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Sample records for battery capacity indicator

  1. A new battery capacity indicator for nickel-metal hydride battery powered electric vehicles using adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system

    CERN Document Server

    Chau, K T; Chan, C C; Shen, W X

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes a new approach to estimate accurately the battery residual capacity (BRC) of the nickel-metal hydride (Ni-MH) battery for modern electric vehicles (EVs). The key to this approach is to model the Ni-MH battery in EVs by using the adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) with newly defined inputs and output. The inputs are the temperature and the discharged capacity distribution describing the discharge current profile, while the output is the state of available capacity (SOAC) representing the BRC. The estimated SOAC from ANFIS model and the measured SOAC from experiments are compared, and the results confirm that the proposed approach can provide an accurate estimation of the SOAC under variable discharge currents.

  2. A LiFePO4 battery pack capacity estimation approach considering in-parallel cell safety in electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Limei; Cheng, Yong; Zhao, Xiuliang

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Find the influence of in-parallel battery cell variations on battery pack capacity. • Redefine the battery module capacity with considering ANY battery cell safety. • Discuss the safety end-of-charge voltage for an aged in-parallel battery module. • Build an algorithm for battery pack capacity estimation with the charge curve. • Bench tests are used to verify the validity of the proposed algorithm. - Abstract: In electric vehicles (EVs), several battery cells are connected in parallel to establish a battery module. The safety of the battery module is influenced by inconsistent battery cell performance which causes uneven currents flowing through internal in-parallel battery cells. A battery cell model is developed based on the Matlab–Simscape platform and validated by tests. The battery cell model is used to construct simulation models for analyzing the effect of battery cell inconsistency on the performance of an in-parallel battery module. Simulation results indicate that the state-of-charge (SOC) of a battery module cannot characterize the SOC of ALL the internal battery cells in the battery module. When the battery management system (BMS) controls the end-of-charge (EOC) time according to the SOC of a battery module, some internal battery cells are over-charged. To guarantee the safety of ALL battery cells through the whole battery life, a safety EOC voltage of the battery module should be set according to the number of battery cells in the battery module and the applied charge current. Simulations reveal that the SOC of the “normal battery module” is related to its charge voltage when aged battery module is charged to the EOC voltage. Then, a function describing their relationship is established. Both the capacity and the charge voltage shift are estimated by comparing the measured voltage-to-capacity curve with the standard one provided by the manufactory. A battery pack capacity estimation method is proposed according to the SOC

  3. Optimised battery capacity utilisation within battery management systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilkins, S.; Rosca, B.; Jacob, J.; Hoedmaekers, E.

    2015-01-01

    Battery Management Systems (BMSs) play a key role in the performance of both hybrid and fully electric vehicles. Typically, the role of the BMS is to help maintain safety, performance, and overall efficiency of the battery pack. One important aspect of its operation is the estimation of the state of

  4. Battery prices and capacity sensitivity: Electric drive vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Nina

    2012-01-01

    The increase in fluctuating power production requires an increase in flexibility in the system as well. Flexibility can be found in generation technologies with fast response times or in storage options. In the transport sector, the proportion of electric drive vehicles is expected to increase over...... of the integrated power and transport system, focusing on the sensitivity of the power system configuration according to battery capacity and price of the electric drive vehicle. The value of different battery capacities is estimated, given that the batteries are used for both driving and storage. Likewise......, the prices at which the electric drive vehicles become of interest to the power system are found. Smart charge, including the opportunity to discharge (vehicle-to-grid) is used in all scenarios. Analyses show that the marginal benefits decrease the larger the battery. For very high battery prices, large...

  5. Post-vehicle-application lithium-ion battery remanufacturing, repurposing and recycling capacity: Modeling and analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Robert Standridge

    2015-05-01

    recycling is relatively constant regardless of the percent of post-vehicle-application batteries that are remanufactured.  The sum of the capacity for remanufacturing and recycling is relatively constant as well.  The need for new battery production capacity is reduced significantly (> 10% for remanufacturing percentages of 55% and above. Research limitations/implications: There is a high degree of uncertainty associated with any forecast concerning post-vehicle-application lithium-ion batteries due to a lack of experience with their remanufacturing, repurposing, and recycling. Practical implications: Electrification of vehicles appears to be the only technically feasible approach to meeting government regulations concerning mileage and emissions (Center for Climate and Energy Solutions 2013.  The planning in the present for the remanufacturing, repurposing, and recycling of the lithium-ion batteries used in electrification of vehicles is necessary.  Capacity estimation is one important component of such planning. Social implications: The electrification of vehicles versus the use of fossil fuels is consistent with the guiding principles of sustainability in helping to meet current needs without compromising the needs and resources of future generations.  Reusing entire lithium-ion batteries or recycling the materials of which they are composed further reinforces the sustainability of vehicle electrification. Originality/value: Estimates of recycling capacity needed in 2030, about 2.69M kWh, change little with the percent of post-vehicle-application batteries that are remanufactured.  The need for significant recycling capacity appears between 2022 and 2024, increasing steadily thereafter.  Similarly, the sum of remanufacturing and repurposing capacity is relatively constant indicating the need for flexible facilities that can do either task.  In addition by 2030, up to approximately 25% of new battery production could be replaced by remanufactured batteries.

  6. Transferring the Incremental Capacity Analysis to Lithium-Sulfur Batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knap, Vaclav; Kalogiannis, Theodoros; Purkayastha, Rajlakshmi

    2017-01-01

    In order to investigate the battery degradation and to estimate their health, various techniques can be applied. One of them, which is widely used for Lithium-ion batteries, is the incremental capacity analysis (ICA). In this work, we apply the ICA to Lithium-Sulfur batteries, which differ in many...... aspects from Lithium-ion batteries and possess unique behavior. One of the challenges of applying the ICA to Lithium-Sulfur batteries is the representation of the IC curves, as their voltage profiles are often non-monotonic, resulting in more complex IC curves. The ICA is at first applied to charge...... and discharge processes at various temperature levels and afterward the technique is applied to a cell undergoing cycling degradation. It is shown that the ageing processes are trackable from the IC curves and it opens a possibility for their utilization for state-of-health estimation....

  7. Battery Management Systems: Accurate State-of-Charge Indication for Battery-Powered Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pop, V.; Bergveld, H.J.; Danilov, D.; Regtien, Paulus P.L.; Notten, P.H.L.

    2008-01-01

    Battery Management Systems – Universal State-of-Charge indication for portable applications describes the field of State-of-Charge (SoC) indication for rechargeable batteries. With the emergence of battery-powered devices with an increasing number of power-hungry features, accurately estimating the

  8. Battery designs with high capacity anode materials and cathode materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masarapu, Charan; Anguchamy, Yogesh Kumar; Han, Yongbong; Deng, Haixia; Kumar, Sujeet; Lopez, Herman A.

    2017-10-03

    Improved high energy capacity designs for lithium ion batteries are described that take advantage of the properties of high specific capacity anode active compositions and high specific capacity cathode active compositions. In particular, specific electrode designs provide for achieving very high energy densities. Furthermore, the complex behavior of the active materials is used advantageously in a radical electrode balancing design that significantly reduced wasted electrode capacity in either electrode when cycling under realistic conditions of moderate to high discharge rates and/or over a reduced depth of discharge.

  9. A dynamic capacity degradation model and its applications considering varying load for a large format Li-ion battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouyang, Minggao; Feng, Xuning; Han, Xuebing; Lu, Languang; Li, Zhe; He, Xiangming

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A dynamic capacity degradation model for large format Li-ion battery is proposed. • The change of the model parameters directly link with the degradation mechanisms. • The model can simulate the fading behavior of Li-ion battery under varying loads. • The model can help evaluate the longevity of a battery system under specific load. • The model can help predict the evolution of cell variations within a battery pack. - Abstract: The capacity degradation of the lithium ion battery should be well predicted during battery system design. Therefore, high-fidelity capacity degradation models that are suitable for the task of capacity prediction are required. This paper proposes a novel capacity degradation model that can simulate the degradation dynamics under varying working conditions for large-format lithium ion batteries. The degradation model is built based on a mechanistic and prognostic model (MPM) whose parameters are closely linked with the degradation mechanisms of lithium ion batteries. Chemical kinetics was set to drive the parameters of the MPM to change as capacity degradation continues. With the dynamic parameters of the MPM, the capacity predicted by the degradation model decreases as the cycle continues. Accelerated aging tests were conducted on three types of commercial lithium ion batteries to calibrate the capacity degradation model. The good fit with the experimental data indicates that the model can capture the degradation mechanisms well for different types of commercial lithium ion batteries. Furthermore, the calibrated model can be used to (1) evaluate the longevity of a battery system under a specific working load and (2) predict the evolution of cell variations within a battery pack when different cell works at different conditions. Correlated applications are discussed using the calibrated degradation model.

  10. Satellite Lithium-Ion Battery Remaining Cycle Life Prediction with Novel Indirect Health Indicator Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haitao Liao

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Prognostics and remaining useful life (RUL estimation for lithium-ion batteries play an important role in intelligent battery management systems (BMS. The capacity is often used as the fade indicator for estimating the remaining cycle life of a lithium-ion battery. For spacecraft requiring high reliability and long lifetime, in-orbit RUL estimation and reliability verification on ground should be carefully addressed. However, it is quite challenging to monitor and estimate the capacity of a lithium-ion battery on-line in satellite applications. In this work, a novel health indicator (HI is extracted from the operating parameters of a lithium-ion battery to quantify battery degradation. Moreover, the Grey Correlation Analysis (GCA is utilized to evaluate the similarities between the extracted HI and the battery’s capacity. The result illustrates the effectiveness of using this new HI for fading indication. Furthermore, we propose an optimized ensemble monotonic echo state networks (En_MONESN algorithm, in which the monotonic constraint is introduced to improve the adaptivity of degradation trend estimation, and ensemble learning is integrated to achieve high stability and precision of RUL prediction. Experiments with actual testing data show the efficiency of our proposed method in RUL estimation and degradation modeling for the satellite lithium-ion battery application.

