Committee 2, Institute of Science and Ethics, University Duisburg-Essen, 45117 Essen (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    The last comprehensive International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) recommendations have been published in 1991(1). Since that time new data in physics and biology that are relevant for radiological protection have appeared in the scientific literature. Also, the general thinking about safety standards at the workplace as well as for the protection of the public has developed. Thus, a review of the recommendations is needed. However, as the present standards have worked well, these new recommendations should build on the present ones. Only a process of further development should take place allowing for the following key points: - new biological and physical information and trends in the setting of safety standards; - improvement in the presentation of the recommendations; as much stability in the recommendations as is consistent with the new information and environmental aspects will be included. The fundamental principles of radiological protection will remain the same as they have been described in ICRP publication 60(1): Justification: Actions involving new exposures or changes in exposures of individuals have to be justified in advance. A positive net benefit must result. Optimisation: Exposures should be as low as reasonably achievable and should be optimised in relation to with dose constraints. Dose limits: The values will not to be changed from Publication 60. Dose constraints: Development of the concept proposed in Publication 60 will be explained. The ICRP Committees have prepared foundation documents in the fields for which they are responsible and their members have the corresponding expertise. These foundation documents will support the decisions and explain the various statements of the Main Commission in a broader sense. Some of them will be published as Annexes to the recommendations (Annex A: Biological and Epidemiological Information on Health Risks Attributable to Ionising Radiation; Annex B: Quantities used in Radiological

  14. Bifunctional redox flow battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen, Y.H.; Cheng, J.; Xun, Y.; Ma, P.H.; Yang, Y.S.

    2008-01-01

    A new bifunctional redox flow battery (BRFB) system, V(III)/V(II)-L-cystine(O 2 ), was systematically investigated by using different separators. It is shown that during charge, water transfer is significantly restricted with increasing the concentration of HBr when the Nafion 115 cation exchange membrane is employed. The same result can be obtained when the gas diffusion layer (GDL) hot-pressed separator is used. The organic electro-synthesis is directly correlated with the crossover of vanadium. When employing the anion exchange membrane, the electro-synthesis efficiency is over 96% due to a minimal crossover of vanadium. When the GDL hot-pressed separator is applied, the crossover of vanadium and water transfer are noticeably prevented and the electro-synthesis efficiency of over 99% is obtained. Those impurities such as vanadium ions and bromine can be eliminated through the purification of organic electro-synthesized products. The purified product is identified to be L-cysteic acid by IR spectrum. The BRFB shows a favorable discharge performance at a current density of 20 mA cm -2 . Best discharge performance is achieved by using the GDL hot-pressed separator. The coulombic efficiency of 87% and energy efficiency of about 58% can be obtained. The cause of major energy losses is mainly associated with the cross-contamination of anodic and cathodic active electrolytes

  15. Redox-flow battery of actinide complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamura, Tomoo; Shiokawa, Yoshinobu

    2006-01-01

    Np battery and U battery were developed. We suggested that Np redox-flow battery should be (-)|Np 3+ ,Np 4+ ||NpO 2 + ,NpO 2 2+ |(+), and U battery (-)|[U III T 2 ] - ,[U IV T 2 ] 0 ||[U V O 2 T] - ,[U VI O 2 T] 0 |(+). The electromotive force at 50 % charge of Np and U battery is 1.10 V and 1.04 V, respectively. The energy efficiency of 70 mA/cm 2 of Np and U battery shows 99 % and 98 %, respectively. V redox-flow battery, electrode reactions of An battery, Np battery, U battery and future of U battery are described. The concept of V redox-flow battery, comparison of energy efficiency of Np, U and V battery, oxidation state and ionic species of 3d transition metals and main An, Purbe diagram of Np and U aqueous solution, shift of redox potential of β-diketones by pKa, and specifications of three redox-flow batteries are reported. (S.Y.)

  16. Development of a Microcontroller-based Battery Charge Controller for an Off-grid Photovoltaic System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rina, Z. S.; Amin, N. A. M.; Hashim, M. S. M.; Majid, M. S. A.; Rojan, M. A.; Zaman, I.

    2017-08-01

    A development of a microcontroller-based charge controller for a 12V battery has been explained in this paper. The system is designed based on a novel algorithm to couple existing solar photovoltaic (PV) charging and main grid supply charging power source. One of the main purposes of the hybrid charge controller is to supply a continuous charging power source to the battery. Furthermore, the hybrid charge controller was developed to shorten the battery charging time taken. The algorithm is programmed in an Arduino Uno R3 microcontroller that monitors the battery voltage and generates appropriate commands for the charging power source selection. The solar energy is utilized whenever the solar irradiation is high. The main grid supply will be only consumed whenever the solar irradiation is low. This system ensures continuous charging power supply and faster charging of the battery.

