WorldWideScience

Sample records for battery chargers

  1. Integrated Inverter And Battery Charger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rippel, Wally E.

    1988-01-01

    Circuit combines functions of dc-to-ac inversion (for driving ac motor in battery-powered vehicle) and ac-to-dc conversion (for charging battery from ac line when vehicle not in use). Automatically adapts to either mode. Design of integrated inverter/charger eliminates need for duplicate components, saves space, reduces weight and cost of vehicle. Advantages in other applications : load-leveling systems, standby ac power systems, and uninterruptible power supplies.

  2. Ferroresonant flux coupled battery charger

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLyman, Colonel W. T. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A battery charger for incorporation into an electric-powered vehicle is disclosed. The charger includes a ferroresonant voltage-regulating circuit for providing an output voltage proportional to the frequency of an input AC voltage. A high frequency converter converts a DC voltage supplied, for example, from a rectifier connected to a standard AC outlet, to a controlled frequency AC voltage which is supplied to the input of the ferroresonant circuit. The ferroresonant circuit includes an output, a saturable core transformer connected across the output, and a first linear inductor and a capacitor connected in series across the saturable core transformer and tuned to resonate at the third harmonic of the AC voltage from the high frequency converter. The ferroresonant circuit further includes a second linear inductor connected between the input of the ferroresonant circuit and the saturable core transformer. The output voltage from the ferroresonant circuit is rectified and applied across a pair of output terminals adapted to be connected to the battery to be charged. A feedback circuit compares the voltage across the output terminals with a reference voltage and controls the frequency of the AC voltage produced by the high frequency converter to maintain the voltage across the output terminals at a predetermined value. The second linear inductor provides a highly reactive load in the event of a fault across the output terminals to render the charger short-circuit proof.

  3. Controllers for Battery Chargers and Battery Chargers Therefrom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmes, John (Inventor); Kersten, Rene (Inventor); Pepper, Michael (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A controller for a battery charger that includes a power converter has parametric sensors for providing a sensed Vin signal, a sensed Vout signal and a sensed Iout signal. A battery current regulator (BCR) is coupled to receive the sensed Iout signal and an Iout reference, and outputs a first duty cycle control signal. An input voltage regulator (IVR) receives the sensed Vin signal and a Vin reference. The IVR provides a second duty cycle control signal. A processor receives the sensed Iout signal and utilizes a Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) algorithm, and provides the Vin reference to the IVR. A selection block forwards one of the first and second duty cycle control signals as a duty cycle control signal to the power converter. Dynamic switching between the first and second duty cycle control signals maximizes the power delivered to the battery.

  4. Performance of the Lester battery charger in electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivian, H. C.; Bryant, J. A.

    1984-01-01

    Tests are performed on an improved battery charger. The primary purpose of the testing is to develop test methodologies for battery charger evaluation. Tests are developed to characterize the charger in terms of its charge algorithm and to assess the effects of battery initial state of charge and temperature on charger and battery efficiency. Tests show this charger to be a considerable improvement in the state of the art for electric vehicle chargers.

  5. Analysis of spacecraft battery charger systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seong J.; Cho, Bo H.

    In spacecraft battery charger systems, switching regulators are widely used for bus voltage regulation, charge current regulation, and peak power tracking. Small-signal dynamic characteristics of the battery charging subsystem of direct energy transfer (DET) and peak power tracking (PPT) systems are analyzed to facilitate design of the control loop for optimum performance and stability. Control loop designs of the charger in various modes of operation are discussed. Analyses are verified through simulations. It is shown that when the charger operates in the bus voltage regulation mode, the control-to-voltage transfer function has a negative DC gain and two LHP zeros in both the DET and PPT systems. The control-to-inductor current transfer function also has a negative DC gain and a RHP zero. Thus, in the current-mode control, the current loop can no longer be used to stabilize the system. When the system operates in the charge current regulation mode, the charger operates with a fixed duty cycle which is determined by the regulated bus voltage and the battery voltage. Without an input filter, the converter becomes a first-order system. When the peak power tracker is inactive, the operating point of the solar array output moves to the voltage source region. Thus, the solar array behaves as a stiff voltage source to a constant power load.

  6. Controlled battery charger for electric vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Geske, M.; Winkler, T.; Komarnicki, P.; Heideck, G.

    2010-01-01

    Due to rising fuel consumption, price of CO2 emissions and growing urban air pollution, the global interest of the automobile industry, politics and scientists in electric mobility is increasing in the recent years worldwide. Thus, future challenges will be the integration of electric vehicles in distribution networks under the scope of balancing multiple charging processes while, at the same time, increasing dispersed generation. The development of a controlled battery charger for traction b...

  7. Lithium Ion Battery (LIB) Charger: Spacesuit Battery Charger Design with 2-Fault Tolerance to Catastrophic Hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darcy, Eric; Davies, Frank

    2009-01-01

    Charger design that is 2-fault tolerant to catastrophic has been achieved for the Spacesuit Li-ion Battery with key features. Power supply control circuit and 2 microprocessors independently control against overcharge. 3 microprocessor control against undercharge (false positive: Go for EVA) conditions. 2 independent channels provide functional redundancy. Capable of charge balancing cell banks in series. Cell manufacturing and performance uniformity is excellent with both designs. Once a few outliers are removed, LV cells are slightly more uniform than MoliJ cells. If cell balance feature of charger is ever invoked, it will be an indication of a significant degradation issue, not a nominal condition.

  8. Modifications to Battery chargers and inverters Units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raison, Florent

    2015-01-01

    Over-exceeding the seismic specifications of the nuclear industry has always been the top priority of AEG Power Solutions. Since the Forsmark event, and especially since the Fukushima Daichi accident, utilities have reviewed their specifications. As a consequence, safety related battery chargers and inverters have to withstand higher acceleration levels. Simulation, design and test procedures are key drivers of the battery charger and inverter industry. Forces analysis through simulation is the first step of the product design process. The CAD drawings of our equipment, including the mechanical frame of the cabinet and the internal components, are used for the simulation of vibration. In the frame of 10 Hz, most new specifications show higher values, with higher constraints on our equipment. Our nuclear product range has been adapted to these new requirements. PCBs (Printed Circuit Boards), as key components in charge of the regulation and monitoring of the load, are first separately tested during the design phase, as a specific component. They are subjected to the following tests: Critical load analysis, Thermal imaging, Climatic test, Vibration and shock test. Then the complete equipment will follow a complete test program, including: Type test, EMC test, Seismic test, Aging test. Technology is key in achieving goals in terms of robustness and reliability of battery chargers and inverters. AEG Power Solutions renewed its entire range of products in 2011-2013 and made relevant choices. By updating its complete range of nuclear products, AEG Power Solutions is now offering a new range of solutions to the nuclear industry which minimize the risk of component obsolescence, in case of product replacement on existing nuclear power plants, or of new construction. In order to increase the product reliability and to facilitate the qualification programs of the products, the decision was made to offer 100% analogue technology (Software free). The different regulation and

  9. Design of an onboard battery charger for an electric vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heckford, Simon

    2001-07-01

    This report describes the design of an on-board battery charger for an electric car. There are already various battery charger units on the market. However, these are not specifically designed for this application, and consequently do not provide an ideal solution. Because these products are not specific to one application, and instead opt to cover a variety of briefs, they are not ideal. They also tend to be heavier and more expensive than if the charger was built specifically for one purpose. The main design considerations were that the charger should be compact and lightweight. It was also specified that the design should be able to operate using either the single-phase or three-phase AC supply. Before the design process for the battery charger could commence, it was necessary for the author to get an appreciation of power electronics, since he had no previous experience in the subject. The author focused his attention on areas of the subject most valuable to the project, including becoming familiar with the principle behind battery chargers. Once the required knowledge was obtained, the author could begin designing the charger. The majority of the design was actually undertaken using two software packages called MATLAB and Simulink, whilst also using the knowledge acquired. Regular discussions were had with the project team in order to ensure that the correct methodology was being used and a suitable design was duly developed. Possible further work was identified which could not be carried out within the time constraints of this project.

  10. Integral inverter/battery charger for use in electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thimmesch, D.

    1983-01-01

    The design and test results of a thyristor based inverter/charger are discussed. A battery charger is included integral to the inverter by using a subset of the inverter power circuit components. The resulting charger provides electrical isolation between the vehicle propulsion battery and ac line and is capable of charging a 25 kWh propulsion battery in 8 hours from a 220 volt ac line. The integral charger employs the inverter commutation components at a resonant ac/dc isolated converter rated at 3.6 kW. Charger efficiency and power factor at an output power of 3.6 kW are 86% and 95% respectively. The inverter, when operated with a matching polyphase ac induction motor and nominal 132 volt propulsion battery, can provide a peak shaft power of 34 kW (45 ph) during motoring operation and 45 kW (60 hp) during regeneration. Thyristors are employed for the inverter power switching devices and are arranged in an input-commutated topology. This configuration requires only two thyristors to commutate the six main inverter thyristors. Inverter efficiency during motoring operation at motor shaft speeds above 450 rad/sec (4300 rpm) is 92-94% for output power levels above 11 KW (15 hp). The combined ac inverter/charger package weighs 47 kg (103 lbs).

  11. Design And Construction Of Microcontroller Based Solar Battery Charger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zar Ni Tun

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This research paper describes a microcontroller based battery charger by using solar energy. Solar-powered charging systems are already available in rural as well as urban areas. Solar energy is widely used around the worldwide. This system converts solar energy to electrical energy and stores it in a battery. Photovoltaic panel is used to convert solar energy to electrical energy and stored in a 12V battery. Battery is the main component in solar charging system to store the energy generated from sunlight for various application. This system requires sensor to sense whether the battery is fully charged or not. Microcontroller is the heart of the circuit. Lead-acid batteries are the most commonly used power source for many applications. This system consists of voltage sensing charging controlling and display unit.

  12. Will Your Battery Survive a World With Fast Chargers?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neubauer, J. S.; Wood, E.

    2015-05-04

    Fast charging is attractive to battery electric vehicle (BEV) drivers for its ability to enable long-distance travel and quickly recharge depleted batteries on short notice. However, such aggressive charging and the sustained vehicle operation that result could lead to excessive battery temperatures and degradation. Properly assessing the consequences of fast charging requires accounting for disparate cycling, heating, and aging of individual cells in large BEV packs when subjected to realistic travel patterns, usage of fast chargers, and climates over long durations (i.e., years). The U.S. Department of Energy's Vehicle Technologies Office has supported the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's development of BLAST-V-the Battery Lifetime Analysis and Simulation Tool for Vehicles-to create a tool capable of accounting for all of these factors. We present on the findings of applying this tool to realistic fast charge scenarios. The effects of different travel patterns, climates, battery sizes, battery thermal management systems, and other factors on battery performance and degradation are presented. We find that the impact of realistic fast charging on battery degradation is minimal for most drivers, due to the low frequency of use. However, in the absence of active battery cooling systems, a driver's desired utilization of a BEV and fast charging infrastructure can result in unsafe peak battery temperatures. We find that active battery cooling systems can control peak battery temperatures to safe limits while allowing the desired use of the vehicle.

  13. Combination field chopper and battery charger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steigerwald, R.L.; Crouch, K.E.; Wilson, J.W.A.

    1979-08-13

    A power transistor used in a chopper circuit to control field excitation of a vehicle motor when in a power mode is also used to control charging current from an a-c to d-c rectifier to the vehicle battery when in a battery charging mode. Two isolating diodes and a small high frequency filter inductor are the only elements required in the chopper circuit to reconfigure the circuit for power or charging modes of operation.

  14. Photovoltaic Power System with an Interleaving Boost Converter for Battery Charger Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng-Yu Tseng

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a photovoltaic (PV power system for battery charger applications. The charger uses an interleaving boost converter with a single-capacitor turn-off snubber to reduce voltage stresses of active switches at turn-off transition. Therefore, active switches of the charger can be operated with zero-voltage transition (ZVT to decrease switching losses and increase conversion efficiency. In order to draw the maximum power from PV arrays and obtain the optimal power control of the battery charger, a perturbation-and-observation method and microchip are incorporated to implement maximum power point tracking (MPPT algorithm and power management. Finally, a prototype battery charger is built and implemented. Experimental results have verified the performance and feasibility of the proposed PV power system for battery charger applications.

  15. Study on energy consumption of adapters and battery chargers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zijlstra, J.K.; Couvee, J.D.J.

    2001-04-01

    Under the authority of the Dutch Energy Agency 'Novem' industrial design and engineering office NewProducts has performed an inventory study on the energy consumption of adapters and battery chargers. Besides the energy aspects, various aspects of the adapters and chargers have been discussed: The products are classified in categories based on type of the appliance and function of the adapter; The proportions of the Dutch market of adapters and chargers and the players on this market are discussed in brief; The relevant technical background, especially with respect to the energy consumption is discussed. In general there are two types of adapters, linear and switch mode; Product specifications collected from several manufacturers are presented; To fill up the lack of data some measurements have been made of which the results are presented. Together with the product specifications this gives an overview of the performances of adapters and chargers; During the study several ideas and new developments have been found for reducing energy consumption. A remarkable conclusion is that there is no or not much attention from manufacturers or consumers for energy consumption of adapters or no-load power consumption, although there are some initiatives for reduction, e.g. the Code of Conduct on Efficiency of External Power Supplies of the European Union. Lots of linear adapters are still sold and in use, although the efficiency of the switch mode adapters is a lot better. The problem is the higher price. The switch mode adapters are being sold together with sophisticated electronic appliances. Most of the other initiatives and solutions to reduce the no-load energy consumption and improve the efficiency are also technical

  16. Pulse width modulation inverter with battery charger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slicker, James M. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    An inverter is connected between a source of DC power and a three-phase AC induction motor, and a microprocessor-based circuit controls the inverter using pulse width modulation techniques. In the disclosed method of pulse width modulation, both edges of each pulse of a carrier pulse train are equally modulated by a time proportional to sin .theta., where .theta. is the angular displacement of the pulse center at the motor stator frequency from a fixed reference point on the carrier waveform. The carrier waveform frequency is a multiple of the motor stator frequency. The modulated pulse train is then applied to each of the motor phase inputs with respective phase shifts of 120.degree. at the stator frequency. Switching control commands for electronic switches in the inverter are stored in a random access memory (RAM) and the locations of the RAM are successively read out in a cyclic manner, each bit of a given RAM location controlling a respective phase input of the motor. The DC power source preferably comprises rechargeable batteries and all but one of the electronic switches in the inverter can be disabled, the remaining electronic switch being part of a flyback DC-DC converter circuit for recharging the battery.

  17. Develop improved battery charger (Turbo-Z Battery Charging System). Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-09-01

    The output of this project was a flexible control board. The control board can be used to control a variety of rapid battery chargers. The control module will reduce development cost of rapid battery charging hardware. In addition, PEPCO's proprietary battery charging software have been pre-programmed into the control microprocessor. This product is being applied to the proprietary capacitive charging system now under development.

  18. Understanding and managing the effects of battery charger and inverter aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunther, W.; Aggarwal, S.

    An aging assessment of battery chargers and inverters was conducted under the auspices of the NRC's Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) Program. The intentions of this program are to resolve issues related to the aging and service wear of equipment and systems at operating reactor facilities and to assess their impact on safety. Inverters and battery chargers are used in nuclear power plants to perform significant functions related to plant safety and availability. The specific impact of a battery charger or inverter failure varies with plant configuration. Operating experience data have demonstrated that reactor trips, safety injection system actuations, and inoperable emergency core cooling systems have resulted from inverter failures; and dc bus degradation leading to diesel generator inoperability or loss of control room annunication and indication have resulted from battery and battery charger failures. For the battery charger and inverter, the aging and service wear of subcomponents have contributed significantly to equipment failures. This paper summarizes the data and then describes methods that can be used to detect battery charger and inverter degradation prior to failure, as well as methods to minimize the failure effects. In both cases, the managing of battery charger and inverter aging is emphasized.

  19. An SCR inverter with an integral battery charger for electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thimmeach, D.

    1983-01-01

    The feasibility of incorporating an onboard battery charger into the inverter previously developed under a NASA contract is successfully demonstrated. The rated output power of the resulting isolated battery charger is 3.6 kW at 220 Vac with an 86 percent efficiency and a 95 percent power factor. Also achieved are improved inverter efficiency (from 90 to 93 percent at 15 kW motor shaft power), inverter peak power capability (from 26 to 34 kW), and reduced weight and volume of the combined inverter/charger package (47 kg, 49 x 44 x 24 cm). Some major conclusions are that using the inverter commutation circuitry to perform the battery charging function is advantageous, and that the input-commutated thyristor inverter has the potential to be an excellent inverter and battery charger for use in electric vehicle applications.

  20. Experimental measurements about harmonic current mitigation of electric vehicle battery chargers

    OpenAIRE

    Sainz Sapera, Luis; Balcells Sendra, Josep

    2011-01-01

    The expected high penetration of battery chargers for electric vehicles (EV) in electric networks is foreseen as a potential problem for power quality. Battery chargers are nonlinear devices that inject harmonic currents and pollute network voltages. Thus, their harmonic emissions must be analyzed and reduced by harmonic mitigation techniques to avoid future problems. This paper analyzes and reports some real case measurements of harmonics injected by single- and three-ph...

  1. 78 FR 18253 - Request for Information on Evaluating New Products for the Battery Chargers and External Power...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-26

    ... Part 430 RIN 1904-AB57 Request for Information on Evaluating New Products for the Battery Chargers and... products. Based on testing data and information received from stakeholders, DOE may propose alternative energy conservation standard levels for battery chargers if it is determined that new energy conservation...

  2. A High Efficiency Li-Ion Battery LDO-Based Charger for Portable Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youssef Ziadi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a high efficiency Li-ion battery LDO-based charger IC which adopted a three-mode control: trickle constant current, fast constant current, and constant voltage modes. The criteria of the proposed Li-ion battery charger, including high accuracy, high efficiency, and low size area, are of high importance. The simulation results provide the trickle current of 116 mA, maximum charging current of 448 mA, and charging voltage of 4.21 V at the power supply of 4.8–5 V, using 0.18 μm CMOS technology.

  3. 77 FR 18477 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Battery Chargers and External...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-27

    ... 3. Product Classes a. External Power Supply Product Classes b. Battery Charger Product Classes 4... a. Representative Product Classes and Representative Units b. EPS Candidate Standard Levels (CSLs) c... Other Emissions Impacts 1. Social Cost of Carbon a. Monetizing Carbon Dioxide Emissions b. Social Cost...

  4. Modeling and analysis of spacecraft battery charger systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seong Joong

    Large signal analysis of various spacecraft power systems is performed to predict the bus dynamics in various modes of operation. The large-signal trajectories of the system's operating point are analyzed employing qualitative graphical representation. The analyses are verified through simulation using EASY5 software. Small-signal dynamic characteristics of spacecraft battery charge converter systems are analyzed to facilitate the design of a control loop for optimum performance and stability. Control-loop designs for the charge converters in bus voltage regulation mode, charge current regulation mode, and peak power tracking mode are discussed.

  5. Li-Po Battery Charger Based on the Constant Current/Voltage Parallel Resonant Converter Operating in ZVS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto M. Pernía

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Battery requirements for electrical vehicles are continuously becoming more demanding in terms of energy density and reliability. Nowadays, batteries for drones must be able to supply 100 A for 15 min, not to mention the specifications required for batteries in electrical vehicles. These specifications result in more stringent specifications for battery chargers. They are required to be more efficient, flexible, and, as with any another power equipment, to have reduced size and weight. Since the parallel resonant converter can operate as a current source and as a voltage source, this paper presents a battery charger power stage for lithium ion polymer batteries, based on the above topology, operating in zero voltage switching mode, and implementing frequency and duty cycle control.

  6. Savings Potential of ENERGY STAR(R) External Power Adapters andBattery Chargers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webber, Carrie; Korn, David; Sanchez, Marla

    2007-02-28

    External power adapters may lose 10 to 70 percent of theenergy they consume, dissipated as heat rather than converted into usefulenergy. Battery charging systems have more avenues for losses: inaddition to power conversion losses, power is consumed by the chargingcircuitry, and additional power may be needed after the battery is fullcharged to balance self-discharge. In 2005, the Environmental ProtectionAgency launched a new ENERGY STAR(R) label for external power supplies(EPSs) that convert line-voltage AC electricity into low-voltage DCelectricity for certain electronic devices. The specification includedpower supplies for products with battery charging functions (e.g. laptopsand cell phones), but excluded others. In January 2006, a separatespecification was issued for battery charging systems contained primarilyin small household appliances and power tools. In addition to the ENERGYSTAR(R) label, the state of California will implement minimum energyperformance standards for EPSs in 2007, and similar standards for EPSsand battery chargers are in development at the national level.Many of theproducts covered by these policies use relatively little power and havemodest per-unit savings potential compared to conventional energyefficiency targets. But with an estimated 1.5 billion adapters and 230million battery charging systems in use in the United States, theaggregate savings potential is quite high. This paper presents estimatesof the savings potential for external power adapters and battery chargingsystems through 2025.

  7. Photovoltaic High-Frequency Pulse Charger for Lead-Acid Battery under Maximum Power Point Tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung-I. Hsieh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A photovoltaic pulse charger (PV-PC using high-frequency pulse train for charging lead-acid battery (LAB is proposed not only to explore the charging behavior with maximum power point tracking (MPPT but also to delay sulfating crystallization on the electrode pores of the LAB to prolong the battery life, which is achieved due to a brief pulse break between adjacent pulses that refreshes the discharging of LAB. Maximum energy transfer between the PV module and a boost current converter (BCC is modeled to maximize the charging energy for LAB under different solar insolation. A duty control, guided by a power-increment-aided incremental-conductance MPPT (PI-INC MPPT, is implemented to the BCC that operates at maximum power point (MPP against the random insolation. A 250 W PV-PC system for charging a four-in-series LAB (48 Vdc is examined. The charging behavior of the PV-PC system in comparison with that of CC-CV charger is studied. Four scenarios of charging statuses of PV-BC system under different solar insolation changes are investigated and compared with that using INC MPPT.

  8. Single-Source Multi-Battery Solar Charger: Analysis and Stability Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alon Kuperman

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, dynamic analysis of a multi-battery dual mode charger, powered by a single solar array and suitable for lead-acid and lithium-ion cell-based batteries is presented. Each battery is interfaced to the solar array by means of a current-controlled buck power stage, operating either in constant power or constant voltage mode. Operation in former/latter charging mode implies regulating input/output voltage of the converter, which is a non-trivial situation since while feeding different batteries, all the converters share the same input terminals, connected to the solar array. It is revealed that when at least one of the batteries operates in constant power charging mode, open-loop instability occurs whenever converter input voltage is lower than maximum power point voltage of the solar array. Consequently, input voltage regulating controller must be designed to stabilize closed-loop dynamics for the worst case of instability, which is also derived. Moreover, it is shown that the dynamics of the converters operating under output voltage control are perceived as disturbances by input voltage control loop and must be properly rejected. Simple loop shaping design is proposed based on a PI controller, allowing stabilizing the system in case of worst case instability and rejecting output voltage control induced disturbances at the expense of non-constant, operating-point dependent closed-loop damping.

  9. Aging Management Guideline for commercial nuclear power plants: Battery chargers, inverters and uninterruptible power supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, R.; Stroinski, M.; Giachetti, R.

    1994-02-01

    This Aging Management Guideline (AMG) describes recommended methods for effective detection and mitigation of age-related degradation mechanisms in BWR and PWR commercial nuclear power plant battery chargers, inverters and uninterruptible power supplies important to license renewal. The intent of this AMG is to assist plant maintenance and operations personnel in maximizing the safe, useful life of these components. It also supports the documentation of effective aging management programs required under the License Renewal Rule 10 CFR Part 54. This AMG is presented in a manner that allows personnel responsible for performance analysis and maintenance to compare their plant-specific aging mechanisms (expected or already, experienced) and aging management program activities to the more generic results and recommendations presented herein

  10. Implementation of Four-Phase Interleaved Balance Charger for Series-Connected Batteries with Power Factor Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juan, Y. L.; Lee, Y. T.; Lee, Y. L.; Chen, L. L.; Huang, M. L.

    2017-11-01

    A four-phase interleaved balance charger for series-connected batteries with power factor correction is proposed in this dissertation. In the two phases of two buckboost converters, the rectified ac power is firstly converted to a dc link capacitor. In the other two phases of two flyback converters, the rectified ac power is directly converted to charge the corresponding batteries. Additionally, the energy on the leakage inductance of flyback converter is bypassed to the dc link capacitor. Then, a dual-output balance charging circuit is connected to the dc link to deliver the dc link power to charge two batteries in the series-connected batteries module. The constant-current/constant-voltage charging strategy is adopted. Finally, a prototype of the proposed charger with rated power 500 W is constructed. From the experimental results, the performance and validity of the proposed topology are verified. Compared to the conventional topology with passive RCD snubber, the efficiency of the proposed topology is improved about 3% and the voltage spike on the active switch is also reduced. The efficiency of the proposed charger is at least 83.6 % within the CC/CV charging progress.

  11. Sample-Data Modeling of a Zero Voltage Transition DC-DC Converter for On-Board Battery Charger in EV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa R. Granados-Luna

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Battery charger is a key device in electric and hybrid electric vehicles. On-board and off-board topologies are available in the market. Lightweight, small, high performance, and simple control are desired characteristics for on-board chargers. Moreover, isolated single-phase topologies are the most common system in Level 1 battery charger topologies. Following this trend, this paper proposes a sampled-data modelling strategy of a zero voltage transition (ZVT DC-DC converter for an on-board battery charger. A piece-wise linear analysis of the converter is the basis of the technique presented such that a large-signal model and, therefore, a small-signal model of the converter are derived. Numerical and simulation results of a 250 W test rig validate the model.

  12. 76 FR 31749 - Energy Conservation Program for Certain Consumer Appliances: Test Procedures for Battery Chargers...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    ...] Active mode. [cir] Multi-port charger. [cir] Multi-voltage [agrave] la carte charger. [cir] Standby mode... ``required to report their energy usage to California to indicate by a Roman numeral (`IV' or `V') the level... automotive equipment and USB ports. (Motorola, No. 50 at pp. 2-3). CEA commented that the ``stated scope of...

  13. The voice of the customer: consumers define the ideal battery charger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, J P; Usiak, D J; Stone, V I; Scherer, M J

    1997-01-01

    The Rehabilitation Engineering Research Center on Technology Evaluation and Transfer is exploring how the users of assistive technology devices define the ideal device. This work is called the Consumer Ideal Product program. The results show what device characteristics are most and least important, indicating where to place the priority on product features and functions from the consumer's perspective. The "voice of the customer" can be used (1) to define the ideal characteristics of a product, (2) to make trade-offs in product design and function improvements based on their relative importance to the consumer, (3) to compare the characteristics of existing products against the characteristics of the ideal product, or (4) to generate a product checklist for consumers to use when making a purchase decision. This paper presents the results of consumers' defining the ideal battery charger. Four focus groups generated the survey's content, then 100 experienced users rated 159 characteristics organized under 11 general evaluation criteria. The consumers placed the highest importance on characteristics from the general evaluation criteria of product reliability, effectiveness, and physical security/safety. The findings should help manufacturers and vendors improve their products and services and help professionals and consumers make informed choices.

  14. A Pulsed Power System Design Using Lithium-ion Batteries and One Charger per Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor OPAMP Operational Amplifiers RMS Root, Mean, Square SMES Superconducting Magnetic Energy... resistance in cells developed during repeated discharge and charge cycles, the voltage of individual Li-ion batteries in strings must be...cell shunting, resistive equalization, and transformer equalization. All of these methods rely on using either resistive means to dissipate energy

  15. 21 CFR 870.3670 - Pacemaker charger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pacemaker charger. 870.3670 Section 870.3670 Food... DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Prosthetic Devices § 870.3670 Pacemaker charger. (a) Identification. A pacemaker charger is a device used transcutaneously to recharge the batteries of a rechargeable...

  16. Aging Management Guideline for commercial nuclear power plants: Battery chargers, inverters and uninterruptible power supplies. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, R.; Stroinski, M.; Giachetti, R. [Multiple Dynamics Corp., Southfield, MI (United States)

    1994-02-01

    This Aging Management Guideline (AMG) describes recommended methods for effective detection and mitigation of age-related degradation mechanisms in BWR and PWR commercial nuclear power plant battery chargers, inverters and uninterruptible power supplies important to license renewal. The intent of this AMG is to assist plant maintenance and operations personnel in maximizing the safe, useful life of these components. It also supports the documentation of effective aging management programs required under the License Renewal Rule 10 CFR Part 54. This AMG is presented in a manner that allows personnel responsible for performance analysis and maintenance to compare their plant-specific aging mechanisms (expected or already, experienced) and aging management program activities to the more generic results and recommendations presented herein.

  17. Considerations for Highly Efficient Bidirectional Battery Chargers for E-Mobility

    OpenAIRE

    Reichert, S.

    2010-01-01

    The increasing number of electric vehicles demands a wide range of charging solutions. The key component is a converter that connects the battery to the electric grid. In general, one can distinguish between AC and DC charging, i.e. an onboard or stationary converter. The difference lies in the position of the power electronics that converts the AC voltage of the grid to a controlled DC current for charging the battery. Additionally to transferring energy from the grid to the battery, the cha...

  18. Performance characteristics of a battery charger and state-of-charge indicator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, D.; Klein, J.

    1984-01-01

    A battery charge/state of charge indicator (BC/SCI) system for electric vehicle use was developed. The original and subsequent objectives for the BC/SCI and the rationale for those objectives are described. The requirements generated from the objectives are listed and a description of the BC/SCI is provided. The power section problem, the tests, and the test results are discussed.

  19. A Hybrid Multi-Loop Controlled FACTS-based Smart V2G Battery Chargers

    OpenAIRE

    Khaki, Behnam; Sharaf, Adel M.

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents a flexible hybrid FACTS based AC-DC interface scheme with Flexible AC Transmission System Neutral Point Switched Filter Compensator (NPSFC) stabilization scheme developed by the Second Author to improve power quality and energy utilization in future Smart Grid-V2G Electric Vehicle (EV) Fast Battery Charging Stations. The FACTS-based filter compensation scheme proposed in this paper is equipped with a novel multi-loop dynamic error driven time de-scaled controller to enhance...

  20. Efficient Wireless Charger Deployment for Wireless Rechargeable Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jehn-Ruey Jiang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A wireless rechargeable sensor network (WRSN consists of sensor nodes that can harvest energy emitted from wireless chargers for refilling their batteries so that the WRSN can operate sustainably. This paper assumes wireless chargers are equipped with directional antennas, and are deployed on grid points of a fixed height to propose two heuristic algorithms solving the following wireless charger deployment optimization (WCDO problem: how to deploy as few as possible chargers to make the WRSN sustainable. Both algorithms model the charging space of chargers as a cone and calculate charging efficiency according power regression expressions complying with the Friis transmission equation. The two algorithms are the greedy cone covering (GCC algorithm and the adaptive cone covering (ACC algorithm. The GCC (respectively, ACC algorithm greedily (respectively, adaptively generates candidate cones to cover as many as possible sensor nodes. Both algorithms then greedily select the fewest number of candidate cones, each of which corresponds to the deployment of a charger, to have approximate solutions to the WCDO problem. We perform experiments, conduct simulations and do analyses for the algorithms to compare them in terms of the time complexity, the number of chargers deployed, and the execution time.

  1. A Power Balance Aware Wireless Charger Deployment Method for Complete Coverage in Wireless Rechargeable Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tu-Liang Lin

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Traditional sensor nodes are usually battery powered, and the limited battery power constrains the overall lifespan of the sensors. Recently, wireless power transmission technology has been applied in wireless sensor networks (WSNs to transmit wireless power from the chargers to the sensor nodes and solve the limited battery power problem. The combination of wireless sensors and wireless chargers forms a new type of network called wireless rechargeable sensor networks (WRSNs. In this research, we focus on how to effectively deploy chargers to maximize the lifespan of a network. In WSNs, the sensor nodes near the sink consume more power than nodes far away from the sink because of frequent data forwarding. This important power unbalanced factor has not been considered, however, in previous charger deployment research. In this research, a power balance aware deployment (PBAD method is proposed to address the power unbalance in WRSNs and to design the charger deployment with maximum charging efficiency. The proposed deployment method is effectively aware of the existence of the sink node that would cause unbalanced power consumption in WRSNs. The simulation results show that the proposed PBAD algorithm performs better than other deployment methods, and fewer chargers are deployed as a result.

  2. Improved battery charger for electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rippel, W. E.

    1981-01-01

    Polyphase version of single-phase "boost chopper" significantly reduces ripple and electromagnetic interference (EMI). Drive circuit of n-phase boost chopper incorporates n-phase duty-cycle generator; inductor, transistor, and diode compose chopper which can run on single-phase or three-phase alternating current or on direct current. Device retains compactness and power factors approaching unity, while improving efficiency.

  3. Highly efficient and compact bidirectional charger for E-mobility; Hoch effizientes und kompaktes bidirektionales Ladegeraet fuer die Elektromobilitaet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burger, Bruno; Goeldi, Benriah; Reichert, Stefan; Schoenberger, Stefan [Fraunhofer Institut fuer Solare Energiesysteme ISE, Freiburg (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    The increasing number of battery driven electric vehicles requires a wide range of charging possibilities. The key component for charging the battery is a charger in the car (on-board) or stationary - integrated in a charging station. The charging device connects the high voltage traction battery with the low voltage grid. Different technical approaches and different aspects have to be considered. A basic choice has to be made between an on-board or a stationary charging device and also whether to use a galvanic isolation or not. Within the Fraunhofer joint research project FSEM a transformerless, three-phase charger with highest efficiency and high power density was developed. (orig.)

  4. Evaluating the Effectiveness of Charger Connection Class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rost, Jacquie; Royer, Marceil

    This research project, called Charger Connection, was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of a pilot transition program for incoming high school freshmen at Elkhart Memorial High School (Indiana). The Charger Connection class was developed to help students overcome problems associated with the transition from middle school to high school.…

  5. Batteries not included

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, M.

    2001-01-01

    This article traces the development of clockwork wind-up battery chargers that can be used to recharge mobile phones, laptop computers, torches or radio batteries from the pioneering research of the British inventor Trevor Baylis to the marketing of the wind-up gadgets by Freeplay Energy who turned the idea into a commercial product. The amount of cranking needed to power wind-up devices is discussed along with a hand-cranked charger for mobile phones, upgrading the phone charger's mechanism, and drawbacks of the charger. Details are given of another invention using a hand-cranked generator with a supercapacitor as a storage device which has a very much higher capacity for storing electrical charge

  6. A High Power Density Integrated Charger for Electric Vehicles with Active Ripple Compensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liwen Pan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper suggests a high power density on-board integrated charger with active ripple compensation circuit for electric vehicles. To obtain a high power density and high efficiency, silicon carbide devices are reported to meet the requirement of high-switching-frequency operation. An integrated bidirectional converter is proposed to function as AC/DC battery charger and to transfer energy between battery pack and motor drive of the traction system. In addition, the conventional H-bridge circuit suffers from ripple power pulsating at second-order line frequency, and a scheme of active ripple compensation circuit has been explored to solve this second-order ripple problem, in which a pair of power switches shared traction mode, a ripple energy storage capacitor, and an energy transfer inductor. Simulation results in MATLAB/Simulink validated the eligibility of the proposed topology. The integrated charger can work as a 70 kW motor drive circuit or a converter with an active ripple compensation circuit for 3 kW charging the battery. The impact of the proposed topology and control strategy on the integrated charger power losses, efficiency, power density, and thermal performance has also been analysed and simulated.

  7. PHEV-EV Charger Technology Assessment with an Emphasis on V2G Operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kisacikoglu, Mithat C [ORNL; Bedir, Abdulkadir [ORNL; Ozpineci, Burak [ORNL; Tolbert, Leon M [ORNL

    2012-03-01

    More battery powered electric vehicles (EVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) will be introduced to the market in 2011 and beyond. Since these vehicles have large batteries that need to be charged from an external power source or directly from the grid, their batteries, charging circuits, charging stations/infrastructures, and grid interconnection issues are garnering more attention. This report summarizes information regarding the batteries used in PHEVs, different types of chargers, charging standards and circuits, and compares different topologies. Furthermore, it includes a list of vehicles that are going to be in the market soon with information on their charging and energy storage equipment. A summary of different standards governing charging circuits and charging stations concludes the report. There are several battery types that are available for PHEVs; however, the most popular ones have nickel metal hydride (NiMH) and lithium-ion (Li-ion) chemistries. The former one is being used in current hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), but the latter will be used in most of the PHEVs and EVs due to higher energy densities and higher efficiencies. The chargers can be classified based on the circuit topologies (dedicated or integrated), location of the charger (either on or off the vehicle), connection (conductive, inductive/wireless, and mechanical), electrical waveform (direct current (dc) or alternating current (ac)), and the direction of power flow (unidirectional or bidirectional). The first PHEVs typically will have dedicated, on-board, unidirectional chargers that will have conductive connections to the charging stations or wall outlets and will be charged using either dc or ac. In the near future, bidirectional chargers might also be used in these vehicles once the benefits of practical vehicle to grid applications are realized. The terms charger and charging station cause terminology confusion. To prevent misunderstandings, a more descriptive term

  8. 46 CFR 111.15-5 - Battery installation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS Storage Batteries and Battery Chargers: Construction and Installation § 111.15-5 Battery... must be as close as possible to the engine or engines. (c) Small batteries. Small size battery... and, for a lead-acid battery, the fully charged specific gravity value. This information must be...

  9. Efficiency Test Method for Electric Vehicle Chargers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kieldsen, Andreas; Thingvad, Andreas; Martinenas, Sergejus

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates different methods for measuring the charger efficiency of mass produced electric vehicles (EVs), in order to compare the different models. The consumers have low attention to the loss in the charger though the impact on the driving cost is high. It is not a high priority...... above the state of the art power converters. This is an unnecessary high consumption of electrical energy during charging, which not only affects the consumer financially, but also creates unnecessary load on the grid....

  10. Tools for the assessment of business models around the exploitation of bidirectional electric vehicle chargers

    OpenAIRE

    Bayascas Caseras, Julia

    2017-01-01

    Electric vehicles can be considered as important amounts of energy stored in batteries. The possibility of taking advantage of such energy to other ends out of transport is a great opportunity for the transition from combustion engine's vehicles to electric vehicles. To do this, it is necessary to use bidirectional chargers, so the energy can ow in both directions: from the vehicle to the electrical system it is connected to and vice versa. This project studies an optimizat...

  11. Single-Phase Boost Inverter-Based Electric Vehicle Charger With Integrated Vehicle to Grid Reactive Power Compensation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wickramasinghe Abeywardana, Damith Buddika; Acuna, Pablo; Hredzak, Branislav

    2018-01-01

    Vehicle to grid (V2G) reactive power compensation using electric vehicle (EV) onboard chargers helps to ensure grid power quality by achieving unity power factor operation. However, the use of EVs for V2G reactive power compensation increases the second-order harmonic ripple current component......-side capacitor without adversely affecting the EV battery. The operation of the boost inverter-based EV charger with second-order harmonic and switching frequency ripple current reduction, the dynamic behavior of the system, the transition between different operating modes, the DC-side capacitor voltage control...

  12. Development of micro solar charger with blocking relay; Gyakuryu boshi relay wo oyoshita kogata solar judenki no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nanno, I.; Matsushita, Y. Oka, S. [Omron Corp., Kyoto (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    Heavy-current tiny-scale solar charger is tentatively built, equipped with a function of preventing overcharge and countercurrent in case of charging storage batteries using solar cells. Incorporated into this solar charger are a countercurrent prevention relay system, a low loss current detection system, and a MOSFET parallel connection, which allow the solar charger to be designed small in size in the presence of an increase in heat due to circuit loss. In the countercurrent prevention relay system, the countercurrent prevention diode is bypassed by MOSFETs when too large a current is generated. In the low loss current detection system, currents are detected by use of the ON resistance of the MOSFETs for the prevention of overcharge. In the MOSFET parallel connection, MOSFETs are connected in parallel for a decrease in the ON resistance. The tentatively built charger is then subjected to a performance evaluation test outside the building, and the test is carried out by measuring the temperatures of the MOSFETs and the air. As the result, it is found that the temperature of MOSFET junction of the 12A tiny-size solar charger is approximately 42.5 degC at the highest, low enough to clear the requirements. 4 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.

  13. PSO Based PI Controller Design for a Solar Charger System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yau, Her-Terng; Lin, Chih-Jer; Liang, Qin-Cheng

    2013-01-01

    Due to global energy crisis and severe environmental pollution, the photovoltaic (PV) system has become one of the most important renewable energy sources. Many previous studies on solar charger integrated system only focus on load charge control or switching Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) and charge control modes. This study used two-stage system, which allows the overall portable solar energy charging system to implement MPPT and optimal charge control of Li-ion battery simultaneously. First, this study designs a DC/DC boost converter of solar power generation, which uses variable step size incremental conductance method (VSINC) to enable the solar cell to track the maximum power point at any time. The voltage was exported from the DC/DC boost converter to the DC/DC buck converter, so that the voltage dropped to proper voltage for charging the battery. The charging system uses constant current/constant voltage (CC/CV) method to charge the lithium battery. In order to obtain the optimum PI charge controller parameters, this study used intelligent algorithm to determine the optimum parameters. According to the simulation and experimental results, the control parameters resulted from PSO have better performance than genetic algorithms (GAs). PMID:23766713

  14. PSO Based PI Controller Design for a Solar Charger System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Her-Terng Yau

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to global energy crisis and severe environmental pollution, the photovoltaic (PV system has become one of the most important renewable energy sources. Many previous studies on solar charger integrated system only focus on load charge control or switching Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT and charge control modes. This study used two-stage system, which allows the overall portable solar energy charging system to implement MPPT and optimal charge control of Li-ion battery simultaneously. First, this study designs a DC/DC boost converter of solar power generation, which uses variable step size incremental conductance method (VSINC to enable the solar cell to track the maximum power point at any time. The voltage was exported from the DC/DC boost converter to the DC/DC buck converter, so that the voltage dropped to proper voltage for charging the battery. The charging system uses constant current/constant voltage (CC/CV method to charge the lithium battery. In order to obtain the optimum PI charge controller parameters, this study used intelligent algorithm to determine the optimum parameters. According to the simulation and experimental results, the control parameters resulted from PSO have better performance than genetic algorithms (GAs.

  15. PSO based PI controller design for a solar charger system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yau, Her-Terng; Lin, Chih-Jer; Liang, Qin-Cheng

    2013-01-01

    Due to global energy crisis and severe environmental pollution, the photovoltaic (PV) system has become one of the most important renewable energy sources. Many previous studies on solar charger integrated system only focus on load charge control or switching Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) and charge control modes. This study used two-stage system, which allows the overall portable solar energy charging system to implement MPPT and optimal charge control of Li-ion battery simultaneously. First, this study designs a DC/DC boost converter of solar power generation, which uses variable step size incremental conductance method (VSINC) to enable the solar cell to track the maximum power point at any time. The voltage was exported from the DC/DC boost converter to the DC/DC buck converter, so that the voltage dropped to proper voltage for charging the battery. The charging system uses constant current/constant voltage (CC/CV) method to charge the lithium battery. In order to obtain the optimum PI charge controller parameters, this study used intelligent algorithm to determine the optimum parameters. According to the simulation and experimental results, the control parameters resulted from PSO have better performance than genetic algorithms (GAs).

  16. Distributed Sensor Nodes Charged by Mobile Charger with Directional Antenna and by Energy Trading for Balancing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso Moraes

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Provision of energy to wireless sensor networks is crucial for their sustainable operation. Sensor nodes are typically equipped with batteries as their operating energy sources. However, when the sensor nodes are sited in almost inaccessible locations, replacing their batteries incurs high maintenance cost. Under such conditions, wireless charging of sensor nodes by a mobile charger with an antenna can be an efficient solution. When charging distributed sensor nodes, a directional antenna, rather than an omnidirectional antenna, is more energy-efficient because of smaller proportion of off-target radiation. In addition, for densely distributed sensor nodes, it can be more effective for some undercharged sensor nodes to harvest energy from neighboring overcharged sensor nodes than from the remote mobile charger, because this reduces the pathloss of charging signal due to smaller distances. In this paper, we propose a hybrid charging scheme that combines charging by a mobile charger with a directional antenna, and energy trading, e.g., transferring and harvesting, between neighboring sensor nodes. The proposed scheme is compared with other charging scheme. Simulations demonstrate that the hybrid charging scheme with a directional antenna achieves a significant reduction in the total charging time required for all sensor nodes to reach a target energy level.

  17. Remote RF Battery Charging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, H.J.; Pop, V.; Op het Veld, J.H.G.; Vullers, R.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    The design of a remote RF battery charger is discussed through the analysis and design of the subsystems of a rectenna (rectifying antenna): antenna, rectifying circuit and loaded DC-to-DC voltage (buck-boost) converter. Optimum system power generation performance is obtained by adopting a system

  18. Effects of automobile battery wastes on physicochemical properties ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Difference in soil qualities has been noticeable in many soils due to anthropogenic sources, especially of automobile battery wastes. This study examines the effects of automobile battery wastes on the physicochemical properties of the soil. Soil samples for this study were collected in triplicates from three battery chargers' ...

  19. Wide Operating Voltage Range Fuel Cell Battery Charger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hernandez Botella, Juan Carlos; Mira Albert, Maria del Carmen; Sen, Gokhan

    2014-01-01

    DC-DC converters for fuel cell applications require wide voltage range operation due to the unique fuel cell characteristic curve. Primary parallel isolated boost converter (PPIBC) is a boost derived topology for low voltage high current applications reaching an efficiency figure up to 98.2 %. Th...

  20. Application of solar chargers to prospection instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caille, G.

    1960-01-01

    The use of conventional batteries has certain disadvantages, and for this reason high-voltage batteries have been gradually replaced in all prospection instruments by transistor supply systems, using less cumbersome sources of energy. All the same low voltages are still necessary, and in hot or damp countries the use of these batteries leads to consumptions out of all proportion to the services rendered. This is why the use of solar energy possesses real advantages. After a brief review of the basic ideas on semiconductors, this article describes a selenium solar battery which was developed by the Westinghouse brakes and signals society. (author) [fr

  1. Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Lijuan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fe3O4/carbon microspheres (Fe3O4/C were prepared by a facile hydrothermal reaction using cellulose and ferric trichloride as precursors. The resultant composite spheres have been investigated as anode materials for the lithium-ion batteries, and they show high capacity and good cycle stability (830mAhg−1 at a current density of 0.1C up to 70 cycles, as well as enhanced rate capability. The excellent electrochemical performance is attributed to the high structural stability and high rate of ionic/electronic conduction arising from the porous character and the synergetic effect of the carbon coated Fe3O4 structure and conductive carbon coating.

