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Sample records for battery positive electrode

  1. Positive electrode for a lithium battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang-Ho; Amine, Khalil

    2015-04-07

    A method for producing a lithium alkali transition metal oxide for use as a positive electrode material for lithium secondary batteries by a precipitation method. The positive electrode material is a lithium alkali transition metal composite oxide and is prepared by mixing a solid state mixed with alkali and transition metal carbonate and a lithium source. The mixture is thermally treated to obtain a small amount of alkali metal residual in the lithium transition metal composite oxide cathode material.

  2. Studies of pyrrole black electrodes as possible battery positive electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mengoli, G.; Musiani, M.M.; Fleischmann, M.; Pletcher, D.

    1984-05-01

    It is shown that a polypyrrole, pyrrole black, may be formed anodically in several aqueous acids. The polypyrrole film shows a redox couple at less positive potentials than that required to form the film and the charge associated with these reduction and oxidation processes together with their stabilty to cycling varies with the anion in solution and the potential where the polypyrrole is formed; over-oxidation of the film caused by taking its potential too positive has a particularly disadvantageous affect. In the acids HBr and HI, the polypyrrole films can act as a storage medium for Br/sub 2/ or I/sub 2/ so that they may be used as a substrate for a X/sub 2//X/sup -/ electrode. Such electrodes may be charge/discharge cycled and the pyrrole/Br/sub 2/ electrode shows promise as a battery positive electrode.

  3. Oxide materials as positive electrodes of lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makhonina, Elena V; Pervov, Vladislav S; Dubasova, Valeriya S

    2004-01-01

    The published data on oxide materials as positive electrodes for lithium-ion batteries are described systematically. The mechanisms of structural changes in cathode materials occurring during the operation of lithium-ion batteries and the problems concerned with their selection are discussed. Modern trends in optimising cathode materials and lithium-ion batteries on the whole are considered.

  4. Characterization of positive electrode/electrolyte interphase in lithium batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dupre, N.; Martin, J.F.; Soudan, P.; Guyomard, D. [Inst.des Materiaux Jean Rouxel, Nantes (France)

    2008-07-01

    Lithium batteries appear to be the most viable energy source for portable electronic devices because of their energy density. The solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) between the negative electrode and the electrolyte of a Li-ion battery monitors the overall battery behaviour in terms of irreversible capacity loss, charge transfer kinetics and storage properties. This paper reported on a study that examined the influence of the storage atmosphere and the formation of a protective surface layer on the electrochemical performance. The objective was to better understand the interfacial problems controlling the long term life duration and cyclability. The positive/electrolyte interphase evolution was followed upon aging/cycling using 7Li MAS NMR, XPS and impedance spectroscopy. This very novel and uncommon technique was used to characterize the growth and evolution of the surface of some electrode materials for lithium batteries, due to contact with the ambient atmosphere or electrolyte or along electrochemical cycling. LiFePO4 and LiMn0.5Ni0.5O2 were chosen for the studies because they are among the most promising candidates for positive electrodes for future lithium batteries. The reaction of LiMn0.5Ni0.5O2 with the ambient atmosphere or LiPF6 electrolyte is extremely fast and leads to an important amount of lithium-containing diamagnetic species. The NMR spectra provided valuable structural information on the interaction between the interphase and the active material after contact with electrolyte or along electrochemical cycling. MAS NMR was shown to be a very promising tool to monitor phenomena taking place at the interface between electrode and electrolyte in lithium batteries. The study showed the affect of the potential on the strength of the interaction between the surface layer and the active material and the partial removal of this layer along the electrochemical cycling. 11 refs.

  5. Rechargeable aluminum batteries with conducting polymers as positive electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudak, Nicholas S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2013-12-01

    This report is a summary of research results from an Early Career LDRD project con-ducted from January 2012 to December 2013 at Sandia National Laboratories. Demonstrated here is the use of conducting polymers as active materials in the posi-tive electrodes of rechargeable aluminum-based batteries operating at room tempera-ture. The battery chemistry is based on chloroaluminate ionic liquid electrolytes, which allow reversible stripping and plating of aluminum metal at the negative elec-trode. Characterization of electrochemically synthesized polypyrrole films revealed doping of the polymers with chloroaluminate anions, which is a quasi-reversible reac-tion that facilitates battery cycling. Stable galvanostatic cycling of polypyrrole and polythiophene cells was demonstrated, with capacities at near-theoretical levels (30-100 mAh g-1) and coulombic efficiencies approaching 100%. The energy density of a sealed sandwich-type cell with polythiophene at the positive electrode was estimated as 44 Wh kg-1, which is competitive with state-of-the-art battery chemistries for grid-scale energy storage.

  6. Recycling positive-electrode material of a lithium-ion battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloop, Steven E.

    2017-11-21

    Examples are disclosed of methods to recycle positive-electrode material of a lithium-ion battery. In one example, the positive-electrode material is heated under pressure in a concentrated lithium hydroxide solution. After heating, the positive-electrode material is separated from the concentrated lithium hydroxide solution. After separating, the positive electrode material is rinsed in a basic liquid. After rinsing, the positive-electrode material is dried and sintered.

  7. Nickel hydroxide positive electrode for alkaline rechargeable battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Kwo; Wang, Lixin; Mays, William; Reichman, Benjamin; Chao-Ian, Hu; Wong, Diana; Nei, Jean

    2018-02-20

    Certain nickel hydroxide active cathode materials for use in alkaline rechargeable batteries are capable of transferring >1.3 electrons per Ni atom under reversible electrochemical conditions. The specific capacity of the nickel hydroxide active materials is for example .gtoreq.325 mAh/g. The cathode active materials exhibit an additional discharge plateau near 0.8 V vs. a metal hydride (MH) anode. Ni in an oxidation state of less than 2, such as Ni.sup.1+, is able to participate in electrochemical reactions when using the present cathode active materials. It is possible that up to 2.3 electrons, up to 2.5 electrons or more may be transferred per Ni atom under electrochemical conditions.

  8. Nickel hydroxide positive electrode for alkaline rechargeable battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Kwo; Wang, Lixin; Mays, William; Reichman, Benjamin; Chao-Ian, Hu; Wong, Diana; Nei, Jean

    2018-04-03

    Certain nickel hydroxide active cathode materials for use in alkaline rechargeable batteries are capable of transferring >1.3 electrons per Ni atom under reversible electrochemical conditions. The specific capacity of the nickel hydroxide active materials is for example .gtoreq.325 mAh/g. The cathode active materials exhibit an additional discharge plateau near 0.8 V vs. a metal hydride (MH) anode. Ni in an oxidation state of less than 2, such as Ni.sup.1+, is able to participate in electrochemical reactions when using the present cathode active materials. It is possible that up to 2.3 electrons, up to 2.5 electrons or more may be transferred per Ni atom under electrochemical conditions.

  9. A sulfur–microporous carbon composite positive electrode for lithium/sulfur and silicon/sulfur rechargeble batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takuya Takahashi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Sulfur is an advantageous material as a promising next-generation positive electrode material for high-energy lithium batteries due to a high theoretical capacity of 1672 mA h g−1 although its discharge potential is somewhat modest: ca. 2 V vs Li/Li+. However, a sulfur positive electrode has some crucial problems for practical use, which are mainly attributed to the dissolution of its intermediate products in charge–discharge processes. In order to resolve the dissolution problem of lithium polysulfide, we attempted to synthesize a sulfur–microporous activated carbon (AC composite positive electrode. Moreover, we have systematically researched the battery performance of sulfur–microporous AC positive electrode with variations of electrolytes as well as negative electrodes, and found its promising positive electrode performance for a next-generation rechargeable battery.

  10. Corrosion behavior of a positive graphite electrode in vanadium redox flow battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Huijun; Xu Qian; Yan Chuanwei; Qiao Yonglian

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The overpotential for gas evolution on positive graphite electrode decreases due to the functional groups of COOH and C=O introduced on the surface of graphite electrode during corrosion process, which can self-catalyze the oxidation of carbon atoms therefore, accelerates corrosion process. Highlights: → Initial potential for gas evolution is higher than 1.60 V vs SCE. → Factors affecting the graphite corrosion are investigated. → Functional groups of COOH and C=O introduced during corrosion process. → The groups can self-catalyze the oxidation of carbon atoms. - Abstract: The graphite plate is easily suffered from corosion because of CO 2 evolution when it acts as the positive electrode for vanadium redox flow battery. The aim is to obtain the initial potential for gas evolution on a positive graphite electrode in 2 mol dm -3 H 2 SO 4 + 2 mol dm -3 VOSO 4 solution. The effects of polarization potential, operating temperature and polarization time on extent of graphite corrosion are investigated by potentiodynamic and potentiostatic techniques. The surface characteristics of graphite electrode before and after corrosion are examined by scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The results show that the gas begins to evolve on the graphite electrode when the anodic polarization potential is higher than 1.60 V vs saturated calomel electrode at 20 deg. C. The CO 2 evolution on the graphite electrode can lead to intergranular corrosion of the graphite when the polarization potential reaches 1.75 V. In addition, the functional groups of COOH and C=O introduced on the surface of graphite electrode during corrosion can catalyze the formation of CO 2 , therefore, accelerates the corrosion rate of graphite electrode.

  11. Surface modification of positive electrode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Julien, C.M., E-mail: Christian.Julien@upmc.fr [Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ. Paris 6, Physicochimie des Electrolytes et Nanosystèmes Interfaciaux (PHENIX), UMR 8234, 75005 Paris (France); Mauger, A. [Institut de Minéralogie de Physique des Matériaux et de Cosmochimie (IMPMC), UPMC Univ. Paris 6, 4 place Jussieu, 75005 Paris (France); Groult, H. [Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ. Paris 6, Physicochimie des Electrolytes et Nanosystèmes Interfaciaux (PHENIX), UMR 8234, 75005 Paris (France); Zaghib, K. [Energy Storage and Conversion, Research Institute of Hydro-Québec, Varennes, Québec J3X 1S1 (Canada)

    2014-12-01

    The advanced lithium-ion batteries are critically important for a wide range of applications, from portable electronics to electric vehicles. The research on their electrodes aims to increase the energy density and the power density, improve the calendar and the cycling life, without sacrificing the safety issues. A constant progress through the years has been obtained owing to the surface treatment of the particles, in particular the coating of the nanoparticles with a layer that protects the core region from side reactions with the electrolyte, prevents the loss of oxygen, and the dissolution of the metal ions in the electrolyte, or simply improve the conductivity of the powder. The purpose of the present work is to present the different surface modifications that have been tried for three families of positive electrodes: layered, spinel and olivine frameworks that are currently considered as promising materials. The role of the different coats used to improve either the surface conductivity, or the thermal stability, or the structural integrity is discussed. - Highlights: • Report the various surface modifications tried for the positive electrodes of Li-ion batteries. • The role of different coats used to improve the conductivity, or the thermal stability, or the structural integrity. • Improvement of electrochemical properties of electrodes after coating or surface treatment.

  12. Nano-sized copper tungstate thin films as positive electrodes for rechargeable Li batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Chilin; Fu Zhengwen

    2008-01-01

    Nano-sized CuWO 4 thin films have been fabricated by radio-frequency (R.F.) sputtering deposition, and are used as positive electrode with both LiClO 4 liquid electrolyte and LiPON solid electrolyte in rechargeable lithium batteries. An initial discharge capacity of 192 and 210 mAh/g is obtainable for CuWO 4 film electrode with and without coated LiPON in liquid electrolyte, respectively. An all-solid-state cell with Li/LiPON/CuWO 4 layers shows a high-volume rate capacity of 145 μAh/cm 2 μm in first discharge, and overcomes the unfavorable electrochemical degradation observed in liquid electrolyte system. A two-step reactive mechanism is investigated by both transmission electron microscopy and selected area electron diffraction techniques. Apart from the extrusion and injection of Cu 2+ /Cu 0 , additional capacity can be achieved by the reversible reactivity of (WO 4 ) 2- framework. The chemical diffusion coefficients of Li intercalation/deintercalation are estimated by cyclic voltammetry. Nano-CuWO 4 thin film is expected to be a promising positive electrode material for high-performance rechargeable thin-film lithium batteries

  13. Using quasi-elastic neutron diffraction to study positive electrode for lithium and sodium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pramudita, James C.; Sharma, Neeraj

    2015-01-01

    Sodium-ion batteries has recently been proposed as the alternative for lithium-ion batteries to be the low cost energy storage system. However, challenges still remains for the development of sodium-ion batteries. Optimization of electrode materials and electrolyte capable of insertion/extraction of sodium-ion in a safe and economic way under high current density is needed in order to produce commercially viable sodium-ion batteries. While possible positive electrode material is more prevalent than negative electrode material, many of these material still need further understanding. Quasi-elastic Neutron Scatteringis a technique that utilize the inelastic Neutron Scatteringthat can be used to study solid-state diffusion in materials. This technique can be used to study the diffusion of sodium-ion under electric field through the electrolyte and positive electrode materials in order to further understand the mechanism of sodium insertion/extraction in a working battery. This technique can also be used to study available positive electrode material for lithium-ion batteries to further understand the mechanism of lithium-ion diffusion in current working lithiumion batteries.

  14. Structural and electrochemical study of positive electrode materials for rechargeable lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Meng

    The research presented in this dissertation focuses on a combined study of the electrochemistry and the structure of positive electrode materials for Li ion batteries. Li ion batteries are one of the most advanced energy storage systems and have been the subject of numerous scientific studies in recent decades. They have been widely used for various mobile devices such as cell phones, laptop computers and power tools. They are also promising candidates as power sources for automotive applications. Although intensive research has been done to improve the performance of Li ion batteries, there are still many remaining challenges to overcome so that they can be used in a wider range of applications. In particular, cheaper and safer electrodes are required with much higher reversible capacity. The series of layered nickel manganese oxides [NixLi 1/3-2x/3Mn2/3- x/3]O2 (0 reversible in the following cycles. A combined X-ray diffraction, solid state nuclear magnetic resonance and X-ray absorption spectroscopy study is performed to investigate the effect of synthetic methods on the structure, to probe the structural change of the materials during cycling and to understand the electrochemical reaction mechanism. The conversion compounds are also investigated because of their high capacities. Since the various compounds have different voltage windows, they can have potential applications as both cathodes and anodes. Solid state nuclear magnetic resonance is used to study the change in the local environment of the structure during the cycling process. Two systems are included in this work, including iron fluorides and Cu-containing materials. A comparison study has been performed on FeF3 and FeF2. Different discharge reaction mechanisms are clarified for each compound, and possible phase transitions are proposed as well. As for the Cu-containing systems, three compounds were chosen with different anions: CuS, CuO and CuF2. The reaction mechanisms are studied by 63Cu, 7Li and

  15. Positive electrode for lithium secondary battery of the next generation. Part 3. Positive electrode active material synthesized by soft chemistry; 3 sofutokemisutori de gosei sareru seikyoku katsubusshitsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumagai, N.; Jo, A [Iwate Univ., Morioka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-10-05

    Synthesis of high performance positive electrode material for the lithium secondary battery using soft chemistry methods such as sol-gel method, precipitation method, and ion exchange method as well as the electrochemical properties and the positive electrode material for the metal oxides synthesized by soft chemistry methods are introduced. V2O5 gel is obtained by acidifying aqueous solution of vanadate such as NaVO3. MnO2 exists in various crystalline forms, and the characteristics of the electrode depend strongly on the crystal structure, chemical composition, water content, conditions of powder, and density, which can be controlled by the methods of synthesis and heat treatment. Sol-gel method is applied to the synthesis of MnO2 related compounds. LiCoO2 is synthesized by the precipitation method of the aqueous solution of the mixture of lithium hydroxide and ammonium hydroxide. Tungsten trioxide hydrate and molybdenum trioxide hydrate are obtained as precipitation by adding strong acid for acidification to tungstate or molybdate A2MO4 aqueous solution. 31 refs., 8 figs.

  16. Vertically-aligned carbon nanotubes on aluminum as a light-weight positive electrode for lithium-polysulfide batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liatard, S; Benhamouda, K; Fournier, A; Ramos, R; Barchasz, C; Dijon, J

    2015-05-04

    A light-weight, high specific surface current collector made of vertically-aligned carbon nanotubes grown on an aluminum substrate was fabricated and studied as a positive electrode in a semi-liquid lithium/polysulfide battery. This simple system delivered stable capacities over 1000 mA h gS(-1) and 2 mA h cm(-2) with almost no capacity loss over 50 cycles.

  17. Studies on two classes of positive electrode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilcox, James Douglas [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2008-12-01

    The development of advanced lithium-ion batteries is key to the success of many technologies, and in particular, hybrid electric vehicles. In addition to finding materials with higher energy and power densities, improvements in other factors such as cost, toxicity, lifetime, and safety are also required. Lithium transition metal oxide and LiFePO4/C composite materials offer several distinct advantages in achieving many of these goals and are the focus of this report. Two series of layered lithium transition metal oxides, namely LiNi1/3Co1/3-yMyMn1/3O2 (M=Al, Co, Fe, Ti) and LiNi0.4Co0.2-yMyMn0.4O2 (M = Al, Co, Fe), have been synthesized. The effect of substitution on the crystal structure is related to shifts in transport properties and ultimately to the electrochemical performance. Partial aluminum substitution creates a high-rate positive electrode material capable of delivering twice the discharge capacity of unsubstituted materials. Iron substituted materials suffer from limited electrochemical performance and poor cycling stability due to the degradation of the layered structure. Titanium substitution creates a very high rate positive electrode material due to a decrease in the anti-site defect concentration. LiFePO4 is a very promising electrode material but suffers from poor electronic and ionic conductivity. To overcome this, two new techniques have been developed to synthesize high performance LiFePO4/C composite materials. The use of graphitization catalysts in conjunction with pyromellitic acid leads to a highly graphitic carbon coating on the surface of LiFePO4 particles. Under the proper conditions, the room temperature electronic conductivity can be improved by nearly five orders of magnitude over untreated materials. Using Raman spectroscopy, the improvement in conductivity and rate performance of

  18. Treatment of graphite felt by modified Hummers method for the positive electrode of vanadium redox flow battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Xiaoxin; Xu, Hongfeng; Shen, Yang; Xu, Pengcheng; Lu, Lu; Fu, Jie; Zhao, Hong

    2014-01-01

    A novel and highly effective treatment based on modified Hummers method was firstly used to improve the electrochemical activity of graphite felt as the positive electrode in all-vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB). The graphite felt was treated by the modified Hummers method and characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The electrochemical performance of the prepared electrode was evaluated through cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Results show that graphite felt treated by modified Hummers method exhibits excellent electrocatalytic activity and reaction rate to vanadium redox couples. In our research, the hydrogen electrode and H 2 replaced the graphite felt and V 2+ /V 3+ couple in the negative side in the VRFB performance test. The coulombic, voltage, and energy efficiencies of the VRFB with the as-prepared electrodes at 50 mA cm −2 are 95.0%, 81.3%, and 77.2%, respectively. These values are much higher than those of the cell-assembled graphite felt electrodes that were conventionally and thermally treated. The graphite felt treated by the modified Hummers method carries more hydrophilic groups, such as–OH, on its defects, which is advantageous in facilitating the redox reaction of vanadium ions, thereby improving the operation efficiency of the vanadium redox flow battery

  19. An electrochemical study on the positive electrode side of the zinc–cerium hybrid redox flow battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikiforidis, Georgios; Berlouis, Léonard; Hall, David; Hodgson, David

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: •Elevated temperatures favoured the Ce 3+/4+ reaction on the Pt, Pt–Ir and carbon substrates. •j o increased with temperature over the range 25 °C to 60 °C for all substrates. •Non-porous carbon substrates showed higher reversibility on the Ce 3+/4+ reaction. •Surface degradation of the carbon electrodes occurred due to the high positive potentials. •The Pt–Ir coatings gave the largest j o at 60 °C and appear best suited for use as the positive electrode in the Zn–Ce RFB. -- Abstract: In this study, the electrochemical behaviour of the Ce 3+/4+ redox couple in methanesulfonic acid medium on various electrode substrates was investigated as a function of temperature. Carbon composite electrodes as well as platinum and platinum iridium coated electrodes were studied for their suitability in carrying out the Ce 3+/4+ redox reaction. Cyclic voltammetry in 0.8 mol dm −3 cerium and 4.5 mol dm −3 methanesulfonic acid solution showed that elevated temperatures favoured the Ce 3+ /Ce 4+ reaction on the various platinum and platinum–iridium coated substrates as well as on carbon composite surfaces. The latter electrodes showed better kinetics than the metal coatings but deteriorated badly under the high positive potentials required for the cerium reaction. The exchange current density (j o ), obtained through Tafel extrapolation, polarisation resistance and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements, increased with temperature over the range 25 °C to 60 °C. The Pt–Ir coatings gave the largest j o at 60 °C and appear best suited for use as the positive electrode in the Zn–Ce redox flow battery

  20. Investigation of positive electrode materials based on MnO2 for lithium batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le, My Loan Phung; Lam, Thi Xuan Binh; Pham, Quoc Trung; Nguyen, Thi Phuong Thoa

    2011-01-01

    Various composite materials of MnO 2 /C have been synthesized by electrochemical deposition and then used for the synthesis of lithium manganese oxide (LiMn 2 O 4 ) spinel as a cathode material for lithium ion batteries. The structure and electrochemical properties of electrode materials based on MnO 2 /C, spinel LiMn 2 O 4 and doped spinel LiNi 0.5 Mn 1.5 O 4 have been studied. The influence of synthesis conditions on the structural and electrochemical properties of synthesized materials was investigated by x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electronic microscopy (TEM) and charge–discharge experiments. Some of the studied materials exhibit good performance of cycling and discharge capacity

  1. Analysis of structural and thermal stability in the positive electrode for sulfide-based all-solid-state lithium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukasaki, Hirofumi; Otoyama, Misae; Mori, Yota; Mori, Shigeo; Morimoto, Hideyuki; Hayashi, Akitoshi; Tatsumisago, Masahiro

    2017-11-01

    Sulfide-based all-solid-state batteries using a non-flammable inorganic solid electrolyte are promising candidates as a next-generation power source owing to their safety and excellent charge-discharge cycle characteristics. In this study, we thus focus on the positive electrode and investigated structural stabilities of the interface between the positive electrode active material LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 (NMC) and the 75Li2S·25P2S5 (LPS) glass electrolyte after charge-discharge cycles via transmission electron microscopy (TEM). To evaluate the thermal stability of the fabricated all-solid-state cell, in-situ TEM observations for the positive electrode during heating are conducted. As a result, structural and morphological changes are detected in the LPS glasses. Thus, exothermal reaction present in the NMC-LPS composite positive electrode after the initial charging is attributable to the crystallization of LPS glasses. On the basis of a comparison with crystallization behavior in single LPS glasses, the origin of exothermal reaction in the NMC-LPS composites is discussed.

  2. Rock-Salt Growth-Induced (003) Cracking in a Layered Positive Electrode for Li-Ion Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Hanlei [Materials; amp, Department; NorthEast; Omenya, Fredrick [NorthEast; Yan, Pengfei [Environmental; Luo, Langli [Environmental; Whittingham, M. Stanley [NorthEast; Wang, Chongmin [Environmental; Zhou, Guangwen [Materials; amp, Department; NorthEast

    2017-10-20

    For the first time, the (003) cracking is observed and determined to be the major cracking mechanism for the primary particles of Ni-rich layered dioxides as the positive electrode for Li-ion batteries. Using transmission electron microscopy techniques, here we show that the propagation and fracturing of platelet-like rock-salt phase along the (003) plane of the layered oxide are the leading cause for the cracking of primary particles. The fracturing of the rock-salt platelet is induced by the stress discontinuity between the parent layered oxide and the rock-salt phase. The high nickel content is considered to be the key factor for the formation of the rock-salt platelet and thus the (003) cracking. The (003)-type cracking can be a major factor for the structural degradation and associated capacity fade of the layered positive electrode.

  3. Investigation of Ir-modified carbon felt as the positive electrode of an all-vanadium redox flow battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, W.H.; Wang, X.D.

    2007-01-01

    Porous graphite felts have been used as electrode materials for all-vanadium redox flow batteries due to their wide operating potential range, stability as both an anode and a cathode, and availability in high surface area. In this paper, the carbon felt was modified by pyrolysis of Ir reduced from H 2 IrCl 6 . ac impedance and steady-state polarization measurements showed that the Ir-modified materials have improved activity and lowered overpotential of the desired V(IV)/V(V) redox process. Ir-modification of carbon felt enhanced the electro-conductivity of electrode materials. The Ir-material, when coated on the graphite felt electrode surface, lowered the cell internal resistance. A test cell was assembled with the Ir-modified carbon felt as the activation layer of the positive electrode, the unmodified raw felt as the activation layer of the negative electrode. At an operating current density of 20 mA cm -2 , a voltage efficiency of 87.5% was achieved. The resistance of the cell using Ir-modified felt decreased 25% compared to the cell using non-modified felt

  4. Olivine-Based Blended Compounds as Positive Electrodes for Lithium Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian M. Julien

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Blended cathode materials made by mixing LiFePO4 (LFP with LiMnPO4 (LMP or LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 (NMC that exhibit either high specific energy and high rate capability were investigated. The layered blend LMP–LFP and the physically mixed blend NMC–LFP are evaluated in terms of particle morphology and electrochemical performance. Results indicate that the LMP–LFP (66:33 blend has a better discharge rate than the LiMn1−yFeyPO4 with the same composition (y = 0.33, and NMC–LFP (70:30 delivers a remarkable stable capacity over 125 cycles. Finally, in situ voltage measurement methods were applied for the evaluation of the phase evolution of blended cathodes and gradual changes in cell behavior upon cycling. We also discuss through these examples the promising development of blends as future electrodes for new generations of Li-ion batteries.

  5. LiCl-LiI molten salt electrolyte with bismuth-lead positive electrode for liquid metal battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Junsoo; Shin, Donghyeok; Jung, Youngjae; Hwang, Soo Min; Song, Taeseup; Kim, Youngsik; Paik, Ungyu

    2018-02-01

    Liquid metal batteries (LMBs) are attractive energy storage device for large-scale energy storage system (ESS) due to the simple cell configuration and their high rate capability. The high operation temperature caused by high melting temperature of both the molten salt electrolyte and metal electrodes can induce the critical issues related to the maintenance cost and degradation of electrochemical properties resulting from the thermal corrosion of materials. Here, we report a new chemistry of LiCl-LiI electrolyte and Bi-Pb positive electrode to lower the operation temperature of Li-based LMBs and achieve the long-term stability. The cell (Li|LiCl-LiI|Bi-Pb) is operated at 410 °C by employing the LiCl-LiI (LiCl:LiI = 36:64 mol %) electrolyte and Bi-Pb alloy (Bi:Pb = 55.5:44.5 mol %) positive electrode. The cell shows excellent capacity retention (86.5%) and high Coulombic efficiencies over 99.3% at a high current density of 52 mA cm-2 during 1000th cycles.

  6. HF/H2O2 treated graphite felt as the positive electrode for vanadium redox flow battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhangxing; Jiang, Yingqiao; Meng, Wei; Jiang, Fengyun; Zhou, Huizhu; Li, Yuehua; Zhu, Jing; Wang, Ling; Dai, Lei

    2017-11-01

    In order to improve the electrochemical performance of the positive graphite felt electrode in vanadium flow redox battery, a novel method is developed to effectively modify the graphite felt by combination of etching of HF and oxidation of H2O2. After the etching of HF for the graphite felt at ambient temperature, abundant oxygen-containing functional groups were further introduced on the surface of graphite felt by hydrothermal treatment using H2O2 as oxidant. Benefiting from the surface etching and introduction of functional groups, mass transfer and electrode process can be improved significantly on the surface of graphite felt. VO2+/VO2+ redox reaction on the graphite felt modified by HF and H2O2 jointly (denote: GF-HF/H2O2) exhibits superior electrochemical kinetics in comparison with the graphite felt modified by single HF or H2O2 treatment. The cell using GF-HF/H2O2 as the positive electrode was assembled and its electrochemical properties were evaluated. The increase of energy efficiency of 4.1% for GF-HF/H2O2 at a current density of 50 mA cm-2 was obtained compared with the pristine graphite felt. The cell using GF-HF/H2O2 also demonstrated higher discharge capacity. Our study revealed that HF/H2O2 treatment is an efficient method to enhance the electrochemical performance of graphite felt, further improving the comprehensive energy storage performance of the vanadium flow redox battery.

  7. Silver manganese oxide electrodes for lithium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thackeray, Michael M.; Vaughey, John T.; Dees, Dennis W.

    2006-05-09

    This invention relates to electrodes for non-aqueous lithium cells and batteries with silver manganese oxide positive electrodes, denoted AgxMnOy, in which x and y are such that the manganese ions in the charged or partially charged electrodes cells have an average oxidation state greater than 3.5. The silver manganese oxide electrodes optionally contain silver powder and/or silver foil to assist in current collection at the electrodes and to improve the power capability of the cells or batteries. The invention relates also to a method for preparing AgxMnOy electrodes by decomposition of a permanganate salt, such as AgMnO4, or by the decomposition of KMnO4 or LiMnO4 in the presence of a silver salt.

  8. Crystalline maricite NaFePO4 as a positive electrode material for sodium secondary batteries operating at intermediate temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Jinkwang; Matsumoto, Kazuhiko; Orikasa, Yuki; Katayama, Misaki; Inada, Yasuhiro; Nohira, Toshiyuki; Hagiwara, Rika

    2018-02-01

    Maricite NaFePO4 (m-NaFePO4) was investigated as a positive electrode material for intermediate-temperature operation of sodium secondary batteries using ionic liquid electrolytes. Powdered m-NaFePO4 was prepared by a conventional solid-state method at 873 K and subsequently fabricated in two different conditions; one is ball-milled in acetone and the other is re-calcined at 873 K after the ball-milling. Electrochemical properties of the electrodes prepared with the as-synthesized m-NaFePO4, the ball-milled m-NaFePO4, and the re-calcined m-NaFePO4 were investigated in Na[FSA]-[C2C1im][FSA] (C2C1im+ = 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium, FSA- = bis(fluorosulfonyl)amide) ionic liquid electrolytes at 298 K and 363 K to assess the effects of temperature and particle size on their electrochemical properties. A reversible charge-discharge capacity of 107 mAh g-1 was achieved with a coulombic efficiency >98% from the 2nd cycle using the ball-milled m-NaFePO4 electrode at a C-rate of 0.1 C and 363 K. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy using m-NaFePO4/m-NaFePO4 symmetric cells indicated that inactive m-NaFePO4 becomes an active material through ball-milling treatment and elevation of operating temperature. X-ray diffraction analysis of crystalline m-NaFePO4 confirmed the lattice contraction and expansion upon charging and discharging, respectively. These results indicate that the desodiation-sodiation process in m-NaFePO4 is reversible in the intermediate-temperature range.

  9. Novel hedgehog-like 5 V LiCoPO4 positive electrode material for rechargeable lithium battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fei; Yang, Jun; NuLi, Yanna; Wang, Jiulin

    2011-05-01

    Hedgehog-like LiCoPO4 with hierarchical microstructures is first synthesized via a simple solvothermal process in water-benzyl alcohol mixed solvent at 200 °C. Morphology and crystalline structure of the samples are characterized by scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The hedgehog-like LiCoPO4 microstructures in the size of about 5-8 μm are composed of large numbers of nanorods in diameter of ca. 40 nm and length of ca. 1 μm, which are coated with a carbon layer of ca. 8 nm in thickness by in situ carbonization of glucose during the solvothermal reaction. As a 5 V positive electrode material for rechargeable lithium battery, the hedgehog-like LiCoPO4 delivers an initial discharge capacity of 136 mAh g-1 at 0.1 C rate and retains its 91% after 50 cycles, showing much better electrochemical performances than sub-micrometer LiCoPO4 synthesized by conventional high-temperature solid-state reaction.

  10. Nano-sized structured layered positive electrode materials to enable high energy density and high rate capability lithium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Haixia; Belharouak, Ilias; Amine, Khalil

    2012-10-02

    Nano-sized structured dense and spherical layered positive active materials provide high energy density and high rate capability electrodes in lithium-ion batteries. Such materials are spherical second particles made from agglomerated primary particles that are Li.sub.1+.alpha.(Ni.sub.xCo.sub.yMn.sub.z).sub.1-tM.sub.tO.sub.2-dR.sub.d- , where M is selected from can be Al, Mg, Fe, Cu, Zn, Cr, Ag, Ca, Na, K, In, Ga, Ge, V, Mo, Nb, Si, Ti, Zr, or a mixture of any two or more thereof, R is selected from F, Cl, Br, I, H, S, N, or a mixture of any two or more thereof, and 0.ltoreq..alpha..ltoreq.0.50; 0

  11. Uncharged positive electrode composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaun, Thomas D.; Vissers, Donald R.; Shimotake, Hiroshi

    1977-03-08

    An uncharged positive-electrode composition contains particulate lithium sulfide, another alkali metal or alkaline earth metal compound other than sulfide, e.g., lithium carbide, and a transition metal powder. The composition along with a binder, such as electrolytic salt or a thermosetting resin is applied onto an electrically conductive substrate to form a plaque. The plaque is assembled as a positive electrode within an electrochemical cell opposite to a negative electrode containing a material such as aluminum or silicon for alloying with lithium. During charging, lithium alloy is formed within the negative electrode and transition metal sulfide such as iron sulfide is produced within the positive electrode. Excess negative electrode capacity over that from the transition metal sulfide is provided due to the electrochemical reaction of the other than sulfide alkali metal or alkaline earth metal compound.

  12. Negative electrodes for Na-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahbi, Mouad; Yabuuchi, Naoaki; Kubota, Kei; Tokiwa, Kazuyasu; Komaba, Shinichi

    2014-08-07

    Research interest in Na-ion batteries has increased rapidly because of the environmental friendliness of sodium compared to lithium. Throughout this Perspective paper, we report and review recent scientific advances in the field of negative electrode materials used for Na-ion batteries. This paper sheds light on negative electrode materials for Na-ion batteries: carbonaceous materials, oxides/phosphates (as sodium insertion materials), sodium alloy/compounds and so on. These electrode materials have different reaction mechanisms for electrochemical sodiation/desodiation processes. Moreover, not only sodiation-active materials but also binders, current collectors, electrolytes and electrode/electrolyte interphase and its stabilization are essential for long cycle life Na-ion batteries. This paper also addresses the prospect of Na-ion batteries as low-cost and long-life batteries with relatively high-energy density as their potential competitive edge over the commercialized Li-ion batteries.

  13. Electrochemical behavior of LiV3O8 positive electrode in hybrid Li,Na-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maletti, S.; Sarapulova, A.; Tsirlin, A. A.; Oswald, S.; Fauth, F.; Giebeler, L.; Bramnik, N. N.; Ehrenberg, H.; Mikhailova, D.

    2018-01-01

    Vanadium(V)-containing oxides show superior intercalation properties for alkaline ions, although the performance of the material strongly depends on its surface morphology. In this work, intercalation activity of LiV3O8, prepared by a conventional solid state synthesis, is demonstrated for the first time in non-aqueous Li,Na-ion hybrid batteries with Na as negative electrode, and different Na/Li ratios in the electrolyte. In the pure Na-ion cell, one Na per formula unit of LiV3O8 can be reversibly inserted at room temperature via a two-step process, while further intercalation leads to gradual amorphisation of the material, with a specific capacity of 190 mAhg-1 after 10 cycles in the potential window of 0.8-3.4 V. Hybrid Li,Na-ion batteries feature simultaneous intercalation of Li+ and Na+ cations into LiV3O8, resulting in the formation of a second phase. Depending on the electrolyte composition, this second phase bears structural similarities either to Li0.7Na0.7V3O8 in Na-rich electrolytes, or to Li4V3O8 in Li-rich electrolytes. The chemical diffusion coefficients of Na+ and Li+ in crystalline LiV3O8 are very close, hence explaining the co-intercalation of these cations. As DFT calculations show, once formed, the Li0.7Na0.7V3O8-type structure favors intercalation of Na+, whereas the LiV3O8-type prefers to accommodate Li+ cations.

  14. CuCo_2O_4 flowers/Ni-foam architecture as a battery type positive electrode for high performance hybrid supercapacitor applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vijayakumar, Subbukalai; Nagamuthu, Sadayappan; Ryu, Kwang-Sun

    2017-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The Ni- foam supported CuCo_2O_4 flowers exhibits a high specific capacity with superior long term cyclic stability. - Highlights: • This paper reports the hydrothermal preparation of CuCo_2O_4 flowers on Ni-foam. • The CuCo_2O_4 flowers exhibits maximum specific capacity of 645.1C g"−"1. • After 2000 cycles, 109% of the initial specific capacity was retained. - Abstract: The battery type CuCo_2O_4 electrode was evaluated as a positive electrode material for its hybrid supercapacitor applications. CuCo_2O_4 flowers were prepared on Ni-foam through a simple hydrothermal process and post calcination treatment. The structure and morphology of the CuCo_2O_4 flowers/Ni-foam was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy. FESEM clearly revealed the flower-like morphology, which was composed of large number of petals. The length and width of the petals ranged from approximately 5–8 μm and approximately 50–150 nm, respectively. The CuCo_2O_4 flowers/Ni-foam electrode was employed for electrochemical characterization for hybrid supercapacitor applications. The specific capacity of the CuCo_2O_4 flower-like electrode was 692.4C g"−"1 (192.3 mA h g"−"1) at a scan rate of 5 mV s"−"1. The flower-like CuCo_2O_4 electrode exhibited a maximum specific capacity of 645.1C g"−"1 (179.2 mA h g"−"1) at a specific current of 1 A g"−"1 and good long term cyclic stability. The high specific capacity, good cyclic stability, and low internal and charge transfer resistance of the CuCo_2O_4 flowers/Ni-foam electrode confirmed the suitability of the prepared material as a positive electrode for hybrid supercapacitor applications.

  15. Improved positive electrode materials for lithium-ion batteries: Exploring the high specific capacity of lithium cobalt dioxide and the high rate capability of lithium iron phosphate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhaohui

    During the past decade, the search for better electrode materials for Li-ion batteries has been of a great commercial interest, especially since Li-ion technology has become a major rechargeable battery technology with a market value of $3 billion US dollars per year. This thesis focuses on improving two positive electrode materials: one is a traditional positive electrode material--LiCoO2; the other is a new positive electrode material--LiFePO 4. Cho et al. reported that coating LiCoO2 with oxides can improve the capacity retention of LiCoO2 cycled to 4.4 V. The study of coatings in this thesis confirms this effect and shows that further improvement (30% higher energy density than that used in a commercial cell with excellent capacity retention) can be obtained. An in-situ XRD study proves that the mechanism of the improvement in capacity retention by coating proposed by Cho et al. is incorrect. Further experiments identify the suppression of impedance growth in the cell as the key reason for the improvement caused by coating. Based on this, other methods to improve the energy density of LiCoO2, without sacrificing capacity retention, are also developed. Using an XRD study, the structure of the phase between the O3-phase Li 1-xCoO2 (x > 0.5) and the O1 phase CoO2 was measured experimentally for the first time. XRD results confirmed the prediction of an H1-3 phase by Ceder's group. Apparently, because of the structural changes between the O3 phase and the H1-3 phase, good capacity retention cannot be attained for cycling LiCoO2 to 4.6 V with respect to Li metal. An effort was also made to reduce the carbon content in a LiFePO 4/C composite without sacrificing its rate capability. It was found that about 3% carbon by weight maintains both a good rate capability and a high pellet density for the composite.

  16. Electrode Nanostructures in Lithium‐Based Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Nasir

    2014-01-01

    Lithium‐based batteries possessing energy densities much higher than those of the conventional batteries belong to the most promising class of future energy devices. However, there are some fundamental issues related to their electrodes which are big roadblocks in their applications to electric vehicles (EVs). Nanochemistry has advantageous roles to overcome these problems by defining new nanostructures of electrode materials. This review article will highlight the challenges associated with these chemistries both to bring high performance and longevity upon considering the working principles of the various types of lithium‐based (Li‐ion, Li‐air and Li‐S) batteries. Further, the review discusses the advantages and challenges of nanomaterials in nanostructured electrodes of lithium‐based batteries, concerns with lithium metal anode and the recent advancement in electrode nanostructures. PMID:27980896

  17. New tris- and pentakis-fused donors containing extended tetrathiafulvalenes: New positive electrode materials for rechargeable batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shintaro Iwamoto

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Derivatives of tris-fused TTF extended with two ethanediylidenes (5, tris- and pentakis-fused TTFs extended with two thiophene-2,5-diylidenes (6–9 were successfully synthesized. Cyclic voltammograms of the tetrakis(n-hexylthio derivative of 5 and 7 (5d, 7d consisted of two pairs of two-electron redox waves and two pairs of one-electron redox waves. On the other hand, four pairs of two-electron redox waves and two pairs of one-electron redox waves were observed for the tetrakis(n-hexylthio derivative of 9 (9d. Coin-type cells using the bis(ethylenedithio derivatives of 5 (5b, 6 (6b and the tetrakis(methylthio derivatives of 5 (5c and 8 (8c as positive electrode materials showed initial discharge capacities of 157–190 mAh g−1 and initial energy densities of 535–680 mAh g−1. The discharge capacities after 40 cycles were 64–86% of the initial discharge capacities.

  18. Long life lithium batteries with stabilized electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amine, Khalil [Downers Grove, IL; Liu, Jun [Naperville, IL; Vissers, Donald R [Naperville, IL; Lu, Wenquan [Darien, IL

    2009-03-24

    The present invention relates to non-aqueous electrolytes having electrode stabilizing additives, stabilized electrodes, and electrochemical devices containing the same. Thus the present invention provides electrolytes containing an alkali metal salt, a polar aprotic solvent, and an electrode stabilizing additive. In some embodiments the additives include a substituted or unsubstituted cyclic or spirocyclic hydrocarbon containing at least one oxygen atom and at least one alkenyl or alkynyl group. When used in electrochemical devices with, e.g., lithium manganese oxide spinel electrodes or olivine or carbon-coated olivine electrodes, the new electrolytes provide batteries with improved calendar and cycle life.

  19. High-rate and ultralong cycle-life LiFePO_4 nanocrystals coated by boron-doped carbon as positive electrode for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Jinpeng; Wang, Youlan

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • B-doped carbon decorated LiFePO_4 has been fabricated for the first time. • The LiFePO_4@B-CdisplaysimprovedbatteryperformancecomparedtoLiFePO_4@C. • The LiFePO_4@B-C is good candidate for high-performance lithium-ion batteries. - Abstract: An evolutionary modification approach, boron-doped carbon coating, has been used to improve the electrochemical performances of positive electrodes for lithium-ion batteries, and demonstrates apparent and significant modification effects. In this study, the boron-doped carbon coating is firstly adopted and used to decorate the performance of LiFePO_4. The obtained composite exhibits a unique core-shell structure with an average diameter of 140 nm and a 4 nm thick boron-doped carbon shell that uniformly encapsulates the core. Owing to the boron element which could induce high amount of defects in the carbon, the electronic conductivity of LiFePO_4 is greatly ameliorated. Thus, the boron-doped composite shows superior rate capability and cycle stability than the undoped sample. For instance, the reversible specific capacity of LiFePO_4@B_0_._4-C can reach 164.1 mAh g"−"1 at 0.1C, which is approximately 96.5% of the theoretical capacity (170 mAh g"−"1). Even at high rate of 10C, it still shows a high specific capacity of 126.8 mAh g"−"1 and can be maintained at 124.5 mAh g"−"1 after 100 cycles with capacity retention ratio of about 98.2%. This outstanding Li-storage property enable the present design strategy to open up the possibility of fabricating the LiFePO_4@B-C composite for high-performance lithium-ion batteries.

  20. Li distribution characterization in Li-ion batteries positive electrodes containing LixNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2 secondary particles (0.75 ⩽ x ⩽ 1.0)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mima, K.; Gonzalez-Arrabal, R.; Azuma, H.; Yamazaki, A.; Okuda, C.; Ukyo, Y.; Sawada, H.; Fujita, K.; Kato, Y.; Perlado, J.M.; Nakai, S.

    2012-01-01

    The elemental distribution of as-received (non-charged) and charged Li-ion battery positive electrodes containing Li x Ni 0.8 Co 0.15 Al 0.05 O 2 (0.75 ⩽ x ⩽ 1.0) microparticles as active material is characterized by combining μ-PIXE and μ-PIGE techniques. PIGE measurements evidence that the Li distribution is inhomogeneous (existence of Li-rich and Li-depleted regions) in as-received electrodes corresponding with the distribution of secondary particles but it is homogeneous within the studied individual secondary micro-particles. The dependence of the Li distribution on electrode thickness and on charging conditions is characterized by measuring the Li distribution maps in specifically fabricated cross-sectional samples. These data show that decreasing the electrode thickness down to 35 μm and charging the batteries at slow rate give rise to more homogeneous Li depth profiles.

  1. Low Energy Desalination Using Battery Electrode Deionization

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Taeyoung

    2017-09-21

    New electrochemical technologies that use capacitive or battery electrodes are being developed to minimize energy requirements for desalinating brackish waters. When a pair of electrodes is charged in capacitive deionization (CDI) systems, cations bind to the cathode and anions bind to the anode, but high applied voltages (>1.2 V) result in parasitic reactions and irreversible electrode oxidation. In the battery electrode deionization (BDI) system developed here, two identical copper hexacyanoferrate (CuHCF) battery electrodes were used that release and bind cations, with anion separation occurring via an anion exchange membrane. The system used an applied voltage of 0.6 V, which avoided parasitic reactions, achieved high electrode desalination capacities (up to 100 mg-NaCl/g-electrode, 50 mM NaCl influent), and consumed less energy than CDI. Simultaneous production of desalinated and concentrated solutions in two channels avoided a two-cycle approach needed for CDI. Stacking additional membranes between CuHCF electrodes (up to three anion and two cation exchange membranes) reduced energy consumption to only 0.02 kWh/m3 (approximately an order of magnitude lower than values reported for CDI), for an influent desalination similar to CDI (25 mM decreased to 17 mM). These results show that BDI could be effective as a very low energy method for brackish water desalination.

  2. LiNi 0.8 Co 0.2 O 2 -based high power lithium-ion battery positive electrodes analyzed by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy: 1. Fresh electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haasch, Richard T.; Abraham, Daniel A.

    2016-12-01

    High-power lithium-ion batteries are rapidly replacing the nickel metal hydride batteries currently used for energy storage in hybrid electric vehicles. Widespread commercialization of these batteries for vehicular applications is, however, limited by calendar-life performance, thermal abuse characteristics, and cost. The Advanced Technology Development Program was established by the U.S. Department of Energy to address these limitations. An important objective of this program was the development and application of diagnostic tools that provide unique ways to investigate the phenomena that limit lithium-ion cell life, performance, and safety characteristics. This report introduces a set of six Surface Science Spectra xray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) comparison records of data collected from positive electrodes (cathode) harvested from cylindrically wound, 18650-type, 1 A h capacity cells. The cathodes included in this study are (1) fresh, (2) following three formation cycles, (3) following calendar-life test for 12 weeks at 40 C, 60% state-of-charge (SOC), (4) following calendar-life test for 8 weeks at 50 C, 60% SOC, (5) following calendar-life test for 8 weeks at 60 C, 60% SOC, and (6) following calendar-life test for 2 weeks at 70 C, 60% SOC.

  3. Storage-battery electrodes. [preparation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1961-12-29

    Two incompatible thermoplastic resins are mixed with a powdered electrochemical active substance. The substance may be, for example, an oxide of cadmium, iron, lead, or zinc or nickel hydroxide. After the mixture is shaped into elements which are inserted into conducting sheaths for an electrode, the one resin is washed out to form a porous electrode. (RWR)

  4. Nanowire Electrodes for Advanced Lithium Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Lei; Wei, Qiulong; Sun, Ruimin; Mai, Liqiang, E-mail: mlq518@whut.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Materials Synthesis and Processing, WUT-Harvard Joint Nano Key Laboratory, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan (China)

    2014-10-27

    Since the commercialization of lithium ion batteries (LIBs) in the past two decades, rechargeable LIBs have become widespread power sources for portable devices used in daily life. However, current demands require higher energy density and power density of batteries. The electrochemical energy storage performance of LIBs could be improved by applying nanomaterial electrodes, but their fast capacity fading is still one of the key limitations and the mechanism need to be clearly understood. Single nanowire electrode devices are considered as a versatile platform for in situ probing the direct relationship between electrical transport, structure change, and other properties of the single nanowire electrode along with the charge/discharge process. The results indicate that the conductivity decrease of the nanowire electrode and the structural disorder/destruction during electrochemical reaction limit the cycling performance of LIBs. Based on the in situ observations, some feasible optimization strategies, including prelithiation, coaxial structure, nanowire arrays, and hierarchical structure architecture, are proposed and utilized to restrain the conductivity decrease and structural disorder/destruction. Further, the applications of nanowire electrodes in some “beyond Li-ion” batteries, such as Li-S and Li-air batteries are also described.

  5. Nanowire Electrodes for Advanced Lithium Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei eHuang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Since the commercialization of lithium ion batteries (LIBs in the past two decades, rechargeable LIBs have become widespread power sources for portable devices used in daily life. However, current demands require higher energy density and power density of batteries. The electrochemical energy storage performance of LIBs could be improved by applying nanomaterial electrodes, but their fast capacity fading is still one of the key limitations and the mechanism needs to be clearly understood. Single nanowire electrode devices are considered as a versatile platform for in situ probing the direct relationship between electrical transport, structure change, and other properties of the single nanowire electrode along with the charge/discharge process. The results indicate the conductivity decrease of the nanowire electrode and the structural disorder/destruction during electrochemical reactions which limit the cycling performance of LIBs. Based on the in situ observations, some feasible structure architecture strategies, including prelithiation, coaxial structure, nanowire arrays and hierarchical structure architecture, are proposed and utilized to restrain the conductivity decrease and structural disorder/destruction. Further, the applications of nanowire electrodes in some beyond Li-ion batteries, such as Li-S and Li-air battery, are also described.

  6. Nanowire Electrodes for Advanced Lithium Batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Lei; Wei, Qiulong; Sun, Ruimin; Mai, Liqiang

    2014-01-01

    Since the commercialization of lithium ion batteries (LIBs) in the past two decades, rechargeable LIBs have become widespread power sources for portable devices used in daily life. However, current demands require higher energy density and power density of batteries. The electrochemical energy storage performance of LIBs could be improved by applying nanomaterial electrodes, but their fast capacity fading is still one of the key limitations and the mechanism need to be clearly understood. Single nanowire electrode devices are considered as a versatile platform for in situ probing the direct relationship between electrical transport, structure change, and other properties of the single nanowire electrode along with the charge/discharge process. The results indicate that the conductivity decrease of the nanowire electrode and the structural disorder/destruction during electrochemical reaction limit the cycling performance of LIBs. Based on the in situ observations, some feasible optimization strategies, including prelithiation, coaxial structure, nanowire arrays, and hierarchical structure architecture, are proposed and utilized to restrain the conductivity decrease and structural disorder/destruction. Further, the applications of nanowire electrodes in some “beyond Li-ion” batteries, such as Li-S and Li-air batteries are also described.

  7. High-rate and ultralong cycle-life LiFePO4 nanocrystals coated by boron-doped carbon as positive electrode for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jinpeng; Wang, Youlan

    2016-12-01

    An evolutionary modification approach, boron-doped carbon coating, has been used to improve the electrochemical performances of positive electrodes for lithium-ion batteries, and demonstrates apparent and significant modification effects. In this study, the boron-doped carbon coating is firstly adopted and used to decorate the performance of LiFePO4. The obtained composite exhibits a unique core-shell structure with an average diameter of 140 nm and a 4 nm thick boron-doped carbon shell that uniformly encapsulates the core. Owing to the boron element which could induce high amount of defects in the carbon, the electronic conductivity of LiFePO4 is greatly ameliorated. Thus, the boron-doped composite shows superior rate capability and cycle stability than the undoped sample. For instance, the reversible specific capacity of LiFePO4@B0.4-C can reach 164.1 mAh g-1 at 0.1C, which is approximately 96.5% of the theoretical capacity (170 mAh g-1). Even at high rate of 10C, it still shows a high specific capacity of 126.8 mAh g-1 and can be maintained at 124.5 mAh g-1 after 100 cycles with capacity retention ratio of about 98.2%. This outstanding Li-storage property enable the present design strategy to open up the possibility of fabricating the LiFePO4@B-C composite for high-performance lithium-ion batteries.

  8. Electrode materials for rechargeable batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abouimrane, Ali; Amine, Khalil

    2015-04-14

    Selenium or selenium-containing compounds may be used as electroactive materials in electrodes or electrochemical devices. The selenium or selenium-containing compound is mixed with a carbon material.

  9. Lithium battery electrodes with ultra-thin alumina coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Se-Hee, Lee; George, Steven M.; Cavanagh, Andrew S.; Yoon Seok, Jung; Dillon, Anne C.

    2015-11-24

    Electrodes for lithium batteries are coated via an atomic layer deposition process. The coatings can be applied to the assembled electrodes, or in some cases to particles of electrode material prior to assembling the particles into an electrode. The coatings can be as thin as 2 .ANG.ngstroms thick. The coating provides for a stable electrode. Batteries containing the electrodes tend to exhibit high cycling capacities.

  10. Electrode nanomaterials for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yaroslavtsev, A B; Kulova, T L; Skundin, A M

    2015-01-01

    The state-of-the-art in the field of cathode and anode nanomaterials for lithium-ion batteries is considered. The use of these nanomaterials provides higher charge and discharge rates, reduces the adverse effect of degradation processes caused by volume variations in electrode materials upon lithium intercalation and deintercalation and enhances the power and working capacity of lithium-ion batteries. In discussing the cathode materials, attention is focused on double phosphates and silicates of lithium and transition metals and also on vanadium oxides. The anode materials based on nanodispersions of carbon, silicon, certain metals, oxides and on nanocomposites are also described. The bibliography includes 714 references

  11. The influence of cycling temperature and cycling rate on the phase specific degradation of a positive electrode in lithium ion batteries: A post mortem analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darma, Mariyam Susana Dewi; Lang, Michael; Kleiner, Karin; Mereacre, Liuda; Liebau, Verena; Fauth, Francois; Bergfeldt, Thomas; Ehrenberg, Helmut

    2016-09-01

    The influence of cycling temperatures and cycling rates on the cycling stability of the positive electrode (cathode) of commercial batteries are investigated. The cathode is a mixture of LiMn2O4 (LMO), LiNi0.5Co0.2Mn0.3O2 (NCM) and LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2 (NCA). It is found that increasing the cycling temperature from 25 °C to 40 °C is detrimental to the long term cycling stability of the cathode. Contrastingly, the improved cycling stability is observed for the cathodes cycled at higher charge/discharge rate (2C/3C instead of 1C/2C). The microstructure analysis by X-ray powder diffraction reveals that a significant capacity fading and an increased overvoltage is observed for NCM and NCA in all the fatigued cathodes. After high number of cycling (above 1500 cycles), NCM becomes partially inactive. In contrast to NCM and NCA, LMO shows a good cycling stability at 25 °C. A pronounced degradation of LMO is only observed for the fatigued cathodes cycled at 40 °C. The huge capacity losses of NCM and NCA are most likely because the blended cathodes were cycled up to 4.12 V vs. the graphite anode during the cycle-life test (corresponds to 4.16 V vs. Li+/Li); which is beyond the stability limit of the layered oxides below 4.05 V vs. Li+/Li.

  12. Nickel hydrogen bipolar battery electrode design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puglisi, V. J.; Russell, P.; Verrier, D.; Hall, A.

    1985-01-01

    The preferred approach of the NASA development effort in nickel hydrogen battery design utilizes a bipolar plate stacking arrangement to obtain the required voltage-capacity configuration. In a bipolar stack, component designs must take into account not only the typical design considerations such as voltage, capacity and gas management, but also conductivity to the bipolar (i.e., intercell) plate. The nickel and hydrogen electrode development specifically relevant to bipolar cell operation is discussed. Nickel oxide electrodes, having variable type grids and in thicknesses up to .085 inch are being fabricated and characterized to provide a data base. A selection will be made based upon a system level tradeoff. Negative (hydrpogen) electrodes are being screened to select a high performance electrode which can function as a bipolar electrode. Present nickel hydrogen negative electrodes are not capable of conducting current through their cross-section. An electrode was tested which exhibits low charge and discharge polarization voltages and at the same time is conductive. Test data is presented.

  13. Molecular Orbital Principles of Oxygen-Redox Battery Electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okubo, Masashi; Yamada, Atsuo

    2017-10-25

    Lithium-ion batteries are key energy-storage devices for a sustainable society. The most widely used positive electrode materials are LiMO 2 (M: transition metal), in which a redox reaction of M occurs in association with Li + (de)intercalation. Recent developments of Li-excess transition-metal oxides, which deliver a large capacity of more than 200 mAh/g using an extra redox reaction of oxygen, introduce new possibilities for designing higher energy density lithium-ion batteries. For better engineering using this fascinating new chemistry, it is necessary to achieve a full understanding of the reaction mechanism by gaining knowledge on the chemical state of oxygen. In this review, a summary of the recent advances in oxygen-redox battery electrodes is provided, followed by a systematic demonstration of the overall electronic structures based on molecular orbitals with a focus on the local coordination environment around oxygen. We show that a π-type molecular orbital plays an important role in stabilizing the oxidized oxygen that emerges upon the charging process. Molecular orbital principles are convenient for an atomic-level understanding of how reversible oxygen-redox reactions occur in bulk, providing a solid foundation toward improved oxygen-redox positive electrode materials for high energy-density batteries.

  14. Sulfur based electrode materials for secondary batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Yong

    Developing next generation secondary batteries has attracted much attention in recent years due to the increasing demand of high energy and high power density energy storage for portable electronics, electric vehicles and renewable sources of energy. This dissertation investigates sulfur based advanced electrode materials in Lithium/Sodium batteries. The electrochemical performances of the electrode materials have been enhanced due to their unique nano structures as well as the formation of novel composites. First, a nitrogen-doped graphene nanosheets/sulfur (NGNSs/S) composite was synthesized via a facile chemical reaction deposition. In this composite, NGNSs were employed as a conductive host to entrap S/polysulfides in the cathode part. The NGNSs/S composite delivered an initial discharge capacity of 856.7 mAh g-1 and a reversible capacity of 319.3 mAh g-1 at 0.1C with good recoverable rate capability. Second, NGNS/S nanocomposites, synthesized using chemical reaction-deposition method and low temperature heat treatment, were further studied as active cathode materials for room temperature Na-S batteries. Both high loading composite with 86% gamma-S8 and low loading composite with 25% gamma-S8 have been electrochemically evaluated and compared with both NGNS and S control electrodes. It was found that low loading NGNS/S composite exhibited better electrochemical performance with specific capacity of 110 and 48 mAh g-1 at 0.1C at the 1st and 300th cycle, respectively. The Coulombic efficiency of 100% was obtained at the 300th cycle. Third, high purity rock-salt (RS), zinc-blende (ZB) and wurtzite (WZ) MnS nanocrystals with different morphologies were successfully synthesized via a facile solvothermal method. RS-, ZB- and WZ-MnS electrodes showed the capacities of 232.5 mAh g-1, 287.9 mAh g-1 and 79.8 mAh g-1 at the 600th cycle, respectively. ZB-MnS displayed the best performance in terms of specific capacity and cyclability. Interestingly, MnS electrodes

  15. Method and apparatus for indicating electric charge remaining in batteries based on electrode weight and center of gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouhani, S.Z.

    1996-12-03

    In most electrochemical batteries which generate electricity through the reaction of a battery electrode with an electrolyte solution, the chemical composition, and thus the weight and density, of the electrode changes as the battery discharges. The invention measures a parameter of the battery which changes as the weight of the electrode changes as the battery discharges and relates that parameter to the value of the parameter when the battery is fully charged and when the battery is functionally discharged to determine the state-of-charge of the battery at the time the parameter is measured. In one embodiment, the weight of a battery electrode or electrode unit is measured to determine the state-of-charge. In other embodiments, where a battery electrode is located away from the geometrical center of the battery, the position of the center of gravity of the battery or shift in the position of the center of gravity of the battery is measured (the position of the center of gravity changes with the change in weight of the electrode) and indicates the state-of-charge of the battery. 35 figs.

  16. Reliable reference electrodes for lithium-ion batteries

    KAUST Repository

    La Mantia, F.; Wessells, C.D.; Deshazer, H.D.; Cui, Yi

    2013-01-01

    Despite the high attention drawn to the lithium-ion batteries by the scientific and industrial community, most of the electrochemical characterization is carried out using poor reference electrodes or even no reference electrode. In this case

  17. Graphene-based battery electrodes having continuous flow paths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiguang; Xiao, Jie; Liu, Jun; Xu, Wu; Li, Xiaolin; Wang, Deyu

    2014-05-24

    Some batteries can exhibit greatly improved performance by utilizing electrodes having randomly arranged graphene nanosheets forming a network of channels defining continuous flow paths through the electrode. The network of channels can provide a diffusion pathway for the liquid electrolyte and/or for reactant gases. Metal-air batteries can benefit from such electrodes. In particular Li-air batteries show extremely high capacities, wherein the network of channels allow oxygen to diffuse through the electrode and mesopores in the electrode can store discharge products.

  18. Development of reliable lithium microreference electrodes for long-term in situ studies of lithium-based battery systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, J.; Notten, P.H.L.

    2004-01-01

    An in situ method to prepare lithium microreference electrodes has been developed. The microreference electrodes are made by electrochemical deposition of metallic lithium from both the positive and negative electrodes onto a copper wire positioned in-between the two Li-based battery electrodes. The

  19. Organic electrode materials for rechargeable lithium batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Yanliang; Tao, Zhanliang; Chen, Jun [Key Laboratory of Advanced Energy Materials Chemistry (Ministry of Education), Chemistry College, Nankai University, Tianjin (China)

    2012-07-15

    Organic compounds offer new possibilities for high energy/power density, cost-effective, environmentally friendly, and functional rechargeable lithium batteries. For a long time, they have not constituted an important class of electrode materials, partly because of the large success and rapid development of inorganic intercalation compounds. In recent years, however, exciting progress has been made, bringing organic electrodes to the attention of the energy storage community. Herein thirty years' research efforts in the field of organic compounds for rechargeable lithium batteries are summarized. The working principles, development history, and design strategies of these materials, including organosulfur compounds, organic free radical compounds, organic carbonyl compounds, conducting polymers, non-conjugated redox polymers, and layered organic compounds are presented. The cell performances of these materials are compared, providing a comprehensive overview of the area, and straightforwardly revealing the advantages/disadvantages of each class of materials. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  20. Electrode pattern design for GaAs betavoltaic batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Haiyang; Yin Jianhua; Li Darang

    2011-01-01

    The sensitivities of betavoltaic batteries and photovoltaic batteries to series and parallel resistance are studied. Based on the study, an electrode pattern design principle of GaAs betavoltaic batteries is proposed. GaAs PIN junctions with and without the proposed electrode pattern are fabricated and measured under the illumination of 63 Ni. Results show that the proposed electrode can reduce the backscattering and shadowing for the beta particles from 63 Ni to increase the GaAs betavoltaic battery short circuit currents effectively but has little impact on the fill factors and ideal factors.

  1. Calcium-Antimony Alloys as Electrodes for Liquid Metal Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ouchi, T; Kim, H; Ning, XH; Sadoway, DR

    2014-08-08

    The performance of a calcium-antimony (Ca-Sb) alloy serving as the positive electrode in a Ca vertical bar vertical bar Sb liquid metal battery was investigated in an electrochemical cell, Ca(in Bi) vertical bar LiCl-NaCl-CaCl2 vertical bar Ca(in Sb). The equilibrium potential of the Ca-Sb electrode was found to lie on the interval, 1.2-0.95 V versus Ca, in good agreement with electromotive force (emf) measurements in the literature. During both alloying and dealloying of Ca at the Sb electrode, the charge transfer and mass transport at the interface are facile enough that the electrode potential varies linearly from 0.95 to 0.75 V vs Ca(s) as current density varies from 50 to 500 mA cm(-2). The discharge capacity of the Ca vertical bar vertical bar Sb cells increases as the operating temperature increases due to the higher solubility and diffusivity of Ca in Sb. The cell was successfully cycled with high coulombic efficiency (similar to 100%) and small fade rate (<0.01% cycle(-1)). These data combined with the favorable costs of these metals and salts make the Ca vertical bar vertical bar Sb liquid metal battery attractive for grid-scale energy storage. (C) The Author(s) 2014. Published by ECS. All rights reserved.

  2. Electronically conductive polymer binder for lithium-ion battery electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Gao; Xun, Shidi; Battaglia, Vincent S.; Zheng, Honghe

    2017-05-16

    A family of carboxylic acid group containing fluorene/fluorenon copolymers is disclosed as binders of silicon particles in the fabrication of negative electrodes for use with lithium ion batteries. These binders enable the use of silicon as an electrode material as they significantly improve the cycle-ability of silicon by preventing electrode degradation over time. In particular, these polymers, which become conductive on first charge, bind to the silicon particles of the electrode, are flexible so as to better accommodate the expansion and contraction of the electrode during charge/discharge, and being conductive promote the flow battery current.

  3. A review of laser electrode processing for development and manufacturing of lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfleging, Wilhelm

    2018-02-01

    Laser processes for cutting, annealing, structuring, and printing of battery materials have a great potential in order to minimize the fabrication costs and to increase the electrochemical performance and operational lifetime of lithium-ion cells. Hereby, a broad range of applications can be covered such as micro-batteries, mobile applications, electric vehicles, and stand-alone electric energy storage devices. Cost-efficient nanosecond (ns)-laser cutting of electrodes was one of the first laser technologies which were successfully transferred to industrial high-energy battery production. A defined thermal impact can be useful in electrode manufacturing which was demonstrated by laser annealing of thin-film electrodes for adjusting of battery active crystalline phases or by laser-based drying of composite thick-film electrodes for high-energy batteries. Ultrafast or ns-laser direct structuring or printing of electrode materials is a rather new technical approach in order to realize three-dimensional (3D) electrode architectures. Three-dimensional electrode configurations lead to a better electrochemical performance in comparison to conventional 2D one, due to an increased active surface area, reduced mechanical tensions during electrochemical cycling, and an overall reduced cell impedance. Furthermore, it was shown that for thick-film composite electrodes an increase of electrolyte wetting could be achieved by introducing 3D micro-/nano-structures. Laser structuring can turn electrodes into superwicking. This has a positive impact regarding an increased battery lifetime and a reliable battery production. Finally, laser processes can be up-scaled in order to transfer the 3D battery concept to high-energy and high-power lithium-ion cells.

  4. Latest position in battery techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staeger, H J

    1960-03-17

    A short survey of the development of electrochemical properties as batteries is followed by an account of the construction, properties, and fields of application of lead, iron--nickel, and silver--zinc batteries, and their more recent developments, such as the hollow-rod plates in lead batteries, sintered plates, and sealed batteries. The work in progress on fuel cells is discussed and different practical cells are compared. There is no battery which is the best for all applications, each system has its own advantages or disadvantages. The lead battery in its different forms still remains the most universally applied.

  5. LiNi 0.8 Co 0.2 O 2 -based high power lithium-ion battery positive electrodes analyzed by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy: 2. Following 3 formation cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haasch, Richard T.; Abraham, Daniel A.

    2016-12-01

    High-power lithium-ion batteries are rapidly replacing the nickel metal hydride batteries currently used for energy storage in hybrid electric vehicles. Widespread commercialization of these batteries for vehicular applications is, however, limited by calendar-life performance, thermal abuse characteristics, and cost. The Advanced Technology Development Program was established by the U.S. Department of Energy to address these limitations. An important objective of this program was the development and application of diagnostic tools that provide unique ways to investigate the phenomena that limit lithium-ion cell life, performance, and safety characteristics. This report introduces a set of six Surface Science Spectra xray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) comparison records of data collected from positive electrodes (cathode) harvested from cylindrically wound, 18650-type, 1 A h capacity cells. The cathodes included in this study are (1) fresh, (2) following three formation cycles, (3) following calendar-life test for 12 weeks at 40 C, 60% state-of-charge (SOC), (4) following calendar-life test for 8 weeks at 50 C, 60% SOC, (5) following calendar-life test for 8 weeks at 60 C, 60% SOC, and (6) following calendar-life test for 2 weeks at 70 C, 60% SOC.

  6. Introduction to a series of LiNi 0.8 Co 0.2 O 2 -based high-power lithium-ion battery positive electrodes analyzed by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haasch, Richard T.; Abraham, Daniel A.