  11. High capacity anode materials for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Herman A.; Anguchamy, Yogesh Kumar; Deng, Haixia; Han, Yongbon; Masarapu, Charan; Venkatachalam, Subramanian; Kumar, Suject

    2015-11-19

    High capacity silicon based anode active materials are described for lithium ion batteries. These materials are shown to be effective in combination with high capacity lithium rich cathode active materials. Supplemental lithium is shown to improve the cycling performance and reduce irreversible capacity loss for at least certain silicon based active materials. In particular silicon based active materials can be formed in composites with electrically conductive coatings, such as pyrolytic carbon coatings or metal coatings, and composites can also be formed with other electrically conductive carbon components, such as carbon nanofibers and carbon nanoparticles. Additional alloys with silicon are explored.

  12. Congestion patterns of electric vehicles with limited battery capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Wentao; Ramezani, Mohsen; An, Kun; Kim, Inhi

    2018-01-01

    The path choice behavior of battery electric vehicle (BEV) drivers is influenced by the lack of public charging stations, limited battery capacity, range anxiety and long battery charging time. This paper investigates the congestion/flow pattern captured by stochastic user equilibrium (SUE) traffic assignment problem in transportation networks with BEVs, where the BEV paths are restricted by their battery capacities. The BEV energy consumption is assumed to be a linear function of path length and path travel time, which addresses both path distance limit problem and road congestion effect. A mathematical programming model is proposed for the path-based SUE traffic assignment where the path cost is the sum of the corresponding link costs and a path specific out-of-energy penalty. We then apply the convergent Lagrangian dual method to transform the original problem into a concave maximization problem and develop a customized gradient projection algorithm to solve it. A column generation procedure is incorporated to generate the path set. Finally, two numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the applicability of the proposed model and the solution algorithm.

  13. High voltage and high specific capacity dual intercalating electrode Li-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, William C. (Inventor); Blanco, Mario (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention provides high capacity and high voltage Li-ion batteries that have a carbonaceous cathode and a nonaqueous electrolyte solution comprising LiF salt and an anion receptor that binds the fluoride ion. The batteries can comprise dual intercalating electrode Li ion batteries. Methods of the present invention use a cathode and electrode pair, wherein each of the electrodes reversibly intercalate ions provided by a LiF salt to make a high voltage and high specific capacity dual intercalating electrode Li-ion battery. The present methods and systems provide high-capacity batteries particularly useful in powering devices where minimizing battery mass is important.

  14. Temperature dependent capacity contribution of thermally treated anode current collectors in lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Tae Kwon; Li Xifei; Wang Chunlei

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We studied the influence of the thermal treatment of current collectors on the energy capacity. ► Different current collectors show different thermal treatment effect on performance. ► The non-negligible capacity contribution is closely related to the treatment temperatures. ► Our results could be beneficial to designing battery architectures. - Abstract: Metal current collectors, offering a good connection between the active materials and the external circuit, is an important component in a rechargeable lithium ion battery. Some necessary thermal treatment in the battery fabrication and assembly procedure results in current collectors with some non-negligible reversible energy capacities; however, these energy capacities were negligible in the previous references. In this research, for the first time, we investigated the influence of the thermal treatment of current collectors (such as copper foil and stainless steel disk) on energy capacities. Our results indicate that different current collector materials have different thermal treatment effects on their electrochemical performance. The non-negligible capacity contribution is closely related to the treatment temperature.

  15. Verification of Safety Margins of Battery Banks Capacity of Class 1E DC System in a Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukman, Abdulrauf; Zhu, Oon-Pyo

    2015-01-01

    According to Ref 'Station blackout (SBO) is generally a plant condition with complete loss of all alternating current (AC) power from off-site sources, from the main generator and from standby AC power sources important to safety to the essential and nonessential switchgear buses. Direct current (DC) power supplies and uninterruptible AC power supplies may be available as long as batteries can supply the loads, alternate AC power supplies are available'. The above IAEA document indicated the importance of batteries during SBO. Prior to the Fukushima accident, most batteries might be designed with coping capability of four hours. However, the accident showed the need for the coping capability to be increased to at least eight hours. The purpose of this research is to verify the safety capacity margin of the nuclear qualified battery banks of class 1E DC system and test the response to SBO using the load profile of a Korean design nuclear power plant (NPP). The capacity margins of class 1E batteries of DC power system batteries in a nuclear power plant were determined using the load profile of the plant. It was observed that if appropriate manufacturer Kt data are not available, the accuracy of the battery capacity might not be accurately calculated. The result obtained shows that the batteries have the coping capability of two hours for channel A and B, and eight hours for channel C and D. Also capacity margin as show in figure show a reasonable margin for each batteries of the DC system

  16. Tackling capacity fading in vanadium flow batteries with amphoteric membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldenburg, Fabio J.; Schmidt, Thomas J.; Gubler, Lorenz

    2017-11-01

    Capacity fading and poor electrolyte utilization caused by electrolyte imbalance effects are major drawbacks for the commercialization of vanadium flow batteries (VFB). The influence of membrane type (cationic, anionic, amphoteric) on these effects is studied by determining the excess and net flux of each vanadium ion in an operating VFB assembled with a cation exchange membrane (CEM), Nafion® NR212, an anion exchange membrane (AEM), Fumatech FAP-450, and an amphoteric ion exchange membrane (AIEM) synthesized in-house. It is shown that the net vanadium flux, accompanied by water transport, is directed towards the positive side for the CEM and towards the negative side for the AEM. The content of cation and anion exchange groups in the AIEM is adjusted via radiation grafting to balance the vanadium flux between the two electrolyte sides. With the AIEM the net vanadium flux is significantly reduced and capacity fading due to electrolyte imbalances can be largely eliminated. The membrane's influence on electrolyte imbalance effects is characterized and quantified in one single charge-discharge cycle by analyzing the content of the four different vanadium species in the two electrolytes. The experimental data recorded herewith conclusively explains the electrolyte composition after 80 cycles.

  17. Significance of the Capacity Recovery Effect in Pouch Lithium-Sulfur Battery Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knap, Vaclav; Zhang, Teng; Stroe, Daniel Loan

    2016-01-01

    Lithium-Sulfur (Li-S) batteries are an emerging energy storage technology, which is technically-attractive due to its high theoretical limits; practically, it is expected that Li-S batteries will result into lighter energy storage devices with higher capacities than traditional Lithium......-ion batteries. One of the actual disadvantages for this technology is the highly pronounced rate capacity effect, which reduces the available capacity to be discharged when high currents are used. This drawback might be addressed by the use of the capacity recovery effect, which by introducing relaxation...... periods between consecutive pulse discharges of the battery, increases the available discharge capacity of the cell. The capacity recovery effect of the Li-S cell is studied in this paper using the pulse discharge technique, considering its dependence on the applied current, discharge step length...

  18. Silicon oxide based high capacity anode materials for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Haixia; Han, Yongbong; Masarapu, Charan; Anguchamy, Yogesh Kumar; Lopez, Herman A.; Kumar, Sujeet

    2017-03-21

    Silicon oxide based materials, including composites with various electrical conductive compositions, are formulated into desirable anodes. The anodes can be effectively combined into lithium ion batteries with high capacity cathode materials. In some formulations, supplemental lithium can be used to stabilize cycling as well as to reduce effects of first cycle irreversible capacity loss. Batteries are described with surprisingly good cycling properties with good specific capacities with respect to both cathode active weights and anode active weights.

  19. Electrolyte Engineering Toward Increasing Nonaqueous Lithium-Oxygen Battery Capacity

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — With lithium-ion battery technology reaching its theoretical specific energy limit, electric vehicles, unmanned aerial vehicles, spacecraft and spacesuits alike...

  20. An Empirical Rate Constant Based Model to Study Capacity Fading in Lithium Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srivatsan Ramesh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A one-dimensional model based on solvent diffusion and kinetics to study the formation of the SEI (solid electrolyte interphase layer and its impact on the capacity of a lithium ion battery is developed. The model uses the earlier work on silicon oxidation but studies the kinetic limitations of the SEI growth process. The rate constant of the SEI formation reaction at the anode is seen to play a major role in film formation. The kinetics of the reactions for capacity fading for various battery systems are studied and the rate constants are evaluated. The model is used to fit the capacity fade in different battery systems.

  1. Higher Capacity, Improved Conductive Matrix VB2/Air Batteries (Postprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-18

    carbon black (TIMCAL C-NERGY SUPER C65), and KOH pellets (Alfa Aesar). PowerOne P675 batteries were used as a test bed for electrode fabri- cation...S. F. Bender, J. W. Cretzmeyer, and T. F. Reise, Chapt. 13 in Handbook of Batteries, 3rd edition, D. Linden and T. B. Reddy, Eds, McGraw-Hill, New

  2. Incremental Capacity Analysis of a Lithium-Ion Battery Pack for Different Charging Rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalogiannis, Theodoros; Stroe, Daniel-Ioan; Nyborg, Jonas

    2017-01-01

    the experimental conditions. Several ICA research studies have been performed on various Li-ion chemistries and several mathematical approaches have been employed to obtain the differential curves, with most studies however to be focused on a cell level analysis. In the present work, we have performed an in......-depth investigation of two battery packs composed of 14 Lithium-ion cells each; for the purpose of evaluating the applicability and the challenges of the ICA on a battery pack level by means of different charging current rates. Also, at a certain charging current, the influence of the temperature on the ICA curves......Incremental Capacity Analysis (ICA) is a method used to investigate the capacity state of health of batteries by tracking the electrochemical properties of the cell. It is based on the differentiation of the battery capacity over the battery voltage, for a full or a partial cycle regarding...