  2. Single-Switch Equalization Charger Using Multiple Stacked Buck-Boost Converters for Series-Connected Energy-Storage Modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uno, Masatoshi; Tanaka, Koji

    Series connections of energy-storage modules such as electric double-layer capacitors (EDLCs) and lithium-ion batteries result in voltage imbalance because of the nonuniform properties of individual modules. Conventional voltage equalizers based on traditional dc-dc converters require numerous switches and/or transformers, and therefore, their costs and complexity tend to increase. This paper proposes a novel single-switch equalization charger using multiple stacked buck-boost converters. The single-switch operation not only reduces the circuit complexity but also contributes to increasing the reliability. The fundamental operating principles and design procedures of key components are presented in detail. An experimental charge test using a 25W prototype of the proposed equalization charger was performed for four series-connected EDLC modules whose initial voltages were intentionally imbalanced. Experimental results demonstrated that the proposed equalization charger could charge the series-connected modules preferentially in the order of increasing module voltage and that all the modules could be charged up to a uniform voltage level.

  3. Charger 1: A New Facility for Z-Pinch Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Brian; Cassibry, Jason; Cortez, Ross; Doughty, Glen; Adams, Robert; DeCicco, Anthony

    2017-01-01

    Charger 1 is a multipurpose pulsed power laboratory located on Redstone Arsenal, with a focus on fusion propulsion relevant experiments involving testing z-pinch diodes, pulsed magnetic nozzle and other related physics experiments. UAH and its team of pulsed power researchers are investigating ways to increase and optimize fusion production from Charger 1. Currently the team has reached high-power testing. Due to the unique safety issues related to high power operations the UAH/MSFC team has slowed repair efforts to develop safety and operations protocols. The facility is expected to be operational by the time DZP 2017 convenes. Charger 1 began life as the Decade Module 2, an experimental prototype built to prove the Decade Quad pinch configuration. The system was donated to UAH by the Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DRTA) in 2012. For the past 5 years a UAH/MSFC/Boeing team has worked to refurbish, assemble and test the system. With completion of high power testing in summer 2017 Charger 1 will become operational for experimentation. Charger 1 utilizes a Marx Bank of 72 100-kV capacitors that are charged in parallel and discharged in series. The Marx output is compressed to a pulse width of approximately 200 ns via a pulse forming network of 32 coaxial stainless steel tubes using water as a dielectric. After pulse compression a set of SF6 switches are triggered, allowing the wave front to propagate through the output line to the load. Charger 1 is capable of storing 572-kJ of energy and time compressing discharge to less than 250 ns discharge time producing a discharge of about 1 TW of discharge with 1 MV and 1 MA peak voltage and current, respectively. This capability will be used to study energy yield scaling and physics from solid density target as applied to advanced propulsion research.

  4. Battery Charge Equalizer with Transformer Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Francis

    2013-01-01

    High-power batteries generally consist of a series connection of many cells or cell banks. In order to maintain high performance over battery life, it is desirable to keep the state of charge of all the cell banks equal. A method provides individual charging for battery cells in a large, high-voltage battery array with a minimum number of transformers while maintaining reasonable efficiency. This is designed to augment a simple highcurrent charger that supplies the main charge energy. The innovation will form part of a larger battery charge system. It consists of a transformer array connected to the battery array through rectification and filtering circuits. The transformer array is connected to a drive circuit and a timing and control circuit that allow individual battery cells or cell banks to be charged. The timing circuit and control circuit connect to a charge controller that uses battery instrumentation to determine which battery bank to charge. It is important to note that the innovation can charge an individual cell bank at the same time that the main battery charger is charging the high-voltage battery. The fact that the battery cell banks are at a non-zero voltage, and that they are all at similar voltages, can be used to allow charging of individual cell banks. A set of transformers can be connected with secondary windings in series to make weighted sums of the voltages on the primaries.

  5. Impact of Fast Charging on Life of EV Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neubauer, Jeremy; Wood, Eric; Burton, Evan; Smith, Kandler; Pesaran, Ahmad A.

    2015-05-03

    Utilization of public charging infrastructure is heavily dependent on user-specific travel behavior. The availability of fast chargers can positively affect the utility of battery electric vehicles, even given infrequent use. Estimated utilization rates do not appear frequent enough to significantly impact battery life. Battery thermal management systems are critical in mitigating dangerous thermal conditions on long distance tours with multiple fast charge events.

  6. Integration and Control of a Battery Balancing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    battery charger topologies, charging power levels, and infrastructure for plug-in electric and hybrid vehicles ,” in IEEE Trans. Edu., vol. 28, no. 5...MASTER OF SCIENCE IN ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING from the NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL December 2013 Author: Peter L. Norgaard...Approved by: Alexander L. Julian Thesis Advisor Giovanna Oriti Second Reader R. Clark Robertson Chairman, Department of Electrical

  7. Application Solar Energy for Charging Battery Mobile Phone

    OpenAIRE

    Elmahdi, Mohamed Abdulhadi; Suparman, Sudjito; Pramono, Sholeh Hadi

    2012-01-01

    Photovoltaic energy is the conversion of sunlight into electricity. A photovoltaic cell, commonly called a solar cell or PV, is the technology used to convert solar energy directly into electrical power. A battery charger is a device used to put energy into a secondary cell or recharge able battery by forcing an electric current through it. Digital devices, especially mobile phones, need electricity that can be obtained from local electricity station converted into direct current using propri...

  8. Energy analysis of batteries in photovoltaic systems. Part II: Energy return factors and overall battery efficiencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rydh, Carl Johan; Sanden, Bjoern A.

    2005-01-01

    Energy return factors and overall energy efficiencies are calculated for a stand-alone photovoltaic (PV)-battery system. Eight battery technologies are evaluated: lithium-ion (nickel), sodium-sulphur, nickel-cadmium, nickel-metal hydride, lead-acid, vanadium-redox, zinc-bromine and polysulphide-bromide. With a battery energy storage capacity three times higher than the daily energy output, the energy return factor for the PV-battery system ranges from 2.2 to 10 in our reference case. For a PV-battery system with a service life of 30 yr, this corresponds to energy payback times between 2.5 and 13 yr. The energy payback time is 1.8-3.3 yr for the PV array and 0.72-10 yr for the battery, showing the energy related significance of batteries and the large variation between different technologies. In extreme cases, energy return factors below one occur, implying no net energy output. The overall battery efficiency, including not only direct energy losses during operation but also energy requirements for production and transport of the charger, the battery and the inverter, is 0.41-0.80. For some batteries, the overall battery efficiency is significantly lower than the direct efficiency of the charger, the battery and the inverter (0.50-0.85). The ranking order of batteries in terms of energy efficiency, the relative importance of different battery parameters and the optimal system design and operation (e.g. the use of air conditioning) are, in many cases, dependent on the characterisation of the energy background system and on which type of energy efficiency measure is used (energy return factor or overall battery efficiency)

  9. DC Fast Charger Usage in the Pacific Northwest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salisbury, Shawn [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Smart, John [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-02-01

    This document will describe the use of a number of Direct Current Fast Charging Stations throughout Washington and Oregon as a part of of the West Coast Electric Highway. It will detail the usage frequency and location of the charging stations INL has data from. It will also include aggregated data from hundreds of privately owned vehicles that were enrolled in the EV Project regarding driving distance when using one of the West Coast Electric Highway fast chargers. This document is a white paper that will be published on the INL AVTA website.

  10. Development of battery management systems (BMS) for electric vehicles (EVs) in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Salehen P.M.W.; Su’ait M.S.; Razali H.; Sopian K.

    2017-01-01

    Battery Management Systems (BMS) is an electronic devices component, which is a vital fundamental device connected between the charger and the battery of the hybrid or electric vehicle (EV) systems. Thus, BMS significantly enable for safety protection and reliable battery management by performing of monitoring charge control, state evaluation, reporting the data and functionalities cell balancing. To date, 97.1% of Malaysian CO2 emissions are mainly caused by transportation activities and the...

  11. 5AH10 Nickel-Cadmium (NiCad) Battery Maintenance Tester: User`s manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Justice, L.B.; Wakefield-Reyes, C.

    1992-08-01

    This manual is a user`s guide to the SE3253 and SE3254 versions of the 5AH10 Battery Maintenance Tester, a charger/discharger and test system for the 24-Cell 5-Ah Nickel-Cadmium Battery Pack. The manual provides information on rack equipment, power, communications, theory of operations, user interface, and operating procedures. Copies of users manuals for all equipment comprising the Battery Maintenance Tester are included as appendices.

  12. Single stage grid converters for battery energy storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trintis, Ionut; Munk-Nielsen, Stig; Teodorescu, Remus

    2010-01-01

    Integration of renewable energy systems in the power system network such as wind and solar is still a challenge in our days. Energy storage systems (ESS) can overcome the disadvantage of volatile generation of the renewable energy sources. This paper presents power converters for battery energy...... storage systems (BESS) which can interface mediumvoltage batteries to the grid. Converter topologies comparison is performed in terms of efficiency, common mode voltage and redundancy for a 6kV series connected medium voltage batteries with a nominal power of 5MVA to act as a battery charger/discharger....

  13. Architectural innovation foresight of thermoelectric generator charger integrated portable power supply for portable consumer electronic device in metropolitan market: The case study of Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maolikul, S.; Kiatgamolchai, S.; Chavarnakul, T.

    2012-06-01

    In the context of information and communication technology (ICT) trend for worldwide individuals, social life becomes digital and portable consumer electronic devices (PCED) powered by conventional power supply from batteries have been evolving through miniaturization and various function integration. Thermoelectric generators (TEG) were hypothesized for its potential role of battery charger to serve the shining PCED market. Hence, this paper, mainly focusing at the metropolitan market in Thailand, aimed to conduct architectural innovation foresight and to develop scenarios on potential exploitation approach of PCED battery power supply with TEG charger converting power from ambient heat source adjacent to individual's daily life. After technical review and assessment for TEG potential and battery aspect, the business research was conducted to analyze PCED consumer behavior for their PCED utilization pattern, power supply lack problems, and encountering heat sources/sinks in 3 modes: daily life, work, and leisure hobbies. Based on the secondary data analysis from literature and National Statistical Office of Thailand, quantitative analysis was applied using the cluster probability sampling methodology, statistically, with the sample size of 400 at 0.05 level of significance. In addition, the qualitative analysis was conducted to emphasize the rationale of consumer's behavior using in-depth qualitative interview. Scenario planning technique was also used to generate technological and market trend foresight. Innovation field and potential scenario for matching technology with market was proposed in this paper. The ingredient for successful commercialization of battery power supply with TEG charger for PCED market consists of 5 factors as follows: (1) PCED characteristic, (2) potential ambient heat sources/sinks, (3) battery module, (4) power management module, and the final jigsaw (5) characteristic and adequate arrangement of TEG modules. The foresight outcome for

  14. Quantifying the Effect of Fast Charger Deployments on Electric Vehicle Utility and Travel Patterns via Advanced Simulation: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, E.; Neubauer, J.; Burton, E.

    2015-02-01

    The disparate characteristics between conventional (CVs) and battery electric vehicles (BEVs) in terms of driving range, refill/recharge time, and availability of refuel/recharge infrastructure inherently limit the relative utility of BEVs when benchmarked against traditional driver travel patterns. However, given a high penetration of high-power public charging combined with driver tolerance for rerouting travel to facilitate charging on long-distance trips, the difference in utility between CVs and BEVs could be marginalized. We quantify the relationships between BEV utility, the deployment of fast chargers, and driver tolerance for rerouting travel and extending travel durations by simulating BEVs operated over real-world travel patterns using the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Battery Lifetime Analysis and Simulation Tool for Vehicles (BLAST-V). With support from the U.S. Department of Energy's Vehicle Technologies Office, BLAST-V has been developed to include algorithms for estimating the available range of BEVs prior to the start of trips, for rerouting baseline travel to utilize public charging infrastructure when necessary, and for making driver travel decisions for those trips in the presence of available public charging infrastructure, all while conducting advanced vehicle simulations that account for battery electrical, thermal, and degradation response. Results from BLAST-V simulations on vehicle utility, frequency of inserted stops, duration of charging events, and additional time and distance necessary for rerouting travel are presented to illustrate how BEV utility and travel patterns can be affected by various fast charge deployments.

  15. PIC BASED SOLAR CHARGING CONTROLLER FOR BATTERY

    OpenAIRE

    Mrs Jaya N. Ingole; Mrs Dr. Madhuri A. Choudhary; Dr. R.D. Kanphade

    2012-01-01

    Solar resource is unlimited the government is trying to implement the use of Solar panels as an energy source in rural and sub urban areas for lighting the street lights, but the battery used to store the power gets affected due to overcharge & discharges. This paper presents the use of PIC16F72 based solar charger controller for controlling the overcharging and discharging of a solar cell. It works by continuously optimizing the interface between the solar array and battery. First, the varia...

  16. Technical-economic Analysis of Fast Chargers for Plug-in Electric Vehicles in Distribution Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Gunderson, Nina Wahl

    2010-01-01

    The project is focusing on on finding the optimal grid connection of fast charging stations for electric vehicles. The project was carried out in cooperation with Lyse, which is the regional utility company in Rogaland, Norway. Lyse is developing combined filling stations for gas vehicles and fast chargers for electric vehicles. The first combined station will be built close to an existing petrol station in Luravika, Sandnes. There is space for four fast chargers at the site. The closest dist...

  17. Methodology for the optimal design of PEV charging systems with multiple chargers and distributed resources

    OpenAIRE

    Gunter, Samantha Joellyn; Perreault, David J.; Suresh, Sindhu; Afridi, Khurram

    2013-01-01

    Increased penetration of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) will necessitate deployment of numerous PEV chargers. Pairing these chargers with renewable distributed generation (DG) and storage can potentially alleviate negative impacts on the distribution grid and help meet renewable portfolio goals. The optimal design of such integrated charging systems depends on many factors, including geographic location and charging profiles. This paper presents an optimization methodology for designing int...

  18. 5AH10 Nickel-Cadmium (NiCad) Battery Maintenance Tester: User's manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Justice, L.B.; Wakefield-Reyes, C.

    1992-08-01

    This manual is a user's guide to the SE3253 and SE3254 versions of the 5AH10 Battery Maintenance Tester, a charger/discharger and test system for the 24-Cell 5-Ah Nickel-Cadmium Battery Pack. The manual provides information on rack equipment, power, communications, theory of operations, user interface, and operating procedures. Copies of users manuals for all equipment comprising the Battery Maintenance Tester are included as appendices.

  19. 77 FR 38743 - Energy Efficiency Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation Standards for Battery...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-29

    ... Part 430 RIN 1904-AB57 Energy Efficiency Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation Standards for Battery Chargers and External Power Supplies AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable..., U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Building Technologies...

  20. Use of rechargeable nickel-cadmium batteries for portable radiation monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaman, M.Q.

    1987-08-01

    An effort was taken to assess the chargers available at the local market and the use of rechargeable batteries in the portable radiation monitors. This report is a very brief description of the study and observations. In order to have fair and justified conclusions regarding the use of Ni-Cd battery in portable instruments, many criterions have to be considered which takes very long observations under some specified conditions. This report is a combination of previous experimental results by scientists, data supplied by the manufacturers and short time observations in Seibersdorf Laboratory. The report has three parts (a) comparison of the ordinary battery with the rechargeables (b) selection of a suitable charger and (c) probability of application of the Ni-Cd battery in portable dosimeters

  1. Constant DC-Capacitor Voltage-Control-Based Harmonics Compensation Strategy of Smart Charger for Electric Vehicles in Single-Phase Three-Wire Distribution Feeders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuka Ikeda

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses harmonic current compensation of the constant DC-capacitor voltage-control (CDCVC-based strategy of smart chargers for electric vehicles (EVs in single-phase three-wire distribution feeders (SPTWDFs under nonlinear load conditions. The basic principle of the CDCVC-based harmonics compensation strategy under nonlinear load conditions is discussed in detail. The instantaneous power flowing into the three-leg pulse-width modulated (PWM rectifier, which performs as a smart charger, shows that the CDCVC-based strategy achieves balanced and sinusoidal source currents with a unity power factor. The CDCVC-based harmonics compensation strategy does not require any calculation blocks of fundamental reactive, unbalanced active, and harmonic currents. Thus, the authors propose a simplified algorithm to compensate for reactive, unbalanced active, and harmonic currents. A digital computer simulation is implemented to confirm the validity and high practicability of the CDCVC-based harmonics compensation strategy using PSIM software. Simulation results demonstrate that balanced and sinusoidal source currents with a unity power factor in SPTWDFs are obtained on the secondary side of the pole-mounted distribution transformer (PMDT during both the battery-charging and discharging operations in EVs, compensating for the reactive, unbalanced active, and harmonic currents.

  2. Unipolar charging of nanoparticles by the Surface-discharge Microplasma Aerosol Charger (SMAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Soon-Bark; Sakurai, Hiromu; Seto, Takafumi

    2007-08-01

    In this paper, we report the development of a novel unipolar charger for nanoparticles, a system that achieves low particle loss and high charging efficiency without the use of sheath air. The efficient unipolar charging of the system is realized mainly by the surface-discharge microplasma unit, a device previously applied with good success to the neutralization or charging of submicron particles [Kwon et al., 2005, Aerosol Sci. Technol., 39, 987-1001; 2006, J. Aerosol Sci., 37, 483-499]. The unipolar charger generates unipolar ions using the surface discharge of a single electrode with a DC pulse supply. This marks an advance from our previous method of generating bipolar ions with the use of dual electrodes in earlier studies. We evaluated the efficiency of the penetration (or loss) and charging of nanoparticles in the size range of 3-15 nm, then compared the charging efficiencies measured with those predicted by diffusion charging theory. More than 90% of inlet nanoparticles penetrated the charger (less than 10% of the particle were lost) without the use of sheath air. Other chargers have only realized this high penetration efficiency by relying on sheath air flow. Moreover, the measured charging efficiencies agreed well with those predicted by diffusion charging theory and were somewhat higher and more size-dependent than the charging efficiencies of other nanoparticle chargers.

  3. Unipolar charging of nanoparticles by the Surface-discharge Microplasma Aerosol Charger (SMAC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Soon-Bark [Korea Railroad Research Institute, Environment and Fire Control Research Team (Korea, Republic of); Sakurai, Hiromu [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, National Metrology Institute of Japan (Japan); Seto, Takafumi [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Advanced Manufacturing Research Institute (Japan)], E-mail: t.seto@aist.go.jp

    2007-08-15

    In this paper, we report the development of a novel unipolar charger for nanoparticles, a system that achieves low particle loss and high charging efficiency without the use of sheath air. The efficient unipolar charging of the system is realized mainly by the surface-discharge microplasma unit, a device previously applied with good success to the neutralization or charging of submicron particles [Kwon et al., 2005, Aerosol Sci. Technol., 39, 987-1001; 2006, J. Aerosol Sci., 37, 483-499]. The unipolar charger generates unipolar ions using the surface discharge of a single electrode with a DC pulse supply. This marks an advance from our previous method of generating bipolar ions with the use of dual electrodes in earlier studies. We evaluated the efficiency of the penetration (or loss) and charging of nanoparticles in the size range of 3-15 nm, then compared the charging efficiencies measured with those predicted by diffusion charging theory. More than 90% of inlet nanoparticles penetrated the charger (less than 10% of the particle were lost) without the use of sheath air. Other chargers have only realized this high penetration efficiency by relying on sheath air flow. Moreover, the measured charging efficiencies agreed well with those predicted by diffusion charging theory and were somewhat higher and more size-dependent than the charging efficiencies of other nanoparticle chargers.

  4. Unipolar charging of nanoparticles by the Surface-discharge Microplasma Aerosol Charger (SMAC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Soon-Bark; Sakurai, Hiromu; Seto, Takafumi

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we report the development of a novel unipolar charger for nanoparticles, a system that achieves low particle loss and high charging efficiency without the use of sheath air. The efficient unipolar charging of the system is realized mainly by the surface-discharge microplasma unit, a device previously applied with good success to the neutralization or charging of submicron particles [Kwon et al., 2005, Aerosol Sci. Technol., 39, 987-1001; 2006, J. Aerosol Sci., 37, 483-499]. The unipolar charger generates unipolar ions using the surface discharge of a single electrode with a DC pulse supply. This marks an advance from our previous method of generating bipolar ions with the use of dual electrodes in earlier studies. We evaluated the efficiency of the penetration (or loss) and charging of nanoparticles in the size range of 3-15 nm, then compared the charging efficiencies measured with those predicted by diffusion charging theory. More than 90% of inlet nanoparticles penetrated the charger (less than 10% of the particle were lost) without the use of sheath air. Other chargers have only realized this high penetration efficiency by relying on sheath air flow. Moreover, the measured charging efficiencies agreed well with those predicted by diffusion charging theory and were somewhat higher and more size-dependent than the charging efficiencies of other nanoparticle chargers

  5. Low wireless power transfer using inductive coupling for mobile phone charger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fareq, M; Fitra, M; Irwanto, M; Hasan, Syafruddin; Arinal, M

    2014-01-01

    A wireless power transfer (WPT) using inductive coupling for mobile phone charger is studied. The project is offer to study and fabricate WPT using inductive coupling for mobile phone charger that will give more information about distance is effect for WPT performance and WPT is not much influenced by the presence of hands, books and types of plastics. The components used to build wireless power transfer can be divided into 3 parts components, the transceiver for power transmission, the inductive coils in this case as the antenna, receiver and the rectifier which act convert AC to DC. Experiments have been conducted and the wireless power transfer using inductive coupling is suitable to be implemented for mobile phone charger.

  6. Systems Maturity Assessment of the Lithium Ion Battery for Extravehicular Mobility Unit Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Samuel P.

    2011-01-01

    The Long Life (Lithium Ion) Battery (LLB/LIB) is designed to replace the current Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) Silver/Zinc (Ag/Zn) Increased Capacity Battery (ICB), which is used to provide power to the Primary Life Support Subsystem (PLSS) during Extravehicular Activities (EVAs). The LLB (a battery based on commercial lithium ion cell technology) is designed to have the same electrical and mechanical interfaces as the current ICB. The EMU LIB Charger is designed to charge, discharge, and condition the LLB either in a charger-strapped configuration or in an EMU-mounted configuration. This paper will retroactively apply the principles of Systems Maturity Assessment to the LLB project through use of the Integration Readiness Level and Earned Readiness Management. The viability of this methodology will be considered for application to new and existing technology development projects.

  7. 75 FR 56021 - Energy Conservation Standards for Battery Chargers and External Power Supplies: Public Meeting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-15

    ... that ``requires Federal Food and Drug Administration listing and approval as a medical device in... in 10 CFR part 430, subpart B, appendix Y (``Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption... Measuring the Energy Consumption of External Power Supplies''). DOE initiated the determination analysis...

  8. 75 FR 16957 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Battery Chargers and External Power Supplies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-02

    ... procedure to (1) Improve its measurement representativeness or accuracy or (2) reduce its burden, or (3... at this time to further improve the procedures' representativeness or reduce its burden. In the...

  9. Advanced Manufacturing Process for Lower Cost Rechargeable Lithium-ion Batteries for DOD Including the BB2590

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-30

    batteries and dual use batteries for DOD electric vehicles . LithChem Energy  Final...wires exiting from the housing to be connected to a BMS unit and a Charger . The objective of the program is to use minimum touch labor, which is...has made several improvements on the Single Cells Assembly Machine and the Bi-Cell Assembly Machine by adding three electric clutches with brakes in

  10. A Novel Voltage Equalization Charger Using Capacitors, Diodes, and an AC Power Source for Energy Storage Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uno, Masatoshi; Tanaka, Koji

    Conventional voltage equalizers or equalization chargers, which are used for series-connected energy storage cells to eliminate cell voltage imbalance, consisting of a number of switches or transformers tend to be complex with the number of series connection of the energy storage cells. A novel voltage equalization charger consisting only of capacitors, diodes, and an ac power source is proposed, and its dc equivalent circuit expressed by resistors and a dc power source is derived in this paper. Experimental charge tests demonstrated that series-connected EDLCs could be charged up to the uniform voltage by the proposed equalization charger.

  11. Building an Interoperability Test System for Electric Vehicle Chargers Based on ISO/IEC 15118 and IEC 61850 Standards

    OpenAIRE

    Minho Shin; Hwimin Kim; Hyoseop Kim; Hyuksoo Jang

    2016-01-01

    The electric vehicle market is rapidly growing due to its environmental friendliness and governmental support. As electric vehicles are powered by electricity, the interoperability between the vehicles and the chargers made by multiple vendors is crucial for the success of the technology. Relevant standards are being published, but the methods for conformance testing need to be developed. In this paper, we present our conformance test system for the electric vehicle charger in accordance with...

  12. Active Device-Less Voltage Equalization Charger Using Capacitors, Diodes, and an AC Power Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uno, Masatoshi; Tanaka, Koji

    Conventional cell/module voltage equalizers or equalization chargers based on traditional dc-dc converters require numerous switches or transformers as the number of series connections increases; therefore, their cost and complexity tend to increase and their reliability decreases as the number of connections increases. This paper proposes a novel voltage equalization charger that consists only of passive components such as capacitors, diodes, and a transformer. The fundamental operating principle, major features, and derivation of equivalent dc circuits are presented. A symmetrical configuration is also proposed to mitigate the RMS current flowing through energy storage cells in the charging process. Simulations and experimental charging and cycle tests were performed on series-connected electric double-layer capacitor modules to demonstrate the equalization performance. The experimental and simulation results were in good agreement, and the voltage imbalances were gradually eliminated as time elapsed even during charge-discharge cycling.

  13. Smart Electric Vehicle Charging System : Controlling Multiple Electrical Vehicle Chargers using OCPP to Limit Electricity Demand

    OpenAIRE

    Ness, Gaute

    2017-01-01

    Master's thesis Renewable Energy ENE500 - University of Agder 2017 Peak demand is a problem when Electrical Vehicle charging is introduced in the electricity grid. Local limitations like fuses and transformer capacity can rapidly be overloaded if multiple Electrical Vehicles are charging at the same time. This can be solved by shifting these loads in time. This master’s Thesis presents a solution by using the communication protocol OCPP to restrict one or more chargers below a set demand l...

  14. Possible fire hazard caused by mismatching electrical chargers with the incorrect device within the operating room.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hargrove, Martin

    2012-02-03

    It has come to our attention that numerous devices that need charging adaptors during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) have similar charging sockets but different voltage requirements. This has caused one of our devices in the operating theater to overheat and completely shut down when connected to an incorrect higher-voltage charger. The possibility of fire, device destruction, or patient harm in such circumstances is of serious concern.

  15. Production of Highly Charged Pharmaceutical Aerosols Using a New Aerosol Induction Charger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golshahi, Laleh; Longest, P Worth; Holbrook, Landon; Snead, Jessica; Hindle, Michael

    2015-09-01

    Properly charged particles can be used for effective lung targeting of pharmaceutical aerosols. The objective of this study was to characterize the performance of a new induction charger that operates with a mesh nebulizer for the production of highly charged submicrometer aerosols to bypass the mouth-throat and deliver clinically relevant doses of medications to the lungs. Variables of interest included combinations of model drug (albuterol sulfate) and charging excipient (NaCl) as well as strength of the charging field (1-5 kV/cm). Aerosol charge and size were measured using a modified electrical low pressure impactor system combined with high performance liquid chromatography. At the approximate mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) of the aerosol (~0.4 μm), the induction charge on the particles was an order of magnitude above the field and diffusion charge limit. The nebulization rate was 439.3 ± 42.9 μl/min, which with a 0.1% w/v solution delivered 419.5 ± 34.2 μg of medication per minute. A new correlation was developed to predict particle charge produced by the induction charger. The combination of the aerosol induction charger and predictive correlations will allow for the practical generation and control of charged submicrometer aerosols for targeting deposition within the lungs.

  16. Distributed Cooperative Current-Sharing Control of Parallel Chargers Using Feedback Linearization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiangang Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a distributed current-sharing scheme to address the output current imbalance problem for the parallel chargers in the energy storage type light rail vehicle system. By treating the parallel chargers as a group of agents with output information sharing through communication network, the current-sharing control problem is recast as the consensus tracking problem of multiagents. To facilitate the design, input-output feedback linearization is first applied to transform the nonidentical nonlinear charging system model into the first-order integrator. Then, a general saturation function is introduced to design the cooperative current-sharing control law which can guarantee the boundedness of the proposed control. The cooperative stability of the closed-loop system under fixed and dynamic communication topologies is rigorously proved with the aid of Lyapunov function and LaSalle invariant principle. Simulation using a multicharging test system further illustrates that the output currents of parallel chargers are balanced using the proposed control.

  17. An electric vehicle propulsion system's impact on battery performance: An overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozek, J. M.; Smithrick, J. J.; Cataldo, R. C.; Ewashinka, J. G.

    1980-01-01

    The performance of two types of batteries, lead-acid and nickel-zinc, was measured as a function of the charging and discharging demands anticipated from electric vehicle propulsion systems. The benefits of rapid high current charging were mixed: although it allowed quick charges, the energy efficiency was reduced. For low power (overnight) charging the current wave shapes delivered by the charger to the battery tended to have no effect on the battery cycle life. The use of chopper speed controllers with series traction motors resulted in a significant reduction in the energy available from a battery whenever the motor operates at part load. The demand placed on a battery by an electric vehicle propulsion system containing electrical regenerative braking confirmed significant improvment in short term performance of the battery.

  18. Design and Implementation of Battery Management System for Electric Bicycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Rashid Muhammad Ikram

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Today the electric vehicle (EV has been developed in such a way that electronic motor, battery, and charger replace the engine, tank and gasoline pump of the conventional gasoline-powered [1]. In other word, instead of using fossil fuel to move the vehicle, in this case we used a pack of batteries to move it. The global climate change and the abnormal rising international crude oil prices call for the development of EV [2]. To solve these problems, a new energy needs to be developed or optimized in order to replace the current energy which is fossil fuel. A clean and green energy [2]. Because of this, it is very important to make sure that the battery that being used is reliable as the fossil fuel. Thus, the design of the battery management system plays an important role on battery life preservation and performance improvement of EV [3]. The BMS also performs many tasks including the measurement of system voltage, current and temperature, the cells’ state of charge (SOC, state of health (SOH, remaining useful life (RUL determination, controlling and monitoring the charge / discharge characteristics and cell balancing [3]. For this project, 18650 Lithium-Ion battery is used to develop battery management for 144V 50Ah. As lithium-ion batteries have high value of specific energy, high energy density, high open circuit voltage, and low self-discharge, they are a proper candidate for EVs among other cell chemistries [4].

  19. Battery Modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongerden, M.R.; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.H.M.

    2008-01-01

    The use of mobile devices is often limited by the capacity of the employed batteries. The battery lifetime determines how long one can use a device. Battery modeling can help to predict, and possibly extend this lifetime. Many different battery models have been developed over the years. However,

  20. Building an Interoperability Test System for Electric Vehicle Chargers Based on ISO/IEC 15118 and IEC 61850 Standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minho Shin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The electric vehicle market is rapidly growing due to its environmental friendliness and governmental support. As electric vehicles are powered by electricity, the interoperability between the vehicles and the chargers made by multiple vendors is crucial for the success of the technology. Relevant standards are being published, but the methods for conformance testing need to be developed. In this paper, we present our conformance test system for the electric vehicle charger in accordance with the standards ISO/IEC 15118, IEC 61851 and IEC 61850-90-8. Our test system leverages the TTCN-3 framework for its flexibility and productivity. We evaluate the test system by lab tests with two reference chargers that we built. We also present the test results in two international testival events for the ISO/IEC 15118 interoperability. We confirmed that our test system is robust, efficient and practical.

  1. Response Accuracy and Tracking Errors with Decentralized Control of Commercial V2G Chargers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ziras, Charalampos; Zecchino, Antonio; Marinelli, Mattia

    2018-01-01

    There is a growing interest in using the flexibility of electric vehicles (EVs) to provide power system services, such as fast frequency regulation. Decentralized control is advocated due to its reliability and much lower communication requirements. A commonly used linear droop characteristic...... switching actions. The EV fleet operator can optimize the chargers’ performance according to the fleet size, the service error requirements, the average switching rate and the average efficiency. We use real efficiency characteristics from EVs and chargers providing fast frequency regulation and we show...

  2. Magnetic Alignment Detection Using Existing Charging Facility in Wireless EV Chargers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yabiao Gao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless charging is a promising outlet to promote the electric vehicle (EV industry due to its safe and noncontact manner. Wireless EV chargers require the secondary receiver coil to be well aligned with the primary station for efficient charging, which could require more of the driver’s time and attention when parking a vehicle. Therefore, this paper presents a magnetic alignment system to assist the EV driver during parking. The magnetic alignment approach uses the existing coil and frequency tracking control electronics of wireless chargers to detect the distance between the two coils while using 4 small auxiliary coils for direction and fine adjustment, leading to a cost effective detection method for coil alignment in electric vehicle wireless charging (EVWC. The testing results of a prototype show acceptable measurement correctness and the mean error for ten trials in range detection is within 0.25 cm at three different misalignment conditions (10.5, 15, and 20 cm. The positioning accuracy of coil alignment is within 1.2 cm for three different start positions with the auxiliary coils.

  3. Micro controlled system used in the control and in the monitoring of batteries bank; Sistema microcontrolado usado no controle e monitoracao de banco de baterias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonacorso, Nelso Gauze

    1991-09-01

    The development of a closed loop micro controlled based system for battery charging, monitoring charge and discharge, and even more, detecting structure failures is presented. The control algorithm is emphasized, being applied a charging method which uses voltage, current and temperature information. The objective of using this control technique is the design of a high performance battery charger, allowing the longest battery life possible, in reliable UPS applications. A prototype has been built and laboratory tested. Experimental results, developed program routines and the system circuits are included. (author)

  4. Using Atmospheric Pressure Tendency to Optimise Battery Charging in Off-Grid Hybrid Wind-Diesel Systems for Telecoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Daniels

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Off grid telecom base stations in developing nations are powered by diesel generators. They are typically oversized and run at a fraction of their rated load for most of their operating lifetime. Running generators at partial load is inefficient and, over time, physically damages the engine. A hybrid configuration uses a battery bank, which powers the telecoms’ load for a portion of the time. The generator only operates when the battery bank needs to be charged. Adding a wind turbine further reduces the generator run hours and saves fuel. The generator is oblivious to the current wind conditions, which leads to simultaneous generator-wind power production. As the batteries become charged by the generator, the wind turbine controller is forced to dump surplus power as heat through a resistive load. This paper details how the relationship between barometric pressure and wind speed can be used to add intelligence to the battery charger. A Simulink model of the system is developed to test the different battery charging configurations. This paper demonstrates that if the battery charger is aware of upcoming wind conditions, it will provide modest fuel savings and reduce generator run hours in small-scale hybrid energy systems.

  5. Research, development, and demonstration of lead-acid batteries for electric vehicle propulsion. Annual report for 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-03-01

    Work performed during Oct. 1, 1979 to Sept. 30, 1980 for the development of lead-acid batteries for electric vehicle propulsion is described. During this report period many of the results frpm Globe Battery's design, materials and process development programs became evident in the achievement of the ISOA (Improved State of Art) specific energy, specific power, and energy efficiency goals while testing in progress also indicates that the cycle life goal can be met. These programs led to the establishment of a working pilot assembly line which produced the first twelve volt ISOA modules. Five of these modules were delivered to the National Battery Test Laboratory during the year for capacity, power and life testing, and assembly is in progress of three full battery systems for installation in vehicles. In the battery subsystem area, design of the acid circulation system for a ninety-six volt ISOA battery pack was completed and assembly of the first such system was initiated. Charger development has been slowed by problems encountered with reliability of some circuits but a prototype unit is being prepared which will meet the charging requirements of our ninety-six volt pack. This charger will be available during the 1981 fiscal year.

  6. FY14 Milestone: Simulated Impacts of Life-Like Fast Charging on BEV Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neubauer, Jeremy [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States). Transportation and Hydrogen Systems Center; Wood, Eric [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States). Transportation and Hydrogen Systems Center; Burton, Evan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States). Transportation and Hydrogen Systems Center; Smith, Kandler [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States). Transportation and Hydrogen Systems Center; Pesaran, Ahmad [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States). Transportation and Hydrogen Systems Center

    2014-09-01

    Fast charging is attractive to battery electric vehicle (BEV) drivers for its ability to enable long-distance travel and quickly recharge depleted batteries on short notice. However, such aggressive charging and the sustained vehicle operation that results could lead to excessive battery temperatures and degradation. Properly assessing the consequences of fast charging requires accounting for disparate cycling, heating, and aging of individual cells in large BEV packs when subjected to realistic travel patterns, usage of fast chargers, and climates over long durations (i.e., years). The U.S. Department of Energy's Vehicle Technologies Office has supported NREL's development of BLAST-V 'the Battery Lifetime Analysis and Simulation Tool for Vehicles' to create a tool capable of accounting for all of these factors. The authors present on the findings of applying this tool to realistic fast charge scenarios. The effects of different travel patterns, climates, battery sizes, battery thermal management systems, and other factors on battery performance and degradation are presented. The primary challenge for BEV batteries operated in the presence of fast charging is controlling maximum battery temperature, which can be achieved with active battery cooling systems.

  7. Dry cell battery poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batteries - dry cell ... Acidic dry cell batteries contain: Manganese dioxide Ammonium chloride Alkaline dry cell batteries contain: Sodium hydroxide Potassium hydroxide Lithium dioxide dry cell batteries ...

  8. Electromagnetic compatibility and safety design of a patient compliance-free, inductive implant charger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodoridis, Michael P; Mollov, Stefan V

    2014-10-01

    This article presents the design of a domestic, radiofrequency induction charger for implants toward compliance with the Federal Communications Commission safety and electromagnetic compatibility regulations. The suggested arrangement does not impose any patient compliance requirements other than the use of a designated bed for night sleep, and therefore can find a domestic use. The method can be applied to a number of applications; a rechargeable pacemaker is considered as a case study. The presented work has proven that it is possible to realize a fully compliant inductive charging system with minimal patient interaction, and has generated important information for consideration by the designers of inductive charging systems. Experimental results have verified the validity of the theoretical findings.

  9. 10 CFR Appendix Y to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Battery Chargers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... factor and frequency spectrum in its measurement of the UUT input current.” 4. Test Measurement: (a... through a detachable AC power cord, then only the cord will remain connected to mains, and standby mode power consumption will equal that of the AC power cord (i.e., zero watts). (4) Finally, if the product...

  10. System and Battery Charge Control for PV-Powered AC Lighting Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kern, G.

    1999-04-01

    This report reviews a number of issues specific to stand-alone AC lighting systems. A review of AC lighting technology is presented, which discusses the advantages and disadvantages of various lamps. The best lamps for small lighting systems are compact fluorescent. The best lamps for intermediate-size systems are high- or low-pressure sodium. Specifications for battery charging and load control are provided with the goal of achieving lamp lifetimes on the order of 16,000 to 24,000 hours and battery lifetimes of 4 to 5 years. A rough estimate of the potential domestic and global markets for stand-alone AC lighting systems is presented. DC current injection tests were performed on high-pressure sodium lamps and the test results are presented. Finally, a prototype system was designed and a prototype system controller (with battery charger and DC/AC inverter) was developed and built.

  11. Aerosol particle charger and an SO2 reactor using energetic electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, R.H.

    1984-01-01

    Two properties of energetic electrons in gas, their high specific ionization and their production of radicals and other chemically active specie, have promising applications to the cleanup of flue gas from coal combustion. The copious ionization has been used in a test particle charger to electrically charge 1 and 3 μm particles for subsequent removal by electrostatic precipitation. Particle charge greater than 5 times the theoretical ionic charging value for 1 μm particles have been observed in a bi-electrode electron beam precharger in which the beam energy is matched with the electrode spacing. In another test device, pulsed streamer coronas have been used to release and to energize electrons which promote gas phase chemical reactions and remote sulfur dioxide from humid air with high efficiency. The energized electrons produce oxidant radicals and chemically active specie which convert the SO 2 into sulfuric acid mist. While reported separately here, the two applications of energetic electrons may be amenable to combination in an integrated system for the combined treatment of flue gas

  12. Button batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... recovery. Alternative Names Swallowing batteries References Hess JM, Lowell MJ. Esophagus, stomach and duodenum. In: Marx JA, ... Jacob L. Heller, MD, MHA, Emergency Medicine, Virginia Mason Medical Center, Seattle, WA. Also reviewed by David ...

  13. Hybrid Microgrid Model based on Solar Photovoltaics with Batteries and Fuel Cells system for intermittent applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Maxx

    Microgrids are a subset of the modern power structure; using distributed generation (DG) to supply power to communities rather than vast regions. The reduced scale mitigates loss allowing the power produced to do more with better control, giving greater security, reliability, and design flexibility. This paper explores the performance and cost viability of a hybrid grid-tied microgrid that utilizes Photovoltaic (PV), batteries, and fuel cell (FC) technology. The concept proposes that each community home is equipped with more PV than is required for normal operation. As the homes are part of a microgrid, excess or unused energy from one home is collected for use elsewhere within the microgrid footprint. The surplus power that would have been discarded becomes a community asset, and is used to run intermittent services. In this paper, the modeled community does not have parking adjacent to each home allowing for the installment of a privately owned slower Level 2 charger, making EV ownership option untenable. A solution is to provide a Level 3 DC Quick Charger (DCQC) as the intermittent service. The addition of batteries and Fuel Cells are meant to increase load leveling, reliability, and instill limited island capability.

  14. Passive hybridization of a photovoltaic module with lithium-ion battery cells: A model-based analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joos, Stella; Weißhar, Björn; Bessler, Wolfgang G.

    2017-04-01

    Standard photovoltaic battery systems based on AC or DC architectures require power electronics and controllers, including inverters, MPP tracker, and battery charger. Here we investigate an alternative system design based on the parallel connection of a photovoltaic module with battery cells without any intermediate voltage conversion. This approach, for which we use the term passive hybridization, is based on matching the solar cell's and battery cell's respective current/voltage behavior. A battery with flat discharge characteristics can allow to pin the solar cell to its maximum power point (MPP) independently of the external power consumption. At the same time, upon battery full charge, voltage increase will drive the solar cell towards zero current and therefore self-prevent battery overcharge. We present a modeling and simulation analysis of passively hybridizing a 5 kWp PV system with a 5 kWh LFP/graphite lithium-ion battery. Dynamic simulations with 1-min time resolution are carried out for three exemplary summer and winter days using historic weather data and a synthetic single-family household consumer profile. The results demonstrate the feasibility of the system. The passive hybrid allows for high self-sufficiencies of 84.6% in summer and 25.3% in winter, which are only slightly lower than those of a standard system.

  15. Batteries: Overview of Battery Cathodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doeff, Marca M

    2010-07-12

    The very high theoretical capacity of lithium (3829 mAh/g) provided a compelling rationale from the 1970's onward for development of rechargeable batteries employing the elemental metal as an anode. The realization that some transition metal compounds undergo reductive lithium intercalation reactions reversibly allowed use of these materials as cathodes in these devices, most notably, TiS{sub 2}. Another intercalation compound, LiCoO{sub 2}, was described shortly thereafter but, because it was produced in the discharged state, was not considered to be of interest by battery companies at the time. Due to difficulties with the rechargeability of lithium and related safety concerns, however, alternative anodes were sought. The graphite intercalation compound (GIC) LiC{sub 6} was considered an attractive candidate but the high reactivity with commonly used electrolytic solutions containing organic solvents was recognized as a significant impediment to its use. The development of electrolytes that allowed the formation of a solid electrolyte interface (SEI) on surfaces of the carbon particles was a breakthrough that enabled commercialization of Li-ion batteries. In 1990, Sony announced the first commercial batteries based on a dual Li ion intercalation system. These devices are assembled in the discharged state, so that it is convenient to employ a prelithiated cathode such as LiCoO{sub 2} with the commonly used graphite anode. After charging, the batteries are ready to power devices. The practical realization of high energy density Li-ion batteries revolutionized the portable electronics industry, as evidenced by the widespread market penetration of mobile phones, laptop computers, digital music players, and other lightweight devices since the early 1990s. In 2009, worldwide sales of Li-ion batteries for these applications alone were US$ 7 billion. Furthermore, their performance characteristics (Figure 1) make them attractive for traction applications such as

  16. Powering-up Wireless Sensor Nodes Utilizing Rechargeable Batteries and an Electromagnetic Vibration Energy Harvesting System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salar Chamanian

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a wireless sensor node (WSN system where an electromagnetic (EM energy harvester is utilized for charging its rechargeable batteries while the system is operational. The capability and the performance of an in-house low-frequency EM energy harvester for charging rechargeable NiMH batteries were experimentally verified in comparison to a regular battery charger. Furthermore, the power consumption of MicaZ motes, used as the WSN, was evaluated in detail for different operation conditions. The battery voltage and current were experimentally monitored during the operation of the MicaZ sensor node equipped with the EM vibration energy harvester. A compact (24.5 cm3 in-house EM energy harvester provides approximately 65 µA charging current to the batteries when excited by 0.4 g acceleration at 7.4 Hz. It has been shown that the current demand of the MicaZ mote can be compensated for by the energy harvester for a specific low-power operation scenario, with more than a 10-fold increase in the battery lifetime. The presented results demonstrate the autonomous operation of the WSN, with the utilization of a vibration-based energy harvester.

  17. Battery Safety Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Ken

    2010-01-01

    Batteries commonly used in flashlights and other household devices produce hydrogen gas as a product of zinc electrode corrosion. The amount of gas produced is affected by the batteries' design and charge rate. Dangerous levels of hydrogen gas can be released if battery types are mixed, batteries are damaged, batteries are of different ages, or…

  18. Batteries for Electric Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conover, R. A.

    1985-01-01

    Report summarizes results of test on "near-term" electrochemical batteries - (batteries approaching commercial production). Nickel/iron, nickel/zinc, and advanced lead/acid batteries included in tests and compared with conventional lead/acid batteries. Batteries operated in electric vehicles at constant speed and repetitive schedule of accerlerating, coasting, and braking.