    2016-12-01

    High-power lithium-ion batteries are rapidly replacing the nickel metal hydride batteries currently used for energy storage in hybrid electric vehicles. Widespread commercialization of these batteries for vehicular applications is, however, limited by calendar-life performance, thermal abuse characteristics, and cost. The Advanced Technology Development Program was established by the U.S. Department of Energy to address these limitations. An important objective of this program was the development and application of diagnostic tools that provide unique ways to investigate the phenomena that limit lithium-ion cell life, performance, and safety characteristics. This report introduces a set of six Surface Science Spectra xray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) comparison records of data collected from positive electrodes (cathode) harvested from cylindrically wound, 18650-type, 1 A h capacity cells. The cathodes included in this study are (1) fresh, (2) following three formation cycles, (3) following calendar-life test for 12 weeks at 40 C, 60% state-of-charge (SOC), (4) following calendar-life test for 8 weeks at 50 C, 60% SOC, (5) following calendar-life test for 8 weeks at 60 C, 60% SOC, and (6) following calendar-life test for 2 weeks at 70 C, 60% SOC.

  7. Electrode assembly for a lithium ion battery, process for the production of such electrode assembly, and lithium ion battery comprising such electrode assemblies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, F.M.; Wagemaker, M.

    2013-01-01

    The invention provides an electrode assembly for a lithium ion battery, the electrode assembly comprising a lithium storage electrode layer on a current collector, wherein the lithium storage electrode layer is a porous layer having a porosity in the range of -35 %, with pores having pore widths in

  8. Polyanion-Type Electrode Materials for Sodium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Qiao; Bai, Ying; Wu, Feng; Wu, Chuan

    2017-03-01

    Sodium-ion batteries, representative members of the post-lithium-battery club, are very attractive and promising for large-scale energy storage applications. The increasing technological improvements in sodium-ion batteries (Na-ion batteries) are being driven by the demand for Na-based electrode materials that are resource-abundant, cost-effective, and long lasting. Polyanion-type compounds are among the most promising electrode materials for Na-ion batteries due to their stability, safety, and suitable operating voltages. The most representative polyanion-type electrode materials are Na 3 V 2 (PO 4 ) 3 and NaTi 2 (PO 4 ) 3 for Na-based cathode and anode materials, respectively. Both show superior electrochemical properties and attractive prospects in terms of their development and application in Na-ion batteries. Carbonophosphate Na 3 MnCO 3 PO 4 and amorphous FePO 4 have also recently emerged and are contributing to further developing the research scope of polyanion-type Na-ion batteries. However, the typical low conductivity and relatively low capacity performance of such materials still restrict their development. This paper presents a brief review of the research progress of polyanion-type electrode materials for Na-ion batteries, summarizing recent accomplishments, highlighting emerging strategies, and discussing the remaining challenges of such systems.

  9. Polyanion‐Type Electrode Materials for Sodium‐Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Qiao; Wu, Feng

    2017-01-01

    Sodium‐ion batteries, representative members of the post‐lithium‐battery club, are very attractive and promising for large‐scale energy storage applications. The increasing technological improvements in sodium‐ion batteries (Na‐ion batteries) are being driven by the demand for Na‐based electrode materials that are resource‐abundant, cost‐effective, and long lasting. Polyanion‐type compounds are among the most promising electrode materials for Na‐ion batteries due to their stability, safety, and suitable operating voltages. The most representative polyanion‐type electrode materials are Na3V2(PO4)3 and NaTi2(PO4)3 for Na‐based cathode and anode materials, respectively. Both show superior electrochemical properties and attractive prospects in terms of their development and application in Na‐ion batteries. Carbonophosphate Na3MnCO3PO4 and amorphous FePO4 have also recently emerged and are contributing to further developing the research scope of polyanion‐type Na‐ion batteries. However, the typical low conductivity and relatively low capacity performance of such materials still restrict their development. This paper presents a brief review of the research progress of polyanion‐type electrode materials for Na‐ion batteries, summarizing recent accomplishments, highlighting emerging strategies, and discussing the remaining challenges of such systems. PMID:28331782

  10. Porous graphite electrodes for rechargeable ion-transfer batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novak, P; Scheifele, W; Haas, O [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-06-01

    The influence of preparation pressure and pore-forming additives on the properties of graphite-based, Li{sup +}-intercalating electrodes for ion-transfer batteries have been investigated. The electrochemical performance of graphite electrodes could be improved by adjusting the porosity. Specific charge of >300 Ah/kg (with respect to the graphite mass) could be achieved. (author) 4 figs., 2 refs.

  11. Recovery Of Electrodic Powder From Spent Lithium Ion Batteries (LIBs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin S.M.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was focused on recycling process newly proposed to recover electrodic powder enriched in cobalt (Co and lithium (Li from spent lithium ion battery. In addition, this new process was designed to prevent explosion of batteries during thermal treatment under inert atmosphere. Spent lithium ion batteries (LIBs were heated over the range of 300°C to 600°C for 2 hours and each component was completely separated inside reactor after experiment. Electrodic powder was successfully recovered from bulk components containing several pieces of metals through sieving operation. The electrodic powder obtained was examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS, and atomic absorption spectroscopy (AA and furthermore image of the powder was taken by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. It was finally found that cobalt and lithium were mainly recovered to about 49 wt.% and 4 wt.% in electrodic powder, respectively.

  12. Secondary battery on cell with dual electrode. [German Patent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludwig, F A

    1977-08-04

    The barrier layer penetrable to alkali metal ions is in ion-conducting contact with the melted anode alkali metal on the one side and, on the other side, in ion-conducting contact with a cathode reactant of liquid electrolyte. The electrolyte is electrochemically reversibly reactive with the anode reaction component and consists of a mixture of melted polysulfide salts of the alkali metal and molten sulfur when the cell is partly discharged. The improvement on the secondary battery, according to the invention, involves electrode devices containing first and second electrodes. The first electrode is designed for battery charge; it is installed in the first section of the cathodic reaction zone and is wetted to a greater extent by the melted polysulfide than by molten sulfur. The secondary electrode is designed for battery discharge; it is installed in a second section of the cathodic reaction zone and is wetted to a greater extent by molten sulfur than by melted polysulfide.

  13. Electrode Materials for Lithium/Sodium-Ion Batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shen, Yanbin

    2014-01-01

    The synthesis of electrode materials for lithium/sodium ion batteries and their structural stability during lithium/sodium insertion/extraction are the two essential issues that have limited battery application in the fields requiring long cycle life and high safety. During her PhD studies, Yanbin...... Shen systematically investigated the controlled synthesis of electrode materials for lithium/sodium ion batteries. She also investigated their formation mechanisms and structural evolution during the operation of batteries using in situ/operando X-ray diffraction techniques. The research findings...... provide insights into formation mechanisms of Li4Ti5O12 anode material from both hydrothermal and solid-state reaction. The results also contribute to a thorough understanding of the intercalation and decay mechanisms of O3/P2 layered sodium cathode materials in sodium ion batteries....

  14. Alkali metal ion battery with bimetallic electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boysen, Dane A; Bradwell, David J; Jiang, Kai; Kim, Hojong; Ortiz, Luis A; Sadoway, Donald R; Tomaszowska, Alina A; Wei, Weifeng; Wang, Kangli

    2015-04-07

    Electrochemical cells having molten electrodes having an alkali metal provide receipt and delivery of power by transporting atoms of the alkali metal between electrode environments of disparate chemical potentials through an electrochemical pathway comprising a salt of the alkali metal. The chemical potential of the alkali metal is decreased when combined with one or more non-alkali metals, thus producing a voltage between an electrode comprising the molten the alkali metal and the electrode comprising the combined alkali/non-alkali metals.

  15. Influence of Electrode Density on the Performance of Li-Ion Batteries: Experimental and Simulation Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelle Smekens

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Lithium-ion battery (LIB technology further enabled the information revolution by powering smartphones and tablets, allowing these devices an unprecedented performance against reasonable cost. Currently, this battery technology is on the verge of carrying the revolution in road transport and energy storage of renewable energy. However, to fully succeed in the latter, a number of hurdles still need to be taken. Battery performance and lifetime constitute a bottleneck for electric vehicles as well as stationary electric energy storage systems to penetrate the market. Electrochemical battery models are one of the engineering tools which could be used to enhance their performance. These models can help us optimize the cell design and the battery management system. In this study, we evaluate the ability of the Porous Electrode Theory (PET to predict the effect of changing positive electrode density in the overall performance of Li-ion battery cells. It can be concluded that Porous Electrode Theory (PET is capable of predicting the difference in cell performance due to a changing positive electrode density.

  16. Electronically conductive polymer binder for lithium-ion battery electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Gao; Xun, Shidi; Battaglia, Vincent S.; Zheng, Honghe; Wu, Mingyan

    2017-08-01

    A family of carboxylic acid groups containing fluorene/fluorenon copolymers is disclosed as binders of silicon particles in the fabrication of negative electrodes for use with lithium ion batteries. Triethyleneoxide side chains provide improved adhesion to materials such as, graphite, silicon, silicon alloy, tin, tin alloy. These binders enable the use of silicon as an electrode material as they significantly improve the cycle-ability of silicon by preventing electrode degradation over time. In particular, these polymers, which become conductive on first charge, bind to the silicon particles of the electrode, are flexible so as to better accommodate the expansion and contraction of the electrode during charge/discharge, and being conductive promote the flow battery current.

  17. Electronically conductive polymer binder for lithium-ion battery electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gao; Xun, Shidi; Battaglia, Vincent S.; Zheng, Honghe; Wu, Mingyan

    2015-07-07

    A family of carboxylic acid groups containing fluorene/fluorenon copolymers is disclosed as binders of silicon particles in the fabrication of negative electrodes for use with lithium ion batteries. Triethyleneoxide side chains provide improved adhesion to materials such as, graphite, silicon, silicon alloy, tin, tin alloy. These binders enable the use of silicon as an electrode material as they significantly improve the cycle-ability of silicon by preventing electrode degradation over time. In particular, these polymers, which become conductive on first charge, bind to the silicon particles of the electrode, are flexible so as to better accommodate the expansion and contraction of the electrode during charge/discharge, and being conductive promote the flow battery current.

  18. Electrodéposition de revêtements composites à base de polyaniline pour des applications de batterie Lithium-ion et de protection contre la corrosion

    OpenAIRE

    Harfouche , Nesrine

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we prepared two conductive composite materials based on polyaniline (PANI) byelectrodeposition. First, we investigated the development of new polyaniline/LiMn2O4 composite films forapplication as cathode material in lithium-ion batteries. Analysis by X-ray diffraction, EDS analysis and FTIRspectroscopy confirmed the incorporation of LiMn2O4 in composite films. The electrochemical analysis of thefilms obtained showed a higher conductivity of the composite films compared to the c...

  19. High Reversibility of “Soft” Electrode Materials in All-Solid-State Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakuda, Atsushi, E-mail: a.sakuda@aist.go.jp; Takeuchi, Tomonari, E-mail: a.sakuda@aist.go.jp; Shikano, Masahiro; Sakaebe, Hikari; Kobayashi, Hironori [Department of Energy and Environment, Research Institute for Electrochemical Energy, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Ikeda (Japan)

    2016-05-10

    All-solid-state batteries using inorganic solid electrolytes (SEs) are considered to be ideal batteries for electric vehicles and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles because they are potentially safer than conventional lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). In addition, all-solid-state batteries are expected to have long battery life owing to the inhibition of chemical side reactions because only lithium ions move through the typically used inorganic SEs. The development of high-energy density (more than 300 Wh kg{sup −1}) secondary batteries has been eagerly anticipated for years. The application of high-capacity electrode active materials is essential for fabricating such batteries. Recently, we proposed metal polysulfides as new electrode materials. These materials show higher conductivity and density than sulfur, which is advantageous for fabricating batteries with relatively higher energy density. Lithium niobium sulfides, such as Li{sub 3}NbS{sub 4}, have relatively high density, conductivity, and rate capability among metal polysulfide materials, and batteries with these materials have capacities high enough to potentially exceed the gravimetric-energy density of conventional LIBs. Favorable solid–solid contact between the electrode and electrolyte particles is a key factor for fabricating high performance all-solid-state batteries. Conventional oxide-based positive electrode materials tend to give rise to cracks during fabrication and/or charge–discharge processes. Here, we report all-solid-state cells using lithium niobium sulfide as a positive electrode material, where favorable solid–solid contact was established by using lithium sulfide electrode materials because of their high processability. Cracks were barely observed in the electrode particles in the all-solid-state cells before or after charging and discharging with a high capacity of approximately 400 mAh g{sup −1} suggesting that the lithium niobium sulfide electrode charged and discharged without

  20. High Reversibility of Soft Electrode Materials in All-solid-state Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi eSakuda

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available All-solid-state batteries using inorganic solid electrolytes (SEs are considered to be ideal batteries for electric vehicles (EVs and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs because they are potentially safer than conventional lithium-ion batteries (LIBs. In addition, all-solid-state batteries are expected to have long battery lives owing to the inhibition of chemical side reactions because only lithium ions move through the typically used inorganic SEs. The development of high-energy (more than 300 Wh kg-1 secondary batteries has been eagerly anticipated for years. The application of high-capacity electrode active materials is essential for fabricating such batteries. Recently, we proposed metal polysulfides as new electrode materials. These materials show higher conductivity and density than sulfur, which is advantageous for fabricating batteries with relatively higher energy density. Lithium niobium sulfides, such as Li3NbS4, have relatively high density, conductivity, and rate capability among metal polysulfide materials, and batteries with these materials have capacities high enough to potentially exceed the gravimetric energy density of conventional LIBs.Favorable solid-solid contact between the electrode and electrolyte particles is a key factor for fabricating high performance all-solid-state batteries. Conventional oxide-based positive electrode materials tend to be given rise to cracks during fabrication and/or charge-discharge processes. Here we report all-solid-state cells using lithium niobium sulfide as a positive electrode material, where favorable solid-solid contact was established by using lithium sulfide electrode materials because of their high processability. Cracks were barely observed in the electrode particles in the all-solid-state cells before or after charging and discharging with a high capacity of approx. 400 mAh g-1, suggesting that the lithium niobium sulfide electrode charged and discharged without experiencing

  1. High Reversibility of “Soft” Electrode Materials in All-Solid-State Batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakuda, Atsushi; Takeuchi, Tomonari; Shikano, Masahiro; Sakaebe, Hikari; Kobayashi, Hironori

    2016-01-01

    All-solid-state batteries using inorganic solid electrolytes (SEs) are considered to be ideal batteries for electric vehicles and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles because they are potentially safer than conventional lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). In addition, all-solid-state batteries are expected to have long battery life owing to the inhibition of chemical side reactions because only lithium ions move through the typically used inorganic SEs. The development of high-energy density (more than 300 Wh kg −1 ) secondary batteries has been eagerly anticipated for years. The application of high-capacity electrode active materials is essential for fabricating such batteries. Recently, we proposed metal polysulfides as new electrode materials. These materials show higher conductivity and density than sulfur, which is advantageous for fabricating batteries with relatively higher energy density. Lithium niobium sulfides, such as Li 3 NbS 4 , have relatively high density, conductivity, and rate capability among metal polysulfide materials, and batteries with these materials have capacities high enough to potentially exceed the gravimetric-energy density of conventional LIBs. Favorable solid–solid contact between the electrode and electrolyte particles is a key factor for fabricating high performance all-solid-state batteries. Conventional oxide-based positive electrode materials tend to give rise to cracks during fabrication and/or charge–discharge processes. Here, we report all-solid-state cells using lithium niobium sulfide as a positive electrode material, where favorable solid–solid contact was established by using lithium sulfide electrode materials because of their high processability. Cracks were barely observed in the electrode particles in the all-solid-state cells before or after charging and discharging with a high capacity of approximately 400 mAh g −1 suggesting that the lithium niobium sulfide electrode charged and discharged without experiencing

  2. Dimensionally stable PbO{sub 2} electrodes for lead acid batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devilliers, D.; Devos, B.; Groult, H. [Pierre et Marie Curie Univ., Paris (France). Laboratoire LI2C-Electrochimie

    2007-07-15

    Dimensionally stable anodes (DSAs) are regularly used in industrial electrolytic cells. The titanium substrate in these electrodes is covered by an electrocatalytic layer containing a precious metal oxide. The concept of PbO{sub 2}-dimensionally stable electrodes with a light metal substrate may also be applied to generators, particularly for bipolar lead acid batteries. However, one of the issues with bipolar lead-acid batteries is the stability of the bipolar electrode substrate, particularly on the side onto which the positive active mass is deposited. This article presented the results of a study that characterized the performance of different electrode substrates onto which PbO{sub 2} was electrodeposited using cyclic voltammetry performed with PbO{sub 2} in sulphuric acid. The article discussed the experiment with reference to the titanium substrates; modification of the substrates; x-ray diffraction; and cyclic voltammetry experiments with PbO{sub 2} electrodes. It also presented a discussion of the results. The study concluded that titanium covered by the mixed oxides layer titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2})-tin dioxide (SnO{sub 2})-antimony oxide (Sb{sub 2}O{sub 3}) constitutes a suitable substrate for PbO{sub 2} electrodes. It can be used in lead acid batteries and allows the preparation of compact bipolar batteries. 36 refs., 1 tab., 5 figs.

  3. Graphene-based integrated electrodes for flexible lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Ying; Wen, Lei; Zhou, Guangmin; Chen, Jing; Pei, Songfeng; Huang, Kun; Cheng, Hui-Ming; Li, Feng

    2015-01-01

    We have prepared flexible free-standing electrodes with anode and cathode active materials deposited on a highly conductive graphene membrane by a two-step filtration method. Compared with conventional electrodes using metal as current collectors, these electrodes have displayed stronger adhesion, superior electrochemical performance, higher energy density, and better flexibility. A full lithium ion battery assembled by adopting these graphene-based electrodes has showed high rate capability and long cyclic life. We have also assembled a thin, lightweight, and flexible lithium ion battery with poly-(dimethyl siloxane) sheets as packaging material to light a red light-emitting diode. This flexible battery can be easily bent without structural failure or performance loss and operated well under a bent state. The fabrication process of these graphene-based integrated electrodes only has two filtration steps; thus it is easy to scale up. These results suggest great potential for these graphene-based flexible batteries in lightweight, bendable, and wearable electronic devices. (paper)

  4. Reliable reference electrodes for lithium-ion batteries

    KAUST Repository

    La Mantia, F.

    2013-06-01

    Despite the high attention drawn to the lithium-ion batteries by the scientific and industrial community, most of the electrochemical characterization is carried out using poor reference electrodes or even no reference electrode. In this case, the performances of the active material are inaccurate, especially at high current densities. In this work we show the error committed in neglecting the polarizability of lithium counter electrodes, and we propose two reference electrodes to use in organic electrolytes based on lithium salts, namely Li4Ti5O12 and LiFePO 4. In particular, it was observed that, the polarizability of the metallic lithium counter electrode has a relevant stochastic component, which renders measurements at high current densities (above 1 mA·cm - 2) in two electrode cells non reproducible.

  5. Hierarchically structured nanocarbon electrodes for flexible solid lithium batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Wei, Di

    2013-09-01

    The ever increasing demand for storage of electrical energy in portable electronic devices and electric vehicles is driving technological improvements in rechargeable batteries. Lithium (Li) batteries have many advantages over other rechargeable battery technologies, including high specific energy and energy density, operation over a wide range of temperatures (-40 to 70. °C) and a low self-discharge rate, which translates into a long shelf-life (~10 years) [1]. However, upon release of the first generation of rechargeable Li batteries, explosions related to the shorting of the circuit through Li dendrites bridging the anode and cathode were observed. As a result, Li metal batteries today are generally relegated to non-rechargeable primary battery applications, because the dendritic growth of Li is associated with the charging and discharging process. However, there still remain significant advantages in realizing rechargeable secondary batteries based on Li metal anodes because they possess superior electrical conductivity, higher specific energy and lower heat generation due to lower internal resistance. One of the most practical solutions is to use a solid polymer electrolyte to act as a physical barrier against dendrite growth. This may enable the use of Li metal once again in rechargeable secondary batteries [2]. Here we report a flexible and solid Li battery using a polymer electrolyte with a hierarchical and highly porous nanocarbon electrode comprising aligned multiwalled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and carbon nanohorns (CNHs). Electrodes with high specific surface area are realized through the combination of CNHs with CNTs and provide a significant performance enhancement to the solid Li battery performance. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Organometallic-inorganic hybrid electrodes for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qian; Lemmon, John P.; Choi, Daiwon; Cosimbescu, Lelia

    2016-09-13

    Disclosed are embodiments of active materials for organometallic and organometallic-inorganic hybrid electrodes and particularly active materials for organometallic and organometallic-inorganic hybrid cathodes for lithium-ion batteries. In certain embodiments the organometallic material comprises a ferrocene polymer.

  7. Microwave synthesis of electrode materials for lithium batteries

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A novel microwave method is described for the preparation of electrode materials required for lithium batteries. The method is simple, fast and carried out in most cases with the same starting material as in conventional methods. Good crystallinity has been noted and lower temperatures of reaction has been inferred in ...

  8. High-rate and ultralong cycle-life LiFePO{sub 4} nanocrystals coated by boron-doped carbon as positive electrode for lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Jinpeng, E-mail: goldminer@sina.com; Wang, Youlan

    2016-12-30

    Highlights: • B-doped carbon decorated LiFePO{sub 4} has been fabricated for the first time. • The LiFePO{sub 4}@B-CdisplaysimprovedbatteryperformancecomparedtoLiFePO{sub 4}@C. • The LiFePO{sub 4}@B-C is good candidate for high-performance lithium-ion batteries. - Abstract: An evolutionary modification approach, boron-doped carbon coating, has been used to improve the electrochemical performances of positive electrodes for lithium-ion batteries, and demonstrates apparent and significant modification effects. In this study, the boron-doped carbon coating is firstly adopted and used to decorate the performance of LiFePO{sub 4}. The obtained composite exhibits a unique core-shell structure with an average diameter of 140 nm and a 4 nm thick boron-doped carbon shell that uniformly encapsulates the core. Owing to the boron element which could induce high amount of defects in the carbon, the electronic conductivity of LiFePO{sub 4} is greatly ameliorated. Thus, the boron-doped composite shows superior rate capability and cycle stability than the undoped sample. For instance, the reversible specific capacity of LiFePO{sub 4}@B{sub 0.4}-C can reach 164.1 mAh g{sup −1} at 0.1C, which is approximately 96.5% of the theoretical capacity (170 mAh g{sup −1}). Even at high rate of 10C, it still shows a high specific capacity of 126.8 mAh g{sup −1} and can be maintained at 124.5 mAh g{sup −1} after 100 cycles with capacity retention ratio of about 98.2%. This outstanding Li-storage property enable the present design strategy to open up the possibility of fabricating the LiFePO{sub 4}@B-C composite for high-performance lithium-ion batteries.

  9. Lithium sulfide compositions for battery electrolyte and battery electrode coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Chengdu; Liu, Zengcai; Fu, Wunjun; Lin, Zhan; Dudney, Nancy J; Howe, Jane Y; Rondinone, Adam J

    2013-12-03

    Methods of forming lithium-containing electrolytes are provided using wet chemical synthesis. In some examples, the lithium containing electroytes are composed of .beta.-Li.sub.3PS.sub.4 or Li.sub.4P.sub.2S.sub.7. The solid electrolyte may be a core shell material. In one embodiment, the core shell material includes a core of lithium sulfide (Li.sub.2S), a first shell of .beta.-Li.sub.3PS.sub.4 or Li.sub.4P.sub.2S.sub.7, and a second shell including one or .beta.-Li.sub.3PS.sub.4 or Li.sub.4P.sub.2S.sub.7 and carbon. The lithium containing electrolytes may be incorporated into wet cell batteries or solid state batteries.

  10. Microwave synthesis of Li{sub 3}V{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}/C as positive-electrode materials for rechargeable lithium batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xi, Yupeng; Zhang, Yanhui; Su, Zhi, E-mail: suzhixj@sina.com

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • High performance LVP/C synthesized by self-assembly microwave oven. • TEM showed the carbon layer is consisted of two kinds of concrete components. • The fast and efficient method make the process feasible commercially. - Abstract: The paper reports a microwave irradiation method to rapidly synthesize Li{sub 3}V{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}/C materials as cathode for lithium ion batteries by the self-assembly microwave reaction oven with carbon seal reactor, using LiH{sub 2}PO{sub 4}, V{sub 2}O{sub 5} and sucrose as raw materials. Sucrose was used to be reducer and carbon source. Thermogravimetric (TG) analysis, X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to characterize its structure and morphology. Electrochemical properties of the Li{sub 3}V{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}/C materials were studied by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and charge–discharge cycling performance. The results showed that the diffraction peaks of the sample correspond to a single-phase, and can be indexed as monoclinic structure with a space group of P2{sub 1}/n. An electrochemical test showed that Li{sub 3}V{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}/C demonstrated an excellent electrochemical capacity of 138 mA h g{sup −1} at 0.2 C rate and 124.1 mA h g{sup −1} at 5 C rate with stable cycle ability.

  11. Advances in electrode materials for Li-based rechargeable batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Hui [China Academy of Space Technology (CAST), Beijing (China); Mao, Chengyu [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Li, Jianlin [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Chen, Ruiyong [Korea Inst. of Science and Technology (KIST), Saarbrucken (Germany); Saarland Univ., Saarbrucken (Germany)

    2017-07-05

    Rechargeable lithium-ion batteries store energy as chemical energy in electrode materials during charge and can convert the chemical energy into electrical energy when needed. Tremendous attention has been paid to screen electroactive materials, to evaluate their structural integrity and cycling reversibility, and to improve the performance of electrode materials. This review discusses recent advances in performance enhancement of both anode and cathode through nanoengineering active materials and applying surface coatings, in order to effectively deal with the challenges such as large volume variation, instable interface, limited cyclability and rate capability. We also introduce and discuss briefly the diversity and new tendencies in finding alternative lithium storage materials, safe operation enabled in aqueous electrolytes, and configuring novel symmetric electrodes and lithium-based flow batteries.

  12. Low Energy Desalination Using Battery Electrode Deionization

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Taeyoung; Gorski, Christopher A.; Logan, Bruce

    2017-01-01

    capacities (up to 100 mg-NaCl/g-electrode, 50 mM NaCl influent), and consumed less energy than CDI. Simultaneous production of desalinated and concentrated solutions in two channels avoided a two-cycle approach needed for CDI. Stacking additional membranes

  13. Applications of porous electrodes to metal-ion removal and the design of battery systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trost, G.G.

    1983-09-01

    This dissertation treats the use of porous electrodes as electrochemical reactors for the removal of dilute metal ions. A methodology for the scale-up of porous electrodes used in battery applications is given. Removal of 4 μg Pb/cc in 1 M sulfuric acid was investigated in atmospheric and high-pressure, flow-through porous reactors. The atmospheric reactor used a reticulated vitreous carbon porous bed coated in situ with a mercury film. Best results show 98% removal of lead from the feed stream. Results are summarized in a dimensionless plot of Sherwood number vs Peclet number. High-pressure, porous-electrode experiments were performed to investigate the effect of pressure on the current efficiency. Pressures were varied up to 120 bar on electrode beds of copper or lead-coated spheres. The copper spheres showed high hydrogen evolution rates which inhibited lead deposition, even at high cathodic overpotentials. Use of lead spheres inhibited hydrogen evolution but often resulted in the formation of lead sulfate layers; these layers were difficult to reduce back to lead. Experimental data of one-dimensional porous battery electrodes are combined with a model for the current collector and cell connectors to predict ultimate specific energy and maximum specific power for complete battery systems. Discharge behavior of the plate as a whole is first presented as a function of depth of discharge. These results are combined with the voltage and weight penalties of the interconnecting bus and post, positive and negative active material, cell container, etc. to give specific results for the lithium-aluminum/iron sulfide high-temperature battery. Subject to variation is the number of positive electrodes, grid conductivity, minimum current-collector weight, and total delivered capacity. The battery can be optimized for maximum energy or power, or a compromise design may be selected

  14. Applications of porous electrodes to metal-ion removal and the design of battery systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trost, G.G.

    1983-09-01

    This dissertation treats the use of porous electrodes as electrochemical reactors for the removal of dilute metal ions. A methodology for the scale-up of porous electrodes used in battery applications is given. Removal of 4 ..mu..g Pb/cc in 1 M sulfuric acid was investigated in atmospheric and high-pressure, flow-through porous reactors. The atmospheric reactor used a reticulated vitreous carbon porous bed coated in situ with a mercury film. Best results show 98% removal of lead from the feed stream. Results are summarized in a dimensionless plot of Sherwood number vs Peclet number. High-pressure, porous-electrode experiments were performed to investigate the effect of pressure on the current efficiency. Pressures were varied up to 120 bar on electrode beds of copper or lead-coated spheres. The copper spheres showed high hydrogen evolution rates which inhibited lead deposition, even at high cathodic overpotentials. Use of lead spheres inhibited hydrogen evolution but often resulted in the formation of lead sulfate layers; these layers were difficult to reduce back to lead. Experimental data of one-dimensional porous battery electrodes are combined with a model for the current collector and cell connectors to predict ultimate specific energy and maximum specific power for complete battery systems. Discharge behavior of the plate as a whole is first presented as a function of depth of discharge. These results are combined with the voltage and weight penalties of the interconnecting bus and post, positive and negative active material, cell container, etc. to give specific results for the lithium-aluminum/iron sulfide high-temperature battery. Subject to variation is the number of positive electrodes, grid conductivity, minimum current-collector weight, and total delivered capacity. The battery can be optimized for maximum energy or power, or a compromise design may be selected.

  15. Highly reversible open framework nanoscale electrodes for divalent ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Richard Y; Wessells, Colin D; Huggins, Robert A; Cui, Yi

    2013-01-01

    The reversible insertion of monovalent ions such as lithium into electrode materials has enabled the development of rechargeable batteries with high energy density. Reversible insertion of divalent ions such as magnesium would allow the creation of new battery chemistries that are potentially safer and cheaper than lithium-based batteries. Here we report that nanomaterials in the Prussian Blue family of open framework materials, such as nickel hexacyanoferrate, allow for the reversible insertion of aqueous alkaline earth divalent ions, including Mg(2+), Ca(2+), Sr(2+), and Ba(2+). We show unprecedented long cycle life and high rate performance for divalent ion insertion. Our results represent a step forward and pave the way for future development in divalent batteries.

  16. High voltage and high specific capacity dual intercalating electrode Li-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, William C. (Inventor); Blanco, Mario (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention provides high capacity and high voltage Li-ion batteries that have a carbonaceous cathode and a nonaqueous electrolyte solution comprising LiF salt and an anion receptor that binds the fluoride ion. The batteries can comprise dual intercalating electrode Li ion batteries. Methods of the present invention use a cathode and electrode pair, wherein each of the electrodes reversibly intercalate ions provided by a LiF salt to make a high voltage and high specific capacity dual intercalating electrode Li-ion battery. The present methods and systems provide high-capacity batteries particularly useful in powering devices where minimizing battery mass is important.

  17. Phosphate Framework Electrode Materials for Sodium Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yongjin; Zhang, Jiexin; Xiao, Lifen; Ai, Xinping; Cao, Yuliang; Yang, Hanxi

    2017-05-01

    Sodium ion batteries (SIBs) have been considered as a promising alternative for the next generation of electric storage systems due to their similar electrochemistry to Li-ion batteries and the low cost of sodium resources. Exploring appropriate electrode materials with decent electrochemical performance is the key issue for development of sodium ion batteries. Due to the high structural stability, facile reaction mechanism and rich structural diversity, phosphate framework materials have attracted increasing attention as promising electrode materials for sodium ion batteries. Herein, we review the latest advances and progresses in the exploration of phosphate framework materials especially related to single-phosphates, pyrophosphates and mixed-phosphates. We provide the detailed and comprehensive understanding of structure-composition-performance relationship of materials and try to show the advantages and disadvantages of the materials for use in SIBs. In addition, some new perspectives about phosphate framework materials for SIBs are also discussed. Phosphate framework materials will be a competitive and attractive choice for use as electrodes in the next-generation of energy storage devices.

  18. Multi-component intermetallic electrodes for lithium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thackeray, Michael M; Trahey, Lynn; Vaughey, John T

    2015-03-10

    Multi-component intermetallic negative electrodes prepared by electrochemical deposition for non-aqueous lithium cells and batteries are disclosed. More specifically, the invention relates to composite intermetallic electrodes comprising two or more compounds containing metallic or metaloid elements, at least one element of which can react with lithium to form binary, ternary, quaternary or higher order compounds, these compounds being in combination with one or more other metals that are essentially inactive toward lithium and act predominantly, but not necessarily exclusively, to the electronic conductivity of, and as current collection agent for, the electrode. The invention relates more specifically to negative electrode materials that provide an operating potential between 0.05 and 2.0 V vs. metallic lithium.

  19. AC impedance electrochemical modeling of lithium-ion positive electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dees, D.; Gunen, E.; Abraham, D.; Jansen, A.; Prakash, J.

    2004-01-01

    Under Department of Energy's Advanced Technology Development Program,various analytical diagnostic studies are being carried out to examine the lithium-ion battery technology for hybrid electric vehicle applications, and a series of electrochemical studies are being conducted to examine the performance of these batteries. An electrochemical model was developed to associate changes that were observed in the post-test analytical diagnostic studies with the electrochemical performance loss during testing of lithium ion batteries. While both electrodes in the lithium-ion cell have been studied using a similar electrochemical model, the discussion here is limited to modeling of the positive electrode. The positive electrode under study has a composite structure made of a layered nickel oxide (LiNi 0.8 Co 0.15 Al 0.05 O 2 ) active material, a carbon black and graphite additive for distributing current, and a PVDF binder all on an aluminum current collector. The electrolyte is 1.2M LiPF 6 dissolved in a mixture of EC and EMC and a Celgard micro-porous membrane is used as the separator. Planar test cells (positive/separator/negative) were constructed with a special fixture and two separator membranes that allowed the placement of a micro-reference electrode between the separator membranes (1). Electrochemical studies including AC impedance spectroscopy were then conducted on the individual electrodes to examine the performance and ageing effects in the cell. The model was developed by following the work of Professor Newman at Berkeley (2). The solid electrolyte interface (SEI) region, based on post-test analytical results, was assumed to be a film on the oxide and an oxide layer at the surface of the oxide. A double layer capacity was added in parallel with the Butler-Volmer kinetic expression. The pertinent reaction, thermodynamic, and transport equations were linearized for a small sinusoidal perturbation (3). The resulting system of differential equations was solved

  20. Electrochemical behavior of LiCoO2 as aqueous lithium-ion battery electrodes

    KAUST Repository

    Ruffo, Riccardo

    2009-02-01

    Despite the large number of studies on the behavior of LiCoO2 in organic electrolytes and its recent application as a positive electrode in rechargeable water battery prototypes, a little information is available about the lithium intercalation reaction in this layered compound in aqueous electrolytes. This work shows that LiCoO2 electrodes can be reversibly cycled in LiNO3 aqueous electrolytes for tens of cycles at remarkably high rates with impressive values specific capacity higher than 100 mAh/g, and with a coulomb efficiency greater than 99.7%. Stable and reproducible cycling measurements have been made using a simple cell design that can be easily applied to the study of other intercalation materials, assuming that they are stable in water and that their intercalation potential range matches the electrochemical stability window of the aqueous electrolyte. The experimental arrangement uses a three-electrode flooded cell in which another insertion compound acts as a reversible source and sink of lithium ions, i.e., as the counter electrode. A commercial reference electrode is also present. Both the working and the counter electrodes have been prepared as thin layers on a metallic substrate using the procedures typical for the study of electrodes for lithium-ion batteries in organic solvent electrolytes. © 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of Calendering on Electrode Wettability in Lithium Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yangping eSheng

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Controlling the wettability between the porous electrode and the electrolyte in lithium ion batteries can improve both the manufacturing process and the electrochemical performance of the cell. The wetting rate, which is the electrolyte transport rate in the porous electrode, can be quantified using the wetting balance. The effect of the calendering process on the wettability of anode electrodes was investigated. A graphite anode film with an as-coated thickness of 59 μm was used as baseline electrode film and was calendered to produce films with thickness ranging from 55 to 41 µm. Results show that wettability is improved by light calendering from an initial thickness of 59 μm to a calendered thickness of 53 μm where the wetting rate increased from 0.375 to 0.589 mm/s0.5. Further calendering below 53 µm resulted in a decrease in wetting rates to a minimum observed value of 0.206 mm/s0.5 at a calendered thickness of 41 μm. Under the same electrolyte, wettability of the electrode is controlled to a great extent by the pore structure in the electrode film which includes parameters such as porosity, pore size distribution, pore geometry and topology. Relations between the wetting behavior and the pore structure as characterized by mercury intrusion and electron microscopy exist and can be used to manipulate the wetting behavior of electrodes.

  2. A solvated electron lithium electrode for secondary batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sammells, A. F.; Semkow, K. W.

    1986-09-01

    Attention is given to a novel method for the achievement of high electro-chemical reversibility in Li-based nonaqueous cells, using a liquid negative electrode that consists of Li dissolved in liquid ammonia as a solvated electron Li electrode. The containment of this liquid negative active material from direct contact to a liquid nonaqueous electrolyte in the positive electrode compartment was realized through the use of a Li-intercalated, electronically conducting ceramic membrane.

  3. Operando studies of all-vanadium flow batteries: Easy-to-make reference electrode based on silver-silver sulfate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventosa, Edgar; Skoumal, Marcel; Vázquez, Francisco Javier; Flox, Cristina; Morante, Joan Ramon

    2014-12-01

    In-depth evaluation of the electrochemical performance of all-vanadium redox flow batteries (VRFBs) under operando conditions requires the insertion of a reliable reference electrode in the battery cell. In this work, an easy-to-make reference electrode based on silver-silver sulfate is proposed and described for VRFBs. The relevance and feasibility of the information obtained by inserting the reference electrode is illustrated with the study of ammoxidized graphite felts. In this case, we show that the kinetic of the electrochemical reaction VO2+/VO2+ is slower than that of V2+/V3+ at the electrode. While the slow kinetics at the positive electrode limits the voltage efficiency, the operating potential of the negative electrode, which is outside the stability widow of water, reduces the coulombic efficiency due to the hydrogen evolution.

  4. Synthesis of layered LiMnO2 as an electrode for rechargeable lithium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, A. Robert; Bruce, Peter G.

    1996-06-01

    RECHARGEABLE lithium batteries can store more than twice as much energy per unit weight and volume as other rechargeable batteries1,2. They contain lithium ions in an electrolyte, which shuttle back and forth between, and are intercalated by, the electrode materials. The first commercially successful rechargeable lithium battery3, introduced by the Sony Corporation in 1990, consists of a carbon-based negative electrode, layered LiCoO2 as the positive electrode, and a non-aqueous liquid electrolyte. The high cost and toxicity of cobalt compounds, however, has prompted a search for alternative materials that intercalate lithium ions. One such is LiMn2O4, which has been much studied as a positive electrode material4-7 the cost of manganese is less than 1% of that of cobalt, and it is less toxic. Here we report the synthesis and electrochemical performance of a new material, layered LiMnO2, which is structurally analogous to LiCoO2. The charge capacity of LiMnO2 (~270mAhg-1) compares well with that of both LiCoO2 and LiMn2O4, and preliminary results indicate good stability over repeated charge-discharge cycles.

  5. High-capacity aqueous zinc batteries using sustainable quinone electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qing; Huang, Weiwei; Luo, Zhiqiang; Liu, Luojia; Lu, Yong; Li, Yixin; Li, Lin; Hu, Jinyan; Ma, Hua; Chen, Jun

    2018-01-01

    Quinones, which are ubiquitous in nature, can act as sustainable and green electrode materials but face dissolution in organic electrolytes, resulting in fast fading of capacity and short cycle life. We report that quinone electrodes, especially calix[4]quinone (C4Q) in rechargeable metal zinc batteries coupled with a cation-selective membrane using an aqueous electrolyte, exhibit a high capacity of 335 mA h g−1 with an energy efficiency of 93% at 20 mA g−1 and a long life of 1000 cycles with a capacity retention of 87% at 500 mA g−1. The pouch zinc batteries with a respective depth of discharge of 89% (C4Q) and 49% (zinc anode) can deliver an energy density of 220 Wh kg−1 by mass of both a C4Q cathode and a theoretical Zn anode. We also develop an electrostatic potential computing method to demonstrate that carbonyl groups are active centers of electrochemistry. Moreover, the structural evolution and dissolution behavior of active materials during discharge and charge processes are investigated by operando spectral techniques such as IR, Raman, and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopies. Our results show that batteries using quinone cathodes and metal anodes in aqueous electrolyte are reliable approaches for mass energy storage. PMID:29511734

  6. Advanced Electrodes for High Power Li-ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian M. Julien

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available While little success has been obtained over the past few years in attempts to increase the capacity of Li-ion batteries, significant improvement in the power density has been achieved, opening the route to new applications, from hybrid electric vehicles to high-power electronics and regulation of the intermittency problem of electric energy supply on smart grids. This success has been achieved not only by decreasing the size of the active particles of the electrodes to few tens of nanometers, but also by surface modification and the synthesis of new multi-composite particles. It is the aim of this work to review the different approaches that have been successful to obtain Li-ion batteries with improved high-rate performance and to discuss how these results prefigure further improvement in the near future.

  7. Electrochemical investigations of activation and degradation of hydrogen storage alloy electrodes in sealed Ni/MH battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, W.X.; Xu, Z.D. [Zhejiang University, Hangzhou (China). Dept. of Chemistry; Tu, J.P. [Zhejiang University, Hangzhou (China). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering

    2002-04-01

    The M1Ni{sub 0.4}Co{sub 0.6}Al{sub 0.4} alloy was treated with hot alkaline solution containing a small amount of KBH{sub 4} and its effect on the activation and degradation behaviors of the hydrogen storage alloy electrodes in sealed Ni/MH batteries was investigated. It was found that the treated alloy electrode exhibited a better activation property than the untreated one in the sealed battery as well as in open cell. For the treated alloy electrode activating, the polarization resistance in the sealed battery was almost equal to that in the open cell. But in the case of the untreated alloy electrode activating, the polarization resistance in the sealed battery was larger than that in the open cell. The reason is that the oxide film on the untreated alloy surface suppressed the combination of the oxygen evolved on the positive electrode with hydrogen on the negative alloy surface. In addition, the decaying of capacity of the untreated alloy electrode was much faster than that of the treated one. The reasons were, that after surface treatment, the Ni-rich and Al-poor layer on the alloy surface not only had a high electrocatalytic activity for hydrogen electrode reaction, but also facilitated the combination of the oxygen with hydrogen and hydrogen adsorption on the alloy surface. (author)

  8. Strategies for enhancing electrochemical activity of carbon-based electrodes for all-vanadium redox flow batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flox, Cristina; Skoumal, Marcel; Rubio-Garcia, Javier; Andreu, Teresa; Morante, Juan Ramón

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Improved reactions at the positive electrode in all-vanadium redox flow batteries. ► Graphene-derived and PAN-modified electrodes have been successfully prepared. ► Modification with bimetallic CuPt 3 nanocubes yielded the best catalytic behavior. ► N and O-containing groups enhances the vanadium flow battery performance. - Abstract: Two strategies for improving the electroactivity towards VO 2+ /VO 2 + redox pair, the limiting process in all-vanadium redox flow batteries (VFBs), were presented. CuPt 3 nanoparticles supported onto graphene substrate and nitrogen and oxygen polyacrylonitrile (PAN)-functionalized electrodes materials have been evaluated. The morphology, composition, electrochemical properties of all electrodes prepared was characterized with field emission-scanning electrode microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and cell charge–discharge test. The presence of the CuPt 3 nanocubes and nitrogen and oxygen functionalities enhance the electrocatalytic activity of the electrodes materials accelerating the oxygen and electron transfer processes. The battery performance was also evaluated using PAN-functionalized electrodes exhibiting a high of energy efficiency of 84% (at current density 20 mA cm −2 ) up to 30th cycle, indicating a promising alternative for improving the VFB

  9. Electron tunneling in nanoscale electrodes for battery applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Hidenori; Narayanan, Rajaram; Bandaru, Prabhakar R.

    2018-03-01

    It is shown that the electrical current that may be obtained from a nanoscale electrochemical system is sensitive to the dimensionality of the electrode and the density of states (DOS). Considering the DOS of lower dimensional systems, such as two-dimensional graphene, one-dimensional nanotubes, or zero-dimensional quantum dots, yields a distinct variation of the current-voltage characteristics. Such aspects go beyond conventional Arrhenius theory based kinetics which are often used in experimental interpretation. The obtained insights may be adapted to other devices, such as solid-state batteries. It is also indicated that electron transport in such devices may be considered through electron tunneling.

  10. Electrochemical behavior of LiCoO2 as aqueous lithium-ion battery electrodes

    KAUST Repository

    Ruffo, Riccardo; Wessells, Colin; Huggins, Robert A.; Cui, Yi

    2009-01-01

    .e., as the counter electrode. A commercial reference electrode is also present. Both the working and the counter electrodes have been prepared as thin layers on a metallic substrate using the procedures typical for the study of electrodes for lithium-ion batteries

  11. Competing forces in liquid metal electrodes and batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashour, Rakan F.; Kelley, Douglas H.; Salas, Alejandro; Starace, Marco; Weber, Norbert; Weier, Tom

    2018-02-01

    Liquid metal batteries are proposed for low-cost grid scale energy storage. During their operation, solid intermetallic phases often form in the cathode and are known to limit the capacity of the cell. Fluid flow in the liquid electrodes can enhance mass transfer and reduce the formation of localized intermetallics, and fluid flow can be promoted by careful choice of the locations and topology of a battery's electrical connections. In this context we study four phenomena that drive flow: Rayleigh-Bénard convection, internally heated convection, electro-vortex flow, and swirl flow, in both experiment and simulation. In experiments, we use ultrasound Doppler velocimetry (UDV) to measure the flow in a eutectic PbBi electrode at 160 °C and subject to all four phenomena. In numerical simulations, we isolate the phenomena and simulate each separately using OpenFOAM. Comparing simulated velocities to experiments via a UDV beam model, we find that all four phenomena can enhance mass transfer in LMBs. We explain the flow direction, describe how the phenomena interact, and propose dimensionless numbers for estimating their mutual relevance. A brief discussion of electrical connections summarizes the engineering implications of our work.

  12. Surface studies of Li-ion and Mg battery electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esbenshade, Jennifer

    This dissertation focuses on studies of the surfaces of both Li-ion and Mg-ion battery electrodes. A fundamental understanding of processes occurring at the electrode surface is vital to the development of advanced battery systems. Additionally, modifications to the electrode surfaces are made and further characterized for improved performance. LiMn2O4 Cathodes for Li-ion Batteries: Effect of Mn in electrolyte on anode and Au coating to minimize dissolution: LiMn2O4 (LMO) is known to dissolve Mn ions with cycling. This section focuses on both the effect of the dissolution of Mn2+ into the electrolyte as well as Au coating on the LMO to improve electrochemical performance. Electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance (EQCM) was used to monitor changes in mass on the anode, SEM and AES were used to observe changes in surface morphology and chemical composition, and potentiostatic voltammetry was used to monitor charge and discharge capacity. The effect of Cu2+ addition in place of Mn2+ was also studied, as Cu is known to form an underpotential deposition (UPD) monolayer on Au electrodes. Following this, LMO particles were coated with a Au shell by a simple and scalable electroless deposition for use as Li-ion battery cathodes. The Au shell was intended to limit the capacity fade commonly seen with LMO cathodes by reducing the dissolution of Mn. Characterization by SEM, TEM, EELS, and AFM showed that the Au shell was approximately 3 nm thick. The Au shell prevented much of the Mn from dissolving in the electrolyte with 82% and 88% less dissolved Mn in the electrolyte at room temperature and 65 ºC, respectively, as compared to the uncoated LMO. Electrochemical performance studies with half cells showed that the Au shell maintained a higher discharge capacity over 400 cycles by nearly 30% with 110 mA hr g-1 for the 400th cycle as compared to a commercial LMO at 85 mA hr g-1. Similarly, the capacity fade was reduced in full cells: the coated LMO had 47% greater capacity

  13. Development of powder diffraction anomalous fine structure method and applications to electrode materials for rechargeable batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawaguchi, Tomoya; Fukuda, Katsutoshi; Oishi, Masatsugu; Ichitsubo, Tetsu; Matsubara, Eiichiro; Mizuki, Jun'ichiro

    2015-01-01

    A powder diffraction anomalous fine structure (P-DAFS) method is developed both in analytical and experimental techniques and applied to cathode materials for lithium ion batteries. The DAFS method, which is an absorption spectroscopic technique through a scattering measurement, enables us to analyze the chemical states and the local structures of a certain element at different sites, thanks to the nature of x-ray diffraction, where the contributions from each site are different at each diffraction. Electrode materials for rechargeable batteries frequently exhibit the interchange between Li and a transition metal, which is known as the cation mixing phenomena. This cation mixing significantly affects the whole electrode properties; therefore, the site-distinguished understanding of the roles of the transition metal is essential for further material design by controlling and positively utilizing this cation mixing phenomenon. However, the developments of the P-DAFS method are required for the applications to the practical materials such as the electrode materials. In the present study, a direct analysis technique to extract the absorption spectrum from the scattering without using the conventional iterative calculations, fast and accurate measurement techniques of the P-DAFS method, and applications to a typical electrode material of Li 1-x Ni 1+x O 2 , which exhibits the significant cation mixing, are described. (author)

  14. Electrochemically oxidized electronic and ionic conducting nanostructured block copolymers for lithium battery electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Shrayesh N; Javier, Anna E; Balsara, Nitash P

    2013-07-23

    Block copolymers that can simultaneously conduct electronic and ionic charges on the nanometer length scale can serve as innovative conductive binder material for solid-state battery electrodes. The purpose of this work is to study the electronic charge transport of poly(3-hexylthiophene)-b-poly(ethylene oxide) (P3HT-PEO) copolymers electrochemically oxidized with lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl) imide (LiTFSI) salt in the context of a lithium battery charge/discharge cycle. We use a solid-state three-terminal electrochemical cell that enables simultaneous conductivity measurements and control over electrochemical doping of P3HT. At low oxidation levels (ratio of moles of electrons removed to moles of 3-hexylthiophene moieties in the electrode), the electronic conductivity (σe,ox) increases from 10(-7) S/cm to 10(-4) S/cm. At high oxidation levels, σe,ox approaches 10(-2) S/cm. When P3HT-PEO is used as a conductive binder in a positive electrode with LiFePO4 active material, P3HT is electrochemically active within the voltage window of a charge/discharge cycle. The electronic conductivity of the P3HT-PEO binder is in the 10(-4) to 10(-2) S/cm range over most of the potential window of the charge/discharge cycle. This allows for efficient electronic conduction, and observed charge/discharge capacities approach the theoretical limit of LiFePO4. However, at the end of the discharge cycle, the electronic conductivity decreases sharply to 10(-7) S/cm, which means the "conductive" binder is now electronically insulating. The ability of our conductive binder to switch between electronically conducting and insulating states in the positive electrode provides an unprecedented route for automatic overdischarge protection in rechargeable batteries.

  15. New process to discharge negative cadmium electrodes for Ni/Cd batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stiker, B.; Vignaud, R.

    1984-01-01

    The new process relates to the chemical oxidation (whether partial or total) of cadmium metal negative electrodes, as used in alkaline nickel-cadmium or silver-cadmium batteries. This process concerns all cadmium electrodes but more particularly the electrodeposited cadmium electrode developed by the company LES PILES WONDER and described in this publication

  16. Anionic Redox Chemistry in Polysulfide Electrode Materials for Rechargeable Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grayfer, Ekaterina D; Pazhetnov, Egor M; Kozlova, Mariia N; Artemkina, Sofya B; Fedorov, Vladimir E

    2017-12-22

    Classical Li-ion battery technology is based on the insertion of lithium ions into cathode materials involving metal (cationic) redox reactions. However, this vision is now being reconsidered, as many new-generation electrode materials with enhanced reversible capacities operate through combined cationic and anionic (non-metal) reversible redox processes or even exclusively through anionic redox transformations. Anionic participation in the redox reactions is observed in materials with more pronounced covalency, which is less typical for oxides, but quite common for phosphides or chalcogenides. In this Concept, we would like to draw the reader's attention to this new idea, especially, as it applies to transition-metal polychalcogenides, such as FeS 2 , VS 4 , TiS 3 , NbS 3 , TiS 4 , MoS 3 , etc., in which the key role is played by the (S-S) 2- /2 S 2- redox reaction. The exploration and better understanding of the anion-driven chemistry is important for designing advanced materials for battery and other energy-related applications. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. The effects of electrode thickness on the electrochemical and thermal characteristics of lithium ion battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Rui; Liu, Jie; Gu, Junjie

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A coupling model is developed to study the behaviors of Li-ion batteries. • Thick electrode battery (CEB) has high temperature response during discharge. • Thin electrode battery has a relative lower capacity fading rate. • Less heat is generated in thin electrode battery with even heat distribution. • CEBs underutilize active materials and stop discharge early at high rates. - Abstract: Lithium ion (Li-ion) battery, consisting of multiple electrochemical cells, is a complex system whose high electrochemical and thermal stability is often critical to the well-being and functional capabilities of electric devices. Considering any change in the specifications may significantly affect the overall performance and life of a battery, an investigation on the impacts of electrode thickness on the electrochemical and thermal properties of lithium-ion battery cells based on experiments and a coupling model composed of a 1D electrochemical model and a 3D thermal model is conducted in this work. In-depth analyses on the basis of the experimental and simulated results are carried out for one cell of different depths of discharge as well as for a set of cells with different electrode thicknesses. Pertinent results have demonstrated that the electrode thickness can significantly influence the battery from many key aspects such as energy density, temperature response, capacity fading rate, overall heat generation, distribution and proportion of heat sources

  18. Nickel-hydrogen battery and hydrogen storage alloy electrode; Nikkeru suiso denchi oyobi suiso kyuzo gokin denkyoku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ono, T. [Furukawa Electric Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Furukawa, J. [The Furukawa Battery Co. Ltd., Yokohama (Japan)

    1996-03-22

    Hermetically sealed nickel-hydrogen battery has such problem that the inner pressure of the battery elevates when it is overcharged since the oxygen gas evolves from the positive electrode. This invention relates to the hermetically sealed nickel-hydrogen battery consisting of positive electrode composed mainly of nickel hydroxide and negative electrode composed mainly of hydrogen storage alloy. According to the invention, the negative electrode contains organic sulfur compound having carbon-sulfur bond. As a result, the elevation of battery inner pressure due to the hydrogen gas evolution, the decrease in discharge capacity due to the repetition of charge and discharge, and the lowering of voltage after charging can be suppressed. The adequate content of the organic sulfur compound is 0.05 - 1 part in weight to 100 part in weight of hydrogen storage alloy. As for the organic sulfur compound, n-butylthiol, ethylthioethane, phenyldithiobenzene, trimethylsulfonium bromide, thiobenzophenone, 2,4-dinitrobenzenesulfenyl chloride, and ethylene sulphidic acid are employed. 2 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Prismatic sealed nickel-cadmium batteries utilizing fiber structured electrodes. II - Applications as a maintenance free aircraft battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderman, Menahem; Benczur-Urmossy, Gabor; Haschka, Friedrich

    Test data on prismatic sealed Ni-Cd batteries utilizing fiber structured electrodes (sealed FNC) is discussed. It is shown that, under a voltage limited charging scheme, the charge acceptance of the sealed FNC battery is far superior to that of the standard vented aircraft Ni-Cd batteries. This results in the sealed FNC battery maintaining its capacity over several thousand cycles without any need for electrical conditioning or water topping. APU start data demonstrate superior power capabilities over existing technologies. Performance at low temperature is presented. Abuse test results reveal a safe fail mechanism even under severe electrical abuse.

  20. Fabrication of a three-electrode battery using hydrogen-storage materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Chi-Woo; Seo, Jung-Yong; Moon, Hyung-Seok; Park, Hyun-Young; Nam, Na-Yun; Cho, Sung Min; Yoo, Pil J.; Chung, Chan-Hwa

    2015-04-01

    In this study, an energy storage device using a three-electrode battery is fabricated. The charging process takes place during electrolysis of the alkaline electrolyte where hydrogen is stored at the palladium bifunctional electrode. Upon discharging, power is generated by operating the alkaline fuel cell using hydrogen which is accumulated in the palladium hydride bifunctional electrode during the charging process. The bifunctional palladium electrode is prepared by electrodeposition using a hydrogen bubble template followed by a galvanic displacement reaction of platinum in order to functionalize the electrode to work not only as a hydrogen storage material but also as an anode in a fuel cell. This bifunctional electrode has a sufficiently high surface area and the platinum catalyst populates at the surface of electrode to operate the fuel cell. The charging and discharging performance of the three-electrode battery are characterized. In addition, the cycle stability is investigated.

  1. Mechanics of high-capacity electrodes in lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Ting

    2016-01-01

    Rechargeable batteries, such as lithium-ion batteries, play an important role in the emerging sustainable energy landscape. Mechanical degradation and resulting capacity fade in high-capacity electrode materials critically hinder their use in high-performance lithium-ion batteries. This paper presents an overview of recent advances in understanding the electrochemically-induced mechanical behavior of the electrode materials in lithium-ion batteries. Particular emphasis is placed on stress generation and facture in high-capacity anode materials such as silicon. Finally, we identify several important unresolved issues for future research. (topical review)

  2. Surface and interface sciences of Li-ion batteries. -Research progress in electrode-electrolyte interface-

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minato, Taketoshi; Abe, Takeshi

    2017-12-01

    The application potential of Li-ion batteries is growing as demand increases in different fields at various stages in energy systems, in addition to their conventional role as power sources for portable devices. In particular, applications in electric vehicles and renewable energy storage are increasing for Li-ion batteries. For these applications, improvements in battery performance are necessary. The Li-ion battery produces and stores electric power from the electrochemical redox reactions between the electrode materials. The interface between the electrodes and electrolyte strongly affects the battery performance because the charge transfer causing the electrode redox reaction begins at this interface. Understanding of the surface structure, electronic structure, and chemical reactions at the electrode-electrolyte interface is necessary to improve battery performance. However, the interface is located between the electrode and electrolyte materials, hindering the experimental analysis of the interface; thus, the physical properties and chemical processes have remained poorly understood until recently. Investigations of the physical properties and chemical processes at the interface have been performed using advanced surface science techniques. In this review, current knowledge and future research prospects regarding the electrode-electrolyte interface are described for the further development of Li-ion batteries.

  3. Understanding Conversion-Type Electrodes for Lithium Rechargeable Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Seung-Ho; Feng, Xinran; Zhang, Na; Seok, Jeesoo; Abruña, Héctor D

    2018-02-20

    The need/desire to lower the consumption of fossil fuels and its environmental consequences has reached unprecedented levels in recent years. A global effort has been undertaken to develop advanced renewable energy generation and especially energy storage technologies, as they would enable a dramatic increase in the effective and efficient use of renewable (and often intermittent) energy sources. The development of electrical energy storage (EES) technologies with high energy and power densities, long life, low cost, and safe use represents a challenge from both the fundamental science and technological application points of view. While the advent and broad deployment of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) has dramatically changed the EES landscape, their performance metrics need to be greatly enhanced to keep pace with the ever-increasing demands imposed by modern consumer electronics and especially the emerging automotive markets. Current battery technologies are mostly based on the use of a transition metal oxide cathode (e.g., LiCoO 2 , LiFePO 4 , or LiNiMnCoO 2 ) and a graphite anode, both of which depend on intercalation/insertion of lithium ions for operation. While the cathode material currently limits the battery capacity and overall energy density, there is a great deal of interest in the development of high-capacity cathode materials as well as anode materials. Conversion reaction materials have been identified/proposed as potentially high-energy-density alternatives to intercalation-based materials. However, conversion reaction materials react during lithiation to form entirely new products, often with dramatically changed structure and chemistry, by reaction mechanisms that are still not completely understood. This makes it difficult to clearly distinguish the limitations imposed by the mechanism and practical losses from initial particle morphology, synthetic approaches, and electrode preparations. Transition metal compounds such as transition metal oxides

  4. LiNi 0.8 Co 0.2 O 2 -based high power lithium-ion battery positive electrodes analyzed by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy: 5. Following calendar-life test for 8 weeks at 60 °C, 60% state-of-charge (3.747 V)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haasch, Richard; Abraham, Daniel A.

    2016-12-01

    High-power lithium-ion batteries are rapidly replacing the nickel metal hydride batteries currently used for energy storage in hybrid electric vehicles. Widespread commercialization of these batteries for vehicular applications is, however, limited by calendar-life performance, thermal abuse characteristics, and cost. The Advanced Technology Development Program was established by the U.S. Department of Energy to address these limitations. An important objective of this program was the development and application of diagnostic tools that provide unique ways to investigate the phenomena that limit lithium-ion cell life, performance, and safety characteristics. This report introduces a set of six Surface Science Spectra xray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) comparison records of data collected from positive electrodes (cathode) harvested from cylindrically wound, 18650-type, 1 A h capacity cells. The cathodes included in this study are (1) fresh, (2) following three formation cycles, (3) following calendar-life test for 12 weeks at 40 C, 60% state-of-charge (SOC), (4) following calendar-life test for 8 weeks at 50 C, 60% SOC, (5) following calendar-life test for 8 weeks at 60 C, 60% SOC, and (6) following calendar-life test for 2 weeks at 70 C, 60% SOC.

  5. LiNi 0.8 Co 0.2 O 2 -based high power lithium-ion battery positive electrodes analyzed by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy: 3. Following calendar-life test for 12 weeks at 40 °C, 60% state-of-charge (3.747 V)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haasch, Richard T.; Abraham, Daniel A.

    2016-12-01

    High-power lithium-ion batteries are rapidly replacing the nickel metal hydride batteries currently used for energy storage in hybrid electric vehicles. Widespread commercialization of these batteries for vehicular applications is, however, limited by calendar-life performance, thermal abuse characteristics, and cost. The Advanced Technology Development Program was established by the U.S. Department of Energy to address these limitations. An important objective of this program was the development and application of diagnostic tools that provide unique ways to investigate the phenomena that limit lithium-ion cell life, performance, and safety characteristics. This report introduces a set of six Surface Science Spectra xray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) comparison records of data collected from positive electrodes (cathode) harvested from cylindrically wound, 18650-type, 1 A h capacity cells. The cathodes included in this study are (1) fresh, (2) following three formation cycles, (3) following calendar-life test for 12 weeks at 40 C, 60% state-of-charge (SOC), (4) following calendar-life test for 8 weeks at 50 C, 60% SOC, (5) following calendar-life test for 8 weeks at 60 C, 60% SOC, and (6) following calendar-life test for 2 weeks at 70 C, 60% SOC.

  6. LiNi 0.8 Co 0.2 O 2 -based high power lithium-ion battery positive electrodes analyzed by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy: 4. Following calendar-life test for 8 weeks at 50 °C, 60% state-of-charge (3.747 V)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haasch, Richard T.; Abraham, Daniel A.

    2016-12-01

    High-power lithium-ion batteries are rapidly replacing the nickel metal hydride batteries currently used for energy storage in hybrid electric vehicles. Widespread commercialization of these batteries for vehicular applications is, however, limited by calendar-life performance, thermal abuse characteristics, and cost. The Advanced Technology Development Program was established by the U.S. Department of Energy to address these limitations. An important objective of this program was the development and application of diagnostic tools that provide unique ways to investigate the phenomena that limit lithium-ion cell life, performance, and safety characteristics. This report introduces a set of six Surface Science Spectra xray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) comparison records of data collected from positive electrodes (cathode) harvested from cylindrically wound, 18650-type, 1 A h capacity cells. The cathodes included in this study are (1) fresh, (2) following three formation cycles, (3) following calendar-life test for 12 weeks at 40 C, 60% state-of-charge (SOC), (4) following calendar-life test for 8 weeks at 50 C, 60% SOC, (5) following calendar-life test for 8 weeks at 60 C, 60% SOC, and (6) following calendar-life test for 2 weeks at 70 C, 60% SOC.

  7. LiNi 0.8 Co 0.2 O 2 -based high power lithium-ion battery positive electrodes analyzed by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy: 6. Following calendar-life test for 2 weeks at 70 °C, 60% state-of-charge (3.747 V)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haasch, Richard T.; Abraham, Daniel A.

    2016-12-01

    High-power lithium-ion batteries are rapidly replacing the nickel metal hydride batteries currently used for energy storage in hybrid electric vehicles. Widespread commercialization of these batteries for vehicular applications is, however, limited by calendar-life performance, thermal abuse characteristics, and cost. The Advanced Technology Development Program was established by the U.S. Department of Energy to address these limitations. An important objective of this program was the development and application of diagnostic tools that provide unique ways to investigate the phenomena that limit lithium-ion cell life, performance, and safety characteristics. This report introduces a set of six Surface Science Spectra xray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) comparison records of data collected from positive electrodes (cathode) harvested from cylindrically wound, 18650-type, 1 A h capacity cells. The cathodes included in this study are (1) fresh, (2) following three formation cycles, (3) following calendar-life test for 12 weeks at 40 C, 60% state-of-charge (SOC), (4) following calendar-life test for 8 weeks at 50 C, 60% SOC, (5) following calendar-life test for 8 weeks at 60 C, 60% SOC, and (6) following calendar-life test for 2 weeks at 70 C, 60% SOC.

  8. Nickel Hexacyanoferrate Nanoparticle Electrodes For Aqueous Sodium and Potassium Ion Batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Wessells, Colin D.; Peddada, Sandeep V.; Huggins, Robert A.; Cui, Yi

    2011-01-01

    needed for grid-scale storage pose substantial challenges for conventional battery technology.(1, 2)Here, we demonstrate insertion/extraction of sodium and potassium ions in a low-strain nickel hexacyanoferrate electrode material for at least five

  9. A revolution in electrodes: recent progress in rechargeable lithium-sulfur batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xin; Peng, Huisheng

    2015-04-01

    As a promising candidate for future batteries, the lithium-sulfur battery is gaining increasing interest due to its high capacity and energy density. However, over the years, lithium-sulfur batteries have been plagued by fading capacities and the low Coulombic efficiency derived from its unique electrochemical behavior, which involves solid-liquid transition reactions. Moreover, lithium-sulfur batteries employ metallic lithium as the anode, which engenders safety vulnerability of the battery. The electrodes play a pivotal role in the performance of lithium-sulfur batteries. A leap forward in progress of lithium-sulfur batteries is always accompanied by a revolution in the electrode technology. In this review, recent progress in rechargeable lithium-sulfur batteries is summarized in accordance with the evolution of the electrodes, including the diversified cathode design and burgeoning metallic-lithium-free anodes. Although the way toward application has still many challenges associated, recent progress in lithium-sulfur battery technology still paints an encouraging picture of a revolution in rechargeable batteries. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Particulate inverse opal carbon electrodes for lithium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Da-Young; Kim, Sang-Ok; Chae, Yu Jin; Lee, Joong Kee; Moon, Jun Hyuk

    2013-01-29

    Inverse opal carbon materials were used as anodes for lithium ion batteries. We applied particulate inverse opal structures and their dispersion in the formation of anode electrodes via solution casting. We prepared aminophenyl-grafted inverse opal carbons (a-IOC), inverse opal carbons with mesopores (mIOC), and bare inverse opal carbons (IOC) and investigated the electrochemical behavior of these samples as anode materials. Surface modification by aminophenyl groups was confirmed by XPS measurements. TEM images showed mesopores, and the specific area of mIOC was compared with that of IOC using BET analysis. A half-cell test was performed to compare a-IOC with IOC and mIOC with IOC. In the case of the a-IOC structure, the cell test revealed no improvement in the reversible specific capacity or the cycle performance. The mIOC cell showed a reversible specific capacity of 432 mAh/g, and the capacity was maintained at 88%-approximately 380 mAh/g-over 20 cycles.

  11. Communications: Elementary oxygen electrode reactions in the aprotic Li-air battery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hummelshøj, Jens Strabo; Blomquist, Jakob; Datta, Soumendu

    2010-01-01

    We discuss the electrochemical reactions at the oxygen electrode of an aprotic Li-air battery. Using density functional theory to estimate the free energy of intermediates during the discharge and charge of the battery, we introduce a reaction free energy diagram and identify possible origins...

  12. Hierarchically structured nanocarbon electrodes for flexible solid lithium batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Wei, Di; Hiralal, Pritesh; Wang, Haolan; Emrah Unalan, Husnu; Rouvala, Markku; Alexandrou, Ioannis; Andrew, Piers; Ryhä nen, Tapani; Amaratunga, Gehan A.J.

    2013-01-01

    The ever increasing demand for storage of electrical energy in portable electronic devices and electric vehicles is driving technological improvements in rechargeable batteries. Lithium (Li) batteries have many advantages over other rechargeable

  13. Si composite electrode with Li metal doping for advanced lithium-ion battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gao; Xun, Shidi; Battaglia, Vincent

    2015-12-15

    A silicon electrode is described, formed by combining silicon powder, a conductive binder, and SLMP.TM. powder from FMC Corporation to make a hybrid electrode system, useful in lithium-ion batteries. In one embodiment the binder is a conductive polymer such as described in PCT Published Application WO 2010/135248 A1.