  3. Li2C2, a High-Capacity Cathode Material for Lithium Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Na; Gao, Yurui; Li, Yurong; Wang, Zhaoxiang; Song, Xiaoyan; Chen, Liquan

    2016-01-11

    As a typical alkaline earth metal carbide, lithium carbide (Li2C2) has the highest theoretical specific capacity (1400 mA h g(-1)) among all the reported lithium-containing cathode materials for lithium ion batteries. Herein, the feasibility of using Li2C2 as a cathode material was studied. The results show that at least half of the lithium can be extracted from Li2C2 and the reversible specific capacity reaches 700 mA h g(-1). The C≡C bond tends to rotate to form C4 (C≡C⋅⋅⋅C≡C) chains during lithium extraction, as indicated with the first-principles molecular dynamics (FPMD) simulation. The low electronic and ionic conductivity are believed to be responsible for the potential gap between charge and discharge, as is supported with density functional theory (DFT) calculations and Arrhenius fitting results. These findings illustrate the feasibility to use the alkali and alkaline earth metal carbides as high-capacity electrode materials for secondary batteries. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. High capacity lithium ion batteries composed of cobalt oxide nanoparticle anodes and Raman spectroscopic analysis of nanoparticle strain dynamics in batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Mohammad A; Zuba, Mateusz; DeBiase, Vincent; Noviasky, Nicholas; Hawley, Christopher J

    2018-02-16

    Cobalt nanoparticle thin films were electrophoretically deposited on copper current collectors and were annealed into thin films of hollow Co 3 O 4 nanoparticles. These thin films were directly used as the anodes of lithium ion batteries (LIBs) without the addition of conducting carbons and bonding agents. LIBs thus fabricated show high gravimetric capacities and long cycle lives. For ≈1.0 μm thick Co 3 O 4 nanoparticle films the gravimetric capacities of the batteries were more than 800 mAh g -1 at a current rate of C/15, which is about 90% of the theoretical maximum. Additionally, the batteries were able to undergo 200 charge/discharge cycles at a relatively fast rate of C/5 and maintain 50% of the initial capacity. In order to understand the electrochemistry of lithiation in the context of nanoparticles, Raman spectra were collected at different stages of the electrode cycles to determine the chemical and structural changes in the nanomaterials. Our results indicate that initially the electrode nanoparticles were under significant strain and as the battery underwent many cycles of charging/discharging the nanoparticles experienced progressive strain relaxation.

  5. High Capacity Anodes for Advanced Lithium Ion Batteries, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Lithium-ion batteries are slowly being introduced into satellite power systems, but their life still presents concerns for longer duration missions. Future NASA...

  6. Determination of the heat capacities of Lithium/BCX (bromide chloride in thionyl chloride) batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubow, Stephen A.; Takeuchi, Kenneth J.; Takeuchi, Esther S.

    1989-12-01

    Heat capacities of twelve different Lithium/BCX (BrCl in thionyl chloride) batteries in sizes AA, C, D, and DD were determined. Procedures and measurement results are reported. The procedure allowed simple, reproducible, and precise determinations of heat capacities of industrially important Lithium/BCX cells, without interfering with performance of the cells. Use of aluminum standards allowed the accuracy of the measurements to be maintained. The measured heat capacities were within 5 percent of calculated heat capacity values.

  7. Capacity fade modelling of lithium-ion battery under cyclic loading conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashwin, T. R.; Chung, Yongmann M.; Wang, Jihong

    2016-10-01

    A pseudo two-dimensional (P2D) electro-chemical lithium-ion battery model is presented in this paper to study the capacity fade under cyclic charge-discharge conditions. The Newman model [1,2] has been modified to include a continuous solvent reduction reaction responsible for the capacity fade and power fade. The temperature variation inside the cell is accurately predicted using a distributed thermal model coupled with the internal chemical heat generation. The model is further improved by linking the porosity variation with the electrolyte partial molar concentration, thereby proving a stronger coupling between the battery performance and the chemical properties of electrolyte. The solid electrolyte interface (SEI) layer growth is estimated for different cut-off voltages and charging current rates. The results show that the convective heat transfer coefficient as well as the porosity variation influences the SEI layer growth and the battery life significantly. The choice of an electrolyte decides the conductivity and partial molar concentration, which is found to have a strong influence on the capacity fade of the battery. The present battery model integrates all essential electro-chemical processes inside a lithium-ion battery under a strong implicit algorithm, proving a useful tool for computationally fast battery monitoring system.

  8. Improved Performance and Safety for High Energy Batteries Through Use of Hazard Anticipation and Capacity Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwater, Terrill

    1993-01-01

    Prediction of the capacity remaining in used high rate, high energy batteries is important information to the user. Knowledge of the capacity remaining in used batteries results in better utilization. This translates into improved readiness and cost savings due to complete, efficient use. High rate batteries, due to their chemical nature, are highly sensitive to misuse (i.e., over discharge or very high rate discharge). Battery failure due to misuse or manufacturing defects could be disastrous. Since high rate, high energy batteries are expensive and energetic, a reliable method of predicting both failures and remaining energy has been actively sought. Due to concerns over safety, the behavior of lithium/sulphur dioxide cells at different temperatures and current drains was examined. The main thrust of this effort was to determine failure conditions for incorporation in hazard anticipation circuitry. In addition, capacity prediction formulas have been developed from test data. A process that performs continuous, real-time hazard anticipation and capacity prediction was developed. The introduction of this process into microchip technology will enable the production of reliable, safe, and efficient high energy batteries.

  9. Data-driven method based on particle swarm optimization and k-nearest neighbor regression for estimating capacity of lithium-ion battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Chao; Jain, Gaurav; Zhang, Puqiang; Schmidt, Craig; Gomadam, Parthasarathy; Gorka, Tom

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We develop a data-driven method for the battery capacity estimation. • Five charge-related features that are indicative of the capacity are defined. • The kNN regression model captures the dependency of the capacity on the features. • Results with 10 years’ continuous cycling data verify the effectiveness of the method. - Abstract: Reliability of lithium-ion (Li-ion) rechargeable batteries used in implantable medical devices has been recognized as of high importance from a broad range of stakeholders, including medical device manufacturers, regulatory agencies, physicians, and patients. To ensure Li-ion batteries in these devices operate reliably, it is important to be able to assess the battery health condition by estimating the battery capacity over the life-time. This paper presents a data-driven method for estimating the capacity of Li-ion battery based on the charge voltage and current curves. The contributions of this paper are three-fold: (i) the definition of five characteristic features of the charge curves that are indicative of the capacity, (ii) the development of a non-linear kernel regression model, based on the k-nearest neighbor (kNN) regression, that captures the complex dependency of the capacity on the five features, and (iii) the adaptation of particle swarm optimization (PSO) to finding the optimal combination of feature weights for creating a kNN regression model that minimizes the cross validation (CV) error in the capacity estimation. Verification with 10 years’ continuous cycling data suggests that the proposed method is able to accurately estimate the capacity of Li-ion battery throughout the whole life-time

  10. Rechargeable, silver-zinc battery conditioner/monitor unit and state-of-charge indicator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, C. E.

    1974-01-01

    Unit automatically charges batteries to desired state-of-charge levels, monitors functional battery parameter data both on meters and printer, and automatically activates alarm in event of battery malfunctions. Unit consists of state-of-charge indicator panel, control panel, monitor panel, power panel, charging-current power supply, and load panel.

  11. Development and characterization of a high capacity lithium/thionyl chloride battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Gerald H.; Goebel, Franz

    A 30 V lithium/thionyl chloride battery with 320 Ah capacity capable of operating at currents of 14 to 75 A has been developed and tested over a temperature range from 15 to 71 °C. The 81 lb battery consists of nine series connected cylindrical cells in a three-by-three arrangement within an aluminum case. The cells are of a parallel disc electrode design with a total active surface area of 10 200 cm 2. Cells and batteries have each been tested for safety, performance and to a space environment. The battery has clearly performed in excess of the specification requirements. The cell design is very adaptable to many battery design requirements.

  12. Development and characterization of a high capacity lithium/thionyl chloride battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyle, G.H. [Yardney Technical Products, Inc., Pawcatuck, CT (United States); Goebel, F. [Yardney Technical Products, Inc., Pawcatuck, CT (United States)

    1995-04-01

    A 30 V lithium/thionyl chloride battery with 320 Ah capacity capable of operating at currents of 14 to 75 A has been developed and tested over a temperature range from 15 to 71 C. The 81 lb battery consists of nine series connected cylindrical cells in a three-by-three arrangement within an aluminum case. The cells are of a parallel disc electrode design with a total active surface area of 10 200 cm{sup 2}. Cells and batteries have each been tested for safety, performance and to a space environment. The battery has clearly performed in excess of the specification requirements. The cell design is very adaptable to many battery design requirements. (orig.)

  13. Magnesium stannide as a high-capacity anode for magnesium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Dan-Thien; Song, Seung-Wan

    2017-11-01

    Driven by the limited global resources of lithium, magnesium metal batteries are considered as potential energy storage systems. The battery chemistry of magnesium metal anode, however, limits the selection of electrolytes, cathode materials and working temperature, making the realization of magnesium metal batteries complicated. Herein, we report the development of a new magnesium-insertion anode, magnesium stannide (Mg2Sn), and demonstrate reversible electrochemical Mg2+-extraction and insertion of Mg2Sn anode at 0.2 V versus Mg, delivering discharge capacity of 270 mAhg-1 in a half-cell with the electrolyte of PhMgCl/THF and enabling of room temperature magnesium-ion batteries with Mg2Sn anode combined with Mg-free oxide cathode and conventional-type electrolyte of Mg(TFSI)2/diglyme. The combination of Mg2Sn anode with various cathodes and electrolytes holds great promise for enabling room temperature magnesium-ion batteries.

  14. State of available capacity estimation for lead-acid batteries in electric vehicles using neural network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, W.X. [School of Engineering, Monash University Malaysia, 2 Jalan Kolej, Bandar Sunway, 46150 Petaling Jaya, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia)

    2007-02-15

    This paper reviews recent definitions of the state of charge (SOC) that are often used to estimate the battery residual available capacity (BRAC) for lead-acid batteries in electric vehicles (EVs) and identifies their shortcomings. Then, the state of available capacity (SOAC), instead of the SOC, is defined to denote the BRAC in EVs, which refers to the percentage of the battery available capacity (BAC) of the discharge current profile for the EV battery at the fully charged state. Based on the experimentation of different discharge current profiles, including theoretical current profiles and practical current profiles under EV driving cycles, the discharged and regenerative capacity distribution is proposed to describe discharge current profiles for the SOAC estimation. Because of the complexity and nonlinearity of the relationship between the SOAC and the capacity distribution at different temperatures, a neural network (NN) is applied to this SOAC estimation. Comparisons between the estimated SOACs by the NN and the calculated SOACs from the experimental data are used for verification. The results confirm that the proposed approach can provide an accurate and effective estimation of the BRAC for lead-acid batteries in EVs. (author)

  15. Comparative Study Between Internal Ohmic Resistance and Capacity for Battery State of Health Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Nisvo Ramadan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to avoid battery failure, a battery management system (BMS is necessary. Battery state of charge (SOC and state of health (SOH are part of information provided by a BMS. This research analyzes methods to estimate SOH based lithium polymer battery on change of its internal resistance and its capacity. Recursive least square (RLS algorithm was used to estimate internal ohmic resistance while coloumb counting was used to predict the change in the battery capacity. For the estimation algorithm, the battery terminal voltage and current are set as the input variables. Some tests including static capacity test, pulse test, pulse variation test and before charge-discharge test have been conducted to obtain the required data. After comparing the two methods, the obtained results show that SOH estimation based on coloumb counting provides better accuracy than SOH estimation based on internal ohmic resistance. However, the SOH estimation based on internal ohmic resistance is faster and more reliable for real application

  16. Optimal Capacity Allocation of Large-Scale Wind-PV-Battery Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kehe Wu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An optimal capacity allocation of large-scale wind-photovoltaic- (PV- battery units was proposed. First, an output power model was established according to meteorological conditions. Then, a wind-PV-battery unit was connected to the power grid as a power-generation unit with a rated capacity under a fixed coordinated operation strategy. Second, the utilization rate of renewable energy sources and maximum wind-PV complementation was considered and the objective function of full life cycle-net present cost (NPC was calculated through hybrid iteration/adaptive hybrid genetic algorithm (HIAGA. The optimal capacity ratio among wind generator, PV array, and battery device also was calculated simultaneously. A simulation was conducted based on the wind-PV-battery unit in Zhangbei, China. Results showed that a wind-PV-battery unit could effectively minimize the NPC of power-generation units under a stable grid-connected operation. Finally, the sensitivity analysis of the wind-PV-battery unit demonstrated that the optimization result was closely related to potential wind-solar resources and government support. Regions with rich wind resources and a reasonable government energy policy could improve the economic efficiency of their power-generation units.