  17. International Space Station Lithium-Ion Main Battery Thermal Runaway Propagation Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Penni J.; North, Tim

    2017-01-01

    In 2010, the ISS Program began the development of Lithium-Ion (Li-Ion) batteries to replace the aging Ni-H2 batteries on the primary Electric Power System (EPS). After the Boeing 787 Li-Ion battery fires, the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) Power Technical Discipline Team was tasked by ISS to investigate the possibility of Thermal Runaway Propagation (TRP) in all Li-Ion batteries used on the ISS. As part of that investigation, NESC funded a TRP test of an ISS EPS non-flight Li-Ion battery. The test was performed at NASA White Sands Test Facility in October 2016. This paper will discuss the work leading up to the test, the design of the test article, and the test results.

  18. Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Spacecraft Lithium Ion Battery Micro-Cycling Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dakermanji, George; Lee, Leonine; Spitzer, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) spacecraft was jointly developed by NASA and JAXA. It is a Low Earth Orbit (LEO) spacecraft launched on February 27, 2014. The power system is a Direct Energy Transfer (DET) system designed to support 1950 watts orbit average power. The batteries use SONY 18650HC cells and consist of three 8s by 84p batteries operated in parallel as a single battery. During instrument integration with the spacecraft, large current transients were observed in the battery. Investigation into the matter traced the cause to the Dual-Frequency Precipitation Radar (DPR) phased array radar which generates cyclical high rate current transients on the spacecraft power bus. The power system electronics interaction with these transients resulted in the current transients in the battery. An accelerated test program was developed to bound the effect, and to assess the impact to the mission.

  19. Modifications to Battery chargers and inverters Units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raison, Florent

    2015-01-01

    Over-exceeding the seismic specifications of the nuclear industry has always been the top priority of AEG Power Solutions. Since the Forsmark event, and especially since the Fukushima Daichi accident, utilities have reviewed their specifications. As a consequence, safety related battery chargers and inverters have to withstand higher acceleration levels. Simulation, design and test procedures are key drivers of the battery charger and inverter industry. Forces analysis through simulation is the first step of the product design process. The CAD drawings of our equipment, including the mechanical frame of the cabinet and the internal components, are used for the simulation of vibration. In the frame of 10 Hz, most new specifications show higher values, with higher constraints on our equipment. Our nuclear product range has been adapted to these new requirements. PCBs (Printed Circuit Boards), as key components in charge of the regulation and monitoring of the load, are first separately tested during the design phase, as a specific component. They are subjected to the following tests: Critical load analysis, Thermal imaging, Climatic test, Vibration and shock test. Then the complete equipment will follow a complete test program, including: Type test, EMC test, Seismic test, Aging test. Technology is key in achieving goals in terms of robustness and reliability of battery chargers and inverters. AEG Power Solutions renewed its entire range of products in 2011-2013 and made relevant choices. By updating its complete range of nuclear products, AEG Power Solutions is now offering a new range of solutions to the nuclear industry which minimize the risk of component obsolescence, in case of product replacement on existing nuclear power plants, or of new construction. In order to increase the product reliability and to facilitate the qualification programs of the products, the decision was made to offer 100% analogue technology (Software free). The different regulation and

  20. Advanced state prediction of lithium-ion traction batteries in hybrid and battery electric vehicle applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jadidi, Yasser

    2011-07-01

    Automotive power trains with high energy efficiencies - particularly to be found in battery and hybrid electric vehicles - find increasing attention in the focus of reduction of exhaust emissions and increase of mileage. The underlying concept, the electrification of the power train, is subject to the traction battery and its battery management system since the capability of the battery permits and restricts electric propulsion. Consequently, the overall vehicle efficiency and in particular the operation strategy performance strongly depends on the quality of information about the battery. Besides battery technology, the key challenges are given by both the accurate prediction of battery behaviour and the electrochemical battery degradation that leads to power and capacity fade of the traction battery. This book provides the methodology for development of a battery state monitoring and prediction algorithm for application in a battery management system that accounts for the effects of electrochemical degradation. (orig.)

  1. Battery recycling machine; Maquina recicladora de pilas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higuera Gonzalez, R.M; Esquivel Montes, C.E; Perez Razo, E; Sanchez Guerrero, O.A. [Tecnologico de Estudios Superiores de Ixtapaluca, Ixtapaluca, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2013-03-15

    Batteries pollute the environment and therefore require special treatment or confine recycling in appropriate places, Mexico only has places for confining the batteries and send them to other countries for recycling. The purpose of this project is to reduce the contamination of soil and create a culture for the recycling of batteries. The prototype performs the separation of metals and chemical residues, so that later they can be processed separately. The machine is divided into two parts, mechanics and electronics, the mechanical part was designed to disarm it for easy maintenance, another advantage in the field of electronics and security is to control the machine from a computer at a distance significantly reducing accidents. To automate the machine will use a PLC clock for easy programming. [Spanish] Las pilas contaminan el medio ambiente y por ello requieren un tratamiento especial de reciclaje o confinarlos en lugares adecuados, Mexico solo cuenta con lugares para confinar las pilas y mandarlas a otros paises para su reciclaje. El proposito de este proyecto es reducir la contaminacion del suelo y crear una cultura para el reciclaje de pilas. El prototipo realiza la separacion de metales y residuos quimicos, para que mas adelante se puedan procesar por separado. La maquina se divide en dos partes; la mecanica y la electronica, la parte mecanica fue disenada para desarmarse esto para su facil mantenimiento, otra de las ventajas en el campo de electronica y seguridad es poder controlar el prototipo desde una computadora, a una distancia considerable reduciendo asi los accidentes. Para automatizar la maquina se utilizo un reloj PLC por su facil programacion.