  19. An electrostatic CMOS/BiCMOS Lithium ion vibration-based harvester-charger IC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Erick Omar

    Self-powered microsystems, such as wireless transceiver microsensors, appeal to an expanding application space in monitoring, control, and diagnosis for commercial, industrial, military, space, and biomedical products. As these devices continue to shrink, their microscale dimensions allow them to be unobtrusive and economical, with the potential to operate from typically unreachable environments and, in wireless network applications, deploy numerous distributed sensing nodes simultaneously. Extended operational life, however, is difficult to achieve since their limited volume space constrains the stored energy available, even with state-of-the-art technologies, such as thin-film lithium-ion batteries (Li Ion) and micro-fuel cells. Harvesting ambient energy overcomes this deficit by continually replenishing the energy reservoir and, as a result, indefinitely extending system lifetime. In this work, an electrostatic harvester that harnesses ambient kinetic energy from vibrations to charge an energy-storage device (e.g., a battery) is investigated, developed, and evaluated. The proposed harvester charges and holds the voltage across a vibration-sensitive variable capacitor so that vibrations can induce it to generate current into the battery when capacitance decreases (as its plates separate). The challenge is that energy is harnessed at relatively slow rates, producing low output power, and the electronics required to transfer it to charge a battery can easily demand more than the power produced. To this end, the system reduces losses by time-managing and biasing its circuits to operate only when needed and with just enough energy while charging the capacitor through an efficient quasi-lossless inductor-based precharger. As result, the proposed energy harvester stores a net energy gain in the battery during every vibration cycle. Two energy-harvesting integrated circuits (IC) were analyzed, designed, developed, and validated using a 0.7-im BiCMOS process and a 30-Hz

  20. Effects of Electric Vehicle Fast Charging on Battery Life and Vehicle Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthew Shirk; Jeffrey Wishart

    2015-04-01

    As part of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity, four new 2012 Nissan Leaf battery electric vehicles were instrumented with data loggers and operated over a fixed on-road test cycle. Each vehicle was operated over the test route, and charged twice daily. Two vehicles were charged exclusively by AC level 2 EVSE, while two were exclusively DC fast charged with a 50 kW charger. The vehicles were performance tested on a closed test track when new, and after accumulation of 50,000 miles. The traction battery packs were removed and laboratory tested when the vehicles were new, and at 10,000-mile intervals. Battery tests include constant-current discharge capacity, electric vehicle pulse power characterization test, and low peak power tests. The on-road testing was carried out through 70,000 miles, at which point the final battery tests were performed. The data collected over 70,000 miles of driving, charging, and rest are analyzed, including the resulting thermal conditions and power and cycle demands placed upon the battery. Battery performance metrics including capacity, internal resistance, and power capability obtained from laboratory testing throughout the test program are analyzed. Results are compared within and between the two groups of vehicles. Specifically, the impacts on battery performance, as measured by laboratory testing, are explored as they relate to battery usage and variations in conditions encountered, with a primary focus on effects due to the differences between AC level 2 and DC fast charging. The contrast between battery performance degradation and the effect on vehicle performance is also explored.

  1. Charging Wireless Sensor Networks with Mobile Charger and Infrastructure Pivot Cluster Heads

    OpenAIRE

    Har, Dongsoo

    2017-01-01

    Wireless rechargeable sensor networks (WRSNs) consisting of sensor nodes with batteries have been at the forefront of sensing and communication technologies in the last few years. Sensor networks with different missions are being massively rolled out, particularly in the internet-of-things commercial market. To ensure sustainable operation of WRSNs, charging in a timely fashion is very important, since lack of energy of even a single sensor node could result in serious outcomes. With the larg...

  2. Radioactive battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deaton, R.L.; Silver, G.L.

    1975-01-01

    A radioactive battery is described that is comprised of a container housing an electrolyte, two electrodes immersed in the electrolyte and insoluble radioactive material disposed adjacent one electrode. Insoluble radioactive material of different intensity of radioactivity may be disposed adjacent the second electrode. If hydrobromic acid is used as the electrolyte, Br 2 will be generated by the radioactivity and is reduced at the cathode: Br 2 + 2e = 2 Br - . At the anode Br - is oxidized: 2Br - = Br 2 + 2e. (U.S.)

  3. Strategy and criteria for deployment of high speed chargers - Part 1; Strategi og kriteriesett for utplassering av hurtigladere - Del 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-11-01

    This report was commissioned by Transnova, as a part of their commitment to the electrification of road transport. The project has been conducted by Poeyry and Architect Harald N. Roestvik in close cooperation with representatives of Transnova and Vegdirektoratet. In addition, a number of external experts provided information during the process. The first part of the report describes a strategy and a set of criteria for the deployment of fast charging stations. The purpose of this section is to find out how many charging points are needed and where they should be placed. The second part describes the possible business models for providers of quick chargers. This section is intended to give some ideas to those who are interested in running high speed charging, and evaluate opportunities for commercial operations.(auth)

  4. DC Fast-Charging Stations for EVs Controlled by a Local Battery Storage in Low Voltage Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjelaj, Marjan; Træholt, Chresten; Hashemi Toghroljerdi, Seyedmostafa

    2017-01-01

    of EVs and their charging systems are going through a series of changes. This paper addresses the design of a new DC Fast Charging Station (DCFCS) for EVs coupled with a local Battery Energy Storage (BES) by using the IEC 15118, which provides a communication interface among different actors. DCFCS...... is equipped with a bidirectional AC/DC converter for feeding power back to the grid, two lithium batteries and a DC/DC converter. The proposed solution decreases the charging time of EVs and facilitates the integration of fast chargers in existing low voltage (LV) grids. The charging station can also be used...... as a multifunctional grid-utility for ancillary services such as primary frequency control, load levelling and congestion management....

  5. Alkaline battery operational methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sholklapper, Tal; Gallaway, Joshua; Steingart, Daniel; Ingale, Nilesh; Nyce, Michael

    2016-08-16

    Methods of using specific operational charge and discharge parameters to extend the life of alkaline batteries are disclosed. The methods can be used with any commercial primary or secondary alkaline battery, as well as with newer alkaline battery designs, including batteries with flowing electrolyte. The methods include cycling batteries within a narrow operating voltage window, with minimum and maximum cut-off voltages that are set based on battery characteristics and environmental conditions. The narrow voltage window decreases available capacity but allows the batteries to be cycled for hundreds or thousands of times.

  6. Cost-effectiveness of plug-in hybrid electric vehicle battery capacity and charging infrastructure investment for reducing US gasoline consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, Scott B.; Michalek, Jeremy J.

    2013-01-01

    Federal electric vehicle (EV) policies in the United States currently include vehicle purchase subsidies linked to EV battery capacity and subsidies for installing charging stations. We assess the cost-effectiveness of increased battery capacity vs. nondomestic charging infrastructure installation for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles as alternate methods to reduce gasoline consumption for cars, trucks, and SUVs in the US. We find across a wide range of scenarios that the least-cost solution is for more drivers to switch to low-capacity plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (short electric range with gasoline backup for long trips) or gasoline-powered hybrid electric vehicles. If more gasoline savings are needed per vehicle, nondomestic charging infrastructure installation is substantially more expensive than increased battery capacity per gallon saved, and both approaches have higher costs than US oil premium estimates. Cost effectiveness of all subsidies are lower under a binding fuel economy standard. Comparison of results to the structure of current federal subsidies shows that policy is not aligned with fuel savings potential, and we discuss issues and alternatives. - Highlights: ► We compare cost of PHEV batteries vs. charging infrastructure per gallon of gasoline saved. ► The lowest cost solution is to switch more drivers to low-capacity PHEVs and HEVs. ► If more gasoline savings is needed, batteries offer a better value than chargers. ► Extra batteries and chargers are both more costly per gal than oil premium estimates. ► Current subsidies are misaligned with fuel savings. We discuss alternatives.

  7. Development of battery management systems (BMS for electric vehicles (EVs in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salehen P.M.W.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Battery Management Systems (BMS is an electronic devices component, which is a vital fundamental device connected between the charger and the battery of the hybrid or electric vehicle (EV systems. Thus, BMS significantly enable for safety protection and reliable battery management by performing of monitoring charge control, state evaluation, reporting the data and functionalities cell balancing. To date, 97.1% of Malaysian CO2 emissions are mainly caused by transportation activities and the numbers will keep rising as numbers of registered car increase close up to 1 million yearly; double the amounts in the last two decades. The uncertainty of a battery’s performance poses a challenge to predict the extended range of EVs, which need BMS implementation of optimization of optimum power management. Hence, using MATLAB/SIMULINK software is one of the potential methods of BMS optimization with power generated by Hybrid Energy Storage system of lithium-ion battery. Therefore, this paper address through reviewing previous literatures initially focuses on the BMS optimization for EVs (car in Malaysia as prognostic technology model improvement on performance management of EVs.

  8. Advancing electric-vehicle development with pure-lead-tin battery technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, W. A.; Stickel, R. B.; May, G. J.

    Electric-vehicle (EV) development continues to make solid progress towards extending vehicle range, reliability and ease of use, aided significantly by technological advances in vehicle systems. There is, however, a widespread misconception that current battery technologies are not capable of meeting even the minimum user requirements that would launch EVs into daily use. Existing pure-lead-tin technology is moving EVs out of research laboratories and onto the streets, in daily side-by-side operation with vehicles powered by conventional gasoline and alternative fuels. This commercially available battery technology can provide traffic-compatible performance in a reliable and affordable manner, and can be used for either pure EVs or hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). Independent results obtained when applying lead-tin batteries in highly abusive conditions, both electrically and environmentally, are presented. The test fleet of EVs is owned and operated by Arizona Public Service (APS), an electric utility in Phoenix, AZ, USA. System, charger and battery development will be described. This gives a single charge range of up to 184 km at a constant speed of 72 km h -1, and with suitable opportunity charging, a 320 km range in a normal 8 h working day.

  9. The Impact of Rechargeable Batteries: Quantifying the Cost and Weight for a Marine Infantry Battalion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    Suitcase Portable Charger (SPC), Vehicle- Mounted Charger (VMC), Solar Portable Power System (SPACES) 15. NUMBER OF PAGES 77 16. PRICE CODE 17...45 APPENDIX E. MANUFACTURER’S DATA ON THE SUITCASE PORTABLE CHARGER...and Evaluation ROI Return on Investment xiv SDC Secondary Destination Charge SPACES Solar Portable Alternative Communications Energy System SPC

  10. PV based converter with integrated charger for DC micro-grid applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salve, Rima

    This thesis presents a converter topology for photovoltaic panels. This topology minimizes the number of switching devices used thereby reducing power losses that arise from high frequency switching operations. The control strategy is implemented using a simple microcontroller that implements the proportional plus integral control. All the control loops are closed feedback loops hence minimizing error instantaneously and adjusting efficiently to system variations. The energy management between three components, namely, the photovoltaic panel, a battery and a DC link for a microgrid is shown distributed over three modes. These modes are dependent on the irradiance from the sunlight. All three modes are simulated. The maximum power point tracking of the system plays a crutial role in this configuration as it is one of the main challenge tackled by the control system. Various methods of MPPT are discussed and the Perturb and Observe method is employed and is described in detail. Experimental results are shown for the maximum power point tracking of this system with a scaled down version of the panel's actual capability.

  11. Measuring the Benefits of Public Chargers and Improving Infrastructure Deployments Using Advanced Simulation Tools: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, Eric; Neubauer. Jeremy; Burton, Evan

    2015-02-01

    With support from the U.S. Department of Energy's Vehicle Technologies Office, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory developed BLAST-V -- the Battery Lifetime Analysis and Simulation Tool for Vehicles. The addition of high-resolution spatial-temporal travel histories enables BLAST-V to investigate user-defined infrastructure rollouts of publically accessible charging infrastructure, as well as quantify impacts on vehicle and station owners in terms of improved vehicle utility and station throughput. This paper presents simulation outputs from BLAST-V that quantify the utility improvements of multiple distinct rollouts of publically available Level 2 electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) in the Seattle, Washington, metropolitan area. Publically available data on existing Level 2 EVSE are also used as an input to BLAST-V. The resulting vehicle utility is compared to a number of mock rollout scenarios. Discussion focuses on the estimated number of Level 2 stations necessary to substantially increase vehicle utility and how stations can be strategically sited to maximize their potential benefit to prospective electric vehicle owners.

  12. Batteries and accumulators: everything you always wanted to know. Batteries, accumulators and the environment - questions and answers; Batterien und Akkus - Das wollten Sie wissen.. Fragen und Antworten zu Batterien, Akkus und Umwelt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leuthold, S.; Minkos, A. (comps.)

    2006-07-15

    Batteries and accumulators are part of our everyday life. This brochure answers problems related to their use and disposal, chargers and charging. Starter batteries for motor vehicles are left out of account, as are special batteries e.g. for electric fences or lights on building sites. The brochure also explains the legal fundamentals for disposal of batteries and provides information on environmental problems relating to production and disposal. Frequently asked questions are answered on the final pages. [German] Batterien und Akkus begleiten unseren Alltag. Solange sie die noetige mobile Versorgung ermoeglichen, sind sie gern gesehen. Versagen sie ihren Dienst, beginnen die Probleme: Wohin mit der leeren Batterie, dem nicht mehr funktionsfaehigen Akku (Keinesfalls in den Hausmuell.)? Welches ist das richtige Ladegeraet und das richtige Ladeverfahren fuer den Akku? Zu diesen und anderen Fragen rund um Geraetebatterien und -akkus gibt diese Broschuere Auskunft. Nicht betrachtet werden hier allerdings Starterbatterien (z.B. fuer Autos und Motorraeder) und bestimmte Spezialbatterien (z.B. fuer Weidezaeune oder Baustellenlampen), die einen Sonderfall darstellen. Die Broschuere erlaeutert auch die gesetzlichen Grundlagen fuer die Entsorgung unbrauchbarer Batterien und Akkus und gibt Informationen zur Umweltbelastung durch Herstellung und Entsorgung. Am Ende der Broschuere werden haeufig gestellte Fragen und deren Antworten zusammengestellt.

  13. Battery Aging and the Kinetic Battery Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongerden, M.R.; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.H.M.

    2016-01-01

    Batteries are omnipresent, and with the uprise of the electrical vehicles will their use will grow even more. However, the batteries can deliver their required power for a limited time span. They slowly degrade with every charge-discharge cycle. This degradation needs to be taken into account when

  14. Battery systems engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Rahn, Christopher D

    2012-01-01

    A complete all-in-one reference on the important interdisciplinary topic of Battery Systems Engineering Focusing on the interdisciplinary area of battery systems engineering, this book provides the background, models, solution techniques, and systems theory that are necessary for the development of advanced battery management systems. It covers the topic from the perspective of basic electrochemistry as well as systems engineering topics and provides a basis for battery modeling for system engineering of electric and hybrid electric vehicle platforms. This original

  15. Rechargeable batteries applications handbook

    CERN Document Server

    1998-01-01

    Represents the first widely available compendium of the information needed by those design professionals responsible for using rechargeable batteries. This handbook introduces the most common forms of rechargeable batteries, including their history, the basic chemistry that governs their operation, and common design approaches. The introduction also exposes reader to common battery design terms and concepts.Two sections of the handbook provide performance information on two principal types of rechargeable batteries commonly found in consumer and industrial products: sealed nickel-cad

  16. Micro Calorimeter for Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santhanagopalan, Shriram [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-08-01

    As battery technology forges ahead and consumer demand for safer, more affordable, high-performance batteries grows, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has added a patented Micro Calorimeter to its existing family of R&D 100 Award-winning Isothermal Battery Calorimeters (IBCs). The Micro Calorimeter examines the thermal signature of battery chemistries early on in the design cycle using popular coin cell and small pouch cell designs, which are simple to fabricate and study.

  17. Electric Vehicle Battery Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2014-01-01

    A serious drawback to electric vehicles [batteries only] is the idle time needed to recharge their batteries. In this challenge, students can develop ideas and concepts for battery change-out at automotive service stations. Such a capability would extend the range of electric vehicles.

  18. Test of hybrid power system for electrical vehicles using a lithium-ion battery pack and a reformed methanol fuel cell range extender

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Søren Juhl; Ashworth, Leanne; Sahlin, Simon Lennart

    2014-01-01

    This work presents the proof-of-concept of an electric traction power system with a high temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell range extender, usable for automotive class electrical vehicles. The hybrid system concept examined, consists of a power system where the primary power...... is delivered by a lithium ion battery pack. In order to increase the run time of the application connected to this battery pack, a high temperature PEM (HTPEM) fuel cell stack acts as an on-board charger able to charge a vehicle during operation as a series hybrid. Because of the high tolerance to carbon...... monoxide, the HTPEM fuel cell system can efficiently use a liquid methanol/water mixture of 60%/40% by volume, as fuel instead of compressed hydrogen, enabling potentially a higher volumetric energy density. In order to test the performance of such a system, the experimental validation conducted uses...

  19. Electrochemical accumulators batteries; Accumulateurs electrochimiques batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ansart, F.; Castillo, S.; Laberty- Robert, C.; Pellizon-Birelli, M. [Universite Paul Sabatier, Lab. de Chimie des Materiaux Inorganiques et Energetiques, CIRIMAT, UMR CNRS 5085, 31 - Toulouse (France)] [and others

    2000-07-01

    It is necessary to storage the electric power in batteries to join the production and the utilization. In this domain progresses are done every days in the technics and also in the available materials. These technical days present the state of the art in this domain. Many papers were presented during these two days giving the research programs and recent results on the following subjects: the lithium batteries, the electrolytes performances and behaviour, lead accumulators, economic analysis of the electrochemical storage market, the batteries applied to the transportation sector and the telephones. (A.L.B.)

  20. A Wearable Wireless Energy Link for Thin-Film Batteries Charging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppina Monti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A wireless charger for low capacity thin-film batteries is presented. The proposed device consists of a nonradiative wireless resonant energy link and a power management unit. Experimental data referring to a prototype operating in the ISM band centered at 434 MHz are presented and discussed. In more detail, in order to facilitate the integration into wearable accessories (such as handbags or suitcases, the prototype of the wireless energy link was implemented by exploiting a magnetic coupling between two planar resonators fabricated by using a conductive fabric on a layer of leather. From experimental data, it is demonstrated that, at 434 MHz, the RF-to-RF power transfer efficiency of the link is approximately 69.3%. As for the performance of the system as a whole, when an RF power of 7.5 dBm is provided at the input port, a total efficiency of about 29.7% is obtained. Finally, experiments performed for calculating the charging time for a low capacity thin-film battery demonstrated that, for RF input power higher than 6 dBm, the time necessary for recharging the battery is lower than 50 minutes.

  1. Power Management for Fuel Cell and Battery Hybrid Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Jared Robert

    As electric powered unmanned aerial vehicles enter a new age of commercial viability, market opportunities in the small UAV sector are expanding. Extending UAV flight time through a combination of fuel cell and battery technologies enhance the scope of potential applications. A brief survey of UAV history provides context and examples of modern day UAVs powered by fuel cells are given. Conventional hybrid power system management employs DC-to-DC converters to control the power split between battery and fuel cell. In this study, a transistor replaces the DC-to-DC converter which lowers weight and cost. Simulation models of a lithium ion battery and a proton exchange membrane fuel cell are developed and integrated into a UAV power system model. Flight simulations demonstrate the operation of the transistor-based power management scheme and quantify the amount of hydrogen consumed by a 5.5 kg fixed wing UAV during a six hour flight. Battery power assists the fuel cell during high throttle periods but may also augment fuel cell power during cruise flight. Simulations demonstrate a 60 liter reduction in hydrogen consumption when battery power assists the fuel cell during cruise flight. Over the full duration of the flight, averaged efficiency of the power system exceeds 98%. For scenarios where inflight battery recharge is desirable, a constant current battery charger is integrated into the UAV power system. Simulation of inflight battery recharge is performed. Design of UAV hybrid power systems must consider power system weight against potential flight time. Data from the flight simulations are used to identify a simple formula that predicts flight time as a function of energy stored onboard the modeled UAV. A small selection of commercially available batteries, fuel cells, and compressed air storage tanks are listed to characterize the weight of possible systems. The formula is then used in conjunction with the weight data to generate a graph of power system weight

  2. Lifetime Improvement by Battery Scheduling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongerden, M.R.; Schmitt, Jens B.; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.H.M.

    The use of mobile devices is often limited by the lifetime of their batteries. For devices that have multiple batteries or that have the option to connect an extra battery, battery scheduling, thereby exploiting the recovery properties of the batteries, can help to extend the system lifetime. Due to

  3. Lifetime improvement by battery scheduling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongerden, M.R.; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.H.M.

    The use of mobile devices is often limited by the lifetime of its battery. For devices that have multiple batteries or that have the option to connect an extra battery, battery scheduling, thereby exploiting the recovery properties of the batteries, can help to extend the system lifetime. Due to the

  4. A desalination battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasta, Mauro; Wessells, Colin D; Cui, Yi; La Mantia, Fabio

    2012-02-08

    Water desalination is an important approach to provide fresh water around the world, although its high energy consumption, and thus high cost, call for new, efficient technology. Here, we demonstrate the novel concept of a "desalination battery", which operates by performing cycles in reverse on our previously reported mixing entropy battery. Rather than generating electricity from salinity differences, as in mixing entropy batteries, desalination batteries use an electrical energy input to extract sodium and chloride ions from seawater and to generate fresh water. The desalination battery is comprised by a Na(2-x)Mn(5)O(10) nanorod positive electrode and Ag/AgCl negative electrode. Here, we demonstrate an energy consumption of 0.29 Wh l(-1) for the removal of 25% salt using this novel desalination battery, which is promising when compared to reverse osmosis (~ 0.2 Wh l(-1)), the most efficient technique presently available. © 2012 American Chemical Society

  5. A Desalination Battery

    KAUST Repository

    Pasta, Mauro

    2012-02-08

    Water desalination is an important approach to provide fresh water around the world, although its high energy consumption, and thus high cost, call for new, efficient technology. Here, we demonstrate the novel concept of a "desalination battery", which operates by performing cycles in reverse on our previously reported mixing entropy battery. Rather than generating electricity from salinity differences, as in mixing entropy batteries, desalination batteries use an electrical energy input to extract sodium and chloride ions from seawater and to generate fresh water. The desalination battery is comprised by a Na 2-xMn 5O 10 nanorod positive electrode and Ag/AgCl negative electrode. Here, we demonstrate an energy consumption of 0.29 Wh l -1 for the removal of 25% salt using this novel desalination battery, which is promising when compared to reverse osmosis (∼ 0.2 Wh l -1), the most efficient technique presently available. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  6. Lithium battery management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Thomas J [Waukesha, WI

    2012-05-08

    Provided is a system for managing a lithium battery system having a plurality of cells. The battery system comprises a variable-resistance element electrically connected to a cell and located proximate a portion of the cell; and a device for determining, utilizing the variable-resistance element, whether the temperature of the cell has exceeded a predetermined threshold. A method of managing the temperature of a lithium battery system is also included.

  7. Nonleaking battery terminals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snider, W. E.; Nagle, W. J.

    1972-01-01

    Three different terminals were designed for usage in a 40 ampere/hour silver zinc battery which has a 45% KOH by weight electrolyte in a plastic battery case. Life tests, including thermal cycling, electrical charge and discharge for up to three years duration, were conducted on these three different terminal designs. Tests for creep rate and tensile strength were conducted on the polyphenylene oxide plastic battery cases. Some cases were unused and others containing KOH electrolyte were placed on life tests. The design and testing of nonleaking battery terminals for use with a KOH electrolyte in a plastic case are considered.

  8. Battery Thermal Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keyser, Matthew A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-08-08

    The operating temperature is critical in achieving the right balance between performance, cost, and life for both Li-ion batteries and ultracapacitors. The chemistries of advanced energy-storage devices - such as lithium-based batteries - are very sensitive to operating temperature. High temperatures degrade batteries faster while low temperatures decrease their power and capacity, affecting vehicle range, performance, and cost. Understanding heat generation in battery systems - from the individual cells within a module, to the inter-connects between the cells, and across the entire battery system - is imperative for designing effective thermal-management systems and battery packs. At NREL, we have developed unique capabilities to measure the thermal properties of cells and evaluate thermal performance of battery packs (air or liquid cooled). We also use our electro-thermal finite element models to analyze the thermal performance of battery systems in order to aid battery developers with improved thermal designs. NREL's tools are used to meet the weight, life, cost, and volume goals set by the U.S. Department of Energy for electric drive vehicles.

  9. Ballistic negatron battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prasad, M.S.R. [Koneru Lakshmiah Univ.. Dept. of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Green fields, Vaddeswaram (India)

    2012-07-01

    If we consider the Statistics there is drastic increase in dependence of batteries from year to year, due to necessity of power storage equipment at homes, power generating off grid and on grid Wind, PV systems, etc.. Where wind power is leading in renewable sector, there is a need to look at its development. Considering the scenario in India, most of the wind resource areas are far away from grid and the remaining areas which are near to grid are of low wind currents which is of no use connecting these equipment directly to grid. So, there is a need for a power storage utility to be integrated, such as the BNB (Ballistic Negatron Battery). In this situation a country like India need a battery which should be reliable, cheap and which can be industrialized. So this paper presents the concept of working, design, operation, adaptability of a Ballistic Negatron Battery. Unlike present batteries with low energy density, huge size, more weight, more charging time and low resistant to wear level, this Ballistic Negatron Battery comes with, 1) High energy storage capability (many multiples more than the present most advanced battery). 2) Very compact in size. 3) Almost negligible in weight compared to present batteries. 4) Charges with in very less time. 5) Never exhibits a wear level greater than zero. Seems like inconceivable but adoptable with simple physics. This paper will explains in detail the principle, model, design, construction and practical considerations considered in making this battery. (Author)

  10. Computing Battery Lifetime Distributions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cloth, L.; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.H.M.; Jongerden, M.R.

    The usage of mobile devices like cell phones, navigation systems, or laptop computers, is limited by the lifetime of the included batteries. This lifetime depends naturally on the rate at which energy is consumed, however, it also depends on the usage pattern of the battery. Continuous drawing of a

  11. Deep diode atomic battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anthony, T.R.; Cline, H.E.

    1977-01-01

    A deep diode atomic battery is made from a bulk semiconductor crystal containing three-dimensional arrays of columnar and lamellar P-N junctions. The battery is powered by gamma rays and x-ray emission from a radioactive source embedded in the interior of the semiconductor crystal

  12. Battery energy storage system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tol, C.S.P.; Evenblij, B.H.

    2009-01-01

    The ability to store electrical energy adds several interesting features to a ships distribution network, as silent power, peak shaving and a ride through in case of generator failure. Modern intrinsically safe Li-ion batteries bring these within reach. For this modern lithium battery applications

  13. Battery Pack Thermal Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pesaran, Ahmad

    2016-06-14

    This presentation describes the thermal design of battery packs at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. A battery thermal management system essential for xEVs for both normal operation during daily driving (achieving life and performance) and off-normal operation during abuse conditions (achieving safety). The battery thermal management system needs to be optimized with the right tools for the lowest cost. Experimental tools such as NREL's isothermal battery calorimeter, thermal imaging, and heat transfer setups are needed. Thermal models and computer-aided engineering tools are useful for robust designs. During abuse conditions, designs should prevent cell-to-cell propagation in a module/pack (i.e., keep the fire small and manageable). NREL's battery ISC device can be used for evaluating the robustness of a module/pack to cell-to-cell propagation.

  14. Battery equalization active methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardo-Lozano, Javier; Romero-Cadaval, Enrique; Milanes-Montero, M. Isabel; Guerrero-Martinez, Miguel A.

    2014-01-01

    Many different battery technologies are available for the applications which need energy storage. New researches are being focused on Lithium-based batteries, since they are becoming the most viable option for portable energy storage applications. As most of the applications need series battery strings to meet voltage requirements, battery imbalance is an important matter to be taken into account, since it leads the individual battery voltages to drift apart over time, and premature cells degradation, safety hazards, and capacity reduction will occur. A large number of battery equalization methods can be found, which present different advantages/disadvantages and are suitable for different applications. The present paper presents a summary, comparison and evaluation of the different active battery equalization methods, providing a table that compares them, which is helpful to select the suitable equalization method depending on the application. By applying the same weight to the different parameters of comparison, switch capacitor and double-tiered switching capacitor have the highest ratio. Cell bypass methods are cheap and cell to cell ones are efficient. Cell to pack, pack to cell and cell to pack to cell methods present a higher cost, size, and control complexity, but relatively low voltage and current stress in high-power applications.

  15. USMC Initiatives in Energy and Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    Suitcase Battery Chargers (military batteries) • Special Purpose Battery Charger (AN/PRC-152 battery in storage) • Lead Acid Battery Chargers / Analyzers...Sustainment Systems x x x  Solar / Renewable Power Adaptors x x  On-Board Vehicle Power Systems x x  Family of Power Supplies x x  Mobile

  16. Technical and legal considerations and solutions in the area of battery charging for electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juda, Z.

    2016-09-01

    The issue of protecting health of residents of urbanized areas from the effect of excessive particulate matter and toxic components of car exhaust gases imposes the need of introduction of clean electric vehicles to the market. The increasing market availability of electric vehicles, especially in the segment of short-range (neighborhood) vehicles is followed by development of new and advanced infrastructure solutions. This also applies to the increasingly popular hybrid vehicles PHEV (Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles). However, problems with the existing designs are primarily associated with limited driving range on a single battery charge, the density of charging stations in urban and suburban area, energy system efficiency due to increased electricity demand and the unification of solutions for charging stations, on-board chargers and the necessary accessories. Technical solutions are dependent on many factors, including the type and size of battery in the vehicle and access to power grid with increased load capacity. The article discusses the legal and technical actions outlined in the above directions. It shows the available and planned solutions in this area.

  17. Improved transistorized AC motor controller for battery powered urban electric passenger vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peak, S. C.

    1982-01-01

    An ac motor controller for an induction motor electric vehicle drive system was designed, fabricated, tested, evaluated, and cost analyzed. A vehicle performance analysis was done to establish the vehicle tractive effort-speed requirements. These requirements were then converted into a set of ac motor and ac controller requirements. The power inverter is a three-phase bridge using power Darlington transistors. The induction motor was optimized for use with an inverter power source. The drive system has a constant torque output to base motor speed and a constant horsepower output to maximum speed. A gear shifting transmission is not required. The ac controller was scaled from the base 20 hp (41 hp peak) at 108 volts dec to an expanded horsepower and battery voltage range. Motor reversal was accomplished by electronic reversal of the inverter phase sequence. The ac controller can also be used as a boost chopper battery charger. The drive system was tested on a dynamometer and results are presented. The current-controlled pulse width modulation control scheme yielded improved motor current waveforms. The ac controller favors a higher system voltage.

  18. HST Replacement Battery Initial Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krol, Stan; Waldo, Greg; Hollandsworth, Roger

    2009-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) original Nickel-Hydrogen (NiH2) batteries were replaced during the Servicing Mission 4 (SM4) after 19 years and one month on orbit.The purpose of this presentation is to highlight the findings from the assessment of the initial sm4 replacement battery performance. The batteries are described, the 0 C capacity is reviewed, descriptions, charts and tables reviewing the State Of Charge (SOC) Performance, the Battery Voltage Performance, the battery impedance, the minimum voltage performance, the thermal performance, the battery current, and the battery system recharge ratio,

  19. Battery Technology Stores Clean Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Headquartered in Fremont, California, Deeya Energy Inc. is now bringing its flow batteries to commercial customers around the world after working with former Marshall Space Flight Center scientist, Lawrence Thaller. Deeya's liquid-cell batteries have higher power capability than Thaller's original design, are less expensive than lead-acid batteries, are a clean energy alternative, and are 10 to 20 times less expensive than nickel-metal hydride batteries, lithium-ion batteries, and fuel cell options.

  20. Strain measurement based battery testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jeff Qiang; Steiber, Joe; Wall, Craig M.; Smith, Robert; Ng, Cheuk

    2017-05-23

    A method and system for strain-based estimation of the state of health of a battery, from an initial state to an aged state, is provided. A strain gauge is applied to the battery. A first strain measurement is performed on the battery, using the strain gauge, at a selected charge capacity of the battery and at the initial state of the battery. A second strain measurement is performed on the battery, using the strain gauge, at the selected charge capacity of the battery and at the aged state of the battery. The capacity degradation of the battery is estimated as the difference between the first and second strain measurements divided by the first strain measurement.

  1. Lithium use in batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goonan, Thomas G.

    2012-01-01

    Lithium has a number of uses but one of the most valuable is as a component of high energy-density rechargeable lithium-ion batteries. Because of concerns over carbon dioxide footprint and increasing hydrocarbon fuel cost (reduced supply), lithium may become even more important in large batteries for powering all-electric and hybrid vehicles. It would take 1.4 to 3.0 kilograms of lithium equivalent (7.5 to 16.0 kilograms of lithium carbonate) to support a 40-mile trip in an electric vehicle before requiring recharge. This could create a large demand for lithium. Estimates of future lithium demand vary, based on numerous variables. Some of those variables include the potential for recycling, widespread public acceptance of electric vehicles, or the possibility of incentives for converting to lithium-ion-powered engines. Increased electric usage could cause electricity prices to increase. Because of reduced demand, hydrocarbon fuel prices would likely decrease, making hydrocarbon fuel more desirable. In 2009, 13 percent of worldwide lithium reserves, expressed in terms of contained lithium, were reported to be within hard rock mineral deposits, and 87 percent, within brine deposits. Most of the lithium recovered from brine came from Chile, with smaller amounts from China, Argentina, and the United States. Chile also has lithium mineral reserves, as does Australia. Another source of lithium is from recycled batteries. When lithium-ion batteries begin to power vehicles, it is expected that battery recycling rates will increase because vehicle battery recycling systems can be used to produce new lithium-ion batteries.

  2. Circulating current battery heater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashtiani, Cyrus N.; Stuart, Thomas A.

    2001-01-01

    A circuit for heating energy storage devices such as batteries is provided. The circuit includes a pair of switches connected in a half-bridge configuration. Unidirectional current conduction devices are connected in parallel with each switch. A series resonant element for storing energy is connected from the energy storage device to the pair of switches. An energy storage device for intermediate storage of energy is connected in a loop with the series resonant element and one of the switches. The energy storage device which is being heated is connected in a loop with the series resonant element and the other switch. Energy from the heated energy storage device is transferred to the switched network and then recirculated back to the battery. The flow of energy through the battery causes internal power dissipation due to electrical to chemical conversion inefficiencies. The dissipated power causes the internal temperature of the battery to increase. Higher internal temperatures expand the cold temperature operating range and energy capacity utilization of the battery. As disclosed, either fixed frequency or variable frequency modulation schemes may be used to control the network.

  3. Advanced battery development

    Science.gov (United States)

    In order to promote national security by ensuring that the United States has an adequate supply of safe, assured, affordable, and environmentally acceptable energy, the Storage Batteries Division at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), Albuquerque, is responsible for engineering development of advanced rechargeable batteries for energy applications. This effort is conducted within the Exploratory Battery Technology Development and Testing (ETD) Lead center, whose activities are coordinated by staff within the Storage Batteries Division. The ETD Project, directed by SNL, is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Systems Research, Energy Storage and Distribution Division (DOE/OESD). SNL is also responsible for technical management of the Electric Vehicle Advanced Battery Systems (EV-ABS) Development Project, which is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Transportation Systems (OTS). The ETD Project is operated in conjunction with the Technology Base Research (TBR) Project, which is under the direction of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. Together these two projects seek to establish the scientific feasibility of advanced electrochemical energy storage systems, and conduct the initial engineering development on systems suitable for mobile and stationary commercial applications.

  4. Used batteries - REMINDER

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    With colder weather drawing in, it is quite likely that older car batteries will fail. On this subject, the Safety Commission wishes to remind everyone that CERN is not responsible for the disposal of used batteries from private vehicles. So please refrain from abandoning them on pavements or around or inside buildings. Used batteries can be disposed of safely, free-of-charge and without any damage to the environment at waste disposal sites (déchetteries) close to CERN in both France (Ain and Haute-Savoie) and in the Canton of Geneva in Switzerland (Cheneviers). Since the average car battery lasts a number of years, this only represents a small effort on your part over the whole lifetime of your vehicle. Most people don't need reminding that car batteries contain concentrated sulphuric acid, which can cause severe burns. Despite this, we frequently find them casually dumped in scrap metal bins! For more information, please contact R. Magnier/SC-GS 160879 We all have a responsibility for safety and th...

  5. Battery Vent Mechanism And Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ching, Larry K. W.

    2000-02-15

    Disclosed herein is a venting mechanism for a battery. The venting mechanism includes a battery vent structure which is located on the battery cover and may be integrally formed therewith. The venting mechanism includes an opening extending through the battery cover such that the opening communicates with a plurality of battery cells located within the battery case. The venting mechanism also includes a vent manifold which attaches to the battery vent structure. The vent manifold includes a first opening which communicates with the battery vent structure opening and second and third openings which allow the vent manifold to be connected to two separate conduits. In this manner, a plurality of batteries may be interconnected for venting purposes, thus eliminating the need to provide separate vent lines for each battery. The vent manifold may be attached to the battery vent structure by a spin-welding technique. To facilitate this technique, the vent manifold may be provided with a flange portion which fits into a corresponding groove portion on the battery vent structure. The vent manifold includes an internal chamber which is large enough to completely house a conventional battery flame arrester and overpressure safety valve. In this manner, the vent manifold, when installed, lessens the likelihood of tampering with the flame arrester and safety valve.

  6. Battery venting system and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casale, Thomas J.; Ching, Larry K. W.; Baer, Jose T.; Swan, David H.

    1999-01-05

    Disclosed herein is a venting mechanism for a battery. The venting mechanism includes a battery vent structure which is located on the battery cover and may be integrally formed therewith. The venting mechanism includes an opening extending through the battery cover such that the opening communicates with a plurality of battery cells located within the battery case. The venting mechanism also includes a vent manifold which attaches to the battery vent structure. The vent manifold includes a first opening which communicates with the battery vent structure opening and second and third openings which allow the vent manifold to be connected to two separate conduits. In this manner, a plurality of batteries may be interconnected for venting purposes, thus eliminating the need to provide separate vent lines for each battery. The vent manifold may be attached to the battery vent structure by a spin-welding technique. To facilitate this technique, the vent manifold may be provided with a flange portion which fits into a corresponding groove portion on the battery vent structure. The vent manifold includes an internal chamber which is large enough to completely house a conventional battery flame arrester and overpressure safety valve. In this manner, the vent manifold, when installed, lessens the likelihood of tampering with the flame arrester and safety valve.

  7. Battery charging control methods, electric vehicle charging methods, battery charging apparatuses and rechargeable battery systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuffner, Francis K [Richland, WA; Kintner-Meyer, Michael C. W. [Richland, WA; Hammerstrom, Donald J [West Richland, WA; Pratt, Richard M [Richland, WA

    2012-05-22

    Battery charging control methods, electric vehicle charging methods, battery charging apparatuses and rechargeable battery systems. According to one aspect, a battery charging control method includes accessing information regarding a presence of at least one of a surplus and a deficiency of electrical energy upon an electrical power distribution system at a plurality of different moments in time, and using the information, controlling an adjustment of an amount of the electrical energy provided from the electrical power distribution system to a rechargeable battery to charge the rechargeable battery.

  8. Battery Monitoring and Charging System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thivierge, Daniel P

    2007-01-01

    A battery monitoring device for a battery having cells grouped in modules. The device includes a monitoring circuit for each module which monitors the voltage in each cell and the overall module voltage...

  9. Lithium-ion batteries

    CERN Document Server

    Yoshio, Masaki; Kozawa, Akiya

    2010-01-01

    This book is a compilation of up-to-date information relative to Li-Ion technology. It provides the reader with a single source covering all important aspects of Li-Ion battery operations. It fills the gap between the old original Li-Ion technology and present state of the technology that has developed into a high state of practice. The book is designed to provide a single source for an up-to-date description of the technology associated with the Li-Ion battery industry. It will be useful to researchers interested in energy conversion for the direct conversion of chemical energy into electrica

  10. Impact resistant battery enclosure systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsutsui, Waterloo; Feng, Yuezhong; Chen, Weinong Wayne; Siegmund, Thomas Heinrich

    2017-10-31

    Battery enclosure arrangements for a vehicular battery system. The arrangements, capable of impact resistance include plurality of battery cells and a plurality of kinetic energy absorbing elements. The arrangements further include a frame configured to encase the plurality of the kinetic energy absorbing elements and the battery cells. In some arrangements the frame and/or the kinetic energy absorbing elements can be made of topologically interlocked materials.

  11. Battery switch for downhole tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boling, Brian E.

    2010-02-23

    An electrical circuit for a downhole tool may include a battery, a load electrically connected to the battery, and at least one switch electrically connected in series with the battery and to the load. The at least one switch may be configured to close when a tool temperature exceeds a selected temperature.

  12. USED BATTERIES-REMINDER

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Note from the TIS Division: Although it is not an obligation for CERN to collect, store and dispose of used batteries from private vehicles, they are often found abandoned on the site and even in the scrap metal bins. As well as being very dangerous (they contain sulphuric acid which is highly corrosive), this practise costs CERN a non-negligible amount of money to dispose of them safely. The disposal of used batteries in the host state could not be simpler, there are 'déchetteries' in neighbouring France at Saint-Genis, Gaillard and Annemasse as well as in other communes. In Geneva Canton the centre de traitement des déchets spéciaux, at Cheneviers on the river Rhône a few kilometers from CERN, will dispose of your batterie free of charge. So we ask you to use a little common sense and to help protect the environnement from the lead and acid in these batteries and even more important, to avoid the possibility of a colleague being seriously injured. It doesn't take m...

  13. Weston Standard battery

    CERN Multimedia

    This is a Weston AOIP standard battery with its calibration certificate (1956). Inside, the glassware forms an "H". Its name comes from the British physicist Edward Weston. A standard is the materialization of a given quantity whose value is known with great accuracy.

  14. Secondary alkaline batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBreen, J.

    1984-03-01

    The overall reactions (charge/discharge characteristics); electrode structures and materials; and cell construction are studied for nickel oxide-cadmium, nickel oxide-iron, nickel oxide-hydrogen, nickel oxide-zinc, silver oxide-zinc, and silver oxide-cadmium, silver oxide-iron, and manganese dioxide-zinc batteries.

  15. Standardizing activities of inductive charger and its interactive communication system with electric vehicle; Inductive judenki no hyojunka no nagare to sharyo tono sogo seigyo ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurozu, T.; Ikeda, T.; Fukuda, M. [Nissan Motor Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2000-01-01

    The paper described the flow of the standardization for EV use charge system and the inter-control with vehicles. Charge systems now used on the market are the inductive charge system and conductive charge system. The inductive charge system has no mechanical touches and is excellent in durability because the electromagnetic induction is used to the portion of power transmission. As to the standardization of the inductive charge system, it was found out that the construction of the world standards in the electric-wave use system is difficult, and the optical communication system was studied. At present, the work for revision has been proceeded with of the standards for the charge paddle (optical communication interface is adopted) which was reduced in size by about 40% of the conventional one. This charge paddle was made public at EVS15 in September 1998, and is being developed jointly with GM-Toyota. Around November 1999, the standards are expected to be formally revised. For the power control of the charger, the controller on the vehicle side transmits power request values. The rise in power request value is limited, so that the rapid power increase is avoided. (NEDO)

  16. Comparative bioleaching of metals from pulverized and non-pulverized PCBs of cell phone charger: advantages of non-pulverized PCBs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Vyenkatesh; Shah, Neha; Wakte, Prashant; Dhakephalkar, Prashant; Dhakephalkar, Anita; Khobragade, Rahul; Naphade, Bhushan; Shaikh, Sajid; Deshmukh, Arvind; Adhapure, Nitin

    2017-12-01

    Sample inhomogeneity is a severe issue in printed circuit boards especially when we are comparing the bioleaching efficiency. To avoid the ambiguous results obtained due to inhomogeneity in PCBs, 12 similar cell phone chargers (of renowned company) having same make and batch number were collected from scrap market. PCBs obtained from them were used in present studies. Out of these 12, three PCBs were used separately for chemical analysis of PCBs with prior acid digestion in aqua regia. It was found that, 10.8, 68.0, and 710.9 mg/l of Zn, Pb, and Cu were present in it, respectively. Six PCBs were used for bioleaching experiment with two variations, pulverized and non-pulverized. Though the pulverized sample have shown better leaching than non-pulverized one, former has some disadvantages if overall recycling of e-waste (metallic and nonmetallic fraction) is to be addressed. At the end of leaching experiments, copper was recovered using a simple setup of electrodeposition and 92.85% recovery was attained. The acidophiles involved in bioleaching were identified by culture dependent and culture independent techniques such as DGGE and species specific primers in PCR.

  17. Modeling for Battery Prognostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Chetan S.; Goebel, Kai; Khasin, Michael; Hogge, Edward; Quach, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    For any battery-powered vehicles (be it unmanned aerial vehicles, small passenger aircraft, or assets in exoplanetary operations) to operate at maximum efficiency and reliability, it is critical to monitor battery health as well performance and to predict end of discharge (EOD) and end of useful life (EOL). To fulfil these needs, it is important to capture the battery's inherent characteristics as well as operational knowledge in the form of models that can be used by monitoring, diagnostic, and prognostic algorithms. Several battery modeling methodologies have been developed in last few years as the understanding of underlying electrochemical mechanics has been advancing. The models can generally be classified as empirical models, electrochemical engineering models, multi-physics models, and molecular/atomist. Empirical models are based on fitting certain functions to past experimental data, without making use of any physicochemical principles. Electrical circuit equivalent models are an example of such empirical models. Electrochemical engineering models are typically continuum models that include electrochemical kinetics and transport phenomena. Each model has its advantages and disadvantages. The former type of model has the advantage of being computationally efficient, but has limited accuracy and robustness, due to the approximations used in developed model, and as a result of such approximations, cannot represent aging well. The latter type of model has the advantage of being very accurate, but is often computationally inefficient, having to solve complex sets of partial differential equations, and thus not suited well for online prognostic applications. In addition both multi-physics and atomist models are computationally expensive hence are even less suited to online application An electrochemistry-based model of Li-ion batteries has been developed, that captures crucial electrochemical processes, captures effects of aging, is computationally efficient

  18. Batteries and accumulators in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-12-01

    The present report gives an overview of the batteries and accumulators market in France in 2011 based on the data reported through ADEME's Register of Batteries and accumulators. In 2001, the French Environmental Agency, known as ADEME, implemented a follow-up of the batteries and accumulators market, creating the Observatory of batteries and accumulators (B and A). In 2010, ADEME created the National Register of producers of Batteries and Accumulators in the context of the implementation of the order issued on November 18, 2009. This is one of the four enforcement orders for the decree 2009-1139 issued on September 22, 2009, concerning batteries and accumulators put on the market and the disposal of waste batteries and accumulators, and which transposes the EU-Directive 2006/66/CE into French law. This Register follows the former Observatory for batteries and accumulators. This Register aims to record the producers on French territory and to collect the B and A producers and recycling companies' annual reporting: the regulation indeed requires that all B and A producers and recycling companies report annually on the Register the quantities of batteries and accumulators they put on the market, collect and treat. Based on this data analysis, ADEME issues an annual report allowing both the follow-up of the batteries and accumulators market in France and communication regarding the achievement of the collection and recovery objectives set by EU regulation. This booklet presents the situation in France in 2011

  19. The nuclear battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozier, K.S.; Rosinger, H.E.

    1988-01-01

    This paper reviews the evolution and present status of an Atomic Energy of Canada Limited program to develop a small, solid-state, passively cooled reactor power supply known as the Nuclear Battery. Key technical features of the Nuclear Battery reactor core include a heat-pipe primary heat transport system, graphite neutron moderator, low-enriched uranium TRISO coated-particle fuel and the use of burnable poisons for long-term reactivity control. An external secondary heat transport system extracts useful heat energy, which may be converted into electricity in an organic Rankine cycle engine or used to produce high-pressure steam. The present reference design is capable of producing about 2400 kW(t) (about 600 kW(e) net) for 15 full-power years. Technical and safety features are described along with recent progress in component hardware development programs and market assessment work. 19 refs

  20. Modular Battery Controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Button, Robert M (Inventor); Gonzalez, Marcelo C (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    Some embodiments of the present invention describe a battery including a plurality of master-less controllers. Each controller is operatively connected to a corresponding cell in a string of cells, and each controller is configured to bypass a fraction of current around the corresponding cell when the corresponding cell has a greater charge than one or more other cells in the string of cells.