  14. Gradient porous electrode architectures for rechargeable metal-air batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudney, Nancy J.; Klett, James W.; Nanda, Jagjit; Narula, Chaitanya Kumar; Pannala, Sreekanth

    2016-03-22

    A cathode for a metal air battery includes a cathode structure having pores. The cathode structure has a metal side and an air side. The porosity decreases from the air side to the metal side. A metal air battery and a method of making a cathode for a metal air battery are also disclosed.

  15. Quantitative probe of the transition metal redox in battery electrodes through soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Qinghao; Chen, Jun; Chen, Yanxue; Yan, Shishen; Qiao, Ruimin; Zhuo, Zengqing; Hussain, Zahid; Yang, Wanli; Wray, L Andrew; Pan, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Most battery positive electrodes operate with a 3 d transition-metal (TM) reaction centre. A direct and quantitative probe of the TM states upon electrochemical cycling is valuable for understanding the detailed cycling mechanism and charge diffusion in the electrodes, which is related with many practical parameters of a battery. This review includes a comprehensive summary of our recent demonstrations of five different types of quantitative analysis of the TM states in battery electrodes based on soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy and multiplet calculations. In LiFePO 4 , a system of a well-known two-phase transformation type, the TM redox could be strictly determined through a simple linear combination of the two end-members. In Mn-based compounds, the Mn states could also be quantitatively evaluated, but a set of reference spectra with all the three possible Mn valences needs to be deliberately selected and considered in the fitting. Although the fluorescence signals suffer the self-absorption distortion, the multiplet calculations could consider the distortion effect, which allows a quantitative determination of the overall Ni oxidation state in the bulk. With the aid of multiplet calculations, one could also achieve a quasi-quantitative analysis of the Co redox evolution in LiCoO 2 based on the energy position of the spectroscopic peak. The benefit of multiplet calculations is more important for studying electrode materials with TMs of mixed spin states, as exemplified by the quantitative analysis of the mixed spin Na 2−x Fe 2 (CN) 6 system. At the end, we showcase that such quantitative analysis could provide valuable information for optimizing the electrochemical performance of Na 0.44 MnO 2 electrodes for Na-ion batteries. The methodology summarized in this review could be extended to other energy application systems with TM redox centre for detailed analysis, for example, fuel cell and catalytic materials. (topical review)

  16. Quantitative probe of the transition metal redox in battery electrodes through soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qinghao; Qiao, Ruimin; Wray, L. Andrew; Chen, Jun; Zhuo, Zengqing; Chen, Yanxue; Yan, Shishen; Pan, Feng; Hussain, Zahid; Yang, Wanli

    2016-10-01

    Most battery positive electrodes operate with a 3d transition-metal (TM) reaction centre. A direct and quantitative probe of the TM states upon electrochemical cycling is valuable for understanding the detailed cycling mechanism and charge diffusion in the electrodes, which is related with many practical parameters of a battery. This review includes a comprehensive summary of our recent demonstrations of five different types of quantitative analysis of the TM states in battery electrodes based on soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy and multiplet calculations. In LiFePO4, a system of a well-known two-phase transformation type, the TM redox could be strictly determined through a simple linear combination of the two end-members. In Mn-based compounds, the Mn states could also be quantitatively evaluated, but a set of reference spectra with all the three possible Mn valences needs to be deliberately selected and considered in the fitting. Although the fluorescence signals suffer the self-absorption distortion, the multiplet calculations could consider the distortion effect, which allows a quantitative determination of the overall Ni oxidation state in the bulk. With the aid of multiplet calculations, one could also achieve a quasi-quantitative analysis of the Co redox evolution in LiCoO2 based on the energy position of the spectroscopic peak. The benefit of multiplet calculations is more important for studying electrode materials with TMs of mixed spin states, as exemplified by the quantitative analysis of the mixed spin Na2-x Fe2(CN)6 system. At the end, we showcase that such quantitative analysis could provide valuable information for optimizing the electrochemical performance of Na0.44MnO2 electrodes for Na-ion batteries. The methodology summarized in this review could be extended to other energy application systems with TM redox centre for detailed analysis, for example, fuel cell and catalytic materials.

  17. Researches on Position Detection for Vacuum Switch Electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Huajun; Guo, Yingjie; Li, Jie; Kong, Yihan

    2018-03-01

    Form and transformation character of vacuum arc is important influencing factor on the vacuum switch performance, and the dynamic separations of electrode is the chief effecting factor on the transformation of vacuum arcs forms. Consequently, how to detect the position of electrode to calculate the separations in the arcs image is of great significance. However, gray level distribution of vacuum arcs image isn’t even, the gray level of burning arcs is high, but the gray level of electrode is low, meanwhile, the forms of vacuum arcs changes sharply, the problems above restrict electrode position detection precisely. In this paper, algorithm of detecting electrode position base on vacuum arcs image was proposed. The digital image processing technology was used in vacuum switch arcs image analysis, the upper edge and lower edge were detected respectively, then linear fitting was done using the result of edge detection, the fitting result was the position of electrode, thus, accurate position detection of electrode was realized. From the experimental results, we can see that: algorithm described in this paper detected upper and lower edge of arcs successfully and the position of electrode was obtained through calculation.

  18. Methods for calculating the electrode position Jacobian for impedance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, A; Crabb, M G; Jehl, M; Lionheart, W R B; Adler, A

    2017-03-01

    Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) or electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) current and measure voltages at the boundary of a domain through electrodes. The movement or incorrect placement of electrodes may lead to modelling errors that result in significant reconstructed image artifacts. These errors may be accounted for by allowing for electrode position estimates in the model. Movement may be reconstructed through a first-order approximation, the electrode position Jacobian. A reconstruction that incorporates electrode position estimates and conductivity can significantly reduce image artifacts. Conversely, if electrode position is ignored it can be difficult to distinguish true conductivity changes from reconstruction artifacts which may increase the risk of a flawed interpretation. In this work, we aim to determine the fastest, most accurate approach for estimating the electrode position Jacobian. Four methods of calculating the electrode position Jacobian were evaluated on a homogeneous halfspace. Results show that Fréchet derivative and rank-one update methods are competitive in computational efficiency but achieve different solutions for certain values of contact impedance and mesh density.

  19. Recovery Of Electrodic Powder From Spent Nickel-Metal Hydride Batteries (NiMH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin S.M.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was focused on recycling process newly proposed to recover electrodic powder enriched in nickel (Ni and rare earth elements (La and Ce from spent nickel-metal hydride batteries (NiMH. In addition, this new process was designed to prevent explosion of batteries during thermal treatment under inert atmosphere. Spent nickel metal hydride batteries were heated over range of 300°C to 600°C for 2 hours and each component was completely separated inside reactor after experiment. Electrodic powder was successfully recovered from bulk components containing several pieces of metals through sieving operation. The electrodic powder obtained was examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX and image of the powder was taken by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. It was finally found that nickel and rare earth elements were mainly recovered to about 45 wt.% and 12 wt.% in electrodic powder, respectively.

  20. The influence of cochlear implant electrode position on performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marel, K.S. van der; Briaire, J.J.; Verbist, B.M.; Muurling, T.J.; Frijns, J.H.M.

    2015-01-01

    To study the relation between variables related to cochlear implant electrode position and speech perception performance scores in a large patient population.The study sample consisted of 203 patients implanted with a CII or HiRes90K implant with a HiFocus 1 or 1J electrode of Advanced Bionics.

  1. Advanced Architectures and Relatives of Air Electrodes in Zn–Air Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Jing; Xu, Yang Yang; Yang, Huan; Dong, Zehua; Liu, Hongfang

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Zn–air batteries are becoming the promising power sources for portable and wearable electronic devices and hybrid/electric vehicles because of their high specific energy density and the low cost for next‐generation green and sustainable energy technologies. An air electrode integrated with an oxygen electrocatalyst is the most important component and inevitably determines the performance and cost of a Zn–air battery. This article presents exciting advances and challenges related to air electrodes and their relatives. After a brief introduction of the Zn–air battery, the architectures and oxygen electrocatalysts of air electrodes and relevant electrolytes are highlighted in primary and rechargeable types with different configurations, respectively. Moreover, the individual components and major issues of flexible Zn–air batteries are also highlighted, along with the strategies to enhance the battery performance. Finally, a perspective for design, preparation, and assembly of air electrodes is proposed for the future innovations of Zn–air batteries with high performance. PMID:29721418

  2. Recent Progress in Organic Electrodes for Li and Na Rechargeable Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sechan; Kwon, Giyun; Ku, Kyojin; Yoon, Kyungho; Jung, Sung-Kyun; Lim, Hee-Dae; Kang, Kisuk

    2018-03-27

    Organic rechargeable batteries, which use organics as electrodes, are excellent candidates for next-generation energy storage systems because they offer design flexibility due to the rich chemistry of organics while being eco-friendly and potentially cost efficient. However, their widespread usage is limited by intrinsic problems such as poor electronic conductivity, easy dissolution into liquid electrolytes, and low volumetric energy density. New types of organic electrode materials with various redox centers or molecular structures have been developed over the past few decades. Moreover, research aimed at enhancing electrochemical properties via chemical tuning has been at the forefront of organic rechargeable batteries research in recent years, leading to significant progress in their performance. Here, an overview of the current developments of organic rechargeable batteries is presented, with a brief history of research in this field. Various strategies for improving organic electrode materials are discussed with respect to tuning intrinsic properties of organics using molecular modification and optimizing their properties at the electrode level. A comprehensive understanding of the progress in organic electrode materials is provided along with the fundamental science governing their performance in rechargeable batteries thus a guide is presented to the optimal design strategies to improve the electrochemical performance for next-generation battery systems. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. High surface area bio-waste based carbon as a superior electrode for vanadium redox flow battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maharjan, Makhan; Bhattarai, Arjun; Ulaganathan, Mani; Wai, Nyunt; Oo, Moe Ohnmar; Wang, Jing-Yuan; Lim, Tuti Mariana

    2017-09-01

    Activated carbon (AC) with high surface area (1901 m2 g-1) is synthesized from low cost bio-waste orange (Citrus sinensis) peel for vanadium redox flow battery (VRB). The composition, structure and electrochemical properties of orange peel derived AC (OP-AC) are characterized by elemental analyzer, field emission-scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry (CV), and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. CV results show that OP-AC coated bipolar plate demonstrates improved electro-catalytic activity in both positive and negative side redox couples than the pristine bipolar plate electrode and this is ascribed to the high surface area of OP-AC which provides effective electrode area and better contact between the porous electrode and bipolar plate. Consequently, the performance of VRB in a static cell shows higher energy efficiency for OP-AC electrode than the pristine electrode at all current densities tested. The results suggest the OP-AC to be a promising electrode for VRB applications and can be incorporated into making conducting plastics electrode to lower the VRB cell stack weight and cost.

  4. Spatial atomic layer deposition for coating flexible porous Li-ion battery electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yersak, Alexander S.; Sharma, Kashish; Wallas, Jasmine M.; Dameron, Arrelaine A.; Li, Xuemin; Yang, Yongan; Hurst, Katherine E.; Ban, Chunmei; Tenent, Robert C.; George, Steven M. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309 and Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309

    2018-01-01

    Ultrathin atomic layer deposition (ALD) coatings on the electrodes of Li-ion batteries can enhance the capacity stability of the Li-ion batteries. To commercialize ALD for Li-ion battery production, spatial ALD is needed to decrease coating times and provide a coating process compatible with continuous roll-to-roll (R2R) processing. The porous electrodes of Li-ion batteries provide a special challenge because higher reactant exposures are needed for spatial ALD in porous substrates. This work utilized a modular rotating cylinder spatial ALD reactor operating at rotation speeds up to 200 revolutions/min (RPM) and substrate speeds up to 200 m/min. The conditions for spatial ALD were adjusted to coat flexible porous substrates. The reactor was initially used to characterize spatial Al2O3 and ZnO ALD on flat, flexible metalized polyethylene terephthalate foils. These studies showed that slower rotation speeds and spacers between the precursor module and the two adjacent pumping modules could significantly increase the reactant exposure. The modular rotating cylinder reactor was then used to coat flexible, model porous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes. The uniformity of the ZnO ALD coatings on the porous AAO membranes was dependent on the aspect ratio of the pores and the reactant exposures. Larger reactant exposures led to better uniformity in the pores with higher aspect ratios. The reactant exposures were increased by adding spacers between the precursor module and the two adjacent pumping modules. The modular rotating cylinder reactor was also employed for Al2O3 ALD on porous LiCoO2 (LCO) battery electrodes. Uniform Al coverages were obtained using spacers between the precursor module and the two adjacent pumping modules at rotation speeds of 25 and 50 RPM. The LCO electrodes had a thickness of ~49 um and pores with aspect ratios of ~12-25. Coin cells were then constructed using the ALD-coated LCO electrodes and were tested to determine their battery

  5. Beam based measurement of beam position monitor electrode gains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. L. Rubin

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Low emittance tuning at the Cornell Electron Storage Ring (CESR test accelerator depends on precision measurement of vertical dispersion and transverse coupling. The CESR beam position monitors (BPMs consist of four button electrodes, instrumented with electronics that allow acquisition of turn-by-turn data. The response to the beam will vary among the four electrodes due to differences in electronic gain and/or misalignment. This variation in the response of the BPM electrodes will couple real horizontal offset to apparent vertical position, and introduce spurious measurements of coupling and vertical dispersion. To alleviate this systematic effect, a beam based technique to measure the relative response of the four electrodes has been developed. With typical CESR parameters, simulations show that turn-by-turn BPM data can be used to determine electrode gains to within ∼0.1%.

  6. Beam based measurement of beam position monitor electrode gains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, D. L.; Billing, M.; Meller, R.; Palmer, M.; Rendina, M.; Rider, N.; Sagan, D.; Shanks, J.; Strohman, C.

    2010-09-01

    Low emittance tuning at the Cornell Electron Storage Ring (CESR) test accelerator depends on precision measurement of vertical dispersion and transverse coupling. The CESR beam position monitors (BPMs) consist of four button electrodes, instrumented with electronics that allow acquisition of turn-by-turn data. The response to the beam will vary among the four electrodes due to differences in electronic gain and/or misalignment. This variation in the response of the BPM electrodes will couple real horizontal offset to apparent vertical position, and introduce spurious measurements of coupling and vertical dispersion. To alleviate this systematic effect, a beam based technique to measure the relative response of the four electrodes has been developed. With typical CESR parameters, simulations show that turn-by-turn BPM data can be used to determine electrode gains to within ˜0.1%.

  7. A highly permeable and enhanced surface area carbon-cloth electrode for vanadium redox flow batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, X. L.; Zhao, T. S.; Zeng, Y. K.; An, L.; Wei, L.

    2016-10-01

    In this work, a high-performance porous electrode, made of KOH-activated carbon-cloth, is developed for vanadium redox flow batteries (VRFBs). The macro-scale porous structure in the carbon cloth formed by weaving the carbon fibers in an ordered manner offers a low tortuosity (∼1.1) and a broad pore distribution from 5 μm to 100 μm, rendering the electrode a high hydraulic permeability and high effective ionic conductivity, which are beneficial for the electrolyte flow and ion transport through the porous electrode. The use of KOH activation method to create nano-scale pores on the carbon-fiber surfaces leads to a significant increase in the surface area for redox reactions from 2.39 m2 g-1 to 15.4 m2 g-1. The battery assembled with the present electrode delivers an energy efficiency of 80.1% and an electrolyte utilization of 74.6% at a current density of 400 mA cm-2, as opposed to an electrolyte utilization of 61.1% achieved by using a conventional carbon-paper electrode. Such a high performance is mainly attributed to the combination of the excellent mass/ion transport properties and the high surface area rendered by the present electrode. It is suggested that the KOH-activated carbon-cloth electrode is a promising candidate in redox flow batteries.

  8. Engineering and Optimization of Silicon-Iron-Manganese Nanoalloy Electrode for Enhanced Lithium-Ion Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaboina, Pankaj K.; Cho, Jong-Soo; Cho, Sung-Jin

    2017-10-01

    The electrochemical performance of a battery is considered to be primarily dependent on the electrode material. However, engineering and optimization of electrodes also play a crucial role, and the same electrode material can be designed to offer significantly improved batteries. In this work, Si-Fe-Mn nanomaterial alloy (Si/alloy) and graphite composite electrodes were densified at different calendering conditions of 3, 5, and 8 tons, and its influence on electrode porosity, electrolyte wettability, and long-term cycling was investigated. The active material loading was maintained very high ( 2 mg cm-2) to implement electrode engineering close to commercial loading scales. The densification was optimized to balance between the electrode thickness and wettability to enable the best electrochemical properties of the Si/alloy anodes. In this case, engineering and optimizing the Si/alloy composite electrodes to 3 ton calendering (electrode densification from 0.39 to 0.48 g cm-3) showed enhanced cycling stability with a high capacity retention of 100% over 100 cycles. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  9. Graphite-graphite oxide composite electrode for vanadium redox flow battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Wenyue; Liu Jianguo; Yan Chuanwei

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → A new composite electrode is designed for vanadium redox flow battery (VRB). → The graphite oxide (GO) is used as electrode reactions catalyst. → The excellent electrode activity is attributed to the oxygen-containing groups attached on the GO surface. → A catalytic mechanism of the GO towards the redox reactions is presumed. - Abstract: A graphite/graphite oxide (GO) composite electrode for vanadium redox battery (VRB) was prepared successfully in this paper. The materials were characterized with X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The specific surface area was measured by the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller method. The redox reactions of [VO 2 ] + /[VO] 2+ and V 3+ /V 2+ were studied with cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The results indicated that the electrochemical performances of the electrode were improved greatly when 3 wt% GO was added into graphite electrode. The redox peak currents of [VO 2 ] + /[VO] 2+ and V 3+ /V 2+ couples on the composite electrode were increased nearly twice as large as that on the graphite electrode, and the charge transfer resistances of the redox pairs on the composite electrode are also reduced. The enhanced electrochemical activity could be ascribed to the presence of plentiful oxygen functional groups on the basal planes and sheet edges of the GO and large specific surface areas introduced by the GO.

  10. Energy Harvesting by Nickel Prussian Blue Analogue Electrode in Neutralization and Mixing Entropy Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Wellington J A S; de Oliveira, Cainã; Huguenin, Fritz

    2015-08-11

    Some industries usually reduce the concentration of protons in acidic wastewater by conducting neutralization reactions and/or adding seawater to industrial effluents. This work proposes a novel electrochemical system that can harvest energy originating from entropic changes due to alteration in the concentration of sodium ions along wastewater treatment. Preparation of a self-assembled material from nickel Prussian blue analogue (NPBA) was the first step to obtain such electrochemical system. Investigation into the electrochemical properties of this material helped to evaluate its potential use in neutralization and mixing entropy batteries. Assessment of parameters such as the potentiodynamic profile of the current density as a function of the concentration of protons and sodium ions, charge capacity, and cyclability as well as the reversibility of the sodium ion electroinsertion process aided estimation of the energy storage efficiency of the system. Frequency-domain measurements and models and the proposed charge compensation mechanism provided the rate constants at different dc potentials. After each charge/discharge cycle, the NPBA electrode harvested 12.4 kJ per mol of intercalated sodium ion in aqueous solutions of NaCl at concentrations of 20 mM and 3.0 M. The full electrochemical cell consisted of an NPBA positive electrode and a negative electrode of silver particles dispersed in a polypyrrole electrode. This cell extracted 16.8 kJ per mol of intercalated ion after each charge/discharge cycle. On the basis of these results, the developed electrochemical system should encourage wastewater treatment and help to achieve sustainable growth.

  11. The progress of the electrode materials development for lithium ion battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang Kai; Dai Shouhui; Wan Yuhua

    2001-01-01

    The structure and the charge-discharge principle of Li-ion battery are briefly discussed; the progress of electrode materials for Li-ion battery is reviewed in detail. Graphite has found wide applications in commercial Li-ion batteries, however, the hard carbon, especially the carbon with hydrogen is the most promising anode material for Li-ion battery owing to its high capacity, which has now become hot spot of investigation. Following the LiCoO 2 , LiMn 2 O 4 spinel compound becomes the most powerful contestant. On the basis of the authors' results, the synthesis methods of LiMn 2 O 4 and its characterizations are compared. Moreover, the structural properties of intercalation electrode materials that are related to the rechargeable capacity and stability during cycling of lithium ions are also discussed

  12. Crystallographic origin of cycle decay of the high-voltage LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 spinel lithium-ion battery electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Wei Kong; Lu, Cheng-Zhang; Liu, Chia-Erh; Peterson, Vanessa K; Lin, Hsiu-Fen; Liao, Shih-Chieh; Chen, Jin-Ming

    2016-06-29

    High-voltage spinel LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 (LNMO) is considered a potential high-power-density positive electrode for lithium-ion batteries, however, it suffers from capacity decay after extended charge-discharge cycling, severely hindering commercial application. Capacity fade is thought to occur through the significant volume change of the LNMO electrode occurring on cycling, and in this work we use operando neutron powder diffraction to compare the structural evolution of the LNMO electrode in an as-assembled 18650-type battery containing a Li4Ti5O12 negative electrode with that in an identical battery following 1000 cycles at high-current. We reveal that the capacity reduction in the battery post cycling is directly proportional to the reduction in the maximum change of the LNMO lattice parameter during its evolution. This is correlated to a corresponding reduction in the MnO6 octahedral distortion in the spinel structure in the cycled battery. Further, we find that the rate of lattice evolution, which reflects the rate of lithium insertion and removal, is ∼9 and ∼10% slower in the cycled than in the as-assembled battery during the Ni(2+)/Ni(3+) and Ni(3+)/Ni(4+) transitions, respectively.

  13. Oriented nanotube electrodes for lithium ion batteries and supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Arthur J.; Zhu, Kai; Wang, Qing

    2013-03-05

    An electrode having an oriented array of multiple nanotubes is disclosed. Individual nanotubes have a lengthwise inner pore defined by interior tube walls which extends at least partially through the length of the nanotube. The nanotubes of the array may be oriented according to any identifiable pattern. Also disclosed is a device featuring an electrode and methods of fabrication.

  14. Aquagel electrode separator for use in batteries and supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Steven T.; Kaschmitter, James L.; Pekala, Richard W.

    1995-01-01

    An electrode separator for electrochemical energy storage devices, such as a high energy density capacitor incorporating a variety of carbon foam electrodes. The separator is derived from an aquagel of resorcinol-formaldehyde and related polymers and containing ionically conducting electrolyte in the pores thereof.

  15. Theoretical Analysis of Potential and Current Distributions in Planar Electrodes of Lithium-ion Batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taheri, Peyman; Mansouri, Abraham; Yazdanpour, Maryam; Bahrami, Majid

    2014-01-01

    An analytical model is proposed to describe the two-dimensional distribution of potential and current in planar electrodes of pouch-type lithium-ion batteries. A concentration-independent polarization expression, obtained experimentally, is used to mimic the electrochemical performance of the battery. By numerically solving the charge balance equation on each electrode in conjugation with the polarization expression, the battery behavior during constant-current discharge processes is simulated. Our numerical simulations show that reaction current between the electrodes remains approximately uniform during most of the discharge process, in particular, when depth-of-discharge varies from 5% to 85%. This observation suggests to simplify the electrochemical behavior of the battery such that the charge balance equation on each electrode can be solved analytically to obtain closed-form solutions for potential and current density distributions. The analytical model shows fair agreement with numerical data at modest computational cost. The model is applicable for both charge and discharge processes, and its application is demonstrated for a prismatic 20 Ah nickel-manganese-cobalt lithium-ion battery during discharge processes

  16. The Using of Used Battery as Alternative Electrode for Emission Spectrograph

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arif Artadi; Sudaryo; Aryadi

    2007-01-01

    Analysis of boron (B) and cadmium (Cd) in U 3 O 8 has been carried out by using used battery electrode at emission spectrograph method. Analysis was done with the DC-Arc method, 10 Ampere current, 220 voltage, 25 second exposure time, and 2 mm electrode apart. The sample was extracted using TBP-Kerosine with the ratio of 70 : 30 volume of 200 ml. Water phase as the extraction result was dripped on electrode and excited. Intensity of the samples were compared to its standard, then it was obtained boron and cadmium concentration in sample were 0.07 ppm and 0.15 ppm respectively. The analysis result of boron and cadmium concentration in the sample using battery electrode were 0.21 ppm and 0.14 ppm respectively. (author)

  17. A high-performance carbon nanoparticle-decorated graphite felt electrode for vanadium redox flow batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, L.; Zhao, T.S.; Zhao, G.; An, L.; Zeng, L.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Propose a carbon nanoparticle-decorated graphite felt electrode for VRFBs. • The energy efficiency is up to 84.8% at 100 mA cm"−"2. • The new electrode allows the peak power density to reach 508 mW cm"−"2. - Abstract: Increasing the performance of vanadium redox flow batteries (VRFBs), especially the energy efficiency and power density, is critically important to reduce the system cost to a level for widespread commercialization. Unlike conventional VRFBs with flow-through structure, in this work we create a VRFB featuring a flow-field structure with a carbon nanoparticle-decorated graphite felt electrode for the battery. This novel structure, exhibiting a significantly reduced ohmic loss through reducing electrode thickness, an increased surface area and improved electrocatalytic activity by coating carbon nanoparticles, allows the energy efficiency up to 84.8% at a current density of as high as 100 mA cm"−"2 and the peak power density to reach a value of 508 mW cm"−"2. In addition, it is demonstrated that the battery with this proposed structure exhibits a substantially improved rate capability and capacity retention as opposed to conventional flow-through structured battery with thick graphite felt electrodes.

  18. Constitutive behavior and progressive mechanical failure of electrodes in lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chao; Xu, Jun; Cao, Lei; Wu, Zenan; Santhanagopalan, Shriram

    2017-07-01

    The electrodes of lithium-ion batteries (LIB) are known to be brittle and to fail earlier than the separators during an external crush event. Thus, the understanding of mechanical failure mechanism for LIB electrodes (anode and cathode) is critical for the safety design of LIB cells. In this paper, we present experimental and numerical studies on the constitutive behavior and progression of failure in LIB electrodes. Mechanical tests were designed and conducted to evaluate the constitutive properties of porous electrodes. Constitutive models were developed to describe the stress-strain response of electrodes under uniaxial tensile and compressive loads. The failure criterion and a damage model were introduced to model their unique tensile and compressive failure behavior. The failure mechanism of LIB electrodes was studied using the blunt rod test on dry electrodes, and numerical models were built to simulate progressive failure. The different failure processes were examined and analyzed in detail numerically, and correlated with experimentally observed failure phenomena. The test results and models improve our understanding of failure behavior in LIB electrodes, and provide constructive insights on future development of physics-based safety design tools for battery structures under mechanical abuse.

  19. Electrochemical impedance characterization of FeSn2 electrodes for Li-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chamas, M.; Lippens, P-E.; Jumas, J-C.; Hassoun, J.; Panero, S.; Scrosati, B.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → In this paper we study a tin based, FeSn 2 , high capacity lithium-alloying electrode. → The electrochemical performance of this electrode in lithium batteries is remarkably influenced by the current rate. → This aspect is investigated by electrochemical techniques such as galvanostatic cycling and impedance spectroscopy. → The results demonstrated that the good electrochemical behavior of the electrode at the higher currents is due to the formation of a stable solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) film. - Abstract: This work reports the electrochemical characterization of a micro-scale FeSn 2 electrode in a lithium battery. The electrode is proposed as anode material for advanced lithium ion batteries due to its characteristics of high capacity (500 mAh g -1 ) and low working voltage (0.6 V vs. Li). The electrochemical alloying process is studied by cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic cycling while the interfacial properties are investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The impedance measurements in combination with the galvanostatic cycling tests reveal relatively low overall impedance values and good electrochemical performance for the electrode, both in terms of delivered capacity and cycling stability, even at the higher C-rate regimes.

  20. Potassium-Based Dual Ion Battery with Dual-Graphite Electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Ling; Liu, Qian; Chen, Suhua; Lin, Kairui; Xu, Zhi; Lu, Bingan

    2017-08-01

    A potassium ion battery has potential applications for large scale electric energy storage systems due to the abundance and low cost of potassium resources. Dual graphite batteries, with graphite as both anode and cathode, eliminate the use of transition metal compounds and greatly lower the overall cost. Herein, combining the merits of the potassium ion battery and dual graphite battery, a potassium-based dual ion battery with dual-graphite electrode is developed. It delivers a reversible capacity of 62 mA h g -1 and medium discharge voltage of ≈3.96 V. The intercalation/deintercalation mechanism of K + and PF 6 - into/from graphite is proposed and discussed in detail, with various characterizations to support. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Electrical impedance tomography with compensation for electrode positioning variations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blott, B.H.; Daniell, G.J.; Meeson, S.

    1998-01-01

    Ideally electrical impedance tomography (EIT) should not be oversensitive to electrode positions, but this conflicts with efforts to produce high-resolution images. Two procedures are presented that balance reducing the sensitivity to electrode position errors with generating practicable EIT images. The first provides a criterion based on electrode sensitivity for regularizing the reconstruction through spectral expansion. The main consequences of this are that smoother images are produced and the number of artefacts and their magnitude are generally reduced. The second modification uses the recorded data to compensate for electrode movements that have occurred after the reference data were measured. Image smoothness is used as the criterion for the readjustment. Computer simulation tests have shown that this modification produces improved image fidelity. (author)

  2. Accessing the bottleneck in all-solid state batteries, lithium-ion transport over the solid-electrolyte-electrode interface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, C.; Ganapathy, S.; van Eck, Ernst R H; Wang, H.; Basak, S.; Li, Z.; Wagemaker, M.

    2017-01-01

    Solid-state batteries potentially offer increased lithium-ion battery energy density and safety as required for large-scale production of electrical vehicles. One of the key challenges toward high-performance solid-state batteries is the large impedance posed by the electrode-electrolyte

  3. Unique battery with a multi-functional, physicochemically active membrane separator/electrolyte-electrode monolith and a method making the same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerald II, Rex E.; Ruscic, Katarina J.; Sears, Devin N.; Smith, Luis J.; Klingler, Robert J.; Rathke, Jerome W.

    2012-07-24

    The invention relates to a unique battery having a physicochemically active membrane separator/electrolyte-electrode monolith and method of making the same. The Applicant's invented battery employs a physicochemically active membrane separator/electrolyte-electrode that acts as a separator, electrolyte, and electrode, within the same monolithic structure. The chemical composition, physical arrangement of molecules, and physical geometry of the pores play a role in the sequestration and conduction of ions. In one preferred embodiment, ions are transported via the ion-hoping mechanism where the oxygens of the Al2O3 wall are available for positive ion coordination (i.e. Li+). This active membrane-electrode composite can be adjusted to a desired level of ion conductivity by manipulating the chemical composition and structure of the pore wall to either increase or decrease ion conduction.

  4. Well-dispersed LiFePO4 nanoparticles anchored on a three-dimensional graphene aerogel as high-performance positive electrode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Xiaohui; Zhou, Yingke; Tu, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Zhongtang; Du, Guodong

    2017-02-01

    A three-dimensional graphene aerogel supporting LiFePO4 nanoparticles (LFP/GA) has been synthesized by a hydrothermal process. The morphology and microstructure of LFP/GA were investigated by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and thermal gravimetric analysis. The electrochemical properties were evaluated by constant-current charge/discharge tests, cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Well-distributed LFP nanoparticles are anchored on both sides of graphene and then assemble into a highly porous three-dimensional aerogel architecture. Conductive graphene networks provide abundant paths to facilitate the transfer of electrons, while the aerogel structures offer plenty of interconnected open pores for the storage of electrolyte to enable the fast supply of Li ions. The LFP and graphene aerogel composites present superior specific capacity, rate capability and cycling performance in comparison to the pristine LFP or LFP supported on graphene sheets and are thus promising for lithium-ion battery applications.

  5. Impedance Simulation of a Li-Ion Battery with Porous Electrodes and Spherical Li+ Intercalation Particles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, R.W.J.M.; Chung, F.; Kelder, E.M.

    2006-01-01

    We present a semimathematical model for the simulation of the impedance spectra of a rechargeable lithium batteries consisting of porous electrodes with spherical Li+ intercalation particles. The particles are considered to have two distinct homogeneous phases as a result of the intercalation and

  6. High surface area carbon for bifunctional air electrodes applied in zinc-air batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arai, H [on leave from NTT Laboratories (Japan); Mueller, S; Haas, O [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1999-08-01

    Bifunctional air electrodes with high surface area carbon substrates showed low reduction overpotential, thus are promising for enhancing the energy efficiency and power capability of zinc-air batteries. The improved performance is attributed to lower overpotential due to diffusion of the reaction intermediate, namely the peroxide ion. (author) 1 fig., 2 refs.

  7. Hydrogen substituted graphdiyne as carbon-rich flexible electrode for lithium and sodium ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jianjiang; Wang, Ning; Cui, Zili; Du, Huiping; Fu, Lin; Huang, Changshui; Yang, Ze; Shen, Xiangyan; Yi, Yuanping; Tu, Zeyi; Li, Yuliang

    2017-10-27

    Organic electrodes are potential alternatives to current inorganic electrode materials for lithium ion and sodium ion batteries powering portable and wearable electronics, in terms of their mechanical flexibility, function tunability and low cost. However, the low capacity, poor rate performance and rapid capacity degradation impede their practical application. Here, we concentrate on the molecular design for improved conductivity and capacity, and favorable bulk ion transport. Through an in situ cross-coupling reaction of triethynylbenzene on copper foil, the carbon-rich frame hydrogen substituted graphdiyne film is fabricated. The organic film can act as free-standing flexible electrode for both lithium ion and sodium ion batteries, and large reversible capacities of 1050 mAh g -1 for lithium ion batteries and 650 mAh g -1 for sodium ion batteries are achieved. The electrode also shows a superior rate and cycle performances owing to the extended π-conjugated system, and the hierarchical pore bulk with large surface area.

  8. Towards Synergistic Electrode-Electrolyte Design Principles for Nonaqueous Li-O[Formula: see text] batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khetan, Abhishek; Krishnamurthy, Dilip; Viswanathan, Venkatasubramanian

    2018-03-20

    One route toward sustainable land and aerial transportation is based on electrified vehicles. To enable electrification in transportation, there is a need for high-energy-density batteries, and this has led to an enormous interest in lithium-oxygen batteries. Several critical challenges remain with respect to realizing a practical lithium-oxygen battery. In this article, we present a detailed overview of theoretical efforts to formulate design principles for identifying stable electrolytes and electrodes with the desired functionality and stability. We discuss design principles relating to electrolytes and the additional stability challenges that arise at the cathode-electrolyte interface. Based on a thermodynamic analysis, we discuss two important requirements for the cathode: the ability to nucleate the desired discharge product, Li[Formula: see text]O[Formula: see text], and the ability to selectively activate only this discharge product while suppressing lithium oxide, the undesired secondary discharge product. We propose preliminary guidelines for determining the chemical stability of the electrode and illustrate the challenge associated with electrode selection using the examples of carbon cathodes and transition metals. We believe that a synergistic design framework for identifying electrolyte-electrode formulations is needed to realize a practical Li-O[Formula: see text] battery.

  9. Study of the influence of carbon on the negative lead-acid battery electrodes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bača, P.; Micka, Karel; Křivík, P.; Tonar, K.; Tošer, P.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 196, č. 8 (2011), s. 3988-3992 ISSN 0378-7753 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : lead battery electrodes * doping with carbon * accelerated testing Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 4.951, year: 2011

  10. Carbon−Silicon Core−Shell Nanowires as High Capacity Electrode for Lithium Ion Batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Cui, Li-Feng; Yang, Yuan; Hsu, Ching-Mei; Cui, Yi

    2009-01-01

    We introduce a novel design of carbon-silicon core-shell nanowires for high power and long life lithium battery electrodes. Amorphous silicon was coated onto carbon nanofibers to form a core-shell structure and the resulted core-shell nanowires

  11. Characterization of Electrode Materials for Lithium Ion and Sodium Ion Batteries using Synchrotron Radiation Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehta, Apurva; Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource; Doeff, Marca M.; Chen, Guoying; Cabana, Jordi; Richardson, Thomas J.; Mehta, Apurva; Shirpour, Mona; Duncan, Hugues; Kim, Chunjoong; Kam, Kinson C.; Conry, Thomas

    2013-04-30

    We describe the use of synchrotron X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques to probe details of intercalation/deintercalation processes in electrode materials for Li ion and Na ion batteries. Both in situ and ex situ experiments are used to understand structural behavior relevant to the operation of devices.

  12. Modeling the SEI-formation on graphite electrodes in liFePO4 batteries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, D.; Danilov, D.L.; Zhang, Zhongru; Chen, H.; Yang, Y.; Notten, P.H.L.

    2015-01-01

    An advanced model is proposed, describing the capacity losses of C6/LiFePO4 batteries under storage and cycling conditions. These capacity losses are attributed to the growth of a Solid Electrolyte Interface (SEI) at the surface of graphite particles in the negative electrode. The model assumes the

  13. Solvent-Free Manufacturing of Electrodes for Lithium-ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, Brandon; Zheng, Zhangfeng; Shou, Wan; Wang, Yan; Pan, Heng

    2016-03-01

    Lithium ion battery electrodes were manufactured using a new, completely dry powder painting process. The solvents used for conventional slurry-cast electrodes have been completely removed. Thermal activation time has been greatly reduced due to the time and resource demanding solvent evaporation process needed with slurry-cast electrode manufacturing being replaced by a hot rolling process. It has been found that thermal activation time to induce mechanical bonding of the thermoplastic polymer to the remaining active electrode particles is only a few seconds. Removing the solvent and drying process allows large-scale Li-ion battery production to be more economically viable in markets such as automotive energy storage systems. By understanding the surface energies of various powders which govern the powder mixing and binder distribution, bonding tests of the dry-deposited particles onto the current collector show that the bonding strength is greater than slurry-cast electrodes, 148.8 kPa as compared to 84.3 kPa. Electrochemical tests show that the new electrodes outperform conventional slurry processed electrodes, which is due to different binder distribution.

  14. The Science of Electrode Materials for Lithium Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fultz, Brent

    2007-03-15

    Rechargeable lithium batteries continue to play the central role in power systems for portable electronics, and could play a role of increasing importance for hybrid transportation systems that use either hydrogen or fossil fuels. For example, fuel cells provide a steady supply of power, whereas batteries are superior when bursts of power are needed. The National Research Council recently concluded that for dismounted soldiers "Among all possible energy sources, hybrid systems provide the most versatile solutions for meeting the diverse needs of the Future Force Warrior. The key advantage of hybrid systems is their ability to provide power over varying levels of energy use, by combining two power sources." The relative capacities of batteries versus fuel cells in a hybrid power system will depend on the capabilities of both. In the longer term, improvements in the cost and safety of lithium batteries should lead to a substantial role for electrochemical energy storage subsystems as components in fuel cell or hybrid vehicles. We have completed a basic research program for DOE BES on anode and cathode materials for lithium batteries, extending over 6 years with a 1 year phaseout period. The emphasis was on the thermodynamics and kinetics of the lithiation reaction, and how these pertain to basic electrochemical properties that we measure experimentally — voltage and capacity in particular. In the course of this work we also studied the kinetic processes of capacity fade after cycling, with unusual results for nanostructued Si and Ge materials, and the dynamics underlying electronic and ionic transport in LiFePO4. This document is the final report for this work.

  15. Electrochemical investigation of thermically treated graphene oxides as electrode materials for vanadium redox flow battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Blasi, O.; Briguglio, N.; Busacca, C.; Ferraro, M.; Antonucci, V.; Di Blasi, A.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Graphene oxide is synthesized at high temperatures in a reducing environment. • Treated graphene oxide-based electrodes are prepared by the wet impregnation method. • Electrochemical performance is evaluated as a function of the physico-chemical properties. - Abstract: Thermically treated graphene oxides (TT-GOs) are synthesized at different temperatures, 100 °C, 150 °C, 200 °C and 300 °C in a reducing environment (20% H 2 /He) and investigated as electrode materials for vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB) applications. The treated graphene oxide-based electrodes are prepared by the wet impregnation method using carbon felt (CF) as support. The main aim is to achieve a suitable distribution of the dispersed graphene oxides on the CF surface in order to investigate the electrocatalytic activity for the VO 2+ /VO 2 + and V 2+ /V 3+ redox reactions in the perspective of a feasible large area electrodes scale-up for battery configuration of practical interest. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) are carried out in a three electrode half-cell to characterize the electrochemical properties of the TT-GO-based electrodes. Physico-chemical characterizations are carried out to corroborate the electrochemical results. The TT-GO sample treated at 100 °C (TT-GO-100) shows the highest electrocatalytic activity in terms of peak to peak separation (ΔE = 0.03 V) and current density intensity (∼0.24 A cm −2 at 30 mV/s) both toward the VO 2+ /VO 2 + and V 2+ /V 3+ redox reactions. This result is correlated to the presence of hydroxyl (−OH) and carboxyl (−COOH) species that act as active sites. A valid candidate is individuated as effective anode and cathode electrode in the perspective of electrodes scale-up for battery configuration of practical interest

  16. Effects of carbon additives on the performance of negative electrode of lead-carbon battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou, Xianping; Kang, Zongxuan; Shu, Dong; Liao, Yuqing; Gong, Yibin; He, Chun; Hao, Junnan; Zhong, Yayun

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The negative electrode sheets are prepared by simulating manufacture condition of negative plates. • The effect of carbon additives on negative electrode sheets is studied by electrochemical method. • Carbon additives in NAM enhance electrochemical properties of the negative sheets. • The negative sheets with 0.5 wt% carbon additive exhibit better electrochemical performance. • The charge-discharge mechanism is discussed in detail according to the experimental results. - Abstract: In this study, carbon additives such as activated carbon (AC) and carbon black (CB) are introduced to the negative electrode to improve its electrochemical performance, the negative electrode sheets are prepared by simulating the negative plate manufacturing process of lead-acid battery, the types and contents of carbon additives in the negative electrode sheets are investigated in detail for the application of lead-carbon battery. The electrochemical performance of negative electrode sheets are measured by chronopotentiometry, galvanostatic charge-discharge and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, the crystal structure and morphology are characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. The experimental results indicate that the appropriate addition of AC or CB can enhance the discharge capacity and prolong the cycle life of negative electrode sheets under high-rate partial-state-of-charge conditions, AC additive exerts more obvious effect than CB additive, the optimum contents for the best electrochemical performance of the negative electrode sheets are determined as 0.5wt% for both AC and CB. The reaction mechanism of the electrochemical process is also discussed in this paper, the appropriate addition of AC or CB in negative electrode can promote the conversion of PbSO 4 to Pb, suppress the sulfation of negative electrode sheets and reduce the electrochemical reaction resistance

  17. LDHs as electrode materials for electrochemical detection and energy storage: supercapacitor, battery and (bio)-sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousty, Christine; Leroux, Fabrice

    2012-11-01

    From an exhaustive overview based on applicative academic literature and patent domain, the relevance of Layered Double Hydroxide (LDHs) as electrode materials for electrochemical detection of organic molecules having environmental or health impact and energy storage is evaluated. Specifically the focus is driven on their application as supercapacitor, alkaline or lithium battery and (bio)-sensor. Inherent to the high versatility of their chemical composition, charge density, anion exchange capability, LDH-based materials are extensively studied and their performances for such applications are reported. Indeed the analytical characteristics (sensitivity and detection limit) of LDH-based electrodes are scrutinized, and their specific capacity or capacitance as electrode battery or supercapacitor materials, are detailed.

  18. Method of preparation of carbon materials for use as electrodes in rechargeable batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doddapaneni, Narayan; Wang, James C. F.; Crocker, Robert W.; Ingersoll, David; Firsich, David W.

    1999-01-01

    A method of producing carbon materials for use as electrodes in rechargeable batteries. Electrodes prepared from these carbon materials exhibit intercalation efficiencies of .apprxeq.80% for lithium, low irreversible loss of lithium, long cycle life, are capable of sustaining a high rates of discharge and are cheap and easy to manufacture. The method comprises a novel two-step stabilization process in which polymeric precursor materials are stabilized by first heating in an inert atmosphere and subsequently heating in air. During the stabilization process, the polymeric precursor material can be agitated to reduce particle fusion and promote mass transfer of oxygen and water vapor. The stabilized, polymeric precursor materials can then be converted to a synthetic carbon, suitable for fabricating electrodes for use in rechargeable batteries, by heating to a high temperature in a flowing inert atmosphere.

  19. Facile synthesis of nanostructured transition metal oxides as electrodes for Li-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opra, Denis P.; Gnedenkov, Sergey V.; Sokolov, Alexander A.; Minaev, Alexander N.; Kuryavyi, Valery G.; Sinebryukhov, Sergey L.

    2017-09-01

    At all times, energy storage is one of the greatest scientific challenge. Recently, Li-ion batteries are under special attention due to high working voltage, long cycle life, low self-discharge, reliability, no-memory effect. However, commercial LIBs usage in medium- and large-scale energy storage are limited by the capacity of lithiated metal oxide cathode and unsafety of graphite anode at high-rate charge. In this way, new electrode materials with higher electrochemical performance should be designed to satisfy a requirement in both energy and power. As it known, nanostructured transition metal oxides are promising electrode materials because of their elevated specific capacity and high potential vs. Li/Li+. In this work, the perspective of an original facile technique of pulsed high-voltage plasma discharge in synthesis of nanostructured transition metal oxides as electrodes for lithium-ion batteries has been demonstrated.

  20. Battery and fuel cell electrodes containing stainless steel charging additive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuckerbrod, David; Gibney, Ann

    1984-01-01

    An electrode for use in electrochemical energy cells is made, comprising a hydrophilic layer and a hydrophobic layer, where the hydrophilic layer comprises a hydrophilic composite which includes: (i) carbon particles; (ii) stainless steel particles; (iii) a nonwetting agent; and (iv) a catalyst, where at least one current collector contacts said composite.

  1. Electrophoretic Nanocrystalline Graphene Film Electrode for Lithium Ion Battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaprans, Kaspars; Bajars, Gunars; Kucinskis, Gints; Dorondo, Anna; Mateuss, Janis; Gabrusenoks, Jevgenijs; Kleperis, Janis; Lusis, Andrejs

    2015-01-01

    Graphene sheets were fabricated by electrophoretic deposition method from water suspension of graphene oxide followed by thermal reduction. The formation of nanocrystalline graphene sheets has been confirmed by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. The electrochemical performance of graphene sheets as anode material for lithium ion batteries was evaluated by cycling voltammetry, galvanostatic charge-discharge cycling, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Fabricated graphene sheets exhibited high discharge capacity of about 1120 mAh·g −1 and demonstrated good reversibility of lithium intercalation and deintercalation in graphene sheet film with capacity retention over 85 % after 50 cycles. Results show that nanocrystalline graphene sheets prepared by EPD demonstrated a high potential for application as anode material in lithium ion batteries

  2. Advanced hydrogen electrode for hydrogen-bromide battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosek, Jack A.; Laconti, Anthony B.

    1987-01-01

    Binary platinum alloys are being developed as hydrogen electrocatalysts for use in a hydrogen bromide battery system. These alloys were varied in terms of alloy component mole ratio and heat treatment temperature. Electrocatalyst evaluation, performed in the absence and presence of bromide ion, includes floating half cell polarization studies, electrochemical surface area measurements, X ray diffraction analysis, scanning electron microscopy analysis and corrosion measurements. Results obtained to date indicate a platinum rich alloy has the best tolerance to bromide ion poisoning.

  3. High-energy redox-flow batteries with hybrid metal foam electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Min-Sik; Lee, Nam-Jin; Lee, Seung-Wook; Kim, Ki Jae; Oh, Duk-Jin; Kim, Young-Jun

    2014-07-09

    A nonaqueous redox-flow battery employing [Co(bpy)3](+/2+) and [Fe(bpy)3](2+/3+) redox couples is proposed for use in large-scale energy-storage applications. We successfully demonstrate a redox-flow battery with a practical operating voltage of over 2.1 V and an energy efficiency of 85% through a rational cell design. By utilizing carbon-coated Ni-FeCrAl and Cu metal foam electrodes, the electrochemical reactivity and stability of the nonaqueous redox-flow battery can be considerably enhanced. Our approach intoduces a more efficient conversion of chemical energy into electrical energy and enhances long-term cell durability. The cell exhibits an outstanding cyclic performance of more than 300 cycles without any significant loss of energy efficiency. Considering the increasing demands for efficient energy storage, our achievement provides insight into a possible development pathway for nonaqueous redox-flow batteries with high energy densities.

  4. A model for crack initiation in the Li-ion battery electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panat, Rahul, E-mail: rahul.panat@wsu.edu

    2015-12-01

    The development of high energy density Lithium-ion batteries is of intense interest due to their application in the electric car and consumer electronics industry. The primary limiter in using high energy density battery electrodes is the cracking of the electrode material due to the severe strain caused by the charging–discharging cycles. In this paper, a linear perturbation model is used to describe the evolution of the electrode surface under stress. The driving force for the surface undulation formation is the reduction in the electrode strain energy. The kinetics of mass transport is described by the surface and volume diffusion. The model predicts that the Si electrode will develop surface undulations of the order of sub-1 μm length scale on the electrode surface, showing a reasonable agreement with experimental results reported in literature. Such surface undulations roughen the anode surface and can form notches that can act as crack initiation sites. It is also shown that this model is applicable when the temperature of the system is not constant and the system is not isolated. The limitations of the model are also discussed. - Highlights: • This work presents a theoretical formulation that predicts crack formation at an electrode surface under a lithiation cycle. • The research provides the critical parameters required to improve the life of the Li-ion batteries. • These research findings can be used to modify the surface structure to minimize crack formation. • The predictions from the model show a reasonable agreement with the experiments. • None of the theoretical literature so far has addressed the crack formation problem addressed in this paper.

  5. Electrochemical Investigation of Carbon as Additive to the Negative Electrode of Lead-Acid Battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernandez Matthew M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing demand of cycle life performance of Pb-acid batteries requires the improvement of the negative Pb electrode’s charge capacity. Electrochemical investigations were performed on Pb electrode and Pb+Carbon (Carbon black and Graphite electrodes to evaluate the ability of the additives to enhance the electrochemical faradaic reactions that occur during the cycle of Pb-acid battery negative electrode. The electrodes were characterized through Cyclic Voltammetry (CV, Potentiodynamic Polarization (PP, and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS. CV revealed that the addition of carbon on the Pb electrode increased anodic and cathodicreactions by tenfold. The kinetics of PbSO4 passivation measured through PPrevealed that the addition of Carbon on the Pb electrode accelerated the oxide formation by tenfold magnitude. The Nyquist plot measured through EIS suggest that the electrochemical mechanism and reaction kinetics is under charge-transfer. From the equivalent circuit and physical model, Pb+CB1 electrode has the lowest EIS parameters while Pb+G has the highest which is attributed to faster faradaic reaction.The Nyquist plot of the passivated Pb+CB1 electrode showed double semicircular shape. The first layer represents to the bulk passive PbSO4 layer and the second layer represents the Carbon+PbSO4 layer. The enhancements upon addition of carbon on the Pb electrode were attributed to the additive’s electrical conductivity and total surface area. The electrochemical active sites for the PbSO4 to nucleate and spread increases upon addition of electrical conductive and high surface area carbon additives.

  6. Performance improvement of pasted nickel electrodes with multi-wall carbon nanotubes for rechargeable nickel batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Q.S.; Aravindaraj, G.K.; Sultana, H.; Chan, S.L.I.

    2007-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were employed as a functional additive to improve the electrochemical performance of pasted nickel-foam electrodes for rechargeable nickel-based batteries. The nickel electrodes were prepared with spherical β-Ni(OH) 2 powder as the active material and various amounts of CNTs as additives. Galvanostatic charge/discharge cycling tests showed that in comparison with the electrode without CNTs, the pasted nickel electrode with added CNTs exhibited better electrochemical properties in the chargeability, specific discharge capacity, active material utilization, discharge voltage, high-rate capability and cycling stability. Meanwhile, the CNT addition also lowered the packing density of Ni(OH) 2 particles in the three-dimensional porous nickel-foam substrate, which could lead to the decrease in the active material loading and discharge capacity of the electrode. Hence, the amount of CNTs added to Ni(OH) 2 should be optimized to obtain a high-performance nickel electrode, and an optimum amount of CNT addition was found to be 3 wt.%. The superior electrochemical performance of the nickel electrode with CNTs could be attributed to lower electrochemical impedance and less γ-NiOOH formed during charge/discharge cycling, as indicated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analyses. Thus, it was an effective method to improve the electrochemical properties of pasted nickel electrodes by adding an appropriate amount of CNTs to spherical Ni(OH) 2 as the active material

  7. Design of Hydrogen Storage Alloys/Nanoporous Metals Hybrid Electrodes for Nickel-Metal Hydride Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, M. M.; Yang, C. C.; Wang, C. C.; Wen, Z.; Zhu, Y. F.; Zhao, M.; Li, J. C.; Zheng, W. T.; Lian, J. S.; Jiang, Q.

    2016-06-01

    Nickel metal hydride (Ni-MH) batteries have demonstrated key technology advantages for applications in new-energy vehicles, which play an important role in reducing greenhouse gas emissions and the world’s dependence on fossil fuels. However, the poor high-rate dischargeability of the negative electrode materials—hydrogen storage alloys (HSAs) limits applications of Ni-MH batteries in high-power fields due to large polarization. Here we design a hybrid electrode by integrating HSAs with a current collector of three-dimensional bicontinuous nanoporous Ni. The electrode shows enhanced high-rate dischargeability with the capacity retention rate reaching 44.6% at a discharge current density of 3000 mA g-1, which is 2.4 times that of bare HSAs (18.8%). Such a unique hybrid architecture not only enhances charge transfer between nanoporous Ni and HSAs, but also facilitates rapid diffusion of hydrogen atoms in HSAs. The developed HSAs/nanoporous metals hybrid structures exhibit great potential to be candidates as electrodes in high-performance Ni-MH batteries towards applications in new-energy vehicles.

  8. Vanadium based amorphous mixed oxides used as negative electrodes of lithium batteries; Oxydes mixtes amorphes a base de vanadium comme electrodes negatives de batteries au lithium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guyomard, D.; Leroux, F.; Sigala, C.; Le Gal La Salle, A.; Piffard, Y. [Institut des Materiaux de Nantes, 44 (France). Laboratoire de Chimie des Solides

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents recent results concerning the chemical and electrochemical synthesis, the electrochemical properties and the characterization of two new families of amorphous oxides of formula Li{sub x}MVO{sub 4} (1electrodes in high performance lithium-ion batteries. (J.S.) 19 refs.

  9. Vanadium based amorphous mixed oxides used as negative electrodes of lithium batteries; Oxydes mixtes amorphes a base de vanadium comme electrodes negatives de batteries au lithium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guyomard, D; Leroux, F; Sigala, C; Le Gal La Salle, A.; Piffard, Y [Institut des Materiaux de Nantes, 44 (France). Laboratoire de Chimie des Solides

    1997-12-31

    This paper presents recent results concerning the chemical and electrochemical synthesis, the electrochemical properties and the characterization of two new families of amorphous oxides of formula Li{sub x}MVO{sub 4} (1electrodes in high performance lithium-ion batteries. (J.S.) 19 refs.

  10. Distinction of impedance responses of Li-ion batteries for individual electrodes using symmetric cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Momma, Toshiyuki; Yokoshima, Tokihiko; Nara, Hiroki; Gima, Yuhei; Osaka, Tetsuya

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Impedance of lithium ion battery and symmetric cells were analyzed. • Anode symmetric cells and cathode one were prepared with ca. 7 × 7 cm 2 electrodes. • Except for R ct in cathode, electrochemical parameters did not change by reassembling. • Fitting data for symmetric cell were found to be useful for full cell analysis. • Electrochemical parameters of battery were traced during cycling degradation. - Abstract: Symmetric cells were prepared with a newly designed separable cell module, which enabled ca. 70 mm by 70 mm electrode sheets to be used for a pouch type 5 Ah class Li-ion battery (LIB). Impedance analysis of the LIB as a full cell state was successfully performed with electrochemical parameters obtained by an impedance analysis of symmetric cells of anodes and cathodes obtained from the operated Li-ion batteries. While the charge transfer resistance of the cathode was found to increase after reassembling the cells symmetrically, other electrochemical parameters were found not to change when comparing the values obtained for full cells with symmetric cells. Eelectrodes degraded by charge/discharge cycling of the battery were also investigated, and the parameter change caused by the degradation was confirmed

  11. A flexible Li-ion battery with design towards electrodes electrical insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, E. M. F.; Ribeiro, J. F.; Sousa, R.; Correia, J. H.; Goncalves, L. M.

    2016-08-01

    The application of micro electromechanical systems (MEMS) technology in several consumer electronics leads to the development of micro/nano power sources with high power and MEMS integration possibility. This work presents the fabrication of a flexible solid-state Li-ion battery (LIB) (~2.1 μm thick) with a design towards electrodes electrical insulation, using conventional, low cost and compatible MEMS fabrication processes. Kapton® substrate provides flexibility to the battery. E-beam deposited 300 nm thick Ge anode was coupled with LiCoO2/LiPON (cathode/solid-state electrolyte) in a battery system. LiCoO2 and LiPON films were deposited by RF-sputtering with a power source of 120 W and 100 W, respectively. LiCoO2 film was annealed at 400 °C after deposition. The new design includes Si3N4 and LiPO thin-films, providing electrode electrical insulation and a battery chemical stability safeguard, respectively. Microstructure and battery performance were investigated by scanning electron microscopy, electric resistivity and electrochemical measurements (open circuit potential, charge/discharge cycles and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy). A rechargeable thin-film and lightweight flexible LIB using MEMS processing compatible materials and techniques is reported.

  12. Performance evaluation of thermally treated graphite felt electrodes for vanadium redox flow battery and their four-point single cell characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazúr, P.; Mrlík, J.; Beneš, J.; Pocedič, J.; Vrána, J.; Dundálek, J.; Kosek, J.

    2018-03-01

    In our contribution we study the electrocatalytic effect of oxygen functionalization of thermally treated graphite felt on kinetics of electrode reactions of vanadium redox flow battery. Chemical and morphological changes of the felts are analysed by standard physico-chemical characterization techniques. A complex method four-point method is developed and employed for characterization of the felts in a laboratory single-cell. The method is based on electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and load curves measurements of positive and negative half-cells using platinum wire pseudo-reference electrodes. The distribution of ohmic and faradaic losses within a single-cell is evaluated for both symmetric and asymmetric electrode set-up with respect to the treatment conditions. Positive effect of oxygen functionalization is observed only for negative electrode, whereas kinetics of positive electrode reaction is almost unaffected by the treatment. This is in a contradiction to the results of typically employed cyclovoltammetric characterization which indicate that both electrodes are enhanced by the treatment to a similar extent. The developed four-point characterization method can be further used e.g., for the component screening and in-situ durability studies on single-cell scale redox flow batteries of various chemistries.

  13. The development of hydrogen storage electrode alloys for nickel hydride batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Kuochih

    The development of hydrogen storage electrode alloys in the 1980s resulted in the birth and growth of the rechargeable nickel hydride (Ni/MH) battery. In this paper we describe briefly a semi-empirical electrochemical/thermodynamic approach to develop/screen a hydrogen storage alloy for electrochemical application. More specifically we will discuss the AB x Ti/Zr-based alloys. Finally, the current state of the Ni/MH batteries including commercial manufacture processes, cell performance and applications is given.

  14. PAN-based carbon fiber negative electrodes for structural lithium-ion batteries

    OpenAIRE

    Hellqvist Kjell, Maria; Jacques, Eric; Zenkert, Dan; Behm, Mårten; Lindbergh, Göran

    2011-01-01

    Several grades of commercially-available polyacrylonitrile (PAN)-based carbon fibers have been studied for structural lithium-ion batteries to understand how the sizing, different lithiation rates and number of fibers per tow affect the available reversible capacity, when used as both current collector and electrode, for use in structural batteries. The study shows that at moderate lithiation rates, 100 mA g-1, most of the carbon fibers display a reversible capacity close to or above 100 mAh ...

  15. Electrode design optimization of lithium secondary batteries to enhance adhesion and deformation capabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Dongho; Lee, Jongsoo

    2014-01-01

    Safety, performance and lifetime of LSB (lithium secondary batteries) are affected by the adhesion of the active material to the electrode substance, and to the electrode deformation and the spring back limit in the electrode manufacturing process. This study explores the optimization process using decision tree analysis, an ANN (artificial neural network), and a multi-objective genetic algorithm. In the electrode design optimization, the objectives are to maximize the adhesion and to minimize the electrode deformation subjected to the allowable limit on the spring-back. Experimental data for use in design analysis and optimization is obtained via a measurement test. The decision tree analysis is first performed to extract major, effective parameters sensitive to adhesion force, electrode deformation and spring-back. The ANN-based approximate meta-models are then established for function approximations. The ANN-based causality analysis is further explored to determine dominant design variables for each of three design requirements for the optimization. A multi-objective optimization is finally conducted using ANN-based approximate meta-models. An optimized solution obtained from the numerical optimization process is compared with experimental data to verify the actual performance of the LSB in terms of physical and electro-chemical properties. - Highlights: • Electrode design for enhancing adhesion and electrode deformation performances. • Maximizing adhesion and minimizing deformation with allowable limit on spring-back. • Extraction of effective design parameters from data mining techniques. • Numerical optimization using experimental data of lithium secondary batteries. • Comparison of an optimized solution with an experimental result

  16. Biomass-derived carbonaceous positive electrodes for sustainable lithium-ion storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tianyuan; Kavian, Reza; Chen, Zhongming; Cruz, Samuel S.; Noda, Suguru; Lee, Seung Woo

    2016-02-01

    Biomass derived carbon materials have been widely used as electrode materials; however, in most cases, only electrical double layer capacitance (EDLC) is utilized and therefore, only low energy density can be achieved. Herein, we report on redox-active carbon spheres that can be simply synthesized from earth-abundant glucose via a hydrothermal process. These carbon spheres exhibit a specific capacity of ~210 mA h gCS-1, with high redox potentials in the voltage range of 2.2-3.7 V vs. Li, when used as positive electrode in lithium cells. Free-standing, flexible composite films consisting of the carbon spheres and few-walled carbon nanotubes deliver high specific capacities up to ~155 mA h gelectrode-1 with no obvious capacity fading up to 10 000 cycles, proposing to be promising positive electrodes for lithium-ion batteries or capacitors. Furthermore, considering that the carbon spheres were obtained in an aqueous glucose solution and no toxic or hazardous reagents were used, this process opens up a green and sustainable method for designing high performance, environmentally-friendly energy storage devices.Biomass derived carbon materials have been widely used as electrode materials; however, in most cases, only electrical double layer capacitance (EDLC) is utilized and therefore, only low energy density can be achieved. Herein, we report on redox-active carbon spheres that can be simply synthesized from earth-abundant glucose via a hydrothermal process. These carbon spheres exhibit a specific capacity of ~210 mA h gCS-1, with high redox potentials in the voltage range of 2.2-3.7 V vs. Li, when used as positive electrode in lithium cells. Free-standing, flexible composite films consisting of the carbon spheres and few-walled carbon nanotubes deliver high specific capacities up to ~155 mA h gelectrode-1 with no obvious capacity fading up to 10 000 cycles, proposing to be promising positive electrodes for lithium-ion batteries or capacitors. Furthermore, considering

  17. 3D-printed conductive static mixers enable all-vanadium redox flow battery using slurry electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Percin, Korcan; Rommerskirchen, Alexandra; Sengpiel, Robert; Gendel, Youri; Wessling, Matthias

    2018-03-01

    State-of-the-art all-vanadium redox flow batteries employ porous carbonaceous materials as electrodes. The battery cells possess non-scalable fixed electrodes inserted into a cell stack. In contrast, a conductive particle network dispersed in the electrolyte, known as slurry electrode, may be beneficial for a scalable redox flow battery. In this work, slurry electrodes are successfully introduced to an all-vanadium redox flow battery. Activated carbon and graphite powder particles are dispersed up to 20 wt% in the vanadium electrolyte and charge-discharge behavior is inspected via polarization studies. Graphite powder slurry is superior over activated carbon with a polarization behavior closer to the standard graphite felt electrodes. 3D-printed conductive static mixers introduced to the slurry channel improve the charge transfer via intensified slurry mixing and increased surface area. Consequently, a significant increase in the coulombic efficiency up to 95% and energy efficiency up to 65% is obtained. Our results show that slurry electrodes supported by conductive static mixers can be competitive to state-of-the-art electrodes yielding an additional degree of freedom in battery design. Research into carbon properties (particle size, internal surface area, pore size distribution) tailored to the electrolyte system and optimization of the mixer geometry may yield even better battery properties.

  18. Battery system including batteries that have a plurality of positive terminals and a plurality of negative terminals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Thomas J; Symanski, James S; Kuempers, Joerg A; Miles, Ronald C; Hansen, Scott A; Smith, Nels R; Taghikhani, Majid; Mrotek, Edward N; Andrew, Michael G

    2014-01-21

    A lithium battery for use in a vehicle includes a container, a plurality of positive terminals extending from a first end of the lithium battery, and a plurality of negative terminals extending from a second end of the lithium battery. The plurality of positive terminals are provided in a first configuration and the plurality of negative terminals are provided in a second configuration, the first configuration differing from the second configuration. A battery system for use in a vehicle may include a plurality of electrically connected lithium cells or batteries.

  19. Towards ultrathick battery electrodes: aligned carbon nanotube - enabled architecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evanoff, Kara [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Electro-Optical Systems Laboratory, Georgia Tech Research Institute, Atlanta, GA (United States); Khan, Javed; Balandin, Alexander A. [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of California, Riverside, CA (United States); Magasinski, Alexandre; Yushin, Gleb [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Ready, W. Jud [Electro-Optical Systems Laboratory, Georgia Tech Research Institute, Atlanta, GA (United States); Fuller, Thomas F. [School of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2012-01-24

    Vapor deposition techniques were utilized to synthesize very thick ({proportional_to}1 mm) Li-ion battery anodes consisting of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes coated with silicon and carbon. The produced anode demonstrated ultrahigh thermal (>400 W.m{sup -1}.K{sup -1}) and high electrical (>20 S.m{sup -1}) conductivities, high cycle stability, and high average capacity (>3000 mAh.g{sub Si}{sup -1}). The processes utilized allow for the conformal deposition of other materials, thus making it a promising architecture for the development of Li-ion anodes and cathodes with greatly enhanced electrical and thermal conductivities. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  20. Stress analysis in cylindrical composition-gradient electrodes of lithium-ion battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Yaotian; Liu, Yulan; Wang, B.

    2017-07-01

    In recent years, the composition-gradient electrode material has been verified to be one of the most promising materials in lithium-ion battery. To investigate diffusion-induced stresses (DIS) generated in a cylindrical composition-gradient electrode, the finite deformation theory and the stress-induced diffusion hypothesis are adopted to establish the constitutive equations. Compared with stress distributions in a homogeneous electrode, the increasing forms of Young's modulus E(R) and partial molar volume Ω(R) from the electrode center to the surface along the radial direction drastically increase the maximal magnitudes of hoop and axial stresses, while both of the decreasing forms are able to make the stress fields smaller and flatter. Also, it is found that the slope of -1 for E(R) with that of -0.5 for Ω(R) is a preferable strategy to prevent the inhomogeneous electrode from cracking, while for the sake of protecting the electrode from compression failure, the optimal slope for inhomogeneous E(R) and the preferential one for Ω(R) are both -0.5. The results provide a theoretical guidance for the design of composition-gradient electrode materials.