  2. Controllers for Battery Chargers and Battery Chargers Therefrom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmes, John (Inventor); Kersten, Rene (Inventor); Pepper, Michael (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A controller for a battery charger that includes a power converter has parametric sensors for providing a sensed Vin signal, a sensed Vout signal and a sensed Iout signal. A battery current regulator (BCR) is coupled to receive the sensed Iout signal and an Iout reference, and outputs a first duty cycle control signal. An input voltage regulator (IVR) receives the sensed Vin signal and a Vin reference. The IVR provides a second duty cycle control signal. A processor receives the sensed Iout signal and utilizes a Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) algorithm, and provides the Vin reference to the IVR. A selection block forwards one of the first and second duty cycle control signals as a duty cycle control signal to the power converter. Dynamic switching between the first and second duty cycle control signals maximizes the power delivered to the battery.

  3. ICRS Recommendation Document

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roos, Ewa M.; Engelhart, Luella; Ranstam, Jonas

    2011-01-01

    and function evaluated for validity and psychometric properties in patients with articular cartilage lesions. Results: The knee-specific instruments, titled the International Knee Documentation Committee Subjective Knee Form and the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis and Outcome Score, both fulfill the basic......Abstract Objective: The purpose of this article is to describe and recommend patient-reported outcome instruments for use in patients with articular cartilage lesions undergoing cartilage repair interventions. Methods: Nonsystematic literature search identifying measures addressing pain...... constructs at all levels according to the International Classification of Functioning. Conclusions: Because there is no obvious superiority of either instrument at this time, both outcome measures are recommended for use in cartilage repair. Rescaling of the Lysholm Scoring Scale has been suggested...

  4. Prototype Lithium-Ion Battery Developed for Mars 2001 Lander

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzo, Michelle A.

    2000-01-01

    In fiscal year 1997, NASA, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, and the U.S. Air Force established a joint program to competitively develop high-power, rechargeable lithium-ion battery technology for aerospace applications. The goal was to address Department of Defense and NASA requirements not met by commercial battery developments. Under this program, contracts have been awarded to Yardney Technical Products, Eagle- Picher Technologies, LLC, BlueStar Advanced Technology Corporation, and SAFT America, Inc., to develop cylindrical and prismatic cell and battery systems for a variety of NASA and U.S. Air Force applications. The battery systems being developed range from low-capacity (7 to 20 A-hr) and low-voltage (14 to 28 V) systems for planetary landers and rovers to systems for aircraft that require up to 270 V and for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles that require capacities up to 200 A-hr. Low-Earth-orbit and geosynchronousorbit spacecraft pose additional challenges to system operation with long cycle life (>30,000 cycles) and long calendar life (>10 years), respectively.

  5. Smart Power Supply for Battery-Powered Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasowski, Michael J.; Greer, Lawrence; Prokop, Norman F.; Flatico, Joseph M.

    2010-01-01

    A power supply for battery-powered systems has been designed with an embedded controller that is capable of monitoring and maintaining batteries, charging hardware, while maintaining output power. The power supply is primarily designed for rovers and other remote science and engineering vehicles, but it can be used in any battery alone, or battery and charging source applications. The supply can function autonomously, or can be connected to a host processor through a serial communications link. It can be programmed a priori or on the fly to return current and voltage readings to a host. It has two output power busses: a constant 24-V direct current nominal bus, and a programmable bus for output from approximately 24 up to approximately 50 V. The programmable bus voltage level, and its output power limit, can be changed on the fly as well. The power supply also offers options to reduce the programmable bus to 24 V when the set power limit is reached, limiting output power in the case of a system fault detected in the system. The smart power supply is based on an embedded 8051-type single-chip microcontroller. This choice was made in that a credible progression to flight (radiation hard, high reliability) can be assumed as many 8051 processors or gate arrays capable of accepting 8051-type core presently exist and will continue to do so for some time. To solve the problem of centralized control, this innovation moves an embedded microcontroller to the power supply and assigns it the task of overseeing the operation and charging of the power supply assets. This embedded processor is connected to the application central processor via a serial data link such that the central processor can request updates of various parameters within the supply, such as battery current, bus voltage, remaining power in battery estimations, etc. This supply has a direct connection to the battery bus for common (quiescent) power application. Because components from multiple vendors may have