  1. Multifunctional Structural Composite Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-01

    Conference held in Dallas, Texas on 6-9 November 2006. We are developing structural polymeric composites that both carry structural loads and store...structural polymeric composites that both carry structural loads and store electrochemical energy. These multifunctional batteries could replace inert...solid-state goal, and is compatible with our PEO -based resin electrolytes . The metal substrate provides structural support while acting as a

  2. Nuclear battery materials and application of nuclear batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao Shaochang; Lu Zhenming; Fu Xiaoming; Liang Tongxiang

    2006-01-01

    Nuclear battery has lots of advantages such as small volume, longevity, environal stability and so on, therefore, it was widely used in aerospace, deep-sea, polar region, heart pacemaker, micro-electromotor and other fields etc. The application of nuclear battery and the development of its materials promote each other. In this paper the development and the latest research progress of nuclear battery materials has been introduced from the view of radioisotope, electric energy conversion and encapsulation. And the current and potential applications of the nuclear battery are also summarized. (authors)

  3. Wireless battery management control and monitoring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zumstein, James M.; Chang, John T.; Farmer, Joseph C.; Kovotsky, Jack; Lavietes, Anthony; Trebes, James Edward

    2018-01-16

    A battery management system using a sensor inside of the battery that sensor enables monitoring and detection of various events in the battery and transmission of a signal from the sensor through the battery casing to a control and data acquisition module by wireless transmission. The detection of threshold events in the battery enables remedial action to be taken to avoid catastrophic events.

  4. A multi-port power electronics interface for battery powered electric vehicles: Application of inductively coupled wireless power transfer and hybrid energy storage system

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonough, Matthew Kelly

    Climate change, pollution, and geopolitical conflicts arising from the extreme wealth concentrations caused by fossil fuel deposits are just a few of the side-effects of the way that we fuel our society. A new method to power our civilization is becoming more and more necessary. Research for new, more sustainable fuel sources is already underway due to research in wind, solar, geothermal, and hydro power. However this focus is mainly on stationary applications. A large portion of fossil fuel usage comes from transportation. Unfortunately, the transition to cleaner transportation fuels is being stunted by the inability to store adequate amounts of energy in electro-chemical batteries. The idea of charging while driving has been proposed by many researchers, however several challenges still exist. In this work some of these challenges are addressed. Specifically, the ability to route power from multiple sources/loads is investigated. Special attention is paid to adjusting the time constant of particular converters, namely the battery and ultra-capacitor converters to reduce the high frequency and high magnitude current components applied to the battery terminals. This is done by developing a closed loop model of the entire multi-port converter, including the state of charge of the ultra-capacitors. The development of closed loop models and two experimental testbeds for use as stationary vehicle charging platforms with their unique set of sources/loads are presented along-side an on-board charger to demonstrate the similarities and differences between stationary charging and mobile charging. Experimental results from each are given showing that it is not only possible, but feasible to utilize Inductively Coupled Wireless Power Transfer (ICWPT) to charge a battery powered electric vehicle while driving and still protect the life-span of the batteries under the new, harsher conditions generated by the ICWPT system.

  5. Membranes in Lithium Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junbo Hou

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Lithium ion batteries have proven themselves the main choice of power sources for portable electronics. Besides consumer electronics, lithium ion batteries are also growing in popularity for military, electric vehicle, and aerospace applications. The present review attempts to summarize the knowledge about some selected membranes in lithium ion batteries. Based on the type of electrolyte used, literature concerning ceramic-glass and polymer solid ion conductors, microporous filter type separators and polymer gel based membranes is reviewed.

  6. Air and metal hydride battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lampinen, M.; Noponen, T. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Lab. of Applied Thermodynamics

    1998-12-31

    The main goal of the air and metal hydride battery project was to enhance the performance and manufacturing technology of both electrodes to such a degree that an air-metal hydride battery could become a commercially and technically competitive power source for electric vehicles. By the end of the project it was possible to demonstrate the very first prototype of the air-metal hydride battery at EV scale, achieving all the required design parameters. (orig.)

  7. High energy density lithium batteries

    CERN Document Server

    Aifantis, Katerina E; Kumar, R Vasant

    2010-01-01

    Cell phones, portable computers and other electronic devices crucially depend on reliable, compact yet powerful batteries. Therefore, intensive research is devoted to improving performance and reducing failure rates. Rechargeable lithium-ion batteries promise significant advancement and high application potential for hybrid vehicles, biomedical devices, and everyday appliances. This monograph provides special focus on the methods and approaches for enhancing the performance of next-generation batteries through the use of nanotechnology. Deeper understanding of the mechanisms and strategies is

  8. Joint Battery Industry Sector Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-08-31

    company, Yardney Technical Products, is a potential supplier of lithium systems to the military but, to date, has not produced any batteries . The...small,3 single pimary cell batteries used in commercial electoic devices. Yardney Technical Products, Inc. and BST Systems are the North Americ-m...primary reserve silver zinc batteries , there are three main suppliers - Yardney , Whittaker, and Eagle-Picher. Commercial primary silver zinc cells are

  9. 78 FR 38093 - Thirteenth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-25

    ... Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size AGENCY: Federal... Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size. SUMMARY... Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size. DATES: The meeting...

  10. 78 FR 55773 - Fourteenth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-11

    ... Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S... Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size. SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to... Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size DATES: The meeting will be held October 1-3, 2013, from...

  11. Battery Post-Test Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Post-test diagnostics of aged batteries can provide additional information regarding the cause of performance degradation, which, previously, could be only inferred...

  12. ZEBRA battery meets USABC goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dustmann, Cord-H.

    In 1990, the California Air Resources Board has established a mandate to introduce electric vehicles in order to improve air quality in Los Angeles and other capitals. The United States Advanced Battery Consortium has been formed by the big car companies, Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and the Department of Energy in order to establish the requirements on EV-batteries and to support battery development. The ZEBRA battery system is a candidate to power future electric vehicles. Not only because its energy density is three-fold that of lead acid batteries (50% more than NiMH) but also because of all the other EV requirements such as power density, no maintenance, summer and winter operation, safety, failure tolerance and low cost potential are fulfilled. The electrode material is plain salt and nickel in combination with a ceramic electrolyte. The cell voltage is 2.58 V and the capacity of a standard cell is 32 Ah. Some hundred cells are connected in series and parallel to form a battery with about 300 V OCV. The battery system including battery controller, main circuit-breaker and cooling system is engineered for vehicle integration and ready to be mounted in a vehicle [J. Gaub, A. van Zyl, Mercedes-Benz Electric Vehicles with ZEBRA Batteries, EVS-14, Orlando, FL, Dec. 1997]. The background of these features are described.

  13. 46 CFR 120.354 - Battery installations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... PASSENGERS OR WITH OVERNIGHT ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 120.354 Battery installations. (a) Large batteries. Each large battery...

  14. Optimised battery capacity utilisation within battery management systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilkins, S.; Rosca, B.; Jacob, J.; Hoedmaekers, E.

    2015-01-01

    Battery Management Systems (BMSs) play a key role in the performance of both hybrid and fully electric vehicles. Typically, the role of the BMS is to help maintain safety, performance, and overall efficiency of the battery pack. One important aspect of its operation is the estimation of the state of

  15. Battery Cell Balancing System and Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Francis J. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A battery cell balancing system is operable to utilize a relatively small number of transformers interconnected with a battery having a plurality of battery cells to selectively charge the battery cells. Windings of the transformers are simultaneously driven with a plurality of waveforms whereupon selected battery cells or groups of cells are selected and charged. A transformer drive circuit is operable to selectively vary the waveforms to thereby vary a weighted voltage associated with each of the battery cells.

  16. Maximizing System Lifetime by Battery Scheduling

    OpenAIRE

    Jongerden, M.R.; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.H.M.; Bohnenkamp, H.C.; Katoen, Joost P.

    2009-01-01

    The use of mobile devices is limited by the battery lifetime. Some devices have the option to connect an extra battery, or to use smart battery-packs with multiple cells to extend the lifetime. In these cases, scheduling the batteries over the load to exploit recovery properties usually extends the system lifetime. Straightforward scheduling schemes, like round robin or choosing the best battery available, already provide a big improvement compared to a sequential discharge of the batteries. ...

  17. Batteries: Polymers switch for safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amine, Khalil

    2016-01-11

    Ensuring safety during operation is a major issue in the development of lithium-ion batteries. Coating the electrode current collector with thermoresponsive polymer composites is now shown to rapidly shut the battery down when it overheats, and to quickly resume its function when normal operating conditions return

  18. Redox Flow Batteries, a Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knoxville, U. Tennessee; U. Texas Austin; U, McGill; Weber, Adam Z.; Mench, Matthew M.; Meyers, Jeremy P.; Ross, Philip N.; Gostick, Jeffrey T.; Liu, Qinghua

    2011-07-15

    Redox flow batteries are enjoying a renaissance due to their ability to store large amounts of electrical energy relatively cheaply and efficiently. In this review, we examine the components of redox flow batteries with a focus on understanding the underlying physical processes. The various transport and kinetic phenomena are discussed along with the most common redox couples.

  19. Battery system with temperature sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Steven J.; Trester, Dale B.

    2012-11-13

    A battery system to monitor temperature includes at least one cell with a temperature sensing device proximate the at least one cell. The battery system also includes a flexible member that holds the temperature sensor proximate to the at least one cell.

  20. Which battery model to use?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongerden, M.R.; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.H.M.; Argent-Katwala, Ashok; Dingle, Nicholas J.; Harder, Uli

    2008-01-01

    The use of mobile devices like cell phones, navigation systems, or laptop computers, is limited by the lifetime of the included batteries. This lifetime depends naturally on the rate at which energy is consumed, however, it also depends on the usage pattern of the battery. Continuous drawing of a

  1. Electric vehicle battery charging controller

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    to a battery management system in the electric vehicle to charge a battery therein, a first communication unit for receiving a charging message via a communication network, and a control unit for controlling a charging current provided from the charge source to the electric vehicle, the controlling at least...

  2. Which battery model to use?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongerden, M.R.; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.H.M.

    2009-01-01

    The use of mobile devices like cell phones, navigation systems or laptop computers is limited by the lifetime of the included batteries. This lifetime depends naturally on the rate at which energy is consumed; however, it also depends on the usage pattern of the battery. Continuous drawing of a high

  3. Lead/acid battery technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manders, J. E.; Lam, L. T.; Peters, K.; Prengaman, R. D.; Valeriote, E. M.

    Following the schedule of previous Asian Battery Conferences, the Proceedings closed with an expert panel of battery scientists and technologists who answered questions put by the assembled delegates. The subjects under consideration were as follows. Grid alloys: grain structure of lead-calcium and lead-calcium-tin alloys; dross problems; control of calcium content; cast-on-strap; terminal-post attack; porosity/acid-wicking problems; effect of silver; lead-cadmium alloys. Leady oxide: α-PbO:β-PbO ratio; influence on plate-processing and battery performance. Paste-mixing and curing: influence of amorphous material. Plate formation: black/powdery plates; effect of acid concentration; charge level. Valve-regulated batteries: mass balances; grid thickness; shelf life. Battery charging: overcharge effects; fast charging; temperature effects; string configurations; sodium sulfate additive.

  4. Battery selection for space experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco, David R.

    1992-10-01

    This paper will delineate the criteria required for the selection of batteries as a power source for space experiments. Four basic types of batteries will be explored, lead acid, silver zinc, alkaline manganese and nickel cadmium. A detailed description of the lead acid and silver zinc cells while a brief exploration of the alkaline manganese and nickel cadmium will be given. The factors involved in battery selection such as packaging, energy density, discharge voltage regulation, and cost will be thoroughly examined. The pros and cons of each battery type will be explored. Actual laboratory test data acquired for the lead acid and silver zinc cell will be discussed. This data will include discharging under various temperature conditions, after three months of storage and with different types of loads. A description of the required maintenance for each type of battery will be investigated. The lifetime and number of charge/discharge cycles will be discussed.

  5. Battery Aging, Battery Charging and the Kinetic Battery Model : A First Exploration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongerden, Marijn R.; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.; Bertrand, Nathalie; Bortolussi, Luca

    2017-01-01

    Rechargeable batteries are omnipresent and will be used more and more, for instance for wearables devices, electric vehicles or domestic energy storage. However, batteries can deliver power only for a limited time span. They slowly degrade with every charge-discharge cycle. This degradation needs to

  6. Open stack thermal battery tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, Kevin N. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Roberts, Christine C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Grillet, Anne M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Headley, Alexander J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Fenton, Kyle [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wong, Dennis [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ingersoll, David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-04-17

    We present selected results from a series of Open Stack thermal battery tests performed in FY14 and FY15 and discuss our findings. These tests were meant to provide validation data for the comprehensive thermal battery simulation tools currently under development in Sierra/Aria under known conditions compared with as-manufactured batteries. We are able to satisfy this original objective in the present study for some test conditions. Measurements from each test include: nominal stack pressure (axial stress) vs. time in the cold state and during battery ignition, battery voltage vs. time against a prescribed current draw with periodic pulses, and images transverse to the battery axis from which cell displacements are computed. Six battery configurations were evaluated: 3, 5, and 10 cell stacks sandwiched between 4 layers of the materials used for axial thermal insulation, either Fiberfrax Board or MinK. In addition to the results from 3, 5, and 10 cell stacks with either in-line Fiberfrax Board or MinK insulation, a series of cell-free “control” tests were performed that show the inherent settling and stress relaxation based on the interaction between the insulation and heat pellets alone.

  7. Computing lifetimes for battery-powered devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongerden, M.R.; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.H.M.

    The battery lifetime of mobile devices depends on the usage pattern of the battery, next to the discharge rate and the battery capacity. Therefore, it is important to include the usage pattern in battery lifetime computations. We do this by combining a stochastic workload, modeled as a

  8. Maximizing System Lifetime by Battery Scheduling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongerden, M.R.; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.H.M.; Bohnenkamp, H.C.; Katoen, Joost P.

    2009-01-01

    The use of mobile devices is limited by the battery lifetime. Some devices have the option to connect an extra battery, or to use smart battery-packs with multiple cells to extend the lifetime. In these cases, scheduling the batteries over the load to exploit recovery properties usually extends the

  9. Photovoltaic / Diesel / Battery Hybrid Power Supply System

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Tazvinga, Henerica

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available ............................................................................................. 62 5.3 Sizing the battery ................................................................................................ 65 5.4 Specifications for the battery bank ..................................................................... 67 5... of the system, the specific components required may include major components such as a DC-AC power inverter, battery bank, system and battery controller, auxiliary energy sources and sometimes the specified electrical load (appliances) The performance...

  10. Cell for making secondary batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visco, S.J.; Liu, M.; DeJonghe, L.C.

    1992-11-10

    The present invention provides all solid-state lithium and sodium batteries operating in the approximate temperature range of ambient to 145 C (limited by melting points of electrodes/electrolyte), with demonstrated energy and power densities far in excess of state-of-the-art high-temperature battery systems. The preferred battery comprises a solid lithium or sodium electrode, a polymeric electrolyte such as polyethylene oxide doped with lithium trifluorate (PEO[sub 8]LiCF[sub 3]SO[sub 3]), and a solid-state composite positive electrode containing a polymeric organosulfur electrode, (SRS)[sub n], and carbon black, dispersed in a polymeric electrolyte. 2 figs.

  11. Battery Ownership Model - Medium Duty HEV Battery Leasing & Standardization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, Ken; Smith, Kandler; Cosgrove, Jon; Prohaska, Robert; Pesaran, Ahmad; Paul, James; Wiseman, Marc

    2015-12-01

    Prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy, this milestone report focuses on the economics of leasing versus owning batteries for medium-duty hybrid electric vehicles as well as various battery standardization scenarios. The work described in this report was performed by members of the Energy Storage Team and the Vehicle Simulation Team in NREL's Transportation and Hydrogen Systems Center along with members of the Vehicles Analysis Team at Ricardo.

  12. Towards Safer Lithium-Ion Batteries

    OpenAIRE

    Herstedt, Marie

    2003-01-01

    Surface film formation at the electrode/electrolyte interface in lithium-ion batteries has a crucial impact on battery performance and safety. This thesis describes the characterisation and treatment of electrode interfaces in lithium-ion batteries. The focus is on interface modification to improve battery safety, in particular to enhance the onset temperature for thermally activated reactions, which also can have a negative influence on battery performance. Photoelectron Spectroscopy (PES) ...

  13. A zinc paste primary battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasinski, R.; McCarron, R.; Brilmyer, G.

    1983-03-01

    It is pointed out that zinc/air batteries could, in principle, be used to power electric vehicles. One concept for enhancing the practical performance of this battery system involves the separation of energy density factors from power density factors. This concept can be implemented by employing the active negative plate material in the form of a zinc slurry, which is circulated from a reservoir through the negative electrode compartment. An extension of this fuel cell-battery concept is related to the utilization of the active material as a pumpable paste rather than as a slurry. The present investigation is concerned with preliminary experiments on formulating and characterizing pumpable zinc/zinc oxide pastes in the context of a primary zinc/oxygen battery. A 'paste' is defined as a thick viscous mass of solid, uniformly and semipermanently dispersed in a liquid phase. Attention is given to the physical basis for predicting which solid/liquid mixtures will provide pumpable pastes.

  14. Prognostics in Battery Health Management

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Batteries represent complex systems whose internal state vari- ables are either inaccessible to sensors or hard to measure un- der operational conditions. This work...

  15. Flexible Hybrid Battery/Pseudocapacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Dennis S.; Paley, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Batteries keep devices working by utilizing high energy density, however, they can run down and take tens of minutes to hours to recharge. For rapid power delivery and recharging, high-power density devices, i.e., supercapacitors, are used. The electrochemical processes which occur in batteries and supercapacitors give rise to different charge-storage properties. In lithium ion (Li+) batteries, the insertion of Li+, which enables redox reactions in bulk electrode materials, is diffusion controlled and can be slow. Supercapacitor devices, also known as electrical double-layer capacitors (EDLCs) store charge by adsorption of electrolyte ions onto the surface of electrode materials. No redox reactions are necessary, so the response to changes in potential without diffusion limitations is rapid and leads to high power. However, the charge in EDLCs is confined to the surface, so the energy density is lower than that of batteries.

  16. Modeling the Lithium Ion Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summerfield, John

    2013-01-01

    The lithium ion battery will be a reliable electrical resource for many years to come. A simple model of the lithium ions motion due to changes in concentration and voltage is presented. The battery chosen has LiCoO[subscript 2] as the cathode, LiPF[subscript 6] as the electrolyte, and LiC[subscript 6] as the anode. The concentration gradient and…

  17. Iron-Air Rechargeable Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Sri R. (Inventor); Prakash, G.K. Surya (Inventor); Kindler, Andrew (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Embodiments include an iron-air rechargeable battery having a composite electrode including an iron electrode and a hydrogen electrode integrated therewith. An air electrode is spaced from the iron electrode and an electrolyte is provided in contact with the air electrode and the iron electrodes. Various additives and catalysts are disclosed with respect to the iron electrode, air electrode, and electrolyte for increasing battery efficiency and cycle life.

  18. Optimization of station battery replacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jancauskas, J.R.; Shook, D.A.

    1994-01-01

    During a loss of ac power at a nuclear generating station (including diesel generators), batteries provide the source of power which is required to operate safety-related components. Because traditional lead-acid batteries have a qualified life of 20 years, the batteries must be replaced a minimum of once during a station's lifetime, twice if license extension is pursued, and more often depending on actual in-service dates and the results of surveillance tests. Replacement of batteries often occurs prior to 20 years as a result of systems changes caused by factors such as Station Blackout Regulations, control system upgrades, incremental load growth, and changes in the operating times of existing equipment. Many of these replacement decisions are based on the predictive capabilities of manual design basis calculations. The inherent conservatism of manual calculations may result in battery replacements occurring before actually required. Computerized analysis of batteries can aid in optimizing the timing of replacements as well as in interpreting service test data. Computerized analysis also provides large benefits in maintaining the as-configured load profile and corresponding design margins, while also providing the capability of quickly analyze proposed modifications and response to internal and external audits

  19. Optimization of station battery replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jancauskas, J. R.; Shook, D. A.

    1994-08-01

    During a loss of ac power at a nuclear generating station (including diesel generators), batteries provide the source of power which is required to operate safety-related components. Because traditional lead-acid batteries have a qualified life of 20 years, the batteries must be replaced a minimum of once during a station's lifetime, twice if license extension is pursued, and more often depending on actual in-service dates and the results of surveillance tests. Replacement of batteries often occurs prior to 20 years as a result of systems changes caused by factors such as Station Blackout Regulations, control system upgrades, incremental load growth, and changes in the operating times of existing equipment. Many of these replacement decisions are based on the predictive capabilities of manual design basis calculations. The inherent conservatism of manual calculations may result in battery replacements occurring before actually required. Computerized analysis of batteries can aid in optimizing the timing of replacements as well as in interpreting service test data. Computerized analysis also provides large benefits in maintaining the as-configured load profile and corresponding design margins, while also providing the capability to quickly analyze proposed modifications and respond to internal and external audits.

  20. Carbon-enhanced VRLA batteries.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enos, David George; Hund, Thomas D.; Shane, Rod (East Penn Manufacturing, Lyon Station, PA)

    2010-10-01

    The addition of certain forms of carbon to the negative plate in valve regulated lead acid (VRLA) batteries has been demonstrated to increase the cycle life of such batteries by an order of magnitude or more under high-rate, partial-state-of-charge operation. Such performance will provide a significant impact, and in some cases it will be an enabling feature for applications including hybrid electric vehicles, utility ancillary regulation services, wind farm energy smoothing, and solar photovoltaic energy smoothing. There is a critical need to understnd how the carbon interacts with the negative plate and achieves the aforementioned benefits at a fundamental level. Such an understanding will not only enable the performance of such batteries to be optimzied, but also to explore the feasibility of applying this technology to other battery chemistries. In partnership with the East Penn Manufacturing, Sandia will investigate the electrochemical function of the carbon and possibly identify improvements to its anti-sulfation properties. Shiomi, et al. (1997) discovered that the addition of carbon to the negative active material (NAM) substantially reduced PbSO{sub 4} accumulation in high rate, partial state of charge (HRPSoC) cycling applications. This improved performance with a minimal cost. Cycling applications that were uneconomical for traditional VRLA batteries are viable for the carbon enhanced VRLA. The overall goal of this work is to quantitatively define the role that carbon plays in the electrochemistry of a VRLA battery.

  1. Computer Aided Battery Engineering Consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pesaran, Ahmad

    2016-06-07

    A multi-national lab collaborative team was assembled that includes experts from academia and industry to enhance recently developed Computer-Aided Battery Engineering for Electric Drive Vehicles (CAEBAT)-II battery crush modeling tools and to develop microstructure models for electrode design - both computationally efficient. Task 1. The new Multi-Scale Multi-Domain model framework (GH-MSMD) provides 100x to 1,000x computation speed-up in battery electrochemical/thermal simulation while retaining modularity of particles and electrode-, cell-, and pack-level domains. The increased speed enables direct use of the full model in parameter identification. Task 2. Mechanical-electrochemical-thermal (MECT) models for mechanical abuse simulation were simultaneously coupled, enabling simultaneous modeling of electrochemical reactions during the short circuit, when necessary. The interactions between mechanical failure and battery cell performance were studied, and the flexibility of the model for various batteries structures and loading conditions was improved. Model validation is ongoing to compare with test data from Sandia National Laboratories. The ABDT tool was established in ANSYS. Task 3. Microstructural modeling was conducted to enhance next-generation electrode designs. This 3- year project will validate models for a variety of electrodes, complementing Advanced Battery Research programs. Prototype tools have been developed for electrochemical simulation and geometric reconstruction.

  2. Functional materials for rechargeable batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Fangyi; Liang, Jing; Tao, Zhanliang; Chen, Jun

    2011-04-19

    There is an ever-growing demand for rechargeable batteries with reversible and efficient electrochemical energy storage and conversion. Rechargeable batteries cover applications in many fields, which include portable electronic consumer devices, electric vehicles, and large-scale electricity storage in smart or intelligent grids. The performance of rechargeable batteries depends essentially on the thermodynamics and kinetics of the electrochemical reactions involved in the components (i.e., the anode, cathode, electrolyte, and separator) of the cells. During the past decade, extensive efforts have been dedicated to developing advanced batteries with large capacity, high energy and power density, high safety, long cycle life, fast response, and low cost. Here, recent progress in functional materials applied in the currently prevailing rechargeable lithium-ion, nickel-metal hydride, lead acid, vanadium redox flow, and sodium-sulfur batteries is reviewed. The focus is on research activities toward the ionic, atomic, or molecular diffusion and transport; electron transfer; surface/interface structure optimization; the regulation of the electrochemical reactions; and the key materials and devices for rechargeable batteries. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Technical feasibility for commercialization of lithium ion battery as a substitute dry battery for motorcycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurniyati, Indah; Sutopo, Wahyudi; Zakaria, Roni; Kadir, Evizal Abdul

    2017-11-01

    Dry battery on a motorcycle has a rapid rate of voltage drop, life time is not too long, and a long charging time. These are problems for users of dry battery for motorcycle. When the rate in the voltage decreases, the energy storage in the battery is reduced, then at the age of one to two years of battery will be dead and cannot be used, it makes the user should replace the battery. New technology development of a motorcycle battery is lithium ion battery. Lithium ion battery has a specification that has been tested and possible to replace dry battery. Characteristics of lithium ion battery can answer the question on the dry battery service life, the rate of decrease in voltage and charging time. This paper discusses about the technical feasibility for commercialization of lithium ion battery for motorcycle battery. Our proposed methodology of technical feasibility by using a goldsmith commercialization model of the technical feasibility and reconfirm the technical standard using the national standard of motorcycle battery. The battery has been through all the stages of the technical feasibility of the goldsmith model. Based on the results of the study, lithium ion batteries have the minimum technical requirements to be commercialized and has been confirmed in accordance with the standard motorcycle battery. This paper results that the lithium ion battery is visible to commercialized by the technical aspect.

  4. A study of high peroxynitrite generated in purge head outlet of charger with continuous supply of superior purification CDA system for 193 nm ArF reticle haze prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Fu-Sheng; Chiou, Shean-Hwan

    2008-05-01

    In this study, A phenomenon of high peroxynitrite generated in purge gas in purge head outlet of RSP SMIF-POD Charger was found. A superior purification CDA("CDA" is abbreviated from Clean Dry Air) continuous purge system has been used in 193nm ArF reticle chemical free preservation process for mask Haze control. Ion Chromatography(IC) and Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry(thermal desorber GC-MS) methods are used to analyze and verify inorganic ion and volatility organic compound cleanliness of purge gas, respectively. After IC analysis, high nitrate ion concentration was detected in UPW("UPW" is abbreviated from Ultra-Purification Water). As a result of this study, It is confident of presuming that high peroxynitrite contamination in purge gas in purge head outlet was caused by the blow type in-line gas ionizer, high potential(approximate 2KV) needle discharge influence on the inside of purge piping of Charger. After bypass in-line gas ionizer apparatus, the IC analysis result has a tendency towards a diminution in peroxynitrite that nitrate ion was not detected in UPW at all. At the same operation condition, if purge gas replace by superior purification AN2(A Class Nitrogen) and the inference conjectured that high ammonium ion response in UPW would take place. According to our study, superior purification CDA passed through the emitter tip of blow type in-line gas ionizers and under high potential needle discharge influence, high peroxynitrite concentration was generated in purge gas in purge head outlet of Charger. Due to the generation of peroxynitrite ion contamination in purge gas, it was not suitable to apply in the prevention of ESD damage of mask pattern in superior purification CDA(Clean Dry Air) continuous purge system. In this study, we also unexpectedly find that the blow type in-line gas ionizer with thermoplastic conductive tube resulted in purge gas a large number of volatility organic compounds(VOCs) contamination. VOC outgassing was generated

  5. Compact Digital High Voltage Charger

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Ge

    2005-01-01

    The operation of classical resonant circuit developed for the pulse energizing is investigated. The HV pulse or generator is very compact by a soft switching circuit made up of IGBT working at over 30 kHZ. The frequencies of macro pulses andμpulses can be arbitrarily tuned below resonant frequency to digitalize the HV pulse power. Theμpulses can also be connected by filter circuit to get the HVDC power. The circuit topology is given and its novel control logic is analyzed by flowchart. The circuit is part of a system consisting of a AC or DC LV power supply, a pulse transformer, the pulse generator implemented by LV capacitor and leakage inductance of the transformer, a HV DC or pulse power supply and the charged HV capacitor of the modulators.

  6. Proper battery system design for GAS experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calogero, Stephen A.

    1992-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to help the GAS experimenter to design a battery system that meets mission success requirements while at the same time reducing the hazards associated with the battery system. Lead-acid, silver-zinc and alkaline chemistry batteries will be discussed. Lithium batteries will be briefly discussed with emphasis on back-up power supply capabilities. The hazards associated with different battery configurations will be discussed along with the controls necessary to make the battery system two-fault tolerant.

  7. A terracotta bio-battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajayi, Folusho F; Weigele, Peter R

    2012-07-01

    Terracotta pots were converted into simple, single chamber, air-cathode bio-batteries. This bio-battery design used a graphite-felt anode and a conductive graphite coating without added catalyst on the exterior as a cathode. Bacteria enriched from river sediment served as the anode catalyst. These batteries gave an average OCV of 0.56 V ± 0.02, a Coulombic efficiency of 21 ± 5%, and a peak power of 1.06 mW ± 0.01(33.13 mW/m(2)). Stable current was also produced when the batteries were operated with hay extract in salt solution. The bacterial community on the anode of the batteries was tested for air tolerance and desiccation resistance over a period ranging from 2 days to 2 weeks. The results showed that the anode community could survive complete drying of the electrolyte for several days. These data support the further development of this technology as a potential power source for LED-based lighting in off-grid, rural communities. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Characterization of Vanadium Flow Battery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bindner, Henrik W.; Krog Ekman, Claus; Gehrke, Oliver

    This report summarizes the work done at Risø-DTU testing a vanadium flow battery as part of the project “Characterisation of Vanadium Batteries” (ForskEl project 6555) with the partners PA Energy A/S and OI Electric A/S under the Danish PSO energy research program. A 15kW/120kWh vanadium battery...... has been installed as part of the distributed energy systems experimental facility, SYSLAB, at Risø DTU. A test programme has been carried out to get hands-on experience with the technology, to characterize the battery from a power system point of view and to assess it with respect to integration...... of wind energy in the Danish power system. The battery has been in operation for 18 months. During time of operation the battery has not shown signs of degradation of performance. It has a round-trip efficiency at full load of approximately 60% (depending on temperature and SOC). The sources of the losses...

  9. Vehicle Battery Safety Roadmap Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doughty, D. H.

    2012-10-01

    The safety of electrified vehicles with high capacity energy storage devices creates challenges that must be met to assure commercial acceptance of EVs and HEVs. High performance vehicular traction energy storage systems must be intrinsically tolerant of abusive conditions: overcharge, short circuit, crush, fire exposure, overdischarge, and mechanical shock and vibration. Fail-safe responses to these conditions must be designed into the system, at the materials and the system level, through selection of materials and safety devices that will further reduce the probability of single cell failure and preclude propagation of failure to adjacent cells. One of the most important objectives of DOE's Office of Vehicle Technologies is to support the development of lithium ion batteries that are safe and abuse tolerant in electric drive vehicles. This Roadmap analyzes battery safety and failure modes of state-of-the-art cells and batteries and makes recommendations on future investments that would further DOE's mission.

  10. Alternator control for battery charging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunstetter, Craig A.; Jaye, John R.; Tallarek, Glen E.; Adams, Joseph B.

    2015-07-14

    In accordance with an aspect of the present disclosure, an electrical system for an automotive vehicle has an electrical generating machine and a battery. A set point voltage, which sets an output voltage of the electrical generating machine, is set by an electronic control unit (ECU). The ECU selects one of a plurality of control modes for controlling the alternator based on an operating state of the vehicle as determined from vehicle operating parameters. The ECU selects a range for the set point voltage based on the selected control mode and then sets the set point voltage within the range based on feedback parameters for that control mode. In an aspect, the control modes include a trickle charge mode and battery charge current is the feedback parameter and the ECU controls the set point voltage within the range to maintain a predetermined battery charge current.

  11. The Philadelphia Face Perception Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Amy; Lawler, Kathy; Olson, Ingrid R; Aguirre, Geoffrey K

    2008-01-01

    The Philadelphia Face Perception Battery (PFPB) tests four aspects of face perception: discrimination of facial similarity, attractiveness, gender, and age. Calibration with 116 neurologically intact subjects yielded average performance of ~90%. Across subjects, there was a low correlation (perception. There were modest effects of subject demographic factors upon performance, and test-retest reliability scores (between 0.37 and 0.75) were comparable to other neuropsychological batteries. Modification of the stimuli to obscure internal facial features lowered performance on the age, gender, and attractiveness discrimination tests between 2 and 4 standard deviations. The clinical sensitivity of the battery was demonstrated by testing a patient with acquired prosopagnosia. She showed performance impairments of between 2 and 4 standard deviations on all sub-tests. The PFPB is freely available for non-commercial use. PMID:18082362

  12. Validation of Battery Safety for Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeevarajan, Judith

    2012-01-01

    Presentation covers: (1) Safety Certification Process at NASA (2) Safety Testing for Lithium-ion Batteries (3) Limitations Observed with Li-ion Batteries in High Voltage and High Capacity Configurations.

  13. Li-air batteries: Decouple to stabilize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ji-Jing; Zhang, Xin-Bo

    2017-09-01

    The utilization of porous carbon cathodes in lithium-air batteries is hindered by their severe decomposition during battery cycling. Now, dual redox mediators are shown to decouple the complex electrochemical reactions at the cathode, avoiding cathode passivation and decomposition.

  14. Li-ion Battery Aging Datasets

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set has been collected from a custom built battery prognostics testbed at the NASA Ames Prognostics Center of Excellence (PCoE). Li-ion batteries were run...

  15. Battery failure model derived from flaw theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulman, I.

    1981-01-01

    A previously derived failure model for battery lifetime is discussed in terms of growth rate of the flaw, distribution of flaw sizes, and number of flaws. Equations are presented for determining the failure model for a nickel cadmium battery.

  16. 46 CFR 129.353 - Battery categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... INSTALLATIONS Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 129.353 Battery categories. This section applies to batteries installed to meet the requirements of § 129.310(a) for secondary sources of power to vital loads...

  17. Specification For ST-5 Li Ion Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castell, Karen D.; Day, John H. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    This Specification defines the general requirements for rechargeable Space Flight batteries intended for use in the ST-5 program. The battery chemistry chosen for this mission is lithium ion (Li-Ion).

  18. Materials science: Pulley protection in batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, Matthew T.

    2017-09-01

    High-energy battery electrodes can break apart during operation. Conventional rope-and-pulley systems have inspired the development of a polymer that holds electrodes together at the molecular scale, enabling durable batteries to be made.

  19. Practical Methods in Li-ion Batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barreras, Jorge Varela

    This thesis presents, as a collection of papers, practical methods in Li-ion batteries for simplified modeling (Manuscript I and II), battery electric vehicle design (III), battery management system testing (IV and V) and balancing system control (VI and VII). • Manuscript I tackles methodologies...... to parameterize battery models based solely on manufacturer’s datasheets • Manuscript II presents a parameterization method for battery models based on the notion of direct current resistance • Manuscript III proposes a battery electric vehicle design that combines fixed and swappable packs • Manuscript IV...... develops a battery system model for battery management system testing on a hardware-in-the-loop simulator • Manuscript V extends the previous work, introducing theoretical principles and presenting a practical method to develop ad hoc software and strategies for testing • Manuscript VI presents...

  20. Controlling fires in silver/zinc batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boshers, W. A.; Britz, W. A.

    1977-01-01

    Silver/zinc storage battery fires are often difficult to extinguish. Improved technique employs manifold connected to central evacuation chamber to rapidly vent combustion-supporting gases generated by battery plate oxides.

  1. Survey of rechargeable battery technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-07-01

    We have reviewed rechargeable battery technology options for a specialized application in unmanned high altitude aircraft. Consideration was given to all rechargeable battery technologies that are available commercially or might be available in the foreseeable future. The LLNL application was found to impose very demanding performance requirements which cannot be met by existing commercially available battery technologies. The most demanding requirement is for high energy density. The technology that comes closest to providing the LLNL requirements is silver-zinc, although the technology exhibits significant shortfalls in energy density, charge rate capability and cyclability. There is no battery technology available ``off-the-shelf` today that can satisfy the LLNL performance requirements. All rechargeable battery technologies with the possibility of approaching/meeting the energy density requirements were reviewed. Vendor interviews were carried out for all relevant technologies. A large number of rechargeable battery systems have been developed over the years, though a much smaller number have achieved commercial success and general availability. The theoretical energy densities for these systems are summarized. It should be noted that a generally useful ``rule-of-thumb`` is that the ratio of packaged to theoretical energy density has proven to be less than 30%, and generally less than 25%. Data developed for this project confirm the usefulness of the general rule. However, data shown for the silver-zinc (AgZn) system show a greater conversion of theoretical to practical energy density than would be expected due to the very large cell sizes considered and the unusually high density of the active materials.

  2. 78 FR 16031 - Twelfth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-13

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Twelfth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S... Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size. SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to...

  3. 77 FR 39321 - Eighth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-02

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Eighth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Sizes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S... Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Sizes. SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to...

  4. Battery Peak Power Shaving Strategy to Prolong Battery Life for Electric Buses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pham, T.H.; Rosea, B.; Wilkins, S.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a battery peak power shaving strategy for battery electric buses. The developed strategy restricts the battery charge/discharge power when the propulsion power demand is high to avoid high deterioration of the battery capacity during operation. Without reducing the propulsion

  5. Microfluidic fuel cells and batteries

    CERN Document Server

    Kjeang, Erik

    2014-01-01

    Microfluidic fuel cells and batteries represent a special type of electrochemical power generators that can be miniaturized and integrated in a microfluidic chip. Summarizing the initial ten years of research and development in this emerging field, this SpringerBrief is the first book dedicated to microfluidic fuel cell and battery technology for electrochemical energy conversion and storage. Written at a critical juncture, where strategically applied research is urgently required to seize impending technology opportunities for commercial, analytical, and educational utility, the intention is

  6. Solid-state lithium battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihlefeld, Jon; Clem, Paul G; Edney, Cynthia; Ingersoll, David; Nagasubramanian, Ganesan; Fenton, Kyle Ross

    2014-11-04

    The present invention is directed to a higher power, thin film lithium-ion electrolyte on a metallic substrate, enabling mass-produced solid-state lithium batteries. High-temperature thermodynamic equilibrium processing enables co-firing of oxides and base metals, providing a means to integrate the crystalline, lithium-stable, fast lithium-ion conductor lanthanum lithium tantalate (La.sub.1/3-xLi.sub.3xTaO.sub.3) directly with a thin metal foil current collector appropriate for a lithium-free solid-state battery.

  7. Aluminum-air battery crystallizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maimoni, A.

    1987-01-01

    A prototype crystallizer system for the aluminum-air battery operated reliably through simulated startup and shutdown cycles and met its design objectives. The crystallizer system allows for crystallization and removal of the aluminium hydroxide reaction product; it is required to allow steady-state and long-term operation of the aluminum-air battery. The system has to minimize volume and maintain low turbulence and shear to minimize secondary nucleation and energy consumption while enhancing agglomeration. A lamella crystallizer satisfies system constraints.

  8. Principles and applications of lithium secondary batteries

    CERN Document Server

    Park, Jung-Ki

    2012-01-01

    Lithium secondary batteries have been key to mobile electronics since 1990. Large-format batteries typically for electric vehicles and energystorage systems are attracting much attention due to current energy and environmental issues. Lithium batteries are expected to play a centralrole in boosting green technologies. Therefore, a large number of scientists and engineers are carrying out research and development onlithium secondary batteries.The book is written in a straightforward fashion suitable for undergraduate and graduate students, as well as scientists, and engineer

  9. Novel Electrolytes for Lithium Ion Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucht, Brett L. [Univ. of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    2014-12-12

    We have been investigating three primary areas related to lithium ion battery electrolytes. First, we have been investigating the thermal stability of novel electrolytes for lithium ion batteries, in particular borate based salts. Second, we have been investigating novel additives to improve the calendar life of lithium ion batteries. Third, we have been investigating the thermal decomposition reactions of electrolytes for lithium-oxygen batteries.

  10. BATTERIES 2020 – A Joint European Effort towards European Competitive Automotive Batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timmermans, J.-M.; Rodriguez-Martinez, L.M.; Omar, N.

    The Integrated Project “Batteries 2020” unites 9 European partners jointly working on the research and development of European competitive automotive batteries. The project aims at increasing lifetime and energy density of large format high-energy lithium-ion batteries towards the goals targeted...... of degradation processes. (iii) Reduction of battery cost; a way to reduce costs, increase battery residual value and improve sustainability is to consider second life uses of batteries used in EV. These batteries are still operational and suitable to less restrictive conditions, such as those for stationary...

  11. A Battery Power Bank with Series-Connected Buck–Boost-Type Battery Power Modules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsung-Hsi Wu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The operation of a battery power bank with series-connected buck–boost-type battery power modules (BPMs was investigated in this study. Each BPM consisted of a battery pack with an associated buck–boost converter for individually controlling battery currents. With a proposed discharging scenario, load voltage regulation with charge equalization among batteries was performed by controlling the battery currents in accordance with their state-of-charges (SOCs estimated by real-time battery-loaded voltages detected under the same operating condition. In addition, the fault tolerance was executed to isolate exhausted or faulty batteries from the battery power bank without interrupting the system operation. Experiments were conducted to verify the effectiveness of the discharging scenario for a laboratory battery power bank with four series buck–boost BPMs.

  12. Battery control system for hybrid vehicle and method for controlling a hybrid vehicle battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bockelmann, Thomas R [Battle Creek, MI; Hope, Mark E [Marshall, MI; Zou, Zhanjiang [Battle Creek, MI; Kang, Xiaosong [Battle Creek, MI

    2009-02-10

    A battery control system for hybrid vehicle includes a hybrid powertrain battery, a vehicle accessory battery, and a prime mover driven generator adapted to charge the vehicle accessory battery. A detecting arrangement is configured to monitor the vehicle accessory battery's state of charge. A controller is configured to activate the prime mover to drive the generator and recharge the vehicle accessory battery in response to the vehicle accessory battery's state of charge falling below a first predetermined level, or transfer electrical power from the hybrid powertrain battery to the vehicle accessory battery in response to the vehicle accessory battery's state of charge falling below a second predetermined level. The invention further includes a method for controlling a hybrid vehicle powertrain system.

  13. Battery impedance spectroscopy using bidirectional grid connected ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Shimul Kumar Dam

    Impedance spectroscopy; grid connection; battery converter; state of charge; health monitoring. 1. Introduction. Batteries play an important role as energy storage devices for renewable energy sources, electric vehicle and many other applications. A battery bank is interfaced to load through a power converter, which controls ...

  14. Review of storage battery system cost estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, D.R.; Russell, J.A.

    1986-04-01

    Cost analyses for zinc bromine, sodium sulfur, and lead acid batteries were reviewed. Zinc bromine and sodium sulfur batteries were selected because of their advanced design nature and the high level of interest in these two technologies. Lead acid batteries were included to establish a baseline representative of a more mature technology.

  15. Top ten reasons why coke batteries fail

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dohle, H.; Schulte, H.; Ramani, R.V. [ThyssenKrupp EnCoke GmbH, Bochum (Germany)

    2002-07-01

    The reasons for the failure of coke batteries are varied and interrelated. Identifying them and taking precautionary measures against them will help with the possible extension of the service life of the batteries. Most of the contributory factors are interrelated and in combination they encourage faster deterioration of the battery. 6 refs., 12 figs.

  16. A rechargeable carbon-oxygen battery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The invention relates to a rechargeable battery and a method to operate a rechargeable battery having high efficiency and high energy density for storing energy. The battery stores electrical energy in the bonds of carbon and oxygen atoms by converting carbon dioxide into solid carbon and oxygen....

  17. Battery impedance spectroscopy using bidirectional grid connected ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Battery impedance can provide valuable insight into the condition of the battery. Commercially available impedance measurement instruments are expensive. Hence their direct use in a battery management system is not justifiable. In this work, a 3-kW bi-directional converter for charging and discharging a batterybank has ...

  18. Transparent lithium-ion batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Y.

    2011-07-25

    Transparent devices have recently attracted substantial attention. Various applications have been demonstrated, including displays, touch screens, and solar cells; however, transparent batteries, a key component in fully integrated transparent devices, have not yet been reported. As battery electrode materials are not transparent and have to be thick enough to store energy, the traditional approach of using thin films for transparent devices is not suitable. Here we demonstrate a grid-structured electrode to solve this dilemma, which is fabricated by a microfluidics-assisted method. The feature dimension in the electrode is below the resolution limit of human eyes, and, thus, the electrode appears transparent. Moreover, by aligning multiple electrodes together, the amount of energy stored increases readily without sacrificing the transparency. This results in a battery with energy density of 10 Wh/L at a transparency of 60%. The device is also flexible, further broadening their potential applications. The transparent device configuration also allows in situ Raman study of fundamental electrochemical reactions in batteries.

  19. Phthalocyanines in batteries and supercapacitors

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oni, J

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available of their lower cost. This review article looks through a very narrow window of the applications of phthalocyanines in batteries and supercapacitors as a means of improving the qualities such as cycle property, energy density, capacity, open circuit voltage, etc...

  20. A nanoview of battery operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schougaard, Steen Brian

    2016-01-01

    The redox-active materials in lithium-ion batteries have relatively poor electronic and ionic conduction and may experience stress from charge-discharge volume changes, so their formulation into structures with nanosized features is highly desirable. On page 566 of this issue, Lim et al. (1...

  1. Environmental assessment of batteries for photovoltaic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brouwer, J.M.; Lindeijer, E.W.