  17. Higher-capacity lithium ion battery chemistries for improved residential energy storage with micro-cogeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darcovich, K.; Henquin, E.R.; Kenney, B.; Davidson, I.J.; Saldanha, N.; Beausoleil-Morrison, I.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Characterized two novel high capacity electrode materials for Li-ion batteries. • A numerical discharge model was run to characterize Li-ion cell behavior. • Engineering model of Li-ion battery pack developed from cell fundamentals. • ESP-r model integrated micro-cogeneration and high capacity Li-ion storage. • Higher capacity batteries shown to improve micro-cogeneration systems. - Abstract: Combined heat and power on a residential scale, also known as micro-cogeneration, is currently gaining traction as an energy savings practice. The configuration of micro-cogeneration systems is highly variable, as local climate, energy supply, energy market and the feasibility of including renewable type components such as wind turbines or photovoltaic panels are all factors. Large-scale lithium ion batteries for electrical storage in this context can provide cost savings, operational flexibility, and reduced stress on the distribution grid as well as a degree of contingency for installations relying upon unsteady renewables. Concurrently, significant advances in component materials used to make lithium ion cells offer performance improvements in terms of power output, energy capacity, robustness and longevity, thereby enhancing their prospective utility in residential micro-cogeneration installations. The present study evaluates annual residential energy use for a typical Canadian home connected to the electrical grid, equipped with a micro-cogeneration system consisting of a Stirling engine for supplying heat and power, coupled with a nominal 2 kW/6 kW h lithium ion battery. Two novel battery cathode chemistries, one a new Li–NCA material, the other a high voltage Ni-doped lithium manganate, are compared in the residential micro-cogeneration context with a system equipped with the presently conventional LiMn 2 O 4 spinel-type battery

  18. A Novel Data-Driven Fast Capacity Estimation of Spent Electric Vehicle Lithium-ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caiping Zhang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Fast capacity estimation is a key enabling technique for second-life of lithium-ion batteries due to the hard work involved in determining the capacity of a large number of used electric vehicle (EV batteries. This paper tries to make three contributions to the existing literature through a robust and advanced algorithm: (1 a three layer back propagation artificial neural network (BP ANN model is developed to estimate the battery capacity. The model employs internal resistance expressing the battery’s kinetics as the model input, which can realize fast capacity estimation; (2 an estimation error model is established to investigate the relationship between the robustness coefficient and regression coefficient. It is revealed that commonly used ANN capacity estimation algorithm is flawed in providing robustness of parameter measurement uncertainties; (3 the law of large numbers is used as the basis for a proposed robust estimation approach, which optimally balances the relationship between estimation accuracy and disturbance rejection. An optimal range of the threshold for robustness coefficient is also discussed and proposed. Experimental results demonstrate the efficacy and the robustness of the BP ANN model together with the proposed identification approach, which can provide an important basis for large scale applications of second-life of batteries.

  19. Method for estimating capacity and predicting remaining useful life of lithium-ion battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Chao; Jain, Gaurav; Tamirisa, Prabhakar; Gorka, Tom

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We develop an integrated method for the capacity estimation and RUL prediction. • A state projection scheme is derived for capacity estimation. • The Gauss–Hermite particle filter technique is used for the RUL prediction. • Results with 10 years’ continuous cycling data verify the effectiveness of the method. - Abstract: Reliability of lithium-ion (Li-ion) rechargeable batteries used in implantable medical devices has been recognized as of high importance from a broad range of stakeholders, including medical device manufacturers, regulatory agencies, physicians, and patients. To ensure Li-ion batteries in these devices operate reliably, it is important to be able to assess the capacity of Li-ion battery and predict the remaining useful life (RUL) throughout the whole life-time. This paper presents an integrated method for the capacity estimation and RUL prediction of Li-ion battery used in implantable medical devices. A state projection scheme from the author’s previous study is used for the capacity estimation. Then, based on the capacity estimates, the Gauss–Hermite particle filter technique is used to project the capacity fade to the end-of-service (EOS) value (or the failure limit) for the RUL prediction. Results of 10 years’ continuous cycling test on Li-ion prismatic cells in the lab suggest that the proposed method achieves good accuracy in the capacity estimation and captures the uncertainty in the RUL prediction. Post-explant weekly cycling data obtained from field cells with 4–7 implant years further verify the effectiveness of the proposed method in the capacity estimation

  20. Online Capacity Estimation of Lithium-Ion Batteries Based on Novel Feature Extraction and Adaptive Multi-Kernel Relevance Vector Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Zhang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Prognostics is necessary to ensure the reliability and safety of lithium-ion batteries for hybrid electric vehicles or satellites. This process can be achieved by capacity estimation, which is a direct fading indicator for assessing the state of health of a battery. However, the capacity of a lithium-ion battery onboard is difficult to monitor. This paper presents a data-driven approach for online capacity estimation. First, six novel features are extracted from cyclic charge/discharge cycles and used as indirect health indicators. An adaptive multi-kernel relevance machine (MKRVM based on accelerated particle swarm optimization algorithm is used to determine the optimal parameters of MKRVM and characterize the relationship between extracted features and battery capacity. The overall estimation process comprises offline and online stages. A supervised learning step in the offline stage is established for model verification to ensure the generalizability of MKRVM for online application. Cross-validation is further conducted to validate the performance of the proposed model. Experiment and comparison results show the effectiveness, accuracy, efficiency, and robustness of the proposed approach for online capacity estimation of lithium-ion batteries.

  1. Prediction of lithium-ion battery capacity with metabolic grey model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Lin; Lin, Weilong; Li, Junzi; Tian, Binbin; Pan, Haihong

    2016-01-01

    Given the popularity of Lithium-ion batteries in EVs (electric vehicles), predicting the capacity quickly and accurately throughout a battery's full life-time is still a challenging issue for ensuring the reliability of EVs. This paper proposes an approach in predicting the varied capacity with discharge cycles based on metabolic grey theory and consider issues from two perspectives: 1) three metabolic grey models will be presented, including MGM (metabolic grey model), MREGM (metabolic Residual-error grey model), and MMREGM (metabolic Markov-residual-error grey model); 2) the universality of these models will be explored under different conditions (such as various discharge rates and temperatures). Furthermore, the research findings in this paper demonstrate the excellent performance of the prediction depending on the three models; however, the precision of the MREGM model is inferior compared to the others. Therefore, we have obtained the conclusion in which the MGM model and the MMREGM model have excellent performances in predicting the capacity under a variety of load conditions, even using few data points for modeling. Also, the universality of the metabolic grey prediction theory is verified by predicting the capacity of batteries under different discharge rates and different temperatures. - Highlights: • The metabolic mechanism is introduced in a grey system for capacity prediction. • Three metabolic grey models are presented and studied. • The universality of these models under different conditions is assessed. • A few data points are required for predicting the capacity with these models.

  2. Online Diagnosis for the Capacity Fade Fault of a Parallel-Connected Lithium Ion Battery Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Zhang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In a parallel-connected battery group (PCBG, capacity degradation is usually caused by the inconsistency between a faulty cell and other normal cells, and the inconsistency occurs due to two potential causes: an aging inconsistency fault or a loose contacting fault. In this paper, a novel method is proposed to perform online and real-time capacity fault diagnosis for PCBGs. Firstly, based on the analysis of parameter variation characteristics of a PCBG with different fault causes, it is found that PCBG resistance can be taken as an indicator for both seeking the faulty PCBG and distinguishing the fault causes. On one hand, the faulty PCBG can be identified by comparing the PCBG resistance among PCBGs; on the other hand, two fault causes can be distinguished by comparing the variance of the PCBG resistances. Furthermore, for online applications, a novel recursive-least-squares algorithm with restricted memory and constraint (RLSRMC, in which the constraint is added to eliminate the “imaginary number” phenomena of parameters, is developed and used in PCBG resistance identification. Lastly, fault simulation and validation results demonstrate that the proposed methods have good accuracy and reliability.

  3. A Major Constituent of Brown Algae for Use in High-Capacity Li-Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalenko, Igor; Zdyrko, Bogdan; Magasinski, Alexandre; Hertzberg, Benjamin; Milicev, Zoran; Burtovyy, Ruslan; Luzinov, Igor; Yushin, Gleb

    2011-10-01

    The identification of similarities in the material requirements for applications of interest and those of living organisms provides opportunities to use renewable natural resources to develop better materials and design better devices. In our work, we harness this strategy to build high-capacity silicon (Si) nanopowder-based lithium (Li)-ion batteries with improved performance characteristics. Si offers more than one order of magnitude higher capacity than graphite, but it exhibits dramatic volume changes during electrochemical alloying and de-alloying with Li, which typically leads to rapid anode degradation. We show that mixing Si nanopowder with alginate, a natural polysaccharide extracted from brown algae, yields a stable battery anode possessing reversible capacity eight times higher than that of the state-of-the-art graphitic anodes.