  1. Elucidating the Polymeric Binder Distribution within Lithium-ion Battery Electrodes Using SAICAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyuman; Byun, Seoungwoo; Choi, Jaecheol; Hong, Seungbum; Ryou, Myung-Hyun; Lee, Yong Min

    2018-03-30

    Polymeric binder distribution within electrodes is crucial to guarantee the electrochemical performance of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) for their long-term use in applications such as electric vehicles and energy-storage systems. However, due to limited analytical tools, such analyses have not been conducted so far. Herein, the adhesion properties of LIB electrodes at different depths are measured using a surface and interfacial cutting analysis system (SAICAS). Moreover, two LiCoO 2 electrodes, dried at 130 and 230 °C, are carefully prepared and used to obtain the adhesion properties at every 10 μm of depth as well as the interface between the electrode composite and the current collector. At high drying temperatures, more of the polymeric binder material and conductive agent appears adjacent to the electrode surface, resulting in different adhesion properties as a function of depth. When the electrochemical properties are evaluated at different temperatures, the LiCoO 2 electrode dried at 130 °C shows a much better high-temperature cycling performance than does the electrode dried at 230 °C due to the uniform adhesion properties and the higher interfacial adhesion strength. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Recent Progress in Self-Supported Metal Oxide Nanoarray Electrodes for Advanced Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Feng; Qi, Limin

    2016-09-01

    The rational design and fabrication of electrode materials with desirable architectures and optimized properties has been demonstrated to be an effective approach towards high-performance lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). Although nanostructured metal oxide electrodes with high specific capacity have been regarded as the most promising alternatives for replacing commercial electrodes in LIBs, their further developments are still faced with several challenges such as poor cycling stability and unsatisfying rate performance. As a new class of binder-free electrodes for LIBs, self-supported metal oxide nanoarray electrodes have many advantageous features in terms of high specific surface area, fast electron transport, improved charge transfer efficiency, and free space for alleviating volume expansion and preventing severe aggregation, holding great potential to solve the mentioned problems. This review highlights the recent progress in the utilization of self-supported metal oxide nanoarrays grown on 2D planar and 3D porous substrates, such as 1D and 2D nanostructure arrays, hierarchical nanostructure arrays, and heterostructured nanoarrays, as anodes and cathodes for advanced LIBs. Furthermore, the potential applications of these binder-free nanoarray electrodes for practical LIBs in full-cell configuration are outlined. Finally, the future prospects of these self-supported nanoarray electrodes are discussed.

  3. High capacity electrode materials for batteries and process for their manufacture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Christopher S.; Xiong, Hui; Rajh, Tijana; Shevchenko, Elena; Tepavcevic, Sanja

    2018-04-03

    The present invention provides a nanostructured metal oxide material for use as a component of an electrode in a lithium-ion or sodium-ion battery. The material comprises a nanostructured titanium oxide or vanadium oxide film on a metal foil substrate, produced by depositing or forming a nanostructured titanium dioxide or vanadium oxide material on the substrate, and then charging and discharging the material in an electrochemical cell from a high voltage in the range of about 2.8 to 3.8 V, to a low voltage in the range of about 0.8 to 1.4 V over a period of about 1/30 of an hour or less. Lithium-ion and sodium-ion electrochemical cells comprising electrodes formed from the nanostructured metal oxide materials, as well as batteries formed from the cells, also are provided.

  4. Binder-Free and Carbon-Free Nanoparticle Batteries: A Method for Nanoparticle Electrodes without Polymeric Binders or Carbon Black

    KAUST Repository

    Ha, Don-Hyung; Islam, Mohammad A.; Robinson, Richard D.

    2012-01-01

    In this work, we have developed a new fabrication method for nanoparticle (NP) assemblies for Li-ion battery electrodes that require no additional support or conductive materials such as polymeric binders or carbon black. By eliminating

  5. Enhanced vanadium redox flow battery performance using graphene nanoplatelets to decorate carbon electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankar, Abhinandh; Michos, Ioannis; Dutta, Indrajit; Dong, Junhang; Angelopoulos, Anastasios P.

    2018-05-01

    Rotating Disk Electrode (RDE) measurements on model glassy carbon (GC) substrates and Cyclic Voltammetry on more practical commercial carbon supports are used to demonstrate that the kinetics of the positive VO2+/VO2+ redox reaction can be substantially enhanced by using electrostatic layer-by-layer assembly (LbL) to decorate their surface with graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs). An exchange current density, i0, is obtained that is more than two orders of magnitude greater than that observed with standard carbon supported Pt nanocatalyst with the deposition of only 20 GNP layers. Tafel slope analysis is compared to electron microscopy imaging to conclude that while faster redox kinetics is associated with an increase in the available active area, the prevalence of smaller GNPs and associated edge sites the can attenuate activity gains with increasing number of layers. Practical implementation to existing Vanadium Redox Flow Battery (VRFB) configurations was demonstrated through the application of a 370 nm (20 layer) LbL GNP coating on carbon felt (CF). The GNP coating yielded a 5% increase relative in voltage and overall efficiency of charge discharge curves obtained under typical VRFB cell operating conditions at 40 mA cm-2. Furthermore, a substantial increase in the discharge time is observed with this GNP coating on CF.

  6. A Comparative Study on Cutting Electrodes for Batteries with Lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luetke, Matthias; Franke, Volker; Techel, Anja; Himmer, Thomas; Klotzbach, Udo; Wetzig, Andreas; Beyer, Eckhard

    E-mobility is still one of the most discussed topics within the automotive industry. Electric powered vehicles can drive emissionfree and present consequently the future propulsion. Nearly all global players in the automotive industry are making great efforts to develop cost-efficient electric drives, which are suitable for series production. The national governments support this evolution progressively. For example the mobility research programme of the Federal Republic of Germany looks at the production of Li- Ion cells in its entirety. Within this programme the cutting of electrodes for Li-Ion cells by lasers is an issue, too. This paper provides a comparative study on cutting materials relevant for Li-Ion cells with beam sources operating in a cw mode and a pulsed mode respectively.

  7. 3D Porous Sponge-Inspired Electrode for Stretchable Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Chen, Zheng; Zhou, Guangmin; Sun, Yongming; Lee, Hye Ryoung; Liu, Chong; Yao, Hongbin; Bao, Zhenan; Cui, Yi

    2016-05-01

    A stretchable Li4 Ti5 O12 anode and a LiFePO4 cathode with 80% stretchability are prepared using a 3D interconnected porous polydimethylsiloxane sponge based on sugar cubes. 82% and 91% capacity retention for anode and cathode are achieved after 500 stretch-release cycles. Slight capacity decay of 6% in the battery using the electrode in stretched state is observed. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Molecular Engineering with Organic Carbonyl Electrode Materials for Advanced Stationary and Redox Flow Rechargeable Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qing; Zhu, Zhiqiang; Chen, Jun

    2017-12-01

    Organic carbonyl electrode materials that have the advantages of high capacity, low cost and being environmentally friendly, are regarded as powerful candidates for next-generation stationary and redox flow rechargeable batteries (RFBs). However, low carbonyl utilization, poor electronic conductivity and undesired dissolution in electrolyte are urgent issues to be solved. Here, we summarize a molecular engineering approach for tuning the capacity, working potential, concentration of active species, kinetics, and stability of stationary and redox flow batteries, which well resolves the problems of organic carbonyl electrode materials. As an example, in stationary batteries, 9,10-anthraquinone (AQ) with two carbonyls delivers a capacity of 257 mAh g -1 (2.27 V vs Li + /Li), while increasing the number of carbonyls to four with the formation of 5,7,12,14-pentacenetetrone results in a higher capacity of 317 mAh g -1 (2.60 V vs Li + /Li). In RFBs, AQ, which is less soluble in aqueous electrolyte, reaches 1 M by grafting -SO 3 H with the formation of 9,10-anthraquinone-2,7-disulphonic acid, resulting in a power density exceeding 0.6 W cm -2 with long cycling life. Therefore, through regulating substituent groups, conjugated structures, Coulomb interactions, and the molecular weight, the electrochemical performance of carbonyl electrode materials can be rationally optimized. This review offers fundamental principles and insight into designing advanced carbonyl materials for the electrodes of next-generation rechargeable batteries. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. One-dimensional nanostructured materials for lithium-ion battery and supercapacitor electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Candace Kay

    cycling performance of the SiNWs in different electrolytes, with various surface modifications and coatings, and other experimental parameters were evaluated. The electrochemical reaction of GeNWs with lithium resulted in capacities of ˜1000 mAh/g for tens of cycles. The GeNWs were also observed to become amorphous after the first charge. Interestingly, very large irreversible capacities were observed in the GeNWs, indicating surface instabilities or reactivity with the electrolyte. To passivate the surface, a thin layer of amorphous Si was used to coat the GeNWs and make Ge-Si coreshell nanowires. This passivation helped to reduce the irreversibly capacity loss and gave reversible capacities typical for the GeNWs. Two positive electrode materials for Li-ion batteries were synthesized in nano-morphologies and characterized. Transformation of layered structured V2O5 nanoribbons into the fully lithiated o-Li 3V2O5 phase was found to depend not only on the width but also the thickness of the nanoribbons. For the first time, complete delithiation of o-Li3V2O5 back to the single-crystalline, pristine V2O5 nanoribbon was observed, indicating a 30% higher energy density. Nanostructured BiOCl, a conversion material, was also synthesized and characterized for its Li insertion properties. Networks of silver nanowires (AgNWs) and single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) were explored as highly conducting, high surface area, and printable materials for flexible, light-weight supercapacitors. Use of the solution-processible AgNWs and SWNTs, as well as a polymer electrolyte, facilitated the fabrication of an entirely printable device on plastic substrates. The devices showed promising results for high energy and power density supercapacitors, with energy and power densities reaching 24 Wh/kg and 42 kW/kg for the AgNW/SWNT composite.

  10. High-capacity FeTiO3/C negative electrode for sodium-ion batteries with ultralong cycle life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Changsheng; Nohira, Toshiyuki; Hagiwara, Rika

    2018-06-01

    The development of electrode materials which improve both the energy density and cycle life is one of the most challenging issues facing the practical application of sodium-ion batteries today. In this work, FeTiO3/C nanoparticles are synthesized as negative electrode materials for sodium-ion batteries. The electrochemical performance and charge-discharge mechanism of the FeTiO3/C negative electrode are investigated in an ionic liquid electrolyte at 90 °C. The FeTiO3/C negative electrode delivers a high reversible capacity of 403 mAh g-1 at a current rate of 10 mA g-1, and exhibits high rate capability and excellent cycling stability for up to 2000 cycles. The results indicate that FeTiO3/C is a promising negative electrode material for sodium-ion batteries.

  11. Radiation effects on the electrode and electrolyte of a lithium-ion battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Chuting; Lyons, Daniel J.; Pan, Ke; Leung, Kwan Yee; Chuirazzi, William C.; Canova, Marcello; Co, Anne C.; Cao, Lei R.

    2016-06-01

    The performance degradation and durability of a Li-ion battery is a major concern when it is operated under radiation conditions, for instance, in deep space exploration, in high radiation field, or rescuing or sampling equipment in a post-nuclear accident scenario. This paper examines the radiation effects on the electrode and electrolyte materials separately and their effects on a battery's capacity loss and resistance increase. A60Co irradiator (34.3 krad/h) was used to provide 0.8, 4.1, and 9.8 Mrad dose to LiFePO4 electrodes and 0.8, 1.6, and 5.7 Mrad to 1 M LiPF6 in 1:1 wt% EC:DMC electrolytes. This study shows that the coin cells assembled with irradiated components have higher failure rate (ca. 70%) than that of control group (ca. 14%). A significant battery capacity fade post irradiation was observed. The electrolyte also shows a darkened color a few weeks or months after irradiation. The discovery of this latent effect may be significant because a battery may degrade significantly even showing no sign of degradation immediately after exposure. We investigated electrolyte composition by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy prior and post irradiation. Polymerization reactions and HF formation are considered as the cause of the discoloration.

  12. Copper nanoparticle-deposited graphite felt electrodes for all vanadium redox flow batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, L.; Zhao, T.S.; Zeng, L.; Zhou, X.L.; Zeng, Y.K.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Copper nanoparticle is proposed as electrocatalyst for VRFBs for the first time. • Propose a binder-free copper nanoparticle decorated electrode. • The energy efficiency is up to 80.1% at 300 mA cm"−"2, enhancing more than 17%. • High stability and capacity retention are achieved by battery with copper catalyst. - Abstract: A copper nanoparticle deposited graphite felt electrode for all vanadium redox flow batteries (VRFBs) is developed and tested. It is found that the copper catalyst enables a significant improvement in the electrochemical kinetics of the V"3"+/V"2"+ redox reaction. The battery’s utilization of the electrolyte and energy efficiency are found to be as high as 83.7% and 80.1%, at a current density of 300 mA cm"−"2, which are 53.1% and 17.8% higher than those of the battery without the catalyst. Moreover, the present battery shows a good stability during the cycle test. The results suggest that the inexpensive copper nanoparticle catalyst without tedious preparation process offers a great promise for VRFB application.

  13. Cu2Sb thin film electrodes prepared by pulsed laser deposition f or lithium batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Seung-Wan; Reade, Ronald P.; Cairns, Elton J.; Vaughey, Jack T.; Thackeray, Michael M.; Striebel, Kathryn A.

    2003-08-01

    Thin films of Cu2Sb, prepared on stainless steel and copper substrates with a pulsed laser deposition technique at room temperature, have been evaluated as electrodes in lithium cells. The electrodes operate by a lithium insertion/copper extrusion reaction mechanism, the reversibility of which is superior when copper substrates are used, particularly when electrochemical cycling is restricted to the voltage range 0.65-1.4 V vs. Li/Li+. The superior performance of Cu2Sb films on copper is attributed to the more active participation of the extruded copper in the functioning of the electrode. The continual and extensive extrusion of copper on cycling the cells leads to the isolation of Li3Sb particles and a consequent formation of Sb. Improved cycling stability of both types of electrodes was obtained when cells were cycled between 0.65 and 1.4 V. A low-capacity lithium-ion cell with Cu2Sb and LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2 electrodes, laminated from powders, shows excellent cycling stability over the voltage range 3.15 - 2.2 V, the potential difference corresponding to approximately 0.65-1.4 V for the Cu2Sb electrode vs. Li/Li+. Chemical self-discharge of lithiated Cu2Sb electrodes by reaction with the electrolyte was severe when cells were allowed to relax on open circuit after reaching a lower voltage limit of 0.1 V. The solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) layer formed on Cu2Sb electrodes after cells had been cycled between 1.4 and 0.65 V vs. Li/Li+ was characterized by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy; the SEI layer contributes to the large irreversible capacity loss on the initial cycle of these cells. The data contribute to a better understanding of the electrochemical behavior of intermetallic electrodes in rechargeable lithium batteries.

  14. Advanced porous electrodes with flow channels for vanadium redox flow battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattarai, Arjun; Wai, Nyunt; Schweiss, Ruediger; Whitehead, Adam; Lim, Tuti M.; Hng, Huey Hoon

    2017-02-01

    Improving the overall energy efficiency by reducing pumping power and improving flow distribution of electrolyte, is a major challenge for developers of flow batteries. The use of suitable channels can improve flow distribution through the electrodes and reduce flow resistance, hence reducing the energy consumption of the pumps. Although several studies of vanadium redox flow battery have proposed the use of bipolar plates with flow channels, similar to fuel cell designs, this paper presents the use of flow channels in the porous electrode as an alternative approach. Four types of electrodes with channels: rectangular open channel, interdigitated open cut channel, interdigitated circular poked channel and cross poked circular channels, are studied and compared with a conventional electrode without channels. Our study shows that interdigitated open channels can improve the overall energy efficiency up to 2.7% due to improvement in flow distribution and pump power reduction while interdigitated poked channel can improve up to 2.5% due to improvement in flow distribution.

  15. High-Performance Vanadium Redox Flow Batteries with Graphite Felt Electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trevor J. Davies

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A key objective in the development of vanadium redox flow batteries (VRFBs is the improvement of cell power density. At present, most commercially available VRFBs use graphite felt electrodes under relatively low compression. This results in a large cell ohmic resistance and limits the maximum power density. To date, the best performing VRFBs have used carbon paper electrodes, with high active area compression pressures, similar to that used in fuel cells. This article investigates the use of felt electrodes at similar compression pressures. Single cells are assembled using compression pressures of 0.2–7.5 bar and tested in a VRFB system. The highest cell compression pressure, combined with a thin Nafion membrane, achieved a peak power density of 669 mW cm−2 at a flow rate of 3.2 mL min−1 per cm2 of active area, more than double the previous best performance from a felt-VRFB. The results suggest that felt electrodes can compete with paper electrodes in terms of performance when under similar compression pressures, which should help guide electrode development and cell optimization in this important energy storage technology.

  16. Unusual Passivation Ability of Superconcentrated Electrolytes toward Hard Carbon Negative Electrodes in Sodium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, Koji; Yamada, Yuki; Watanabe, Eriko; Wang, Jianhui; Sodeyama, Keitaro; Tateyama, Yoshitaka; Hirata, Kazuhisa; Kawase, Takeo; Yamada, Atsuo

    2017-10-04

    The passivation of negative electrodes is key to achieving prolonged charge-discharge cycling with Na-ion batteries. Here, we report the unusual passivation ability of superconcentrated Na-salt electrolytes. For example, a 50 mol % sodium bis(fluorosulfonyl)amide (NaFSA)/succinonitrile (SN) electrolyte enables highly reversible Na + insertion into a hard carbon negative electrode without any electrolyte additive, functional binder, or electrode pretreatment. Importantly, an anion-derived passivation film is formed via preferential reduction of the anion upon charging, which can effectively suppress further electrolyte reduction. As a structural characteristic of the electrolyte, most anions are coordinated to multiple Na + cations at high concentration, which shifts the lowest unoccupied molecular orbitals of the anions downward, resulting in preferential anion reduction. The present work provides a new understanding of the passivation mechanism with respect to the coordination state of the anion.

  17. A high-performance dual-scale porous electrode for vanadium redox flow batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, X. L.; Zeng, Y. K.; Zhu, X. B.; Wei, L.; Zhao, T. S.

    2016-09-01

    In this work, we present a simple and cost-effective method to form a dual-scale porous electrode by KOH activation of the fibers of carbon papers. The large pores (∼10 μm), formed between carbon fibers, serve as the macroscopic pathways for high electrolyte flow rates, while the small pores (∼5 nm), formed on carbon fiber surfaces, act as active sites for rapid electrochemical reactions. It is shown that the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller specific surface area of the carbon paper is increased by a factor of 16 while maintaining the same hydraulic permeability as that of the original carbon paper electrode. We then apply the dual-scale electrode to a vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB) and demonstrate an energy efficiency ranging from 82% to 88% at current densities of 200-400 mA cm-2, which is record breaking as the highest performance of VRFB in the open literature.

  18. High efficiency of CO2-activated graphite felt as electrode for vanadium redox flow battery application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yu-Chung; Chen, Jian-Yu; Kabtamu, Daniel Manaye; Lin, Guan-Yi; Hsu, Ning-Yih; Chou, Yi-Sin; Wei, Hwa-Jou; Wang, Chen-Hao

    2017-10-01

    A simple method for preparing CO2-activated graphite felt as an electrode in a vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB) was employed by the direct treatment in a CO2 atmosphere at a high temperature for a short period. The CO2-activated graphite felt demonstrates excellent electrochemical activity and reversibility. The VRFB using the CO2-activated graphite felts in the electrodes has coulombic, voltage, and energy efficiencies of 94.52%, 88.97%, and 84.15%, respectively, which is much higher than VRFBs using the electrodes of untreated graphite felt and N2-activated graphite felt. The efficiency enhancement was attributed to the higher number of oxygen-containing functional groups on the graphite felt that are formed during the CO2-activation, leading to improving the electrochemical behaviour of the resultant VRFB.

  19. Graphite felt modified with bismuth nanoparticles as negative electrode in a vanadium redox flow battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez, David J; González, Zoraida; Blanco, Clara; Granda, Marcos; Menéndez, Rosa; Santamaría, Ricardo

    2014-03-01

    A graphite felt decorated with bismuth nanoparticles was studied as negative electrode in a vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB). The results confirm the excellent electrochemical performance of the bismuth modified electrode in terms of the reversibility of the V(3+) /V(2+) redox reactions and its long-term cycling performance. Moreover a mechanism that explains the role that Bi nanoparticles play in the redox reactions in this negative half-cell is proposed. Bi nanoparticles favor the formation of BiHx , an intermediate that reduces V(3+) to V(2+) and, therefore, inhibits the competitive irreversible reaction of hydrogen formation (responsible for the commonly observed loss of Coulombic efficiency of VRFBs). Thus, the total charge consumed during the cathodic sweep in this electrode is used to reduce V(3+) to V(2+) , resulting in a highly reversible and efficient process. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Dynamic Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy of a Three-Electrode Lithium-Ion Battery during Pulse Charge and Discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Jun; Ge, Hao; Li, Zhe; Zhang, Jianbo

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Dynamic EIS is performed on a three-electrode pouch cell; • Charge transfer resistance during insertion is generally larger than that during deinsertion due to the surface concentration change; • An inductive behavior is revealed at low frequencies due to the violation of stationary condition in DEIS measurement; • Electrochemical models of a single active particle in both time and frequency domain are developed. • The model predicts a positive correlation between the lower frequency limit and the DC current. - Abstract: The dynamic electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (DEIS) of a three-electrode pouch type lithium-ion battery is measured using a series of sine wave perturbations super-imposed on pulse charge and discharge. The DEIS reveals noticeable differences between charge and discharge at frequencies corresponding to the charge transfer reaction. The charge transfer resistance during intercalation is generally found to be larger than that during deintercalation for the battery chemistry in this study. This result is mainly attributed to the decreased Li ion concentration in the electrolyte during intercalation. At low frequencies, an abnormal inductive behavior is also observed. Such abnormality is found to result from the violation of stationary condition, i.e. the state of the battery under pulse charge or discharge deviates significantly from its initial condition for the perturbation of low frequencies. To analytically define the stationary condition, we develop electrochemical models of a single active particle in both time and frequency domain, which describes the transport of lithium ions in both active particle and electrolyte phase and the interfacial charge transfer reactions at their interface. The lower frequency limit is a key parameter to ensure a quasistationary state during the DEIS measurement. An explicit formulation of the stationary condition predicts a positive correlation between the lower frequency limit and

  1. Electrode fabrication for Lithium-ion batteries by intercalating of carbon nano tubes inside nano metric pores of silver foam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khoshnevisan, B.

    2011-01-01

    Here there is an on effort to improve working electrode (Ag + carbon nano tubes) preparation for Li-Ion batteries applications. Nano scaled silver foam with high specific area has been employed as a frame for loading carbon nano tubes by electrophoretic deposition method. In this ground, the prepared electrodes show a very good stability and also charge-discharge cycles reversibility.

  2. A new method to compensate impedance artefacts for Li-ion batteries with integrated micro-reference electrodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raijmakers, L.H.J.; Notten, P.H.L.; Lammers, M.J.G.

    2017-01-01

    In order to measure the electrochemical characteristics of both electrodes inside Li-ion batteries, micro-reference electrodes (μREF) turned out to be very useful. However, measuring the electrochemical impedance with respect to μREF can lead to severe measurement artefacts, making a detailed

  3. Carbon Nanotube Web with Carboxylated Polythiophene "Assist" for High-Performance Battery Electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Yo Han; Park, Jung Jin; Housel, Lisa M; Minnici, Krysten; Zhang, Guoyan; Lee, Sujin R; Lee, Seung Woo; Chen, Zhongming; Noda, Suguru; Takeuchi, Esther S; Takeuchi, Kenneth J; Marschilok, Amy C; Reichmanis, Elsa

    2018-04-24

    A carbon nanotube (CNT) web electrode comprising magnetite spheres and few-walled carbon nanotubes (FWNTs) linked by the carboxylated conjugated polymer, poly[3-(potassium-4-butanoate) thiophene] (PPBT), was designed to demonstrate benefits derived from the rational consideration of electron/ion transport coupled with the surface chemistry of the electrode materials components. To maximize transport properties, the approach introduces monodispersed spherical Fe 3 O 4 (sFe 3 O 4 ) for uniform Li + diffusion and a FWNT web electrode frame that affords characteristics of long-ranged electronic pathways and porous networks. The sFe 3 O 4 particles were used as a model high-capacity energy active material, owing to their well-defined chemistry with surface hydroxyl (-OH) functionalities that provide for facile detection of molecular interactions. PPBT, having a π-conjugated backbone and alkyl side chains substituted with carboxylate moieties, interacted with the FWNT π-electron-rich and hydroxylated sFe 3 O 4 surfaces, which enabled the formation of effective electrical bridges between the respective components, contributing to efficient electron transport and electrode stability. To further induce interactions between PPBT and the metal hydroxide surface, polyethylene glycol was coated onto the sFe 3 O 4 particles, allowing for facile materials dispersion and connectivity. Additionally, the introduction of carbon particles into the web electrode minimized sFe 3 O 4 aggregation and afforded more porous FWNT networks. As a consequence, the design of composite electrodes with rigorous consideration of specific molecular interactions induced by the surface chemistries favorably influenced electrochemical kinetics and electrode resistance, which afforded high-performance electrodes for battery applications.

  4. Nickel-cadmium batteries: effect of electrode phase composition on acid leaching process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, C A; Margarido, F

    2012-01-01

    At the end of their life, Ni-Cd batteries cause a number of environmental problems because of the heavy metals they contain. Because of this, recycling of Ni-Cd batteries has been carried out by dedicated companies using, normally, pyrometallurgical technologies. As an alternative, hydrometallurgical processes have been developed based on leaching operations using several types of leachants. The effect of factors like temperature, acid concentration, reaction time, stirring speed and grinding of material on the leaching yields of metals contained in anodic and cathodic materials (nickel, cadmium and cobalt) using sulphuric acid, is herein explained based on the structural composition of the electrode materials. The nickel, cobalt and cadmium hydroxide phases, even with a small reaction time (less than 15 minutes) and low temperature (50 degrees C) and acid concentration (1.1 M H2SO4), were efficiently leached. However, leaching of the nickel metallic phase was more difficult, requiring higher values of temperature, acid concentration and reaction time (e.g. 85 degrees C, 1.1 M H2SO4 and 5 h, respectively) in order to obtain a good leaching efficiency for anodic and cathodic materials (70% and 93% respectively). The stirring speed was not significant, whereas the grinding of electrode materials seems to promote the compaction of particles, which appears to be critical in the leaching of Ni degrees. These results allowed the identification and understanding of the relationship between the structural composition of electrode materials and the most important factors that affect the H2SO4 leaching of spent Ni-Cd battery electrodes, in order to obtain better metal-recovery efficiency.

  5. Environmental Screening of Electrode Materials for a Rechargeable Aluminum Battery with an AlCl3/EMIMCl Electrolyte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Ager-Wick Ellingsen

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently, rechargeable aluminum batteries have received much attention due to their low cost, easy operation, and high safety. As the research into rechargeable aluminum batteries with a room-temperature ionic liquid electrolyte is relatively new, research efforts have focused on finding suitable electrode materials. An understanding of the environmental aspects of electrode materials is essential to make informed and conscious decisions in aluminum battery development. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the relative environmental performance of electrode material candidates for rechargeable aluminum batteries with an AlCl3/EMIMCl (1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride room-temperature ionic liquid electrolyte. To this end, we used a lifecycle environmental screening framework to evaluate 12 candidate electrode materials. We found that all of the studied materials are associated with one or more drawbacks and therefore do not represent a “silver bullet” for the aluminum battery. Even so, some materials appeared more promising than others did. We also found that aluminum battery technology is likely to face some of the same environmental challenges as Li-ion technology but also offers an opportunity to avoid others. The insights provided here can aid aluminum battery development in an environmentally sustainable direction.

  6. In-situ Spectroscopic and Structural Studies of Electrode Materials for Advanced Battery Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel A Scherson

    2013-03-14

    Techniques have been developed and implemented to gain insight into fundamental factors that affect the performance of electrodes in Li and Li-ion batteries and other energy storage devices. These include experimental strategies for monitoring the Raman scattering spectra of single microparticles of carbon and transition metal oxides as a function of their state of charge. Measurements were performed in electrolytes of direct relevance to Li and Li-Ion batteries both in the static and dynamic modes. In addition, novel strategies were devised for performing conventional experiments in ultrahigh vacuum environments under conditions which eliminate effects associated with presence of impurities, using ultrapure electrolytes, both of the polymeric and ionic liquid type that display no measurable vapor pressure. Also examined was the reactivity of conventional non aqueous solvent toward ultrapure Li films as monitored in ultrahigh vacuum with external reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Also pursued were efforts toward developing applying Raman-scattering for monitoring the flow of charge of a real Li ion battery. Such time-resolved, spatially-resolved measurements are key to validating the results of theoretical simulations involving real electrode structures.

  7. Processing nanoparticle–nanocarbon composites as binder-free electrodes for lithium-based batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marya Baloch

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The processing of battery materials into functional electrodes traditionally requires the preparation of slurries using binders, organic solvents, and additives, all of which present economic and environmental challenges. These are amplified in the production of nanostructured carbon electrodes which are often more difficult to disperse in slurries and require more energy-intensive and longer processing. In this study we demonstrate a new process for preparing binder-free nanocarbon/nanoparticle (Fe–C composite electrodes and study the effect of processing on the nanocomposite’s cycling performance in lithium cells. The binder-free electrodes were prepared by a two-step method: pulsed-electrodeposition of iron-based catalyst followed by chemical vapor deposition of a carbon film. SEM and TEM of the Fe–C showed that the active materials have a fibrous and tortuous morphology with disordered nanocrystalline domains characteristic of an amorphous carbon. The Fe–C electrodes showed good mechanical stability and an excellent cycle performance with an average stable capacity of 221 mAhg−1, and 85% capacity retention for up to 50 cycles. By reducing the number of processing steps and eliminating the use of binders and other chemicals this new method offers a “greener” alternative than current processing methods. Graphical abstract Synopsis: gains in sustainability can be achieved by eliminating use of binders, chemicals, and the number of electrode’s processing steps in this new method.

  8. Water-activated graphite felt as a high-performance electrode for vanadium redox flow batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabtamu, Daniel Manaye; Chen, Jian-Yu; Chang, Yu-Chung; Wang, Chen-Hao

    2017-02-01

    A simple, green, novel, time-efficient, and potentially cost-effective water activation method was employed to enhance the electrochemical activity of graphite felt (GF) electrodes for vanadium redox flow batteries (VRFBs). The GF electrode prepared with a water vapor injection time of 5 min at 700 °C exhibits the highest electrochemical activity for the VO2+/VO2+ couple among all the tested electrodes. This is attributed to the small, controlled amount of water vapor that was introduced producing high contents of oxygen-containing functional groups, such as sbnd OH groups, on the surface of the GF fibers, which are known to be electrochemically active sites for vanadium redox reactions. Charge-discharge tests further confirm that only 5 min of GF water activation is required to improve the efficiency of the VRFB cell. The average coulombic efficiency, voltage efficiency, and energy efficiency are 95.06%, 87.42%, and 83.10%, respectively, at a current density of 50 mA cm-2. These voltage and energy efficiencies are determined to be considerably higher than those of VRFB cells assembled using heat-treated GF electrodes without water activation and pristine GF electrodes.

  9. The effects of surface modification on carbon felt electrodes for use in vanadium redox flow batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ki Jae; Kim, Young-Jun; Kim, Jae-Hun; Park, Min-Sik

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► We observed the physical and chemical changes on the surface of carbon felts after various surface modifications. ► The surface area and chemistry of functional groups formed on the surface of carbon felt are critical to determine the kinetics of the redox reactions of vanadium ions. ► By incorporation of the surface modifications into the electrode preparation, the electrochemical activity of carbon felts could be notably enhanced. - Abstract: The surface of carbon felt electrodes has been modified for improving energy efficiency of vanadium redox flow batteries. For comparative purposes, the effects of various surface modifications such as mild oxidation, plasma treatment, and gamma-ray irradiation on the electrochemical properties of carbon felt electrodes were investigated at optimized conditions. The cell energy efficiency was improved from 68 to 75% after the mild oxidation of the carbon felt at 500 °C for 5 h. This efficiency improvement could be attributed to the increased surface area of the carbon felt electrode and the formation of functional groups on its surface as a result of the modification. On the basis of various structural and electrochemical characterizations, a relationship between the surface nature and electrochemical activity of the carbon felt electrodes is discussed.

  10. Bridging Redox Species-Coated Graphene Oxide Sheets to Electrode for Extending Battery Life Using Nanocomposite Electrolyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yi Fu; Ruan, Wen Hong; Lin, Dong Ling; Zhang, Ming Qiu

    2017-01-11

    Substituting conventional electrolyte for redox electrolyte has provided a new intriguing method for extending battery life. The efficiency of utilizing the contained redox species (RS) in the redox electrolyte can benefit from increasing the specific surface area of battery electrodes from the electrode side of the electrode-electrolyte interface, but is not limited to that. Herein, a new strategy using nanocomposite electrolyte is proposed to enlarge the interface with the aid of nanoinclusions from the electrolyte side. To do this, graphene oxide (GO) sheets are first dispersed in the electrolyte solution of tungstosilicic salt/lithium sulfate/poly(vinyl alcohol) (SiWLi/Li 2 SO 4 /PVA), and then the sheets are bridged to electrode, after casting and evaporating the solution on the electrode surface. By applying in situ conductive atomic force microscopy and Raman spectra, it is confirmed that the GO sheets doped with RS of SiWLi/Li 2 SO 4 can be bridged and electrically reduced as an extended electrode-electrolyte interface. As a result, the RS-coated GO sheets bridged to LiTi 2 (PO 4 ) 3 //LiMn 2 O 4 battery electrodes are found to deliver extra energy capacity (∼30 mAh/g) with excellent electrochemical cycling stability, which successfully extends the battery life by over 50%.

  11. The application of phase contrast X-ray techniques for imaging Li-ion battery electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eastwood, D.S. [Manchester X-ray Imaging Facility, School of Materials, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Research Complex at Harwell, Didcot, Oxon OX11 0FA (United Kingdom); Bradley, R.S. [Manchester X-ray Imaging Facility, School of Materials, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Tariq, F.; Cooper, S.J. [Dept. Earth Science and Engineering, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Taiwo, O.O. [Dept. Chemical Engineering, University College London, London WC1E 7JE (United Kingdom); Gelb, J.; Merkle, A. [Carl Zeiss X-ray Microscopy Inc., Pleasanton, CA 94588 (United States); Brett, D.J.L. [Dept. Chemical Engineering, University College London, London WC1E 7JE (United Kingdom); Brandon, N.P. [Dept. Earth Science and Engineering, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Withers, P.J.; Lee, P.D. [Manchester X-ray Imaging Facility, School of Materials, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Research Complex at Harwell, Didcot, Oxon OX11 0FA (United Kingdom); Shearing, P.R., E-mail: p.shearing@ucl.ac.uk [Dept. Chemical Engineering, University College London, London WC1E 7JE (United Kingdom)

    2014-04-01

    In order to accelerate the commercialization of fuel cells and batteries across a range of applications, an understanding of the mechanisms by which they age and degrade at the microstructural level is required. Here, the most widely commercialized Li-ion batteries based on porous graphite based electrodes which de/intercalate Li{sup +} ions during charge/discharge are studied by two phase contrast enhanced X-ray imaging modes, namely in-line phase contrast and Zernike phase contrast at the micro (synchrotron) and nano (laboratory X-ray microscope) level, respectively. The rate of charge cycling is directly dependent on the nature of the electrode microstructure, which are typically complex multi-scale 3D geometries with significant microstructural heterogeneities. We have been able to characterise the porosity and the tortuosity by micro-CT as well as the morphology of 5 individual graphite particles by nano-tomography finding that while their volume varied significantly their sphericity was surprisingly similar. The volume specific surface areas of the individual grains measured by nano-CT are significantly larger than the total volume specific surface area of the electrode from the micro-CT imaging, which can be attributed to the greater particle surface area visible at higher resolution.

  12. Fabrication and characterization of three-dimensional carbon electrodes for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixidor, Genis Turon; Zaouk, Rabih B.; Park, Benjamin Y.; Madou, Marc J.

    This paper presents fabrication and testing results of three-dimensional carbon anodes for lithium-ion batteries, which are fabricated through the pyrolysis of lithographically patterned epoxy resins. This technique, known as Carbon-MEMS, provides great flexibility and an unprecedented dimensional control in shaping carbon microstructures. Variations in the pattern density and in the pyrolysis conditions result in anodes with different specific and gravimetric capacities, with a three to six times increase in specific capacity with respect to the current thin-film battery technology. Newly designed cross-shaped Carbon-MEMS arrays have a much higher mechanical robustness (as given by their moment of inertia) than the traditionally used cylindrical posts, but the gravimetric analysis suggests that new designs with thinner features are required for better carbon utilization. Pyrolysis at higher temperatures and slower ramping up schedules reduces the irreversible capacity of the carbon electrodes. We also analyze the addition of Meso-Carbon Micro-Beads (MCMB) particles on the reversible and irreversible capacities of new three-dimensional, hybrid electrodes. This combination results in a slight increase in reversible capacity and a big increase in the irreversible capacity of the carbon electrodes, mostly due to the non-complete attachment of the MCMB particles.

  13. Zr - based alloys as hydride electrodes in Ni-MH batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biris, A.R.; Biris, A.S.; Misan, I.; Lupu, D.

    1999-01-01

    Hydrogen storage alloys, MH, are already used in Ni-MH alkaline batteries conquering an important share of the rechargeable nickel-cadmium battery market. This remarkable success is due not only to the replacement of the toxic material, cadmium, by metal hydrides but also to an increased specific energy, which makes them attractive for electric vehicles. Many research groups are concerned in the improvement of the hydride electrode characteristics: hydrogen storage capacity, high-rate discharge ability, increased cycle life. These properties can be modified by substitution of the base components of a given alloy. A comparison of two types of alloys suitable for MH electrodes LaNi 5 able to store 1.36 w/o hydrogen with Zr(Ti)-Ni alloys of the AB 2 Laves phase type structure showed that the latter could absorb higher amounts of hydrogen. We report part of studies on Zr-V-Cr-Ni of the 15 C type Laves phase structure using our original procedure for pasted electrodes. The substitution of Cr for V atoms in ZrV 0.5 Ni 1 . 5 did not increase the discharge capacity. However, it proved to have a remarkable effect on the discharge capacity C at low temperatures. C at - 12 deg. C as compared to 20 deg.C increases up to ∼ 65 % for Cr containing alloys. (authors)

  14. Biomimetic Ant-Nest Electrode Structures for High Sulfur Ratio Lithium-Sulfur Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Guo; Dai, Yiling; Mao, Wenfeng; Zhao, Hui; Fu, Yanbao; Song, Xiangyun; En, Yunfei; Battaglia, Vincent S; Srinivasan, Venkat; Liu, Gao

    2016-09-14

    The lithium-sulfur (Li-S) rechargeable battery has the benefit of high gravimetric energy density and low cost. Significant research currently focuses on increasing the sulfur loading and sulfur/inactive-materials ratio, to improve life and capacity. Inspired by nature's ant-nest structure, this research results in a novel Li-S electrode that is designed to meet both goals. With only three simple manufacturing-friendly steps, which include slurry ball-milling, doctor-blade-based laminate casting, and the use of the sacrificial method with water to dissolve away table salt, the ant-nest design has been successfully recreated in an Li-S electrode. The efficient capabilities of the ant-nest structure are adopted to facilitate fast ion transportation, sustain polysulfide dissolution, and assist efficient precipitation. High cycling stability in the Li-S batteries, for practical applications, has been achieved with up to 3 mg·cm(-2) sulfur loading. Li-S electrodes with up to a 85% sulfur ratio have also been achieved for the efficient design of this novel ant-nest structure.

  15. Aging Mechanisms of Electrode Materials in Lithium-Ion Batteries for Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Lin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrode material aging leads to a decrease in capacity and/or a rise in resistance of the whole cell and thus can dramatically affect the performance of lithium-ion batteries. Furthermore, the aging phenomena are extremely complicated to describe due to the coupling of various factors. In this review, we give an interpretation of capacity/power fading of electrode-oriented aging mechanisms under cycling and various storage conditions for metallic oxide-based cathodes and carbon-based anodes. For the cathode of lithium-ion batteries, the mechanical stress and strain resulting from the lithium ions insertion and extraction predominantly lead to structural disordering. Another important aging mechanism is the metal dissolution from the cathode and the subsequent deposition on the anode. For the anode, the main aging mechanisms are the loss of recyclable lithium ions caused by the formation and increasing growth of a solid electrolyte interphase (SEI and the mechanical fatigue caused by the diffusion-induced stress on the carbon anode particles. Additionally, electrode aging largely depends on the electrochemical behaviour under cycling and storage conditions and results from both structural/morphological changes and side reactions aggravated by decomposition products and protic impurities in the electrolyte.

  16. The application of phase contrast X-ray techniques for imaging Li-ion battery electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastwood, D. S.; Bradley, R. S.; Tariq, F.; Cooper, S. J.; Taiwo, O. O.; Gelb, J.; Merkle, A.; Brett, D. J. L.; Brandon, N. P.; Withers, P. J.; Lee, P. D.; Shearing, P. R.

    2014-04-01

    In order to accelerate the commercialization of fuel cells and batteries across a range of applications, an understanding of the mechanisms by which they age and degrade at the microstructural level is required. Here, the most widely commercialized Li-ion batteries based on porous graphite based electrodes which de/intercalate Li+ ions during charge/discharge are studied by two phase contrast enhanced X-ray imaging modes, namely in-line phase contrast and Zernike phase contrast at the micro (synchrotron) and nano (laboratory X-ray microscope) level, respectively. The rate of charge cycling is directly dependent on the nature of the electrode microstructure, which are typically complex multi-scale 3D geometries with significant microstructural heterogeneities. We have been able to characterise the porosity and the tortuosity by micro-CT as well as the morphology of 5 individual graphite particles by nano-tomography finding that while their volume varied significantly their sphericity was surprisingly similar. The volume specific surface areas of the individual grains measured by nano-CT are significantly larger than the total volume specific surface area of the electrode from the micro-CT imaging, which can be attributed to the greater particle surface area visible at higher resolution.

  17. The application of phase contrast X-ray techniques for imaging Li-ion battery electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eastwood, D.S.; Bradley, R.S.; Tariq, F.; Cooper, S.J.; Taiwo, O.O.; Gelb, J.; Merkle, A.; Brett, D.J.L.; Brandon, N.P.; Withers, P.J.; Lee, P.D.; Shearing, P.R.

    2014-01-01

    In order to accelerate the commercialization of fuel cells and batteries across a range of applications, an understanding of the mechanisms by which they age and degrade at the microstructural level is required. Here, the most widely commercialized Li-ion batteries based on porous graphite based electrodes which de/intercalate Li + ions during charge/discharge are studied by two phase contrast enhanced X-ray imaging modes, namely in-line phase contrast and Zernike phase contrast at the micro (synchrotron) and nano (laboratory X-ray microscope) level, respectively. The rate of charge cycling is directly dependent on the nature of the electrode microstructure, which are typically complex multi-scale 3D geometries with significant microstructural heterogeneities. We have been able to characterise the porosity and the tortuosity by micro-CT as well as the morphology of 5 individual graphite particles by nano-tomography finding that while their volume varied significantly their sphericity was surprisingly similar. The volume specific surface areas of the individual grains measured by nano-CT are significantly larger than the total volume specific surface area of the electrode from the micro-CT imaging, which can be attributed to the greater particle surface area visible at higher resolution

  18. On the electrochemistry of tin oxide coated tin electrodes in lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Böhme, Solveig; Edström, Kristina; Nyholm, Leif

    2015-01-01

    As tin based electrodes are of significant interest in the development of improved lithium-ion batteries it is important to understand the associated electrochemical reactions. In this work it is shown that the electrochemical behavior of SnO_2 coated tin electrodes can be described based on the SnO_2 and SnO conversion reactions, the lithium tin alloy formation and the oxidation of tin generating SnF_2. The CV, XPS and SEM data, obtained for electrodeposited tin crystals on gold substrates, demonstrates that the capacity loss often observed for SnO_2 is caused by the reformed SnO_2 layer serving as a passivating layer protecting the remaining tin. Capacities corresponding up to about 80 % of the initial SnO_2 capacity could, however, be obtained by cycling to 3.5 V vs. Li"+/Li. It is also shown that the oxidation of the lithium tin alloy is hindered by the rate of the diffusion of lithium through a layer of tin with increasing thickness and that the irreversible oxidation of tin to SnF_2 at potentials larger than 2.8 V vs. Li"+/Li is due to the fact that SnF_2 is formed below the SnO_2 layer. This improved electrochemical understanding of the SnO_2/Sn system should be valuable in the development of tin based electrodes for lithium-ion batteries.

  19. Hydrogen storage alloy electrode and the nickel-hydrogen secondary battery using the electrode; Suiso kyuzo gokin denkyoku to sorewo mochiita nikkeru/suiso niji denchi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ono, T. [Furukawa Electric Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Furukawa, J. [The Furukawa Battery Co. Ltd., Yokohama (Japan)

    1997-02-14

    With respect to the conventional nickel-hydrogen secondary battery, pulverization of the hydrogen storage alloy due to repetition of charging-discharging cycles can be prevented by using a fluorocarbon resin as a binder in manufacture of the hydrogen storage alloy electrode; however, the inner pressure increase of the battery in case of overcharging can not be fully controlled. The invention relates to control of the inner pressure increase of the nickel-hydrogen secondary battery in case of overcharging. As to the hydrogen storage alloy electrode, the compound comprising the hydrogen storage alloy powder as a main ingredient is supported by a current collector; further, the compound particularly comprises a fluororubber as a binder. The nickel-hydrogen secondary battery equipped with the hydrogen storage alloy electrode can control the inner pressure increase of the battery in case of overcharging, and lessen decrease of the battery capacity due to repetition of charging-discharging cycles over long time. The effects are dependent on the use of the fluororubber as a binder which has good flexibility, and strong binding capacity as well as water repellency. 1 tab.

  20. Positioning of electrode plane systematically influences EIT imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krueger-Ziolek, Sabine; Schullcke, Benjamin; Kretschmer, Jörn; Möller, Knut; Zhao, Zhanqi; Müller-Lisse, Ullrich

    2015-01-01

    Up to now, the impact of electrode positioning on electrical impedance tomography (EIT) had not been systematically analyzed due to the lack of a reference method. The aim of the study was to determine the impact of electrode positioning on EIT imaging in spontaneously breathing subjects at different ventilation levels with our novel lung function measurement setup combining EIT and body plethysmography. EIT measurements were conducted in three transverse planes between the 3rd and 4th intercostal space (ICS), at the 5th ICS and between the 6th and 7th ICS (named as cranial, middle and caudal) on 12 healthy subjects. Pulmonary function tests were performed simultaneously by body plethysmography to determine functional residual capacity (FRC), vital capacity (VC), tidal volume (VT), expiratory reserve volume (ERV), and inspiratory reserve volume (IRV). Ratios of impedance changes and body plethysmographic volumes were calculated for every thorax plane (ΔI_E_R_V/ERV, ΔI_V_T/VT and ΔI_I_R_V/IRV). In all measurements of a subject, FRC values and VC values differed ≤5%, which confirmed that subjects were breathing at comparable end-expiratory levels and with similar efforts. In the cranial thorax plane the normalized ΔI_E_R_V/ERV ratio in all subjects was significantly higher than the normalized ΔI_I_R_V/IRV ratio whereas the opposite was found in the caudal chest plane. No significant difference between the two normalized ratios was found in the middle thoracic plane. Depending on electrode positioning, impedance to volume ratios may either increase or decrease in the same lung condition, which may lead to opposite clinical decisions. (paper)

  1. Positioning of electrode plane systematically influences EIT imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger-Ziolek, Sabine; Schullcke, Benjamin; Kretschmer, Jörn; Müller-Lisse, Ullrich; Möller, Knut; Zhao, Zhanqi

    2015-06-01

    Up to now, the impact of electrode positioning on electrical impedance tomography (EIT) had not been systematically analyzed due to the lack of a reference method. The aim of the study was to determine the impact of electrode positioning on EIT imaging in spontaneously breathing subjects at different ventilation levels with our novel lung function measurement setup combining EIT and body plethysmography. EIT measurements were conducted in three transverse planes between the 3rd and 4th intercostal space (ICS), at the 5th ICS and between the 6th and 7th ICS (named as cranial, middle and caudal) on 12 healthy subjects. Pulmonary function tests were performed simultaneously by body plethysmography to determine functional residual capacity (FRC), vital capacity (VC), tidal volume (VT), expiratory reserve volume (ERV), and inspiratory reserve volume (IRV). Ratios of impedance changes and body plethysmographic volumes were calculated for every thorax plane (ΔIERV/ERV, ΔIVT/VT and ΔIIRV/IRV). In all measurements of a subject, FRC values and VC values differed ≤5%, which confirmed that subjects were breathing at comparable end-expiratory levels and with similar efforts. In the cranial thorax plane the normalized ΔIERV/ERV ratio in all subjects was significantly higher than the normalized ΔIIRV/IRV ratio whereas the opposite was found in the caudal chest plane. No significant difference between the two normalized ratios was found in the middle thoracic plane. Depending on electrode positioning, impedance to volume ratios may either increase or decrease in the same lung condition, which may lead to opposite clinical decisions.

  2. Simulating the inception of pulsed discharges near positive electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teunissen, Jannis; Ebert, Ute

    2013-09-01

    With 3D particle simulations we study the inception of pulsed discharges near positive electrodes. In different geometries, we first determine the breakdown voltage. Then we study the probability of inception for a fast voltage pulse. This probability mostly depends on the availability of seed electrons to generate the initial electron avalanches. These results are compared with experimental observations. Then we investigate how the shape of a starting discharge affects its further development. In particular, we discuss the formation of so-called ``inception clouds.'' JT was supported by STW-project 10755.

  3. Intercalated Water and Organic Molecules for Electrode Materials of Rechargeable Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyeon Jeong; Shin, Jaeho; Choi, Jang Wook

    2018-03-24

    The intrinsic limitations of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) with regard to safety, cost, and the availability of raw materials have promoted research on so-called "post-LIBs". The recent intense research of post-LIBs provides an invaluable lesson that existing electrode materials used in LIBs may not perform as well in post-LIBs, calling for new material designs compliant with emerging batteries based on new chemistries. One promising approach in this direction is the development of materials with intercalated water or organic molecules, as these materials demonstrate superior electrochemical performance in emerging battery systems. The enlarged ionic channel dimensions and effective shielding of the electrostatic interaction between carrier ions and the lattice host are the origins of the observed electrochemical performance. Moreover, these intercalants serve as interlayer pillars to sustain the framework for prolonged cycles. Representative examples of such intercalated materials applied to batteries based on Li + , Na + , Mg 2+ , and Zn 2+ ions and supercapacitors are considered, along with their impact in materials research. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Azo compounds as a family of organic electrode materials for alkali-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Chao; Borodin, Oleg; Ji, Xiao; Hou, Singyuk; Gaskell, Karen J; Fan, Xiulin; Chen, Ji; Deng, Tao; Wang, Ruixing; Jiang, Jianjun; Wang, Chunsheng

    2018-02-27

    Organic compounds are desirable for sustainable Li-ion batteries (LIBs), but the poor cycle stability and low power density limit their large-scale application. Here we report a family of organic compounds containing azo group (N=N) for reversible lithiation/delithiation. Azobenzene-4,4'-dicarboxylic acid lithium salt (ADALS) with an azo group in the center of the conjugated structure is used as a model azo compound to investigate the electrochemical behaviors and reaction mechanism of azo compounds. In LIBs, ADALS can provide a capacity of 190 mAh g -1 at 0.5 C (corresponding to current density of 95 mA g -1 ) and still retain 90%, 71%, and 56% of the capacity when the current density is increased to 2 C, 10 C, and 20 C, respectively. Moreover, ADALS retains 89% of initial capacity after 5,000 cycles at 20 C with a slow capacity decay rate of 0.0023% per cycle, representing one of the best performances in all organic compounds. Superior electrochemical behavior of ADALS is also observed in Na-ion batteries, demonstrating that azo compounds are universal electrode materials for alkali-ion batteries. The highly reversible redox chemistry of azo compounds to alkali ions was confirmed by density-functional theory (DFT) calculations. It provides opportunities for developing sustainable batteries.

  5. Cubic KTi2(PO4)3 as electrode materials for sodium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jin; Xu, Maowen; Niu, Yubin; Jia, Min; Liu, Ting; Li, Chang Ming

    2016-12-01

    A novel cubic KTi2(PO4)3 is successfully synthesized via a facile hydrothermal method combined with a subsequent annealing treatment and further used as electrode material for sodium-ion batteries for the first time. For comparison, carbon-coated KTi2(PO4)3 obtained by a normal cane sugar-assisted method reveals superior electrochemical performances in sodium-ion battery. Besides of the high coulombic efficiency of nearly 100% after 100 cycles, a stable capacity of 112mAhg(-1) can be achieved at 0.5C after 100 cycles, and still maintains to 105mAhg(-1) after 500 cycles with capacity retention of approximately 90%. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Elucidating effects of cell architecture, electrode material, and solution composition on overpotentials in redox flow batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pezeshki, Alan M. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Sacci, Robert L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Delnick, Frank M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Aaron, Douglas S. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Mench, Matthew M. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-01-16

    Here, an improved method for quantitative measurement of the charge transfer, finite diffusion, and ohmic overpotentials in redox flow batteries using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy is presented. The use of a pulse dampener in the hydraulic circuit enables the collection of impedance spectra at low frequencies with a peristaltic pump, allowing the measurement of finite diffusion resistances at operationally relevant flow rates. This method is used to resolve the rate-limiting processes for the V2+/V3+ redox couple on carbon felt and carbon paper electrodes in the vanadium redox flow battery. Carbon felt was limited by both charge transfer and ohmic resistance, while carbon paper was limited by charge transfer, finite diffusion, and ohmic resistances. The influences of vanadium concentration and flow field design also are quantified.

  7. Elucidating effects of cell architecture, electrode material, and solution composition on overpotentials in redox flow batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pezeshki, Alan M.; Sacci, Robert L.; Delnick, Frank M.; Aaron, Douglas S.; Mench, Matthew M.

    2017-01-01

    An improved method for quantitative measurement of the charge transfer, finite diffusion, and ohmic overpotentials in redox flow batteries using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy is presented. The use of a pulse dampener in the hydraulic circuit enables the collection of impedance spectra at low frequencies with a peristaltic pump, allowing the measurement of finite diffusion resistances at operationally relevant flow rates. This method is used to resolve the rate-limiting processes for the V 2+ /V 3+ redox couple on carbon felt and carbon paper electrodes in the vanadium redox flow battery. Carbon felt was limited by both charge transfer and ohmic resistance, while carbon paper was limited by charge transfer, finite diffusion, and ohmic resistances. The influences of vanadium concentration and flow field design also are quantified.

  8. Bipolar lead acid batteries with ceramic partitioning walls. Forming and characterization of negative electrodes; Bipolaera blybatterier med keramiska mellanvaeggar. Tillverkning och karaktaerisering av negativa elektroder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsson, Ove; Haraldsen, Britta [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Environmental Inorganic Chemistry

    2001-01-01

    Bipolar electrodes are built with positive and negative paste on each side of a partitioning wall (PW). The PW must be dimensional stable and shall not allow electrolyte to flow through. The process of lead infiltration in porous ceramic plates is studied in this report in combination with different methods of forming pos. and neg. halves. Plante formed negative paste can not withstand a high pressure - relief details must be included in the design. The expanders in NAM are necessary to maintain the capacity. Positive Plante formed electrodes are not proper formed due to a too high current density. Furthermore, they are very brittle. The usefulness of paste plates has been shown and the future work will be directed towards such bipolar electrodes to be included in prototype batteries.

  9. Lithium battery using sulfur infiltrated in three-dimensional flower-like hierarchical porous carbon electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno, Noelia; Caballero, Alvaro [Dpto.Química Inorgánica, Instituto Universitario de Investigación en Química Fina y Nanoquímica, Universidad de Córdoba, Campus de Rabanales (Spain); Morales, Julián, E-mail: iq1mopaj@uco.es [Dpto.Química Inorgánica, Instituto Universitario de Investigación en Química Fina y Nanoquímica, Universidad de Córdoba, Campus de Rabanales (Spain); Agostini, Marco [Department of Chemistry, SapienzaUniversity, P.zzale Aldo Moro 5, 00185, Rome (Italy); Hassoun, Jusef, E-mail: jusef.hassoun@unife.it [Università di Ferrara, Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche e Farmaceutiche, Via Fossato di Mortara 17, Ferrara (Italy)

    2016-09-01

    Three dimensional, flower-like hierarchical porous carbon (FPC) and its CO{sub 2}-activation (AFPC) are reported as sulfur-hosting matrixes in Li/S battery. The composites are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms as well as by galvanostatic cycling and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) in lithium-cell. Both samples show well defined micrometric morphology and a sulfur content as high as 66% expected to reflect into rather high practical energy density of the electrode in lithium-sulfur battery. The lithium sulfur cell using the FPC-S composite exhibits at 25 °C a moderate cycling stability with delivered capacity ranging from 1000 to about 610 mAh g{sup −1} upon 50 cycles at 100 mA g{sup −1}. The AFPC-S composite reveals increased cycling stability and delivers a capacity ranging from 1000 to 680 mAh g{sup −1}. Improved capacity is achieved by slightly increasing the temperature, as demonstrated by cycling the FPC-S at 35 °C using a current as high as 500 mA g{sup −1}. The excellent rate capability of the electrode is associated to the carbon texture and morphology that significantly lower the cell resistance, as indeed demonstrated by EIS measurement upon cycling. - Highlights: • Sulfur electrode basing on activated, flower-like hierarchical porous carbon is reported. • Defined micrometric morphology and a sulfur content as high as 66% are obtained. • Lithium sulfur cell using the composite exhibits remarkable performances. • A specific capacity of about 1000 mAh g{sup −1} is obtained at high current rate. • The resulting Li/S battery has relevant energy content.

  10. A comparative study on electrochemical performances of the electrodes with different nanocarbon conductive additives for lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Taiqiang; Pan, Likun; Liu, Xinjuan; Sun, Zhuo

    2013-01-01

    Three nanocarbon materials (0 D acetylene black (AB), 1 D carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and 2 D reduced graphene oxide (RGO)) were used as conductive additives (CAs) in the mesocarbon microbead anodes for lithium ion batteries. The electrochemical performances of the electrodes were investigated. The results show that the CAs have a significant impact on the electrode performance because they can influence the electron conduction and lithium ion transportation within the electrode. The electrode with RGO achieves a maximum capacity of 387 mAh g −1 after 50 cycles at a current density of 50 mA g −1 , much higher than those of the electrodes with AB (334 mAh g −1 ) and CNTs (319 mAh g −1 ). The improvement should be mainly ascribed to the “plane-to-point” conducting network formed in the electrode with 2 D RGO which can favor the electron conduction and enhance the lithium ion transportation. - Highlights: • Three carbon materials were used as additives in the electrodes of Li ion battery. • The electrochemical performances of the electrodes were comparatively investigated. • The carbon additives have a significant impact on the electrode performance. • RGO additive acts as a bridge to form a “plane-to-point” conducting network. • The electrode with RGO exhibits better performance than those with other additives

  11. Thermodynamics and kinetics of phase transformation in intercalation battery electrodes - phenomenological modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lai Wei, E-mail: laiwei@msu.ed [Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Ciucci, Francesco [Heidelberg Graduate School of Mathematical and Computational Methods for the Sciences, University of Heidelberg, INF 368 D - 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2010-12-15

    Thermodynamics and kinetics of phase transformation in intercalation battery electrodes are investigated by phenomenological models which include a mean-field lattice-gas thermodynamic model and a generalized Poisson-Nernst-Planck equation set based on linear irreversible thermodynamics. The application of modeling to a porous intercalation electrode leads to a hierarchical equivalent circuit with elements of explicit physical meanings. The equivalent circuit corresponding to the intercalation particle of planar, cylindrical and spherical symmetry is reduced to a diffusion equation with concentration dependent diffusivity. The numerical analysis of the diffusion equation suggests the front propagation behavior during phase transformation. The present treatment is also compared with the conventional moving boundary and phase field approaches.

  12. Virus-Assembled Flexible Electrode-Electrolyte Interfaces for Enhanced Polymer-Based Battery Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayan Ghosh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available High-aspect-ratio cobalt-oxide-coated Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV- assembled polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE nonstick surfaces were integrated with a solvent-free polymer electrolyte to create an anode-electrolyte interface for use in lithium-ion batteries. The virus-assembled PTFE surfaces consisted primarily of cobalt oxide and were readily intercalated with a low-molecular-weight poly (ethylene oxide (PEO based diblock copolymer electrolyte to produce a solid anode-electrolyte system. The resulting polymer-coated virus-based system was then peeled from the PTFE backing to produce a flexible electrode-electrolyte component. Electrochemical studies indicated the virus-structured metal-oxide PEO-based interface was stable and displayed robust charge transfer kinetics. Combined, these studies demonstrate the development of a novel solid-state electrode architecture with a unique peelable and flexible processing attribute.

  13. Physics of electron and lithium-ion transport in electrode materials for Li-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Musheng; Xu Bo; Ouyang Chuying

    2016-01-01

    The physics of ionic and electrical conduction at electrode materials of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) are briefly summarized here, besides, we review the current research on ionic and electrical conduction in electrode material incorporating experimental and simulation studies. Commercial LIBs have been widely used in portable electronic devices and are now developed for large-scale applications in hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) and stationary distributed power stations. However, due to the physical limits of the materials, the overall performance of today’s LIBs does not meet all the requirements for future applications, and the transport problem has been one of the main barriers to further improvement. The electron and Li-ion transport behaviors are important in determining the rate capacity of LIBs. (topical review)

  14. Biomimetic synthesis and characterization of the positive electrode material LiFePO4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Peng; He Wen; Zhao Hongshi; Wang Shaopeng

    2009-01-01

    The biosurfactant is used as the template to synthesize lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO 4 ) precursor with the co-precipitation method and the microwave sintering method is used to prepare positive electrode material LiFePO 4 for the lithium ion battery. By using the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface areas, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and conductometer, the authors explored the influence of the microwave power on the structure and performance of the materials. The results the authors got have proved that good crystal and high conductivity values can be obtained from the LiFePO 4 powders which are processed 10 min under the microwave power of 300 W

  15. Numerical Study of Electrolyte Wetting Phenomena in the Electrode of Lithium Ion Battery Using Lattice Boltzmann Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang Gun [Seoul Nat' l Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, Dong Hyup [Dongguk Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-04-15

    The electrolyte wetting phenomena in the electrode of lithium ion battery is studied numerically using a multiphase lattice Boltzmann method (LBM). When a porous electrode is compressed during roll-pressing process, the porosity and thickness of the compressed electrode are changed, which can affect its wettability. In this study, the change in electrolyte distribution and degree of saturation as a result of varying the compression ratio are investigated with two-dimensional LBM approach. We found that changes in the electrolyte transport path are caused by a reduction in through-plane pore size and result in a decrease in the wettability of the compressed electrode.

  16. 3D Printing of Flexible Electrodes Towards Wearable Lithium Ion Battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Yi-bo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A novel method to fabricate flexible free-standing electrodes with textile structure for lithium-ion batteries was provided by applying extrusion-based three-dimensional (3D printing technology. Meanwhile, highly concentrated poly(vinylidene fluoride (PVDF is used as viscosity modifier, carbon nanotube (CNT as conducting additive, and lithium iron phosphate (LFP or lithium titanium oxide (LTO as cathode or anode active materials respectively to develop printable inks with obvious shear-thinning behavior, and with the apparent viscosity and storage modulus platform value of over 105Pa·s, which is beneficial to the printability and enable complex 3D structures solidification. The electrochemical test shows that both printed electrodes have similar charge and discharge specific capacities under current density of 50mA·g-1. To explore the feasibility of the printed electrodes, a pouch cell with as-printed LFP and LTO electrode as cathode and anode respectively is assembled. The pouch cell without deformation delivers discharge specific capacities of approximately 108mAh·g-1, and there is a tiny increase in discharge specific capacities of around 111mAh·g-1 for bended pouch cell.

  17. Understanding and Overcoming the Challenges Posed by Electrode/Electrolyte Interfaces in Rechargeable Magnesium Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizuno, Fuminori, E-mail: fuminori.mizuno@tema.toyota.com; Singh, Nikhilendra; Arthur, Timothy S.; Fanson, Paul T. [Toyota Research Institute of North America, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Ramanathan, Mayandi [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Center for Electrochemical Science and Engineering, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Benmayza, Aadil; Prakash, Jai [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Center for Electrochemical Science and Engineering, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Liu, Yi-Sheng; Glans, Per-Anders; Guo, Jinghua [Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2014-11-11

    Magnesium (Mg) battery technologies have attracted attention as a high energy-density storage system due to the following advantages: (1) potentially high energy-density derived from a divalent nature, (2) low-cost due to the use of an earth-abundant metal, and (3) intrinsic safety aspect attributed to non-dendritic growth of Mg. However, these notable advantages are downplayed by undesirable battery reactions and related phenomena. As a result, there are only a few working rechargeable Mg battery systems. One of the root causes for undesirable behavior is the sluggish diffusion of Mg{sup 2+} inside a host lattice. Another root cause is the interfacial reaction at the electrode/electrolyte boundary. For the cathode/electrolyte interface, Mg{sup 2+} in the electrolyte needs a solvation–desolvation process prior to diffusion inside the cathode. Apart from the solid electrolyte interface (SEI) formed on the cathode, the divalent nature of Mg should cause kinetically slower solvation–desolvation processes than that of Li-ion systems. This would result in a high charge-transfer resistance and a larger overpotential. On the contrary, for the anode/electrolyte interface, the Mg deposition and dissolution process depends on the electrolyte nature and its compatibility with Mg metal. Also, the Mg metal/electrolyte interface tends to change over time, and with operating conditions, suggesting the presence of interfacial phenomena on the Mg metal. Hence, the solvation–desolvation process of Mg has to be considered with a possible SEI. Here, we focus on the anode/electrolyte interface in a Mg battery, and discuss the next steps to improve the battery performance.

  18. Current-induced transition from particle-by-particle to concurrent intercalation in phase-separating battery electrodes

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Yiyang; El Gabaly, Farid; Ferguson, Todd R.; Smith, Raymond B.; Bartelt, Norman C.; Sugar, Joshua D.; Fenton, Kyle R.; Cogswell, Daniel A.; Kilcoyne, A. L. David; Tyliszczak, Tolek; Bazant, Martin Z.; Chueh, William C.

    2014-01-01

    ©2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved. Many battery electrodes contain ensembles of nanoparticles that phase-separate on (de)intercalation. In such electrodes, the fraction of actively intercalating particles directly impacts cycle life: a vanishing population concentrates the current in a small number of particles, leading to current hotspots. Reports of the active particle population in the phase-separating electrode lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO 4; LFP) vary widely, ranging from near 0% (particle-by-particle) to 100% (concurrent intercalation). Using synchrotron-based X-ray microscopy, we probed the individual state-of-charge for over 3,000 LFP particles. We observed that the active population depends strongly on the cycling current, exhibiting particle-by-particle-like behaviour at low rates and increasingly concurrent behaviour at high rates, consistent with our phase-field porous electrode simulations. Contrary to intuition, the current density, or current per active internal surface area, is nearly invariant with the global electrode cycling rate. Rather, the electrode accommodates higher current by increasing the active particle population. This behaviour results from thermodynamic transformation barriers in LFP, and such a phenomenon probably extends to other phase-separating battery materials. We propose that modifying the transformation barrier and exchange current density can increase the active population and thus the current homogeneity. This could introduce new paradigms to enhance the cycle life of phase-separating battery electrodes.

  19. Current-induced transition from particle-by-particle to concurrent intercalation in phase-separating battery electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yiyang; El Gabaly, Farid; Ferguson, Todd R; Smith, Raymond B; Bartelt, Norman C; Sugar, Joshua D; Fenton, Kyle R; Cogswell, Daniel A; Kilcoyne, A L David; Tyliszczak, Tolek; Bazant, Martin Z; Chueh, William C

    2014-12-01

    Many battery electrodes contain ensembles of nanoparticles that phase-separate on (de)intercalation. In such electrodes, the fraction of actively intercalating particles directly impacts cycle life: a vanishing population concentrates the current in a small number of particles, leading to current hotspots. Reports of the active particle population in the phase-separating electrode lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4; LFP) vary widely, ranging from near 0% (particle-by-particle) to 100% (concurrent intercalation). Using synchrotron-based X-ray microscopy, we probed the individual state-of-charge for over 3,000 LFP particles. We observed that the active population depends strongly on the cycling current, exhibiting particle-by-particle-like behaviour at low rates and increasingly concurrent behaviour at high rates, consistent with our phase-field porous electrode simulations. Contrary to intuition, the current density, or current per active internal surface area, is nearly invariant with the global electrode cycling rate. Rather, the electrode accommodates higher current by increasing the active particle population. This behaviour results from thermodynamic transformation barriers in LFP, and such a phenomenon probably extends to other phase-separating battery materials. We propose that modifying the transformation barrier and exchange current density can increase the active population and thus the current homogeneity. This could introduce new paradigms to enhance the cycle life of phase-separating battery electrodes.

