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Sample records for battery electrodes

  1. Long life lithium batteries with stabilized electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amine, Khalil; Liu, Jun; Vissers, Donald R.; Lu, Wenquan

    2009-03-24

    The present invention relates to non-aqueous electrolytes having electrode stabilizing additives, stabilized electrodes, and electrochemical devices containing the same. Thus the present invention provides electrolytes containing an alkali metal salt, a polar aprotic solvent, and an electrode stabilizing additive. In some embodiments the additives include a substituted or unsubstituted cyclic or spirocyclic hydrocarbon containing at least one oxygen atom and at least one alkenyl or alkynyl group. When used in electrochemical devices with, e.g., lithium manganese oxide spinel electrodes or olivine or carbon-coated olivine electrodes, the new electrolytes provide batteries with improved calendar and cycle life.

  2. Nanowire Electrodes for Advanced Lithium Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei eHuang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Since the commercialization of lithium ion batteries (LIBs in the past two decades, rechargeable LIBs have become widespread power sources for portable devices used in daily life. However, current demands require higher energy density and power density of batteries. The electrochemical energy storage performance of LIBs could be improved by applying nanomaterial electrodes, but their fast capacity fading is still one of the key limitations and the mechanism needs to be clearly understood. Single nanowire electrode devices are considered as a versatile platform for in situ probing the direct relationship between electrical transport, structure change, and other properties of the single nanowire electrode along with the charge/discharge process. The results indicate the conductivity decrease of the nanowire electrode and the structural disorder/destruction during electrochemical reactions which limit the cycling performance of LIBs. Based on the in situ observations, some feasible structure architecture strategies, including prelithiation, coaxial structure, nanowire arrays and hierarchical structure architecture, are proposed and utilized to restrain the conductivity decrease and structural disorder/destruction. Further, the applications of nanowire electrodes in some beyond Li-ion batteries, such as Li-S and Li-air battery, are also described.

  3. Improved zinc electrode and rechargeable zinc-air battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, P.N. Jr.

    1988-06-21

    The invention comprises an improved rechargeable zinc-air cell/battery having recirculating alkaline electrolyte and a zinc electrode comprising a porous foam support material which carries the active zinc electrode material. 5 figs.

  4. Graphene-based battery electrodes having continuous flow paths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiguang; Xiao, Jie; Liu, Jun; Xu, Wu; Li, Xiaolin; Wang, Deyu

    2014-05-24

    Some batteries can exhibit greatly improved performance by utilizing electrodes having randomly arranged graphene nanosheets forming a network of channels defining continuous flow paths through the electrode. The network of channels can provide a diffusion pathway for the liquid electrolyte and/or for reactant gases. Metal-air batteries can benefit from such electrodes. In particular Li-air batteries show extremely high capacities, wherein the network of channels allow oxygen to diffuse through the electrode and mesopores in the electrode can store discharge products.

  5. Phase Transformation Dynamics in Porous Battery Electrodes

    CERN Document Server

    Ferguson, Todd R

    2014-01-01

    Porous electrodes composed of multiphase active materials are widely used in Li-ion batteries, but their dynamics are poorly understood. Two-phase models are largely empirical, and no models exist for three or more phases. Using a modified porous electrode theory based on non-equilibrium thermodynamics, we show that experimental phase behavior can be accurately predicted from free energy models, without artificially placing phase boundaries or fitting the open circuit voltage. First, we simulate lithium intercalation in porous iron phosphate, a popular two-phase cathode, and show that the zero-current voltage gap, sloping voltage plateau and under-estimated exchange currents all result from size-dependent nucleation and mosaic instability. Next, we simulate porous graphite, the standard anode with three stable phases, and reproduce experimentally observed fronts of color-changing phase transformations. These results provide a framework for physics-based design and control for electrochemical systems with comp...

  6. Lithium electronic environments in rechargeable battery electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hightower, Adrian

    This work investigates the electronic environments of lithium in the electrodes of rechargeable batteries. The use of electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) in conjunction with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is a novel approach, which when coupled with conventional electrochemical experiments, yield a thorough picture of the electrode interior. Relatively few EELS experiments have been preformed on lithium compounds owing to their reactivity. Experimental techniques were established to minimize sample contamination and control electron beam damage to studied compounds. Lithium hydroxide was found to be the most common product of beam damaged lithium alloys. Under an intense electron beam, halogen atoms desorbed by radiolysis in lithium halides. EELS spectra from a number of standard lithium compounds were obtained in order to identify the variety of spectra encountered in lithium rechargeable battery electrodes. Lithium alloys all displayed characteristically broad Li K-edge spectra, consistent with transitions to continuum states. Transitions to bound states were observed in the Li K and oxygen K-edge spectra of lithium oxides. Lithium halides were distinguished by their systematic chemical shift proportional to the anion electronegativity. Good agreement was found with measured lithium halide spectra and electron structure calculations using a self-consistant multiscattering code. The specific electrode environments of LiC6, LiCoO2, and Li-SnO were investigated. Contrary to published XPS predictions, lithium in intercalated graphite was determined to be in more metallic than ionic. We present the first experimental evidence of charge compensation by oxygen ions in deintercalated LiCoO2. Mossbauer studies on cycled Li-SnO reveal severely defective structures on an atomic scale. Metal hydride systems are presented in the appendices of this thesis. The mechanical alloying of immiscible Fe and Mg powders resulted in single-phase bcc alloys of less than 20

  7. Lithium metal oxide electrodes for lithium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thackeray, Michael M.; Johnson, Christopher S.; Amine, Khalil; Kang, Sun-Ho

    2010-06-08

    An uncycled preconditioned electrode for a non-aqueous lithium electrochemical cell including a lithium metal oxide having the formula xLi.sub.2-yH.sub.yO.xM'O.sub.2.(1-x)Li.sub.1-zH.sub.zMO.sub.2 in which 0lithium metal ion with an average trivalent oxidation state selected from two or more of the first row transition metals or lighter metal elements in the periodic table, and M' is one or more ions with an average tetravalent oxidation state selected from the first and second row transition metal elements and Sn. The xLi.sub.2-yH.sub.y.xM'O.sub.2.(1-x)Li.sub.1-zH.sub.zMO.sub.2 material is prepared by preconditioning a precursor lithium metal oxide (i.e., xLi.sub.2M'O.sub.3.(1-x)LiMO.sub.2) with a proton-containing medium with a pH<7.0 containing an inorganic acid. Methods of preparing the electrodes are disclosed, as are electrochemical cells and batteries containing the electrodes.

  8. A method for making electrodes for lead storage batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivaki, T.; Kobayasi, K.

    1983-06-04

    Powder, acid resistant thermoplastic resin is applied to a greased electrode of a lead storage battery. The electrode is heated until the resin melts, cooled, producing a film of hardened resin with fine cracks in the absence of pores. The electrode has a long service life with cycling.

  9. Zinc electrode and rechargeable zinc-air battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Jr., Philip N.

    1989-01-01

    An improved zinc electrode is disclosed for a rechargeable zinc-air battery comprising an outer frame and a porous foam electrode support within the frame which is treated prior to the deposition of zinc thereon to inhibit the formation of zinc dendrites on the external surface thereof. The outer frame is provided with passageways for circulating an alkaline electrolyte through the treated zinc-coated porous foam. A novel rechargeable zinc-air battery system is also disclosed which utilizes the improved zinc electrode and further includes an alkaline electrolyte within said battery circulating through the passageways in the zinc electrode and an external electrolyte circulation means which has an electrolyte reservoir external to the battery case including filter means to filter solids out of the electrolyte as it circulates to the external reservoir and pump means for recirculating electrolyte from the external reservoir to the zinc electrode.

  10. Electrode assembly for a lithium ion battery, process for the production of such electrode assembly, and lithium ion battery comprising such electrode assemblies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, F.M.; Wagemaker, M.

    2013-01-01

    The invention provides an electrode assembly for a lithium ion battery, the electrode assembly comprising a lithium storage electrode layer on a current collector, wherein the lithium storage electrode layer is a porous layer having a porosity in the range of -35 %, with pores having pore widths in

  11. A method for connecting electrodes in a storage battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toda, K.; Karasava, S.

    1983-07-14

    The electrode units, placed into the body of a storage battery (AB), are electrically connected by welding connecting elements which pass through the partitions in the body. The processing is conducted with heating and pressure simultaneously.

  12. Porous graphite electrodes for rechargeable ion-transfer batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novak, P.; Scheifele, W.; Haas, O. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-06-01

    The influence of preparation pressure and pore-forming additives on the properties of graphite-based, Li{sup +}-intercalating electrodes for ion-transfer batteries have been investigated. The electrochemical performance of graphite electrodes could be improved by adjusting the porosity. Specific charge of >300 Ah/kg (with respect to the graphite mass) could be achieved. (author) 4 figs., 2 refs.

  13. Preparation and Electrode Performance of Ferrihydrites For Rechargeable Lithium Batteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hong; LAI Xiao-yong; XIA Wei; YU Ran-bo; MAO Dan; XING Chao-jian; YAO Jian-xi; WANG Dan; LI Xiao-tian

    2008-01-01

    @@ Now LiCoO2 is the most widely used electrode material in commercial rechargeable lithium-based batteries; however, the toxicity of cobalt and the scarcity of cobalt sources, as well as the limited charge/discharge capacity(130-140 mA·h·g-1) of LiCoO2 electrode drive many efforts to develop various alternative electrode materials, including diverse transition metal oxides and their lithiated counterparts[1-3].

  14. Electrode Materials for Lithium/Sodium-Ion Batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shen, Yanbin

    2014-01-01

    The synthesis of electrode materials for lithium/sodium ion batteries and their structural stability during lithium/sodium insertion/extraction are the two essential issues that have limited battery application in the fields requiring long cycle life and high safety. During her PhD studies, Yanbin...... Shen systematically investigated the controlled synthesis of electrode materials for lithium/sodium ion batteries. She also investigated their formation mechanisms and structural evolution during the operation of batteries using in situ/operando X-ray diffraction techniques. The research findings...... provide insights into formation mechanisms of Li4Ti5O12 anode material from both hydrothermal and solid-state reaction. The results also contribute to a thorough understanding of the intercalation and decay mechanisms of O3/P2 layered sodium cathode materials in sodium ion batteries....

  15. Recovery Of Electrodic Powder From Spent Lithium Ion Batteries (LIBs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin S.M.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was focused on recycling process newly proposed to recover electrodic powder enriched in cobalt (Co and lithium (Li from spent lithium ion battery. In addition, this new process was designed to prevent explosion of batteries during thermal treatment under inert atmosphere. Spent lithium ion batteries (LIBs were heated over the range of 300°C to 600°C for 2 hours and each component was completely separated inside reactor after experiment. Electrodic powder was successfully recovered from bulk components containing several pieces of metals through sieving operation. The electrodic powder obtained was examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS, and atomic absorption spectroscopy (AA and furthermore image of the powder was taken by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. It was finally found that cobalt and lithium were mainly recovered to about 49 wt.% and 4 wt.% in electrodic powder, respectively.

  16. Electronically conductive polymer binder for lithium-ion battery electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Gao; Xun, Shidi; Battaglia, Vincent S.; Zheng, Honghe; Wu, Mingyan

    2015-07-07

    A family of carboxylic acid groups containing fluorene/fluorenon copolymers is disclosed as binders of silicon particles in the fabrication of negative electrodes for use with lithium ion batteries. Triethyleneoxide side chains provide improved adhesion to materials such as, graphite, silicon, silicon alloy, tin, tin alloy. These binders enable the use of silicon as an electrode material as they significantly improve the cycle-ability of silicon by preventing electrode degradation over time. In particular, these polymers, which become conductive on first charge, bind to the silicon particles of the electrode, are flexible so as to better accommodate the expansion and contraction of the electrode during charge/discharge, and being conductive promote the flow battery current.

  17. Electronically conductive polymer binder for lithium-ion battery electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Gao; Battaglia, Vincent S.; Park, Sang -Jae

    2015-10-06

    A family of carboxylic acid groups containing fluorene/fluorenon copolymers is disclosed as binders of silicon particles in the fabrication of negative electrodes for use with lithium ion batteries. Triethyleneoxide side chains provide improved adhesion to materials such as, graphite, silicon, silicon alloy, tin, tin alloy. These binders enable the use of silicon as an electrode material as they significantly improve the cycle-ability of silicon by preventing electrode degradation over time. In particular, these polymers, which become conductive on first charge, bind to the silicon particles of the electrode, are flexible so as to better accommodate the expansion and contraction of the electrode during charge/discharge, and being conductive promote the flow battery current.

  18. Surface Modification for Metal Hydride Electrode of Ni/MH Battery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Kai; WU Feng; LI Li; CHEN Shi

    2005-01-01

    A novel method was applied to the surface modification of the metal hydride (MH) electrode of the Ni/MH battery. The electrode was plated with a thin silver film by using plasma technology and its effect on the performance of the Ni/MH battery was examined. Charge-discharge test proved that the battery with modified electrode exhibits a better high-rate dischargeability and chargeability than the battery with untreated electrode. The battery with modified electrode exhibits satisfactory durability. After 500 cycles, the capacities of the batteries with modified and unmodified electrode are 90.1% and 82.3% of their original capacities. The inner pressure test shows that the battery with modified electrode displays a much lower inner gas pressure on charging. The experimental results demonstrate that this method is an effective way for the surface modification of the electrode of the Ni/MH battery.

  19. Reliable reference electrodes for lithium-ion batteries

    KAUST Repository

    La Mantia, F.

    2013-06-01

    Despite the high attention drawn to the lithium-ion batteries by the scientific and industrial community, most of the electrochemical characterization is carried out using poor reference electrodes or even no reference electrode. In this case, the performances of the active material are inaccurate, especially at high current densities. In this work we show the error committed in neglecting the polarizability of lithium counter electrodes, and we propose two reference electrodes to use in organic electrolytes based on lithium salts, namely Li4Ti5O12 and LiFePO 4. In particular, it was observed that, the polarizability of the metallic lithium counter electrode has a relevant stochastic component, which renders measurements at high current densities (above 1 mA·cm - 2) in two electrode cells non reproducible.

  20. High performance positive electrode for a lead-acid battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Wen-Hong (Inventor); Bullock, Norma K. (Inventor); Petersen, Ralph A. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    An electrode suitable for use as a lead-acid battery plate is formed of a paste composition which enhances the performance of the plate. The paste composition includes a basic lead sulfate, a persulfate and water. The paste may also include lead oxide and fibers. An electrode according to the invention is characterized by good strength in combination with high power density, porosity and surface area.

  1. Lithium metal oxide electrodes for lithium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thackeray, Michael M.; Kim, Jeom-Soo; Johnson, Christopher S.

    2008-01-01

    An uncycled electrode for a non-aqueous lithium electrochemical cell including a lithium metal oxide having the formula Li.sub.(2+2x)/(2+x)M'.sub.2x/(2+x)M.sub.(2-2x)/(2+x)O.sub.2-.delta., in which 0.ltoreq.xbatteries containing the electrodes.

  2. Hierarchically structured nanocarbon electrodes for flexible solid lithium batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Wei, Di

    2013-09-01

    The ever increasing demand for storage of electrical energy in portable electronic devices and electric vehicles is driving technological improvements in rechargeable batteries. Lithium (Li) batteries have many advantages over other rechargeable battery technologies, including high specific energy and energy density, operation over a wide range of temperatures (-40 to 70. °C) and a low self-discharge rate, which translates into a long shelf-life (~10 years) [1]. However, upon release of the first generation of rechargeable Li batteries, explosions related to the shorting of the circuit through Li dendrites bridging the anode and cathode were observed. As a result, Li metal batteries today are generally relegated to non-rechargeable primary battery applications, because the dendritic growth of Li is associated with the charging and discharging process. However, there still remain significant advantages in realizing rechargeable secondary batteries based on Li metal anodes because they possess superior electrical conductivity, higher specific energy and lower heat generation due to lower internal resistance. One of the most practical solutions is to use a solid polymer electrolyte to act as a physical barrier against dendrite growth. This may enable the use of Li metal once again in rechargeable secondary batteries [2]. Here we report a flexible and solid Li battery using a polymer electrolyte with a hierarchical and highly porous nanocarbon electrode comprising aligned multiwalled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and carbon nanohorns (CNHs). Electrodes with high specific surface area are realized through the combination of CNHs with CNTs and provide a significant performance enhancement to the solid Li battery performance. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Organometallic-inorganic hybrid electrodes for lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Qian; Lemmon, John P.; Choi, Daiwon; Cosimbescu, Lelia

    2016-09-13

    Disclosed are embodiments of active materials for organometallic and organometallic-inorganic hybrid electrodes and particularly active materials for organometallic and organometallic-inorganic hybrid cathodes for lithium-ion batteries. In certain embodiments the organometallic material comprises a ferrocene polymer.

  4. Microwave synthesis of electrode materials for lithium batteries

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M Harish Bhat; B P Chakravarthy; P A Ramakrishnan; A Levasseur; K J RAO

    2000-12-01

    A novel microwave method is described for the preparation of electrode materials required for lithium batteries. The method is simple, fast and carried out in most cases with the same starting material as in conventional methods. Good crystallinity has been noted and lower temperatures of reaction has been inferred in cases where low temperature products have been identified.

  5. A method for connecting electrodes in a storage battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakurai, T.; Nakadzima, T.; Toda, K.

    1983-07-14

    Groups of electrodes are placed in the body of a storage battery (AB) divided by partitions. The storage cells are connected using connecting elements passed through openings in the partitions. The elements to be connected are heated with pressure which melts them.

  6. Lithium sulfide compositions for battery electrolyte and battery electrode coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Chengdu; Liu, Zengcai; Fu, Wunjun; Lin, Zhan; Dudney, Nancy J; Howe, Jane Y; Rondinone, Adam J

    2013-12-03

    Methods of forming lithium-containing electrolytes are provided using wet chemical synthesis. In some examples, the lithium containing electroytes are composed of .beta.-Li.sub.3PS.sub.4 or Li.sub.4P.sub.2S.sub.7. The solid electrolyte may be a core shell material. In one embodiment, the core shell material includes a core of lithium sulfide (Li.sub.2S), a first shell of .beta.-Li.sub.3PS.sub.4 or Li.sub.4P.sub.2S.sub.7, and a second shell including one or .beta.-Li.sub.3PS.sub.4 or Li.sub.4P.sub.2S.sub.7 and carbon. The lithium containing electrolytes may be incorporated into wet cell batteries or solid state batteries.

  7. High voltage and high specific capacity dual intercalating electrode Li-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, William C. (Inventor); Blanco, Mario (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention provides high capacity and high voltage Li-ion batteries that have a carbonaceous cathode and a nonaqueous electrolyte solution comprising LiF salt and an anion receptor that binds the fluoride ion. The batteries can comprise dual intercalating electrode Li ion batteries. Methods of the present invention use a cathode and electrode pair, wherein each of the electrodes reversibly intercalate ions provided by a LiF salt to make a high voltage and high specific capacity dual intercalating electrode Li-ion battery. The present methods and systems provide high-capacity batteries particularly useful in powering devices where minimizing battery mass is important.

  8. Toward Uniformly Dispersed Battery Electrode Composite Materials: Characteristics and Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Yo Han; Huie, Matthew M; Choi, Dalsu; Chang, Mincheol; Marschilok, Amy C; Takeuchi, Kenneth J; Takeuchi, Esther S; Reichmanis, Elsa

    2016-02-10

    Battery electrodes are complex mesoscale systems comprised of electroactive components, conductive additives, and binders. In this report, methods for processing electrodes with dispersion of the components are described. To investigate the degree of material dispersion, a spin-coating technique was adopted to provide a thin, uniform layer that enabled observation of the morphology. Distinct differences in the distribution profile of the electrode components arising from individual materials physical affinities were readily identified. Hansen solubility parameter (HSP) analysis revealed pertinent surface interactions associated with materials dispersivity. Further studies demonstrated that HSPs can provide an effective strategy to identify surface modification approaches for improved dispersions of battery electrode materials. Specifically, introduction of surfactantlike functionality such as oleic acid (OA) capping and P3HT-conjugated polymer wrapping on the surface of nanomaterials significantly enhanced material dispersity over the composite electrode. The approach to the surface treatment on the basis of HSP study can facilitate design of composite electrodes with uniformly dispersed morphology and may contribute to enhancing their electrical and electrochemical behaviors. The conductivity of the composites and their electrochemical performance was also characterized. The study illustrates the importance of considering electronic conductivity, electron transfer, and ion transport in the design of environments incorporating active nanomaterials. PMID:26765041

  9. Rechargeable aluminum batteries with conducting polymers as positive electrodes.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudak, Nicholas S.

    2013-12-01

    This report is a summary of research results from an Early Career LDRD project con-ducted from January 2012 to December 2013 at Sandia National Laboratories. Demonstrated here is the use of conducting polymers as active materials in the posi-tive electrodes of rechargeable aluminum-based batteries operating at room tempera-ture. The battery chemistry is based on chloroaluminate ionic liquid electrolytes, which allow reversible stripping and plating of aluminum metal at the negative elec-trode. Characterization of electrochemically synthesized polypyrrole films revealed doping of the polymers with chloroaluminate anions, which is a quasi-reversible reac-tion that facilitates battery cycling. Stable galvanostatic cycling of polypyrrole and polythiophene cells was demonstrated, with capacities at near-theoretical levels (30-100 mAh g-1) and coulombic efficiencies approaching 100%. The energy density of a sealed sandwich-type cell with polythiophene at the positive electrode was estimated as 44 Wh kg-1, which is competitive with state-of-the-art battery chemistries for grid-scale energy storage.

  10. Characterization of gas diffusion electrodes for metal-air batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danner, Timo; Eswara, Santhana; Schulz, Volker P.; Latz, Arnulf

    2016-08-01

    Gas diffusion electrodes are commonly used in high energy density metal-air batteries for the supply of oxygen. Hydrophobic binder materials ensure the coexistence of gas and liquid phase in the pore network. The phase distribution has a strong influence on transport processes and electrochemical reactions. In this article we present 2D and 3D Rothman-Keller type multiphase Lattice-Boltzmann models which take into account the heterogeneous wetting behavior of gas diffusion electrodes. The simulations are performed on FIB-SEM 3D reconstructions of an Ag model electrode for predefined saturation of the pore space with the liquid phase. The resulting pressure-saturation characteristics and transport correlations are important input parameters for modeling approaches on the continuum scale and allow for an efficient development of improved gas diffusion electrodes.

  11. High-performance battery electrodes via magnetic templating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, J. S.; Erb, R. M.; Li, L.; Gurijala, A.; Chiang, Y.-M.

    2016-08-01

    In lithium-ion batteries, the critical need for high-energy-density, low-cost storage for applications ranging from wearable computing to megawatt-scale stationary storage has created an unmet need for facile methods to produce high-density, low-tortuosity, kinetically accessible storage electrodes. Here we show that magnetic control of sacrificial features enables the creation of directional pore arrays in lithium-ion electrodes. The directional pores result in faster charge transport kinetics and enable electrodes with more than threefold higher area capacity (for example, >12 mAh cm‑2 versus <4 mAh cm‑2 in conventional electrodes) at practical charge–discharge rates. We demonstrate these capabilities in laboratory cells under various test conditions, including an electric vehicle model drive cycle.

  12. Electrochemical Impedance of a Battery Electrode with Anisotropic Active Particles

    CERN Document Server

    Song, J

    2013-01-01

    Electrochemical impedance spectra for battery electrodes are usually interpreted using models that assume isotropic active particles, having uniform current density and symmetric diffusivities. While this can be reasonable for amorphous or polycrystalline materials with randomly oriented grains, modern electrode materials increasingly consist of highly anisotropic, single-crystalline, nanoparticles, with different impedance characteristics. In this paper, analytical expressions are derived for the impedance of anisotropic particles with tensorial diffusivities and orientation-dependent surface reaction rates and capacitances. The resulting impedance spectrum contains clear signatures of the anisotropic material properties and aspect ratio, as well as statistical variations in any of these parameters.

  13. A device for forming storage battery electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasuda, K.; Inaba, Y.; Kitamura, E.; Oda, S.; Ota, K.

    1983-07-20

    The compound, which basically contains CdO, is continuously applied to a base strip which has a porous structure. The strip is passed along the surface of a roller, on the surface of which cylindrical electricity conducting rods are installed in a direction transverse to the length of the strip. The rods have axles parallel to the roller axis. The diameter of the rods is one tenth to one twentieth of the diameter of the roller. The length of the rods is greater than the width of the strip. The electrodes are formed at a current with a density of approximately 170 milliamperes per square centimeter.

  14. Effect of Calendering on Electrode Wettability in Lithium Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yangping eSheng

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Controlling the wettability between the porous electrode and the electrolyte in lithium ion batteries can improve both the manufacturing process and the electrochemical performance of the cell. The wetting rate, which is the electrolyte transport rate in the porous electrode, can be quantified using the wetting balance. The effect of the calendering process on the wettability of anode electrodes was investigated. A graphite anode film with an as-coated thickness of 59 μm was used as baseline electrode film and was calendered to produce films with thickness ranging from 55 to 41 µm. Results show that wettability is improved by light calendering from an initial thickness of 59 μm to a calendered thickness of 53 μm where the wetting rate increased from 0.375 to 0.589 mm/s0.5. Further calendering below 53 µm resulted in a decrease in wetting rates to a minimum observed value of 0.206 mm/s0.5 at a calendered thickness of 41 μm. Under the same electrolyte, wettability of the electrode is controlled to a great extent by the pore structure in the electrode film which includes parameters such as porosity, pore size distribution, pore geometry and topology. Relations between the wetting behavior and the pore structure as characterized by mercury intrusion and electron microscopy exist and can be used to manipulate the wetting behavior of electrodes.

  15. Investigation of electrode materials for alkaline batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcand, G. M.

    1971-01-01

    A number of amalgam electrode systems were investigated for possible use as high rate anodes and cathodes. The systems examined include: lithium, sodium, and potassium in Group 1, magnesium, calcium, and barium in Group 2, aluminum in Group 3, lead in Group 4, copper in Group 1b, and zinc and cadmium in Group 2b. The K(Hg) and Na(Hg) anodes in 10 VF and 15 VF (an unambiguous expression of concentration that indicates the number of formula weights of solute dissolved in a liter of solution) hydroxide solutions have proven satisfactory; some of these have produced current densities of more than 8 A/sq cm. None of the amalgam cathodes have approached this performance although the TI(Hg) has delivered 1 A/sq cm. Se(Hg) and Te(Hg) cathodes have given very stable discharges. Zn(Hg) and Cd(Hg) electrodes did not show good high rate characteristics, 200 to 300 mA/sq cm being about the maximum current densities obtainable. Both anodes are charged through a two-step process in which M(Hg) is first formed electrochemically and subsequently reduces Zn(II or Cd(II) to form the corresponding amalgam. The second step is extremely rapid for zinc and very slow for cadmium.

  16. Nanostructured Ion Storage Electrode Materials for Lithium Batteries and Supercapacitors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S.R.S.Prabaharan

    2007-01-01

    1 Results Performance of lithium-ion batteries, electrochemical capacitors, and other electric-energy storage devices is not only determined simply by macroscopic chemical composition of their electrode, but also strongly affected by shape and size of the active materials. Nanostructured materials are distinguished from conventional polycrystalline materials by the nanometer size of the structural units that compose them, and they often exhibit properties that are drastically different from the conventi...

  17. Internally folded expanded metal electrode for battery construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korinek, Paul D. (Inventor); Morgan, Maurice C. (Inventor); Pierce, Doug C. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A battery system is disclosed which includes folded grids of expanded metal inserted through non-conductive substrates and pasted with electrochemically active materials. In the most preferred embodiment, a frame is provided with a plastic insert, and slots are provided in the latter to receive the expanded metal grid. After suitable coinage of the grid and insertion through the plastic film, the grid is sealed and pasted on opposite sides with positive and negative active material. A battery is assembled using one or a plurality of the resulting electrode elements, with separators, to produce a high-power, lead-acid battery. The folded grid provides many of the design benefits of standard bipolar construction.

  18. Understanding electrode materials of rechargeable lithium batteries via DFT calculations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tianran Zhang; Daixin Li; Zhanliang Tao; Jun Chenn

    2013-01-01

    Rechargeable lithium batteries have achieved a rapid advancement and commercialization in the past decade owing to their high capacity and high power density. Different functional materials have been put forward progressively, and each possesses distinguishing structural features and electrochemical properties. In virtue of density functional theory (DFT) calculations, we can start from a specific structure to get a deep comprehension and accurate prediction of material properties and reaction mechanisms. In this paper, we review the main progresses obtained by DFT calculations in the electrode materials of rechargeable lithium batteries, aiming at a better understanding of the common electrode materials and gaining insights into the battery performance. The applications of DFT calculations involve in the following points of crystal structure modeling and stability investigations of delithiated and lithiated phases, average lithium intercalation voltage, prediction of charge distributions and band structures, and kinetic studies of lithium ion diffusion processes, which can provide atomic understanding of the capacity, reaction mechanism, rate capacity, and cycling ability. The results obtained from DFT are valuable to reveal the relationship between the structure and the properties, promoting the design of new electrode materials.

  19. High-performance battery electrodes via magnetic templating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, J. S.; Erb, R. M.; Li, L.; Gurijala, A.; Chiang, Y.-M.

    2016-08-01

    In lithium-ion batteries, the critical need for high-energy-density, low-cost storage for applications ranging from wearable computing to megawatt-scale stationary storage has created an unmet need for facile methods to produce high-density, low-tortuosity, kinetically accessible storage electrodes. Here we show that magnetic control of sacrificial features enables the creation of directional pore arrays in lithium-ion electrodes. The directional pores result in faster charge transport kinetics and enable electrodes with more than threefold higher area capacity (for example, >12 mAh cm-2 versus charge-discharge rates. We demonstrate these capabilities in laboratory cells under various test conditions, including an electric vehicle model drive cycle.

  20. Hierarchically Porous Graphene as a Lithium-Air Battery Electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, Jie; Mei, Donghai; Li, Xiaolin; Xu, Wu; Wang, Deyu; Graff, Gordon L.; Bennett, Wendy D.; Nie, Zimin; Saraf, Laxmikant V.; Aksay, Ilhan A.; Liu, Jun; Zhang, Jiguang

    2011-11-09

    Functionalized graphene sheets (FGS) are successfully utilized as a novel air electrode for Li-O2 batteries. An extremely high capacity of 15,000 mAh/g was achieved by using the as-prepared graphene air electrode at a current density of 0.1 mA/cm2 in the pure oxygen environment. Although there is no pore in the two-dimensional FGS the as-prepared graphene air electrode consists of randomly arranged graphene nano-sheets which automatically form tunnels with different sizes. The large tunnels work as highways for the oxygen to quickly flow into the air electrode while the small pore-like tunnels can be considered as the numerous exits where the discharge products are accumulated. Combined with an appropriate electrolyte, the ideal discharge product Li2O2 is obtained without any carbonates byproducts in this system. Even when operated in ambient environment with a relative humidity of ~20% the specific capacity delivered from the pouch type cell achieves more than 5000 mAh/g making the graphene-based air electrode extremely attractive in the energy storage applications.

  1. Advanced Electrodes for High Power Li-ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian M. Julien

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available While little success has been obtained over the past few years in attempts to increase the capacity of Li-ion batteries, significant improvement in the power density has been achieved, opening the route to new applications, from hybrid electric vehicles to high-power electronics and regulation of the intermittency problem of electric energy supply on smart grids. This success has been achieved not only by decreasing the size of the active particles of the electrodes to few tens of nanometers, but also by surface modification and the synthesis of new multi-composite particles. It is the aim of this work to review the different approaches that have been successful to obtain Li-ion batteries with improved high-rate performance and to discuss how these results prefigure further improvement in the near future.

  2. Development of a benchmarking model for lithium battery electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergholz, Timm; Korte, Carsten; Stolten, Detlef

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents a benchmarking model to enable systematic selection of anode and cathode materials for lithium batteries in stationary applications, hybrid and battery electric vehicles. The model incorporates parameters for energy density, power density, safety, lifetime, costs and raw materials. Combinations of carbon anodes, Li4Ti5O12 or TiO2 with LiFePO4 cathodes comprise interesting combinations for application in hybrid power trains. Higher cost and raw material prioritization of stationary applications hinders the breakthrough of Li4Ti5O12, while a combination of TiO2 and LiFePO4 is suggested. The favored combinations resemble state-of-the-art materials, whereas novel cell chemistries must be optimized for cells in battery electric vehicles. In contrast to actual research efforts, sulfur as a cathode material is excluded due to its low volumetric energy density and its known lifetime and safety issues. Lithium as anode materials is discarded due to safety issues linked to electrode melting and dendrite formation. A high capacity composite Li2MnO3·LiNi0.5Co0.5O2 and high voltage spinel LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathode with silicon as anode material promise high energy densities with sufficient lifetime and safety properties if electrochemical and thermal stabilization of the electrolyte/electrode interfaces and bulk materials is achieved. The model allows a systematic top-down orientation of research on lithium batteries.

  3. A method for connecting electrodes in a storage battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toda, K.; Karasava, S.

    1983-07-14

    Groups of electrodes are placed into a common casing for the storage battery (AB) divided by partitions. The groups are electrically connected, inserting connecting elements into openings in the partitions and melting them with compression and heating. One of the connecting elements is made in the form of a cylinder with a flat face, while the other is made in the form of a cylinder with a head which has the form of a segment turned by its convex side towards the flat face of the first cylinder in the cross section.

  4. Ionic Conduction in Lithium Ion Battery Composite Electrode Governs Cross-sectional Reaction Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orikasa, Yuki; Gogyo, Yuma; Yamashige, Hisao; Katayama, Misaki; Chen, Kezheng; Mori, Takuya; Yamamoto, Kentaro; Masese, Titus; Inada, Yasuhiro; Ohta, Toshiaki; Siroma, Zyun; Kato, Shiro; Kinoshita, Hajime; Arai, Hajime; Ogumi, Zempachi; Uchimoto, Yoshiharu

    2016-05-01

    Composite electrodes containing active materials, carbon and binder are widely used in lithium-ion batteries. Since the electrode reaction occurs preferentially in regions with lower resistance, reaction distribution can be happened within composite electrodes. We investigate the relationship between the reaction distribution with depth direction and electronic/ionic conductivity in composite electrodes with changing electrode porosities. Two dimensional X-ray absorption spectroscopy shows that the reaction distribution is happened in lower porosity electrodes. Our developed 6-probe method can measure electronic/ionic conductivity in composite electrodes. The ionic conductivity is decreased for lower porosity electrodes, which governs the reaction distribution of composite electrodes and their performances.

  5. Investigation of Ice-Templated Porous Electrodes for Application in Organic Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolze, Christian; Janoschka, Tobias; Flauder, Stefan; Müller, Frank A; Hager, Martin D; Schubert, Ulrich S

    2016-09-14

    Application and investigation of porous composite electrodes for organic batteries fabricated by an ice-templating method are reported for the first time. The possibility to produce polymer composite electrodes with highly aligned, parallel pores is demonstrated and electrochemical investigations are presented to examine their suitability for application in organic batteries. The performance of such ice-templated porous electrodes is experimentally compared with planar electrodes of similar composition against zinc and lithium counter electrodes, respectively. Fundamental properties limiting the performance of ice-templated porous electrodes are discussed and further means to overcome those limitations are proposed. PMID:27570872

  6. Degradation analysis of nickel/metal hydride battery and its electrodes materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李丽; 吴锋; 杨凯

    2004-01-01

    The results indicate that during charge and discharge, the expansion of Ni(OH)2 crystal, pulverization of MH alloy particles and falling off from current collector are identified as the main causes for deterioration of Ni/MH batteries. Meanwhile, the contact resistance of inner battery increases due to the deterioration of the negative and positive electrode, and these changes lead to increasing battery body temperature and damaging its electrode and separator. The fibre's expansion and hole's diminishment of battery's separator after degradation will affect the electrochemical performance and cycle life of Ni/MH batteries.

  7. Polyphase alloys as rechargeable electrodes in advanced battery systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huggins, Robert A.

    1987-01-01

    The rechargeability of electrochemical cells is often limited by negative electrode problems. These may include loss of capacity, increased impedance, macroscopic shape change, dendrite growth, or a tendency for filamentary or whisker growth. In principle, these problems can be reduced or eliminated by the use of alloys that undergo either displacement or insertion reactions at reactant species activities less than unity, rather than pure elements. The fundamental reasons for some of these problems with elemental electrodes, as well as the basic principles involved in the different behavior of alloys, are briefly discussed. More information is now available concerning the thermodynamic and kinetic properties of a number of alloys of potential interest for use as electrodes in elevated temperature lithium battery systems. Recent results have extended these results down to ambient temperatures, indicating that some such materials may be of interest for use with new low temperature molten salt electrolytes, or with organic solvent electrolytes. The all solid mixed conductor matrix concept is also reviewed.

  8. Synthesis of Graphene from a Used Battery Electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, M. K. Punith; Srivastava, Chandan

    2016-01-01

    Graphene was produced by electrochemical exfoliation of a used battery electrode. Aqueous solutions of cationic (cetyltrimethylammonium bromide), anionic (sodium dodecyl sulphate), and nonionic (poly vinyl pyrrolidone) surfactants, along with NaCl and combinations of these surfactants with NaCl, were used as the electrolyte. The following observations were made: (I) up to several micrometer sized graphene sheets were produced, (II) the addition of NaCl into the electrolytes significantly enhanced the yield of the exfoliated graphene, (III) the type of surfactant affected the defect density of the exfoliated product, and (IV) electrochemical impedance spectroscopy provided insight into the reason for the changes in the defect density ratio between the graphene samples.

  9. Electrochromic & magnetic properties of electrode materials for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng-Fei, Guo; Kun, Pan; Xue-Jin, Wang

    2016-01-01

    Progress in electrochromic lithium ion batteries (LIBs) is reviewed, highlighting advances and possible research directions. Methods for using the LIB electrode materials’ magnetic properties are also described, using several examples. Li4Ti5O12 (LTO) film is discussed as an electrochromic material and insertion compound. The opto-electrical properties of the LTO film have been characterized by electrical measurements and UV-Vis spectra. A prototype bi-functional electrochromic LIB, incorporating LTO as both electrochromic layer and anode, has also been characterized by charge- discharge measurements and UV-Vis transmittance. The results show that the bi-functional electrochromic LIB prototype works well. Magnetic measurement has proven to be a powerful tool to evaluate the quality of electrode materials. We introduce briefly the magnetism of solids in general, and then discuss the magnetic characteristics of layered oxides, spinel oxides, olivine phosphate LiFePO4, and Nasicon-type Li3Fe2(PO4)3. We also discuss what kind of impurities can be detected, which will guide us to fabricate high quality films and high performance devices. Project supported by the National High Technology Research and Development Program of China (Grant No. 2015AA034201) and the Chinese Universities Scientific Fund (Grant No. 2015LX002).

  10. Prismatic sealed nickel-cadmium batteries utilizing fiber structured electrodes. II - Applications as a maintenance free aircraft battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderman, Menahem; Benczur-Urmossy, Gabor; Haschka, Friedrich

    Test data on prismatic sealed Ni-Cd batteries utilizing fiber structured electrodes (sealed FNC) is discussed. It is shown that, under a voltage limited charging scheme, the charge acceptance of the sealed FNC battery is far superior to that of the standard vented aircraft Ni-Cd batteries. This results in the sealed FNC battery maintaining its capacity over several thousand cycles without any need for electrical conditioning or water topping. APU start data demonstrate superior power capabilities over existing technologies. Performance at low temperature is presented. Abuse test results reveal a safe fail mechanism even under severe electrical abuse.

  11. Improved Positive Electrode Materials for Lithium-ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conry, Thomas Edward

    The introduction of the first commercially produced Li-ion battery by Sony in 1990 sparked a period of unprecedented growth in the consumer electronics industry. Now, with increasing efforts to move away from fossil-fuel-derived energy sources, a substantial amount of current research is focused on the development of an electrified transportation fleet. Unfortunately, existent battery technologies are unable to provide the necessary performance for electric vehicles (EV's) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV's) vehicles at a competitive cost. The cost and performance metrics of current Li-ion batteries are mainly determined by the positive electrode materials. The work here is concerned with understanding the structural and electrochemical consequences of cost-lowering mechanisms in two separate classes of Li-ion cathode materials; the LiMO2 (M = Ni, Mn, Co) layered oxides and the LiMPO4 olivine materials; with the goal of improving performance. Al-substitution for Co in LiNizMnzCo1-2zO 2 ("NMC") materials not only decreases the costly Co-content, but also improves the safety aspects and, notably, enhances the cycling stability of the layered oxide electrodes. The structural and electrochemical effects of Al-substitution are investigated here in a model NMC compound, LiNi0.45 Mn0.45Co0.1-yAlyO2. In addition to electrochemical measurements, various synchrotron-based characterization methods are utilized, including high-resolution X-ray diffraction (XRD), in situ X-ray diffraction, and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). Al-substitution causes a slight distortion of the as-synthesized hexagonal layered oxide lattice, lowering the inherent octahedral strain within the transition metal layer. The presence of Al also is observed to limit the structural variation of the NMC materials upon Li-deintercalation, as well as extended cycling of the electrodes. Various olivine materials, LiMPO4 ( M=Fe,Co) are produced using a custom-built spray pyrolysis system. Spray

  12. Fabrication of a three-electrode battery using hydrogen-storage materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Chi-Woo; Seo, Jung-Yong; Moon, Hyung-Seok; Park, Hyun-Young; Nam, Na-Yun; Cho, Sung Min; Yoo, Pil J.; Chung, Chan-Hwa

    2015-04-01

    In this study, an energy storage device using a three-electrode battery is fabricated. The charging process takes place during electrolysis of the alkaline electrolyte where hydrogen is stored at the palladium bifunctional electrode. Upon discharging, power is generated by operating the alkaline fuel cell using hydrogen which is accumulated in the palladium hydride bifunctional electrode during the charging process. The bifunctional palladium electrode is prepared by electrodeposition using a hydrogen bubble template followed by a galvanic displacement reaction of platinum in order to functionalize the electrode to work not only as a hydrogen storage material but also as an anode in a fuel cell. This bifunctional electrode has a sufficiently high surface area and the platinum catalyst populates at the surface of electrode to operate the fuel cell. The charging and discharging performance of the three-electrode battery are characterized. In addition, the cycle stability is investigated.

  13. Effect of surface modification of metal hydride electrode on performance of MH/Ni batteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Kai; WU Feng; CHEN Shi; ZHANG Cun-zhong

    2007-01-01

    A novel method was applied to the surface modification of the metal hydride(MH) electrode of MH/Ni batteries. Both sides of the electrode were plated with a thin silver film about 0.1μm thick using vacuum evaporation plating technology, and the effect of the electrode on the performance of MH/Ni batteries was examined. It is found that the surface modification can enhance the electrode conductivity and decrease the battery ohimic resistance. After surface modification, the discharge capacity at 5C (7.5A) is increased by 212 mA·h and the discharge voltage is increased by 0.11 V, the resistance of the batteries is also decreased by 32%. The batteries with modified electrode exhibit satisfactory durability. The remaining capacity of the modified batteries is 89% of the initial capacity even after 500 cycles. The inner pressure of the batteries during overcharging is lowered and the charging efficiency of the batteries is improved.

  14. Recent research progress on iron- and manganese-based positive electrode materials for rechargeable sodium batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Large-scale high-energy batteries with electrode materials made from the Earth-abundant elements are needed to achieve sustainable energy development. On the basis of material abundance, rechargeable sodium batteries with iron- and manganese-based positive electrode materials are the ideal candidates for large-scale batteries. In this review, iron- and manganese-based electrode materials, oxides, phosphates, fluorides, etc, as positive electrodes for rechargeable sodium batteries are reviewed. Iron and manganese compounds with sodium ions provide high structural flexibility. Two layered polymorphs, O3- and P2-type layered structures, show different electrode performance in Na cells related to the different phase transition and sodium migration processes on sodium extraction/insertion. Similar to layered oxides, iron/manganese phosphates and pyrophosphates also provide the different framework structures, which are used as sodium insertion host materials. Electrode performance and reaction mechanisms of the iron- and manganese-based electrode materials in Na cells are described and the similarities and differences with lithium counterparts are also discussed. Together with these results, the possibility of the high-energy battery system with electrode materials made from only Earth-abundant elements is reviewed. (review)

  15. Thin film lithium-based batteries and electrochromic devices fabricated with nanocomposite electrode materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillaspie, Dane T; Lee, Se-Hee; Tracy, C. Edwin; Pitts, John Roland

    2014-02-04

    Thin-film lithium-based batteries and electrochromic devices (10) are fabricated with positive electrodes (12) comprising a nanocomposite material composed of lithiated metal oxide nanoparticles (40) dispersed in a matrix composed of lithium tungsten oxide.

  16. Carbon nanotube/Co3O4 composite for air electrode of lithium-air battery

    OpenAIRE

    Yoon, Taek Han; Park, Yong Joon

    2012-01-01

    A carbon nanotube [CNT]/Co3O4 composite is introduced as a catalyst for the air electrode of lithium-air [Li/air] batteries. Co3O4 nanoparticles are successfully attached to the sidewall of the CNT by a hydrothermal method. A high discharge capacity and a low overvoltage indicate that the CNT/Co3O4 composite is a very promising catalyst for the air electrode of Li/air batteries.

  17. Communications: Elementary oxygen electrode reactions in the aprotic Li-air battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummelshøj, J. S.; Blomqvist, J.; Datta, S.; Vegge, T.; Rossmeisl, J.; Thygesen, K. S.; Luntz, A. C.; Jacobsen, K. W.; Nørskov, J. K.

    2010-02-01

    We discuss the electrochemical reactions at the oxygen electrode of an aprotic Li-air battery. Using density functional theory to estimate the free energy of intermediates during the discharge and charge of the battery, we introduce a reaction free energy diagram and identify possible origins of the overpotential for both processes. We also address the question of electron conductivity through the Li2O2 electrode and show that in the presence of Li vacancies Li2O2 becomes a conductor.

  18. Benefits of Nanostructuring Electrodes for High-Energy and High-Power Lithium Batteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Joachim; Maier

    2007-01-01

    1 Results One of the greatest challenges for our society is providing powerful electrochemical energy storage devices with both high energy and high power densities. Rechargeable lithium-based batteries are amongst the most promising candidates in terms of energy density,the achievement of high power density is hindered by kinetic problems of the electrode materials.This contribution that emphasizes the power of nanostructuring for electrodes in lithium-based batteries,deals with several nanostructured ...

  19. Communications: Elementary oxygen electrode reactions in the aprotic Li-air battery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hummelshøj, Jens Strabo; Blomquist, Jakob; Datta, Soumendu;

    2010-01-01

    We discuss the electrochemical reactions at the oxygen electrode of an aprotic Li-air battery. Using density functional theory to estimate the free energy of intermediates during the discharge and charge of the battery, we introduce a reaction free energy diagram and identify possible origins...

  20. Particulate inverse opal carbon electrodes for lithium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Da-Young; Kim, Sang-Ok; Chae, Yu Jin; Lee, Joong Kee; Moon, Jun Hyuk

    2013-01-29

    Inverse opal carbon materials were used as anodes for lithium ion batteries. We applied particulate inverse opal structures and their dispersion in the formation of anode electrodes via solution casting. We prepared aminophenyl-grafted inverse opal carbons (a-IOC), inverse opal carbons with mesopores (mIOC), and bare inverse opal carbons (IOC) and investigated the electrochemical behavior of these samples as anode materials. Surface modification by aminophenyl groups was confirmed by XPS measurements. TEM images showed mesopores, and the specific area of mIOC was compared with that of IOC using BET analysis. A half-cell test was performed to compare a-IOC with IOC and mIOC with IOC. In the case of the a-IOC structure, the cell test revealed no improvement in the reversible specific capacity or the cycle performance. The mIOC cell showed a reversible specific capacity of 432 mAh/g, and the capacity was maintained at 88%-approximately 380 mAh/g-over 20 cycles.

  1. Performance characterization of sintered iron electrodes in nickel/iron alkaline batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Periasamy, P. [Central Electrochemical Research Inst., Karaikudi (India); Ramesh Babu, B. [Central Electrochemical Research Inst., Karaikudi (India); Venkatakrishna Iyer, S. [Central Electrochemical Research Inst., Karaikudi (India)

    1996-09-01

    A nickel/iron storage battery with a porous, sintered, iron negative electrode and a nickel positive electrode is a high power system by virtue of its low internal resistance. A dry-powder sintering procedure is used to fabricate negative and positive electrodes. Negative iron electrodes are activated with various salt solutions such as CdSO{sub 4}, BaCl{sub 2}, HgCl{sub 2} and sulfur. Positive electrodes are impregnated with nickel hydroxide by a chemical method. Tests are performed in 10 Ah capacity nickel/iron cells and two types of activated iron electrodes are used. The present work deals with electrode fabrication, charge/discharge studies, self-discharge, temperature performance and cycle life. Finally, the best iron electrodes are coupled with nickel electrodes to obtain a 1.37 V, 75 Ah nickel/iron cell. The performance of this cell is discussed. (orig.)

  2. Si composite electrode with Li metal doping for advanced lithium-ion battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Gao; Xun, Shidi; Battaglia, Vincent

    2015-12-15

    A silicon electrode is described, formed by combining silicon powder, a conductive binder, and SLMP.TM. powder from FMC Corporation to make a hybrid electrode system, useful in lithium-ion batteries. In one embodiment the binder is a conductive polymer such as described in PCT Published Application WO 2010/135248 A1.

  3. Battery electrodes: Properties and performance. (Latest citations from the EI Compendex*plus database). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning battery electrodes relative to research and development. Topics discuss electrode technology, chemical solutions, materials improvement, reactions, and rechargeability and reliability. Electrochemical and thermodynamic characteristics, materials testing and evaluation, and corrosion protection are also included. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  4. R&D on lithium batteries in the USA: high-energy electrode materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Boone B.; Smyrl, William H.; Xu, Jun John

    Recent trends in R&D on lithium battery technology in the USA continue to focus on high-performance batteries, polymer electrolyte systems and the development and production of batteries for specialty markets. Research on sol-gel derived amorphous vanadium and manganese oxides as high capacity, high-energy electrode materials has shown these morphologies are capable of reversibly intercalating very large amounts of lithium and they are attractive cathode candidates. Methods to improve the kinetics of these positive electrodes are showing promise.

  5. A nanostructured bifunctional Pd/C gas-diffusion electrode for metal-air batteries

    OpenAIRE

    McKerracher, R.D.; Alegre, C.; Baglio, V.; Aricò, A.S.; Ponce de León, C.; Mornaghini, F.; Rodlert, M.; Walsh, F. C.

    2015-01-01

    Designing a bifunctional air electrode which catalyses both the oxygen reduction and oxygen evolution reactions is an essential part of progress towards fully rechargeable metal-air batteries, such as the iron-air battery which is environmentally friendly, low cost, and does not suffer risk of thermal runaway like lithium-ion batteries. This paper reports the development of a lightweight carbon-based bifunctional air electrode, catalysed by a small (0.5 mg cm?2) loading of 30 wt.% palladium o...

  6. Surface modification of battery electrodes via electroless deposition with improved performance for Na-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahiri, Abhishek; Olschewski, Mark; Gustus, René; Borisenko, Natalia; Endres, Frank

    2016-06-01

    Sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) are emerging as potential stationary energy storage devices due to the abundance and low cost of sodium. A simple and energy efficient strategy to develop electrodes for SIBs with a high charge/discharge rate is highly desirable. Here we demonstrate that by surface modification of Ge, using electroless deposition in SbCl3/ionic liquids, the stability and performance of the anode can be improved. This is due to the formation of GexSb1-x at the surface leading to better diffusion of Na, and the formation of a stable twin organic and inorganic SEI which protects the electrode. By judicious control of the surface modification, an improvement in the capacity to between 50% and 300% has been achieved at high current densities (0.83-8.4 A g(-1)) in an ionic liquid electrolyte NaFSI-[Py1,4]FSI. The results clearly demonstrate that an electroless deposition based surface modification strategy in ionic liquids offers exciting opportunities in developing superior energy storage devices. PMID:27189079

  7. Gradient porous electrode architectures for rechargeable metal-air batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudney, Nancy J.; Klett, James W.; Nanda, Jagjit; Narula, Chaitanya Kumar; Pannala, Sreekanth

    2016-03-22

    A cathode for a metal air battery includes a cathode structure having pores. The cathode structure has a metal side and an air side. The porosity decreases from the air side to the metal side. A metal air battery and a method of making a cathode for a metal air battery are also disclosed.

  8. Distribution of current in the electrodes of lead-acid batteries: a thermographic analysis approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streza, M.; Nuţ, C.; Tudoran, C.; Bunea, V.; Calborean, A.; Morari, C.

    2016-02-01

    An experimental method for the investigation of the current distribution in the electrodes of lead-acid batteries has been developed. The information is extracted by analysing the heat dissipation in the electrode during the discharge by using a high-performance IR camera. The effect of the current in the metallic grid can be de-convoluted from the total heat produced in the electrode by numerical processing of the temperature distribution over the electrode surface. By its simplicity and effectiveness, the proposed method has the potential to become an important tool in optimising electrode geometry.

  9. Consistency Research of Negative Electrode Pasting for MH/Ni High Power Battery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Zhong; Liu Dong; Cao Shengbiao; Li Jianping; Jia Chunming

    2004-01-01

    It is discovered that the consistency of negative electrode is one of the main influences on battery performance, since the main raw material in negative electrode is metal hydride powder, ingredients, particle distribution and density of the powder could influence the pasting consistency in some aspects.With the study of MH powder characteristics, through the modification of the coating die, the consistency of negative electrode is improved efficiently.

  10. Solvent-Free Manufacturing of Electrodes for Lithium-ion Batteries

    OpenAIRE

    Brandon Ludwig; Zhangfeng Zheng; Wan Shou; Yan Wang; Heng Pan

    2016-01-01

    Lithium ion battery electrodes were manufactured using a new, completely dry powder painting process. The solvents used for conventional slurry-cast electrodes have been completely removed. Thermal activation time has been greatly reduced due to the time and resource demanding solvent evaporation process needed with slurry-cast electrode manufacturing being replaced by a hot rolling process. It has been found that thermal activation time to induce mechanical bonding of the thermoplastic polym...

  11. Nanostructured Composite Electrodes for Lithium Batteries (Final Technical Report)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meilin Liu, James Gole

    2006-12-14

    The objective of this study was to explore new ways to create nanostructured electrodes for rechargeable lithium batteries. Of particular interests are unique nanostructures created by electrochemical deposition, etching and combustion chemical vapor deposition (CCVD). Three-dimensional nanoporous Cu6Sn5 alloy has been successfully prepared using an electrochemical co-deposition process. The walls of the foam structure are highly-porous and consist of numerous small grains. This represents a novel way of creating porous structures that allow not only fast transport of gas and liquid but also rapid electrochemical reactions due to high surface area. The Cu6Sn5 samples display a reversible capacity of {approx}400 mAhg-1. Furthermore, these materials exhibit superior rate capability. At a current drain of 10 mA/cm2(20C rate), the obtainable capacity was more than 50% of the capacity at 0.5 mA/cm2 (1C rate). Highly open and porous SnO2 thin films with columnar structure were obtained on Si/SiO2/Au substrates by CCVD. The thickness was readily controlled by the deposition time, varying from 1 to 5 microns. The columnar grains were covered by nanoparticles less than 20 nm. These thin film electrodes exhibited substantially high specific capacity. The reversible specific capacity of {approx}3.3 mAH/cm2 was demonstrated for up to 80 cycles at a charge/discharge rate of 0.3 mA/cm2. When discharged at 0.9 mA/cm2, the capacity was about 2.1 mAH/cm2. Tin dioxide box beams or tubes with square or rectangular cross sections were synthesized using CCVD. The cross-sectional width of the SnO2 tubules was tunable from 50 nm to sub-micrometer depending on synthesis temperature. The tubes are readily aligned in the direction perpendicular to the substrate surface to form tube arrays. Silicon wafers were electrochemically etched to produce porous silicon (PS) with honeycomb-type channels and nanoporous walls. The diameters of the channels are about 1 to 3 microns and the depth of the

  12. Study on microstructures of electrodes in lithium-ion batteries using variational multi-scale enrichment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sangmin; Sastry, Ann Marie; Park, Jonghyun

    2016-05-01

    Performance and degradation of a Li-ion battery reflect the transport and kinetics of related species within the battery's electrode microstructures. The variational multi-scale principle is adapted to a Li-ion battery system in order to improve the predictions of battery performance by including multi-scale and multiphysics phenomena among the particle aggregates in the electrode; this physics cannot be addressed by conventional homogenized approaches. The developed model is verified through the direct numerical solutions and compared with the conventional pseudo-2D (P2D) model method. The developed model has revealed more dynamic battery behaviors related to the variation of the microstructure-such as particle shape, tortuosity, and material composition-while the corresponding result from P2D shows a monotonous change within different structures.

  13. Recovery Of Electrodic Powder From Spent Nickel-Metal Hydride Batteries (NiMH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin S.M.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was focused on recycling process newly proposed to recover electrodic powder enriched in nickel (Ni and rare earth elements (La and Ce from spent nickel-metal hydride batteries (NiMH. In addition, this new process was designed to prevent explosion of batteries during thermal treatment under inert atmosphere. Spent nickel metal hydride batteries were heated over range of 300°C to 600°C for 2 hours and each component was completely separated inside reactor after experiment. Electrodic powder was successfully recovered from bulk components containing several pieces of metals through sieving operation. The electrodic powder obtained was examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX and image of the powder was taken by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. It was finally found that nickel and rare earth elements were mainly recovered to about 45 wt.% and 12 wt.% in electrodic powder, respectively.

  14. High rate, long cycle life battery electrode materials with an open framework structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wessells, Colin; Huggins, Robert; Cui, Yi; Pasta, Mauro

    2015-02-10

    A battery includes a cathode, an anode, and an aqueous electrolyte disposed between the cathode and the anode and including a cation A. At least one of the cathode and the anode includes an electrode material having an open framework crystal structure into which the cation A is reversibly inserted during operation of the battery. The battery has a reference specific capacity when cycled at a reference rate, and at least 75% of the reference specific capacity is retained when the battery is cycled at 10 times the reference rate.

  15. Development of Magnesium-Insertion Positive Electrode for Rechargeable Magnesium Batteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huatang YUAN; Lifang JIAO; Jiansheng CAO; Xiusheng LIU; Ming ZHAO; Yongmei WANG

    2004-01-01

    Magnesium-based rechargeable batteries might be an interesting future alternative to lithium-based batteries. It is so far well known that Mg2+ ion insertion into ion-transfer hosts proceeds slowly compared with Li+, so it is necessary to realize fast Mg2+ transport in the host in addition to other requirements as practical cathode materials for magnesium batteries. Positive electrode materials based on inorganic transition-metal oxides, sulfides, and borides are the only ones used up to now to insert magnesium ions. In this paper, the available results of research on materials suitable as possible, for secondary magnesium batteries, are reviewed.

  16. Zinc Electrode Morphology Evolution in High Energy Density Nickel-Zinc Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gizem Payer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Prismatic Nickel-Zinc (NiZn batteries with energy densities higher than 100 Wh kg−1 were prepared using Zn electrodes with different initial morphologies. The effect of initial morphology of zinc electrode on battery capacity was investigated. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM and X-ray diffraction (XRD reveal that initial morphology of zinc electrode changes drastically after a few charge/discharge cycles regardless of initial ZnO powder used. ZnO electrodes prepared using ZnO powders synthesized from ZnCl2 and Zn(NO32 lead to average battery energy densities ranging between 92 Wh kg−1 and 109 Wh kg−1 while using conventional ZnO powder leads to a higher energy density, 118 Wh kg−1. Average discharge capacities of zinc electrodes vary between 270 and 345 mA g−1, much lower than reported values for nano ZnO powders in literature. Higher electrode surface area or higher electrode discharge capacity does not necessarily translate to higher battery energy density.

  17. Novel air electrode for metal-air battery with new carbon material and method of making same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, P.N. Jr.

    1988-06-21

    This invention relates to a rechargeable battery or fuel cell. More particularly, this invention relates to a novel air electrode comprising a new carbon electrode support material and a method of making same. 3 figs.

  18. High Reversibility of Soft Electrode Materials in All-solid-state Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi eSakuda

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available All-solid-state batteries using inorganic solid electrolytes (SEs are considered to be ideal batteries for electric vehicles (EVs and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs because they are potentially safer than conventional lithium-ion batteries (LIBs. In addition, all-solid-state batteries are expected to have long battery lives owing to the inhibition of chemical side reactions because only lithium ions move through the typically used inorganic SEs. The development of high-energy (more than 300 Wh kg-1 secondary batteries has been eagerly anticipated for years. The application of high-capacity electrode active materials is essential for fabricating such batteries. Recently, we proposed metal polysulfides as new electrode materials. These materials show higher conductivity and density than sulfur, which is advantageous for fabricating batteries with relatively higher energy density. Lithium niobium sulfides, such as Li3NbS4, have relatively high density, conductivity, and rate capability among metal polysulfide materials, and batteries with these materials have capacities high enough to potentially exceed the gravimetric energy density of conventional LIBs.Favorable solid-solid contact between the electrode and electrolyte particles is a key factor for fabricating high performance all-solid-state batteries. Conventional oxide-based positive electrode materials tend to be given rise to cracks during fabrication and/or charge-discharge processes. Here we report all-solid-state cells using lithium niobium sulfide as a positive electrode material, where favorable solid-solid contact was established by using lithium sulfide electrode materials because of their high processability. Cracks were barely observed in the electrode particles in the all-solid-state cells before or after charging and discharging with a high capacity of approx. 400 mAh g-1, suggesting that the lithium niobium sulfide electrode charged and discharged without experiencing

  19. Influence of Electrode Density on the Performance of Li-Ion Batteries: Experimental and Simulation Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelle Smekens

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Lithium-ion battery (LIB technology further enabled the information revolution by powering smartphones and tablets, allowing these devices an unprecedented performance against reasonable cost. Currently, this battery technology is on the verge of carrying the revolution in road transport and energy storage of renewable energy. However, to fully succeed in the latter, a number of hurdles still need to be taken. Battery performance and lifetime constitute a bottleneck for electric vehicles as well as stationary electric energy storage systems to penetrate the market. Electrochemical battery models are one of the engineering tools which could be used to enhance their performance. These models can help us optimize the cell design and the battery management system. In this study, we evaluate the ability of the Porous Electrode Theory (PET to predict the effect of changing positive electrode density in the overall performance of Li-ion battery cells. It can be concluded that Porous Electrode Theory (PET is capable of predicting the difference in cell performance due to a changing positive electrode density.

  20. Chemical and physical characterization of electrode materials of spent sealed Ni-Cd batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, C A; Margarido, F

    2007-01-01

    The present work aimed at the chemical and physical characterization of spent sealed MONO-type Ni-Cd batteries, contributing to a better definition of the recycling process of these spent products. The electrode material containing essentially nickel, cadmium and some cobalt corresponds to approximately 49% of the weight of the batteries. The remaining components are the steel parts from the external case and the supporting grids (40%) containing Fe and Ni, the electrolyte (9%) and the plastic components (2%). Elemental quantitative analysis showed that the electrodes are highly concentrated in metals. The phase identification achieved by X-ray powder diffraction combined with chemical analysis and leaching tests allowed the authors to proceed with the composition of the electrode materials as following: cathode: 28.7% metallic Ni, 53.3% Ni(OH)2, 6.8% Cd(OH)2 and 2.8% Co(OH)2; anode: 39.4% metallic Ni and 57.0% Cd(OH)2. The morphology of the electrodes was studied by microscopic techniques and two phases were observed in the electrodes: (1) a bright metallic phase constituted of small nickel grains that acts as conductor, and (2) the main hydroxide phase of the active electrodes into which the nickel grains are dispersed. The disaggregation of the electrode particles from the supporting plates was easily obtained during the dismantling procedures, indicating that a substantial percentage of the electrodes can be efficiently separated by wet sieving after shredding the spent batteries. PMID:17166709

  1. CoO AS ADDITIVE IN POSITIVE ELECTRODE OF NICKEL-METAL HYDRIDE BATTERY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴建波; 涂江平; 韩泰安; 周才明; 张文魁; 赵新兵

    2004-01-01

    A series of positive electrodes for Ni/MH battery were fabricated by addition of CoO.The morphology and microstructure of the electrodes were examined by SEM and EDS, and electrochemical behavior was investigated in three-compartment appliances at room temperature.The electrochemical performance of the positive electrodes with CoO was improved. Under the same charge-discharge cycle, the electrodes with CoO showed higher specific capacity, lower charge mean voltage and higher discharge mean voltage. But ...

  2. Expansion and shrinkage of the sulfur composite electrode in rechargeable lithium batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Xiangming; Ren, Jianguo; Wang, Li; Pu, Weihua; Jiang, Changyin; Wan, Chunrong [Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2009-05-01

    The expansion and shrinkage characteristics of sulfur composite cathode electrode in rechargeable lithium batteries have been investigated. It was found that the sulfur composites electrodes expanded when discharging and shrank when charging again. The thickness change of the electrode was measured to be about 22%. The thickness of lithium metal anodes was also changed when lithium deposition and dissolution, while the sulfur composites electrodes expanded and shrank conversely. The investigation showed that the thickness changes of lithium anode and sulfur composite cathode could be compensated with each other to keep the total thickness of the cell not to change so much. (author)

  3. A highly permeable and enhanced surface area carbon-cloth electrode for vanadium redox flow batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, X. L.; Zhao, T. S.; Zeng, Y. K.; An, L.; Wei, L.

    2016-10-01

    In this work, a high-performance porous electrode, made of KOH-activated carbon-cloth, is developed for vanadium redox flow batteries (VRFBs). The macro-scale porous structure in the carbon cloth formed by weaving the carbon fibers in an ordered manner offers a low tortuosity (∼1.1) and a broad pore distribution from 5 μm to 100 μm, rendering the electrode a high hydraulic permeability and high effective ionic conductivity, which are beneficial for the electrolyte flow and ion transport through the porous electrode. The use of KOH activation method to create nano-scale pores on the carbon-fiber surfaces leads to a significant increase in the surface area for redox reactions from 2.39 m2 g-1 to 15.4 m2 g-1. The battery assembled with the present electrode delivers an energy efficiency of 80.1% and an electrolyte utilization of 74.6% at a current density of 400 mA cm-2, as opposed to an electrolyte utilization of 61.1% achieved by using a conventional carbon-paper electrode. Such a high performance is mainly attributed to the combination of the excellent mass/ion transport properties and the high surface area rendered by the present electrode. It is suggested that the KOH-activated carbon-cloth electrode is a promising candidate in redox flow batteries.