  4. Review on anionic redox for high-capacity lithium- and sodium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Chenglong; Lu, Yaxiang; Hu, Yong-Sheng; Chen, Liquan; Wang, Qidi; Li, Baohua

    2017-01-01

    Rechargeable batteries, especially lithium-ion batteries, are now widely used as power sources for portable electronics and electric vehicles, but material innovations are still needed to satisfy the increasing demand for larger energy density. Recently, lithium- and sodium-rich electrode materials, including the A 2 MO 3 -family layered compounds (A  =  Li, Na; M  =  Mn 4+ , Ru 4+ , etc), have been extensively studied as potential high-capacity electrode materials for a cumulative cationic and anionic redox activity. Negatively charged oxide ions can potentially donate electrons to compensate for the absence of oxidable transition metals as a redox center to further increase the reversible capacity. Understanding and controlling the state-of-the-art anionic redox processes is pivotal for the design of advanced energy materials, highlighted in rechargeable batteries. Hence, experimental and theoretical approaches have been developed to consecutively study the diverting processes, states, and structures involved. In this review, we attempt to present a literature overview and provide insight into the reaction mechanism with respect to the anionic redox processes, proposing some opinions as target oriented. It is hoped that, through this discussion, the search for anionic redox electrode materials with high-capacity rechargeable batteries can be advanced, and practical applications realized as soon as possible. (topical review)

  5. Spongelike Nanosized Mn 3 O 4 as a High-Capacity Anode Material for Rechargeable Lithium Batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Gao, Jie

    2011-07-12

    Mn3O4 has been investigated as a high-capacity anode material for rechargeable lithium ion batteries. Spongelike nanosized Mn 3O4 was synthesized by a simple precipitation method and characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, Raman scattering and scanning electron microscopy. Its electrochemical performance, as an anode material, was evaluated by galvanostatic discharge-charge tests. The results indicate that this novel type of nanosized Mn3O4 exhibits a high initial reversible capacity (869 mA h/g) and significantly enhanced first Coulomb efficiency with a stabilized reversible capacity of around 800 mA h/g after over 40 charge/discharge cycles. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  6. Working with Toronto neighbourhoods toward developing indicators of community capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Suzanne F; Cleverly, Shelley; Poland, Blake; Burman, David; Edwards, Richard; Robertson, Ann

    2003-12-01

    Often the goal of health and social development agencies is to assess communities and work with them to improve community capacity. Particularly for health promoters working in community settings and to ensure consistency in the definition of health promotion, the evaluation of health promotion programmes should be based on strengths and assets, yet existing information for planning and evaluation purposes usually focuses on problems and deficits. A model and definition of community capacity, grounded in community experience and focusing on strengths and assets, was developed following a 4-year, multi-site, qualitative, action research project in four Toronto neighbourhoods. There was significant community involvement in the four Community Advisory Committees, one for each study site. Semi-structured, open-ended interviews and focus groups were conducted with 161 residents and agency workers identified by the Community Advisory Committees. The data were analyzed with the assistance of NUDIST software. Thematic analysis was undertaken in two stages: (i) within each site and (ii) across sites, with the latter serving as the basis for the development of indicators of community capacity. This paper presents a summary of the research, the model and the proposed indicators. The model locates talents and skills of community members in a larger context of socioenvironmental conditions, both inside and outside the community, which can act to enable or constrain the expression of these talents and skills. The significance of the indicators of community capacity proposed in the study is that they focus on identifying and measuring the facilitating and constraining socioenvironmental conditions.

  7. Development of high-capacity nickel-metal hydride batteries using superlattice hydrogen-absorbing alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasuoka, Shigekazu; Magari, Yoshifumi; Murata, Tetsuyuki; Tanaka, Tadayoshi; Ishida, Jun; Nakamura, Hiroshi; Nohma, Toshiyuki; Kihara, Masaru; Baba, Yoshitaka; Teraoka, Hirohito

    2006-01-01

    New R-Mg-Ni (R: rare earths) superlattice alloys with higher-capacity and higher-durability than the conventional Mm-Ni alloys with CaCu 5 structure have been developed. The oxidation resistibility of the superlattice alloys has been improved by optimizing the alloy composition by such as substituting aluminum for nickel and optimizing the magnesium content in order to prolong the battery life. High-capacity nickel-metal hydride batteries for the retail market, the Ni-MH2500/900 series (AA size type 2500mAh, AAA size type 900mAh), have been developed and commercialized by using an improved superlattice alloy for negative electrode material. alized by using an improved superlattice alloy for negative electrode material. (author)

  8. Development of high-capacity nickel-metal hydride batteries using superlattice hydrogen-absorbing alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasuoka, Shigekazu; Magari, Yoshifumi; Murata, Tetsuyuki; Tanaka, Tadayoshi; Ishida, Jun; Nakamura, Hiroshi; Nohma, Toshiyuki [Mobile Energy Company, Sanyo Electric Co. Ltd., 7-3-2, Ibukidai-higashimachi Nishi-ku, Kobe, Hyogo 651-2242 (Japan); Kihara, Masaru; Baba, Yoshitaka; Teraoka, Hirohito [Sanyo Energy Twicell Co. Ltd., 307-2 Koyagimachi, Takasaki, Gunma 370-0071 (Japan)

    2006-06-01

    New R-Mg-Ni (R: rare earths) superlattice alloys with higher-capacity and higher-durability than the conventional Mm-Ni alloys with CaCu{sub 5} structure have been developed. The oxidation resistibility of the superlattice alloys has been improved by optimizing the alloy composition by such as substituting aluminum for nickel and optimizing the magnesium content in order to prolong the battery life. High-capacity nickel-metal hydride batteries for the retail market, the Ni-MH2500/900 series (AA size type 2500mAh, AAA size type 900mAh), have been developed and commercialized by using an improved superlattice alloy for negative electrode material. alized by using an improved superlattice alloy for negative electrode material. (author)

  9. Accuracy statistics in predicting Independent Activities of Daily Living (IADL) capacity with comprehensive and brief neuropsychological test batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karzmark, Peter; Deutsch, Gayle K

    2018-01-01

    This investigation was designed to determine the predictive accuracy of a comprehensive neuropsychological and brief neuropsychological test battery with regard to the capacity to perform instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs). Accuracy statistics that included measures of sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predicted power and positive likelihood ratio were calculated for both types of batteries. The sample was drawn from a general neurological group of adults (n = 117) that included a number of older participants (age >55; n = 38). Standardized neuropsychological assessments were administered to all participants and were comprised of the Halstead Reitan Battery and portions of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III. A comprehensive test battery yielded a moderate increase over base-rate in predictive accuracy that generalized to older individuals. There was only limited support for using a brief battery, for although sensitivity was high, specificity was low. We found that a comprehensive neuropsychological test battery provided good classification accuracy for predicting IADL capacity.

  10. High Capacity Cathode and Carbon Nanotube-Supported Anode for Enhanced Energy Density Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-07

    High Earth Orbit MnCO3 Manganese(II) carbonate MnO2 Manganese dioxide MnSO4 Manganese(II) sulfate monohydrate Approved for public release; distribution ...AFRL-RV-PS- AFRL-RV-PS- TR-2017-0146 TR-2017-0146 HIGH CAPACITY CATHODE AND CARBON NANOTUBE-SUPPORTED ANODE FOR ENHANCED ENERGY DENSITY BATTERIES...2017 Final Report APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE; DISTRIBUTION IS UNLIMITED. AIR FORCE RESEARCH LABORATORY Space Vehicles Directorate 3550 Aberdeen

  11. Capacity extended bismuth-antimony cathode for high-performance liquid metal battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Tao; Zhao, Yue; Ning, Xiao-Hui; Lakshmi Narayan, R.; Li, Ju; Shan, Zhi-wei

    2018-03-01

    Li-Bi based liquid metal batteries (LMBs) have attracted interest due to their potential for solving grid scale energy storage problems. In this study, the feasibility of replacing the bismuth cathode with a bismuth-antimony alloy cathode in lithium based LMBs is investigated. The influence of the Bi:Sb ratio on voltage characteristics is evaluated via the constant current discharge method and electrochemical titration. On observing the cross section of the electrode at various stages of discharge, it is determined that both Sb and Bi form solid intermetallics with Li on the cathode. Additionally, the addition of Bi not only reduces the melting temperature of the Bi:Sb intermetallic but also actively contributes to the electrode capacity. Thereafter, a Li|LiCl-LiF|Sb-Bi liquid metal battery with 3 A h nameplate capacity, assembled and cycled at 1 C rate, is found to possess a stable capacity for over 160 cycles. The overall performance of this battery is discussed in the context of cost effectiveness, energy and coulombic efficiencies.

  12. Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Lijuan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fe3O4/carbon microspheres (Fe3O4/C were prepared by a facile hydrothermal reaction using cellulose and ferric trichloride as precursors. The resultant composite spheres have been investigated as anode materials for the lithium-ion batteries, and they show high capacity and good cycle stability (830mAhg−1 at a current density of 0.1C up to 70 cycles, as well as enhanced rate capability. The excellent electrochemical performance is attributed to the high structural stability and high rate of ionic/electronic conduction arising from the porous character and the synergetic effect of the carbon coated Fe3O4 structure and conductive carbon coating.

  13. Tradeoffs between battery energy capacity and stochastic optimal power management in plug-in hybrid electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moura, Scott J.; Fathy, Hosam K.; Stein, Jeffrey L.; Callaway, Duncan S.

    2010-01-01

    Recent results in plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) power management research suggest that battery energy capacity requirements may be reduced through proper power management algorithm design. Specifically, algorithms which blend fuel and electricity during the charge depletion phase using smaller batteries may perform equally to algorithms that apply electric-only operation during charge depletion using larger batteries. The implication of this result is that ''blended'' power management algorithms may reduce battery energy capacity requirements, thereby lowering the acquisition costs of PHEVs. This article seeks to quantify the tradeoffs between power management algorithm design and battery energy capacity, in a systematic and rigorous manner. Namely, we (1) construct dynamic PHEV models with scalable battery energy capacities, (2) optimize power management using stochastic control theory, and (3) develop simulation methods to statistically quantify the performance tradeoffs. The degree to which blending enables smaller battery energy capacities is evaluated as a function of both daily driving distance and energy (fuel and electricity) pricing. (author)

  14. Comparative Analysis of Battery Behavior with Different Modes of Discharge for Optimal Capacity Sizing and BMS Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazhar Abbas

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Battery-operated systems are always concerned about the proper management and sizing of a battery. A Traditional Battery Management System (BMS only includes battery-aware task scheduling based on the discharge characteristics of a whole battery pack and do not take into account the mode of the load being served by the battery. On the other hand, an efficient and intelligent BMS should monitor the battery at a cell level and track the load with significant consideration of the load mode. Depending upon the load modes, the common modes of discharge (MOD of a battery identified so far are Constant Power Mode (CPM, Constant Current Mode (CCM and Constant Impedance Mode (CIM. This paper comparatively analyzes the discharging behavior of batteries at an individual cell level for different load modes. The difference in discharging behavior from mode to mode represents the study of the mode-dependent behavior of the battery before its deployment in some application. Based on simulation results, optimal capacity sizing and BMS operation of battery for an assumed situation in a remote microgrid has been proposed.