  6. Current situation of used household batteries in Iran and appropriate management policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zand, A Daryabeigi; Abduli, M A

    2008-11-01

    Used household batteries are considered as hazardous wastes in many countries due to the potential environmental and human health risks associated with the heavy metals present in batteries. This article presents the current situation of waste household batteries and policies in Iran. Iran with more than 70 million people is a developing country where latest technologies like cell phones and laptops are in widespread use and battery consumption increases accordingly. The household battery demand in Iran has rapidly grown since 2001 and it is expected to increase more quickly in next years, due to increasing technological development. Based on the available data, more than 9800 metric tons of household batteries were imported into Iran in recent decade, with the market value of about US$ 42.6 million. At present, there is no program available in Iran regarding to collection, separation, recycling or safe disposal of used batteries. Therefore, almost all of the spent household are discarded into municipal solid waste (MSW) and sent to sanitary landfills. Appropriate policies to meet safe disposal of household batteries in Iran is also discussed in this investigation.

  7. Lead-acid batteries life time prolongation in renewable energy source plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Костянтин Ігорович Ткаченко

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Charge controllers with microprocessor control are recognized to be almost optimal process control devices for collecting and storing energy in batteries in power systems with renewable energy sources such as solar photoelectric batteries, wind electrogenerators and others. The task of the controller is charging process control, that is such as charging and discharging the batteries while providing maximum charging speed and battery saving parameters that characterize the state of the battery, within certain limits, preventing overcharging, overheating and the batteries deep discharge. The possibility of archiving data that keeps the battery parameters time dependance is also important. Thus, the concept of a charge controller with Texas Instruments microcontroller device MSP430G2553 was introduced in the study. The program saved in the ROM microcontroller provides for: charge regime(with a particular algorithm; control and training cycle followed by charging; continuous charge-discharge regime to restore the battery or the study of charge regime algorithms influence on repair effectiveness. The device can perform its functions without being connected to a personal computer, but this connection makes it possible to observe in real time the characteristics of a number of discharge and charge regimes parameters, as well as reading the stored data from microcontroller flash memory and storing these data on the PC hard disk for further analysis. A four stages charging algorithm with reverse charging regime was offered by the author and correctness of algorithm was proved

  8. Badali recommends simplified bills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2003-01-01

    A report on the variety of retail electricity bills across the province, authored by Salvatore Badali of Deloitte Consulting, was recently released by the Ontario Government. The report was commissioned by the Government to examine the underlying reasons for the significant format differences and the wide variation of fixed and variable charges among the approximately 95 local electricity distribution companies across the province. Regarding the appropriateness of the charges the report recommends common definitions for local distribution company (LDC) fixed and variable costs, and consideration of options for reducing LDC charges, mainly by consolidating the sector and sharing such services as customer billing, accounting and out sourcing operations. Seven recommendations deal with bill simplification. These include bills that are clear and easy to read and provide sufficient information for consumers to verify charges; promote energy conservation, e.g. by including historical information; allow comparisons between retail suppliers and distributors; accommodate revenue collection, marketing needs and other billing services. The report also recommends clearly defined and consistently used terminology for standardized line items, suggests ways to provide consumer information in a form useful for making energy conservation decisions, development of an LDC scorecard to enable stake holders to compare their own LDCs with LDCs around the province, creation of a conservation and bill calculation website, consideration of further use of shared services, and solutions to address the removal of line losses from invoices

  9. Badali recommends simplified bills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon

    2003-04-01

    A report on the variety of retail electricity bills across the province, authored by Salvatore Badali of Deloitte Consulting, was recently released by the Ontario Government. The report was commissioned by the Government to examine the underlying reasons for the significant format differences and the wide variation of fixed and variable charges among the approximately 95 local electricity distribution companies across the province. Regarding the appropriateness of the charges the report recommends common definitions for local distribution company (LDC) fixed and variable costs, and consideration of options for reducing LDC charges, mainly by consolidating the sector and sharing such services as customer billing, accounting and out sourcing operations. Seven recommendations deal with bill simplification. These include bills that are clear and easy to read and provide sufficient information for consumers to verify charges; promote energy conservation, e.g. by including historical information; allow comparisons between retail suppliers and distributors; accommodate revenue collection, marketing needs and other billing services. The report also recommends clearly defined and consistently used terminology for standardized line items, suggests ways to provide consumer information in a form useful for making energy conservation decisions, development of an LDC scorecard to enable stake holders to compare their own LDCs with LDCs around the province, creation of a conservation and bill calculation website, consideration of further use of shared services, and solutions to address the removal of line losses from invoices.