  4. Graphene Oxide-Based Electrode Inks for 3D-Printed Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Kun; Wang, Yibo; Yan, Chaoyi; Yao, Yonggang; Chen, Yanan; Dai, Jiaqi; Lacey, Steven; Wang, Yanbin; Wan, Jiayu; Li, Tian; Wang, Zhengyang; Xu, Yue; Hu, Liangbing

    2016-04-01

    All-component 3D-printed lithium-ion batteries are fabricated by printing graphene-oxide-based composite inks and solid-state gel polymer electrolyte. An entirely 3D-printed full cell features a high electrode mass loading of 18 mg cm(-2) , which is normalized to the overall area of the battery. This all-component printing can be extended to the fabrication of multidimensional/multiscale complex-structures of more energy-storage devices.

  5. Theoretical Analysis of Potential and Current Distributions in Planar Electrodes of Lithium-ion Batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An analytical model is proposed to describe the two-dimensional distribution of potential and current in planar electrodes of pouch-type lithium-ion batteries. A concentration-independent polarization expression, obtained experimentally, is used to mimic the electrochemical performance of the battery. By numerically solving the charge balance equation on each electrode in conjugation with the polarization expression, the battery behavior during constant-current discharge processes is simulated. Our numerical simulations show that reaction current between the electrodes remains approximately uniform during most of the discharge process, in particular, when depth-of-discharge varies from 5% to 85%. This observation suggests to simplify the electrochemical behavior of the battery such that the charge balance equation on each electrode can be solved analytically to obtain closed-form solutions for potential and current density distributions. The analytical model shows fair agreement with numerical data at modest computational cost. The model is applicable for both charge and discharge processes, and its application is demonstrated for a prismatic 20 Ah nickel-manganese-cobalt lithium-ion battery during discharge processes

  6. Nb-doped TiO2 air-electrode for advanced Li-air batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee-Dae Lim

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available As new substrate materials to replace a conventional carbon substrate, TiO2 and Nb-doped TiO2 air-electrodes for Li-air batteries were investigated. Through a simple two-step process, we successfully synthesized anatase Nb-doped TiO2 nanoparticles and demonstrated the potential applicability of TiO2-based materials for use in Li-air battery electrode. An air-electrode with Nb-doped TiO2 nanoparticles could deliver a higher discharge capacity than a bare TiO2 electrode due to the enhanced conductivity, which implies the importance of facile electron transport during the discharge process.

  7. Magnetically aligned graphite electrodes for high-rate performance Li-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billaud, Juliette; Bouville, Florian; Magrini, Tommaso; Villevieille, Claire; Studart, André R.

    2016-08-01

    As lithium-ion batteries become ubiquitous, the energy storage market is striving for better performance, longer lifetime and better safety of the devices. This race for performance is often focused on the search for new materials, whereas less effort has been dedicated to the electrode engineering. Enhancing the power density by increasing the amount of active material remains impractical since it impinges the transport of ions across the electrode during the charging and discharging processes. Here, we show that the electrochemical performance of a battery containing a thick (about 200 μm), highly loaded (about 10 mg cm‑2) graphite electrode can be remarkably enhanced by fabricating anodes with an out-of-plane aligned architecture using a low external magnetic field. The lower tortuosity resulting from such a simple and scalable magnetic alignment approach leads to a specific charge up to three times higher than that of non-architectured electrodes at a rate of 1C.

  8. End-of-life Zn–MnO2 batteries: electrode materials characterization

    OpenAIRE

    Cabral, Marta; Pedrosa, Fátima; Margarido, F.; Nogueira, C. A.

    2013-01-01

    Physical and chemical characterization of several sizes and shapes of alkaline and saline spent Zn–MnO2 batteries was carried out, aiming at contributing for a better definition of the applicable recycling processes. The characterization essays included the mass balance of the components, cathode and anode elemental analysis, the identification of zinc and manganese bearing phases and the morphology analysis of the electrode particles. The electrode materials correspond to 64–79% of the total...

  9. Infiltrated Porous Polymer Sheets as Free-Standing Flexible Lithium-Sulfur Battery Electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Feixiang; Zhao, Enbo; Gordon, Daniel; Xiao, Yiran; Hu, Chenchen; Yushin, Gleb

    2016-08-01

    Free-standing, high-capacity Li2 S electrodes with capacity loadings in the range from 1.5 to 3.8 mA h cm(-2) are produced by using infiltration of active materials into porous carbonized biomass sheets. The proposed electrode design can be effectively utilized for the low-cost fabrication of flexible lithium batteries with high specific energy. PMID:27168478

  10. Suppressing vertical displacement of lithiated silicon particles in high volumetric capacity battery electrodes

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Denis Y. W.; Zhou, Ming; Hoster, Harry

    2015-01-01

    Silicon is a potential high-capacity anode material for lithium-ion batteries. However, the large volume expansion of the material remains a bottleneck to its commercialization. Many studies were devoted to nanostructured silicon composites with voids to accommodate the volume expansion. Yet, full capability of silicon cannot be utilized because of the low volumetric capacity of these nanostructured electrodes. Here, we re-design dense silicon electrodes with three times the volumetric capaci...

  11. Oriented nanotube electrodes for lithium ion batteries and supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Arthur J.; Zhu, Kai; Wang, Qing

    2013-03-05

    An electrode having an oriented array of multiple nanotubes is disclosed. Individual nanotubes have a lengthwise inner pore defined by interior tube walls which extends at least partially through the length of the nanotube. The nanotubes of the array may be oriented according to any identifiable pattern. Also disclosed is a device featuring an electrode and methods of fabrication.

  12. A method for making nickel electrodes for alkaline storage batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okhira, T.; Inaba, K.; Kumano, Y.; Yamaga, M.

    1983-07-14

    A nitrate or chloride of ruthenium is added to an aqueous NiNO3 solution and then a porous plate is submerged into it, which serves as the electrode base. Electrolysis is then performed using the plate as the cathode. The electrode is caked. It has excellent electrical characteristics.

  13. High-performance of PbO2 nanowire electrodes for lead-acid battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moncada, A.; Mistretta, M. C.; Randazzo, S.; Piazza, S.; Sunseri, C.; Inguanta, R.

    2014-06-01

    PbO2 nanowires were obtained by template electrodeposition in polycarbonate membranes and tested as positive electrode for lead-acid battery. Nanowires were grown on the same material acting as current collector that was electrodeposited too. The nanostructured electrodes were assembled in a zero-gap configuration using commercial negative plate and separator. Cell performance was tested by galvanostatic charge/discharge cycles in a 5 M H2SO4 aqueous electrolyte. PbO2 nanostructured electrodes were able to deliver at 1C rate an almost constant capacity of about 190 mAh g-1 (85% of active material utilization), close to the theoretical value (224 mAh g-1). The nanowire array provides a very large surface area (about 70 times higher than the geometrical one) that enhances the specific capacity of the battery. SEM images of the as-prepared and cycled electrodes showed that nanowires morphology changes significantly after the initial cycles. Change of morphology led to the formation of very spongy structure, characterized by the presence of macro-voids, which ensured penetration of the electrolyte in the inner areas of the electrode. Besides, PbO2 nanowires showed a very good cycling stability, maintained for more than 1000 cycles. These findings indicate that this new type of electrode might be a promising substitute of positive plates in lead-acid battery.

  14. Electrochemical impedance characterization of FeSn{sub 2} electrodes for Li-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chamas, M.; Lippens, P-E.; Jumas, J-C. [Institut Charles Gerhardt, Equipe Agregats Interfaces et Materiaux pour l' Energie, UMR 5253 CNRS, Universite Montpellier 2, Place Eugene Bataillon, 34095 Montpellier cedex 5 (France); Hassoun, J., E-mail: jusef.hassoun@uniroma1.it [Dipartemento di Chimica, Universita di Roma, ' La Sapienza' , 00185 Rome (Italy); Panero, S.; Scrosati, B. [Dipartemento di Chimica, Universita di Roma, ' La Sapienza' , 00185 Rome (Italy)

    2011-07-30

    Highlights: > In this paper we study a tin based, FeSn{sub 2}, high capacity lithium-alloying electrode. > The electrochemical performance of this electrode in lithium batteries is remarkably influenced by the current rate. > This aspect is investigated by electrochemical techniques such as galvanostatic cycling and impedance spectroscopy. > The results demonstrated that the good electrochemical behavior of the electrode at the higher currents is due to the formation of a stable solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) film. - Abstract: This work reports the electrochemical characterization of a micro-scale FeSn{sub 2} electrode in a lithium battery. The electrode is proposed as anode material for advanced lithium ion batteries due to its characteristics of high capacity (500 mAh g{sup -1}) and low working voltage (0.6 V vs. Li). The electrochemical alloying process is studied by cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic cycling while the interfacial properties are investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The impedance measurements in combination with the galvanostatic cycling tests reveal relatively low overall impedance values and good electrochemical performance for the electrode, both in terms of delivered capacity and cycling stability, even at the higher C-rate regimes.

  15. Applications of porous electrodes to metal-ion removal and the design of battery systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trost, G.G.

    1983-09-01

    This dissertation treats the use of porous electrodes as electrochemical reactors for the removal of dilute metal ions. A methodology for the scale-up of porous electrodes used in battery applications is given. Removal of 4 ..mu..g Pb/cc in 1 M sulfuric acid was investigated in atmospheric and high-pressure, flow-through porous reactors. The atmospheric reactor used a reticulated vitreous carbon porous bed coated in situ with a mercury film. Best results show 98% removal of lead from the feed stream. Results are summarized in a dimensionless plot of Sherwood number vs Peclet number. High-pressure, porous-electrode experiments were performed to investigate the effect of pressure on the current efficiency. Pressures were varied up to 120 bar on electrode beds of copper or lead-coated spheres. The copper spheres showed high hydrogen evolution rates which inhibited lead deposition, even at high cathodic overpotentials. Use of lead spheres inhibited hydrogen evolution but often resulted in the formation of lead sulfate layers; these layers were difficult to reduce back to lead. Experimental data of one-dimensional porous battery electrodes are combined with a model for the current collector and cell connectors to predict ultimate specific energy and maximum specific power for complete battery systems. Discharge behavior of the plate as a whole is first presented as a function of depth of discharge. These results are combined with the voltage and weight penalties of the interconnecting bus and post, positive and negative active material, cell container, etc. to give specific results for the lithium-aluminum/iron sulfide high-temperature battery. Subject to variation is the number of positive electrodes, grid conductivity, minimum current-collector weight, and total delivered capacity. The battery can be optimized for maximum energy or power, or a compromise design may be selected.

  16. Applications of porous electrodes to metal-ion removal and the design of battery systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This dissertation treats the use of porous electrodes as electrochemical reactors for the removal of dilute metal ions. A methodology for the scale-up of porous electrodes used in battery applications is given. Removal of 4 μg Pb/cc in 1 M sulfuric acid was investigated in atmospheric and high-pressure, flow-through porous reactors. The atmospheric reactor used a reticulated vitreous carbon porous bed coated in situ with a mercury film. Best results show 98% removal of lead from the feed stream. Results are summarized in a dimensionless plot of Sherwood number vs Peclet number. High-pressure, porous-electrode experiments were performed to investigate the effect of pressure on the current efficiency. Pressures were varied up to 120 bar on electrode beds of copper or lead-coated spheres. The copper spheres showed high hydrogen evolution rates which inhibited lead deposition, even at high cathodic overpotentials. Use of lead spheres inhibited hydrogen evolution but often resulted in the formation of lead sulfate layers; these layers were difficult to reduce back to lead. Experimental data of one-dimensional porous battery electrodes are combined with a model for the current collector and cell connectors to predict ultimate specific energy and maximum specific power for complete battery systems. Discharge behavior of the plate as a whole is first presented as a function of depth of discharge. These results are combined with the voltage and weight penalties of the interconnecting bus and post, positive and negative active material, cell container, etc. to give specific results for the lithium-aluminum/iron sulfide high-temperature battery. Subject to variation is the number of positive electrodes, grid conductivity, minimum current-collector weight, and total delivered capacity. The battery can be optimized for maximum energy or power, or a compromise design may be selected

  17. Quantifying bulk electrode strain and material displacement within lithium batteries via high-speed operando tomography and digital volume correlation

    OpenAIRE

    Finegan, D. P.; Tudisco, E.; Scheel, M; Robinson, J B; Taiwo, O. O.; Eastwood, D. S.; Lee, P. D.; Di Michiel, M.; Bay, B.; Hall, S. A.; Hinds, G.; Brett, D. J. L.; Shearing, P. R.

    2015-01-01

    Tracking the dynamic morphology of active materials during operation of lithium batteries is essential for identifying causes of performance loss. Digital volume correlation (DVC) is applied to high-speed operando synchrotron X-ray computed tomography of a commercial Li/MnO2 primary battery during discharge. Real-time electrode material displacement is captured in 3D allowing degradation mechanisms such as delamination of the electrode from the current collector and electrode crack formation ...

  18. Performance characteristics of lead oxides in pasted lead/acid battery electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afifi, S.E. (Electrometallurgy Lab., Central Metallurgical Research and Development Inst., Cairo (Egypt)); Saba, A.E. (Electrometallurgy Lab., Central Metallurgical Research and Development Inst., Cairo (Egypt)); Shenouda, A.Y. (Electrometallurgy Lab., Central Metallurgical Research and Development Inst., Cairo (Egypt))

    1993-10-15

    The performance characteristics of lead oxides used for the pasted type of lead/acid battery plate have been investigated. The [alpha]- and [beta]-PbO polymorphs have been prepared carefully and used for pasting model electrodes. The factors that may affect the electrical capacity of such electrodes have been studied. These are: the type of oxide; percentage of free lead; additives such as carboxymethyl cellulose, zeolite and graphite. Lead hydroxide has also been studied with special attention. Photomicrographs have been taken to examine the crystal forms that develop on the electrode surface. Finally, some industrial samples have been investigated. (orig.)

  19. High rate capability pure Sn-based nano-architectured electrode assembly for rechargeable lithium batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazin, L.; Mitra, S.; Taberna, P.L.; Gressier, M.; Menu, M.J.; Barnabe, A.; Simon, P. [CIRIMAT-UMR 5085- Universite Paul Sabatier, route de Narbonne, 31062 Toulouse Cedex 4 (France); Poizot, P.; Tarascon, J.-M. [LRCS-UMR 6007-Universite de Picardie Jules Verne, 33 rue Saint-Leu, 80039 Amiens (France)

    2009-03-15

    New high surface area nano-architectured copper current collectors have been designed based on simple electrodeposition method. The nano-architectured electrode design not only increases the effective surface area of the electrode but it is also very suitable for sustaining the mechanical and structural strain during electrochemical reaction. In this work, a nano-architectured Sn anode for Li-ion battery, based on Li-Sn alloying reaction, delivers very high cycle life and good power performance compared to planar tin films. This electrode could be successfully used in the field of 3D microbatteries. (author)

  20. High surface area carbon for bifunctional air electrodes applied in zinc-air batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arai, H. [on leave from NTT Laboratories (Japan); Mueller, S.; Haas, O. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1999-08-01

    Bifunctional air electrodes with high surface area carbon substrates showed low reduction overpotential, thus are promising for enhancing the energy efficiency and power capability of zinc-air batteries. The improved performance is attributed to lower overpotential due to diffusion of the reaction intermediate, namely the peroxide ion. (author) 1 fig., 2 refs.

  1. Characterization of Electrode Materials for Lithium Ion and Sodium Ion Batteries using Synchrotron Radiation Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehta, Apurva; Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource; Doeff, Marca M.; Chen, Guoying; Cabana, Jordi; Richardson, Thomas J.; Mehta, Apurva; Shirpour, Mona; Duncan, Hugues; Kim, Chunjoong; Kam, Kinson C.; Conry, Thomas

    2013-04-30

    We describe the use of synchrotron X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques to probe details of intercalation/deintercalation processes in electrode materials for Li ion and Na ion batteries. Both in situ and ex situ experiments are used to understand structural behavior relevant to the operation of devices.

  2. Impedance Simulation of a Li-Ion Battery with Porous Electrodes and Spherical Li+ Intercalation Particles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, R.W.J.M.; Chung, F.; Kelder, E.M.

    2006-01-01

    We present a semimathematical model for the simulation of the impedance spectra of a rechargeable lithium batteries consisting of porous electrodes with spherical Li+ intercalation particles. The particles are considered to have two distinct homogeneous phases as a result of the intercalation and de

  3. Geometric Characteristics of Three Dimensional Reconstructed Anode Electrodes of Lithium Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheolwoong Lim

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The realistic three dimensional (3D microstructure of lithium ion battery (LIB electrode plays a key role in studying the effects of inhomogeneous microstructures on the performance of LIBs. However, the complexity of realistic microstructures imposes a significant computational cost on numerical simulation of large size samples. In this work, we used tomographic data obtained for a commercial LIB graphite electrode to evaluate the geometric characteristics of the reconstructed electrode microstructure. Based on the analysis of geometric properties, such as porosity, specific surface area, tortuosity, and pore size distribution, a representative volume element (RVE that retains the geometric characteristics of the electrode material was obtained for further numerical studies. In this work, X-ray micro-computed tomography (CT with 0.56 μm resolution was employed to capture the inhomogeneous porous microstructures of LIB anode electrodes. The Sigmoid transform function was employed to convert the initial raw tomographic images to binary images. Moreover, geometric characteristics of an anode electrode after 2400 cycles at the charge/discharge rate of 1 C were compared with those of a new anode electrode to investigate morphological change of the electrode. In general, the cycled electrode shows larger porosity, smaller tortuosity, and similar specific surface area compared to the new electrode.

  4. Electrochemical behavior of LiCoO2 as aqueous lithium-ion battery electrodes

    KAUST Repository

    Ruffo, Riccardo

    2009-02-01

    Despite the large number of studies on the behavior of LiCoO2 in organic electrolytes and its recent application as a positive electrode in rechargeable water battery prototypes, a little information is available about the lithium intercalation reaction in this layered compound in aqueous electrolytes. This work shows that LiCoO2 electrodes can be reversibly cycled in LiNO3 aqueous electrolytes for tens of cycles at remarkably high rates with impressive values specific capacity higher than 100 mAh/g, and with a coulomb efficiency greater than 99.7%. Stable and reproducible cycling measurements have been made using a simple cell design that can be easily applied to the study of other intercalation materials, assuming that they are stable in water and that their intercalation potential range matches the electrochemical stability window of the aqueous electrolyte. The experimental arrangement uses a three-electrode flooded cell in which another insertion compound acts as a reversible source and sink of lithium ions, i.e., as the counter electrode. A commercial reference electrode is also present. Both the working and the counter electrodes have been prepared as thin layers on a metallic substrate using the procedures typical for the study of electrodes for lithium-ion batteries in organic solvent electrolytes. © 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Solvent-Free Manufacturing of Electrodes for Lithium-ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, Brandon; Zheng, Zhangfeng; Shou, Wan; Wang, Yan; Pan, Heng

    2016-03-01

    Lithium ion battery electrodes were manufactured using a new, completely dry powder painting process. The solvents used for conventional slurry-cast electrodes have been completely removed. Thermal activation time has been greatly reduced due to the time and resource demanding solvent evaporation process needed with slurry-cast electrode manufacturing being replaced by a hot rolling process. It has been found that thermal activation time to induce mechanical bonding of the thermoplastic polymer to the remaining active electrode particles is only a few seconds. Removing the solvent and drying process allows large-scale Li-ion battery production to be more economically viable in markets such as automotive energy storage systems. By understanding the surface energies of various powders which govern the powder mixing and binder distribution, bonding tests of the dry-deposited particles onto the current collector show that the bonding strength is greater than slurry-cast electrodes, 148.8 kPa as compared to 84.3 kPa. Electrochemical tests show that the new electrodes outperform conventional slurry processed electrodes, which is due to different binder distribution.

  6. Failure mechanisms of single-crystal silicon electrodes in lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Feifei; Song, Zhichao; Ross, Philip N.; Somorjai, Gabor A.; Ritchie, Robert O.; Komvopoulos, Kyriakos

    2016-06-01

    Long-term durability is a major obstacle limiting the widespread use of lithium-ion batteries in heavy-duty applications and others demanding extended lifetime. As one of the root causes of the degradation of battery performance, the electrode failure mechanisms are still unknown. In this paper, we reveal the fundamental fracture mechanisms of single-crystal silicon electrodes over extended lithiation/delithiation cycles, using electrochemical testing, microstructure characterization, fracture mechanics and finite element analysis. Anisotropic lithium invasion causes crack initiation perpendicular to the electrode surface, followed by growth through the electrode thickness. The low fracture energy of the lithiated/unlithiated silicon interface provides a weak microstructural path for crack deflection, accounting for the crack patterns and delamination observed after repeated cycling. On the basis of this physical understanding, we demonstrate how electrolyte additives can heal electrode cracks and provide strategies to enhance the fracture resistance in future lithium-ion batteries from surface chemical, electrochemical and material science perspectives.

  7. The Science of Electrode Materials for Lithium Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fultz, Brent

    2007-03-15

    Rechargeable lithium batteries continue to play the central role in power systems for portable electronics, and could play a role of increasing importance for hybrid transportation systems that use either hydrogen or fossil fuels. For example, fuel cells provide a steady supply of power, whereas batteries are superior when bursts of power are needed. The National Research Council recently concluded that for dismounted soldiers "Among all possible energy sources, hybrid systems provide the most versatile solutions for meeting the diverse needs of the Future Force Warrior. The key advantage of hybrid systems is their ability to provide power over varying levels of energy use, by combining two power sources." The relative capacities of batteries versus fuel cells in a hybrid power system will depend on the capabilities of both. In the longer term, improvements in the cost and safety of lithium batteries should lead to a substantial role for electrochemical energy storage subsystems as components in fuel cell or hybrid vehicles. We have completed a basic research program for DOE BES on anode and cathode materials for lithium batteries, extending over 6 years with a 1 year phaseout period. The emphasis was on the thermodynamics and kinetics of the lithiation reaction, and how these pertain to basic electrochemical properties that we measure experimentally — voltage and capacity in particular. In the course of this work we also studied the kinetic processes of capacity fade after cycling, with unusual results for nanostructued Si and Ge materials, and the dynamics underlying electronic and ionic transport in LiFePO4. This document is the final report for this work.

  8. A nanostructured bifunctional Pd/C gas-diffusion electrode for metal-air batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical Abstract: Images showing (a) a scanning electrode microscope cross section of the Pd/C air electrode, (b) a TEM micrograph of the Pd/C catalyst, and (c) charge–discharge cycling of the air electrode in 6 mol dm−3 KOH at 20 mA cm−2 under 100 ml min−1 oxygen flow. - Highlights: • The Pd/C air electrode shows consistent good performance at modest current densities (20–80 mA cm−2), and is stable for 1000 cycles at room temperature. • The Pd/C air electrode has a potential difference of 0.53 V between oxygen evolution and oxygen reduction. • The air electrode makes efficient use of a small precious metal loading (0.5 mg cm−2), and is mainly made from lightweight carbon materials. • The air electrode has better stability than a commercial 2 mg cm−2 Pt/C electrode on repeated charge–discharge cycling, despite having a lower (and therefore less expensive) loading of catalyst. - Abstract: Designing a bifunctional air electrode which catalyses both the oxygen reduction and oxygen evolution reactions is an essential part of progress towards fully rechargeable metal-air batteries, such as the iron-air battery which is environmentally friendly, low cost, and does not suffer risk of thermal runaway like lithium-ion batteries. This paper reports the development of a lightweight carbon-based bifunctional air electrode, catalysed by a small (0.5 mg cm−2) loading of 30 wt.% palladium on carbon. The Pd-catalysed air electrode showed good bifunctional activity, with 0.53 V potential difference between oxygen reduction and evolution. The Pd/C air electrode showed improved catalytic activity at high current densities (≥ 50 mA cm−2) and enhanced durability compared with two commercial Pt/C air electrodes produced by Gaskatel GmbH and Johnson Matthey. A stable oxygen evolution potential was maintained over 1,000 charge-discharge cycles

  9. Effects of carbon additives on the performance of negative electrode of lead-carbon battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The negative electrode sheets are prepared by simulating manufacture condition of negative plates. • The effect of carbon additives on negative electrode sheets is studied by electrochemical method. • Carbon additives in NAM enhance electrochemical properties of the negative sheets. • The negative sheets with 0.5 wt% carbon additive exhibit better electrochemical performance. • The charge-discharge mechanism is discussed in detail according to the experimental results. - Abstract: In this study, carbon additives such as activated carbon (AC) and carbon black (CB) are introduced to the negative electrode to improve its electrochemical performance, the negative electrode sheets are prepared by simulating the negative plate manufacturing process of lead-acid battery, the types and contents of carbon additives in the negative electrode sheets are investigated in detail for the application of lead-carbon battery. The electrochemical performance of negative electrode sheets are measured by chronopotentiometry, galvanostatic charge-discharge and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, the crystal structure and morphology are characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. The experimental results indicate that the appropriate addition of AC or CB can enhance the discharge capacity and prolong the cycle life of negative electrode sheets under high-rate partial-state-of-charge conditions, AC additive exerts more obvious effect than CB additive, the optimum contents for the best electrochemical performance of the negative electrode sheets are determined as 0.5wt% for both AC and CB. The reaction mechanism of the electrochemical process is also discussed in this paper, the appropriate addition of AC or CB in negative electrode can promote the conversion of PbSO4 to Pb, suppress the sulfation of negative electrode sheets and reduce the electrochemical reaction resistance

  10. Surface modification of active material structures in battery electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Michael; Tikhonov, Konstantin

    2016-02-02

    Provided herein are methods of processing electrode active material structures for use in electrochemical cells or, more specifically, methods of forming surface layers on these structures. The structures are combined with a liquid to form a mixture. The mixture includes a surface reagent that chemically reacts and forms a surface layer covalently bound to the structures. The surface reagent may be a part of the initial liquid or added to the mixture after the liquid is combined with the structures. In some embodiments, the mixture may be processed to form a powder containing the structures with the surface layer thereon. Alternatively, the mixture may be deposited onto a current collecting substrate and dried to form an electrode layer. Furthermore, the liquid may be an electrolyte containing the surface reagent and a salt. The liquid soaks the previously arranged electrodes in order to contact the structures with the surface reagent.

  11. Lead acid battery performance and cycle life increased through addition of discrete carbon nanotubes to both electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugumaran, Nanjan; Everill, Paul; Swogger, Steven W.; Dubey, D. P.

    2015-04-01

    Contemporary applications are changing the failure mechanisms of lead acid batteries. Sulfation at the negative electrode, acid stratification, and dendrite formation now precede positive electrode failures such as grid corrosion and active material shedding. To attenuate these failures, carbon has been explored as a negative electrode additive to increase charge acceptance, eliminate sulfation, and extend cycle life. Frequently, however, carbon incorporation decreases paste density and hinders manufacturability. Discrete carbon nanotubes (dCNT), also known as Molecular Rebar®, are lead acid battery additives which can be stably incorporated into either electrode to increase charge acceptance and cycle life with no change to paste density and without impeding the manufacturing process. Here, full-scale automotive batteries containing dCNT in the negative electrode or both negative and positive electrodes are compared to control batteries. dCNT batteries show little change to Reserve Capacity, improved Cold Cranking, increased charge acceptance, and enhanced overall system efficiency. Life cycle tests show >60% increases when dCNT are incorporated into the negative electrode (HRPSoC/SBA) and up to 500% when incorporated into both electrodes (SBA), with water loss per cycle reduced >20%. Failure modes of cycled batteries are discussed and a hypothesis of dCNT action is introduced: the dCNT/Had Overcharge Reaction Mechanism.

  12. Electrochemical Investigation of Carbon as Additive to the Negative Electrode of Lead-Acid Battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernandez Matthew M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing demand of cycle life performance of Pb-acid batteries requires the improvement of the negative Pb electrode’s charge capacity. Electrochemical investigations were performed on Pb electrode and Pb+Carbon (Carbon black and Graphite electrodes to evaluate the ability of the additives to enhance the electrochemical faradaic reactions that occur during the cycle of Pb-acid battery negative electrode. The electrodes were characterized through Cyclic Voltammetry (CV, Potentiodynamic Polarization (PP, and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS. CV revealed that the addition of carbon on the Pb electrode increased anodic and cathodicreactions by tenfold. The kinetics of PbSO4 passivation measured through PPrevealed that the addition of Carbon on the Pb electrode accelerated the oxide formation by tenfold magnitude. The Nyquist plot measured through EIS suggest that the electrochemical mechanism and reaction kinetics is under charge-transfer. From the equivalent circuit and physical model, Pb+CB1 electrode has the lowest EIS parameters while Pb+G has the highest which is attributed to faster faradaic reaction.The Nyquist plot of the passivated Pb+CB1 electrode showed double semicircular shape. The first layer represents to the bulk passive PbSO4 layer and the second layer represents the Carbon+PbSO4 layer. The enhancements upon addition of carbon on the Pb electrode were attributed to the additive’s electrical conductivity and total surface area. The electrochemical active sites for the PbSO4 to nucleate and spread increases upon addition of electrical conductive and high surface area carbon additives.

  13. Quantitative Analysis of Three-dimensional Microstructure of Li-ion Battery Electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhao

    Li-ion batteries (LIBs) have attracted considerable attention in the past two decades due to their widespread applications in portable electronics, and their growing use in electric vehicles and large-scale grid storage. Increasing battery energy density and powder density while maintaining long life, along with battery safety, are the biggest challenges that limit their further development. Various approaches with materials and chemistry have been employed to improve performance. However, one less-studied aspect that also impacts performance is the electrode microstructure. In particular, three-dimensional (3D) electrode microstructural data for LIB electrodes, which were not widely available prior to this thesis, can provide important input for understanding and improving LIB performance. The focus of this thesis is to apply 3D tomographic techniques, together with electrochemical performance data, to obtain LIB microstructure-performance correlations. Two advanced 3D structural analysis techniques, focused ion beam-scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM) and transmission X-ray microscopy (TXM) nanotomography, are used to quantify LIB electrode microstructure. 3D characterization of LIB electrode microstructure is used to obtain a deeper understanding of mechanisms that limit LIB performance. Microstructural characterization before and after cycling is used to explore capacity loss mechanisms. It is hoped that the results can guide electrode microstructures design to improve performance and stability. Two types of commercial electrodes, LiCoO2 and LiCoO 2/Li(Ni1/3Mn1/3Co1/3)O2, are studied using FIB-SEM and TXM. Both methods were found to be applicable to quantifying the oxide particle microstructure, including volume fraction, surface area, and particle size distribution, and results agreed well. However, structural inhomogeneity found in these commercial samples, limited the capability to resolve microstructural changes during cycling. In order to also quantify

  14. A flexible Li-ion battery with design towards electrodes electrical insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, E. M. F.; Ribeiro, J. F.; Sousa, R.; Correia, J. H.; Goncalves, L. M.

    2016-08-01

    The application of micro electromechanical systems (MEMS) technology in several consumer electronics leads to the development of micro/nano power sources with high power and MEMS integration possibility. This work presents the fabrication of a flexible solid-state Li-ion battery (LIB) (~2.1 μm thick) with a design towards electrodes electrical insulation, using conventional, low cost and compatible MEMS fabrication processes. Kapton® substrate provides flexibility to the battery. E-beam deposited 300 nm thick Ge anode was coupled with LiCoO2/LiPON (cathode/solid-state electrolyte) in a battery system. LiCoO2 and LiPON films were deposited by RF-sputtering with a power source of 120 W and 100 W, respectively. LiCoO2 film was annealed at 400 °C after deposition. The new design includes Si3N4 and LiPO thin-films, providing electrode electrical insulation and a battery chemical stability safeguard, respectively. Microstructure and battery performance were investigated by scanning electron microscopy, electric resistivity and electrochemical measurements (open circuit potential, charge/discharge cycles and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy). A rechargeable thin-film and lightweight flexible LIB using MEMS processing compatible materials and techniques is reported.

  15. Design of Hydrogen Storage Alloys/Nanoporous Metals Hybrid Electrodes for Nickel-Metal Hydride Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, M. M.; Yang, C. C.; Wang, C. C.; Wen, Z.; Zhu, Y. F.; Zhao, M.; Li, J. C.; Zheng, W. T.; Lian, J. S.; Jiang, Q.

    2016-06-01

    Nickel metal hydride (Ni-MH) batteries have demonstrated key technology advantages for applications in new-energy vehicles, which play an important role in reducing greenhouse gas emissions and the world’s dependence on fossil fuels. However, the poor high-rate dischargeability of the negative electrode materials—hydrogen storage alloys (HSAs) limits applications of Ni-MH batteries in high-power fields due to large polarization. Here we design a hybrid electrode by integrating HSAs with a current collector of three-dimensional bicontinuous nanoporous Ni. The electrode shows enhanced high-rate dischargeability with the capacity retention rate reaching 44.6% at a discharge current density of 3000 mA g‑1, which is 2.4 times that of bare HSAs (18.8%). Such a unique hybrid architecture not only enhances charge transfer between nanoporous Ni and HSAs, but also facilitates rapid diffusion of hydrogen atoms in HSAs. The developed HSAs/nanoporous metals hybrid structures exhibit great potential to be candidates as electrodes in high-performance Ni-MH batteries towards applications in new-energy vehicles.

  16. Vanadium based amorphous mixed oxides used as negative electrodes of lithium batteries; Oxydes mixtes amorphes a base de vanadium comme electrodes negatives de batteries au lithium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guyomard, D.; Leroux, F.; Sigala, C.; Le Gal La Salle, A.; Piffard, Y. [Institut des Materiaux de Nantes, 44 (France). Laboratoire de Chimie des Solides

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents recent results concerning the chemical and electrochemical synthesis, the electrochemical properties and the characterization of two new families of amorphous oxides of formula Li{sub x}MVO{sub 4} (1electrodes in high performance lithium-ion batteries. (J.S.) 19 refs.

  17. Novel configuration of bifunctional air electrodes for rechargeable zinc-air batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Po-Chieh; Chien, Yu-Ju; Hu, Chi-Chang

    2016-05-01

    A novel configuration of two electrodes containing electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER) pressed into a bifunctional air electrode is designed for rechargeable Zn-air batteries. MOC/25BC carbon paper (MOC consisting of α-MnO2 and XC-72 carbon black) and Fe0.1Ni0.9Co2O4/Ti mesh on this air electrode mainly serve as the cathode for the ORR and the anode for the OER, respectively. The morphology and physicochemical properties of Fe0.1Ni0.9Co2O4 are investigated through scanning electron microscopy, inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, and X-ray diffraction. Electrochemical studies comprise linear sweep voltammetry, rotating ring-disk electrode voltammetry, and the full-cell charge-discharge-cycling test. The discharge peak power density of the Zn-air battery with the unique air electrode reaches 88.8 mW cm-2 at 133.6 mA cm-2 and 0.66 V in an alkaline electrolyte under an ambient atmosphere. After 100 charge-discharge cycles at 10 mA cm-2, an increase of 0.3 V between charge and discharge cell voltages is observed. The deep charge-discharge curve (10 h in each step) indicates that the cell voltages of discharge (1.3 V) and charge (1.97 V) remain constant throughout the process. The performance of the proposed rechargeable Zn-air battery is superior to that of most other similar batteries reported in recent studies.

  18. Modelling of cycling of lithium battery with microporous carbon electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Portnyagin

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Charge/discharge cycles of lithium cell with microporous carbon electrode under potentiodynamic control have been modelled. Predictions of the models with variable and constant diffusion coefficient neglecting the electric field inside the particle (CPM, DFM are compared to the predictions of the models with variable and constant diffusion coefficient in which electrostatic interaction inside the particles of carbon electrode (CPME, DFME is taken into account. There is observed a considerable difference between both. Electrostatic interactions of lithium ions with each other and the charge distributed inside the particle promote intercalation during the discharge of the cell and deintercalation during the charge. The dependance of the effect of hysteresis during the cycling of the cell on the rate of change of the applied voltage is studied. The larger is the speed of change of the applied voltage the more effective is hysteresis. We have also obtained concentration profiles at different stages of charge/discharge process.

  19. A method for making electrodes for an alkaline storage battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isikava, T.; Ivaki, T.; Matsumoto, I.; Yanagikhara, N.

    1983-02-16

    The surface of a porous of a foam metal plate filled with an active mass is covered by a mixture of a fiberous material with an electrolyte resistant powder of a thermoplastic resin. Heating the plate to a temperature close to the melting point of the resin, the powder and fiberous material is melted. Fibers of polyacrylnitrile or carbon and polyethylene powder are used. The produced electrode has a long service life.

  20. Combined operando studies of new electrode materials for Li-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jumas, Jean-Claude, E-mail: jumas@univ-montp2.fr; Sougrati, Moulay Tahar; Perea, Alexis; Aldon, Laurent; Olivier-Fourcade, Josette [Universite Montpellier 2, Institut Charles Gerhardt (UMR 5253 CNRS) (France)

    2013-04-15

    The performances of Li-ion batteries depend on many factors amongst which the important ones are the electrode materials and their structural and electronic evolution upon cycling. For a better understanding of lithium reactivity mechanism of many materials the combination of X-Ray Powder Diffraction (XRPD) and Transmission Moessbauer Spectroscopy (TMS) providing both structural and electronic information during the electrochemical cycling has been carried out. Thanks to the design of a specific electrochemical cell, derived from a conventional Swagelock cell, such measurements have been realised in operando mode. Two examples illustrate the greatness of combining XRPD and TMS for the study of LiFe{sub 0.75}Mn{sub 0.25}PO{sub 4} as positive electrode and TiSnSb as negative electrode. Different kinds of insertion or conversion reactions have been identified leading to a better optimization and design of performing electrodes.

  1. Combined operando studies of new electrode materials for Li-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jumas, Jean-Claude; Sougrati, Moulay Tahar; Perea, Alexis; Aldon, Laurent; Olivier-Fourcade, Josette

    2013-04-01

    The performances of Li-ion batteries depend on many factors amongst which the important ones are the electrode materials and their structural and electronic evolution upon cycling. For a better understanding of lithium reactivity mechanism of many materials the combination of X-Ray Powder Diffraction (XRPD) and Transmission Mössbauer Spectroscopy (TMS) providing both structural and electronic information during the electrochemical cycling has been carried out. Thanks to the design of a specific electrochemical cell, derived from a conventional Swagelock cell, such measurements have been realised in operando mode. Two examples illustrate the greatness of combining XRPD and TMS for the study of LiFe0.75Mn0.25PO4 as positive electrode and TiSnSb as negative electrode. Different kinds of insertion or conversion reactions have been identified leading to a better optimization and design of performing electrodes.

  2. Combined operando studies of new electrode materials for Li-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The performances of Li-ion batteries depend on many factors amongst which the important ones are the electrode materials and their structural and electronic evolution upon cycling. For a better understanding of lithium reactivity mechanism of many materials the combination of X-Ray Powder Diffraction (XRPD) and Transmission Mössbauer Spectroscopy (TMS) providing both structural and electronic information during the electrochemical cycling has been carried out. Thanks to the design of a specific electrochemical cell, derived from a conventional Swagelock cell, such measurements have been realised in operando mode. Two examples illustrate the greatness of combining XRPD and TMS for the study of LiFe0.75Mn0.25PO4 as positive electrode and TiSnSb as negative electrode. Different kinds of insertion or conversion reactions have been identified leading to a better optimization and design of performing electrodes.

  3. Characteristics of graphite felt electrode electrochemically oxidized for vanadium redox battery application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiao-gang; HUANG Ke-long; LIU Su-qin; TAN Ning; CHEN Li-quan

    2007-01-01

    The graphite felt was oxidized at a positive electrode potential in sulfuric acid solution. The electrochemical performance of the treated graphite felt served as electrode for vanadium redox battery was investigated with FT-IR, SEM, XPS, BET, cyclic voltammetry and testing VRB system, respectively. The results show that the molar ratio of O to C increases from 0.085 to 0.15 due to the increase of -COOH functional groups during electrochemical oxidation treatment, and the GF surface is eroded by electrochemical oxidation, resulting in the surface area increase from 0.33 m2/g to 0.49 m2/g. The VRB with modified GF electrode exhibits excellent performance under a current density of 30 mA/cm2. The average current efficiency reaches 94% and average voltage efficiency reaches 85%. The improvement of electrochemical activity for the electrode is ascribed to the increase of the number of -COOH group and the special surface of GF.

  4. Silicon oxycarbide glass-graphene composite paper electrode for long-cycle lithium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Lamuel; Bhandavat, Romil; Barrera, Uriel; Singh, Gurpreet

    2016-01-01

    Silicon and graphene are promising anode materials for lithium-ion batteries because of their high theoretical capacity; however, low volumetric energy density, poor efficiency and instability in high loading electrodes limit their practical application. Here we report a large area (approximately 15 cm × 2.5 cm) self-standing anode material consisting of molecular precursor-derived silicon oxycarbide glass particles embedded in a chemically-modified reduced graphene oxide matrix. The porous reduced graphene oxide matrix serves as an effective electron conductor and current collector with a stable mechanical structure, and the amorphous silicon oxycarbide particles cycle lithium-ions with high Coulombic efficiency. The paper electrode (mass loading of 2 mg cm(-2)) delivers a charge capacity of ∼588 mAh g(-1)electrode (∼393 mAh cm(-3)electrode) at 1,020th cycle and shows no evidence of mechanical failure. Elimination of inactive ingredients such as metal current collector and polymeric binder reduces the total electrode weight and may provide the means to produce efficient lightweight batteries. PMID:27025781

  5. Silicon oxycarbide glass-graphene composite paper electrode for long-cycle lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Lamuel; Bhandavat, Romil; Barrera, Uriel; Singh, Gurpreet

    2016-03-01

    Silicon and graphene are promising anode materials for lithium-ion batteries because of their high theoretical capacity; however, low volumetric energy density, poor efficiency and instability in high loading electrodes limit their practical application. Here we report a large area (approximately 15 cm × 2.5 cm) self-standing anode material consisting of molecular precursor-derived silicon oxycarbide glass particles embedded in a chemically-modified reduced graphene oxide matrix. The porous reduced graphene oxide matrix serves as an effective electron conductor and current collector with a stable mechanical structure, and the amorphous silicon oxycarbide particles cycle lithium-ions with high Coulombic efficiency. The paper electrode (mass loading of 2 mg cm-2) delivers a charge capacity of ~588 mAh g-1electrode (~393 mAh cm-3electrode) at 1,020th cycle and shows no evidence of mechanical failure. Elimination of inactive ingredients such as metal current collector and polymeric binder reduces the total electrode weight and may provide the means to produce efficient lightweight batteries.

  6. Nanoscale Imaging of Lithium Ion Distribution During In Situ Operation of Battery Electrode and Electrolyte

    CERN Document Server

    Holtz, Megan E; Gunceler, Deniz; Gao, Jie; Sundararaman, Ravishankar; Schwarz, Kathleen A; Arias, Tomás A; Abruña, Héctor D; Muller, David A

    2013-01-01

    A major challenge in the development of new battery materials is understanding their fundamental mechanisms of operation and degradation. Their microscopically inhomogeneous nature calls for characterization tools that provide operando and localized information from individual grains and particles. Here we describe an approach that images the nanoscale distribution of ions during electrochemical charging of a battery in a transmission electron microscope liquid flow cell. We use valence energy-loss spectroscopy to track both solvated and intercalated ions, with electronic structure fingerprints of the solvated ions identified using an ab initio non-linear response theory. Equipped with the new electrochemical cell holder, nanoscale spectroscopy and theory, we have been able to determine the lithiation state of a LiFePO4 electrode and surrounding aqueous electrolyte in real time with nanoscale resolution during electrochemical charge and discharge. We follow lithium transfer between electrode and electrolyte a...

  7. Thermodynamic analysis and effect of crystallinity for silicon monoxide negative electrode for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuda, Kouji; Kashitani, Yusuke; Kizaki, Shingo; Takeshita, Kohki; Fujita, Takehisa; Shimosaki, Shinji

    2016-10-01

    The electrochemical behavior of SiO negative electrodes for lithium ion batteries is thermodynamically and experimentally investigated. The analysis of the reaction pathway and the calculation of the reaction potentials during the Li insertion/extraction reactions are carried out by the construction of the ternary phase diagram for the Li-Si-O system. In the initial reaction of Li insertion, metallic Si and lithium silicates are formed above 0.37 V vs. Li/Li+ as a conversion reaction of the SiO negative electrode. Further Li insertion produces Li-Si alloys as reversible reaction phases. The decomposition of the Li4SiO4 phase begins before the formation of the Li-Si alloy is completed. The measured electrode behavior of the SiO negative electrode basically agrees with the thermodynamic calculations, especially at a low reaction rate; deviations can be ascribed to kinetic factors and electrode resistance. The values of over 1898 mA h g-1 and 71.0% were obtained for the discharge capacity and the coulombic efficiency, respectively. Furthermore, the overvoltage for an amorphous SiO electrode was smaller than that for a disproportionated SiO electrode into Si and SiO2 phases.

  8. Three-Dimensional Au Microlattices as Positive Electrodes for Li–O_2 Batteries

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Chen; Gallant, Betar M.; Wunderlich, Phillip U.; Lohmann, Timm; Greer, Julia R.

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate the feasibility of using a 3-dimensional gold microlattice with a periodic porous structure and independently tunable surface composition as a Li–O_2 battery cathode. The structure provides a platform for studying electrochemical reactions in architected Li–O_2 electrodes with large (300 μm) pore sizes. The lack of carbon and chemical binders in these Au microlattices enabled the investigation of chemical and morphological processes that occur on the surfaces of the microlattic...

  9. 3D Porous Sponge-Inspired Electrode for Stretchable Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Chen, Zheng; Zhou, Guangmin; Sun, Yongming; Lee, Hye Ryoung; Liu, Chong; Yao, Hongbin; Bao, Zhenan; Cui, Yi

    2016-05-01

    A stretchable Li4 Ti5 O12 anode and a LiFePO4 cathode with 80% stretchability are prepared using a 3D interconnected porous polydimethylsiloxane sponge based on sugar cubes. 82% and 91% capacity retention for anode and cathode are achieved after 500 stretch-release cycles. Slight capacity decay of 6% in the battery using the electrode in stretched state is observed. PMID:26992146

  10. Graphite oxide-based graphene materials as positive electrodes in vanadium redox flow batteries

    OpenAIRE

    González Arias, Zoraida; Botas Velasco, Cristina; Blanco Rodríguez, Clara; Santamaría Ramírez, Ricardo; Granda Ferreira, Marcos; Álvarez Rodríguez, Patricia; Menéndez López, Rosa María

    2013-01-01

    Two graphene materials, TRGO-1 and TRGO-2, prepared by the thermal exfoliation/reduction at 1000 °C of two graphite oxides with different characteristics, are investigated as positive electrodes in a vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB). A detailed study of their electrochemical response toward the [VO2+]/[VO2+] redox system is carried out through cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and charge/discharge experiments. As a consequence of the differences in the structure of ...

  11. Silicon oxycarbide glass-graphene composite paper electrode for long-cycle lithium-ion batteries

    OpenAIRE

    David, Lamuel; Bhandavat, Romil; Barrera, Uriel; Singh, Gurpreet

    2016-01-01

    Silicon and graphene are promising anode materials for lithium-ion batteries because of their high theoretical capacity; however, low volumetric energy density, poor efficiency and instability in high loading electrodes limit their practical application. Here we report a large area (approximately 15 cm × 2.5 cm) self-standing anode material consisting of molecular precursor-derived silicon oxycarbide glass particles embedded in a chemically-modified reduced graphene oxide matrix. The porous r...

  12. Enhanced performance of VRLA batteries with a novel spirally-wound electrode design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J.; Liu, H. K.; Dou, S. X.; Zhong, S.; Zhu, Y.; Fu, C.

    A spirally-wound electrode has been designed, constructed and applied to VRLA cells. Because of its unique construction: high strength, light-weight lead-coated glass fibre mesh as the grid, comparatively thin plates and sufficient internal compression, this new design provides significant advantages over the conventional prismatic type of VRLA battery. The total weight of grids and top lead used in a battery can be reduced by 40% compared with conventional cast grids. There was no positive active-material softening and expansion until after over 300 deep cycles. Substantial improvement in sustaining the cycleability has been achieved. This technique also provides a convenient process for manufacturing a spirally-wound VRLA battery in a simple and cost competitive way.

  13. Radiation effects on the electrode and electrolyte of a lithium-ion battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Chuting; Lyons, Daniel J.; Pan, Ke; Leung, Kwan Yee; Chuirazzi, William C.; Canova, Marcello; Co, Anne C.; Cao, Lei R.

    2016-06-01

    The performance degradation and durability of a Li-ion battery is a major concern when it is operated under radiation conditions, for instance, in deep space exploration, in high radiation field, or rescuing or sampling equipment in a post-nuclear accident scenario. This paper examines the radiation effects on the electrode and electrolyte materials separately and their effects on a battery's capacity loss and resistance increase. A60Co irradiator (34.3 krad/h) was used to provide 0.8, 4.1, and 9.8 Mrad dose to LiFePO4 electrodes and 0.8, 1.6, and 5.7 Mrad to 1 M LiPF6 in 1:1 wt% EC:DMC electrolytes. This study shows that the coin cells assembled with irradiated components have higher failure rate (ca. 70%) than that of control group (ca. 14%). A significant battery capacity fade post irradiation was observed. The electrolyte also shows a darkened color a few weeks or months after irradiation. The discovery of this latent effect may be significant because a battery may degrade significantly even showing no sign of degradation immediately after exposure. We investigated electrolyte composition by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy prior and post irradiation. Polymerization reactions and HF formation are considered as the cause of the discoloration.

  14. Microwave-treated graphite felt as the positive electrode for all-vanadium redox flow battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaoxin; Xu, Hongfeng; Xu, Pengcheng; Shen, Yang; Lu, Lu; Shi, Jicheng; Fu, Jie; Zhao, Hong

    2014-10-01

    An environmental, economic, and highly effective method based on microwave treatment was firstly used to improve the electrochemical activity of graphite felt as the positive electrode in all vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB). The graphite felt was treated by microwave and characterized by Fourier transform infrared and scanning electron microscopy. The electrochemical performance of the prepared electrode was evaluated with cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Results show that graphite felt treated by microwave for 15 min at 400 °C exhibits excellent electro-catalytic activity and reactive velocity to vanadium redox couples. The coulombic, voltage, and energy efficiency of the VRFB with as-prepared electrodes at 50 mA cm-2 are 96.9%, 75.5%, and 73.2%, respectively; these values are much higher than those of cell-assembled conventionally and thermally treated graphite felt electrodes. The microwave-treated graphite felt will carry more hydrophilic groups, such as -OH, on its defects, and rough degree of the surface which should be advantageous in facilitating the redox reaction of vanadium ions, leading to the efficient operation of a vanadium redox flow battery. Moreover, microwave treatment can be easily scaled up to treat graphite felt for VRFB in large quantities.

  15. Graphite felt modified with bismuth nanoparticles as negative electrode in a vanadium redox flow battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez, David J; González, Zoraida; Blanco, Clara; Granda, Marcos; Menéndez, Rosa; Santamaría, Ricardo

    2014-03-01

    A graphite felt decorated with bismuth nanoparticles was studied as negative electrode in a vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB). The results confirm the excellent electrochemical performance of the bismuth modified electrode in terms of the reversibility of the V(3+) /V(2+) redox reactions and its long-term cycling performance. Moreover a mechanism that explains the role that Bi nanoparticles play in the redox reactions in this negative half-cell is proposed. Bi nanoparticles favor the formation of BiHx , an intermediate that reduces V(3+) to V(2+) and, therefore, inhibits the competitive irreversible reaction of hydrogen formation (responsible for the commonly observed loss of Coulombic efficiency of VRFBs). Thus, the total charge consumed during the cathodic sweep in this electrode is used to reduce V(3+) to V(2+) , resulting in a highly reversible and efficient process.

  16. A high-performance dual-scale porous electrode for vanadium redox flow batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, X. L.; Zeng, Y. K.; Zhu, X. B.; Wei, L.; Zhao, T. S.

    2016-09-01

    In this work, we present a simple and cost-effective method to form a dual-scale porous electrode by KOH activation of the fibers of carbon papers. The large pores (∼10 μm), formed between carbon fibers, serve as the macroscopic pathways for high electrolyte flow rates, while the small pores (∼5 nm), formed on carbon fiber surfaces, act as active sites for rapid electrochemical reactions. It is shown that the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller specific surface area of the carbon paper is increased by a factor of 16 while maintaining the same hydraulic permeability as that of the original carbon paper electrode. We then apply the dual-scale electrode to a vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB) and demonstrate an energy efficiency ranging from 82% to 88% at current densities of 200-400 mA cm-2, which is record breaking as the highest performance of VRFB in the open literature.

  17. An in situ operando MEMS platform for characterization of Li-ion battery electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, H.; Gerasopoulos, K.; Zhang, X.; Ghodssi, R.

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents an in situ operando approach that allows characterization of lithium-ion battery electrodes. A MEMS sensor is designed and integrated with a commercially available Raman spectroscope to enable monitoring the stress and structural changes in the electrodes. An interferometric method with an enhanced image processing algorithm is applied for analyzing the crystal phase-dependent stress changes - contributing to higher sensitivity compared to a previously reported technique - while the structural changes are monitored using Raman spectroscopy. New capabilities of our platform are highlighted, allowing visual observation of crystal phase-dependent structural changes in the electrode. Simultaneous characterization of the stress and structural changes are achieved concurrently in situ operando. The results show excellent agreement with previous literature reports on both phenomena.

  18. Highly accurate apparatus for electrochemical characterization of the felt electrodes used in redox flow batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jong Ho; Park, Jung Jin; Park, O. Ok; Jin, Chang-Soo; Yang, Jung Hoon

    2016-04-01

    Because of the rise in renewable energy use, the redox flow battery (RFB) has attracted extensive attention as an energy storage system. Thus, many studies have focused on improving the performance of the felt electrodes used in RFBs. However, existing analysis cells are unsuitable for characterizing felt electrodes because of their complex 3-dimensional structure. Analysis is also greatly affected by the measurement conditions, viz. compression ratio, contact area, and contact strength between the felt and current collector. To address the growing need for practical analytical apparatus, we report a new analysis cell for accurate electrochemical characterization of felt electrodes under various conditions, and compare it with previous ones. In this cell, the measurement conditions can be exhaustively controlled with a compression supporter. The cell showed excellent reproducibility in cyclic voltammetry analysis and the results agreed well with actual RFB charge-discharge performance.

  19. A novel slurry concept for the fabrication of lithium-ion battery electrodes with beneficial properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitsch, Boris; Dittmann, Jens; Schmitt, Marcel; Scharfer, Philip; Schabel, Wilhelm; Willenbacher, Norbert

    2014-11-01

    A novel slurry concept for the fabrication of Li-ion battery electrodes focusing on water based formulations is presented. Taking advantage of capillary forces inferred by adding a small fraction of a second fluid immiscible with the bulk continuous phase the low shear viscosity can be varied in a wide range without conventional polymeric rheology control agents disturbing the electric properties of the dry electrode. The new slurries provide superior storage stability and excellent shape accuracy of the final dry film. This reduces waste cut-off at the edges and increases the density of active ingredients, thus improving cost-efficiency. The viscosity at high shear rates remains unaffected, thus the slurries can be processed and coated using established equipment and process parameters. Adhesion to the conductor foil and electrochemical properties of the electrode layers and corresponding cells are similar to those made from conventional slurries.

  20. Mg-Ni THIN FILM-A POTENTIAL NEGATIVE ELECTRODE FOR NIKEL-METAL HYDRIDE BATTERY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    L.Z. Ouyang; C.Y. Chung; M.Q. Zeng; H. Wang; M. Zhu

    2003-01-01

    Mg-Ni thin films for nickel-metal hydride (Ni-MH) battery negative electrode were prepared on three different substrates by using magnetron sputtering with compacted Ni and Mg mixture powder. The microstructure of Mg-Ni thin films deposited on the glass and the Ni foil substrate respectively was studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD)and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results show that the Mg-Ni thin films were in amorphous structure and the composition of the thin film was homogeneous.Electrochemical measurement show the discharge capacity of the thin film negative electrode deposited on the foam Ni substrate was 234.8mAh/g in 6M alkaline electrolyte and the internal resistance was much lower than that of the electrode prepared by the ball-milled powder during the charge-discharge cycle.

  1. The fabrication of a bifunctional oxygen electrode without carbon components for alkaline secondary batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Stephen W. T.; Thompson, Stephen J.; Li, Xiaohong; Gorman, Scott F.; Pletcher, Derek; Russell, Andrea E.; Walsh, Frank C.; Wills, Richard G. A.

    2014-08-01

    The fabrication of a gas diffusion electrode (GDE) without carbon components is described. It is therefore suitable for use as a bifunctional oxygen electrode in alkaline secondary batteries. The electrode is fabricated in two stages (a) the formation of a PTFE-bonded nickel powder layer on a nickel foam substrate and (b) the deposition of a NiCo2O4 spinel electrocatalyst layer by dip coating in a nitrate solution and thermal decomposition. The influence of modifications to the procedure on the performance of the GDEs in 8 M NaOH at 333 K is described. The GDEs can support current densities up to 100 mA cm-2 with state-of-the-art overpotentials for both oxygen evolution and oxygen reduction. Stable performance during >50 successive, 1 h oxygen reduction/evolution cycles at a current density of 50 mA cm-2 has been achieved.

  2. Elegant design of electrode and electrode/electrolyte interface in lithium-ion batteries by atomic layer deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) are very promising power supply systems for a variety of applications, such as electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, grid energy storage, and microelectronics. However, to realize these practical applications, many challenges need to be addressed in LIBs, such as power and energy density, cycling lifetime, safety, and cost. Atomic layer deposition (ALD) is emerging as a powerful technique for solving these problems due to its exclusive advantages over other film deposition counterparts. In this review, we summarize the state-of-the-art progresses of employing ALD to design novel nanostructured electrode materials and solid-state electrolytes and to tailor electrode/electrolyte interface by surface coatings in order to prevent unfavorable side reactions and achieve optimal performance of the electrode. Insights into the future research and development of the ALD technique for LIB applications are also discussed. We expect that this review article will provide resourceful information to researchers in both fields of LIBs and ALD and also will stimulate more insightful studies of using ALD for the development of next-generation LIBs. (review)

  3. Vertical distribution of overpotentials and irreversible charge losses in lithium ion battery electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klink, Stefan; Schuhmann, Wolfgang; La Mantia, Fabio

    2014-08-01

    Porous lithium ion battery electrodes are characterized using a vertical distribution of cross-currents. In an appropriate simplification, this distribution can be described by a transmission line model (TLM) consisting of infinitely thin electrode layers. To investigate the vertical distribution of currents, overpotentials, and irreversible charge losses in a porous graphite electrode in situ, a multi-layered working electrode (MWE) was developed as the experimental analogue of a TLM. In this MWE, each layer is in ionic contact but electrically insulated from the other layers by a porous separator. It was found that the negative graphite electrodes get lithiated and delithiated stage-by-stage and layer-by-layer. Several mass-transport- as well as non-mass-transport-limited processes could be identified. Local current densities can reach double the average, especially on the outermost layer at the beginning of each intercalation stage. Furthermore, graphite particles close to the counter electrode act as "electrochemical sieve" reducing the impurities present in the electrolyte such as water.

  4. Electrospun carbon nanofibers/electrocatalyst hybrids as asymmetric electrodes for vanadium redox flow battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Guanjie; Fan, Xinzhuang; Liu, Jianguo; Yan, Chuanwei

    2015-05-01

    To improve the electrochemical activity of polyacrylonitrile (PAN)-based electrospun carbon nanofibers (ECNFs) toward vanadium redox couples, the multi-wall carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and Bi-based compound as electrocatalyst have been embedded in the ECNFs to make composite electrode, respectively. The morphology and electrochemical properties of pristine ECNFs, CNTs/ECNFs and Bi/ECNFs have been characterized. Among the three kinds of electrodes, the CNTs/ECNFs show best electrochemical activity toward VO2+/VO2+ redox couple, while the Bi/ECNFs present the best electrochemical activity toward V2+/V3+ redox couple. Furthermore, the high overpotential of hydrogen evolution on Bi/ECNFs makes the side-reaction suppressed. Because of the large property difference between the two composite electrodes, the CNTs/ECNFs and Bi/ECNFs are designed to act as positive and negative electrode for vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB), respectively. It not only does improve the kinetics of two electrode reactions at the same time, but also reduce the kinetics difference between them. Due to the application of asymmetric electrodes, performance of the cell is improved greatly.

  5. Operando studies of all-vanadium flow batteries: Easy-to-make reference electrode based on silver-silver sulfate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventosa, Edgar; Skoumal, Marcel; Vázquez, Francisco Javier; Flox, Cristina; Morante, Joan Ramon

    2014-12-01

    In-depth evaluation of the electrochemical performance of all-vanadium redox flow batteries (VRFBs) under operando conditions requires the insertion of a reliable reference electrode in the battery cell. In this work, an easy-to-make reference electrode based on silver-silver sulfate is proposed and described for VRFBs. The relevance and feasibility of the information obtained by inserting the reference electrode is illustrated with the study of ammoxidized graphite felts. In this case, we show that the kinetic of the electrochemical reaction VO2+/VO2+ is slower than that of V2+/V3+ at the electrode. While the slow kinetics at the positive electrode limits the voltage efficiency, the operating potential of the negative electrode, which is outside the stability widow of water, reduces the coulombic efficiency due to the hydrogen evolution.

  6. Understanding and Overcoming the Challenges Posed by Electrode/Electrolyte Interfaces in Rechargeable Magnesium Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuminori eMizuno

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Guided by the great achievements of lithium (Li-ion battery technologies, post Li-ion battery technologies have gained a considerable interest in recent years. Their success would allow us to realize a sustainable society, enabling us to mitigate issues like global warming and resource depletion. Of such technologies, Magnesium (Mg battery technologies have attracted attention as a high energy-density storage system due to the following advantages: (1 potentially high energy-density derived from a divalent nature, (2 low-cost due to the use of an earth abundant metal, and (3 intrinsic safety aspect attributed to non-dendritic growth of Mg. However, these notable advantages are downplayed by undesirable battery reactions and related phenomena. As a result, there are only a few working rechargeable Mg battery systems. One of the root causes for undesirable behavior is the sluggish diffusion of Mg2+ inside a host lattice. Another root cause is the interfacial reaction at the electrode/electrolyte boundary. For the cathode/electrolyte interface, Mg2+ in the electrolyte needs a solvation-desolvation process prior to diffusion inside the cathode. Apart from the solid electrolyte interface (SEI formed on the cathode, the divalent nature of Mg should cause kinetically slower solvation-desolvation processes than that of Li-ion systems. This would result in a high charge transfer resistance and a larger overpotential. On the contrary, for the anode/electrolyte interface, the Mg deposition and dissolution process depends on the electrolyte nature and its compatibility with Mg metal. Also, the Mg metal/electrolyte interface tends to change over time, and with operating conditions, suggesting the presence of interfacial phenomena on the Mg metal. Hence, the solvation-desolvation process of Mg has to be considered with a possible SEI. Here, we focus on the anode/electrolyte interface in a Mg battery, and discuss the next steps to improve the battery

  7. Influence of the active mass particle suspension in electrolyte upon corrosion of negative electrode of a lead-acid battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamenev, Yu.; Shtompel, G.; Ostapenko, E.; Leonov, V.

    2014-07-01

    The influence of the suspension of positive active mass particles in the electrolyte on the performance of the negative electrode in a lead-acid battery is studied. A significant increase in the rate of corrosion of the lead electrode is shown when slime particles get in contact with its surface, which may result in the rise of macro-defects on the lugs of the negative electrodes.

  8. In-situ Spectroscopic and Structural Studies of Electrode Materials for Advanced Battery Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel A Scherson

    2013-03-14

    Techniques have been developed and implemented to gain insight into fundamental factors that affect the performance of electrodes in Li and Li-ion batteries and other energy storage devices. These include experimental strategies for monitoring the Raman scattering spectra of single microparticles of carbon and transition metal oxides as a function of their state of charge. Measurements were performed in electrolytes of direct relevance to Li and Li-Ion batteries both in the static and dynamic modes. In addition, novel strategies were devised for performing conventional experiments in ultrahigh vacuum environments under conditions which eliminate effects associated with presence of impurities, using ultrapure electrolytes, both of the polymeric and ionic liquid type that display no measurable vapor pressure. Also examined was the reactivity of conventional non aqueous solvent toward ultrapure Li films as monitored in ultrahigh vacuum with external reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Also pursued were efforts toward developing applying Raman-scattering for monitoring the flow of charge of a real Li ion battery. Such time-resolved, spatially-resolved measurements are key to validating the results of theoretical simulations involving real electrode structures.

  9. Capillary suspensions as beneficial formulation concept for high energy density Li-ion battery electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitsch, Boris; Gallasch, Tobias; Schroeder, Melanie; Börner, Markus; Winter, Martin; Willenbacher, Norbert

    2016-10-01

    We introduce a novel formulation concept to prepare high capacity graphite electrodes for lithium ion batteries. The concept is based on the capillary suspension phenomenon: graphite and conductive agent are dispersed in an aqueous binder solution and the organic solvent octanol is added as immiscible, secondary fluid providing the formation of a sample-spanning network resulting in unique stability and coating properties. No additional processing steps compared to conventional slurry preparation are required. The resulting ultra-thick electrodes comprise mass loadings of about 16.5 mg cm-2, uniform layer thickness, and superior edge contours. The adjustment of mechanical energy input ensures uniform distribution of the conductive agent and sufficient electronic conductivity of the final dry composite electrode. The resulting pore structure is due to the stable network provided by the secondary fluid which evaporates residue-free during drying. Constant current-constant potential (CC-CP) cycling clearly indicates that the corresponding microstructure significantly improves the kinetics of reversible Li+ (de-) intercalation. A double layer electrode combining a conventionally prepared layer coated directly onto the Cu current collector with an upper layer stabilized with octanol was prepared applying wet-on-wet coating. CC-CP cycling data confirms that staged porosity within the electrode cross section results in superior electrochemical performance.