  15. Hollow Carbon Nanofiber-Encapsulated Sulfur Cathodes for High Specific Capacity Rechargeable Lithium Batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Zheng, Guangyuan

    2011-10-12

    Sulfur has a high specific capacity of 1673 mAh/g as lithium battery cathodes, but its rapid capacity fading due to polysulfides dissolution presents a significant challenge for practical applications. Here we report a hollow carbon nanofiber-encapsulated sulfur cathode for effective trapping of polysulfides and demonstrate experimentally high specific capacity and excellent electrochemical cycling of the cells. The hollow carbon nanofiber arrays were fabricated using anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) templates, through thermal carbonization of polystyrene. The AAO template also facilitates sulfur infusion into the hollow fibers and prevents sulfur from coating onto the exterior carbon wall. The high aspect ratio of the carbon nanofibers provides an ideal structure for trapping polysulfides, and the thin carbon wall allows rapid transport of lithium ions. The small dimension of these nanofibers provides a large surface area per unit mass for Li2S deposition during cycling and reduces pulverization of electrode materials due to volumetric expansion. A high specific capacity of about 730 mAh/g was observed at C/5 rate after 150 cycles of charge/discharge. The introduction of LiNO3 additive to the electrolyte was shown to improve the Coulombic efficiency to over 99% at C/5. The results show that the hollow carbon nanofiber-encapsulated sulfur structure could be a promising cathode design for rechargeable Li/S batteries with high specific energy. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  16. Crystalline-amorphous core-shell silicon nanowires for high capacity and high current battery electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Li-Feng; Ruffo, Riccardo; Chan, Candace K; Peng, Hailin; Cui, Yi

    2009-01-01

    Silicon is an attractive alloy-type anode material for lithium ion batteries because of its highest known capacity (4200 mAh/g). However silicon's large volume change upon lithium insertion and extraction, which causes pulverization and capacity fading, has limited its applications. Designing nanoscale hierarchical structures is a novel approach to address the issues associated with the large volume changes. In this letter, we introduce a core-shell design of silicon nanowires for highpower and long-life lithium battery electrodes. Silicon crystalline-amorphous core-shell nanowires were grown directly on stainless steel current collectors by a simple one-step synthesis. Amorphous Si shells instead of crystalline Si cores can be selected to be electrochemically active due to the difference of their lithiation potentials. Therefore, crystalline Si cores function as a stable mechanical support and an efficient electrical conducting pathway while amorphous shells store Li(+) ions. We demonstrate here that these core-shell nanowires have high charge storage capacity ( approximately 1000 mAh/g, 3 times of carbon) with approximately 90% capacity retention over 100 cycles. They also show excellent electrochemical performance at high rate charging and discharging (6.8 A/g, approximately 20 times of carbon at 1 h rate).

  17. Crystalline-Amorphous Core−Shell Silicon Nanowires for High Capacity and High Current Battery Electrodes

    KAUST Repository

    Cui, Li-Feng

    2009-01-14

    Silicon is an attractive alloy-type anode material for lithium ion batteries because of its highest known capacity (4200 mAh/g). However silicon\\'s large volume change upon lithium insertion and extraction, which causes pulverization and capacity fading, has limited its applications. Designing nanoscale hierarchical structures is a novel approach to address the issues associated with the large volume changes. In this letter, we introduce a core-shell design of silicon nanowires for highpower and long-life lithium battery electrodes. Silicon crystalline- amorphous core-shell nanowires were grown directly on stainless steel current collectors by a simple one-step synthesis. Amorphous Si shells instead of crystalline Si cores can be selected to be electrochemically active due to the difference of their lithiation potentials. Therefore, crystalline Si cores function as a stable mechanical support and an efficient electrical conducting pathway while amorphous shells store Li ions. We demonstrate here that these core-shell nanowires have high charge storage capacity (̃1000 mAh/g, 3 times of carbon) with ̃90% capacity retention over 100 cycles. They also show excellent electrochemical performance at high rate charging and discharging (6.8 A/g, ̃20 times of carbon at 1 h rate). © 2009 American Chemical Society.

  18. High-Capacity Cathode Material with High Voltage for Li-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Ji-Lei; Xiao, Dong-Dong; Ge, Mingyuan; Yu, Xiqian; Chu, Yong; Huang, Xiaojing; Zhang, Xu-Dong; Yin, Ya-Xia; Yang, Xiao-Qing; Guo, Yu-Guo; Gu, Lin; Wan, Li-Jun

    2018-03-01

    Electrochemical energy storage devices with a high energy density are an important technology in modern society, especially for electric vehicles. The most effective approach to improve the energy density of batteries is to search for high-capacity electrode materials. According to the concept of energy quality, a high-voltage battery delivers a highly useful energy, thus providing a new insight to improve energy density. Based on this concept, a novel and successful strategy to increase the energy density and energy quality by increasing the discharge voltage of cathode materials and preserving high capacity is proposed. The proposal is realized in high-capacity Li-rich cathode materials. The average discharge voltage is increased from 3.5 to 3.8 V by increasing the nickel content and applying a simple after-treatment, and the specific energy is improved from 912 to 1033 Wh kg -1 . The current work provides an insightful universal principle for developing, designing, and screening electrode materials for high energy density and energy quality. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Carbon−Silicon Core−Shell Nanowires as High Capacity Electrode for Lithium Ion Batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Cui, Li-Feng

    2009-09-09

    We introduce a novel design of carbon-silicon core-shell nanowires for high power and long life lithium battery electrodes. Amorphous silicon was coated onto carbon nanofibers to form a core-shell structure and the resulted core-shell nanowires showed great performance as anode material. Since carbon has a much smaller capacity compared to silicon, the carbon core experiences less structural stress or damage during lithium cycling and can function as a mechanical support and an efficient electron conducting pathway. These nanowires have a high charge storage capacity of ∼2000 mAh/g and good cycling life. They also have a high Coulmbic efficiency of 90% for the first cycle and 98-99.6% for the following cycles. A full cell composed of LiCoO2 cathode and carbon-silicon core-shell nanowire anode is also demonstrated. Significantly, using these core-shell nanowires we have obtained high mass loading and an area capacity of ∼4 mAh/cm2, which is comparable to commercial battery values. © 2009 American Chemical Society.

  20. The association of selected SPEEX-battery indices with the constructs of the multifactor leadership questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Sugreen

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The principal objective of the study was to determine the relationship between certain indices of the SPEEX-battery and the leadership dimensions of the MLQ. The SPEEX-battery was subjected to factor analysis and yielded six factors. The reliabilities of the composite scores calculated to represent each of the factors ranged from 0,712 to 0,925. The MLQ was also subjected to factor analysis and yielded three factors. A canonical correlation of 0,666 (p < 0, 000001 was obtained between the indices of the SPEEX-battery (IV’s and the leadership dimensions of the MLQ (DV’s. The implications of the findings are discussed. Opsomming Die hoofdoelwit van die studie was om die verband tussen sekere indekse van die SPEEX-battery en die leierskapsdimensies van die MLQ te bepaal. Die SPEEX-battery is aan ’n faktorontleding onderwerp en ses faktore is verkry. Saamgesteldetellings is bereken om elk van die faktore te verteenwoordig. Die verkreë betroubaarhede het gewissel van 0,712 tot 0,925. Die MLQ is ook aan ’n faktorontleding onderwerp en drie faktore is verkry. ’n Kanoniese korrelasie van 0,666 (p< 0,000001 is verkry tussen die dimensies van die SPEEX-battery (OV’s en die leierskapsdimensies van die MLQ (AV’s. Die implikasies van die studie word bespreek.

  1. Research on the fiber reflecting sensor for detecting the residual capacity of the lead-acid battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Mingfu; Zhong, Nianbing; Chen, Yan; Luo, Yuwei

    2006-11-01

    According to the Lambert-Bee law, we can see that the photic absorption coefficient is related to the matter's concentration, the distance of the light through the absorption medium and the transmitted light intensity. The paper just according to the physical phenomena and the theory make the reflex energy relate to the concentration testing of the electrolyte, at the same time the electrolyte's concentration is related to the capacity of lead-acid battery on a corresponding function relation, so we can know the capacity state of the lead-acid battery according to the measurement on the electrolyte's concentration. According to the experiment and research the author deeply discussed how the temperature change affects the capacity of lead-acid battery and the concentration's changing relation, according to the analyses of the thermo-optic effect, we made a new reflecting fiber sensor based on the comparative temperature testing theory and absorption which can eliminate the temperature effect on the tested signal namely the output signal just related to the concentration, so really reflects the change of the capacity of the lead-acid battery when it is in the charge and discharge process. The results of the experiment and theory analyses show that this method is easy to realize the online testing of the capacity of lead-acid battery. This sensor has many merits such as precise measurement, sensitive reaction, long-life use etc. It can be widely used in the electric capacity testing of the automobile lead-acid battery, the electric capacity testing of the industry lead-acid battery, liquor's concentration testing and salinity testing of the sea and have a bright future.

  2. Crack-resistant polyimide coating for high-capacity battery anodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yingshun; Wang, Shuo; Lee, Pui-Kit; He, Jieqing; Yu, Denis Y. W.

    2017-10-01

    Electrode cracking is a serious problem that hinders the application of many next-generation high-capacity anode materials for lithium-ion batteries. Even though nano-sizing the material can reduce fracturing of individual particles, capacity fading is still observed due to large volume change and loss of contact in the electrode during lithium insertion and extraction. In this study, we design a crack-resistant high-modulus polyimide coating with high compressive strength which can hold multiple particles together during charge and discharge to maintain contact. The effectiveness of the coating is demonstrated on tin dioxide, a high-capacity large-volume-change material that undergoes both alloy and conversion reactions. The polyimide coating improves capacity retention of SnO2 from 80% to 100% after 80 cycles at 250 mA g-1. Stable capacity of 585 mAh g-1 can be obtained even at 500 mA g-1 after 300 cycles. Scanning electron microscopy and in-situ dilatometry confirm that electrode cracking is suppressed and thickness change is reduced with the coating. In addition, the chemically-stable polyimide film can separate the surface from direct contact with electrolyte, improving coulombic efficiency to ∼100%. We expect the novel strategy of suppressing electrode degradation with a crack-resistant coating can also be used for other alloy and conversion-based anodes.