  10. Portable Battery Charger Berbasis Sel Surya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budhi Anto

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A type of solar battery charger is introduced in this paper. This equipment functions as a medium size rechargeable battery that is needed to move culinary merchants and coastal fishermen living in area which is not supplied by electrical networks. The equipment consists of solar module mounted onto portable mechanical construction, a 12-V 7.5-Ah lead acid battery and charge controller. Solar module charges the battery through charge controller and then the battery can be discharged to power on electric lamps for lightening culinary wagon or fisherman’s boat at night. Charge controller charges the battery with float charging which is implemented by maintaining 13.5 Volt between battery terminals and limiting the charging current to 1.5 Amperes. Charge controller circuit is based on adjustable linear voltage regulator LM338. The battery is of sealed lead acid type. This type of battery is maintenance free and more hygiene than other types of lead acid battery. The field experiment of charging the baterry of 50% residual capacity from 8 am to 4 pm under sunny weather shows that the solar module has charged the battery to its full capacity under battery safe charging conditions.Keywords: portable solar battery charger, float charging, LM338

  11. Lithium iron phosphate based battery – Assessment of the aging parameters and development of cycle life model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omar, Noshin; Monem, Mohamed Abdel; Firouz, Yousef; Salminen, Justin; Smekens, Jelle; Hegazy, Omar; Gaulous, Hamid; Mulder, Grietus; Van den Bossche, Peter; Coosemans, Thierry; Van Mierlo, Joeri

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Extended life cycle tests. • Investigation of the battery life cycle at different working conditions. • Investigation of the impact fast charging on the battery performances. • Extraction all required relationship for development of a cycle life model. • Development of a new life cycle model. - Abstract: This paper represents the evaluation of ageing parameters in lithium iron phosphate based batteries, through investigating different current rates, working temperatures and depths of discharge. From these analyses, one can derive the impact of the working temperature on the battery performances over its lifetime. At elevated temperature (40 °C), the performances are less compared to at 25 °C. The obtained mathematical expression of the cycle life as function of the operating temperature reveals that the well-known Arrhenius law cannot be applied to derive the battery lifetime from one temperature to another. Moreover, a number of cycle life tests have been performed to illustrate the long-term capabilities of the proposed battery cells at different discharge constant current rates. The results reveal the harmful impact of high current rates on battery characteristics. On the other hand, the cycle life test at different depth of discharge levels indicates that the battery is able to perform 3221 cycles (till 80% DoD) compared to 34,957 shallow cycles (till 20% DoD). To investigate the cycle life capabilities of lithium iron phosphate based battery cells during fast charging, cycle life tests have been carried out at different constant charge current rates. The experimental analysis indicates that the cycle life of the battery degrades the more the charge current rate increases. From this analysis, one can conclude that the studied lithium iron based battery cells are not recommended to be charged at high current rates. This phenomenon affects the viability of ultra-fast charging systems. Finally, a cycle life model has been developed, which

  12. The development of aluminum-air batteries for application in electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudd, E. J.; Lott, S.

    1990-12-01

    The recently concluded program, jointly funded by ELTECH Research Corporation and the Department of Energy, focused upon the development of an aluminum-air battery system for electric vehicle applications. The operation of the aluminum-air battery involves the dissolution of aluminum to produce a current and aluminate. Initially the objectives were to evaluate and optimize the battery design that was developed prior to this program (designated as the B300 cell) and to design and evaluate the components of the auxiliary system. During the program, three additional tasks were undertaken, addressing needs identified by ELTECH and by Sandia National Laboratories. First, the capability to produce aluminum alloys as relatively large ingots (100 to 150 lbs), with the required electrochemical performance, was considered essential to the development of the battery. The second additional task was the adoption of an advanced cell (designated as the AT400 cell), designed by ELTECH in a different program. Finally, it was recognized that a system model would allow evaluation of the interactions of the several unit operations involved in the battery. Therefore, the development of a mathematical model, based upon material and energy balances for the battery, was undertaken. At a systems level, sufficient information was obtained in the completion of this program to support the design, fabrication and operation of a batch or solids-free battery system. For the first time, the components of the auxiliary system, i.e., a heat exchanger, carbon dioxide scrubber and hydrogen disposal technology, have been defined for a vehicle battery. Progress on each component or system is summarized in the following sections.

  13. Ten recommendations for software engineering in research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastings, Janna; Haug, Kenneth; Steinbeck, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    Research in the context of data-driven science requires a backbone of well-written software, but scientific researchers are typically not trained at length in software engineering, the principles for creating better software products. To address this gap, in particular for young researchers new to programming, we give ten recommendations to ensure the usability, sustainability and practicality of research software.

  14. IMIA Educational Recommendations and Nursing Informatics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mantas, John; Hasman, Arie

    2017-01-01

    The updated version of the IMIA educational recommendations has given an adequate guidelines platform for developing educational programs in Biomedical and Health Informatics at all levels of education, vocational training, and distance learning. This chapter will provide a brief introduction of the

  15. Teacher Efficacy and Disproportional Special Education Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branscombe, Peter

    2017-01-01

    According to literature, African American male students are disproportionately placed in special education programs throughout our national public school systems. Therefore, this study was intended to examine factors that may influence a teacher's decision to recommend students for special education services. The target population for this study…

  16. Alternator control for battery charging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunstetter, Craig A.; Jaye, John R.; Tallarek, Glen E.; Adams, Joseph B.