  10. Recent improvements in PbO2 nanowire electrodes for lead-acid battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moncada, Alessandra; Piazza, Salvatore; Sunseri, Carmelo; Inguanta, Rosalinda

    2015-02-01

    Lead oxide nanowires are an attractive alternative to conventional pasted electrodes, owing to their high surface area leading to high specific energy batteries. Here, we report the performance of template electrodeposited PbO2 nanowires used as positive electrodes. Nanostructured electrodes were tested at constant charge/discharge rate from 2 C to 10 C, with a cut-off potential of 1.2 V and discharge depth up to 90% of the gravimetric charge. These new type of electrodes are able to work at very high C-rate without fading, reaching an efficiency of about 90% with a very good cycling stability. In particular, after an initial stabilization, a specific capacity of about 200 mAh g-1, very close to the theoretical one of 224 mAh g-1, was drained for more than 1000 cycles at a C-rate higher than 1 C with an efficiency close to 90%. This behaviour significantly distinguishes PbO2 nanostructured electrodes from the conventional ones with pasted active material. In addition, discharge at a quasi-constant voltage of about 2.1 V, without reaching the cut-off potential also at high C-rate, occurs. This implies a quasi-constant energy supply during fast discharge. According to these findings, innovative applications as hybrid or electrical mobility or buffer in renewable energy plants can be envisaged.

  11. Raman diagnostics of LiCoO2 electrodes for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Toni; Hess, Christian

    2014-06-01

    LiCoO2 based electrode materials were characterized in detail using visible Raman spectroscopy. The studied materials comprise the active LiCoO2 material itself as well as electrochemically relevant composites of LiCoO2 with binder and conductive additives. Spatially resolved analysis, i.e. mapping of LiCoO2 composite electrodes reveals a significant variation of chemical composition across the electrode surface. Based on wavelength-dependent studies we demonstrate the presence of a resonance enhancement for LiCoO2 materials for green laser excitation allowing for in situ studies on the LiCoO2-based electrodes during lithium de-intercalation. During in situ experiments no significant structural changes occur consistent with the fact that visible Raman spectroscopy probes mainly the surface region of the LiCoO2 composite electrode. Our results demonstrate the potential of Raman spectroscopy for spatially resolved and in situ analysis of lithium-ion batteries.

  12. Carbon felt supported carbon nanotubes catalysts composite electrode for vanadium redox flow battery application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Guanjie; Jia, Chuankun; Liu, Jianguo; Yan, Chuanwei

    2012-12-01

    A modified electrode for vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB) has been developed in this paper. The electrode is based on a traditional carbon felt (CF) grafted with the short-carboxylic multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). The microstructure and electrochemical property of the modified electrode as well as the performance of the VRFB single cell with it have been characterized. The results show that the MWCNTs are evenly dispersed and adhere to the surface of carbon fibres in the CF. The electrochemical activities of the modified CF electrode have been improved dramatically and the reversibility of the VO2+/VO2+ and V3+/V2+ redox couples increased greatly. The VRFB single cell with the modified CF exhibits higher coulombic efficiency (93.9%) and energy efficiency (82.0%) than that with the pristine CF. The SEM analysis shows that the MWCNTs still cohere with carbon fibres after charge and discharge test, indicating the stability of the MWCNTs in flowing electrolyte. Therefore, the composite electrode presents considerable potential for the commercial application of CF in VRFB.

  13. Reinstating lead for high-loaded efficient negative electrode for rechargeable sodium-ion battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darwiche, Ali; Dugas, Romain; Fraisse, Bernard; Monconduit, Laure

    2016-02-01

    Due to its weight and toxicity, Pb is usually not considered as possible anode for Li- and Na-ion (NIBs) batteries. Nevertheless the toxicity is related to specific applications and its recycling is more than 99% which is one of the highest recycling rates on the planet where no other power source is utilized in more applications with such sustainability. For this reason, we have investigated micrometric lead particles as electrode for NIBs in an ether-based electrolyte (1 M NaPF6 in diglyme). The cyclability, coulombic efficiency and rate capability of lead were unexpected. A high loaded lead electrode with 98%wt of Pb and only 1% of carbon additive showed i) a capacity retention of 464 mA h/g after 50 cycles with only 1.5% of capacity loss, which represents a high volumetric capacity of 5289 mA h/cm3 due to the high density of Pb and ii) a very interesting capacity retention even at high current rate (1950 mA/g). In situ XRD study confirmed a sodiation-desodiation process in four steps. Preliminary tests in Pb//Na3V2(PO4)2F3 full cells showed promising results demonstrating that Pb could be a practical candidate for future high energy density Na-ion batteries with an efficient sodiated or non sodiated positive electrode.

  14. Biomimetic Ant-Nest Electrode Structures for High Sulfur Ratio Lithium-Sulfur Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Guo; Dai, Yiling; Mao, Wenfeng; Zhao, Hui; Fu, Yanbao; Song, Xiangyun; En, Yunfei; Battaglia, Vincent S; Srinivasan, Venkat; Liu, Gao

    2016-09-14

    The lithium-sulfur (Li-S) rechargeable battery has the benefit of high gravimetric energy density and low cost. Significant research currently focuses on increasing the sulfur loading and sulfur/inactive-materials ratio, to improve life and capacity. Inspired by nature's ant-nest structure, this research results in a novel Li-S electrode that is designed to meet both goals. With only three simple manufacturing-friendly steps, which include slurry ball-milling, doctor-blade-based laminate casting, and the use of the sacrificial method with water to dissolve away table salt, the ant-nest design has been successfully recreated in an Li-S electrode. The efficient capabilities of the ant-nest structure are adopted to facilitate fast ion transportation, sustain polysulfide dissolution, and assist efficient precipitation. High cycling stability in the Li-S batteries, for practical applications, has been achieved with up to 3 mg·cm(-2) sulfur loading. Li-S electrodes with up to a 85% sulfur ratio have also been achieved for the efficient design of this novel ant-nest structure. PMID:27501313

  15. Investigation of electrolyte wetting in lithium ion batteries: Effects of electrode pore structures and solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Yangping

    Beside natural source energy carriers such as petroleum, coal and natural gas, the lithium ion battery is a promising man-made energy carrier for the future. This is a similar process evolved from horse-powered era to engine driven age. There are still a lot of challenges ahead like low energy density, low rate performance, aging problems, high cost and safety etc. In lithium ion batteries, investigation about manufacturing process is as important as the development of material. The manufacturing of lithium ion battery, including production process (slurry making, coating, drying etc.), and post-production (slitting, calendering etc.) is also complicated and critical to the overall performance of the battery. It includes matching the capacity of anode and cathode materials, trial-and-error investigation of thickness, porosity, active material and additive loading, detailed microscopic models to understand, optimize, and design these systems by changing one or a few parameters at a time. In the manufacturing, one of the most important principles is to ensure good wetting properties between porous solid electrodes and liquid electrolyte. Besides the material surface properties, it is the process of electrolyte transporting to fill the pores in the electrode after injection is less noticed in academic, where only 2-3 drops of electrolyte are needed for lab coin cell level. In industry, the importance of electrolyte transport is well known and it is considered as part of electrolyte wetting (or initial wetting in some situations). In consideration of practical usage term, electrolyte wetting is adopted to use in this dissertation for electrolyte transporting process, although the surface chemistry about wetting is not covered. An in-depth investigation about electrolyte wetting is still missing, although it has significant effects in manufacturing. The electrolyte wetting is determined by properties of electrolyte and electrode microstructure. Currently, only viscosity

  16. Composition and crystal structure of perovskite films attained from electrodes of used car battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhiaputra, Ilham; Permana, Bayu; Maulana, Yusep; Inayatie, Yuniar Dwi; Purba, Yonatan R.; Bahtiar, Ayi

    2016-02-01

    Perovskite solar cells have been intensively investigated for high performance and low-cost solid-state solar cells. Perovskite based-lead materials are commonly used as active material for high power conversion efficiency solar cells. Herein, we report our study on the development of used electrodes car battery as a cheap raw lead material to be converted into lead (II) iodide PbI2 by using simple chemical method. We have successfully obtained PbI2 material with purity higher than 85% and its crystal structure is comparable with that of commercial product. The perovskite CH3NH3PbI3 film was prepared by spin-coating of PbI2 solution and followed by spin-coating two-times of methylamonium iodide (MAI) solution. In this paper, the crystal structure of perovskite film attained from used car battery is shown and compared with that of prepared from commercial PbI2. By utilizing the used car battery into perovskite valuable material for high performance solar cells, we can not only improve the economical value (added-value) of wasted car battery but also we can simultaneously save the environment.

  17. Strategies to improve the electrochemical performance of electrodes for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ming-Che

    Lithium-ion batteries are widely used in consumer market because of their lightweight and rechargeable property. However, for the application as power sources of hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), which need excellent cycling performance, high energy density, high power density, capacity, and low cost, new materials still need to be developed to meet the demands. In this dissertation work, three different strategies were developed to improve the properties of the electrode of lithium batteries. First, the voltage profile and lithium diffusion battier of LiM1/2Mn 3/2O4 (M=Ti, V, Cr, Fe, Co, Ni and Cu) were predicted by first principles theory. The computation results suggest that doping with Co or Cu can potentially lower Li diffusion barrier compared with Ni doping. Our experimental research has focused on LiNixCuyMn 2-x-yO4 (0diffusion lengths for the transfer of ions and electrons results in the better rate capability. The cycling performance was significantly improved by the porous structure of the calcined titanium dioxide flakes. Finally, the all-solid state thin film batteries were deposited by pulsed laser deposition method to explore the intrinsic properties of electrode itself. The cathode of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 thin film was fabricated at 300mtorr 600°C on SiO2/Si and show good electrochemical properties. The thin film electrodes offer the ability to probe the surface of the material without the need of a conductive agent and polymer binder, typically used in composite electrodes. The results suggest that neither oxidation of PF6 to POF5 nor the decomposition of ethylene carbonate or dimethylene carbonate occurs on the surface of the spinel material. These results confirm the enhanced cycling stability and rate capability associated with the high voltage spinel material and suggests that the SEI layer forms due to the extra electrochemically inactive components in the composite electrode. LVSO ceramic was chosen as the solid electrolyte and deposited by PLD

  18. All-vanadium redox flow batteries with graphite felt electrodes treated by atmospheric pressure plasma jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jian-Zhang; Liao, Wei-Yang; Hsieh, Wen-Yen; Hsu, Cheng-Che; Chen, Yong-Song

    2015-01-01

    Graphite felts modified with atmospheric pressure plasma jets (APPJs) are applied as electrodes in an all-vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB). APPJ flow penetrates deeply into the graphite felt, improving significantly the wettability of the graphite felt inside out and, thereby, enhancing graphite fiber-electrolyte contact during battery operation. The energy efficiency of a VRFB was improved from 62% (untreated) to 76% (APPJ-treated with the scan mode) at a current density of 80 mA cm-2, an improvement of 22%. The efficiency improvement is attributed to the oxygen-containing groups and nitrogen doping introduced by N2 APPJs on the fiber surfaces of graphite felt, both of which enhance electrochemical reactivity.

  19. Comparison of three-dimensional analysis and stereological techniques for quantifying lithium-ion battery electrode microstructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taiwo, Oluwadamilola O; Finegan, Donal P; Eastwood, David S; Fife, Julie L; Brown, Leon D; Darr, Jawwad A; Lee, Peter D; Brett, Daniel J L; Shearing, Paul R

    2016-09-01

    Lithium-ion battery performance is intrinsically linked to electrode microstructure. Quantitative measurement of key structural parameters of lithium-ion battery electrode microstructures will enable optimization as well as motivate systematic numerical studies for the improvement of battery performance. With the rapid development of 3-D imaging techniques, quantitative assessment of 3-D microstructures from 2-D image sections by stereological methods appears outmoded; however, in spite of the proliferation of tomographic imaging techniques, it remains significantly easier to obtain two-dimensional (2-D) data sets. In this study, stereological prediction and three-dimensional (3-D) analysis techniques for quantitative assessment of key geometric parameters for characterizing battery electrode microstructures are examined and compared. Lithium-ion battery electrodes were imaged using synchrotron-based X-ray tomographic microscopy. For each electrode sample investigated, stereological analysis was performed on reconstructed 2-D image sections generated from tomographic imaging, whereas direct 3-D analysis was performed on reconstructed image volumes. The analysis showed that geometric parameter estimation using 2-D image sections is bound to be associated with ambiguity and that volume-based 3-D characterization of nonconvex, irregular and interconnected particles can be used to more accurately quantify spatially-dependent parameters, such as tortuosity and pore-phase connectivity.

  20. Comparison of three‐dimensional analysis and stereological techniques for quantifying lithium‐ion battery electrode microstructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    TAIWO, OLUWADAMILOLA O.; FINEGAN, DONAL P.; EASTWOOD, DAVID S.; FIFE, JULIE L.; BROWN, LEON D.; DARR, JAWWAD A.; LEE, PETER D.; BRETT, DANIEL J.L.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Lithium‐ion battery performance is intrinsically linked to electrode microstructure. Quantitative measurement of key structural parameters of lithium‐ion battery electrode microstructures will enable optimization as well as motivate systematic numerical studies for the improvement of battery performance. With the rapid development of 3‐D imaging techniques, quantitative assessment of 3‐D microstructures from 2‐D image sections by stereological methods appears outmoded; however, in spite of the proliferation of tomographic imaging techniques, it remains significantly easier to obtain two‐dimensional (2‐D) data sets. In this study, stereological prediction and three‐dimensional (3‐D) analysis techniques for quantitative assessment of key geometric parameters for characterizing battery electrode microstructures are examined and compared. Lithium‐ion battery electrodes were imaged using synchrotron‐based X‐ray tomographic microscopy. For each electrode sample investigated, stereological analysis was performed on reconstructed 2‐D image sections generated from tomographic imaging, whereas direct 3‐D analysis was performed on reconstructed image volumes. The analysis showed that geometric parameter estimation using 2‐D image sections is bound to be associated with ambiguity and that volume‐based 3‐D characterization of nonconvex, irregular and interconnected particles can be used to more accurately quantify spatially‐dependent parameters, such as tortuosity and pore‐phase connectivity. PMID:26999804

  1. Comparison of three-dimensional analysis and stereological techniques for quantifying lithium-ion battery electrode microstructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taiwo, Oluwadamilola O; Finegan, Donal P; Eastwood, David S; Fife, Julie L; Brown, Leon D; Darr, Jawwad A; Lee, Peter D; Brett, Daniel J L; Shearing, Paul R

    2016-09-01

    Lithium-ion battery performance is intrinsically linked to electrode microstructure. Quantitative measurement of key structural parameters of lithium-ion battery electrode microstructures will enable optimization as well as motivate systematic numerical studies for the improvement of battery performance. With the rapid development of 3-D imaging techniques, quantitative assessment of 3-D microstructures from 2-D image sections by stereological methods appears outmoded; however, in spite of the proliferation of tomographic imaging techniques, it remains significantly easier to obtain two-dimensional (2-D) data sets. In this study, stereological prediction and three-dimensional (3-D) analysis techniques for quantitative assessment of key geometric parameters for characterizing battery electrode microstructures are examined and compared. Lithium-ion battery electrodes were imaged using synchrotron-based X-ray tomographic microscopy. For each electrode sample investigated, stereological analysis was performed on reconstructed 2-D image sections generated from tomographic imaging, whereas direct 3-D analysis was performed on reconstructed image volumes. The analysis showed that geometric parameter estimation using 2-D image sections is bound to be associated with ambiguity and that volume-based 3-D characterization of nonconvex, irregular and interconnected particles can be used to more accurately quantify spatially-dependent parameters, such as tortuosity and pore-phase connectivity. PMID:26999804

  2. Thermally reduced graphite oxide as positive electrode in Vanadium Redox Flow Batteries

    OpenAIRE

    González Arias, Zoraida; Botas Velasco, Cristina; Álvarez Rodríguez, Patricia; Roldán Luna, Silvia; Blanco Rodríguez, Clara; Santamaría Ramírez, Ricardo; Granda Ferreira, Marcos; Menéndez López, Rosa María

    2012-01-01

    [EN] Two graphene-like materials, obtained by thermal exfoliation and reduction of a graphite oxide at 700 and 1000 °C, were studied as active electrodes in the positive half-cell of a Vanadium Redox Flow Battery (VRFB). In particular, that obtained at 1000 °C exhibited an outstanding electrochemical performance in terms of peak current densities (30.54 and 30.05 mA cm−2 for the anodic and cathodic peaks at 1 mV s−1, respectively) and reversibility (ΔEp = 0.07 V). This excellent behavior is a...

  3. Origin of Capacity Fading for Nano-grains Based Electrodes of Li Rechargeable Batteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J.Gaubicuer; F.Tanguy; P.Soudan; V.Mauchamp; D.Guyomard

    2007-01-01

    1 Results Li1+xV3O8,has been extensively investigated as a positive electrode material for lithium metal polymer batteries and a great deal of interest has been focused on the structural characterization and cyclability of this compound[1-6].From the present work,Li1.1V3O8 nanograins synthesized at low temperature from original two component gel precursor suffer from strong capacity fading on cycling.The latter is characterized by emergence of polarized redox processes at the expense of initial ones.Fro...

  4. On the use of transition metal oxysalts as conversion electrodes in lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aragon, Maria Jose; Leon, Bernardo; Perez Vicente, Carlos; Tirado, Jose L. [Laboratorio de Quimica Inorganica, Universidad de Cordoba, Edificio C3, Campus de Rabanales, 14071 Cordoba (Spain)

    2009-04-01

    Transition metal oxysalts are evaluated as conversion electrode material. Anhydrous iron oxalate is investigated and a comparison with manganese carbonate is carried out to envisage the possible extension of these studies to a vast number of transition metal oxysalts. The dehydration process is studied by thermal analysis to prepare the anhydrous oxysalts. Both manganese carbonate and iron oxalate are interesting candidates for the active material of the negative electrode of lithium-ion batteries. A higher reversible capacity and lower irreversible capacity are observed for the oxalate compound. The reversible capacity cannot be exclusively ascribed to redox processes involving iron. The low temperature synthesis of these materials makes them an inexpensive option for this purpose. (author)

  5. High performance electrodes in vanadium redox flow batteries through oxygen-enriched thermal activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezeshki, Alan M.; Clement, Jason T.; Veith, Gabriel M.; Zawodzinski, Thomas A.; Mench, Matthew M.

    2015-10-01

    The roundtrip electrochemical energy efficiency is improved from 63% to 76% at a current density of 200 mA cm-2 in an all-vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB) by utilizing modified carbon paper electrodes in the high-performance no-gap design. Heat treatment of the carbon paper electrodes in a 42% oxygen/58% nitrogen atmosphere increases the electrochemically wetted surface area from 0.24 to 51.22 m2 g-1, resulting in a 100-140 mV decrease in activation overpotential at operationally relevant current densities. An enriched oxygen environment decreases the amount of treatment time required to achieve high surface area. The increased efficiency and greater depth of discharge doubles the total usable energy stored in a fixed amount of electrolyte during operation at 200 mA cm-2.

  6. Virus-Assembled Flexible Electrode-Electrolyte Interfaces for Enhanced Polymer-Based Battery Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayan Ghosh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available High-aspect-ratio cobalt-oxide-coated Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV- assembled polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE nonstick surfaces were integrated with a solvent-free polymer electrolyte to create an anode-electrolyte interface for use in lithium-ion batteries. The virus-assembled PTFE surfaces consisted primarily of cobalt oxide and were readily intercalated with a low-molecular-weight poly (ethylene oxide (PEO based diblock copolymer electrolyte to produce a solid anode-electrolyte system. The resulting polymer-coated virus-based system was then peeled from the PTFE backing to produce a flexible electrode-electrolyte component. Electrochemical studies indicated the virus-structured metal-oxide PEO-based interface was stable and displayed robust charge transfer kinetics. Combined, these studies demonstrate the development of a novel solid-state electrode architecture with a unique peelable and flexible processing attribute.

  7. A novel electrode-bipolar plate assembly for vanadium redox flow battery applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Peng; Zhang, Huamin; Chen, Jian; Wen, Yuehua; Luo, Qingtao; Liu, Zonghao; You, Dongjiang; Yi, Baolian

    A novel electrode-bipolar plate assembly has been developed and evaluated for application in the vanadium redox flow battery (VRB). It is composed of three parts: a graphite felt (electrode), an adhesive conducting layer (ACL) and a flexible graphite plate (bipolar plate). The ACL connects the electrode with the bipolar plate to an assembly. By the evaluations of cost, resistivity, surface morphology, electrolyte permeation and single cell performance, this novel assembly demonstrates its applicability in VRB as evident in the following outcomes: (1) lowers the cost and area resistivity to about 10% and 40% of the conventional setups, respectively; (2) improves electrical conductivity to 4.97 mΩ cm as compared to over 100 mΩ cm of the carbon-plastic composite bipolar plate; (3) attains zero electrolyte permeation; and (4) achieves a higher energy efficiency of 81% at a charge/discharge current density of 40 mA cm -2 when employed in a VRB single cell, which is 73% for the conventional setup. All these indicate that the novel electrode-bipolar plate assembly is a promising candidate for VRB applications.

  8. A multiscale description of the electronic transport within the hierarchical architecture of a composite electrode for lithium batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badot, Jean-Claude [Laboratoire de Chimie de la Matiere Condensee de Paris ENSCP, CNRS Paris Cedex 5, (France); Ligneel, Enc; Guyomard, Dominigve; Lestriez, Bernard [Institut des Materiaux Jean Rouxel (IMN) Universite de Nantes, CNRS, Nantes (France); Dubrunfaut, Olivier [Laboratoire de Genie Electrique de Paris, SUPELEC Univ. Paris 06, University Paris-Sud, CNRS, Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2009-09-09

    The broadband dielectric spectroscopy technique is applied, for the first time, to a composite material used as an electrode for lithium battery. The electrical properties (permittivity and conductivity) are measured from low (a few Hz) to microwave (a few GHz) frequencies. The results demonstrate that the broadband dielectric spectroscopy technique is very sensitive to the different scales of the electrode architecture involved in electronic transport, from interatomic distances to macroscopic sizes, as well as to the morphology at these scales, coarse or fine distribution of the constituents. This work opens up new prospects for a more fundamental understanding and more rational optimization of the electronic transport in composite electrodes for lithium batteries and other electrochemical energy storage technologies (including other batteries, supercapacitors, low- and medium-temperature fuel cells), electrochemical sensors and conductor-insulator composite materials. (Abstract Copyright [2009], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  9. Current-induced transition from particle-by-particle to concurrent intercalation in phase-separating battery electrodes

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Yiyang

    2014-09-14

    ©2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved. Many battery electrodes contain ensembles of nanoparticles that phase-separate on (de)intercalation. In such electrodes, the fraction of actively intercalating particles directly impacts cycle life: a vanishing population concentrates the current in a small number of particles, leading to current hotspots. Reports of the active particle population in the phase-separating electrode lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO 4; LFP) vary widely, ranging from near 0% (particle-by-particle) to 100% (concurrent intercalation). Using synchrotron-based X-ray microscopy, we probed the individual state-of-charge for over 3,000 LFP particles. We observed that the active population depends strongly on the cycling current, exhibiting particle-by-particle-like behaviour at low rates and increasingly concurrent behaviour at high rates, consistent with our phase-field porous electrode simulations. Contrary to intuition, the current density, or current per active internal surface area, is nearly invariant with the global electrode cycling rate. Rather, the electrode accommodates higher current by increasing the active particle population. This behaviour results from thermodynamic transformation barriers in LFP, and such a phenomenon probably extends to other phase-separating battery materials. We propose that modifying the transformation barrier and exchange current density can increase the active population and thus the current homogeneity. This could introduce new paradigms to enhance the cycle life of phase-separating battery electrodes.

  10. Environmentally-friendly aqueous Li (or Na)-ion battery with fast electrode kinetics and super-long life

    OpenAIRE

    Dong, Xiaoli; Chen, Long; Liu, Jingyuan; Haller, Servane; Wang, Yonggang; Xia, Yongyao

    2016-01-01

    Current rechargeable batteries generally display limited cycle life and slow electrode kinetics and contain environmentally unfriendly components. Furthermore, their operation depends on the redox reactions of metal elements. We present an original battery system that depends on the redox of I−/I3 − couple in liquid cathode and the reversible enolization in polyimide anode, accompanied by Li+ (or Na+) diffusion between cathode and anode through a Li+/Na+ exchange polymer membrane. There are n...

  11. Conductive Polymer-Coated VS4 Submicrospheres As Advanced Electrode Materials in Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yanli; Li, Yanlu; Yang, Jing; Tian, Jian; Xu, Huayun; Yang, Jian; Fan, Weiliu

    2016-07-27

    VS4 as an electrode material in lithium-ion batteries holds intriguing features like high content of sulfur and one-dimensional structure, inspiring the exploration in this field. Herein, VS4 submicrospheres have been synthesized via a simple solvothermal reaction. However, they quickly degrade upon cycling as an anode material in lithium-ion batteries. So, three conductive polymers, polythiophene (PEDOT), polypyrrole (PPY), and polyaniline (PANI), are coated on the surface to improve the electron conductivity, suppress the diffusion of polysulfides, and modify the interface between electrode/electrolyte. PANI is the best in the polymers. It improves the Coulombic efficiency to 86% for the first cycle and keeps the specific capacity at 755 mAh g(-1) after 50 cycles, higher than the cases of naked VS4 (100 mAh g(-1)), VS4@PEDOT (318 mAh g(-1)), and VS4@PPY (448 mAh g(-1)). The good performances could be attributed to the improved charge-transfer kinetics and the strong interaction between PANI and VS4 supported by theoretical simulation. The discharge voltage ∼2.0 V makes them promising cathode materials. PMID:27377263

  12. Flexible Paper Electrodes for Li-Ion Batteries Using Low Amount of TEMPO-Oxidized Cellulose Nanofibrils as Binder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Huiran; Behm, Mårten; Leijonmarck, Simon; Lindbergh, Göran; Cornell, Ann

    2016-07-20

    Flexible Li-ion batteries attract increasing interest for applications in bendable and wearable electronic devices. TEMPO-oxidized cellulose nanofibrils (TOCNF), a renewable material, is a promising candidate as binder for flexible Li-ion batteries with good mechanical properties. Paper batteries can be produced using a water-based paper making process, avoiding the use of toxic solvents. In this work, finely dispersed TOCNF was used and showed good binding properties at concentrations as low as 4 wt %. The TOCNF was characterized using atomic force microscopy and found to be well dispersed with fibrils of average widths of about 2.7 nm and lengths of approximately 0.1-1 μm. Traces of moisture, trapped in the hygroscopic cellulose, is a concern when the material is used in Li-ion batteries. The low amount of binder reduces possible moisture and also increases the capacity of the electrodes, based on total weight. Effects of moisture on electrochemical battery performance were studied on electrodes dried at 110 °C in a vacuum for varying periods. It was found that increased drying time slightly increased the specific capacities of the LiFePO4 electrodes, whereas the capacities of the graphite electrodes decreased. The Coulombic efficiencies of the electrodes were not much affected by the varying drying times. Drying the electrodes for 1 h was enough to achieve good electrochemical performance. Addition of vinylene carbonate to the electrolyte had a positive effect on cycling for both graphite and LiFePO4. A failure mechanism observed at high TOCNF concentrations is the formation of compact films in the electrodes. PMID:27362635

  13. Hierarchical porous NiCo2O4@Ni as carbon-free electrodes for Lithium–oxygen batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A carbon-free, three-dimensional network structured material composed of NiCo2O4 nanowires and Ni foam was synthesized by a facile method. When applied as the air electrode for the lithium–oxygen battery, the unique network structure enables the surface of nanowires highly accessible to the reactants and facilities the electron transport during the charge/discharge processes. A superior electrochemical performance including low charge overpotential and excellent cyclability are obtained. This work suggests the great potential of the carbon-free NiCo2O4@Ni as the air electrodes for lithium–oxygen batteries

  14. Role of electrical resistance of electrodes in modeling of discharging and charging of flooded lead-acid batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, K. S.

    2015-03-01

    Electrical resistance of both the electrodes of a lead-acid battery increases during discharge due to formation of lead sulfate, an insulator. Work of Metzendorf [1] shows that resistance increases sharply at about 65% conversion of active materials, and battery stops discharging once this critical conversion is reached. However, these aspects are not incorporated into existing mathematical models. Present work uses the results of Metzendorf [1], and develops a model that includes the effect of variable resistance. Further, it uses a reasonable expression to account for the decrease in active area during discharge instead of the empirical equations of previous work. The model's predictions are compared with observations of Cugnet et al. [2]. The model is as successful as the non-mechanistic models existing in literature. Inclusion of variation in resistance of electrodes in the model is important if one of the electrodes is a limiting reactant. If active materials are stoichiometrically balanced, resistance of electrodes can be very large at the end of discharge but has only a minor effect on charging of batteries. The model points to the significance of electrical conductivity of electrodes in the charging of deep discharged batteries.

  15. Tunable Reaction Potentials in Open Framework Nanoparticle Battery Electrodes for Grid-Scale Energy Storage

    KAUST Repository

    Wessells, Colin D.

    2012-02-28

    The electrical energy grid has a growing need for energy storage to address short-term transients, frequency regulation, and load leveling. Though electrochemical energy storage devices such as batteries offer an attractive solution, current commercial battery technology cannot provide adequate power, and cycle life, and energy efficiency at a sufficiently low cost. Copper hexacyanoferrate and nickel hexacyanoferrate, two open framework materials with the Prussian Blue structure, were recently shown to offer ultralong cycle life and high-rate performance when operated as battery electrodes in safe, inexpensive aqueous sodium ion and potassium ion electrolytes. In this report, we demonstrate that the reaction potential of copper-nickel alloy hexacyanoferrate nanoparticles may be tuned by controlling the ratio of copper to nickel in these materials. X-ray diffraction, TEM energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and galvanostatic electrochemical cycling of copper-nickel hexacyanoferrate reveal that copper and nickel form a fully miscible solution at particular sites in the framework without perturbing the structure. This allows copper-nickel hexacyanoferrate to reversibly intercalate sodium and potassium ions for over 2000 cycles with capacity retentions of 100% and 91%, respectively. The ability to precisely tune the reaction potential of copper-nickel hexacyanoferrate without sacrificing cycle life will allow the development of full cells that utilize the entire electrochemical stability window of aqueous sodium and potassium ion electrolytes. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  16. Performance Enhancement and Side Reactions in Rechargeable Nickel-Iron Batteries with Nanostructured Electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Danni; Lee, Dong-Chan; Magasinski, Alexandre; Zhao, Enbo; Steingart, Daniel; Yushin, Gleb

    2016-01-27

    We report for the first time a solution-based synthesis of strongly coupled nanoFe/multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) and nanoNiO/MWCNT nanocomposite materials for use as anodes and cathodes in rechargeable alkaline Ni-Fe batteries. The produced aqueous batteries demonstrate very high discharge capacities (800 mAh gFe(-1) at 200 mA g(-1) current density), which exceed that of commercial Ni-Fe cells by nearly 1 order of magnitude at comparable current densities. These cells also showed the lack of any "activation", typical in commercial batteries, where low initial capacity slowly increases during the initial 20-50 cycles. The use of a highly conductive MWCNT network allows for high-capacity utilization because of rapid and efficient electron transport to active metal nanoparticles in oxidized [such as Fe(OH)2 or Fe3O4] states. The flexible nature of MWCNTs accommodates significant volume changes taking place during phase transformation accompanying reduction-oxidation reactions in metal electrodes. At the same time, we report and discuss that high surface areas of active nanoparticles lead to multiple side reactions. Dissolution of Fe anodes leads to reprecipitation of significantly larger anode particles. Dissolution of Ni cathodes leads to precipitation of Ni metal on the anode, thus blocking transport of OH(-) anions. The electrolyte molarity and composition have a significant impact on the capacity utilization and cycling stability. PMID:26720271

  17. Synthesis and characterization of high performance electrode materials for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jian

    Lithium-ion batteries have revolutionized portable electronics. Electrode reactions in these electrochemical systems are based on reversible intercalation of Li+ ions into the host electrode material with a concomitant addition/removal of electrons into the host. If such batteries are to find a wider market such as the automotive industry, less expensive and higher capacity electrode materials will be required. The olivine phase lithium iron phosphate has attracted the most attention because of its low cost and safety (high thermal and chemical stability). However, it is an intriguing fundamental problem to understand the fast electrochemical response from the poorly electronic conducting two-phase LiFePO4/FePO 4 system. This thesis focuses on determining the rate-limit step of LiFePO4. First, a LiFePO4 material, with vanadium substituting on the P-site, was synthesized, and found that the crystal structure change may cause high lithium diffusivity. Since an accurate Li diffusion coefficient cannot be measured by traditional electrochemical method in a three-electrode cell due to the phase transformation during measurement, a new method to measure the intrinsic electronic and ionic conductivity of mixed conductive LiFePO 4 was developed. This was based on the conductivity measurements of mixed conductive solid electrolyte using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and blocking electrode. The effects of ionic/electronic conductivity and phase transformation on the rate performance of LiFePO4 were also first investigated by EIS and other electrochemical technologies. Based on the above fundamental kinetics studies, an optimized LiFePO4 was used as a target to deposit 1mum LiFePO4 thin film at Oak Ridge National Laboratory using radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering. Similar to the carbon coated LiFePO4 powder electrode, the carbon-contained RF LiFePO4 film with no preferential orientation showed excellent capacity and rate capability both at 25°C and -20

  18. A new strategy for integrating abundant oxygen functional groups into carbon felt electrode for vanadium redox flow batteries

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Ki Jae; Lee, Seung-Wook; Yim, Taeeun; Kim, Jae-Geun; Choi, Jang Wook; Kim, Jung Ho; Park, Min-Sik; Kim, Young-Jun

    2014-01-01

    The effects of surface treatment combining corona discharge and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) on the electrochemical performance of carbon felt electrodes for vanadium redox flow batteries (VRFBs) have been thoroughly investigated. A high concentration of oxygen functional groups has been successfully introduced onto the surface of the carbon felt electrodes by a specially designed surface treatment, which is mainly responsible for improving the energy efficiency of VRFBs. In addition, the wettabi...

  19. Improvement of the Performance of Graphite Felt Electrodes for Vanadium-Redox-Flow-Batteries by Plasma Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Eva-Maria Hammer; Benedikt Berger; Lidiya Komsiyska

    2014-01-01

    In the frame of the present contribution oxidizing plasma pretreatment is used for the improvement of the electrocatalytic activity of graphite felt electrodes for Vanadium-Redox-Flow-Batteries (VRB). The influence of the working gas media on the catalytic activity and the surface morphology is demonstrated. The electrocatalytical properties of the graphite felt electrodes were examined by cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The obtained results show that a signific...

  20. X-ray micro-tomography as a diagnostic tool for the electrode degradation in vanadium redox flow batteries

    OpenAIRE

    Trogadas, P.; Taiwo, O. O.; Tjaden, B.; Neville, T. P.; Coppens, M-O; Brett, D. J. L.; Shearing, P. R.; Yun, S.; J. Parrondo; Ramani, V.

    2014-01-01

    Micro-tomography (CT) can be successfully employed to characterize ex situ the structural changes occurring in graphite felt electrodes during vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB) operation. Coupled high resolution X-ray and electron microscopy in conjunction with XPS are used to elucidate the microstructural and chemical changes to the high voltage RFB carbon electrode. The results reveal the onset of corrosion of the carbon felt structure relatively early in the VRFB life-cycle, extended oper...

  1. New insights into the electrode mechanism of lithium sulfur batteries via air-free post-test analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lin; Dietz Rago, Nancy L; Bloom, Ira D; Shaw, Leon L

    2016-08-01

    Effects of the volume expansion and shrinkage of Li2S cathodes on electrochemical cycle life are investigated via post-test analysis without exposure to air. The engineered electrodes that confine volume changes within micro-reactors have significantly longer life than the electrodes without the micro-reactor structure, providing the first unambiguous evidence of the importance of confining volume changes for improved battery performance. PMID:27430393

  2. High rate capabilities Fe3O4-based Cu nano-architectured electrodes for lithium-ion battery applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taberna, P L; Mitra, S; Poizot, P; Simon, P; Tarascon, J-M

    2006-07-01

    All battery technologies are known to suffer from kinetic problems linked to the solid-state diffusion of Li in intercalation electrodes, the conductivity of the electrolyte in some cases and the quality of interfaces. For Li-ion technology the latter effect is especially acute when conversion rather than intercalation electrodes are used. Nano-architectured electrodes are usually suggested to enhance kinetics, although their realization is cumbersome. To tackle this issue for the conversion electrode material Fe3O4, we have used a two-step electrode design consisting of the electrochemically assisted template growth of Cu nanorods onto a current collector followed by electrochemical plating of Fe3O4. Using such electrodes, we demonstrate a factor of six improvement in power density over planar electrodes while maintaining the same total discharge time. The capacity at the 8C rate was 80% of the total capacity and was sustained over 100 cycles. The origin of the large hysteresis between charge and discharge, intrinsic to conversion reactions, is discussed and approaches to reduce it are proposed. We hope that such findings will help pave the way for the use of conversion reaction electrodes in future-generation Li-ion batteries.

  3. The negative electrode development for a Ni-MH battery prototype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuscueta, D.J., E-mail: cuscueta@cab.cnea.gov.a [Centro Atomico Bariloche-CNEA, Instituto Balseiro-UNCu, CONICET, Av. Bustillo 9500 (8400) San Carlos de Bariloche, R.N. (Argentina); Ghilarducci, A.A.; Salva, H.R. [Centro Atomico Bariloche-CNEA, Instituto Balseiro-UNCu, CONICET, Av. Bustillo 9500 (8400) San Carlos de Bariloche, R.N. (Argentina); Milocco, R.H. [Grupo Control Automatico y Sistemas (GCAyS), Depto. Electrotecnia, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional del Comahue, Buenos Aires 1400 (8300) Neuquen (Argentina); Castro, E.B. [Instituto de Investigaciones Fisicoquimicas Teoricas y Aplicadas (INIFTA) - Universidad Nacional La Plata. Suc 4, CC16 (1900), La Plata, Bs As (Argentina)

    2009-10-01

    The negative electrode development for a nickel-metal hydride battery (Ni-MH) prototype was performed with the following procedure: (1) the Lm{sub 0.95}Ni{sub 3.8}Co{sub 0.3}Mn{sub 0.3}Al{sub 0.4} (Lm=lanthanum rich mischmetal) intermetallic alloy was elaborated by melting the pure elements in an induction furnace inside a boron nitride crucible under an inert atmosphere, (2) the obtained alloy was crushed and sieved between 44 and 74 mum and mixed with teflonized carbon; (3) the compound was assembled together with a current collector and pressed in a cylindrical matrix. The obtained electrode presented a disc shape, with 11 mm diameter and approximately 1 mm thickness. The crystalline structure of the hydrogen storage alloy was examined using X-ray diffractometry. The measured hcp lattice volume was 1.78% larger than the precursor LaNi{sub 5} intermetallic alloy, increasing the available space for hydrogen movement. Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) measurements were used before and after hydriding in order to verify the alloy sample homogeneity. The negative electrode was electrochemically tested by using a laboratory cell. It activates almost totally in its first cycle, which is an excellent characteristic from the commercial point of view. The maximum discharge capacity reached was 314.2 mA h/g in the 10th cycle.

  4. A review of thermal performance improving methods of lithium ion battery: Electrode modification and thermal management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Rui; Zhang, Sijie; Liu, Jie; Gu, Junjie

    2015-12-01

    Lithium ion (Li-ion) battery has emerged as an important power source for portable devices and electric vehicles due to its superiority over other energy storage technologies. A mild temperature variation as well as a proper operating temperature range are essential for a Li-ion battery to perform soundly and have a long service life. In this review paper, the heat generation and dissipation of Li-ion battery are firstly analyzed based on the energy conservation equations, followed by an examination of the hazardous effects of an above normal operating temperature. Then, advanced techniques in respect of electrode modification and systematic battery thermal management are inspected in detail as solutions in terms of reducing internal heat production and accelerating external heat dissipation, respectively. Specifically, variable parameters like electrode thickness and particle size of active material, along with optimization methods such as coating, doping, and adding conductive media are discussed in the electrode modification section, while the current development in air cooling, liquid cooling, heat pipe cooling, and phase change material cooling systems are reviewed in the thermal management part as different ways to improve the thermal performance of Li-ion batteries.

  5. Binder-Free and Carbon-Free Nanoparticle Batteries: A Method for Nanoparticle Electrodes without Polymeric Binders or Carbon Black

    KAUST Repository

    Ha, Don-Hyung

    2012-10-10

    In this work, we have developed a new fabrication method for nanoparticle (NP) assemblies for Li-ion battery electrodes that require no additional support or conductive materials such as polymeric binders or carbon black. By eliminating these additives, we are able to improve the battery capacity/weight ratio. The NP film is formed by using electrophoretic deposition (EPD) of colloidally synthesized, monodisperse cobalt NPs that are transformed through the nanoscale Kirkendall effect into hollow Co 3O 4. EPD forms a network of NPs that are mechanically very robust and electrically connected, enabling them to act as the Li-ion battery anode. The morphology change through cycles indicates stable 5-10 nm NPs form after the first lithiation remained throughout the cycling process. This NP-film battery made without binders and conductive additives shows high gravimetric (>830 mAh/g) and volumetric capacities (>2100 mAh/cm 3) even after 50 cycles. Because similar films made from drop-casting do not perform well under equal conditions, EPD is seen as the critical step to create good contacts between the particles and electrodes resulting in this significant improvement in battery electrode assembly. This is a promising system for colloidal nanoparticles and a template for investigating the mechanism of lithiation and delithiation of NPs. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  6. Environmentally-friendly aqueous Li (or Na)-ion battery with fast electrode kinetics and super-long life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xiaoli; Chen, Long; Liu, Jingyuan; Haller, Servane; Wang, Yonggang; Xia, Yongyao

    2016-01-01

    Current rechargeable batteries generally display limited cycle life and slow electrode kinetics and contain environmentally unfriendly components. Furthermore, their operation depends on the redox reactions of metal elements. We present an original battery system that depends on the redox of I(-)/I3 (-) couple in liquid cathode and the reversible enolization in polyimide anode, accompanied by Li(+) (or Na(+)) diffusion between cathode and anode through a Li(+)/Na(+) exchange polymer membrane. There are no metal element-based redox reactions in this battery, and Li(+) (or Na(+)) is only used for charge transfer. Moreover, the components (electrolyte/electrode) of this system are environment-friendly. Both electrodes are demonstrated to have very fast kinetics, which gives the battery a supercapacitor-like high power. It can even be cycled 50,000 times when operated within the electrochemical window of 0 to 1.6 V. Such a system might shed light on the design of high-safety and low-cost batteries for grid-scale energy storage. PMID:26844298

  7. Direct measurement of the chemical reactivity of silicon electrodes with LiPF6-based battery electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veith, Gabriel M [ORNL; Baggetto, Loic [ORNL; Sacci, Robert L [ORNL; Unocic, Raymond R [ORNL; Tenhaeff, Wyatt E [ORNL; Browning, Jim [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    We report the first direct measurement of the chemistry and extent of reactivity between a lithium ion battery electrode surface (Si) and a liquid electrolyte (1.2M LiPF6-3:7 wt% ethylene carbonate:dimethyl carbonate). This layer is estimated to be 3.6 nm thick and partially originates from the consumption of the silicon surface.

  8. Characterization of the 3-dimensional microstructure of a graphite negative electrode from a Li-ion battery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shearing, P.R.; Howard, L.E.; Jørgensen, Peter Stanley;

    2010-01-01

    The 3-dimensional microstructure of a porous electrode from a lithium-ion battery has been characterized for the first time. We use X-ray tomography to reconstruct a 43 × 348 × 478 μm sample volume with voxel dimensions of 480 nm, subsequent division of the reconstructed volumes into sub-volumes ...

  9. Energy Harvesting by Nickel Prussian Blue Analogue Electrode in Neutralization and Mixing Entropy Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Wellington J A S; de Oliveira, Cainã; Huguenin, Fritz

    2015-08-11

    Some industries usually reduce the concentration of protons in acidic wastewater by conducting neutralization reactions and/or adding seawater to industrial effluents. This work proposes a novel electrochemical system that can harvest energy originating from entropic changes due to alteration in the concentration of sodium ions along wastewater treatment. Preparation of a self-assembled material from nickel Prussian blue analogue (NPBA) was the first step to obtain such electrochemical system. Investigation into the electrochemical properties of this material helped to evaluate its potential use in neutralization and mixing entropy batteries. Assessment of parameters such as the potentiodynamic profile of the current density as a function of the concentration of protons and sodium ions, charge capacity, and cyclability as well as the reversibility of the sodium ion electroinsertion process aided estimation of the energy storage efficiency of the system. Frequency-domain measurements and models and the proposed charge compensation mechanism provided the rate constants at different dc potentials. After each charge/discharge cycle, the NPBA electrode harvested 12.4 kJ per mol of intercalated sodium ion in aqueous solutions of NaCl at concentrations of 20 mM and 3.0 M. The full electrochemical cell consisted of an NPBA positive electrode and a negative electrode of silver particles dispersed in a polypyrrole electrode. This cell extracted 16.8 kJ per mol of intercalated ion after each charge/discharge cycle. On the basis of these results, the developed electrochemical system should encourage wastewater treatment and help to achieve sustainable growth. PMID:26192558

  10. Experimental and theoretical investigations of functionalized boron nitride as electrode materials for Li-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Fan; Nemeth, Karoly; Bareño, Javier; Dogan, Fulya; Bloom, Ira D.; Shaw, Leon L.

    2016-01-01

    The feasibility of synthesizing functionalized h-BN (FBN) via the reaction between molten LiOH and solid h-BN is studied for the first time and its first ever application as an electrode material in Li-ion batteries is evaluated. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations are performed to provide mechanistic understanding of the possible electrochemical reactions derived from the FBN. Various materials characterizations reveal that the melt-solid reaction can lead to exfoliation and functionalization of h-BN simultaneously, while electrochemical analysis proves that the FBN can reversibly store charges through surface redox reactions with good cycle stability and coulombic efficiency. DFT calculations have provided physical insights into the observed electrochemical properties derived from the FBN.

  11. Hydrogen evolution at the negative electrode of the all-vanadium redox flow batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Che-Nan; Delnick, Frank M.; Baggetto, Loïc; Veith, Gabriel M.; Zawodzinski, Thomas A.

    2014-02-01

    This work demonstrates a quantitative method to determine the hydrogen evolution rate occurring at the negative carbon electrode of the all vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB). Two carbon papers examined by buoyancy measurements yield distinct hydrogen formation rates (0.170 and 0.005 μmol min-1 g-1). The carbon papers have been characterized using electron microscopy, nitrogen gas adsorption, capacitance measurement by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). We find that the specific electrochemical surface area (ECSA) of the carbon material has a strong influence on the hydrogen generation rate. This is discussed in light of the use of high surface area material to obtain high reaction rates in the VRFB.

  12. Electrolyte optimization and electrode material evaluation for the vanadium redox battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazacos, Michael

    1990-05-01

    The preparation of the electrolyte for the all vanadium redox flow battery was investigated using both chemical and electrolytic reduction of V2O5 powder. Oxalic acid and SO2 reduction were found to be unsuitable as only the V(IV) state could be produced directly. With suspended powder hydrolysis, however, vanadium sulphate of any oxidation state, in this case 50 percent V(IV) plus 50 percent V(III) in sulphuric acid can readily be prepared from V2O5 powder, thus allowing a significant reduction in the cost of the vanadium battery electrolyte. Results from conductivity and electrolyte stability tests at elevated temperature have led to modification of the electrolyte composition for the vanadium redox cell, from the 2 M V plus 2 M H2SO4, originally employed, to the use of 3 M H2SO4, much higher energy efficiencies and greater electrolyte stability was demonstrated with the 3 M H2SO4 supporting electrolyte. Spectroscopy and electrolyte conductivity were demonstrated as suitable techniques for state-of-charge monitoring. A number of electrode materials were also evaluated and a Toray graphite bonded to a carbon plastic electrode was selected for further prototype development. Energy efficiencies of between 83 and 86 percent obtained for a current density of 30 mA/sq cm for a temperature range of 5 to 45 C, and between 0 and 100 percent state-of-charge. A wide range of construction materials was tested for long term stability in the vanadium redox electrolyte.

  13. Crystalline-Amorphous Core−Shell Silicon Nanowires for High Capacity and High Current Battery Electrodes

    KAUST Repository

    Cui, Li-Feng

    2009-01-14

    Silicon is an attractive alloy-type anode material for lithium ion batteries because of its highest known capacity (4200 mAh/g). However silicon\\'s large volume change upon lithium insertion and extraction, which causes pulverization and capacity fading, has limited its applications. Designing nanoscale hierarchical structures is a novel approach to address the issues associated with the large volume changes. In this letter, we introduce a core-shell design of silicon nanowires for highpower and long-life lithium battery electrodes. Silicon crystalline- amorphous core-shell nanowires were grown directly on stainless steel current collectors by a simple one-step synthesis. Amorphous Si shells instead of crystalline Si cores can be selected to be electrochemically active due to the difference of their lithiation potentials. Therefore, crystalline Si cores function as a stable mechanical support and an efficient electrical conducting pathway while amorphous shells store Li ions. We demonstrate here that these core-shell nanowires have high charge storage capacity (̃1000 mAh/g, 3 times of carbon) with ̃90% capacity retention over 100 cycles. They also show excellent electrochemical performance at high rate charging and discharging (6.8 A/g, ̃20 times of carbon at 1 h rate). © 2009 American Chemical Society.

  14. Electrical, mechanical and morphological properties of compressed carbon felt electrodes in vanadium redox flow battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Tien-Chan; Zhang, Jun-Pu; Fuh, Yiin-Kuen

    2014-01-01

    Experiments including electrical, mechanical and morphological aspects under compression in the range of 0-40% have been carried out on four potential materials for liquid diffusion layer (LDL) of vanadium redox flow battery (VRB) (including three widely used carbon felt and one recently utilized metal foam) in order to better understand the influence of the fundamental properties on the battery performance. We experimentally demonstrate that the electrical contact resistance is predominately determined by the clamping force. It is observed that increasing the stress applied on the carbon felt, which is of high interest for the durability of the membrane electrode assembly (MEA), has moreover a positive effect on their performance due to the reduced contact resistance. However, a simultaneously reduced porosity is also recorded and possibly detrimental to the mass transport of vanadium electrolyte. Moreover, the intrusion of carbon felts under compression is also characterized. Experimental results show that with the clamping force increases, both the porosity of the carbon felts underneath the rib and channel volume decrease, and this can be mainly attributed to the deformation of the carbon felts and resultant changed of the void volume as well as intrusion.

  15. Carbon−Silicon Core−Shell Nanowires as High Capacity Electrode for Lithium Ion Batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Cui, Li-Feng

    2009-09-09

    We introduce a novel design of carbon-silicon core-shell nanowires for high power and long life lithium battery electrodes. Amorphous silicon was coated onto carbon nanofibers to form a core-shell structure and the resulted core-shell nanowires showed great performance as anode material. Since carbon has a much smaller capacity compared to silicon, the carbon core experiences less structural stress or damage during lithium cycling and can function as a mechanical support and an efficient electron conducting pathway. These nanowires have a high charge storage capacity of ∼2000 mAh/g and good cycling life. They also have a high Coulmbic efficiency of 90% for the first cycle and 98-99.6% for the following cycles. A full cell composed of LiCoO2 cathode and carbon-silicon core-shell nanowire anode is also demonstrated. Significantly, using these core-shell nanowires we have obtained high mass loading and an area capacity of ∼4 mAh/cm2, which is comparable to commercial battery values. © 2009 American Chemical Society.

  16. Nickel Hexacyanoferrate Nanoparticle Electrodes For Aqueous Sodium and Potassium Ion Batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Wessells, Colin D.

    2011-12-14

    The electrical power grid faces a growing need for large-scale energy storage over a wide range of time scales due to costly short-term transients, frequency regulation, and load balancing. The durability, high power, energy efficiency, and low cost needed for grid-scale storage pose substantial challenges for conventional battery technology.(1, 2)Here, we demonstrate insertion/extraction of sodium and potassium ions in a low-strain nickel hexacyanoferrate electrode material for at least five thousand deep cycles at high current densities in inexpensive aqueous electrolytes. Its open-framework structure allows retention of 66% of the initial capacity even at a very high (41.7C) rate. At low current densities, its round trip energy efficiency reaches 99%. This low-cost material is readily synthesized in bulk quantities. The long cycle life, high power, good energy efficiency, safety, and inexpensive production method make nickel hexacyanoferrate an attractive candidate for use in large-scale batteries to support the electrical grid. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  17. NMR study of electrode materials for lithium ion-batteries; Etude par RMN de materiaux d'electrode pour batteries lithium-ion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chazel, C.

    2006-01-15

    This work is devoted to the study of LiMO{sub 2} et LiM{sub 2}O{sub 4} (M: transition metal) intercalation compounds used as electrode material for lithium-ion batteries. Solid state NMR allows one to characterise the local environment of the lithium ions present in these phases by the use of the hyperfine interactions due to the presence of some electron spin density coming from localised electrons (Fermi-contact shift) or itinerant electrons (Knight shift) on the lithium nucleus. By following the transformation of the LiNiO{sub 2} layered phase into the LiNi{sub 2}O{sub 4} spinel material using lithium NMR, we studied the nature of the asymmetric signal observed for LiNiO{sub 2}, and the influence of the departure from the ideal stoichiometry; we showed a coupled ion/electron hopping in Li{sub X}NiO{sub 2} phases linked to Li/vacancy and Ni{sup 3+}/Ni{sup 4+} ordering, and finally showed the existence of structural defects within the LiNi{sub 2}O{sub 4} spinel phase obtained by thermal treatment of Li{sub 0.5}NiO{sub 2}. Lithium NMR of the intercalated materials obtained from the LiTi{sub 2}O{sub 4} and Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12} spinels showed a metallic behaviour for Li{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 4} with a Knight shift of the NMR signal similar to that of LiTi{sub 2}O{sub 4}, and signals intermediate in nature between Knight and Fermi-contact shifts for Li{sub 7}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12}. (author)

  18. Three-Dimensional Au Microlattices as Positive Electrodes for Li-O2 Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chen; Gallant, Betar M; Wunderlich, Phillip U; Lohmann, Timm; Greer, Julia R

    2015-06-23

    We demonstrate the feasibility of using a 3-dimensional gold microlattice with a periodic porous structure and independently tunable surface composition as a Li-O2 battery cathode. The structure provides a platform for studying electrochemical reactions in architected Li-O2 electrodes with large (300 μm) pore sizes. The lack of carbon and chemical binders in these Au microlattices enabled the investigation of chemical and morphological processes that occur on the surfaces of the microlattice during cycling. Li-O2 cells with Au microlattice cathodes were discharged in 0.5 M lithium-bis(trifluoromethane)sulfonamide (LiTFSI) in a 1,2-dimethoxyethane (DME) electrolyte, with lithium metal foil as the anode. SEM analysis of microlattice cathodes after first discharge revealed the presence of toroidal-shaped 500-700 nm particles covering the surface of the electrode, which disappeared upon subsequent charging. Raman and FTIR spectroscopy analysis determined these particulates to be Li2O2. The morphology of discharge products evolved with cycling into micrometer-sized clusters of arranged "platelets", with a higher amount of side reaction products such as Li2CO3 and LiOH. This work shows that properly designed 3-dimensional architected materials may provide a useful foundation for investigating fundamental surface electrochemistry while simultaneously enabling mechanical robustness and enhancing the surface area over a factor of 30 compared with a thin film with the same foot print. PMID:25950649

  19. Pyrometallurgical Extraction of Valuable Elements in Ni-Metal Hydride Battery Electrode Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yin-ju; Deng, Yong-chun; Bu, Wen-gang

    2015-10-01

    Gas selective reduction-oxidation (redox) and melting separation were consecutively applied to electrode materials of AB5-type Ni-metal hydride batteries leading to the production of a Ni-Co alloy and slag enriched with rare earth oxides (REO). In the selective redox process, electrode materials were treated with H2/H2O at 1073 K and 1173 K (800 °C and 900 °C). Active elements such as REs, Al, and Mn were oxidized whereas relatively inert elements such as Ni and Co were transformed into their elemental states in the treated materials. SiO2 and Al2O3 powders were added into the treated materials as fluxes which were then melted at 1823 K (1550 °C) to yield a Ni-Co alloy and a REO-SiO2-Al2O3-MnO slag. The high-purity Ni-Co alloy produced can be used as a raw material for AB5-type hydrogen-storage alloy. The REO content in slag was very high, i.e., 48.51 pct, therefore it can be used to recycle rare earth oxides.

  20. 3D Self-Supported Nanoarchitectured Arrays Electrodes for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Chen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Three-dimensional self-supported nanoarchitectured arrays electrodes (3DSNAEs consisting of a direct growth of nanoarchitectured arrays on the conductive current collector, including homogeneous and heterogeneous nanoarchitectured arrays structures, have been currently studied as the most promising electrodes owing to their synergies resulting from the multistructure hybrid and integrating heterocomponents to address the requirements (high energy and power density of superperformance lithium ion batteries (LIBs applied in portable electronic consumer devices, electric vehicles, large-scale electricity storage, and so on. In the paper, recent advances in the strategies for the fabrication, selection of the different current collector substrates, and structural configuration of 3DSNAEs with different cathode and anode materials are investigated in detail. The intrinsic relationship of the unique structural characters, the conductive substrates, and electrochemical kinetic properties of 3DSNAEs is minutely analyzed. Finally, the future design trends and directions of 3DSNAEs are highlighted, which may open a new avenue of developing ideal multifunctional 3DSNAEs for further advanced LIBs.

  1. Copper hexacyanoferrate battery electrodes with long cycle life and high power

    KAUST Repository

    Wessells, Colin D.

    2011-11-22

    Short-term transients, including those related to wind and solar sources, present challenges to the electrical grid. Stationary energy storage systems that can operate for many cycles, at high power, with high round-trip energy efficiency, and at low cost are required. Existing energy storage technologies cannot satisfy these requirements. Here we show that crystalline nanoparticles of copper hexacyanoferrate, which has an ultra-low strain open framework structure, can be operated as a battery electrode in inexpensive aqueous electrolytes. After 40,000 deep discharge cycles at a 17g-C rate, 83% of the original capacity of copper hexacyanoferrate is retained. Even at a very high cycling rate of 83g-C, two thirds of its maximum discharge capacity is observed. At modest current densities, round-trip energy efficiencies of 99% can be achieved. The low-cost, scalable, room-temperature co-precipitation synthesis and excellent electrode performance of copper hexacyanoferrate make it attractive for large-scale energy storage systems. © 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  2. The reaction current distribution in battery electrode materials revealed by XPS-based state-of-charge mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearse, Alexander J; Gillette, Eleanor; Lee, Sang Bok; Rubloff, Gary W

    2016-07-28

    Morphologically complex electrochemical systems such as composite or nanostructured lithium ion battery electrodes exhibit spatially inhomogeneous internal current distributions, particularly when driven at high total currents, due to resistances in the electrodes and electrolyte, distributions of diffusion path lengths, and nonlinear current-voltage characteristics. Measuring and controlling these distributions is interesting from both an engineering standpoint, as nonhomogenous currents lead to lower utilization of electrode material, as well as from a fundamental standpoint, as comparisons between theory and experiment are relatively scarce. Here we describe a new approach using a deliberately simple model battery electrode to examine the current distribution in a electrode material limited by poor electronic conductivity. We utilize quantitative spatially resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to measure the spatial distribution of the state-of-charge of a V2O5 model electrode as a proxy measure for the current distribution on electrodes discharged at varying current densities. We show that the current at the electrode-electrolyte interface falls off with distance from the current collector, and that the current distribution is a strong function of total current. We compare the observed distributions with a simple analytical model which reproduces the dependence of the distribution on total current, but fails to predict the correct length scale. A more complete numerical simulation suggests that dynamic changes in the electronic conductivity of the V2O5 concurrent with lithium insertion may contribute to the differences between theory and experiment. Our observations should help inform design criteria for future electrode architectures. PMID:27357533

  3. Phase Boundary Propagation in Li-Alloying Battery Electrodes Revealed by Liquid-Cell Transmission Electron Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leenheer, Andrew J; Jungjohann, Katherine L; Zavadil, Kevin R; Harris, Charles T

    2016-06-28

    Battery cycle life is directly influenced by the microstructural changes occurring in the electrodes during charge and discharge cycles. Here, we image in situ the nanoscale phase evolution in negative electrode materials for Li-ion batteries using a fully enclosed liquid cell in a transmission electron microscope (TEM) to reveal early degradation that is not evident in the charge-discharge curves. To compare the electrochemical phase transformation behavior between three model materials, thin films of amorphous Si, crystalline Al, and crystalline Au were lithiated and delithiated at controlled rates while immersed in a commercial liquid electrolyte. This method allowed for the direct observation of lithiation mechanisms in nanoscale negative electrodes, revealing that a simplistic model of a surface-to-interior lithiation front is insufficient. For the crystalline films, a lithiation front spread laterally from a few initial nucleation points, with continued grain nucleation along the growing interface. The intermediate lithiated phases were identified using electron diffraction, and high-resolution postmortem imaging revealed the details of the final microstructure. Our results show that electrochemically induced solid-solid phase transformations can lead to highly concentrated stresses at the laterally propagating phase boundary which should be considered for future designs of nanostructured electrodes for Li-ion batteries. PMID:27243921

  4. PbO2-modified graphite felt as the positive electrode for an all-vanadium redox flow battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaoxin; Xu, Hongfeng; Lu, Lu; Zhao, Hong; Fu, Jie; Shen, Yang; Xu, Pengcheng; Dong, Yiming

    2014-03-01

    A novel approach for enhancing the electrochemical performance of graphite felt electrodes by employing non-precious metal oxides is designed for an all-vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB). Lead dioxide (PbO2) is prepared through pulse electrodeposition method and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The electrochemical performance of the prepared electrode is evaluated through cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Results show that PbO2 exhibits excellent electro-catalytic activity and reactive velocity to vanadium redox couples. The coulombic efficiency (CE), voltage efficiency (VE), and energy efficiency (EE) of the vanadium redox flow battery with as-prepared electrodes at 70 mA cm-2 are 99.5%, 82.4%, and 82.0%, respectively; these values are much higher than those of a cell assembled with bare graphite felt electrodes. The outstanding electro-catalytic activity and mechanical stability of PbO2 are advantageous in facilitating the redox reaction of vanadium ions, leading to the efficient operation of a vanadium redox flow battery.

  5. Quantitative probe of the transition metal redox in battery electrodes through soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qinghao; Qiao, Ruimin; Wray, L. Andrew; Chen, Jun; Zhuo, Zengqing; Chen, Yanxue; Yan, Shishen; Pan, Feng; Hussain, Zahid; Yang, Wanli

    2016-10-01

    Most battery positive electrodes operate with a 3d transition-metal (TM) reaction centre. A direct and quantitative probe of the TM states upon electrochemical cycling is valuable for understanding the detailed cycling mechanism and charge diffusion in the electrodes, which is related with many practical parameters of a battery. This review includes a comprehensive summary of our recent demonstrations of five different types of quantitative analysis of the TM states in battery electrodes based on soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy and multiplet calculations. In LiFePO4, a system of a well-known two-phase transformation type, the TM redox could be strictly determined through a simple linear combination of the two end-members. In Mn-based compounds, the Mn states could also be quantitatively evaluated, but a set of reference spectra with all the three possible Mn valences needs to be deliberately selected and considered in the fitting. Although the fluorescence signals suffer the self-absorption distortion, the multiplet calculations could consider the distortion effect, which allows a quantitative determination of the overall Ni oxidation state in the bulk. With the aid of multiplet calculations, one could also achieve a quasi-quantitative analysis of the Co redox evolution in LiCoO2 based on the energy position of the spectroscopic peak. The benefit of multiplet calculations is more important for studying electrode materials with TMs of mixed spin states, as exemplified by the quantitative analysis of the mixed spin Na2-x Fe2(CN)6 system. At the end, we showcase that such quantitative analysis could provide valuable information for optimizing the electrochemical performance of Na0.44MnO2 electrodes for Na-ion batteries. The methodology summarized in this review could be extended to other energy application systems with TM redox centre for detailed analysis, for example, fuel cell and catalytic materials.

  6. Relating the 3D electrode morphology to Li-ion battery performance; a case for LiFePO4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhao; Verhallen, Tomas W.; Singh, Deepak P.; Wang, Hongqian; Wagemaker, Marnix; Barnett, Scott

    2016-08-01

    One of the main goals in lithium ion battery electrode design is to increase the power density. This requires insight in the relation between the complex heterogeneous microstructure existing of active material, conductive additive and electrolyte providing the required electronic and Li-ion transport. FIB-SEM is used to determine the three phase 3D morphology, and Li-ion concentration profiles obtained with Neutron Depth Profiling (NDP) are compared for two cases, conventional LiFePO4 electrodes and better performing carbonate templated LiFePO4 electrodes. This provides detailed understanding of the impact of key parameters such as the tortuosity for electron and Li-ion transport though the electrodes. The created hierarchical pore network of the templated electrodes, containing micron sized pores, appears to be effective only at high rate charge where electrolyte depletion is hindering fast discharge. Surprisingly the carbonate templating method results in a better electronic conductive CB network, enhancing the activity of LiFePO4 near the electrolyte-electrode interface as directly observed with NDP, which in a large part is responsible for the improved rate performance both during charge and discharge. The results demonstrate that standard electrodes have a far from optimal charge transport network and that significantly improved electrode performance should be possible by engineering the microstructure.

  7. Laser-perforated carbon paper electrodes for improved mass-transport in high power density vanadium redox flow batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayrhuber, I.; Dennison, C. R.; Kalra, V.; Kumbur, E. C.