  3. An asymmetric Zn//Ag doped polyaniline microparticle suspension flow battery with high discharge capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Sen; Zhao, Yongfu; Li, Degeng; Xia, Yang; Si, Shihui

    2015-02-01

    In this study, the effect of oxygen on the potential of reduced polyaniline (PANI) was investigated. In order to enhance the air oxidation of reduced PANI, several composites of PANI doped with co-catalysts were prepared, and a reasonable flow Zn//PANI suspension cell system was designed to investigate the discharge capacity of obtained PANI composite microparticle suspension cathodes. Compared with PANI doped with Cu2+, La+, Mn2+ and zinc protoporphyrin, Ag doped PANI composite at 0.90 weight percent doping of Ag gave the highest value of discharge capacity for the half-cell potential from the initial value to -0.20 V (vs. SCE). A comparison study on the electrochemical properties of both PANI and Ag doped PANI microparticle suspension was done by using cyclic voltammetry, AC Impedance. Due to partial utilization of Zn//air fuel cell, the discharge capacity for Ag doped PANI reached 470 mA h g-1 at the current density of 20 mA cm-2. At 15 mA cm-2, the discharge capacity even reached up to 1650 mA h g-1 after 220 h constant current discharge at the final discharge voltage of 0.65 V. This work demonstrates an effective and feasible approach toward obtaining high energy and power densities by a Zn//Ag-doped PANI suspension flow battery system combined with Zn//air fuel cell.

  4. Robust, High Capacity, High Power Lithium Ion Batteries for Space Systems, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Lithium ion battery technology provides the highest energy density of all rechargeable battery technologies available today. However, the majority of the research...

  5. Optimization of Battery Capacity Decay for Semi-Active Hybrid Energy Storage System Equipped on Electric City Bus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaogang Wu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In view of severe changes in temperature during different seasons in cold areas of northern China, the decay of battery capacity of electric vehicles poses a problem. This paper uses an electric bus power system with semi-active hybrid energy storage system (HESS as the research object and proposes a convex power distribution strategy to optimize the battery current that represents degradation of battery capacity based on the analysis of semi-empirical LiFePO4 battery life decline model. Simulation results show that, at a room temperature of 25 °C, during a daily trip organized by the Harbin City Driving Cycle including four cycle lines and four charging phases, the percentage of battery degradation was 9.6 × 10−3%. According to the average temperature of different months in Harbin, the percentage of battery degradation of the power distribution strategy proposed in this paper is 3.15% in one year; the electric bus can operate for 6.4 years until its capacity reduces to 80% of its initial value, and it can operate for 0.51 year more than the rule-based power distribution strategy.

  6. Case Report: Capacity indicators for disaster preparedness in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The goal of this study was to assess hospital capacity for disaster preparedness within Nairobi County. This information would be valuable to institutional strategists to resolve weaknesses and reinforce strengths in hospital capacity hence ensure efficient and effective service delivery during disasters. Analytical ...

  7. Hierarchical porous poly (ether sulfone) membranes with excellent capacity retention for vanadium flow battery application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dongju; Li, Dandan; Li, Xianfeng

    2017-06-01

    A hierarchical poly (ether sulfone) (PES) porous membrane is facilely fabricated via a hard template method for vanadium flow battery (VFB) application. The construction of this hierarchical porous membrane is prepared via removing templates (phenolphthalein). The pore size can be well controlled by optimizing the template content in the cast solution, ensuring the membrane conductivity and selectively. The prepared hierarchical porous membrane can combine high ion selectivity with high proton conductivity, which renders a good electrochemical performance in a VFB. The optimized hierarchical porous membrane shows a columbic efficiency of 94.52% and energy efficiency of 81.66% along with a superior ability to maintain stable capacity over extended cycling at a current density of 80 mA cm-2. The characteristics of low cost, proven chemical stability and high electrochemical performance afford the hierarchical PES porous membrane great prospect in VFB application.

  8. Progress in High-Capacity Core-Shell Cathode Materials for Rechargeable Lithium Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myung, Seung-Taek; Noh, Hyung-Joo; Yoon, Sung-June; Lee, Eung-Ju; Sun, Yang-Kook

    2014-02-20

    High-energy-density rechargeable batteries are needed to fulfill various demands such as self-monitoring analysis and reporting technology (SMART) devices, energy storage systems, and (hybrid) electric vehicles. As a result, high-energy electrode materials enabling a long cycle life and reliable safety need to be developed. To ensure these requirements, new material chemistries can be derived from combinations of at least two compounds in a secondary particle with varying chemical composition and primary particle morphologies having a core-shell structure and spherical cathode-active materials, specifically a nanoparticle core and shell, nanoparticle core and nanorod shell, and nanorod core and shell. To this end, several layer core-shell cathode materials were developed to ensure high capacity, reliability, and safety.

  9. Enhanced capacity of chemically bonded phosphorus/carbon composite as an anode material for potassium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xuan; Zhao, Wei; Wang, Hong; Qi, Xiujun; Xing, Zheng; Zhuang, Quanchao; Ju, Zhicheng

    2018-02-01

    Potassium-ion batteries are attracting great attention as a promising alternative to lithium-ion batteries due to the abundance and low price of potassium. Herein, the phosphorus/carbon composite, obtained by a simple ball-milling of 20 wt% commercial red phosphorus and 80 wt% graphite, is studied as a novel anode for potassium-ion batteries. Considering the high theoretical specific capacity of phosphorus and formation of stable phosphorus-carbon bond, which can alleviate the volume expansion efficiently, the phosphorus/carbon composite exhibits a high charge capacity of 323.5 mA h g-1 after 50 cycles at a current density of 50 mA g-1 with moderate rate capability and cycling stability. By the X-ray diffraction analysis, the alloying-dealloying mechanism of phosphorus is proposed to form a KP phase. Meanwhile, prepotassiation treatment is conducted to improve the low initial coulomb efficiency.

  10. Morphology control of ordered mesoporous carbons for high capacity lithium sulfur batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuster, Joerg David

    2011-06-07

    The focus of this thesis concerns the morphology control of ordered mesoporous carbon (OMC) materials. Ordered mesoporous carbons with diverse morphologies, that are thin films, fibers - embedded in anodic alumina membranes and free-standing - or spherical nanoparticles, have been successfully prepared by soft-templating procedures. The mechanisms of structure formation and processing were investigated with in-situ SAXS measurements and their application in high capacity lithium-sulfur batteries was successfully tested in cooperation with Guang He and Linda Nazar from the University of Waterloo in Canada. The Li-S batteries receive increasing attention due to their high theoretical energy density which is 3 to 5 times higher than from lithium-ion batteries. For this type of battery the specific pore volume is crucial for the content of the active component (sulfur) in the cathode and therefore correlates with the capacity and gravimetric energy density of the battery. At first, mesoporous thin films with 2D-hexagonal structure were obtained through organic-organic self-assembly of a preformed oligomeric resol precursor and the triblock copolymer template Pluronic P123. The formation of a condensed-wall material through thermopolymerization of the precursor oligomers resulted in mesostructured phenolic resin films. Subsequent decomposition of the surfactant and partial carbonization were achieved through thermal treatment in inert atmosphere. The films were crack-free with tunable homogenous thicknesses, and showed either 2D-hexagonal or lamellar mesostructure. An additional, yet unknown 3D-mesostructure was also found. In the second part, cubic and circular hexagonal mesoporous carbon phases in the confined environment of tubular anodic alumina membrane (AAM) pores were obtained by self-assembly of the mentioned resol precursor and the triblock copolymer templates Pluronic F127 or P123, respectively. Casting and solvent-evaporation were also followed by

  11. High-Capacity Sodium Peroxide Based NaO2 Batteries with Low Charge Overpotential via a Nanostructured Catalytic Cathode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Lu; Zhang, Dongzhou [Partnership; Lei, Yu [Department; Yuan, Yifei; Wu, Tianpin; Lu, Jun; Amine, Khalil

    2018-01-05

    The superoxide based Na-O-2 battery has circumvented the issue of large charge overpotential in Li-O-2 batteries; however, the one-electron process leads to limited capacity. Herein, a sodium peroxide based low-overpotential (similar to 0.5 V) Na-O-2 battery with a capacity as high as 7.5 mAh/cm(2) is developed with Pd nanoparticles as catalysts on the cathode.

  12. The Improvement of Discharge Capacity of Zr-doped Lithium Titanate for Lithium Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Yongjian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Li4Ti5−xZrxO12 (0 ≪ x ≪ 0.05 materials are synthesized via one-step liquid method in this work. The morphology, elemental distribution and lithium storage performance of Zr-doped lithium titanate are systematic analyzed by field emitting scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM, Hitachi S-4800, energy dispersive X-ray (EDS and Land battery test system (LAND CT2001A together with the pristine lithium titanate for comparison. The FE-SEM images show the uniform morphology and narrow particle size distribution of Zr-doped samples. The cycle performance measurements demonstrate that the Li4Ti4.97Zr0.03O12 electrode displays the best discharge capacities among the composites. It delivers the initial discharge capacities of 165.4 mAh/g and 152.9 mAh/g at 5C and 10C, and remains the values of 142.9 mAh/g and 127.4 mAh/g after 200 cycles. Furthermore, the charge and discharge curves exhibit that the Zr-doped composite presents smaller polarization than the pristine lithium titanate.

  13. Reliability of a Test Battery Designed for Quickly and Safely Assessing Diverse Indices of Neuromuscular Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiering, Barry A.; Lee, Stuart M. C.; Mulavara, Ajitkumar P.; Bentley, Jason, R.; Buxton, Roxanne E.; Lawrence, Emily L.; Sinka, Joseph; Guilliams, Mark E.; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori L.; Bloomberg, Jacob J.