    2015-07-14

    In accordance with an aspect of the present disclosure, an electrical system for an automotive vehicle has an electrical generating machine and a battery. A set point voltage, which sets an output voltage of the electrical generating machine, is set by an electronic control unit (ECU). The ECU selects one of a plurality of control modes for controlling the alternator based on an operating state of the vehicle as determined from vehicle operating parameters. The ECU selects a range for the set point voltage based on the selected control mode and then sets the set point voltage within the range based on feedback parameters for that control mode. In an aspect, the control modes include a trickle charge mode and battery charge current is the feedback parameter and the ECU controls the set point voltage within the range to maintain a predetermined battery charge current.

  17. Li-ion Battery Aging Datasets

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set has been collected from a custom built battery prognostics testbed at the NASA Ames Prognostics Center of Excellence (PCoE). Li-ion batteries were run...

  18. Li-air batteries: Decouple to stabilize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ji-Jing; Zhang, Xin-Bo

    2017-09-01

    The utilization of porous carbon cathodes in lithium-air batteries is hindered by their severe decomposition during battery cycling. Now, dual redox mediators are shown to decouple the complex electrochemical reactions at the cathode, avoiding cathode passivation and decomposition.

  19. Multilayer Approach for Advanced Hybrid Lithium Battery

    KAUST Repository

    Ming, Jun; Li, Mengliu; Kumar, Pushpendra; Li, Lain-Jong

    2016-01-01

    Conventional intercalated rechargeable batteries have shown their capacity limit, and the development of an alternative battery system with higher capacity is strongly needed for sustainable electrical vehicles and hand-held devices. Herein, we

  20. Practical Methods in Li-ion Batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barreras, Jorge Varela

    This thesis presents, as a collection of papers, practical methods in Li-ion batteries for simplified modeling (Manuscript I and II), battery electric vehicle design (III), battery management system testing (IV and V) and balancing system control (VI and VII). • Manuscript I tackles methodologies...... to parameterize battery models based solely on manufacturer’s datasheets • Manuscript II presents a parameterization method for battery models based on the notion of direct current resistance • Manuscript III proposes a battery electric vehicle design that combines fixed and swappable packs • Manuscript IV...... develops a battery system model for battery management system testing on a hardware-in-the-loop simulator • Manuscript V extends the previous work, introducing theoretical principles and presenting a practical method to develop ad hoc software and strategies for testing • Manuscript VI presents...

  1. An Object Location Detector Enabling People with Developmental Disabilities to Control Environmental Stimulation through Simple Occupational Activities with Battery-Free Wireless Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Ching-Hsiang

    2011-01-01

    This study assessed whether two persons with developmental disabilities would be able to actively perform simple occupational activities by controlling their favorite environmental stimulation using battery-free wireless mice with a newly developed object location detection program (OLDP, i.e., a new software program turning a battery-free…

  2. Battery Peak Power Shaving Strategy to Prolong Battery Life for Electric Buses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pham, T.H.; Rosea, B.; Wilkins, S.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a battery peak power shaving strategy for battery electric buses. The developed strategy restricts the battery charge/discharge power when the propulsion power demand is high to avoid high deterioration of the battery capacity during operation. Without reducing the propulsion

  3. 49 CFR 173.185 - Lithium cells and batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lithium cells and batteries. 173.185 Section 173... Class 7 § 173.185 Lithium cells and batteries. (a) Cells and batteries. A lithium cell or battery, including a lithium polymer cell or battery and a lithium-ion cell or battery, must conform to all of the...

  4. Human-rated Safety Certification of a High Voltage Robonaut Lithium-ion Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeevarajan, Judith; Yayathi, S.; Johnson, M.; Waligora, T.; Verdeyen, W.

    2013-01-01

    NASA's rigorous certification process is being followed for the R2 high voltage battery program for use of R2 on International Space Station (ISS). Rigorous development testing at appropriate levels to credible off-nominal conditions and review of test data led to design improvements for safety at the virtual cell, cartridge and battery levels. Tests were carried out at all levels to confirm that both hardware and software controls work. Stringent flight acceptance testing of the flight battery will be completed before launch for mission use on ISS.

  5. Ion-batterier - "The Next Generation"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Martin; Becker, Jacob; Shen, Yanbin

    2014-01-01

    Lithium-ion batterier er strømkilden, der har revolutioneret vores transportable elektronik. Familien af ion-batterier er imidlertid større end som så og har meget, meget mere at byde på.......Lithium-ion batterier er strømkilden, der har revolutioneret vores transportable elektronik. Familien af ion-batterier er imidlertid større end som så og har meget, meget mere at byde på....