    2014-08-01

    In this study, we demonstrate up to 30% increase in power density of carbon paper electrodes for vanadium redox flow batteries (VRFB) by introducing perforations into the structure of electrodes. A CO2 laser was used to generate holes ranging from 171 to 421 μm diameter, and hole densities from 96.8 to 649.8 holes cm-2. Perforation of the carbon paper electrodes was observed to improve cell performance in the activation region due to thermal treatment of the area around the perforations. Results also demonstrate improved mass transport, resulting in enhanced peak power and limiting current density. However, excessive perforation of the electrode yielded a decrease in performance due to reduced available surface area. A 30% increase in peak power density (478 mW cm-2) was observed for the laser perforated electrode with 234 μm diameter holes and 352.8 holes cm-2 (1764 holes per 5 cm2 electrode), despite a 15% decrease in total surface area compared to the raw un-perforated electrode. Additionally, the effect of perforation on VRFB performance was studied at different flow rates (up to 120 mL min-1) for the optimized electrode architecture. A maximum power density of 543 mW cm-2 was achieved at 120 mL min-1.

  8. Chitosan, a new and environmental benign electrode binder for use with graphite anode in lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Chitosan is used as a new electrode binder for graphite anode. • Electrochemical properties of the chitosan-based electrode are compared with that of PVDF-based one. • Electrochemical performances of the graphite anode are improved by using chitosan binder. • Chitosan binder facilitates the formation of a thin, homogenous and stable SEI film of the electrode. -- Abstract: Chitosan was applied as the electrode binder material for a spherical graphite anode in lithium-ion batteries. Compared to using poly (vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) binder, the graphite anode using chitosan exhibited enhanced electrochemical performances in terms of the first Columbic efficiency, rate capability and cycling behavior. With similar specific capacity, the first Columbic efficiency of the chitosan-based anode is 95.4% compared to 89.3% of the PVDF-based anode. After 200 charge–discharge cycles at 0.5C, the capacity retention of the chitosan-based electrode showed to be significantly higher than that of the PVDF-based electrode. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) measurements were carried out to investigate the formation and evolution of the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) formed on the graphite electrodes. The results show that a thin, homogenous and stable SEI layer is formed on the graphite electrode surface with chitosan binder compared with that using the conventional PVDF binder

  9. Li-Rich Li-Si Alloy As A Lithium-Containing Negative Electrode Material Towards High Energy Lithium-Ion Batteries

    OpenAIRE

    Shinichiroh Iwamura; Hirotomo Nishihara; Yoshitaka Ono; Haruhiko Morito; Hisanori Yamane; Hiroki Nara; Tetsuya Osaka; Takashi Kyotani

    2015-01-01

    Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) are generally constructed by lithium-including positive electrode materials, such as LiCoO2, and lithium-free negative electrode materials, such as graphite. Recently, lithium-free positive electrode materials, such as sulfur, are gathering great attention from their very high capacities, thereby significantly increasing the energy density of LIBs. Though the lithium-free materials need to be combined with lithium-containing negative electrode materials, the latte...

  10. A new strategy for integrating abundant oxygen functional groups into carbon felt electrode for vanadium redox flow batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki Jae; Lee, Seung-Wook; Yim, Taeeun; Kim, Jae-Geun; Choi, Jang Wook; Kim, Jung Ho; Park, Min-Sik; Kim, Young-Jun

    2014-11-01

    The effects of surface treatment combining corona discharge and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) on the electrochemical performance of carbon felt electrodes for vanadium redox flow batteries (VRFBs) have been thoroughly investigated. A high concentration of oxygen functional groups has been successfully introduced onto the surface of the carbon felt electrodes by a specially designed surface treatment, which is mainly responsible for improving the energy efficiency of VRFBs. In addition, the wettability of the carbon felt electrodes also can be significantly improved. The energy efficiency of the VRFB cell employing the surface modified carbon felt electrodes is improved by 7% at high current density (148 mA cm-2). Such improvement is attributed to the faster charge transfer and better wettability allowed by surface-active oxygen functional groups. Moreover, this method is much more competitive than other surface treatments in terms of processing time, production costs, and electrochemical performance.

  11. Effects of additional multiwall carbon nanotubes on impact behaviors of LiNi0.5Mn0.3Co0.2O2 battery electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Anh V.; Wang, Meng; Shi, Yang; Noelle, Daniel; Qiao, Yu; Lu, Weiyi

    2015-08-01

    This work introduces a new mechanically triggered thermal runaway mitigation mechanism. The homogenizer of electrode failure (HEF), multiwall carbon nanotube (MWCNT), was added into LiNi0.5Mn0.3Co0.2O2 (NMC532) battery electrodes. We have studied the effect of the HEF additive on the internal electrical resistance and the mechanical impact resistance of the electrodes. The additional MWCNTs reduced the internal electrical resistance of electrodes before mechanical abuse. Upon mechanical abuse, they could mitigate internal shorting and thermal runaway at normal battery working temperature.

  12. Origins of Large Voltage Hysteresis in High-Energy-Density Metal Fluoride Lithium-Ion Battery Conversion Electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Linsen; Jacobs, Ryan; Gao, Peng; Gan, Liyang; Wang, Feng; Morgan, Dane; Jin, Song

    2016-03-01

    Metal fluorides and oxides can store multiple lithium ions through conversion chemistry to enable high-energy-density lithium-ion batteries. However, their practical applications have been hindered by an unusually large voltage hysteresis between charge and discharge voltage profiles and the consequent low-energy efficiency (hysteresis are rarely studied and poorly understood. Here we employ in situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, density functional theory calculations, and galvanostatic intermittent titration technique to first correlate the voltage profile of iron fluoride (FeF3), a representative conversion electrode material, with evolution and spatial distribution of intermediate phases in the electrode. The results reveal that, contrary to conventional belief, the phase evolution in the electrode is symmetrical during discharge and charge. However, the spatial evolution of the electrochemically active phases, which is controlled by reaction kinetics, is different. We further propose that the voltage hysteresis in the FeF3 electrode is kinetic in nature. It is the result of ohmic voltage drop, reaction overpotential, and different spatial distributions of electrochemically active phases (i.e., compositional inhomogeneity). Therefore, the large hysteresis can be expected to be mitigated by rational design and optimization of material microstructure and electrode architecture to improve the energy efficiency of lithium-ion batteries based on conversion chemistry.

  13. Rare earth-Mg-Ni-based hydrogen storage alloys as negative electrode materials for Ni/MH batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: → State-of-the-art of new R-Mg-Ni-based hydrogen storage electrode alloys is reviewed. → Electrode performances of the R-Mg-Ni-based alloys depend strongly on the stoichiometric ratio, alloy components and microstructure. → Optimized alloy compositions contain mainly metallic elements of La, Mg, Ni, Co, Mn and Al. → Pulverization of particles and oxidation/corrosion of active components are responsible for the fast capacity degradation. → Low-Co or Co-free R-Mg-Ni-based electrode alloys should be developed. - Abstract: This review is devoted to new rare earth-Mg-Ni-based (R-Mg-Ni-based) hydrogen storage alloys that have been developed over the last decade as the most promising next generation negative electrode materials for high energy and high power Ni/MH batteries. Preparation techniques, structural characteristics, gas-solid reactions and electrochemical performances of this system alloy are systematically summarized and discussed. The improvement in electrochemical properties and their degradation mechanisms are covered in detail. Optimized alloy compositions with high discharge capacities, good electrochemical kinetics and reasonable cycle lives are described as well. For their practical applications in Ni/MH batteries, however, it is essential to develop an industrial-scale homogeneous preparation technique, and a low-cost R-Mg-Ni-based electrode alloy (low-Co or Co-free) with high discharge capacity, long cycle life and good kinetics.

  14. Effect of local velocity on diffusion-induced stress in large-deformation electrodes of lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yong; Zhang, Kai; Zheng, Bailin; Yang, Fuqian

    2016-07-01

    In this work, the contribution of local velocity to the resultant flux of lithium in lithium-ion battery is introduced into the diffusion equation to describe the migration of lithium in the active material of electrodes. The effect of the local velocity on the stress evolution in a spherical electrode made of silicon is analyzed, using the derived diffusion equation and nonlinear theory of elasticity. Two boundary conditions at the surface of the electrode, which represent two extreme conditions of real electrode materials, are used in the stress analysis: one is stress-free, and the other is immobile. The numerical results with the stress-free boundary condition suggest that the effect of the local velocity on the distribution of radial stress and hoop stress increases with the increase of time and the effect of the local velocity on the distribution of lithium is relatively small. In comparison with the results without the effect of the local velocity, the effect of the local velocity is negligible for the immobile boundary condition. The numerical result shows that the use of the immobile boundary condition leads to the decrease of von-Mises stress, which likely will retard the mechanical degradation of electrode and improve the electrochemical performance of lithium-ion battery.

  15. Ultra-fast dry microwave preparation of SnSb used as negative electrode material for Li-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antitomaso, P.; Fraisse, B.; Sougrati, M. T.; Morato-Lallemand, F.; Biscaglia, S.; Aymé-Perrot, D.; Girard, P.; Monconduit, L.

    2016-09-01

    Tin antimonide alloy was obtained for the first time using a very simple dry microwave route. Up to 1 g of well crystallized SnSb can be easily prepared in 90 s under air in an open crucible. A full characterization by X-ray diffraction and 119Sn Mössbauer spectroscopy demonstrated the benefit of carbon as susceptor, which avoid any oxide contamination. The microwave-prepared SnSb was tested as negative electrode material in Li batteries. Interesting results in terms of capacity and rate capability were obtained with up to 700 mAh/g sustained after 50 cycles at variable current. These results pave the way for the introduction of microwave synthesis as realistic route for a rapid, low cost and up-scalable production of electrode material for Li batteries or other large scale application types.

  16. Improving lithium-sulphur batteries through spatial control of sulphur species deposition on a hybrid electrode surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Hongbin; Zheng, Guangyuan; Hsu, Po-Chun; Kong, Desheng; Cha, Judy J; Li, Weiyang; Seh, Zhi Wei; McDowell, Matthew T; Yan, Kai; Liang, Zheng; Narasimhan, Vijay Kris; Cui, Yi

    2014-01-01

    Lithium-sulphur batteries are attractive owing to their high theoretical energy density and reasonable kinetics. Despite the success of trapping soluble polysulphides in a matrix with high surface area, spatial control of solid-state sulphur and lithium sulphide species deposition as a critical aspect has not been demonstrated. Herein, we show a clear visual evidence that these solid species deposit preferentially onto tin-doped indium oxide instead of carbon during electrochemical charge/discharge of soluble polysuphides. To incorporate this concept of spatial control into more practical battery electrodes, we further prepare carbon nanofibers with tin-doped indium oxide nanoparticles decorating the surface as hybrid three-dimensional electrodes to maximize the number of deposition sites. With 12.5 μl of 5 M Li2S8 as the catholyte and a rate of C/5, we can reach the theoretical limit of Li2S8 capacity ~\

  17. Nitrogen-Doped Carbon Nanotube/Graphite Felts as Advanced Electrode Materials for Vanadium Redox Flow Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuangyin; Zhao, Xinsheng; Cochell, Thomas; Manthiram, Arumugam

    2012-08-16

    Nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes have been grown, for the first time, on graphite felt (N-CNT/GF) by a chemical vapor deposition approach and examined as an advanced electrode for vanadium redox flow batteries (VRFBs). The unique porous structure and nitrogen doping of N-CNT/GF with increased surface area enhances the battery performance significantly. The enriched porous structure of N-CNTs on graphite felt could potentially facilitate the diffusion of electrolyte, while the N-doping could significantly contribute to the enhanced electrode performance. Specifically, the N-doping (i) modifies the electronic properties of CNT and thereby alters the chemisorption characteristics of the vanadium ions, (ii) generates defect sites that are electrochemically more active, (iii) increases the oxygen species on CNT surface, which is a key factor influencing the VRFB performance, and (iv) makes the N-CNT electrochemically more accessible than the CNT. PMID:26295765

  18. Nitrogen-Doped Carbon Nanotube/Graphite Felts as Advanced Electrode Materials for Vanadium Redox Flow Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuangyin; Zhao, Xinsheng; Cochell, Thomas; Manthiram, Arumugam

    2012-08-16

    Nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes have been grown, for the first time, on graphite felt (N-CNT/GF) by a chemical vapor deposition approach and examined as an advanced electrode for vanadium redox flow batteries (VRFBs). The unique porous structure and nitrogen doping of N-CNT/GF with increased surface area enhances the battery performance significantly. The enriched porous structure of N-CNTs on graphite felt could potentially facilitate the diffusion of electrolyte, while the N-doping could significantly contribute to the enhanced electrode performance. Specifically, the N-doping (i) modifies the electronic properties of CNT and thereby alters the chemisorption characteristics of the vanadium ions, (ii) generates defect sites that are electrochemically more active, (iii) increases the oxygen species on CNT surface, which is a key factor influencing the VRFB performance, and (iv) makes the N-CNT electrochemically more accessible than the CNT.

  19. Manufacturing of Protected Lithium Electrodes for Advanced Lithium-Air, Lithium-Water & Lithium-Sulfur Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visco, Steven J

    2015-11-30

    The global demand for rechargeable batteries is large and growing rapidly. Assuming the adoption of electric vehicles continues to increase, the need for smaller, lighter, and less expensive batteries will become even more pressing. In this vein, PolyPlus Battery Company has developed ultra-light high performance batteries based on its proprietary protected lithium electrode (PLE) technology. The Company’s Lithium-Air and Lithium-Seawater batteries have already demonstrated world record performance (verified by third party testing), and we are developing advanced lithium-sulfur batteries which have the potential deliver high performance at low cost. In this program PolyPlus Battery Company teamed with Corning Incorporated to transition the PLE technology from bench top fabrication using manual tooling to a pre- commercial semi-automated pilot line. At the inception of this program PolyPlus worked with a Tier 1 battery manufacturing engineering firm to design and build the first-of-its-kind pilot line for PLE production. The pilot line was shipped and installed in Berkeley, California several months after the start of the program. PolyPlus spent the next two years working with and optimizing the pilot line and now produces all of its PLEs on this line. The optimization process successfully increased the yield, throughput, and quality of PLEs produced on the pilot line. The Corning team focused on fabrication and scale-up of the ceramic membranes that are key to the PLE technology. PolyPlus next demonstrated that it could take Corning membranes through the pilot line process to produce state-of-the-art protected lithium electrodes. In the latter part of the program the Corning team developed alternative membranes targeted for the large rechargeable battery market. PolyPlus is now in discussions with several potential customers for its advanced PLE-enabled batteries, and is building relationships and infrastructure for the transition into manufacturing. It is likely

  20. Conversion Reaction Mechanisms in Lithium Ion Batteries: Study of the Binary Metal Fluoride Electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Materials that undergo a conversion reaction with lithium (e.g., metal fluorides MF2: M = Fe, Cu, ...) often accommodate more than one Li atom per transition-metal cation, and are promising candidates for high-capacity cathodes for lithium ion batteries. However, little is known about the mechanisms involved in the conversion process, the origins of the large polarization during electrochemical cycling, and why some materials are reversible (e.g., FeF2) while others are not (e.g., CuF2). In this study, we investigated the conversion reaction of binary metal fluorides, FeF2 and CuF2, using a series of local and bulk probes to better understand the mechanisms underlying their contrasting electrochemical behavior. X-ray pair-distribution-function and magnetization measurements were used to determine changes in short-range ordering, particle size and microstructure, while high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) were used to measure the atomic-level structure of individual particles and map the phase distribution in the initial and fully lithiated electrodes. Both FeF2 and CuF2 react with lithium via a direct conversion process with no intercalation step, but there are differences in the conversion process and final phase distribution. During the reaction of Li+ with FeF2, small metallic iron nanoparticles (2. In contrast to FeF2, no continuous Cu network was observed in the lithiated CuF2; rather, the converted Cu segregates to large particles (5-12 nm in diameter) during the first discharge, which may be partially responsible for the lack of reversibility in the CuF2 electrode.

  1. Variation of stress with charging rate due to strain-rate sensitivity of silicon electrodes of Li-ion batteries

    OpenAIRE

    Pharr, Matt Mathews; Suo, Zhigang; Vlassak, Joost J.

    2014-01-01

    Silicon is a promising anode material for lithium-ion batteries due to its enormous theoretical energy density. Fracture during electrochemical cycling has limited the practical viability of silicon electrodes, but recent studies indicate that fracture can be prevented by taking advantage of lithiation-induced plasticity. In this paper, we provide experimental insight into the nature of plasticity in amorphous LixSi thin films. To do so, we vary the rate of lithiation of amorphous silicon thi...

  2. Direct measurement of the chemical reactivity of silicon electrodes with LiPF6-based battery electrolytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veith, Gabriel M; Baggetto, Loïc; Sacci, Robert L; Unocic, Raymond R; Tenhaeff, Wyatt E; Browning, James F

    2014-03-21

    We report the first direct measurement of the extent of the spontaneous non-electrochemically driven reaction between a lithium ion battery electrode surface (Si) and a liquid electrolyte (1.2 M LiPF6-3 : 7 wt% ethylene carbonate : dimethyl carbonate). This layer is estimated to be 35 Å thick with a SLD of ∼ 4 × 10(-6) Å(-2) and likely originates from the consumption of the silicon surface. PMID:24513965

  3. 锂离子电池电极材料选择%Electrode Materials for Lithium Ion Battery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张临超; 陈春华

    2011-01-01

    It has been 20 years since lithium ion battery appeared as a commercial product. Different kinds of new electrode materials are urgently needed to meet the demands of the society. In this review, some knowledge about lithium ion battery is first given. Then we focus on several new positive/negative electrode materials reported up to date. When they were used as lithium ion battery electrode materials, how they are synthesized, the main improvement methods and their electrochemical performance will be presented. Finally, we give a short summary of the advantages/disadvantages of these new electrode materials. Furthermore, an outlook for the potential applications of lithium ion batteries in the future is proposed.%商用锂离子电池发展至今已有20年,为了满足不同方面的社会需求,人们迫切需要新型锂离子电池电极材料.本文首先简要介绍了锂离子电池的相关知识,随后对多种新型锂离子电池正负极材料的制备、改进方法及电化学性能做了详细介绍,最后对各种电极材料的优缺点进行了简要的总结.本文还对锂离子电池在未来的应用进行了展望,以期待锂离子电池更好地为人类服务.

  4. Borophene as an extremely high capacity electrode material for Li-ion and Na-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoming; Hu, Junping; Cheng, Yingchun; Yang, Hui Ying; Yao, Yugui; Yang, Shengyuan A

    2016-08-18

    "Two-dimensional (2D) materials as electrodes" is believed to be the trend for future Li-ion and Na-ion battery technologies. Here, by using first-principles methods, we predict that the recently reported borophene (2D boron sheets) can serve as an ideal electrode material with high electrochemical performance for both Li-ion and Na-ion batteries. The calculations are performed on two experimentally stable borophene structures, namely β12 and χ3 structures. The optimized Li and Na adsorption sites are identified, and the host materials are found to maintain good electric conductivity before and after adsorption. Besides advantages including small diffusion barriers and low average open-circuit voltages, most remarkably, the storage capacity can be as high as 1984 mA h g(-1) in β12 borophene and 1240 mA h g(-1) in χ3 borophene for both Li and Na, which are several times higher than the commercial graphite electrode and are the highest among all the 2D materials discovered to date. Our results highly support that borophenes can be appealing anode materials for both Li-ion and Na-ion batteries with extremely high power density. PMID:27502997

  5. Bicontinuous gyroid nickel network derived from a block copolymer template for three-dimensional MnO₂ electrodes as nanostructured, dimensionally-stabilized lithium-ion battery anodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tillmann, Selina; Cekic-Laskovic, Isadora; Winter, Martin; Loos, Katja

    2016-01-01

    To improve lithium-ion batteries further, novel concepts for the reproducible preparation of highly structured bicontinuous battery electrodes are required. With this in mind, the main focus of this work is set on the block copolymer template-directed synthesis of metal nanofoams suitable for the ra

  6. High-performance graphene/sulphur electrodes for flexible Li-ion batteries using the low-temperature spraying method

    KAUST Repository

    Kumar, Pushpendra

    2015-01-01

    Elementary sulphur (S) has been shown to be an excellent cathode material in energy storage devices such as Li-S batteries owing to its very high capacity. The major challenges associated with the sulphur cathodes are structural degradation, poor cycling performance and instability of the solid-electrolyte interphase caused by the dissolution of polysulfides during cycling. Tremendous efforts made by others have demonstrated that encapsulation of S materials improves their cycling performance. To make this approach practical for large scale applications, the use of low-cost technology and materials has become a crucial and new focus of S-based Li-ion batteries. Herein, we propose to use a low temperature spraying process to fabricate graphene/S electrode material, where the ink is composed of graphene flakes and the micron-sized S particles prepared by grinding of low-cost S powders. The S particles are found to be well hosted by highly conductive graphene flakes and consequently superior cyclability (∼70% capacity retention after 250 cycles), good coulombic efficiency (∼98%) and high capacity (∼1500 mA h g-1) are obtained. The proposed approach does not require high temperature annealing or baking; hence, another great advantage is to make flexible Li-ion batteries. We have also demonstrated two types of flexible batteries using sprayed graphene/S electrodes. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2015.

  7. Effect of prestress on the stability of electrode-electrolyte interfaces during charging in lithium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natsiavas, P. P.; Weinberg, K.; Rosato, D.; Ortiz, M.

    2016-10-01

    We formulate a model of the growth of electrode-electrolyte interfaces in lithium batteries in the presence of an elastic prestress. The model accounts for the kinetics of Li+ transport through a solid electrolyte and, within the interface, for the kinetics of Li+ adsorption by the anode, electrostatics, and the elastic field. We specifically account for the effect of the elastic field through an asymptotic analysis of a nearly flat interface between two semi-infinite elastic bodies. We use the model as a basis for assessing the effect of prestress on the stability of planar growth and the potential of prestress as a means of suppressing the formation of deleterious dendrites. We present a linear stability analysis that results in explicit analytical expressions for the dependence of growth rates, and of the critical unstable wavelength for the interfacial roughening, on the state of prestress and on fundamental parameters such as surface diffusivities, surface energy, deposition kinetics, and elastic moduli. Finally, we examine the model in the light of experimental observations concerned with the effect of applied pressure on a lithium/dioxolane-dimethoxy ethane electrolyte systems. With reasonable choices of parameters and some calibration, the model accounts for the observation that a modest applied pressure indeed results in a substantial reduction in the roughening of the lithium surface during cycling.

  8. Olivine-Based Blended Compounds as Positive Electrodes for Lithium Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian M. Julien

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Blended cathode materials made by mixing LiFePO4 (LFP with LiMnPO4 (LMP or LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 (NMC that exhibit either high specific energy and high rate capability were investigated. The layered blend LMP–LFP and the physically mixed blend NMC–LFP are evaluated in terms of particle morphology and electrochemical performance. Results indicate that the LMP–LFP (66:33 blend has a better discharge rate than the LiMn1−yFeyPO4 with the same composition (y = 0.33, and NMC–LFP (70:30 delivers a remarkable stable capacity over 125 cycles. Finally, in situ voltage measurement methods were applied for the evaluation of the phase evolution of blended cathodes and gradual changes in cell behavior upon cycling. We also discuss through these examples the promising development of blends as future electrodes for new generations of Li-ion batteries.

  9. Performance and cycle life of carbon- and conductive-based air electrodes for rechargeable Zn-air battery applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chellapandi Velraj, Samgopiraj

    The development of high-performance, cyclically stable bifunctional air electrodes are critical to the commercial deployment of rechargeable Zn-air batteries. The carbon material predominantly used as support material in the air electrodes due to its higher surface area and good electrical conductivity suffers from corrosion at high oxygen evolution overpotentials. This study addresses the carbon corrosion issues and suggests alternate materials to replace the carbon as support in the air electrode. In this study, Sm0.5Sr0.5CoO3-delta with good electrochemical performance and cyclic lifetime was identified as an alternative catalyst material to the commonly used La0.4Ca 0.6CoO3 catalyst for the carbon-based bifunctional electrodes. Also, a comprehensive study on the effects of catalyst morphology, testing conditions on the cycle life as well as the relevant degradation mechanism for the carbon-based electrode was conducted in this dissertation. The cyclic life of the carbon-based electrodes was strongly dependent on the carbon support material, while the degradation mechanisms were entirely controlled by the catalyst particle size/morphology. Some testing conditions like resting time and electrolyte concentration did not change the cyclic life or degradation mechanism of the carbon-based electrode. The current density used for cyclic testing was found to dictate the degradation mechanism leading to the electrode failure. An alternate way to circumvent the carbon corrosion is to replace the carbon support with a suitable electrically-conductive ceramic material. In this dissertation, LaNi0.9Mn0.1O3, LaNi 0.8Co0.2O3, and NiCo2O4 were synthesized and evaluated as prospective support materials due to their good electrical conductivity and their ability to act as the catalyst needed for the bifunctional electrode. The carbon-free electrodes had remarkably higher catalytic activity for oxygen evolution reaction (OER) when compared to the carbon-based electrode. However

  10. Bismuth nanoparticle decorating graphite felt as a high-performance electrode for an all-vanadium redox flow battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bin; Gu, Meng; Nie, Zimin; Shao, Yuyan; Luo, Qingtao; Wei, Xiaoliang; Li, Xiaolin; Xiao, Jie; Wang, Chongmin; Sprenkle, Vincent; Wang, Wei

    2013-03-13

    Employing electrolytes containing Bi(3+), bismuth nanoparticles are synchronously electrodeposited onto the surface of a graphite felt electrode during operation of an all-vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB). The influence of the Bi nanoparticles on the electrochemical performance of the VRFB is thoroughly investigated. It is confirmed that Bi is only present at the negative electrode and facilitates the redox reaction between V(II) and V(III). However, the Bi nanoparticles significantly improve the electrochemical performance of VRFB cells by enhancing the kinetics of the sluggish V(II)/V(III) redox reaction, especially under high power operation. The energy efficiency is increased by 11% at high current density (150 mA·cm(-2)) owing to faster charge transfer as compared with one without Bi. The results suggest that using Bi nanoparticles in place of noble metals offers great promise as high-performance electrodes for VRFB application.

  11. Multiscale modeling of lithium-ion battery electrodes based on nano-scale X-ray computed tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashkooli, Ali Ghorbani; Farhad, Siamak; Lee, Dong Un; Feng, Kun; Litster, Shawn; Babu, Siddharth Komini; Zhu, Likun; Chen, Zhongwei

    2016-03-01

    A multiscale platform has been developed to model lithium ion battery (LIB) electrodes based on the real microstructure morphology. This multiscale framework consists of a microscale level where the electrode microstructure architecture is modeled and a macroscale level where discharge/charge is simulated. The coupling between two scales are performed in real time unlike using common surrogate based models for microscale. For microscale geometry 3D microstructure is reconstructed based on the nano-scale X-ray computed tomography data replacing typical computer generated microstructure. It is shown that this model can predict the experimental performance of LiFePO4 (LFP) cathode at different discharge rates more accurate than the conventional homogenous models. The approach employed in this study provides valuable insight into the spatial distribution of lithium -ion inside the real microstructure of LIB electrodes. The inhomogenous microstructure of LFP causes a wider range of physical and electrochemical properties in microscale compared to homogenous models.

  12. Bismuth nanoparticle decorating graphite felt as a high-performance electrode for an all-vanadium redox flow battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bin; Gu, Meng; Nie, Zimin; Shao, Yuyan; Luo, Qingtao; Wei, Xiaoliang; Li, Xiaolin; Xiao, Jie; Wang, Chongmin; Sprenkle, Vincent; Wang, Wei

    2013-03-13

    Employing electrolytes containing Bi(3+), bismuth nanoparticles are synchronously electrodeposited onto the surface of a graphite felt electrode during operation of an all-vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB). The influence of the Bi nanoparticles on the electrochemical performance of the VRFB is thoroughly investigated. It is confirmed that Bi is only present at the negative electrode and facilitates the redox reaction between V(II) and V(III). However, the Bi nanoparticles significantly improve the electrochemical performance of VRFB cells by enhancing the kinetics of the sluggish V(II)/V(III) redox reaction, especially under high power operation. The energy efficiency is increased by 11% at high current density (150 mA·cm(-2)) owing to faster charge transfer as compared with one without Bi. The results suggest that using Bi nanoparticles in place of noble metals offers great promise as high-performance electrodes for VRFB application. PMID:23398147

  13. In situ X-ray diffraction investigation of zinc based electrode in Ni–Zn secondary batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In situ/in operando X-ray diffraction coupled with electrochemical cycling of ZnO based electrodes in KOH electrolyte has been used as a powerful tool in order to investigate the influence of additives. The technique has been performed in order to highlight the role of bismuth based conductive additives on the cycling ability of the electrode. It enables to clearly evidence the conversion of zinc oxide to zinc metal. During the first charge, it also helps to visualize the conversion of Bi2O3 additive into metallic bismuth prior to ZnO reduction which leads to the formation of an electronic pathway at the nanometer scale complementary from the current collector and the TiN percolation conductive network. Additionally, each Bi2O3 grain seems to be converted in a single bismuth grain which is not agglomerated with other bismuth particles even after 50 cycles. This behaviour leads to a steady capacity of the zinc based electrode compared to the same electrode without Bi2O3 additive. Subsequently, in situ XRD investigation of Zn based negative electrode in nickel–zinc batteries can be a powerful tool to design new composite electrode with long term cycling efficiency

  14. Distinct charge dynamics in battery electrodes revealed by in situ and operando soft X-ray spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaosong; Wang, Dongdong; Liu, Gao; Srinivasan, Venkat; Liu, Zhi; Hussain, Zahid; Yang, Wanli

    2013-10-01

    Developing high-performance batteries relies on material breakthroughs. During the past few years, various in situ characterization tools have been developed and have become indispensible in studying and the eventual optimization of battery materials. However, soft X-ray spectroscopy, one of the most sensitive probes of electronic states, has been mainly limited to ex situ experiments for battery research. Here we achieve in situ and operando soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy of lithium-ion battery cathodes. Taking advantage of the elemental, chemical and surface sensitivities of soft X-rays, we discover distinct lithium-ion and electron dynamics in Li(Co1/3Ni1/3Mn1/3)O2 and LiFePO4 cathodes in polymer electrolytes. The contrast between the two systems and the relaxation effect in LiFePO4 is attributed to a phase transformation mechanism, and the mesoscale morphology and charge conductivity of the electrodes. These discoveries demonstrate feasibility and power of in situ soft X-ray spectroscopy for studying integrated and dynamic effects in batteries.

  15. Distinct charge dynamics in battery electrodes revealed by in situ and operando soft X-ray spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaosong; Wang, Dongdong; Liu, Gao; Srinivasan, Venkat; Liu, Zhi; Hussain, Zahid; Yang, Wanli

    2013-01-01

    Developing high-performance batteries relies on material breakthroughs. During the past few years, various in situ characterization tools have been developed and have become indispensible in studying and the eventual optimization of battery materials. However, soft X-ray spectroscopy, one of the most sensitive probes of electronic states, has been mainly limited to ex situ experiments for battery research. Here we achieve in situ and operando soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy of lithium-ion battery cathodes. Taking advantage of the elemental, chemical and surface sensitivities of soft X-rays, we discover distinct lithium-ion and electron dynamics in Li(Co1/3Ni1/3Mn1/3)O2 and LiFePO4 cathodes in polymer electrolytes. The contrast between the two systems and the relaxation effect in LiFePO4 is attributed to a phase transformation mechanism, and the mesoscale morphology and charge conductivity of the electrodes. These discoveries demonstrate feasibility and power of in situ soft X-ray spectroscopy for studying integrated and dynamic effects in batteries. PMID:24100759

  16. Influence of inactive electrode components on degradation phenomena in nano-Si electrodes for Li-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeschull, Fabian; Lindgren, Fredrik; Lacey, Matthew J.; Björefors, Fredrik; Edström, Kristina; Brandell, Daniel

    2016-09-01

    The electrode morphology and electrochemistry of silicon nanocomposite electrodes containing either carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC-Na) or poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) binders are examined in context of their working surface area. Using porous carbon (Ketjenblack) additives, coatings with poor adhesion properties and deep cracks were obtained. The morphology is also reflected in the electrochemical behavior under capacity-limited conditions. Mapping the differential capacity versus potential over all cycles yields detailed insights into the degradation processes and shows the onset of cell failure with the emergence of lithium-rich silicon alloys at low potentials, well before capacity fading is observed. Fading occurs faster with electrodes containing PAA binder. The surface area of the electrode components is a major cause of increased irreversible reaction and capacity fade. Synchrotron-based X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy on aged, uncycled electrodes revealed accelerated conversion of the native SiOx-layer to detrimental SiOxFy in presence of Ketjenblack. In contrast, a conventional carbon black better preserved the SiOx-layer. This effect is attributed to preferred adsorption of binder on high surface area electrode components and highlights the role of binders as 'artificial SEI-layers'. This work demonstrates that optimization of nanocomposites requires careful balancing of the surface areas and amounts of all the electrode components applied.

  17. Conversion Reaction Mechanisms in Lithium Ion Batteries: Study of the Binary Metal Fluoride Electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Feng; Robert, Rosa; Chernova, Natasha A.; Pereira, Nathalie; Omenya, Fredrick; Badway, Fadwa; Hua, Xiao; Ruotolo, Michael; Zhang, Ruigang; Wu, Lijun; Volkov, Vyacheslav; Su, Dong; Key, Baris; Whittingham, M. Stanley; Grey, Clare P.; Amatucci, Glenn G.; Zhu, Yimei; Graetz, Jason (Binghamton); (Rutgers); (BNL); (Cambridge); (SBU)

    2015-10-15

    Materials that undergo a conversion reaction with lithium (e.g., metal fluorides MF{sub 2}: M = Fe, Cu, ...) often accommodate more than one Li atom per transition-metal cation, and are promising candidates for high-capacity cathodes for lithium ion batteries. However, little is known about the mechanisms involved in the conversion process, the origins of the large polarization during electrochemical cycling, and why some materials are reversible (e.g., FeF{sub 2}) while others are not (e.g., CuF{sub 2}). In this study, we investigated the conversion reaction of binary metal fluorides, FeF{sub 2} and CuF{sub 2}, using a series of local and bulk probes to better understand the mechanisms underlying their contrasting electrochemical behavior. X-ray pair-distribution-function and magnetization measurements were used to determine changes in short-range ordering, particle size and microstructure, while high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) were used to measure the atomic-level structure of individual particles and map the phase distribution in the initial and fully lithiated electrodes. Both FeF{sub 2} and CuF{sub 2} react with lithium via a direct conversion process with no intercalation step, but there are differences in the conversion process and final phase distribution. During the reaction of Li{sup +} with FeF{sub 2}, small metallic iron nanoparticles (<5 nm in diameter) nucleate in close proximity to the converted LiF phase, as a result of the low diffusivity of iron. The iron nanoparticles are interconnected and form a bicontinuous network, which provides a pathway for local electron transport through the insulating LiF phase. In addition, the massive interface formed between nanoscale solid phases provides a pathway for ionic transport during the conversion process. These results offer the first experimental evidence explaining the origins of the high lithium reversibility in FeF{sub 2}. In contrast

  18. Three dimensional Graphene aerogels as binder-less, freestanding, elastic and high-performance electrodes for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhihang; Li, Hua; Tian, Ran; Duan, Huanan; Guo, Yiping; Chen, Yujie; Zhou, Jie; Zhang, Chunmei; DUGNANI, Roberto; Liu, Hezhou

    2016-01-01

    In this work it is shown how porous graphene aerogels fabricated by an eco-friendly and simple technological process, could be used as electrodes in lithium- ion batteries. The proposed graphene framework exhibited excellent performance including high reversible capacities, superior cycling stability and rate capability. A significantly lower temperature (75 °C) than the one currently utilized in battery manufacturing was utilized for self-assembly hence providing potential significant savings to the industrial production. After annealing at 600 °C, the formation of Sn-C-O bonds between the SnO2 nanoparticles and the reduced graphene sheets will initiate synergistic effect and improve the electrochemical performance. The XPS patterns revealed the formation of Sn-C-O bonds. Both SEM and TEM imaging of the electrode material showed that the three dimensional network of graphene aerogels and the SnO2 particles were distributed homogeneously on graphene sheets. Finally, the electrochemical properties of the samples as active anode materials for lithium-ion batteries were tested and examined by constant current charge–discharge cycling and the finding fully described in this manuscript. PMID:27265146

  19. Three dimensional Graphene aerogels as binder-less, freestanding, elastic and high-performance electrodes for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhihang; Li, Hua; Tian, Ran; Duan, Huanan; Guo, Yiping; Chen, Yujie; Zhou, Jie; Zhang, Chunmei; Dugnani, Roberto; Liu, Hezhou

    2016-06-01

    In this work it is shown how porous graphene aerogels fabricated by an eco-friendly and simple technological process, could be used as electrodes in lithium- ion batteries. The proposed graphene framework exhibited excellent performance including high reversible capacities, superior cycling stability and rate capability. A significantly lower temperature (75 °C) than the one currently utilized in battery manufacturing was utilized for self-assembly hence providing potential significant savings to the industrial production. After annealing at 600 °C, the formation of Sn-C-O bonds between the SnO2 nanoparticles and the reduced graphene sheets will initiate synergistic effect and improve the electrochemical performance. The XPS patterns revealed the formation of Sn-C-O bonds. Both SEM and TEM imaging of the electrode material showed that the three dimensional network of graphene aerogels and the SnO2 particles were distributed homogeneously on graphene sheets. Finally, the electrochemical properties of the samples as active anode materials for lithium-ion batteries were tested and examined by constant current charge-discharge cycling and the finding fully described in this manuscript.

  20. Three dimensional Graphene aerogels as binder-less, freestanding, elastic and high-performance electrodes for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhihang; Li, Hua; Tian, Ran; Duan, Huanan; Guo, Yiping; Chen, Yujie; Zhou, Jie; Zhang, Chunmei; Dugnani, Roberto; Liu, Hezhou

    2016-06-01

    In this work it is shown how porous graphene aerogels fabricated by an eco-friendly and simple technological process, could be used as electrodes in lithium- ion batteries. The proposed graphene framework exhibited excellent performance including high reversible capacities, superior cycling stability and rate capability. A significantly lower temperature (75 °C) than the one currently utilized in battery manufacturing was utilized for self-assembly hence providing potential significant savings to the industrial production. After annealing at 600 °C, the formation of Sn-C-O bonds between the SnO2 nanoparticles and the reduced graphene sheets will initiate synergistic effect and improve the electrochemical performance. The XPS patterns revealed the formation of Sn-C-O bonds. Both SEM and TEM imaging of the electrode material showed that the three dimensional network of graphene aerogels and the SnO2 particles were distributed homogeneously on graphene sheets. Finally, the electrochemical properties of the samples as active anode materials for lithium-ion batteries were tested and examined by constant current charge–discharge cycling and the finding fully described in this manuscript.

  1. A MEMS platform for in situ, real-time monitoring of electrochemically induced mechanical changes in lithium-ion battery electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the first successful demonstration of an optical microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) sensing platform for the in situ characterization of electrochemically induced reversible mechanical changes in lithium-ion battery (LIB) electrodes. The platform consists of an array of flexible membranes with a reflective surface on one side and a thin-film LIB electrode on the other side. The membranes deflect due to the active battery material volume change caused by lithium intercalation (expansion) and extraction (contraction). This deflection is monitored using the Fabry–Perot optical interferometry principle. The active material volume change causes high internal stresses and mechanical degradation of the electrodes. The stress evolution observed in a silicon thin-film electrode incorporated into this MEMS platform follows a ‘first elastic, then plastic’ deformation scheme. Understanding of the internal stresses in battery electrodes during discharge/charge is important for improving the reliability and cycle lifetime of LIBs. The developed MEMS platform presents a new method for in situ diagnostics of thin-film LIB electrodes to aid the development of new materials, optimization of electrode performance, and prevention of battery failure. (paper)

  2. Magneli phase Ti4O7 electrode for oxygen reduction reaction and its implication for zinc-air rechargeable batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, Magneli phase Ti4O7 was successfully synthesized using a TiO2 reduction method, and characterized using X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The electrode coated with this Ti4O7 material showed activities for both the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and the oxygen evolution reaction (OER). For the ORR, several parameters, including overall electron transfer number, kinetic constants, electron transfer coefficient, and percentage H2O2 production, were obtained using the rotating ring-disk electrode (RRDE) technique and the Koutecky-Levich theory. The overall electron transfer number was found to be between 2.3 and 2.9 in 1, 4, and 6 M KOH electrolytes, suggesting that the ORR process on the Ti4O7 electrode was a mixed process of 2- and 4-electron transfer pathways. Electrochemical durability tests, carried out in highly concentrated KOH electrolyte, confirmed that this Ti4O7 is a stable electrode material, suggesting that it should be a feasible candidate for the air-cathodes of zinc-air batteries. To understand the stability of this material, Raman and XPS spectra were also collected for the Ti4O7 samples before and after the stability tests. The results and analysis revealed that a thin layer of TiO2 formed on the Ti4O7 surface, which may have prevented further oxidation into the bulk of the Ti4O7 electrode.

  3. Determination of the mass-transport properties of vanadium ions through the porous electrodes of vanadium redox flow batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qian; Zhao, T S

    2013-07-14

    This work is concerned with the determination of two critical constitutive properties for mass transport of ions through porous electrodes saturated with a liquid electrolyte solution. One is the effective diffusivity that is required to model the mass transport at the representative element volume (REV) level of porous electrodes in the framework of Darcy's law, while the other is the pore-level mass-transfer coefficient for modeling the mass transport from the REV level to the solid surfaces of pores induced by redox reactions. Based on the theoretical framework of mass transport through the electrodes of vanadium redox flow batteries (VRFBs), unique experimental setups for electrochemically determining the two transport properties by measuring limiting current densities are devised. The effective diffusivity and the pore-level mass-transfer coefficient through the porous electrode made of graphite felt, a typical material for VRFB electrodes, are measured at different electrolyte flow rates. The correlation equations, respectively, for the effective diffusivity and the pore-level mass-transfer coefficient are finally proposed based on the experimental data. PMID:23698744

  4. Pore-scale analysis of effects of electrode morphology and electrolyte flow conditions on performance of vanadium redox flow batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Gang; Dennison, C. R.; Knehr, K. W.; Kumbur, E. C.; Sun, Ying

    2012-12-01

    A 3D pore-scale transport resolved model is used to study the performance characteristics of a vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB) with various electrode morphologies under different operating conditions. Three electrode structures are reconstructed from X-ray computed tomography (XCT) images of porous carbon felt electrode materials. The local vanadium concentration, overpotential, current density and overall cell voltage for the positive half cell are examined. The results indicate that the cell voltage increases with increasing electrolyte flow rate due to decreasing concentration gradients of vanadium species within the porous electrode. However, the marginal gain in cell voltage diminishes once the concentration field approaches uniformity under convection-dominated mass transport conditions at sufficiently high electrolyte flow rates. The model also predicts that electrode structures with low porosity (high surface area) result in more uniform and lower absolute current density and overpotential fields at the expense of increased pressure drop. Finally, poor cell performance is observed for simulations operated at low electrolyte flow rates and low states of charge due to the fuel starvation (i.e., insufficient amount of reactant in the cell).

  5. Effect of heat treatment temperature on the electrochemical properties of SnSb-based Cu electrodes for lithium batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Qianlei, E-mail: jiangqianlei@mitbj.org [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Material and Industrial Technology Research Institute, Beijing 102206 (China); Hu, Daozhong [National 863 Program Power Battery Test Base, China North Vehicle Research Institute, Beijing 100072 (China); Jia, Mengqiu, E-mail: jiamq@mail.buct.edu.cn [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Xue, Ruisheng [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China)

    2014-12-01

    Highlights: • SnSb deposits were directly electro-co-deposited on Cu substrates. • We showed heat treatment effect on SnSb-based Cu electrode characteristics. • The electrochemical properties depend strongly on heat-treated temperature. - Abstract: SnSb alloys have been directly electro-co-deposited on Cu substrates. In this study, we investigated the effects of heat treatment temperature on morphology, composition, phase structure, chemical states and electrochemical performance of the SnSb deposits on Cu electrodes for lithium-ion batteries. The results showed that the pristine SnSb deposits was composed of SnSb intermetallic and a small amount of Sn. The results also showed that heat treatment strongly influenced the morphology, composition, structure, chemical states and these differences in electrode characteristics are expected to reflect in differences in the electrochemical behavior. Electrochemical measurements showed that appropriate heat treatment temperature can effectively alleviate the volume expansion and improve the cycling stability. The SnSb-based Cu electrode heat-treated at 400 °C for 2 h has the best reversible capacity and capacity retention. The best electrode cycled with a high reversible capacity of over 600.0 mA h/g with no decay after 100 cycles.

  6. New Insight into the Interaction between Carbonate-based Electrolyte and Cuprous Sulfide Electrode Material for Lithium Ion Batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuprous sulfide (Cu2S) is attractive electrode material for lithium-ion battery because of its high capacity and energy density. Interestingly, the cycling stability of cuprous sulfide is poor in the carbonate-based electrolytes used in lithium ion battery industry but excellent in ether-based electrolyte. In this study, we have compared the electrochemical performance of commercially available cuprous sulfide in various kinds of carbonate-based electrolytes. Our results show that the specific capacity of Cu2S electrode fades quickly in cyclic carbonate-based electrolytes, but a much better electrochemical performance in linear carbonate-based electrolytes. In linear carbonate-based electrolyte (1 M LiPF6 in EMC), it exhibits a specific discharge capacity of 242.8 mAh g−1 after 50 cycles with coulombic efficiency of 99.6%. Our study suggests that the poor cycling performance of Cu2S in cyclic carbonate-based electrolytes is mainly due to the higher reactivity of cyclic carbonates with polysulfides on the surface of the electrode than linear carbonates, which was confirmed for the first time by our experiment studies and theoretical calculation

  7. Studies on two classes of positive electrode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilcox, James Douglas [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2008-12-01

    The development of advanced lithium-ion batteries is key to the success of many technologies, and in particular, hybrid electric vehicles. In addition to finding materials with higher energy and power densities, improvements in other factors such as cost, toxicity, lifetime, and safety are also required. Lithium transition metal oxide and LiFePO4/C composite materials offer several distinct advantages in achieving many of these goals and are the focus of this report. Two series of layered lithium transition metal oxides, namely LiNi1/3Co1/3-yMyMn1/3O2 (M=Al, Co, Fe, Ti) and LiNi0.4Co0.2-yMyMn0.4O2 (M = Al, Co, Fe), have been synthesized. The effect of substitution on the crystal structure is related to shifts in transport properties and ultimately to the electrochemical performance. Partial aluminum substitution creates a high-rate positive electrode material capable of delivering twice the discharge capacity of unsubstituted materials. Iron substituted materials suffer from limited electrochemical performance and poor cycling stability due to the degradation of the layered structure. Titanium substitution creates a very high rate positive electrode material due to a decrease in the anti-site defect concentration. LiFePO4 is a very promising electrode material but suffers from poor electronic and ionic conductivity. To overcome this, two new techniques have been developed to synthesize high performance LiFePO4/C composite materials. The use of graphitization catalysts in conjunction with pyromellitic acid leads to a highly graphitic carbon coating on the surface of LiFePO4 particles. Under the proper conditions, the room temperature electronic conductivity can be improved by nearly five orders of magnitude over untreated materials. Using Raman spectroscopy, the improvement in conductivity and rate performance of

  8. STUDIES ON TWO CLASSES OF POSITIVE ELECTRODE MATERIALS FOR LITHIUM-ION BATTERIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilcox, James D.

    2008-12-18

    The development of advanced lithium-ion batteries is key to the success of many technologies, and in particular, hybrid electric vehicles. In addition to finding materials with higher energy and power densities, improvements in other factors such as cost, toxicity, lifetime, and safety are also required. Lithium transition metal oxide and LiFePO{sub 4}/C composite materials offer several distinct advantages in achieving many of these goals and are the focus of this report. Two series of layered lithium transition metal oxides, namely LiNi{sub 1/3}Co{sub 1/3-y}M{sub y}Mn{sub 1/3}O{sub 2} (M=Al, Co, Fe, Ti) and LiNi{sub 0.4}Co{sub 0.2-y}M{sub y}Mn{sub 0.4}O{sub 2} (M = Al, Co, Fe), have been synthesized. The effect of substitution on the crystal structure is related to shifts in transport properties and ultimately to the electrochemical performance. Partial aluminum substitution creates a high-rate positive electrode material capable of delivering twice the discharge capacity of unsubstituted materials. Iron substituted materials suffer from limited electrochemical performance and poor cycling stability due to the degradation of the layered structure. Titanium substitution creates a very high rate positive electrode material due to a decrease in the anti-site defect concentration. LiFePO{sub 4} is a very promising electrode material but suffers from poor electronic and ionic conductivity. To overcome this, two new techniques have been developed to synthesize high performance LiFePO{sub 4}/C composite materials. The use of graphitization catalysts in conjunction with pyromellitic acid leads to a highly graphitic carbon coating on the surface of LiFePO{sub 4} particles. Under the proper conditions, the room temperature electronic conductivity can be improved by nearly five orders of magnitude over untreated materials. Using Raman spectroscopy, the improvement in conductivity and rate performance of such materials has been related to the underlying structure of the

  9. Understanding and Overcoming the Challenges Posed by Electrode/Electrolyte Interfaces in Rechargeable Magnesium Batteries

    OpenAIRE

    Fuminori eMizuno; Nikhilendra eSingh; Arthur, Timothy S; Paul T Fanson; Mayandi eRamanathan; Aadil eBenmayza; Jai ePrakash; Yi-Sheng eLiu; Per-Anders eGlans; Jinghua eGuo

    2014-01-01

    Guided by the great achievements of lithium (Li)-ion battery technologies, post Li-ion battery technologies have gained a considerable interest in recent years. Their success would allow us to realize a sustainable society, enabling us to mitigate issues like global warming and resource depletion. Of such technologies, Magnesium (Mg) battery technologies have attracted attention as a high energy-density storage system due to the following advantages: (1) potentially high energy-density derive...

  10. Chemical and Structural Stability of Lithium-Ion Battery Electrode Materials under Electron Beam

    OpenAIRE

    Feng Lin; Isaac M. Markus; Doeff, Marca M.; Xin, Huolin L.

    2014-01-01

    The investigation of chemical and structural dynamics in battery materials is essential to elucidation of structure-property relationships for rational design of advanced battery materials. Spatially resolved techniques, such as scanning/transmission electron microscopy (S/TEM), are widely applied to address this challenge. However, battery materials are susceptible to electron beam damage, complicating the data interpretation. In this study, we demonstrate that, under electron beam irradiati...

  11. Fabrication of ordered NiO coated Si nanowire array films as electrodes for a high performance lithium ion battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, M C; Yang, L W; Qi, X; Li, Jun; Zhong, J X

    2010-12-01

    Highly ordered NiO coated Si nanowire array films are fabricated as electrodes for a high performance lithium ion battery via depositing Ni on electroless-etched Si nanowires and subsequently annealing. The structures and morphologies of as-prepared films are characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. When the potential window versus lithium was controlled, the coated NiO can be selected to be electrochemically active to store and release Li+ ions, while highly conductive crystalline Si cores function as nothing more than a stable mechanical support and an efficient electrical conducting pathway. The hybrid nanowire array films exhibit superior cyclic stability and reversible capacity compared to that of NiO nanostructured films. Owing to the ease of large-scale fabrication and superior electrochemical performance, these hybrid nanowire array films will be promising anode materials for high performance lithium-ion batteries.

  12. Crystallographic origin of cycle decay of the high-voltage LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 spinel lithium-ion battery electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Wei Kong; Lu, Cheng-Zhang; Liu, Chia-Erh; Peterson, Vanessa K; Lin, Hsiu-Fen; Liao, Shih-Chieh; Chen, Jin-Ming

    2016-06-29

    High-voltage spinel LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 (LNMO) is considered a potential high-power-density positive electrode for lithium-ion batteries, however, it suffers from capacity decay after extended charge-discharge cycling, severely hindering commercial application. Capacity fade is thought to occur through the significant volume change of the LNMO electrode occurring on cycling, and in this work we use operando neutron powder diffraction to compare the structural evolution of the LNMO electrode in an as-assembled 18650-type battery containing a Li4Ti5O12 negative electrode with that in an identical battery following 1000 cycles at high-current. We reveal that the capacity reduction in the battery post cycling is directly proportional to the reduction in the maximum change of the LNMO lattice parameter during its evolution. This is correlated to a corresponding reduction in the MnO6 octahedral distortion in the spinel structure in the cycled battery. Further, we find that the rate of lattice evolution, which reflects the rate of lithium insertion and removal, is ∼9 and ∼10% slower in the cycled than in the as-assembled battery during the Ni(2+)/Ni(3+) and Ni(3+)/Ni(4+) transitions, respectively. PMID:26961230

  13. Effect of Electrode Dimensionality and Morphology on the Performance of Cu2Sb Thin Film Electrodes for Li-Ion Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trahey, Lynn; Kung, Harold H; Thackeray, Michael; Vaughey, John T.

    2011-08-09

    Although graphitic carbons have been commercially used in lithium-ion batteries for many years, their low crystallographic density limits their use in applications where space is at a premium. Among the alternative anode materials being considered for these applications are Zintl phases and intermetallic insertion anodes. Historically, main-group-metal-based anode materials have had problems with respect to volume expansion experienced on lithiation and its effect on cycle life. In this paper, we report the role of morphology and electrode dimensionality in extending the cycle life of the intermetallic insertion anode Cu₂Sb. We have found that controlling the surface area of the active material and building internal volume into the electrode structure significantly decreases the capacity fade on cycling. The decrease in fade rate may be due to the active material gradient identified within the structure produced by the electrodeposition process. This enhancement in cycling can be attributed to keeping the displaced copper closer to the active particles and to reducing the diffusion distances within the electrode.

  14. Bio-mass derived mesoporous carbon as superior electrode in all vanadium redox flow battery with multicouple reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulaganathan, Mani; Jain, Akshay; Aravindan, Vanchiappan; Jayaraman, Sundaramurthy; Ling, Wong Chui; Lim, Tuti Mariana; Srinivasan, Madapusi P.; Yan, Qingyu; Madhavi, Srinivasan

    2015-01-01

    We first report the multi-couple reaction in all vanadium redox flow batteries (VRFB) while using bio-mass (coconut shell) derived mesoporous carbon as electrode. The presence of V3+/V4+ redox couple certainly supplies the additional electrons for the electrochemical reaction and subsequently provides improved electrochemical performance of VRFB system. The efficient electro-catalytic activity of such coconut shell derived high surface area mesoporous carbon is believed for the improved cell performance. Extensive power and electrochemical studies are performed for VRFB application point of view and described in detail.

  15. Iron titanium phosphates as high-specific-capacity electrode materials for lithium ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Essehli, R., E-mail: essehli.rachid@yahoo.fr [Laboratory of Mineral Solid and Analytical Chemistry (LMSAC), Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University Mohamed I, PO. Box 717, 60000 Oujda (Morocco); ESECO SYSTEMS 270 rue Thomas Edison, Atelier Relais No 6, 34400 Lunel (France); El Bali, B. [Laboratory of Mineral Solid and Analytical Chemistry (LMSAC), Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University Mohamed I, PO. Box 717, 60000 Oujda (Morocco); Faik, A. [CIC energigune, Parque Tecnológico de Álava, Albert Einstein 48, 01510 Miñano, Álava (Spain); Naji, M. [CNRS, UPR3079 CEMHTI, 1D avenue de la Recherche Scientifique, 45071 Orléans cedex 2 (France); Benmokhtar, S. [LCPGM, Laboratoire de Chimie-Physique Générale des Matériaux, Département de Chimie, Université Hassan II-Mohammedia, Faculté des Sciences Ben M’Sik, Casablanca (Morocco); Zhong, Y.R.; Su, L.W.; Zhou, Z. [Institute of New Energy Material Chemistry, Synergetic Innovation Center of Chemical Science and Engineering (Tianjin), Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Kim, J.; Kang, K. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Seoul National University, Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Dusek, M. [Institute of Physics of the ASCR, v.v.i., Na Slovance 2, 182 21 Praha 8 (Czech Republic)

    2014-02-05

    Highlights: • Iron Titanium Phosphates as High-Specific-Capacity. • Electrode Materials for Lithium ion Batteries. • During the following cycles, good reversible capacity retention and better cyclabilit. • Ex-situ XRD analysis during the first discharge shows an amorphization of this anode material. -- Abstract: Two iron titanium phosphates, Fe{sub 0.5}TiOPO{sub 4} and Fe{sub 0.5}Ti{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}, were prepared, and their crystal structures and electrochemical performances were compared. The electrochemical measurements of Fe{sub 0.5}TiOPO{sub 4} as an anode of a lithium ion cell showed that upon the first discharge down to 0.5 V, the cell delivered a capacity of 560 mA h/g, corresponding to the insertion of 5 Li’s per formula unit Fe{sub 0.5}TiOPO{sub 4}. Ex-situ XRD reveals a gradual evolution of the structure during cycling of the material, with lower crystallinity after the first discharge cycle. By correlating the electrochemical performances with the structural studies, new insights are achieved into the electrochemical behaviour of the Fe{sub 0.5}TiOPO{sub 4} anode material, suggesting a combination of intercalation and conversion reactions. The Nasicon-type Fe{sub 0.5}Ti{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3} consists of a three-dimensional network made of corners and edges sharing [TiO{sub 6}] and [FeO{sub 6}] octahedra and [PO{sub 4}] tetrahedra leading to the formation of trimmers [FeTi{sub 2}O{sub 12}]. The first discharge of lithium ion cells based on Fe{sub 0.5}Ti{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3} materials showed electrochemical activity of Ti{sup 4+}/Ti{sup 3+} and Fe{sup 2+}/Fe{sup 0} couples in the 2.5–1 V region. Below this voltage, the discharge profiles are typical of phosphate systems where Li{sub 3}PO{sub 4} is a product of the electrochemical reaction with lithium; moreover, the electrolyte solvent is reduced. An initial capacities as high as 1100 mA h g{sup −1} can be obtained at deep discharge. However, there is an irreversible capacity

  16. In situ scanning tunneling microscopy studies of the SEI formation on graphite electrodes for Li+-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidl, Lukas; Martens, Slađana; Ma, Jiwei; Stimming, Ulrich; Schneider, Oliver

    2016-07-01

    The SEI-formation on graphitic electrodes operated as an Li+-ion battery anode in a standard 1 M LiPF6 EC/DMC (1 : 1) electrolyte has been studied in situ by EC-STM. Two different modes of in situ study were applied, one, which allowed to follow topographic and crystallographic changes (solvent cointercalation, graphite exfoliation, SEI precipitation on the HOPG basal plane) of the graphite electrode during SEI-formation, and the second, which gave an insight into the SEI precipitation on the HOPG basal plane in real time. From the in situ EC-STM studies, not only conclusions about the SEI-topography could be drawn, but also about the formation mechanism and the chemical composition, which strongly depend on the electrode potential. It was shown that above 1.0 V vs. Li/Li+ the SEI-formation is still reversible, since the molecular structure of the solvent molecules remains intact during an initial reduction step. During further reduction, the molecular structures of the solvents are destructed, which causes the irreversible charge loss. The STM studies were completed by electrochemical methods, like cyclic voltammetry, the potentiostatic intermittent titration technique and charge/discharge tests of MCMB electrodes.

  17. Leaching lithium from the anode electrode materials of spent lithium-ion batteries by hydrochloric acid (HCl).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yang; Li, Feng; Zhu, Haochen; Li, Guangming; Huang, Juwen; He, Wenzhi

    2016-05-01

    Spent lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) are considered as an important secondary resource for its high contents of valuable components, such as lithium and cobalt. Currently, studies mainly focus on the recycling of cathode electrodes. There are few studies concentrating on the recovery of anode electrodes. In this work, based on the analysis result of high amount of lithium contained in the anode electrode, the acid leaching process was applied to recycle lithium from anode electrodes of spent LIBs. Hydrochloric acid was introduced as leaching reagent, and hydrogen peroxide as reducing agent. Within the range of experiment performed, hydrogen peroxide was found to have little effect on lithium leaching process. The highest leaching recovery of 99.4wt% Li was obtained at leaching temperature of 80°C, 3M hydrochloric acid and S/L ratio of 1:50g/ml for 90min. The graphite configuration with a better crystal structure obtained after the leaching process can also be recycled.

  18. Ab initio study of radiation effects on the Li4Ti5O12 electrode used in lithium-ion batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adib Samin

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Lithium-ion batteries are currently in wide use owing to their high energy density and enhanced capabilities. Li4Ti5O12 is a promising anode material for lithium-ion batteries because of its advantageous properties. Lithium-ion batteries could be exposed to radiation occurring in various conditions such as during outer space exploration and nuclear accidents. In this study, we apply density functional theory to explore the effect of radiation damage on this electrode and, ultimately, on the performance of the battery. It was found that radiation could affect the structural stability of the material. Furthermore, the electrode was shown to undergo a transition from insulator to metal, following the defects due to radiation. In addition, the effect of radiation on the intercalation potential was found to be highly dependent on the nature of the defect induced.

  19. High-rate, long-life Ni-Sn nanostructured electrodes for lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassoun, J.; Panero, S.; Scrosati, B. [Department of Chemistry, University of Rome ' ' La Sapienza' ' , P.le Aldo Moro 5, 00185 Rome (Italy); Simon, P.; Taberna, P.L. [CIRIMAT-UMR 5085 - Universite Paul Sabatier, route de Narbonne, 31062 Toulouse, Cedex 4 (France)

    2007-06-18

    Ni{sub 3}Sn{sub 4} intermetallic electrodes prepared into a revolutionary nanostructure, obtained by electrodeposition on a nanoarchitectured Cu substrate, are described. This structure controls the volume stress that accompanies the electrochemical process yielding a performance rarely observed with lithium metal storage electrodes. The new electrode shows impressive electrochemical behavior and cycles in lithium cells for more than 200 cycles with a stable high capacity. (Abstract Copyright [2007], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  20. Spray drying method for large-scale and high-performance silicon negative electrodes in Li-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Dae Soo; Hwang, Tae Hoon; Park, Seung Bin; Choi, Jang Wook

    2013-05-01

    Nanostructured silicon electrodes have shown great potential as lithium ion battery anodes because they can address capacity fading mechanisms originating from large volume changes of silicon alloys while delivering extraordinarily large gravimetric capacities. Nonetheless, synthesis of well-defined silicon nanostructures in an industrially adaptable scale still remains as a challenge. Herein, we adopt an industrially established spray drying process to enable scalable synthesis of silicon-carbon composite particles in which silicon nanoparticles are embedded in porous carbon particles. The void space existing in the porous carbon accommodates the volume expansion of silicon and thus addresses the chronic fading mechanisms of silicon anodes. The composite electrodes exhibit excellent electrochemical performance, such as 1956 mAh/g at 0.05C rate and 91% capacity retention after 150 cycles. Moreover, the spray drying method requires only 2 s for the formation of each particle and allows a production capability of ~10 g/h even with an ultrasonic-based lab-scale equipment. This investigation suggests that established industrial processes could be adaptable to the production of battery active materials that require sophisticated nanostructures as well as large quantity syntheses. PMID:23537321

  1. Developments in electrode materials and electrolytes for aluminium-air batteries

    OpenAIRE

    Egan, D; Ponce De Leon, Carlos; R.J.K. Wood; Jones, R. L.; Stokes, K.R.; Walsh, F. C.

    2013-01-01

    Aluminium-air cells are high-energy density (< 400 W h kg-1), primary batteries first developed in the 1960s. The review shows how the performance of the battery is influenced by the choice of materials, including the type of aluminium alloy, oxygen reduction catalyst and electrolyte type. Two continuing issues with these batteries are (a) the parasitic corrosion of the aluminium, at open-circuit and under discharge, due to the reduction of water on the anode surface and (b) the passive hydro...

  2. Olivine electrode engineering impact on the electrochemical performance of lithium-ion batteries.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, W.; Jansen, A.; Dees, D.; Henriksen, G.; Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division

    2010-08-01

    High energy and power density lithium iron phosphate was studied for hybrid electric vehicle applications. This work addresses the effects of porosity in a composite electrode using a four-point probe resistivity analyzer, galvanostatic cycling, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The four-point probe result indicates that the porosity of composite electrode affects the electronic conductivity significantly. This effect is also observed from the cell's pulse current discharge performance. Compared to the direct current (dc) methods used, the EIS data are more sensitive to electrode porosity, especially for electrodes with low porosity values.

  3. Novel architecture of composite electrode for optimization of lithium battery performance

    OpenAIRE

    Guy, D.; LESTRIEZ, B; Bouchet, R.; Gaudefroy, Vincent; Guyomard, D.

    2006-01-01

    We show that the polymeric binder of the composite electrode may have an important role on the lithium trivanadate Li1.2V3O8 electrode performance. We describe a new tailored polymeric binder combination with controlled polymerfiller (carbon black) interactions that allows the preparation of new and more efficient electrode architecture. Using this polymeric binder, composite electrodes based on Li1.2V3O8 display a room temperature cycling capacity of 280 mAh g−1 (C/5 rate, 3.32 V) i...

  4. Unique battery with a multi-functional, physicochemically active membrane separator/electrolyte-electrode monolith and a method making the same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerald II, Rex E.; Ruscic, Katarina J.; Sears, Devin N.; Smith, Luis J.; Klingler, Robert J.; Rathke, Jerome W.

    2012-07-24

    The invention relates to a unique battery having a physicochemically active membrane separator/electrolyte-electrode monolith and method of making the same. The Applicant's invented battery employs a physicochemically active membrane separator/electrolyte-electrode that acts as a separator, electrolyte, and electrode, within the same monolithic structure. The chemical composition, physical arrangement of molecules, and physical geometry of the pores play a role in the sequestration and conduction of ions. In one preferred embodiment, ions are transported via the ion-hoping mechanism where the oxygens of the Al2O3 wall are available for positive ion coordination (i.e. Li+). This active membrane-electrode composite can be adjusted to a desired level of ion conductivity by manipulating the chemical composition and structure of the pore wall to either increase or decrease ion conduction.

  5. Nano-structures Enhanced Novel Composite Electrode Material for Batteries Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Integrate advanced nanotechnology with energy storage technology to develop advanced cathode material for use in Li-ion batteries while maintaining high level of...