    1993-10-01

    A life cycle analysis (LCA) on 4 types of batteries for PV systems has been performed. in order to assess the environmental impacts of the various battery types, leading to recommendations for improvements in the production and use of batteries. The different battery types are compared on the basis of a functional unit: 240 kWh electric energy from PV modules delivered for household applications by one flat-plate lead-acid battery. An important product characteristic is the performance; in the study a Ni-Cd battery is taken to deliver 4 times as much energy as a flat plate battery (Pb-flat), a rod plate battery (Pb-rod) 3.4 times as much and a tubular plate battery (Pb-tube) 2.8 times as much. Environmental data was gathered from recent primary and secondary data in a database under internal quality control. Calculations were performed with an updated version of SIMAKOZA, a programme developed by the Centre of Environmental Science (CML), University of Leiden, Leiden, Netherlands. Of the types investigated, the Pb tube battery is to be preferred environmentally. Using one allocation method for recycling, the NiCd battery scores best on ozone depletion since no PVC is used (PVC production demands cooling with CFCs), on non-toxic waste and on disruption of ecosystems. The lead-bearing batteries score better on other aspects due to lower energy consumption during production and no emissions of cadmium. Using another allocation method for recycling the NiCd battery scores best on almost all environmental topics. Both allocation methods supplement each other. For resource depletion, regarding cadmium as an unavoidable by-product of zinc production renders NiCd batteries as much less problematic than lead/acid batteries, but taking account of the physical resources available would make the use of cadmium much more problematic than the use of lead. 37 figs., 20 tabs., 8 appendices, 109 refs

  2. The Science of Battery Degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, John P. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Materials Physics; El Gabaly Marquez, Farid [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Materials Physics; McCarty, Kevin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Materials Physics; Sugar, Joshua Daniel [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Materials Physics; Talin, Alec A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Materials Physics; Fenton, Kyle R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Power Sources Design and Development; Nagasubramanian, Ganesan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Power Sources Design and Development; Harris, Charles Thomas [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Nanosystems Synthesis/Analysis; Jungjohann, Katherine Leigh [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Nanosystems Synthesis/Analysis; Hayden, Carl C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Combustion Chemistry Dept.; Kliewer, Christopher Jesse [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Combustion Chemistry Dept.; Hudak, Nicholas S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Power Sources Research and Development; Leung, Kevin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Nanostructure Physics; McDaniel, Anthony H. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Hydrogen and Combustion Technology; Tenney, Craig M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Chemical and Biological Systems; Zavadil, Kevin R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Advanced Materials Lab.

    2015-01-01

    This report documents work that was performed under the Laboratory Directed Research and Development project, Science of Battery Degradation. The focus of this work was on the creation of new experimental and theoretical approaches to understand atomistic mechanisms of degradation in battery electrodes that result in loss of electrical energy storage capacity. Several unique approaches were developed during the course of the project, including the invention of a technique based on ultramicrotoming to cross-section commercial scale battery electrodes, the demonstration of scanning transmission x-ray microscopy (STXM) to probe lithium transport mechanisms within Li-ion battery electrodes, the creation of in-situ liquid cells to observe electrochemical reactions in real-time using both transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and STXM, the creation of an in-situ optical cell utilizing Raman spectroscopy and the application of the cell for analyzing redox flow batteries, the invention of an approach for performing ab initio simulation of electrochemical reactions under potential control and its application for the study of electrolyte degradation, and the development of an electrochemical entropy technique combined with x-ray based structural measurements for understanding origins of battery degradation. These approaches led to a number of scientific discoveries. Using STXM we learned that lithium iron phosphate battery cathodes display unexpected behavior during lithiation wherein lithium transport is controlled by nucleation of a lithiated phase, leading to high heterogeneity in lithium content at each particle and a surprising invariance of local current density with the overall electrode charging current. We discovered using in-situ transmission electron microscopy that there is a size limit to lithiation of silicon anode particles above which particle fracture controls electrode degradation. From electrochemical entropy measurements, we discovered that entropy

  3. Battery Fault Detection with Saturating Transformers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Francis J. (Inventor); Graika, Jason R. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A battery monitoring system utilizes a plurality of transformers interconnected with a battery having a plurality of battery cells. Windings of the transformers are driven with an excitation waveform whereupon signals are responsively detected, which indicate a health of the battery. In one embodiment, excitation windings and sense windings are separately provided for the plurality of transformers such that the excitation waveform is applied to the excitation windings and the signals are detected on the sense windings. In one embodiment, the number of sense windings and/or excitation windings is varied to permit location of underperforming battery cells utilizing a peak voltage detector.

  4. Models for Battery Reliability and Lifetime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, K.; Wood, E.; Santhanagopalan, S.; Kim, G. H.; Neubauer, J.; Pesaran, A.

    2014-03-01

    Models describing battery degradation physics are needed to more accurately understand how battery usage and next-generation battery designs can be optimized for performance and lifetime. Such lifetime models may also reduce the cost of battery aging experiments and shorten the time required to validate battery lifetime. Models for chemical degradation and mechanical stress are reviewed. Experimental analysis of aging data from a commercial iron-phosphate lithium-ion (Li-ion) cell elucidates the relative importance of several mechanical stress-induced degradation mechanisms.

  5. Li-ion batteries: Phase transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou Peiyu; Zhang Yantao; Zhang Lianqi; Chu Geng; Gao Jian

    2016-01-01

    Progress in the research on phase transitions during Li + extraction/insertion processes in typical battery materials is summarized as examples to illustrate the significance of understanding phase transition phenomena in Li-ion batteries. Physical phenomena such as phase transitions (and resultant phase diagrams) are often observed in Li-ion battery research and already play an important role in promoting Li-ion battery technology. For example, the phase transitions during Li + insertion/extraction are highly relevant to the thermodynamics and kinetics of Li-ion batteries, and even physical characteristics such as specific energy, power density, volume variation, and safety-related properties. (topical review)

  6. Advanced integrated battery testing and simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liaw, Bor Yann; Bethune, Keith P.; Yang, Xiao Guang

    The recent rapid expansion in the use of portable electronics, computers, personal data assistants, cellular phones, power tools, and even electric and hybrid vehicles creates a strong demand on fast deployment of battery technologies at an unprecedented rate. To facilitate such a development integrated battery testing and simulation (IBTS) using computer modeling is an effective tool to improve our capability of rapid prototyping battery technology and facilitating concurrent product development. In this paper, we will present a state-of-the-art approach to use IBTS for improvements in battery cell design, operation optimization, and even charge control for advanced batteries.

  7. Lithium-ion batteries advances and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Pistoia, Gianfranco

    2014-01-01

    Lithium-Ion Batteries features an in-depth description of different lithium-ion applications, including important features such as safety and reliability. This title acquaints readers with the numerous and often consumer-oriented applications of this widespread battery type. Lithium-Ion Batteries also explores the concepts of nanostructured materials, as well as the importance of battery management systems. This handbook is an invaluable resource for electrochemical engineers and battery and fuel cell experts everywhere, from research institutions and universities to a worldwi

  8. Primary battery design and safety guidelines handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragg, Bobby J.; Casey, John E.; Trout, J. Barry

    1994-12-01

    This handbook provides engineers and safety personnel with guidelines for the safe design or selection and use of primary batteries in spaceflight programs. Types of primary batteries described are silver oxide zinc alkaline, carbon-zinc, zinc-air alkaline, manganese dioxide-zionc alkaline, mercuric oxide-zinc alkaline, and lithium anode cells. Along with typical applications, the discussions of the individual battery types include electrochemistry, construction, capacities and configurations, and appropriate safety measures. A chapter on general battery safety covers hazard sources and controls applicable to all battery types. Guidelines are given for qualification and acceptance testing that should precede space applications. Permissible failure levels for NASA applications are discussed.

  9. International Space Station Lithium-Ion Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Penni J.; Schwanbeck, Eugene; North, Tim; Balcer, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) primary Electric Power System (EPS) currently uses Nickel-Hydrogen (Ni-H2) batteries to store electrical energy. The electricity for the space station is generated by its solar arrays, which charge batteries during insolation for subsequent discharge during eclipse. The Ni-H2 batteries are designed to operate at a 35 depth of discharge (DOD) maximum during normal operation in a Low Earth Orbit. Since the oldest of the 48 Ni-H2 battery Orbital Replacement Units (ORUs) has been cycling since September 2006, these batteries are now approaching their end of useful life. In 2010, the ISS Program began the development of Lithium-Ion (Li-Ion) batteries to replace the Ni-H2 batteries and concurrently funded a Li-Ion ORU and cell life testing project. When deployed, they will be the largest Li-Ion batteries ever utilized for a human-rated spacecraft. This paper will include an overview of the ISS Li-Ion battery system architecture, the Li-Ion battery design and development, controls to limit potential hazards from the batteries, and the status of the Li-Ion cell and ORU life cycle testing.

  10. The Mechanical Response of Multifunctional Battery Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutsui, Waterloo

    The current state of the art in the field of the mechanical behavior of electric vehicle (EV) battery cells is limited to quasi-static analysis. The lack of published data in the dynamic mechanical behavior of EV battery cells blinds engineers and scientists with the uncertainty of what to expect when EVs experience such unexpected events as intrusions to their battery systems. To this end, the recent occurrences of several EVs catching fire after hitting road debris even make this topic timelier. In order to ensure the safety of EV battery, it is critical to develop quantitative understanding of battery cell mechanical behavior under dynamic compressive loadings. Specifically, the research focuses on the dynamic mechanical loading effect on the standard "18650" cylindrical lithium-ion battery cells. In the study, the force-displacement and voltage-displacement behavior of the battery cells were analyzed experimentally at two strain rates, two state-of-charges, and two unit-cell configurations. The results revealed the strain rate sensitivity of their mechanical responses with the solid sacrificial elements. When the hollow sacrificial cells are used, on the other hand, effect was negligible up to the point of densification strength. Also, the high state-of-charge appeared to increase the stiffness of the battery cells. The research also revealed the effectiveness of the sacrificial elements on the mechanical behavior of a unit cell that consists of one battery cell and six sacrificial elements. The use of the sacrificial elements resulted in the delayed initiation of electric short circuit. Based on the analysis of battery behavior at the cell level, granular battery assembly, a battery pack, was designed and fabricated. The behavior of the granular battery assembly was analyzed both quasistatically and dynamically. Building on the results of the research, various research plans were proposed. Through conducting the research, we sought to answer the following

  11. Lithium-polymer batteries; Les batteries lithium-polymere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lascaud, St. [Electricite de France, 77 - Moret sur Loing (France). Dept. CIMA

    1999-04-01

    Lithium polymer batteries are a technological breakthrough which will improve EV`s range by a factor three. This new technology based on very thin plastic films, produced by solvent-less and a high productive process will reach low cost at industrial scale. EDF, Bollore and Schneider Electric are involved in R and D program to carry out a 2 kWh lithium polymer module by the end of year 2000. (authors)

  12. Development program of electrical vehicles of batteries in the UNAM; Programa de desarrollo de vehiculos electricos de baterias en la UNAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carmona Paredes, G.; Chicurel Uziel, R.; Chicurel Uziel, E.; Gutierrez Martinez, F. [Instituto de Ingenieria, UNAM, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2002-09-01

    Eight years ago, project to develop a small battery powered electric bus, known today as UNAM's Electric Vehicle, was started at the Engineering Institute. This project was followed by the design and construction, under an agreement with the Mexico City Government, of the Electrobus, a public transport vehicle that was recently put in operation and is being evaluated by the City's Electric Transportation Service. Two other projects, within the scope of UNAM's Electric Vehicle Development Program refer to light trucks: the Electrovira, characterized by exceptional maneuverability, and the Electric Delivery Vehicle. These projects are being carried out respectively by the Engineering Institute and the School of Engineering's Center for Design and Manufacture. Other parties that have collaborated in the program are: the School of Architecture's Center for Research in Industrial Design, the Instruments Center, and the School of Chemistry. Work is also being done on complementary aspects which include the development of an intelligent charger for large battery packs and of a dual electronic controller, a study of the dynamic performance of lead-acid batteries, the design of a battery monitoring system, and the search for new battery alternatives. [Spanish] Hace ocho anos, el Instituto de Ingenieria inicio el proyecto de desarrollo de un minibus electrico de baterias, conocido ahora como el Vehiculo Electrico UNAM. Este proyecto fue seguido de un convenio con el Gobierno del Distrito Federal para el diseno y construccion del Electrobus, un vehiculo para transporte publico que recientemente fue puesto en operacion para ser evaluado por el Servicio de Transporte Electrico del DF. Dos proyectos mas, enmarcados dentro del Programa de Desarrollo de Vehiculos Electricos, se refieren a vehiculos ligeros de carga como el Electrovira, caracterizado por su gran maniobrabilidad y el Vehiculo Electrico de Reparto. Estos proyectos se realizan respectivamente

  13. Stand Alone Battery Thermal Management System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodie, Brad [Denso International America, Incorporated, Southfield, MI (United States)

    2015-09-30

    The objective of this project is research, development and demonstration of innovative thermal management concepts that reduce the cell or battery weight, complexity (component count) and/or cost by at least 20%. The project addresses two issues that are common problems with current state of the art lithium ion battery packs used in vehicles; low power at cold temperatures and reduced battery life when exposed to high temperatures. Typically, battery packs are “oversized” to satisfy the two issues mentioned above. The first phase of the project was spent making a battery pack simulation model using AMEsim software. The battery pack used as a benchmark was from the Fiat 500EV. FCA and NREL provided vehicle data and cell data that allowed an accurate model to be created that matched the electrical and thermal characteristics of the actual battery pack. The second phase involved using the battery model from the first phase and evaluate different thermal management concepts. In the end, a gas injection heat pump system was chosen as the dedicated thermal system to both heat and cool the battery pack. Based on the simulation model. The heat pump system could use 50% less energy to heat the battery pack in -20°C ambient conditions, and by keeping the battery cooler at hot climates, the battery pack size could be reduced by 5% and still meet the warranty requirements. During the final phase, the actual battery pack and heat pump system were installed in a test bench at DENSO to validate the simulation results. Also during this phase, the system was moved to NREL where testing was also done to validate the results. In conclusion, the heat pump system can improve “fuel economy” (for electric vehicle) by 12% average in cold climates. Also, the battery pack size, or capacity, could be reduced 5%, or if pack size is kept constant, the pack life could be increased by two years. Finally, the total battery pack and thermal system cost could be reduced 5% only if the

  14. Automatic Battery Swap System for Home Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Wu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design and implementation of an automatic battery swap system for the prolonged activities of home robots. A battery swap station is proposed to implement battery off-line recharging and on-line exchanging functions. It consists of a loading and unloading mechanism, a shifting mechanism, a locking device and a shell. The home robot is a palm-sized wheeled robot with an onboard camera and a removable battery case in the front. It communicates with the battery swap station wirelessly through ZigBee. The influences of battery case deflection and robot docking deflection on the battery swap operations have been investigated. The experimental results show that it takes an average time of 84.2s to complete the battery swap operations. The home robot does not have to wait several hours for the batteries to be fully charged. The proposed battery swap system is proved to be efficient in home robot applications that need the robots to work continuously over a long period.

  15. Non-Intrusive Battery Health Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gajewski Laurent

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The “Non-intrusive battery health monitoring”, developed by Airbus Defence and Space (ADS in cooperation with the CIRIMAT-CNRS laboratory and supported by CNES, aims at providing a diagnosis of the battery ageing in flight, called State of Health (SOH, using only the post-treatment of the battery telemetries. The battery current and voltage telemetries are used by a signal processing tool on ground to characterize and to model the battery at low frequencies which allows monitoring the evolution of its degradation with great accuracy. The frequential behaviour estimation is based on inherent disturbances on the current during the nominal functioning of the battery. For instance, on-board thermal control or equipment consumption generates random disturbances on battery current around an average current. The battery voltage response to these current random disturbances enables to model the low frequency impedance of the battery by a signal processing tool. The re-created impedance is then compared with the evolution model of the low frequencies impedance as a function of the battery ageing to estimate accurately battery degradation. Hence, this method could be applied to satellites which are already in orbit and whose battery telemetries acquisition system fulfils the constraints determined in the study. This innovative method is an improvement of present state-of-the-art and is important to have a more accurate in-flight knowledge of battery ageing which is crucial for mission and operation planning and also for possible satellite mission extension or deorbitation. This method is patented by Airbus Defence and Space and CNES.

  16. The lithium air battery fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Imanishi, Nobuyuki; Bruce, Peter G

    2014-01-01

    Lithium air rechargeable batteries are the best candidate for a power source for electric vehicles, because of their high specific energy density. In this book, the history, scientific background, status and prospects of the lithium air system are introduced by specialists in the field. This book will contain the basics, current statuses, and prospects for new technologies. This book is ideal for those interested in electrochemistry, energy storage, and materials science.

  17. Lithium-thionyl chloride battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, D.; Bowden, W.; Hamilton, N.; Cubbison, D.; Dey, A. N.

    1981-04-01

    The main objective is to develop, fabricate, test, and deliver safe high rate lithium-thionyl chloride batteries for various U.S. Army applications such as manpack ratios and GLLD Laser Designators. We have devoted our efforts in the following major areas: (1) Optimization of the spirally wound D cell for high rate applications, (2) Development of a 3 inch diameter flat cylindrical cell for the GLLD laser designator application, and (3) Investigation of the reduction mechanism of SOCl2. The rate capability of the spirally wound D cell previously developed by us has been optimized for both the manpack radio (BA5590) battery and GLLD laser designator battery application in this program. A flat cylindrical cell has also been developed for the GLLD laser designator application. It is 3 inches in diameter and 0.9 inch in height with extremely low internal cell impedance that minimizes cell heating and polarization on the GLLD load. Typical cell capacity was found to be 18.0-19.0 Ahr with a few cells delivering up to about 21.0 Ahr on the GLLD test load. Study of the reduction mechanism of SOCl2 using electrochemical and spectroscopic techniques has also been carried out in this program which may be directly relevant to the intrinsic safety of the system.

  18. Interfacial reactions in lithium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zonghai; Amine, Rachid; Ma, Zi-Feng; Amine, Khalil

    2017-08-01

    The lithium-ion battery was first commercially introduced by Sony Corporation in 1991 using LiCoO2 as the cathode material and mesocarbon microbeads (MCMBs) as the anode material. After continuous research and development for 25 years, lithium-ion batteries have been the dominant energy storage device for modern portable electronics, as well as for emerging applications for electric vehicles and smart grids. It is clear that the success of lithium-ion technologies is rooted to the existence of a solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) that kinetically suppresses parasitic reactions between the lithiated graphitic anodes and the carbonate-based non-aqueous electrolytes. Recently, major attention has been paid to the importance of a similar passivation/protection layer on the surface of cathode materials, aiming for a rational design of high-energy-density lithium-ion batteries with extended cycle/calendar life. In this article, the physical model of the SEI, as well as recent research efforts to understand the nature and role of the SEI are summarized, and future perspectives on this important research field will also be presented.

  19. Batteries for electric road vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodenough, John B; Braga, M Helena

    2018-01-15

    The dependence of modern society on the energy stored in a fossil fuel is not sustainable. An immediate challenge is to eliminate the polluting gases emitted from the roads of the world by replacing road vehicles powered by the internal combustion engine with those powered by rechargeable batteries. These batteries must be safe and competitive in cost, performance, driving range between charges, and convenience. The competitive performance of an electric car has been demonstrated, but the cost of fabrication, management to ensure safety, and a short cycle life have prevented large-scale penetration of the all-electric road vehicle into the market. Low-cost, safe all-solid-state cells from which dendrite-free alkali-metal anodes can be plated are now available; they have an operating temperature range from -20 °C to 80 °C and they permit the design of novel high-capacity, high-voltage cathodes providing fast charge/discharge rates. Scale-up to large multicell batteries is feasible.

  20. Computing Optimal Schedules of Battery Usage in Embedded Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongerden, M.R.; Mereacre, Alexandru; Bohnenkamp, H.C.; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.H.M.; Katoen, Joost P.

    2010-01-01

    The use of mobile devices is often limited by the battery lifetime. Some devices have the option to connect an extra battery, or to use smart battery-packs with multiple cells to extend the lifetime. In these cases, scheduling the batteries or battery cells over the load to exploit the recovery

  1. Model-based energy analysis of battery powered systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongerden, M.R.

    2010-01-01

    The use of mobile devices is often limited by the lifetime of the included batteries. This lifetime naturally depends on the battery's capacity and on the rate at which the battery is discharged. However, it also depends on the usage pattern, i.e., the workload, of the battery. When a battery is

  2. An Improved Wireless Battery Charging System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woo-Seok Lee

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a direct wireless battery charging system. The output current of the series-series compensated wireless power transfer (SS-WPT system is used as a current source, and the output voltage of AC-DC converter controls the current source. Therefore, the proposed wireless battery charging system needs no battery charging circuit to carry out charging profiles, and can solve space constraints and thermal problems in many battery applications. In addition, the proposed wireless battery charging system can implement easily most other charging profiles. In this paper, the proposed wireless battery charging system is implemented and the feasibility is verified experimentally according to constant-current constant-voltage charging profile or multi-step current charging profile.

  3. Household batteries: Evaluation of collection methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seeberger, D.A.

    1992-12-31

    While it is difficult to prove that a specific material is causing contamination in a landfill, tests have been conducted at waste-to-energy facilities that indicate that household batteries contribute significant amounts of heavy metals to both air emissions and ash residue. Hennepin County, MN, used a dual approach for developing and implementing a special household battery collection. Alternative collection methods were examined; test collections were conducted. The second phase examined operating and disposal policy issues. This report describes the results of the grant project, moving from a broad examination of the construction and content of batteries, to a description of the pilot collection programs, and ending with a discussion of variables affecting the cost and operation of a comprehensive battery collection program. Three out-of-state companies (PA, NY) were found that accept spent batteries; difficulties in reclaiming household batteries are discussed.

  4. Household batteries: Evaluation of collection methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seeberger, D.A.

    1992-01-01

    While it is difficult to prove that a specific material is causing contamination in a landfill, tests have been conducted at waste-to-energy facilities that indicate that household batteries contribute significant amounts of heavy metals to both air emissions and ash residue. Hennepin County, MN, used a dual approach for developing and implementing a special household battery collection. Alternative collection methods were examined; test collections were conducted. The second phase examined operating and disposal policy issues. This report describes the results of the grant project, moving from a broad examination of the construction and content of batteries, to a description of the pilot collection programs, and ending with a discussion of variables affecting the cost and operation of a comprehensive battery collection program. Three out-of-state companies (PA, NY) were found that accept spent batteries; difficulties in reclaiming household batteries are discussed.

  5. The battery recycling loop: a European perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, F.

    Restricting the loss of lead into the environment is essential and European legislation has reacted by requiring the recycling of lead/acid batteries. With the forecast of strong growth in the battery market over the next decade, secondary lead output will need to increase substantially to supply this demand. Battery recycling rates are vulnerable, however, to low lead prices and restrictive legislation. Effective recycling schemes are required to ensure maximum recovery and several are successfully in operation. Environmentally sound technology exists to recycle the lead and polypropylene components of batteries. A full range of lead and lead alloys are available to the battery industry from secondary material and now challenge primary products in most battery applications. It is important to optimize recycling efficiency and minimize environmental damage.

  6. Enabling fast charging - Battery thermal considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyser, Matthew; Pesaran, Ahmad; Li, Qibo; Santhanagopalan, Shriram; Smith, Kandler; Wood, Eric; Ahmed, Shabbir; Bloom, Ira; Dufek, Eric; Shirk, Matthew; Meintz, Andrew; Kreuzer, Cory; Michelbacher, Christopher; Burnham, Andrew; Stephens, Thomas; Francfort, James; Carlson, Barney; Zhang, Jiucai; Vijayagopal, Ram; Hardy, Keith; Dias, Fernando; Mohanpurkar, Manish; Scoffield, Don; Jansen, Andrew N.; Tanim, Tanvir; Markel, Anthony

    2017-11-01

    Battery thermal barriers are reviewed with regards to extreme fast charging. Present-day thermal management systems for battery electric vehicles are inadequate in limiting the maximum temperature rise of the battery during extreme fast charging. If the battery thermal management system is not designed correctly, the temperature of the cells could reach abuse temperatures and potentially send the cells into thermal runaway. Furthermore, the cell and battery interconnect design needs to be improved to meet the lifetime expectations of the consumer. Each of these aspects is explored and addressed as well as outlining where the heat is generated in a cell, the efficiencies of power and energy cells, and what type of battery thermal management solutions are available in today's market. Thermal management is not a limiting condition with regard to extreme fast charging, but many factors need to be addressed especially for future high specific energy density cells to meet U.S. Department of Energy cost and volume goals.

  7. Polymer Electrolytes for Lithium/Sulfur Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    The Nam Long Doan

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This review evaluates the characteristics and advantages of employing polymer electrolytes in lithium/sulfur (Li/S batteries. The main highlights of this study constitute detailed information on the advanced developments for solid polymer electrolytes and gel polymer electrolytes, used in the lithium/sulfur battery. This includes an in-depth analysis conducted on the preparation and electrochemical characteristics of the Li/S batteries based on these polymer electrolytes.

  8. Primer on lead-acid storage batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    This handbook was developed to help DOE facility contractors prevent accidents caused during operation and maintenance of lead-acid storage batteries. Major types of lead-acid storage batteries are discussed as well as their operation, application, selection, maintenance, and disposal (storage, transportation, as well). Safety hazards and precautions are discussed in the section on battery maintenance. References to industry standards are included for selection, maintenance, and disposal.

  9. Thermal Battery Systems for Ordnance Fuzing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-07-01

    Characteriza- (63) J. DeGruson and R. Spencer, Improved tion of Aged, Unactivated Thermal Battery Thermal Battery Performance, Eagle - Picher In- Components, U.S...AFB ATTN F. TEPPER WASHINGTON, DC 20332 1421 CLARKVIEW RD BALTIMORE, MD 21209 EAGLE - PICHER INDUSTRIES ATTN R. COTTINGRAM MR. GEORGE J. METHLIE PO BOX...PERIOD COVERED Technical Report Thermal Battery Systems for Ordnance Fuzing TechnicalReport 6. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER 7. AUTHOR(e) B

  10. Bacterial Acclimation Inside an Aqueous Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Dexian; Chen, Baoling; Chen, P

    2015-01-01

    Specific environmental stresses may lead to induced genomic instability in bacteria, generating beneficial mutants and potentially accelerating the breeding of industrial microorganisms. The environmental stresses inside the aqueous battery may be derived from such conditions as ion shuttle, pH gradient, free radical reaction and electric field. In most industrial and medical applications, electric fields and direct currents are used to kill bacteria and yeast. However, the present study focused on increasing bacterial survival inside an operating battery. Using a bacterial acclimation strategy, both Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis were acclimated for 10 battery operation cycles and survived in the battery for over 3 days. The acclimated bacteria changed in cell shape, growth rate and colony color. Further analysis indicated that electrolyte concentration could be one of the major factors determining bacterial survival inside an aqueous battery. The acclimation process significantly improved the viability of both bacteria E. coli and B. subtilis. The viability of acclimated strains was not affected under battery cycle conditions of 0.18-0.80 mA cm(-2) and 1.4-2.1 V. Bacterial addition within 1.0×10(10) cells mL(-1) did not significantly affect battery performance. Because the environmental stress inside the aqueous battery is specific, the use of this battery acclimation strategy may be of great potential for the breeding of industrial microorganisms.

  11. Lithium batteries advanced technologies and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Scrosati, Bruno; Schalkwijk, Walter A van; Hassoun, Jusef

    2013-01-01

    Explains the current state of the science and points the way to technological advances First developed in the late 1980s, lithium-ion batteries now power everything from tablet computers to power tools to electric cars. Despite tremendous progress in the last two decades in the engineering and manufacturing of lithium-ion batteries, they are currently unable to meet the energy and power demands of many new and emerging devices. This book sets the stage for the development of a new generation of higher-energy density, rechargeable lithium-ion batteries by advancing battery chemistry and ident

  12. Requirements for future automotive batteries - a snapshot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karden, Eckhard; Shinn, Paul; Bostock, Paul; Cunningham, James; Schoultz, Evan; Kok, Daniel

    Introduction of new fuel economy, performance, safety, and comfort features in future automobiles will bring up many new, power-hungry electrical systems. As a consequence, demands on automotive batteries will grow substantially, e.g. regarding reliability, energy throughput (shallow-cycle life), charge acceptance, and high-rate partial state-of-charge (HRPSOC) operation. As higher voltage levels are mostly not an economically feasible alternative for the short term, the existing 14 V electrical system will have to fulfil these new demands, utilizing advanced 12 V energy storage devices. The well-established lead-acid battery technology is expected to keep playing a key role in this application. Compared to traditional starting-lighting-ignition (SLI) batteries, significant technological progress has been achieved or can be expected, which improve both performance and service life. System integration of the storage device into the vehicle will become increasingly important. Battery monitoring systems (BMS) are expected to become a commodity, penetrating the automotive volume market from both highly equipped premium cars and dedicated fuel-economy vehicles (e.g. stop/start). Battery monitoring systems will allow for more aggressive battery operating strategies, at the same time improving the reliability of the power supply system. Where a single lead-acid battery cannot fulfil the increasing demands, dual-storage systems may form a cost-efficient extension. They consist either of two lead-acid batteries or of a lead-acid battery plus another storage device.

  13. Rechargeable batteries materials, technologies and new trends

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Zhengcheng

    2015-01-01

    This book updates the latest advancements in new chemistries, novel materials and system integration of rechargeable batteries, including lithium-ion batteries and batteries beyond lithium-ion and addresses where the research is advancing in the near future in a brief and concise manner. The book is intended for a wide range of readers from undergraduates, postgraduates to senior scientists and engineers. In order to update the latest status of rechargeable batteries and predict near research trend, we plan to invite the world leading researchers who are presently working in the field to write

  14. Hubble Space Telescope 2004 Battery Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollandsworth, Roger; Armantrout, Jon; Whitt, Tom; Rao, Gopalakrishna M.

    2006-01-01

    Battery cell wear out mechanisms and signatures are examined and compared to orbital data from the six on-orbit Hubble Space Telescope (HST) batteries, and the Flight Spare Battery (FSB) Test Bed at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), which is instrumented with individual cell voltage monitoring. The on-orbit HST batteries were manufactured on an expedited basis after the Challenger Shuttle Disaster in 1986. The original design called for the HST to be powered by six 50 Ah Nickel Cadmium batteries, which would have required a shuttle mission every 5 years for battery replacement. The decision to use NiH2 instead has resulted in a longer life battery set which was launched with HST in April 1990, with a design life of 7 years that has now exceeded 14+ years of orbital cycling. This chart details the specifics of the original HST NiH2 cell design. The HST replacement batteries for Service Mission 4, originally scheduled for Spring 2005, are currently in cold storage at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The SM4 battery cells utilize slurry process electrodes having 80% porosity.

  15. Lithium-Oxygen Batteries: At a Crossroads?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vegge, Tejs; García Lastra, Juan Maria; Siegel, Donald Jason

    2017-01-01

    In this current opinion, we critically review and discuss some of the most important recent findings in the field of rechargeable lithium-oxygen batteries. We discuss recent discoveries like the evolution of reactive singlet oxygen and the use of organic additives to bypass reactive LiO2 reaction...... intermediates, and their possible implications on the potential for commercialization of lithium-oxygen batteries. Finally, we perform a critical assessment of lithium-superoxide batteries and the reversibility of lithium-hydroxide batteries....

  16. Lithium batteries and other electrochemical storage systems

    CERN Document Server

    Glaize, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Lithium batteries were introduced relatively recently in comparison to lead- or nickel-based batteries, which have been around for over 100 years. Nevertheless, in the space of 20 years, they have acquired a considerable market share - particularly for the supply of mobile devices. We are still a long way from exhausting the possibilities that they offer. Numerous projects will undoubtedly further improve their performances in the years to come. For large-scale storage systems, other types of batteries are also worthy of consideration: hot batteries and redox flow systems, for example.

  17. Lead acid batteries simulation including experimental validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Achaibou, N.; Malek, A. [Division Energie Solaire Photovoltaique, Centre de Developpement des Energies Renouvelables, B.P. 62, Route de l' Observatoire, Bouzareah, Alger (Algeria); Haddadi, M. [Laboratoire de Dispositif de Communication et de Conversion Photovoltaique Ecole Nationale Polytechnique, Rue Hassen Badi, El Harrach, Alger (Algeria)

    2008-12-01

    The storage of energy in batteries is a cause of the failure and loss of reliability in PV systems. The battery behavior has been largely described in the literature by many authors; the selected models are of Monegon and CIEMAT. This paper reviews the two general lead acid battery models and their agreement with experimental data. In order to validate these models, the behavior of different battery cycling currents has been simulated. Results obtained have been compared to real data. The CIEMAT model presents a good performance compared to Monegon's model. (author)

  18. Machine Learning Based Diagnosis of Lithium Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibe-Ekeocha, Chinemerem Christopher

    The depletion of the world's current petroleum reserve, coupled with the negative effects of carbon monoxide and other harmful petrochemical by-products on the environment, is the driving force behind the movement towards renewable and sustainable energy sources. Furthermore, the growing transportation sector consumes a significant portion of the total energy used in the United States. A complete electrification of this sector would require a significant development in electric vehicles (EVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), thus translating to a reduction in the carbon footprint. As the market for EVs and HEVs grows, their battery management systems (BMS) need to be improved accordingly. The BMS is not only responsible for optimally charging and discharging the battery, but also monitoring battery's state of charge (SOC) and state of health (SOH). SOC, similar to an energy gauge, is a representation of a battery's remaining charge level as a percentage of its total possible charge at full capacity. Similarly, SOH is a measure of deterioration of a battery; thus it is a representation of the battery's age. Both SOC and SOH are not measurable, so it is important that these quantities are estimated accurately. An inaccurate estimation could not only be inconvenient for EV consumers, but also potentially detrimental to battery's performance and life. Such estimations could be implemented either online, while battery is in use, or offline when battery is at rest. This thesis presents intelligent online SOC and SOH estimation methods using machine learning tools such as artificial neural network (ANN). ANNs are a powerful generalization tool if programmed and trained effectively. Unlike other estimation strategies, the techniques used require no battery modeling or knowledge of battery internal parameters but rather uses battery's voltage, charge/discharge current, and ambient temperature measurements to accurately estimate battery's SOC and SOH. The developed

  19. Lithium-ion batteries fundamentals and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Yuping

    2015-01-01

    Lithium-Ion Batteries: Fundamentals and Applications offers a comprehensive treatment of the principles, background, design, production, and use of lithium-ion batteries. Based on a solid foundation of long-term research work, this authoritative monograph:Introduces the underlying theory and history of lithium-ion batteriesDescribes the key components of lithium-ion batteries, including negative and positive electrode materials, electrolytes, and separatorsDiscusses electronic conductive agents, binders, solvents for slurry preparation, positive thermal coefficient (PTC) materials, current col

  20. DOE battery program for weapon applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, R. P.; Baldwin, A. R.

    This report discusses the Department of Energy (DOE) Weapons Battery program which originates from Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and involves activities ranging from research, design and development to testing, consulting, and production support. The primary customer is the DOE/Office of Defense Programs, although work is also done for various Department of Defense agencies and their contractors. The majority of the SNL activities involve thermal battery (TB) and lithium ambient temperature battery (LAMB)technologies. Smaller efforts are underway in the areas of silver oxide/zinc and nickel oxide/cadmium batteries as well as double layer capacitors.

  1. Battery Management Systems: Accurate State-of-Charge Indication for Battery-Powered Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pop, V.; Bergveld, H.J.; Danilov, D.; Regtien, Paulus P.L.; Notten, P.H.L.

    2008-01-01

    Battery Management Systems – Universal State-of-Charge indication for portable applications describes the field of State-of-Charge (SoC) indication for rechargeable batteries. With the emergence of battery-powered devices with an increasing number of power-hungry features, accurately estimating the

  2. Design and Realization of a Smart Battery Management System

    OpenAIRE

    C. Chen; K.L. Man; T.O. Ting; Chi-Un Lei; T. Krilavicius; T.T. Jeong; J.K. Seon; Sheng-Uei Guan; Prudence W.H. Wong

    2012-01-01

    Battery management system (BMS) emerges a decisive system component in battery-powered applications, such as (hybrid) electric vehicles and portable devices. However, due to the inaccurate parameter estimation of aged battery cells and multi-cell batteries, current BMSs cannot control batteries optimally, and therefore affect the usability of products. In this paper, we proposed a smart management system for multi-cell batteries, and discussed the development of our research study in three di...

  3. Lead-nickel electrochemical batteries

    CERN Document Server

    Glaize, Christian

    2012-01-01

    The lead-acid accumulator was introduced in the middle of the 19th Century, the diverse variants of nickel accumulators between the beginning and the end of the 20th Century. Although old, these technologies are always very present on numerous markets. Unfortunately they are still not used in optimal conditions, often because of the misunderstanding of the internal electrochemical phenomena.This book will show that batteries are complex systems, made commercially available thanks to considerable amounts of scientific research, empiricism and practical knowledge. However, the design of

  4. An averaging battery model for a lead-acid battery operating in an electric car

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozek, J. M.

    1979-01-01

    A battery model is developed based on time averaging the current or power, and is shown to be an effective means of predicting the performance of a lead acid battery. The effectiveness of this battery model was tested on battery discharge profiles expected during the operation of an electric vehicle following the various SAE J227a driving schedules. The averaging model predicts the performance of a battery that is periodically charged (regenerated) if the regeneration energy is assumed to be converted to retrievable electrochemical energy on a one-to-one basis.

  5. 33 CFR 117.917 - Battery Creek.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Battery Creek. 117.917 Section 117.917 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements South Carolina § 117.917 Battery Creek. The draw of...

  6. Failure modes of batteries removed from service

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoover, J.H. [Douglas Battery Manufacturing Co., Winston-Salem, NC (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Battery failure modes are described. Data is presented from survey results on 12-volt automotive passenger car batteries. The age from manufacturing code was determined. Failures were classified into the following categories: serviceable, broken, open circuit, short circuit, corrosion, worn out, abused, or overcharged.

  7. Overview of photovoltaic and battery applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murrell, J. D.; Hellman, Karl H.

    1989-10-01

    The use of solar cells and batteries for power generation and vehicle propulsion is examined. Issues such as energy uses and fuel sources, solar electric power, energy storage for solar photovoltaic systems, batteries for electric cars and applications for other mobile sources are also discussed.

  8. Enhanced battery model including temperature effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosca, B.; Wilkins, S.

    2013-01-01

    Within electric and hybrid vehicles, batteries are used to provide/buffer the energy required for driving. However, battery performance varies throughout the temperature range specific to automotive applications, and as such, models that describe this behaviour are required. This paper presents a

  9. Investigating improvements on redox flow batteries

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Swartbooi, AM

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available storage devices coupled to most of their applications. Lead-acid batteries have long been used as the most economical option to store electricity in many small scale applications, but lately more interest have been shown in redox flow batteries. The low...

  10. Battery impedance spectroscopy using bidirectional grid connected ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Shimul Kumar Dam

    battery management system one needs to track two vari- ables—state of ... demand is high, thus improving the power quality. The .... the aging effect. To find out usefulness of measurements at different frequencies, the impedance of a 12 V, 9 Ah VRLA battery is measured by a standard commercial equipment. Solartron ...

  11. A Micro-Grid Battery Storage Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahat, Pukar; Escribano Jiménez, Jorge; Moldes, Eloy Rodríguez

    2013-01-01

    systems under its administration. This paper presents an optimized scheduling of a micro-grid battery storage system that takes into account the next-day forecasted load and generation profiles and spot electricity prices. Simulation results show that the battery system can be scheduled close to optimal...

  12. Multiscale simulation approach for battery production systems

    CERN Document Server

    Schönemann, Malte

    2017-01-01

    Addressing the challenge of improving battery quality while reducing high costs and environmental impacts of the production, this book presents a multiscale simulation approach for battery production systems along with a software environment and an application procedure. Battery systems are among the most important technologies of the 21st century since they are enablers for the market success of electric vehicles and stationary energy storage solutions. However, the performance of batteries so far has limited possible applications. Addressing this challenge requires an interdisciplinary understanding of dynamic cause-effect relationships between processes, equipment, materials, and environmental conditions. The approach in this book supports the integrated evaluation of improvement measures and is usable for different planning horizons. It is applied to an exemplary battery cell production and module assembly in order to demonstrate the effectiveness and potential benefits of the simulation.

  13. Lithium and sodium batteries with polysulfide electrolyte

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Mengliu

    2017-12-28

    A battery comprising: at least one cathode, at least one anode, at least one battery separator, and at least one electrolyte disposed in the separator, wherein the anode is a lithium metal or lithium alloy anode or an anode adapted for intercalation of lithium ion, wherein the cathode comprises material adapted for reversible lithium extraction from and insertion into the cathode, and wherein the separator comprises at least one porous, electronically conductive layer and at least one insulating layer, and wherein the electrolyte comprises at least one polysulfide anion. The battery provides for high energy density and capacity. A redox species is introduced into the electrolyte which creates a hybrid battery. Sodium metal and sodium-ion batteries also provided.

  14. Silicene for Na-ion battery applications

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Jiajie

    2016-08-19

    Na-ion batteries are promising candidates to replace Li-ion batteries in large scale applications because of the advantages in natural abundance and cost of Na. Silicene has potential as the anode in Li-ion batteries but so far has not received attention with respect to Na-ion batteries. In this context, freestanding silicene, a graphene-silicene-graphene heterostructure, and a graphene-silicene superlattice are investigated for possible application in Na-ion batteries, using first-principles calculations. The calculated Na capacities of 954mAh/g for freestanding silicene and 730mAh/g for the graphenesilicene superlattice (10% biaxial tensile strain) are highly competitive and potentials of >0.3 V against the Na/Na potential exceed the corresponding value of graphite. In addition, the diffusion barriers are predicted to be <0.3 eV.

  15. Battery selection for Space Shuttle experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco, David R.

    1993-04-01

    This paper will delineate the criteria required for the selection of batteries as a power source for space experiments. Four basic types of batteries will be explored, lead acid, silver zinc, alkaline manganese, and nickel cadmium. A detailed description of the lead acid and silver zinc cells and a brief exploration of the alkaline manganese and nickel cadmium will be given. The factors involved in battery selection such as packaging, energy density, discharge voltage regulation, and cost will be thoroughly examined. The pros and cons of each battery type will be explored. Actual laboratory test data acquired for the lead acid and silver zinc cell will be discussed. This data will include discharging under various temperature conditions, after three months of storage, and with different types of loads. The lifetime and number of charge/discharge cycles will also be discussed. A description of the required maintenance for each type of battery will be investigated.

  16. High-Energy-Density Metal-Oxygen Batteries: Lithium-Oxygen Batteries vs Sodium-Oxygen Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Kyeongse; Agyeman, Daniel Adjei; Park, Mihui; Yang, Junghoon; Kang, Yong-Mook

    2017-12-01

    The development of next-generation energy-storage devices with high power, high energy density, and safety is critical for the success of large-scale energy-storage systems (ESSs), such as electric vehicles. Rechargeable sodium-oxygen (Na-O 2 ) batteries offer a new and promising opportunity for low-cost, high-energy-density, and relatively efficient electrochemical systems. Although the specific energy density of the Na-O 2 battery is lower than that of the lithium-oxygen (Li-O 2 ) battery, the abundance and low cost of sodium resources offer major advantages for its practical application in the near future. However, little has so far been reported regarding the cell chemistry, to explain the rate-limiting parameters and the corresponding low round-trip efficiency and cycle degradation. Consequently, an elucidation of the reaction mechanism is needed for both lithium-oxygen and sodium-oxygen cells. An in-depth understanding of the differences and similarities between Li-O 2 and Na-O 2 battery systems, in terms of thermodynamics and a structural viewpoint, will be meaningful to promote the development of advanced metal-oxygen batteries. State-of-the-art battery design principles for high-energy-density lithium-oxygen and sodium-oxygen batteries are thus reviewed in depth here. Major drawbacks, reaction mechanisms, and recent strategies to improve performance are also summarized. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. NiZn battery as the alternative battery technology for PHEV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faris, S.M.; Tsai, T. [Xellerion Inc., Hawthorne, NY (United States)

    2007-07-01

    Xellerion Inc. (USA) has developed a rechargeable nickel-zinc (NiZn) battery using a proprietary solid-state electrolyte. Xellerion's proprietary hydroxide conductive membrane technology provides superior power and energy performance. The company manufactures high capacity batteries ranging from 20 to 60 ampere hours (AH) for different applications. NiZn battery with a capacity higher than 100 AH will be available in 2008 for large battery electric vehicles (BEV) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) applications. This presentation provided a detailed comparison of Xellerion NiZn battery to other leading battery technologies, including lithium based batteries, for PHEV applications. It was noted that although lithium based batteries have been considered as the main stream for new PHEV development, some safety and cost issues remain to be addressed. In addition, concerns have been raised regarding the lithium consumption rate and worldwide reserve for future large scale deployment. For these reasons, Xellerion's NiZn battery is regarded as a viable alternative battery technology for PHEVs. 27 figs.

  18. Flow Battery System Design for Manufacturability.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montoya, Tracy Louise; Meacham, Paul Gregory; Perry, David; Broyles, Robin S.; Hickey, Steven; Hernandez, Jacquelynne

    2014-10-01

    Flow battery energy storage systems can support renewable energy generation and increase energy efficiency. But, presently, the costs of flow battery energy storage systems can be a significant barrier for large-scale market penetration. For cost- effective systems to be produced, it is critical to optimize the selection of materials and components simultaneously with the adherence to requirements and manufacturing processes to allow these batteries and their manufacturers to succeed in the market by reducing costs to consumers. This report analyzes performance, safety, and testing requirements derived from applicable regulations as well as commercial and military standards that would apply to a flow battery energy storage system. System components of a zinc-bromine flow battery energy storage system, including the batteries, inverters, and control and monitoring system, are discussed relative to manufacturing. The issues addressed include costs and component availability and lead times. A service and support model including setup, maintenance and transportation is outlined, along with a description of the safety-related features of the example flow battery energy storage system to promote regulatory and environmental, safety, and health compliance in anticipation of scale manufacturing.

  19. Hierarchically structured materials for lithium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jie; Zheng, Jianming; Li, Xiaolin; Shao, Yuyan; Zhang, Ji-Guang

    2013-10-01

    The lithium-ion battery (LIB) is one of the most promising power sources to be deployed in electric vehicles, including solely battery powered vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, and hybrid electric vehicles. With the increasing demand for devices of high-energy densities (>500 Wh kg-1), new energy storage systems, such as lithium-oxygen (Li-O2) batteries and other emerging systems beyond the conventional LIB, have attracted worldwide interest for both transportation and grid energy storage applications in recent years. It is well known that the electrochemical performance of these energy storage systems depends not only on the composition of the materials, but also on the structure of the electrode materials used in the batteries. Although the desired performance characteristics of batteries often have conflicting requirements with the micro/nano-structure of electrodes, hierarchically designed electrodes can be tailored to satisfy these conflicting requirements. This work will review hierarchically structured materials that have been successfully used in LIB and Li-O2 batteries. Our goal is to elucidate (1) how to realize the full potential of energy materials through the manipulation of morphologies, and (2) how the hierarchical structure benefits the charge transport, promotes the interfacial properties and prolongs the electrode stability and battery lifetime.