  6. Principles and applications of lithium secondary batteries

    CERN Document Server

    Park, Jung-Ki

    2012-01-01

    Lithium secondary batteries have been key to mobile electronics since 1990. Large-format batteries typically for electric vehicles and energystorage systems are attracting much attention due to current energy and environmental issues. Lithium batteries are expected to play a centralrole in boosting green technologies. Therefore, a large number of scientists and engineers are carrying out research and development onlithium secondary batteries.The book is written in a straightforward fashion suitable for undergraduate and graduate students, as well as scientists, and engineer

  7. An Improved Wireless Battery Charging System

    OpenAIRE

    Woo-Seok Lee; Jin-Hak Kim; Shin-Young Cho; Il-Oun Lee

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents a direct wireless battery charging system. The output current of the series-series compensated wireless power transfer (SS-WPT) system is used as a current source, and the output voltage of AC-DC converter controls the current source. Therefore, the proposed wireless battery charging system needs no battery charging circuit to carry out charging profiles, and can solve space constraints and thermal problems in many battery applications. In addition, the proposed wireless b...

  8. Membranes for Redox Flow Battery Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Prifti, Helen; Parasuraman, Aishwarya; Winardi, Suminto; Lim, Tuti Mariana; Skyllas-Kazacos, Maria

    2012-01-01

    The need for large scale energy storage has become a priority to integrate renewable energy sources into the electricity grid. Redox flow batteries are considered the best option to store electricity from medium to large scale applications. However, the current high cost of redox flow batteries impedes the wide spread adoption of this technology. The membrane is a critical component of redox flow batteries as it determines the performance as well as the economic viability of the batteries. Th...

  9. Microfluidic fuel cells and batteries

    CERN Document Server

    Kjeang, Erik

    2014-01-01

    Microfluidic fuel cells and batteries represent a special type of electrochemical power generators that can be miniaturized and integrated in a microfluidic chip. Summarizing the initial ten years of research and development in this emerging field, this SpringerBrief is the first book dedicated to microfluidic fuel cell and battery technology for electrochemical energy conversion and storage. Written at a critical juncture, where strategically applied research is urgently required to seize impending technology opportunities for commercial, analytical, and educational utility, the intention is

  10. Aluminum-air battery crystallizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maimoni, A.

    1987-01-01

    A prototype crystallizer system for the aluminum-air battery operated reliably through simulated startup and shutdown cycles and met its design objectives. The crystallizer system allows for crystallization and removal of the aluminium hydroxide reaction product; it is required to allow steady-state and long-term operation of the aluminum-air battery. The system has to minimize volume and maintain low turbulence and shear to minimize secondary nucleation and energy consumption while enhancing agglomeration. A lamella crystallizer satisfies system constraints.

  11. Electric vehicle battery charging controller

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention provides an electric vehicle charging controller. The charging controller comprises a first interface connectable to an electric vehicle charge source for receiving a charging current, a second interface connectable to an electric vehicle for providing the charging current...... to a battery management system in the electric vehicle to charge a battery therein, a first communication unit for receiving a charging message via a communication network, and a control unit for controlling a charging current provided from the charge source to the electric vehicle, the controlling at least...... in part being performed in response to a first information associated with a charging message received by the first communication unit...

  12. Solid-state lithium battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihlefeld, Jon; Clem, Paul G; Edney, Cynthia; Ingersoll, David; Nagasubramanian, Ganesan; Fenton, Kyle Ross

    2014-11-04

    The present invention is directed to a higher power, thin film lithium-ion electrolyte on a metallic substrate, enabling mass-produced solid-state lithium batteries. High-temperature thermodynamic equilibrium processing enables co-firing of oxides and base metals, providing a means to integrate the crystalline, lithium-stable, fast lithium-ion conductor lanthanum lithium tantalate (La.sub.1/3-xLi.sub.3xTaO.sub.3) directly with a thin metal foil current collector appropriate for a lithium-free solid-state battery.

  13. Anodematerials for Metal Hydride Batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens Oluf

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the work on development of hydride forming alloys for use as electrode materials in metal hydride batteries. The work has primarily been concentrated on calcium based alloys derived from the compound CaNi5. This compound has a higher capacity compared with alloys used in today......’s hydride batteries, but a much poorer stability towards repeated charge/discharge cycling. The aim was to see if the cycleability of CaNi5 could be enhanced enough by modifications to make the compound a suitable electrode material. An alloying method based on mechanical alloying in a planetary ball mill...