  6. Dynamic Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy of a Three-Electrode Lithium-Ion Battery during Pulse Charge and Discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Dynamic EIS is performed on a three-electrode pouch cell; • Charge transfer resistance during insertion is generally larger than that during deinsertion due to the surface concentration change; • An inductive behavior is revealed at low frequencies due to the violation of stationary condition in DEIS measurement; • Electrochemical models of a single active particle in both time and frequency domain are developed. • The model predicts a positive correlation between the lower frequency limit and the DC current. - Abstract: The dynamic electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (DEIS) of a three-electrode pouch type lithium-ion battery is measured using a series of sine wave perturbations super-imposed on pulse charge and discharge. The DEIS reveals noticeable differences between charge and discharge at frequencies corresponding to the charge transfer reaction. The charge transfer resistance during intercalation is generally found to be larger than that during deintercalation for the battery chemistry in this study. This result is mainly attributed to the decreased Li ion concentration in the electrolyte during intercalation. At low frequencies, an abnormal inductive behavior is also observed. Such abnormality is found to result from the violation of stationary condition, i.e. the state of the battery under pulse charge or discharge deviates significantly from its initial condition for the perturbation of low frequencies. To analytically define the stationary condition, we develop electrochemical models of a single active particle in both time and frequency domain, which describes the transport of lithium ions in both active particle and electrolyte phase and the interfacial charge transfer reactions at their interface. The lower frequency limit is a key parameter to ensure a quasistationary state during the DEIS measurement. An explicit formulation of the stationary condition predicts a positive correlation between the lower frequency limit and

  7. Graphite as negative electrode in Li-ion batteries; Le graphite comme electrode negative dans les accumulateurs Li-ion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, F.; Monnier, A. [Timcal SA (France)

    1996-12-31

    The last developments in lithium batteries design have demonstrated the advantages of graphite: competitive cost, flat output curve, high capacity thanks to the obtention of a final compound close to LiC{sub 6}, good behaviour during cycling and a high mass energy. However, these advantages are slightly tarnished by parasite secondary reactions during the evolution of the element. Two different cases are encountered: the formation of a passivation layer (loss of Li ions and formation of irreversible bounds) and the formation of a passivation layer with a reaction between graphite and the solvent (partial destruction of the graphite crystal lattice). In the first case, the theoretical graphite insertion capacity remains at 372 mAh/g while in the second case the insertion capacity is greatly reduced. Abstract only. (J.S.)

  8. A 3.8-V earth-abundant sodium battery electrode

    OpenAIRE

    Barpanda, Prabeer; Oyama, Gosuke; Nishimura, Shin-ichi; Chung, Sai-Cheong; Yamada, Atsuo

    2014-01-01

    Rechargeable lithium batteries have ushered the wireless revolution over last two decades and are now matured to enable green automobiles. However, the growing concern on scarcity and large-scale applications of lithium resources have steered effort to realize sustainable sodium-ion batteries, Na and Fe being abundant and low-cost charge carrier and redox centre, respectively. However, their performance is limited owing to low operating voltage and sluggish kinetics. Here we report a hitherto...

  9. Etched colloidal LiFePO4 nanoplatelets toward high-rate capable Li-ion battery electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paolella, Andrea; Bertoni, Giovanni; Marras, Sergio; Dilena, Enrico; Colombo, Massimo; Prato, Mirko; Riedinger, Andreas; Povia, Mauro; Ansaldo, Alberto; Zaghib, Karim; Manna, Liberato; George, Chandramohan

    2014-12-10

    LiFePO4 has been intensively investigated as a cathode material in Li-ion batteries, as it can in principle enable the development of high power electrodes. LiFePO4, on the other hand, is inherently "plagued" by poor electronic and ionic conductivity. While the problems with low electron conductivity are partially solved by carbon coating and further by doping or by downsizing the active particles to nanoscale dimensions, poor ionic conductivity is still an issue. To develop colloidally synthesized LiFePO4 nanocrystals (NCs) optimized for high rate applications, we propose here a surface treatment of the NCs. The particles as delivered from the synthesis have a surface passivated with long chain organic surfactants, and therefore can be dispersed only in aprotic solvents such as chloroform or toluene. Glucose that is commonly used as carbon source for carbon-coating procedure is not soluble in these solvents, but it can be dissolved in water. In order to make the NCs hydrophilic, we treated them with lithium hexafluorophosphate (LiPF6), which removes the surfactant ligand shell while preserving the structural and morphological properties of the NCs. Only a roughening of the edges of NCs was observed due to a partial etching of their surface. Electrodes prepared from these platelet NCs (after carbon coating) delivered a capacity of ∼ 155 mAh/g, ∼ 135 mAh/g, and ∼ 125 mAh/g, at 1 C, 5 C, and 10 C, respectively, with significant capacity retention and remarkable rate capability. For example, at 61 C (10.3 A/g), a capacity of ∼ 70 mAh/g was obtained, and at 122 C (20.7 A/g), the capacity was ∼ 30 mAh/g. The rate capability and the ease of scalability in the preparation of these surface-treated nanoplatelets make them highly suitable as electrodes in Li-ion batteries. PMID:25372361

  10. High-strength clad current collector for silicon-based negative electrode in lithium ion battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataoka, Riki; Oda, Yoshimitsu; Inoue, Ryouji; Kitta, Mitsunori; Kiyobayashi, Tetsu

    2016-01-01

    We develop a clad foil current collector with a high tensile strength that endures a large volume change in the active material during the charge and discharge, such as the Si-based materials. The nano-Si negative electrode with the clad current collector retains 76% of the initial capacity after 40 cycles, while the capacity of the nano-Si electrode with a conventional Cu foil drops to less than 70% only after 10 cycles. A full cell with the SiO negative electrode and the LiFePO4 positive electrode retains more than 90% of its capacity at the 10th cycle after 800 cycles. The conventional rolled Cu foil wrinkles during the cycling test. The high-strength clad current foil hardly deforms during the test regardless of the electrode size.

  11. Discontinuous and Continuous Processing of Low-Solvent Battery Slurries for Lithium Nickel Cobalt Manganese Oxide Electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreger, Henning; Bockholt, Henrike; Haselrieder, Wolfgang; Kwade, Arno

    2015-11-01

    Different discontinuously and continuously working dispersing devices were investigated to determine their influence on the structural and electrochemical properties of electrodes made from commercial LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 (NCM) cathode active material. A laboratory-scale dispersing device was compared with a discontinuously working laboratory kneader and a continuously working extruder, both using 50% less solvent than the dissolver process. Rheological, mechanical, structural, conductive, imaging, and electrochemical analyses (C-rate test, long-term cycling) were carried out. The dispersing method and time were found to have a considerable impact on the structure and electrochemical performance. The continuous extrusion process resulted in good performance with more than 20% higher specific capacity at elevated C-rates compared with the discontinuous process. This can be attributed to better deagglomeration of the carbon black in the slurries, also resulting in 60% higher electrode conductivity. On top of these positive results, the changes in the drying step due to the reduced solvent use led to a 50% decrease in the time required for the constant-drying-rate period. The continuously working extrusion process was found to be most suitable for large-scale, cost-efficient, environmentally friendly production of slurries for lithium-ion battery electrodes.

  12. Quality control tool of electrode coating for lithium-ion batteries based on X-ray radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etiemble, A.; Besnard, N.; Adrien, J.; Tran-Van, P.; Gautier, L.; Lestriez, B.; Maire, E.

    2015-12-01

    A simple and efficient method, based on X-ray radiography, is developed to check the quality (homogeneity of the thickness, presence of defects) of NMC-, LFP- and NMC/LFP-based electrode coating for Li-ion batteries at the scale of several cm2 with a resolution of 20 μm. As a first step, the attenuation coefficient of NMC- and LFP-based coating is experimentally determined according to the Beer-Lambert law. Then, the attenuation coefficient of each active material is estimated from these experimental results and X-ray attenuation databases, which allows establishing an attenuation law for any coating composition. Finally, thanks to this relationship, the thickness can be evaluated in each spot of the film and the defects, such as pinholes or broad edges with gradual decrease of the thickness coating, can be detected. The analysis of NMC-, LFP- and NMC/LFP-based electrodes shows that the coating quality decreases as coating thickness increases and as the nanometric vs. micrometric material content increases in the coating composition. This reveals detrimental aspects of nanomaterials with respect to their use in composite electrode manufactured through conventional slot-die or casting process.

  13. Resolving Losses at the Negative Electrode in All-Vanadium Redox Flow Batteries Using Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Che Nan [ORNL; Delnick, Frank M [ORNL; Aaron, D [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Mench, Matthew M [ORNL; Zawodzinski, Thomas A [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    We present an in situ electrochemical technique for the quantitative measurement and resolution of the ohmic, charge transfer and diffusion overvoltages at the negative electrode of an all-vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB) using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The mathematics describing the complex impedance of the V+2/V+3 redox reaction is derived and matches the experimental data. The voltage losses contributed by each process have been resolved and quantified at various flow rates and electrode thicknesses as a function of current density during anodic and cathodic polarization. The diffusion overvoltage was affected strongly by flow rate while the charge transfer and ohmic losses were invariant. On the other hand, adopting a thicker electrode significantly changed both the charge transfer and diffusion losses due to increased surface area. Furthermore, the Tafel plot obtained from the impedance resolved charge transfer overvoltage yielded the geometric exchange current density, anodic and cathodic Tafel slopes (135 5 and 121 5 mV/decade respectively) and corresponding transfer coefficients = 0.45 0.02 and = 0.50 0.02 in an operating cell.

  14. A 3.8-V earth-abundant sodium battery electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barpanda, Prabeer; Oyama, Gosuke; Nishimura, Shin-Ichi; Chung, Sai-Cheong; Yamada, Atsuo

    2014-07-01

    Rechargeable lithium batteries have ushered the wireless revolution over last two decades and are now matured to enable green automobiles. However, the growing concern on scarcity and large-scale applications of lithium resources have steered effort to realize sustainable sodium-ion batteries, Na and Fe being abundant and low-cost charge carrier and redox centre, respectively. However, their performance is limited owing to low operating voltage and sluggish kinetics. Here we report a hitherto-unknown material with entirely new composition and structure with the first alluaudite-type sulphate framework, Na2Fe2(SO4)3, registering the highest-ever Fe3+/Fe2+ redox potential at 3.8 V (versus Na, and hence 4.1 V versus Li) along with fast rate kinetics. Rare-metal-free Na-ion rechargeable battery system compatible with the present Li-ion battery is now in realistic scope without sacrificing high energy density and high power, and paves way for discovery of new earth-abundant sustainable cathodes for large-scale batteries.

  15. Laser printing and femtosecond laser structuring of electrode materials for the manufacturing of 3D lithium-ion micro-batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyrek, P.; Kim, H.; Zheng, Y.; Seifert, H. J.; Piqué, A.; Pfleging, W.

    2016-04-01

    Recently, three-dimensional (3D) electrode architectures have attracted great interest for the development of lithium-ion micro-batteries applicable for Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS), sensors, and hearing aids. Since commercial available micro-batteries are mainly limited in overall cell capacity by their electrode footprint, new processing strategies for increasing both capacity and electrochemical performance have to be developed. In case of such standard microbatteries, two-dimensional (2D) electrode arrangements are applied with thicknesses up to 200 μm. These electrode layers are composed of active material, conductive agent, graphite, and polymeric binder. Nevertheless, with respect to the type of active material, the active material to conductive agent ratio, and the film thickness, such thick-films suffer from low ionic and electronic conductivities, poor electrolyte accessibility, and finally, limited electrochemical performance under challenging conditions. In order to overcome these drawbacks, 3D electrode arrangements are under intense investigation since they allow the reduction of lithium-ion diffusion pathways in between inter-digitated electrodes, even for electrodes with enhanced mass loadings. In this paper, we present how to combine laser-printing and femtosecond laser-structuring for the development of advanced 3D electrodes composed of Li(Ni1/3Mn1/3Co1/3)O2 (NMC). In a first step, NMC thick-films were laser-printed and calendered to achieve film thicknesses in the range of 50 μm - 80 μm. In a second step, femtosecond laser-structuring was carried out in order to generate 3D architectures directly into thick-films. Finally, electrochemical cycling of laser-processed films was performed in order to evaluate the most promising 3D electrode designs suitable for application in long life-time 3D micro-batteries.

  16. Method of preparing graphene-sulfur nanocomposites for rechargeable lithium-sulfur battery electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jun; Lemmon, John P; Yang, Zhenguo; Cao, Yuliang; Li, Xiaolin

    2015-04-07

    A method of preparing a graphene-sulfur nanocomposite for a cathode in a rechargeable lithium-sulfur battery comprising thermally expanding graphite oxide to yield graphene layers, mixing the graphene layers with a first solution comprising sulfur and carbon disulfide, evaporating the carbon disulfide to yield a solid nanocomposite, and grinding the solid nanocomposite to yield the graphene-sulfur nanocomposite. Rechargeable-lithium-sulfur batteries having a cathode that includes a graphene-sulfur nanocomposite can exhibit improved characteristics. The graphene-sulfur nanocomposite can be characterized by graphene sheets with particles of sulfur adsorbed to the graphene sheets. The sulfur particles have an average diameter of less than 50 nm.

  17. MnSn2 electrodes for Li-ion batteries: Mechanisms at the nano scale and electrode/electrolyte interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have investigated the reaction mechanisms occurring upon the first discharge/charge cycle of a MnSn2//Li electrochemical cell, by using bulk- and surface-sensitive characterization techniques (X-ray Diffraction, 119Sn Mössbauer spectroscopy, magnetic measurements, X-ray photoelectron and Auger spectroscopies). Compared to other tin-transition metal alloys, MnSn2 displays an original behaviour. Lithium insertion into MnSn2 particles results in a nanocomposite consisting of Li7Sn2 phase, and of Mn nanoparticles which are immediately oxidized at their surface. Lithium extraction from this nanocomposite leads to the formation of magnetic MnSn2 particles and to our knowledge it is the first time such a mechanism is observed in tin-based intermetallic electrode materials due to electrochemical reaction with Li. The solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) is formed at the beginning of the first discharge and its thickness slightly increases upon further lithium insertion. A partial re-dissolution process occurs upon lithium extraction from the material, while its chemical composition is very stable over the whole cycle

  18. Polymer-Derived Ceramic Functionalized MoS2 Composite Paper as a Stable Lithium-Ion Battery Electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, L.; Bhandavat, R.; Barrera, U.; Singh, G.

    2015-04-01

    A facile process is demonstrated for the synthesis of layered SiCN-MoS2 structure via pyrolysis of polysilazane functionalized MoS2 flakes. The layered morphology and polymer to ceramic transformation on MoS2 surfaces was confirmed by use of electron microscopy and spectroscopic techniques. Tested as thick film electrode in a Li-ion battery half-cell, SiCN-MoS2 showed the classical three-stage reaction with improved cycling stability and capacity retention than neat MoS2. Contribution of conversion reaction of Li/MoS2 system on overall capacity was marginally affected by the presence of SiCN while Li-irreversibility arising from electrolyte decomposition was greatly suppressed. This is understood as one of the reasons for decreased first cycle loss and increased capacity retention. SiCN-MoS2 in the form of self-supporting paper electrode (at 6 mg.cm-2) exhibited even better performance, regaining initial charge capacity of approximately 530 mAh.g-1 when the current density returned to 100 mA.g-1 after continuous cycling at 2400 mA.g-1 (192 mAh.g-1). MoS2 cycled electrode showed mud-cracks and film delamination whereas SiCN-MoS2 electrodes were intact and covered with a uniform solid electrolyte interphase coating. Taken together, our results suggest that molecular level interfacing with precursor-derived SiCN is an effective strategy for suppressing the metal-sulfide/electrolyte degradation reaction at low discharge potentials.

  19. Graphene-sulfur nanocomposites for rechargeable lithium-sulfur battery electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Lemmon, John P; Yang, Zhenguo; Cao, Yuiliang; Li, Xiaolin

    2014-06-17

    Rechargeable lithium-sulfur batteries having a cathode that includes a graphene-sulfur nanocomposite can exhibit improved characteristics. The graphene-sulfur nanocomposite can be characterized by graphene sheets with particles of sulfur adsorbed to the graphene sheets. The sulfur particles have an average diameter less than 50 nm..

  20. Preparation of three-dimensional nanoporous Si using dealloying by metallic melt and application as a lithium-ion rechargeable battery negative electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Takeshi; Yamada, Junpei; Kato, Hidemi

    2016-02-01

    Silicon is a promising material for negative electrode in Li-ion batteries because of high gravimetric capacity. A Si nanomaterial that can accommodate volume expansion accompanied by lithiation is needed for practical application in Li-ion batteries. We prepare three-dimensional nanoporous interconnected silicon material with controlled pore and ligament sizes by dealloying using an Mg-Si precursor and Bi melt. The Mg atoms in the precursor selectively dissolve into Bi, and the remaining Si atoms self-organize into a nanoporous structure with characteristic length ranging from several ten to hundred nanometer. The Li-ion battery electrodes made from nanoporous silicon exhibit higher capacities, increased cycle lives, and improved rate performances compared with those made from commercial Si nanoparticles. Measurements on the electrical resistivity and electrode thickness change by lithiation/delithiation suggest that the superior performance of nanoporous Si electrode originates from the following: (1) The nanoporous Si has much lower electrical resistivity compared with that of the nanoparticle Si owing to the n-type dopant incorporated during dealloying. (2) The nanoporous Si-based electrode has higher porosity owing to the presence of intra-particle pores, which can accommodate Si expansion up to higher levels of lithiation.

  1. New highly active oxygen reduction electrode for PEM fuel cell and Zn/air battery applications (NORA). Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiele, D.; Zuettel, A.

    2008-04-15

    This illustrated final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a project concerning a new, highly active oxygen reduction electrode for PEM fuel cell and zinc/air battery applications. The goal of this project was, according to the authors, to increase the efficiency of the oxygen reduction reaction by lowering the activation polarisation through the right choice of catalyst and by lowering the concentration polarisation. In this work, carbon nanotubes are used as support material. The use of these nanotubes grown on perovskites is discussed. Theoretical considerations regarding activation polarisation are discussed and alternatives to the use of platinum are examined. The results of experiments carried out are presented in graphical and tabular form. The paper is completed with a comprehensive list of references.

  2. Intercalation driven porosity effects on the electro-chemo-thermo-mechanical response in continuum models for battery material electrodes

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Zhenlin; Garikipati, Krishna

    2016-01-01

    We present a coupled continuum formulation for the electrostatic, chemical, thermal and mechanical processes in battery materials. Our treatment applies on the macroscopic scale, at which electrodes can be modelled as porous materials made up of active particles held together by binders and perfused by the electrolyte. Starting with the description common to the field, in terms of reaction-transport partial differential equations for ions, variants of the classical Poisson equation for electrostatics, and the heat equation, we add mechanics to the problem. Our main contribution is to model the evolution of porosity as a consequence of strains induced by intercalation, thermal expansion and mechanical stresses. Recognizing the potential for large local deformations, we have settled on the finite strain framework. In this first communication we have carried out a detailed computational study on the influence of the dynamically evolving porosity, via the electrostatic and reaction-transport coefficients, upon io...

  3. Electrochemical performance of solid-state lithium-air batteries using carbon nanotube catalyst in the air electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitaura, Hirokazu; Zhou, Haoshen [Energy Technology Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Umezono, Tsukuba (Japan)

    2012-07-15

    Solid-state lithium-air cells using lithium anode, a polymer electrolyte, Li{sub 1+x+y}Al{sub x}(Ti, Ge){sub 2-x}Si{sub y}P{sub 3-y}O{sub 12} inorganic solid electrolyte, and an air electrode composed of carbon nanotubes and an inorganic solid electrolyte are constructed and their electrochemical properties investigated. The cells show a reversible capacity of about 400 mA h g{sup -1} during the first few cycles. The rate performance and impedance measurements are also examined. The large cell resistance, which mainly comes from the interfacial resistance between Li and the polymer electrolyte, limits the rate performance. The results indicate that such all-solid-state lithium-air batteries without polymer electrolytes have good potential for development. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  4. Formation of Nanocrystalline Surface of Cu-Sn Alloy Foam Electrochemically Produced for Li-Ion Battery Electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Bora; Kim, Sunjung

    2015-10-01

    Cu-Sn alloy foam is a promising electrode material for Li-ion batteries. In this study, Cu-Sn alloy foam was produced by diffusion-limited electrodeposition in alkaline electrolyte using polyurethane (PU) foam template. Our major concern is to form Cu-Sn alloy foam with nanocrystalline surface morphology by adjusting electrodeposition conditions such as deposition potential and metal ion concentration. Cu-Sn alloy layers comprising of nanoclusters such as nanospheres, nanoellipsoids, and nanoflakes were created depending on electrodeposition conditions. Larger surface area of nanocluster-interconnected Cu-Sn alloy layer was created when both Sn concentration and negative deposition potential were higher. After decomposing PU template thermally, Cu-Sn alloy foam of Cu, Cu6Sn5, and Cu3Sn phases was finally produced. PMID:26726491

  5. Organo-sulfur molecules enable iron-based battery electrodes to meet the challenges of large-scale electrical energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, B; Malkhandi, S; Manohar, AK; Prakash, GKS; Narayanan, SR

    2014-07-03

    Rechargeable iron-air and nickel-iron batteries are attractive as sustainable and inexpensive solutions for large-scale electrical energy storage because of the global abundance and eco-friendliness of iron, and the robustness of iron-based batteries to extended cycling. Despite these advantages, the commercial use of iron-based batteries has been limited by their low charging efficiency. This limitation arises from the iron electrodes evolving hydrogen extensively during charging. The total suppression of hydrogen evolution has been a significant challenge. We have found that organo-sulfur compounds with various structural motifs (linear and cyclic thiols, dithiols, thioethers and aromatic thiols) when added in milli-molar concentration to the aqueous alkaline electrolyte, reduce the hydrogen evolution rate by 90%. These organo-sulfur compounds form strongly adsorbed layers on the iron electrode and block the electrochemical process of hydrogen evolution. The charge-transfer resistance and double-layer capacitance of the iron/electrolyte interface confirm that the extent of suppression of hydrogen evolution depends on the degree of surface coverage and the molecular structure of the organo-sulfur compound. An unanticipated electrochemical effect of the adsorption of organo-sulfur molecules is "de-passivation" that allows the iron electrode to be discharged at high current values. The strongly adsorbed organo-sulfur compounds were also found to resist electro-oxidation even at the positive electrode potentials at which oxygen evolution can occur. Through testing on practical rechargeable battery electrodes we have verified the substantial improvements to the efficiency during charging and the increased capability to discharge at high rates. We expect these performance advances to enable the design of efficient, inexpensive and eco-friendly iron-based batteries for large-scale electrical energy storage.

  6. Iron-Air Rechargeable Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Sri R. (Inventor); Prakash, G.K. Surya (Inventor); Kindler, Andrew (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Embodiments include an iron-air rechargeable battery having a composite electrode including an iron electrode and a hydrogen electrode integrated therewith. An air electrode is spaced from the iron electrode and an electrolyte is provided in contact with the air electrode and the iron electrodes. Various additives and catalysts are disclosed with respect to the iron electrode, air electrode, and electrolyte for increasing battery efficiency and cycle life.

  7. A stretchable polymer-carbon nanotube composite electrode for flexible lithium-ion batteries: porosity engineering by controlled phase separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hojun; Yoo, Jung-Keun; Jung, Yeon Sik [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jong-Hyun [Material R and D Department, LG Display Co., Ltd., Paju-si, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jin Ho [Icheon Branch, Korea Institute of Ceramic Engineering and Technology, Icheon-si, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Kisuk [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-08-15

    Flexible energy-storage devices have attracted growing attention with the fast development of bendable electronic systems. However, it still remains a challenge to find reliable electrode materials with both high mechanical flexibility/toughness and excellent electron and lithium-ion conductivity. This paper reports the fabrication and characterization of highly porous, stretchable, and conductive polymer nanocomposites embedded with carbon nanotubes (CNTs) for application in flexible lithium-ion batteries. The systematic optimization of the porous morphology is performed by controllably inducing the phase separation of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and removing PMMA, in order to generate well-controlled pore networks. It is demonstrated that the porous CNT-embedded PDMS nanocomposites are capable of good electrochemical performance with mechanical flexibility, suggesting these nanocomposites could be outstanding anode candidates for use in flexible lithium-ion batteries. The optimization of the pore size and the volume fraction provides higher capacity by nearly seven-fold compared to a nonporous nanocomposite. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  8. Cobalt-Lead-Manganese oxides combined cathode catalyst for air electrode in Zinc –air battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Bi and trimetallic oxides based on Mn, Pb and Co were prepared and characterized. • Introduction of Pb and Co in MnOx catalyst promote four electron ORR. • Zinc air battery with Mn2Pb2CoOx catalyst displays much smaller charge transfer resistance in contrast to the pure MnOx. • Mn2Pb2CoOx catalyst has lower loss of performance after 500C-D cycles than the rest of the catalysts. • Zinc air battery containing Mn2Pb2CoOx has promising current and power density and also discharge capacity. - Abstract: Bi and tri metalic oxides based on Mn, Pb and Co composite catalysts were prepared by oxidation of metal acetates with KMnO4. The structure of the catalysts was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD). It is found that the Mn2Pb2CoOx catalyst has amorphous structure and contains various oxides of Mn, Pb and Co. Electrocatalytic activity of catalysts in 6 M KOH was studied using Cyclic Voltammetry (CV) and polarization. Cyclic Voltammetry plot of Mn2Pb2CoOx catalyst showed higher electrocatalytic activity towards the Oxygen Reduction Reaction (ORR) compared to other tri and bimetallic composite catalysts. The kinetics of ORR on the catalysts was investigated using the rotating disk electrode technique in 6 M KOH solution. From the slope of Koutecky–Levich plots, it is evident that the ORR on Mn2Pb2CoOx is a 4-electron transfer process. With these inherent features, the zinc–air battery was fabricated using various catalysts and their performance was examined for practical applications

  9. Paintable Battery

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Neelam; Galande, Charudatta; Miranda, Andrea; Mathkar, Akshay; Gao, Wei; Reddy, Arava Leela Mohana; Vlad, Alexandru; Ajayan, Pulickel M.

    2012-01-01

    If the components of a battery, including electrodes, separator, electrolyte and the current collectors can be designed as paints and applied sequentially to build a complete battery, on any arbitrary surface, it would have significant impact on the design, implementation and integration of energy storage devices. Here, we establish a paradigm change in battery assembly by fabricating rechargeable Li-ion batteries solely by multi-step spray painting of its components on a variety of materials...

  10. Particle Size Dependence of TiO2 Electrodes in Rechargeable Lithium Battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Y. Huang

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Particle size effects in five anatase TiO2 pellet electrodes with different particle sizes (4 ∼ 300nm and surface areas (8 ∼ 380m2/g were studied by XRD analysis, chronopotentiometry and chronoamperometry in Li/LiN(CF3SO22 + EC:DME/TiO2 cells. Nanosized TiO2 electrodes showed by 22% larger storage capacity, 50% lower overvoltage loss at the same current density, and 75% higher charge density for a given time than microsized ones; electric storage capacity enhances more rapidly with decreasing particle size and increasing surface area in a nanoscale region than in a microscale region. The particle size dependence may be explained by surface morphology of electrodes and existence of structural defects or distortion in the surface layer of TiO2 nanosized particles.

  11. Modified carbon-free silver electrodes for the use as cathodes in lithium-air batteries with an aqueous alkaline electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittmaier, Dennis; Wagner, Norbert; Friedrich, K. Andreas; Amin, Hatem M. A.; Baltruschat, Helmut

    2014-11-01

    Gas diffusion electrodes with silver catalysts show a high activity towards oxygen reduction reaction in alkaline media but a rather poor activity towards oxygen evolution reaction. For the use in future lithium-air batteries with an aqueous alkaline electrolyte the activity of such electrodes must be improved significantly. As Co3O4 is a promising metal oxide catalyst for oxygen evolution in alkaline media, silver electrodes were modified with Co3O4. For comparison silver electrodes were also modified with IrO2. Due to the poor stability of carbon materials at high anodic potentials these gas diffusion electrodes were prepared without carbon support to improve especially the long-term stability. Gas diffusion electrodes were electrochemically investigated in an electrochemical half-cell arrangement. In addition to cyclic voltammograms electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was carried out. SEM and XRD were used for the physical and morphological investigations. Investigations showed that silver electrodes containing 20 wt.% Co3O4 exhibited the highest performance and highest long-term stability. For comparison, rotating - ring - disc - electrode experiments have been performed using model electrodes with thin catalyst layers, showing that the amount of hydrogen peroxide evolved is negligible.

  12. Cu2Sb thin film electrodes prepared by pulsed laser deposition f or lithium batteries

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Seung-Wan; Reade, Ronald P.; Cairns, Elton J.; Vaughey, Jack T.; Thackeray, Michael M.; Striebel, Kathryn A.

    2003-01-01

    Thin films of Cu2Sb, prepared on stainless steel and copper substrates with a pulsed laser deposition technique at room temperature, have been evaluated as electrodes in lithium cells. The electrodes operate by a lithium insertion/copper extrusion reaction mechanism, the reversibility of which is superior when copper substrates are used, particularly when electrochemical cycling is restricted to the voltage range 0.65-1.4 V vs. Li/Li+. The superior performance of Cu2Sb films on copper is...

  13. Conductive Polymer Binder for High-Tap-Density Nanosilicon Material for Lithium-Ion Battery Negative Electrode Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hui; Wei, Yang; Qiao, Ruimin; Zhu, Chenhui; Zheng, Ziyan; Ling, Min; Jia, Zhe; Bai, Ying; Fu, Yanbao; Lei, Jinglei; Song, Xiangyun; Battaglia, Vincent S; Yang, Wanli; Messersmith, Phillip B; Liu, Gao

    2015-12-01

    High-tap-density silicon nanomaterials are highly desirable as anodes for lithium ion batteries, due to their small surface area and minimum first-cycle loss. However, this material poses formidable challenges to polymeric binder design. Binders adhere on to the small surface area to sustain the drastic volume changes during cycling; also the low porosities and small pore size resulting from this material are detrimental to lithium ion transport. This study introduces a new binder, poly(1-pyrenemethyl methacrylate-co-methacrylic acid) (PPyMAA), for a high-tap-density nanosilicon electrode cycled in a stable manner with a first cycle efficiency of 82%-a value that is further improved to 87% when combined with graphite material. Incorporating the MAA acid functionalities does not change the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) features or lower the adhesion performance of the PPy homopolymer. Our single-molecule force microscopy measurement of PPyMAA reveals similar adhesion strength between polymer binder and anode surface when compared with conventional polymer such as homopolyacrylic acid (PAA), while being electronically conductive. The combined conductivity and adhesion afforded by the MAA and pyrene copolymer results in good cycling performance for the high-tap-density Si electrode.

  14. Bismuth Nanoparticle Decorating Graphite Felt as a High-Performance Electrode for an All-Vanadium Redox Flow Battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Bin; Gu, Meng; Nie, Zimin; Shao, Yuyan; Luo, Qingtao; Wei, Xiaoliang; Li, Xiaolin; Xiao, Jie; Wang, Chong M.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Wang, Wei

    2013-02-04

    The selection of electrode materials plays a great role in improving performances of all vanadium redox flow batteries (VRBs). Low-cost graphite felt (GF) as traditional electrode material has to be modified to address its issue of low electrocatalytic activity. In our paper, low-cost and highly conductive bismuth nanoparticles, as a powerful alternative electrocatalyst to noble metal, are proposed and synchronously electro-deposited onto the surface of GF while running flow cells employing the electrolytes containing suitable Bi3+. Although bismuth is proved to only take effect on the redox reaction of V(II)/V(III) and present at negative half-cell side, the whole cell electrochemical performances are significantly improved. In particular, the energy efficiency is increased by 11% owing to faster charge transfer as compared with one without Bi at high charge/discharge rate of 150 mA/cm2, which is prone to reduce stack size, thus dramatically reducing the cost. The excellent results show great promise of Bi nano-catalysts in the commercialization of VRBs in terms of product cost as well as electrochemical properties.

  15. Fabrication of Binder-Free Pencil-Trace Electrode for Lithium-Ion Battery: Simplicity and High Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyean-Yeol; Kim, Min-Sik; Bae, Tae-Sung; Yuan, Jinliang; Yu, Jong-Sung

    2016-05-10

    A binder-free and solvent-free pencil-trace electrode with intercalated clay particles (mainly SiO2) is prepared via a simple pencil-drawing process on grinded Cu substrate with rough surface and evaluated as an anode material for lithium-ion battery. The pencil-trace electrode exhibits a high reversible capacity of 672 mA h g(-1) at 100 mA g(-1) after 100 cycles, which can be attributed to the unique multilayered graphene particles with lateral size of few micrometers and the formation of LixSi alloys generated by interaction between Li(+) and an active Si produced in the electrochemical reduction of nano-SiO2 in the clay particles between the multilayered graphene particles. The multilayered graphene obtained by this process consists of 1 up to 20 and occasionally up to 50 sheets and thus can not only help accommodating the volume change and alleviating the structural strain during Li ion insertion and extraction but also allow rapid access of Li ions during charge-discharge cycling. Drawing with a pencil on grinded Cu substrate is not only very simple but also cost-effective and highly scalable, easily establishing graphitic circuitry through a solvent-free and binder-free approach. PMID:27082026

  16. USE OF BATTERY CARBON AS ELECTRODES IN ARC DISCHARGE METHOD FOR FABRICATION OF CARBON-MODIFIED TIO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isya Fitria Andhika

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Fabrication with carbon-modified TiO2 by arc discharge method in liquid medium has been studied. This research was performed in two steps including fabrication and characterization. This fabrication was done by arcdischarge method with graphite electrodes from dry cell batteries and liquid medium suspension of TiO2 in ethanol 30, 50 and 70 %. A strong current was applied to electrode as 10 -50 A (20-40 V. Nanocomposites formed on the liquid medium surface were collected and characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD,scanning electron microscope (SEM dan energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS to determine crystallinity, surface morphology and the constituent elements, respectively. XRD data shows that the most effective fabrication TiO2/Karbon by liquid medium in ethanol 50 % indicated from the formation of a new peak with high intensity of TiC on 2Ɵ= 36.02 °. SEM data shows that the morphology of each aggregated TiO2/Karbon compared to the morphology of TiO2. In addition, EDS data shows the presence of the element carbon, titanium and oxygen in the same area indicating that the successful formation of composite material between TiO2 dan carbon.

  17. Ultra-light Hierarchical Graphene Electrode for Binder-Free Supercapacitors and Lithium-Ion Battery Anodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Zicheng; Kim, Tae Young; Kholmanov, Iskandar; Li, Huifeng; Chou, Harry; Li, Yuliang

    2015-10-01

    A mild and environmental-friendly method is developed for fabricating a 3D interconnected graphene electrode with large-scale continuity. Such material has interlayer pores between reduced graphene oxide nanosheets and in-plane pores. Hence, a specific surface area up to 835 m(2) g(-1) and a high powder conductivity up to 400 S m(-1) are achieved. For electrochemical applications, the interlayer pores can serve as "ion-buffering reservoirs" while in-plane ones act as "channels" for shortening the mass cross-plane diffusion length, reducing the ion response time, and prevent the interlayer restacking. As binder-free supercapacitor electrode, it delivers a specific capacitance up to 169 F g(-1) with surface-normalized capacitance close to 21 μF cm(-2) (intrinsic capacitance) and power density up to 7.5 kW kg(-1), in 6 m KOH aqueous electrolyte. In the case of lithium-ion battery anode, it shows remarkable advantages in terms of the initiate reversible Coulombic efficiency (61.3%), high specific capacity (932 mAh g(-1) at 100 mA g(-1)), and robust long-term retention (93.5% after 600 cycles at 2000 mAh g(-1)).

  18. Stacking structures and electrode performances of rare earth-Mg-Ni-based alloys for advanced nickel-metal hydride battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rare earth-Mg-Ni-based alloys with stacking structures consisting of AB5 unit (CaCu5-type structure) and A2B4 unit (Laves structure) have received attention as negative electrode materials for advanced nickel-metal hydride (Ni-MH) battery. These alloy materials are very attractive because of high hydrogen storage capacity, low cobalt content and moderate plateau pressure, but have some difficulty to control the phase abundance and electrode performances. In this paper, relationship among composition, phase abundance, and electrochemical properties was investigated. Structural analysis was done using synchrotron X-ray diffraction patterns. In alloys such as La0.8Mg0.2Ni3.4-x-yCo0.3(MnAl)x (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.4), phase abundance was drastically changed with increasing amount of Mn and Al. In the range of 0.1 5Co19-type (5:19H) or rhombohedral 1:4R phases were dominant. The Rietveld analysis suggested that Mg occupies La sites in A2B4 unit, and Al has tendency to occupy Ni sites between A2B4 unit and AB5 unit or between AB5 units in these types of phases. The developed alloys showed higher discharge capacity by 20% than the conventional one at a 0.2 C discharge rate

  19. Improvement of the Performance of Graphite Felt Electrodes for Vanadium-Redox-Flow-Batteries by Plasma Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva-Maria Hammer

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In the frame of the present contribution oxidizing plasma pretreatment is used for the improvement of the electrocatalytic activity of graphite felt electrodes for Vanadium-Redox-Flow-Batteries (VRB. The influence of the working gas media on the catalytic activity and the surface morphology is demonstrated. The electrocatalytical properties of the graphite felt electrodes were examined by cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The obtained results show that a significant improvement of the redox reaction kinetics can be achieved for all plasma modified samples using different working gasses (Ar, N2 and compressed air in an oxidizing environment. Nitrogen plasma treatment leads to the highest catalytical activities at the same operational conditions. Through a variation of the nitrogen plasma treatment duration a maximum performance at about 14 min cm-2 was observed, which is also represented by a minimum of 90 Ω in the charge transfer resistance obtained by EIS measurements. The morphology changes of the graphitized surface were followed using SEM.

  20. Electrical, Mechanical, and Capacity Percolation Leads to High-Performance MoS2/Nanotube Composite Lithium Ion Battery Electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuping; He, Xiaoyun; Hanlon, Damien; Harvey, Andrew; Khan, Umar; Li, Yanguang; Coleman, Jonathan N

    2016-06-28

    Advances in lithium ion batteries would facilitate technological developments in areas from electrical vehicles to mobile communications. While two-dimensional systems like MoS2 are promising electrode materials due to their potentially high capacity, their poor rate capability and low cycle stability are severe handicaps. Here, we study the electrical, mechanical, and lithium storage properties of solution-processed MoS2/carbon nanotube anodes. Nanotube addition gives up to 10(10)-fold and 40-fold increases in electrical conductivity and mechanical toughness, respectively. The increased conductivity results in up to a 100× capacity enhancement to ∼1200 mAh/g (∼3000 mAh/cm(3)) at 0.1 A/g, while the improved toughness significantly boosts cycle stability. Composites with 20 wt % nanotubes combine high reversible capacity with excellent cycling stability (e.g., ∼950 mAh/g after 500 cycles at 2 A/g) and high rate capability (∼600 mAh/g at 20 A/g). The conductivity, toughness, and capacity scale with nanotube content according to percolation theory, while the stability increases sharply at the mechanical percolation threshold. We believe that the improvements in conductivity and toughness obtained after addition of nanotubes can be transferred to other electrode materials, such as silicon nanoparticles. PMID:27203558

  1. First-principles studies of interfacial chemistry in negative electrodes for lithium ion battery applications

    OpenAIRE

    Greeley, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    Silicon is a promising alternative to graphite as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries due to its enhanced safety and significantly higher theoretical capacity. Drastic volume changes in silicon during lithiation and delithiation cycles, however, hinder cyclability and capacity retention. Most strategies for improving the cyclability of silicon involve the engineering of interfacial chemistry and nanoscale architectures, and to further these efforts, fundamental insights into lithiatio...

  2. Influence of constraints on axial growth reduction of cylindrical Li-ion battery electrode particles

    OpenAIRE

    Chakraborty, Jeevanjyoti; Please, Colin P.; Goriely, Alain; Chapman, S. Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Volumetric expansion of silicon anode particles in a lithium-ion battery during charging may lead to the generation of undesirable internal stresses. For a cylindrical particle such growth may also lead to failure by buckling if the expansion is constrained in the axial direction due to other particles or supporting structures. To mitigate this problem, the possibility of reducing axial growth is investigated theoretically by studying simple modifications of the solid cylinder geometry. First...

  3. Virus-Assembled Flexible Electrode-Electrolyte Interfaces for Enhanced Polymer-Based Battery Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Ayan Ghosh; Juchen Guo; Brown, Adam D; Elizabeth Royston; Chunsheng Wang; Peter Kofinas; Culver, James N.

    2012-01-01

    High-aspect-ratio cobalt-oxide-coated Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV-) assembled polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) nonstick surfaces were integrated with a solvent-free polymer electrolyte to create an anode-electrolyte interface for use in lithium-ion batteries. The virus-assembled PTFE surfaces consisted primarily of cobalt oxide and were readily intercalated with a low-molecular-weight poly (ethylene oxide) (PEO) based diblock copolymer electrolyte to produce a solid anode-electrolyte system. The ...

  4. Electrode materials for lithium-ion batteries characterized by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schweikert, N.; Indris, S. [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany); Krueger, S.; Roling, B. [Marburg Univ. (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    In order to characterize the electrochemical properties of Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12} electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was used. Long-term measurements were performed in order to identify interfacial reactions, loss mechanisms and degradation processes. By performing impedance measurements at different Li contents, the dependency on the state-of-charge (SOC) of the Li/Li{sub 4+x}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12} battery was investigated. (orig.)

  5. Battery Safety Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Ken

    2010-01-01

    Batteries commonly used in flashlights and other household devices produce hydrogen gas as a product of zinc electrode corrosion. The amount of gas produced is affected by the batteries' design and charge rate. Dangerous levels of hydrogen gas can be released if battery types are mixed, batteries are damaged, batteries are of different ages, or…

  6. Low-temperature synthesis of CuO-interlaced nanodiscs for lithium ion battery electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seo Seung-Deok

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this study, we report the high-yield synthesis of 2-dimensional cupric oxide (CuO nanodiscs through dehydrogenation of 1-dimensional Cu(OH2 nanowires at 60°C. Most of the nanodiscs had a diameter of approximately 500 nm and a thickness of approximately 50 nm. After further prolonged reaction times, secondary irregular nanodiscs gradually grew vertically into regular nanodiscs. These CuO nanostructures were characterized using X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller measurements. The possible growth mechanism of the interlaced disc CuO nanostructures is systematically discussed. The electrochemical performances of the CuO nanodisc electrodes were evaluated in detail using cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic cycling. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the incorporation of multiwalled carbon nanotubes enables the enhanced reversible capacities and capacity retention of CuO nanodisc electrodes on cycling by offering more efficient electron transport paths.

  7. Fast microwave treatments of single source alkoxides for nanostructured Li-ion battery electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laveda, Josefa Vidal; Chandhok, Vibhuti; Murray, Claire A; Paterson, Gary W; Corr, Serena A

    2016-07-12

    Microwave or ultrasonic treatment of metal alkoxides presents a fast, low cost route to both anode and cathode nanomaterials for Li-ion battery applications. Here, we demonstrate the formation of LiMPO4 (M = Fe, Mn) and Mn3O4 nanostructures via this simple route which exhibit excellent electrochemical performances. This approach opens up a new avenue for the targeted design of nanostructured materials, where co-location of the desired metals in a single starting material shortens reaction times and temperatures since there is a decrease in diffusional energy requirements usually needed for these reactions to proceed. PMID:26486274

  8. Synergistic effect of carbon nanofiber/nanotube composite catalyst on carbon felt electrode for high-performance all-vanadium redox flow battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Minjoon; Jung, Yang-jae; Kim, Jungyun; Lee, Ho il; Cho, Jeaphil

    2013-10-01

    Carbon nanofiber/nanotube (CNF/CNT) composite catalysts grown on carbon felt (CF), prepared from a simple way involving the thermal decomposition of acetylene gas over Ni catalysts, are studied as electrode materials in a vanadium redox flow battery. The electrode with the composite catalyst prepared at 700 °C (denoted as CNF/CNT-700) demonstrates the best electrocatalytic properties toward the V(2+)/V(3+) and VO(2+)/VO2(+) redox couples among the samples prepared at 500, 600, 700, and 800 °C. Moreover, this composite electrode in the full cell exhibits substantially improved discharge capacity and energy efficiency by ~64% and by ~25% at 40 mA·cm(-2) and 100 mA·cm(-2), respectively, compared to untreated CF electrode. This outstanding performance is due to the enhanced surface defect sites of exposed edge plane in CNF and a fast electron transfer rate of in-plane side wall of the CNT.

  9. Electrode and solid electrolyte thin films for secondary lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C. H.; Kelder, E. M.; Schoonman, J.

    Electrostatic spray deposition (ESD) was employed to prepare thin layers of Li 1.2Mn 2O 4 (nominal composition) and BPO 4:0.035Li 2O for all-solid-state thin film lithium-ion batteries. The relationships between layer morphologies and deposition conditions such as solvent composition of the precursor solutions and substrate temperature were investigated. It was found that a low substrate temperature and/or high boiling point of the solvent may lead to a relatively dense structure. Reticular porous structures are formed, if films were deposited at 250°C and a mixture of 85 vol.% butyl carbitol and 15 vol.% ethanol was used as the solvent. The Li 1.2Mn 2O 4 layers, formed in the 250-400°C temperature range, were amorphous or micro-crystalline. After annealing beyond 600 °C, they could be crystallized into a spinel-structured material. Glassy BPO 4:0.035Li 2O layers could fill the pores of porous Li 1.2Mn 2O 4 layers to form a dense intermediate electrolyte layer. Thin-film rocking-chair batteries, Li 1.2Mn 2O 4|BPO 4:0.035Li 2O|Li 1.2Mn 2O 4|Al, were prepared and revealed an open-circuit voltage of about 1.2 V after charging.

  10. Tapioca binder for porous zinc anodes electrode in zinc–air batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Najmi Masri

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Tapioca was used as a binder for porous Zn anodes in an electrochemical zinc-air (Zn-air battery system. The tapioca binder concentrations varied to find the optimum composition. The effect of the discharge rate at 100 mA on the constant current, current–potential and current density–power density of the Zn-air battery was measured and analyzed. At concentrations of 60–80 mg cm−3, the tapioca binder exhibited the optimum discharge capability, with a specific capacity of approximately 500 mA h g−1 and a power density of 17 mW cm−2. A morphological analysis proved that at this concentration, the binder is able to provide excellent binding between the Zn powders. Moreover, the structure of Zn as the active material was not affected by the addition of tapioca as the binder, as shown by the X-ray diffraction analysis. Furthermore, the conversion of Zn into ZnO represents the full utilization of the active material, which is a good indication that tapioca can be used as the binder.

  11. Mesoporous Li4Ti5O12 nanoclusters anchored on super-aligned carbon nanotubes as high performance electrodes for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Li; Kong, Weibang; Wu, Hengcai; Wu, Yang; Wang, Datao; Zhao, Fei; Jiang, Kaili; Li, Qunqing; Wang, Jiaping; Fan, Shoushan

    2015-12-01

    Mesoporous lithium titanate (LTO) nanoclusters are in situ synthesized in a network of super aligned carbon nanotubes (SACNTs) via a solution-based method followed by heat treatment in air. In the LTO-CNT composite, SACNTs not only serve as the skeleton to support a binder-free electrode, but also render the composite with high conductivity, flexibility, and mechanical strength. The homogeneously dispersed LTO nanoclusters among the SACNTs allow each LTO grain to effectively access the electrolyte and the conductive network, benefiting both ion and electron transport. By the incorporation of LTO into the CNT network, mechanical reinforcement is also achieved. When serving as a negative electrode for lithium ion batteries, such a robust composite-network architecture provides the electrodes with effective charge transport and structural integrity, leading to high-performance flexible electrodes with high capacity, high rate capability, and excellent cycling stability.Mesoporous lithium titanate (LTO) nanoclusters are in situ synthesized in a network of super aligned carbon nanotubes (SACNTs) via a solution-based method followed by heat treatment in air. In the LTO-CNT composite, SACNTs not only serve as the skeleton to support a binder-free electrode, but also render the composite with high conductivity, flexibility, and mechanical strength. The homogeneously dispersed LTO nanoclusters among the SACNTs allow each LTO grain to effectively access the electrolyte and the conductive network, benefiting both ion and electron transport. By the incorporation of LTO into the CNT network, mechanical reinforcement is also achieved. When serving as a negative electrode for lithium ion batteries, such a robust composite-network architecture provides the electrodes with effective charge transport and structural integrity, leading to high-performance flexible electrodes with high capacity, high rate capability, and excellent cycling stability. Electronic supplementary information

  12. In Situ-Grown ZnCo2O4 on Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes as Air Electrode Materials for Rechargeable Lithium–Oxygen Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Bin; Xu, Wu; Yan, Pengfei; Bhattacharya, Priyanka; Cao, Ruiguo; Bowden, Mark E.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Wang, Chong M.; Zhang, Jiguang

    2015-10-12

    Although lithium-oxygen (Li-O2) batteries have great potential to be used as one of the next generation energy storage systems due to their ultrahigh theoretical specific energy, there are still many significant barriers before their practical applications. These barriers include electrolyte and electrode instability, poor ORR/OER efficiency and cycling capability, etc. Development of a highly efficient catalyst will not only enhance ORR/OER efficiency, it may also improve the stability of electrolyte because the reduced charge voltage. Here we report the synthesis of nano-sheet-assembled ZnCo2O4 spheres/single walled carbon nanotubes (ZCO/SWCNTs) composites as high performance air electrode materials for Li-O2 batteries. The ZCO catalyzed SWCNTs electrodes delivered high discharge capacities, decreased the onset of oxygen evolution reaction by 0.9 V during charge processes, and led to more stable cycling stability. These results indicate that ZCO/SWCNTs composite can be used as highly efficient air electrode for oxygen reduction and evolution reactions. The highly enhanced catalytic activity by uniformly dispersed ZnCo2O4 catalyst on nanostructured electrodes is expected to inspire

  13. Mg(PF6)2-Based Electrolyte Systems: Understanding Electrolyte-Electrode Interactions for the Development of Mg-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyzer, Evan N; Glass, Hugh F J; Liu, Zigeng; Bayley, Paul M; Dutton, Siân E; Grey, Clare P; Wright, Dominic S

    2016-07-20

    Mg(PF6)2-based electrolytes for Mg-ion batteries have not received the same attention as the analogous LiPF6-based electrolytes used in most Li-ion cells owing to the perception that the PF6(-) anion decomposes on and passivates Mg electrodes. No synthesis of the Mg(PF6)2 salt has been reported, nor have its solutions been studied electrochemically. Here, we report the synthesis of the complex Mg(PF6)2(CH3CN)6 and its solution-state electrochemistry. Solutions of Mg(PF6)2(CH3CN)6 in CH3CN and CH3CN/THF mixtures exhibit high conductivities (up to 28 mS·cm(-1)) and electrochemical stability up to at least 4 V vs Mg on Al electrodes. Contrary to established perceptions, Mg electrodes are observed to remain electrochemically active when cycled in the presence of these Mg(PF6)2-based electrolytes, with no fluoride (i.e., MgF2) formed on the Mg surface. Stainless steel electrodes are found to corrode when cycled in the presence of Mg(PF6)2 solutions, but Al electrodes are passivated. The electrolytes have been used in a prototype Mg battery with a Mg anode and Chevrel (Mo3S4)-phase cathode. PMID:27359196

  14. Ag nanoparticle-modified MnO2 nanorods catalyst for use as an air electrode in zinc–air battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we report the synthesis, characterization and application of an inexpensive yet efficient bifunctional catalyst composed of Ag nanocrystals (∼11 nm) anchored on α-MnO2 nanorods. The nanostructured Ag–MnO2 catalysts exhibit improved oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER) performance in aqueous alkaline media, in terms of onset potential, generated current density and Tafel slopes. Rotating disk electrode results show that near-four electrons per oxygen molecule were transferred during ORR of Ag–MnO2. A zinc–air battery prototype employing Ag–MnO2 in the air electrode was successfully operated for 270 cycles under light discharge–charge condition. Ag–MnO2 is an efficient bifunctional catalyst for electrochemical devices such as metal–air batteries and alkaline fuel cells

  15. Visualization of anisotropic-isotropic phase transformation dynamics in battery electrode particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiajun; Karen Chen-Wiegart, Yu-Chen; Eng, Christopher; Shen, Qun; Wang, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Anisotropy, or alternatively, isotropy of phase transformations extensively exist in a number of solid-state materials, with performance depending on the three-dimensional transformation features. Fundamental insights into internal chemical phase evolution allow manipulating materials with desired functionalities, and can be developed via real-time multi-dimensional imaging methods. Here, we report a five-dimensional imaging method to track phase transformation as a function of charging time in individual lithium iron phosphate battery cathode particles during delithiation. The electrochemically driven phase transformation is initially anisotropic with a preferred boundary migration direction, but becomes isotropic as delithiation proceeds further. We also observe the expected two-phase coexistence throughout the entire charging process. We expect this five-dimensional imaging method to be broadly applicable to problems in energy, materials, environmental and life sciences. PMID:27516044

  16. Optical Characterization of Commercial Lithiated Graphite Battery Electrodes and in Situ Fiber Optic Evanescent Wave Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghannoum, AbdulRahman; Norris, Ryan C; Iyer, Krishna; Zdravkova, Liliana; Yu, Aiping; Nieva, Patricia

    2016-07-27

    Optical characterization of graphite anodes in lithium ion batteries (LIB) is presented here for potential use in estimating their state of charge (SOC). The characterization is based on reflectance spectroscopy of the anode of commercial LIB cells and in situ optical measurements using an embedded optical fiber sensor. The optical characterization of the anode using wavelengths ranging from 500 to 900 nm supports the dominance of graphite over the solid electrolyte interface in governing the anode's reflectance properties. It is demonstrated that lithiated graphite's reflectance has a significant change in the near-infrared band, 750-900 nm, compared with the visible spectrum as a function of SOC. An embedded optical sensor is used to measure the transmittance of graphite anode in the near-infrared band, and the results suggest that a unique inexpensive method may be developed to estimate the SOC of a LIB. PMID:27379859

  17. Modeling mass and density distribution effects on the performance of co-extruded electrodes for high energy density lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobb, Corie L.; Blanco, Mario

    2014-03-01

    Utilizing an existing macro-homogeneous porous electrode model developed by John Newman, this paper aims to explore the potential energy density gains which can be realized in lithium-ion battery electrodes fabricated with co-extrusion printing technology. This paper conducts an analysis on two-dimensional electrode cross-sections and presents the electrochemical performance results, including calculated volumetric energy capacity for a general class of lithium cobalt oxide (LiCoO2) co-extruded cathodes, in the presence of a lithium metal anode, polymer separator and liquid ethylene carbonate, propylene carbonate, and dimethyl carbonate (EC:PC:DMC) electrolyte. The impact of structured electrodes on cell performance is investigated by varying the physical distribution of a fixed amount of cathode mass over a space of dimensions which can be fabricated by co-extrusion. By systematically varying the thickness and aspect ratio of the electrode structures, we present an optimal subset of geometries and design rules for co-extruded geometries. Modeling results demonstrate that ultra-thick LiCoO2 electrodes, on the order of 150-300 μm, can garner a substantial improvement in material utilization and in turn capacity through electrolyte channels and fine width electrode pillars which are 25-100 μm wide.

  18. Electrochemical characterisation of activated carbon particles used in redox flow battery electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radford, G. J. W.; Cox, J.; Wills, R. G. A.; Walsh, F. C.

    The Faradaic and non-Faradaic characteristics of a series of activated carbon particles (used to produce composite carbon-polymer electrodes for redox flow cells) have been determined using aqueous electrolytes (sulfuric acid and sodium polysulfide) at 295 K. The particles were mounted as a circular section (ca. 0.80 cm 2) shallow packed bed of 2.5 mm thickness in the direction of electrolyte flow (mean linear flow velocity ≈ 6 mm s -1). Cyclic voltammetry in deaerated, 1 mol dm -3 H 2SO 4 at 295 K indicated a specific capacitance in the range of 50-140 F g -1. Linear sweep voltammetry and galvanostatic step studies in an alkaline sodium polysulfide electrolyte (1.8 mol dm -3 Na 2S 2.11) have demonstrated marked differences amongst various types of activated carbon. Such differences are highlighted during galvanostatic charge-discharge cycling of half-cell electrodes in the polysulfide electrolyte. The electrochemical characteristics are compared to those based on (N 2 adsorption) gas porosimetry measurements.

  19. Research and analysis on electrochemical performances of α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} electrode in Li-ion battery with different current collectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Lihong, E-mail: huang.lihong@foxmail.com; Min, Zhonghua; Zhang, Qinyong

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • We achieved a reversible capacity of 415 mAh g{sup −1} after 30 cycles for α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} electrode in Li-ion battery. • Better electrical performance was obtained when using Cu foam as current collector. • As current collector for α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} electrode, Cu foam is better than Cu foil and Ni foam. • It could avoid the active materials falling off from the current collector during cycling. • It is owe to smaller surface film resistance, charge-transfer resistance, etc. - Abstract: In this work, we reported a simple synthesis of submicron α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} with rod-like structure. When it evaluated as electrode material for lithium ion battery, comparing with Cu foil and Ni foam, the as-prepared α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} electrodes with Cu foam current collector exhibited higher reversible capacity of 415 mAh g{sup −1} and more stable cycle performance after 30 cycles. Comparative researches on electrochemical performances of the α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} employing different current collectors (Cu foil, Cu foam and Ni foam) were discussed here in detail. According to our results, the improved electrochemical behaviors of α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} electrode with Cu foam current collector could be attributed to its particular electrode structure, i.e., porous, good electric conductivity, closed adhere to the electrode materials. Just because of that, it may make sure an easy accessibility of electrolytes and fast transportation of lithium ions, importantly, it could avoid the active materials falling off from the current collector on account of volume expansion.

  20. High capacity hydrogen storage alloy negative electrodes for use in nickel–metal hydride batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, Hiroshi, E-mail: inoue-h@chem.osakafu-u.ac.jp; Kotani, Norihiro; Chiku, Masanobu; Higuchi, Eiji

    2015-10-05

    Highlights: • Rare earth-free TiV{sub 2.1−x}Cr{sub x}Ni{sub 0.3} (x = 0.4–1.0) alloys were prepared by arc-melting. • All alloys were composed of two phases, bcc phase and TiNi-based phase. • The higher Cr content, the lower discharge capacity, the higher cycle durability. • The lower charge-transfer resistance led to the higher HRD. • The TiV{sub 1.6}Cr{sub 0.5}Ni{sub 0.3} alloy electrode had the highest HRD. - Abstract: Rare earth-free V-based TiV{sub 2.1−x}Cr{sub x}Ni{sub 0.3} (x = 0.4–1.0) alloys were prepared by arc-melting. All alloys were composed of two phases, the primary phase in which the V and Cr constituents were mainly distributed and the secondary phase in which the Ti and Ni constituents were mainly distributed. When the Cr content was increased, the maximum discharge capacity was decreased, but charge–discharge cycle durability was improved. The lower the charge-transfer resistance and the higher the specific discharge current at which the positive shift of potential at degree of discharge of 50% stagnates, the higher the HRD. In the present study, the TiV{sub 1.6}Cr{sub 0.5}Ni{sub 0.3} alloy electrode had the highest HRD.

  1. Solid-state sodium batteries using polymer electrolytes and sodium intercalation electrode materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Y. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Mineral Engineering]|[Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Materials Sciences Div.

    1996-08-01

    Solid-state sodium cells using polymer electrolytes (polyethylene oxide mixed with sodium trifluoromethanesulfonate: PEO{sub n}NaCF{sub 3}SO{sub 3}) and sodium cobalt oxide positive electrodes are characterized in terms of discharge and charge characteristics, rate capability, cycle life, and energy and power densities. The P2 phase Na{sub x}CoO{sub 2} can reversibly intercalate sodium in the range of x = 0.3 to 0.9, giving a theoretical specific energy of 440 Wh/kg and energy density of 1,600 Wh/l. Over one hundred cycles to 60% depth of discharge have been obtained at 0.5 mA/cm{sup 2}. Experiments show that the electrolyte/Na interface is stable and is not the limiting factor to cell cycle life. Na{sub 0.7}CoO{sub 2} composite electrodes containing various amounts of carbon black additive are investigated. The transport properties of polymer electrolytes are the critical factors for performance. These properties (the ionic conductivity, salt diffusion coefficient, and ion transference number) are measured for the PEO{sub n}NaCF{sub 3}SO{sub 3} system over a wide range of concentrations at 85 C. All the three transport properties are very salt-concentration dependent. The ionic conductivity exhibits a maximum at about n = 20. The transference number, diffusion coefficient, and thermodynamic factor all vary with salt concentration in a similar fashion, decreasing as the concentration increases, except for a local maximum. These results verify that polymer electrolytes cannot be treated as ideal solutions. The measured transport-property values are used to analyze and optimize the electrolytes by computer simulation and also cell testing. Salt precipitation is believed to be the rate limiting process for cells using highly concentrated solutions, as a result of lower values of these properties, while salt depletion is the limiting factor when a dilute solution is used.

  2. Electrochemical properties of LaMO3 (M=Co or Fe) as the negative electrode in a hydrogen battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, D.-K.; Im, H.-N.; Kim, J.; Song, S.-J.

    2013-01-01

    Undoped orthorthombic LaFeO3 and monoclinic LaCoO3 oxides were selected as an anode material for Ni-H battery due to their high electron conductivity by multivalent transition status of B-site cation. Both groups of oxides were prepared by a conventional solid-state reaction method, and their electrochemical charge/discharge properties were investigated. The electrochemical kinetic properties, exchange current density, and proton diffusivity were also extracted using linear polarization measurement and the potential-step method. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis was used to measure the oxidation state of the transition metal in the specimens. A non-linear least-square fitting deconvoluted the peaks, suggesting that the valence state of Fe and Co in the sample was mainly +3. The hydrogen diffusion rate was also estimated using the potential-step method, giving 5.42×10-16 and 5.72×10-16 cm2 s-1 for LaCoO3 and LaFeO3, respectively which are an order of magnitude larger than that of Sr doped LaFeO3 oxide electrodes.

  3. Li2CuVO4: A high capacity positive electrode material for Li-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Yahia, Hamdi; Shikano, Masahiro; Yamaguchi, Yoichi

    2016-07-01

    The new compound Li2CuVO4 was synthesized by a solid state reaction route, and its crystal structure was determined from single crystal X-ray diffraction data. Li2CuVO4 was characterized by galvanometric cycling, cycle voltammetry, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The structure of Li2CuVO4 is isotypic to Pmn21-Li3VO4. It can be described as a disordered wurtzite structure with rows of Li1/Cu1 atoms alternating with rows of (Li2/Cu2)-V-(Li2/Cu2) atoms along [100]. All cations are tetrahedrally coordinated. The lithium and copper atoms are statistically disordered over two crystallographic sites. The electrochemical cycling between 2.0 and 4.7 V indicates that almost two lithium atoms could be extracted and re-intercalated. This delivers a maximum discharge capacity of 257 mA h g-1 at a C/50 rate (theoretical capacity = 139 mA h g-1 for one lithium). Li2CuVO4 shows also high rate capability with a capacity of 175 mA h g-1 at 1C rate. This demonstrates that Cu-based compounds can be very interesting as electrodes for Li-ion batteries if Cu-dissolution is avoided.

  4. Nano-sized structured layered positive electrode materials to enable high energy density and high rate capability lithium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Haixia; Belharouak, Ilias; Amine, Khalil

    2012-10-02

    Nano-sized structured dense and spherical layered positive active materials provide high energy density and high rate capability electrodes in lithium-ion batteries. Such materials are spherical second particles made from agglomerated primary particles that are Li.sub.1+.alpha.(Ni.sub.xCo.sub.yMn.sub.z).sub.1-tM.sub.tO.sub.2-dR.sub.d- , where M is selected from can be Al, Mg, Fe, Cu, Zn, Cr, Ag, Ca, Na, K, In, Ga, Ge, V, Mo, Nb, Si, Ti, Zr, or a mixture of any two or more thereof, R is selected from F, Cl, Br, I, H, S, N, or a mixture of any two or more thereof, and 0.ltoreq..alpha..ltoreq.0.50; 0

  5. Intermediate honeycomb ordering to trigger oxygen redox chemistry in layered battery electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortemard de Boisse, Benoit; Liu, Guandong; Ma, Jiangtao; Nishimura, Shin-Ichi; Chung, Sai-Cheong; Kiuchi, Hisao; Harada, Yoshihisa; Kikkawa, Jun; Kobayashi, Yoshio; Okubo, Masashi; Yamada, Atsuo

    2016-04-01

    Sodium-ion batteries are attractive energy storage media owing to the abundance of sodium, but the low capacities of available cathode materials make them impractical. Sodium-excess metal oxides Na2MO3 (M: transition metal) are appealing cathode materials that may realize large capacities through additional oxygen redox reaction. However, the general strategies for enhancing the capacity of Na2MO3 are poorly established. Here using two polymorphs of Na2RuO3, we demonstrate the critical role of honeycomb-type cation ordering in Na2MO3. Ordered Na2RuO3 with honeycomb-ordered [Na1/3Ru2/3]O2 slabs delivers a capacity of 180 mAh g-1 (1.3-electron reaction), whereas disordered Na2RuO3 only delivers 135 mAh g-1 (1.0-electron reaction). We clarify that the large extra capacity of ordered Na2RuO3 is enabled by a spontaneously ordered intermediate Na1RuO3 phase with ilmenite O1 structure, which induces frontier orbital reorganization to trigger the oxygen redox reaction, unveiling a general requisite for the stable oxygen redox reaction in high-capacity Na2MO3 cathodes.

  6. The Effect of Insertion Species on Nanostructured Open Framework Hexacyanoferrate Battery Electrodes

    KAUST Repository

    Wessells, Colin D.

    2012-01-01

    Recent battery research has focused on the high power and energy density needed for portable electronics and vehicles, but the requirements for grid-scale energy storage are different, with emphasis on low cost, long cycle life, and safety. Open framework materials with the Prussian Blue crystal structure offer the high power capability, ultra-long cycle life, and scalable, low cost synthesis and operation that are necessary for storage systems to integrate transient energy sources, such as wind and solar, with the electrical grid. We have demonstrated that two open framework materials, copper hexacyanoferrate and nickel hexacyanoferrate, can reversibly intercalate lithium, sodium, potassium, and ammonium ions at high rates. These materials can achieve capacities of up to 60 mAhg. The porous, nanoparticulate morphology of these materials, synthesized by the use of simple and inexpensive methods, results in remarkable rate capabilities: e.g. copper hexacyanoferrate retains 84 of its maximum capacity during potassium cycling at a very high (41.7C) rate, while nickel hexacyanoferrate retains 66 of its maximum capacity while cycling either sodium or potassium at this same rate. These materials show excellent stability during the cycling of sodium and potassium, with minimal capacity loss after 500 cycles. © 2011 The Electrochemical Society.