  20. Current-induced transition from particle-by-particle to concurrent intercalation in phase-separating battery electrodes

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Yiyang

    2014-09-14

    ©2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved. Many battery electrodes contain ensembles of nanoparticles that phase-separate on (de)intercalation. In such electrodes, the fraction of actively intercalating particles directly impacts cycle life: a vanishing population concentrates the current in a small number of particles, leading to current hotspots. Reports of the active particle population in the phase-separating electrode lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO 4; LFP) vary widely, ranging from near 0% (particle-by-particle) to 100% (concurrent intercalation). Using synchrotron-based X-ray microscopy, we probed the individual state-of-charge for over 3,000 LFP particles. We observed that the active population depends strongly on the cycling current, exhibiting particle-by-particle-like behaviour at low rates and increasingly concurrent behaviour at high rates, consistent with our phase-field porous electrode simulations. Contrary to intuition, the current density, or current per active internal surface area, is nearly invariant with the global electrode cycling rate. Rather, the electrode accommodates higher current by increasing the active particle population. This behaviour results from thermodynamic transformation barriers in LFP, and such a phenomenon probably extends to other phase-separating battery materials. We propose that modifying the transformation barrier and exchange current density can increase the active population and thus the current homogeneity. This could introduce new paradigms to enhance the cycle life of phase-separating battery electrodes.

  1. Continuous fabrication of a MnS/Co nanofibrous air electrode for wide integration of rechargeable zinc-air batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yang; Fu, Jing; Zhang, Yining; Li, Matthew; Hassan, Fathy Mohamed; Li, Guang; Chen, Zhongwei

    2017-10-26

    Exploring highly efficient bifunctional electrocatalysts toward the oxygen reduction and evolution reactions is essential for the realization of high-performance rechargeable zinc-air batteries. Herein, a novel nanofibrous bifunctional electrocatalyst film, consisting of metallic manganese sulfide and cobalt encapsulated by nitrogen-doped carbon nanofibers (CMS/NCNF), is prepared through a continuous electrospinning method followed by carbonization treatment. The CMS/NCNF bifunctional catalyst shows both comparable ORR and OER performances to those of commercial precious metal-based catalysts. Furthermore, the free-standing CMS/NCNF fibrous thin film is directly used as the air electrode in a solid-state zinc-air battery, which exhibits superior flexibility while retaining stable battery performance at different bending angles. This study provides a versatile design route for the rational design of free-standing bifunctional catalysts for direct use as the air electrode in rechargeable zinc-air batteries.

  2. Effect of surface transport properties on the performance of carbon plastic electrodes for flow battery applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Xihe; Souier, Tewfik; Chiesa, Matteo; Vassallo, Anthony

    2014-01-01

    Due to their high electrical conductivity and corrosion resistance, carbon nanotube (MWNT)-high density polyethylene (HDPE) composites are potential candidates to replace traditional activated carbon electrodes for the next generation of fuel-cells, super capacitors and flow batteries. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) is employed to separate the surface conduction from bulk conduction in 15% HDPE-MWNT and 19% carbon black (CB)-HDPE composites for zinc-bromine flow battery electrodes. While exhibiting superior bulk conductivity, the interfacial conductivity of MWNT-filled composites is lower than that of CB-filled composites. High resolution conductive atomic force microscopy (C-AFM) imaging and current-voltage (I-V) spectroscopy were employed to investigate the sub-surface electronic transport of the composite. Unlike the CB-composite, the fraction of conducting MWNTs near the surface is very low compared to their volume fraction. In addition, the non-linear I-V curves reveal the presence of a tunneling junction between the tip and the polymer-coated MWNTs. The tunneling resistance is as high as 1 GΩ, which strongly affects the electronic/electrochemical transfer at the interface of the electrolyte and the surface of the composite, which is evident in the voltammetric and EIS observations

  3. Ultrathin Graphite Foam: A Three-Dimensional Conductive Network for Battery Electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ji, HX; Zhang, LL; Pettes, MT; Li, HF; Chen, SS; Shi, L; Piner, R; Ruoff, RS

    2012-05-01

    We report the use of free-standing, lightweight, and highly conductive ultrathin graphite foam (UGF), loaded with lithium iron phosphate (LFP), as a cathode in a lithium ion battery. At a high charge/discharge current density of 1280 mA g(-1), the specific capacity of the LFP loaded on UGF was 70 mAh g(-1), while LFP loaded on Al foil failed. Accounting for the total mass of the electrode, the maximum specific capacity of the UGF/LFP cathode was 23% higher than that of the Al/LFP cathode and 170% higher than that of the Ni-foam/LFP cathode. Using UGF, both a higher rate capability and specific capacity can be achieved simultaneously, owing to its conductive (similar to 1.3 x 10(5) S m(-1) at room temperature) and three-dimensional lightweight (similar to 9.5 mg cm(-3)) graphitic structure. Meanwhile, UGF presents excellent electrochemical stability comparing to that of Al and Ni foils, which are generally used as conductive substrates in lithium ion batteries. Moreover, preparation of the UGF electrode was facile, cost-effective, and compatible with various electrochemically active materials.

  4. Self-assembled monolayers of n-alkanethiols suppress hydrogen evolution and increase the efficiency of rechargeable iron battery electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malkhandi, Souradip; Yang, Bo; Manohar, Aswin K; Prakash, G K Surya; Narayanan, S R

    2013-01-09

    Iron-based rechargeable batteries, because of their low cost, eco-friendliness, and durability, are extremely attractive for large-scale energy storage. A principal challenge in the deployment of these batteries is their relatively low electrical efficiency. The low efficiency is due to parasitic hydrogen evolution that occurs on the iron electrode during charging and idle stand. In this study, we demonstrate for the first time that linear alkanethiols are very effective in suppressing hydrogen evolution on alkaline iron battery electrodes. The alkanethiols form self-assembled monolayers on the iron electrodes. The degree of suppression of hydrogen evolution by the alkanethiols was found to be greater than 90%, and the effectiveness of the alkanethiol increased with the chain length. Through steady-state potentiostatic polarization studies and impedance measurements on high-purity iron disk electrodes, we show that the self-assembly of alkanethiols suppressed the parasitic reaction by reducing the interfacial area available for the electrochemical reaction. We have modeled the effect of chain length of the alkanethiol on the surface coverage, charge-transfer resistance, and double-layer capacitance of the interface using a simple model that also yields a value for the interchain interaction energy. We have verified the improvement in charging efficiency resulting from the use of the alkanethiols in practical rechargeable iron battery electrodes. The results of battery tests indicate that alkanethiols yield among the highest faradaic efficiencies reported for the rechargeable iron electrodes, enabling the prospect of a large-scale energy storage solution based on low-cost iron-based rechargeable batteries.

  5. Self-Assembled Monolayers of n-Alkanethiols Suppress Hydrogen Evolution and Increase the Efficiency of Rechargeable Iron Battery Electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malkhandi, S; Yang, B; Manohar, AK; Prakash, GKS; Narayanan, SR

    2013-01-09

    Iron-based rechargeable batteries, because of their low cost, eco-friendliness, and durability, are extremely attractive for large-scale energy storage. A principal challenge in the deployment of these batteries is their relatively low electrical efficiency. The low efficiency is due to parasitic hydrogen evolution that occurs on the iron electrode during charging and idle stand. In this study, we demonstrate for the first time that linear alkanethiols are very effective in suppressing hydrogen evolution on alkaline iron battery electrodes. The alkanethiols form self-assembled monolayers on the iron electrodes. The degree of suppression of hydrogen evolution by the alkanethiols was found to be greater than 90%, and the effectiveness of the alkanethiol increased with the chain length. Through steady-state potentiostatic polarization studies and impedance measurements on high-purity iron disk electrodes, we show that the self-assembly of alkanethiols suppressed the parasitic reaction by reducing the interfacial area available for the electrochemical reaction. We have modeled the effect of chain length of the alkanethiol on the surface coverage, charge-transfer resistance, and double-layer capacitance of the interface using a simple model that also yields a value for the interchain interaction energy. We have verified the improvement in charging efficiency resulting from the use of the alkanethiols in practical rechargeable iron battery electrodes. The results of battery tests indicate that alkanethiols yield among the highest faradaic efficiencies reported for the rechargeable iron electrodes, enabling the prospect of a large-scale energy storage solution based on low-cost iron-based rechargeable batteries.

  6. Tunable Reaction Potentials in Open Framework Nanoparticle Battery Electrodes for Grid-Scale Energy Storage

    KAUST Repository

    Wessells, Colin D.

    2012-02-28

    The electrical energy grid has a growing need for energy storage to address short-term transients, frequency regulation, and load leveling. Though electrochemical energy storage devices such as batteries offer an attractive solution, current commercial battery technology cannot provide adequate power, and cycle life, and energy efficiency at a sufficiently low cost. Copper hexacyanoferrate and nickel hexacyanoferrate, two open framework materials with the Prussian Blue structure, were recently shown to offer ultralong cycle life and high-rate performance when operated as battery electrodes in safe, inexpensive aqueous sodium ion and potassium ion electrolytes. In this report, we demonstrate that the reaction potential of copper-nickel alloy hexacyanoferrate nanoparticles may be tuned by controlling the ratio of copper to nickel in these materials. X-ray diffraction, TEM energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and galvanostatic electrochemical cycling of copper-nickel hexacyanoferrate reveal that copper and nickel form a fully miscible solution at particular sites in the framework without perturbing the structure. This allows copper-nickel hexacyanoferrate to reversibly intercalate sodium and potassium ions for over 2000 cycles with capacity retentions of 100% and 91%, respectively. The ability to precisely tune the reaction potential of copper-nickel hexacyanoferrate without sacrificing cycle life will allow the development of full cells that utilize the entire electrochemical stability window of aqueous sodium and potassium ion electrolytes. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  7. Synthesis and characterization of high performance electrode materials for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jian

    Lithium-ion batteries have revolutionized portable electronics. Electrode reactions in these electrochemical systems are based on reversible intercalation of Li+ ions into the host electrode material with a concomitant addition/removal of electrons into the host. If such batteries are to find a wider market such as the automotive industry, less expensive and higher capacity electrode materials will be required. The olivine phase lithium iron phosphate has attracted the most attention because of its low cost and safety (high thermal and chemical stability). However, it is an intriguing fundamental problem to understand the fast electrochemical response from the poorly electronic conducting two-phase LiFePO4/FePO 4 system. This thesis focuses on determining the rate-limit step of LiFePO4. First, a LiFePO4 material, with vanadium substituting on the P-site, was synthesized, and found that the crystal structure change may cause high lithium diffusivity. Since an accurate Li diffusion coefficient cannot be measured by traditional electrochemical method in a three-electrode cell due to the phase transformation during measurement, a new method to measure the intrinsic electronic and ionic conductivity of mixed conductive LiFePO 4 was developed. This was based on the conductivity measurements of mixed conductive solid electrolyte using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and blocking electrode. The effects of ionic/electronic conductivity and phase transformation on the rate performance of LiFePO4 were also first investigated by EIS and other electrochemical technologies. Based on the above fundamental kinetics studies, an optimized LiFePO4 was used as a target to deposit 1mum LiFePO4 thin film at Oak Ridge National Laboratory using radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering. Similar to the carbon coated LiFePO4 powder electrode, the carbon-contained RF LiFePO4 film with no preferential orientation showed excellent capacity and rate capability both at 25°C and -20

  8. Synchrotron x-ray diffraction studies of the structural properties of electrode materials in operating battery cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thurston, T.R.; Jisrawi, N.M.; Mukerjee, S.; Yang, X.Q.; McBreen, J.; Daroux, M.L.; Xing, X.K.

    1996-01-01

    Hard x rays from a synchrotron source were utilized in diffraction experiments which probed the bulk of electrode materials while they were operating in situ in battery cells. Two technologically relevant electrode materials were examined; an AB 2 -type anode in a nickel endash metal endash hydride cell and a LiMn 2 O 4 cathode in a Li-ion open-quote open-quote rocking chair close-quote close-quote cell. Structural features such as lattice expansions and contractions, phase transitions, and the formation of multiple phases were easily observed as either hydrogen or lithium was electrochemically intercalated in and out of the electrode materials. The relevance of this technique for future studies of battery electrode materials is discussed. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  9. Numerical study of the effects of carbon felt electrode compression in all-vanadium redox flow batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Kyeongmin; Won, Seongyeon; Ju, Hyunchul

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The effects of electrode compression on VRFB are examined. • The electronic conductivity is improved when the compression is increased. • The kinetic losses are similar regardless of the electrode compression level. • The vanadium distribution is more uniform within highly compressed electrode. - Abstract: The porous carbon felt electrode is one of the major components of all-vanadium redox flow batteries (VRFBs). These electrodes are necessarily compressed during stack assembly to prevent liquid electrolyte leakage and diminish the interfacial contact resistance among VRFB stack components. The porous structure and properties of carbon felt electrodes have a considerable influence on the electrochemical reactions, transport features, and cell performance. Thus, a numerical study was performed herein to investigate the effects of electrode compression on the charge and discharge behavior of VRFBs. A three-dimensional, transient VRFB model developed in a previous study was employed to simulate VRFBs under two degrees of electrode compression (10% vs. 20%). The effects of electrode compression were precisely evaluated by analysis of the solid/electrolyte potential profiles, transfer current density, and vanadium concentration distributions, as well as the overall charge and discharge performance. The model predictions highlight the beneficial impact of electrode compression; the electronic conductivity of the carbon felt electrode is the main parameter improved by electrode compression, leading to reduction in ohmic loss through the electrodes. In contrast, the kinetics of the redox reactions and transport of vanadium species are not significantly altered by the degree of electrode compression (10% to 20%). This study enhances the understanding of electrode compression effects and demonstrates that the present VRFB model is a valuable tool for determining the optimal design and compression of carbon felt electrodes in VRFBs.

  10. Effect of electrode intrusion on pressure drop and electrochemical performance of an all-vanadium redox flow battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, S.; Jayanti, S.

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, we present a study of the effect of electrode intrusion into the flow channel in an all-vanadium redox flow battery. Permeability, pressure drop and electrochemical performance have been measured in a cell with active area 100 cm2and 414 cm2 fitted with a carbon felt electrode of thickness of 3, 6 or 9 mm compressed to 1.5, 2.5 or 4 mm, respectively, during assembly. Results show that the pressure drop is significantly higher than what can be expected in the thick electrode case while its electrochemical performance is lower. Detailed flow analysis using computational fluid dynamics simulations in two different flow fields shows that both these results can be attributed to electrode intrusion into the flow channel leading to increased resistance to electrolyte flow through the electrode. A correlation is proposed to evaluate electrode intrusion depth as a function of compression.

  11. Effect of inorganic additive sodium pyrophosphate tetrabasic on positive electrolytes for a vanadium redox flow battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Se-Kook; Shim, Joonmok; Yang, Jung Hoon; Jin, Chang-Soo; Lee, Bum Suk; Lee, Young-Seak; Shin, Kyoung-Hee; Jeon, Jae-Deok

    2014-01-01

    Sodium pyrophosphate tetrabasic (SPT) is employed as an inorganic additive in the positive electrolyte of a vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB) to improve its long-term stability and electrochemical performance. The results of precipitation tests show that the long-term stability of positive electrolytes (2 MV(V) solution in 4 M total sulfates with 0.05 M SPT additive) is improved compared to the blank one. UV-vis and cyclic voltammetry (CV) measurements also suggest that the addition of SPT can effectively delay the formation of precipitation in positive electrolytes, and no new substances are formed in V(V) electrolytes with SPT. The calcined precipitates extracted from the electrolytes with and without a SPT additive are identified as V 2 O 5 by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. A VRFB single-unit cell employing positive electrolytes with an additive exhibits the high energy efficiency of 74.6% at a current density of 40 mA cm 2 at the 500 th cycle at 20°C, compared to 71.8% for the cell employing the electrolyte without an additive. Moreover, the cell employing the electrolyte with an additive exhibits less discharge capacity fading during cycling in comparison with the pristine one. The disassembled cell without an additive shows a large number of V 2 O 5 precipitation particles on the felt electrode after 500 cycles. Meanwhile, the felt electrode of the cell with an additive has little precipitation. That precipitation gives rise to an imbalance between the positive and negative half-cell electrolytes, which results in a significant capacity loss. The additive has shown positive results under limited laboratory short-term and small-scale conditions

  12. The negative electrode development for a Ni-MH battery prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuscueta, D.J.; Ghilarducci, A.A.; Salva, H.R.; Milocco, R.H.; Castro, E.B.

    2009-01-01

    The negative electrode development for a nickel-metal hydride battery (Ni-MH) prototype was performed with the following procedure: (1) the Lm 0.95 Ni 3.8 Co 0.3 Mn 0.3 Al 0.4 (Lm=lanthanum rich mischmetal) intermetallic alloy was elaborated by melting the pure elements in an induction furnace inside a boron nitride crucible under an inert atmosphere, (2) the obtained alloy was crushed and sieved between 44 and 74 μm and mixed with teflonized carbon; (3) the compound was assembled together with a current collector and pressed in a cylindrical matrix. The obtained electrode presented a disc shape, with 11 mm diameter and approximately 1 mm thickness. The crystalline structure of the hydrogen storage alloy was examined using X-ray diffractometry. The measured hcp lattice volume was 1.78% larger than the precursor LaNi 5 intermetallic alloy, increasing the available space for hydrogen movement. Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) measurements were used before and after hydriding in order to verify the alloy sample homogeneity. The negative electrode was electrochemically tested by using a laboratory cell. It activates almost totally in its first cycle, which is an excellent characteristic from the commercial point of view. The maximum discharge capacity reached was 314.2 mA h/g in the 10th cycle.

  13. NdFeB alloy as a magnetic electrode material for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, J.; Shui, J.L.; Zhang, S.L.; Wei, X.; Xiang, Y.J.; Xie, S.; Zhu, C.F.; Chen, C.H.

    2005-01-01

    The search for a reliable indicator of state of charge and even the remaining energy of a lithium-ion cell is of great importance for various applications. This study was an exploratory effort to use magnetic susceptibility as the indicator. In this work, for the first time the change of ac susceptibility of cells was in situ monitored during charge-discharge process. A strong permanent magnetic material, NdFeB alloy, was investigated as an anode material for rechargeable lithium batteries. Both original and partially oxidized NdFeB powders were made into electrodes. Structural characterization was performed on the NdFeB electrodes by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis. An alloy (core)-oxide (shell) structure was found for those partially oxidized samples. The electrochemical cycling of cells made of the NdFeB electrodes against lithium was measured. The first lithium intercalation capacity of a treated NdFeB can be up to about 831 mAh/g, while a rather reversible capacity of up to 352 mAh/g can be obtained. With a specially designed cell, we were able to monitor in situ the change of relative ac susceptibility during charge and/or discharge steps. A clearly monotonous relationship is found between the ac susceptibility of a cell and its depth-of-discharge (DOD). A mechanism based on skin effect and eddy current change is proposed to explain this susceptibility versus DOD relationship

  14. NdFeB alloy as a magnetic electrode material for lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, J. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology of China, Anhui Hefei 230026 (China); Shui, J.L. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology of China, Anhui Hefei 230026 (China); Zhang, S.L. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology of China, Anhui Hefei 230026 (China); Wei, X. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology of China, Anhui Hefei 230026 (China); Xiang, Y.J. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology of China, Anhui Hefei 230026 (China); Xie, S. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology of China, Anhui Hefei 230026 (China); Zhu, C.F. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology of China, Anhui Hefei 230026 (China); Chen, C.H. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology of China, Anhui Hefei 230026 (China)]. E-mail: cchchen@ustc.edu.cn

    2005-04-05

    The search for a reliable indicator of state of charge and even the remaining energy of a lithium-ion cell is of great importance for various applications. This study was an exploratory effort to use magnetic susceptibility as the indicator. In this work, for the first time the change of ac susceptibility of cells was in situ monitored during charge-discharge process. A strong permanent magnetic material, NdFeB alloy, was investigated as an anode material for rechargeable lithium batteries. Both original and partially oxidized NdFeB powders were made into electrodes. Structural characterization was performed on the NdFeB electrodes by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis. An alloy (core)-oxide (shell) structure was found for those partially oxidized samples. The electrochemical cycling of cells made of the NdFeB electrodes against lithium was measured. The first lithium intercalation capacity of a treated NdFeB can be up to about 831 mAh/g, while a rather reversible capacity of up to 352 mAh/g can be obtained. With a specially designed cell, we were able to monitor in situ the change of relative ac susceptibility during charge and/or discharge steps. A clearly monotonous relationship is found between the ac susceptibility of a cell and its depth-of-discharge (DOD). A mechanism based on skin effect and eddy current change is proposed to explain this susceptibility versus DOD relationship.

  15. Hydrogenation of the rare earth alloys for production negative electrodes of nickel-metal hydride batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casini, Julio Cesar Serafim

    2011-01-01

    In this work were studied of La 0.7-x Mg x Pr 0.3 Al 0.3 Mn 0.4 Co 0.5 Ni 3.8 (X = 0 and 0.7) alloys for negative electrodes of the nickel-metal hydride batteries. The hydrogenation of the alloys was performed varying pressing of H 2 (2 and 10 bar) and temperature (room and 500 ℃). The discharge capacity of the nic kel-metal hydride batteries were analyzed in ARBIN BT- 4 electrical test equipment. The as-cast alloys were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy disperse spectroscopy (EDX) and X-Ray diffraction. The increasing Mg addition in the alloy increases maximum discharge capacity but decrease cycle life of the batteries. The maximum discharge capacity was obtained with the Mg 0.7 Pr 0.3 Al 0.3 Mn 0.4 Co 0.5 Ni 3.8 alloy (60 mAh) and the battery which presented the best performance was La 0.4 Mg 0.3 Pr 0.3 Al 0.3 Mn 0.4 Co 0.5 Ni 3.8 alloy (53 mAh and 150 cycles). The H 2 capability of absorption was diminished for increased Mg addition and no such effect occurs for Mg 0.7 Pr 0.3 Al 0.3 Mn 0.4 Co 0.5 Ni 3.8 alloy. (author)

  16. Failure Analysis of Short-Circuited Lithium-Ion Battery with Nickel-Manganese-Cobalt/Graphite Electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung-Mi; Kim, Jea-Yeon; Byeon, Jai-Won

    2018-09-01

    Accidental failures and explosions of lithium-ion batteries have been reported in recent years. To determine the root causes and mechanisms of these failures from the perspective of material degradation, failure analysis was conducted for an intentionally shorted lithium-ion battery. The battery was subjected to electrical overcharging and mechanical pressing to simulate internal short-circuiting. After in situ measurement of the temperature increase during the short-circuiting of the electrodes, the disassembled battery components (i.e., the anode, cathode, and separator) were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Regardless of the simulated short-circuit method (mechanical or electrical), damage was observed in the shorted batteries. Numerous small cracks and chemical reaction products were observed on the electrode surface, along with pore shielding on the separator. The event of short-circuiting increased the surface temperature of the battery to approximately 90 °C, which prompted the deterioration and decomposition of the electrolyte, thus affecting the overall battery performance; this was attributed to the decomposition of the lithium salt at 60 °C. The gas generation due to the breakdown of the electrolyte causes pressure accumulation inside the cell; therefore, the electrolyte leaks.

  17. An automated online positioning system and simulation environment for multi-electrodes in extracellular recordings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franke, Felix; Natora, Michal; Meier, Philipp

    2010-01-01

    to tissue drifts and other sources of variability in the recording setup, the position of the electrodes with respect to the recorded neurons can change causing low recording quality. The contributions of this work are threefold. We introduce a quality measure for the recording position of the electrode...... which should be maximized during recordings and is especially suitable for the use of multi-electrodes. An automated positioning system based on this quality measure is proposed. The system is able to find favorable recording positions and adapts the electrode position smoothly to changes of the neuron...

  18. A novel flow battery: A lead acid battery based on an electrolyte with soluble lead(II). Part IX: Electrode and electrolyte conditioning with hydrogen peroxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, John; Li, Xiaohong; Pletcher, Derek; Tangirala, Ravichandra; Stratton-Campbell, Duncan; Walsh, Frank C.; Zhang, Caiping

    Extended cycling of a soluble lead acid battery can lead to problems due to an imbalance in the coulombic efficiency leading to deposits of Pb and PbO2 on the electrodes. Periodic addition of hydrogen peroxide to the electrolyte of the soluble lead acid flow battery largely overcomes several operational problems seen during extended cycling, using a 10 cm × 10 cm parallel plate flow cell. It is shown that this treatment greatly extends the number of cycles that can be achieved with a reasonable energy-, voltage-, and charge efficiency of 54-66%, 71%, and 77-91%.

  19. A novel flow battery: A lead acid battery based on an electrolyte with soluble lead(II). Part IX: Electrode and electrolyte conditioning with hydrogen peroxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, John; Stratton-Campbell, Duncan [C-Tech Innovation Ltd., Capenhurst, Chester CH1 6EH (United Kingdom); Li, Xiaohong; Tangirala, Ravichandra; Walsh, Frank C.; Zhang, Caiping [Energy Technology Research Group, School of Engineering Sciences, University of Southampton, Highfield, University Road, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Pletcher, Derek [Electrochemistry and Surface Science Group, School of Chemistry, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom)

    2010-05-01

    Extended cycling of a soluble lead acid battery can lead to problems due to an imbalance in the coulombic efficiency leading to deposits of Pb and PbO2 on the electrodes. Periodic addition of hydrogen peroxide to the electrolyte of the soluble lead acid flow battery largely overcomes several operational problems seen during extended cycling, using a 10 cm x 10 cm parallel plate flow cell. It is shown that this treatment greatly extends the number of cycles that can be achieved with a reasonable energy-, voltage-, and charge efficiency of 54-66%, 71%, and 77-91%. (author)

  20. Electrode property of single-walled carbon nanotubes in all-solid-state lithium ion battery using polymer electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakamoto, Y.; Ishii, Y.; Kawasaki, S.

    2016-01-01

    Electrode properties of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) in an all-solid-state lithium ion battery were investigated using poly-ethylene oxide (PEO) solid electrolyte. Charge-discharge curves of SWCNTs in the solid electrolyte cell were successfully observed. It was found that PEO electrolyte decomposes on the surface of SWCNTs.

  1. Enhanced Cyclability of Lithium-Oxygen Batteries with Electrodes Protected by Surface Films Induced via In-Situ Electrochemical Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Bin; Xu, Wu; Tao, Jinhui; Yan, Pengfei; Zheng, Jianming; Engelhard, Mark H.; Lu, Dongping; Wang, Chongmin; Zhang, Jiguang

    2018-04-16

    Although the rechargeable lithium-oxygen (Li-O2) batteries have extremely high theoretical specific energy, the practical application of these batteries is still limited by the instability of their carbon-based air-electrode, Li metal anode, and electrolytes towards reduced oxygen species. Here we demonstrate a simple one-step in-situ electrochemical pre-charging strategy to generate thin protective films on both carbon nanotubes (CNTs) air-electrode and Li metal anode simultaneously under an inert atmosphere. Li-O2 cells after such pre-treatment demonstrate significantly extended cycle life of 110 and 180 cycles under the capacity-limited protocol of 1000 mAh g-1 and 500 mAh g-1, respectively, which is far more than those without pre-treatment. The thin-films formed from decomposition of electrolyte during in-situ electrochemical pre-charging process in an inert environment can protect both CNTs air-electrode and Li metal anode prior to conventional Li-O2 discharge/charge cycling where reactive reduced oxygen species are formed. This work provides a new approach for protections of carbon-based air-electrode and Li metal anode in practical Li-O2 batteries, and may also be applied to other battery systems.

  2. Electrode property of single-walled carbon nanotubes in all-solid-state lithium ion battery using polymer electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakamoto, Y.; Ishii, Y.; Kawasaki, S., E-mail: kawasaki.shinji@nitech.ac.jp [Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso, Showa, Nagoya, Aichi (Japan)

    2016-07-06

    Electrode properties of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) in an all-solid-state lithium ion battery were investigated using poly-ethylene oxide (PEO) solid electrolyte. Charge-discharge curves of SWCNTs in the solid electrolyte cell were successfully observed. It was found that PEO electrolyte decomposes on the surface of SWCNTs.

  3. Characterization of the 3-dimensional microstructure of a graphite negative electrode from a Li-ion battery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shearing, P.R.; Howard, L.E.; Jørgensen, Peter Stanley

    2010-01-01

    The 3-dimensional microstructure of a porous electrode from a lithium-ion battery has been characterized for the first time. We use X-ray tomography to reconstruct a 43 × 348 × 478 μm sample volume with voxel dimensions of 480 nm, subsequent division of the reconstructed volumes into sub...

  4. Binder-Free and Carbon-Free Nanoparticle Batteries: A Method for Nanoparticle Electrodes without Polymeric Binders or Carbon Black

    KAUST Repository

    Ha, Don-Hyung

    2012-10-10

    In this work, we have developed a new fabrication method for nanoparticle (NP) assemblies for Li-ion battery electrodes that require no additional support or conductive materials such as polymeric binders or carbon black. By eliminating these additives, we are able to improve the battery capacity/weight ratio. The NP film is formed by using electrophoretic deposition (EPD) of colloidally synthesized, monodisperse cobalt NPs that are transformed through the nanoscale Kirkendall effect into hollow Co 3O 4. EPD forms a network of NPs that are mechanically very robust and electrically connected, enabling them to act as the Li-ion battery anode. The morphology change through cycles indicates stable 5-10 nm NPs form after the first lithiation remained throughout the cycling process. This NP-film battery made without binders and conductive additives shows high gravimetric (>830 mAh/g) and volumetric capacities (>2100 mAh/cm 3) even after 50 cycles. Because similar films made from drop-casting do not perform well under equal conditions, EPD is seen as the critical step to create good contacts between the particles and electrodes resulting in this significant improvement in battery electrode assembly. This is a promising system for colloidal nanoparticles and a template for investigating the mechanism of lithiation and delithiation of NPs. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  5. Investigation into diffusion induced plastic deformation behavior in hollow lithium ion battery electrode revealed by analytical model and atomistic simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Jia; Fang, Qihong; Wu, Hong; Liu, Youwen; Wen, Pihua

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Diffusion induced stress is established. • Yield stress is dependent upon concentration. • Plastic deformation induced stress lowers tensile stress. • Plastic deformation suppresses crack nucleation. • Plastic deformation occurs not only at lithiated phase but also at electrode interior. - Abstract: This paper is theoretically suggested to describe diffusion induced stress in the elastoplastic hollow spherical silicon electrode for plastic deformation using both analytical model and molecular simulation. Based on the plastic deformation and the yield criterion, we develop this model accounting for the lithium-ion diffusion effect in hollow electrode, focusing on the concentration and stress distributions undergoing lithium-ion insertion. The results show that the two ways, applied compressive stress to inner surface or limited inner surface with higher concentration using biological membranes maintaining concentration difference, lead to the compressive stress induced by the lithium-ion diffusion effect. Hollow spherical electrode reduces effectively diffusion induced stress through controlling and tuning electrode parameters to obtain the reasonably low yield strength. According to MD simulations, plastic deformation phenomenon not only occurs at interface layer of lithiated phase, but also penetrates at electrode interior owning to confinement imposed by lithiated phase. These criteria that radial and hoop stresses reduce dramatically when plastic deformation occurs near the end faces of hollow electrode, may help guide development of new materials for lithium-ion batteries with enhanced mechanical durability, by means of reasonable designing yield strength to maintain mechanical stress below fracture strength, thereby increasing battery life.

  6. Facile electrochemical synthesis of few layered graphene from discharged battery electrode and its

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh K. Tiwari

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A cost-effective, simple and non-hazardous route for synthesis of few-layered graphene from waste zinc carbon battery (ZCB electrodes via electrochemical expansion (ECE has been reported. In this synthesis, we have electrochemically exfoliated the graphene layers, by intercalating sodium dodecyl benzenesulfonate (SDBS surfactant into graphitic layers at different D.C. voltages with a constant SDBS concentration. The graphene sheets were isolated, purified and characterized by Transmission electron microscopy (TEM, Scanning electron microscopy (SEM, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR, X-ray diffraction (XRD, Raman spectrometry, Ultraviolet absorption (UV, Selected area electron diffraction (SAED and Cyclic voltammetry. Best result was obtained at 4.5 V of D.C. A possible mechanism for the intercalation process has been proposed. A promising application of the produced material for supercapacitor application has also been explored in combination with polyaniline.

  7. Hydrogen evolution at the negative electrode of the all-vanadium redox flow batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Che-Nan; Delnick, Frank M.; Baggetto, Loïc; Veith, Gabriel M.; Zawodzinski, Thomas A.

    2014-02-01

    This work demonstrates a quantitative method to determine the hydrogen evolution rate occurring at the negative carbon electrode of the all vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB). Two carbon papers examined by buoyancy measurements yield distinct hydrogen formation rates (0.170 and 0.005 μmol min-1 g-1). The carbon papers have been characterized using electron microscopy, nitrogen gas adsorption, capacitance measurement by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). We find that the specific electrochemical surface area (ECSA) of the carbon material has a strong influence on the hydrogen generation rate. This is discussed in light of the use of high surface area material to obtain high reaction rates in the VRFB.

  8. Rapid hydrogen charging on metal hydride negative electrode of Fuel Cell/Battery (FCB) systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Bokkyu; Lee, Sunmook; Kawai, Hiroyuki; Fushimi, Chihiro; Tsutsumi, Atsushi [Collaborative Research Center for Energy Engineering, Institute of Industrial Science, The University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8505 (Japan)

    2009-02-15

    The characteristics of rapid gaseous H{sub 2} charging/electrochemical discharging of the metal hydride negative electrode were investigated for the application in Fuel Cell/Battery (FCB) systems. They were evaluated with the H{sub 2} gas absorption, followed by the subsequent electrochemical discharging in the electrolyte solution (6M KOH). Then, the cyclability of charge-discharge was also examined. It was observed that more than 70% of the theoretical capacity was charged within 10 min with 0.3 MPa and 0.5 MPa of the initial H{sub 2} pressures. The electrochemical discharge curve showed that more than 86% of the absorbed H{sub 2} was discharged. Furthermore, the cycled charge-discharge process indicated that the H{sub 2} gas charge and electrochemical discharge process is an effective way to rapidly charge and activate the metal hydride without degeneration. (author)

  9. S-functionalized MXenes as electrode materials for Li-ion batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Jiajie

    2016-09-03

    MXenes are promising electrode materials for Li-ion batteries because of their high Li capacities and cycling rates. We use density functional theory to investigate the structural and energy storage properties of Li decorated Zr2C and Zr2CX2 (X = F, O and S). We find for Zr2C and Zr2CS2 high Li specific capacities and low diffusion barriers. To overcome the critical drawbacks of the OH, F, and O groups introduced during the synthesis we propose substitution by S groups and demonstrate that an exchange reaction is indeed possible. Zr2CS2 shows a similar Li specific capacity as Zr2CO2 but a substantially reduced diffusion barrier. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd

  10. A concentrated electrolyte for zinc hexacyanoferrate electrodes in aqueous rechargeable zinc-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, D.; Lee, C.; Jeong, S.

    2018-01-01

    In this study, a concentrated electrolyte was applied in an aqueous rechargeable zinc-ion battery system with a zinc hexacyanoferrate (ZnHCF) electrode to improve the electrochemical performance by changing the hydration number of the zinc ions. To optimize the active material, ZnHCF was synthesized using aqueous solutions of zinc nitrate with three different concentrations. The synthesized materials exhibited some differences in structure, crystallinity, and particle size, as observed by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. Subsequently, these well-structured materials were applied in electrochemical tests. A more than two-fold improvement in the charge/discharge capacities was observed when the concentrated electrolyte was used instead of the dilute electrolyte. Additionally, the cycling performance observed in the concentrated electrolyte was superior to that in the dilute electrolyte. This improvement in the electrochemical performance may result from a decrease in the hydration number of the zinc ions in the concentrated electrolyte.

  11. Nanostructured Cu2O thin film electrodes prepared by electrodeposition for rechargeable lithium batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bijani, S.; Gabas, M.; Martinez, L.; Ramos-Barrado, J.R.; Morales, J.; Sanchez, L.

    2007-01-01

    Uniform films of Cu 2 O with thickness below 1 μm were prepared from a Cu(II) lactate solution. The deposits were compact and of high purity with the particle size varying from 60 to 400 nm. They were tested as electrodes in lithium batteries and their electrochemical response was consistent with the Cu 2 O + 2e - + 2Li + ↔ 2Cu + Li 2 O reaction. Nevertheless, the reversibility of this reaction was dependent on thickness. Kinetic factors associated with the poor electronic conductivity of Cu 2 O could account for the relevance of the influence of film thickness. The thinnest film, about 300 nm thick, exhibited the best electrochemical performance by sustaining a specific capacity as high as 350 Ah kg -1

  12. Electrode for a lithium cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thackeray, Michael M [Naperville, IL; Vaughey, John T [Elmhurst, IL; Dees, Dennis W [Downers Grove, IL

    2008-10-14

    This invention relates to a positive electrode for an electrochemical cell or battery, and to an electrochemical cell or battery; the invention relates more specifically to a positive electrode for a non-aqueous lithium cell or battery when the electrode is used therein. The positive electrode includes a composite metal oxide containing AgV.sub.3O.sub.8 as one component and one or more other components consisting of LiV.sub.3O.sub.8, Ag.sub.2V.sub.4O.sub.11, MnO.sub.2, CF.sub.x, AgF or Ag.sub.2O to increase the energy density of the cell, optionally in the presence of silver powder and/or silver foil to assist in current collection at the electrode and to improve the power capability of the cell or battery.

  13. Characterization of electrode materials for lithium ion and sodium ion batteries using synchrotron radiation techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doeff, Marca M; Chen, Guoying; Cabana, Jordi; Richardson, Thomas J; Mehta, Apurva; Shirpour, Mona; Duncan, Hugues; Kim, Chunjoong; Kam, Kinson C; Conry, Thomas

    2013-11-11

    Intercalation compounds such as transition metal oxides or phosphates are the most commonly used electrode materials in Li-ion and Na-ion batteries. During insertion or removal of alkali metal ions, the redox states of transition metals in the compounds change and structural transformations such as phase transitions and/or lattice parameter increases or decreases occur. These behaviors in turn determine important characteristics of the batteries such as the potential profiles, rate capabilities, and cycle lives. The extremely bright and tunable x-rays produced by synchrotron radiation allow rapid acquisition of high-resolution data that provide information about these processes. Transformations in the bulk materials, such as phase transitions, can be directly observed using X-ray diffraction (XRD), while X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) gives information about the local electronic and geometric structures (e.g. changes in redox states and bond lengths). In situ experiments carried out on operating cells are particularly useful because they allow direct correlation between the electrochemical and structural properties of the materials. These experiments are time-consuming and can be challenging to design due to the reactivity and air-sensitivity of the alkali metal anodes used in the half-cell configurations, and/or the possibility of signal interference from other cell components and hardware. For these reasons, it is appropriate to carry out ex situ experiments (e.g. on electrodes harvested from partially charged or cycled cells) in some cases. Here, we present detailed protocols for the preparation of both ex situ and in situ samples for experiments involving synchrotron radiation and demonstrate how these experiments are done.

  14. High speed pulsed laser cutting of LiCoO2 Li-ion battery electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutey, Adrian H. A.; Fortunato, Alessandro; Carmignato, Simone; Fiorini, Maurizio

    2017-09-01

    Laser cutting of Li-ion battery electrodes represents an alternative to mechanical blanking that avoids complications associated with tool wear and allows assembly of different cell geometries with a single device. In this study, laser cutting of LiCoO2 Li-ion battery electrodes is performed at up to 5m /s with a 1064nm wavelength nanosecond pulsed fiber laser with a maximum average power of 500W and a repetition rate of up to 2MHz . Minimum average cutting power for cathode and anode multi-layer films is established for 12 parameter groups with velocities over the range 1 - 5m /s , varying laser pulse fluence and overlap. Within the tested parameter range, minimum energy per unit cut length is found to decrease with increasing repetition rate and velocity. SEM analysis of the resulting cut edges reveals visible clearance widths in the range 20 - 50 μm , with cut quality found to improve with velocity due to a reduction in lateral heat conduction losses. Raman line map spectra reveal changes in the cathode at 60 μm from the cut edge, where bands at 486cm-1 and 595cm-1 , corresponding to the Eg and A1g modes of LiCoO2 , are replaced with a single wide band centered at 544cm-1 , and evidence of carbon black is no longer present. No changes in Raman spectra are observed in the anode. The obtained results suggest that further improvements in cutting efficiency and quality could be achieved by increasing the repetition rate above 2MHz , thereby improving ablation efficiency of the metallic conductor layers. The laser source utilized in the present study nonetheless represents an immediately available solution for repeatability and throughput that are superior to mechanical blanking.

  15. Improvement of Electrochemical Properties of Lithium–Oxygen Batteries Using a Silver Electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jin-Bum; Luo, Xiangyi; Lu, Jun; Shin, Chang Dae; Yoon, Chong Seung; Amine, Khalil; Sun, Yang-Kook

    2015-07-09

    Silver (Ag) electrodes are prepared by an electrodeposition method at -0.25 V versus SCE. To evaluate the effect of particle size on Li–air cells, deposition times are 3, 10, 30, and 300 s. When cycled at a current density of 0.032 mA cm–2, the Ag-deposited electrode for 300 s shows very low polarization corresponding to the oxygen evolution reaction potential at 3.6 V. X-ray diffraction studies confirm that the main discharge product is Li2O2, and the results of scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy of the discharged electrodes show lithium peroxides at different positions due to the limitation of active sites on silver particles.

  16. NMR study of electrode materials for lithium ion-batteries; Etude par RMN de materiaux d'electrode pour batteries lithium-ion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chazel, C.

    2006-01-15

    This work is devoted to the study of LiMO{sub 2} et LiM{sub 2}O{sub 4} (M: transition metal) intercalation compounds used as electrode material for lithium-ion batteries. Solid state NMR allows one to characterise the local environment of the lithium ions present in these phases by the use of the hyperfine interactions due to the presence of some electron spin density coming from localised electrons (Fermi-contact shift) or itinerant electrons (Knight shift) on the lithium nucleus. By following the transformation of the LiNiO{sub 2} layered phase into the LiNi{sub 2}O{sub 4} spinel material using lithium NMR, we studied the nature of the asymmetric signal observed for LiNiO{sub 2}, and the influence of the departure from the ideal stoichiometry; we showed a coupled ion/electron hopping in Li{sub X}NiO{sub 2} phases linked to Li/vacancy and Ni{sup 3+}/Ni{sup 4+} ordering, and finally showed the existence of structural defects within the LiNi{sub 2}O{sub 4} spinel phase obtained by thermal treatment of Li{sub 0.5}NiO{sub 2}. Lithium NMR of the intercalated materials obtained from the LiTi{sub 2}O{sub 4} and Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12} spinels showed a metallic behaviour for Li{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 4} with a Knight shift of the NMR signal similar to that of LiTi{sub 2}O{sub 4}, and signals intermediate in nature between Knight and Fermi-contact shifts for Li{sub 7}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12}. (author)

  17. In situ Raman spectroscopic studies on concentration change of electrolyte salt in a lithium ion model battery with closely faced graphite composite and LiCoO2 composite electrodes by using an ultrafine microprobe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamanaka, Toshiro; Nakagawa, Hiroe; Tsubouchi, Shigetaka; Domi, Yasuhiro; Doi, Takayuki; Abe, Takeshi; Ogumi, Zempachi

    2017-01-01

    The concentration of ions in the electrolyte solution in lithium ion batteries changes during operation, reflecting the resistance to ion migration and the positions of diffusion barriers. The change causes various negative effects on the performance of batteries. Thus, it is important to elucidate how the concentration changes during operation. In this work, the concentration change of ions in the electrolyte solution in deep narrow spaces in a realistic battery was studied by in situ ultrafine microprobe Raman spectroscopy. Graphite composite and LiCoO 2 composite electrodes, which are the most commonly used electrodes in practical batteries, were placed facing each other and their distance was set to 80 μm, which is close to the distance between electrodes in practical batteries. After repeated charge/discharge cycles, the concentration of ions increased and decreased greatly during charging and discharging, respectively. The maximum concentration was more than three-times higher than the minimum concentration. The rate of changes in concentration increased almost linearly with increase in current density. The results have important implications about concentration changes of ions occurring in practical batteries.

  18. A combined approach for high-performance Li–O2 batteries: A binder-free carbon electrode and atomic layer deposition of RuO2 as an inhibitor–promoter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun-Seop Shin

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available A rechargeable lithium–oxygen (Li–O2 battery is considered as a promising technology for electrochemical energy storage systems because its theoretical energy density is much higher than those of state-of-the-art Li-ion batteries. The cathode (positive electrode for Li–O2 batteries is made of carbon and polymeric binders; however, these constituents undergo parasitic decomposition reactions during battery operation, which in turn causes considerable performance degradation. Therefore, the rational design of the cathode is necessary for building robust and high-performance Li–O2 batteries. Here, a binder-free carbon nanotube (CNT electrode surface-modified by atomic layer deposition (ALD of dual acting RuO2 as an inhibitor–promoter is proposed for rechargeable Li–O2 batteries. RuO2 nanoparticles formed directly on the binder-free CNT electrode by ALD play a dual role to inhibit carbon decomposition and to promote Li2O2 decomposition. The binder-free RuO2/CNT cathode with the unique architecture shows outstanding electrochemical performance as characterized by small voltage gaps (∼0.9 V as well as excellent cyclability without any signs of capacity decay over 80 cycles.

  19. A combined approach for high-performance Li-O2 batteries: A binder-free carbon electrode and atomic layer deposition of RuO2 as an inhibitor-promoter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hyun-Seop; Seo, Gi Won; Kwon, Kyoungwoo; Jung, Kyu-Nam; Lee, Sang Ick; Choi, Eunsoo; Kim, Hansung; Hwang, Jin-Ha; Lee, Jong-Won

    2018-04-01

    A rechargeable lithium-oxygen (Li-O2) battery is considered as a promising technology for electrochemical energy storage systems because its theoretical energy density is much higher than those of state-of-the-art Li-ion batteries. The cathode (positive electrode) for Li-O2 batteries is made of carbon and polymeric binders; however, these constituents undergo parasitic decomposition reactions during battery operation, which in turn causes considerable performance degradation. Therefore, the rational design of the cathode is necessary for building robust and high-performance Li-O2 batteries. Here, a binder-free carbon nanotube (CNT) electrode surface-modified by atomic layer deposition (ALD) of dual acting RuO2 as an inhibitor-promoter is proposed for rechargeable Li-O2 batteries. RuO2 nanoparticles formed directly on the binder-free CNT electrode by ALD play a dual role to inhibit carbon decomposition and to promote Li2O2 decomposition. The binder-free RuO2/CNT cathode with the unique architecture shows outstanding electrochemical performance as characterized by small voltage gaps (˜0.9 V) as well as excellent cyclability without any signs of capacity decay over 80 cycles.

  20. A Hierarchically Porous Hypercrosslinked and Novel Quinone based Stable Organic Polymer Electrode for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, Aziz; Meng, Qinghai; Melhi, Saad; Mao, Lijuan; Zhang, Miao; Han, Bao-Hang; Lu, Kun; Wei, Zhixiang

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •A novel hypercrosslinked Poly-Pillar[5]quinone (Poly-P5Q) polymer has been prepared and applied as electrode material in Li-ion batteries. •The novel synthetic route of Poly-P5Q was introduced by the oxidation of Poly-Dimethoxypillar[5]arene. •A Friedel-Crafts reaction was employed to prepare a novel Poly-P5Q as organic cathode material for lithium-ion batteries. -- Abstract: In the recent years, organic electrode materials have attracted tremendous attention and becoming promising electrode candidates for the green and sustainable lithium-ion batteries. A novel hypercrosslinked Poly-Pillar[5]quinone (Poly-P5Q) polymer was prepared and applied as electrode material in Li-ion batteries. Poly-P5Q is the oxidized form of Poly-Dimethoxypillar[5]arene (Poly-DMP5A) which was obtained from the condensation of dimethoxypillar[5]arene and formaldehyde dimethyl acetal using Friedel-Crafts reaction. The prepared materials were characterized by 13 C solid state NMR, FTIR, SEM, EDX and TGA analysis. The Poly-P5Q cathode showed an initial discharge capacity up to 105 mAh g −1 whereas it retained 82.3% of its initial discharge capacity after 100 charge-discharge cycles at a current speed of 100 mA g −1 in the potential window between 1.75 to 3.25 V. In future, research in this direction will provide great insight for the development of novel polymers from various small organic molecules as a stable and high performance electrode materials for green lithium-ion batteries.

  1. Crystalline-Amorphous Core−Shell Silicon Nanowires for High Capacity and High Current Battery Electrodes

    KAUST Repository

    Cui, Li-Feng

    2009-01-14

    Silicon is an attractive alloy-type anode material for lithium ion batteries because of its highest known capacity (4200 mAh/g). However silicon\\'s large volume change upon lithium insertion and extraction, which causes pulverization and capacity fading, has limited its applications. Designing nanoscale hierarchical structures is a novel approach to address the issues associated with the large volume changes. In this letter, we introduce a core-shell design of silicon nanowires for highpower and long-life lithium battery electrodes. Silicon crystalline- amorphous core-shell nanowires were grown directly on stainless steel current collectors by a simple one-step synthesis. Amorphous Si shells instead of crystalline Si cores can be selected to be electrochemically active due to the difference of their lithiation potentials. Therefore, crystalline Si cores function as a stable mechanical support and an efficient electrical conducting pathway while amorphous shells store Li ions. We demonstrate here that these core-shell nanowires have high charge storage capacity (̃1000 mAh/g, 3 times of carbon) with ̃90% capacity retention over 100 cycles. They also show excellent electrochemical performance at high rate charging and discharging (6.8 A/g, ̃20 times of carbon at 1 h rate). © 2009 American Chemical Society.

  2. Carbon−Silicon Core−Shell Nanowires as High Capacity Electrode for Lithium Ion Batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Cui, Li-Feng

    2009-09-09

    We introduce a novel design of carbon-silicon core-shell nanowires for high power and long life lithium battery electrodes. Amorphous silicon was coated onto carbon nanofibers to form a core-shell structure and the resulted core-shell nanowires showed great performance as anode material. Since carbon has a much smaller capacity compared to silicon, the carbon core experiences less structural stress or damage during lithium cycling and can function as a mechanical support and an efficient electron conducting pathway. These nanowires have a high charge storage capacity of ∼2000 mAh/g and good cycling life. They also have a high Coulmbic efficiency of 90% for the first cycle and 98-99.6% for the following cycles. A full cell composed of LiCoO2 cathode and carbon-silicon core-shell nanowire anode is also demonstrated. Significantly, using these core-shell nanowires we have obtained high mass loading and an area capacity of ∼4 mAh/cm2, which is comparable to commercial battery values. © 2009 American Chemical Society.

  3. Nickel Hexacyanoferrate Nanoparticle Electrodes For Aqueous Sodium and Potassium Ion Batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Wessells, Colin D.

    2011-12-14

    The electrical power grid faces a growing need for large-scale energy storage over a wide range of time scales due to costly short-term transients, frequency regulation, and load balancing. The durability, high power, energy efficiency, and low cost needed for grid-scale storage pose substantial challenges for conventional battery technology.(1, 2)Here, we demonstrate insertion/extraction of sodium and potassium ions in a low-strain nickel hexacyanoferrate electrode material for at least five thousand deep cycles at high current densities in inexpensive aqueous electrolytes. Its open-framework structure allows retention of 66% of the initial capacity even at a very high (41.7C) rate. At low current densities, its round trip energy efficiency reaches 99%. This low-cost material is readily synthesized in bulk quantities. The long cycle life, high power, good energy efficiency, safety, and inexpensive production method make nickel hexacyanoferrate an attractive candidate for use in large-scale batteries to support the electrical grid. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  4. A reactor core with accurately positioned fuel-batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borrman, B.E.

    1976-01-01

    A reactor core of containing a grid for a plurality of fuel batteries each of which is constituted by several claddings containing fuel-rods, said grid comprising square members mainly and being located at the core upper-end, each square member surrounding a group of four fuel batteries, spring-contacts being mounted between the fuel batteries and the grid, slots being provided between the batteries for the four arms of a centrally mounted cross-slaped control-rod, each slot being provided at the grid-level, with a flexible spacing device, the overall spacing of whork determining the (a+2b)- dimension is equal to, or higher than, the largest thickness of arm D of the above-mentioned control-rod, said spacing device constituting one of the control-rails the fuel batteries fixed to the fuel-element envelope, as well as the control-rails fixed to the grid, characterized in that each battery control-rail forms a closing surface at right angles to the wall of the adjacent battery and directed toward the grid nearest surface in contact with the above-mentioned control-rail. (author)

  5. Method for uniformly distributing carbon flakes in a positive electrode, the electrode made thereby and compositions. [Patent application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrazek, F.C.; Smaga, J.A.; Battles, J.E.

    1981-01-19

    A positive electrode for a secondary electrochemical cell is described wherein an electrically conductive current collector is in electrical contact with a particulate mixture of gray cast iron and an alkali metal sulfide and an electrolyte including alkali metal halides or alkaline earth metal halides. Also present may be a transition metal sulfide and graphite flakes from the conversion of gray cast iron to iron sulfide. Also disclosed is a method of distributing carbon flakes in a cell wherein there is formed an electrochemical cell of a positive electrode structure of the type described and a suitable electrolyte and a second electrode containing a material capable of alloying with alkali metal ions. The cell is connected to a source of electrical potential to electrochemically convert gray cast iron to an iron sulfide and uniformly to distribute carbon flakes formerly in the gray cast iron throughout the positive electrode while forming an alkali metal alloy in the negative electrode. Also disclosed are compositions useful in preparing positive electrodes.

  6. Assessing the Electrode-Neuron Interface with the Electrically Evoked Compound Action Potential, Electrode Position, and Behavioral Thresholds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVries, Lindsay; Scheperle, Rachel; Bierer, Julie Arenberg

    2016-06-01

    Variability in speech perception scores among cochlear implant listeners may largely reflect the variable efficacy of implant electrodes to convey stimulus information to the auditory nerve. In the present study, three metrics were applied to assess the quality of the electrode-neuron interface of individual cochlear implant channels: the electrically evoked compound action potential (ECAP), the estimation of electrode position using computerized tomography (CT), and behavioral thresholds using focused stimulation. The primary motivation of this approach is to evaluate the ECAP as a site-specific measure of the electrode-neuron interface in the context of two peripheral factors that likely contribute to degraded perception: large electrode-to-modiolus distance and reduced neural density. Ten unilaterally implanted adults with Advanced Bionics HiRes90k devices participated. ECAPs were elicited with monopolar stimulation within a forward-masking paradigm to construct channel interaction functions (CIF), behavioral thresholds were obtained with quadrupolar (sQP) stimulation, and data from imaging provided estimates of electrode-to-modiolus distance and scalar location (scala tympani (ST), intermediate, or scala vestibuli (SV)) for each electrode. The width of the ECAP CIF was positively correlated with electrode-to-modiolus distance; both of these measures were also influenced by scalar position. The ECAP peak amplitude was negatively correlated with behavioral thresholds. Moreover, subjects with low behavioral thresholds and large ECAP amplitudes, averaged across electrodes, tended to have higher speech perception scores. These results suggest a potential clinical role for the ECAP in the objective assessment of individual cochlear implant channels, with the potential to improve speech perception outcomes.

  7. Copper hexacyanoferrate battery electrodes with long cycle life and high power

    KAUST Repository

    Wessells, Colin D.; Huggins, Robert A.; Cui, Yi

    2011-01-01

    Short-term transients, including those related to wind and solar sources, present challenges to the electrical grid. Stationary energy storage systems that can operate for many cycles, at high power, with high round-trip energy efficiency, and at low cost are required. Existing energy storage technologies cannot satisfy these requirements. Here we show that crystalline nanoparticles of copper hexacyanoferrate, which has an ultra-low strain open framework structure, can be operated as a battery electrode in inexpensive aqueous electrolytes. After 40,000 deep discharge cycles at a 17g-C rate, 83% of the original capacity of copper hexacyanoferrate is retained. Even at a very high cycling rate of 83g-C, two thirds of its maximum discharge capacity is observed. At modest current densities, round-trip energy efficiencies of 99% can be achieved. The low-cost, scalable, room-temperature co-precipitation synthesis and excellent electrode performance of copper hexacyanoferrate make it attractive for large-scale energy storage systems. © 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  8. 3D Self-Supported Nanoarchitectured Arrays Electrodes for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Chen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Three-dimensional self-supported nanoarchitectured arrays electrodes (3DSNAEs consisting of a direct growth of nanoarchitectured arrays on the conductive current collector, including homogeneous and heterogeneous nanoarchitectured arrays structures, have been currently studied as the most promising electrodes owing to their synergies resulting from the multistructure hybrid and integrating heterocomponents to address the requirements (high energy and power density of superperformance lithium ion batteries (LIBs applied in portable electronic consumer devices, electric vehicles, large-scale electricity storage, and so on. In the paper, recent advances in the strategies for the fabrication, selection of the different current collector substrates, and structural configuration of 3DSNAEs with different cathode and anode materials are investigated in detail. The intrinsic relationship of the unique structural characters, the conductive substrates, and electrochemical kinetic properties of 3DSNAEs is minutely analyzed. Finally, the future design trends and directions of 3DSNAEs are highlighted, which may open a new avenue of developing ideal multifunctional 3DSNAEs for further advanced LIBs.

  9. Copper hexacyanoferrate battery electrodes with long cycle life and high power

    KAUST Repository

    Wessells, Colin D.

    2011-11-22

    Short-term transients, including those related to wind and solar sources, present challenges to the electrical grid. Stationary energy storage systems that can operate for many cycles, at high power, with high round-trip energy efficiency, and at low cost are required. Existing energy storage technologies cannot satisfy these requirements. Here we show that crystalline nanoparticles of copper hexacyanoferrate, which has an ultra-low strain open framework structure, can be operated as a battery electrode in inexpensive aqueous electrolytes. After 40,000 deep discharge cycles at a 17g-C rate, 83% of the original capacity of copper hexacyanoferrate is retained. Even at a very high cycling rate of 83g-C, two thirds of its maximum discharge capacity is observed. At modest current densities, round-trip energy efficiencies of 99% can be achieved. The low-cost, scalable, room-temperature co-precipitation synthesis and excellent electrode performance of copper hexacyanoferrate make it attractive for large-scale energy storage systems. © 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  10. A review on cellulose and lignin based binders and electrodes: Small steps towards a sustainable lithium ion battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirmale, Trupti C; Kale, Bharat B; Varma, Anjani J

    2017-10-01

    Lithium ion batteries (LIB) are the most promising energy storage systems for portable electronics and future electric or hybrid-electric vehicles. However making them safer, cost effective and environment friendly is the key challenge. In this regard, replacing petro-derived materials by introducing renewable biomass derived cellulose derivatives and lignin based materials into the battery system is a promising approach for the development of green materials for LIB. These biomaterials introduce sustainability as well as improved safety in the final disposal of LIB batteries. In this review we introduce LIB materials technology in brief and recent developments in electrodes and binders based on cellulose and their derivatives and lignin for lithium ion batteries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Spatiotemporal electrochemical measurements across an electric double layer capacitor electrode with application to aqueous sodium hybrid batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tully, Katherine C.; Whitacre, Jay F.; Litster, Shawn

    2014-02-01

    This paper presents in-situ spatiotemporal measurements of the electrolyte phase potential within an electric double layer capacitor (EDLC) negative electrode as envisaged for use in an aqueous hybrid battery for grid-scale energy storage. The ultra-thick electrodes used in these batteries to reduce non-functional material costs require sufficiently fast through-plane mass and charge transport to attain suitable charging and discharging rates. To better evaluate the through-plane transport, we have developed an electrode scaffold (ES) for making in situ electrolyte potential distribution measurements at discrete known distances across the thickness of an uninterrupted EDLC negative electrode. Using finite difference methods, we calculate local current, volumetric charging current and charge storage distributions from the spatiotemporal electrolyte potential measurements. These potential distributions provide insight into complex phenomena that cannot be directly observed using other existing methods. Herein, we use the distributions to identify areas of the electrode that are underutilized, assess the effects of various parameters on the cumulative charge storage distribution, and evaluate an effectiveness factor for charge storage in EDLC electrodes.

  12. Electrode position markedly affects knee torque in tetanic, stimulated contractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Taian M; Potenza, Paolo; Gastaldi, Laura; Botter, Alberto

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how much the distance between stimulation electrodes affects the knee extension torque in tetanic, electrically elicited contractions. Current pulses of progressively larger amplitude, from 0 mA to maximally tolerated intensities, were delivered at 20 pps to the vastus medialis, rectus femoris and vastus lateralis muscles of ten, healthy male subjects. Four inter-electrode distances were tested: 32.5% (L1), 45.0% (L2), 57.5% (L3) and 70% (L4) of the distance between the patella apex and the anterior superior iliac spine. The maximal knee extension torque and the current leading to the maximal torque were measured and compared between electrode configurations. The maximal current tolerated by each participant ranged from 60 to 100 mA and did not depend on the inter-electrode distance. The maximal knee extension torque elicited did not differ between L3 and L4 (P = 0.15) but, for both conditions, knee torque was significantly greater than for L1 and L2 (P torque elicited for L3 and L4 was two to three times greater than that obtained for L1 and L2. The current leading to maximal torque was not as sensitive to inter-electrode distance. Except for L1 current intensity did not change with electrode configuration (P > 0.16). Key results presented here revealed that for a given stimulation intensity, knee extension torque increased dramatically with the distance between electrodes. The distance between electrodes seems therefore to critically affect knee torque, with potential implication for optimising exercise protocols based on electrical stimulation.

  13. [Research and design for optimal position of electrocardio-electrodes in monitoring clothing for men].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Lijun; Hu, Yao; Liu, Hao; Li, Xiaojiu; Li, Jin; He, Yin

    2017-04-01

    In order to reduce the mortality rate of cardiovascular disease patients effectively, improve the electrocardiogram (ECG) accuracy of signal acquisition, and reduce the influence of motion artifacts caused by the electrodes in inappropriate location in the clothing for ECG measurement, we in this article present a research on the optimum place of ECG electrodes in male clothing using three-lead monitoring methods. In the 3-lead ECG monitoring clothing for men we selected test points. Comparing the ECG and power spectrum analysis of the acquired ECG signal quality of each group of points, we determined the best location of ECG electrodes in the male monitoring clothing. The electrode motion artifacts caused by improper location had been significantly improved when electrodes were put in the best position of the clothing for men. The position of electrodes is crucial for ECG monitoring clothing. The stability of the acquired ECG signal could be improved significantly when electrodes are put at optimal locations.

  14. A facile electrode preparation method for accurate electrochemical measurements of double-side-coated electrode from commercial Li-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ge; Wang, Qiyu; Wang, Shuo; Ling, Shigang; Zheng, Jieyun; Yu, Xiqian; Li, Hong

    2018-04-01

    The post mortem electrochemical analysis, including charge-discharge and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements, are critical steps for revealing the failure mechanisms of commercial lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). These post measurements usually require the reassembling of coin-cell with electrode which is often double-side-coated in commercial LIBs. It is difficult to use such double-side-coated electrode to perform accurate electrochemical measurements because the back side of the electrode is coated with active materials, rather than single-side-coated electrode that is often used in coin-cell measurements. In this study, we report a facile tape-covering sample preparation method, which can effectively suppress the influence of back side of the double-side-coated electrodes on capacity and EIS measurements in coin-cells. By tape-covering the unwanted side, the areal capacity of the desired investigated side of the electrode has been accurately measured with an experimental error of about 0.5% at various current densities, and accurate EIS measurements and analysis have been conducted as well.

  15. 5V-class bulk-type all-solid-state rechargeable lithium batteries with electrode-solid electrolyte composite electrodes prepared by aerosol deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iriyama, Yasutoshi; Wadaguchi, Masaki; Yoshida, Koki; Yamamoto, Yuta; Motoyama, Munekazu; Yamamoto, Takayuki

    2018-05-01

    Composite electrodes (∼9 μm in thickness) composed of 5V-class electrode of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 (LNM) and high Li+ conductive crystalline-glass solid electrolyte (LATP, Ohara Inc.) were prepared at room temperature by aerosol deposition (AD) on platinum sheets. The resultant LNM-LATP composite electrodes were combined with LiPON and Li, and 5V-class bulk-type all-solid-state rechargeable lithium batteries (SSBs) were prepared. The crystallnity of the LNM in the LNM-LATP composite electrode was improved by annealing. Both thermogravimetry-mass spectroscopy analysis and XRD analysis clarified that the side reactions between the LNM and the LATP occurred over 500 °C with oxygen release. From these results, annealing temperature of the LNM-LATP composite electrode system was optimized at 500 °C due to the improved crystallinity of the LNM with avoiding the side-reactions. The SSBs with the composite electrodes (9 μm in thickness, 40 vol% of the LNM) annealed at 500 °C delivered 100 mAh g-1 at 10 μA cm-2 at 100 °C. Degradation of the discharge capacity with the repetition of the charge-discharge reactions was observed, which will originate from large volume change of the LNM (∼6.5%) during the reactions.

  16. Method of fabricating electrodes including high-capacity, binder-free anodes for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ban, Chunmei; Wu, Zhuangchun; Dillon, Anne C.

    2017-01-10

    An electrode (110) is provided that may be used in an electrochemical device (100) such as an energy storage/discharge device, e.g., a lithium-ion battery, or an electrochromic device, e.g., a smart window. Hydrothermal techniques and vacuum filtration methods were applied to fabricate the electrode (110). The electrode (110) includes an active portion (140) that is made up of electrochemically active nanoparticles, with one embodiment utilizing 3d-transition metal oxides to provide the electrochemical capacity of the electrode (110). The active material (140) may include other electrochemical materials, such as silicon, tin, lithium manganese oxide, and lithium iron phosphate. The electrode (110) also includes a matrix or net (170) of electrically conductive nanomaterial that acts to connect and/or bind the active nanoparticles (140) such that no binder material is required in the electrode (110), which allows more active materials (140) to be included to improve energy density and other desirable characteristics of the electrode. The matrix material (170) may take the form of carbon nanotubes, such as single-wall, double-wall, and/or multi-wall nanotubes, and be provided as about 2 to 30 percent weight of the electrode (110) with the rest being the active material (140).

  17. Chitosan, a new and environmental benign electrode binder for use with graphite anode in lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chai, Lili; Qu, Qunting; Zhang, Longfei; Shen, Ming; Zhang, Li; Zheng, Honghe

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Chitosan is used as a new electrode binder for graphite anode. • Electrochemical properties of the chitosan-based electrode are compared with that of PVDF-based one. • Electrochemical performances of the graphite anode are improved by using chitosan binder. • Chitosan binder facilitates the formation of a thin, homogenous and stable SEI film of the electrode. -- Abstract: Chitosan was applied as the electrode binder material for a spherical graphite anode in lithium-ion batteries. Compared to using poly (vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) binder, the graphite anode using chitosan exhibited enhanced electrochemical performances in terms of the first Columbic efficiency, rate capability and cycling behavior. With similar specific capacity, the first Columbic efficiency of the chitosan-based anode is 95.4% compared to 89.3% of the PVDF-based anode. After 200 charge–discharge cycles at 0.5C, the capacity retention of the chitosan-based electrode showed to be significantly higher than that of the PVDF-based electrode. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) measurements were carried out to investigate the formation and evolution of the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) formed on the graphite electrodes. The results show that a thin, homogenous and stable SEI layer is formed on the graphite electrode surface with chitosan binder compared with that using the conventional PVDF binder

  18. Relating the 3D electrode morphology to Li-ion battery performance; a case for LiFePO4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhao; Verhallen, Tomas W.; Singh, Deepak P.; Wang, Hongqian; Wagemaker, Marnix; Barnett, Scott

    2016-08-01

    One of the main goals in lithium ion battery electrode design is to increase the power density. This requires insight in the relation between the complex heterogeneous microstructure existing of active material, conductive additive and electrolyte providing the required electronic and Li-ion transport. FIB-SEM is used to determine the three phase 3D morphology, and Li-ion concentration profiles obtained with Neutron Depth Profiling (NDP) are compared for two cases, conventional LiFePO4 electrodes and better performing carbonate templated LiFePO4 electrodes. This provides detailed understanding of the impact of key parameters such as the tortuosity for electron and Li-ion transport though the electrodes. The created hierarchical pore network of the templated electrodes, containing micron sized pores, appears to be effective only at high rate charge where electrolyte depletion is hindering fast discharge. Surprisingly the carbonate templating method results in a better electronic conductive CB network, enhancing the activity of LiFePO4 near the electrolyte-electrode interface as directly observed with NDP, which in a large part is responsible for the improved rate performance both during charge and discharge. The results demonstrate that standard electrodes have a far from optimal charge transport network and that significantly improved electrode performance should be possible by engineering the microstructure.