  14. A Practical Circuit-based Model for State of Health Estimation of Li-ion Battery Cells in Electric Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lam, Long

    2011-08-23

    In this thesis the development of the state of health of Li-ion battery cells under possible real-life operating conditions in electric cars has been characterised. Furthermore, a practical circuit-based model for Li-ion cells has been developed that is capable of modelling the cell voltage behaviour under various operating conditions. The Li-ion cell model can be implemented in simulation programs and be directly connected to a model of the rest of the electronic system in electric vehicles. Most existing battery models are impractical for electric vehicle system designers and require extensive background knowledge of electrochemistry to be implemented. Furthermore, many models do not take the effect of regenerative braking into account and are obtained from testing fully charged cells. However, in real-life applications electric vehicles are not always fully charged and utilise regenerative braking to save energy. To obtain a practical circuit model based on real operating conditions and to model the state of health of electric vehicle cells, numerous 18650 size LiFePO4 cells have been tested under possible operating conditions. Capacity fading was chosen as the state of health parameter, and the capacity fading of different cells was compared with the charge processed instead of cycles. Tests have shown that the capacity fading rate is dependent on temperature, charging C-rate, state of charge and depth of discharge. The obtained circuit model is capable of simulating the voltage behaviour under various temperatures and C-rates with a maximum error of 14mV. However, modelling the effect of different temperatures and C-rates increases the complexity of the model. The model is easily adjustable and the choice is given to the electric vehicle system designer to decide which operating conditions to take into account. By combining the test results for the capacity fading and the proposed circuit model, recommendations to optimise the battery lifetime are proposed.

  15. Mobile Application Recommender System

    OpenAIRE

    Davidsson, Christoffer

    2010-01-01

    With the amount of mobile applications available increasing rapidly, users have to put a lot of effort into finding applications of interest. The purpose of this thesis is to investigate how to aid users in the process of discovering new mobile applications by providing them with recommendations. A prototype system is then built as a proof-of-concept. The work of the thesis is divided into three phases where the aim of the first phase is to study related work and related systems to identify p...

  16. Clinical Recommendation: Vulvovaginitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuckerman, Andrea; Romano, Mary

    2016-12-01

    Vulvovaginitis is a commonly encountered condition among prepubertal and adolescent females. The objective of this report is to provide the latest evidence regarding the diagnosis and management of vulvovaginitis in prepubertal and adolescent females. In this systematic review we used the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation evidence system. Vulvovaginal complaints are common in the pediatric and adolescent age group. The patient's age in conjunction with history and associated complaints will guide evaluation, diagnosis, and treatment. Treatment should include counseling on hygiene and voiding techniques as well as therapy for any specific pathogens identified. Copyright © 2016.

  17. The new ICRP recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlesinger, T.

    1977-01-01

    The new ICRP recommendations are based on the concept of risk. The doses received by workers have to be justified and kept as low as practically achievable. The acceptable annual occupational risk is of the order of 10 -4 . This corresponds to an average annual dose equivalent of about 5 mSv(0.5 Rem). The annual dose equivalent limit for whole body irradiation will remain 50 mSv/year (5 Rem/year) provided that the average is about 1/10th of this value. The concept of the critical organ is abandoned and is replaced by the concept of equidetriment. (author)

  18. Battery control system for hybrid vehicle and method for controlling a hybrid vehicle battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bockelmann, Thomas R [Battle Creek, MI; Hope, Mark E [Marshall, MI; Zou, Zhanjiang [Battle Creek, MI; Kang, Xiaosong [Battle Creek, MI

    2009-02-10

    A battery control system for hybrid vehicle includes a hybrid powertrain battery, a vehicle accessory battery, and a prime mover driven generator adapted to charge the vehicle accessory battery. A detecting arrangement is configured to monitor the vehicle accessory battery's state of charge. A controller is configured to activate the prime mover to drive the generator and recharge the vehicle accessory battery in response to the vehicle accessory battery's state of charge falling below a first predetermined level, or transfer electrical power from the hybrid powertrain battery to the vehicle accessory battery in response to the vehicle accessory battery's state of charge falling below a second predetermined level. The invention further includes a method for controlling a hybrid vehicle powertrain system.

  19. A Battery Power Bank with Series-Connected Buck–Boost-Type Battery Power Modules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsung-Hsi Wu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The operation of a battery power bank with series-connected buck–boost-type battery power modules (BPMs was investigated in this study. Each BPM consisted of a battery pack with an associated buck–boost converter for individually controlling battery currents. With a proposed discharging scenario, load voltage regulation with charge equalization among batteries was performed by controlling the battery currents in accordance with their state-of-charges (SOCs estimated by real-time battery-loaded voltages detected under the same operating condition. In addition, the fault tolerance was executed to isolate exhausted or faulty batteries from the battery power bank without interrupting the system operation. Experiments were conducted to verify the effectiveness of the discharging scenario for a laboratory battery power bank with four series buck–boost BPMs.

  20. A rechargeable carbon-oxygen battery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The invention relates to a rechargeable battery and a method to operate a rechargeable battery having high efficiency and high energy density for storing energy. The battery stores electrical energy in the bonds of carbon and oxygen atoms by converting carbon dioxide into solid carbon and oxygen....