  7. Effect of mesocelluar carbon foam electrode material on performance of vanadium redox flow battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Sanghyun; An, Sunhyung; Jeong, Jooyoung; Lee, Jinwoo; Kwon, Yongchai

    2015-03-01

    Languid reaction rate of VO2+/VO2+ redox couple is a problem to solve for improving performance of vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB). To facilitate the slow reaction materials including large pore sized mesocellular carbon foam (MSU-F-C and Pt/MSU-F-C) are used as new catalyst. Their catalytic activity and reaction reversibility are estimated and compared with other catalysts, while cycle tests of charge-discharge and polarization curve tests are implemented to evaluate energy efficiency (EE) and maximum power density (MPD). Their crystal structure, specific surface area and catalyst morphology are measured by XRD, BET and TEM. The new catalysts indicate high peak current ratio, small peak potential difference and high electron transfer rate constant, proving that their catalytic activity and reaction reversibility are superior. Regarding the charge-discharge and polarization curve tests, the VRFB single cells including new catalysts show high EE as well as low overpotential and internal resistance and high MPD. Such excellent results are due to mostly unique characteristics of MSU-F-C having large interconnected mesopores, high surface area and large contents of hydroxyl groups that serve as active sites for VO2+/VO2+ redox reaction and platinums (Pts) supporting the MSU-F-C. Indeed, employment of the catalysts including MSU-F-C leads to enhancement in performance of VRFB by facilitating the slow VO2+/VO2+ redox reaction.

  8. Carbon- and Binder-Free NiCo2O4 Nanoneedle Array Electrode for Sodium-Ion Batteries: Electrochemical Performance and Insight into Sodium Storage Reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong-Won; Shin, Hyun-Sup; Lee, Chan-Woo; Jung, Kyu-Nam

    2016-02-01

    Sodium (Na)-ion batteries (NIBs) have attracted significant interest as an alternative chemistry to lithium (Li)-ion batteries for large-scale stationary energy storage systems. Discovering high-performance anode materials is a great challenge for the commercial success of NIB technology. Transition metal oxides with tailored nanoarchitectures have been considered as promising anodes for NIBs due to their high capacity. Here, we demonstrate the fabrication of a nanostructured oxide-only electrode, i.e., carbon- and binder-free NiCo2O4 nanoneedle array (NCO-NNA), and its feasibility as an anode for NIBs. Furthermore, we provide an in-depth experimental study of the Na storage reaction (sodiation and desodiation) in NCO-NNA. The NCO-NNA electrode is fabricated on a conducting substrate by a hydrothermal method with subsequent heat treatment. When tested in an electrochemical Na half-cell, the NCO-NNA electrode exhibits excellent Na storage capability: a charge capacity as high as 400 mAh g-1 is achieved at a current density of 50 mA g-1. It also shows a greatly improved cycle life (~215 mAh g-1 after 50 cycles) in comparison to a conventional powder-type electrode (~30 mAh g-1). However, the Na storage performance is still inferior to that of Li, which is mainly due to sluggish kinetics of sodiation-desodiation accompanied by severe volume change.

  9. Water soluble styrene butadiene rubber and sodium carboxyl methyl cellulose binder for ZnFe2O4 anode electrodes in lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rongyu; Yang, Xu; Zhang, Dong; Qiu, Hailong; Fu, Qiang; Na, Hui; Guo, Zhendong; Du, Fei; Chen, Gang; Wei, Yingjin

    2015-07-01

    ZnFe2O4 nano particles as an anode material for lithium ion batteries are prepared by the glycine-nitrate combustion method. The mixture of styrene butadiene rubber and sodium carboxyl methyl cellulose (SBR/CMC) with the weight ratio of 1:1 is used as the binder for ZnFe2O4 electrode. Compared with the conventional polyvinylidene-fluoride (PVDF) binder, the SBR/CMC binder is much cheaper and environment benign. More significantly, this water soluble binder significantly improves the rate capability and cycle stability of ZnFe2O4. A discharge capacity of 873.8 mAh g-1 is obtained after 100 cycles at the 0.1C rate, with a very little capacity fading rate of 0.06% per cycle. Studies show that the SBR/CMC binder enhances the adhesion of the electrode film to the current collector, and constructs an effective three-dimensional network for electrons transport. In addition, the SBR/CMC binder helps to form a uniform SEI film thus prohibiting the formation of lithium dendrite. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy shows that the SBR/CMC binder lowers the ohmic resistance of the electrode, depresses the formation of SEI film and facilitates the charge transfer reactions at the electrode/electrolyte interface. These advantages highlight the potential applications of SBR/CMC binder in lithium ion batteries.

  10. A simple and novel Si surface modification on LiFePO4@C electrode and its suppression of degradation of lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wenyu; Zhuang, Zhenyuan; Chen, Xiang; Zou, Mingzhong; Zhao, Guiying; Feng, Qian; Li, Jiaxin; Lin, Yingbin; Huang, Zhigao

    2015-12-01

    A simple and novel surface modification device of the electrodes based on the ultrasonic spray technique was set up, which is considered to have the enormous prospect of industrial application due to its simpleness and high efficiency. Then, the nano-sized Si nanoparticles were deposited uniformly on the LiFePO4@C electrodes. In comparison with pristine LiFePO4@C electrode, the surface modification of the nano-sized Si with crystalline Si core and amorphous Si shell on the electrode surface exhibits less coarsening degree, higher rate capability, better cyclicity at high charge/discharge rate, especially at elevated temperature. Moreover, Raman spectra of LiFePO4@C, LiFePO4@C/Si electrodes before cycles and after 100 cycles at 1 C and 60 °C were measured. It is found that the FePO4 and α-Fe2O3 phases exist in LiFePO4@C after 100 cycles. On the contrary, there hardly exists the FePO4 and α-Fe2O3 phases, which means that the nano Si surface modification suppresses the degradation of lithium ion batteries. At last, the schematic and phenomenological resistance models of LiFePO4@C electrode modified by the nano-sized silicon particles have been suggested, which is responsible for the enhancement of the electrochemical performances after nano-sized Si surface modification.

  11. AC impedance analysis of ionic and electronic conductivities in electrode mixture layers for an all-solid-state lithium-ion battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siroma, Zyun; Sato, Tomohiro; Takeuchi, Tomonari; Nagai, Ryo; Ota, Akira; Ioroi, Tsutomu

    2016-06-01

    The ionic and electronic effective conductivities of an electrode mixture layers for all-solid-state lithium-ion batteries containing Li2Ssbnd P2S5 as a solid electrolyte were investigated by AC impedance measurements and analysis using a transmission-line model (TLM). Samples containing graphite (graphite electrodes) or LiNi0.5Co0.2Mn0.3O2 (NCM electrodes) as the active material were measured under a "substrate | sample | bulk electrolyte | sample | substrate" configuration (ion-electron connection) and a "substrate | sample | substrate" configuration (electron-electron connection). Theoretically, if the electronic resistance is negligibly small, which is the case with our graphite electrodes, measurement with the ion-electron connection should be effective for evaluating ionic conductivity. However, if the electronic resistance is comparable to the ionic resistance, which is the case with our NCM electrodes, the results with the ion-electron connection may contain some inherent inaccuracy. In this report, we theoretically and practically demonstrate the advantage of analyzing the results with the electron-electron connection, which gives both the ionic and electronic conductivities. The similarity of the behavior of ionic conductivity with the graphite and NCM electrodes confirms the reliability of this analysis.

  12. Original implementation of Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) in symmetric cells: Evaluation of post-mortem protocols applied to characterize electrode materials for Li-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Isabel Jiménez; Genies, Sylvie; Si Larbi, Gregory; Boulineau, Adrien; Daniel, Lise; Alias, Mélanie

    2016-03-01

    Understanding ageing mechanisms of Li-ion batteries is essential for further optimizations. To determine performance loss causes, post-mortem analyses are commonly applied. For each type of post-mortem test, different sample preparation protocols are adopted. However, reports on the reliability of these protocols are rare. Herein, Li-ion pouch cells with LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 - polyvinylidene fluoride positive electrode, graphite-carboxymethyl cellulose-styrene rubber negative electrode and LiPF6 - carbonate solvents mixture electrolyte, are opened and electrodes are recovered following a specified protocol. Negative and positive symmetric cells are assembled and their impedances are recorded. A signal analysis is applied to reconstruct the Li-ion pouch cell impedance from the symmetric cells, then comparison against the pouch cell true impedance allows the evaluation of the sample preparation protocols. The results are endorsed by Transmission Electronic Microscopy (TEM) and Gas Chromatography - Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) analyses. Carbonate solvents used to remove the salt impacts slightly the surface properties of both electrodes. Drying electrodes under vacuum at 25 °C produces an impedance increase, particularly very marked for the positive electrode. Drying at 50 °C under vacuum or/and exposition to the anhydrous room atmosphere is very detrimental.

  13. Sn-0.4BPO 4 composite as a promising negative electrode for rechargeable lithium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboulaich, Abdelmaula; Womes, Manfred; Olivier-Fourcade, Josette; Willmann, Patrick; Jumas, Jean-Claude

    2010-01-01

    The structural and textural properties of a Sn-0.4BPO 4 composite material synthesized by ex situ dispersion of β-Sn in a BPO 4 matrix were investigated by using several complementary techniques to study the global order (XRD, TGA-DSC, SEM-XEDS) and the local order (FT-IR, 119Sn Mössbauer spectroscopy and X-ray absorption spectroscopy). The results reveal that the composite material consists of three main components: an electrochemically active species "Sn", an inactive matrix "BPO 4", and an amorphous Sn(II) borophosphate which acts as a link between the two former and which improves the cohesion of the composite. The electrochemical performances of the composite material were tested in Swagelok-type cells with metallic Li as counter-electrode. It shows a high reversible capacity of about 500 mAh g -1 at a C/20 rate, and a very good stability under cycling even at very fast rates of C or C/1.3.

  14. Carbothermal synthesis of Sn-based composites as negative electrode for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouyane, M.; Ruiz, J.-M.; Artus, M.; Cassaignon, S.; Jolivet, J.-P.; Caillon, G.; Jordy, C.; Driesen, K.; Scoyer, J.; Stievano, L.; Olivier-Fourcade, J.; Jumas, J.-C.

    The composite [Sn-BPO 4/ xC] to be used as negative electrode material for the storage of electrochemical energy was obtained by dispersing electroactive tin species onto a BPO 4 buffer matrix by carbothermal reduction of a mixture of SnO 2 and nanosized BPO 4. This composite material was thoroughly characterized by X-ray diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy, 119Sn Mössbauer spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy. The electrochemical tests of this new material highlight its very interesting electrochemical properties, i.e., a discharge capacity of 850 mAh g -1 for the first cycle and reversible capacity around 585 mAh g -1 at C/5 rate. These electrochemical performances are attributed to the very high dispersion and stabilisation of tin metal particles onto the BPO 4 matrix. The irreversible capacity observed for the first charge/discharge cycle is due the reduction of interfacial Sn II species and to the passivation of the anode surface by liquid electrolyte decomposition (formation of the SEI layer).

  15. In situ and operando atomic force microscopy of high-capacity nano-silicon based electrodes for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitung, Ben; Baumann, Peter; Sommer, Heino; Janek, Jürgen; Brezesinski, Torsten

    2016-07-01

    Silicon is a promising next-generation anode material for high-energy-density lithium-ion batteries. While the alloying of nano- and micron size silicon with lithium is relatively well understood, the knowledge of mechanical degradation and structural rearrangements in practical silicon-based electrodes during operation is limited. Here, we demonstrate, for the first time, in situ and operando atomic force microscopy (AFM) of nano-silicon anodes containing polymer binder and carbon black additive. With the help of this technique, the surface topography is analyzed while electrochemical reactions are occurring. In particular, changes in particle size as well as electrode structure and height are visualized with high resolution. Furthermore, the formation and evolution of the solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI) can be followed and its thickness determined by phase imaging and nano-indentation, respectively. Major changes occur in the first lithiation cycle at potentials below 0.6 V with respect to Li/Li+ due to increased SEI formation - which is a dynamic process - and alloying reactions. Overall, these results provide insight into the function of silicon-based composite electrodes and further show that AFM is a powerful technique that can be applied to important battery materials, without restriction to thin film geometries.Silicon is a promising next-generation anode material for high-energy-density lithium-ion batteries. While the alloying of nano- and micron size silicon with lithium is relatively well understood, the knowledge of mechanical degradation and structural rearrangements in practical silicon-based electrodes during operation is limited. Here, we demonstrate, for the first time, in situ and operando atomic force microscopy (AFM) of nano-silicon anodes containing polymer binder and carbon black additive. With the help of this technique, the surface topography is analyzed while electrochemical reactions are occurring. In particular, changes in particle

  16. Dual hetero atom containing bio-carbon: Multifunctional electrode material for High Performance Sodium-ion Batteries and Oxygen Reduction Reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Human hair derived carbon (HHC) anode containing S and N has been explored for sodium batteries. • An appreciable capacity of 210 mAh g−1 has been exhibited by HHC anode in sodium batteries. • HHC anode finds its suitability for rate capability applications in sodium batteries at 1C rate. • HHC anode has been exploited for the first time as a metal free electro catalyst for ORR applications. • ORR study demonstrates the superior stability and resistance towards methanol cross over. - Abstract: Nitrogen and sulfur containing carbon, derived from human hair (HHC) has been exploited for the first time as a multifunctional electrode material for use in sodium batteries and for oxygen reduction reaction in alkaline medium. Human hair acts as the source of carbon containing nitrogen and sulfur, due to the presence of α-keratin, thus eliminating the need for the addition of multiple hazardous chemicals such as organic precursors and the requirement of conventionally adopted energy intensive methods. Such a dual hetero atom containing human hair derived carbon, when examined as an anode material for sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) displays a high specific capacity of ∼ 210 mAh g−1 at 50 mA g−1 and a high rate capability of ∼ 50 mAh g−1 at 1.5 A g−1, thereby providing newer perspective towards the construction of low-cost SIBs. Further, HHC upon exploration as a metal free electrocatalyst for ORR applications exhibits outstanding electrocatalytic performance in terms of superior stability and resistance towards methanol cross over along with long term stability. Our cost-effective approach against the disposal of human hair opens up newer avenues for the conversion of filthy human hair waste as value added electrode material in energy storage and electrocatalytic applications

  17. Novel lead-graphene and lead-graphite metallic composite materials for possible applications as positive electrode grid in lead-acid battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yolshina, L. A.; Yolshina, V. A.; Yolshin, A. N.; Plaksin, S. V.

    2015-03-01

    Novel lead-graphene and lead-graphite metallic composites which melt at temperature of the melting point of lead were investigated as possible positive current collectors for lead acid batteries in sulfuric acid solution. Scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, difference scanning calorimetry, cyclic voltammetry and prolonged corrosion tests were employed to characterize the effect of the newly proposed lead-carbon metallic composites on the structure and electrochemical properties of positive grid material. Both lead-graphene and lead-graphite metallic composite materials show the similar electrochemical characteristics to metallic lead in the voltage range where the positive electrodes of lead acid batteries operate. It has been shown that carbon both as graphene and graphite does not participate in the electrochemical process but improve corrosion and electrochemical characteristics of both metallic composite materials. No products of interaction of lead with sulfuric acid were formed on the surface of graphene and graphite so as it was not found additional peaks of carbon discharge on voltammograms which could be attributed to the carbon. Graphene inclusions in lead prevent formation of leady oxide nanocrystals which deteriorate discharge characteristics of positive electrode of LAB. Both lead-graphene alloy and lead-graphite metallic composite proved excellent electrochemical and corrosion behavior and can be used as positive grids in lead acid batteries of new generation.

  18. Carbon electrode with NiO and RuO2 nanoparticles improves the cycling life of non-aqueous lithium-oxygen batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, P.; Shyy, W.; Wu, M. C.; Huang, Y. Y.; Zhao, T. S.

    2016-09-01

    Carbon has been regarded as one of the most attractive cathode materials for non-aqueous lithium-oxygen batteries due to its excellent conductivity, high specific area, large porosity, and low cost. However, a key disadvantage of carbon electrodes lies in the fact that carbon may react with Li2O2 and electrolyte to form irreversible side products (e.g. Li2CO3) at the active surfaces, leading to a high charge voltage and a short cycling life. In this work, we address this issue by decorating NiO and RuO2 nanoparticles onto carbon surfaces. It is demonstrated that the NiO-RuO2 nanoparticle-decorated carbon electrode not only catalyzes both the oxygen reduction and evolution reactions, but also promotes the decomposition of side products. As a result, the battery fitted with the novel carbon cathode delivers a capacity of 3653 mAh g-1 at a current density of 400 mA g-1, with a charge plateau of 4.01 V. This performance is 440 mV lower than that of the battery fitted with a pristine carbon cathode. The present cathode is also able to operate for 50 cycles without capacity decay at a fixed capacity of 1000 mAh g-1, which is more than twice the cycle number of that of the pristine carbon cathode.

  19. 锂硫电池硫正极材料研究现状与展望%Research Progress of Sulfur Electrode of Lithium/Sulfur Batteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡宗倩; 谢凯

    2011-01-01

    The research progress of sulfur electrode for lithium/sulfur batteries is summarized, including con ductor, binder and active material. The developing trends of electrochemical performance improving for sulfur electrode materials are prospected. The sulfur/ordered porous carbon nanocomposite is considered as a promising material for lithium/sulfur batteries. Moreover, the conductor to form a 3D wire network and the binder with good sticking a bility, electrical conductivity and chemical stability play an important role in enhancing the electrical performance of lithium/sulfur batteries.%综述了锂硫电池硫正极材料的研究现状.针时锂硫电池目前存在的问题,展望了其发展趋势,并指出硫/有序多孔碳纳米复合材料对提升锂硫电池性能有重要研究价值;同时形成三维空间传导网络的导电添加剂和具有良好粘接性、导电性及电化学稳定性的粘结剂对锂硫电池性能提升也具有重要作用.

  20. High-resolution chemical analysis on cycled LiFePO4 battery electrodes using energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugar, Joshua D.; El Gabaly, Farid; Chueh, William C.; Fenton, Kyle R.; Tyliszczak, Tolek; Kotula, Paul G.; Bartelt, Norman C.

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate an ex situ method for analyzing the chemistry of battery electrode particles after electrochemical cycling using the transmission electron microscope (TEM). The arrangement of particles during our analysis is the same as when the particles are being cycled. We start by sectioning LiFePO4 battery electrodes using an ultramicrotome. We then show that mapping of the Fe2+ and Fe3+ oxidation state using energy-filtered TEM (EFTEM) and multivariate statistical analysis techniques can be used to determine the spatial distribution of Li in the particles. This approach is validated by comparison with scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) analysis of the same samples [Chueh et al. Nanoletters, 13 (3) (2013) 866-72]. EFTEM uses a parallel electron beam and reduces the electron-beam dose (and potential beam-induced damage) to the sample when compared to alternate techniques that use a focused probe (e.g. STEM-EELS). Our analysis confirms that under the charging conditions of the analyzed battery, mixed phase particles are rare and thus Li intercalation is limited by the nucleation of new phases.

  1. In situ SEM observation of the Si negative electrode reaction in an ionic-liquid-based lithium-ion secondary battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuda, Tetsuya; Kanetsuku, Tsukasa; Sano, Teruki; Oshima, Yoshifumi; Ui, Koichi; Yamagata, Masaki; Ishikawa, Masashi; Kuwabata, Susumu

    2015-06-01

    By exploiting characteristics such as negligible vapour pressure and ion-conductive nature of an ionic liquid (IL), we established an in situ scanning electron microscope (SEM) method to observe the electrode reaction in the IL-based Li-ion secondary battery (LIB). When 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(fluorosulfonyl)amide ([C2mim][FSA]) with lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)amide (Li[TFSA]) was used as the electrolyte, the Si negative electrode exhibited a clear morphology change during the charge process, without any solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) layer formation, while in the discharge process, the appearance was slightly changed, suggesting that a morphology change is irreversible in the charge-discharge process. On the other hand, the use of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)amide ([C2mim][TFSA]) with Li[TFSA] did not induce a change in the Si negative electrode. It is interesting to note this distinct contrast, which could be attributed to SEI layer formation from the electrochemical breakdown of [C2mim](+) at the Si negative electrode|separator interface in the [C2mim][TFSA]-based LIB. This in situ SEM observation technique could reveal the effect of the IL species electron-microscopically on the Si negative electrode reaction.

  2. Multi-layer electrode with nano-Li4Ti5O12 aggregates sandwiched between carbon nanotube and graphene networks for high power Li-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jin-Hoon; Ryu, Won-Hee; Park, Kyusung; Jo, Jeong-Dai; Jo, Sung-Moo; Lim, Dae-Soon; Kim, Il-Doo

    2014-12-01

    Self-aggregated Li4Ti5O12 particles sandwiched between graphene nanosheets (GNSs) and single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) network are reported as new hybrid electrodes for high power Li-ion batteries. The multi-layer electrodes are fabricated by sequential process comprising air-spray coating of GNSs layer and the following electrostatic spray (E-spray) coating of well-dispersed colloidal Li4Ti5O12 nanoparticles, and subsequent air-spray coating of SWCNTs layer once again. In multi-stacked electrodes of GNSs/nanoporous Li4Ti5O12 aggregates/SWCNTs networks, GNSs and SWCNTs serve as conducting bridges, effectively interweaving the nanoporous Li4Ti5O12 aggregates, and help achieve superior rate capability as well as improved mechanical stability of the composite electrode by holding Li4Ti5O12 tightly without a binder. The multi-stacked electrodes deliver a specific capacity that maintains an impressively high capacity of 100 mA h g-1 at a high rate of 100C even after 1000 cycles.

  3. The interaction of consecutive process steps in the manufacturing of lithium-ion battery electrodes with regard to structural and electrochemical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bockholt, Henrike; Indrikova, Maira; Netz, Andreas; Golks, Frederik; Kwade, Arno

    2016-09-01

    The individual steps in the electrode manufacturing process, e.g., conductive additives addition, mixing, and calendering, strongly affect the electrochemical and mechanical properties of the electrodes. LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 (NCM) cathode electrodes with conductive additive variations are fabricated using a reference and an intensive mixing process, and are subsequently calendered to different porosities. It is found that graphite reduces the pore size of NCM electrodes, in contrast to the carbon black that establishes additional nanoscale pores. Electrodes manufactured with reference mixing result in a porous carbon black network with good overall electric pathways, whereas those manufactured with intensive processing result in a dense carbon black network, leading to good short-range contacts, but a lack of long-range contacts. In this case, the addition of graphite as a conductive additive is identified to establish important additional long-range contacts. Due to the structural differences achieved by the compared processing routes, the calendering process can have a positive or negative impact on battery performance.

  4. Design and synthesis of porous nano-sized Sn@C/graphene electrode material with 3D carbon network for high-performance lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Porous nano-sized Sn@C/graphene electrode material was designed and prepared. • The preparation method presented here can avoid the agglomeration of nanoparticles. • The prepared Sn@C/graphene electrode material exhibits outstanding cyclability. - Abstract: Tin is a promising high-capacity anode material for lithium-ion batteries, but it usually suffers from the problem of poor cycling stability due to the large volume change during the charge–discharge process. In this article, porous nano-sized Sn@C/graphene electrode material with three-dimensional carbon network was designed and prepared. Reducing the size of the Sn particles to nanoscale can mitigate the absolute strain induced by the large volume change during lithiation–delithiation process, and retard particle pulverization. The porous structure can provide a void space, which helps to accommodate the volume changes of the Sn nanoparticles during the lithium uptake-release process. The carbon shell can avoid the aggregation of the Sn nanoparticles on the same piece of graphene and detachment of the pulverized Sn particles during the charge–discharge process. The 3D carbon network consisted of graphene sheets and carbon shells can not only play a structural buffering role in minimizing the mechanical stress caused by the volume change of Sn, but also keep the overall electrode highly conductive during the lithium uptake-release process. As a result, the as-prepared Sn@C/graphene nanocomposite as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries exhibited outstanding cyclability. The reversible specific capacity is almost constant from the tenth cycle to the fiftieth cycle, which is about 600 mA h g−1. The strategy presented in this work may be extended to improve the cycle performances of other high-capacity electrode materials with large volume variations during charge–discharge processes

  5. Design and synthesis of porous nano-sized Sn@C/graphene electrode material with 3D carbon network for high-performance lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lian, Peichao, E-mail: lianpeichao@126.com [Faculty of Chemical Engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650500 (China); Wang, Jingyi [Faculty of Chemical Engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650500 (China); Cai, Dandan; Liu, Guoxue [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Wang, Yingying [Faculty of Chemical Engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650500 (China); Wang, Haihui, E-mail: hhwang@scut.edu.cn [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2014-08-01

    Highlights: • Porous nano-sized Sn@C/graphene electrode material was designed and prepared. • The preparation method presented here can avoid the agglomeration of nanoparticles. • The prepared Sn@C/graphene electrode material exhibits outstanding cyclability. - Abstract: Tin is a promising high-capacity anode material for lithium-ion batteries, but it usually suffers from the problem of poor cycling stability due to the large volume change during the charge–discharge process. In this article, porous nano-sized Sn@C/graphene electrode material with three-dimensional carbon network was designed and prepared. Reducing the size of the Sn particles to nanoscale can mitigate the absolute strain induced by the large volume change during lithiation–delithiation process, and retard particle pulverization. The porous structure can provide a void space, which helps to accommodate the volume changes of the Sn nanoparticles during the lithium uptake-release process. The carbon shell can avoid the aggregation of the Sn nanoparticles on the same piece of graphene and detachment of the pulverized Sn particles during the charge–discharge process. The 3D carbon network consisted of graphene sheets and carbon shells can not only play a structural buffering role in minimizing the mechanical stress caused by the volume change of Sn, but also keep the overall electrode highly conductive during the lithium uptake-release process. As a result, the as-prepared Sn@C/graphene nanocomposite as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries exhibited outstanding cyclability. The reversible specific capacity is almost constant from the tenth cycle to the fiftieth cycle, which is about 600 mA h g{sup −1}. The strategy presented in this work may be extended to improve the cycle performances of other high-capacity electrode materials with large volume variations during charge–discharge processes.

  6. In situ and operando atomic force microscopy of high-capacity nano-silicon based electrodes for lithium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitung, Ben; Baumann, Peter; Sommer, Heino; Janek, Jürgen; Brezesinski, Torsten

    2016-08-01

    Silicon is a promising next-generation anode material for high-energy-density lithium-ion batteries. While the alloying of nano- and micron size silicon with lithium is relatively well understood, the knowledge of mechanical degradation and structural rearrangements in practical silicon-based electrodes during operation is limited. Here, we demonstrate, for the first time, in situ and operando atomic force microscopy (AFM) of nano-silicon anodes containing polymer binder and carbon black additive. With the help of this technique, the surface topography is analyzed while electrochemical reactions are occurring. In particular, changes in particle size as well as electrode structure and height are visualized with high resolution. Furthermore, the formation and evolution of the solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI) can be followed and its thickness determined by phase imaging and nano-indentation, respectively. Major changes occur in the first lithiation cycle at potentials below 0.6 V with respect to Li/Li(+) due to increased SEI formation - which is a dynamic process - and alloying reactions. Overall, these results provide insight into the function of silicon-based composite electrodes and further show that AFM is a powerful technique that can be applied to important battery materials, without restriction to thin film geometries. PMID:27222212

  7. SEI Formation and Interfacial Stability of a Si Electrode in a LiTDI-Salt Based Electrolyte with FEC and VC Additives for Li-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindgren, Fredrik; Xu, Chao; Niedzicki, Leszek; Marcinek, Marek; Gustafsson, Torbjörn; Björefors, Fredrik; Edström, Kristina; Younesi, Reza

    2016-06-22

    An electrolyte based on the new salt, lithium 4,5-dicyano-2-(trifluoromethyl)imidazolide (LiTDI), is evaluated in combination with nano-Si composite electrodes for potential use in Li-ion batteries. The additives fluoroethylene carbonate (FEC) and vinylene carbonate (VC) are also added to the electrolyte to enable an efficient SEI formation. By employing hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HAXPES), the SEI formation and the development of the active material is probed during the first 100 cycles. With this electrolyte formulation, the Si electrode can cycle at 1200 mAh g(-1) for more than 100 cycles at a coulombic efficiency of 99%. With extended cycling, a decrease in Si particle size is observed as well as an increase in silicon oxide amount. As opposed to LiPF6 based electrolytes, this electrolyte or its decomposition products has no side reactions with the active Si material. The present results further acknowledge the positive effects of SEI forming additives. It is suggested that polycarbonates and a high LiF content are favorable components in the SEI over other kinds of carbonates formed by ethylene carbonate (EC) and dimethyl carbonate (DMC) decomposition. This work thus confirms that LiTDI in combination with the investigated additives is a promising salt for Si electrodes in future Li-ion batteries. PMID:27220376

  8. A Simple Dip-coating Approach for Preparation of Three-dimensional Multilayered Graphene-Metal Oxides Hybrid Nanostructures as High Performance Lithium-Ion Battery Electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: We have developed a three-dimensional (3D) multilayered graphene-metal oxide hybrid nanostructure using a simple dip-coating method. A high porosity nickel foam is used both as a current collector and template for the fabrication of 3D structured electrodes. Because of their unique features, the 3D multilayered graphene-metal oxide electrodes exhibit superior electrochemical performances as anodes for LIBs. - Highlights: • We have developed a 3D multilayered graphene-metal oxide electrodes by dip-coating • The 3D graphene-metal oxide electrodes show superior electrochemical performances • Our method is effective for fabricating 3D graphene-metal oxide electrodes - Abstract: High-performance lithium ion battery (LIB) featured with excellent rate properties and cycling stability is highly required in various application fields. However, at this point in time, its practicality is very challenging due to the kinetic barrier related to ineffective electron and Li ion transfer in the batteries. Therefore, design of the electrode structure with higher storage and rate performances is very desirable. In this paper, we have developed a three-dimensional (3D) multilayered graphene-metal oxide hybrid nanostructure using a simple dip-coating method. A high porosity nickel foam is used both as a current collector and template for the fabrication of 3D structured electrodes. Graphene act both as buffer layers, preventing the aggregation of metal oxides, and provide electron pathways for fast electron transfer. Because of their unique features, the electrodes exhibit superior electrochemical performances as anodes for LIBs (graphene-Mn3O4@nickel foam, ∼ 1000 mA h g−1 after 50 cycles; graphene-Fe3O4@nickel foam, ∼ 1200 mA h g−1 at a current density of 200 mA g−1). The enhancement of the electrochemical properties can be attributed to the fact that the 3D multilayered structure can accommodate the volume expansion of metal oxides and maintain the

  9. Review of Electrode Materials for Sodium Ion Batteries%钠离子电池电极材料研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾旭平; 陈梅

    2012-01-01

    钠是地球上储量较丰富的元素之一,与锂的化学性能类似,因此也可能适用于锂离子电池体系。钠离子电池相比锂离子电池有诸多优势,如成本低,安全性好,随着研究的深入,钠离子电池将越来越具有成本效益,并有望在未来取代锂离子电池而被广泛应用。介绍了钠离子电池正极材料、负极材料的最新研究进展,分析了该电池未来的研究发展方向。%Sodium is one of the more abundant elements on Earth and exhibits similar chemical properties to Li,indicating that Na chemistry could be applied to a similar battery system.Sodium ion batteries have various kinds of advantages,such as low cost,excellent safety,and etc.,which may take place of lithium ion batteries in the future based on successful development.The development of electrode materials of sodium ion batteries was reviewed,and its future development direction was proposed.

  10. Distinct charge dynamics in battery electrodes revealed by in situ and operando soft X-ray spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Xiaosong; Wang, Dongdong; Liu, Gao; Srinivasan, Venkat; Liu, Zhi; Hussain, Zahid; Yang, Wanli

    2013-01-01

    Developing high-performance batteries relies on material breakthroughs. During the past few years, various in situ characterization tools have been developed and have become indispensible in studying and the eventual optimization of battery materials. However, soft X-ray spectroscopy, one of the most sensitive probes of electronic states, has been mainly limited to ex situ experiments for battery research. Here we achieve in situ and operando soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy of lithium-ion ...

  11. Hydrometallurgical method for recycling rare earth metals, cobalt, nickel, iron, and manganese from negative electrodes of spent Ni-MH mobile phone batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A hydrometallurgical method for the recovery of rare earth metals, cobalt, nickel, iron, and manganese from the negative electrodes of spent Ni-MH mobile phone batteries was developed. The rare earth compounds were obtained by chemical precipitation at pH 1.5, with sodium cerium sulfate (NaCe(SO4)2.H2O) and lanthanum sulfate (La2(SO4)3.H2O) as the major recovered components. Iron was recovered as Fe(OH)3 and FeO. Manganese was obtained as Mn3O4.The recovered Ni(OH)2 and Co(OH)2 were subsequently used to synthesize LiCoO2, LiNiO2 and CoO, for use as cathodes in ion-Li batteries. The anodes and recycled materials were characterized by analytical techniques. (author)

  12. Graphite-silicon-polyacrylate negative electrodes in ionic liquid electrolyte for safer rechargeable Li-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yabuuchi, Naoaki; Shimomura, Keiji; Shimbe, Yukako; Ozeki, Tomoaki; Komaba, Shinichi [Department of Applied Chemistry, Tokyo University of Science, 1-3 Kagurazaka, Shinjuku, Tokyo 162-8601 (Japan); Son, Jin-Young; Oji, Hiroshi [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute/SPring-8, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Katayama, Yasushi; Miura, Takashi [Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Technology, Keio University, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi, Kohoku, Kanagawa 223-8522 (Japan)

    2011-10-15

    Graphite/silicon composite electrodes are prepared with PANa polymer as a binder. Morphological characters and electrode performance are compared with those of PVdF. The PANa layer behaves like SEI at the interface with ionic liquid, resulting in the highly reversible electrode performance. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  13. Composition analysis of the passive film on the carbon electrode of a lithium-ion battery with an EC-based electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, C. R.; Wang, Y. Y.; Wan, C. C.

    This work examines the formation of a passive film on the carbon electrode of lithium-ion batteries. With a single solvent of EC (ethylene carbonate), the structure of the passive film is found to be (CH 2OCOOLi) 2. In a DEC (diethyl carbonate) or DMC (dimethyl carbonate) system, C 2H 5OCOOLi and Li 2CO 3 are formed on the surface of the carbon electrode. According to results from mass spectra, CO 2 gas is the main product when EC is decomposed. By contrast, DEC is decomposed into CO and C 2H 6, and DMC into CO and CH 4. These findings suggest that the composition of the passive film depends on the chosen solvent. In a binary solvent system which contains EC, the passive film contains chiefly (CH 2OCOOLi) 2, which is identical to a single EC solvent system.

  14. Aligned carbon nanotube-silicon sheets: a novel nano-architecture for flexible lithium ion battery electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Kun; Yildiz, Ozkan; Bhanushali, Hardik; Wang, Yongxin; Stano, Kelly; Xue, Leigang; Zhang, Xiangwu; Bradford, Philip D

    2013-09-25

    Aligned carbon nanotube sheets provide an engineered scaffold for the deposition of a silicon active material for lithium ion battery anodes. The sheets are low-density, allowing uniform deposition of silicon thin films while the alignment allows unconstrained volumetric expansion of the silicon, facilitating stable cycling performance. The flat sheet morphology is desirable for battery construction.

  15. Carbon- and Binder-Free NiCo2O4 Nanoneedle Array Electrode for Sodium-Ion Batteries: Electrochemical Performance and Insight into Sodium Storage Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong-Won; Shin, Hyun-Sup; Lee, Chan-Woo; Jung, Kyu-Nam

    2016-12-01

    Sodium (Na)-ion batteries (NIBs) have attracted significant interest as an alternative chemistry to lithium (Li)-ion batteries for large-scale stationary energy storage systems. Discovering high-performance anode materials is a great challenge for the commercial success of NIB technology. Transition metal oxides with tailored nanoarchitectures have been considered as promising anodes for NIBs due to their high capacity. Here, we demonstrate the fabrication of a nanostructured oxide-only electrode, i.e., carbon- and binder-free NiCo2O4 nanoneedle array (NCO-NNA), and its feasibility as an anode for NIBs. Furthermore, we provide an in-depth experimental study of the Na storage reaction (sodiation and desodiation) in NCO-NNA. The NCO-NNA electrode is fabricated on a conducting substrate by a hydrothermal method with subsequent heat treatment. When tested in an electrochemical Na half-cell, the NCO-NNA electrode exhibits excellent Na storage capability: a charge capacity as high as 400 mAh g(-1) is achieved at a current density of 50 mA g(-1). It also shows a greatly improved cycle life (~215 mAh g(-1) after 50 cycles) in comparison to a conventional powder-type electrode (~30 mAh g(-1)). However, the Na storage performance is still inferior to that of Li, which is mainly due to sluggish kinetics of sodiation-desodiation accompanied by severe volume change. PMID:26831683

  16. MXenes: A New Family of Two-Dimensional Materials and its Application as Electrodes for Li-ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelmalak, Michael Naguib

    Two-dimensional, 2D, materials, such as graphene, possess a unique morphology compared to their 3D counterparts, from which interesting and novel properties arise. Currently, the number of non-oxide materials that have been exfoliated is limited to two fairly small groups, viz. hexagonal, van der Waals bonded structures (e.g. graphene and BN) and layered transition metal chalcogenides. The MAX phases are a well established family of layered ternary transition metal carbides and/or nitrides, with a composition of Mn +1AXn, where M is an early transition metal, A is one of A group elements, X is C and/or N; with n = 1, 2, or 3. The aim of this work is to exfoliate the MAX phases and produce 2D layers of transition metals carbides and/or nitrides by the selective etching of the A layers from the MAX phases. We labeled the resulting 2D M n+1Xn layers "MXenes" to emphasize the loss of the A group element from the MAX phases and the suffix "ene" to emphasize their 2D nature and their similarity to graphene. The etching process was carried out using aqueous hydrofluoric acid at room temperature. Thirteen different MXenes were produced as a result of this work, viz., Ti2C, Nb2C, V2C, Mo2C, (Ti0.5,Nb0.5)2C, (Ti 0.5,V0.5)2C, Ti3C2, (Ti 0.5,V0.5)3C2, (V0.5,Cr 0.5)3C2, Ti3CN, Ta4C 3, Nb4C3 and (Nb0.5,V0.5) 4C3. The as-synthesized MXenes were terminated with a mixture of OH, O, and/or F groups. Sonicating MXenes resulted in separating the stacked layers to a small extent. When Ti3C2 was intercalated with dimethylsulfoxide, however, followed by sonication in water, large-scale delamination occurred, which resulted in aqueous colloidal solutions that could in turn be fabricated into MXene "paper". MXenes were found to be electrically conductive, hydrophilic and stable in aqueous environments, a rare combination indeed, with huge potential in many applications, from energy storage, to sensors to catalysts. This work focused on the use of MXenes as electrode materials in Li

  17. Superior Electrocatalytic Activity of a Robust Carbon-Felt Electrode with Oxygen-Rich Phosphate Groups for All-Vanadium Redox Flow Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki Jae; Lee, Heon Seong; Kim, Jeonghun; Park, Min-Sik; Kim, Jung Ho; Kim, Young-Jun; Skyllas-Kazacos, Maria

    2016-06-01

    A newly prepared type of carbon felt with oxygen-rich phosphate groups is proposed as a promising electrode with good stability for all-vanadium redox flow batteries (VRFBs). Through direct surface modification with ammonium hexafluorophosphate (NH4 PF6 ), phosphorus can be successfully incorporated onto the surface of the carbon felt by forming phosphate functional groups with -OH chemical moieties that exhibit good hydrophilicity. The electrochemical reactivity of the carbon felt toward the redox reactions of VO(2+) /VO2 (+) (in the catholyte) and V(3+) /V(2+) (in the anolyte) can be effectively improved owing to the superior catalytic effects of the oxygen-rich phosphate groups. Furthermore, undesirable hydrogen evolution can be suppressed by minimizing the overpotential for the V(3+) /V(2+) redox reaction in the anolyte of the VRFB. Cell-cycling tests with the catalyzed electrodes show improved energy efficiencies of 88.2 and 87.2 % in the 1(st) and 20(th)  cycles compared with 83.0 and 81.1 %, respectively, for the pristine electrodes at a constant current density of 32 mA cm(-2) . These improvements are mainly attributed to the faster charge transfer allowed by the integration of the oxygen-rich phosphate groups on the carbon-felt electrode. PMID:27106165

  18. Surface properties and graphitization of polyacrylonitrile based fiber electrodes affecting the negative half-cell reaction in vanadium redox flow batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langner, J.; Bruns, M.; Dixon, D.; Nefedov, A.; Wöll, Ch.; Scheiba, F.; Ehrenberg, H.; Roth, C.; Melke, J.

    2016-07-01

    Carbon felt electrodes for vanadium redox flow batteries are obtained by the graphitization of polyacrylonitrile based felts at different temperatures. Subsequently, the surface of the felts is modified via thermal oxidation at various temperatures. A single-cell experiment shows that the voltage efficiency is increased by this treatment. Electrode potentials measured with reference electrode setup show that this voltage efficiency increase is caused mainly by a reduction of the overpotential of the negative half-cell reaction. Consequently, this reaction is investigated further by cyclic voltammetry and the electrode activity is correlated with structural and surface chemical properties of the carbon fibers. By Raman, X-ray photoelectron and near edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy the role of edge sites and oxygen containing functional groups (OCFs) for the electrochemical activity are elucidated. A significant activity increase is observed in correlation with these two characteristics. The amount of OCFs is correlated with structural defects (e.g. edge sites) of the carbon fibers and therefore decreases with an increasing graphitization degree. Thus, for the same thermal oxidation temperature carbon fibers graphitized at a lower temperature show higher activities than those graphitized at a higher temperature.

  19. 锂离子液流电池电极悬浮液研究进展%Research progress of electrode suspensions of lithium-ion flow batteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯彩梅; 陈永翀; 韩立; 巩宇; Cserháti Csaba; Csik Attila

    2015-01-01

    The research progress in electrode suspensions of lithium-ion flow battery (LFB) was reviewed. LFB combines the working principles of lithium-ion battery and the structure characteristics of redox flow battery, with the independent power output and storage capacity, large energy density and comparatively low cost. LFB is suitable for the application in the future grid energy storage systems. For the LFB, the electrode suspension is one of the most important functional materials, because its conductive and rheological properties determine the energy density and rate performance of the battery. The technical bottlenecks and the research focuses were analyzed on the basis of the experimental data. The conductive mechanism, the specific capacity and the rheological properties are the important research contents of the electrode suspension for the establishment of a unified evaluation system.%锂离子液流电池将锂离子电池的工作原理与传统液流电池的结构特点相结合,是一种正处于基础技术开发阶段的新型电化学储能电池技术,具有输出功率和储能容量彼此独立、成本较低等特点,适用于未来电网储能领域。电极悬浮液作为实现锂离子液流电池充放电功能的主体材料,其导电性能和流动性能是影响锂离子液流电池倍率特性和能量密度的重要因素。论文结合实验数据对该方向面临的主要技术问题及研究重点进行了分析,认为电极悬浮液的研究需要从导电机理、质量比容量、流变性能等方面进一步深入研究,并建立标准评价体系。

  20. Research progress of air electrodes for lithium-air batteries%锂空气电池空气电极研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    麻微; 陈何; 王红; 阳炳检; 廖小珍

    2013-01-01

    锂空气电池作为理想的高比能量化学电源,成为近年来的研究热点.综述了近年来锂-空气电池空气电极催化剂和碳载体的最新研究进展,比较了过渡金属氧化物催化剂和贵金属催化剂在空气电极上的电催化行为,总结了碳载体的孔容利用率及其比表面积和孔径大小的关系.此外,还介绍了新型碳泡沫材料的制备方法及掺氮碳载体的研究.%Lithium-air battery, with high theoretical specific energy, has become a research hotspot in recent years. The latest research progress on air electrode catalysts as well as carbon cathode in lithium-air batteries was reviewed. The characterization and electrochemical performance of transition metal oxide catalysts as well as noble metal catalysts were introduced. The efficiency of carbon pore volume, the relationship between the specific surface area and pore volume were summarized. The recent researches on novel carbon foam preparation and nitrogen-doped carbon as cathode for lithium-air batteries were also discussed.

  1. Understanding surface reactivity of Si electrodes in Li-ion batteries by in operando scanning electrochemical microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventosa, E; Wilde, P; Zinn, A-H; Trautmann, M; Ludwig, A; Schuhmann, W

    2016-05-21

    In operando SECM is employed to monitor the evolution of the electrically insulating character of a Si electrode surface during (de-)lithiation. The solid-electrolyte interface (SEI) formed on Si electrodes is shown to be intrinsically electrically insulating. However, volume changes upon (de-)lithiation lead to the loss of the protecting character of the initially formed SEI. PMID:27136966

  2. Binder-free nitrogen-doped carbon paper electrodes derived from polypyrrole/cellulose composite for Li-O2 batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jia; Wang, Zhaohui; Zhu, Jiefang

    2016-02-01

    This work presents a novel binder-free nitrogen-doped carbon paper electrode (NCPE), which was derived from a N-rich polypyrrole (PPy)/cellulose-chopped carbon filaments (CCFs) composite, for Li-O2 batteries. The fabrication of NCPE involved cheap raw materials (e.g., Cladophora sp. green algae) and easy operation (e.g., doping N by a carbonization of N-rich polymer), which is especially suitable for large-scale production. The NCPE exhibited a bird's nest microstructure, which could provide the self-standing electrode with considerable mechanic durability, fast Li+ and O2 diffusion, and enough space for the discharge product deposition. In addition, the NCPE contained N-containing function groups, which may promote the electrochemical reactions. Furthermore, binder-free architecture designs can prevent binder-involved parasitic reactions. A Li-O2 cell with the NCPE displayed a cyclability of more than 30 cycles at a constant current density of 0.1 mA/cm2. The 1st discharge capacity for a cell with the NCPE reached 8040 mAh/g at a current density of 0.1 mA/cm2, with a cell voltage around 2.81 V. A cell with the NCPE displayed a coulombic efficiency of 81% on the 1st cycle at a current density of 0.2 mA/cm2. These results represent a promising progress in the development of a low-cost and versatile paper-based O2 electrode for Li-O2 batteries.

  3. Synthesis, Characterization and Density Functional Study of LiMn1.5Ni 0.5O4 Electrode for Lithium ion Battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Aruna Bharathi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses material issues of development of Li-ion batteries to store electrical energy. The performance of the battery is improved by developing the high energy density cathode materials at Nano level. This paper explains the synthesis of most interesting cathode material Lithium Manganese Spinel and its derivatives like transition metal oxide (LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 using Co-Precipitation chemical method; it is one of the eco-friendly ,effective, economic and easy preparation method. The structural features of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 was characterized by XRD – analysis indicated that prepared sample mainly belong to cubic crystal form with Fd3m space group ,with lattice parameter a  8.265 and average crystal size of 31.59 nm and compared the experimental results with computation details from first principle computation methods with Quantum wise Atomistix Tool Kit (ATK,Virtual Nano Lab. First principle computation methods provide important role in emerging and optimizing this electrode material. In this study we present an overview of the computation approach aimed at building LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 crystal as cathode for Lithium ion battery. We show each significant property can be related to the structural component in the material and can be computed from first principle. By direct comparison with experimental results, we assume to interpret that first principle computation can help to accelerate the design & development of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 as cathode material of lithium ion battery for energy storage.

  4. Lithium ion batteries made of electrodes with 99 wt% active materials and 1 wt% carbon nanotubes without binder or metal foils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Kei; Noda, Suguru

    2016-07-01

    Herein, we propose lithium ion batteries (LIBs) without binder or metal foils, based on a three-dimensional carbon nanotube (CNT) current collector. Because metal foils occupy 20-30 wt% of conventional LIBs and the polymer binder has no electrical conductivity, replacing such non-capacitive materials is a valid approach for improving the energy and power density of LIBs. Adding only 1 wt% of few-wall CNTs to the active material enables flexible freestanding sheets to be fabricated by simple dispersion and filtration processes. Coin cell tests are conducted on full cells fabricated from a 99 wt% LiCoO2-1 wt% CNT cathode and 99 wt% graphite-1 wt% CNT anode. Discharge capacities of 353 and 306 mAh ggraphite-1 are obtained at charge-discharge rates of 37.2 and 372 mA ggraphite-1, respectively, with a capacity retention of 65% at the 500th cycle. The suitability of the 1 wt% CNT-based composite electrodes for practical scale devices is demonstrated with laminate cells containing 50 × 50 mm2 electrodes. Use of metal combs instead of metal foils enables charge-discharge operation of the laminate cell without considerable IR drop. Such electrodes will minimize the amount of metal and maximize the amount of active materials contained in LIBs.

  5. Research Progress on the Electrode Material of Vanadium Redox Flow Batteries%全钒液流电池电极材料的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张文泽; 吴贤文; 王玉娥; 罗飞; 程刚; 何章兴

    2016-01-01

    T his paper introduces the structure ,principle ,characteristics and development of the vanadium redox flow batteries (VRFB) ,and discusses the key component of the electrode material which restricts the development of VRFB .The development process and current situation of the electrode materials of VRFB are summarized in terms of electrode material analysis and optimization mechanism of electro‐chemical performance .%介绍了全钒液流电池的结构、原理、特点及其发展过程,对制约全钒液流电池发展的电极材料这一关键组成作了论述。从电极材料的对比分析、电极改性方法的介绍及其电化学性能的优化机制等方面,综述了钒电池电极材料的发展过程及现状。

  6. Ionic Liquid-Organic Carbonate Electrolyte Blends To Stabilize Silicon Electrodes for Extending Lithium Ion Battery Operability to 100 °C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ababtain, Khalid; Babu, Ganguli; Lin, Xinrong; Rodrigues, Marco-Tulio F; Gullapalli, Hemtej; Ajayan, Pulickel M; Grinstaff, Mark W; Arava, Leela Mohana Reddy

    2016-06-22

    Fabrication of lithium-ion batteries that operate from room temperature to elevated temperatures entails development and subsequent identification of electrolytes and electrodes. Room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) can address the thermal stability issues, but their poor ionic conductivity at room temperature and compatibility with traditional graphite anodes limit their practical application. To address these challenges, we evaluated novel high energy density three-dimensional nano-silicon electrodes paired with 1-methyl-1-propylpiperidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (Pip) ionic liquid/propylene carbonate (PC)/LiTFSI electrolytes. We observed that addition of PC had no detrimental effects on the thermal stability and flammability of the reported electrolytes, while largely improving the transport properties at lower temperatures. Detailed investigation of the electrochemical properties of silicon half-cells as a function of PC content, temperature, and current rates reveal that capacity increases with PC content and temperature and decreases with increased current rates. For example, addition of 20% PC led to a drastic improvement in capacity as observed for the Si electrodes at 25 °C, with stability over 100 charge/discharge cycles. At 100 °C, the capacity further increases by 3-4 times to 0.52 mA h cm(-2) (2230 mA h g(-1)) with minimal loss during cycling. PMID:27237138

  7. Polyoxometalate flow battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Travis M.; Pratt, Harry D.

    2016-03-15

    Flow batteries including an electrolyte of a polyoxometalate material are disclosed herein. In a general embodiment, the flow battery includes an electrochemical cell including an anode portion, a cathode portion and a separator disposed between the anode portion and the cathode portion. Each of the anode portion and the cathode portion comprises a polyoxometalate material. The flow battery further includes an anode electrode disposed in the anode portion and a cathode electrode disposed in the cathode portion.

  8. Performance study of magnesium-sulfur battery using a graphene based sulfur composite cathode electrode and a non-nucleophilic Mg electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinayan, B. P.; Zhao-Karger, Zhirong; Diemant, Thomas; Chakravadhanula, Venkata Sai Kiran; Schwarzburger, Nele I.; Cambaz, Musa Ali; Behm, R. Jürgen; Kübel, Christian; Fichtner, Maximilian

    2016-02-01

    Here we report for the first time the development of a Mg rechargeable battery using a graphene-sulfur nanocomposite as the cathode, a Mg-carbon composite as the anode and a non-nucleophilic Mg based complex in tetraglyme solvent as the electrolyte. The graphene-sulfur nanocomposites are prepared through a new pathway by the combination of thermal and chemical precipitation methods. The Mg/S cell delivers a higher reversible capacity (448 mA h g-1), a longer cyclability (236 mA h g-1 at the end of the 50th cycle) and a better rate capability than previously described cells. The dissolution of Mg polysulfides to the anode side was studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The use of a graphene-sulfur composite cathode electrode, with the properties of a high surface area, a porous morphology, a very good electronic conductivity and the presence of oxygen functional groups, along with a non-nucleophilic Mg electrolyte gives an improved battery performance.Here we report for the first time the development of a Mg rechargeable battery using a graphene-sulfur nanocomposite as the cathode, a Mg-carbon composite as the anode and a non-nucleophilic Mg based complex in tetraglyme solvent as the electrolyte. The graphene-sulfur nanocomposites are prepared through a new pathway by the combination of thermal and chemical precipitation methods. The Mg/S cell delivers a higher reversible capacity (448 mA h g-1), a longer cyclability (236 mA h g-1 at the end of the 50th cycle) and a better rate capability than previously described cells. The dissolution of Mg polysulfides to the anode side was studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The use of a graphene-sulfur composite cathode electrode, with the properties of a high surface area, a porous morphology, a very good electronic conductivity and the presence of oxygen functional groups, along with a non-nucleophilic Mg electrolyte gives an improved battery performance. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available

  9. Lithium polyacrylate as a binder for tin-cobalt-carbon negative electrodes in lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Jing [Dept. of Chemistry, Dalhousie University, Halifax, N.S. B3H 3J5 (Canada); Le, D.-B. [3M Electronic Markets Materials Division, 3M Center, St. Paul, MN 55144-1000 (United States); Ferguson, P.P. [Dept. of Physics and Atmospheric Science, Dalhousie University, Halifax, N.S. B3H 3J5 (Canada); Dahn, J.R., E-mail: jeff.dahn@dal.c [Dept. of Chemistry, Dalhousie University, Halifax, N.S. B3H 3J5 (Canada); Dept. of Physics and Atmospheric Science, Dalhousie University, Halifax, N.S. B3H 3J5 (Canada)

    2010-03-01

    A lithium polyacrylate (Li-PAA) binder has been developed by 3M Company that is useful with electrodes comprising alloy anode materials. This binder was used to prepare electrodes made with Sn{sub 30}Co{sub 30}C{sub 40} material prepared by mechanical attrition. The electrochemical performance of electrodes using Li-PAA binder was characterized and compared to those using sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) and polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) binders. The Sn{sub 30}Co{sub 30}C{sub 40} electrodes using Li-PAA and CMC binders show much smaller irreversible capacity than the ones using PVDF binder. Poor capacity retention is observed when PVDF binder is used. By contrast, the electrodes using Li-PAA binder show excellent capacity retention for Sn{sub 30}Co{sub 30}C{sub 40} materials and a specific capacity of 450 mAh/g is achieved for at least 100 cycles. The results suggest that Li-PAA is a promising binder for electrodes made from large-volume change alloy materials.

  10. Synchronous test of alkaline Zn/MnO2 battery electrode potentials in pulse discharge%脉冲放电时碱锰电池电极电位的同步测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐录; 金成昌; 王建文

    2011-01-01

    通过在LR6电池正极开孔,以Hg-HgO电极为参比电极,KOH溶液为电解液,获得了普通碱锰电池和高功率碱锰电池在高功率放电过程中正、负极电位随时间的变化曲线.具有高功率放电性能的电池更好地抑制了电池脉冲电压降幅及其增大速率,尤其是在电池放电的中、后期,更好地抑制了正、负极电位下降(上升)的幅度及上升速率.%Both potential changing curves of the electrodes of normal alkaline Zn/MnO2 battery and high-power alkaline Zn/MnO2 battery in high-power discharge were gained synchronously by means of opening a hole on the positive side of LR6 battery and of Hg-HgO reference electrode in KOH solution. The high-power LR6 battery was better at inhibitions of pulse voltage drops of battery and its increasing rates. Especially, the anode and cathode voltage drops(increase) and their increasing rates were inhibited effectively at the interim and final discharge periods of the battery.

  11. Liquid-metal electrode to enable ultra-low temperature sodium-beta alumina batteries for renewable energy storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiaochuan; Li, Guosheng; Kim, Jin Y; Mei, Donghai; Lemmon, John P; Sprenkle, Vincent L; Liu, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Commercial sodium-sulphur or sodium-metal halide batteries typically need an operating temperature of 300-350 °C, and one of the reasons is poor wettability of liquid sodium on the surface of beta alumina. Here we report an alloying strategy that can markedly improve the wetting, which allows the batteries to be operated at much lower temperatures. Our combined experimental and computational studies suggest that addition of caesium to sodium can markedly enhance the wettability. Single cells with Na-Cs alloy anodes exhibit great improvement in cycling life over those with pure sodium anodes at 175 and 150 °C. The cells show good performance even at as low as 95 °C. These results demonstrate that sodium-beta alumina batteries can be operated at much lower temperatures with successfully solving the wetting issue. This work also suggests a strategy to use liquid metals in advanced batteries that can avoid the intrinsic safety issues associated with dendrite formation.

  12. Influence of Electroconductive Additives in the Positive Electrode Material on Morphology, Structure and Characteristics of the Lead-acid Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.P. Kuzmenko

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The influence of carbon black, red lead and polyaniline additives on the structure and functional characteristics of automotive lead-acid batteries has been studied. The mechanisms contributing to the formation both of lead dioxide by the introduction of these additives and of additional conductive nanostructured cross-linking channels in the case of polyaniline are described.

  13. Liquid-metal electrode to enable ultra-low temperature sodium-beta alumina batteries for renewable energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiaochuan; Li, Guosheng; Kim, Jin Y.; Mei, Donghai; Lemmon, John P.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Liu, Jun

    2014-08-01

    Commercial sodium-sulphur or sodium-metal halide batteries typically need an operating temperature of 300-350 °C, and one of the reasons is poor wettability of liquid sodium on the surface of beta alumina. Here we report an alloying strategy that can markedly improve the wetting, which allows the batteries to be operated at much lower temperatures. Our combined experimental and computational studies suggest that addition of caesium to sodium can markedly enhance the wettability. Single cells with Na-Cs alloy anodes exhibit great improvement in cycling life over those with pure sodium anodes at 175 and 150 °C. The cells show good performance even at as low as 95 °C. These results demonstrate that sodium-beta alumina batteries can be operated at much lower temperatures with successfully solving the wetting issue. This work also suggests a strategy to use liquid metals in advanced batteries that can avoid the intrinsic safety issues associated with dendrite formation.

  14. Mathematical Modeling of Electrolyte Flow Dynamic Patterns and Volumetric Flow Penetrations in the Flow Channel over Porous Electrode Layered System in Vanadium Flow Battery with Serpentine Flow Field Design

    CERN Document Server

    Ke, Xinyou; Alexander, J Iwan D; Savinell, Robert F

    2016-01-01

    In this work, a two-dimensional mathematical model is developed to study the flow patterns and volumetric flow penetrations in the flow channel over the porous electrode layered system in vanadium flow battery with serpentine flow field design. The flow distributions at the interface between the flow channel and porous electrode are examined. It is found that the non-linear pressure distributions can distinguish the interface flow distributions under the ideal plug flow and ideal parabolic flow inlet boundary conditions. However, the volumetric flow penetration within the porous electrode beneath the flow channel through the integration of interface flow velocity reveals that this value is identical under both ideal plug flow and ideal parabolic flow inlet boundary conditions. The volumetric flow penetrations under the advection effects of flow channel and landing/rib are estimated. The maximum current density achieved in the flow battery can be predicted based on the 100% amount of electrolyte flow reactant ...

  15. LiCoO2 electrode/electrolyte interface of Li-ion batteries investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The storage behavior and the first delithiation of LiCoO2 electrode in 1 mol/L LiPF6-EC:DMC:DEC electrolyte were investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). It has found that, along with the increase of storage time, the thickness of SEI film increases, and some organic carbonate lithium compounds are formed due to spontaneous reactions occurring between the LiCoO2 electrode and the electrolyte. When electrode potential is changed from 3.8 to 3.95 V, the reversible breakdown of the resistive SEI film occurs, which is attributed to the reversible dissolution of the SEI film component. With the increase of electrode potential, the thickness of SEI film increases rapidly above 4.2 V, due to overcharge reactions. The inductive loop observed in impedance spectra of the LiCoO2 electrode in Li/LiCoO2 cells is attributed to the formation of a Li1-xCoO2/LiCoO2 concentration cell. Moreover, it has been demonstrated that the lithium-ion insertion-deinsertion in LiCoO2 hosts can be well described by both Langmuir and Frumkin insertion isotherms, and the symmetry factor of charge transfer has been evaluated at 0.5.

  16. In-situ electrochemical coating of Ag nanoparticles onto graphite electrode with enhanced performance for Li-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of silver hexafluorophosphate (AgPF6) as an electrolyte additive on the electrochemical behaviors of graphite anode are systematically studied by cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge-discharge, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The surface structure and composition of graphite electrode after electrochemical cycles are investigated through scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. It is found that Ag nanoparticles derived from electrochemical reduction of Ag+ are homogenously distributed on the graphite surface. Significant improvements on the discharge capacity, rate behavior, and low-temperature performance of graphite electrode are obtained. The reasons are associated with the decreased resistances of solid-electrolyte interface and charge-transfer process, which improve the electrode kinetics for Li+ intercalation/deintercalation

  17. Preparation, structure, and electrochemistry of layered polyanionic hydroxysulfates: LiMSO4OH (M = Fe, Co, Mn) electrodes for Li-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subban, Chinmayee V; Ati, Mohamed; Rousse, Gwenaëlle; Abakumov, Artem M; Van Tendeloo, Gustaaf; Janot, Raphaël; Tarascon, Jean-Marie

    2013-03-01

    The Li-ion rechargeable battery, due to its high energy density, has driven remarkable advances in portable electronics. Moving toward more sustainable electrodes could make this technology even more attractive to large-volume applications. We present here a new family of 3d-metal hydroxysulfates of general formula LiMSO4OH (M = Fe, Co, and Mn) among which (i) LiFeSO4OH reversibly releases 0.7 Li(+) at an average potential of 3.6 V vs Li(+)/Li(0), slightly higher than the potential of currently lauded LiFePO4 (3.45 V) electrode material, and (ii) LiCoSO4OH shows a redox activity at 4.7 V vs Li(+)/Li(0). Besides, these compounds can be easily made at temperatures near 200 °C via a synthesis process that enlists a new intermediate phase of composition M3(SO4)2(OH)2 (M = Fe, Co, Mn, and Ni), related to the mineral caminite. Structurally, we found that LiFeSO4OH is a layered phase unlike the previously reported 3.2 V tavorite LiFeSO4OH. This work should provide an impetus to experimentalists for designing better electrolytes to fully tap the capacity of high-voltage Co-based hydroxysulfates, and to theorists for providing a means to predict the electrochemical redox activity of two polymorphs.

  18. Study of AB{sub 2} alloy electrodes for Ni/MH battery prepared by centrifugal casting and gas atomization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, K., E-mail: kwoyoung@yahoo.co [Energy Conversion Devices Inc./Ovonic Battery Company, 2983 Waterview Drive, Rochester Hills, MI 48309 (United States); Koch, J.; Ouchi, T. [Energy Conversion Devices Inc./Ovonic Battery Company, 2983 Waterview Drive, Rochester Hills, MI 48309 (United States); Banik, A. [Special Metal Corporation, 100 Industry Lane, Princeton, KY 42445 (United States); Fetcenko, M.A. [Energy Conversion Devices Inc./Ovonic Battery Company, 2983 Waterview Drive, Rochester Hills, MI 48309 (United States)

    2010-04-30

    Centrifugal casting and gas atomization processes were applied on multiple phase AB{sub 2} alloys and compared to the conventional melt-and-cast. Four different compositions were chosen for this study. The roles of Zr, Mn, Cr, and Ni in various battery aspects are identified. Cooling speed was found to be crucial for the C14 and C15 phase abundances. As the cooling speed increased from 10{sup 2} to 10{sup 4} degrees per second, a higher percentage of C15 was found. The centrifugal casting process provided better cycle life and low temperature performance with the only trade-off being slower activation. The gas atomization process can achieve lower production cost due to the elimination of a grinding procedure and extended cycle life, but suffers from higher bulk oxygen content and thicker surface oxide, and thus inferior in all battery performance characteristics other than cycle life and charge retention.

  19. Electrochemical properties of electrospun poly(5-cyanoindole) submicron-fibrous electrode for zinc/polymer secondary battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Zhijiang; Guo, Jie; Yang, Haizheng; Xu, Yi

    2015-04-01

    This study aims to develop an aqueous zinc/electrospun poly(5-cyanoindole) fibers secondary battery system. Zn foil and ZnCl2 are used as anode active materials and the electrolytic solution, respectively. Poly(5-cyanoindole) synthesized by chemical oxidation is electrospun into fibers and used as cathode active materials. FTIR and NMR test are carried out to investigate the chemical structure of poly(5-cyanoindole). Surface properties of electrospun poly(5-cyanoindole) fibers are studied by SEM, TEM, and BET. The performance of zinc/electrospun poly(5-cyanoindole) fibers battery system is evaluated in term of electrical conductivity, cyclic voltammogram, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, discharge capacity and durability test. The cell achieves 2.0 V electromotive force with about 107-61 Ah Kg-1 discharge capacity at 0.2C-10C rate. At 800th cycle, the discharge capacity remains 80-57 Ah Kg-1 at 0.2C-2C rate, which is about 75-63% of the maximum discharge capacity. These results indicate that the cell has very excellent cyclic properties as well as fast charge/discharge properties. Electrospun poly(5-cyanoindole) fibers have been proved to be a better candidate than polyindole powder as cathode material in zinc/polymer battery.