  19. Investigation on the electrode process of the Mn(II)/Mn(III) couple in redox flow battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue Fangqin; Wang Yongliang; Wang Wenhong; Wang Xindong

    2008-01-01

    The Mn(II)/Mn(III) couple has been recognized as a potential anode for redox flow batteries to take the place of the V(IV)/V(V) in all-vanadium redox battery (VRB) and the Br 2 /Br - in sodium polysulfide/bromine (PSB) because it has higher standard electrode potential. In this study, the electrochemical behavior of the Mn(II)/Mn(III) couple on carbon felt and spectral pure graphite were investigated by cyclic voltammetry, steady polarization curve, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, transient potential-step experiment, X-ray diffraction and charge-discharge experiments. Results show that the Mn(III) disproportionation reaction phenomena is obvious on the carbon felt electrode while it is weak on the graphite electrode owing to its fewer active sites. The reaction mechanism on carbon felt was discussed in detail. The reversibility of Mn(II)/Mn(III) is best when the sulfuric acid concentration is 5 M on the graphite electrode. Performance of a RFB employing Mn(II)/Mn(III) couple as anolyte active species and V(III)/V(II) as catholyte ones was evaluated with constant-current charge-discharge tests. The average columbic efficiency is 69.4% and the voltage efficiency is 90.4% at a current density of 20 mA cm -2 . The whole energy efficiency is 62.7% close to that of the all-vanadium battery and the average discharge voltage is about 14% higher than that of an all-vanadium battery. The preliminary exploration shows that the Mn(II)/Mn(III) couple is electrochemically promising for redox flow battery

  20. Coulter dispersant as positive electrolyte additive for the vanadium redox flow battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang Fang; Hu Changwei; Liu Xiaojiang; Liu Lian; Zhang Jianwen

    2012-01-01

    Coulter dispersants were investigated as the additive into the positive electrolyte (more than 1.8 M vanadium ions) of vanadium redox flow battery (VRB). The electrolyte stability tests showed that, at 45, 50 and 60 °C, the addition of 0.050–0.10 w/w Coulter dispersant IIIA (mainly containing coconut oil amine adduct with 15 ethylene oxide groups) into the positive electrolyte of VRB could significantly delay the time of precipitate formation from 1.8–12.3 h to 30.3 h ∼ 19.3 days. Moreover, the trace amount of Coulter dispersant IIIA as the additive can enhance the electrolyte stability without changing the valence state of vanadium ions, reducing the reversibility of the redox reactions and incurring other side reactions at the electrode. Using the Coulter IIIA dispersant as the additive also improved the energy efficiency of the VRB. The UV–vis spectra confirmed that the trace amount of Coulter IIIA dispersant did not chemically react with V(V) to form new substances. The synergy of Coulombic repulsion and steric hindrance between the macromolecular cationic surfactant additive and the solution reduced the aggregation of vanadium ions into V 2 O 5 and increased the supersaturation of V 2 O 5 crystal in the solution.

  1. Contribution to the study of Li{sub x}(Co,M)O{sub 2} phases used as cathodes in Li-ion batteries. Combined effects of the lithium sur-stoichiometry and of the substitution (M = Ni, Mg); Contribution a l'etude des phases Li{sub x}(Co,M)O{sub 2} en tant que materiaux d'electrode positive des batteries Li-ion. Effets combines de la surstoechiometrie en lithium et de la substitution (M = Ni, Mg)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levasseur, St.

    2001-12-01

    Li{sub x0}(Co,M)O{sub 2} (M = Ni, Mg; x0 {<=} 1.0) materials used as positive electrode for Li-ion batteries have been prepared at high temperature (900 degrees C) and characterized by X-ray diffraction, galvano-static measurements, {sup 7}Li MAS NMR spectroscopy and electrical properties measurements. If the results on the LiCoO{sub 2} phase agree with the literature, the adding of an excess of lithium during synthesis leads to the presence in the actual materials to the presence of oxygen vacancies and intermediate spin Co{sup 3+} ions (Co{sup 3+(IS)}) in a square-based environment. This defect suppresses all the phase transitions usually observed upon lithium de-intercalation in Li{sub x}CoO{sub 2}. The partial substitution by Ni ions allows us to separate the relative contribution of Ni(III) and Co{sup 3+(IS)} ions in the suppression of the various phase transitions upon cycling. Mg doping, even without any lithium excess, systematically induces some oxygen vacancies and Co{sup 3+(IS)} ions in the material. This observation had been correlated to the behaviour of the Li{sub x}(Co,Mg)O{sub 2} system upon cycling. (author)

  2. Effect of covalently bonded polysiloxane multilayers on the electrochemical behavior of graphite electrode in lithium ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Qinmin; Jiang, Yinghua [Department of Applied Chemistry, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China)

    2008-03-15

    Polysiloxane multilayers were covalently bonded to the surface of natural graphite particles via diazonium chemistry and silylation reaction. The as-prepared graphite exhibited excellent discharge-charge behavior as negative electrode materials in lithium ion batteries. The improvement in the electrochemical performance of the graphite electrodes was attributed to the formation of a stable and flexible passive film on their surfaces. It was also revealed that the chemical compositions of the multilayers exerted influence on the electrochemical behavior of the graphite electrodes. The result of this study presents a new strategy to the formation of elastic and strong passive film on the graphite electrode via molecular design. Owing to the diversity of polysilxoane multilayers, this method also enables researchers to control the surface chemistries of carbonaceous materials with flexibility. (author)

  3. Diversity in cochlear morphology and its influence on cochlear implant electrode position

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marel, K.S. van der; Briaire, J.J.; Wolterbeek, R..; Snel-Bongers, J.; Verbist, B.M.; Frijns, J.H.

    2014-01-01

    To define a minimal set of descriptive parameters for cochlear morphology and study its influence on the cochlear implant electrode position in relation to surgical insertion distance.Cochlear morphology and electrode position were analyzed using multiplanar reconstructions of the pre- and

  4. A thermally regenerative ammonia battery with carbon-silver electrodes for converting low-grade waste heat to electricity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi, Mohammad; Kim, Taeyoung; Gorski, Christopher A.; Logan, Bruce E.

    2018-01-01

    Thermally regenerative ammonia batteries (TRABs) have shown great promise as a method to convert low-grade waste heat into electrical power, with power densities an order of magnitude higher than other approaches. However, previous TRABs based on copper electrodes suffered from unbalanced anode dissolution and cathode deposition rates during discharging cycles, limiting practical applications. To produce a TRAB with stable and reversible electrode reactions over many cycles, inert carbon electrodes were used with silver salts. In continuous flow tests, power production was stable over 100 discharging cycles, demonstrating excellent reversibility. Power densities were 23 W m-2-electrode area in batch tests, which was 64% higher than that produced in parallel tests using copper electrodes, and 30 W m-2 (net energy density of 490 Wh m-3-anolyte) in continuous flow tests. While this battery requires the use a precious metal, an initial economic analysis of the system showed that the cost of the materials relative to energy production was 220 per MWh, which is competitive with energy production from other non-fossil fuel sources. A substantial reduction in costs could be obtained by developing less expensive anion exchange membranes.

  5. Carbon felt and carbon fiber - A techno-economic assessment of felt electrodes for redox flow battery applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minke, Christine; Kunz, Ulrich; Turek, Thomas

    2017-02-01

    Carbon felt electrodes belong to the key components of redox flow batteries. The purpose of this techno-economic assessment is to uncover the production costs of PAN- and rayon-based carbon felt electrodes. Raw material costs, energy demand and the impact of processability of fiber and felt are considered. This innovative, interdisciplinary approach combines deep insights into technical, ecologic and economic aspects of carbon felt and carbon fiber production. Main results of the calculation model are mass balances, cumulative energy demands (CED) and the production costs of conventional and biogenic carbon felts supplemented by market assessments considering textile and carbon fibers.

  6. A Desalination Battery

    KAUST Repository

    Pasta, Mauro; Wessells, Colin D.; Cui, Yi; La Mantia, Fabio

    2012-01-01

    Water desalination is an important approach to provide fresh water around the world, although its high energy consumption, and thus high cost, call for new, efficient technology. Here, we demonstrate the novel concept of a "desalination battery", which operates by performing cycles in reverse on our previously reported mixing entropy battery. Rather than generating electricity from salinity differences, as in mixing entropy batteries, desalination batteries use an electrical energy input to extract sodium and chloride ions from seawater and to generate fresh water. The desalination battery is comprised by a Na 2-xMn 5O 10 nanorod positive electrode and Ag/AgCl negative electrode. Here, we demonstrate an energy consumption of 0.29 Wh l -1 for the removal of 25% salt using this novel desalination battery, which is promising when compared to reverse osmosis (∼ 0.2 Wh l -1), the most efficient technique presently available. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  7. A desalination battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasta, Mauro; Wessells, Colin D; Cui, Yi; La Mantia, Fabio

    2012-02-08

    Water desalination is an important approach to provide fresh water around the world, although its high energy consumption, and thus high cost, call for new, efficient technology. Here, we demonstrate the novel concept of a "desalination battery", which operates by performing cycles in reverse on our previously reported mixing entropy battery. Rather than generating electricity from salinity differences, as in mixing entropy batteries, desalination batteries use an electrical energy input to extract sodium and chloride ions from seawater and to generate fresh water. The desalination battery is comprised by a Na(2-x)Mn(5)O(10) nanorod positive electrode and Ag/AgCl negative electrode. Here, we demonstrate an energy consumption of 0.29 Wh l(-1) for the removal of 25% salt using this novel desalination battery, which is promising when compared to reverse osmosis (~ 0.2 Wh l(-1)), the most efficient technique presently available. © 2012 American Chemical Society

  8. A Desalination Battery

    KAUST Repository

    Pasta, Mauro

    2012-02-08

    Water desalination is an important approach to provide fresh water around the world, although its high energy consumption, and thus high cost, call for new, efficient technology. Here, we demonstrate the novel concept of a "desalination battery", which operates by performing cycles in reverse on our previously reported mixing entropy battery. Rather than generating electricity from salinity differences, as in mixing entropy batteries, desalination batteries use an electrical energy input to extract sodium and chloride ions from seawater and to generate fresh water. The desalination battery is comprised by a Na 2-xMn 5O 10 nanorod positive electrode and Ag/AgCl negative electrode. Here, we demonstrate an energy consumption of 0.29 Wh l -1 for the removal of 25% salt using this novel desalination battery, which is promising when compared to reverse osmosis (∼ 0.2 Wh l -1), the most efficient technique presently available. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  9. Structure formation and surface chemistry of ionic liquids on model electrode surfaces—Model studies for the electrode | electrolyte interface in Li-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchner, Florian; Uhl, Benedikt; Forster-Tonigold, Katrin; Bansmann, Joachim; Groß, Axel; Behm, R. Jürgen

    2018-05-01

    Ionic liquids (ILs) are considered as attractive electrolyte solvents in modern battery concepts such as Li-ion batteries. Here we present a comprehensive review of the results of previous model studies on the interaction of the battery relevant IL 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ([BMP]+[TFSI]-) with a series of structurally and chemically well-defined model electrode surfaces, which are increasingly complex and relevant for battery applications [Ag(111), Au(111), Cu(111), pristine and lithiated highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG), and rutile TiO2(110)]. Combining surface science techniques such as high resolution scanning tunneling microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy for characterizing surface structure and chemical composition in deposited (sub-)monolayer adlayers with dispersion corrected density functional theory based calculations, this work aims at a molecular scale understanding of the fundamental processes at the electrode | electrolyte interface, which are crucial for the development of the so-called solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) layer in batteries. Performed under idealized conditions, in an ultrahigh vacuum environment, these model studies provide detailed insights on the structure formation in the adlayer, the substrate-adsorbate and adsorbate-adsorbate interactions responsible for this, and the tendency for chemically induced decomposition of the IL. To mimic the situation in an electrolyte, we also investigated the interaction of adsorbed IL (sub-)monolayers with coadsorbed lithium. Even at 80 K, postdeposited Li is found to react with the IL, leading to decomposition products such as LiF, Li3N, Li2S, LixSOy, and Li2O. In the absence of a [BMP]+[TFSI]- adlayer, it tends to adsorb, dissolve, or intercalate into the substrate (metals, HOPG) or to react with the substrate (TiO2) above a critical temperature, forming LiOx and Ti3+ species in the latter case. Finally, the formation of stable

  10. Nitrogen-Doped Carbon Nanotube/Graphite Felts as Advanced Electrode Materials for Vanadium Redox Flow Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuangyin; Zhao, Xinsheng; Cochell, Thomas; Manthiram, Arumugam

    2012-08-16

    Nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes have been grown, for the first time, on graphite felt (N-CNT/GF) by a chemical vapor deposition approach and examined as an advanced electrode for vanadium redox flow batteries (VRFBs). The unique porous structure and nitrogen doping of N-CNT/GF with increased surface area enhances the battery performance significantly. The enriched porous structure of N-CNTs on graphite felt could potentially facilitate the diffusion of electrolyte, while the N-doping could significantly contribute to the enhanced electrode performance. Specifically, the N-doping (i) modifies the electronic properties of CNT and thereby alters the chemisorption characteristics of the vanadium ions, (ii) generates defect sites that are electrochemically more active, (iii) increases the oxygen species on CNT surface, which is a key factor influencing the VRFB performance, and (iv) makes the N-CNT electrochemically more accessible than the CNT.

  11. A structural study of solid electrolyte interface on negative electrode of lithium-Ion battery by electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushita, Tadashi; Watanabe, Jiro; Nakao, Tatsuya; Yamashita, Seiichi

    2014-11-01

    For the last decades, the performance of the lithium-ion battery (LIB) has been significantly improved and its applications have been expanding rapidly. However, its performance has yet to be enhanced.In the lithium-ion battery development, it is important to elucidate the electrode structure change in detail during the charge and discharge cycling. In particular, solid electrolyte interface (SEI) formed by decomposition of the electrolytes on the graphite negative electrode surface should play an important role for battery properties. Therefore, it is essential to control the structure and composition of SEI to improve the battery performance. Here, we conducted a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) study to elucidate the structures of the SEI during the charge and discharge process using LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 [1] cathode and graphite anode. [2] Since SEI is a lithium-containing compound with high activity, it was observed without being exposed to the atmosphere. The electrodes including SEI were sampled after dismantling batteries with cutoff voltages of 3V and 4.2V for the charge process and 3V for the discharge process. Fig.1 shows SEM images of the graphite electrode surface during the charge and discharge process. The change of the SEI structure during the process was clearly observed. Further, TEM images showed that the SEI grew thicker during the charge process and becomes thinner when discharged. These results with regard to the reversible SEI structure could give a new insight for the battery development.jmicro;63/suppl_1/i21/DFU056F1F1DFU056F1Fig. 1.SEM images of the graphite electrode surface:(a) before charge process;(b) with charge-cutoff voltage of 3.0V; (c) with charge-cutoff voltage of 4.2V; (d) with discharge-cutoff voltage of 3.0V. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Japanese Society of Microscopy. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Manufacturing of Protected Lithium Electrodes for Advanced Lithium-Air, Lithium-Water & Lithium-Sulfur Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visco, Steven J

    2015-11-30

    The global demand for rechargeable batteries is large and growing rapidly. Assuming the adoption of electric vehicles continues to increase, the need for smaller, lighter, and less expensive batteries will become even more pressing. In this vein, PolyPlus Battery Company has developed ultra-light high performance batteries based on its proprietary protected lithium electrode (PLE) technology. The Company’s Lithium-Air and Lithium-Seawater batteries have already demonstrated world record performance (verified by third party testing), and we are developing advanced lithium-sulfur batteries which have the potential deliver high performance at low cost. In this program PolyPlus Battery Company teamed with Corning Incorporated to transition the PLE technology from bench top fabrication using manual tooling to a pre- commercial semi-automated pilot line. At the inception of this program PolyPlus worked with a Tier 1 battery manufacturing engineering firm to design and build the first-of-its-kind pilot line for PLE production. The pilot line was shipped and installed in Berkeley, California several months after the start of the program. PolyPlus spent the next two years working with and optimizing the pilot line and now produces all of its PLEs on this line. The optimization process successfully increased the yield, throughput, and quality of PLEs produced on the pilot line. The Corning team focused on fabrication and scale-up of the ceramic membranes that are key to the PLE technology. PolyPlus next demonstrated that it could take Corning membranes through the pilot line process to produce state-of-the-art protected lithium electrodes. In the latter part of the program the Corning team developed alternative membranes targeted for the large rechargeable battery market. PolyPlus is now in discussions with several potential customers for its advanced PLE-enabled batteries, and is building relationships and infrastructure for the transition into manufacturing. It is likely

  13. Decoupling Hydrogen and Oxygen Production in Acidic Water Electrolysis Using a Polytriphenylamine-Based Battery Electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yuanyuan; Dong, Xiaoli; Wang, Yonggang; Xia, Yongyao

    2018-03-05

    Hydrogen production through water splitting is considered a promising approach for solar energy harvesting. However, the variable and intermittent nature of solar energy and the co-production of H 2 and O 2 significantly reduce the flexibility of this approach, increasing the costs of its use in practical applications. Herein, using the reversible n-type doping/de-doping reaction of the solid-state polytriphenylamine-based battery electrode, we decouple the H 2 and O 2 production in acid water electrolysis. In this architecture, the H 2 and O 2 production occur at different times, which eliminates the issue of gas mixing and adapts to the variable and intermittent nature of solar energy, facilitating the conversion of solar energy to hydrogen (STH). Furthermore, for the first time, we demonstrate a membrane-free solar water splitting through commercial photovoltaics and the decoupled acid water electrolysis, which potentially paves the way for a new approach for solar water splitting. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Drying and moisture resorption behaviour of various electrode materials and separators for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stich, Michael; Pandey, Nisrit; Bund, Andreas

    2017-10-01

    The drying behaviour and water uptake of a variety of commonly used electrode materials (graphite, LiFePO4, LiMn2O4, LiCoO2, Li(NiCoMn)O2) and separators (polyolefin, glass fibre) for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) are investigated. The drying experiments are carried out using a coulometric Karl Fischer titrator in combination with a vaporiser. This setup leads to a highly sensitive and precise method to quantify water amounts in the microgram range in solid materials. Thereby the mass specific drying behaviour at RT and 120 °C is determined as well as the water resorption of the investigated materials in conditioned air atmosphere (T: 25 °C, RH: 40%). By extracting characteristic water detection rate curves for the investigated materials, a method is developed to predict the water detection beyond the runtime of the experiment. The results help optimising drying procedures of LIB components and thus can save time and costs. It is also shown, that water contaminations in graphite/LiFePO4 coin cells with a LiPF6 based electrolyte lead to a faster capacity fade during cycling and a significant change of the cell impedance.

  15. Highly catalytic and stabilized titanium nitride nanowire array-decorated graphite felt electrodes for all vanadium redox flow batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, L.; Zhao, T. S.; Zeng, L.; Zeng, Y. K.; Jiang, H. R.

    2017-02-01

    In this work, we prepare a highly catalytic and stabilized titanium nitride (TiN) nanowire array-decorated graphite felt electrode for all vanadium redox flow batteries (VRFBs). Free-standing TiN nanowires are synthesized by a two-step process, in which TiO2 nanowires are first grown onto the surface of graphite felt via a seed-assisted hydrothermal method and then converted to TiN through nitridation reaction. When applied to VRFBs, the prepared electrode enables the electrolyte utilization and energy efficiency to be 73.9% and 77.4% at a high current density of 300 mA cm-2, which are correspondingly 43.3% and 15.4% higher than that of battery assembled with a pristine electrode. More impressively, the present battery exhibits good stability and high capacity retention during the cycle test. The superior performance is ascribed to the significant improvement in the electrochemical kinetics and enlarged active sites toward V3+/V2+ redox reaction.

  16. High-performance graphene/sulphur electrodes for flexible Li-ion batteries using the low-temperature spraying method

    KAUST Repository

    Kumar, Pushpendra

    2015-01-01

    Elementary sulphur (S) has been shown to be an excellent cathode material in energy storage devices such as Li-S batteries owing to its very high capacity. The major challenges associated with the sulphur cathodes are structural degradation, poor cycling performance and instability of the solid-electrolyte interphase caused by the dissolution of polysulfides during cycling. Tremendous efforts made by others have demonstrated that encapsulation of S materials improves their cycling performance. To make this approach practical for large scale applications, the use of low-cost technology and materials has become a crucial and new focus of S-based Li-ion batteries. Herein, we propose to use a low temperature spraying process to fabricate graphene/S electrode material, where the ink is composed of graphene flakes and the micron-sized S particles prepared by grinding of low-cost S powders. The S particles are found to be well hosted by highly conductive graphene flakes and consequently superior cyclability (∼70% capacity retention after 250 cycles), good coulombic efficiency (∼98%) and high capacity (∼1500 mA h g-1) are obtained. The proposed approach does not require high temperature annealing or baking; hence, another great advantage is to make flexible Li-ion batteries. We have also demonstrated two types of flexible batteries using sprayed graphene/S electrodes. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2015.

  17. Explaining key properties of lithiation in TiO2-anatase Li-ion battery electrodes using phase-field modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Klerk, N.J.J.; Vasileiadis, A.; Smith, Raymond B.; Bazant, Martin Z.; Wagemaker, M.

    2017-01-01

    The improvement of Li-ion battery performance requires development of models that capture the essential physics and chemistry in Li-ion battery electrode materials. Phase-field modeling has recently been shown to have this ability, providing new opportunities to gain understanding of these complex

  18. Nickel Network Derived from a Block Copolymer Template for MnO2 Electrodes as Dimensionally Stabilized Lithium-Ion Battery Anodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tillmann, Selina D.; Cekic-Laskovic, Isidora; Winter, Martin; Loos, Katja

    To improve lithium-ion batteries further, novel concepts for the reproducible preparation of highly structured bicontinuous battery electrodes are required. With this in mind, the main focus of this work is based on the block copolymer template-directed synthesis of metal nanofoams suitable for the

  19. Nano-structured 3D Electrodes for Li-ion Micro-batteries

    OpenAIRE

    Perre, Emilie

    2010-01-01

    A new challenging application for Li-ion battery has arisen from the rapid development of micro-electronics. Powering Micro-ElectroMechanical Systems (MEMS) such as autonomous smart-dust nodes using conventional Li-ion batteries is not possible. It is not only new batteries based on new materials but there is also a need of modifying the actual battery design. In this context, the conception of 3D nano-architectured Li-ion batteries is explored. There are several micro-battery concepts that a...

  20. Polyaniline silver nanoparticle coffee waste extracted porous graphene oxide nanocomposite structures as novel electrode material for rechargeable batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundriyal, Poonam; Bhattacharya, Shantanu

    2017-03-01

    The exploration of new and advanced electrode materials are required in electronic and electrical devices for power storage applications. Also, there has been a continuous endeavour to formulate strategies for extraction of high performance electrode materials from naturally obtained waste products. In this work, we have developed an in situ hybrid nanocomposite from coffee waste extracted porous graphene oxide (CEPG), polyaniline (PANI) and silver nanoparticles (Ag) and have found this novel composite to serve as an efficient electrode material for batteries. The successful interaction among the three phases of the nano-composite i.e. CEPG-PANI-Ag have been thoroughly understood through RAMAN, Fourier transform infrared and x-ray diffraction spectroscopy, morphological studies through field emission scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope. Thermo-gravimetric analysis of the nano-composite demonstrates higher thermal stability up-to a temperature of 495 °C. Further BET studies through nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms confirm the presence of micro/meso and macro-pores in the nanocomposite sample. The cyclic-voltammetry (CV) analysis performed on CEPG-PANI-Ag nanocomposite exhibits a purely faradic behaviour using nickel foam as a current collector thus suggests the prepared nanocomposite as a battery electrode material. The nanocomposite reports a maximum specific capacity of 1428 C g-1 and excellent cyclic stability up-to 5000 cycles.

  1. 3D Graphene-Ni Foam as an Advanced Electrode for High-Performance Nonaqueous Redox Flow Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyubin; Lee, Jungkuk; Kwon, Kyoung Woo; Park, Min-Sik; Hwang, Jin-Ha; Kim, Ki Jae

    2017-07-12

    Electrodes composed of multilayered graphene grown on a metal foam (GMF) were prepared by directly growing multilayer graphene sheets on a three-dimensional (3D) Ni-foam substrate via a self-catalyzing chemical vapor deposition process. The multilayer graphene sheets are successfully grown on the Ni-foam substrate surface, maintaining the unique 3D macroporous structure of the Ni foam. The potential use of GMF electrodes in nonaqueous redox flow batteries (RFBs) is carefully examined using [Co(bpy) 3 ] +/2+ and [Fe(bpy) 3 ] 2+/3+ redox couples. The GMF electrodes display a much improved electrochemical activity and enhanced kinetics toward the [Co(bpy) 3 ] +/2+ (anolyte) and [Fe(bpy) 3 ] 2+/3+ (catholyte) redox couples, compared with the bare Ni metal foam electrodes, suggesting that the 2D graphene sheets having lots of interdomain defects provide sufficient reaction sites and secure electric-conduction pathways. Consequently, a nonaqueous RFB cell assembled with GMF electrodes exhibits high Coulombic and voltage efficiencies of 87.2 and 90.9%, respectively, at the first cycle. This performance can be maintained up to the 50th cycle without significant efficiency loss. Moreover, the importance of a rational electrode design for improving electrochemical performance is addressed.

  2. A novel perspective on the formation of the solid electrolyte interphase on the graphite electrode for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Jian; Zhang Jian; Su Yuchang; Zhang Xigui; Xia Baojia

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we describe how the mechanism of formation of a protective film [the solid electrolyte interphase (or interface) (SEI)] on a graphite electrode for Li-ion batteries was investigated from the novel perspective of precipitation of the final decomposition products that arise from the reduction of a nonaqueous electrolyte solution in contact with the graphite electrode. Within the framework of this new perspective, we can elegantly account for the compositional and structural differences between the basal-plane and edge-plane SEIs and for the origins of the multi-layer structure and the parabolic growth law of the SEIs on both the edge-plane and basal-plane surfaces of the graphite electrode.

  3. Bismuth nanoparticle decorating graphite felt as a high-performance electrode for an all-vanadium redox flow battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bin; Gu, Meng; Nie, Zimin; Shao, Yuyan; Luo, Qingtao; Wei, Xiaoliang; Li, Xiaolin; Xiao, Jie; Wang, Chongmin; Sprenkle, Vincent; Wang, Wei

    2013-03-13

    Employing electrolytes containing Bi(3+), bismuth nanoparticles are synchronously electrodeposited onto the surface of a graphite felt electrode during operation of an all-vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB). The influence of the Bi nanoparticles on the electrochemical performance of the VRFB is thoroughly investigated. It is confirmed that Bi is only present at the negative electrode and facilitates the redox reaction between V(II) and V(III). However, the Bi nanoparticles significantly improve the electrochemical performance of VRFB cells by enhancing the kinetics of the sluggish V(II)/V(III) redox reaction, especially under high power operation. The energy efficiency is increased by 11% at high current density (150 mA·cm(-2)) owing to faster charge transfer as compared with one without Bi. The results suggest that using Bi nanoparticles in place of noble metals offers great promise as high-performance electrodes for VRFB application.

  4. Right versus left parasternal electrode position in the entirely subcutaneous ICD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettin, Markus; Dechering, Dirk; Frommeyer, Gerrit; Larbig, Robert; Löher, Andreas; Reinke, Florian; Köbe, Julia; Eckardt, Lars

    2018-05-01

    The subcutaneous implantable cardioverter defibrillator (S-ICD ® ) has been established as an alternative to conventional transvenous ICD for the prevention of sudden cardiac death. Initial studies have shown safety and efficacy of the system with a left parasternal (LP) electrode. However, several case studies reported a right parasternal (RP) position. The purpose of this study was to analyze shock efficacy and safety of an RP electrode position. Between June 2010 and May 2016, 120 S-ICD ® were implanted at our institution. On the basis of the heart location on preoperative chest radiography (CXR), the investigators decided on an RP (n = 52) or LP electrode position (n = 68). All perioperative induced VF episodes, and spontaneous appropriate and inappropriate episodes during follow-up were analyzed. Patients with an RP electrode did not differ in terms of age, sex, or ejection fraction. A statistically significant difference in underlying cardiac disease was observed between the RP and LP electrode group, with more patients with channelopathies in the RP electrode group and more patients with non-ischemic cardiomyopathy in the LP electrode group. During a mean follow-up of 24.3 ± 19.5 months, 27 appropriate (19 in the LP group and 8 in the RP group) and 28 inappropriate (18 LP and 10 RP) ICD shocks occurred (p value = NS). In the present study, an RP electrode position was chosen on the basis of chest radiographic characteristics and was efficient in terms of sensing and shock efficacy. Thus, a right-sided electrode implant might be an alternative if a left-sided electrode implant is inadequate. It might also be favorable for young patients with narrow heart silhouettes in the midsagittal position.

  5. Composite metal-hydrogen electrodes for metal-hydrogen batteries. Final report, October 1, 1993 - April 15, 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruckman, M.W.; Strongin, M.; Weismann, H.

    1997-04-01

    The purpose of this project is to develop and conduct a feasibility study of metallic thin films (multilayered and alloy composition) produced by advanced sputtering techniques for use as anodes in Ni-metal hydrogen batteries that would be deposited as distinct anode, electrolyte and cathode layers in thin film devices. The materials could also be incorporated in secondary consumer batteries (i.e. type AF(4/3 or 4/5)) which use electrodes in the form of tapes. The project was based on pioneering studies of hydrogen uptake by ultra-thin Pd-capped Nb films, these studies suggested that materials with metal-hydrogen ratios exceeding those of commercially available metal hydride materials and fast hydrogen charging and discharging kinetics could be produced. The project initially concentrated on gas phase and electrochemical studies of Pd-capped niobium films in laboratory-scale NiMH cells. This extended the pioneering work to the wet electrochemical environment of NiMH batteries and exploited advanced synchrotron radiation techniques not available during the earlier work to conduct in-situ studies of such materials during hydrogen charging and discharging. Although batteries with fast charging kinetics and hydrogen-metal ratios approaching unity could be fabricated, it was found that oxidation, cracking and corrosion in aqueous solutions made pure Nb films and multilayers poor candidates for battery application. The project emphasis shifted to alloy films based on known elemental materials used for NiMH batteries. Although commercial NiMH anode materials contain many metals, it was found that 0.24 μm thick sputtered Zr-Ni films cycled at least 50 times with charging efficiencies exceeding 95% and [H]/[M] ratios of 0.7-1.0. Multilayered or thicker Zr-Ni films could be candidates for a thin film NiMH battery that may have practical applications as an integrated power source for modern electronic devices

  6. Experiment study on four button electrode used to monitor position of high current electron-beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Tiezheng; Wang Huacen; Xie Yutong; Zhang Wenwei

    2004-01-01

    The button electrode is one that widely used in high energy accelerators, such as storage ring, and the button electrode has many merit like high accuracy, high resolution, resisting magnetic field, simple machinery, without magnetic core and low cost, etc. It's helpful that the button electrode is used as the beam position monitor in the linear induction accelerator. The experimental facilities have been designed and set up and it can simulate the beam of linear induction accelerator. The button electrode beam position monitor experiment have been done on the experimental facilities. The result of the experiment prove that the button electrode has an accuracy of 0.5 mm, and can reflect the wave of electron-beam accurately

  7. Electrode design and performance of the ORNL positive ion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whealton, J.H.; Gardner, W.L.; Haselton, H.H.

    1981-08-01

    The neutral beam development group at ORNL has designed, constructed, and shipped four 50-kV, 100-A sources to PPL to be used for neutral beam heating of the confined plasma on the PDX tokamak. These sources have higher current capability than scaled-down sources, and they are required to run for 0.5 s as opposed to the 0.3-s requirement for PLT and ISX-B sources. Due to an innovative electrode design, these higher power sources met these requirements and achieved a higher transmission efficiency - 76% of the total input power on target vs 60% for the original ISX-B and modified PLT sources or 40% for the original PLT sources. Using the same electrode design with a tetrode accelerating structure and a new, indirectly heated cathode, repeatable long pulse, high energy conditions of 70 kV, 7 A, 8 s, and 90 kV, 9 A, 5 s were achieved. Grid deformation calculations and Monte Carlo beam line gas deposition algorithms will be discussed. A direct-magnetic-electron-blocking, direct-recovery device is described, and theoretical considerations of it are discussed

  8. A new measurement method for electrode gain in an orthogonally symmetric beam position monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou Junying; Wu Fangfang; Yang Yongliang; Sun Baogen; Zhou Zeran; Luo Qing; Lu Ping; Xu Hongliang

    2014-01-01

    The new beam position monitor (BPM) system of the injector at the upgrade project of the Hefei Light Source (HLS Ⅱ) has 19 stripline beam position monitors. Most consist of four orthogonally symmetric stripline electrodes. Differences in electronic gain and mismaching tolerance can cause changes in the beam response of the BPM electrodes. This variation will couple the two measured horizontal positions, resulting in measuring error. To alleviate this effect, a new technique to measure the relative response of the four electrodes has been developed. It is independent of the beam charge, and the related coefficient can be calculated theoretically. The effect of electrode coupling on this technique is analyzed. The calibration data is used to fit the gain for all 19 injector beam position monitors. The results show the standard deviation of the distribution of measured gains is about 5%. (authors)

  9. Effect of L-glutamic acid on the positive electrolyte for all-vanadium redox flow battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, Xinxing; Peng, Sui; Lei, Ying; Gao, Chao; Wang, Nanfang; Liu, Suqin; Fang, Dong

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Amino acid is used as additive for all-vanadium redox flow battery. ► The additive can significantly improve performance of positive electrolyte. ► Mechanism for the improvement is investigated. -- Abstract: L-Glutamic acid is used as an additive for the positive electrolyte of all-vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB), and its effect on the thermal stability and electrochemical activity is investigated. It is found that the addition of L-glutamic can significantly alleviate the precipitation of V 2 O 5 from positive electrolyte. The conservation rate of V(V) ion can be as high as 58% after 2 M V(V) solution being kept in 40 °C for 89 h. Besides, L-glutamic can also improve the mass transport and electrochemical performance of anolyte. A high coulombic efficiency of over 95% and energy efficiency of 74% are obtained. XPS spectra illustrate that L-glutamic can react with the surface of carbon felt electrode and introduce more oxygen-containing and nitrogen-containing groups, which should be responsible for the improvement of electrochemical performance

  10. Redox flow batteries with serpentine flow fields: Distributions of electrolyte flow reactant penetration into the porous carbon electrodes and effects on performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Xinyou; Prahl, Joseph M.; Alexander, J. Iwan D.; Savinell, Robert F.

    2018-04-01

    Redox flow batteries with flow field designs have been demonstrated to boost their capacities to deliver high current density and power density in medium and large-scale energy storage applications. Nevertheless, the fundamental mechanisms involved with improved current density in flow batteries with serpentine flow field designs have been not fully understood. Here we report a three-dimensional model of a serpentine flow field over a porous carbon electrode to examine the distributions of pressure driven electrolyte flow penetrations into the porous carbon electrodes. We also estimate the maximum current densities associated with stoichiometric availability of electrolyte reactant flow penetrations through the porous carbon electrodes. The results predict reasonably well observed experimental data without using any adjustable parameters. This fundamental work on electrolyte flow distributions of limiting reactant availability will contribute to a better understanding of limits on electrochemical performance in flow batteries with serpentine flow field designs and should be helpful to optimizing flow batteries.

  11. Three dimensional Graphene aerogels as binder-less, freestanding, elastic and high-performance electrodes for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhihang; Li, Hua; Tian, Ran; Duan, Huanan; Guo, Yiping; Chen, Yujie; Zhou, Jie; Zhang, Chunmei; DUGNANI, Roberto; Liu, Hezhou

    2016-01-01

    In this work it is shown how porous graphene aerogels fabricated by an eco-friendly and simple technological process, could be used as electrodes in lithium- ion batteries. The proposed graphene framework exhibited excellent performance including high reversible capacities, superior cycling stability and rate capability. A significantly lower temperature (75 °C) than the one currently utilized in battery manufacturing was utilized for self-assembly hence providing potential significant savings to the industrial production. After annealing at 600 °C, the formation of Sn-C-O bonds between the SnO2 nanoparticles and the reduced graphene sheets will initiate synergistic effect and improve the electrochemical performance. The XPS patterns revealed the formation of Sn-C-O bonds. Both SEM and TEM imaging of the electrode material showed that the three dimensional network of graphene aerogels and the SnO2 particles were distributed homogeneously on graphene sheets. Finally, the electrochemical properties of the samples as active anode materials for lithium-ion batteries were tested and examined by constant current charge–discharge cycling and the finding fully described in this manuscript. PMID:27265146

  12. Rotating disk electrode study of borohydride oxidation in a molten eutectic electrolyte and advancements in the intermediate temperature borohydride battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Andrew; Gyenge, Előd L.

    2017-08-01

    The electrode kinetics of the NaBH4 oxidation reaction (BOR) in a molten NaOH-KOH eutectic mixture is investigated by rotating disk electrode (RDE) voltammetry on electrochemically oxidized Ni at temperatures between 458 K and 503 K. The BH4- diffusion coefficient in the molten alkali eutectic together with the BOR activation energy, exchange current density, transfer coefficient and number of electrons exchanged, are determined. Electrochemically oxidized Ni shows excellent BOR electrocatalytic activity with a maximum of seven electrons exchanged and a transfer coefficient up to one. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) reveals the formation of NiO as the catalytically active species. The high faradaic efficiency and BOR rate on oxidized Ni anode in the molten electrolyte compared to aqueous alkaline electrolytes is advantageous for power sources. A novel molten electrolyte battery design is investigated using dissolved NaBH4 at the anode and immobilized KIO4 at the cathode. This battery produces a stable open-circuit cell potential of 1.04 V, and a peak power density of 130 mW cm-2 corresponding to a superficial current density of 160 mA cm-2 at 458 K. With further improvements and scale-up borohydride molten electrolyte batteries and fuel cells could be integrated with thermal energy storage systems.

  13. In Situ Radiographic Investigation of (De)Lithiation Mechanisms in a Tin-Electrode Lithium-Ion Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Fu; Markötter, Henning; Zhou, Dong; Alrwashdeh, Saad Sabe Sulaiman; Hilger, Andre; Kardjilov, Nikolay; Manke, Ingo; Banhart, John

    2016-05-10

    The lithiation and delithiation mechanisms of multiple-Sn particles in a customized flat radiography cell were investigated by in situ synchrotron radiography. For the first time, four (de)lithiation phenomena in a Sn-electrode battery system are highlighted: 1) the (de)lithiation behavior varies between different Sn particles, 2) the time required to lithiate individual Sn particles is markedly different from the time needed to discharge the complete battery, 3) electrochemical deactivation of originally electrochemically active particles is reported, and 4) a change of electrochemical behavior of individual particles during cycling is found and explained by dynamic changes of (de)lithiation pathways amongst particles within the electrode. These unexpected findings fundamentaly expand the understanding of the underlying (de)lithiation mechanisms inside commercial lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) and would open new design principles for high-performance next-generation LIBs. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Relaxation-Induced Memory Effect of LiFePO4 Electrodes in Li-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Jianfeng; Tan, Chuhao; Liu, Mengchuang; Li, De; Chen, Yong

    2017-07-26

    In Li-ion batteries, memory effect has been found in several commercial two-phase materials as a voltage bump and a step in the (dis)charging plateau, which delays the two-phase transition and influences the estimation of the state of charge. Although memory effect has been first discovered in olivine LiFePO 4 , the origination and dependence are still not clear and are critical for regulating the memory effect of LiFePO 4 . Herein, LiFePO 4 has been synthesized by a home-built spray drying instrument, of which the memory effect has been investigated in Li-ion batteries. For as-synthesized LiFePO 4 , the memory effect is significantly dependent on the relaxation time after phase transition. Besides, the voltage bump of memory effect is actually a delayed voltage overshooting that is overlaid at the edge of stepped (dis)charging plateau. Furthermore, we studied the kinetics of LiFePO 4 electrode with electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), which shows that the memory effect is related to the electrochemical kinetics. Thereby, the underlying mechanism has been revealed in memory effect, which would guide us to optimize two-phase electrode materials and improve Li-ion battery management systems.

  15. Construction of reduced graphene oxide supported molybdenum carbides composite electrode as high-performance anode materials for lithium ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Minghua; Zhang, Jiawei [Key Laboratory of Engineering Dielectric and Applications (Ministry of Education), and School of Applied Science, Harbin University of Science and Technology, Harbin 150080 (China); Chen, Qingguo, E-mail: qgchen@263.net [Key Laboratory of Engineering Dielectric and Applications (Ministry of Education), and School of Applied Science, Harbin University of Science and Technology, Harbin 150080 (China); Qi, Meili [Key Laboratory of Engineering Dielectric and Applications (Ministry of Education), and School of Applied Science, Harbin University of Science and Technology, Harbin 150080 (China); Xia, Xinhui, E-mail: helloxxh@zju.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, Key Laboratory of Advanced Materials and Applications for Batteries of Zhejiang Province, and School of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)

    2016-01-15

    Highlights: • Reduced graphene oxide supported molybdenum carbides are prepared by two-step strategy. • A unique sheet-on-sheet integrated nanostructure is favorable for fast ion/electron transfer. • The integrated electrode shows excellent Li ion storage performance. - Abstract: Metal carbides are emerging as promising anodes for advanced lithium ion batteries (LIBs). Herein we report reduced graphene oxide (RGO) supported molybdenum carbides (Mo{sub 2}C) integrated electrode by the combination of solution and carbothermal methods. In the designed integrated electrode, Mo{sub 2}C nanoparticles are uniformly dispersed among graphene nanosheets, forming a unique sheet-on-sheet integrated nanostructure. As anode of LIBs, the as-prepared Mo{sub 2}C-RGO integrated electrode exhibits noticeable electrochemical performances with a high reversible capacity of 850 mAh g{sup −1} at 100 mA g{sup −1}, and 456 mAh g{sup −1} at 1000 mA g{sup −1}, respectively. Moreover, the Mo{sub 2}C-RGO integrated electrode shows excellent cycling life with a capacity of ∼98.6 % at 1000 mA g{sup −1} after 400 cycles. Our research may pave the way for construction of high-performance metal carbides anodes of LIBs.

  16. Magneli phase Ti4O7 electrode for oxygen reduction reaction and its implication for zinc-air rechargeable batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xiaoxia; Zhu, Aaron Li; Qu Wei; Wang Haijiang; Hui, Rob; Zhang Lei; Zhang Jiujun

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, Magneli phase Ti 4 O 7 was successfully synthesized using a TiO 2 reduction method, and characterized using X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The electrode coated with this Ti 4 O 7 material showed activities for both the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and the oxygen evolution reaction (OER). For the ORR, several parameters, including overall electron transfer number, kinetic constants, electron transfer coefficient, and percentage H 2 O 2 production, were obtained using the rotating ring-disk electrode (RRDE) technique and the Koutecky-Levich theory. The overall electron transfer number was found to be between 2.3 and 2.9 in 1, 4, and 6 M KOH electrolytes, suggesting that the ORR process on the Ti 4 O 7 electrode was a mixed process of 2- and 4-electron transfer pathways. Electrochemical durability tests, carried out in highly concentrated KOH electrolyte, confirmed that this Ti 4 O 7 is a stable electrode material, suggesting that it should be a feasible candidate for the air-cathodes of zinc-air batteries. To understand the stability of this material, Raman and XPS spectra were also collected for the Ti 4 O 7 samples before and after the stability tests. The results and analysis revealed that a thin layer of TiO 2 formed on the Ti 4 O 7 surface, which may have prevented further oxidation into the bulk of the Ti 4 O 7 electrode.

  17. Role of material properties and mechanical constraint on stress-assisted diffusion in plate electrodes of lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Yicheng; Zhang Junqian; Shao Xianjun; Guo Zhansheng

    2013-01-01

    This work investigates the stress-assisted diffusion of lithium ions in layered electrodes of Li-ion batteries. Decoupled diffusion governing equations are obtained. Material properties, which are characterized by a single dimensionless parameter, and mechanical constraint between a current collector and an active layer, which is characterized by the elastic modulus ratio and thickness ratio between the layers, are identified as key factors that govern the stress-assisted diffusion. For a symmetric plate electrode, stress is induced by the Li-ion concentration gradient, and stress-assisted diffusion therefore depends only on the material properties. For an asymmetric bilayer electrode, mechanical constraint plays a very important role in the diffusion via generation of bending stress. Diffusion may be facilitated, or inversely impeded, according to the constraint. By summarizing the coupling factors of common active materials and investigating the concentration variation induced by stress-assisted diffusion in various electrodes, this work provides insights on stress-assisted diffusion in a layered electrode, as well as suggestions for relevant modelling works on whether the stress-assisted diffusion should be taken into account according to the selection of material and structure. (paper)

  18. Chemically fabricated LiFePO{sub 4} thin film electrode for transparent batteries and electrochromic devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Béléké, Alexis B. [Institut de recherche d’Hydro-Québec, 1800 Boul. Lionel-Boulet, Varennes, QC J3X 1S3 (Canada); Department of Mining and Materials Engineering, McGill University, M.H. Wong Building, 3610 rue University, Montréal, QC H3A 2B2 (Canada); Faure, Cyril [Institut de recherche d’Hydro-Québec, 1800 Boul. Lionel-Boulet, Varennes, QC J3X 1S3 (Canada); Röder, Manuel [Center for Applied Electrochemistry, Fraunhofer Institute for Silicate Research, Neunerplatz 2, 97083 Würzburg (Germany); Hovington, Pierre [Institut de recherche d’Hydro-Québec, 1800 Boul. Lionel-Boulet, Varennes, QC J3X 1S3 (Canada); Posset, Uwe [Center for Applied Electrochemistry, Fraunhofer Institute for Silicate Research, Neunerplatz 2, 97083 Würzburg (Germany); Guerfi, Abdelbast [Institut de recherche d’Hydro-Québec, 1800 Boul. Lionel-Boulet, Varennes, QC J3X 1S3 (Canada); Zaghib, Karim, E-mail: zaghib.karim@ireq.ca [Institut de recherche d’Hydro-Québec, 1800 Boul. Lionel-Boulet, Varennes, QC J3X 1S3 (Canada)

    2016-12-15

    Graphical abstract: Simplified diagram of the novel sol-gel approach of preparation of colorless and transparent LiFePO{sub 4} thin film electrode. - Highlights: • Novel sol-gel synthesis of colorless LFP thin film electrode for transparent Li-ion battery. • High performance of the electrode at various current densities: 5, 10, 20, 50 and 100 μA/cm{sup 2}. • LFP nanoparticles exhibit an excellent electro-activity. • Colorless LFP thin film shows a transmittance above 80% versus FTO. • Higher transmittance of LFP electrode a potential candidate for electrochromic devices. - Abstract: We report a new sol-gel approach of synthesis of LiFePO{sub 4} (LFP) thin film and its application as cathode materials for transparent Li-ion battery in half-cell configuration. LFP thin films were obtained from an alcoholic colloidal suspension of iron acetylacetonate (Fe(AcAc){sub 3}) and aqueous lithium dihydrogen phosphate (LiH{sub 2}PO{sub 4}) deposited on fluorine tin oxide (FTO) glass substrate, followed by heating at 450 °C under nitrogen gas for 1 h. X-ray diffraction (XRD) confirmed that the LFP films have an orthorhombic crystal system with space group Pnma (62). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) shows spherical LFP nanoparticles aggregates homogenously deposited all over the surface of FTO substrate containing 3-D open pores. The electrochemical behaviors of thin film vs Li/Li{sup +} cell were investigated by cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic charge-discharge measurements. The cycle life was evaluated by running 1000 cycles of charge-discharge at a current density of 20 μA/cm{sup 2}. The transmission spectra reveal 85–90% of transparency versus FTO as reference, which makes it a potential candidate as a complementary electrode in electrochromic devices (ECDs).

  19. A MEMS platform for in situ, real-time monitoring of electrochemically induced mechanical changes in lithium-ion battery electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pomerantseva, Ekaterina; Jung, Hyun; Gnerlich, Markus; Baron, Sergio; Gerasopoulos, Konstantinos; Ghodssi, Reza

    2013-01-01

    We report the first successful demonstration of an optical microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) sensing platform for the in situ characterization of electrochemically induced reversible mechanical changes in lithium-ion battery (LIB) electrodes. The platform consists of an array of flexible membranes with a reflective surface on one side and a thin-film LIB electrode on the other side. The membranes deflect due to the active battery material volume change caused by lithium intercalation (expansion) and extraction (contraction). This deflection is monitored using the Fabry–Perot optical interferometry principle. The active material volume change causes high internal stresses and mechanical degradation of the electrodes. The stress evolution observed in a silicon thin-film electrode incorporated into this MEMS platform follows a ‘first elastic, then plastic’ deformation scheme. Understanding of the internal stresses in battery electrodes during discharge/charge is important for improving the reliability and cycle lifetime of LIBs. The developed MEMS platform presents a new method for in situ diagnostics of thin-film LIB electrodes to aid the development of new materials, optimization of electrode performance, and prevention of battery failure. (paper)

  20. Preliminary study on zinc-air battery using zinc regeneration electrolysis with propanol oxidation as a counter electrode reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Yue-Hua; Cheng, Jie; Ning, Shang-Qi; Yang, Yu-Sheng

    A zinc-air battery using zinc regeneration electrolysis with propanol oxidation as a counter electrode reaction is reported in this paper. It possesses functions of both zincate reduction and electrochemical preparation, showing the potential for increasing the electronic energy utilization. Charge/discharge tests and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) micrographs reveal that when a nickel sheet plated with the high-H 2-overpotential metal, cadmium, was used as the negative substrate electrode, the dendritic formation and hydrogen evolution are suppressed effectively, and granular zinc deposits become larger but relatively dense with the increase of charge time. The performance of batteries is favorable even if the charge time is as long as 5 h at the current density of 20 mA cm -2. Better discharge performance is achieved using a 'cavity-opening' configuration for the discharge cell rather than a 'gas-introducing' configuration. The highest energy efficiency is up to 59.2%. That is, the energy consumed by organic electro-synthesis can be recovered by 59.2%. Cyclic voltammograms show that the sintered nickel electrode exhibits a good electro-catalysis activity for the propanol oxidation. The increase of propanol concentration conduces to an enhancement in the organic electro-synthesis efficiency. The organic electro-synthesis current efficiency of 82% can be obtained.

  1. VS4 Nanoparticles Anchored on Graphene Sheets as a High-Rate and Stable Electrode Material for Sodium Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Qiang; Zhao, Yingying; Yu, Yanhao; Bian, Xiaofei; Wang, Xudong; Wei, Yingjin; Gao, Yu; Chen, Gang

    2018-02-22

    The size and conductivity of the electrode materials play a significant role in the kinetics of sodium-ion batteries. Various characterizations reveal that size-controllable VS 4 nanoparticles can be successfully anchored on the surface of graphene sheets (GSs) by a simple cationic-surfactant-assisted hydrothermal method. When used as an electrode material for sodium-ion batteries, these VS 4 @GS nanocomposites show large specific capacity (349.1 mAh g -1 after 100 cycles), excellent long-term stability (84 % capacity retention after 1200 cycles), and high rate capability (188.1 mAh g -1 at 4000 mA g -1 ). A large proportion of the capacity was contributed by capacitive processes. This remarkable electrochemical performance was attributed to synergistic interactions between nanosized VS 4 particles and a highly conductive graphene network, which provided short diffusion pathways for Na + ions and large contact areas between the electrolyte and electrode, resulting in considerably improved electrochemical kinetic properties. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Insertion of Mono- vs. Bi- vs. Trivalent Atoms in Prospective Active Electrode Materials for Electrochemical Batteries: An ab Initio Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadym V. Kulish

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Rational design of active electrode materials is important for the development of advanced lithium and post-lithium batteries. Ab initio modeling can provide mechanistic understanding of the performance of prospective materials and guide design. We review our recent comparative ab initio studies of lithium, sodium, potassium, magnesium, and aluminum interactions with different phases of several actively experimentally studied electrode materials, including monoelemental materials carbon, silicon, tin, and germanium, oxides TiO2 and VxOy as well as sulphur-based spinels MS2 (M = transition metal. These studies are unique in that they provided reliable comparisons, i.e., at the same level of theory and using the same computational parameters, among different materials and among Li, Na, K, Mg, and Al. Specifically, insertion energetics (related to the electrode voltage and diffusion barriers (related to rate capability, as well as phononic effects, are compared. These studies facilitate identification of phases most suitable as anode or cathode for different types of batteries. We highlight the possibility of increasing the voltage, or enabling electrochemical activity, by amorphization and p-doping, of rational choice of phases of oxides to maximize the insertion potential of Li, Na, K, Mg, Al, as well as of rational choice of the optimum sulfur-based spinel for Mg and Al insertion, based on ab initio calculations. Some methodological issues are also addressed, including construction of effective localized basis sets, applications of Hubbard correction, generation of amorphous structures, and the use of a posteriori dispersion corrections.

  3. High performance screen-printed electrodes prepared by a green solvent approach for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gören, A.; Mendes, J.; Rodrigues, H. M.; Sousa, R. E.; Oliveira, J.; Hilliou, L.; Costa, C. M.; Silva, M. M.; Lanceros-Méndez, S.

    2016-12-01

    New inks based on lithium iron phosphate and graphite for cathode and anode, respectively, were developed for printable lithium-ion batteries using the "green solvent" N,N‧-dimethylpropyleneurea (DMPU) and poly(vinylidene fluoride), PVDF, as a binder. The results were compared with the ones from inks developed with the conventionally used solvent N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone, NMP. The rheological properties of the PVDF/DMPU binder solution shows a more pronounced shear thinning behavior than the PVDF/NMP solution. Cathode inks prepared with 2.25 mL and 2.50 mL of DMPU for 1 g of electrode mass show an apparent viscosity of 3 Pa s and 2 Pa s for a shear rate of 100 s-1, respectively, being therefore processable by screen-printing or doctor blade techniques. The electrodes prepared with DMPU and processed by screen-printing show a capacity of 52 mAh g-1 at 2C for the cathode and 349 mAh g-1 at C/5 for the anode, after 45 charge-discharge cycles. The electrochemical performance of both electrodes was evaluated in a full-cell and after 9 cycles, the discharge capacity value is 81 mAh g-1, showing a discharge capacity retention of 64%. The new inks presented in this work are thus suitable for the development of printed batteries and represent a step forward towards more environmental friendly processes.

  4. Mathematical modeling of the lithium deposition overcharge reaction in lithium-ion batteries using carbon-based negative electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arora, P.; Doyle, M.; White, R.E.

    1999-01-01

    Two major issues facing lithium-ion battery technology are safety and capacity grade during cycling. A significant amount of work has been done to improve the cycle life and to reduce the safety problems associated with these cells. This includes newer and better electrode materials, lower-temperature shutdown separators, nonflammable or self-extinguishing electrolytes, and improved cell designs. The goal of this work is to predict the conditions for the lithium deposition overcharge reaction on the negative electrode (graphite and coke) and to investigate the effect of various operating conditions, cell designs and charging protocols on the lithium deposition side reaction. The processes that lead to capacity fading affect severely the cycle life and rate behavior of lithium-ion cells. One such process is the overcharge of the negative electrode causing lithium deposition, which can lead to capacity losses including a loss of active lithium and electrolyte and represents a potential safety hazard. A mathematical model is presented to predict lithium deposition on the negative electrode under a variety of operating conditions. The Li x C 6 vertical bar 1 M LiPF 6 , 2:1 ethylene carbonate/dimethyl carbonate, poly(vinylidene fluoride-hexafluoropropylene) vert b ar LiMn 2 O 4 cell is simulated to investigate the influence of lithium deposition on the charging behavior of intercalation electrodes. The model is used to study the effect of key design parameters (particle size, electrode thickness, and mass ratio) on the lithium deposition overcharge reaction. The model predictions are compared for coke and graphite-based negative electrodes. The cycling behavior of these cells is simulated before and after overcharge to understand the hazards and capacity fade problems, inherent in these cells, can be minimized

  5. Zinc deposition and dissolution in methanesulfonic acid onto a carbon composite electrode as the negative electrode reactions in a hybrid redox flow battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leung, P.K.; Ponce-de-Leon, C.; Low, C.T.J.; Walsh, F.C.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Use methanesulfonic acid to avoid dendrite formation during a long (>4 h) zinc electrodeposition. → Electrochemical characterization of Zn(II) deposition and its morphology using methanesulfonic acid solutions. → Use of additives to improve the efficiency of zinc deposition and dissolution as the half cell reaction of a redox flow battery. - Abstract: Electrodeposition and dissolution of zinc in methanesulfonic acid were studied as the negative electrode reactions in a hybrid redox flow battery. Cyclic voltammetry at a rotating disk electrode was used to characterize the electrochemistry and the effect of process conditions on the deposition and dissolution rate of zinc in aqueous methanesulfonic acid. At a sufficiently high current density, the deposition process became a mass transport controlled reaction. The diffusion coefficient of Zn 2+ ions was 7.5 x 10 -6 cm 2 s -1 . The performance of the zinc negative electrode in a parallel plate flow cell was also studied as a function of Zn 2+ ion concentration, methanesulfonic acid concentration, current density, electrolyte flow rate, operating temperature and the addition of electrolytic additives, including potassium sodium tartarate, tetrabutylammonium hydroxide, and indium oxide. The current-, voltage- and energy efficiencies of the zinc-half cell reaction and the morphologies of the zinc deposits are also discussed. The energy efficiency improved from 62% in the absence of additives to 73% upon the addition of 2 x 10 -3 mol dm -3 of indium oxide as a hydrogen suppressant. In aqueous methanesulfonic acid with or without additives, there was no significant dendrite formation after zinc electrodeposition for 4 h at 50 mA cm -2 .

  6. Flow Batteries for Microfluidic Networks – Configuring An Electroosmotic Pump for Non-Terminal Positions

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Chiyang; Lu, Joann J.; Jia, Zhijian; Wang, Wei; Wang, Xiayan; Dasgupta, Purnendu K.; Liu, Shaorong

    2011-01-01

    A micropump provides flow and pressure for a lab-on-chip device, just as a battery supplies current and voltage for an electronic system. Numerous micropumps have been developed, but none is as versatile as a battery. One cannot easily insert a micropump into a nonterminal position of a fluidic line without affecting the rest of the fluidic system, one cannot simply connect several micropumps in series to enhance the pressure output, etc. In this work we develop a flow battery (or pressure power supply) to address this issue. A flow battery consists of a +EOP (in which the liquid flows in the same direction as the field gradient) and a −EOP (in which the liquid flows opposite to the electric field gradient), and the outlet of the +EOP is directly connected to the inlet of the −EOP. An external high voltage is applied to this outlet-inlet joint via a short gel-filled capillary that allows ions but not bulk liquid flow, while the +EOP’s inlet and the −EOP’s outlet (the flow battery’s inlet and outlet) are grounded. This flow battery can be deployed anywhere in a fluidic network without electrically affecting the rest of the system. Several flow batteries can be connected in series to enhance the pressure output to drive HPLC separations. In a fluidic system powered by flow batteries, a hydraulic Ohm’s law can be applied to analyze system pressures and flow rates. PMID:21375230

  7. Self-positioned thin Pb-alloy base electrode Josephson junction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuroda, K.; Sato, K.

    1986-01-01

    A self-positioned thin (SPOT) Pb-alloy base electrode Josephson junction is developed. In this junction, a 50-nm thick Pb-alloy base electrode is restricted within the junction region on an Nb underlayer using a self-alignment technique. The grain size reduction and the base electrode area restriction greatly improve thermal cycling stability, where the thermal cycling tests of 4000 proposed junctions (5 x 5 μm 2 ) showed no failures after 4000 cycles. In addition, the elimination of insulator layer stress on the Pb-alloy base electrode rectifies the problem of size effect on current density. The Nb underlayers also serve to isolate the Pb-alloy base electrodes from the resistors

  8. A binder-free sulfur/reduced graphene oxide aerogel as high performance electrode materials for lithium sulfur batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitze, Florian; Agostini, Marco; Lundin, Filippa; Palmqvist, Anders E. C.; Matic, Aleksandar

    2016-12-01

    Societies’ increasing need for energy storage makes it necessary to explore new concepts beyond the traditional lithium ion battery. A promising candidate is the lithium-sulfur technology with the potential to increase the energy density of the battery by a factor of 3-5. However, so far the many problems with the lithium-sulfur system have not been solved satisfactory. Here we report on a new approach utilizing a self-standing reduced graphene oxide based aerogel directly as electrodes, i.e. without further processing and without the addition of binder or conducting agents. We can thereby disrupt the common paradigm of “no battery without binder” and can pave the way to a lithium-sulfur battery with a high practical energy density. The aerogels are synthesized via a one-pot method and consist of more than 2/3 sulfur, contained inside a porous few-layered reduced graphene oxide matrix. By combining the graphene-based aerogel cathode with an electrolyte and a lithium metal anode, we demonstrate a lithium-sulfur cell with high areal capacity (more than 3 mAh/cm2 after 75 cycles), excellent capacity retention over 200 cycles and good sulfur utilization. Based on this performance we estimate that the energy density of this concept-cell can significantly exceed the Department of Energy (DEO) 2020-target set for transport applications.

  9. High-performance lithium-ion battery and symmetric supercapacitors based on FeCo₂O₄ nanoflakes electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Saad Gomaa; Chen, Chih-Jung; Chen, Chih Kai; Hu, Shu-Fen; Liu, Ru-Shi

    2014-12-24

    A successive preparation of FeCo2O4 nanoflakes arrays on nickel foam substrates is achieved by a simple hydrothermal synthesis method. After 170 cycles, a high capacity of 905 mAh g(-1) at 200 mA g(-1) current density and very good rate capabilities are obtained for lithium-ion battery because of the 2D porous structures of the nanoflakes arrays. The distinctive structural features provide the battery with excellent electrochemical performance. The symmetric supercapacitor on nonaqueous electrolyte demonstrates high specific capacitance of 433 F g(-1) at 0.1 A g(-1) and 16.7 F g(-1) at high scan rate of 5 V s(-1) and excellent cyclic performance of 2500 cycles of charge-discharge cycling at 2 A g(-1) current density, revealing excellent long-term cyclability of the electrode even under rapid charge-discharge conditions.

  10. High-performance graphene/sulphur electrodes for flexible Li-ion batteries using the low-temperature spraying method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Pushpendra; Wu, Feng-Yu; Hu, Lung-Hao; Ali Abbas, Syed; Ming, Jun; Lin, Chia-Nan; Fang, Jason; Chu, Chih-Wei; Li, Lain-Jong

    2015-04-01

    Elementary sulphur (S) has been shown to be an excellent cathode material in energy storage devices such as Li-S batteries owing to its very high capacity. The major challenges associated with the sulphur cathodes are structural degradation, poor cycling performance and instability of the solid-electrolyte interphase caused by the dissolution of polysulfides during cycling. Tremendous efforts made by others have demonstrated that encapsulation of S materials improves their cycling performance. To make this approach practical for large scale applications, the use of low-cost technology and materials has become a crucial and new focus of S-based Li-ion batteries. Herein, we propose to use a low temperature spraying process to fabricate graphene/S electrode material, where the ink is composed of graphene flakes and the micron-sized S particles prepared by grinding of low-cost S powders. The S particles are found to be well hosted by highly conductive graphene flakes and consequently superior cyclability (~70% capacity retention after 250 cycles), good coulombic efficiency (~98%) and high capacity (~1500 mA h g-1) are obtained. The proposed approach does not require high temperature annealing or baking; hence, another great advantage is to make flexible Li-ion batteries. We have also demonstrated two types of flexible batteries using sprayed graphene/S electrodes.Elementary sulphur (S) has been shown to be an excellent cathode material in energy storage devices such as Li-S batteries owing to its very high capacity. The major challenges associated with the sulphur cathodes are structural degradation, poor cycling performance and instability of the solid-electrolyte interphase caused by the dissolution of polysulfides during cycling. Tremendous efforts made by others have demonstrated that encapsulation of S materials improves their cycling performance. To make this approach practical for large scale applications, the use of low-cost technology and materials has become

  11. Na1.25Ni1.25Fe1.75(PO4)3 nanoparticles as a janus electrode material for Li-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karegeya, Claude; Mahmoud, Abdelfattah; Hatert, Frédéric; Vertruyen, Bénédicte; Cloots, Rudi; Lippens, Pierre-Emmanuel; Boschini, Frédéric

    2018-06-01

    A solvothermal method was used to prepare Na1.25Ni1.25Fe1.75(PO4)3 nanoparticles, a new promising electrode material for lithium-ion batteries. The composition and the crystal structure were determined by 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy and powder X-ray diffraction Rietveld refinements and confirmed by magnetic measurements. The structural formula □0.75Na1.25Ni1.25Fe1.75(PO4)3 was obtained showing a significant amount of Na vacancies, which enhances Li diffusion. Na1.25Ni1.25Fe1.75(PO4)3 was used as negative and positive electrode material and shows excellent electrochemical performances. As negative electrode in the voltage range 0.03-3.5 V vs. Li+/Li, the first discharge at current density of 40 mA g-1 delivers a specific capacity of 1186 mAh g-1, which is almost three times its theoretical capacity (428 mAh g-1). Then, reversible capacity of 550 mAh g-1 was obtained at 50 mA g-1 with high rate capability (150 mAh g-1 at 500 mA g-1) and capacity retention of 350 cycles. As positive electrode material, specific capacities of about 145 and 99 mAh g-1 were delivered at current densities of 5 and 50 mA g-1, respectively, in the voltage range of 1.5-4.5 V vs. Li+/Li. In addition, we show that the use of solvothermal synthesis contributes to the synthesis of small sized particles leading to good electrochemical performances.

  12. A chemo-mechanical model coupled with thermal effect on the hollow core–shell electrodes in lithium-ion batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Hu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Electrode is a key component to remain durability and safety of lithium-ion (Li-ion batteries. Li-ion insertion/removal and thermal expansion mismatch may induce high stress in electrode during charging and discharging processes. In this paper, we present a continuum model based on COMSOL Multiphysics software, which involves thermal, chemical and mechanical behaviors of electrodes. The results show that, because of diffusion-induced stress and thermal mismatch, the electrode geometry plays an important role in diffusion kinetics of Li-ions. A higher local compressive stress results in a lower Li-ion concentration and thus a lower capacity when a particle is embedded another, which is in agreement with experimental observations. Keywords: Lithium-ion battery, Diffusion-induced stress, COMSOL, Chemo-mechanical, Electrode

  13. The detailed characteristics of positive corona current pulses in the line-to-plane electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xuebao, LI; Dayong, LI; Qian, ZHANG; Yinfei, LI; Xiang, CUI; Tiebing, LU

    2018-05-01

    The corona current pulses generated by corona discharge are the sources of the radio interference from transmission lines and the detailed characteristics of the corona current pulses from conductor should be investigated in order to reveal their generation mechanism. In this paper, the line-to-plane electrodes are designed to measure and analyze the characteristics of corona current pulses from positive corona discharges. The influences of inter-electrode gap and line diameters on the detail characteristics of corona current pulses, such as pulse amplitude, rise time, duration time and repetition frequency, are carefully analyzed. The obtained results show that the pulse amplitude and the repetition frequency increase with the diameter of line electrode when the electric fields on the surface of line electrodes are same. With the increase of inter-electrode gap, the pulse amplitude and the repetition frequency first decrease and then turn to be stable, while the rise time first increases and finally turns to be stable. The distributions of electric field and space charges under the line electrodes are calculated, and the influences of inter-electrode gap and line electrode diameter on the experimental results are qualitatively explained.

  14. Decreasing redox voltage of terephthalate-based electrode material for Li-ion battery using substituent effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakraychi, A. E.; Dolhem, F.; Djedaïni-Pilard, F.; Thiam, A.; Frayret, C.; Becuwe, M.

    2017-08-01

    The preparation and assessment versus lithium of a functionalized terephthalate-based as a potential new negative electrode material for Li-ion battery is presented. Inspired from molecular modelling, a decrease in redox potential is achieved through the symmetrical adjunction of electron-donating fragments (-CH3) on the aromatic ring. While the electrochemical activity of this organic material was maximized when used as nanocomposite and without any binder, the potential is furthermore lowered by 110 mV upon functionalization, consistently with predicted value gained from DFT calculations.

  15. In situ57Fe Moessbauer Investigation of Solid-State Redox Reactions of Lithium Insertion Electrodes for Advanced Batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Yoichi; Ariyoshi, Kingo; Ohzuku, Tsutomu

    2002-01-01

    A novel in situ electrochemical cell for 57 Fe Moessbauer measurements was developed in order to clarify the mechanisms of solid-state redox reactions in lithium insertion materials containing iron. Our in situ Moessbauer technique was successfully applied to the determination as to which transition metal ion was a redox center in the insertion electrodes, such as LiFe 0.5 Mn 1.5 O 4 , LiFeTiO 4 , or LiFe 0.25 Ni 0.75 O 2 , for the lithium-ion batteries.

  16. Metal hydride electrode and nickel hydrogen storage battery; Suiso kyuzo gokin denkyoku oyobi nikkeru-suiso chikudenchi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Y.; Tamagawa, H. [Shin-Kobe Electric Machinery Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Ikawa, A.; Muranaka, R. [Hitachi Ltd., Ibaraki (Japan). Hitachi Research Lab.