  20. A Foldable Lithium-Sulfur Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lu; Wu, Zi Ping; Sun, Hao; Chen, Deming; Gao, Jian; Suresh, Shravan; Chow, Philippe; Singh, Chandra Veer; Koratkar, Nikhil

    2015-11-24

    The next generation of deformable and shape-conformable electronics devices will need to be powered by batteries that are not only flexible but also foldable. Here we report a foldable lithium-sulfur (Li-S) rechargeable battery, with the highest areal capacity (∼3 mAh cm(-2)) reported to date among all types of foldable energy-storage devices. The key to this result lies in the use of fully foldable and superelastic carbon nanotube current-collector films and impregnation of the active materials (S and Li) into the current-collectors in a checkerboard pattern, enabling the battery to be folded along two mutually orthogonal directions. The carbon nanotube films also serve as the sulfur entrapment layer in the Li-S battery. The foldable battery showed batteries with significantly greater energy density than traditional lithium-ion batteries could power the flexible and foldable devices of the future including laptops, cell phones, tablet computers, surgical tools, and implantable biomedical devices.

  1. Wireless Battery Management System of Electric Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Ataur; Rahman, Mizanur; Rashid, Mahbubur

    2017-11-01

    Electric vehicles (EVs) are being developed and considered as the future transportation to reduce emission of toxic gas, cost and weight. The battery pack is one of the main crucial parts of the electric vehicle. The power optimization of the battery pack has been maintained by developing a two phase evaporative thermal management system which operation has been controlled by using a wireless battery management system. A large number of individual cells in a battery pack have many wire terminations that are liable for safety failure. To reduce the wiring problem, a wireless battery management system based on ZigBee communication protocol and point-to-point wireless topology has been presented. Microcontrollers and wireless modules are employed to process the information from several sensors (voltage, temperature and SOC) and transmit to the display devices respectively. The WBMS multistage charge balancing system offering more effective and efficient responses for several numbers of series connected battery cells. The concept of double tier switched capacitor converter and resonant switched capacitor converter is used for reducing the charge balancing time of the cells. The balancing result for 2 cells and 16 cells are improved by 15.12% and 25.3% respectively. The balancing results are poised to become better when the battery cells are increased.

  2. Membranes for Redox Flow Battery Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prifti, Helen; Parasuraman, Aishwarya; Winardi, Suminto; Lim, Tuti Mariana; Skyllas-Kazacos, Maria

    2012-01-01

    The need for large scale energy storage has become a priority to integrate renewable energy sources into the electricity grid. Redox flow batteries are considered the best option to store electricity from medium to large scale applications. However, the current high cost of redox flow batteries impedes the wide spread adoption of this technology. The membrane is a critical component of redox flow batteries as it determines the performance as well as the economic viability of the batteries. The membrane acts as a separator to prevent cross-mixing of the positive and negative electrolytes, while still allowing the transport of ions to complete the circuit during the passage of current. An ideal membrane should have high ionic conductivity, low water intake and excellent chemical and thermal stability as well as good ionic exchange capacity. Developing a low cost, chemically stable membrane for redox flow cell batteries has been a major focus for many groups around the world in recent years. This paper reviews the research work on membranes for redox flow batteries, in particular for the all-vanadium redox flow battery which has received the most attention. PMID:24958177

  3. Nickel-iron battery system safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltat, R. C.

    1984-06-01

    The generated flow rates of gaseous hydrogen and gaseous oxygen from an electrical vehicle nickel-iron battery system were determined and used to evaluate the flame quenching capabilities of several candidate devices to prevent flame propagation within batteries having central watering/venting systems. The battery generated hydrogen and oxygen gases were measured for a complete charge and discharge cycle. The data correlates well with accepted theory during strong overcharge conditions indicating that the measurements are valid for other portions of the cycle. Tests confirm that the gas mixture in the cells is always flammable regardless of the battery status. The literature indicated that a conventional flame arrestor would not be effective over the broad spectrum of gassing conditions presented by a nickel-iron battery. Four different types of protective devices were evaluated. A foam-metal arrestor design was successful in quenching gaseous hydrogen and gaseous oxygen flames, however; the application of this flame arrestor to individual cell or module protection in a battery is problematic. A possible rearrangement of the watering/venting system to accept the partial protection of simple one-way valves is presented which, in combination with the successful foam-metal arrestor as main vent protection, could result in a significant improvement in battery protection.

  4. Membranes for Redox Flow Battery Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Skyllas-Kazacos

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The need for large scale energy storage has become a priority to integrate renewable energy sources into the electricity grid. Redox flow batteries are considered the best option to store electricity from medium to large scale applications. However, the current high cost of redox flow batteries impedes the wide spread adoption of this technology. The membrane is a critical component of redox flow batteries as it determines the performance as well as the economic viability of the batteries. The membrane acts as a separator to prevent cross-mixing of the positive and negative electrolytes, while still allowing the transport of ions to complete the circuit during the passage of current. An ideal membrane should have high ionic conductivity, low water intake and excellent chemical and thermal stability as well as good ionic exchange capacity. Developing a low cost, chemically stable membrane for redox flow cell batteries has been a major focus for many groups around the world in recent years. This paper reviews the research work on membranes for redox flow batteries, in particular for the all-vanadium redox flow battery which has received the most attention.

  5. Hierarchically structured materials for lithium batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao, Jie; Zheng, Jianming; Li, Xiaolin; Shao, Yuyan; Zhang, Ji-Guang

    2013-01-01

    The lithium-ion battery (LIB) is one of the most promising power sources to be deployed in electric vehicles, including solely battery powered vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, and hybrid electric vehicles. With the increasing demand for devices of high-energy densities (>500 Wh kg −1 ), new energy storage systems, such as lithium–oxygen (Li–O 2 ) batteries and other emerging systems beyond the conventional LIB, have attracted worldwide interest for both transportation and grid energy storage applications in recent years. It is well known that the electrochemical performance of these energy storage systems depends not only on the composition of the materials, but also on the structure of the electrode materials used in the batteries. Although the desired performance characteristics of batteries often have conflicting requirements with the micro/nano-structure of electrodes, hierarchically designed electrodes can be tailored to satisfy these conflicting requirements. This work will review hierarchically structured materials that have been successfully used in LIB and Li–O 2 batteries. Our goal is to elucidate (1) how to realize the full potential of energy materials through the manipulation of morphologies, and (2) how the hierarchical structure benefits the charge transport, promotes the interfacial properties and prolongs the electrode stability and battery lifetime. (paper)

  6. Anodematerials for Metal Hydride Batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens Oluf

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the work on development of hydride forming alloys for use as electrode materials in metal hydride batteries. The work has primarily been concentrated on calcium based alloys derived from the compound CaNi5. This compound has a higher capacity compared with alloys used in today...... was developed. The parameters milling time, milling intensity, number of balls and form of the alloying metals were investigated. Based on this a final alloying technique for the subsequent preparation of electrode materials was established. The technique comprises milling for 4 hours twice possibly followed...... by annealing at 700°C for 12 hours. The alloys appeared to be nanocrystalline with an average crystallite size around 10 nm before annealing. Special steel containers was developed for the annealing of the metal powders in inert atmosphere. The use of various annealing temperatures was investigated...

  7. Supported liquid membrane battery separators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pemsler, J. P.; Dempsey, M. D.

    1984-07-01

    The feasibility of using a supported liquid membrane (SLM) as a separator in the nickel-zinc battery was investigated. In particular, SLM separators should prevent zinc dendirte growth from shorting out the cell and might also alleviate capacity loss due to zinc electrode shape changes. A number of ion exchange/solvent modifier systems for incorporation into SLMs were developed under a previous LBL contract. SLMs prepared with hese reagents exhibited resistances in the range of 0.4 to 10 ohm sq cm, selectivity transported hydroxyl ions over zincate ions by a factor of 10 to the 6th power to 10 to the 7th power, and possessed electrochemical and chemical stability in alkaline electrolytes. In order to evaluate these SLM separators under conditions closely resembling a commercial Ni-Zn cell, an accelerated cycle life test was devised using commercial electrodes.

  8. Metal Hydrides for Rechargeable Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valoeen, Lars Ole

    2000-03-01

    Rechargeable battery systems are paramount in the power supply of modern electronic and electromechanical equipment. For the time being, the most promising secondary battery systems for the future are the lithium-ion and the nickel metal hydride (NiMH) batteries. In this thesis, metal hydrides and their properties are described with the aim of characterizing and improving those. The thesis has a special focus on the AB{sub 5} type hydrogen storage alloys, where A is a rare earth metal like lanthanum, or more commonly misch metal, which is a mixture of rare earth metals, mainly lanthanum, cerium, neodymium and praseodymium. B is a transition metal, mainly nickel, commonly with additions of aluminium, cobalt, and manganese. The misch metal composition was found to be very important for the geometry of the unit cell in AB{sub 5} type alloys, and consequently the equilibrium pressure of hydrogen in these types of alloys. The A site substitution of lanthanum by misch metal did not decrease the surface catalytic properties of AB{sub 5} type alloys. B-site substitution of nickel with other transition elements, however, substantially reduced the catalytic activity of the alloy. If the internal pressure within the electrochemical test cell was increased using inert argon gas, a considerable increase in the high rate charge/discharge performance of LaNi{sub 5} was observed. An increased internal pressure would enable the utilisation of alloys with a high hydrogen equivalent pressure in batteries. Such alloys often have favourable kinetics and high hydrogen diffusion rates and thus have a potential for improving the high current discharge rates in metal hydride batteries. The kinetic properties of metal hydride electrodes were found to improve throughout their lifetime. The activation properties were found highly dependent on the charge/discharge current. Fewer charge/discharge cycles were needed to activate the electrodes if a small current was used instead of a higher

  9. 49 CFR 229.43 - Exhaust and battery gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exhaust and battery gases. 229.43 Section 229.43... § 229.43 Exhaust and battery gases. (a) Products of combustion shall be released entirely outside the... conditions. (b) Battery containers shall be vented and batteries kept from gassing excessively. ...

  10. Resistor Extends Life Of Battery In Clocked CMOS Circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, George H., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Addition of fixed resistor between battery and clocked complementary metal oxide/semiconductor (CMOS) circuit reduces current drawn from battery. Basic idea to minimize current drawn from battery by operating CMOS circuit at lowest possible current consistent with use of simple, fixed off-the-shelf components. Prolongs lives of batteries in such low-power CMOS circuits as watches and calculators.

  11. Bipolar lead-acid battery for hybrid electric vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmal, D.; Saakes, M.; Veen, W.R. ter; Raadschelders, J.W.; Have, P.T.J.H. ten

    2000-01-01

    In hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) the requirements on batteries are very different from those for battery electric vehicles (BEV). A high power (bipolar) lead-acid battery could be a good alternative for other types of batteries under development for this application. It is potentially cheap and

  12. Performance of Automotive SLI Battery under Constant Current ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this project, a cost-effective 12V battery charge controller was developed to implement constant current constant voltage charge algorithm in small-sized stand-alone solar PV systems. The algorithm was tested on automotive SLI battery instead of deep-cycle PV battery to further reduce overall system cost. The battery ...

  13. Model-based energy analysis of battery powered systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongerden, M.R.

    2010-01-01

    The use of mobile devices is often limited by the lifetime of the included batteries. This lifetime naturally depends on the battery’s capacity and on the rate at which the battery is discharged. However, it also depends on the usage pattern, i.e., the workload, of the battery. When a battery is

  14. Lead acid battery pulse discharge investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowgiallo, E. J., Jr.

    1980-04-01

    The effects of high current pulses caused by electric vehicle silicon controlled rectifier and and transistor chopper controllers on battery energy, life and microstructure were uncertain in the past. Such high current pulses may have a significant effect on diffusion and reaction rates, conductivity/resistance ratios and crystal morphology of processses occuring within the battery. It is important to learn what processes become rate controlling under such conditions and to determine what may be done through design or regulation to increase the battery efficiency and life under such service. Equipment to measure watt hours with programmable discharge load banks capable of simulating high current pulsed waveforms is described.

  15. Fuel Cell and Battery Powered Forklifts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Zhe; Mortensen, Henrik H.; Jensen, Jes Vestervang

    2013-01-01

    A hydrogen-powered materials handling vehicle with a fuel cell combines the advantages of diesel/LPG and battery powered vehicles. Hydrogen provides the same consistent power and fast refueling capability as diesel and LPG, whilst fuel cells provide energy efficient and zero emission Electric...... propulsion similar to batteries. In this paper, the performance of a forklift powered by PEM fuel cells and lead acid batteries as auxiliary energy source is introduced and investigated. In this electromechanical propulsion system with hybrid energy/power sources, fuel cells will deliver average power...

  16. A review of nickel hydrogen battery technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smithrick, John J.; Odonnell, Patricia M.

    1995-01-01

    This paper on nickel hydrogen batteries is an overview of the various nickel hydrogen battery design options, technical accomplishments, validation test results and trends. There is more than one nickel hydrogen battery design, each having its advantage for specific applications. The major battery designs are individual pressure vessel (IPV), common pressure vessel (CPV), bipolar and low pressure metal hydride. State-of-the-art (SOA) nickel hydrogen batteries are replacing nickel cadmium batteries in almost all geosynchronous orbit (GEO) applications requiring power above 1 kW. However, for the more severe low earth orbit (LEO) applications (greater than 30,000 cycles), the current cycle life of 4000 to 10,000 cycles at 60 percent DOD should be improved. A NASA Lewis Research Center innovative advanced design IPV nickel hydrogen cell led to a breakthrough in cycle life enabling LEO applications at deep depths of discharge (DOD). A trend for some future satellites is to increase the power level to greater than 6 kW. Another trend is to decrease the power to less than 1 kW for small low cost satellites. Hence, the challenge is to reduce battery mass, volume and cost. A key is to develop a light weight nickel electrode and alternate battery designs. A common pressure vessel (CPV) nickel hydrogen battery is emerging as a viable alternative to the IPV design. It has the advantage of reduced mass, volume and manufacturing costs. A 10 Ah CPV battery has successfully provided power on the relatively short lived Clementine Spacecraft. A bipolar nickel hydrogen battery design has been demonstrated (15,000 LEO cycles, 40 percent DOD). The advantage is also a significant reduction in volume, a modest reduction in mass, and like most bipolar designs, features a high pulse power capability. A low pressure aerospace nickel metal hydride battery cell has been developed and is on the market. It is a prismatic design which has the advantage of a significant reduction in volume and a

  17. Li-Ion Battery for ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Penni; Cohen, Fred

    2004-01-01

    The ISS currently uses Ni-H2 batteries in the main power system. Although Ni-H2 is a robust and reliable system, recent advances in battery technology have paved the way for future replacement batteries to be constructed using Li-ion technology. This technology will provide lower launch weight as well as increase ISS electric power system (EPS) efficiency. The result of incorporating this technology in future re-support hardware will be greater power availability and reduced program cost. the presentations of incorporating the new technology.

  18. Li-ion EMU Battery Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehm, Raymond; Bragg, Bobby; Strangways, Brad

    2001-01-01

    A 45Ah Lithium ion (Li-Ion) battery comprised of 5 Yardney prismatic cells was evaluated to replace the silver-zinc cells in the Extra-vehicular Mobility Unit (EMU). Tests determined that the five cell battery can meet the mission objective of 500 duty cycles and maintain a minimum voltage of 16.0 V without an individual cell voltage dropping below 3.0V. Forty real time cycles were conducted to develop BOL trend data. Decision to switch to accelerated cycling for the remaining 460 cycles was made since Real Time cycling requires 1 day/cycle. Conclusions indicate that battery replacement would indeed be prudent.

  19. Distribution of electrolytes in a flow battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darling, Robert Mason; Smeltz, Andrew; Junker, Sven Tobias; Perry, Michael L.

    2017-12-26

    A method of determining a distribution of electrolytes in a flow battery includes providing a flow battery with a fixed amount of fluid electrolyte having a common electrochemically active specie, a portion of the fluid electrolyte serving as an anolyte and a remainder of the fluid electrolyte serving as a catholyte. An average oxidation state of the common electrochemically active specie is determined in the anolyte and the catholyte and, responsive to the determined average oxidation state, a molar ratio of the common electrochemically active specie between the anolyte and the catholyte is adjusted to increase an energy discharge capacity of the flow battery for the determined average oxidation state.

  20. Method of making a sodium sulfur battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkins, Perry E.

    1981-01-01

    A method of making a portion of a sodium sulfur battery is disclosed. The battery portion made is a portion of the container which defines the volume for the cathodic reactant materials which are sulfur and sodium polysulfide materials. The container portion is defined by an outer metal casing with a graphite liner contained therein, the graphite liner having a coating on its internal diameter for sealing off the porosity thereof. The steel outer container and graphite pipe are united by a method which insures that at the operating temperature of the battery, relatively low electrical resistance exists between the two materials because they are in intimate contact with one another.

  1. Mars Express Lithium Ion Batteries Performance Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dudley G.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Now more than 12 years in orbit, Mars Express battery telemetry during some of the deepest discharge cycles has been analysed with the help of the ESTEC lithium ion cell model. The best-fitting model parameter sets were then used to predict the energy that is expected to be available before the battery voltage drops below the minimum value that can support the power bus. This allows mission planners to determine what future power profiles could be supported without risk of entering safe mode. It also gives some more insights into the ageing properties of these batteries.

  2. Lithium-thionyl chloride batteries - past, present and future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCartney, J.F.; Lund, T.J.; Sturgeon, W.J.

    1980-02-01

    Lithium based batteries have the highest theoretical energy density of known battery types. Of the lithium batteries, the lithium-thionyl chloride electrochemistry has the highest energy density of those which have been reduced to practice. The characteristics, development status, and performance of lithium-thionyl chloride batteries are treated in this paper. Safety aspects of lithium-thionyl chloride batteries are discussed along with impressive results of hazard/safety tests of these batteries. An orderly development plan of a minimum family of standard cells to avoid a proliferation of battery sizes and discharge rates is presented.

  3. Button battery ingestion in children: An emerging hazard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayank Jain

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Button battery ingestion is an emerging hazard. In this retrospective study, we report six cases of lithium button battery ingestion in pediatric age group (mean age 2.8 years. Three button batteries were removed from stomach and three from esophagus. Esophageal site was associated with significant local injury, and one button battery was impacted in the esophagus, requiring rigid esophagoscopy for removal. Small battery size, used batteries, and early removal (<12 h after ingestion were associated with lesser mucosal injury. No long-term complications were noted. Our study emphasizes that early diagnosis and urgent removal of ingested button battery are the only measures which prevent complications.

  4. A Battery Health Monitoring Framework for Planetary Rovers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daigle, Matthew J.; Kulkarni, Chetan Shrikant

    2014-01-01

    Batteries have seen an increased use in electric ground and air vehicles for commercial, military, and space applications as the primary energy source. An important aspect of using batteries in such contexts is battery health monitoring. Batteries must be carefully monitored such that the battery health can be determined, and end of discharge and end of usable life events may be accurately predicted. For planetary rovers, battery health estimation and prediction is critical to mission planning and decision-making. We develop a model-based approach utilizing computaitonally efficient and accurate electrochemistry models of batteries. An unscented Kalman filter yields state estimates, which are then used to predict the future behavior of the batteries and, specifically, end of discharge. The prediction algorithm accounts for possible future power demands on the rover batteries in order to provide meaningful results and an accurate representation of prediction uncertainty. The framework is demonstrated on a set of lithium-ion batteries powering a rover at NASA.

  5. FY2016 Advanced Batteries R&D Annual Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2017-08-31

    The Advanced Batteries research and development (R&D) subprogram within the DOE Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO) provides support and guidance for projects focusing on batteries for plug-in electric vehicles. Program targets focus on overcoming technical barriers to enable market success including: (1) significantly reducing battery cost, (2) increasing battery performance (power, energy, durability), (3) reducing battery weight & volume, and (4) increasing battery tolerance to abusive conditions such as short circuit, overcharge, and crush. This report describes the progress made on the research and development projects funded by the Battery subprogram in 2016. This section covers the Vehicle Technologies Office overview; the Battery subprogram R&D overview; Advanced Battery Development project summaries; and Battery Testing, Analysis, and Design project summaries. It also includes the cover and table of contents.

  6. A Brief Review of Current Lithium Ion Battery Technology and Potential Solid State Battery Technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Ulvestad, Andrew

    2018-01-01

    Solid state battery technology has recently garnered considerable interest from companies including Toyota, BMW, Dyson, and others. The primary driver behind the commercialization of solid state batteries (SSBs) is to enable the use of lithium metal as the anode, as opposed to the currently used carbon anode, which would result in ~20% energy density improvement. However, no reported solid state battery to date meets all of the performance metrics of state of the art liquid electrolyte lithiu...

  7. BATTERIES 2020 – A Joint European Effort towards European Competitive Automotive Batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timmermans, J.-M.; Rodriguez-Martinez, L.M.; Omar, N.

    The Integrated Project “Batteries 2020” unites 9 European partners jointly working on the research and development of European competitive automotive batteries. The project aims at increasing lifetime and energy density of large format high-energy lithium-ion batteries towards the goals targeted...... for automotive batteries. Three parallel strategies will be followed in order to achieve those targets: (i) Highly focused materials development; two improved generations of NMC materials will allow the performance, stability and cyclability of state of the art cells to be improved. (ii) Understanding ageing...

  8. Battery Control Boards for Li-Ion Batteries on Mars Exploration Rovers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewell, R.; Ratnakumar, B. V.; Smart, M.; Chin, K. B.; Whitcanack, L.; Narayanan, S. R.; Surampudi, S.

    2006-01-01

    Rechargeable Lithium-ion batteries have been operating successfully on both Spirit and Opportunity rovers for the last two years, which includes six months of Assembly Launch and Test Operations (ATLO), seven months of cruise and about eleven months of surface operations. The Battery Control Boards designed and fabricated in-house would protect cells against overcharge and over-discharge and provide cell balance. Their performance has thus far been quite satisfactory. The ground data o the mission simulation battery project little capacity loss of less than 3% during cruise and 180 sols. Batteries are poised to extend the mission beyond six months, if not a couple of years.

  9. Modelling Thermal Effects of Battery Cells inside Electric Vehicle Battery Packs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Mohammad Rezwan; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    The poster presents a methodology to account for thermal effects on battery cells to improve the typical thermal performances in a pack through heating calculations generally performed under the operating condition assumption. The aim is to analyze the issues based on battery thermo......-physical characteristics and their impact on the electrical state of battery cells(Khan, Mulder et al. 2013, Khan, Andreasen et al. 2014, Khan et al. 2014, Khan, Mulder et al. 2014, Khan, Nielsen et al. 2014). Based on this analysis, we derive strategies in achieving the goal, and then propose a battery thermal management...

  10. Battery-Aware Scheduling of Mixed Criticality Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wognsen, Erik Ramsgaard; Hansen, Rene Rydhof; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand

    2014-01-01

    Wireless systems such as satellites and sensor networks are often battery-powered. To operate optimally they must therefore take the performance properties of real batteries into account. Additionally, these systems, and therefore their batteries, are often exposed to loads with uncertain timings...... model we also calculate an upper bound on the attainable number of task instances from a battery, and we provide a battery-aware scheduler that wastes no energy on instances that are not guaranteed to make their deadlines....

  11. Flexible lithium-ion planer thin-film battery

    KAUST Repository

    Kutbee, Arwa T.

    2016-02-03

    Commercialization of wearable electronics requires miniaturized, flexible power sources. Lithium ion battery is a strong candidate as the next generation high performance flexible battery. The development of flexible materials for battery electrodes suffers from the limited material choices. In this work, we present a flexible inorganic lithium-ion battery with no restrictions on the materials used. The battery showed an enhanced normalized capacity of 146 ??Ah/cm2.

  12. Navy primary and secondary batteries: Design and manufacturing guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-09-01

    The best practices for the specification, design, and manufacture of primary and secondary batteries most commonly used in military applications are provided. The scope was limited to lead-acid batteries (excluding submarine batteries), nickel-cadmium batteries, dry cell, thermal cells, and lithium cells (primaries only). Silver-Zinc batteries, secondary and primary, were purposely excluded since they represent a small portion of the military procurement and require a special treatment of their manufacture and quality assurance best practices.

  13. Lithium ion batteries based on nanoporous silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolbert, Sarah H.; Nemanick, Eric J.; Kang, Chris Byung-Hwa

    2015-09-22

    A lithium ion battery that incorporates an anode formed from a Group IV semiconductor material such as porous silicon is disclosed. The battery includes a cathode, and an anode comprising porous silicon. In some embodiments, the anode is present in the form of a nanowire, a film, or a powder, the porous silicon having a pore diameters within the range between 2 nm and 100 nm and an average wall thickness of within the range between 1 nm and 100 nm. The lithium ion battery further includes, in some embodiments, a non-aqueous lithium containing electrolyte. Lithium ion batteries incorporating a porous silicon anode demonstrate have high, stable lithium alloying capacity over many cycles.

  14. Catastrophic event modeling. [lithium thionyl chloride batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, H. A.

    1981-01-01

    A mathematical model for the catastrophic failures (venting or explosion of the cell) in lithium thionyl chloride batteries is presented. The phenomenology of the various processes leading to cell failure is reviewed.

  15. Multi-Cell Thermal Battery, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The multi-cell thermal battery (MCTB) is a device that can recover a large fraction of the thermal energy from heated regolith and subsequently apply this energy to...

  16. The Breakthrough Behind the Chevy Volt Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Louise

    2011-03-28

    A revolutionary breakthrough cathode for lithium-ion batteries—the kind in your cell phone, laptop and new hybrid cars—makes them last longer, run more safely and perform better than batteries currently on the market.

  17. Electrochemistry-based Battery Modeling for Prognostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daigle, Matthew J.; Kulkarni, Chetan Shrikant

    2013-01-01

    Batteries are used in a wide variety of applications. In recent years, they have become popular as a source of power for electric vehicles such as cars, unmanned aerial vehicles, and commericial passenger aircraft. In such application domains, it becomes crucial to both monitor battery health and performance and to predict end of discharge (EOD) and end of useful life (EOL) events. To implement such technologies, it is crucial to understand how batteries work and to capture that knowledge in the form of models that can be used by monitoring, diagnosis, and prognosis algorithms. In this work, we develop electrochemistry-based models of lithium-ion batteries that capture the significant electrochemical processes, are computationally efficient, capture the effects of aging, and are of suitable accuracy for reliable EOD prediction in a variety of usage profiles. This paper reports on the progress of such a model, with results demonstrating the model validity and accurate EOD predictions.

  18. Regulatory trends in the battery industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McColl, K.G.

    1994-01-01

    The scope of regulations in the battery industry is extensive and also complex. In the future, regulations will become more demanding and will encompass issues not currently considered. Increased focus on environmental issues by government bodies, environmental groups, local communities will result in more strict compliance standards. The USA is currently leading the world's battery industries in the scope and compliance level of regulations. By studying trends in the USA, the rest of the battery industry can prepare itself for the future operating environment. This paper reviews the most critical areas of air pollution, blood-lead levels and recycling. The paper concludes that the battery industry must adopt a culture of exceeding current compliance standards. (orig.)

  19. Predicting Battery Life for Electric UAVs

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This paper presents a novel battery health management technology for the new generation of electric unmanned aerial vehicles powered by long-life, high-density,...

  20. Battery storage for supplementing renewable energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2009-01-18

    The battery storage for renewable energy systems section of the Renewable Energy Technology Characterizations describes structures and models to support the technical and economic status of emerging renewable energy options for electricity supply.

  1. Battery Health Management System for Electric UAVs

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In summary, this paper lays out a novel battery health management technique for application onboard an electric UAV. This technique is also applicable to other...

  2. High Temperature Rechargeable Battery Development, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This small business innovation research is intended to develop and proof the concept of a highly efficient, high temperature rechargeable battery for supporting...

  3. Mars Li-CO2 Batteries

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Recently, Lithium (Li)-air batteries have attracted significant attention for energy storage in electric vehicles/aircraft because this system utilizes O2 in the air...

  4. Advances in VRLA battery technology for telecommunications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Misra, Sudhan S. [SPM Consultants LLC, 112 Gwynmont Circle, North Wales, PA 19454 (United States)

    2007-05-25

    Wide scale use of the newly emergent VRLA (valve-regulated lead-acid) battery in telecommunication applications and the subsequent problems encountered early in their deployment history spurred intense efforts to improve the design as a continuous endeavor. After implementing improvements to battery placement and containment design to prevent the sudden onset of thermal runaway, the focus of the development work has been on cell internals. These include improved grid and strap alloys, superior AGM (absorbent glass mat) separator that retains compression in the cell, use of beneficial additives to the active materials and the need to avoid contaminants that promote detrimental side reactions. These improvements are now resulting in a vastly superior VRLA experience in the telecommunication applications. To further improve the reliability demanded by today's communication and internet environment VRLA battery installations should include continuous cell/module and system monitoring similar to that incorporated in competing advanced battery systems under development. (author)

  5. Modeling aluminum-air battery systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savinell, R. F.; Willis, M. S.

    The performance of a complete aluminum-air battery system was studied with a flowsheet model built from unit models of each battery system component. A plug flow model for heat transfer was used to estimate the amount of heat transferred from the electrolyte to the air stream. The effect of shunt currents on battery performance was found to be insignificant. Using the flowsheet simulator to analyze a 100 cell battery system now under development demonstrated that load current, aluminate concentration, and electrolyte temperature are dominant variables controlling system performance. System efficiency was found to decrease as both load current and aluminate concentration increases. The flowsheet model illustrates the interdependence of separate units on overall system performance.

  6. Advanced Lithium Sulfur Battery, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — CRG proposes to develop an Advanced Lithium Sulfur Battery (LSB) based on combining a novel super ion conducting ceramic electrolyte, entrapped sulfur cathode, and a...

  7. Advanced Lithium Sulfur Battery, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — CRG proposes to develop an Advanced Lithium Sulfur Battery (LSB) based on combining a novel super ion conducting ceramic electrolyte, entrapped sulfur cathode, and a...

  8. Recent advances in zinc-air batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanguang; Dai, Hongjie

    2014-08-07

    Zinc-air is a century-old battery technology but has attracted revived interest recently. With larger storage capacity at a fraction of the cost compared to lithium-ion, zinc-air batteries clearly represent one of the most viable future options to powering electric vehicles. However, some technical problems associated with them have yet to be resolved. In this review, we present the fundamentals, challenges and latest exciting advances related to zinc-air research. Detailed discussion will be organized around the individual components of the system - from zinc electrodes, electrolytes, and separators to air electrodes and oxygen electrocatalysts in sequential order for both primary and electrically/mechanically rechargeable types. The detrimental effect of CO2 on battery performance is also emphasized, and possible solutions summarized. Finally, other metal-air batteries are briefly overviewed and compared in favor of zinc-air.

  9. A Responsive Battery with Controlled Energy Release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaopeng; Gao, Jian; Cheng, Zhihua; Chen, Nan; Qu, Liangti

    2016-11-14

    A new type of responsive battery with the fascinating feature of pressure perceptibility has been developed, which can spontaneously, timely and reliably control the power outputs (e.g., current and voltage) in response to pressure changes. The device design is based on the structure of the Zn-air battery, in which graphene-coated sponge serves as pressure-sensitive air cathode that endows the whole system with the capability of self-controlled energy release. The responsive batteries exhibit superior battery performance with high open-circuit voltage (1.3 V), and competitive areal capacity of 1.25 mAh cm -2 . This work presents an important move towards next-generation intelligent energy storage devices with energy management function. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Multi-Cell Thermal Battery, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The multi-cell thermal battery (MCTB) is a device that can recover a large fraction of the thermal energy from heated regolith and subsequently apply this energy to...

  11. Fuel Cell and Battery Powered Forklifts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Zhe; Mortensen, Henrik H.; Jensen, Jes Vestervang

    2013-01-01

    A hydrogen-powered materials handling vehicle with a fuel cell combines the advantages of diesel/LPG and battery powered vehicles. Hydrogen provides the same consistent power and fast refueling capability as diesel and LPG, whilst fuel cells provide energy efficient and zero emission Electric...... propulsion similar to batteries. In this paper, the performance of a forklift powered by PEM fuel cells and lead acid batteries as auxiliary energy source is introduced and investigated. In this electromechanical propulsion system with hybrid energy/power sources, fuel cells will deliver average power......, whilst batteries will handle all the load dynamics, such as acceleration, lifting, climbing and so on. The electrical part of the whole propulsion system for forklift has been investigated in details. The energy management strategy is explained and verified through simulation. Finally, experimental...

  12. Sealed Cylindrical Silver/Zinc Batteries Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — RBC Technologies has significanly improved the cycle life and wet life of silver/zinc battery technology through novel separator and anode formulations. This...

  13. Sodium sulfur batteries for space applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degruson, James A.

    1992-02-01

    In 1986, Eagle-Picher Industries was selected by the Air Force to develop sodium sulfur cells for satellite applications. Specifically, the development program was geared toward low earth orbit goals requiring high charge and/or discharge rates. A number of improvements have been made on the cell level and a transition to a complete space battery was initiated at Eagle-Picher. The results of six months of testing a 250 watt/hour sodium sulfur space battery look very promising. With over 1000 LEO cycles conducted on this first battery, the next generation battery is being designed. This next design will focus on achieving greater energy densities associated with the sodium sulfur chemistry.

  14. ?Just-in-Time? Battery Charge Depletion Control for PHEVs and E-REVs for Maximum Battery Life

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeVault, Robert C [ORNL

    2009-01-01

    Conventional methods of vehicle operation for Plug-in Hybrid Vehicles first discharge the battery to a minimum State of Charge (SOC) before switching to charge sustaining operation. This is very demanding on the battery, maximizing the number of trips ending with a depleted battery and maximizing the distance driven on a depleted battery over the vehicle s life. Several methods have been proposed to reduce the number of trips ending with a deeply discharged battery and also eliminate the need for extended driving on a depleted battery. An optimum SOC can be maintained for long battery life before discharging the battery so that the vehicle reaches an electric plug-in destination just as the battery reaches the minimum operating SOC. These Just-in-Time methods provide maximum effective battery life while getting virtually the same electricity from the grid.

  15. Heat tolerance of automotive lead-acid batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albers, Joern

    Starter batteries have to withstand a quite large temperature range. In Europe, the battery temperature can be -30 °C in winter and may even exceed +60 °C in summer. In most modern cars, there is not much space left in the engine compartment to install the battery. So the mean battery temperature may be higher than it was some decades ago. In some car models, the battery is located in the passenger or luggage compartment, where ambient temperatures are more moderate. Temperature effects are discussed in detail. The consequences of high heat impact into the lead-acid battery may vary for different battery technologies: While grid corrosion is often a dominant factor for flooded lead-acid batteries, water loss may be an additional influence factor for valve-regulated lead-acid batteries. A model was set up that considers external and internal parameters to estimate the water loss of AGM batteries. Even under hot climate conditions, AGM batteries were found to be highly durable and superior to flooded batteries in many cases. Considering the real battery temperature for adjustment of charging voltage, negative effects can be reduced. Especially in micro-hybrid applications, AGM batteries cope with additional requirements much better than flooded batteries, and show less sensitivity to high temperatures than suspected sometimes.

  16. Optimized batteries for cars with dual electrical architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douady, J. P.; Pascon, C.; Dugast, A.; Fossati, G.

    During recent years, the increase in car electrical equipment has led to many problems with traditional starter batteries (such as cranking failure due to flat batteries, battery cycling etc.). The main causes of these problems are the double function of the automotive battery (starter and service functions) and the difficulties in designing batteries well adapted to these two functions. In order to solve these problems a new concept — the dual-concept — has been developed with two separate batteries: one battery is dedicated to the starter function and the other is dedicated to the service function. Only one alternator charges the two batteries with a separation device between the two electrical circuits. The starter battery is located in the engine compartment while the service battery is located at the rear of the car. From the analysis of new requirements, battery designs have been optimized regarding the two types of functions: (i) a small battery with high specific power for the starting function; for this function a flooded battery with lead-calcium alloy grids and thin plates is proposed; (ii) for the service function, modified sealed gas-recombinant batteries with cycling and deep-discharge ability have been developed. The various advantages of the dual-concept are studied in terms of starting reliability, battery weight, and voltage supply. The operating conditions of the system and several dual electrical architectures have also been studied in the laboratory and the car. The feasibility of the concept is proved.

  17. High-discharge-rate lithium ion battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gao; Battaglia, Vincent S; Zheng, Honghe

    2014-04-22

    The present invention provides for a lithium ion battery and process for creating such, comprising higher binder to carbon conductor ratios than presently used in the industry. The battery is characterized by much lower interfacial resistances at the anode and cathode as a result of initially mixing a carbon conductor with a binder, then with the active material. Further improvements in cycleability can also be realized by first mixing the carbon conductor with the active material first and then adding the binder.

  18. Further Cost Reduction of Battery Manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir A. Asif

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The demand for batteries for energy storage is growing with the rapid increase in photovoltaics (PV and wind energy installation as well as electric vehicle (EV, hybrid electric vehicle (HEV and plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV. Electrochemical batteries have emerged as the preferred choice for most of the consumer product applications. Cost reduction of batteries will accelerate the growth in all of these sectors. Lithium-ion (Li-ion and solid-state batteries are showing promise through their downward price and upward performance trends. We may achieve further performance improvement and cost reduction for Li-ion and solid-state batteries through reduction of the variation in physical and electrical properties. These properties can be improved and made uniform by considering the electrical model of batteries and adopting novel manufacturing approaches. Using quantum-photo effect, the incorporation of ultra-violet (UV assisted photo-thermal processing can reduce metal surface roughness. Using in-situ measurements, advanced process control (APC can help ensure uniformity among the constituent electrochemical cells. Industrial internet of things (IIoT can streamline the production flow. In this article, we have examined the issue of electrochemical battery manufacturing of Li-ion and solid-state type from cell-level to battery-level process variability, and proposed potential areas where improvements in the manufacturing process can be made. By incorporating these practices in the manufacturing process we expect reduced cost of energy management system, improved reliability and yield gain with the net saving of manufacturing cost being at least 20%.

  19. Negative Electrodes for Li-Ion Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinoshita, Kim; Zaghib, Karim

    2001-10-01

    Graphitized carbons have played a key role in the successful commercialization of Li-ion batteries. The physicochemical properties of carbon cover a wide range; therefore identifying the optimum active electrode material can be time consuming. The significant physical properties of negative electrodes for Li-ion batteries are summarized, and the relationship of these properties to their electrochemical performance in nonaqueous electrolytes, are discussed in this paper.

  20. SOLID STATE BATTERIES WITH CONDUCTING POLYMERS

    OpenAIRE

    Bénière , F.; Boils , D.; Cánepa , H.; Franco , J.; Le Corre , A.; Louboutin , J.

    1983-01-01

    The conducting polymers like (CH)x are very interesting materials for electrodes in electrochemical cells. We have combined such electrodes with solid electrolytes to build "all solid-state" batteries. The first prototypes using a silver anode and a silver conducting electrolyte have been working satisfactorily since two years. The performances have been tested with many batteries to study the electrical properties as well as the thermodynamical parameters. A number of cycles of charge-discha...

  1. The rechargeable aluminum-ion battery

    KAUST Repository

    Jayaprakash, N.

    2011-01-01

    We report a novel aluminium-ion rechargeable battery comprised of an electrolyte containing AlCl3 in the ionic liquid, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride, and a V2O5 nano-wire cathode against an aluminium metal anode. The battery delivered a discharge capacity of 305 mAh g-1 in the first cycle and 273 mAh g-1 after 20 cycles, with very stable electrochemical behaviour. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2011.

  2. Assessment of high-temperature battery systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sen, R K

    1989-02-01

    Three classes of high-temperature batteries are being developed internationally with transportation and stationary energy storage applications in mind: sodium/sulfur, lithium/metal sulfide, and sodium/metal chloride. Most attention is being given to the sodium/sulfur system. The Office of Energy Storage and Distribution (OESD) and the Office of Transportation Systems (OTS) of the US Department of Energy (DOE) are actively supporting the development of this battery system. It is anticipated that pilot-scale production facilities for sodium/sulfur batteries will be in operation in the next couple of years. The lithium/metal sulfide and the sodium/metal chloride systems are not receiving the same level of attention as the sodium/sulfur battery. Both of these systems are in an earlier stage of development than sodium/sulfur. OTS and OESD are supporting work on the lithium/iron sulfide battery in collaboration with the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI); the work is being carried out at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). The sodium/metal chloride battery, the newest member of the group, is being developed by a Consortium of South African and British companies. Very little DOE funds are presently allocated for research on this battery. The purpose of this assessment is to evaluate the present status of the three technologies and to identify for each technology a prioritized list of R and D issues. Finally, the assessment includes recommendations to DOE for a proposed high-temperature battery research and development program. 18 figs., 21 tabs.

  3. The Electric Vehicle Lithium Battery Monitoring System

    OpenAIRE

    Lei Lin; Yuankai Liu; Wang Ping; Fang Hong

    2013-01-01

    With the global increase in the number of vehicles, environmental protection and energy issues had become increasingly prominent. People paid more and more attention to the electric vehicle as the future direction of the vehicle, but because the battery technology was relatively backward, it had become the bottleneck in the development of electric vehicles. So in the existing conditions, a perfect battery Monitoring technology had become more and more important. This paper firstly analyzed th...

  4. Microbial battery for efficient energy recovery

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, Xing; Ye, Meng; Hsu, Po-Chun; Liu, Nian; Criddle, Craig S.; Cui, Yi

    2013-01-01

    This work introduces a microbial battery for recovery of energy from reservoirs of organic matter, such as wastewater. Microorganisms at an anode oxidize dissolved organic substances, releasing electrons to an external circuit, where power can be extracted. The electrons then enter a solid-state electrode that remains solid as electrons accumulate within it. The solid-state electrode is periodically removed from the battery, oxidized, and reinstalled for sustained power production. Molecular ...

  5. Esophageal button battery ingestion in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şencan, Arzu; Genişol, İncinur; Hoşgör, Münevver

    2017-07-01

    Button battery lodged in the esophagus carries a high risk of morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this study was to present cases of patients with esophageal button battery ingestion treated at our clinic and to emphasize the importance of early diagnosis and treatment. Records of patients admitted to our hospital for foreign body ingestion between January 2010 and May 2015 were retrospectively reviewed. Cases with button battery lodged in the esophagus were included in the study. Patient data regarding age, sex, length of time after ingestion until admission, presenting clinical symptoms, type and localization of the battery, management, and prognosis were analyzed. Among 1891 foreign body ingestions, 71 were localized in the esophagus, and 8 of those (11.2%) were cases of button battery ingestion. Mean age was 1.7 years. Admission was within 6 hours of ingestion in 5 cases, after 24 hours had elapsed in 2, and 1 month after ingestion in 1 case. All patients but 1 knew the history of ingestion. Prompt endoscopic removal was performed for all patients. Three patients developed esophageal stricture, which responded to dilatation. Early recognition and timely endoscopic removal is mandatory in esophageal button battery ingestion. It should be suspected in the differential diagnosis of patients with persistent respiratory and gastrointestinal symptoms.

  6. Recent advances in lithium-sulfur batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lin; Shaw, Leon L.

    2014-12-01

    Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries have attracted much attention lately because they have very high theoretical specific energy (2500 Wh kg-1), five times higher than that of the commercial LiCoO2/graphite batteries. As a result, they are strong contenders for next-generation energy storage in the areas of portable electronics, electric vehicles, and storage systems for renewable energy such as wind power and solar energy. However, poor cycling life and low capacity retention are main factors limiting their commercialization. To date, a large number of electrode and electrolyte materials to address these challenges have been investigated. In this review, we present the latest fundamental studies and technological development of various nanostructured cathode materials for Li-S batteries, including their preparation approaches, structure, morphology and battery performance. Furthermore, the development of other significant components of Li-S batteries including anodes, electrolytes, additives, binders and separators are also highlighted. Not only does the intention of our review article comprise the summary of recent advances in Li-S cells, but also we cover some of our proposals for engineering of Li-S cell configurations. These systematic discussion and proposed directions can enlighten ideas and offer avenues in the rational design of durable and high performance Li-S batteries in the near future.

  7. An Aqueous Ca-Ion Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gheytani, Saman; Liang, Yanliang; Wu, Feilong; Jing, Yan; Dong, Hui; Rao, Karun K; Chi, Xiaowei; Fang, Fang; Yao, Yan

    2017-12-01

    Multivalent-ion batteries are emerging as low-cost, high energy density, and safe alternatives to Li-ion batteries but are challenged by slow cation diffusion in electrode materials due to the high polarization strength of Mg- and Al-ions. In contrast, Ca-ion has a low polarization strength similar to that of Li-ion, therefore a Ca-ion battery will share the advantages while avoiding the kinetics issues related to multivalent batteries. However, there is no battery known that utilizes the Ca-ion chemistry due to the limited success in Ca-ion storage materials. Here, a safe and low-cost aqueous Ca-ion battery based on a highly reversible polyimide anode and a high-potential open framework copper hexacyanoferrate cathode is demonstrated. The prototype cell shows a stable capacity and high efficiency at both high and low current rates, with an 88% capacity retention and an average 99% coloumbic efficiency after cycling at 10C for 1000 cycles. The Ca-ion storage mechanism for both electrodes as well as the origin of the fast kinetics have been investigated. Additional comparison with a Mg-ion cell with identical electrodes reveals clear kinetics advantages for the Ca-ion system, which is explained by the smaller ionic radii and more facile desolvation of hydrated Ca-ions.

  8. Urine-activated paper batteries for biosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang Lee, Ki

    2005-09-01

    The first urine-activated laminated paper batteries have been demonstrated and reported in this paper. A simple and cheap fabrication process for the paper batteries has been developed which is compatible with the existing plastic laminating technologies or plastic molding technologies. In this battery, a magnesium (Mg) layer and copper chloride (CuCl) in the filter paper are used as the anode and the cathode, respectively. A stack consisting of a Mg layer, CuCl-doped filter paper and a copper (Cu) layer sandwiched between two plastic layers is laminated into the paper batteries by passing through the heating roller at 120 °C. The paper battery is tested and it can deliver a power greater than 1.5 mW. In addition, these urine-activated laminated paper batteries could be integrated with bioMEMS devices such as home-based health test kits providing a power source for the electronic circuit. A portion of this paper was presented at The 4th International Workshop on Micro and Nanotechnology for Power Generation and Energy Conversion Applications (PowerMEMS 2004), 28 30 November, 2004, Kyoto, Japan.