  20. The Influence of Electrode Microstructure on the Performance of Free-Standing Cathode for Aprotic Lithium-Oxygen Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Chen; Wen, Zhaoyin; Wang, Fan; Wu, Xiangwei; Chen, Chunhua

    2016-10-01

    Free-standing NiCo2O4@Ni cathodes for aprotic lithium-oxygen batteries were synthesized through a simple hydrothermal process followed by heat treatment in the air. The morphology of the NiCo2O4 deposit changed from nanosheet to nanowire with the increase of hydrothermal time. Further observation revealed that the nanosheet/nanowire NiCo2O4 were assembled by nanoparticles with a size of 10-20 nm. The directional assembly of the nanoparticles were not affected by the reaction time. The influence of catalyst microstructure on the electrochemical performance of Li-O2 batteries was studied. The results of battery tests in pure oxygen indicate that the cathode material with a high specific surface area, large pore volume and broad pore size distribution can facilitate the discharge reaction, leading to an improved cell performance. As a result, the cathode based on the NiCo2O4 nanowire array delivered a specific discharge capacity of 1682 mAh g-1 at 30 mA g-1 and a stable cyclability of 50 cycles with a capacity limitation of 500 mAh g-1.

  1. Simultaneous fluorination of active material and conductive agent for improving the electrochemical performance of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 electrode for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Min Sang; Kim, Dae Sik; Park, Eunjun; Choi, Jae Man; Kim, Hansu

    2016-09-01

    High-voltage cathode materials have gained much attention as one of the promising electrode materials to increase power density of lithium ion batteries by raising the working voltage. However, the use of such high-voltage cathode materials is still challenging, because their working voltage is close to the electrochemical oxidation potential of organic electrolyte used in lithium ion batteries. In this work, we demonstrated that simultaneous fluorination of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 (LNMO) particles as well as conductive agent in the electrode could significantly improve the electrochemical stability of LNMO cathode. The resulting electrode showed better cycle performance both at room temperature and elevated temperature compared to both bare LNMO electrode and the electrode with only LNMO fluorinated. These results showed that direct fluorination of high voltage cathode can reduce the side reaction of high voltage cathode electrode with the electrolyte, thereby stabilizing the surface of carbon black as well as that of high voltage cathode material.

  2. DEMS study of gas evolution at thick graphite electrodes for lithium-ion batteries: the effect of γ-butyrolactone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanz, Martin; Novák, Petr

    Differential electrochemical mass spectrometry (DEMS) was used to study the reductive decomposition of an electrolyte based on ethylene carbonate/dimethyl carbonate (EC/DMC), as well as the formation of a solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) in this electrolyte, at thick (75-100 μm) porous graphite composite electrodes. A number of graphite electrodes differing in their electrochemical lithium intercalation properties were investigated in potential-sweep experiments. They proved to be similar with respect to the evolution of ethylene and hydrogen gas during the first two charge/discharge cycles. Due to an incomplete coulombic conversion, a high irreversible capacity, as well as slow diffusion kinetics and an enhanced ohmic resistance of the electrodes, SEI formation on these thick electrodes was not yet complete after the first charge/discharge cycle. Undesired gas evolution can be reduced by adding γ-butyrolactone (GBL) as an electrolyte co-solvent. The amount of ethylene and hydrogen gas evolved decreases with increasing percentages of GBL in an EC/DMC electrolyte, indicating that the SEI layer is built up from GBL rather than from EC decomposition products.

  3. 有机电解液型锂空气电池空气电极研究进展%Research progress on air electrode in organic electrolyte lithium-air battery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗仲宽; 尹春丽; 吴其兴; 王芳; 黄洋; 李豪君; 魏蒙蒙

    2015-01-01

    Due to the advantages of ultra-high energy density, lithium-air batteries based on organic electrolyte system have received widespread concern. To seek after a high-performance, safety and applicable lithium-air battery, a lot of scholars have conducted numerous research works on cathode materials, catalysts, electrolyte, and lithium cathode. Air electrode optimization and electrolyte stability are the keys to obtaining high performance lithium-air batteries. We review some of the latest research progress on air electrode reaction mechanisms, influence factors of air electrode, materials for air cathode and catalysts in organic electrolyte lithium-air batteries. Meanwhile, advantages and disadvantages of all kinds of porous materials and catalysts, as well as impact on the electrochemical performance of batteries, were analysed. Based on these studies, we put forward the future direction for air electrodes of lithium-air batteries is to build a unique porous electrode structure with new composite oxide catalysts, to achieve high-capacity, long-life lithium-air batteries.%有机电解液体系的锂空气电池因其超高能量密度受到广泛关注。为寻求高性能、安全实用的锂空气电池,国内外就正极材料、催化剂、电解液和锂负极等开展了大量研究,其中空气电极的优化、电解液的稳定性是锂空气电池高性能发挥的关键。介绍了近年有机电解液锂空气电池空气电极上的反应机理、空气电极影响因素、正极材料和催化剂等最新研究进展,分析了各类多孔材料和催化剂的优缺点,及其对电池电化学性能的影响,结合本课题组研究成果,指出了锂空气电池空气电极的发展方向,即结合新型复合氧化物催化剂,构筑独特的多孔电极结构,以实现高容量、长寿命的锂空气电池。

  4. Why LiFePO4 is a safe battery electrode: Coulomb repulsion induced electron-state reshuffling upon lithiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yung Jui; Liu, Xiaosong; Barbiellini, B.; Hafiz, Hasnain; Basak, Susmita; Liu, Jun; Richardson, Thomas; Shu, Guojiun; Chou, Fangcheng; Weng, Tsu-Chien; Nordlund, Dennis; Sokaras, Dimosthenis; Moritz, B.; Devereaux, T. P.; Qiao, Ruimin; Chuang, Yi-De; Bansil, Arun; Hussain, Zahid; Yang, Wanli

    We performed systematic experimental and theoretical studies based on soft X-ray emission, absorption, and hard X-ray Raman spectroscopy of LixFePO4. The results show a non-rigid electron-state reconfiguration of both the occupied and unoccupied Fe-3d and O-2p states during the (de)lithiation process. The critical 3d electron state configurations are consistent with the calculations based on MBJGGA+U framework, which improves the overall lineshape prediction compared with the conventionally used GGA+U method. The combined experimental and theoretical studies show that the non-rigid electron state reshuffling guarantees the stability of oxygen during the redox reaction throughout the charge and discharge process of LiFePO4 electrodes, leading to the intrinsic safe performance of the electrodes. Work supported by the US DOE.

  5. Synthesis and characterization of Sn-Mo mixtures as negative electrode materials for Li-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sn-Mo powder mixtures were prepared by chemical precipitation, followed by annealing at 700 oC in hydrogen atmosphere. The microstructure, morphology, and electrochemical performance of the powders were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP) and electrochemical methods. The Sn-Mo mixture exhibited an initial discharge capacity of 491 mAh g-1 with a better capacity retention displaying 277 mAh g-1 after 20 cycles. This is due to the smaller particle size and a uniform distribution of the tin particles in the molybdenum matrix that effectively minimizes the effect of the large volume changes and also maintains the mechanic stability and structural integrity of the electrodes during cycling. Therefore, the electrode of the Sn-Mo mixture prepared by chemical precipitation exhibited better cycle life.

  6. In-plane vacancy-enabled high-power Si-graphene composite electrode for lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Xin; Hayner, Cary M.; Kung, Mayfair C.; Kung, Harold H. [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois, 60208 (United States)

    2011-11-15

    Introducing a high density of in-plane, nanometer-sized carbon vacancies in graphene sheets greatly enhances ion diffusion across the sheets in a Si-graphene composite. The flexible, self-supporting three-dimensional conducting graphenic scaffold incorporating Si nanoparticles exhibit excellent rate performance and tolerance to structural deformation, which represents an attractive high power-high capacity anode material for Li-ion batteries. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  7. TG-MS analysis of solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) on graphite negative-electrode in lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Liwei; Watanabe, Izumi; Doi, Takayuki; Okada, Shigeto; Yamaki, Jun-ichi

    The thermal stability and chemical structure of solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) formed on a natural-graphite negative-electrode in ethylene carbonate (EC) and dimethyl carbonate (DMC)-based electrolyte was investigated by thermogravimetry-differential thermal analysis combined with mass spectrometry (TG-DTA/MS) and X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS). Due to the decomposition of SEI, two CO 2 evolution peaks at around 330 and 430 °C were detected in TG-MS studies with continuous CO 2 background. The continuous CO 2 background was attributed to the gradual decomposition of oxygen-containing polymeric species of SEI. Another two dominant components of SEI, lithium alkyl carbonate and lithium oxalate, were found to contribute to the CO 2 peaks at 330 and 430 °C separately. The effects of charging-depth, current density and cycle number on the CO 2 distribution and XPS spectra were studied. It was found that lithium oxalate was reduction product of lithium alkyl carbonate during the intercalation of lithium ions. The reduction reaction could be accelerated by elevated temperature. The transformation of SEI chemical structure showed direct effect on the thermal stability of SEI. At the same time, lithium carbonate was also found in SEI on the graphite electrode after long cycles, while it was negligible in the electrode subjected to short cycles.

  8. Ab initio molecular dynamics simulations of organic electrolytes, electrodes, and lithium ion transport for Li-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, P. R. C.; Ganesh, P.; Jiang, De-En; Borodin, O.

    2012-02-01

    Optimizing the choice of electrolyte in lithium ion batteries and an understanding of the solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI) is required to optimize the balance between high-energy storage, high rate capability, and lifetime. We perform accurate ab initio molecular-dynamics simulations of common cyclic carbonates and LiPF6 to build solvation models which explain available Neutron and NMR spectroscopies. Our results corroborate why ethylene carbonate is a preferred choice for battery applications over propylene carbonate and how mixtures with dimethyl carbonate improve Li-ion diffusion. We study the role of functionalization of graphite-anode edges on the reducibility of the electrolyte and the ease of Li-ion intercalation at the initial stages of SEI formation. We find that oxygen terminated edges readily act as strong reductive sites, while hydrogen terminated edges are less reactive and allow faster Li diffusion. Orientational ordering of the solvent molecules precedes reduction at the interphase. Inorganic reductive components are seen to readily migrate to the anode edges, leading to increased surface passivation of the anode. We are currently quantifying Li-intercalation barriers across realistic SEI models, and progress along these lines will be presented.

  9. The microstructure matters: breaking down the barriers with single crystalline silicon as negative electrode in Li-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternad, M.; Forster, M.; Wilkening, M.

    2016-08-01

    Silicon-based microelectronics forms a major foundation of our modern society. Small lithium-ion batteries act as the key enablers of its success and have revolutionised portable electronics used in our all everyday’s life. While large-scale LIBs are expected to help establish electric vehicles, on the other end of device size chip-integrated Si-based μ-batteries may revolutionise microelectronics once more. In general, Si is regarded as one of the white hopes since it offers energy densities being ten times higher than conventional anode materials. The use of monocrystalline, wafer-grade Si, however, requires several hurdles to be overcome since it its volume largely expands during lithiation. Here, we will show how 3D patterned Si wafers, prepared by the sophisticated techniques from semiconductor industry, are to be electrochemically activated to overcome these limitations and to leverage their full potential being reflected in stable charge capacities (>1000 mAhg–1) and high Coulomb efficiencies (98.8%).

  10. The microstructure matters: breaking down the barriers with single crystalline silicon as negative electrode in Li-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternad, M; Forster, M; Wilkening, M

    2016-01-01

    Silicon-based microelectronics forms a major foundation of our modern society. Small lithium-ion batteries act as the key enablers of its success and have revolutionised portable electronics used in our all everyday's life. While large-scale LIBs are expected to help establish electric vehicles, on the other end of device size chip-integrated Si-based μ-batteries may revolutionise microelectronics once more. In general, Si is regarded as one of the white hopes since it offers energy densities being ten times higher than conventional anode materials. The use of monocrystalline, wafer-grade Si, however, requires several hurdles to be overcome since it its volume largely expands during lithiation. Here, we will show how 3D patterned Si wafers, prepared by the sophisticated techniques from semiconductor industry, are to be electrochemically activated to overcome these limitations and to leverage their full potential being reflected in stable charge capacities (>1000 mAhg(-1)) and high Coulomb efficiencies (98.8%). PMID:27531589

  11. Thermophysical properties of LiCoO₂-LiMn₂O₄ blended electrode materials for Li-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotcu, Petronela; Seifert, Hans J

    2016-04-21

    Thermophysical properties of two cathode types for lithium-ion batteries were measured by dependence on temperature. The cathode materials are commercial composite thick films containing LiCoO2 and LiMn2O4 blended active materials, mixed with additives (binder and carbon black) deposited on aluminium current collector foils. The thermal diffusivities of the cathode samples were measured by laser flash analysis up to 673 K. The specific heat data was determined based on measured composite specific heat, aluminium specific heat data and their corresponding measured mass fractions. The composite specific heat data was measured using two differential scanning calorimeters over the temperature range from 298 to 573 K. For a comprehensive understanding of the blended composite thermal behaviour, measurements of the heat capacity of an additional LiMn2O4 sample were performed, and are the first experimental data up to 700 K. Thermal conductivity of each cathode type and their corresponding blended composite layers were estimated from the measured thermal diffusivity, the specific heat capacity and the estimated density based on metallographic methods and structural investigations. Such data are highly relevant for simulation studies of thermal management and thermal runaway in lithium-ion batteries, in which the bulk properties are assumed, as a common approach, to be temperature independent. PMID:27031918

  12. The microstructure matters: breaking down the barriers with single crystalline silicon as negative electrode in Li-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternad, M.; Forster, M.; Wilkening, M.

    2016-01-01

    Silicon-based microelectronics forms a major foundation of our modern society. Small lithium-ion batteries act as the key enablers of its success and have revolutionised portable electronics used in our all everyday’s life. While large-scale LIBs are expected to help establish electric vehicles, on the other end of device size chip-integrated Si-based μ-batteries may revolutionise microelectronics once more. In general, Si is regarded as one of the white hopes since it offers energy densities being ten times higher than conventional anode materials. The use of monocrystalline, wafer-grade Si, however, requires several hurdles to be overcome since it its volume largely expands during lithiation. Here, we will show how 3D patterned Si wafers, prepared by the sophisticated techniques from semiconductor industry, are to be electrochemically activated to overcome these limitations and to leverage their full potential being reflected in stable charge capacities (>1000 mAhg–1) and high Coulomb efficiencies (98.8%). PMID:27531589

  13. Co2SnO4 nanocrystals anchored on graphene sheets as high-performance electrodes for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Cubic spinel Co2SnO4/G nanocomposites are synthesized by a facile hydrothermal process. • Co2SnO4/G nanocomposites show more excellent electrochemical performance than pure Co2SnO4 nanoparticles. • The nanocomposites demonstrate a high reversible discharge capacity of 1061.1 mAh g−1 at 100 mA g−1 after 100 cycles. - Abstract: Cubic spinel Co2SnO4/graphene sheets (Co2SnO4/G) nanocomposites are synthesized by a facile hydrothermal process in alkaline solution, using SnCl4 · 4H2O, CoCl2 · 6H2O and graphene oxide (GO) as the precursor. The structure and morphology of the resulting nanocomposites are characterized with X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Co2SnO4 nanoparticles are uniformly dispersed among graphene sheets, with a size of 80–150 nm. As anode material for lithium-ion batteries, the galvanostatic charge/discharge and cyclic voltammetry are conducted to indicate the electrochemical performance of Co2SnO4/G nanocomposites. Co2SnO4/G nanocomposites exhibit an improved electrochemical performance compared with pure Co2SnO4 nanoparticles, such as high reversible capacities, good cycling stability and excellent rate performance. The initial charge and discharge capacities are 996.1 mAh g−1 and 1424.8 mAh g−1. After 100 cycles, the reversible charge/discharge capacities still remain 1046/1061.1 mAh g−1 at the current density of 100 mA g−1. Co2SnO4 nanoparticles coated by Graphene sheets with superior electrochemical performance indicate that Co2SnO4/G nanocomposites are promising electrode materials used for high-storage lithium-ion batteries

  14. Production of Sn–Cu/MWCNT composite electrodes for Li-ion batteries by using electroless tin coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uysal, Mehmet, E-mail: mehmetu@sakarya.edu.tr; Cetinkaya, Tugrul; Kartal, Muhammet, E-mail: kartal@sakarya.edu.tr; Alp, Ahmet; Akbulut, Hatem

    2014-12-01

    Cycling stability of pure tin electrodes were aimed to improve by using a suitable combination of copper and multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). For this purpose, firstly Sn–Cu composite powders were produced using an electroless process. Then, Sn–Cu/MWCNT composite electrodes were prepared with dispersing different amounts of MWCNT (10 wt.%, 20 wt.%, 40 wt.%) by high energy mechanical milling method. The surface morphology of the produced Sn–Cu/MWCNT composite powders was characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) was used to determine the elemental surface composition of the composites. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis was performed to investigate the structure of the Sn–Cu/MWCNT composite powders. The electrochemical performance of Sn–Cu/MWCNT composite electrodes has been investigated by charge/discharge tests and cyclic voltammetry experiments. The cell discharge capacities were determined at a constant current in voltage range between 0.02 V and 1.5 V. AC Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) analysis was also carried out to measure resistivity and Li-diffusion in the assembled cells. The amounts of MWCNTs were shown to be a crucial factor to improve Sn–Cu/MWCNT composite anodes for cyclability and reversible capacity. - Highlights: • Sn–Cu/MWCNT anodes were produced by high energy mechanical milling and electroless method. • MWCNT increases electronic contact between current collector and active material. • The discharge capacity of Sn–Cu/40MWCNT composite was found to be 439 mAh g{sup −1} even after 30 cycles.

  15. Electrodeposited tin coating as negative electrode material for lithium-ion battery in room temperature molten salt

    OpenAIRE

    Fung, YS; Zhu, DR

    2002-01-01

    A new room temperature molten salt (RTMS) [1-methyl-3-ethylimidazolium/AlCl3/SnCl2 (3:2:0.5)] was developed for depositing tin on a copper electrode. Different tin crystallites were deposited at different temperatures, giving widely different performances of the assembled lithium cell [Sn (Cu)/LiCl buffered MEICl-AlCl3 RTMS/lithium]. Tin film deposited at 50°C or higher gave a more desirable crystal structure and an improved performance than films obtained at lower temperatures. Both cyclic v...

  16. Measurements of stress and fracture in germanium electrodes of lithium-ion batteries during electrochemical lithiation and delithiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pharr, Matt; Choi, Yong Seok; Lee, Dongwoo; Oh, Kyu Hwan; Vlassak, Joost J.

    2016-02-01

    We measure stresses that develop in sputter-deposited amorphous Ge thin films during electrochemical lithiation and delithiation. Amorphous LixGe electrodes are found to flow plastically at stresses that are significantly smaller than those of their amorphous LixSi counterparts. The stress measurements allow for quantification of the elastic modulus of amorphous LixGe as a function of lithium concentration, indicating a much-reduced stiffness compared to pure Ge. Additionally, we observe that thinner films of Ge survive a cycle of lithiation and delithiation, whereas thicker films fracture. By monitoring the critical conditions for crack formation, the fracture energy is calculated using an analysis from fracture mechanics. The fracture energies are determined to be Γ = 8.0 J m-2 for a-Li0.3Ge and Γ = 5.6 J m-2 for a-Li1.6Ge. These values are similar to the fracture energy of pure Ge and are typical for brittle fracture. Despite being brittle, the ability of amorphous LixGe to flow at relatively small stresses during lithiation results in an enhanced ability of Ge electrodes to endure electrochemical cycling without fracture.

  17. Sn/SnO2 embedded in mesoporous carbon nanocomposites as negative electrode for lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► The controlled synthesis enabled the formation of metallic Sn and SnO2 into CMK-3. ► The composite showed a synergistic effect leading to impressive high capacity. ► The architecture of the composite led to a promising cycle and rate performance. - Abstract: Mesoporous Sn/SnO2/carbon composites with uniformly Sn/SnO2 embedded within the carbon pore walls have been rationally designed and synthesized. These nanocomposites have been characterized by XRD, SEM, TEM, XPS and tested as negative electrodes in a cell using lithium foil as the counter electrode. The inclusion of metallic Sn in SnO2/CMK-3 resulted in a unique, ordered structure and provided a synergistic effect which resulted in an impressive initial reversible capacity of 799 mAh g−1. In addition, at a higher current of 800 mA g−1, the heterostructure was able to provide a stable capacity of 350 mAh g−1. Furthermore, a retention capacity of ∼670 mAh g−1 was obtained after 60 cycles.

  18. Flame treatment of graphene oxides: cost-effective production of nanoporous graphene electrode for Lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hao-Bo; Zhang, Yong-Lai; Zhang, Yi; Liu, Yan; Fu, Xiu-Yan; Liu, Yu-Qing; Wang, Chun-Dong; Sun, Hong-Bo

    2015-12-01

    A facile production of highly porous graphene foam by using flame treatment of graphene oxide (GO) is proposed. Highly porous architectures with randomly distributed micro-crack and micro-slit were produced due to the high temperature induced ruinous reduction and rapid expansion of GO. Synchronously, abundant oxygen-containing groups (OCGs) on GO sheets could be effectively removed after flame treatment, which renders significantly increased conductivity to the resultant flame reduced GO (FR-GO). The synergistic effect of micro/nanostructuring and the OCGs removal makes FR-GO a promising candidate for electrode materials. Compared with chemically reduced GO (CR-GO), FR-GO delivers much higher specific capacity. It gives us some hints that flame treatment of graphene-based material is a smart strategy for cost-effective production of anode materials for commercial application.

  19. Ternary alkali-metal and transition metal or metalloid acetylides as alkali-metal intercalation electrodes for batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemeth, Karoly; Srajer, George; Harkay, Katherine C; Terdik, Joseph Z

    2015-02-10

    Novel intercalation electrode materials including ternary acetylides of chemical formula: A.sub.nMC.sub.2 where A is alkali or alkaline-earth element; M is transition metal or metalloid element; C.sub.2 is reference to the acetylide ion; n is an integer that is 0, 1, 2, 3 or 4 when A is alkali element and 0, 1, or 2 when A is alkaline-earth element. The alkali elements are Lithium (Li), Sodium (Na), Potassium (K), Rubidium (Rb), Cesium (Cs) and Francium (Fr). The alkaline-earth elements are Berilium (Be), Magnesium (Mg), Calcium (Ca), Strontium (Sr), Barium (Ba), and Radium (Ra). M is a transition metal that is any element in groups 3 through 12 inclusive on the Periodic Table of Elements (elements 21 (Sc) to element 30 (Zn)). In another exemplary embodiment, M is a metalloid element.

  20. Hybrid nanostructured microporous carbon-mesoporous carbon doped titanium dioxide/sulfur composite positive electrode materials for rechargeable lithium-sulfur batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zegeye, Tilahun Awoke; Kuo, Chung-Feng Jeffrey; Wotango, Aselefech Sorsa; Pan, Chun-Jern; Chen, Hung-Ming; Haregewoin, Atetegeb Meazah; Cheng, Ju-Hsiang; Su, Wei-Nien; Hwang, Bing-Joe

    2016-08-01

    Herein, we design hybrid nanostructured microporous carbon-mesoporous carbon doped titanium dioxide/sulfur composite (MC-Meso C-doped TiO2/S) as a positive electrode material for lithium-sulfur batteries. The hybrid MC-Meso C-doped TiO2 host material is produced by a low-cost, hydrothermal and annealing process. The resulting conductive material shows dual microporous and mesoporous behavior which enhances the effective trapping of sulfur and polysulfides. The hybrid MC-Meso C-doped TiO2/S composite material possesses rutile TiO2 nanotube structure with successful carbon doping while sulfur is uniformly distributed in the hybrid MC-Meso C-doped TiO2 composite materials after the melt-infusion process. The electrochemical measurement of the hybrid material also shows improved cycle stability and rate performance with high sulfur loading (61.04%). The material delivers an initial discharge capacity of 802 mAh g-1 and maintains it at 578 mAh g-1 with a columbic efficiency greater than 97.1% after 140 cycles at 0.1 C. This improvement is thought to be attributed to the unique hybrid nanostructure of the MC-Meso C-doped TiO2 host and the good dispersion of sulfur in the narrow pores of the MC spheres and the mesoporous C-doped TiO2 support.

  1. Ion-exchange synthesis and improved Li insertion property of lithiated H2Ti12O25 as a negative electrode material for lithium-ion batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunimitsu Kataoka

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We successfully prepared the lithiated H2Ti12O25 sample by the H+/Li+ ion exchange synthetic technique in the molten LiNO3 at 270 °C using H2Ti12O25 as a starting compound. Chemical composition of the obtained lithiated H2Ti12O25 sample was determined to be H1.05Li0.35Ti12O25-δ having δ = 0.3 by ICP-AES and DTA-TG analyses. The H+/Li+ ion exchange was also confirmed by powder XRD, 1H-MAS NMR, and 7Li-MAS NMR measurements. Electrochemical Li insertion and extraction measurements revealed that the initial coulombic efficiency was improved from 88% in H2Ti12O25 to 93% in the lithiated H2Ti12O25 sample. In addition, superior capacity retention properties for the charge and discharge cycling performance and good charge rate capability of the present lithiated H2Ti12O25 were confirmed in the electrochemical measurements. Accordingly, the lithiated H2Ti12O25 is suggested to be one of the promising high-voltage and high-capacity oxide negative electrodes in advanced lithium-ion batteries.

  2. Multi-Electrode Resistivity Probe for Investigation of Local Temperature Inside Metal Shell Battery Cells via Resistivity: Experiments and Evaluation of Electrical Resistance Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaobin Hong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Direct Current (DC electrical resistivity is a material property that is sensitive to temperature changes. In this paper, the relationship between resistivity and local temperature inside steel shell battery cells (two commercial 10 Ah and 4.5 Ah lithium-ion cells is innovatively studied by Electrical Resistance Tomography (ERT. The Schlumberger configuration in ERT is applied to divide the cell body into several blocks distributed in different levels, where the apparent resistivities are measured by multi-electrode surface probes. The investigated temperature ranges from −20 to 80 °C. Experimental results have shown that the resistivities mainly depend on temperature changes in each block of the two cells used and the function of the resistivity and temperature can be fitted to the ERT-measurement results in the logistical-plot. Subsequently, the dependence of resistivity on the state of charge (SOC is investigated, and the SOC range of 70%–100% has a remarkable impact on the resistivity at low temperatures. The proposed approach under a thermal cool down regime is demonstrated to monitor the local transient temperature.

  3. Facile solvothermal synthesis of NaTi2(PO4)3/C porous plates as electrode materials for high-performance sodium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhifeng; Liu, Li; Yi, Lingguang; Xiao, Wei; Li, Min; Zhou, Qian; Guo, Guoxiong; Chen, Xiaoying; Shu, Hongbo; Yang, Xiukang; Wang, Xianyou

    2016-09-01

    NaTi2(PO4)3/C porous plates have been successfully synthesized via solvothermal approach with ammonia as inductive agent combined in-situ carbon coating. It reveals that the inductive agent plays a critical role in morphology-controllable fabrication. The morphology, structure, and electrochemical properties of NaTi2(PO4)3/C composites with multilayered plates, single-layered plate, porous multilayered plates all have been investigated, which are prepared by using urea, triethylamine, and ammonia, respectively. Among these samples, NaTi2(PO4)3/C porous multilayered plates with ammonia addition exhibit the best electrochemical properties due to their unique mesoporous structure. NaTi2(PO4)3/C porous multilayered plates deliver an initial specific capacity of 125 and 110 mAh g-1 at 0.1 and 1 C, respectively. Furthermore, NaTi2(PO4)3/C porous multilayered plates show a good rate capability, whose capacity and corresponding capacity retention reach 85 mAh g-1 and 82.4%, respectively, after 120 cycles under the high rate of 10 C. The excellent results indicate that the NaTi2(PO4)3/C porous multilayered plates are a promising electrode candidate for sodium ion battery.

  4. Synthesis and Characterization of Stable and Binder-Free Electrodes of TiO2 Nanofibers for Li-Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phontip Tammawat

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An electrospinning technique was used to fabricate TiO2 nanofibers for use as binder-free electrodes for lithium-ion batteries. The as-electrospun nanofibers were calcined at 400–1,000°C and characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. SEM and TEM images showed that the fibers have an average diameter of ~100 nm and are composed of nanocrystallites and grains, which grow in size as the calcination temperature increases. The electrochemical properties of the nanofibers were evaluated using galvanostatic cycling and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The TiO2 nanofibers calcined at 400°C showed higher electronic conductivity, higher discharge capacity, and better cycling performance than the nanofibers calcined at 600, 800, and 1,000°C. The TiO2 nanofibers calcined at 400°C delivered an initial reversible capacity of 325 mAh·g−1 approaching their theoretical value at 0.1 C rate and over 175 mAh·g−1 at 0.3 C rate with limited capacity fading and Coulombic efficiency between 96 and 100%.

  5. Peapod-like V2O3 nanorods encapsulated into carbon as binder-free and flexible electrodes in lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xingxing; Fu, Jijiang; Pan, Zhiguo; Su, Jianjun; Xu, Jiangwen; Gao, Biao; Peng, Xiang; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Xuming; Chu, Paul K.

    2016-11-01

    Designing and fabricating electrodes with excellent mechanical flexibility and superior electrochemical performance for high-performance lithium ion battery (LIBs) is challenging. Herein, ultralong peapod-like nanowires (NWs) composed of short vanadium sesquioxide nanorods (V2O3 NRs) encapsulated with carbon are produced as high-performance anode materials. The freestanding and flexible film has a high capacity of 210 mAh g-1 at a current density of 0.1 C, and exhibits appreciable rate capability with 68% capacitance retention when the current density is increased from 0.1 to 1 C, and excellent long-term cycling stability without apparent capacity fading after 125 cycles, which is better then that of the active carbon mixed V2O3 NRs and bare V2O3 NRs. The outstanding electrochemical performance is attributed to proper accommodation of the volume expansion of the vanadium oxide in the carbon in the lithiation/delithiation process as well as the outer conductive three-dimensional (3D) carbon network. The formation mechanism of the peapod-like structure is investigated by thermogravimetric analysis connected to a mass spectrometer (MS). The ultralong peapod-like nanostructure overcomes the physical and chemical drawbacks of vanadium oxide and has large potential applicability for flexible energy-storage devices.

  6. Fabrication of carbon nanofiber-driven electrodes from electrospun polyacrylonitrile/polypyrrole bicomponents for high-performance rechargeable lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ji, Liwen; Yao, Yingfang; Toprakci, Ozan; Lin, Zhan; Liang, Yinzheng; Shi, Quan; Medford, Andrew J.; Millns, Christopher R.; Zhang, Xiangwu [Fiber and Polymer Science Program, Department of Textile Engineering, Chemistry and Science, North Carolina State University, 2401 Research Drive, Raleigh, NC 27695-8301 (United States)

    2010-04-02

    Carbon nanofibers were prepared through electrospinning a blend solution of polyacrylonitrile and polypyrrole, followed by carbonization at 700 C. Structural features of electrospun polyacrylonitrile/polypyrrole bicomponent nanofibers and their corresponding carbon nanofibers were characterized using scanning electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimeter, thermo-gravimetric analysis, wide-angle X-ray diffraction, and Raman spectroscopy. It was found that intermolecular interactions are formed between two different polymers, which influence the thermal properties of electrospun bicomponent nanofibers. In addition, with the increase of polypyrrole concentration, the resultant carbon nanofibers exhibit increasing disordered structure. These carbon nanofibers were used as anodes for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries without adding any polymer binder or conductive material and they display high reversible capacity, improved cycle performance, relatively good rate capability, and clear fibrous morphology even after 50 charge/discharge cycles. The improved electrochemical performance of these carbon nanofibers can be attributed to their unusual surface properties and unique structural features, which amplify both surface area and extensive intermingling between electrode and electrolyte phases over small length scales, thereby leading to fast kinetics and short pathways for both Li ions and electrons. (author)

  7. Microwave hydrothermal synthesis of urchin-like NiO nanospheres as electrode materials for lithium-ion batteries and supercapacitors with enhanced electrochemical performances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mondal, Anjon Kumar, E-mail: Anjon.K.Mondal@student.uts.edu.au [Centre for Clean Energy Technology, School of Chemistry and Forensic Science, University of Technology Sydney, Broadway, Sydney, NSW 2007 (Australia); Su, Dawei; Wang, Ying; Chen, Shuangqiang [Centre for Clean Energy Technology, School of Chemistry and Forensic Science, University of Technology Sydney, Broadway, Sydney, NSW 2007 (Australia); Liu, Qi [School of Petrochemical Engineering, Changzhou University, Changzhou 213164 (China); Wang, Guoxiu, E-mail: Guoxiu.wang@uts.edu.au [Centre for Clean Energy Technology, School of Chemistry and Forensic Science, University of Technology Sydney, Broadway, Sydney, NSW 2007 (Australia)

    2014-01-05

    Highlights: • Urchin-like NiO nanospheres were synthesised by a microwave hydrothermal method. • The NiO nanospheres consist of nanocrystals and porous structure. • NiO nanospheres exhibited a high reversible specific capacity of 1027 mA h g{sup −1}. • The NiO nanospheres also delivered a high supercapacitance of 736 F g{sup −1}. -- Abstract: Urchin-like NiO nanospheres were synthesised by a microwave hydrothermal method. The as-synthesised NiO nanospheres were characterised by X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. It was found that NiO nanosphere consists of a nanoporous structure and nanosize crystals. When applied as anode materials in lithium-ion batteries, NiO nanospheres exhibited a high reversible specific capacity of 1027 mA h g{sup −1}, an excellent cycling performance and a good high rate capability. NiO nanospheres also showed a high specific capacitance as electrode materials for supercapacitors.

  8. A Desalination Battery

    KAUST Repository

    Pasta, Mauro

    2012-02-08

    Water desalination is an important approach to provide fresh water around the world, although its high energy consumption, and thus high cost, call for new, efficient technology. Here, we demonstrate the novel concept of a "desalination battery", which operates by performing cycles in reverse on our previously reported mixing entropy battery. Rather than generating electricity from salinity differences, as in mixing entropy batteries, desalination batteries use an electrical energy input to extract sodium and chloride ions from seawater and to generate fresh water. The desalination battery is comprised by a Na 2-xMn 5O 10 nanorod positive electrode and Ag/AgCl negative electrode. Here, we demonstrate an energy consumption of 0.29 Wh l -1 for the removal of 25% salt using this novel desalination battery, which is promising when compared to reverse osmosis (∼ 0.2 Wh l -1), the most efficient technique presently available. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  9. A comparison of the electrode/electrolyte reaction at elevated temperatures for various Li-ion battery cathodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacNeil, D. D.; Lu, Zhonghua; Chen, Zhaohui; Dahn, J. R.

    Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was used to compare the thermal stability of charged cathodes in 1 M LiPF 6 EC/DEC electrolyte. Seven possible cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries (LiCoO 2, LiNiO 2, LiNi 0.8Co 0.2O 2, Li 1+ xMn 2- xO 4, LiNi 0.7Co 0.2Ti 0.05Mg 0.05O 2, Li[Ni 3/8Co 1/4Mn 3/8]O 2, and LiFePO 4) were tested under the same conditions. Welded stainless steel DSC sample tubes, that ensured no weight loss during analysis, were used for these measurements, making them reliable. A consideration of these DSC results and the known electrochemical properties of the cathodes may assist the selection of the most suitable lithium-ion cathode material for use in a particular application.

  10. Nanotubes for Battery Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Nordlinder, Sara

    2005-01-01

    Nanomaterials have attracted great interest in recent years, and are now also being considered for battery applications. Reducing the particle size of some electrode materials can increase battery performance considerably, especially with regard to capacity, power and rate capability. This thesis presents a study focused on the performance of such a material, vanadium oxide nanotubes, as cathode material for rechargeable lithium batteries. These nanotubes were synthesized by a sol-gel process...

  11. Progress on electrode materials for lead acid flow battery based on electrolyte with soluble lead%全沉积型铅酸液流电池电极材料研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘旭东; 毕孝国; 牛微

    2012-01-01

    A novel lead acid flow battery with no separator and a single electrolyte, lead (II) in organic acid, was described. The function and performance requirements of the electrode of lead acid flow battery were summed. The progress and recent development of the study on the electrode materials were reviewed. The results suggest that the most prospective electrode materials are the graphite felt and carbon foam and the study on the electrode modification is very important.%全沉积型铅酸液流电池是以可溶性二价铅离子在有机酸中的电沉积/溶解反应为充放电基础的新型储能装置.归纳了全沉积型铅酸液流电池电极的功能和性能要求,介绍了电极材料的研究进展情况.分析得到了当前最具应用前景的电极材料是碳素类和泡沫材料类,尤其是石墨毡和碳泡沫电极表面的改性研究是液流电池的一个重要研究方向.

  12. Effect of carbon black on the performance of gas diffusion electrode of lithium-air battery%炭黑对锂空气电池气体扩散电极性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马玉林; 于海滨; 刘元贵; 尹鸽平

    2012-01-01

    Effects of 3 kinds of carbon black, such as BP2000,XC-72 and acetylene black on electrochemical performance of gas diffusion electrodes for lithium-air battery were studied. The discharge performance of lithium-air battery was tested, acetylene black was determined to be superior to others for electrode. Acetylene black content and load were optimized and it delivered a specific capacity of 2 531 mAh/g at 0.2 mA/cm2 by discharging to 2.0 V when the content and load reached to 80% and 1.0 mg in electrode.SEM test result showed that the battery failure was mainly due to the accumulation of reaction products in electrode.%研究了BP2000、XC-72及乙炔黑等3种炭黑对锂空气电池气体扩散电极的电化学性能影响,测试了锂空气电池的放电性能,确定了电极用的最佳炭黑为乙炔黑.对电极上乙炔黑的含量及载量进行优化,当乙炔黑含量为80%、载量为1.0 mg时,以0.2 mA/cm2的电流放电至2.0V,炭黑的比容量可达2 531 mAh/g.SEM测试结果表明:反应产物在电极上的堆积是电池失效的主要原因.

  13. Alkaline quinone flow battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Kaixiang; Chen, Qing; Gerhardt, Michael R; Tong, Liuchuan; Kim, Sang Bok; Eisenach, Louise; Valle, Alvaro W; Hardee, David; Gordon, Roy G; Aziz, Michael J; Marshak, Michael P

    2015-09-25

    Storage of photovoltaic and wind electricity in batteries could solve the mismatch problem between the intermittent supply of these renewable resources and variable demand. Flow batteries permit more economical long-duration discharge than solid-electrode batteries by using liquid electrolytes stored outside of the battery. We report an alkaline flow battery based on redox-active organic molecules that are composed entirely of Earth-abundant elements and are nontoxic, nonflammable, and safe for use in residential and commercial environments. The battery operates efficiently with high power density near room temperature. These results demonstrate the stability and performance of redox-active organic molecules in alkaline flow batteries, potentially enabling cost-effective stationary storage of renewable energy. PMID:26404834

  14. Electrode for a lithium cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thackeray, Michael M.; Vaughey, John T.; Dees, Dennis W.

    2008-10-14

    This invention relates to a positive electrode for an electrochemical cell or battery, and to an electrochemical cell or battery; the invention relates more specifically to a positive electrode for a non-aqueous lithium cell or battery when the electrode is used therein. The positive electrode includes a composite metal oxide containing AgV.sub.3O.sub.8 as one component and one or more other components consisting of LiV.sub.3O.sub.8, Ag.sub.2V.sub.4O.sub.11, MnO.sub.2, CF.sub.x, AgF or Ag.sub.2O to increase the energy density of the cell, optionally in the presence of silver powder and/or silver foil to assist in current collection at the electrode and to improve the power capability of the cell or battery.

  15. The influence of cycling temperature and cycling rate on the phase specific degradation of a positive electrode in lithium ion batteries: A post mortem analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darma, Mariyam Susana Dewi; Lang, Michael; Kleiner, Karin; Mereacre, Liuda; Liebau, Verena; Fauth, Francois; Bergfeldt, Thomas; Ehrenberg, Helmut

    2016-09-01

    The influence of cycling temperatures and cycling rates on the cycling stability of the positive electrode (cathode) of commercial batteries are investigated. The cathode is a mixture of LiMn2O4 (LMO), LiNi0.5Co0.2Mn0.3O2 (NCM) and LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2 (NCA). It is found that increasing the cycling temperature from 25 °C to 40 °C is detrimental to the long term cycling stability of the cathode. Contrastingly, the improved cycling stability is observed for the cathodes cycled at higher charge/discharge rate (2C/3C instead of 1C/2C). The microstructure analysis by X-ray powder diffraction reveals that a significant capacity fading and an increased overvoltage is observed for NCM and NCA in all the fatigued cathodes. After high number of cycling (above 1500 cycles), NCM becomes partially inactive. In contrast to NCM and NCA, LMO shows a good cycling stability at 25 °C. A pronounced degradation of LMO is only observed for the fatigued cathodes cycled at 40 °C. The huge capacity losses of NCM and NCA are most likely because the blended cathodes were cycled up to 4.12 V vs. the graphite anode during the cycle-life test (corresponds to 4.16 V vs. Li+/Li); which is beyond the stability limit of the layered oxides below 4.05 V vs. Li+/Li.

  16. Nanostructuring effect of multi-walled carbon nanotubes on electrochemical properties of carbon foam as constructive electrode for lead acid battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rajeev; Kumari, Saroj; Mathur, Rakesh B.; Dhakate, Sanjay R.

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, nanostructuring effect of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) on electrochemical properties of coal tar pitch (CTP) based carbon foam (CFoam) was investigated. The different weight fractions of MWCNTs were mixed with CTP and foam was developed from the mixture of CTP and MWCNTs by sacrificial template technique and heat treated at 1,400 and 2,500 °C in inert atmosphere. These foams were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and potentiostat PARSTAT for cyclic voltammetry. It was observed that, bulk density of CFoam increases with increasing MWCNTs content and decreases after certain amount. The MWCNTs influence the morphology of CFoam and increase the width of ligaments as well as surface area. During the heat treatment, stresses exerting at MWCNTs/carbon interface accelerate ordering of the graphene layer which have positive effect on the electrochemical properties of CFoam. The current density increases from 475 to 675 mA/cm2 of 1,400 °C heat treated and 95 to 210 mA/cm2 of 2,500 °C heat-treated CFoam with 1 wt% MWCNTs. The specific capacitance was decreases with increasing the scan rate from 100 to 1,000 mV/s. In case of 1 % MWCNTs content CFoam the specific capacitance at the scan rate 100 mV/s was increased from 850 to 1,250 μF/cm2 and 48 to 340 μF/cm2 of CFoam heat treated at 1,400 °C and 2,500 °C respectively. Thus, the higher value surface area and current density of MWCNTs-incorporated CFoam heat treated to 1,400 °C can be suitable for lead acid battery electrode with improved charging capability.

  17. Studies on performance and electrode materials for vanadium flow battery%全钒液流电池性能及电极材料研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜涛; 廖小东; 郝彰翔; 李爱魁; 滕隽

    2013-01-01

    The performance of graphite felt before and after the activation were compared, and the electrochemical performance of vanadium flow battery was studied by the charging and discharging instrument with the graphite felt after activation as electrode. The constant current charging and discharging experiments show that the activation of graphite felt can be increased by sulfuric acid. The energy efficiency deceases with the higher charging-discharging current, and the maximal energy efficiency achieve 75.2%; the columb efficiency increases with the higher charging-discharging current and the maximal efficiency can achieve 95.01%. The internal communication decreases with the higher SOC.%进行了石墨毡活化前后的性能比较,利用充放电仪器研究了经浓硫酸活化的聚丙烯腈基石墨毡作为电极的全钒液流电池的电化学性能.结果表明:(1)对石墨毡进行浓硫酸活化可增强其化学活性;(2)电池的库仑效率随着充放电电流的增加先增大后减小,最高可达95,01%;(3)电池的能量效率随着充放电电流的增加而减小,最高可达75.20%;(4)电池的交流内阻随电池SOC增加而减小.

  18. Developments in redox flow batteries

    OpenAIRE

    Tangirala, Ravichandra

    2011-01-01

    This thesis describes the investigation of the electrochemistry principles, technology, construction and composition of the electrode materials, electrolyte and additives used in redox flow batteries. The aim was to study a flow battery system with an appreciable working performance. The study explores and compares mainly three different redox flow battery technologies; all-vanadium, soluble lead-acid and a novel copper-lead dioxide flow batteries. The first system is based in sulfuric acid e...

  19. Capacity and power fade cycle-life model for plug-in hybrid electric vehicle lithium-ion battery cells containing blended spinel and layered-oxide positive electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordoba-Arenas, Andrea; Onori, Simona; Guezennec, Yann; Rizzoni, Giorgio

    2015-03-01

    This paper proposes and validates a semi-empirical cycle-life model for lithium-ion pouch cells containing blended spinel and layered-oxide positive electrodes. For the model development and validation experimental data obtained during an aging campaign is used. During the campaign the influence of charge sustaining/depleting operation, minimum state of charge (SOC), charging rate and temperature on the aging process is studied. The aging profiles, which are prescribed in power mode, are selected to be representative of realistic plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) operation. The proposed model describes capacity fade and resistance increase as function of the influencing stress factors and battery charge throughput. Due to its simplicity but still good accuracy, the applications of the proposed aging model include the design of algorithms for battery state-of-health (SOH) monitoring and prognosis, PHEV optimal energy management including battery aging, and the study of aging propagation among battery cells in advanced energy storage systems.

  20. Applications of Carbon Materials in Negative Electrode for Lead-Carbon Ultra-battery%炭材料在铅炭超级电池负极中的应用∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡晨; 相佳媛; 林跃生; 刘皓; 高飞; 杨凯; 来小康

    2015-01-01

    铅炭超级蓄电池是由铅酸电池和超级电容器通过创新组合而形成的新型电化学储能装置,具有高功率、长寿命的特点,在电动汽车与规模储能方面有良好的应用前景。其性能突破的关键是将炭材料用到铅炭超级电池负极中,降低负极硫酸盐化。在高倍率部分荷电态工况下,阀控铅酸电池失效的原因是在负极板表面生成致密、不导电的硫酸铅的绝缘层。炭材料添加剂能抑制负极不可逆硫酸盐化,显著提高在高倍率部分荷电态工况下电池的循环寿命、功率性能和充电接受能力。介绍了炭材料抑制负极不可逆硫酸盐化的内在作用机理,综述了最近几年炭材料在铅炭超级蓄电池中应用的研究进展。%Lead-carbon ultra-battery is a hybrid electrochemical energy storage device,which combines a lead-acid battery with an asymmetric super-capacitor by internal paralleling.The new battery has higher power density and longer cycle life,and offers potential for using in electric vehicles and large stationary applications.The main reason for the improved performance of lead-acid battery is the use of carbon materials to reduce sulfate in the negative elec-trode of the battery.The valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA)battery fails prematurely due to the progressive build-up of lead sulfate mainly on the surfaces of the negative plates.The accumulation of lead sulfate reduces the effective reaction area of the negative plates,making the charge and discharge processes of the negative plates difficult.It has been found that adding carbon to the negative active material can enhance the performance of the lead-acid batteries un-der high-partial-state-of-charge (HRPSoC)conditions.Lead-carbon ultra-batteries exhibit remarkable improvement in the rate capability,active material utilization,cycle performance and charge acceptance compared to the conventional lead-acid batteries in high-rate partial

  1. Applications of Carbon Materials in Negative Electrode for Lead-Carbon Ultra-battery%炭材料在铅炭超级电池负极中的应用∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡晨; 相佳媛; 林跃生; 刘皓; 高飞; 杨凯; 来小康

    2015-01-01

    Lead-carbon ultra-battery is a hybrid electrochemical energy storage device,which combines a lead-acid battery with an asymmetric super-capacitor by internal paralleling.The new battery has higher power density and longer cycle life,and offers potential for using in electric vehicles and large stationary applications.The main reason for the improved performance of lead-acid battery is the use of carbon materials to reduce sulfate in the negative elec-trode of the battery.The valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA)battery fails prematurely due to the progressive build-up of lead sulfate mainly on the surfaces of the negative plates.The accumulation of lead sulfate reduces the effective reaction area of the negative plates,making the charge and discharge processes of the negative plates difficult.It has been found that adding carbon to the negative active material can enhance the performance of the lead-acid batteries un-der high-partial-state-of-charge (HRPSoC)conditions.Lead-carbon ultra-batteries exhibit remarkable improvement in the rate capability,active material utilization,cycle performance and charge acceptance compared to the conventional lead-acid batteries in high-rate partial-state-of-charge cycling duty.Herein the progress of research in application of carbon materials in lead-carbon ultra-battery and the underlying mechanisms of carbon additives in preventing/reducing formation of sulfation on the negative electrode of the batteries are reviewed.%铅炭超级蓄电池是由铅酸电池和超级电容器通过创新组合而形成的新型电化学储能装置,具有高功率、长寿命的特点,在电动汽车与规模储能方面有良好的应用前景。其性能突破的关键是将炭材料用到铅炭超级电池负极中,降低负极硫酸盐化。在高倍率部分荷电态工况下,阀控铅酸电池失效的原因是在负极板表面生成致密、不导电的硫酸铅的绝缘层。炭材料添加剂能抑制负极不可逆硫酸盐化,

  2. The Electrocatalytic Study of LiCoO2 in Air Electrode for Lithium-Air Battery%锂空气电池空气电极LiCoO2电催化性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高军; 武巍; 田艳艳; 杨勇

    2012-01-01

    自设计建立锂空气电池实验装置,研究以掺入LiCoO2作为电催化剂的空气正极的电化学性能及其放电前后催化剂结构的变化.循环伏安、XRD及充放电测试等表明,LiCoO2能够很大程度地改善空气电极的放电性能.尤其是在放电前,将掺有LiCoO2的空气正极充电至4.1 V,此时LiCoO2的Co元素呈现较高的价态(Co3+/Co4+),催化作用因此更加显著.%The LiCoO2 has been investigated as a new electrocatalyst for air electrodes using homemade lithium-air battery. The electrochemical performance and structural changes of the LiCoO2 based composite air electrodes have been studied. The results of CV, XRD and charge-discharge tests show that the composite air electrodes composed of LiCoO2 can greatly improve the discharge performance of lithium-air batteries. In particular when the composite air electrodes are charged to 4.1 V before further discharging, the obvious catalytic effects of LiCoO2 are attributed to higher valence state of the Co element in LiCoO2, especially at charged state.

  3. Methods on Investigating Properties of Electrode/Electrolyte Interfaces in Lithium-Ion Batteries%锂离子电池电极界面特性研究方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦银平; 庄全超; 史月丽; 江利; 孙智; 孙世刚

    2011-01-01

    The rechargeable lithium-ion battery has been extensively used in mobile communication and portable instruments due to its many advantages, such as high volumetric and gravimetric energy density and low self-discharge rate. In addition, it is the most promising candidate as the power source for (hybrid) electric vehicles and stationary energy storage. The properties of electrode/electrolyte interfaces play an important role in the electrochemical performance of the electrode material and a battery, such as the capacities, irreversible charge "loss", rate capability and cyclability. In present paper, the methods to investigate the properties of electrode/electrolyte interfaces, for example, traditional electrochemical methods, microscopy methods, spectroscopic methods, electrochemical quartz crystal microgravimetry (EQCM) are summarized. The principles, advantages and disadvantages of these methods and their applications in investigating the properties of electrode/electrolyte interfaces, especially the progress in the combination of these methods to investigate the properties of electrode/electrolyte interfaces, are introduced in detail, and these methods will be considerable to study the new materials or the traditional materials for lithium-ion batteries in the future.%电极界面特性是影响锂离子电池充放电循环容量与稳定性的重要因素.本文总结了目前对电极界面特性进行研究的方法,主要包括传统的电化学方法、显微方法、谱学方法、电化学石英微晶天平等,重点论述了上述研究方法的原理、优缺点和在研究电极界面特性中的应用,以及这些方法相结合所取得的一些研究进展,并指出在今后的工作中,无论是对新材料的研究还是传统材料的研究,这些方法都仍将发挥重要作用.

  4. Effect of pore distribution of carbon on performance of air electrode for lithium air batteries%碳的孔分布对锂空气电池空气电极性能影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王凌岩; 谢凯; 王珲; 韩喻

    2012-01-01

    Microstructural parameter of carbon is an important factor that restricts the performance of lithium oxygen batteries. In this paper, five kinds of carbon, which had different microstructural parameter were chosen to prepare the air electrode and the discharge capacity of these electrodes were tested, the monograph of these air electrodes before and after discharge were observed by SEM. The effect of pore distribution of carbon on the performance of air electrode also was discussed. The results show that the pore distribution of carbon has important influences on the performance of air electrode and air electrode made of carbon that has relative optimal pore distribution behave relative best.%碳的微观结构是限制锂空气电池空气电极性能的重要因素.选用五种具有不同微观结构参数的碳材料分别制备了空气电极,并测试了相应电池的放电比容量,采用扫描电镜对放电前后空气电极的表理形貌进行了观察,研究探讨了碳的微观结构对于空气电极放电性能的影响.结果表明,碳的孔分布是影响空气电极的重要因素,由具有相对最优孔径分布的碳材料制备的空气电极表现出相对最佳的电性能.

  5. Li(Ni0.40Mn0.40Co0.15Al0.05)O2: A promising positive electrode material for high-power and safe lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bains, J.; Croguennec, L.; Bréger, J.; Castaing, F.; Levasseur, S.; Delmas, C.; Biensan, Ph.

    2011-10-01

    Li1.11(Ni0.40Mn0.39Co0.16Al0.05)0.89O2 was synthesized through coprecipitation of a mixed hydroxide followed by calcination with LiOH·H2O during 10 h at 500 °C and 950 °C. Electrochemical tests and their comparison with those obtained for an industrial Li(Ni1-y-zCoyAlz)O2 material reveal that Li1.11(Ni0.40Mn0.39Co0.16Al0.05)0.89O2 shows good charge-discharge performance, even at high rate according to a protocol well established by car-makers for testing power abilities of batteries for electric and hybrid electric vehicles. In addition, this material shows a significant improvement in thermal stability in the highly deintercalated state (charged state of the battery) over the industrial material. Equivalent (or higher) energy and power densities with a significantly greater thermal stability make of Li1.11(Ni0.40Mn0.39Co0.16Al0.05)0.89O2 an interesting candidate as positive electrode material for large lithium-ion batteries.

  6. Fabrication of 3D core-shell multiwalled carbon nanotube@RuO2 lithium-ion battery electrodes through a RuO2 atomic layer deposition process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregorczyk, Keith E; Kozen, Alexander C; Chen, Xinyi; Schroeder, Marshall A; Noked, Malachi; Cao, Anyuan; Hu, Liangbing; Rubloff, Gary W

    2015-01-27

    Pushing lithium-ion battery (LIB) technology forward to its fundamental scaling limits requires the ability to create designer heterostructured materials and architectures. Atomic layer deposition (ALD) has recently been applied to advanced nanostructured energy storage devices due to the wide range of available materials, angstrom thickness control, and extreme conformality over high aspect ratio nanostructures. A class of materials referred to as conversion electrodes has recently been proposed as high capacity electrodes. RuO2 is considered an ideal conversion material due to its high combined electronic and ionic conductivity and high gravimetric capacity, and as such is an excellent material to explore the behavior of conversion electrodes at nanoscale thicknesses. We report here a fully characterized atomic layer deposition process for RuO2, electrochemical cycling data for ALD RuO2, and the application of the RuO2 to a composite carbon nanotube electrode scaffold with nucleation-controlled RuO2 growth. A growth rate of 0.4 Å/cycle is found between ∼ 210-240 °C. In a planar configuration, the resulting RuO2 films show high first cycle electrochemical capacities of ∼ 1400 mAh/g, but the capacity rapidly degrades with charge/discharge cycling. We also fabricated core/shell MWCNT/RuO2 heterostructured 3D electrodes, which show a 50× increase in the areal capacity over their planar counterparts, with an areal lithium capacity of 1.6 mAh/cm(2).

  7. Direct observation of electronic conductivity transitions and solid electrolyte interphase stability of Na2Ti3O7 electrodes for Na-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarrabeitia, Maider; Nobili, Francesco; Muñoz-Márquez, Miguel Ángel; Rojo, Teófilo; Casas-Cabanas, Montse

    2016-10-01

    This communication reports the first experimental evidence of an interesting change of transport properties, and particularly of electron conductivity, during the Na+ insertion/extraction process in Na2Ti3O7 negative electrodes. Probed by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, for 0.0 ≤ x electrochemical cycling and negatively contributes on the capacity fading observed for this electrode material.

  8. 光伏电池正极银浆用球形银粉的制备%Fabrication of Spherical Silver Powders Used for the Front Electrode Paste of Photovoltaic Battery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    琚伟; 马望京; 彭丹; 牟秋红; 张方志; 陈义祥

    2015-01-01

    采用化学还原法制备光伏电池正极银浆用球形银粉,通过扫描电镜(SEM)和激光粒度仪表征了银粉的形貌和粒度,研究还原剂的种类、表面活性剂浓度以及反应时间等工艺条件对银粉粒度及形貌的影响。结果表明,采用抗坏血酸作还原剂、聚乙烯吡咯烷酮(PVP)作分散剂时,可以得到分散性好、粒度约为1.5µm的球状银粉。将该银粉制成浆料,印刷、烘干并烧结后,表征了电极形貌,用四探针电阻仪测得烧结银层的方阻<5mΩ/□,可满足太阳能电池的电性能要求。%The spherical silver powders used for the front electrode paste of photovoltaic battery were prepared by chemical reduction. The morphology, particle size and dispersity of silver powders were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and laser particle size analyzer. The silver powders prepared are about 1.5 µm in particle size, and well dispersed in spherical shape. The influencing factors were analyzed, such as the type of reducer, concentration of surfactant and reaction time etc. The silver powders were fabricated into the silver paste. After being sintered, the morphology and resistance of front electrode were measured. The results showed that the silver powders could meet the need of fabricating the front electrode of photovoltaic battery.

  9. Batteries: Overview of Battery Cathodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doeff, Marca M

    2010-07-12

    hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), and electric vehicles (EVs); a market predicted to be potentially ten times greater than that of consumer electronics. In fact, only Liion batteries can meet the requirements for PHEVs as set by the U.S. Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC), although they still fall slightly short of EV goals. In the case of Li-ion batteries, the trade-off between power and energy shown in Figure 1 is a function both of device design and the electrode materials that are used. Thus, a high power battery (e.g., one intended for an HEV) will not necessarily contain the same electrode materials as one designed for high energy (i.e., for an EV). As is shown in Figure 1, power translates into acceleration, and energy into range, or miles traveled, for vehicular uses. Furthermore, performance, cost, and abuse-tolerance requirements for traction batteries differ considerably from those for consumer electronics batteries. Vehicular applications are particularly sensitive to cost; currently, Li-ion batteries are priced at about $1000/kWh, whereas the USABC goal is $150/kWh. The three most expensive components of a Li-ion battery, no matter what the configuration, are the cathode, the separator, and the electrolyte. Reduction of cost has been one of the primary driving forces for the investigation of new cathode materials to replace expensive LiCoO{sub 2}, particularly for vehicular applications. Another extremely important factor is safety under abuse conditions such as overcharge. This is particularly relevant for the large battery packs intended for vehicular uses, which are designed with multiple cells wired in series arrays. Premature failure of one cell in a string may cause others to go into overcharge during passage of current. These considerations have led to the development of several different types of cathode materials, as will be covered in the next section. Because there is not yet one ideal material that can

  10. Batteries: Overview of Battery Cathodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doeff, Marca M

    2010-07-12

    hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), and electric vehicles (EVs); a market predicted to be potentially ten times greater than that of consumer electronics. In fact, only Liion batteries can meet the requirements for PHEVs as set by the U.S. Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC), although they still fall slightly short of EV goals. In the case of Li-ion batteries, the trade-off between power and energy shown in Figure 1 is a function both of device design and the electrode materials that are used. Thus, a high power battery (e.g., one intended for an HEV) will not necessarily contain the same electrode materials as one designed for high energy (i.e., for an EV). As is shown in Figure 1, power translates into acceleration, and energy into range, or miles traveled, for vehicular uses. Furthermore, performance, cost, and abuse-tolerance requirements for traction batteries differ considerably from those for consumer electronics batteries. Vehicular applications are particularly sensitive to cost; currently, Li-ion batteries are priced at about $1000/kWh, whereas the USABC goal is $150/kWh. The three most expensive components of a Li-ion battery, no matter what the configuration, are the cathode, the separator, and the electrolyte. Reduction of cost has been one of the primary driving forces for the investigation of new cathode materials to replace expensive LiCoO{sub 2}, particularly for vehicular applications. Another extremely important factor is safety under abuse conditions such as overcharge. This is particularly relevant for the large battery packs intended for vehicular uses, which are designed with multiple cells wired in series arrays. Premature failure of one cell in a string may cause others to go into overcharge during passage of current. These considerations have led to the development of several different types of cathode materials, as will be covered in the next section. Because there is not yet one ideal material that can

  11. Spatial atomic layer deposition on flexible porous substrates: ZnO on anodic aluminum oxide films and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} on Li ion battery electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Kashish [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States); Routkevitch, Dmitri; Varaksa, Natalia [InRedox, Longmont, Colorado 80544 (United States); George, Steven M., E-mail: Steven.George@Colorado.Edu [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309 and Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States)

    2016-01-15

    Spatial atomic layer deposition (S-ALD) was examined on flexible porous substrates utilizing a rotating cylinder reactor to perform the S-ALD. S-ALD was first explored on flexible polyethylene terephthalate polymer substrates to obtain S-ALD growth rates on flat surfaces. ZnO ALD with diethylzinc and ozone as the reactants at 50 °C was the model S-ALD system. ZnO S-ALD was then performed on nanoporous flexible anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) films. ZnO S-ALD in porous substrates depends on the pore diameter, pore aspect ratio, and reactant exposure time that define the gas transport. To evaluate these parameters, the Zn coverage profiles in the pores of the AAO films were measured using energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). EDS measurements were conducted for different reaction conditions and AAO pore geometries. Substrate speeds and reactant pulse durations were defined by rotating cylinder rates of 10, 100, and 200 revolutions per minute (RPM). AAO pore diameters of 10, 25, 50, and 100 nm were utilized with a pore length of 25 μm. Uniform Zn coverage profiles were obtained at 10 RPM and pore diameters of 100 nm. The Zn coverage was less uniform at higher RPM values and smaller pore diameters. These results indicate that S-ALD into porous substrates is feasible under certain reaction conditions. S-ALD was then performed on porous Li ion battery electrodes to test S-ALD on a technologically important porous substrate. Li{sub 0.20}Mn{sub 0.54}Ni{sub 0.13}Co{sub 0.13}O{sub 2} electrodes on flexible metal foil were coated with Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} using 2–5 Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} ALD cycles. The Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} ALD was performed in the S-ALD reactor at a rotating cylinder rate of 10 RPM using trimethylaluminum and ozone as the reactants at 50 °C. The capacity of the electrodes was then tested versus number of charge–discharge cycles. These measurements revealed that the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} S-ALD coating on the electrodes enhanced the capacity stability. This S

  12. Methods and systems for thermodynamic evaluation of battery state of health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yazami, Rachid; McMenamin, Joseph; Reynier, Yvan; Fultz, Brent T

    2014-12-02

    Described are systems and methods for accurately characterizing thermodynamic and materials properties of electrodes and battery systems and for characterizing the state of health of electrodes and battery systems. Measurement of physical attributes of electrodes and batteries corresponding to thermodynamically stabilized electrode conditions permit determination of thermodynamic parameters, including state functions such as the Gibbs free energy, enthalpy and entropy of electrode/electrochemical cell reactions, that enable prediction of important performance attributes of electrode materials and battery systems, such as energy, power density, current rate, cycle life and state of health. Also provided are systems and methods for charging a battery according to its state of health.

  13. Fabrication of voids-involved SnO2@C nanofibers electrodes with highly reversible Sn/SnO2 conversion and much enhanced coulombic efficiency for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Wenhe; Gu, Lili; Xia, Fangyuan; Liu, Boli; Hou, Xiaoyi; Wang, Qi; Liu, Dequan; He, Deyan

    2016-09-01

    Despite their potential application in lithium-ion battery electrodes, one apparent disadvantage for SnO2-based materials is that the electrodes suffer low coulombic efficiency especially for the initial cycle, which originates from the irreversible conversion of SnO2 to Sn, the formation of solid electrolyte interphase and the other possible side reactions. Here we design a novel nanofiber structure in which SnO2 nanoparticles are well separated and confined by inner porous carbon framework and then hooped by outer carbon shell. The resultant SnO2/voids@C nanofibers electrode displays not only a high reversible capacity of 986 mAh g-1 at 200 mA g-1 after 200 cycles, but also a high initial coulombic efficiency of 73.5%. It has been shown that such a rational design can efficiently reduce the side reactions and promote the reversible conversion of Sn to SnO2 for both half and full cells.

  14. Structure analyses using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray absorption near edge structure for amorphous MS3 (M: Ti, Mo) electrodes in all-solid-state lithium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuyama, Takuya; Deguchi, Minako; Mitsuhara, Kei; Ohta, Toshiaki; Mori, Takuya; Orikasa, Yuki; Uchimoto, Yoshiharu; Kowada, Yoshiyuki; Hayashi, Akitoshi; Tatsumisago, Masahiro

    2016-05-01

    Electronic structure changes of sulfurs in amorphous TiS3 and MoS3 for positive electrodes of all-solid-state lithium batteries are examined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and the X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES). The all-solid-state cell with amorphous TiS3 electrode shows the reversible capacity of about 510 mAh g-1 for 10 cycles with sulfur-redox in amorphous TiS3 during charge-discharge process. On the other hand, the cell with amorphous MoS3 shows the 1st reversible capacity of about 720 mAh g-1. The obtained capacity is based on the redox of both sulfur and molybdenum in amorphous MoS3. The irreversible capacity of about 50 mAh g-1 is observed at the 1st cycle, which is attributed to the irreversible electronic structure change of sulfur during the 1st cycle. The electronic structure of sulfur in amorphous MoS3 after the 10th charge is similar to that after the 1st charge. Therefore, the all-solid-state cell with amorphous MoS3 electrode shows relatively good cyclability after the 1st cycle.