    1996-04-16

    Water soluble polymers such as cellulose derivatives and polyvinylalcohol have been used conventionally as binders for metal hydride electrode used for nickel-hydrogen storage batteries. The shortcomings of those binders, however, are low flexibility, and poor binding property for hydrogen absorbing alloy powder and the conductive supporting substrate. This invention relates to the use of ethylene-vinyl copolymer with less than -10{degree}C Tg as the binder for hydrogen absorbing alloy powder. It is desirable that the ethylene-vinylacetate copolymer is selected out of ethylene-vinyl acetate-acryl copolymer and ethylene-vinyl acetate-long chain vinyl ester copolymer, and that the addition is larger than 0.1wt% and less than 1wt% against the weight of hydrogen absorbing alloy in the electrode. The use of this binder results in strong binding of hydrogen absorbing alloy powder to the conductive supporting substrate, providing flexibility as well. 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  17. Control of secondary electrons from ion beam impact using a positive potential electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crowley, T. P., E-mail: tpcrowley@xanthotechnologies.com; Demers, D. R.; Fimognari, P. J. [Xantho Technologies, LLC, Madison, Wisconsin 53705 (United States)

    2016-11-15

    Secondary electrons emitted when an ion beam impacts a detector can amplify the ion beam signal, but also introduce errors if electrons from one detector propagate to another. A potassium ion beam and a detector comprised of ten impact wires, four split-plates, and a pair of biased electrodes were used to demonstrate that a low-voltage, positive electrode can be used to maintain the beneficial amplification effect while greatly reducing the error introduced from the electrons traveling between detector elements.

  18. Lithium metal microreference electrodes and their applications to Li-ion batteries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, J.

    2007-01-01

    Li-ion batteries are nowadays widely used as power sources for a wide variety of electronic devices by virtue of their high cell voltage, high energy density and excellent cyclability. Though the performance of Li-ion batteries has been greatly improved during the last decade, it is still, to some

  19. Nanoconfined NaAlH4 Conversion Electrodes for Li Batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huen, Priscilla; Peru, Filippo; Charalambopoulou, Georgia

    2017-01-01

    -Type anode in Li-ion batteries. Here, NaAlH4 nanoconfined in carbon scaffolds as an anode material for Li-ion batteries is reported for the first time. Nanoconfined NaAlH4 was prepared by melt infiltration into mesoporous carbon scaffolds. In the first cycle, the electrochemical reversibility of nanoconfined...

  20. Capacity Decay Mitigation by Asymmetric Positive/Negative Electrolyte Volumes in Vanadium Redox Flow Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jong Ho; Park, Jung Jin; Park, O Ok; Yang, Jung Hoon

    2016-11-23

    Capacity decay in vanadium redox flow batteries during charge-discharge cycling has become an important issue because it lowers the practical energy density of the battery. The battery capacity tends to drop rapidly within the first tens of cycles and then drops more gradually over subsequent cycles during long-term operation. This paper analyzes and discusses the reasons for this early capacity decay. The imbalanced crossover rate of vanadium species was found to remain high until the total difference in vanadium concentration between the positive and negative electrolytes reached almost 1 mol dm -3 . To minimize the initial crossover imbalance, we introduced an asymmetric volume ratio between the positive and negative electrolytes during cell operation. Changing this ratio significantly reduced the capacity fading rate of the battery during the early cycles and improved its capacity retention at steady state. As an example, the practical energy density of the battery increased from 15.5 to 25.2 Wh L -1 simply after reduction of the positive volume by 25 %. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Mn3O4 anchored on carbon nanotubes as an electrode reaction catalyst of V(IV)/V(V) couple for vanadium redox flow batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Zhangxing; Dai, Lei; Liu, Suqin; Wang, Ling; Li, Chuanchang

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Mn 3 O 4 /MWCNTs (multi-walled carbon nanotubes) composite fabricated by a simple solvothermal method was developed as electrochemical catalyst of V(IV)/V(V) redox couple for vanadium redox flow batteries for the first time. • The electrocatalytic kinetics of the redox reactions of three electrocatalysts (pure Mn 3 O 4 , pure MWCNTs, Mn 3 O 4 /MWCNTs) were compared, and were in the order of Mn 3 O 4 /MWCNTs > MWCNTs > Mn 3 O 4 . • The cell using Mn 3 O 4 /MWCNTs has lower electrochemical polarization, with larger discharge capacity and energy efficiency. The average energy efficiency of the cell using Mn 3 O 4 /MWCNTs is 84.65%, 3.73% higher than that of the pristine cell. - Abstract: Mn 3 O 4 /MWCNTs (multi-walled carbon nanotubes) composite fabricated by a simple solvothermal method was developed as electrochemical catalyst of V(IV)/V(V) redox couple for vanadium redox flow batteries. The electrochemical activity of V(IV)/V(V) redox couple can be enhanced by the electrochemical catalysts (Mn 3 O 4 , MWCNTs, Mn 3 O 4 /MWCNTs), and the electrocatalytic kinetics of the redox reactions were in the order of Mn 3 O 4 /MWCNTs > MWCNTs > Mn 3 O 4 . The cell using Mn 3 O 4 /MWCNTs composite as electrochemical catalyst was assembled and the charge-discharge performance was evaluated. Compared with the pristine cell, the cell using positive graphite felt modified by Mn 3 O 4 /MWCNTs had lower electrochemical polarization, larger discharge capacity and energy efficiency. The average energy efficiency of the cell using modified positive electrode for 50 cycles was 84.65%, 3.73% higher than that of the pristine cell. The superior electrocatalytic performance of Mn 3 O 4 /MWCNTs composite was mainly due to the effective mixed conducting network, facilitating the electron transport and ion diffusion in the electrode/electrolyte interface

  2. Analytical expression for position sensitivity of linear response beam position monitor having inter-electrode cross talk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Mukesh, E-mail: mukeshk@rrcat.gov.in [Beam Diagnostics Section, Indus Operations, Beam Dynamics & Diagnostics Division, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore, 452013 MP (India); Homi Bhabha National Institute, Training School Complex, Anushakti Nagar, Mumbai 400 094 (India); Ojha, A.; Garg, A.D.; Puntambekar, T.A. [Beam Diagnostics Section, Indus Operations, Beam Dynamics & Diagnostics Division, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore, 452013 MP (India); Senecha, V.K. [Homi Bhabha National Institute, Training School Complex, Anushakti Nagar, Mumbai 400 094 (India); Ion Source Lab., Proton Linac & Superconducting Cavities Division, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore, 452013 MP (India)

    2017-02-01

    According to the quasi electrostatic model of linear response capacitive beam position monitor (BPM), the position sensitivity of the device depends only on the aperture of the device and it is independent of processing frequency and load impedance. In practice, however, due to the inter-electrode capacitive coupling (cross talk), the actual position sensitivity of the device decreases with increasing frequency and load impedance. We have taken into account the inter-electrode capacitance to derive and propose a new analytical expression for the position sensitivity as a function of frequency and load impedance. The sensitivity of a linear response shoe-box type BPM has been obtained through simulation using CST Studio Suite to verify and confirm the validity of the new analytical equation. Good agreement between the simulation results and the new analytical expression suggest that this method can be exploited for proper designing of BPM.

  3. Ab initio study of radiation effects on the Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12} electrode used in lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samin, Adib, E-mail: Samin.2@osu.edu, E-mail: cao.152@osu.edu; Kurth, Michael; Cao, Lei, E-mail: Samin.2@osu.edu, E-mail: cao.152@osu.edu [Nuclear Engineering Program, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, The Ohio State University, 201 W 19" t" h Avenue, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States)

    2015-04-15

    Lithium-ion batteries are currently in wide use owing to their high energy density and enhanced capabilities. Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12} is a promising anode material for lithium-ion batteries because of its advantageous properties. Lithium-ion batteries could be exposed to radiation occurring in various conditions such as during outer space exploration and nuclear accidents. In this study, we apply density functional theory to explore the effect of radiation damage on this electrode and, ultimately, on the performance of the battery. It was found that radiation could affect the structural stability of the material. Furthermore, the electrode was shown to undergo a transition from insulator to metal, following the defects due to radiation. In addition, the effect of radiation on the intercalation potential was found to be highly dependent on the nature of the defect induced.

  4. Ab initio study of radiation effects on the Li4Ti5O12 electrode used in lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samin, Adib; Kurth, Michael; Cao, Lei

    2015-04-01

    Lithium-ion batteries are currently in wide use owing to their high energy density and enhanced capabilities. Li4Ti5O12 is a promising anode material for lithium-ion batteries because of its advantageous properties. Lithium-ion batteries could be exposed to radiation occurring in various conditions such as during outer space exploration and nuclear accidents. In this study, we apply density functional theory to explore the effect of radiation damage on this electrode and, ultimately, on the performance of the battery. It was found that radiation could affect the structural stability of the material. Furthermore, the electrode was shown to undergo a transition from insulator to metal, following the defects due to radiation. In addition, the effect of radiation on the intercalation potential was found to be highly dependent on the nature of the defect induced.

  5. Ab initio study of radiation effects on the Li4Ti5O12 electrode used in lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    th Avenue, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States))" data-affiliation=" (Nuclear Engineering Program, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, The Ohio State University, 201 W 19th Avenue, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States))" >Samin, Adib; th Avenue, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States))" data-affiliation=" (Nuclear Engineering Program, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, The Ohio State University, 201 W 19th Avenue, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States))" >Kurth, Michael; th Avenue, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States))" data-affiliation=" (Nuclear Engineering Program, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, The Ohio State University, 201 W 19th Avenue, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States))" >Cao, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Lithium-ion batteries are currently in wide use owing to their high energy density and enhanced capabilities. Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 is a promising anode material for lithium-ion batteries because of its advantageous properties. Lithium-ion batteries could be exposed to radiation occurring in various conditions such as during outer space exploration and nuclear accidents. In this study, we apply density functional theory to explore the effect of radiation damage on this electrode and, ultimately, on the performance of the battery. It was found that radiation could affect the structural stability of the material. Furthermore, the electrode was shown to undergo a transition from insulator to metal, following the defects due to radiation. In addition, the effect of radiation on the intercalation potential was found to be highly dependent on the nature of the defect induced

  6. Cable-type flexible lithium ion battery based on hollow multi-helix electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Yo Han; Woo, Sang-Wook; Jung, Hye-Ran; Yu, Hyung Kyun; Kim, Kitae; Oh, Byung Hun; Ahn, Soonho; Kim, Je Young [Battery R and D, LG Chem, Ltd., 104-1 Moonji-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang-Young [School of Chemical Engineering, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon, Kangwondo (Korea, Republic of); Song, Seung-Wan [Graduate School of Green Energy Technology, Department of Fine Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Jaephil [School of Energy Engineering and Converging Research Center for Innovative Battery Technologies, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology (UNIST), Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Heon-Cheol [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-02

    The mechanical flexibility of a cable-type battery reaches levels far beyond what is possible with conventional designs. The hollow-spiral (helical) multi-helix anode architecture is critical to the robustness under mechanical stress and facilitates electrolyte wetting of the battery components. This design enables the battery to reliably power an LED screen or an MP3 player even under severe mechanical twisting and bending. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  7. Prototype of high resolution PET using resistive electrode position sensitive CdTe detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, Yohei; Ishii, Keizo; Matsuyama, Shigeo; Yamazaki, Hiromichi

    2008-01-01

    Downsizing detector elements makes it possible that spatial resolutions of positron emission tomography (PET) cameras are improved very much. From this point of view, semiconductor detectors are preferable. To obtain high resolution, the pixel type or the multi strip type of semiconductor detectors can be used. However, in this case, there is a low packing ratio problem, because a dead area between detector arrays cannot be neglected. Here, we propose the use of position sensitive semiconductor detectors with resistive electrode. The CdTe detector is promising as a detector for PET camera because of its high sensitivity. In this paper, we report development of prototype of high resolution PET using resistive electrode position sensitive CdTe detectors. We made 1-dimensional position sensitive CdTe detectors experimentally by changing the electrode thickness. We obtained 750 A as an appropriate thickness of position sensitive detectors, and evaluated the performance of the detector using a collimated 241 Am source. A good position resolution of 1.2 mm full width half maximum (FWHM) was obtained. On the basis of the fundamental development of resistive electrode position sensitive detectors, we constructed a prototype of high resolution PET which was a dual head type and was consisted of thirty-two 1-dimensional position sensitive detectors. In conclusion, we obtained high resolutions which are 0.75 mm (FWHM) in transaxial, and 1.5 mm (FWHM) in axial. (author)

  8. Microstructural Analysis of the Effects of Thermal Runaway on Li-Ion and Na-Ion Battery Electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finegan, Donal [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Robinson, James B. [University College London; Heenan, Thomas M. M. [University College London; Smith, Katherine [Sharp Laboratories of Europe; Kendrick, Emma [Sharp Laboratories of Europe; University College London; Brett, Daniel J. L. [University College London; Shearing, Paul R. [University College London

    2017-12-06

    Thermal runaway is a phenomenon that occurs due to self-sustaining reactions within batteries at elevated temperatures resulting in catastrophic failure. Here, the thermal runaway process is studied for a Li-ion and Na-ion pouch cells of similar energy density (10.5 Wh, 12 Wh, respectively) using accelerating rate calorimetry (ARC). Both cells were constructed with a z-fold configuration, with a standard shutdown separator in the Li-ion and a low-cost polypropylene (PP) separator in the Na-ion. Even with the shutdown separator, it is shown that the self-heating rate and rate of thermal runaway in Na-ion cells is significantly slower than that observed in Li-ion systems. The thermal runaway event initiates at a higher temperature in Na-ion cells. The effect of thermal runaway on the architecture of the cells is examined using X-ray microcomputed tomography, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) is used to examine the failed electrodes of both cells. Finally, from examination of the respective electrodes, likely due to the carbonate solvent containing electrolyte, it is suggested that thermal runaway in Na-ion batteries (NIBs) occurs via a similar mechanism to that reported for Li-ion cells.

  9. Evaluation of electrode position in deep brain stimulation by image fusion (MRI and CT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnaure, I.; Lovblad, K.O.; Vargas, M.I. [Geneva University Hospital, Department of Neuroradiology, Geneva 14 (Switzerland); Pollak, P.; Horvath, J.; Boex, C.; Burkhard, P. [Geneva University Hospital, Department of Neurology, Geneva (Switzerland); Momjian, S. [Geneva University Hospital, Department of Neurosurgery, Geneva (Switzerland); Remuinan, J. [Geneva University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2015-09-15

    Imaging has an essential role in the evaluation of correct positioning of electrodes implanted for deep brain stimulation (DBS). Although MRI offers superior anatomic visualization of target sites, there are safety concerns in patients with implanted material; imaging guidelines are inconsistent and vary. The fusion of postoperative CT with preoperative MRI images can be an alternative for the assessment of electrode positioning. The purpose of this study was to assess the accuracy of measurements realized on fused images (acquired without a stereotactic frame) using a manufacturer-provided software. Data from 23 Parkinson's disease patients who underwent bilateral electrode placement for subthalamic nucleus (STN) DBS were acquired. Preoperative high-resolution T2-weighted sequences at 3 T, and postoperative CT series were fused using a commercially available software. Electrode tip position was measured on the obtained images in three directions (in relation to the midline, the AC-PC line and an AC-PC line orthogonal, respectively) and assessed in relation to measures realized on postoperative 3D T1 images acquired at 1.5 T. Mean differences between measures carried out on fused images and on postoperative MRI lay between 0.17 and 0.97 mm. Fusion of CT and MRI images provides a safe and fast technique for postoperative assessment of electrode position in DBS. (orig.)

  10. Influence of electrode preparation on the electrochemical performance of LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2 composite electrodes for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Hai Yen; Greco, Giorgia; Täubert, Corina; Wohlfahrt-Mehrens, Margret; Haselrieder, Wolfgang; Kwade, Arno

    2012-07-01

    The electrode manufacturing for lithium-ion batteries is based on a complex process chain with several influencing factors. A proper tailoring of the electrodes can greatly improve both the electrochemical performances and the energy density of the battery. In the present work, some significant parameters during the preparation of LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2-based cathodes were investigated. The active material was mixed with a PVDF-binder and two conductive additives in different ratios. The electrode thickness, the degree of compacting and the conductive agent type and mixing ratio have proven to have a strong impact on the electrochemical performances of the composite electrodes, especially on their behaviour at high C-rates. Further it has been shown that the compacting has an essential influence on the mechanical properties of NCA coatings, according to their total, ductile and elastic deformation behaviour.

  11. Understanding capacity fade in silicon based electrodes for lithium-ion batteries using three electrode cells and upper cut-off voltage studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beattie, Shane D.; Loveridge, M. J.; Lain, Michael J.; Ferrari, Stefania; Polzin, Bryant J.; Bhagat, Rohit; Dashwood, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Commercial Li-ion batteries are typically cycled between 3.0 and 4.2 V. These voltages limits are chosen based on the characteristics of the cathode (e.g. lithium cobalt oxide) and anode (e.g. graphite). When alternative anode/cathode chemistries are studied the same cut-off voltages are often, mistakenly, used. Silicon (Si) based anodes are widely studied as a high capacity alternative to graphite for Lithium-ion batteries. When silicon-based anodes are paired with high capacity cathodes (e.g. Lithium Nickel Cobalt Aluminium Oxide; NCA) the cell typically suffers from rapid capacity fade. The purpose of this communication is to understand how the choice of upper cut-off voltage affects cell performance in Si/NCA cells. A careful study of three-electrode cell data will show that capacity fade in Si/NCA cells is due to an ever-evolving silicon voltage profile that pushes the upper voltage at the cathode to >4.4 V (vs. Li/Li+). This behaviour initially improves cycle efficiency, due to liberation of new lithium, but ultimately reduces cycling efficiency, resulting in rapid capacity fade.

  12. Graphite as negative electrode in Li-ion batteries; Le graphite comme electrode negative dans les accumulateurs Li-ion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, F.; Monnier, A. [Timcal SA (France)

    1996-12-31

    The last developments in lithium batteries design have demonstrated the advantages of graphite: competitive cost, flat output curve, high capacity thanks to the obtention of a final compound close to LiC{sub 6}, good behaviour during cycling and a high mass energy. However, these advantages are slightly tarnished by parasite secondary reactions during the evolution of the element. Two different cases are encountered: the formation of a passivation layer (loss of Li ions and formation of irreversible bounds) and the formation of a passivation layer with a reaction between graphite and the solvent (partial destruction of the graphite crystal lattice). In the first case, the theoretical graphite insertion capacity remains at 372 mAh/g while in the second case the insertion capacity is greatly reduced. Abstract only. (J.S.)

  13. Graphite as negative electrode in Li-ion batteries; Le graphite comme electrode negative dans les accumulateurs Li-ion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, F; Monnier, A [Timcal SA (France)

    1997-12-31

    The last developments in lithium batteries design have demonstrated the advantages of graphite: competitive cost, flat output curve, high capacity thanks to the obtention of a final compound close to LiC{sub 6}, good behaviour during cycling and a high mass energy. However, these advantages are slightly tarnished by parasite secondary reactions during the evolution of the element. Two different cases are encountered: the formation of a passivation layer (loss of Li ions and formation of irreversible bounds) and the formation of a passivation layer with a reaction between graphite and the solvent (partial destruction of the graphite crystal lattice). In the first case, the theoretical graphite insertion capacity remains at 372 mAh/g while in the second case the insertion capacity is greatly reduced. Abstract only. (J.S.)

  14. Tunable Reaction Potentials in Open Framework Nanoparticle Battery Electrodes for Grid-Scale Energy Storage

    KAUST Repository

    Wessells, Colin D.; McDowell, Matthew T.; Peddada, Sandeep V.; Pasta, Mauro; Huggins, Robert A.; Cui, Yi

    2012-01-01

    commercial battery technology cannot provide adequate power, and cycle life, and energy efficiency at a sufficiently low cost. Copper hexacyanoferrate and nickel hexacyanoferrate, two open framework materials with the Prussian Blue structure, were recently

  15. Advanced and safer lithium-ion battery based on sustainable electrodes

    KAUST Repository

    Ding, Xiang; Huang, Xiaobing; Jin, Junling; Ming, Hai; Wang, Limin; Ming, Jun

    2018-01-01

    Seeking advanced and safer lithium-ion battery with sustainable characteristic is significant for the development of electronic devices and electric vehicles. Herein, a new porous TiO nanobundles (PTNBs) is synthesized though a scalable and green

  16. The Effect of Insertion Species on Nanostructured Open Framework Hexacyanoferrate Battery Electrodes

    KAUST Repository

    Wessells, Colin D.; Peddada, Sandeep V.; McDowell, Matthew T.; Huggins, Robert A.; Cui, Yi

    2012-01-01

    Recent battery research has focused on the high power and energy density needed for portable electronics and vehicles, but the requirements for grid-scale energy storage are different, with emphasis on low cost, long cycle life, and safety. Open

  17. Nano-structures Enhanced Novel Composite Electrode Material for Batteries, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Integrate advanced nanotechnology with energy storage technology to develop advanced cathode material for use in Li-ion batteries while maintaining high level of...

  18. Development of Nanoporous Carbide-Derived Carbon Electrodes for High-Performance Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    applications in regenerative braking in electric vehicles or to power emergency actuation systems for doors and evacuation slides in airliners. In...sodium-beta, nickel-hydrogen, and regenerative fuel cells. Primary batteries are the energy source of choice for a variety of portable consumer...hybrid electric vehicles. Applications of secondary batteries can be grouped into two categories : 1. Applications used as an energy storage device, such

  19. A finite element simulation on transient large deformation and mass diffusion in electrodes for lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An, Yonghao; Jiang, Hanqing

    2013-01-01

    Lithium-ion batteries have attracted great deal of attention recently. Silicon is one of the most promising anode materials for high-performance lithium-ion batteries, due to its highest theoretical specific capacity. However, the short lifetime confined by mechanical failure in the silicon anode is now considered to be the biggest challenge in desired applications. High stress induced by the huge volume change due to lithium insertion/extraction is the main reason underlying this problem. Some theoretical models have been developed to address this issue. In order to properly implement these models, we develop a finite element based numerical method using a commercial software package, ABAQUS, as a platform at the continuum level to study fully coupled large deformation and mass diffusion problem. Using this method, large deformation, elasticity–plasticity of the electrodes, various spatial and temporal conditions, arbitrary geometry and dimension could be fulfilled. The interaction between anode and other components of the lithium ion batteries can also be studied as an integrated system. Several specific examples are presented to demonstrate the capability of this numerical platform. (paper)

  20. Optimization of NiFe2O4/rGO composite electrode for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chen; Wang, Xia; Li, Shandong; Li, Qiang; Xu, Jie; Liu, Xiaomin; Liu, Changkun; Xu, Yuanhong; Liu, Jingquan; Li, Hongliang; Guo, Peizhi; Zhao, Xiu Song

    2017-09-01

    The combination of carbon compositing and the proper choice of binders in one system offer an effective strategy for improving electrode performance for lithium ion batteries (LIBs). Here, we focus on the optimization of reduced graphene oxide content in NiFe2O4/reduced graphene oxide (abbreviated to NiFe2O4/rGO) composites and the proper choice of binders to enhance the cycling stability of the NiFe2O4 electrode. The NiFe2O4/rGO composites were fabricated by a hydrothermal-annealing method, in which the mean size of spinel NiFe2O4 nanoparticles was approximately 20 nm. When tested as anode materials for LIBs, the NiFe2O4/rGO electrodes with carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) binder exhibited excellent lithium-storage performance including high reversible capacity, good cycling durability and high-rate capability. The capacity could be retained as high as 1105 mAh g-1 at a current density of 100 mA g-1 for over 50 cycles, even cycled at higher current density of 1000 mA g-1, a capacity of 800 mAh g-1can be obtained, whereas the electrode with the polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) binder suffered from rapid capacity decay under the same test conditions. As a result, the NiFe2O4/rGO composites with CMC binder electrode in this work are promising as anodes for high-performance LIBs, resulting from the synergistic effect of optimal graphene content and proper choice of binder.

  1. Determination of optimal electrode positions for transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Im, Chang-Hwan; Jung, Hui-Hun; Choi, Jung-Do; Lee, Soo Yeol; Jung, Ki-Young

    2008-01-01

    The present study introduces a new approach to determining optimal electrode positions in transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). Electric field and 3D conduction current density were analyzed using 3D finite element method (FEM) formulated for a dc conduction problem. The electrode positions for minimal current injection were optimized by changing the Cartesian coordinate system into the spherical coordinate system and applying the (2+6) evolution strategy (ES) algorithm. Preliminary simulation studies applied to a standard three-layer head model demonstrated that the proposed approach is promising in enhancing the performance of tDCS. (note)

  2. Determination of optimal electrode positions for transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Im, Chang-Hwan; Jung, Hui-Hun; Choi, Jung-Do [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Yonsei University, Wonju, 220-710 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Soo Yeol [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Kyung Hee University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Ki-Young [Korea University Medical Center, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: ich@yonsei.ac.kr

    2008-06-07

    The present study introduces a new approach to determining optimal electrode positions in transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). Electric field and 3D conduction current density were analyzed using 3D finite element method (FEM) formulated for a dc conduction problem. The electrode positions for minimal current injection were optimized by changing the Cartesian coordinate system into the spherical coordinate system and applying the (2+6) evolution strategy (ES) algorithm. Preliminary simulation studies applied to a standard three-layer head model demonstrated that the proposed approach is promising in enhancing the performance of tDCS. (note)

  3. American Clinical Neurophysiology Society Guideline 2: Guidelines for Standard Electrode Position Nomenclature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, Jayant N; Hani, Abeer; Cheek, Janna; Thirumala, Partha; Tsuchida, Tammy N

    2016-08-01

    This revision to the EEG Guidelines is an update incorporating current electroencephalography technology and practice and was previously published as Guideline 5. While the 10-10 system of electrode position nomenclature has been accepted internationally for almost two decades, it has not been used universally. The reasons for this and clinical scenarios when the 10-10 system provides additional localizing information are discussed in this revision. In addition, situations in which AF1/2, AF5/6, PO1/2 and PO5/6 electrode positions may be utilized for EEG recording are discussed.

  4. Tuning the Morphology of Li2O2 by Noble and 3d metals: A Planar Model Electrode Study for Li-O2 Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yao; Liu, Wei; Wu, Nian; Wang, Xiaochen; Zhang, Tao; Chen, Linfeng; Zeng, Rui; Wang, Yingming; Lu, Juntao; Fu, Lei; Xiao, Li; Zhuang, Lin

    2017-06-14

    In this work, a planar model electrode method has been used to investigate the structure-activity relationship of multiple noble and 3d metal catalysts for the cathode reaction of Li-O 2 battery. The result shows that the battery performance (discharge/charge overpotential) strongly depends not only on the type of catalysts but also on the morphology of the discharge product (Li 2 O 2 ). Specifically, according to electrochemical characterization and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observation, noble metals (Pd, Pt, Ru, Ir, and Au) show excellent battery performance (smaller discharge/charge overpotential), with wormlike Li 2 O 2 particles with size less than 200 nm on their surfaces. On the other hand, 3d metals (Fe, Co, Ni, and Mn) offered poor battery performance (larger discharge/charge overpotential), with much larger Li 2 O 2 particles (1 μm to a few microns) on their surfaces after discharging. Further research shows that a "volcano plot" is found by correlating the discharging/charging plateau voltage with the adsorption energy of LiO 2 on different metals. The metals with better battery performance and worm-like-shaped Li 2 O 2 are closer to the top of the "volcano", indicating adsorption energy of LiO 2 is one of the key characters for the catalyst to reach a good performance for the oxygen electrode of Li-O 2 battery, and it has a strong influence on the morphology of the discharge product on the electrode surface.

  5. A paste type negative electrode using a MmNi{sub 5} based hydrogen storage alloy for a nickel-metal hydride (Ni-MH) battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uchida, H.; Matsumoto, T.; Watanabe, S.; Kobayashi, K.; Hoshino, H. [Tokai Univ., Kanagawa (Japan). School of Engineering

    2001-07-01

    Different conducting materials (nickel, copper, cobalt, graphite) were mixed with a MmNi{sub 5} type hydrogen storage alloy, and negative electrodes for a nickel-metal hydride(Ni-MH) rechargeable battery were prepared and examined with respect to the discharge capacity of the electrodes. The change in the discharge capacity of the electrodes with different conducting materials was measured as a function of the number of electrochemical charge and discharge cycles. From the measurements, the electrodes with cobalt and graphite were found to yield much higher discharge capacities than those with nickel or cobalt. From a comparative discharge measurements for an electrode composed of only cobalt powder without the alloy and an electrode with a mixture of cobalt and the alloy, an appreciable contribution of the cobalt surface to the enhancement of charge and discharge capacities was found. (author)

  6. Etched colloidal LiFePO4 nanoplatelets toward high-rate capable Li-ion battery electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paolella, Andrea; Bertoni, Giovanni; Marras, Sergio; Dilena, Enrico; Colombo, Massimo; Prato, Mirko; Riedinger, Andreas; Povia, Mauro; Ansaldo, Alberto; Zaghib, Karim; Manna, Liberato; George, Chandramohan

    2014-12-10

    LiFePO4 has been intensively investigated as a cathode material in Li-ion batteries, as it can in principle enable the development of high power electrodes. LiFePO4, on the other hand, is inherently "plagued" by poor electronic and ionic conductivity. While the problems with low electron conductivity are partially solved by carbon coating and further by doping or by downsizing the active particles to nanoscale dimensions, poor ionic conductivity is still an issue. To develop colloidally synthesized LiFePO4 nanocrystals (NCs) optimized for high rate applications, we propose here a surface treatment of the NCs. The particles as delivered from the synthesis have a surface passivated with long chain organic surfactants, and therefore can be dispersed only in aprotic solvents such as chloroform or toluene. Glucose that is commonly used as carbon source for carbon-coating procedure is not soluble in these solvents, but it can be dissolved in water. In order to make the NCs hydrophilic, we treated them with lithium hexafluorophosphate (LiPF6), which removes the surfactant ligand shell while preserving the structural and morphological properties of the NCs. Only a roughening of the edges of NCs was observed due to a partial etching of their surface. Electrodes prepared from these platelet NCs (after carbon coating) delivered a capacity of ∼ 155 mAh/g, ∼ 135 mAh/g, and ∼ 125 mAh/g, at 1 C, 5 C, and 10 C, respectively, with significant capacity retention and remarkable rate capability. For example, at 61 C (10.3 A/g), a capacity of ∼ 70 mAh/g was obtained, and at 122 C (20.7 A/g), the capacity was ∼ 30 mAh/g. The rate capability and the ease of scalability in the preparation of these surface-treated nanoplatelets make them highly suitable as electrodes in Li-ion batteries.

  7. Preparation and characterization of flexible lithium iron phosphate/graphene/cellulose electrode for lithium ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; He, Zhen-Yu; Wang, Yao-Xuan; Fan, Cong; Liu, Chen-Ren-Lang; Peng, Qi-Ling; Chen, Jin-Ju; Feng, Zhe-Sheng

    2018-02-15

    In this work, a free-standing flexible composite electrode was prepared by vacuum filtration method with LiFePO 4 , graphene and nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC). Compared with the pure LiFePO 4 electrode, the resulting flexible composite (LiFePO 4 /graphene/NFC) electrode showed excellent mechanical flexibility, and possessed an enhanced initial discharge capacity of 151 mA h/g (0.1 C) and a good capacity retention rate with only 5% loss after 60 cycles due to suitable electrolyte wettability at the interface. Furthermore, the NFC and graphene formed a three-dimensional conductive framework, which provided high-speed electron conduction in the composite and reduced electrode polarization during charging-discharging processes. Moreover, the composite electrode could endure bending tests up to 1000 times, highlighting preferable mechanical strength and durability. These results demonstrated that the as-fabricated electrodes could be applied as flexible electrodes with an embedded power supply. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Chemical coupling of carbon nanotubes and silicon nanoparticles for improved negative electrode performance in lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Cedric; Crosnier, Olivier; Schleich, Donald M.; Brousse, Thierry [Laboratoire de Genie des Materiaux et Procedes Associes (LGMPA), Ecole Polytechnique de l' Universite de Nantes, Rue Christian Pauc, BP50609, 44306 Nantes Cedex 3 (France); Retoux, Richard [Laboratoire CRISMAT-CNRS/UMR 6508, ENSICAEN, Universite de Caen Basse-Normandie, 6 bd Marechal Juin, 14050 Caen (France); Belanger, Daniel [Departement de Chimie, Universite du Quebec a Montreal, succursale Centre-Ville, Montreal, Quebec, H3C 3P8 (Canada)

    2011-09-23

    Multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT)/silicon nanocomposites obtained by a grafting technique using the diazonium chemistry are used to prepare silicon negative electrodes for lithium-ion batteries. The covalent bonding of the two compounds is obtained via mono- and multi-layers of phenyl bridges, leading to an ideal dispersion of MWCNTs and silicon nanoparticles that are bound together. The presence of MWCNTs close to silicon nanoparticles enhances the electronic pathway to the active material particles and probably helps to prevent silicon decrepitation upon repeated lithium insertion/extraction by improving the mechanical stability of the electrode at a nanoscale level. This effect results in the enhancement of cycling ability and capacity, which are demonstrated by comparing the nanocomposite electrode to a simple mixture of the two compounds. This technique can be applied to other carbon conductive additives together with silicon or other nanosized active compounds. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  9. High capacity V-based metal hydride electrodes for rechargeable batteries

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Heng; Weadock, Nicholas J.; Tan, Hongjin; Fultz, Brent

    2017-01-01

    We report the successful development of Ti_(29)V_(62−x)Ni_9Cr_x (x = 0, 6, 12) body centered cubic metal hydride (MH) electrodes by addressing vanadium corrosion and dissolution in KOH solutions. By identifying oxygen as the primary source of corrosion and eliminating oxygen with an Ar-purged cell, the Cr-free Ti_(29)V_(62)Ni_9 alloy electrode achieved a maximum capacity of 594 mAh g^(-1), double the capacity of commercial AB_5 MH electrodes. With coin cells designed to minimize oxygen evolut...

  10. Highly active, bi-functional and metal-free B4C-nanoparticle-modified graphite felt electrodes for vanadium redox flow batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, H. R.; Shyy, W.; Wu, M. C.; Wei, L.; Zhao, T. S.

    2017-10-01

    The potential of B4C as a metal-free catalyst for vanadium redox reactions is investigated by first-principles calculations. Results show that the central carbon atom of B4C can act as a highly active reaction site for redox reactions, due primarily to the abundant unpaired electrons around it. The catalytic effect is then verified experimentally by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) tests, both of which demonstrate that B4C nanoparticles can enhance the kinetics for both V2+/V3+ and VO2+/VO2+ redox reactions, indicating a bi-functional effect. The B4C-nanoparticle-modified graphite felt electrodes are finally prepared and tested in vanadium redox flow batteries (VRFBs). It is shown that the batteries with the prepared electrodes exhibit energy efficiencies of 88.9% and 80.0% at the current densities of 80 and 160 mA cm-2, which are 16.6% and 18.8% higher than those with the original graphite felt electrodes. With a further increase in current densities to 240 and 320 mA cm-2, the batteries can still maintain energy efficiencies of 72.0% and 63.8%, respectively. All these results show that the B4C-nanoparticle-modified graphite felt electrode outperforms existing metal-free catalyst modified electrodes, and thus can be promising electrodes for VRFBs.

  11. Advanced and safer lithium-ion battery based on sustainable electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xiang; Huang, Xiaobing; Jin, Junling; Ming, Hai; Wang, Limin; Ming, Jun

    2018-03-01

    Seeking advanced and safer lithium-ion battery with sustainable characteristic is significant for the development of electronic devices and electric vehicles. Herein, a new porous TiO2 nanobundles (PTNBs) is synthesized though a scalable and green hydrothermal strategy from the TiO2 powders without using any high-cost and harmful organic titanium-based compounds. The PTNBs exhibits an extremely high lithium storage capacity of 296 mAh g-1 at 100 mA g-1, where the capacity can maintain over 146 mAh g-1 even after 500 cycles at 1000 mA g-1. To pursue more reliable Li-ion batteries, full batteries of PTNBs/LiNixMn1-xO4 (x = 0, 0.5) using spinel structured cathode are constructed. The batteries have the features of sustainability and deliver high capacities of 112 mAh gcathode-1 and 102 mAh gcathode-1 with stable capacity retentions of 99% and 90% over 140 cycles. Note that the energy densities can achieve as high as 267 and 270 Wh kgcathode-1 (535 and 540 Wh kganode-1) respectively, which is feasible to satisfy diverse requirements for energy storage products. We believe that the universal synthetic strategy, appealing structure and intriguing properties of PTNBs is applicable for wider applications, while the concept of sustainable strategy seeking reliable and safer Li-ion battery can attract broad interest.

  12. Advanced and safer lithium-ion battery based on sustainable electrodes

    KAUST Repository

    Ding, Xiang

    2018-02-17

    Seeking advanced and safer lithium-ion battery with sustainable characteristic is significant for the development of electronic devices and electric vehicles. Herein, a new porous TiO nanobundles (PTNBs) is synthesized though a scalable and green hydrothermal strategy from the TiO powders without using any high-cost and harmful organic titanium-based compounds. The PTNBs exhibits an extremely high lithium storage capacity of 296 mAh g at 100 mA g, where the capacity can maintain over 146 mAh g even after 500 cycles at 1000 mA g. To pursue more reliable Li-ion batteries, full batteries of PTNBs/LiNiMnO (x = 0, 0.5) using spinel structured cathode are constructed. The batteries have the features of sustainability and deliver high capacities of 112 mAh g and 102 mAh g with stable capacity retentions of 99% and 90% over 140 cycles. Note that the energy densities can achieve as high as 267 and 270 Wh kg (535 and 540 Wh kg ) respectively, which is feasible to satisfy diverse requirements for energy storage products. We believe that the universal synthetic strategy, appealing structure and intriguing properties of PTNBs is applicable for wider applications, while the concept of sustainable strategy seeking reliable and safer Li-ion battery can attract broad interest.

  13. 制备多孔锂离子电池电极的研究进展%Preparation Research Progress in Porous Lithium-ion Battery Electrode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    党在清; 刘刚

    2013-01-01

      着重介绍近年来多孔锂离子电池电极材料合成的研究进展。软模板剂法合成温度较低,生成的多孔材料孔型可控性好。纳米铸造、凝胶结晶及生物材料作底物等硬模板剂方法可在温度较高的条件下合成电极材料,该材料多为介孔和大孔材料。电极沉积法、超声波降解法、水热合成法等非模板剂法合成条件较为简单,合成材料孔径分布较广。%  The research progress in porous electrode materials for lithium-ion batteries was focused on. The reaction temperature of soft-templating was relatively low, and could produce well-controlled porous materials. Hard-templating method contained nanocast-ing method, colloidal crystal templating method and biotemplating method. Porous materials which pore sizes distributed in meso-pore or macropore was synthesized under relatively high temperature by these methods. Non-templating method, included electrode-position method, ultrasonication method and hydrothermal synthesis, could be applied to synthesize porous materials with broad pore size distribution with simple synthesis conditions.

  14. Efficiency of timing delays and electrode positions in optimization of biventricular pacing: a simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miri, Raz; Graf, Iulia M; Dössel, Olaf

    2009-11-01

    Electrode positions and timing delays influence the efficacy of biventricular pacing (BVP). Accordingly, this study focuses on BVP optimization, using a detailed 3-D electrophysiological model of the human heart, which is adapted to patient-specific anatomy and pathophysiology. The research is effectuated on ten heart models with left bundle branch block and myocardial infarction derived from magnetic resonance and computed tomography data. Cardiac electrical activity is simulated with the ten Tusscher cell model and adaptive cellular automaton at physiological and pathological conduction levels. The optimization methods are based on a comparison between the electrical response of the healthy and diseased heart models, measured in terms of root mean square error (E(RMS)) of the excitation front and the QRS duration error (E(QRS)). Intra- and intermethod associations of the pacing electrodes and timing delays variables were analyzed with statistical methods, i.e., t -test for dependent data, one-way analysis of variance for electrode pairs, and Pearson model for equivalent parameters from the two optimization methods. The results indicate that lateral the left ventricle and the upper or middle septal area are frequently (60% of cases) the optimal positions of the left and right electrodes, respectively. Statistical analysis proves that the two optimization methods are in good agreement. In conclusion, a noninvasive preoperative BVP optimization strategy based on computer simulations can be used to identify the most beneficial patient-specific electrode configuration and timing delays.

  15. Multi-layered, chemically bonded lithium-ion and lithium/air batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narula, Chaitanya Kumar; Nanda, Jagjit; Bischoff, Brian L; Bhave, Ramesh R

    2014-05-13

    Disclosed are multilayer, porous, thin-layered lithium-ion batteries that include an inorganic separator as a thin layer that is chemically bonded to surfaces of positive and negative electrode layers. Thus, in such disclosed lithium-ion batteries, the electrodes and separator are made to form non-discrete (i.e., integral) thin layers. Also disclosed are methods of fabricating integrally connected, thin, multilayer lithium batteries including lithium-ion and lithium/air batteries.

  16. Variability in EIT Images of Lung Ventilation as a Function of Electrode Planes and Body Positions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Patterson, Robert

    2014-01-01

    This study is aimed at investigating the variability in resistivity changes in the lung region as a function of air volume, electrode plane and body position. Six normal subjects (33.8 ± 4.7 years, range from 26 to 37 years) were studied using the Sheffield Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT) portable system. Three transverse planes at the level of second intercostal space, the level of the xiphisternal joint, and midway between upper and lower locations were chosen for measurements. For each plane, sixteen electrodes were uniformly positioned around the thorax. Data were collected with the breath held at end expiration and after inspiring 0.5, 1.0, or 1.5 liters of air from end expiration, with the subject in both the supine and sitting position. The average resistivity change in five regions, two 8x8 pixel local regions in the right lung, entire right, entire left and total lung regions, were calculated. The results show the resistivity change averaged over electrode positions and subject positions was 7-9% per liter of air, with a slightly larger resistivity change of 10 % per liter air in the lower electrode plane. There was no significant difference (p>0.05) between supine and sitting. The two 8x8 regions show a larger inter individual variability (coefficient of variation, CV, is from 30% to 382%) compared to the entire left, entire right and total lung (CV is from 11% to 51%). The results for the global regions are more consistent. The large inter individual variability appears to be a problem for clinical applications of EIT, such as regional ventilation. The variability may be mitigated by choosing appropriate electrode plane, body position and region of interest for the analysis.

  17. A study of nitroxide polyradical/activated carbon composite as the positive electrode material for electrochemical hybrid capacitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Hui-qiao; Zou, Ying; Xia, Yong-yao [Chemistry Department and Shanghai Key Laboratory of Molecular Catalysis and Innovative Materials, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China)

    2007-01-01

    We present a new concept of the hybrid electrochemical capacitor technology in which a poly(2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidinyloxy methacrylate) nitroxide polyradical/activated carbon composite (PTMA-AC) is used as the positive electrode material and activated carbon is used as the negative electrode material. On the positive electrode, both reversible reduction and oxidation of nitroxide polyradical and non-faradic ion sorption/de-sorption of activated carbon are involved during charge and discharge process. The capacity of the composite electrode is 30% larger than that of the pure activated carbon electrode. A hybrid capacitor fabricated by the PTMA-AC composite positive electrode and the activated carbon negative electrode shows a good cycling life, it can be charged/discharged for over 1000 cycles with slight capacity loss. The hybrid capacitor also has a good rate capability, it maintains 80% of the initial capacity even at the high discharge current of up to 20C. (author)

  18. Polymer-Derived Ceramic Functionalized MoS2 Composite Paper as a Stable Lithium-Ion Battery Electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, L.; Bhandavat, R.; Barrera, U.; Singh, G.

    2015-04-01

    A facile process is demonstrated for the synthesis of layered SiCN-MoS2 structure via pyrolysis of polysilazane functionalized MoS2 flakes. The layered morphology and polymer to ceramic transformation on MoS2 surfaces was confirmed by use of electron microscopy and spectroscopic techniques. Tested as thick film electrode in a Li-ion battery half-cell, SiCN-MoS2 showed the classical three-stage reaction with improved cycling stability and capacity retention than neat MoS2. Contribution of conversion reaction of Li/MoS2 system on overall capacity was marginally affected by the presence of SiCN while Li-irreversibility arising from electrolyte decomposition was greatly suppressed. This is understood as one of the reasons for decreased first cycle loss and increased capacity retention. SiCN-MoS2 in the form of self-supporting paper electrode (at 6 mg.cm-2) exhibited even better performance, regaining initial charge capacity of approximately 530 mAh.g-1 when the current density returned to 100 mA.g-1 after continuous cycling at 2400 mA.g-1 (192 mAh.g-1). MoS2 cycled electrode showed mud-cracks and film delamination whereas SiCN-MoS2 electrodes were intact and covered with a uniform solid electrolyte interphase coating. Taken together, our results suggest that molecular level interfacing with precursor-derived SiCN is an effective strategy for suppressing the metal-sulfide/electrolyte degradation reaction at low discharge potentials.

  19. The relation of electrode voltages to charge position in SLC arc and final focus beam position monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fordham, C.

    1989-01-01

    The position of a charged particle beam can be measured with a Beam Position Monitor (BPM) by converting the voltages induced on its array of electrodes into a position offset from the array's center. Most of the BPMs in the Arcs and Final Focus of the SLC use four stripline electrodes arranged symmetrically around the beam; normalized voltage differences are calculated as the difference divided by the sum of voltages on opposite electrode pairs. The resulting number is multiplied by a conversion factor, denoted in this paper as S b , to give the offset (in millimeters) of the charge from the center of the BPM. Prior to installation in the beam line, the BPMs were calibrated with a charge pulse on a rod. Owing to geometric effects which will be discussed later, a different conversion factor had to be used for calibration. It will be denoted here by S r . This paper gives the results of calculations and measurements of S r and S b for Arc and Final Focus BPMs. This paper also describes the relevant physical properties of the several types of BPMs and calculations of the expected scale factors, the measurement methods used, and gives the results of measurements, which are compared with the theoretical expectations. 2 refs., 18 figs., 7 tabs

  20. Mn2C sheet as an electrode material for lithium-ion battery: A first-principles prediction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Yungang; Zu, Xiaotao

    2017-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Combined with strong Li bond, low Li diffusion barrier, superior electrical conductivity and high theoretical capacity, Mn 2 C Sheet is found to be a new promising electrode material for Lithium-Ion Battery. - Highlights: • Li atom bind strongly with Mn 2 C sheet with a very low adsorption energy. • Pristine Mn 2 C sheet exhibits metallic character. • Li atom can easily and freely migrate on the Mn 2 C sheet. • Lithiation to a high content is feasible. • Theoretical capacity of Mn 2 C sheet arrives at 879 mAhg −1 . - Abstract: A search for high-efficiency electrode materials is crucial for the application of Li-ion batteries (LIBs). Using density functional theory (DFT), we assess the Mn 2 C sheet, a new MXene, as a suitable electrode material. Our studies show that Li atoms can bind strongly to the Mn 2 C sheet, with low adsorption energy of −1.93 eV. A pristine Mn 2 C sheet exhibits metallic characteristic, offering an intrinsic advantage for the transportation of electrons in material. A very low energy barrier of 0.05 eV is predicted, showing that Li ion can easily and freely migrate on the Mn 2 C sheet. In addition, with the increase of Li content, adsorption energy varies minimally within a range of energy that spans only 0.27 eV, showing that lithiation to a high content is feasible. Furthermore, we found that, because of the bilayer adsorptions on both sides of the Mn 2 C sheet, the theoretical capacity of the Mn 2 C sheet is 879 mAhg −1 , which is greater than that of most two-dimentional (2D) electrode materials. All these results reveal a new promising MXene material for LIBs. We also studied the effects of oxidation and fluorination on the electrochemical properties of the Mn 2 C sheet and found that oxidation and fluorination will fade the electrochemical properties of the Mn 2 C sheet in general.

  1. Effect of additives on the performance of negative lead-acid battery electrodes during formation and partial state of charge operation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Křivík, P.; Micka, Karel; Bača, P.; Tonar, K.; Tošer, P.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 209, JUL 1 2012 (2012), s. 15-19 ISSN 0378-7753 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : load acid battery electrodes * Doping with carbon * PSoC cycling Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 4.675, year: 2012

  2. Rational coating of Li7P3S11 solid electrolyte on MoS2 electrode for all-solid-state lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, R. C.; Wang, X. L.; Zhang, S. Z.; Xia, Y.; Xia, X. H.; Wu, J. B.; Tu, J. P.

    2018-01-01

    Large interfacial resistance between electrode and electrolyte limits the development of high-performance all-solid-state batteries. Herein we report a uniform coating of Li7P3S11 solid electrolyte on MoS2 to form a MoS2/Li7P3S11 composite electrode for all-solid-state lithium ion batteries. The as-synthesized Li7P3S11 processes a high ionic of 2.0 mS cm-1 at room temperature. Due to homogeneous union and reduced interfacial resistance, the assembled all-solid-state batteries with the MoS2/Li7P3S11 composite electrode exhibit higher reversible capacity of 547.1 mAh g-1 at 0.1 C and better cycling stability than the counterpart based on untreated MoS2. Our study provides a new reference for design/fabrication of advanced electrode materials for high-performance all-solid-state batteries.

  3. Graphene-sulfur nanocomposites for rechargeable lithium-sulfur battery electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Lemmon, John P; Yang, Zhenguo; Cao, Yuiliang; Li, Xiaolin

    2014-06-17

    Rechargeable lithium-sulfur batteries having a cathode that includes a graphene-sulfur nanocomposite can exhibit improved characteristics. The graphene-sulfur nanocomposite can be characterized by graphene sheets with particles of sulfur adsorbed to the graphene sheets. The sulfur particles have an average diameter less than 50 nm..

  4. Iron titanium phosphates as high-specific-capacity electrode materials for lithium ion batteries

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Essehli, R.; El Bali, B.; Faik, A.; Naji, M.; Benmokhtar, S.; Zhong, Y.R.; Su, L.W.; Zhou, Z.; Kim, J.; Kang, K.; Dušek, Michal

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 585, FEB (2014), s. 434-441 ISSN 0925-8388 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : crystal structure * electrolyte * nasicon * oxyphosphate * lithium -ion batteries Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.999, year: 2014

  5. Thin film electrodes for Li-ion batteries prepared in-situ at lower temperatures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Přidal, Jiří; Prachařová, Jarmila; Jakubec, Ivo; Bludská, Jana; Studnička, Václav

    11-12, - (2002), s. 386-389 ISSN 0447-6441 Grant - others:NATO(XX) SfP972523 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : Thin films * magnetron sputtering * Li- ion batteries Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers

  6. Analogy between electrochemical behaviour of thick silicon granular electrodes for lithium batteries and fine soils micromechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, B.P.N.; Gaubicher, J.; Lestriez, B.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we study the influence of the distribution and the shape of the carbon conductive additives on the cyclability of thick silicon based composite electrodes. Results pinpoint the influence of carbon additives is not only to play on the electronic conductivity but also to play on the micromechanics (stress distribution) of the composite films. The lack of correlation between electrochemical performance and the macroscopic electronic conductivity of the pristine electrodes and the observation of repeated drops and jumps in capacity during cycling brought us to make an analogy between the silicon composite electrodes and cohesive granular materials such as fine soils media. Considering the collective mechanical behavior of a stack of silicon particles upon repeated volume variations shed a novel understanding to the electrochemical behavior of composite electrodes based on silicon and alloying materials and tells us how critically important is the design at the different scales (the particle, a few particles, the composite electrode, the cell) to engineer the mechanical stress and strain and improve cycle life

  7. Smart materials for energy storage in Li-ion batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf E Abdel-Ghany

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Advanced lithium-ion batteries contain smart materials having the function of insertion electrodes in the form of powders with specific and optimized electrochemical properties. Different classes can be considered: the surface modified active particles at either positive or negative electrodes, the nano-composite electrodes and the blended materials. In this paper, various systems are described, which illustrate the improvement of lithium-ion batteries in term of specific energy and power, thermal stability and life cycling.

  8. New highly active oxygen reduction electrode for PEM fuel cell and Zn/air battery applications (NORA). Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiele, D.; Zuettel, A.

    2008-04-15

    This illustrated final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a project concerning a new, highly active oxygen reduction electrode for PEM fuel cell and zinc/air battery applications. The goal of this project was, according to the authors, to increase the efficiency of the oxygen reduction reaction by lowering the activation polarisation through the right choice of catalyst and by lowering the concentration polarisation. In this work, carbon nanotubes are used as support material. The use of these nanotubes grown on perovskites is discussed. Theoretical considerations regarding activation polarisation are discussed and alternatives to the use of platinum are examined. The results of experiments carried out are presented in graphical and tabular form. The paper is completed with a comprehensive list of references.

  9. Biotechnology humic acids-based electrospun carbon nanofibers as cost-efficient electrodes for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Pin-Yi; Guo, Yan; Yu, Bao-Jun; Zhang, Jie; Wang, Cheng-Yang

    2016-01-01

    Bio-based, cost-effective carbon nanofibers are fabricated from polyacrylonitrile (PAN) – refined biotechnology humic acids (RB) via simple eletrospinning after stabilization and carbonization. The influence of PAN/RB mass ratios and heat-treatment temperatures (HTTs) on structure and morphology is systematically studied. Excitingly, a first discharge/charge capacity of 937.9/613.4 mAh g −1 (coulombic efficiency of 65.4%) is achieved at 20 mA g −1 for PB7/3-800 in lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). Meanwhile, a charge capacity of 348.2 mAh g −1 (about 89% retention ratio) remains even after 100 cycles at 0.1 A g −1 . It is demonstrated that biomass humic acids can be applied as a promising precursor to fabricate high performance, low-cost, as well as “green” carbon electrode material for LIBs.

  10. A flexible and disposable battery powered by bacteria using eyeliner coated paper electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veerubhotla, Ramya; Das, Debabrata; Pradhan, Debabrata

    2017-08-15

    Herein, an environment friendly paper-based biobattery is demonstrated that yields a power of 12.5W/m 3 . Whatman filter papers were used not only as support for electrode fabrication but also as separator of the biobattery. To provide electrical conductivity to the paper-based cathode and anode, commercially available eyeliner containing carbon nanoparticles and Fe 3 O 4 was directly employed as conductive ink without any binder. With an instant start-up, the as-fabricated biocompatible electrodes could hold bacteria in an active form at the anode allowing chemical oxidation of organic fuel producing current. The facile process delineated here can be employed for the tailored electrode fabrication of various flexible energy harnessing devices. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of Tungsten Nanolayer Coating on Si Electrode in Lithium-ion Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Byung Dae; Lee, Jun Kyu; Yoon, Woo Young

    2018-02-01

    Tungsten (W) was coated onto a silicon (Si) anode at the nanoscale via the physical vaporization deposition method (PVD) to enhance its electrochemical properties. The characteristics of the electrode were identified by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis, and electron probe X-ray microanalysis. With the electrochemical property analysis, the first charge capacities of the W-coated and uncoated electrode cells were 2558 mAh g- 1 and 1912 mAh g- 1, respectively. By the 50th cycle, the capacity ratios were 61.1 and 25.5%, respectively. Morphology changes in the W-coated Si anode during cycling were observed using SEM and TEM, and electrochemical characteristics were examined through impedance analysis. Owing to its conductivity and mechanical properties from the atomic W layer coating through PVD, the electrode improved its cyclability and preserved its structure from volumetric demolition.

  12. Spatial variation of electrode position in bioelectrochemical treatment system: Design consideration for azo dye remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeruva, Dileep Kumar; Shanthi Sravan, J; Butti, Sai Kishore; Annie Modestra, J; Venkata Mohan, S

    2018-05-01

    In the present study, three bio-electrochemical treatment systems (BET) were designed with variations in cathode electrode placement [air exposed (BET1), partially submerged (BET2) and fully submerged (BET3)] to evaluate azo-dye based wastewater treatment at three dye loading concentrations (50, 250 and 500 mg L -1 ). Highest dye decolorization (94.5 ± 0.4%) and COD removal (62.2 ± 0.8%) efficiencies were observed in BET3 (fully submerged electrodes) followed by BET1 and BET2, while bioelectrogenic activity was highest in BET1 followed by BET2 and BET3. It was observed that competition among electron acceptors (electrode, dye molecules and intermediates) critically regulated the fate of bio-electrogenesis to be higher in BET1 and dye removal higher in BET3. Maximum half-cell potentials in BET3 depict higher electron acceptance by electrodes utilized for dye degradation. Study infers that spatial positioning of electrodes in BET3 is more suitable towards dye remediation, which can be considered for scaling-up/designing a treatment plant for large-scale industrial applications. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A nonlocal species concentration theory for diffusion and phase changes in electrode particles of lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tao; Kamlah, Marc

    2018-01-01

    A nonlocal species concentration theory for diffusion and phase changes is introduced from a nonlocal free energy density. It can be applied, say, to electrode materials of lithium ion batteries. This theory incorporates two second-order partial differential equations involving second-order spatial derivatives of species concentration and an additional variable called nonlocal species concentration. Nonlocal species concentration theory can be interpreted as an extension of the Cahn-Hilliard theory. In principle, nonlocal effects beyond an infinitesimal neighborhood are taken into account. In this theory, the nonlocal free energy density is split into the penalty energy density and the variance energy density. The thickness of the interface between two phases in phase segregated states of a material is controlled by a normalized penalty energy coefficient and a characteristic interface length scale. We implemented the theory in COMSOL Multiphysics^{circledR } for a spherically symmetric boundary value problem of lithium insertion into a Li_xMn_2O_4 cathode material particle of a lithium ion battery. The two above-mentioned material parameters controlling the interface are determined for Li_xMn_2O_4 , and the interface evolution is studied. Comparison to the Cahn-Hilliard theory shows that nonlocal species concentration theory is superior when simulating problems where the dimensions of the microstructure such as phase boundaries are of the same order of magnitude as the problem size. This is typically the case in nanosized particles of phase-separating electrode materials. For example, the nonlocality of nonlocal species concentration theory turns out to make the interface of the local concentration field thinner than in Cahn-Hilliard theory.

  14. Microwave-assisted preparation of carbon nanofiber-functionalized graphite felts as electrodes for polymer-based redox-flow batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwenke, A. M.; Janoschka, T.; Stolze, C.; Martin, N.; Hoeppener, S.; Schubert, U. S.

    2016-12-01

    A simple and fast microwave-assisted protocol to functionalize commercially available graphite felts (GFs) with carbon nanofibers (CNFs) for the application as electrode materials in redox-flow batteries (RFB) is demonstrated. As catalyst for the CNF synthesis nickel acetate is applied and ethanol serves as the carbon source. By the in-situ growth of CNFs, the active surface of the electrodes is increased by a factor of 50, which is determined by the electrochemical double layer capacities of the obtained materials. Furthermore, the morphology of the CNF-coating is investigated by scanning electron microscopy. Subsequently, the functionalized electrodes are applied in a polymer-based redox-flow battery (pRFB) using a TEMPO- and a viologen polymer as active materials. Due to the increased surface area as compared to an untreated graphite felt electrode, the current rating is improved by about 45% at 80 mA cm-2 and, furthermore, a decrease in overpotentials is observed. Thus, using this microwave-assisted synthesis approach, CNF-functionalized composite electrodes are prepared with a very simple protocol suitable for real life applications and an improvement of the overall performance of the polymer-based redox-flow battery is demonstrated.

  15. Studies of doped negative valve-regulated lead-acid battery electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Micka, K. [J. Heyrovsky Institute of Physical Chemistry, ASCR, 182 23 Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Calabek, M.; Baca, P.; Krivak, P.; Labus, R.; Bilko, R. [Department of Electrotechnology, University of Technology, 602 00 Brno (Czech Republic)

    2009-06-01

    Accelerated cycling in the partial state of charge regime showed conclusively that the improvement in cycle life of negative lead accumulator electrodes can be brought about not only by the addition of various sorts of powdered carbon into the active mass but also by the addition of other powdered inert materials like glass fibers, alumina, or titanium dioxide. Steric hindrance of the crystallization of lead sulfate in the electrode pores evidenced by ESEM microphotographs is considered as the main reason for this effect. The added powdered substances were practically without influence on the hydrogen overpotential; and their effect on the active material resistance was also negligible. (author)

  16. Self-healing liquid/solid state battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Paul J.; Chung, Brice H.V.; Phadke, Satyajit R.; Ning, Xiaohui; Sadoway, Donald R.

    2018-02-27

    A battery system that exchanges energy with an external device is provided. The battery system includes a positive electrode having a first metal or alloy, a negative electrode having a second metal or alloy, and an electrolyte including a salt of the second metal or alloy. The positive electrode, the negative electrode, and the electrolyte are in a liquid phase at an operating temperature during at least one portion of operation. The positive electrode is entirely in a liquid phase in one charged state and includes a solid phase in another charged state. The solid phase of the positive electrode includes a solid intermetallic formed by the first and the second metals or alloys. Methods of storing electrical energy from an external circuit using such a battery system are also provided.

  17. Use of a multilayer printed circuit board as the position sensing electrode in an MWPC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbosa, A.F.

    1995-01-01

    An X-ray gas position sensitive detector (PSD) is described. The detector makes use of a single electrode, the X and Y cathode, to sense the electric charge induced by the avalanches generated after the absorption of X-ray photons in a multiwire proportional counter (MWPC). Two-dimensional (2D) localization of photons is achieved by associating one delay line to each coordinate. The delay lines are directly coupled to the X and Y cathode, so that the propagation time of electric pulses can be related to the corresponding avalanche position. Since the position encoding does not involve wires, the anode is the only wire electrode present in the detector, used for collecting the avalanche electrons. (orig.)

  18. In-line monitoring of Li-ion battery electrode porosity and areal loading using active thermal scanning - modeling and initial experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupnowski, Przemyslaw; Ulsh, Michael; Sopori, Bhushan; Green, Brian G.; Wood, David L.; Li, Jianlin; Sheng, Yangping

    2018-01-01

    This work focuses on a new technique called active thermal scanning for in-line monitoring of porosity and areal loading of Li-ion battery electrodes. In this technique a moving battery electrode is subjected to thermal excitation and the induced temperature rise is monitored using an infra-red camera. Static and dynamic experiments with speeds up to 1.5 m min-1 are performed on both cathodes and anodes and a combined micro- and macro-scale finite element thermal model of the system is developed. It is shown experimentally and through simulations that during thermal scanning the temperature profile generated in an electrode depends on both coating porosity (or area loading) and thickness. It is concluded that by inverting this relation the porosity (or areal loading) can be determined, if thermal response and thickness are simultaneously measured.

  19. A stretchable polymer-carbon nanotube composite electrode for flexible lithium-ion batteries: porosity engineering by controlled phase separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hojun; Yoo, Jung-Keun; Jung, Yeon Sik [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jong-Hyun [Material R and D Department, LG Display Co., Ltd., Paju-si, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jin Ho [Icheon Branch, Korea Institute of Ceramic Engineering and Technology, Icheon-si, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Kisuk [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-08-15

    Flexible energy-storage devices have attracted growing attention with the fast development of bendable electronic systems. However, it still remains a challenge to find reliable electrode materials with both high mechanical flexibility/toughness and excellent electron and lithium-ion conductivity. This paper reports the fabrication and characterization of highly porous, stretchable, and conductive polymer nanocomposites embedded with carbon nanotubes (CNTs) for application in flexible lithium-ion batteries. The systematic optimization of the porous morphology is performed by controllably inducing the phase separation of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and removing PMMA, in order to generate well-controlled pore networks. It is demonstrated that the porous CNT-embedded PDMS nanocomposites are capable of good electrochemical performance with mechanical flexibility, suggesting these nanocomposites could be outstanding anode candidates for use in flexible lithium-ion batteries. The optimization of the pore size and the volume fraction provides higher capacity by nearly seven-fold compared to a nonporous nanocomposite. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  20. Free-standing and bendable carbon nanotubes/TiO2 nanofibres composite electrodes for flexible lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Peng; Qiu, Jingxia; Zheng, Zhanfeng; Liu, Gao; Ling, Min; Martens, Wayde; Wang, Haihui; Zhao, Huijun; Zhang, Shanqing

    2013-01-01

    Carbon nanotube (CNT) and TiO 2 nanofibre composite films are prepared and used as anode materials for lithium ion batteries (LIBs) without the use of binders and conventional copper current collector. The preliminary experimental results from X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy suggest that the TiO 2 nanofibres were well-dispersed and interwoven by the CNTs, forming freestanding, bendable and light weighted composite. In comparison with TiO 2 nanofibre based LIBs, the CNTs could significantly improve the battery performance due to their high conductivity property and 3D network morphology. In both 1–3 V and 0.01–3 V testing voltage ranges, the as-prepared composites show excellent reversible capacity and capacity retention. The superior lithium storage capacity of the CNT/TiO 2 composite was mainly attributed to dual functions of the CNTs – the CNTs not only provide conductive networks to assist the electron transfer but also facilitate lithium ion diffusion between the electrolyte and the TiO 2 active materials by preventing agglomeration of TiO 2 nanofibres. This work demonstrates that the CNT–TiO 2 composite film could be one type of potential electrode material for large-scale LIB applications

  1. Rapid detection of the positive side reactions in vanadium flow batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Le; Li, Zhaohua; Xi, Jingyu; Zhou, Haipeng; Wu, Zenghua; Qiu, Xinping

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A method for rapid measurement of the positive side reactions in VFB is presented. • The SOC of positive electrolytes can be detected with resolution of 0.002%. • Side reaction ratios at different charge currents, flow rates are obtained. - Abstract: We present an optical detection method for rapid measurement of the positive side reactions in vanadium flow batteries (VFB). By measuring the transmittance of the positive electrolytes in VFB, the states of charge (SOC) of the positive electrolytes can be detected at very high resolution (better than 0.002% in the SOC range from 98% to 100%), due to the nonlinear transmittance spectra caused by the interactions between V(IV) and V(V) ions. The intensity of the positive side reactions of a VFB can be rapidly measured by a few steps, attributing to the fact that the positive side reactions occur only during the high voltage charging process. The ratios of the positive side reactions at different charge currents and different flow rates are obtained while causing no damage to the battery. This optical detection method can rapidly determine the optimal parameters of the VFB system, providing new means for studying the electrochemical reactions in the VFB system and rapid test in industrial production of VFBs.

  2. Studies of doped negative valve-regulated lead-acid battery electrodes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Micka, Karel; Calábek, M.; Bača, P.; Křivák, P.; Lábus, R.; Bilko, R.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 191, č. 1 (2009), s. 154-158 ISSN 0378-7753 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : lead-acid * negative electrode * sulfation suppression Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 3.792, year: 2009

  3. Iron-Air Rechargeable Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Sri R. (Inventor); Prakash, G.K. Surya (Inventor); Kindler, Andrew (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Embodiments include an iron-air rechargeable battery having a composite electrode including an iron electrode and a hydrogen electrode integrated therewith. An air electrode is spaced from the iron electrode and an electrolyte is provided in contact with the air electrode and the iron electrodes. Various additives and catalysts are disclosed with respect to the iron electrode, air electrode, and electrolyte for increasing battery efficiency and cycle life.

  4. Improvement of the Performance of Graphite Felt Electrodes for Vanadium-Redox-Flow-Batteries by Plasma Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva-Maria Hammer

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In the frame of the present contribution oxidizing plasma pretreatment is used for the improvement of the electrocatalytic activity of graphite felt electrodes for Vanadium-Redox-Flow-Batteries (VRB. The influence of the working gas media on the catalytic activity and the surface morphology is demonstrated. The electrocatalytical properties of the graphite felt electrodes were examined by cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The obtained results show that a significant improvement of the redox reaction kinetics can be achieved for all plasma modified samples using different working gasses (Ar, N2 and compressed air in an oxidizing environment. Nitrogen plasma treatment leads to the highest catalytical activities at the same operational conditions. Through a variation of the nitrogen plasma treatment duration a maximum performance at about 14 min cm-2 was observed, which is also represented by a minimum of 90 Ω in the charge transfer resistance obtained by EIS measurements. The morphology changes of the graphitized surface were followed using SEM.