  9. Determination of battery stability with advanced diagnostics.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamb, Joshua [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Torres-Castro, Loraine [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Orendorff, Christopher [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Dufek, Eric [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Walker, Lee [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Ho, Chinh [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2017-07-01

    Lithium ion batteries for use in battery electric vehicles (BEVs) has seen considerable expansion over the last several years. It is expected that market share and the total number of BEVs will continue to increase over coming years and that there will be changes in the environmental and use conditions for BEV batteries. Specifically aging of the batteries and exposure to an increased number of crash conditions presents a distinct possibility that batteries may be in an unknown state posing danger to the operator, emergency response personnel and other support personnel. The present work expands on earlier efforts to explore the ability to rapidly monitor using impedance spectroscopy techniques and characterize the state of different battery systems during both typical operations and under abusive conditions. The work has found that it is possible to detect key changes in performance for strings of up to four cells in both series and parallel configurations for both typical and abusive response. As a method the sensitivity for detecting change is enhanced for series configurations. For parallel configurations distinct changes are more difficult to ascertain, but under abusive conditions and for key frequencies it is feasible to use current rapid impedance techniques to identify change. The work has also found it feasible to use rapid impedance as an evaluation method for underload conditions, especially for series strings of cells.

  10. Materials for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayner, Cary M; Zhao, Xin; Kung, Harold H

    2012-01-01

    The lithium-ion battery is the most promising battery candidate to power battery-electric vehicles. For these vehicles to be competitive with those powered by conventional internal combustion engines, significant improvements in battery performance are needed, especially in the energy density and power delivery capabilities. Recent discoveries and advances in the development of electrode materials to improve battery performance are summarized. Promising substitutes for graphite as the anode material include silicon, tin, germanium, their alloys, and various metal oxides that have much higher theoretical storage capacities and operate at slightly higher and safer potentials. Designs that attempt to accommodate strain owing to volumetric changes upon lithiation and delithiation are presented. All known cathode materials have storage capacities inferior to those of anode materials. In addition to variations on known transition metal oxides and phosphates, other potential materials, such as metal fluorides, are discussed as well as the effects of particle size and electrode architecture. New electrolyte systems and additives as well as their effects on battery performance, especially with regard to safety, are described.

  11. Management of deep brain stimulator battery failure: battery estimators, charge density, and importance of clinical symptoms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaihan Fakhar

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We aimed in this investigation to study deep brain stimulation (DBS battery drain with special attention directed toward patient symptoms prior to and following battery replacement. BACKGROUND: Previously our group developed web-based calculators and smart phone applications to estimate DBS battery life (http://mdc.mbi.ufl.edu/surgery/dbs-battery-estimator. METHODS: A cohort of 320 patients undergoing DBS battery replacement from 2002-2012 were included in an IRB approved study. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 20.0 (IBM, Armonk, NY. RESULTS: The mean charge density for treatment of Parkinson's disease was 7.2 µC/cm(2/phase (SD = 3.82, for dystonia was 17.5 µC/cm(2/phase (SD = 8.53, for essential tremor was 8.3 µC/cm(2/phase (SD = 4.85, and for OCD was 18.0 µC/cm(2/phase (SD = 4.35. There was a significant relationship between charge density and battery life (r = -.59, p<.001, as well as total power and battery life (r = -.64, p<.001. The UF estimator (r = .67, p<.001 and the Medtronic helpline (r = .74, p<.001 predictions of battery life were significantly positively associated with actual battery life. Battery status indicators on Soletra and Kinetra were poor predictors of battery life. In 38 cases, the symptoms improved following a battery change, suggesting that the neurostimulator was likely responsible for symptom worsening. For these cases, both the UF estimator and the Medtronic helpline were significantly correlated with battery life (r = .65 and r = .70, respectively, both p<.001. CONCLUSIONS: Battery estimations, charge density, total power and clinical symptoms were important factors. The observation of clinical worsening that was rescued following neurostimulator replacement reinforces the notion that changes in clinical symptoms can be associated with battery drain.

  12. VRLA automotive batteries for stop&go and dual battery systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, G. J.; Calasanzio, D.; Aliberti, R.

    The electrical power requirements for vehicles are continuing to increase and evolve. A substantial amount of effort has been directed towards the development of 36/42 V systems as a route to higher power with reduced current levels but high implementation costs have resulted in the introduction of these systems becoming deferred. In the interim, however, alternator power outputs at 14 V are being increased substantially and at the same time the requirements for batteries are becoming more intensive. In particular, stop&go systems and wire-based vehicle systems are resulting in new demands. For stop&go, the engine is stopped each time the vehicle comes to rest and is restarted when the accelerator is pressed again. This results in an onerous duty cycle with many shallow discharge cycles. Flooded lead-acid batteries cannot meet this duty cycle and valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries are needed to meet the demands that are applied. For wire-based systems, such as brake-by-wire or steer-by-wire, electrical power has become more critical and although the alternator and battery provide double redundancy, triple redundancy with a small reserve battery is specified. In this case, a small VRLA battery can be used and is optimised for standby service rather than for repeated discharges. The background to these applications is considered and test results under simulated operating conditions are discussed. Good performance can be obtained in batteries adapted for both applications. Battery management is also critical for both applications: in stop&go service, the state-of-charge (SOC) and state-of-health (SOH) need to be monitored to ensure that the vehicle can be restarted; for reserve or back-up batteries, the SOC and SOH are monitored to verify that the battery is always capable of carrying out the duty cycle if required. Practical methods of battery condition monitoring will be described.

  13. Application of nonwovens in batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, H.G. [Freudenberg Nonwovens, Weinheim (Germany)

    1995-07-01

    Nonwovens are textile products that are manufactured directly from fibers. According to ISO 9092: 1988 nonwovens are defined as a manufactured sheet, web or batt of directionally or randomly oriented fibers, bonded by friction, and/or cohesion, and/or adhesion excluding paper and products which are woven, tufted, stitchbonded incorporating binding yarns or filaments, or felted by wetmilling whether or not additionally needled. The fibers may be of natural or man-made origin. They may be staple or continuous filaments or be formed in situ. The production of nonwovens can be described as taking place in three stages, although modern technology allows an overlapping of the stages. The three stages are: web formation, web bonding, and finishing treatments. The opportunity to combine different raw materials and different techniques accounts for the diversity of the industry and its products. This diversity is enhanced by the ability to engineer nonwovens to have specific properties and to perform specific tasks. This paper describes the production and applications of nonwovens in primary and secondary electric batteries.

  14. Lithium batteries for electric road vehicle applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Bo; Hallgren, B.; Johansson, Arne; Selaanger, P. [Catella Generics, Kista (Sweden)

    1995-12-31

    Lithium is one of the most promising negative electrode materials to be used for the manufacturing of batteries. It is the most electronegative material in the table of standard potentials and its low weight will facilitate a high gravimetric coulombic density. Theoretically, as high values as 6 kWh/kg could be reached for lithium based batteries. The aim of this study has been to make an inventory of what is internationally known about lithium batteries suitable for electric vehicle applications. It is representative for the development status by the summer of 1995. Both high and ambient temperature lithium batteries are described in the study even if the analysis is concentrated on the latter. Ambient temperature systems has gathered the major interest, especially from manufacturers in the `3Cs` market segment (Consumer electronics, Communications and Computers). There is no doubt, a bright future for lithium rechargeable batteries. Depending on the ambition of a national research programme, one can await the ongoing development of batteries for the 3Cs market segment or take the lead in a near-term or advanced system R and D for EV batteries. In the zero ambition EV battery programme, we recommend allocation of funds to follow the development within the 3Cs sector. The corresponding funding level is 1-2 MSEK/year granted to a stable receiver. In a low ambition EV programme, we recommend to keep a few groups active in the front-line of specific research areas. The purpose is to keep a link for communication open to the surrounding battery world. The cost level is 4-6 MSEK per year continually. In a high ambition programme we recommend the merging of Swedish resources with international EV battery R and D programmes, e.g. the EUCAR project. The research team engaged should be able to contribute to the progress of the overall project. The cost for the high ambition programme is estimated at the level 15-20 MSEK per year continually. 47 refs, 17 figs, 16 tabs

  15. Standby battery requirements for telecommunications power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    May, G.J. [The Focus Partnership, 126 Main Street, Swithland, Loughborough, Leics LE12 8TJ (United Kingdom)

    2006-08-25

    The requirements for standby power for telecommunications are changing as the network moves from conventional systems to Internet Protocol (IP) telephony. These new systems require higher power levels closer to the user but the level of availability and reliability cannot be compromised if the network is to provide service in the event of a failure of the public utility. Many parts of these new networks are ac rather than dc powered with UPS systems for back-up power. These generally have lower levels of reliability than dc systems and the network needs to be designed such that overall reliability is not reduced through appropriate levels of redundancy. Mobile networks have different power requirements. Where there is a high density of nodes, continuity of service can be reasonably assured with short autonomy times. Furthermore, there is generally no requirement that these networks are the provider of last resort and therefore, specifications for continuity of power are directed towards revenue protection and overall reliability targets. As a result of these changes, battery requirements for reserve power are evolving. Shorter autonomy times are specified for parts of the network although a large part will continue to need support for hours rather minutes. Operational temperatures are increasing and battery solutions that provide longer life in extreme conditions are becoming important. Different battery technologies will be discussed in the context of these requirements. Conventional large flooded lead/acid cells both with pasted and tubular plates are used in larger central office applications but the majority of requirements are met with valve-regulated lead/acid (VRLA) batteries. The different types of VRLA battery will be described and their suitability for various applications outlined. New developments in battery construction and battery materials have improved both performance and reliability in recent years. Alternative technologies are also being proposed

  16. Multicell LiSOCl sub 2 reserve battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, A. R.; Garoutte, K. F.

    Recent development work on reverse lithium thionyl chloride (RLTC) batteries at SNLA and Honeywell has included safety and performance evaluations. The RLTC battery is being considered for applications that were traditionally fulfilled by state-of-the-art thermal batteries and reserve silver oxide zinc electrochemical systems. These applications typically demand a reserve battery having a rapid voltage rise, high reliability, operational safety and useful active lifetime ranging from minutes to hours. The RLTC work reported here was directed toward a power battery capable of meeting or exceeding the design requirements. Performance and safety test data indicate that the RLTC battery may be better suited than thermal batteries for some long-life applications. A comparison between Li(Si)/FeS2 thermal battery and an RLTC battery, both of which were designed to fulfill the requirements is presented.

  17. Sealed metal-hydride batteries for aerospace applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, Dwaine; Wright, R. D.

    Nickel and silver-metal hydride batteries are being developed for aerospace applications by Eagle-Picher. Metal hydride batteries offer a number of advantages over other aerospace battery systems. Nickel-metal hydride batteries have twice the gravimetric energy density of nickel-cadmium batteries and twice the volumetric energy density of nickel-hydrogen batteries. Silver-metal hydride batteries have the potential of three times the energy density of nickel-metal hydride. Aerospace metal hydride batteries are hermetically sealed, operate at low pressure and are prismatic in geometry. They exhibit excellent overcharge and overdischarge capability. The objective of current programs at Eagle-Picher is to develop high energy density, long cycle life metal-hydride batteries for the aerospace market and to establish a testing database to support future applications.

  18. Primary and secondary battery consumption trends in Sweden 1996–2013: Method development and detailed accounting by battery type

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patrício, João, E-mail: joao.patricio@chalmers.se [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, 412 96 Gothenburg (Sweden); Kalmykova, Yuliya; Berg, Per E.O.; Rosado, Leonardo [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, 412 96 Gothenburg (Sweden); Åberg, Helena [The Faculty of Education, University of Gothenburg, 40530 Gothenburg (Sweden)

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • Developed MFA method was validated by the national statistics. • Exponential increase of EEE sales leads to increase in integrated battery consumption. • Digital convergence is likely to be a cause for primary batteries consumption decline. • Factors for estimation of integrated batteries in EE are provided. • Sweden reached the collection rates defined by European Union. - Abstract: In this article, a new method based on Material Flow Accounting is proposed to study detailed material flows in battery consumption that can be replicated for other countries. The method uses regularly available statistics on import, industrial production and export of batteries and battery-containing electric and electronic equipment (EEE). To promote method use by other scholars with no access to such data, several empirically results and their trends over time, for different types of batteries occurrence among the EEE types are provided. The information provided by the method can be used to: identify drivers of battery consumption; study the dynamic behavior of battery flows – due to technology development, policies, consumers behavior and infrastructures. The method is exemplified by the study of battery flows in Sweden for years 1996–2013. The batteries were accounted, both in units and weight, as primary and secondary batteries; loose and integrated; by electrochemical composition and share of battery use between different types of EEE. Results show that, despite a fivefold increase in the consumption of rechargeable batteries, they account for only about 14% of total use of portable batteries. Recent increase in digital convergence has resulted in a sharp decline in the consumption of primary batteries, which has now stabilized at a fairly low level. Conversely, the consumption of integrated batteries has increased sharply. In 2013, 61% of the total weight of batteries sold in Sweden was collected, and for the particular case of alkaline manganese

  19. Primary and secondary battery consumption trends in Sweden 1996–2013: Method development and detailed accounting by battery type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patrício, João; Kalmykova, Yuliya; Berg, Per E.O.; Rosado, Leonardo; Åberg, Helena

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Developed MFA method was validated by the national statistics. • Exponential increase of EEE sales leads to increase in integrated battery consumption. • Digital convergence is likely to be a cause for primary batteries consumption decline. • Factors for estimation of integrated batteries in EE are provided. • Sweden reached the collection rates defined by European Union. - Abstract: In this article, a new method based on Material Flow Accounting is proposed to study detailed material flows in battery consumption that can be replicated for other countries. The method uses regularly available statistics on import, industrial production and export of batteries and battery-containing electric and electronic equipment (EEE). To promote method use by other scholars with no access to such data, several empirically results and their trends over time, for different types of batteries occurrence among the EEE types are provided. The information provided by the method can be used to: identify drivers of battery consumption; study the dynamic behavior of battery flows – due to technology development, policies, consumers behavior and infrastructures. The method is exemplified by the study of battery flows in Sweden for years 1996–2013. The batteries were accounted, both in units and weight, as primary and secondary batteries; loose and integrated; by electrochemical composition and share of battery use between different types of EEE. Results show that, despite a fivefold increase in the consumption of rechargeable batteries, they account for only about 14% of total use of portable batteries. Recent increase in digital convergence has resulted in a sharp decline in the consumption of primary batteries, which has now stabilized at a fairly low level. Conversely, the consumption of integrated batteries has increased sharply. In 2013, 61% of the total weight of batteries sold in Sweden was collected, and for the particular case of alkaline manganese

  20. Second Life for Electric Vehicle Batteries: Answering Questions on Battery Degradation and Value

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neubauer, J. S.; Wood, E.; Pesaran, A.

    2015-05-04

    Battery second use – putting used plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) batteries into secondary service following their automotive tenure – has been proposed as a means to decrease the cost of PEVs while providing low cost energy storage to other fields (e.g. electric utility markets). To understand the value of used automotive batteries, however, we must first answer several key questions related to National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has developed a methodology and the requisite tools to answer these questions, including NREL’s Battery Lifetime Simulation Tool (BLAST). Herein we introduce these methods and tools, and demonstrate their application. We have found that capacity fade from automotive use has a much larger impact on second use value than resistance growth. Where capacity loss is driven by calendar effects more than cycling effects, average battery temperature during automotive service – which is often driven by climate – is found to be the single factor with the largest effect on remaining value. Installing hardware and software capabilities onboard the vehicle that can both infer remaining battery capacity from in-situ measurements, as well as track average battery temperature over time, will thereby facilitate the second use of automotive batteries.

  1. Radioluminescent nuclear batteries with different phosphor layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Liang; Tang, Xiao-Bin; Xu, Zhi-Heng; Liu, Yun-Peng; Chen, Da

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We present and test the electrical properties of the nuclear battery. • The best thickness range for ZnS:Cu phosphor layer is 12–14 mg cm −2 for 147 Pm radioisotope. • The best thickness range for Y 2 O 2 S:Eu phosphor layer is 17–21 mg cm −2147 Pm radioisotope. • The battery with ZnS:Cu phosphor layer can provide higher energy conversion efficiency. • The mechanism affecting the nuclear battery output performance is revealed. - Abstract: A radioluminescent nuclear battery based on the beta radioluminescence of phosphors is presented, and which consists of 147 Pm radioisotope, phosphor layers, and GaAs photovoltaic cell. ZnS:Cu and Y 2 O 2 S:Eu phosphor layers for various thickness were fabricated. To investigate the effect of phosphor layer parameters on the battery, the electrical properties were measured. Results indicate that the optimal thickness ranges for the ZnS:Cu and Y 2 O 2 S:Eu phosphor layers are 12 mg cm −2 to 14 mg cm −2 and 17 mg cm −2 to 21 mg cm −2 , respectively. ZnS:Cu phosphor layer exhibits higher fluorescence efficiency compared with the Y 2 O 2 S:Eu phosphor layer. Its spectrum properly matches the spectral response of GaAs photovoltaic cell. As a result, the battery with ZnS:Cu phosphor layer indicates higher energy conversion efficiency than that with Y 2 O 2 S:Eu phosphor layer. Additionally, the mechanism of the phosphor layer parameters that influence the output performance of the battery is discussed through the Monte Carlo method and transmissivity test

  2. Thermal characteristics of Lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser, Dan

    2004-01-01

    Lithium-ion batteries have a very promising future for space applications. Currently they are being used on a few GEO satellites, and were used on the two recent Mars rovers Spirit and Opportunity. There are still problem that exist that need to be addressed before these batteries can fully take flight. One of the problems is that the cycle life of these batteries needs to be increased. battery. Research is being focused on the chemistry of the materials inside the battery. This includes the anode, cathode, and the cell electrolyte solution. These components can undergo unwanted chemical reactions inside the cell that deteriorate the materials of the battery. During discharge/ charge cycles there is heat dissipated in the cell, and the battery heats up and its temperature increases. An increase in temperature can speed up any unwanted reactions in the cell. Exothermic reactions cause the temperature to increase; therefore increasing the reaction rate will cause the increase of the temperature inside the cell to occur at a faster rate. If the temperature gets too high thermal runaway will occur, and the cell can explode. The material that separates the electrode from the electrolyte is a non-conducting polymer. At high temperatures the separator will melt and the battery will be destroyed. The separator also contains small pores that allow lithium ions to diffuse through during charge and discharge. High temperatures can cause these pores to close up, permanently damaging the cell. My job at NASA Glenn research center this summer will be to perform thermal characterization tests on an 18650 type lithium-ion battery. High temperatures cause the chemicals inside lithium ion batteries to spontaneously react with each other. My task is to conduct experiments to determine the temperature that the reaction takes place at, what components in the cell are reacting and the mechanism of the reaction. The experiments will be conducted using an accelerating rate calorimeter

  3. Batteries: from alkaline to zinc-air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dondelinger, Robert M

    2004-01-01

    There is no perfect disposable battery--one that will sit on the shelf for 20 years, then continually provide unlimited current, at a completely constant voltage until exhausted, without producing heat. There is no perfect rechargeable battery--one with all of the above characteristics and will also withstand an infinite overcharge while providing an equally infinite cycle life. There are only compromises. Every battery selection is a compromise between the ideally required characteristics, the advantages, and the limitations of each battery type. General selection of a battery type to power a medical device is largely outside the purview of the biomed. Initially, these are engineering decisions made at the time of medical equipment design and are intended to be followed in perpetuity. However, since newer cell types evolve and the manufacturer's literature is fixed at the time of printing, some intelligent substitutions may be made as long as the biomed understands the characteristics of both the recommended cell and the replacement cell. For example, when the manufacturer recommends alkaline, it is usually because of the almost constant voltage it produces under the devices' design load. Over time, other battery types may be developed that will meet the intent of the manufacturer, at a lower cost, providing longer operational life, at a lower environmental cost, or with a combination of these advantages. In the Obstetrical Doppler cited at the beginning of this article, the user had put in carbon-zinc cells, and the biomed had unknowingly replaced them with carbonzinc cells. If the alkaline cells recommended by the manufacturer had been used, there would have been the proper output voltage at the battery terminals when the [table: see text] cells were at their half-life. Instead, the device refused to operate since the battery voltage was below presumed design voltage. While battery-type substitutions may be easily and relatively successfully made in disposable

  4. Simulating and Testing a DC-DC Half-Bridge SLR Converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    proliferated due to the recent advances in electric cars. Yilmaz and Krein’s overview of battery charger topologies for electric and hybrid vehicles ...7] M. Yilmaz and P. T. Krein, “Review of Battery Charger Topologies, Charging Power Levels, and Infrastructure for Plug-In Electric and Hybrid...thesis meets the needs of an efficient, sensor integrated, and galvanically isolated trickle charger . The SLR DC- DC converter was successfully

  5. Method and apparatus for assembling battery components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabatino, A.; Romanchuk, R. N.; Schaumburg, E. G.; Stanefski, E. F.

    1985-04-09

    A method and apparatus for assembling battery components including a battery case having a plurality of divider walls defining a plurality of side-by-side cell spaces opening through a top portion of the case. A plurality of intermediate cell elements are provided in the cell spaces intermediate the end cell spaces and end cell elements having terminal post portions are inserted in the end cell spaces. The apparatus effects an automatic pickup of the cell elements at one or more insert stations from delivery conveyors suitably positions the picked-up cell elements for proper polarity relationship in the inserted disposition within the battery case, and after moving the picked-up cell elements to overlying relationship with the battery case, inserts the cell elements automatically into the proper cell spaces. Control of delivery of the battery cases to the respective insert positions is effected and coordinated with the delivery of the necessary cell elements from apparatus for preforming the cell elements. Apparatus is provided for accurately spacing the end cell elements upon delivery thereof to the pickup position. The pickup structure includes finger devices arranged to engage plate connecting straps provided on the cell elements in effecting positive pickup, transfer and insertion thereof.

  6. Energy storage mechanism for hybrid battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jun; Chernova, Natasha; Omenya, Fredrick; Rastogi, Alok; Whittingham, Stanley

    Many devices require both high energy and high power density, and lithium ion batteries and super-capacitors cannot separately always meet the requirements. In this work, we study the operating mechanism of a hybrid battery, which combines the best properties of batteries and supercapacitors. We analyze the lithium ion storage mechanism using XRD, Raman, TEM and electrochemical measurements. The model system studied combines a non-intercalating carbon black anode with a LiFePO4 cathode. At 50% state of charge, XRD data for LiFePO4 cathode material shows a mixture of LiFePO4 and FePO4, indicating battery reaction. On the other hand, the activated carbon remains structurally unchanged. We also discuss the impact of a range of activated carbon/ LiFePO4 (AC/LFP) ratios. From cyclic voltammetry and charge/discharge results, the system exhibits battery-domain characteristics when the AC/ LFP ratio is below one, but showing more supercapacitor-domain traits when the ratio is higher. Besides, the systems have higher rate capacity at AC/LFP ratio around four as compared to one. This research is supported by NSF under Award Number 1318202.

  7. Wearable textile battery rechargeable by solar energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yong-Hee; Kim, Joo-Seong; Noh, Jonghyeon; Lee, Inhwa; Kim, Hyeong Jun; Choi, Sunghun; Seo, Jeongmin; Jeon, Seokwoo; Kim, Taek-Soo; Lee, Jung-Yong; Choi, Jang Wook

    2013-01-01

    Wearable electronics represent a significant paradigm shift in consumer electronics since they eliminate the necessity for separate carriage of devices. In particular, integration of flexible electronic devices with clothes, glasses, watches, and skin will bring new opportunities beyond what can be imagined by current inflexible counterparts. Although considerable progresses have been seen for wearable electronics, lithium rechargeable batteries, the power sources of the devices, do not keep pace with such progresses due to tenuous mechanical stabilities, causing them to remain as the limiting elements in the entire technology. Herein, we revisit the key components of the battery (current collector, binder, and separator) and replace them with the materials that support robust mechanical endurance of the battery. The final full-cells in the forms of clothes and watchstraps exhibited comparable electrochemical performance to those of conventional metal foil-based cells even under severe folding-unfolding motions simulating actual wearing conditions. Furthermore, the wearable textile battery was integrated with flexible and lightweight solar cells on the battery pouch to enable convenient solar-charging capabilities.

  8. Fibrous zinc anodes for high power batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X. Gregory

    This paper introduces newly developed solid zinc anodes using fibrous material for high power applications in alkaline and large size zinc-air battery systems. The improved performance of the anodes in these two battery systems is demonstrated. The possibilities for control of electrode porosity and for anode/battery design using fibrous materials are discussed in light of experimental data. Because of its mechanical integrity and connectivity, the fibrous solid anode has good electrical conductivity, mechanical stability, and design flexibility for controlling mass distribution, porosity and effective surface area. Experimental data indicated that alkaline cells made of such anodes can have a larger capacity at high discharging currents than commercially available cells. It showed even greater improvement over commercial cells with a non-conventional cell design. Large capacity anodes for a zinc-air battery have also been made and have shown excellent material utilization at various discharge rates. The zinc-air battery was used to power an electric bicycle and demonstrated good results.

  9. Nickel-iron battery system safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltat, R. C.

    1984-06-01

    Eagle-Picher Industries conducted a literature search and experimental tests to characterize the generated flow rates of gaseous hydrogen (GH2) and gaseous oxygen (GO2) from an electrical vehicle (EV) nickel iron battery system. The resulting gassing rates were used to experimentally evaluate the flame quenching capabilities of several candidate devices to prevent the propagation of flame within batteries having central watering/venting systems. The battery generated hydrogen (GH2) and oxygen (GO2) gasses were measured for a complete charge and discharge cycle. The data correlates well with accepted theory during strong overcharge conditions indicating that the measurements are valid for other portions of the cycle. Tests have confirmed that the gas mixture in the cells is always flammable regardless of the battery status. Research of flame arrestor literature yielded little information regarding their operation with hydrogen-oxygen mixtures. It was indicated that a conventional flame arrestor would not be effective over the broad spectrum of gassing conditions presented by a nickel iron battery.

  10. Advanced nickel-hydrogen spacecraft battery development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, Dwaine K.; Fox, Chris L.; Standlee, D. J.; Grindstaff, B. K.

    1994-02-01

    Eagle-Picher currently has several advanced nickel-hydrogen (NiH2) cell component and battery designs under development including common pressure vessel (CPV), single pressure vessel (SPV), and dependent pressure vessel (DPV) designs. A CPV NiH2 battery, utilizing low-cost 64 mm (2.5 in.) cell diameter technology, has been designed and built for multiple smallsat programs, including the TUBSAT B spacecraft which is currently scheduled (24 Nov. 93) for launch aboard a Russian Proton rocket. An advanced 90 mm (3.5 in.) NiH2 cell design is currently being manufactured for the Space Station Freedom program. Prototype 254 mm (10 in.) diameter SPV batteries are currently under construction and initial boilerplate testing has shown excellent results. NiH2 cycle life testing is being continued at Eagle-Picher and IPV cells have currently completed more than 89,000 accelerated LEO cycles at 15% DOD, 49,000 real-time LEO cycles at 30 percent DOD, 37,800 cycles under a real-time LEO profile, 30 eclipse seasons in accelerated GEO, and 6 eclipse seasons in real-time GEO testing at 75 percent DOD maximum. Nickel-metal hydride battery development is continuing for both aerospace and electric vehicle applications. Eagle-Picher has also developed an extensive range of battery evaluation, test, and analysis (BETA) measurement and control equipment and software, based on Hewlett-Packard computerized data acquisition/control hardware.

  11. Advancement Of Tritium Powered Betavoltaic Battery Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staack, G. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Gaillard, J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hitchcock, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Peters, B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Colon-Mercado, H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Teprovich, J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Coughlin, J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Neikirk, K. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Fisher, C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-10-14

    Due to their decades-long service life and reliable power output under extreme conditions, betavoltaic batteries offer distinct advantages over traditional chemical batteries, especially in applications where frequent battery replacement is hazardous, or cost prohibitive. Although many beta emitting isotopes exist, tritium is considered ideal in betavoltaic applications for several reasons: 1) it is a “pure” beta emitter, 2) the beta is not energetic enough to damage the semiconductor, 3) it has a moderately long half-life, and 4) it is readily available. Unfortunately, the widespread application of tritium powered betavoltaics is limited, in part, by their low power output. This research targets improving the power output of betavoltaics by increasing the flux of beta particles to the energy conversion device (the p-n junction) through the use of low Z nanostructured tritium trapping materials.

  12. Renewable energies look for mega-batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michaut, Cecile

    2013-01-01

    As the development of wind and photovoltaic energy raises the problem of energy storage because of the intermittent character of these both energies, this article proposes an overview of trends and projects for large scale energy storage. It notably evokes the liquid metal battery project which is expected to be experimented in 2014, and should be able to store 2 MWh for 500 kW. Its operation principle is described. It is inspired by a technique used in aluminium production. It does not need any expensive and fragile separation membrane, it is modular, and it could last about ten years. Two other technologies are then evoked: a sodium-sulphur battery manufactured by NGK in Japan for massive storage, and the lithium-ion battery which is already present in most of electric vehicles. For this last one, energy storage could be an opportunity for manufacturer as the electric vehicle market is not very dynamic

  13. Enhancing the Charging Power of Quantum Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campaioli, Francesco; Pollock, Felix A; Binder, Felix C; Céleri, Lucas; Goold, John; Vinjanampathy, Sai; Modi, Kavan

    2017-04-14

    Can collective quantum effects make a difference in a meaningful thermodynamic operation? Focusing on energy storage and batteries, we demonstrate that quantum mechanics can lead to an enhancement in the amount of work deposited per unit time, i.e., the charging power, when N batteries are charged collectively. We first derive analytic upper bounds for the collective quantum advantage in charging power for two choices of constraints on the charging Hamiltonian. We then demonstrate that even in the absence of quantum entanglement this advantage can be extensive. For our main result, we provide an upper bound to the achievable quantum advantage when the interaction order is restricted; i.e., at most k batteries are interacting. This constitutes a fundamental limit on the advantage offered by quantum technologies over their classical counterparts.

  14. Synthesis of battery grade reduced silver powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qadeer, R.; Hameed, M.; Ikram, S.; Munir, A.

    2002-01-01

    Process for production of battery grade reduced silver powder, an active positive material for zinc-silver oxide batteries, having specific characteristics has been optimized and the synthesized reduced silver powder was characterized. Results reveal that the values of bulk density (1.25 0.1 g/cm3) and activity (73.27 %) of synthesized reduced silver powder lies within the recommended range for use as battery material. It has purity ≥ 98% and contains Fe and Cu as traces in the concentration range of 30 5 ppm and 15 7 ppm respectively. Others determined values of surface and pores parameters are: surface area 2.6 .4 m2/g: pore volume 3.10 cm3/g: pore diameter 0.043 mu m and porosity 20%. XRD studies reveal that reduced silver powder has a cubic structure. (author)

  15. Metal-air battery research and development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrin, E.; Cooper, J. F.

    1982-05-01

    This report summarizes the activities of the Metal-air Battery Program during the calendar year 1981. The principal objective is to develop a refuelable battery as an automotive energy source for general-purpose electric vehicles and to conduct engineering demonstrations of its ability to provide vehicles with the range, acceleration, and rapid refueling capability of current internal-combustion-engine automobiles. The second objective is to develop an electrically-rechargeable battery for specific-mission electric vehicles, such as commuter vehicles, that can provide low-cost transportation. The development progression is to: (1) develop a mechanically rechargeable aluminum-air power cell using model electrodes, (2) develop cost-effective anode and cathode materials and structures as required to achieve reliability and efficiency goals, and to establish the economic competitiveness of this technology, and (3) develop and integrated propulsion system utilizing the power cell.

  16. Battery Management System Hardware Concepts: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Lelie

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the hardware aspects of battery management systems (BMS for electric vehicle and stationary applications. The purpose is giving an overview on existing concepts in state-of-the-art systems and enabling the reader to estimate what has to be considered when designing a BMS for a given application. After a short analysis of general requirements, several possible topologies for battery packs and their consequences for the BMS’ complexity are examined. Four battery packs that were taken from commercially available electric vehicles are shown as examples. Later, implementation aspects regarding measurement of needed physical variables (voltage, current, temperature, etc. are discussed, as well as balancing issues and strategies. Finally, safety considerations and reliability aspects are investigated.

  17. Porous graphene nanocages for battery applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amine, Khalil; Lu, Jun; Du, Peng; Wen, Jianguo; Curtiss, Larry A.

    2017-03-07

    An active material composition includes a porous graphene nanocage and a source material. The source material may be a sulfur material. The source material may be an anodic material. A lithium-sulfur battery is provided that includes a cathode, an anode, a lithium salt, and an electrolyte, where the cathode of the lithium-sulfur battery includes a porous graphene nanocage and a sulfur material and at least a portion of the sulfur material is entrapped within the porous graphene nanocage. Also provided is a lithium-air battery that includes a cathode, an anode, a lithium salt, and an electrolyte, where the cathode includes a porous graphene nanocage and where the cathode may be free of a cathodic metal catalyst.

  18. Lithium-Thionyl Chloride Batteries for the Mars Pathfinder Microrover

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deligiannis, F.; Frank, H.; Staniewicz, R.J.; Willson, J. [SAFT America, Inc., Cockeysville, MD (United States)

    1996-02-01

    A discussion of the power requirements for the Mars Pathfinder Mission is given. Topics include: battery requirements; cell design; battery design; test descriptions and results. A summary of the results is also included.

  19. Lithium-Thionyl Chloride Batteries for the Mars Pathfinder Microrover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deligiannis, Frank; Frank, Harvey; Staniewicz, R. J.; Willson, John

    1996-01-01

    A discussion of the power requirements for the Mars Pathfinder Mission is given. Topics include: battery requirements; cell design; battery design; test descriptions and results. A summary of the results is also included.

  20. Analysis of reaction and transport processes in zinc air batteries

    CERN Document Server

    Schröder, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    This book contains a novel combination of experimental and model-based investigations, elucidating the complex processes inside zinc air batteries. The work presented helps to answer which battery composition and which air-composition should be adjusted to maintain stable and efficient charge/discharge cycling. In detail, electrochemical investigations and X-ray transmission tomography are applied on button cell zinc air batteries and in-house set-ups. Moreover, model-based investigations of the battery anode and the impact of relative humidity, active operation, carbon dioxide and oxygen on zinc air battery operation are presented. The techniques used in this work complement each other well and yield an unprecedented understanding of zinc air batteries. The methods applied are adaptable and can potentially be applied to gain further understanding of other metal air batteries. Contents Introduction on Zinc Air Batteries Characterizing Reaction and Transport Processes Identifying Factors for Long-Term Stable O...

  1. Exploring the Model Design Space for Battery Health Management

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Battery Health Management (BHM) is a core enabling technology for the success and widespread adoption of the emerging electric vehicles of today. Although battery...

  2. Minority Institution ARO Fuel Cell/Battery Manufacturing Research Hub

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Selman, J

    2001-01-01

    ...) high-energy rechargeable battery research concentrated on Li-ion batteries; (3) minority outreach to give undergraduate minority students hands-on experience in electrochemical energy conversion technology and attract them to graduate studies...

  3. Safety via Thermal Shutdown for Space Rated Batteries, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Li-ion battery safety has inspired many safety features from CID, to safety valves. However, none of the current features protect a battery from internal...

  4. Battery cycling and calendar aging: year one testing results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    This report is meant to provide an update on the ongoing battery testing performed by the Hawaii Natural Energy Institute to evaluate Electric Vehicle (EV) battery durability and reliability under electric utility grid operations. Commercial EV batte...

  5. 75 FR 1302 - Hazardous Materials: Transportation of Lithium Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-11

    ... in medical devices, computer memory and as replaceable batteries (AA and AAA size) suitable for... materials is sound and can be used to effectively mitigate the risk posed by lithium batteries in air...

  6. Use of lithium-ion batteries in electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, B.; Patterson, D.; Camilleri, S.

    An account is given of the lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery pack used in the Northern Territory University's solar car, Fuji Xerox Desert Rose, which competed in the 1999 World Solar Challenge (WSC). The reasons for the choice of Li-ion batteries over silver-zinc batteries are outlined, and the construction techniques used, the management of the batteries, and the battery protection boards are described. Data from both pre-race trialling and race telemetry, and an analysis of both the coulombic and the energy efficiencies of the battery are presented. It is concluded that Li-ion batteries show a real advantage over other commercially available batteries for traction applications of this kind.

  7. [European Portuguese EARS test battery adaptation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Marisa; Ramos, Daniela; Oliveira, Graça; Alves, Helena; Anderson, Ilona; Magalhães, Isabel; Martins, Jorge H; Simões, Margarida; Ferreira, Raquel; Fonseca, Rita; Andrade, Susana; Silva, Luís; Ribeiro, Carlos; Ferreira, Pedro Lopes

    2014-01-01

    The use of adequate assessment tools in health care is crucial for the management of care. The lack of specific tools in Portugal for assessing the performance of children who use cochlear implants motivated the translation and adaptation of the EARS (Evaluation of Auditory Responses to Speech) test battery into European Portuguese. This test battery is today one of the most commonly used by (re)habilitation teams of deaf children who use cochlear implants worldwide. The goal to be achieved with the validation of EARS was to provide (re)habilitation teams an instrument that enables: (i) monitoring the progress of individual (re)habilitation, (ii) managing a (re)habilitation program according to objective results, comparable between different (re)habilitation teams, (iii) obtaining data that can be compared with the results of international teams, and (iv) improving engagement and motivation of the family and other professionals from local teams. For the test battery translation and adaptation process, the adopted procedures were the following: (i) translation of the English version into European Portuguese by a professional translator, (ii) revision of the translation performed by an expert panel, including doctors, speech-language pathologists and audiologists, (iii) adaptation of the test stimuli by the team's speechlanguage pathologist, and (iv) further review by the expert panel. For each of the tests that belong to the EARS battery, the introduced adaptations and adjustments are presented, combining the characteristics and objectives of the original tests with the linguistic and cultural specificities of the Portuguese population. The difficulties that have been encountered during the translation and adaptation process and the adopted solutions are discussed. Comparisons are made with other versions of the EARS battery. We defend that the translation and the adaptation process followed for the EARS test battery into European Portuguese was correctly conducted

  8. Electronic control of a plutonium extraction battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degryse, M.

    1967-03-01

    The various aspects of the measurement of plutonium retention in an extraction battery using neutron detectors are studied. The static and dynamic tests carried out on the battery are described and an elementary theory concerning its method of operation is drawn up. Two essential modes are defined: with and without leakage of plutonium into the refined liquid; the optimum operational conditions are determined. The control chain which has been built is described and the estimated performance given. The work concludes with a comparison of the equilibrium and of the transient states, observed after regulation, with those calculated theoretically, and with a comparison of operational results obtained before and after regulation. (author) [fr

  9. Data-driven battery product development: Turn battery performance into a competitive advantage.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sholklapper, Tal [Voltaiq, Inc.

    2016-04-19

    Poor battery performance is a primary source of user dissatisfaction across a broad range of applications, and is a key bottleneck hindering the growth of mobile technology, wearables, electric vehicles, and grid energy storage. Engineering battery systems is difficult, requiring extensive testing for vendor selection, BMS programming, and application-specific lifetime testing. This work also generates huge quantities of data. This presentation will explain how to leverage this data to help ship quality products faster using fewer resources while ensuring safety and reliability in the field, ultimately turning battery performance into a competitive advantage.

  10. Circuit with a Switch for Charging a Battery in a Battery Capacitor Circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Thomas A. (Inventor); Ashtiani, Cyrus N. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A circuit for charging a battery combined with a capacitor includes a power supply adapted to be connected to the capacitor, and the battery. The circuit includes an electronic switch connected to the power supply. The electronic switch is responsive to switch between a conducting state to allow current and a non-conducting state to prevent current flow. The circuit includes a control device connected to the switch and is operable to generate a control signal to continuously switch the electronic switch between the conducting and non-conducting states to charge the battery.

  11. Entropy and heat generation of lithium cells/batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Songrui

    2016-01-01

    The methods and techniques commonly used in investigating the change of entropy and heat generation in Li cells/batteries are introduced, as are the measurements, calculations and purposes. The changes of entropy and heat generation are concomitant with the use of Li cells/batteries. In order to improve the management and the application of Li cells/batteries, especially for large scale power batteries, the quantitative investigations of the change of entropy and heat generating are necessary. (topical review)

  12. Progress in batteries and solar cells. Volume 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimotake, H.

    1984-01-01

    The 89 articles in this book are on research in batteries, solar cells and fuel cells. Topics include uses of batteries in electric powered vehicles, load management in power plants, batteries for miniature electronic devices, electrochemical processes, and various electrode and electrolyte materials, including organic compounds. Types of batteries discussed are lithium, lead-acid, manganese dioxide, Silver cells, Air cells, Nickel cells and solar cells. Problems of recharging and life cycle are also discussed

  13. Battery Calendar Life Estimator Manual Modeling and Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jon P. Christophersen; Ira Bloom; Ed Thomas; Vince Battaglia

    2012-10-01

    The Battery Life Estimator (BLE) Manual has been prepared to assist developers in their efforts to estimate the calendar life of advanced batteries for automotive applications. Testing requirements and procedures are defined by the various manuals previously published under the United States Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC). The purpose of this manual is to describe and standardize a method for estimating calendar life based on statistical models and degradation data acquired from typical USABC battery testing.

  14. Lithium batteries, anodes, and methods of anode fabrication

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Lain-Jong

    2016-12-29

    Prelithiation of a battery anode carried out using controlled lithium metal vapor deposition. Lithium metal can be avoided in the final battery. This prelithiated electrode is used as potential anode for Li- ion or high energy Li-S battery. The prelithiation of lithium metal onto or into the anode reduces hazardous risk, is cost effective, and improves the overall capacity. The battery containing such an anode exhibits remarkably high specific capacity and a long cycle life with excellent reversibility.

  15. Influence of Battery/Ultracapacitor Energy-Storage Sizing on Battery Lifetime in a Fuel Cell Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaltz, Erik; Rasmussen, Peter Omand; Khaligh, Alireza

    2009-01-01

    Combining high-energy-density batteries and high-power-density ultracapacitors in fuel cell hybrid electric vehicles (FCHEVs) results in a high-performance, highly efficient, low-size, and light system. Often, the battery is rated with respect to its energy requirement to reduce its volume and mass....... This does not prevent deep discharges of the battery, which are critical to the lifetime of the battery. In this paper, the ratings of the battery and ultracapacitors are investigated. Comparisons of the system volume, the system mass, and the lifetime of the battery due to the rating of the energy storage......, the battery, and the ultracapacitors, are proposed. A charging strategy, which charges the energy-storage devices due to the conditions of the FCHEV, is also proposed. The analysis provides recommendations on the design of the battery and the ultracapacitor energy-storage systems for FCHEVs....

  16. Study on the combined influence of battery models and sizing strategy for hybrid and battery-based electric vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinto, Cláudio; Barreras, Jorge V.; de Castro, Ricardo

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a study of the combined influence of battery models and sizing strategy for hybrid and battery-based electric vehicles. In particular, the aim is to find the number of battery (and supercapacitor) cells to propel a light vehicle to run two different standard driving cycles....... Three equivalent circuit models are considered to simulate the battery electrical performance: linear static, non-linear static and non-linear with first-order dynamics. When dimensioning a battery-based vehicle, less complex models may lead to a solution with more battery cells and higher costs....... Despite the same tendency, when a hybrid vehicle is taken into account, the influence of the battery models is dependent on the sizing strategy. In this work, two sizing strategies are evaluated: dynamic programming and filter-based. For the latter, the complexity of the battery model has a clear...

  17. Failure modes of lead/acid batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culpin, B.; Rand, D. A. J.

    The delivery and storage of electrical energy in lead/acid batteries via the conversion of lead dioxide and lead to, and from, lead sulphate is deceptively simple. In fact, battery performance depends upon the cell design, the materials of construction, a complex interplay between the multitudinous parameters involved in plate preparation, the chemical composition/structure of the active materials, and the duty/conditions of battery operation. It is not surprising, therefore, that the factors responsible for the degradation of battery performance, and eventual failure, are many and varied. Apart from occasional field surveys of automotive batteries in the U.S.A., comprehensive failure analyses of units removed from service are rarely published. In general, the information is kept proprietary, or appears as a post mortem report that is subsidiary to some other topic of interest. By contrast, the literature abounds with detailed laboratory investigations of phenomena that are likely to contribute, wholly or in part, to the demise of batteries. In broad terms, this review draws together the fragmented and scattered data presently available on the failure mechanisms of lead/acid batteries in order to provide a platform for further exploration of the phenomena, and for the planning of remedial strategies. The approach taken is to classify, first, the different lead/acid technologies in terms of required duty (i.e., float, cycling and automotive applications), unit design (i.e., flat or tubular plate, flooded or immobilized electrolyte), and grid alloy (i.e., leadantimony or leadcalcium system). A distinction is then made between catastrophic failure, as characterized by a sudden inability of the battery to function, and progressive failure, as demonstrated by some more subtle deviation from optimum performance. Catastrophic failure is attributed to incorrect cell design, poor manufacturing practice, abuse, or misuse. These problems are obvious and, accordingly

  18. 46 CFR 111.105-41 - Battery rooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Battery rooms. 111.105-41 Section 111.105-41 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Hazardous Locations § 111.105-41 Battery rooms. Each electrical installation in a battery room...

  19. Monitoring sealed automotive lead-acid batteries by sparse ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    leads to leakage current resulting in increased self-discharge and ground-shunt hazard. To overcome these problems, valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) or sealed lead-acid (SLA) batteries based on a oxygen-recombination cycle have emerged. SLA batteries offer the freedom of battery placement, cyclability without the ...

  20. Li-Ion Batteries for Forensic Neutron Dosimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Li-Ion Batteries for Forensic Neutron Dosimetry Distribution Statement A. Approved for public release, distribution is unlimited. March...ion batteries are the common technology for powering portable electronics. The nuclear reactions within the batteries are sensitive to neutrons . By...characterizing this dependence, neutron dose and fluence information can be determined. The dose information can be used on an individual basis to

  1. Simulation and experimental study on lithium ion battery short circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Rui; Liu, Jie; Gu, Junjie

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Both external and internal short circuit tests were performed on Li-ion batteries. • An electrochemical–thermal model with an additional nail site heat source is presented. • The model can accurately simulate the temperature variations of non-venting batteries. • The model is reliable in predicting the occurrence and start time of thermal runaway. • A hydrogel cooling system proves its strength in preventing battery thermal runaway. - Abstract: Safety is the first priority in lithium ion (Li-ion) battery applications. A large portion of electrical and thermal hazards caused by Li-ion battery is associated with short circuit. In this paper, both external and internal short circuit tests are conducted. Li-ion batteries and battery packs of different capacities are used. The results indicate that external short circuit is worse for smaller size batteries due to their higher internal resistances, and this type of short can be well managed by assembling fuses. In internal short circuit tests, higher chance of failure is found on larger capacity batteries. A modified electrochemical–thermal model is proposed, which incorporates an additional heat source from nail site and proves to be successful in depicting temperature changes in batteries. Specifically, the model is able to estimate the occurrence and approximate start time of thermal runaway. Furthermore, the effectiveness of a hydrogel based thermal management system in suppressing thermal abuse and preventing thermal runaway propagation is verified through the external and internal short tests on batteries and battery packs.