  15. A new NASICON-type polyanion, Li{sub x}Ni{sub 2}(MoO{sub 4}){sub 3} as 3-V class positive electrode material for rechargeable lithium batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Begam, K.M.; Michael, M.S.; Prabaharan, S.R.S. [Advanced Power Sources Laboratory, Multimedia University, Faculty of Engineering, Center for Smart Systems and Innovation, Cyberjaya 63100 (Malaysia); Taufiq-Yap, Y.H. [Department of Chemistry, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor D.H. (Malaysia)

    2004-08-31

    This paper presents our success in synthesizing a new framework type Li{sub x}Ni{sub 2}(MoO{sub 4}){sub 3} (0=electrode material in rechargeable lithium-containing batteries. The morphology of the heated product was found to be composed of soft agglomerates embedded by submicrometre spherical grains. The electrode-active character of the new material was examined in a two-electrode configuration employing a Li{sup +} non-aqueous electrolyte environment. Slow scan cyclic voltammetry (SSCV) revealed the redox property of the material between the voltage window 3.5 and 1.5 V. Galvanostatic tests exhibited a well discernible discharge-charge profile with a reversible capacity of 170 mA h/g over the potential window of 3.5-1.5 V.

  16. Studies on the electrode material for the all vanadium redox flow battery%全钒氧化还原流体电池电极材料的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李俊杰; 朱扬清; 杨华铨

    2001-01-01

    Various electrode material has been studied at 1.1 mol/L VOSO4 solution in 2 mol/L H2SO4 as electrolyte,using both cycilic voltammetry and A.C.impedance.The research result:the property of carbon electrodes is better then metals.Carbon electrodes may be used in vanadium battery.%选用不同类型的电极材料在1.1 mol/L VOSO4和2 mol/L H2SO4组成的电解液中进行循环伏安、交流阻抗研究,观察电极材料氧化还原的可逆性,研究结果表明:碳材料的电极比金属电极的性能好,可望用碳类材料作钒电池的电极材料.

  17. Air and metal hydride battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lampinen, M.; Noponen, T. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Lab. of Applied Thermodynamics

    1998-12-31

    The main goal of the air and metal hydride battery project was to enhance the performance and manufacturing technology of both electrodes to such a degree that an air-metal hydride battery could become a commercially and technically competitive power source for electric vehicles. By the end of the project it was possible to demonstrate the very first prototype of the air-metal hydride battery at EV scale, achieving all the required design parameters. (orig.)

  18. Understanding Structure-Function Relationship in Hybrid Co3O4-Fe2O3/C Lithium-Ion Battery Electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultana, Irin; Rahman, Md Mokhlesur; Ramireddy, Thrinathreddy; Sharma, Neeraj; Poddar, Debasis; Khalid, Abbas; Zhang, Hongzhou; Chen, Ying; Glushenkov, Alexey M

    2015-09-23

    A range of high-capacity Li-ion anode materials (conversion reactions with lithium) suffer from poor cycling stability and limited high-rate performance. These issues can be addressed through hybridization of multiple nanostructured components in an electrode. Using a Co3O4-Fe2O3/C system as an example, we demonstrate that the cycling stability and rate performance are improved in a hybrid electrode. The hybrid Co3O4-Fe2O3/C electrode exhibits long-term cycling stability (300 cycles) at a moderate current rate with a retained capacity of approximately 700 mAh g(-1). The reversible capacity of the Co3O4-Fe2O3/C electrode is still about 400 mAh g(-1) (above the theoretical capacity of graphite) at a high current rate of ca. 3 A g(-1), whereas Co3O4-Fe2O3, Fe2O3/C, and Co3O4/C electrodes (used as controls) are unable to operate as effectively under identical testing conditions. To understand the structure-function relationship in the hybrid electrode and the reasons for the enhanced cycling stability, we employed a combination of ex situ and in situ techniques. Our results indicate that the improvements in the hybrid electrode originate from the combination of sequential electrochemical activity of the transition metal oxides with an enhanced electronic conductivity provided by percolating carbon chains.

  19. 全钒液流电池用PTFE-碳纳米管电极的性能%Characteristics of graphite based composite electrodes containing carbon nanotubes for vanadium redox flow batteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李丹丹; 褚有群; 李雯雯; 马淳安

    2013-01-01

      以聚四氟乙烯(PTFE)为黏结剂制备了不同组分的石墨粉(GP)和多壁碳纳米管(MWCNT)复合电极,采用恒电位阶跃、循环伏安、电化学阻抗谱及恒电流充放电等方法系统考察了 GP-MWCNT 复合电极在全钒液流电池(VRFB)体系中的电化学性能。实验结果表明:复合电极中MWCNT含量的增加有利于VRFB正、负极反应的进行,纯MWCNT电极表现出最优的电化学性能;以纯MWCNT电极为正、负极构建的VRFB电池在30 mA/cm2的恒电流充放电条件下表现出了良好的稳定性和电化学性能,电流效率、电压效率和能量效率分别为96%、87%和84%。%Graphite (GP) based composite electrodes containing multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) were prepared for vanadium redox flow batteries (VRFB) using polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) as binding agent. Electrochemical performance of the GP-MWCNT composite electrodes was characterized by chronoamperometry, cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The results showed that both positive and negative electrode reactions of VRFB benefited from the use of more MWCNT in the composite electrode, and the best electrochemical performance was obtained with pure MWCNT electrode. A VRFB was therefore constructed using pure MWCNT electrodes as both the positive and negative electrodes. Preliminary charge/discharge tests at a current density of 30 mA/cm2 demonstrated that the VRFB had a good stability and electrochemical performance. The current efficiency, voltage efficiency and energy efficiency were 96%, 87%and 84%, respectively.

  20. Direct Observation of Active Material Concentration Gradients and Crystallinity Breakdown in LiFePO4 Electrodes During Charge/Discharge Cycling of Lithium Batteries

    OpenAIRE

    Roberts, Matthew R.; Madsen, Alex; Nicklin, Chris; Rawle, Jonathan; Palmer, M.; Owen, John R.; Hector, Andrew L.

    2014-01-01

    The phase changes that occur during discharge of an electrode comprised of LiFePO4, carbon, and PTFE binder have been studied in lithium half cells by using X-ray diffraction measurements in reflection geometry. Differences in the state of charge between the front and the back of LiFePO4 electrodes have been visualized. By modifying the X-ray incident angle the depth of penetration of the X-ray beam into the electrode was altered, allowing for the examination of any concentration gradients th...

  1. Button batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swallowing batteries ... These devices use button batteries: Calculators Cameras Hearing aids Penlights Watches ... If a person puts the battery up their nose and breathes it further in, ... problems Cough Pneumonia (if the battery goes unnoticed) ...

  2. Electrochemical and impedance investigation of the effect of lithium malonate on the performance of natural graphite electrodes in lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Xiao-Guang; Dai, Sheng [Chemical Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, One Bethel Valley Road, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States)

    2010-07-01

    Lithium malonate (LM) was coated on the surface of a natural graphite (NG) electrode, which was then tested as the negative electrode in the electrolytes of 0.9 M LiPF{sub 6}/EC-PC-DMC (1/1/3, w/w/w) and 1.0 M LiBF{sub 4}/EC-PC-DMC (1/1/3, w/w/w) under a current density of 0.075 mA cm{sup -2}. LM was also used as an additive to the electrolyte of 1.0 M LiPF{sub 6}/EC-DMC-DEC (1/1/1, v/v/v) and tested on a bare graphite electrode. It was found that both the surface coating and the additive approach were effective in improving first charge-discharge capacity and coulomb efficiency. Electrochemical impedance spectra showed that the decreased interfacial impedance was coupled with improved coulomb efficiency of the cells using coated graphite electrodes. Cyclic voltammograms (CVs) on fresh bare and coated natural graphite electrodes confirmed that all the improvement in the half-cell performance was due to the suppression of the solvent decomposition through the surface modification with LM. The CV data also showed that the carbonate electrolyte with LM as the additive was not stable against oxidation, which resulted in lower capacity of the full cell with commercial graphite and LiCoO{sub 2} electrodes. (author)

  3. Electrochemical and impedance investigation of the effect of lithium malonate on the performance of natural graphite electrodes in lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Xiao-Guang [ORNL; Dai, Sheng [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    Lithium malonate (LM) was coated on the surface of a natural graphite (NG) electrode, which was then tested as the negative electrode in the electrolytes of 0.9 M LiPF6/EC-PC-DMC (1/1/3, by weight) and 1.0 M LiBF4/EC-PC-DMC (1/1/3, by weight) under a current density of 0.075 mA cm-2. LM was also used as an additive to the electrolyte of 1.0 M LiPF6/EC-DMC-DEC (1/1/1, by volume) and tested on a bare graphite electrode. It was found that both the surface coating and the additive approach were effective in improving first charge discharge capacity and coulomb efficiency. Electrochemical impedance spectra showed that the decreased interfacial impedance was coupled with improved coulomb efficiency of the cells using coated graphite electrodes. Cyclic voltammograms (CVs) on fresh bare and coated natural graphite electrodes confirmed that all the improvement in the half-cell performance was due to the suppression of the solvent decomposition through the surface modification with LM. The CV data also showed that the carbonate electrolyte with LM as the additive was not stable against oxidation, which resulted in lower capacity of the full cell with commercial graphite and LiCoO2 electrodes.

  4. Study of the interface between Na-rich and Li-rich phases in a Na-inserted spinel Li4Ti5O12 crystal for an electrode of a sodium-ion battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitta, Mitsunori; Kataoka, Riki; Kohyama, Masanori

    2016-07-20

    Spinel lithium titanate (LTO; Li4Ti5O12) is one of the promising materials for negative electrodes of sodium-ion batteries (SIBs). The stable charge-discharge performance of SIB cells using LTO electrodes depends on the reversible Na insertion-extraction mechanism of LTO, where the spinel lattice is expanded with Na insertion, and two phases, Na-inserted LTO (Na-LTO) and Li-inserted LTO (Li-LTO) phases, are generated. These phases are confirmed using X-ray diffraction (XRD), while the mechanism of the two-phase coexistence with different lattice volumes is yet unclear. Here, we investigate the detailed morphology of the coexisting Na-LTO and Li-LTO phases using in situ XRD measurements and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observation. Na-LTO (a = 8.74 Å) and Li-LTO (a = 8.36 Å) phases are confirmed in both the electrochemically formed Na-inserted LTO electrode and the single-crystalline LTO thin specimen. We observed that the Na-LTO/Li-LTO interface is parallel to the (001) plane, and contains an inevitable lattice mismatch along the interface, while the expansion of the Na-LTO phase can be partially relaxed normal to the interface. We observed that the Na-LTO/Li-LTO interface has interface layers of lattice disordering with a 1-2 nm width, relaxing the lattice mismatch, as opposed to results from the previous scanning TEM observation. How the different lattice volumes at the two-phase interface are relaxed should be the key issue in investigation of the mechanism of Na insertion and extraction in LTO electrodes. PMID:27391208

  5. Lithium Ion Battery Anode Aging Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Agubra

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Degradation mechanisms such as lithium plating, growth of the passivated surface film layer on the electrodes and loss of both recyclable lithium ions and electrode material adversely affect the longevity of the lithium ion battery. The anode electrode is very vulnerable to these degradation mechanisms. In this paper, the most common aging mechanisms occurring at the anode during the operation of the lithium battery, as well as some approaches for minimizing the degradation are reviewed.

  6. An ionization chamber with magnetic levitated electrodes

    CERN Document Server

    Kawaguchi, T

    1999-01-01

    A new type of ionization chamber which has magnetically levitated electrodes has been developed. The electrodes are supplied voltages for the repelling of ions by a battery which is also levitated with the electrodes. The characteristics of this ionization chamber are investigated in this paper.

  7. 自由基聚合物——一类新颖的高性能二次电池材料%Radical Polymer —A New Class of High Performance Electrode Materials for Rechargeable Batteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵瑞瑞; 朱利敏; 杨汉西

    2011-01-01

    Radical polymers are aliphatic or nonconjugated polymers bearing organic redox radicals as pendant groups on their structural unit. These radical sites populated in large densities allow the electrochemical redox reaction taking place through the polymer layer by redox gradient-driven electron transport and behave as electroactive centers. Since radical polymer can be designed with a large population of redox radicals and electron exchange between the radical sites are usually very fast, they are considered as a new class of charge storage and transport materials with the possibility to provide high electrical storage capacity and high charge-discharge rate capability. Particularly, these polymers are completely organic with the advantage of being fully substainable, they are ideal for the displacement of inorganic materials in diverse applications such as electrochemical supercapacitors,photovoltaic cells and rechargeable batteries. This paper is intended to review the structural characteristics,electrochemical reaction mechanisms and current development status of the radical polymers as electode-active materials, with focus on the technological challenges and ongoing research strategies of these novel electrode materials as used for construction of high capacity and high rate rechargeable batteries. Also, the problems in the development of radical polymer electrodes are discussed.%自由基聚合物是一种新近发展迅速的电荷储存与传输材料,在电化学超级电容器、光电转换器件、二次电池等方面具有诱人的应用前景.本文着重介绍这类新颖电极材料的结构特征、电化学反应机制,以及国内外的研究发展现状;分析了采用自由基聚合物构建新型二次电池的技术途径和发展趋势.

  8. 全钒离子氧化还原液流电池电极活性物质的研究%Study on Electrode Active Materials for all Vanadium Redox Flow Battery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张环华; 肖楚民; 张平民

    2000-01-01

    介绍了以VOSO4为原料,电解制备全钒离子氧化还原液流电池的正极活性物质V(Ⅴ)盐和负极活性物V(Ⅱ)盐,并用循环伏安法研究了它们在石墨电极上的电化学性质。结果表明,在硫酸溶液中,作为全钒电池的正极和负极V(Ⅴ)/V(Ⅳ)和V(Ⅲ)/V(Ⅱ)电对在石墨电极上的氧化还原反应均为单电子准可逆过程.%Electrolytic method to prepare positive and negative active materials from VOSO4 sulphuric acid solution for all vanadium redox flow battery is described. V(Ⅴ)salt is obtained in anode area and V(Ⅱ) salt is in cathode area. The electrochemical behaviour of the two series salt on graphite electrode have also been studied by cyclic voltammetry. The results showed that the redox reactions of V(Ⅴ)/V(Ⅳ) and V(Ⅲ)/V(Ⅱ) couples in sulfuric adid,which are used for anolyte and catholyte in a redox flow battery,is qusi-reversible.

  9. Effects of Propylene Carbonate Content in CsPF6-Containing Electrolytes on the Enhanced Performances of Graphite Electrode for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Jianming; Yan, Pengfei; Cao, Ruiguo; Xiang, Hongfa; Engelhard, Mark H.; Polzin, Bryant; Wang, Chong M.; Zhang, Jiguang; Xu, Wu

    2016-02-10

    Cesium salt has been demonstrated as an efficient electrolyte additive in suppressing the lithium (Li) dendrite formation and directing the formation of an ultrathin and stable solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) even in propylene carbonate (PC)-ethylene carbonate (EC)-based electrolytes. Here, we further investigate the effect of PC content in the presence of CsPF6 additive (0.05 M) on the performances of graphite electrode in Li||graphite half cells and in graphite||LiNi0.80Co0.15Al0.05O2 (NCA) full cells. It is found that the performance of graphite electrode is also affected by PC content even though CsPF6 additive is present in the electrolytes. An optimal PC content of 20% by weight in the solvent mixtures is identified. The enhanced electrochemical performance of graphite electrode is attributed to the synergistic effects of the Cs+ additive and the PC solvent. The formation of a robust, ultrathin and compact SEI layer containing lithium-enriched species on the graphite electrode, directed by Cs+, effectively suppresses the PC co-intercalation and thus prevents the graphite exfoliation. This SEI layer is only permeable for de-solvated Li+ ions and allows fast Li+ ion transport through it, which therefore largely alleviates the Li dendrite formation on graphite electrode during lithiation even at high current densities. The presence of low-melting-point PC solvent also enables the sustainable operation of the graphite||NCA full cells under a wide spectrum of temperatures. The fundamental findings of this work shed light on the importance of manipulating/maintaining the electrode/electrolyte interphasial stability in a variety of energy storage devices.

  10. Design and Evaluation of a Three Dimensionally Ordered Macroporous Structure within a Highly Patterned Cylindrical Sn-Ni Electrode for Advanced Lithium Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongcheng Jin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A 3-dimensionally ordered macroporous (3DOM structure within a highly patterned cylindrical Sn-Ni alloy electrode was tailored by using various monodispersed polystyrene (PS templates via a colloidal crystal templating process coupled with an electroplating process. The pore size and the wall thickness in the “inverse opal” 3DOM structure were increased with increasing the size of the PS template beads used in this study. The electrochemical performance of prepared electrodes was examined in order to reveal the correlation between the rate capability and the 3DOM structure. Except the electrode with 1.2 μm pores, the discharge capacities gradually decreased with increasing the current density, showing a capacity conservation ratio of 87% for the electrode with 0.5 μm pores and that of 84% for the electrode with 3.0 μm pores when the current density increased from 0.05 mA cm−2 to 2.0 mA cm−2. The reason for this difference is attributed to the fact that the wall thickness of less than 0.5 μm in the electrode with 1.2 μm pores has a short Li+ diffusion distance in solid-state walls. In addition, it is expected that high regularity of 3DOM structure plays a great role on rate capability. Consequently, the 3DOM structure prepared from 1.2 μm PS template beads was favorable for improving the rate capability.

  11. Study of C-coated LiFe0.33Mn0.67PO4 as positive electrode material for Li-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Commercial C-LiFe0.33Mn0.67PO4 positive electrode material has been investigated by 57Fe Mössbauer Spectroscopy (MS), X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS). The combined use of these experimental techniques provides a better understanding of the electrochemical reaction involved during cycling. 57Fe MS is very efficient to directly follow oxidation state of Fe in the electrode, and gives surprisingly indirect information on the oxidation state of Mn as observed by XAS and XPS. The electrochemical mechanism is proposed based from in situ and operando investigations using both MS and XAS, and is consistent with XPS surface studies. XPS analysis of the electrodes at the end of charge (4.4 V) reveals enhanced electrode/electrolyte interface reactivity at this high potential. Aging of C-LiFe0.33Mn0.67PO4/Li cells after 50 cycles at 60 °C indicates a rather good electrochemical behavior (low capacity fading) of the electrode material. Both 57Fe MS and XPS (Mn 2p and Fe 2p) clearly show no modification on Fe and Mn oxidation state compared to fresh electrode confirming the good electrochemical performances. - Graphical abstrct: Quantitative evaluation of the Fe3+ and Mn3+ content during the first charge/discharge cycle obtained from K-edge XANES spectra of C-LiFe0.33Mn0.67PO4 recorded upon cell operation at RT with C/10 rate. During the charge co-existence of Fe and Mn oxidation is observed between points 2 and 4 of the potential curve. At the end of the charge the cut-off voltage limits the oxidation at about 93%. Highlights: ► C-LiFe0.33Mn0.67PO4 electrode material upon cycling vs. metallic lithium. ► 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy is a (in)direct probe for Fe(Mn) oxidation state. ► Both K–Fe and K–Mn edges XAS show a simultaneous oxidation of Fe2+ and Mn2+ in a small range of compositions. ► Surface analysis from XPS allows reveals slight differences at the surface of the electrode with respect to the bulk.

  12. Atomic Insight into the Lithium Storage and Diffusion Mechanism of SiO2/Al2O3 Electrodes of Lithium Ion Batteries: ReaxFF Reactive Force Field Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostadhossein, Alireza; Kim, Sung-Yup; Cubuk, Ekin D; Qi, Yue; van Duin, Adri C T

    2016-04-01

    Atomically deposited layers of SiO2 and Al2O3 have been recognized as promising coating materials to buffer the volumetric expansion and capacity retention upon the chemo-mechanical cycling of the nanostructured silicon- (Si-) based electrodes. Furthermore, silica (SiO2) is known as a promising candidate for the anode of next-generation lithium ion batteries (LIBs) due to its superior specific charge capacity and low discharge potential similar to Si anodes. In order to describe Li-transport in mixed silica/alumina/silicon systems we developed a ReaxFF potential for Li-Si-O-Al interactions. Using this potential, a series of hybrid grand canonical Monte Carlo (GCMC) and molecular dynamic (MD) simulations were carried out to probe the lithiation behavior of silica structures. The Li transport through both crystalline and amorphous silica was evaluated using the newly optimized force field. The anisotropic diffusivity of Li in crystalline silica cases is demonstrated. The ReaxFF diffusion study also verifies the transferability of the new force field from crystalline to amorphous phases. Our simulation results indicates the capability of the developed force field to examine the energetics and kinetics of lithiation as well as Li transportation within the crystalline/amorphous silica and alumina phases and provide a fundamental understanding on the lithiation reactions involved in the Si electrodes covered by silica/alumina coating layers. PMID:26978039

  13. In-situ, Real-Time Monitoring of Mechanical and Chemical Structure Changes in a V2O5 Battery Electrode Using a MEMS Optical Sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, H. [University of Maryland; Gerasopoulos, K. [University of Maryland; Gnerlich, Markus [University of Maryland; Talin, A. Alec [Sandia National Laboratories; Ghodssi, Reza [University of Maryland

    2014-06-01

    This work presents the first demonstration of a MEMS optical sensor for in-situ, real-time monitoring of both mechanical and chemical structure evolutions in a V2O5 lithium-ion battery (LIB) cathode during battery operation. A reflective membrane forms one side of a Fabry-Perot (FP) interferometer, while the other side is coated with V2O5 and exposed to electrolyte in a half-cell LIB. Using one microscope and two laser sources, both the induced membrane deflection and the corresponding Raman intensity changes are observed during lithium cycling. Results are in good agreement with the expected mechanical behavior and disorder change of the V2O5 layers, highlighting the significant potential of MEMS as enabling tools for advanced scientific investigations.

  14. Combining mechanical and chemical effects in the deformation and failure of a cylindrical electrode particle in a Li-ion battery

    OpenAIRE

    Chakraborty, Jeevanjyoti; Please, Colin P.; Goriely, Alain; Chapman, S. Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    A general framework to study the mechanical behaviour of a cylindrical silicon anode particle in a lithium ion battery as it undergoes lithiation is presented. The two-way coupling between stress and concentration of lithium in silicon, including the possibility of plastic deformation, is taken into account and two particular cases are considered. First, the cylindrical particle is assumed to be free of surface traction and second, the axial deformation of the cylinder is prevented. In both c...

  15. Operando Measurement of Solid Electrolyte Interphase Formation at Working Electrode of Li-Ion Battery by Time-Slicing Neutron Reflectometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaura, Hiroyuki; Harada, Masashi; Kondo, Yasuhito; Kondo, Hiroki; Suganuma, Yoshitake; Takahashi, Naoko; Sugiyama, Jun; Seno, Yoshiki; Yamada, Norifumi L

    2016-04-20

    We report the first operando measurement of solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) formation at an electrode using in situ neutron reflectometry. The results revealed the growth of the SEI and intercalation of ions during the charge reaction. Furthermore, we propose a way of evaluating the charge used for the SEI formation. PMID:27031783

  16. A Novel In-situ Electrochemical Cell for Neutron Diffraction Studies of Phase Transitions in Small Volume Electrodes of Li-ion Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vadlamani, Bhaskar S [ORNL; An, Ke [ORNL; Jagannathan, M. [University of Utah; Ravi Chandran, K. [University of Utah

    2014-01-01

    The design and performance of a novel in-situ electrochemical cell that greatly facilitates the neutron diffraction study of complex phase transitions in small volume electrodes of Li-ion cells, is presented in this work. Diffraction patterns that are Rietveld-refinable could be obtained simultaneously for all the electrodes, which demonstrates that the cell is best suited to explore electrode phase transitions driven by the lithiation and delithiation processes. This has been facilitated by the use of single crystal (100) Si sheets as casing material and the planar cell configuration, giving improved signal-to-noise ratio relative to other casing materials. The in-situ cell has also been designed for easy assembly and to facilitate rapid experiments. The effectiveness of cell is demonstrated by tracking the neutron diffraction patterns during the charging of graphite/LiCoO2 and graphite/LiMn2O4 cells. It is shown that good quality neutron diffraction data can be obtained and that most of the finer details of the phase transitions, and the associated changes in crystallographic parameters in these electrodes, can be captured.

  17. The influence of the pickling and curing processes in the manufacturing of positive tubular electrodes on the performance of lead-acid batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferg, E. E.; Geyer, L.; Poorun, A.

    The effects of changing the dipping and curing times of tubular positive electrodes on the discharge capacity were investigated. The comparative study showed that longer dipping and curing times do not necessarily result in electrodes with better first capacity performance. Acid adsorption studies of tubular plates filled with lead oxide showed that about one-third of the acid, that would have been adsorbed after 15 h, was already adsorbed after 5 s of dipping. The optimum surface area and porosity of the cured active material was obtained after 15-60 min of dipping. This is equivalent to the rest period used in the formation process where the plates are kept in the acid just before charging. Curing times should be kept around 24 h in order to reduce the free lead in the oxide. The study showed that the pore size distribution of the formed active material influenced the high current discharge ability more than the available surface area of the positive electrode. However, the surface area and pore size distribution changed dramatically during capacity cycling and the continuous capacity performance of the tubular electrode was partially influenced by the initial characteristics of the cured active material.

  18. Fading mechanisms of carbon-coated and disproportionated Si/SiOx negative electrode (Si/SiOx/C) in Li-ion secondary batteries: Dynamics and component analysis by TEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Fading mechanism in Si/SiOx/C was investigated with a macroscopic technique. ► STEM-EDX enabled qualitative and quantitative analysis of the electrode. ► Local fading was induced by contact loss of active material with conducting carbon. ► The limited buffering role of lithium silicates caused a hump behavior. ► Global fading was attributed to a crumbling of Si/SiOx during alloying/de-alloying. - Abstract: This article addresses the fading mechanisms observed in carbon-coated and disproportionated Si/SiOx/C negative electrode for Li-ion secondary batteries. A combined characterization revealed that Si/SiOx consisted of multiple nano-sized domains of amorphous Si and SiOx, with some crystalline Si. The initial discharge capacity of Si/SiOx/C was 1380 mAh g−1, however, it decreased to 578 mAh g−1 at the 90th cycle. The electrode exhibited two different fading modes: local fading and global fading. Through intensive TEM analysis, it was concluded that both fading modes were closely related to the structural change in Si/SiOx/C during alloying/de-alloying. Local fading was induced by the contact loss between active material and conducting carbon, and the limited buffering effect of lithium silicates. Global fading was attributed to the crumbling of Si/SiOx, which limited further alloying, leading to ever decreasing discharge capacity. Both fading modes were thoroughly investigated and monitored by qualitative and quantitative STEM-EDX analysis.

  19. Anodes - Materials for negative electrodes in electrochemical energy technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holze, Rudolf

    2014-06-01

    The basic concepts of electrodes and electrochemical cells (including both galvanic and electrolytic ones) are introduced and illustrated with practical examples. Particular attention is paid to negative electrodes in primary and secondary cells, fuel cell electrodes and electrodes in redox flow batteries. General features and arguments pertaining to selection, optimization and further development are highlighted.

  20. Coated carbon nanotube array electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zhifeng; Wen, Jian; Chen, Jinghua; Huang, Zhongping; Wang, Dezhi

    2008-10-28

    The present invention provides conductive carbon nanotube (CNT) electrode materials comprising aligned CNT substrates coated with an electrically conducting polymer, and the fabrication of electrodes for use in high performance electrical energy storage devices. In particular, the present invention provides conductive CNTs electrode material whose electrical properties render them especially suitable for use in high efficiency rechargeable batteries. The present invention also provides methods for obtaining surface modified conductive CNT electrode materials comprising an array of individual linear, aligned CNTs having a uniform surface coating of an electrically conductive polymer such as polypyrrole, and their use in electrical energy storage devices.

  1. Computer Aided Battery Engineering Consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pesaran, Ahmad

    2016-06-07

    A multi-national lab collaborative team was assembled that includes experts from academia and industry to enhance recently developed Computer-Aided Battery Engineering for Electric Drive Vehicles (CAEBAT)-II battery crush modeling tools and to develop microstructure models for electrode design - both computationally efficient. Task 1. The new Multi-Scale Multi-Domain model framework (GH-MSMD) provides 100x to 1,000x computation speed-up in battery electrochemical/thermal simulation while retaining modularity of particles and electrode-, cell-, and pack-level domains. The increased speed enables direct use of the full model in parameter identification. Task 2. Mechanical-electrochemical-thermal (MECT) models for mechanical abuse simulation were simultaneously coupled, enabling simultaneous modeling of electrochemical reactions during the short circuit, when necessary. The interactions between mechanical failure and battery cell performance were studied, and the flexibility of the model for various batteries structures and loading conditions was improved. Model validation is ongoing to compare with test data from Sandia National Laboratories. The ABDT tool was established in ANSYS. Task 3. Microstructural modeling was conducted to enhance next-generation electrode designs. This 3- year project will validate models for a variety of electrodes, complementing Advanced Battery Research programs. Prototype tools have been developed for electrochemical simulation and geometric reconstruction.

  2. Anode properties and morphology evolution of three-dimensional lithium-ion battery electrodes comprising Ni-coated Si microchannel plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Fei; Zhu, Shanshan; Li, Mai; Lou, Xuefeng; Hui, Keshuang; Xu, Shaohui; Yang, Pingxiong [Laboratory of Polar Materials and Devices, Ministry of Education, Department of Electronic Engineering, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200241 (China); Wang, Lianwei, E-mail: lwwang@ee.ecnu.edu.cn [Laboratory of Polar Materials and Devices, Ministry of Education, Department of Electronic Engineering, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200241 (China); Chen, Yiwei [Department of Physics, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200241 (China); Chu, Paul K. [Department of Physics and Material Sciences, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)

    2013-06-25

    Highlights: ► Decreasing the Li insertion/extraction level will improve the cyclic performances. ► The morphology of the Ni/Si-MCP after the galvanostatic cycles was examined. ► The mechanism of electrode fading was investigated and described. -- Abstract: Using lithium foils as the counter electrodes and Ni-coated Si microchannel plates (Si-MCPs) as the matrix and active materials, half-cells were fabricated and tested. Galvanostatic charge–discharge (C–D) measurements were conducted at 100 mA g{sup −1} between 0.05 and 1.5 V. By decreasing the Li insertion/extraction level, the Ni/Si-MCP anode retained the reversible discharge capacity of 1000 mA h g{sup −1} for 80 cycles and 500 mA h g{sup −1} for 104 cycles, respectively. The morphology of the Ni/Si-MCP after the galvanostatic cycles was examined by scanning electron microscope (SEM). Based on the results of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), the mechanism of electrode fading was investigated and described.

  3. Flexible lithium-ion planer thin-film battery

    KAUST Repository

    Kutbee, Arwa T.

    2016-02-03

    Commercialization of wearable electronics requires miniaturized, flexible power sources. Lithium ion battery is a strong candidate as the next generation high performance flexible battery. The development of flexible materials for battery electrodes suffers from the limited material choices. In this work, we present a flexible inorganic lithium-ion battery with no restrictions on the materials used. The battery showed an enhanced normalized capacity of 146 ??Ah/cm2.

  4. 从废旧碱性锌锰电池极性材料中浸出锌的试验研究%Experimental Reseach on Leaching of Zinc From Electrode Material in Spent Alkaline Zn-Mn Battery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙铜; 伍碧; 彭蜀君; 孙维义; 丁桑岚; 苏仕军

    2013-01-01

    The leaching of zinc from electrode materials of spent alkaline Zn-Mn battery using acids was not ideal ,and it was difficult to separate zinc from manganese in leaching solution .The leaching mechanism of zinc from electrode materials in ammonia and NH3 · H2 O-(NH4 )2 SO4 system respectively were investigated . The results showed that in ammonia system ,the leaching rate of zinc only reached 45% when the electrode materials were leached for 40 min at room temperature using 25% ammonia aqueous solution at V(liquid)∶m(solid) of 15∶1 .After adding (NH4)2SO4 into ammonia aqueous system ,the leaching rate of zinc reached 96% when the electrode materials were leached for 20 min at the conditions of room temperature ,(N H4 )2 SO4 mass concentration of 200 g/L and V (liquid)∶ m(solid) of 15∶1 using 25% ammonia aqueous solution .%  针对从废旧碱性锌锰电池极性材料酸浸锌时选择性差以及锌、锰分离困难等问题。研究了在N H3· H2 O体系和N H3· H2 O-(N H4)2 SO4体系中浸出锌。结果表明:在N H3· H2 O体系中,氨水质量分数为25%、液固体积质量比为15∶1、浸出时间40 min条件下,锌浸出率最高仅为45%;在 N H3· H2 O-(N H4)2 SO4体系中,氨水质量分数为25%、硫酸铵质量浓度为200 g/L、液固体积质量比为15∶1、浸出时间为20 min条件下,锌浸出率最高达96%。氨水中加入硫酸铵可以促进锌的选择性浸出。

  5. Fully Coupled Simulation of Lithium Ion Battery Cell Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trembacki, Bradley L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Murthy, Jayathi Y. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Roberts, Scott Alan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Lithium-ion battery particle-scale (non-porous electrode) simulations applied to resolved electrode geometries predict localized phenomena and can lead to better informed decisions on electrode design and manufacturing. This work develops and implements a fully-coupled finite volume methodology for the simulation of the electrochemical equations in a lithium-ion battery cell. The model implementation is used to investigate 3D battery electrode architectures that offer potential energy density and power density improvements over traditional layer-by-layer particle bed battery geometries. Advancement of micro-scale additive manufacturing techniques has made it possible to fabricate these 3D electrode microarchitectures. A variety of 3D battery electrode geometries are simulated and compared across various battery discharge rates and length scales in order to quantify performance trends and investigate geometrical factors that improve battery performance. The energy density and power density of the 3D battery microstructures are compared in several ways, including a uniform surface area to volume ratio comparison as well as a comparison requiring a minimum manufacturable feature size. Significant performance improvements over traditional particle bed electrode designs are observed, and electrode microarchitectures derived from minimal surfaces are shown to be superior. A reduced-order volume-averaged porous electrode theory formulation for these unique 3D batteries is also developed, allowing simulations on the full-battery scale. Electrode concentration gradients are modeled using the diffusion length method, and results for plate and cylinder electrode geometries are compared to particle-scale simulation results. Additionally, effective diffusion lengths that minimize error with respect to particle-scale results for gyroid and Schwarz P electrode microstructures are determined.

  6. Characterization and analysis of the negative electrode active materials in spent lithium-ion secondary batteries%废锂离子电池负极活性材料的分析测试

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏静; 张哲鸣; 贺文智; 李光明; 李心砚; 王琢璞; 李舒

    2013-01-01

    目前关于废锂离子电池资源化的研究主要集中在正极贵金属和负极铜材料的分离回收和精制方面,但对负极活性材料的资源化研究很少。本文采用XRD、SEM、GC-MS、ICP-AES等检测手段对废锂离子电池负极活性材料中石墨的结构、有机物的种类以及Li、Gu等金属的含量进行测试分析。结果显示,其主要组分石墨的本体结构基本无变化,仍保持完整的层状结构,但是其中含有一定量的有机物质,如有机电解质及增塑剂等。经过提纯,可以将其作为石墨原料进行资源化再利用;此外,稀有金属Li含量较高,为31.03 mg/g,分离回收的价值较高。%At present,the research on spent lithium-ion secondary batteries is mainly focused on the separation recovery and refinery of precious metals in positive materials and copper in negative materials. But the research on negative active materials is rare. In this paper,the negative electrode active materials in spent lithium-ion secondary batteries are tested by XRD、SEM、GC-MS、ICP-AES, including the structure of graphite,the kinds of organic matter,and metal contents. The results show that there is basically no change in the graphite material body structure,it still keeps the complete layer structure. However,it contains a certain amount of organic material,such as organic electrolyte and plasticizer,etc. It can be reused after purification. What is more,the concentration of Li is high,with the value of 31.03 mg/g. Regarding the recovery of negative electrode active materials,the separation recycling of Li also should be concerned.

  7. Lithium-ion battery electrode prepared by confining carbon nanotubes/V2O5 nanoribbons suspension in model air-liquid foams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carn, Florent; Morcrette, Mathieu; Desport, Barthélemy; Backov, Rénal

    2013-03-01

    Well-defined macroporous V2O5-CNTs hybrid solid foams are synthesized in the form of monolith by a controlled bubbling process. For the first time, the solid phase results from the co-assembly of two different anisotropic nano-building blocks in the continuous phase of model foams whose bubble size and liquid fraction could be tuned. Their electrochemical properties were examined in view of their application as cathode for Li-ion battery. This first investigation revealed that capacity up to 250 mAh g-1 (i.e. 2 Li per V2O5) can be attain with a good retention under cycles when CNTs are present making these new cellular materials interesting candidate for systems which require the penetration of viscous ionic-liquid/polymer electrolytes.

  8. Electrochemical Activity of a La0.9Ca0.1Co1−xFexO3 Catalyst for a Zinc Air Battery Electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seungwook Eom

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The optimum composition of cathode catalyst has been studied for rechargeable zinc air battery application. La0.9Ca0.1Co1−xFexO3  (x=0–0.4 perovskite powders were prepared using the citrate method. The substitution ratio of Co2+ with Fe3+ cations was controlled in the range of 0–0.4. The optimum substitution ratio of Fe3+ cations was determined by electrochemical measurement of the air cathode composed of the catalyst, polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE binder, and Vulcan XC-72 carbon. The substitution by Fe enhanced the electrochemical performances of the catalysts. Considering oxygen reduction/evolution reactions and cyclability, we achieved optimum substitution level of x=0.1 in La0.9Ca0.1Co1−xFexO3.

  9. High-intensity ultrasonication as a way to prepare graphene/amorphous iron oxyhydroxide hybrid electrode with high capacity in lithium battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, José R; Menéndez, Rosa; Alcántara, Ricardo; Nacimiento, Francisco; Tirado, José L; Zhecheva, Ekaterina; Stoyanova, Radostina

    2015-05-01

    The preparation of graphene/iron oxyhydroxide hybrid electrode material with very homogeneous distribution and close contact of graphene and amorphous iron oxyhydroxide nanoparticles has been achieved by using high-intensity ultrasonication. Due to the negative charge of the graphene surface, iron ions are attracted toward the surface of dispersed graphene, according to the zeta potential measurements. The anchoring of the FeO(OH) particles to the graphene layers has been revealed by using mainly TEM, XPS and EPR. TEM observations show that the size of the iron oxide particles is about 4 nm. The ultrasonication treatment is the key parameter to achieve small particle size in these graphene/iron oxyhydroxide hybrid materials. The electrochemical behavior of composite graphene/amorphous iron oxyhydroxide prepared by using high-intensity ultrasonication is outstanding in terms of gravimetric capacity and cycling stability, particularly when metallic foam is used as both the substrate and current collector. The XRD-amorphous character of iron oxyhydroxide in the hybrid electrode material and the small particle size contribute to achieve the improved electrochemical performance.

  10. Separators for Lithium Ion Batteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    G.C.Li; H.P.Zhang; Y.P.Wu

    2007-01-01

    1 Results A separator for rechargeable batteries is a microporous membrane placed between electrodes of opposite polarity, keeping them apart to prevent electrical short circuits and at the same time allowing rapid transport of lithium ions that are needed to complete the circuit during the passage of current in an electrochemical cell, and thus plays a key role in determining the performance of the lithium ion battery. Here provides a comprehensive overview of various types of separators for lithium io...

  11. Reinforced Positive Filler Paste For Lead/Acid Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Dean B.; Rippel, Wally E.

    1991-01-01

    Lead-coated glass fibers extend battery life. Mixture of lead-coated glass fibers and positive paste form pellets of active material between grid wires of positive battery electrode. Fibers contribute to charge capacity, electrical conductivity, and mechanical stability of electrode.

  12. Lithium-Ion Textile Batteries with Large Areal Mass Loading

    KAUST Repository

    Hu, Liangbing

    2011-10-06

    We integrate Li-ion battery electrode materials into a 3D porous textile conductor by using a simple process. When compared to flat metal current collectors, our 3D porous textile conductor not only greatly facilitates the ability for a high active material mass loading on the battery electrode but also leads to better device performance.

  13. Upgrading Li-battery performance via nanotechnology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Lithium batteries,as a main or back-up power source for mobile communication devices,portable electronic devices and the like,have attracted much attention in the scientific and industrial fields due to their high electromotive force and high energy density.To meet the demand for batteries with higher energy density and improved cycle characteristics in recent years,many attempts have been made to develop new electrode materials or design new structures of electrode materials.

  14. Battery Modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Jongerden, M.R.; Haverkort, B.R.

    2008-01-01

    The use of mobile devices is often limited by the capacity of the employed batteries. The battery lifetime determines how long one can use a device. Battery modeling can help to predict, and possibly extend this lifetime. Many different battery models have been developed over the years. However, with these models one can only compute lifetimes for specific discharge profiles, and not for workloads in general. In this paper, we give an overview of the different battery models that are availabl...

  15. Transparent lithium-ion batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Y.

    2011-07-25

    Transparent devices have recently attracted substantial attention. Various applications have been demonstrated, including displays, touch screens, and solar cells; however, transparent batteries, a key component in fully integrated transparent devices, have not yet been reported. As battery electrode materials are not transparent and have to be thick enough to store energy, the traditional approach of using thin films for transparent devices is not suitable. Here we demonstrate a grid-structured electrode to solve this dilemma, which is fabricated by a microfluidics-assisted method. The feature dimension in the electrode is below the resolution limit of human eyes, and, thus, the electrode appears transparent. Moreover, by aligning multiple electrodes together, the amount of energy stored increases readily without sacrificing the transparency. This results in a battery with energy density of 10 Wh/L at a transparency of 60%. The device is also flexible, further broadening their potential applications. The transparent device configuration also allows in situ Raman study of fundamental electrochemical reactions in batteries.

  16. Microfluidic redox battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jin Wook; Goulet, Marc-Antoni; Kjeang, Erik

    2013-07-01

    A miniaturized microfluidic battery is proposed, which is the first membraneless redox battery demonstrated to date. This unique concept capitalizes on dual-pass flow-through porous electrodes combined with stratified, co-laminar flow to generate electrical power on-chip. The fluidic design is symmetric to allow for both charging and discharging operations in forward, reverse, and recirculation modes. The proof-of-concept device fabricated using low-cost materials integrated in a microfluidic chip is shown to produce competitive power levels when operated on a vanadium redox electrolyte. A complete charge/discharge cycle is performed to demonstrate its operation as a rechargeable battery, which is an important step towards providing sustainable power to lab-on-a-chip and microelectronic applications. PMID:23712370

  17. Microfluidic redox battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jin Wook; Goulet, Marc-Antoni; Kjeang, Erik

    2013-07-01

    A miniaturized microfluidic battery is proposed, which is the first membraneless redox battery demonstrated to date. This unique concept capitalizes on dual-pass flow-through porous electrodes combined with stratified, co-laminar flow to generate electrical power on-chip. The fluidic design is symmetric to allow for both charging and discharging operations in forward, reverse, and recirculation modes. The proof-of-concept device fabricated using low-cost materials integrated in a microfluidic chip is shown to produce competitive power levels when operated on a vanadium redox electrolyte. A complete charge/discharge cycle is performed to demonstrate its operation as a rechargeable battery, which is an important step towards providing sustainable power to lab-on-a-chip and microelectronic applications.

  18. Preparation and characterization of graphene as negative electrode of lithium ion battery%石墨烯的制备及其作为锂离子电池负极的性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵国刚; 李爽; 付长璟

    2013-01-01

    Aimed at in-depth investigation into the performances of grapheme used as the negative e-lectrode of lithium ion battery, this paper features the graphite oxides ( GO), prepared by employing modified Hummers method, using the natural flake graphite as raw materials, and designing the orthogonal experiments. The paper highlights the optimization of the preparation technique of graphene by changing the composition of intercalation, the proportion of oxidant, the oxidation reaction time and temperature, et al. , and the characterization of the composition, structure and electrochemical performance of GO and reduced GO by the methods of XRD, FTIR, Raman and battery charge/discharge test. Results show that, subjected to oxidation, graphite transforms into graphite-intercalation-compound containing different functional groups, such as C = O,-COOH and C-O-C, et al. . Raman spectra of rGO(ID/IG) ratio shows a significantly lower integral intensity than GO. At the current density of 74.4 mA/g0. 1 C, rGO, battery charges and discharges behaves in such a way that negative electrode features the first-cycle discharge capacity of 700 mAh/g, the stable discharge performance after the following 30 cycles, and the reversible capacity of 350 mAh/g.%为更好地研究石墨烯作为锂离子电池负极的性能,采用改进的Hummers方法,以天然鳞片石墨为原料,设计正交实验.通过改变插层剂的组成、氧化剂的比例、氧化反应时间、温度等反应参数来优化石墨烯的制备工艺,并通过XRD、FTIR、Raman和电池充放电测试等方法对产物的组成、结构和电化学性能进行表征.结果表明:石墨经氧化后形成了含有C=O、-COOH和C-O-C等官能团的石墨层间化合物;Raman光谱中rGO的积分强度比(ID/IG)比GO明显降低;在74.4 mA/g约为0.1C的电流密度下进行电池充放电,rGO负极的首次放电容量为700 mAh/g,30次循环电池放电性能稳定,可逆容量为350 mAh/g.

  19. High throughput production of nanocomposite SiO x powders by plasma spray physical vapor deposition for negative electrode of lithium ion batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiichiro Homma

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Nanocomposite Si/SiO x powders were produced by plasma spray physical vapor deposition (PS-PVD at a material throughput of 480 g h−1. The powders are fundamentally an aggregate of primary ~20 nm particles, which are composed of a crystalline Si core and SiO x shell structure. This is made possible by complete evaporation of raw SiO powders and subsequent rapid condensation of high temperature SiO x vapors, followed by disproportionation reaction of nucleated SiO x nanoparticles. When CH4 was additionally introduced to the PS-PVD, the volume of the core Si increases while reducing potentially the SiO x shell thickness as a result of the enhanced SiO reduction, although an unfavorable SiC phase emerges when the C/Si molar ratio is greater than 1. As a result of the increased amount of Si active material and reduced source for irreversible capacity, half-cell batteries made of PS-PVD powders with C/Si = 0.25 have exhibited improved initial efficiency and maintenance of capacity as high as 1000 mAh g−1 after 100 cycles at the same time.

  20. Preparation of Gold Nanoparticles Deposited Silicon Thin Film Electrode by Self-Assembly Method for the Employment of an Anode Material for Lithium Secondary Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halim, Martin; Kim, Jung Sub; Nguyen, Si Hieu; Jeon, Bup Ju; Lee, Joong Kee

    2015-10-01

    This work describes a self-assembly method of gold nanoparticles coating on the surface of silicon thin films for the anode material of lithium secondary batteries. The preparation of the silicon thin films was carried out by electron cyclotron resonance metal organic chemical vapor deposition (ECR-MOCVD) process. The obtained films were further coated with (3-aminopropyl)-trimethoxysilane (APTMS) which has a role to bind the oxygen functional groups on Si surface and the gold nanoparticles. The dispersed gold nanoparticles on the surface of silicon thin films could be prepared due to self-assembly phenomena which interact between attraction and repulsion in gold nanoparticles colloidal solution (GNCS). The use of reducing agent of sodium citrate and tannic acid in GNCS significantly affected the size of gold nanoparticle in our experimental range. Based on our experimental results, the higher reversible capacity was exhibited for the silicon that was immersed in the GNCS consisted of only sodium citrate. The GNCS consisted of both sodium citrate and tannic acid produced severe coagulated nanoparticles when deposited on the silicon surface and thus inhibited the lithium movement from electrolyte to silicon surface. Consequently, the reversible capacity of silicon anode material with coagulated gold nanoparticles coating showed the reduced performance. PMID:26726492

  1. ZEBRA battery meets USABC goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dustmann, Cord-H.

    In 1990, the California Air Resources Board has established a mandate to introduce electric vehicles in order to improve air quality in Los Angeles and other capitals. The United States Advanced Battery Consortium has been formed by the big car companies, Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and the Department of Energy in order to establish the requirements on EV-batteries and to support battery development. The ZEBRA battery system is a candidate to power future electric vehicles. Not only because its energy density is three-fold that of lead acid batteries (50% more than NiMH) but also because of all the other EV requirements such as power density, no maintenance, summer and winter operation, safety, failure tolerance and low cost potential are fulfilled. The electrode material is plain salt and nickel in combination with a ceramic electrolyte. The cell voltage is 2.58 V and the capacity of a standard cell is 32 Ah. Some hundred cells are connected in series and parallel to form a battery with about 300 V OCV. The battery system including battery controller, main circuit-breaker and cooling system is engineered for vehicle integration and ready to be mounted in a vehicle [J. Gaub, A. van Zyl, Mercedes-Benz Electric Vehicles with ZEBRA Batteries, EVS-14, Orlando, FL, Dec. 1997]. The background of these features are described.

  2. Modified nickel electrodes: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catalysts in the form of electrode surfaces offer the added dimension of the electrode potential which can be used to manage the catalyst reactivity and in some cases selectivity. The catalytic effect of nickel oxyhydroxide for the electrochemical determination of organics in alkaline media is very common. This has also received substantial thought because of the application of Ni in rechargeable alkaline batteries. This subject matter has been reviewed from different views before. The present review depicts the role of additives and the modifiers towards the enhancement of electro catalytic properties of electrode surface. (author)

  3. Development of a lightweight nickel electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britton, D. L.; Reid, M. A.

    1984-01-01

    Nickel electrodes made using lightweight plastic plaque are about half the weight of electrodes made from state of the art sintered nickel plaque. This weight reduction would result in a significant improvement in the energy density of batteries using nickel electrodes (nickel hydrogen, nickel cadmium and nickel zinc). These lightweight electrodes are suitably conductive and yield comparable capacities (as high as 0.25 AH/gm (0.048 AH/sq cm)) after formation. These lightweight electrodes also show excellent discharge performance at high rates.

  4. Synergetic action of doping and coating on electrochemical performance of lithium manganese spinel as an electrode material for lithium-ion batteries

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Halil Şahan; Mehmet Nurullah Ateş; Fatma Kiliç Dokan; Ahmet Ülgen; Şaban Patat

    2015-02-01

    Spinel LiMn2O4 and multidoped spinel LiMn1.9Co0.025Cr0.025Ni0.025Fe0.025O4 were synthesized by the glycine-nitrate method and coated with lithium borosilicate (LBS) in order to enhance the electrochemical performance at room temperature. The structure and electrochemical performance of all samples were characterized by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer (ICP-MS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential thermal analysis/thermogravimetry (DTA/TG), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and galvanostatic charge–discharge measurements. The XRD analysis shows that the samples exhibit a pure spinel phase. The SEM results indicated that LBS particles had encapsulated the surface of the undoped and multidoped LiMn2O4 without causing any structural change. The charge–discharge tests showed that LiMn1.9Co0.025Cr0.025Ni0.025Fe0.025O4 displays better cycling performance than the pristine LiMn2O4 at room temperature. However, in the same conditions, LBS-coated LiMn1.9Co0.025Cr0.025Ni0.025Fe0.025O4 and LiMn2O4 have better cycling performance than uncoated samples. The results suggest that multidoped and LBS-coated LiMn2O4 could develop into a promising cathode material for lithium ion batteries.

  5. Microwave synthesis of Li{sub 3}V{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}/C as positive-electrode materials for rechargeable lithium batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xi, Yupeng; Zhang, Yanhui; Su, Zhi, E-mail: suzhixj@sina.com

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • High performance LVP/C synthesized by self-assembly microwave oven. • TEM showed the carbon layer is consisted of two kinds of concrete components. • The fast and efficient method make the process feasible commercially. - Abstract: The paper reports a microwave irradiation method to rapidly synthesize Li{sub 3}V{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}/C materials as cathode for lithium ion batteries by the self-assembly microwave reaction oven with carbon seal reactor, using LiH{sub 2}PO{sub 4}, V{sub 2}O{sub 5} and sucrose as raw materials. Sucrose was used to be reducer and carbon source. Thermogravimetric (TG) analysis, X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to characterize its structure and morphology. Electrochemical properties of the Li{sub 3}V{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}/C materials were studied by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and charge–discharge cycling performance. The results showed that the diffraction peaks of the sample correspond to a single-phase, and can be indexed as monoclinic structure with a space group of P2{sub 1}/n. An electrochemical test showed that Li{sub 3}V{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}/C demonstrated an excellent electrochemical capacity of 138 mA h g{sup −1} at 0.2 C rate and 124.1 mA h g{sup −1} at 5 C rate with stable cycle ability.

  6. Ambient operation of Li/Air batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Ji-Guang; Wang, Deyu; Xu, Wu; Xiao, Jie; Williford, R.E. [Energy and Environment Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States)

    2010-07-01

    In this work, Li/air batteries based on nonaqueous electrolytes were investigated in ambient conditions (with an oxygen partial pressure of 0.21 atm and relative humidity of {proportional_to}20%). A heat-sealable polymer membrane was used as both an oxygen-diffusion membrane and as a moisture barrier for Li/air batteries. The membrane also can minimize the evaporation of the electrolyte from the batteries. Li/air batteries with this membrane can operate in ambient conditions for more than one month with a specific energy of 362 Wh kg{sup -1}, based on the total weight of the battery including its packaging. Among various carbon sources used in this work, Li/air batteries using Ketjenblack (KB) carbon-based air electrodes exhibited the highest specific energy. However, KB-based air electrodes expanded significantly and absorbed much more electrolyte than electrodes made from other carbon sources. The weight distribution of a typical Li/air battery using the KB-based air electrode was dominated by the electrolyte ({proportional_to}70%). Lithium metal anodes and KB-carbon account for only 5.12% and 5.78% of the battery weight, respectively. We also found that only {proportional_to}20% of the mesopore volume of the air electrode was occupied by reaction products after discharge. To further improve the specific energy of the Li/air batteries, the microstructure of the carbon electrode needs to be further improved to absorb much less electrolyte while still holding significant amounts of reaction products. (author)

  7. A Simple Analytical Model of Coupled Single Flow Channel over Porous Electrode in Vanadium Redox Flow Battery with Serpentine Flow Channel

    CERN Document Server

    Ke, Xinyou; Prahl, Joseph M; Savinell, Robert F

    2016-01-01

    A simple analytical model of a layered system comprised of a single passage of a serpentine flow channel and a parallel underlying porous electrode (or porous layer) is proposed. This analytical model is derived from Navier-Stokes motion in the flow channel and Darcy-Brinkman model in the porous layer. The continuities of flow velocity and normal stress are applied at the interface between the flow channel and the porous layer. The effects of the inlet volumetric flow rate, thickness of the flow channel and thickness of a typical carbon fiber paper porous layer on the volumetric flow rate within this porous layer are studied. The maximum current density based on the electrolyte volumetric flow rate is predicted, and found to be consistent with reported numerical simulation. It is found that, for a mean inlet flow velocity of 33.3 cm s-1, the analytical maximum current density is estimated to be 377 mA cm-2, which compares favorably with experimental result reported by others of ~400 mA cm-2.

  8. Li{sub 2}NiTiO{sub 4}-a new positive electrode for lithium batteries. Soft-chemistry synthesis and electrochemical characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prabaharan, S.R.S.; Michael, M.S. [Advanced Power Sources Laboratory, Faculty of Engineering, Multimedia University, Centre for Smart Systems and Innovation, Cyberjaya 63100 (Malaysia); Ikuta, H.; Uchimoto, Y.; Wakihara, M. [Department of Applied Chemistry, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Meguro, Tokyo 152-8552 (Japan)

    2004-08-31

    A new lithium-rich phase-pure nanocrystalline Li{sub 2}NiTiO{sub 4} was synthesized via an improved synthetic protocol adopting a simple soft-chemistry approach using carboxylic acid-nitrate method at temperature <300 {sup o}C for the first time. The product was found to crystallize in a cubic rock-salt structure (cation-disordered) as confirmed by Rietveld pattern refinement analysis with the following lattice parameters: a=4.1453(6) A (space group Fm3m). TEM analysis revealed that the size of the primary particles is within the range of 50-100 nm. The reversible lithium removal/insertion characteristics of this new material were demonstrated in a half cell containing the composite electrode of Li{sub 2}NiTiO{sub 4}, black carbon (AB) and PVDF binder (70:20:10) against Li{sup +}/Li. Slow scan cyclicvoltammetry (SSCV) reveals the electrochemical cyclability and redox properties of the new material with deliverable reversible capacity of 91 mA h/g (C rate) and 96 mA h/g (C/2 rate) after first charge/discharge cycle. This high rate Li-insertion/extraction behavior is related to the particle size of the product.

  9. A simple analytical model of coupled single flow channel over porous electrode in vanadium redox flow battery with serpentine flow channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Xinyou; Alexander, J. Iwan D.; Prahl, Joseph M.; Savinell, Robert F.

    2015-08-01

    A simple analytical model of a layered system comprised of a single passage of a serpentine flow channel and a parallel underlying porous electrode (or porous layer) is proposed. This analytical model is derived from Navier-Stokes motion in the flow channel and Darcy-Brinkman model in the porous layer. The continuities of flow velocity and normal stress are applied at the interface between the flow channel and the porous layer. The effects of the inlet volumetric flow rate, thickness of the flow channel and thickness of a typical carbon fiber paper porous layer on the volumetric flow rate within this porous layer are studied. The maximum current density based on the electrolyte volumetric flow rate is predicted, and found to be consistent with reported numerical simulation. It is found that, for a mean inlet flow velocity of 33.3 cm s-1, the analytical maximum current density is estimated to be 377 mA cm-2, which compares favorably with experimental result reported by others of ∼400 mA cm-2.

  10. All-graphene-battery: bridging the gap between supercapacitors and lithium ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Haegyeom; Park, Kyu-Young; Hong, Jihyun; Kang, Kisuk

    2014-01-01

    Herein, we propose an advanced energy-storage system: all-graphene-battery. It operates based on fast surface-reactions in both electrodes, thus delivering a remarkably high power density of 6,450 W kg(-1)(total electrode) while also retaining a high energy density of 225 Wh kg(-1)(total electrode), which is comparable to that of conventional lithium ion battery. The performance and operating mechanism of all-graphene-battery resemble those of both supercapacitors and batteries, thereby blurring the conventional distinction between supercapacitors and batteries. This work demonstrates that the energy storage system made with carbonaceous materials in both the anode and cathode are promising alternative energy-storage devices.

  11. Smart materials for energy storage in Li-ion batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf E Abdel-Ghany

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Advanced lithium-ion batteries contain smart materials having the function of insertion electrodes in the form of powders with specific and optimized electrochemical properties. Different classes can be considered: the surface modified active particles at either positive or negative electrodes, the nano-composite electrodes and the blended materials. In this paper, various systems are described, which illustrate the improvement of lithium-ion batteries in term of specific energy and power, thermal stability and life cycling.

  12. Sodium ion batteries and gel electrolytes

    OpenAIRE

    Gottwald, T.

    2015-01-01

    This work deals with the elecdrode materials and gel electrolytes suitable for sodium-ion batteries (Na-ion batteries). In the field of electrode materials were investigated carbon materials based on CR5995 with added SUPERp or NanoTubes for better conduction end LTO material boath working on the principle of insertion of sodium ion in to the electrode material structure. Another part witch this work deals are gel electrolytes for using in this Na-ion batteries, focused on the preparation and...

  13. Cathode material for lithium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang-Ho; Amine, Khalil

    2013-07-23

    A method of manufacture an article of a cathode (positive electrode) material for lithium batteries. The cathode material is a lithium molybdenum composite transition metal oxide material and is prepared by mixing in a solid state an intermediate molybdenum composite transition metal oxide and a lithium source. The mixture is thermally treated to obtain the lithium molybdenum composite transition metal oxide cathode material.

  14. Flexible separator for alkaline batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheibley, D. W.

    1977-01-01

    Device is fabricated from low-cost readily-available commercial-materials by automated methods utilizing conventional paper coating processes. Flexibility of unit prevents cracking and disintegration caused by electrode warpage and dendrite growth, major causes of early battery failure with present separators.

  15. Vacuum Pyrolysis of Fluoride Retention in Electrode Active Material of Lithium Ion Battery%废旧锂电池电极活性材料真空热解固氟研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢光炎; 凌云; 孙水裕

    2012-01-01

    以废旧锂离子电池电极活性材料为研究对象,在真空热解过程中加入CaO作为固氟剂,用以吸收电极活性材料在真空热解的回收工艺中产生的氟磷化合物,能有效减轻二次污染.研究了温度、CaO添加量、停留时间等热解条件对真空热解固氟效果的影响.结果表明固氟效果随温度的增加而增加,在温度500℃以上变化不大,并略有下降;CaO添加量对固氟效果有促进作用,30%可达到很高的固氟效果;30 min的停留时间对于含氟化合物的分解已经足够.得到CaO固氟工序的最佳操作参数:CaO添加量30%左右,温度500~600℃,停留时间30 min.%With electrode active materials of lithium ion batteries (LIBs)as research objects, CaO as a fluoride retention additive in the vacuum pyrolysis process, fluoride phosphorus compounds produced in the vacuum pyrolysis of electrode active materials can be effectively absorbed, which would reduce the secondary pollution. Effects of pyrolysis conditions such as pyrolysis temperature, CaO addition and residence time on fluoride retention were investigated. Results showed that effects of fluoride retention increased with temperature, and effect of fluoride retention changed a little and slightly decreased above 500 t. CaO addition is helpful to fluoride retention, with 30% of addition quantity to a satisfactory result. 30min residence time for fluoride and phosphorus compound decomposition is sufficient. The optimum conditions of fluoride and phosphorus retention by CaO were 30% CaO addition quantity, temperature 500-600 ℃ and residence time 30 min.

  16. Hierarchically structured materials for lithium batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The lithium-ion battery (LIB) is one of the most promising power sources to be deployed in electric vehicles, including solely battery powered vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, and hybrid electric vehicles. With the increasing demand for devices of high-energy densities (>500 Wh kg−1), new energy storage systems, such as lithium–oxygen (Li–O2) batteries and other emerging systems beyond the conventional LIB, have attracted worldwide interest for both transportation and grid energy storage applications in recent years. It is well known that the electrochemical performance of these energy storage systems depends not only on the composition of the materials, but also on the structure of the electrode materials used in the batteries. Although the desired performance characteristics of batteries often have conflicting requirements with the micro/nano-structure of electrodes, hierarchically designed electrodes can be tailored to satisfy these conflicting requirements. This work will review hierarchically structured materials that have been successfully used in LIB and Li–O2 batteries. Our goal is to elucidate (1) how to realize the full potential of energy materials through the manipulation of morphologies, and (2) how the hierarchical structure benefits the charge transport, promotes the interfacial properties and prolongs the electrode stability and battery lifetime. (paper)

  17. Progress in batteries and solar cells. Volume 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 89 articles in this book are on research in batteries, solar cells and fuel cells. Topics include uses of batteries in electric powered vehicles, load management in power plants, batteries for miniature electronic devices, electrochemical processes, and various electrode and electrolyte materials, including organic compounds. Types of batteries discussed are lithium, lead-acid, manganese dioxide, Silver cells, Air cells, Nickel cells and solar cells. Problems of recharging and life cycle are also discussed

  18. Performance of lightweight nickel electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britton, Doris L.

    1988-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center is currently developing nickel electrodes for nickel-hydrogen (Ni-H2) batteries. These electrodes are lighter in weight and have higher energy densities than the heavier state-of-the-art (SOA) sintered nickel electrodes. In the present approach, lightweight materials or plaques are used as conductive supports for the nickel hydroxide active material. These plaques (fiber and felt, nickel plated plastic and graphite) are commercial products that are fabricated into nickel electrodes by electrochemically impregnating them with active material. Evaluation is performed in half cells structured in the bipolar configuration. Initial performance tests include capacity measurements at five discharge levels, C/2, 1.0C, 1.37C, 2.0C and 2.74C. The electrodes that pass the initial tests are life cycle tested in a low earth orbit regime at 80 percent depth of discharge. Different formulations of nickel fiber materials obtained from several manufacturers are currently being tested as possible candidates for nickel electrodes. One particular lightweight fiber mat electrode has accumulated over 3000 cycles to date, with stable capacity and voltage. Life and performance data of this electrode were investigated and presented. Good dimensional stability and active material adherence have been demonstrated in electrodes made from this lightweight plaque.

  19. Synthesis of 2D/2D Structured Mesoporous Co3O4 Nanosheet/N-Doped Reduced Graphene Oxide Composites as a Highly Stable Negative Electrode for Lithium Battery Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sennu, Palanichamy; Kim, Hyo Sang; An, Jae Youn; Aravindan, Vanchiappan; Lee, Yun-Sung

    2015-08-01

    Mesoporous Co3O4 nanosheets (Co3 O4 -NS) and nitrogen-doped reduced graphene oxide (N-rGO) are synthesized by a facile hydrothermal approach, and the N-rGO/Co3O4 -NS composite is formulated through an infiltration procedure. Eventually, the obtained composites are subjected to various characterization techniques, such as XRD, Raman spectroscopy, surface area analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and TEM. The lithium-storage properties of N-rGO/Co3O4 -NS composites are evaluated in a half-cell assembly to ascertain their suitability as a negative electrode for lithium-ion battery applications. The 2D/2D nanostructured mesoporous N-rGO/Co3O4 -NS composite delivered a reversible capacity of about 1305 and 1501 mAh g(-1) at a current density of 80 mA g(-1) for the 1st and 50th cycles, respectively. Furthermore, excellent cyclability, rate capability, and capacity retention characteristics are noted for the N-rGO/Co3O4 -NS composite. This improved performance is mainly related to the existence of mesoporosity and a sheet-like 2D hierarchical morphology, which translates into extra space for lithium storage and a reduced electron pathway. Also, the presence of N-rGO and carbon shells in Co3O4 -NS should not be excluded from such exceptional performance, which serves as a reliable conductive channel for electrons and act as synergistically to accommodate volume expansion upon redox reactions. Ex-situ TEM, impedance spectroscopy, and XPS, are also conducted to corroborate the significance of the 2D morphology towards sustained lithium storage.

  20. High-energy metal air batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Ji-Guang; Xiao, Jie; Xu, Wu; Wang, Deyu; Williford, Ralph E.; Liu, Jun

    2014-07-01

    Disclosed herein are embodiments of lithium/air batteries and methods of making and using the same. Certain embodiments are pouch-cell batteries encased within an oxygen-permeable membrane packaging material that is less than 2% of the total battery weight. Some embodiments include a hybrid air electrode comprising carbon and an ion insertion material, wherein the mass ratio of ion insertion material to carbon is 0.2 to 0.8. The air electrode may include hydrophobic, porous fibers. In particular embodiments, the air electrode is soaked with an electrolyte comprising one or more solvents including dimethyl ether, and the dimethyl ether subsequently is evacuated from the soaked electrode. In other embodiments, the electrolyte comprises 10-20% crown ether by weight.