  5. Ultra-light Hierarchical Graphene Electrode for Binder-Free Supercapacitors and Lithium-Ion Battery Anodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Zicheng; Kim, Tae Young; Kholmanov, Iskandar; Li, Huifeng; Chou, Harry; Li, Yuliang

    2015-10-07

    A mild and environmental-friendly method is developed for fabricating a 3D interconnected graphene electrode with large-scale continuity. Such material has interlayer pores between reduced graphene oxide nanosheets and in-plane pores. Hence, a specific surface area up to 835 m(2) g(-1) and a high powder conductivity up to 400 S m(-1) are achieved. For electrochemical applications, the interlayer pores can serve as "ion-buffering reservoirs" while in-plane ones act as "channels" for shortening the mass cross-plane diffusion length, reducing the ion response time, and prevent the interlayer restacking. As binder-free supercapacitor electrode, it delivers a specific capacitance up to 169 F g(-1) with surface-normalized capacitance close to 21 μF cm(-2) (intrinsic capacitance) and power density up to 7.5 kW kg(-1), in 6 m KOH aqueous electrolyte. In the case of lithium-ion battery anode, it shows remarkable advantages in terms of the initiate reversible Coulombic efficiency (61.3%), high specific capacity (932 mAh g(-1) at 100 mA g(-1)), and robust long-term retention (93.5% after 600 cycles at 2000 mAh g(-1)). © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Li2SnO3 derived secondary Li-Sn alloy electrode for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, D.W.; Zhang, S.Q.; Jin, Y.; Yi, T.H.; Xie, S.; Chen, C.H.

    2006-01-01

    As a possible high-capacity Li-ion battery anode material, Li 2 SnO 3 was prepared via a solid-state reaction route and a sol-gel route, separately. Its electrochemical performance was tested in coin-type cells with metallic Li as the counter electrode. The results show that the sol-gel derived Li 2 SnO 3 has uniform nano-sized particles (200-300 nm) and can deliver a better reversible capacity (380 mAh/g after 50 cycles in the voltage window of 0-1 V) than that from the solid-state reaction route. The characterizations by means of galvanostatic cycling, cyclic voltammetry and ex situ X-ray diffraction indicate that the electrochemical process of the Li 2 SnO 3 lithiation proceeds with an initial structural reduction of the composite oxide into Sn-metal and Li 2 O followed by a reversible Li-Sn alloy formation in the Li 2 O matrix. Due to the buffer role of the Li 2 O matrix, the reversibility of the secondary Li-Sn alloy electrode is largely secured

  7. Electrochemical modification of a pyrolytic graphite sheet for improved negative electrode performance in the vanadium redox flow battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabir, Humayun; Gyan, Isaiah O.; Francis Cheng, I.

    2017-02-01

    The vanadium redox flow battery is a promising technology for buffering renewable energies. It is recognized that negative electrode is the limitation in this device where there are problems of slow heterogeneous electron transfer (HET) of V3+/2+ and parasitic H2 evolution. Any methods aimed at addressing one of these barriers must assess the effects on the other. We examine electrochemical enhancement of a common commercially available material. Treatment of Panasonic pyrolytic graphite sheets is through oxidation at 2.1 V vs. Ag/AgCl for 1 min in 1 M H2SO4. This increases the standard HET rate for V3+/2+ from 3.2 × 10-7 to 1 × 10-3 cm/s, one of the highest in literature and shifts voltammetric reductive peak potential from -1.0 V to -0.65 V in 50 mM V3+ in 1 M H2SO4. Infrared analysis of the surfaces indicates formation of Csbnd OH, Cdbnd O, and Csbnd O functionalities. These groups catalyze HET with V3+/2+ as hypothesized by Skyllas-Kasacos. Also of significance is that electrode modification decreases the fraction of the current directed towards H2 evolution. This proportion decreases by two orders of a magnitude from 12% to 0.1% as measured at the respective voltammetric peak potentials of -1.0 V (pristine) and -0.65 V (modified).

  8. All-solid-state lithium batteries – The Mg2FeH6-electrode LiBH4-electrolyte system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huen, Priscilla; Ravnsbæk, Dorthe B.

    2018-01-01

    The complex hydride Mg2FeH6 is investigated as conversion type anode in a solid-state all-hydride Li-battery employing LiBH4 as solid-state electrolyte. In the solid-state battery, Mg2FeH6 exhibits improvements in the capacity retention and initial Coulombic efficiency of > 3 and > 2.5 times......, respectively, compared to the conventional liquid-electrolyte battery. Through investigations of the conversion reactions of Mg2FeH6, formation of MgH2 as intermediate in the conversion to Mg is discovered the first time. In addition, the effect of mixing procedure for the electrode-electrolyte composite...... on the battery performance is discussed....

  9. Nanostructured Iron and Manganese Oxide Electrode Materials for Lithium Batteries: Influence of Chemical and Physical Properties on Electrochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durham, Jessica L.

    The widespread use of portable electronics and growing interest in electric and hybrid vehicles has generated a mass market for batteries with increased energy densities and enhanced electrochemical performance. In order to address a variety of applications, commercially fabricated secondary lithium-ion batteries employ transition metal oxide based electrodes, the most prominent of which include lithium nickel manganese cobalt oxide (LiNixMn yCo1-x-yO2), lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4), and lithium manganese oxide (LiMn 2O4). Transition metal oxides are of particular interest as cathode materials due to their robust framework for lithium intercalation, potential for high energy density, and utilization of earth-abundant elements (i.e. iron and manganese) leading to decreased toxicity and cost-effective battery production on industrial scales. Specifically, this research focuses on MgFe2O4, AgxMn8O16, and AgFeO 2 transition metal oxides for use as electrode materials in lithium-based batteries. The electrode materials are prepared via co-precipitation, reflux, and hydrothermal methods and characterized by several techniques (XRD, SEM, BET, TGA, DSC, XPS, Raman, etc.). The low-temperature syntheses allowed for precise manipulation of structural, compositional, and/or functional properties of MgFe2O4, AgxMn8 O16, and AgFeO2 which have been shown to influence electrochemical behavior. In addition, advanced in situ and ex situ characterization techniques are employed to study the lithiation/de-lithiation process and establish valid redox mechanisms. With respect to both chemical and physical properties, the influence of MgFe2O4 particle size and morphology on electrochemical behavior was established using ex situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) imaging. Based on composition, tunneled AgxMn8O16 nanorods, prepared with distinct Ag+ contents and crystallite sizes, display dramatic differences in ion-transport kinetics due to

  10. Advanced Electrode Materials for High Energy Next Generation Li ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayner, Cary Michael

    Lithium ion batteries are becoming an increasingly ubiquitous part of modern society. Since their commercial introduction by Sony in 1991, lithium-ion batteries have grown to be the most popular form of electrical energy storage for portable applications. Today, lithium-ion batteries power everything from cellphones and electric vehicles to e-cigarettes, satellites, and electric aircraft. Despite the commercialization of lithium-ion batteries over twenty years ago, it remains the most active field of energy storage research for its potential improvement over current technology. In order to capitalize on these opportunities, new materials with higher energy density and storage capacities must be developed. Unfortunately, most next-generation materials suffer from rapid capacity degradation or severe loss of capacity when rapidly discharged. In this dissertation, the development of novel anode and cathode materials for advanced high-energy and high-power lithium-ion batteries is reported. In particular, the application of graphene-based materials to stabilize active material is emphasized. Graphene, a unique two-dimensional material composed of atomically thin carbon sheets, has shown potential to address unsatisfactory rate capability, limited cycling performance and abrupt failure of these next-generation materials. This dissertation covers four major subjects: development of silicon-graphene composites, impact of carbon vacancies on graphene high-rate performance, iron fluoride-graphene composites, and ternary iron-manganese fluoride synthesis. Silicon is considered the most likely material to replace graphite as the anode active material for lithium-ion batteries due to its ability to alloy with large amounts of lithium, leading to significantly higher specific capacities than the graphite standard. However, Si also expands in size over 300% upon lithiation, leading to particle fracture and isolation from conductive support, resulting in cell failure within a few

  11. Flexible three-dimensional electrodes of hollow carbon bead strings as graded sulfur reservoirs and the synergistic mechanism for lithium–sulfur batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Dan [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610064 (China); Institute of Chemical Materials, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang, 621900 (China); Ni, Wei, E-mail: niwei@iccas.ac.cn [Institute of Chemical Materials, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang, 621900 (China); Cheng, Jianli; Wang, Zhuanpei; Wang, Ting; Guan, Qun [Institute of Chemical Materials, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang, 621900 (China); Zhang, Yun, E-mail: y_zhang@scu.edu.cn [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610064 (China); Wu, Hao [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610064 (China); Li, Xiaodong [Institute of Chemical Materials, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang, 621900 (China); Wang, Bin, E-mail: edward.bwang@gmail.com [Institute of Chemical Materials, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang, 621900 (China)

    2017-08-15

    Graphical abstract: Flexible three-dimensional electrode comprised of stringed N-doped hollow carbon spheres shows a synergistic sulfur confinement mechanism and a higher energy/power density for the promising lithium-sulfur batteries compared with traditional electrodes. - Highlights: • Hollow carbon beads on string structure was first prepared. • Flexible 3D electrodes as graded reservoirs for polysulfides were conducted. • Synergistic effect for enhanced polysulfides storage was claimed. - Abstract: Three-dimensional (3D) flexible electrodes of stringed hollow nitrogen-doped (N-doped) carbon nanospheres as graded sulfur reservoirs and conductive frameworks were elaborately designed via a combination of the advantages of hollow structures, 3D electrodes and flexible devices. The as-prepared electrodes by a synergistic method of electrospinning, template sacrificing and activation for Li–S batteries without any binder or conductive additives but a 3D interconnected conductive network offered multiple transport paths for electrons and improved sulfur utilization and facilitated an easy access to Li{sup +} ingress/egress. With the increase of density of hollow carbon spheres in the strings, the self-supporting composite electrode reveals an enhanced synergistic mechanism for sulfur confinement and displays a better cycling stability and rate performance. It delivers a high initial specific capacity of 1422.6 mAh g{sup −1} at the current rate of 0.2C with the high sulfur content of 76 wt.%, and a much higher energy density of 754 Wh kg{sup −1} and power density of 1901 Wh kg{sup −1}, which greatly improve the energy/power density of traditional lithium–sulfur batteries and will be promising for further commercial applications.

  12. Carbon nanotubes functionalized by salts containing stereogenic heteroatoms as electrodes in their battery cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdanowska Sandra

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper concentrates on electrochemical properties of groups of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT functionalized with substituents containing a stereogenic heteroatom bonded covalently to the surface of the carbon nanotube. This system was tested in Swagelok-type cells. The cells comprised a system (functionalized CNT with salts containing S and P atoms with a working electrode, microfiber separators soaked with electrolyte solution, and a lithium foil counter/reference (commercial LiCoO2 electrode. The electrolyte solution was 1 M LiPF6 in propylene carbonate. Using standard techniques (cyclic voltammetry/chronopotentiometry, galvanostatic cycling was performed on the cells at room temperature with a CH Instruments Model 600E potentiostat/galvanostat electrochemical measurements. Methods of functionalization CNT were compared in terms of the electrochemical properties of the studied systems. In all systems, the process of charge/discharge was observed.

  13. Carbon coated CoS_2 thermal battery electrode material with enhanced discharge performances and air stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Song; Deng, Yafeng; Mei, Jun; Yang, Zhaotang; Lau, Woon-Ming; Liu, Hao

    2017-01-01

    Graphical abstract: A novel carbon coated CoS_2 composite is prepared and investigated as a cathode material for thermal batteries. - Highlights: • A novel C@CoS_2 composite is successfully prepared by hydrothermal method. • The growth of CoS_2 in the glucose solution results in a smaller grain size. • The coating of carbon favors electron transfer and buffers polysulfides formation. • The in situ coated carbon layer effectively prevents the oxidation of CoS_2. • The C@CoS_2 composite shows competitive thermal stability and discharge property. - Abstract: Cobalt disulfide (CoS_2) is a promising thermal battery electrode material for its superior thermal stability and discharge performance. However, the low natural resource and poor air stability restrict its application in thermal battery fabrication. In this work, carbon coated CoS_2 composite was prepared by a facile one-pot hydrothermal method with glucose as carbon source. During the growth of CoS_2, the glucose molecules were in situ adsorbed and carbonized on the surface of the as-synthesized CoS_2, and the resultant carbon coating provided improved electrical conductivity and discharge performances to the composite. The thermal battery cell, which was fabricated with such a composite cathode and with a Li-Si anode, can output a capacity of 235.8 mAh g"−"1 and an energy density of 416.9 Wh kg"−"1 at a cut-off voltage of 1.7 V. This carbon coated CoS_2 composite also presented enhanced air stability. After being stored in dry air for 3 months, the composite can still provide a capacity of 232.4 mAh g"−"1 to 1.7 V, whereas the capacity of bare CoS_2 stored with the same condition dropped from 202.4 mAh g"−"1 to 189.7 mAh g"−"1.

  14. Carbon nanotubes functionalized by salts containing stereogenic heteroatoms as electrodes in their battery cells

    OpenAIRE

    Zdanowska Sandra; Pyzalska Magdalena; Drabowicz Józef; Kulawik Damian; Pavlyuk Volodymyr; Girek Tomasz; Ciesielski Wojciech

    2016-01-01

    This paper concentrates on electrochemical properties of groups of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) functionalized with substituents containing a stereogenic heteroatom bonded covalently to the surface of the carbon nanotube. This system was tested in Swagelok-type cells. The cells comprised a system (functionalized CNT with salts containing S and P atoms) with a working electrode, microfiber separators soaked with electrolyte solution, and a lithium foil counter/reference (commercial Li...

  15. Passivation behavior of AB{sub 5}-type hydrogen storage alloys for battery electrode application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meli, F. [Fribourg Univ. (Switzerland). Inst. de Physique; Sakai, T. [Fribourg Univ. (Switzerland). Inst. de Physique; Zuettel, A. [Fribourg Univ. (Switzerland). Inst. de Physique; Schlapbach, L. [Fribourg Univ. (Switzerland). Inst. de Physique

    1995-04-15

    In many applications, AB{sub 5} type hydrogen storage alloys show passivation behavior, i.e. when fully discharged, metal hydride electrodes show (especially at higher temperatures) a decrease in activity and therefore a decrease in capacity at normal discharge currents for ensuing cycles. Passivation may continue to the point where activity becomes so low that the capacity is no longer accessible. Electrochemical measurements were taken of two different AB{sub 5}-type alloys, one with manganese and one without manganese (LaNi{sub 3.4}Co{sub 1.2}Al{sub 0.4} and LaNi{sub 3.4}Co{sub 1.2}Al{sub 0.3}Mn{sub 0.1}). Both alloys showed passivation behavior after remaining in the discharged state. The alloy with manganese showed a stronger tendency to passivation which is in contradiction with earlier observations. Photoelectron spectroscopic analysis together with sputter depth profiling was used to investigate the surface composition of samples which had undergone different surface pretreatments. Surface analysis of electrodes in the passivated state shows a lower content of metallic nickel and a thicker nickel surface oxide film. We attribute the low electrochemical kinetics of the alloys after passivation to the loss of metallic nickel and/or cobalt at the electrode-electrolyte interface. ((orig.))

  16. Fabrication and performance of Li4Ti5O12/C Li-ion battery electrodes using combined double flame spray pyrolysis and pressure-based lamination technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gockeln, Michael; Pokhrel, Suman; Meierhofer, Florian; Glenneberg, Jens; Schowalter, Marco; Rosenauer, Andreas; Fritsching, Udo; Busse, Matthias; Mädler, Lutz; Kun, Robert

    2018-01-01

    Reduction of lithium-ion battery (LIB) production costs is inevitable to make the use of LIB technology more viable for applications such as electric vehicles or stationary storage. To meet the requirements in today's LIB cost efficiency, our current research focuses on an alternative electrode fabrication method, characterized by a combination of double flame spray pyrolysis and lamination technique (DFSP/lamination). In-situ carbon coated nano-Li4Ti5O12 (LTO/C) was synthesized using versatile DFSP. The as-prepared composite powder was then directly laminated onto a conductive substrate avoiding the use of any solvent or binder for electrode preparation. The influence of lamination pressures on the microstructure and electrochemical performance of the electrodes was also investigated. Enhancements in intrinsic electrical conductivity were found for higher lamination pressures. Capacity retention of highest pressurized DFSP/lamination-prepared electrode was 87.4% after 200 dis-/charge cycles at 1C (vs. Li). In addition, LTO/C material prepared from the double flame spray pyrolysis was also used for fabricating electrodes via doctor blading technique. Laminated electrodes obtained higher specific discharge capacities compared to calendered and non-calendered blade-casted electrodes due to superior microstructural properties. Such a fast and industrially compelling integrative DFSP/lamination tool could be a prosperous, next generation technology for low-cost LIB electrode fabrication.

  17. First principles nickel-cadmium and nickel hydrogen spacecraft battery models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timmerman, P.; Ratnakumar, B.V.; Distefano, S.

    1996-02-01

    The principles of Nickel-Cadmium and Nickel-Hydrogen spacecraft battery models are discussed. The Ni-Cd battery model includes two phase positive electrode and its predictions are very close to actual data. But the Ni-H2 battery model predictions (without the two phase positive electrode) are unacceptable even though the model is operational. Both models run on UNIX and Macintosh computers.

  18. Turning an environmental problem into an opportunity: potential use of biochar derived from a harmful marine biomass named Cladophora glomerata as anode electrode for Li-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salimi, Pejman; Javadian, Soheila; Norouzi, Omid; Gharibi, Hussein

    2017-12-01

    The electrochemical performance of lithium ion battery was enhanced by using biochar derived from Cladophora glomerata (C. glomerata) as widespread green macroalgae in most areas of the Iran's Caspian sea coast. By the utilization of the structure of the biochar, micro-/macro-ordered porous carbon with olive-shaped structure was successfully achieved through pyrolysis at 500 °C, which is the optimal temperature for biofuel production, and was activated with HCl. The biochar and HCl treatment biochar (HTB) were applied as anode electrode in lithium ion batteries. Then, electrochemical measurements were conducted on the electrodes via galvanostatic charge-discharge, cyclic voltammetry (CV), and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) analyses. The electrochemical results indicated a higher specific discharge capacity (700 mAh g -1 ) and good cycling stability for HTB at the current density of 0.1 A g -1 as compared to the biochar. The reason that HTB electrode works better than the biochar could be due to the higher surface area, formation functional groups, removal impurities, and formation some micropores after HCl treatment. The biochar derived from marine biomass and treatment process developed here could provide a promising path for the low-cost, renewable, and environmentally friendly electrode materials. Graphical abstract Algal-biochar into Li-ion Battery.

  19. Facile synthesis of conjugated polymeric Schiff base as negative electrodes for lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye, Haijun; Jiang, Fangqing; Li, Hongqin; Xu, Zheng; Yin, Jiao; Zhu, Hui

    2017-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Polymeric Schiff base (PSB) exhibits a stable cyclability as an organic Li-ion battery anode Display Omitted -- Highlights: •A conjugated Schiff base polymer has been synthesized by a solid-phase reaction. •The polymer suppresses the dissolution of organic monomer into the organic electrolyte. •The polymer demonstrates high reversible capacity and excellent cyclic performance. -- Abstract: The redox-active organic compounds show great potentials as anodes for high energy density Li-ion batteries (LIBs), comparing with the traditional transition metal-based inorganic compounds. However, the inevitable dissolution behaviors of these organics in organic electrolyte will arouse the recession in their cycling stabilities. To circumvent this problem, we successfully applied an electrochemically active imine group to connect the carbonyl compound to form conjugated polymer, where the occurrence of multi-electron reactions suppressed the dissolution of anthraquinone in the organic electrolyte with improved cycling stability and high capacity for LIBs. In detail, by virtue of a facile solid-phase reaction between 1, 4-diaminoanthraquinone (14DAAQ) and p-phthalaldehyde (PPD), a highly conjugated polymeric Schiff base (PSB) was synthesized. The obtained PSB exhibited a reversible specific capacity of 175 mAh g −1 at a current density of 10 mA g −1 . In addition, after 100 cycles, a cycling stability with 90% capacity retention can be maintained, manifesting a promising application of the organic material in high performance anodes for LIBs.

  20. Tapioca binder for porous zinc anodes electrode in zinc–air batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Najmi Masri

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Tapioca was used as a binder for porous Zn anodes in an electrochemical zinc-air (Zn-air battery system. The tapioca binder concentrations varied to find the optimum composition. The effect of the discharge rate at 100 mA on the constant current, current–potential and current density–power density of the Zn-air battery was measured and analyzed. At concentrations of 60–80 mg cm−3, the tapioca binder exhibited the optimum discharge capability, with a specific capacity of approximately 500 mA h g−1 and a power density of 17 mW cm−2. A morphological analysis proved that at this concentration, the binder is able to provide excellent binding between the Zn powders. Moreover, the structure of Zn as the active material was not affected by the addition of tapioca as the binder, as shown by the X-ray diffraction analysis. Furthermore, the conversion of Zn into ZnO represents the full utilization of the active material, which is a good indication that tapioca can be used as the binder.

  1. Synergistic effect of carbon nanofiber/nanotube composite catalyst on carbon felt electrode for high-performance all-vanadium redox flow battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Minjoon; Jung, Yang-jae; Kim, Jungyun; Lee, Ho il; Cho, Jeaphil

    2013-10-09

    Carbon nanofiber/nanotube (CNF/CNT) composite catalysts grown on carbon felt (CF), prepared from a simple way involving the thermal decomposition of acetylene gas over Ni catalysts, are studied as electrode materials in a vanadium redox flow battery. The electrode with the composite catalyst prepared at 700 °C (denoted as CNF/CNT-700) demonstrates the best electrocatalytic properties toward the V(2+)/V(3+) and VO(2+)/VO2(+) redox couples among the samples prepared at 500, 600, 700, and 800 °C. Moreover, this composite electrode in the full cell exhibits substantially improved discharge capacity and energy efficiency by ~64% and by ~25% at 40 mA·cm(-2) and 100 mA·cm(-2), respectively, compared to untreated CF electrode. This outstanding performance is due to the enhanced surface defect sites of exposed edge plane in CNF and a fast electron transfer rate of in-plane side wall of the CNT.

  2. Vanadyl phosphates as high energy density cathode materials for rechargeable sodium battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ruigang; Mizuno, Fuminori; Ling, Chen; Whittingham, Stanley M.; Zhang, Ruibo; Chen, Zehua

    2017-08-01

    A positive electrode comprising .epsilon.-VOPO.sub.4 and/or Na.sub.x(.epsilon.-VOPO.sub.4) wherein x is a value from 0.1 to 1.0 as an active ingredient, wherein the electrode is capable of insertion and release of sodium ions and a reversible sodium battery containing the positive electrode are provided.

  3. Effect of KOH Concentration and Anions on the Performance of a Ni-H2 Battery Positive Plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidyanathan, Hari; Robbins, Kathleen; Gopalakrishna, M. Rao

    1996-01-01

    The capacity and voltage behavior of electrochemically impregnated sintered nickel positive plates was examined by galvanostatic charging and discharging in a flooded electrolyte cell. Three different concentrations of potassium hydroxide (KOH) (40, 31, and 26 percent) and 31 percent KOH containing dissolved nitrate, sulfate, or silicate were investigated. The end-of-charge voltage at C/10 charge and at 10 degrees C showed the following order: 40 percent KOH greater than 31 percent KOH alone and in the presence of the anions greater than 26 percent KOH. The mid discharge voltage at C/2 discharge was higher in 26 percent KOH, almost the same for 31 percent KOH with and without added contaminants, and much lower for 40 percent KOH. The plate capacity was marginally affected by cycling in all cases except for 40 percent KOH, where the capacity declined after 1,000 cycles at 80 percent depth of discharge (DOD). At the end of cycling, all the plates tested experienced a weight loss, except in the case of 31 percent KOH, as a result of active material extrusion. Cyclic voltammetry of miniature electrodes in 31 percent KOH showed that the cathodic peak potentials are less polarized in the presence and absence of silicate at -5 degrees C compared to 25 degrees C indicating a slightly higher voltage during discharge in a Ni-H2 battery. Futhermore, the features of the current-potential profile were practically unchanged in the presence of silicate.

  4. Battery Safety Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Ken

    2010-01-01

    Batteries commonly used in flashlights and other household devices produce hydrogen gas as a product of zinc electrode corrosion. The amount of gas produced is affected by the batteries' design and charge rate. Dangerous levels of hydrogen gas can be released if battery types are mixed, batteries are damaged, batteries are of different ages, or…

  5. Device for filling tubular electrode plates for lead batteries. Vorrichtung zum Fuellen von Roehrchenelektrodenplatten fuer Bleiakkumulatoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barth, P.U.; Kubis, C.; Weber, H.J.; Wiepen, R.

    1984-11-22

    The device applies the vibration principle and according to the invention it uses a filling cassette for accommodating tubular electrode plates. The filling cassette has a filling funnel and is suspended with its vibration drive by springs. The vibration drive consists either of two out-of-balance motors, which are rigidly connected to the lower frame of the cassette, and have opposite directions of rotation, or of one out-of-balance motor, which is connected to a joint below the frame of the cassette.

  6. Device for filling tubular electrode plates for lead batteries. [German patent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barth, P.U.; Kubis, C.; Weber, H.J.; Wiepen, R.

    1979-02-01

    The device applies the vibration principle and according to the invention it uses a filling cassette for accommodating tubular electrode plates. The filling cassette has a filling funnel and is suspended with its vibration drive by springs. The vibration drive consists either of two out-of-balance motors, which are rigidly connected to the lower frame of the cassette, and have opposite directions of rotation, or of one out-of-balance motor, which is connected to a joint below the frame of the cassette.

  7. Degradation of lithium ion batteries employing graphite negatives and nickel-cobalt-manganese oxide + spinel manganese oxide positives: Part 2, chemical-mechanical degradation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purewal, Justin; Wang, John; Graetz, Jason; Soukiazian, Souren; Tataria, Harshad; Verbrugge, Mark W.

    2014-12-01

    Capacity fade is reported for 1.5 Ah Li-ion batteries containing a mixture of Li-Ni-Co-Mn oxide (NCM) + Li-Mn oxide spinel (LMO) as positive electrode material and a graphite negative electrode. The batteries were cycled at a wide range of temperatures (10 °C-46 °C) and discharge currents (0.5C-6.5C). The measured capacity losses were fit to a simple physics-based model which calculates lithium inventory loss from two related mechanisms: (1) mechanical degradation at the graphite anode particle surface caused by diffusion-induced stresses (DIS) and (2) chemical degradation caused by lithium loss to continued growth of the solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI). These two mechanisms are coupled because lithium is consumed through SEI formation on newly exposed crack surfaces. The growth of crack surface area is modeled as a fatigue phenomenon due to the cyclic stresses generated by repeated lithium insertion and de-insertion of graphite particles. This coupled chemical-mechanical degradation model is consistent with the observed capacity loss features for the NCM + LMO/graphite cells.

  8. In Situ-Grown ZnCo2O4 on Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes as Air Electrode Materials for Rechargeable Lithium–Oxygen Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Bin; Xu, Wu; Yan, Pengfei; Bhattacharya, Priyanka; Cao, Ruiguo; Bowden, Mark E.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Wang, Chong M.; Zhang, Jiguang

    2015-10-12

    Although lithium-oxygen (Li-O2) batteries have great potential to be used as one of the next generation energy storage systems due to their ultrahigh theoretical specific energy, there are still many significant barriers before their practical applications. These barriers include electrolyte and electrode instability, poor ORR/OER efficiency and cycling capability, etc. Development of a highly efficient catalyst will not only enhance ORR/OER efficiency, it may also improve the stability of electrolyte because the reduced charge voltage. Here we report the synthesis of nano-sheet-assembled ZnCo2O4 spheres/single walled carbon nanotubes (ZCO/SWCNTs) composites as high performance air electrode materials for Li-O2 batteries. The ZCO catalyzed SWCNTs electrodes delivered high discharge capacities, decreased the onset of oxygen evolution reaction by 0.9 V during charge processes, and led to more stable cycling stability. These results indicate that ZCO/SWCNTs composite can be used as highly efficient air electrode for oxygen reduction and evolution reactions. The highly enhanced catalytic activity by uniformly dispersed ZnCo2O4 catalyst on nanostructured electrodes is expected to inspire

  9. Complementary X-ray and neutron radiography study of the initial lithiation process in lithium-ion batteries containing silicon electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Fu, E-mail: fu.sun@helmholtz-berlin.de [Institute of Material Science and Technologies, Technical University Berlin, 10623 Berlin (Germany); Helmholtz Centre Berlin for Materials and Energy, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, 14109 Berlin (Germany); Markötter, Henning [Institute of Material Science and Technologies, Technical University Berlin, 10623 Berlin (Germany); Helmholtz Centre Berlin for Materials and Energy, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, 14109 Berlin (Germany); Manke, Ingo; Hilger, André [Helmholtz Centre Berlin for Materials and Energy, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, 14109 Berlin (Germany); Alrwashdeh, Saad S. [Institute of Material Science and Technologies, Technical University Berlin, 10623 Berlin (Germany); Helmholtz Centre Berlin for Materials and Energy, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, 14109 Berlin (Germany); Mechanical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Mu' tah University, P.O. Box 7, Al-Karak 61710 Jordan (Jordan); Kardjilov, Nikolay [Helmholtz Centre Berlin for Materials and Energy, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, 14109 Berlin (Germany); Banhart, John [Institute of Material Science and Technologies, Technical University Berlin, 10623 Berlin (Germany); Helmholtz Centre Berlin for Materials and Energy, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, 14109 Berlin (Germany)

    2017-03-31

    Highlights: • A radiography cell for in operando X-ray radiography was designed and built. • A self-assembled CR2032 coin cell was built for in operando neutron radiography. • In operando X-ray and neuron radiography were conducted by using Si electrode half cells. - Abstract: Complementary in operando X-ray radiography and neutron radiography measurements were conducted to investigate and visualize the initial lithiation in silicon-electrode lithium-ion batteries. By means of X-ray radiography, a significant volume expansion of Si particles and the Si electrode during the first discharge was observed. In addition, many Si particles were found that never undergo electrochemical reactions. These findings were confirmed by neutron radiography, which, for the first time, showed the process of Li alloying with the Si electrode during initial lithiation. These results demonstrate that complementary X-ray and neutron radiography is a powerful tool to investigate the lithiation mechanisms inside Si-electrode based lithium-ion batteries.

  10. A computation study on the interplay between surface morphology and electrochemical performance of patterned thin film electrodes for Li-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gur, Sourav; Frantziskonis, George N.; Aifantis, Katerina E.

    2017-08-01

    Recent experiments illustrate that the morphology of the electrode surface impacts the voltage - capacity curves and long term cycling performance of Li-ion batteries. The present study systematically explores the role of the electrode surface morphology and uncertainties in the reactions that occur during electrochemical cycling, by performing kinetic Monte Carlo (kMC) simulations using the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM). This allows encoding of the inherent stochasticity at discrete microscale reaction events over the deterministic mean field reaction dynamics that occur in Li-ion cells. The electrodes are taken to be dense thin films whose surfaces are patterned with conical, trapezoidal, dome-shaped, or pillar-shaped structures. It is shown that the inherent perturbations in the reactions together with the characteristics of the electrode surface configuration can significantly improve battery performance, mainly because patterned surfaces, as opposed to flat surfaces, result in a smaller voltage drop. The most efficient pattern was the trapezoidal, which is consistent with experimental evidence on Si patterned electrodes.

  11. Hydrogen diffusion in La{sub 1.5}Nd{sub 0.5}MgNi{sub 9} alloy electrodes of the Ni/MH battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volodin, A.A. [Institute of Problems of Chemical Physics of RAS, Chernogolovka (Russian Federation); Denys, R.V. [Institute for Energy Technology, P.O. Box 40, Kjeller NO2027 (Norway); Tsirlina, G.A. [Department of Electrochemistry, Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation); Tarasov, B.P. [Institute of Problems of Chemical Physics of RAS, Chernogolovka (Russian Federation); Fichtner, M. [Institute of Nanotechnology, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe (Germany); Yartys, V.A., E-mail: volodymyr.yartys@ife.no [Institute for Energy Technology, P.O. Box 40, Kjeller NO2027 (Norway)

    2015-10-05

    Highlights: • Hydrogen diffusion in the La{sub 1.5}Nd{sub 0.5}MgNi{sub 9} alloy electrode was studied. • Various techniques of low amplitude potentiostatic data treatment were used. • D{sub H} demonstrates a maximum (2 × 10{sup −11} cm{sup 2}/s) at 85% of discharge of the electrode. • Maximum is associated with a conversion of β-hydride into a solid α-solution. • Optimization of material and electrode will allow high discharge rates. - Abstract: Hydrogen diffusion in the La{sub 1.5}Nd{sub 0.5}MgNi{sub 9} battery electrode material has been studied using low amplitude potentiostatic experiments. Complex diffusion behavior is examined in frames of electroanalytical models proposed for the lithium intercalation materials. Hydrogen diffusion coefficient D{sub H} changes with hydrogen content in the metal hydride anode electrode and has a maximum of ca. 2 × 10{sup −11} cm{sup 2}/s at ca. 85% of discharge. Such a behavior differs from the trends known for the transport in lithium battery materials, but qualitatively agrees with the data for the highly concentrated β-PdH{sub x}.

  12. Hydrogen diffusion in La1.5Nd0.5MgNi9 alloy electrodes of the Ni/MH battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volodin, A.A.; Denys, R.V.; Tsirlina, G.A.; Tarasov, B.P.; Fichtner, M.; Yartys, V.A.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Hydrogen diffusion in the La 1.5 Nd 0.5 MgNi 9 alloy electrode was studied. • Various techniques of low amplitude potentiostatic data treatment were used. • D H demonstrates a maximum (2 × 10 −11 cm 2 /s) at 85% of discharge of the electrode. • Maximum is associated with a conversion of β-hydride into a solid α-solution. • Optimization of material and electrode will allow high discharge rates. - Abstract: Hydrogen diffusion in the La 1.5 Nd 0.5 MgNi 9 battery electrode material has been studied using low amplitude potentiostatic experiments. Complex diffusion behavior is examined in frames of electroanalytical models proposed for the lithium intercalation materials. Hydrogen diffusion coefficient D H changes with hydrogen content in the metal hydride anode electrode and has a maximum of ca. 2 × 10 −11 cm 2 /s at ca. 85% of discharge. Such a behavior differs from the trends known for the transport in lithium battery materials, but qualitatively agrees with the data for the highly concentrated β-PdH x

  13. A Consistent Derivation of the Impedance of a Lithium-Ion Battery Electrode and its Dependency on the State-of-Charge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schönleber, M.; Uhlmann, C.; Braun, P.; Weber, A.; Ivers-Tiffée, E.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •A derivation of the impedance model of a Lithium-Ion battery electrode is given. •The dependency of all partial impedances on the State-of-Charge is revealed. •The lasting disagreement in how to model solid-state diffusion is settled. •A solid starting point to derive models of any complexity is provided. •The connection between differential capacity and solid-state diffusion is revealed. -- Abstract: A derivation of the fundamental impedance of a Lithium-Ion battery electrode is given, exemplarily conducted for a solid thin-film electrode. The focus of this derivation is not on developing a model which is able to reproduce the exact behaviour of a given electrode, but rather on deriving its fundamental characteristics from few and intuitive assumptions in a simple and transparent way. It is thus shown, that the fundamental impedance of a solid thin-film electrode consists of an RC-element for charge-transfer, a Finite-Length Warburg element for diffusion in the electrolyte and a Finite-Space Warburg element for diffusion in the solid-state. The use of a Finite-Length Warburg element with a serially connected capacitor for modelling diffusion in the solid-state is thus indicated to be physically questionable. In addition, the theoretically expected behaviour of charge-transfer and solid-state diffusion on the degree of lithiation (State-of-Charge) is derived and discussed.

  14. Disordered carbon negative electrode for electrochemical capacitors and high-rate batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogihara, Nobuhiro; Igarashi, Yoshiyuki; Kamakura, Ayumu; Naoi, Katsuhiko; Kusachi, Yuki; Utsugi, Koji

    2006-01-01

    In order to understand the properties of high-rate capability and cycleability for a disordered carbon negative electrode in LiPF 6 /PC based electrolyte solution, the cell performance tests with various rates and depth of discharges (DODs) has been studied by spectroscopic and electrochemical analyses. From the charge-discharge measurements, a surface carbon-edge redox reaction occurring between a carbonyl (C edge =O) and a lithium alkoxide (C edge -OLi) that delivers a large capacity was found fast and high cycleability at only shallow DOD (2.0-0.4 V). The limited or shallow charge-discharge cycling utilizing such facile and reversible action of the C edge =O/C edge -OLi of the disordered carbon is suited to an application for an negative electrode of asymmetric hybrid capacitors. A deep DOD discharge (2.0-0.0 V) revealed the existence of some complex processes involving a lithium cluster deposition at pores or microvoids as well as a lithium ion intercalation at graphene layers. The cluster deposition at pores was found to be relatively fast and reproducible. The lithium ion intercalation at graphenes and the subsequent cluster deposition at microvoids were found to be slow and degrade the cycleability after 100 cycles because of the accumulation of a thick and low-ion-conductive solid electrolyte interface (SEI) film on surface

  15. Carbon and graphene double protection strategy to improve the SnOx electrode performance anodes for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jian; Lei, Danni; Zhang, Guanhua; Li, Qiuhong; Lu, Bingan; Wang, Taihong

    2013-05-01

    SnOx is a promising high-capacity anode material for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), but it usually exhibits poor cycling stability because of its huge volume variation during the lithium uptake and release process. In this paper, SnOx carbon nanofibers (SnOx@CNFs) are firstly obtained in the form of a nonwoven mat by electrospinning followed by calcination in a 0.02 Mpa environment at 500 °C. Then we use a simple mixing method for the synthesis of SnOx@CNF@graphene (SnOx@C@G) nanocomposite. By this technique, the SnOx@CNFs can be homogeneously deposited in graphene nanosheets (GNSs). The highly scattered SnOx@C@G composite exhibits enhanced electrochemical performance as anode material for LIBs. The double protection strategy to improve the electrode performance through producing SnOx@C@G composites is versatile. In addition, the double protection strategy can be extended to the fabrication of various types of composites between metal oxides and graphene nanomaterials, possessing promising applications in catalysis, sensing, supercapacitors and fuel cells.SnOx is a promising high-capacity anode material for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), but it usually exhibits poor cycling stability because of its huge volume variation during the lithium uptake and release process. In this paper, SnOx carbon nanofibers (SnOx@CNFs) are firstly obtained in the form of a nonwoven mat by electrospinning followed by calcination in a 0.02 Mpa environment at 500 °C. Then we use a simple mixing method for the synthesis of SnOx@CNF@graphene (SnOx@C@G) nanocomposite. By this technique, the SnOx@CNFs can be homogeneously deposited in graphene nanosheets (GNSs). The highly scattered SnOx@C@G composite exhibits enhanced electrochemical performance as anode material for LIBs. The double protection strategy to improve the electrode performance through producing SnOx@C@G composites is versatile. In addition, the double protection strategy can be extended to the fabrication of various types of

  16. A Novel synthesis of MgS and its application as electrode material for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Minjuan; Li, Xiang; Gao, Mingxia; Pan, Hongge; Liu, Yongfeng

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Nanocrystallite MgS was synthesized by means of a reaction of MgH 2 of S via ball milling. • MgS was firstly investigated as anode material for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). • MgS with acetylene black introduced by ball milling shows superior electrochemical property. • The mechanisms of the lithium insertion and extraction processes of MgS are discussed. • The work is considered helpful in developing new electrode material for LIBs. - Abstract: MgS was firstly investigated as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). A novel method for the synthesis of nano-sized MgS was conducted, i.e., by means of a reaction of MgH 2 of S via ball milling. Acetylene black (AB) was used as electron conductive agent and introduced by two approaches to the MgS anode material: the one is ball milling AB with the as-prepared MgS derived from MgH 2 and S; the other is pre-milling AB with S and then further milling the mixture with MgH 2 . X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high resolution TEM analyses show that MgS/AB composites with MgS nanocrystallites embedded in the AB matrix are formed via either of the approaches. The MgS anode derived from MgH 2 and the pre-milled S/AB mixture shows high capacity. Capacity fading occurs mainly in the initial several cycles. A capacity of 630 mA h/g is retained after 80 cycles. The electrochemical property is much better than that of the MgS/AB derived from MgS and AB, due to the much homogenous microstructure of the former. The mechanism of the lithium insertion and extraction process of MgS is primarily discussed. The work is considered helpful in developing new synthesis method for MgS and new electrode material for LIBs

  17. Lithium-ion batteries fundamentals and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Yuping

    2015-01-01

    Lithium-Ion Batteries: Fundamentals and Applications offers a comprehensive treatment of the principles, background, design, production, and use of lithium-ion batteries. Based on a solid foundation of long-term research work, this authoritative monograph:Introduces the underlying theory and history of lithium-ion batteriesDescribes the key components of lithium-ion batteries, including negative and positive electrode materials, electrolytes, and separatorsDiscusses electronic conductive agents, binders, solvents for slurry preparation, positive thermal coefficient (PTC) materials, current col

  18. Why LiFePO4 is a safe battery electrode: Coulomb repulsion induced electron-state reshuffling upon lithiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaosong; Wang, Yung Jui; Barbiellini, Bernardo; Hafiz, Hasnain; Basak, Susmita; Liu, Jun; Richardson, Thomas; Shu, Guojiun; Chou, Fangcheng; Weng, Tsu-Chien; Nordlund, Dennis; Sokaras, Dimosthenis; Moritz, Brian; Devereaux, Thomas P; Qiao, Ruimin; Chuang, Yi-De; Bansil, Arun; Hussain, Zahid; Yang, Wanli

    2015-10-21

    LiFePO4 is a battery cathode material with high safety standards due to its unique electronic structure. We performed systematic experimental and theoretical studies based on soft X-ray emission, absorption, and hard X-ray Raman spectroscopy of LixFePO4 nanoparticles and single crystals. The results clearly show a non-rigid electron-state reconfiguration of both the occupied and unoccupied Fe-3d and O-2p states during the (de)lithiation process. We focus on the energy configurations of the occupied states of LiFePO4 and the unoccupied states of FePO4, which are the critical states where electrons are removed and injected during the charge and discharge process, respectively. In LiFePO4, the soft X-ray emission spectroscopy shows that, due to the Coulomb repulsion effect, the occupied Fe-3d states with the minority spin sit close to the Fermi level. In FePO4, the soft X-ray absorption and hard X-ray Raman spectroscopy show that the unoccupied Fe-3d states again sit close to the Fermi level. These critical 3d electron state configurations are consistent with the calculations based on modified Becke and Johnson potentials GGA+U (MBJGGA+U) framework, which improves the overall lineshape prediction compared with the conventionally used GGA+U method. The combined experimental and theoretical studies show that the non-rigid electron state reshuffling guarantees the stability of oxygen during the redox reaction throughout the charge and discharge process of LiFePO4 electrodes, leading to the intrinsic safe performance of the electrodes.

  19. Ag nanoparticle-modified MnO2 nanorods catalyst for use as an air electrode in zinc–air battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goh, F.W. Thomas; Liu, Zhaolin; Ge, Xiaoming; Zong, Yun; Du, Guojun; Hor, T.S. Andy

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we report the synthesis, characterization and application of an inexpensive yet efficient bifunctional catalyst composed of Ag nanocrystals (∼11 nm) anchored on α-MnO 2 nanorods. The nanostructured Ag–MnO 2 catalysts exhibit improved oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER) performance in aqueous alkaline media, in terms of onset potential, generated current density and Tafel slopes. Rotating disk electrode results show that near-four electrons per oxygen molecule were transferred during ORR of Ag–MnO 2 . A zinc–air battery prototype employing Ag–MnO 2 in the air electrode was successfully operated for 270 cycles under light discharge–charge condition. Ag–MnO 2 is an efficient bifunctional catalyst for electrochemical devices such as metal–air batteries and alkaline fuel cells

  20. Chemical Imaging of Nanoscale Interfacial Inhomogeneity in LiFePO4 Composite Electrodes from a Cycled Large-Format Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jigang; Wang, Jian; Hu, Yongfeng; Lu, Mi

    2017-11-15

    The nanoscale interfacial inhomogeneity in a cycled large-format LiFePO 4 (LFP) composite electrode has been studied by X-ray photoemission electron microscopy at single particle spatial resolution with a probe depth of ∼5 nm. The loss of active lithium in cycled LFP causes the coexsitence of fully delithiated LFP (FePO 4 ) and partially delithiated LFP (Li 0.6 FePO 4 or Li 0.8 FePO 4 ) as a function of the extent of lithium loss. The distribution of various lithium loss phases along with local agglomeration of LFP and degradation of binder and carbon black are correlatively visualized. This is the first experimental exploration of chemical interplay between components in the composite electrode from a large-format battery, and implications on the LFP degradation in this battery are discussed.

  1. Porous Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoplatelets by self-supported formation as electrode material for lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Jieqiang, E-mail: mse_wangjq@ujn.edu.c [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Jinan, Jinan 250022 (China); Institute for Superconducting and Electronic Materials, University of Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia); Du Guodong; Zeng Rong [Institute for Superconducting and Electronic Materials, University of Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia); Niu Ben [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Jinan, Jinan 250022 (China); Chen Zhixin [School of Mechanical, Materials and Mechatronics, Faculty of Engineering, University of Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia); Guo Zaiping [School of Mechanical, Materials and Mechatronics, Faculty of Engineering, University of Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia); Institute for Superconducting and Electronic Materials, University of Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia); Dou Shixue [Institute for Superconducting and Electronic Materials, University of Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia)

    2010-06-30

    In this paper, we have reported a simple and rapid approach for the large-scale synthesis of beta-Co(OH){sub 2} nanoplatelets via the microwave hydrothermal process using potassium hydroxide as mineralizer at 140 deg. C for 3 h. Calcining the beta-Co(OH){sub 2} nanoplatelets at 350 deg. C for 2 h, porous Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoplatelets with a 3D quasi-single-crystal framework were obtained. The process of converting the beta-Co(OH){sub 2} nanoplatelets into the Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoplatelets is a self-supported topotactic transformation, which is easily controlled by varying the calcining temperature. The textural characteristics of Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} products have strong positive effects on their electrochemical properties as electrode materials in lithium-ion batteries. The obtained porous Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoplatelets exhibit a low initial irreversible loss (18.1%), ultrahigh capacity, and excellent cyclability. For example, a reversible capacity of 900 mAh g{sup -1} can be maintained after 100 cycles.

  2. SiN/bamboo like carbon nanotube composite electrodes for lithium ion rechargeable batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katar, Sri Lakshmi; Hernandez, Dionne; Biaggi Labiosa, Azlin; Mosquera-Vargas, Edgar; Fonseca, Luis; Weiner, Brad; Morell, Gerardo

    2010-01-01

    A dual stage technique employing hot filament chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD) and radio frequency sputtering was used to synthesize SiN/BCNTs (bamboo like carbon nanotubes) on copper substrates. The films were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Electron field emission studies (EFE), charge-discharge, and cyclic voltammetry. The comprehensive characterization is consistent with a nanolayer of amorphous SiN on BCNTs. Field emission experiments confirm the excellent contact of the SiN nanolayer with the surface of the BCNTs necessary for fabrication of a coin cell. Electrochemical testing shows that SiN/BCNT electrode can deliver an initial discharge capacity of 2000 mAh g -1 which is higher than the capacity of graphite and the reversible capacity after ten cycles is 300 mAh g -1 . The cyclic voltammetry results suggest good reversibility with Li during cycling.

  3. Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Lijuan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fe3O4/carbon microspheres (Fe3O4/C were prepared by a facile hydrothermal reaction using cellulose and ferric trichloride as precursors. The resultant composite spheres have been investigated as anode materials for the lithium-ion batteries, and they show high capacity and good cycle stability (830mAhg−1 at a current density of 0.1C up to 70 cycles, as well as enhanced rate capability. The excellent electrochemical performance is attributed to the high structural stability and high rate of ionic/electronic conduction arising from the porous character and the synergetic effect of the carbon coated Fe3O4 structure and conductive carbon coating.

  4. Self-supported formation of needlelike Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanotubes and their application as lithium-ion battery electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lou, X.W. [School of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853-5201 (United States); Deng, D.; Lee, J.Y. [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, National University of Singapore, 10 Kent Ridge Crescent, Singapore 119260 (Singapore); Feng, J. [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Baker Laboratory, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853-1301 (United States); Archer, L.A.

    2008-01-18

    A one-step, self-supported topotactic transformation approach for synthesizing electrochemically active Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} needlelike nanotubes is reported. Used as the active material in the negative electrode of a rechargeable lithium ion battery, the Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanotubes manifest ultrahigh Li storage capacity with improved cycle life and rate capability. These features are discussed in terms of the unique structure of the materials. (Abstract Copyright [2008], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  5. Vertically aligned carbon nanotubes grown on graphene paper as electrodes in lithium-ion batteries and dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Shisheng; Yu, Wanjing; Hou, Pengxiang; Liu, Chang; Cheng, Hui-Ming [Shenyang National Laboratory of Materials Science, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 72 Wenhua Road, Shenyang 110016 (China); Luo, Yanhong; Meng, Qingbo [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Lv, Wei; Wu, Sida; Yang, Quanhong [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)

    2011-07-15

    Vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VACNTs) are grown directly on a free-standing graphene paper (GP). The desirable carrier transport ability of the VACNTs, good conductivity and mechanical properties of the GP, and strong bonding between the VACNTs and the GP endow the hybrid structure with superior performance when utilized as the electrodes of lithium-ion batteries and dye-sensitized solar cells. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  6. Research and analysis on electrochemical performances of α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} electrode in Li-ion battery with different current collectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Lihong, E-mail: huang.lihong@foxmail.com; Min, Zhonghua; Zhang, Qinyong

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • We achieved a reversible capacity of 415 mAh g{sup −1} after 30 cycles for α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} electrode in Li-ion battery. • Better electrical performance was obtained when using Cu foam as current collector. • As current collector for α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} electrode, Cu foam is better than Cu foil and Ni foam. • It could avoid the active materials falling off from the current collector during cycling. • It is owe to smaller surface film resistance, charge-transfer resistance, etc. - Abstract: In this work, we reported a simple synthesis of submicron α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} with rod-like structure. When it evaluated as electrode material for lithium ion battery, comparing with Cu foil and Ni foam, the as-prepared α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} electrodes with Cu foam current collector exhibited higher reversible capacity of 415 mAh g{sup −1} and more stable cycle performance after 30 cycles. Comparative researches on electrochemical performances of the α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} employing different current collectors (Cu foil, Cu foam and Ni foam) were discussed here in detail. According to our results, the improved electrochemical behaviors of α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} electrode with Cu foam current collector could be attributed to its particular electrode structure, i.e., porous, good electric conductivity, closed adhere to the electrode materials. Just because of that, it may make sure an easy accessibility of electrolytes and fast transportation of lithium ions, importantly, it could avoid the active materials falling off from the current collector on account of volume expansion.

  7. Physically-based impedance modeling of the negative electrode in All-Vanadium Redox Flow Batteries: insight into mass transport issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zago, M.; Casalegno, A.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •Performance losses induced by migration though the porous electrode are negligible. •Convection at carbon fiber results in a linear branch at low frequency in Nyquist plot. •When the reaction is concentrated, diffusion losses though the electrode diminishes. •Diffusion process in the pores becomes more limiting at high current. •Charge transfer resistance decreases with increasing current. -- Abstract: Mass transport of the electrolyte over the porous electrode is one of the most critical issues hindering Vanadium Redox Flow Battery commercialization, leading to increased overpotential at high current and limiting system power density. In this work, a 1D physically based impedance model of Vanadium Redox Flow Battery negative electrode is developed, taking into account electrochemical reactions, convection at carbon fiber, diffusion in the pores and migration and diffusion through electrode thickness. The model is validated with respect to experimental data measured in a symmetric cell hardware, which allows to keep the State of Charge constant during the measurement. The physically based approach permits to elucidate the origin of different impedance features and quantify the corresponding losses. Charge transfer resistance decreases with increasing current and is generally lower compared to the ones related to mass transport phenomena. Migration losses through the porous electrode are negligible, while convection at carbon fiber is relevant and in Nyquist plot results in a linear branch at low frequency. In presence of significant convection losses the reaction tends to concentrate close to the channel: this leads to a reduction of diffusion losses through the electrode, while diffusion process in the pores becomes more limiting.

  8. Electrochemical properties of LaMO3 (M=Co or Fe) as the negative electrode in a hydrogen battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, D.-K.; Im, H.-N.; Kim, J.; Song, S.-J.

    2013-01-01

    Undoped orthorthombic LaFeO3 and monoclinic LaCoO3 oxides were selected as an anode material for Ni-H battery due to their high electron conductivity by multivalent transition status of B-site cation. Both groups of oxides were prepared by a conventional solid-state reaction method, and their electrochemical charge/discharge properties were investigated. The electrochemical kinetic properties, exchange current density, and proton diffusivity were also extracted using linear polarization measurement and the potential-step method. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis was used to measure the oxidation state of the transition metal in the specimens. A non-linear least-square fitting deconvoluted the peaks, suggesting that the valence state of Fe and Co in the sample was mainly +3. The hydrogen diffusion rate was also estimated using the potential-step method, giving 5.42×10-16 and 5.72×10-16 cm2 s-1 for LaCoO3 and LaFeO3, respectively which are an order of magnitude larger than that of Sr doped LaFeO3 oxide electrodes.

  9. Polypyrrole-encapsulated vanadium pentoxide nanowires on a conductive substrate for electrode in aqueous rechargeable lithium battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Chaowei; Fang, Dong; Cao, Yunhe; Li, Guangzhong; Luo, Zhiping; Zhou, Qunhua; Xiong, Chuanxi; Xu, Weilin

    2015-02-01

    Precursors of ammonium vanadium bronze (NH4V4O10) nanowires assembled on a conductive substrate were prepared by a hydrothermal method. After calcination at 360°C, the NH4V4O10 precursor transformed to vanadium pentoxide (V2O5) nanowires, which presented a high initial capacity of 135.0mA h g(-1) at a current density of 50mA g(-1) in 5M LiNO3 aqueous solution; while the specific capacity faded quickly over 50 cycles. By coating the surface of V2O5 nanowires with water-insoluble polypyrrole (PPy), the formed nanocomposite electrode exhibited a specific discharge capacity of 89.9mA h g(-1) at 50mA g(-1) (after 100 cycles). A V2O5@PPy //LiMn2O4 rechargeable lithium battery exhibited an initial discharge capacity of 95.2mA h g(-1); and after 100 cycles, a specific discharge capacity of 81.5mA h g(-1) could retain at 100mA g(-1). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Nanoscale Polysulfides Reactors Achieved by Chemical Au-S Interaction: Improving the Performance of Li-S Batteries on the Electrode Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Chao-Ying; Xiao, Pin; Li, Huan-Huan; Wang, Hai-Feng; Zhang, Lin-Lin; Sun, Hai-Zhu; Wu, Xing-Long; Xie, Hai-Ming; Zhang, Jing-Ping

    2015-12-23

    In this work, the chemical interaction of cathode and lithium polysulfides (LiPSs), which is a more targeted approach for completely preventing the shuttle of LiPSs in lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries, has been established on the electrode level. Through simply posttreating the ordinary sulfur cathode in atmospheric environment just for several minutes, the Au nanoparticles (Au NPs) were well-decorated on/in the surface and pores of the electrode composed of commercial acetylene black (CB) and sulfur powder. The Au NPs can covalently stabilize the sulfur/LiPSs, which is advantageous for restricting the shuttle effect. Moreover, the LiPSs reservoirs of Au NPs with high conductivity can significantly control the deposition of the trapped LiPSs, contributing to the uniform distribution of sulfur species upon charging/discharging. The slight modification of the cathode with batteries. Moreover, this cathode exhibited an excellent anti-self-discharge ability. The slight decoration for the ordinary electrode, which can be easily accessed in the industrial process, provides a facile strategy for improving the performance of commercial carbon-based Li-S batteries toward practical application.

  11. Extrusion-Based 3D Printing of Hierarchically Porous Advanced Battery Electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacey, Steven D; Kirsch, Dylan J; Li, Yiju; Morgenstern, Joseph T; Zarket, Brady C; Yao, Yonggang; Dai, Jiaqi; Garcia, Laurence Q; Liu, Boyang; Gao, Tingting; Xu, Shaomao; Raghavan, Srinivasa R; Connell, John W; Lin, Yi; Hu, Liangbing

    2018-03-01

    A highly porous 2D nanomaterial, holey graphene oxide (hGO), is synthesized directly from holey graphene powder and employed to create an aqueous 3D printable ink without the use of additives or binders. Stable dispersions of hydrophilic hGO sheets in water (≈100 mg mL -1 ) can be readily achieved. The shear-thinning behavior of the aqueous hGO ink enables extrusion-based printing of fine filaments into complex 3D architectures, such as stacked mesh structures, on arbitrary substrates. The freestanding 3D printed hGO meshes exhibit trimodal porosity: nanoscale (4-25 nm through-holes on hGO sheets), microscale (tens of micrometer-sized pores introduced by lyophilization), and macroscale (benefit of (nano)porosity and structurally conscious designs, the additive-free architectures are demonstrated as the first 3D printed lithium-oxygen (Li-O 2 ) cathodes and characterized alongside 3D printed GO-based materials without nanoporosity as well as nanoporous 2D vacuum filtrated films. The results indicate the synergistic effect between 2D nanomaterials, hierarchical porosity, and overall structural design, as well as the promise of a freeform generation of high-energy-density battery systems. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Electrochemical characteristics of nc-Si/SiC composite for anode electrode of lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, Bup Ju; Lee, Joong Kee

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Cycling performances and coulombic efficiencies of the nc-Si/SiC composite anodes at different CH 4 /SiH 4 mole ratios. -- Highlights: • Our work has focused on irreversible discharge capacity and capacity retention of nc-Si/SiC composite particles. • Particles comprised a mixed construction of nc-Si/SiC structure with dual phases. • The SiC phase acted as retarding media, leading to enhanced cycle stability. -- Abstract: nc-Si/SiC composite particles were prepared as an anode material for lithium ion batteries using a plasma jet with DC arc discharge. The composition of the nc-Si/SiC composite particles was controlled by setting the mole ratio of CH 4 and SiH 4 precursor gases. X-ray diffraction, TEM images, and Raman shift analyses revealed that the synthesized nc-Si/SiC composite particles comprised a construction of nano-nocaled structure with crystalline phases of active silicon, highly disordered amorphous carbon of graphite and crystalline phases of β-SiC. In the experimental range examined, the nc-Si/SiC composite particles showed good coulombic efficiency in comparison with particles high Si–Si bonding content due to the interplay of particles with a small proportion of carbon and the buffering effect against volume expansion by structural stabilization, and played a role as retarding media for the rapid electrochemical reactions of the SiC crystal against lithium

  13. Electrochemical characteristics of nc-Si/SiC composite for anode electrode of lithium ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Bup Ju [Department of Energy Resources, Shinhan University, 233-1, Sangpae-dong, Dongducheon, Gyeonggi-do, 483-777 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Joong Kee, E-mail: leejk@kist.re.kr [Advanced Energy Materials Processing Laboratory, Center for Energy Convergence Research, Green City Technology Institute, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Hwarangno 14-gil 5, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-03-25

    Graphical abstract: Cycling performances and coulombic efficiencies of the nc-Si/SiC composite anodes at different CH{sub 4}/SiH{sub 4} mole ratios. -- Highlights: • Our work has focused on irreversible discharge capacity and capacity retention of nc-Si/SiC composite particles. • Particles comprised a mixed construction of nc-Si/SiC structure with dual phases. • The SiC phase acted as retarding media, leading to enhanced cycle stability. -- Abstract: nc-Si/SiC composite particles were prepared as an anode material for lithium ion batteries using a plasma jet with DC arc discharge. The composition of the nc-Si/SiC composite particles was controlled by setting the mole ratio of CH{sub 4} and SiH{sub 4} precursor gases. X-ray diffraction, TEM images, and Raman shift analyses revealed that the synthesized nc-Si/SiC composite particles comprised a construction of nano-nocaled structure with crystalline phases of active silicon, highly disordered amorphous carbon of graphite and crystalline phases of β-SiC. In the experimental range examined, the nc-Si/SiC composite particles showed good coulombic efficiency in comparison with particles high Si–Si bonding content due to the interplay of particles with a small proportion of carbon and the buffering effect against volume expansion by structural stabilization, and played a role as retarding media for the rapid electrochemical reactions of the SiC crystal against lithium.

  14. Intermediate honeycomb ordering to trigger oxygen redox chemistry in layered battery electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortemard de Boisse, Benoit; Liu, Guandong; Ma, Jiangtao; Nishimura, Shin-ichi; Chung, Sai-Cheong; Kiuchi, Hisao; Harada, Yoshihisa; Kikkawa, Jun; Kobayashi, Yoshio; Okubo, Masashi; Yamada, Atsuo

    2016-04-18

    Sodium-ion batteries are attractive energy storage media owing to the abundance of sodium, but the low capacities of available cathode materials make them impractical. Sodium-excess metal oxides Na2MO3 (M: transition metal) are appealing cathode materials that may realize large capacities through additional oxygen redox reaction. However, the general strategies for enhancing the capacity of Na2MO3 are poorly established. Here using two polymorphs of Na2RuO3, we demonstrate the critical role of honeycomb-type cation ordering in Na2MO3. Ordered Na2RuO3 with honeycomb-ordered [Na(1/3)Ru(2/3)]O2 slabs delivers a capacity of 180 mAh g(-1) (1.3-electron reaction), whereas disordered Na2RuO3 only delivers 135 mAh g(-1) (1.0-electron reaction). We clarify that the large extra capacity of ordered Na2RuO3 is enabled by a spontaneously ordered intermediate Na1RuO3 phase with ilmenite O1 structure, which induces frontier orbital reorganization to trigger the oxygen redox reaction, unveiling a general requisite for the stable oxygen redox reaction in high-capacity Na2MO3 cathodes.

  15. The Effect of Insertion Species on Nanostructured Open Framework Hexacyanoferrate Battery Electrodes

    KAUST Repository

    Wessells, Colin D.

    2012-01-01

    Recent battery research has focused on the high power and energy density needed for portable electronics and vehicles, but the requirements for grid-scale energy storage are different, with emphasis on low cost, long cycle life, and safety. Open framework materials with the Prussian Blue crystal structure offer the high power capability, ultra-long cycle life, and scalable, low cost synthesis and operation that are necessary for storage systems to integrate transient energy sources, such as wind and solar, with the electrical grid. We have demonstrated that two open framework materials, copper hexacyanoferrate and nickel hexacyanoferrate, can reversibly intercalate lithium, sodium, potassium, and ammonium ions at high rates. These materials can achieve capacities of up to 60 mAhg. The porous, nanoparticulate morphology of these materials, synthesized by the use of simple and inexpensive methods, results in remarkable rate capabilities: e.g. copper hexacyanoferrate retains 84 of its maximum capacity during potassium cycling at a very high (41.7C) rate, while nickel hexacyanoferrate retains 66 of its maximum capacity while cycling either sodium or potassium at this same rate. These materials show excellent stability during the cycling of sodium and potassium, with minimal capacity loss after 500 cycles. © 2011 The Electrochemical Society.

  16. Asymmetric Supercapacitors Based on Reduced Graphene Oxide with Different Polyoxometalates as Positive and Negative Electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubal, Deepak P; Chodankar, Nilesh R; Vinu, Ajayan; Kim, Do-Heyoung; Gomez-Romero, Pedro

    2017-07-10

    Nanofabrication using a "bottom-up" approach of hybrid electrode materials into a well-defined architecture is essential for next-generation miniaturized energy storage devices. This paper describes the design and fabrication of reduced graphene oxide (rGO)/polyoxometalate (POM)-based hybrid electrode materials and their successful exploitation for asymmetric supercapacitors. First, redox active nanoclusters of POMs [phosphomolybdic acid (PMo 12 ) and phosphotungstic acid (PW 12 )] were uniformly decorated on the surface of rGO nanosheets to take full advantage of both charge-storing mechanisms (faradaic from POMs and electric double layer from rGO). The as-synthesized rGO-PMo 12 and rGO-PW 12 hybrid electrodes exhibited impressive electrochemical performances with specific capacitances of 299 (269 mF cm -2 ) and 370 F g -1 (369 mF cm -2 ) in 1 m H 2 SO 4 as electrolyte at 5 mA cm -2 . An asymmetric supercapacitor was then fabricated using rGO-PMo 12 as the positive and rGO-PW 12 as the negative electrode. This rGO-PMo 12 ∥rGO-PW 12 asymmetric cell could be successfully cycled in a wide voltage window up to 1.6 V and hence exhibited an excellent energy density of 39 Wh kg -1 (1.3 mWh cm -3 ) at a power density of 658 W kg -1 (23 mW cm -3 ). © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. ANTIARRHYTMIC EFFICACY OF SOTALOL IN PATIENTS WITH TACHY-BRADY SYNDROME HAVING ATRIAL PACEMAKER WITH DIFFERENT ATRIAL ELECTRODE POSITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. N. Novikova

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To evaluate efficacy of the combined therapy (sotalol and constant electric cardiostimulation in AAI regimen at two atrial electrode position: in low back part of interatrial septum (IAS and in right atrial auricle (RAA.Material and methods. 20 patients with tachy-brady syndrome were examined. They were randomized in 2 groups depending on atrial electrode position. Sotalol (160 mg daily was prescribed to all patients in a month after implantation of constant atrial pacemaker (CAP. A number of atrial fibrillation paroxysms (AFP was evaluated initially, in a month after CAP implantation and in a month after start of sotalol therapy.Results. Significant AFP reduction was observed in IAS stimulation, unlike RAA stimulation. Sotalol addition had essential significance in the termination or reduction of AFP. Sotalol effect did not depend on atrial electrode position.Conclusion. Sotalol usage together with constant electric cardiostimulation significantly reduces AFP irrespectively of atrial electrode position

  18. Peak position differences observed during XPS sputter depth profiling of the SEI on lithiated and delithiated carbon-based anode material for Li-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oswald, S., E-mail: s.oswald@ifw-dresden.de; Hoffmann, M.; Zier, M.

    2017-04-15

    Highlights: • In XPS measurements at graphite anodes for Li-ion batteries specific binding energy variations are observed for the SEI species. • The binding energy variations depend on the charging state of the graphite and not on surface charging effects. • Obviously the presence of elemental Li leads to a potential surface gradient in contact with surface layers. • The energy position of implanted Ar can be used as characteristic feature during sputter depth profiling experiments. - Abstract: The ability of delivering chemical information from peak shift phenomena has ever since made X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) an ideal tool for material characterization in Li-ion batteries (LIB). Upon investigation, charging is inevitable as most of the chemical species involved are non-conducting. Thus, the binding energy (BE) scale must be corrected to allow an accurate interpretation of the results. This is usually done using the peak position of the ubiquitous surface carbon contamination detectable for all Li-ion battery relevant materials. We herein report on the occurrence of peak shift phenomena that can be observed when investigating surface layers on graphite anodes using sputter depth-profiling. These shifts, however, are not related to classical static electric charging, but are depending on the state of charge (lithiation) of the anode material. The observations presented are in agreement with previous findings on other Li-containing materials and are obviously caused by the presence of Li in its elemental state. As aging and failure mechanisms in LIBs are closely linked to electrolyte reaction products on electrode surfaces it is of high importance to draw the correct conclusions on their chemical origin from XP spectra. In order to avoid misinterpretation of the BE positions, implanted Ar can be used for identification of relevant peak positions and species involved in the phenomena observed.

  19. New hydrogen titanium phosphate sulfate electrodes for Li-ion and Na-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ran; Mieritz, Daniel; Seo, Dong-Kyun; Chan, Candace K.

    2017-03-01

    NASICON-type materials with general formula AxM2(PO4)3 (A = Li or Na, M = Ti, V, and Fe) are promising candidates for Li- and Na-ion batteries due to their open three-dimensional framework structure. Here we report the electrochemical properties of hydrogen titanium phosphate sulfate, H0.4Ti2(PO4)2.4(SO4)0.6 (HTPS), a new mixed polyanion material with NASICON structure. Micron-sized HTPS aggregates with crystallite grain size of ca. 23 nm are synthesized using a sol-gel synthesis in an acidic medium. The properties of the as-synthesized HTPS, ball-milled HTPS, and samples prepared as carbon composites using an in-situ glucose decomposition reaction are investigated. A capacity of 148 mAh g-1 corresponding to insertion of 2 Li+ per formula unit is observed in the ball-milled HTPS over the potential window of 1.5-3.4 V vs. Li/Li+. Lithiation at ca. 2.8 and 2.5 V is determined to occur through filling of the M1 and M2 sites, respectively. Powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) are used characterize the HTPS before and after cycling. Evaluation of the HTPS in a Na-ion cell is also performed. A discharge capacity of 93 mAh g-1 with sodiation at ca. 2.9 and 2.2 V vs. Na/Na+ is observed.

  20. Novel hierarchical three-dimensional ammonium vanadate nanowires electrodes for lithium ion battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Dong; Cao, Yunhe; Liu, Ruina; Xu, Weilin; Liu, Suqin; Luo, Zhiping; Liang, Chaowei; Liu, Xiaoqing; Xiong, Chuanxi

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Ammonium vanadate (NH