  2. The Salty Science of the Aluminum-Air Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chasteen, Stephanie V.; Chasteen, N. Dennis; Doherty, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Fruit batteries and saltwater batteries are excellent ways to explore simple circuits in the classroom. These are examples of air batteries in which metal reacts with oxygen in the air in order to generate free electrons, which flow through an external circuit and do work. Students are typically told that the salt or fruit water acts as an…

  3. High performance batteries with carbon nanomaterials and ionic liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Wen [Littleton, CO

    2012-08-07

    The present invention is directed to lithium-ion batteries in general and more particularly to lithium-ion batteries based on aligned graphene ribbon anodes, V.sub.2O.sub.5 graphene ribbon composite cathodes, and ionic liquid electrolytes. The lithium-ion batteries have excellent performance metrics of cell voltages, energy densities, and power densities.

  4. Rated Temperature Of Silver/Zinc Batteries Is Increased

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Derek P.

    1992-01-01

    Report shows silver-zinc batteries of specific commercial type (28 V, 20 A*h, Eagle-Picher Battery MAR 4546-5) operated safely at higher temperature than previously thought possible. Batteries operated to 239 degrees F (115 degrees C) without going into sustained thermal runaway. Operated 49 degrees F (27 degrees C) above previous maximum.

  5. Primary and secondary battery consumption trends in Sweden 1996-2013: method development and detailed accounting by battery type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrício, João; Kalmykova, Yuliya; Berg, Per E O; Rosado, Leonardo; Åberg, Helena

    2015-05-01

    In this article, a new method based on Material Flow Accounting is proposed to study detailed material flows in battery consumption that can be replicated for other countries. The method uses regularly available statistics on import, industrial production and export of batteries and battery-containing electric and electronic equipment (EEE). To promote method use by other scholars with no access to such data, several empirically results and their trends over time, for different types of batteries occurrence among the EEE types are provided. The information provided by the method can be used to: identify drivers of battery consumption; study the dynamic behavior of battery flows - due to technology development, policies, consumers behavior and infrastructures. The method is exemplified by the study of battery flows in Sweden for years 1996-2013. The batteries were accounted, both in units and weight, as primary and secondary batteries; loose and integrated; by electrochemical composition and share of battery use between different types of EEE. Results show that, despite a fivefold increase in the consumption of rechargeable batteries, they account for only about 14% of total use of portable batteries. Recent increase in digital convergence has resulted in a sharp decline in the consumption of primary batteries, which has now stabilized at a fairly low level. Conversely, the consumption of integrated batteries has increased sharply. In 2013, 61% of the total weight of batteries sold in Sweden was collected, and for the particular case of alkaline manganese dioxide batteries, the value achieved 74%. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Battery control system for hybrid vehicle and method for controlling a hybrid vehicle battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bockelmann, Thomas R [Battle Creek, MI; Beaty, Kevin D [Kalamazoo, MI; Zou, Zhanijang [Battle Creek, MI; Kang, Xiaosong [Battle Creek, MI

    2009-07-21

    A battery control system for controlling a state of charge of a hybrid vehicle battery includes a detecting arrangement for determining a vehicle operating state or an intended vehicle operating state and a controller for setting a target state of charge level of the battery based on the vehicle operating state or the intended vehicle operating state. The controller is operable to set a target state of charge level at a first level during a mobile vehicle operating state and at a second level during a stationary vehicle operating state or in anticipation of the vehicle operating in the stationary vehicle operating state. The invention further includes a method for controlling a state of charge of a hybrid vehicle battery.

  7. Future batteries will be environment-friendly; Les batteries du futur seront ecologiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larcher, D.; Tarascon, J.M. [Universite de Picardie Jules-Verne, Amiens (France)

    2012-02-15

    Since the beginning of the nineties, efficient batteries have been built thanks to lithium. The use of nano-materials for the electrodes have recently opened the way to a cheaper and more environmental friendly technologies like lithium-iron-phosphate (LiFePO{sub 4}) batteries instead of classical lithium-ion batteries. Nano-materials enable the batteries to use more efficiently the electrode and to store more energy. Sustainable development requires the elaboration of clean processes to produce nano-materials, it appears that micro-organisms might be able to produce nano-metric minerals through bio-mineralisation, it is particularly true for FePO{sub 4} because iron and phosphates are abundant biological components. (A.C.)

  8. An Advanced HIL Simulation Battery Model for Battery Management System Testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barreras, Jorge Varela; Fleischer, Christian; Christensen, Andreas Elkjær

    2016-01-01

    Developers and manufacturers of battery management systems (BMSs) require extensive testing of controller Hardware (HW) and Software (SW), such as analog front-end and performance of generated control code. In comparison with the tests conducted on real batteries, tests conducted on a state......-of-the-art hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) simulator can be more cost and time effective, easier to reproduce, and safer beyond the normal range of operation, especially at early stages in the development process or during fault insertion. In this paper, an HIL simulation battery model is developed for purposes of BMS...... testing on a commercial HIL simulator. A multicell electrothermal Li-ion battery (LIB) model is integrated in a system-level simulation. Then, the LIB system model is converted to C code and run in real time with the HIL simulator. Finally, in order to demonstrate the capabilities of the setup...

  9. Modeling of Li-Ion Battery Packs as Basis for Design of Battery Thermal Management Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coman, Paul Tiberiu

    Li-ion batteries are one of the most popular battery types on the market, due to their prime properties such as high capacity, low self-discharge rate, zero-maintenance, high energy density and long lifetime. However, safety still remains a major drawback, due to overheating and thermal runaway...... conservation equations, and the results were compared against experimental data from the open literature; 2. A simplified thermal runaway model for investigating the propagation of thermal runaway in a battery pack designed by NASA for astronaut spacesuits. A simplified model was initially built for single...... battery cells with an internal short circuit device (ISCD) implanted inside, used for triggering thermal runaway at low temperatures. The simplified lumped model was then coupled with a 2D thermal FEM for investigating the pack design. The simplification consists of implementing an efficiency factor term...

  10. Cursor Control Device Test Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Kritina; Sandor, Aniko; Pace, John; Thompson, Shelby

    2013-01-01

    The test battery was developed to provide a standard procedure for cursor control device evaluation. The software was built in Visual Basic and consists of nine tasks and a main menu that integrates the set-up of the tasks. The tasks can be used individually, or in a series defined in the main menu. Task 1, the Unidirectional Pointing Task, tests the speed and accuracy of clicking on targets. Two rectangles with an adjustable width and adjustable center- to-center distance are presented. The task is to click back and forth between the two rectangles. Clicks outside of the rectangles are recorded as errors. Task 2, Multidirectional Pointing Task, measures speed and accuracy of clicking on targets approached from different angles. Twenty-five numbered squares of adjustable width are arranged around an adjustable diameter circle. The task is to point and click on the numbered squares (placed on opposite sides of the circle) in consecutive order. Clicks outside of the squares are recorded as errors. Task 3, Unidirectional (horizontal) Dragging Task, is similar to dragging a file into a folder on a computer desktop. Task 3 requires dragging a square of adjustable width from one rectangle and dropping it into another. The width of each rectangle is adjustable, as well as the distance between the two rectangles. Dropping the square outside of the rectangles is recorded as an error. Task 4, Unidirectional Path Following, is similar to Task 3. The task is to drag a square through a tunnel consisting of two lines. The size of the square and the width of the tunnel are adjustable. If the square touches any of the lines, it is counted as an error and the task is restarted. Task 5, Text Selection, involves clicking on a Start button, and then moving directly to the underlined portion of the displayed text and highlighting it. The pointing distance to the text is adjustable, as well as the to-be-selected font size and the underlined character length. If the selection does not

  11. Influence of Battery Parametric Uncertainties on the State-of-Charge Estimation of Lithium Titanate Oxide-Based Batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stroe, Ana-Irina; Jinhao, Meng; Stroe, Daniel-Ioan

    2018-01-01

    to describe the battery dynamics. The SOC estimation method proposed in this paper is based on an Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) and nonlinear battery model which was parameterized using extended laboratory tests performed on several 13 Ah lithium titanate oxide (LTO)-based lithium-ion batteries. The developed...

  12. Anhydrous hydrogen fluoride electrolyte battery. [Patent application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Not Available

    1972-06-26

    It is an object of the invention to provide a primary cell or battery using ammonium fluoride--anhydrous hydrogen fluoride electrolyte having improved current and power production capabilities at low temperatures. It is operable at temperatures substantially above the boiling point of hydrogen fluoride. (GRA)

  13. Battery impedance spectroscopy using bidirectional grid connected ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The converter is grid connected and controlled to operate at unity power factor. Additional requirements on filter design and control structure of battery converter for impedance measurement are discussed. An algorithm has been developed to measure impedance by frequency sweep, avoiding transients. The measured ...

  14. New Fabrication Strategies for Polymer Electrolyte Batteries

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shriver, D

    1997-01-01

    .... The objective of this research was to fabricate lithium-polymer batteries by techniques that may produce a thin electrolyte and cathode films and with minimal contamination during fabrication. One such technique, ultrasonic spray was used. Another objective of this research was to test lithium cells that incorporate the new polymer electrolytes and polyelectrolytes.

  15. Polymer nanocomposites for lithium battery applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandi-Tapia, Giselle; Gregar, Kathleen Carrado

    2006-07-18

    A single ion-conducting nanocomposite of a substantially amorphous polyethylene ether and a negatively charged synthetic smectite clay useful as an electrolyte. Excess SiO2 improves conductivity and when combined with synthetic hectorite forms superior membranes for batteries. A method of making membranes is also disclosed.

  16. Lifetime modelling of lead acid batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bindner, H.; Cronin, T.; Lundsager, P.

    2005-01-01

    been part of the European Union Benchmarking research project (ENK6-CT-2001-80576), funded by theEuropean Union, the United States and Australian governments together with other European states and other public and private financing bodies. The project has concentrated on lead acid batteries...

  17. Towards an Ultimate Battery Thermal Management System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Mohammad Rezwan; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2017-01-01

    The prevailing standards and scientific literature offer a wide range of options for the construction of a battery thermal management system (BTMS). The design of an innovative yet well-functioning BTMS requires strict supervision, quality audit and continuous improvement of the whole process. It...

  18. Anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunkara, Mahendra Kumar; Meduri, Praveen; Sumanasekera, Gamini

    2014-12-30

    An anode material for lithium-ion batteries is provided that comprises an elongated core structure capable of forming an alloy with lithium; and a plurality of nanostructures placed on a surface of the core structure, with each nanostructure being capable of forming an alloy with lithium and spaced at a predetermined distance from adjacent nanostructures.

  19. Nanowire Electrodes for Advanced Lithium Batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Lei; Wei, Qiulong; Sun, Ruimin; Mai, Liqiang

    2014-01-01

    Since the commercialization of lithium ion batteries (LIBs) in the past two decades, rechargeable LIBs have become widespread power sources for portable devices used in daily life. However, current demands require higher energy density and power density of batteries. The electrochemical energy storage performance of LIBs could be improved by applying nanomaterial electrodes, but their fast capacity fading is still one of the key limitations and the mechanism need to be clearly understood. Single nanowire electrode devices are considered as a versatile platform for in situ probing the direct relationship between electrical transport, structure change, and other properties of the single nanowire electrode along with the charge/discharge process. The results indicate that the conductivity decrease of the nanowire electrode and the structural disorder/destruction during electrochemical reaction limit the cycling performance of LIBs. Based on the in situ observations, some feasible optimization strategies, including prelithiation, coaxial structure, nanowire arrays, and hierarchical structure architecture, are proposed and utilized to restrain the conductivity decrease and structural disorder/destruction. Further, the applications of nanowire electrodes in some “beyond Li-ion” batteries, such as Li-S and Li-air batteries are also described.

  20. Nuclear Energy Assessment Battery. Form C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showers, Dennis Edward

    This publication consists of a nuclear energy assessment battery for secondary level students. The test contains 44 multiple choice items and is organized into four major sections. Parts include: (1) a knowledge scale; (2) attitudes toward nuclear energy; (3) a behaviors and intentions scale; and (4) an anxiety scale. Directions are provided for…

  1. 77 FR 28259 - Mailings of Lithium Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-14

    ... handling in the mail. The shipment must be mailed in a strong outer package. c. Mailed With Equipment. The... hours, and whether the cells or batteries are packed in equipment, with equipment, or without equipment... Mailing Services 601 Mailability * * * * * [[Page 28260

  2. Trends in the development of radioisotope batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goeldner, R.; Leonhardt, J.W.; Radmaneche, R.; Schlegel, H.

    1978-01-01

    Improved methods for producing radioisotopes by nuclear fuel reprocessing and the rapid development of microelectronics offer new possibilities for utilizing radioisotope batteries. A review is given of the main principles of conversion of decay energy into electric power. The current state of such energy sources is evaluated. Finally, new fields of application and further trends in the development are indicated. (author)

  3. Future cathode materials for lithium rechargeable batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritchie, A.G.; Giwa, C.O.; Lee, J.C.; Bowles, P. [DERA, Gosport (United Kingdom); Gilmour, A.; Allan, J. [Lexcel Technology, Henley-on-Thames (United Kingdom); Rice, D.A.; Brady, F.; Tsang, S.C.E. [Reading Univ. (United Kingdom)

    1999-07-01

    Lithium rechargeable batteries are now well established as power sources for portable equipment, such as portable telephones or computers. Future applications include electric vehicles. However, before they can be used for this, or other price-sensitive applications, new cathode materials of much lower cost are needed. Possible cathode materials are reviewed. (orig.)

  4. Pure inorganic separator for lithium ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Meinan; Zhang, Xinjie; Jiang, Kuiyang; Wang, Joe; Wang, Yan

    2015-01-14

    Battery safety is critical for many applications including portable electronics, hybrid and electric vehicles, and grid storage. For lithium ion batteries, the conventional polymer based separator is unstable at 120 °C and above. In this research, we have developed a pure aluminum oxide nanowire based separator; this separator does not contain any polymer additives or binders; additionally, it is a bendable ceramic. The physical and electrochemical properties of the separator are investigated. The separator has a pore size of about 100 nm, and it shows excellent electrochemical properties under both room and high temperatures. At room temperature, the ceramic separator shows a higher rate capability compared to the conventional Celgard 2500 separator and life cycle performance does not show any degradation. At 120 °C, the cell with the ceramic separator showed a much better cycle performance than the conventional Celgard 2500 separator. Therefore, we believe that this research is really an exciting scientific breakthrough for ceramic separators and lithium ion batteries and could be potentially used in the next generation lithium ion batteries requiring high safety and reliability.

  5. Phase transition in a rechargeable lithium battery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dreyer, W.; Gaberscek, M.; Guhlke, C.; Huth, R.; Jamnik, J.

    We discuss the lithium storage process within a single-particle cathode of a lithium-ion battery. The single storage particle consists of a crystal lattice whose interstitial lattice sites may be empty or reversibly filled with lithium atoms. The resulting evolution equations describe diffusion with

  6. Lithium batteries; Les accumulateurs au lithium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    This workshop on lithium batteries is divided into 4 sections dealing with: the design and safety aspects, the cycling, the lithium intercalation and its modeling, and the electrolytes. These 4 sections represent 19 papers and are completed by a poster session which corresponds to 17 additional papers. (J.S.)

  7. Overview of battery technology for HEV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smets, S.; Debal, P.; Conte, V.; Alaküla, M.; Santini, D.; Duvall, M.; Winkel, R.; Badin, F.

    2006-01-01

    Several electric energy storage systems exist with different principles and characteristics. On the other hand, there are also various hybrid electric vehicles with specific requirements. This paper gives an overview of the advantages/disadvantages and practical aspects of battery technologies and

  8. Economic considerations of battery recycling based on the Recytec process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammann, Pierre

    The Recytec process is successfully operated on a continuous industrial base since autumn 1994. All the products are regularly re-used without any problems and environmental limits are fully respected. The European Community Battery Directive is valid since many years and only a few countries like Switzerland and The Netherlands have implemented it in national guidelines. In the meantime, battery producers have accepted the necessity of the recycling of mercury-free batteries in order to prevent the contamination of municipal waste streams by other heavy metals, such as zinc and cadmium. Recycling processes like the Recytec process are considered by the battery producers as highly expensive and they are looking for cheaper alternatives. Steel works are confronted with a market change and have to produce less quantities of better quality steels with more stringent environmental limits. The electric arc furnace (EAF), one of the chosen battery destruction techniques, is producing 20% of the European steel. Even if the battery mixes contain only mercury-free batteries, the residual mercury content and the zinc concentration will be too high to insure a good steel quality, if all collected batteries will be fed in EAF. In Waelz kilns (production of zinc oxide concentrates for zinc producers) the situation is the same with regard to the residual mercury concentration and environmental limits. Sorting technologies for the separation of battery mixes into the different battery chemistries will presently fail because the re-users of these sorted mercury-free batteries are not able to accept raw waste batteries but they are interested in some fractions of them. This means that in any case pretreatment is an unavoidable step before selective reclamation of waste batteries. The Recytec process is the low-cost partner in a global strategy for battery recycling. This process is very flexible and will be able to follow, with slight and inexpensive adaptations of the equipment

  9. Simulation of lithium ion battery replacement in a battery pack for application in electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, M.; Kong, Q. H.; McGrory, J.; Fowler, M.

    2017-05-01

    The design and optimization of the battery pack in an electric vehicle (EV) is essential for continued integration of EVs into the global market. Reconfigurable battery packs are of significant interest lately as they allow for damaged cells to be removed from the circuit, limiting their impact on the entire pack. This paper provides a simulation framework that models a battery pack and examines the effect of replacing damaged cells with new ones. The cells within the battery pack vary stochastically and the performance of the entire pack is evaluated under different conditions. The results show that by changing out cells in the battery pack, the state of health of the pack can be consistently maintained above a certain threshold value selected by the user. In situations where the cells are checked for replacement at discrete intervals, referred to as maintenance event intervals, it is found that the length of the interval is dependent on the mean time to failure of the individual cells. The simulation framework as well as the results from this paper can be utilized to better optimize lithium ion battery pack design in EVs and make long term deployment of EVs more economically feasible.

  10. Pocket radiation dosimeter: dosimeter charger assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, F.W.

    1982-03-17

    This invention is a novel pocket-type radiation dosimeter comprising an electrometric radiation dosimeter and a charging circuit therefor. The instrument is especially designed to be amenable to mass production, to have a long shelf life, and to be compact, lightweight, and usable by the layman. The dosimeter proper may be of conventional design. The charging circuit includes a shake-type electrostatic generator, a voltage doubler for integrating generator output voltages of one polarity, and a switch operated by an external permanent magnet.

  11. Pocket radiation dosimeter--dosimeter charger assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Frank W.

    1984-01-01

    This invention is a novel pocket-type radiation dosimeter comprising an electrometric radiation dosimeter and a charging circuit therefor. The instrument is especially designed to be amenable to mass production, to have a long shelf life, and to be compact, lightweight, and usable by the layman. The dosimeter proper may be of conventional design. The charging circuit includes a shake-type electrostatic generator, a voltage doubler for integrating generator output voltages of one polarity, and a switch operated by an external permanent magnet.

  12. Télécharger le PDF

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Université McGill : économie écologique, sexo- spécificités, services écosystémiques, gestion des ressources naturelles, foncier, cadres institutionnels, nutrition, santé et intégration des connaissances. Kenya Medical Research Institute : nutrition et santé. Membres d'un groupe d'agriculteurs de Kivani récoltant le dolique ...

  13. Télécharger le PDF

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Le CRDI finance la recherche dans les pays en développement afin de réduire la pauvreté, soutenant ainsi l'objectif des activités de dévelop- pement international du Canada. Le Centre favorise la croissance et le développement et encourage la communication des connaissances aux responsables des politiques, aux ...

  14. Télécharger le PDF

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    dengue, centrée sur les facteurs écologiques, biologiques et sociaux de la maladie, peut réduire la densité vectorielle tout en donnant aux collectivités les moyens de s'attaquer aux éléments de leur milieu qui les rendent vulnérables. La dengue est un problème de santé publique d'envergure mondiale. Autrefois présente ...

  15. Disc Battery - An Unusual Vaginal Foreign Body in a Child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Yousuf Aziz; Mahmood, Mansoor; Taqi, Esmaeel

    2016-01-01

    Disc battery ingestion and esophageal injury is well-known in children. Insertion of a disc/lithium battery into body's natural orifices is rarely reported. We present a case of self-insertion of a lithium battery into the vagina by a 2 ½ year old female. Vaginoscopy was performed and the battery was retrieved which had corroded and caused vaginal ulceration. Post-operative outcome was favorable. Treating physicians must be aware of the hazardous effects of insertion of lithium batteries as it may cause significant damage in a short period.

  16. The 50 AMP-hour nickel cadmium battery manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, D. A.

    1981-01-01

    The battery is designed with a minimum battery to cell weight ratio consistent with adequate containment for operating conditions and dynamic environments and minimized weight. The battery is fully qualified and the environments to which it was successfully subjected were selected by NASA Goddard to cover a wide range of probable uses. The battery is suitable for either near-Earth geosynchronous missions, is compatible with passive or active thermal control systems and may be electrically controlled by a variety of changing routines. The initial application of the 50 A.H. Battery is a near-Earth mission aboard the LANDSAT D Satellite.

  17. Health risks following ingestion of mercury and zinc air batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, M; Tucker, I

    1981-01-01

    This paper reports on a study set up to assess the corrosive behaviour of mercury and zinc air batteries in the gastric juice environment of the stomach. The results show a relatively rapid rate of corrosion for charged mercury batteries. In contrast, the zinc air battery showed no visible corrosion under the same conditions. In view of the toxic dangers from leakage of mercury batteries, it is recommended that steps be taken to ensure that such batteries do not remain in the acidic environment of the stomach, should ingestion occur.

  18. Electrochemical power sources batteries, fuel cells, and supercapacitors

    CERN Document Server

    Bagotsky, Vladimir S; Volfkovich, Yurij M

    2015-01-01

    Electrochemical Power Sources (EPS) provides in a concise way theoperational features, major types, and applications of batteries,fuel cells, and supercapacitors Details the design, operational features, andapplications of batteries, fuel cells, and supercapacitors Covers improvements of existing EPSs and thedevelopment of new kinds of EPS as the results of intense R&Dwork Provides outlook for future trends in fuel cells andbatteries Covers the most typical battery types, fuel cells andsupercapacitors; such as zinc-carbon batteries, alkaline manganesedioxide batteries, mercury-zinc cells, lead

  19. Methods for thermodynamic evaluation of battery state of health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazami, Rachid; McMenamin, Joseph; Reynier, Yvan; Fultz, Brent T

    2013-05-21

    Described are systems and methods for accurately characterizing thermodynamic and materials properties of electrodes and battery systems and for characterizing the state of health of electrodes and battery systems. Measurement of physical attributes of electrodes and batteries corresponding to thermodynamically stabilized electrode conditions permit determination of thermodynamic parameters, including state functions such as the Gibbs free energy, enthalpy and entropy of electrode/electrochemical cell reactions, that enable prediction of important performance attributes of electrode materials and battery systems, such as energy, power density, current rate, cycle life and state of health. Also provided are systems and methods for charging a battery according to its state of health.

  20. Multilayer Approach for Advanced Hybrid Lithium Battery

    KAUST Repository

    Ming, Jun

    2016-06-06

    Conventional intercalated rechargeable batteries have shown their capacity limit, and the development of an alternative battery system with higher capacity is strongly needed for sustainable electrical vehicles and hand-held devices. Herein, we introduce a feasible and scalable multilayer approach to fabricate a promising hybrid lithium battery with superior capacity and multivoltage plateaus. A sulfur-rich electrode (90 wt % S) is covered by a dual layer of graphite/Li4Ti5O12, where the active materials S and Li4Ti5O12 can both take part in redox reactions and thus deliver a high capacity of 572 mAh gcathode -1 (vs the total mass of electrode) or 1866 mAh gs -1 (vs the mass of sulfur) at 0.1C (with the definition of 1C = 1675 mA gs -1). The battery shows unique voltage platforms at 2.35 and 2.1 V, contributed from S, and 1.55 V from Li4Ti5O12. A high rate capability of 566 mAh gcathode -1 at 0.25C and 376 mAh gcathode -1 at 1C with durable cycle ability over 100 cycles can be achieved. Operando Raman and electron microscope analysis confirm that the graphite/Li4Ti5O12 layer slows the dissolution/migration of polysulfides, thereby giving rise to a higher sulfur utilization and a slower capacity decay. This advanced hybrid battery with a multilayer concept for marrying different voltage plateaus from various electrode materials opens a way of providing tunable capacity and multiple voltage platforms for energy device applications. © 2016 American Chemical Society.

  1. Hemorrhagic shock secondary to button battery ingestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi Andreia Takesaki

    Full Text Available CONTEXT:Button battery ingestion is a frequent pediatric complaint. The serious complications resulting from accidental ingestion have increased significantly over the last two decades due to easy access to gadgets and electronic toys. Over recent years, the increasing use of lithium batteries of diameter 20 mm has brought new challenges, because these are more detrimental to the mucosa, compared with other types, with high morbidity and mortality. The clinical complaints, which are often nonspecific, may lead to delayed diagnosis, thereby increasing the risk of severe complications.CASE REPORT:A five-year-old boy who had been complaining of abdominal pain for ten days, was brought to the emergency service with a clinical condition of hematemesis that started two hours earlier. On admission, he presented pallor, tachycardia and hypotension. A plain abdominal x-ray produced an image suggestive of a button battery. Digestive endoscopy showed a deep ulcerated lesion in the esophagus without active bleeding. After this procedure, the patient presented profuse hematemesis and severe hypotension, followed by cardiorespiratory arrest, which was reversed. He then underwent emergency exploratory laparotomy and presented a new episode of cardiorespiratory arrest, which he did not survive. The battery was removed through rectal exploration.CONCLUSION:This case describes a fatal evolution of button battery ingestion with late diagnosis and severe associated injury of the digestive mucosa. A high level of clinical suspicion is essential for preventing this evolution. Preventive strategies are required, as well as health education, with warnings to parents, caregivers and healthcare professionals.

  2. Recycling readiness of advanced batteries for electric vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jungst, R.G.

    1997-09-01

    Maximizing the reclamation/recycle of electric-vehicle (EV) batteries is considered to be essential for the successful commercialization of this technology. Since the early 1990s, the US Department of Energy has sponsored the ad hoc advanced battery readiness working group to review this and other possible barriers to the widespread use of EVs, such as battery shipping and in-vehicle safety. Regulation is currently the main force for growth in EV numbers and projections for the states that have zero-emission vehicle (ZEV) programs indicate about 200,000 of these vehicles would be offered to the public in 2003 to meet those requirements. The ad hoc Advanced Battery Readiness Working Group has identified a matrix of battery technologies that could see use in EVs and has been tracking the state of readiness of recycling processes for each of them. Lead-acid, nickel/metal hydride, and lithium-ion are the three EV battery technologies proposed by the major automotive manufacturers affected by ZEV requirements. Recycling approaches for the two advanced battery systems on this list are partly defined, but could be modified to recover more value from end-of-life batteries. The processes being used or planned to treat these batteries are reviewed, as well as those being considered for other longer-term technologies in the battery recycling readiness matrix. Development efforts needed to prepare for recycling the batteries from a much larger EV population than exists today are identified.

  3. Limiting factors to advancing thermal battery technology for naval applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Patrick B.; Winchester, Clinton S.

    1991-10-01

    Thermal batteries are primary reserve electrochemical power sources using molten salt electrolyte which experience little effective aging while in storage or dormant deployment. Thermal batteries are primarily used in military applications, and are currently used in a wide variety of Navy devices such as missiles, torpedoes, decays, and training targets, usually as power supplies in guidance, propulsion, and Safe/Arm applications. Technology developments have increased the available energy and power density ratings by an order of magnitude in the last ten years. Present thermal batteries, using lithium anodes and metal sulfide cathodes, are capable of performing applications where only less rugged and more expensive silver oxide/zinc or silver/magnesium chloride seawater batteries could serve previously. Additionally, these batteries are capable of supplanting lithium/thionyl chloride reserve batteries in a variety of specifically optimized designs. Increases in thermal battery energy and power density capabilities are not projected to continue with the current available technology. Several battery designs are now at the edge of feasibility and safety. Since future naval systems are likely to require continued growth of battery energy and power densities, there must be significant advances in battery technology. Specifically, anode alloy composition and new cathode materials must be investigated to allow for safe development and deployment of these high power, higher energy density batteries.

  4. Third International Conference on Batteries for Utility Energy Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-03-18

    This is a collection of essays presented at the above-named conference held at Kobe, Japan, from March 18 through 22, 1991. At the utility energy storage session, a power research program plan, operational and economic benefits of BESP (battery energy storage plant), the Moonlight Project, etc., were presented, respectively, by EPRI (Electric Power Research Institute) of the U.S., BEWAG Corporation of Germany, and NEDO (New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization) of Japan, etc. At the improved lead-acid batteries session, the characteristics of improved lead-acid batteries, load levelling and life cycle, problems in BESP, comparisons and tests, etc., were presented by Japan, Italy, the U.S., etc. At the advanced batteries session, presentations were made about the sodium-sulfur battery, zinc-bromine battery, redox battery, etc. Furthermore, there were sessions on consumer energy systems, control and power conditioning technology, and commercialization and economic studies. A total 53 presentations were made. (NEDO)

  5. Life-cycle energy analyses of electric vehicle storage batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, D.; Morse, T.; Patel, P.; Patel, S.; Bondar, J.; Taylor, L.

    1980-12-01

    Nickel-zinc, lead-acid, nickel-iron, zinc-chlorine, sodium-sulfur (glass electrolyte), sodium-sulfur (ceramic electrolyte), lithium-metal sulfide, and aluminum-air batteries were studied in order to evaluate the energy used to produce the raw materials and to manufacture the battery, the energy consumed by the battery during its operational life, and the energy that could be saved from the recycling of battery materials into new raw materials. The value of the life cycle analysis approach is that it includes the various penalties and credits associated with battery production and recycling, which enables a more accurate determination of the system's ability to reduce the consumption of scarce fuels. Battery component materials, the energy requirements for battery production, and credits for recycling are described. The operational energy for an electric vehicle and the procedures used to determine it are discussed.

  6. New Horizons for Conventional Lithium Ion Battery Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Evan M; Ghanty, Chandan; Aurbach, Doron

    2014-10-02

    Secondary lithium ion battery technology has made deliberate, incremental improvements over the past four decades, providing sufficient energy densities to sustain a significant mobile electronic device industry. Because current battery systems provide ∼100-150 km of driving distance per charge, ∼5-fold improvements are required to fully compete with internal combustion engines that provide >500 km range per tank. Despite expected improvements, the authors believe that lithium ion batteries are unlikely to replace combustion engines in fully electric vehicles. However, high fidelity and safe Li ion batteries can be used in full EVs plus range extenders (e.g., metal air batteries, generators with ICE or gas turbines). This perspective article describes advanced materials and directions that can take this technology further in terms of energy density, and aims at delineating realistic horizons for the next generations of Li ion batteries. This article concentrates on Li intercalation and Li alloying electrodes, relevant to the term Li ion batteries.

  7. Potential use of battery packs from NCAP tested vehicles.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamb, Joshua; Orendorff, Christopher J.

    2013-10-01

    Several large electric vehicle batteries available to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration are candidates for use in future safety testing programs. The batteries, from vehicles subjected to NCAP crashworthiness testing, are considered potentially damaged due to the nature of testing their associated vehicles have been subjected to. Criteria for safe shipping to Sandia is discussed, as well as condition the batteries must be in to perform testing work. Also discussed are potential tests that could be performed under a variety of conditions. The ultimate value of potential testing performed on these cells will rest on the level of access available to the battery pack, i.e. external access only, access to the on board monitoring system/CAN port or internal electrical access to the battery. Greater access to the battery than external visual and temperature monitoring would likely require input from the battery manufacturer.

  8. Advances of aqueous rechargeable lithium-ion battery: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alias, Nurhaswani; Mohamad, Ahmad Azmin

    2015-01-01

    The electrochemical characteristic of the aqueous rechargeable lithium-ion battery has been widely investigated in efforts to design a green and safe technology that can provide a highly specific capacity, high efficiency and long life for high power applications such as the smart grid and electric vehicle. It is believed that the advantages of this battery will overcome the limitations of the rechargeable lithium-ion battery with organic electrolytes that comprise safety and create high fabrication cost issues. This review focuses on the opportunities of the aqueous rechargeable lithium-ion battery compared to the conventional rechargeable lithium-ion battery with organic-based electrolytes. Previously reported studies are briefly summarised, together with the presentation of new findings based on the conductivity, morphology, electrochemical performance and cycling stability results. The factors that influence the electrochemical performance, the challenges and potential of the aqueous rechargeable lithium-ion battery are highlighted in order to understand and maintained the excellent battery performance.

  9. Battery system including batteries that have a plurality of positive terminals and a plurality of negative terminals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Thomas J; Symanski, James S; Kuempers, Joerg A; Miles, Ronald C; Hansen, Scott A; Smith, Nels R; Taghikhani, Majid; Mrotek, Edward N; Andrew, Michael G

    2014-01-21

    A lithium battery for use in a vehicle includes a container, a plurality of positive terminals extending from a first end of the lithium battery, and a plurality of negative terminals extending from a second end of the lithium battery. The plurality of positive terminals are provided in a first configuration and the plurality of negative terminals are provided in a second configuration, the first configuration differing from the second configuration. A battery system for use in a vehicle may include a plurality of electrically connected lithium cells or batteries.

  10. Environmental characteristics comparison of Li-ion batteries and Ni–MH batteries under the uncertainty of cycle performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Yajuan; Wang, Xiang; Wang, Dong; Huang, Kai; Wang, Lijing; Bao, Liying; Wu, Feng

    2012-01-01

    An environmental impact assessment model for secondary batteries under uncertainty is proposed, which is a combination of the life cycle assessment (LCA), Eco-indicator 99 system and Monte Carlo simulation (MCS). The LCA can describe the environmental impact mechanism of secondary batteries, whereas the cycle performance was simulated through MCS. The composite LCA–MCS model was then carried out to estimate the environmental impact of two kinds of experimental batteries. Under this kind of standard assessment system, a comparison between different batteries could be accomplished. The following results were found: (1) among the two selected batteries, the environmental impact of the Li-ion battery is lower than the nickel–metal hydride (Ni–MH) battery, especially with regards to resource consumption and (2) the lithium ion (Li-ion) battery is less sensitive to cycle uncertainty, its environmental impact fluctuations are small when compared with the selected Ni–MH battery and it is more environmentally friendly. The assessment methodology and model proposed in this paper can also be used for any other secondary batteries and they can be helpful in the development of environmentally friendly secondary batteries.

  11. Nanocarbon networks for advanced rechargeable lithium batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Sen; Guo, Yu-Guo; Wan, Li-Jun

    2012-10-16

    Carbon is one of the essential elements in energy storage. In rechargeable lithium batteries, researchers have considered many types of nanostructured carbons, such as carbon nanoparticles, carbon nanotubes, graphene, and nanoporous carbon, as anode materials and, especially, as key components for building advanced composite electrode materials. Nanocarbons can form efficient three-dimensional conducting networks that improve the performance of electrode materials suffering from the limited kinetics of lithium storage. Although the porous structure guarantees a fast migration of Li ions, the nanocarbon network can serve as an effective matrix for dispersing the active materials to prevent them from agglomerating. The nanocarbon network also affords an efficient electron pathway to provide better electrical contacts. Because of their structural stability and flexibility, nanocarbon networks can alleviate the stress and volume changes that occur in active materials during the Li insertion/extraction process. Through the elegant design of hierarchical electrode materials with nanocarbon networks, researchers can improve both the kinetic performance and the structural stability of the electrode material, which leads to optimal battery capacity, cycling stability, and rate capability. This Account summarizes recent progress in the structural design, chemical synthesis, and characterization of the electrochemical properties of nanocarbon networks for Li-ion batteries. In such systems, storage occurs primarily in the non-carbon components, while carbon acts as the conductor and as the structural buffer. We emphasize representative nanocarbon networks including those that use carbon nanotubes and graphene. We discuss the role of carbon in enhancing the performance of various electrode materials in areas such as Li storage, Li ion and electron transport, and structural stability during cycling. We especially highlight the use of graphene to construct the carbon conducting

  12. Utility Battery Storage Systems Program plan: FY 1994--FY 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    The Utility Battery Storage Systems Program, sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE), is addressing needed improvements so that the full benefits of these systems can be realized. A key element of the Program is the quantification of the benefits of batteries used in utility applications. The analyses of the applications and benefits are ongoing, but preliminary results indicate that the widespread introduction of battery storage by utilities could benefit the US economy by more than $26 billion by 2010 and create thousands of new jobs. Other critical elements of the DOE Program focus on improving the batteries, power electronics, and control subsystems and reducing their costs. These subsystems are then integrated and the systems undergo field evaluation. Finally, the most important element of the Program is the communication of the capabilities and benefits of battery systems to utility companies. Justifiably conservative, utilities must have proven, reliable equipment that is economical before they can adopt new technologies. While several utilities are leading the industry by demonstrating battery systems, a key task of the DOE program is to inform the entire industry of the value, characteristics, and availability of utility battery systems so that knowledgeable decisions can be made regarding future investments. This program plan for the DOE Utility Battery Storage Systems Program describes the technical and programmatic activities needed to bring about the widespread use of batteries by utilities. By following this plan, the DOE anticipates that many of the significant national benefits from battery storage will be achieved in the near future.

  13. Status of the DOE battery and electrochemical technology program. III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, R.

    1982-02-01

    This report reviews the status of the Department of Energy Subelement on Electrochemical Storage Systems. It emphasizes material presented at the Fourth US Department of Energy Battery and Electrochemical Contractors' Conference, held June 2-4, 1981. The conference stressed secondary batteries, however, the aluminum/air mechanically rechargeable battery and selected topics on industrial electrochemical processes were included. The potential contributions of the battery and electrochemical technology efforts to supported technologies: electric vehicles, solar electric systems, and energy conservation in industrial electrochemical processes, are reviewed. The analyses of the potential impact of these systems on energy technologies as the basis for selecting specific battery systems for investigation are noted. The battery systems in the research, development, and demonstration phase discussed include: aqueous mobile batteries (near term) - lead-acid, iron/nickel-oxide, zinc/nickel-oxide; advanced batteries - aluminum/air, iron/air, zinc/bromine, zinc/ferricyanide, chromous/ferric, lithium/metal sulfide, sodium/sulfur; and exploratory batteries - lithium organic electrolyte, lithium/polymer electrolyte, sodium/sulfur (IV) chloroaluminate, calcium/iron disulfide, lithium/solid electrolyte. Supporting research on electrode reactions, cell performance modeling, new battery materials, ionic conducting solid electrolytes, and electrocatalysis is reviewed. Potential energy saving processes for the electrowinning of aluminum and zinc, and for the electrosynthesis of inorganic and organic compounds are included

  14. Secondary batteries with multivalent ions for energy storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chengjun; Chen, Yanyi; Shi, Shan; Li, Jia; Kang, Feiyu; Su, Dangsheng

    2015-09-14

    The use of electricity generated from clean and renewable sources, such as water, wind, or sunlight, requires efficiently distributed electrical energy storage by high-power and high-energy secondary batteries using abundant, low-cost materials in sustainable processes. American Science Policy Reports state that the next-generation "beyond-lithium" battery chemistry is one feasible solution for such goals. Here we discover new "multivalent ion" battery chemistry beyond lithium battery chemistry. Through theoretic calculation and experiment confirmation, stable thermodynamics and fast kinetics are presented during the storage of multivalent ions (Ni(2+), Zn(2+), Mg(2+), Ca(2+), Ba(2+), or La(3+) ions) in alpha type manganese dioxide. Apart from zinc ion battery, we further use multivalent Ni(2+) ion to invent another rechargeable battery, named as nickel ion battery for the first time. The nickel ion battery generally uses an alpha type manganese dioxide cathode, an electrolyte containing Ni(2+) ions, and Ni anode. The nickel ion battery delivers a high energy density (340 Wh kg(-1), close to lithium ion batteries), fast charge ability (1 minute), and long cycle life (over 2200 times).

  15. Survey of mercury, cadmium and lead content of household batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recknagel, Sebastian; Radant, Hendrik; Kohlmeyer, Regina

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A well selected sample of 146 batteries was analysed for its heavy metals content. • A comparison was made between heavy metals contents in batteries in 2006 and 2011. • No significant change after implementation of the new EU Batteries Directive. • Severe differences in heavy metal contents were found in different battery-types. - Abstract: The objective of this work was to provide updated information on the development of the potential impact of heavy metal containing batteries on municipal waste and battery recycling processes following transposition of the new EU Batteries Directive 2006/66/EC. A representative sample of 146 different types of commercially available dry and button cells as well as lithium-ion accumulators for mobile phones were analysed for their mercury (Hg)-, cadmium (Cd)- and lead (Pb)-contents. The methods used for preparing the cells and analysing the heavy metals Hg, Cd, and Pb were either developed during a former study or newly developed. Several batteries contained higher mass fractions of mercury or cadmium than the EU limits. Only half of the batteries with mercury and/or lead fractions above the marking thresholds were labelled. Alkaline–manganese mono-cells and Li-ion accumulators, on average, contained the lowest heavy metal concentrations, while zinc–carbon batteries, on average, contained the highest levels

  16. Hubble Space Telescope nickel-hydrogen battery testing: An update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitt, Thomas H.; Brewer, Jeffrey C.

    1995-02-01

    The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) began testing the HST Ni-H2 Six Battery Test and the 'Flight Spare Battery' Tests approximately one year before the launch of the HST. These tests are operated and reported on by the MSFC, but are managed and funded by Goddard Space Flight Center in direct support of the HST program. The HST Ni-H2 batteries are built from Eagle Picher RNH-90-3 cells. The HST EPS (electrical power system) is a direct energy transfer power system. The HST Ni-H2 Six Battery Test is a breadboard of the HST EPS. The batteries in the test are composed of test module cells and packaged into three battery modules identical to the flight modules. This test is the HST EPS testbed. The 'Flight Spare Battery' Test is a simulation of one of the six battery channels on the HST. The cells in the test are from the flight spare lot of cells, which are the same lot of cells that three of the six HST flight batteries are made from. This test is the battery life test for the HST program.

  17. Survey of mercury, cadmium and lead content of household batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Recknagel, Sebastian, E-mail: sebastian.recknagel@bam.de [BAM Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Reference Materials, Richard-Willstätter-Straße 11, D-12489 Berlin (Germany); Radant, Hendrik [BAM Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Reference Materials, Richard-Willstätter-Straße 11, D-12489 Berlin (Germany); Kohlmeyer, Regina [German Federal Environment Agency (UBA), Section III 1.6 Extended Producer Responsibility, Wörlitzer Platz 1, D-06844 Dessau-Roßlau (Germany)

    2014-01-15

    Highlights: • A well selected sample of 146 batteries was analysed for its heavy metals content. • A comparison was made between heavy metals contents in batteries in 2006 and 2011. • No significant change after implementation of the new EU Batteries Directive. • Severe differences in heavy metal contents were found in different battery-types. - Abstract: The objective of this work was to provide updated information on the development of the potential impact of heavy metal containing batteries on municipal waste and battery recycling processes following transposition of the new EU Batteries Directive 2006/66/EC. A representative sample of 146 different types of commercially available dry and button cells as well as lithium-ion accumulators for mobile phones were analysed for their mercury (Hg)-, cadmium (Cd)- and lead (Pb)-contents. The methods used for preparing the cells and analysing the heavy metals Hg, Cd, and Pb were either developed during a former study or newly developed. Several batteries contained higher mass fractions of mercury or cadmium than the EU limits. Only half of the batteries with mercury and/or lead fractions above the marking thresholds were labelled. Alkaline–manganese mono-cells and Li-ion accumulators, on average, contained the lowest heavy metal concentrations, while zinc–carbon batteries, on average, contained the highest levels.

  18. Peltier battery thermostat for semiconductor detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caini, V.

    1980-01-01

    The description is given of a Peltier battery cooling thermostat for semiconductor detectors, whose sensing element is the detector itself. A signal proportional to the leakage current is amplified and compared with a chosen reference voltage. The difference, amplified and sensed, regulates the cooling current to the Peltier battery. Special mechanical devices speed up measurement-taking. The leakage current proved to be reducible to as little as 1/1000 of that at ambient temperature and the stabilization obtained is between +-5 nA (although between +-1 nA is also feasible). Hence it is possible to use very high load resistance preamplifiers to reduce noise and to improve stability and pulse height resolution in α spectroscopy, even with a detector unsuitable for work at very low temperatures. Other applications can be foreseen. (orig.)

  19. Lightweight, durable lead-acid batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara-Curzio, Edgar; An, Ke; Kiggans, Jr., James O; Dudney, Nancy J; Contescu, Cristian I; Baker, Frederick S; Armstrong, Beth L

    2013-05-21

    A lightweight, durable lead-acid battery is disclosed. Alternative electrode materials and configurations are used to reduce weight, to increase material utilization and to extend service life. The electrode can include a current collector having a buffer layer in contact with the current collector and an electrochemically active material in contact with the buffer layer. In one form, the buffer layer includes a carbide, and the current collector includes carbon fibers having the buffer layer. The buffer layer can include a carbide and/or a noble metal selected from of gold, silver, tantalum, platinum, palladium and rhodium. When the electrode is to be used in a lead-acid battery, the electrochemically active material is selected from metallic lead (for a negative electrode) or lead peroxide (for a positive electrode).

  20. Silver manganese oxide electrodes for lithium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thackeray, Michael M.; Vaughey, John T.; Dees, Dennis W.

    2006-05-09

    This invention relates to electrodes for non-aqueous lithium cells and batteries with silver manganese oxide positive electrodes, denoted AgxMnOy, in which x and y are such that the manganese ions in the charged or partially charged electrodes cells have an average oxidation state greater than 3.5. The silver manganese oxide electrodes optionally contain silver powder and/or silver foil to assist in current collection at the electrodes and to improve the power capability of the cells or batteries. The invention relates also to a method for preparing AgxMnOy electrodes by decomposition of a permanganate salt, such as AgMnO4, or by the decomposition of KMnO4 or LiMnO4 in the presence of a silver salt.