    2010-01-01

    Spaceflight affects nearly every physiological system. Spaceflight-induced alterations in physiological function translate to decrements in functional performance. Purpose: To develop a test battery for quickly and safely assessing diverse indices of neuromuscular performance. I. Quickly: Battery of tests can be completed in approx.30-40 min. II. Safely: a) No eccentric muscle actions or impact forces. b) Tests present little challenge to postural stability. III. Diverse indices: a) Strength: Excellent reliability (ICC = 0.99) b) Central activation: Very good reliability (ICC = 0.87) c) Power: Excellent reliability (ICC = 0.99) d) Endurance: Total work has excellent reliability (ICC = 0.99) e) Force steadiness: Poor reliability (ICC = 0.20 - 0.60) National

  14. High Capacity Nano-Composite Cathodes for Human-Rated Lithium-Ion Batteries, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Non-incremental improvements are necessary in lithium-ion batteries order to meet future space applications demands such as NASA's call for lithium-ion battery...

  15. Performance characteristics of a battery charger and state-of-charge indicator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, D.; Klein, J.

    1984-01-01

    A battery charge/state of charge indicator (BC/SCI) system for electric vehicle use was developed. The original and subsequent objectives for the BC/SCI and the rationale for those objectives are described. The requirements generated from the objectives are listed and a description of the BC/SCI is provided. The power section problem, the tests, and the test results are discussed.

  16. Robustness indicators and capacity models for railway networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars Wittrup

    In a world continuous striving for higher mobility and the use of more sustainable modes of transport, there is a constant pressure on utilising railway capacity better and, at the same time, obtaining a high robustness against delays. During the planning of railway operations and infrastructure...... this can be assisted by improving decision support systems to enable planners to use their time more efficiently. In the context of strategic (long-term) planning, efficient decision-support tools translate into being able to evaluate infrastructure and timetable scenarios fast with little data input....... This has motivated the research conducted and described in this thesis, where the objective has been to develop and improve existing methods to achieve timetable and infrastructure plans with robust capacity utilisation aimed at the strategic and early tactical planning phases....

  17. Metamodel for Efficient Estimation of Capacity-Fade Uncertainty in Li-Ion Batteries for Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaewook Lee

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an efficient method for estimating capacity-fade uncertainty in lithium-ion batteries (LIBs in order to integrate them into the battery-management system (BMS of electric vehicles, which requires simple and inexpensive computation for successful application. The study uses the pseudo-two-dimensional (P2D electrochemical model, which simulates the battery state by solving a system of coupled nonlinear partial differential equations (PDEs. The model parameters that are responsible for electrode degradation are identified and estimated, based on battery data obtained from the charge cycles. The Bayesian approach, with parameters estimated by probability distributions, is employed to account for uncertainties arising in the model and battery data. The Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC technique is used to draw samples from the distributions. The complex computations that solve a PDE system for each sample are avoided by employing a polynomial-based metamodel. As a result, the computational cost is reduced from 5.5 h to a few seconds, enabling the integration of the method into the vehicle BMS. Using this approach, the conservative bound of capacity fade can be determined for the vehicle in service, which represents the safety margin reflecting the uncertainty.

  18. Life cycle environmental impact of high-capacity lithium ion battery with silicon nanowires anode for electric vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bingbing; Gao, Xianfeng; Li, Jianyang; Yuan, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Although silicon nanowires (SiNW) have been widely studied as an ideal material for developing high-capacity lithium ion batteries (LIBs) for electric vehicles (EVs), little is known about the environmental impacts of such a new EV battery pack during its whole life cycle. This paper reports a life cycle assessment (LCA) of a high-capacity LIB pack using SiNW prepared via metal-assisted chemical etching as anode material. The LCA study is conducted based on the average U.S. driving and electricity supply conditions. Nanowastes and nanoparticle emissions from the SiNW synthesis are also characterized and reported. The LCA results show that over 50% of most characterized impacts are generated from the battery operations, while the battery anode with SiNW material contributes to around 15% of global warming potential and 10% of human toxicity potential. Overall the life cycle impacts of this new battery pack are moderately higher than those of conventional LIBs but could be actually comparable when considering the uncertainties and scale-up potential of the technology. These results are encouraging because they not only provide a solid base for sustainable development of next generation LIBs but also confirm that appropriate nanomanufacturing technologies could be used in sustainable product development.

  19. Remarkable cycle-activated capacity increasing in onion-like carbon nanospheres as lithium battery anode material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jiajun; Zhang, Tong; Zhang, Dong; Zhang, Weiwei; Zhang, Huafang; Liu, Ran; Yao, Mingguang; Liu, Bingbing

    2017-01-01

    Onion-like carbon nanospheres (OCNSs) with an average diameter of 43 nm were produced on a large scale via a combustion method and examined as an anode material for lithium ion batteries. The OCNSs exhibit a remarkable electrochemical cycling behavior and a capacity much higher than that of graphite. The capacity increases significantly with increasing charge-discharge cycles and reaches a value of 178% of the initial value (from 586 mA h g-1to 1045 mA h g-1) after 200 cycles. Further investigation provides unambiguous experimental evidence that such a remarkable capacity increase is related to the stable onion-like structure of the OCNSs and to the existence of large numbers of disordered/short graphitic fragments, which gradually provide more active sites for Li ion storage. The unique electrochemical performance of OCNSs provides a new way to design a high-performance anode material for rechargeable batteries.

  20. A Comparison between Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy and Incremental Capacity-Differential Voltage as Li-ion Diagnostic Techniques to Identify and Quantify the Effects of Degradation Modes within Battery Management Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor-Fernández, Carlos; Uddin, Kotub; Chouchelamane, Gael H.; Widanage, W. Dhammika; Marco, James

    2017-08-01

    Degradation of Lithium-ion batteries is a complex process that is caused by a variety of mechanisms. For simplicity, ageing mechanisms are often grouped into three degradation modes (DMs): conductivity loss (CL), loss of active material (LAM) and loss of lithium inventory (LLI). State of Health (SoH) is typically the parameter used by the Battery Management System (BMS) to quantify battery degradation based on the decrease in capacity and the increase in resistance. However, the definition of SoH within a BMS does not currently include an indication of the underlying DMs causing the degradation. Previous studies have analysed the effects of the DMs using incremental capacity and differential voltage (IC-DV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The aim of this study is to compare IC-DV and EIS on the same data set to evaluate if both techniques provide similar insights into the causes of battery degradation. For an experimental case of parallelized cells aged differently, the effects due to LAM and LLI were found to be the most pertinent, outlining that both techniques are correlated. This approach can be further implemented within a BMS to quantify the causes of battery ageing which would support battery lifetime control strategies and future battery designs.

  1. Battery Modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongerden, M.R.; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.H.M.

    2008-01-01

    The use of mobile devices is often limited by the capacity of the employed batteries. The battery lifetime determines how long one can use a device. Battery modeling can help to predict, and possibly extend this lifetime. Many different battery models have been developed over the years. However,

  2. Nanoscale zinc-based metal-organic framework with high capacity for lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Changdong [Changzhou University, School of Petrochemical Engineering, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Advanced Catalytic Materials and Technology, and Advanced Catalysis and Green Manufacturing Collaborative Innovation Center (China); Gao, Yuanrui; Liu, Lili [Shanghai University, Department of Chemistry, College of Science (China); Song, Yidan; Wang, Xianmei [Changzhou University, School of Petrochemical Engineering, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Advanced Catalytic Materials and Technology, and Advanced Catalysis and Green Manufacturing Collaborative Innovation Center (China); Liu, Hong-Jiang, E-mail: liuhj@shu.edu.cn [Shanghai University, Department of Chemistry, College of Science (China); Liu, Qi, E-mail: liuqi62@163.com [Changzhou University, School of Petrochemical Engineering, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Advanced Catalytic Materials and Technology, and Advanced Catalysis and Green Manufacturing Collaborative Innovation Center (China)

    2016-12-15

    Layered zinc-based metal-organic framework ([Zn(4,4′-bpy)(tfbdc)(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}], Zn-LMOF) nanosheets were synthesized by a facile hydrothermal method (4,4′-bpy = 4,4′-bipyridine, H{sub 2}tfbdc = tetrafluoroterephthalic acid). The materials were characterized by IR spectrum, elemental analysis, thermogravimetric analysis, powder X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscope (TEM), scanning electron microscope (SEM), and the Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) surface. When the Zn-LMOF nanosheets with the thickness of about 24 ± 8 nm were used as an anode material of lithium-ion batteries, not only the Zn-LMOF electrode shows a high reversible capacity, retaining 623 mAh g{sup −1} after 100 cycles at a current density of 50 mA g{sup −1} but also exhibits an excellent cyclic stability and a higher rate performance.

  3. Indicators of regenerative capacity for eastern hardwood forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    William H. McWilliams; Todd W. Bowersox; Patrick H. Brose; Daniel A. Devlin; James C. Finley; Steve Horsley; Kurt W. Gottschalk; Tonya W. Lister; Larry H. McCormick; Gary W. Miller; Kim C. Steiner; Susan L. Stout; James A. Westfall; Robert L. White

    2004-01-01

    Hardwood forests of the eastern United States are characterized by a complex mix of species associations that make it difficult to construct useful indicators of long-term sustainability, in terms of future forest composition and stocking levels. The Pennsylvania Regeneration Study examines regeneration adequacy in the state. The study uses the Forest Service's...

  4. Electrospun porous SnO{sub 2} nanotubes as high capacity anode materials for lithium ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Limiao; Yin, Xiaoming; Liu, Shuang; Wang, Yanguo; Chen, Libao; Wang, Taihong [Key Laboratory for Micro-Nano Optoelectronic Devices of Ministry of Education, and State Key Laboratory for Chemo/Biosensing and Chemometrics, Hunan University, Changsha (China)

    2010-10-15

    Porous SnO{sub 2} nanotubes were prepared via electrospinning followed by calcination in air. As anode materials for lithium ion batteries, the porous nanotubes delivered a high discharge capacity of 807 mAh g{sup -1} after 50 cycles. Even after cycled at high rates, the electrode still retained a high fraction of its theoretical capacity. Such excellent performances of porous SnO{sub 2} nanotubes could be attributed to the porous and hollow structure which facilitated liquid electrolyte diffusion into the bulk materials and buffered large volume changes during lithium ions insertion/extraction. Furthermore, the nanoparticles of nanotubes provided the shorter diffusion length for lithium ions insertion which benefited in retaining the structural stability and good rate performance. Our results demonstrated that this simple method could be extended for the synthesis of porous metal oxide nanotubes with high performances in the applications of lithium ion batteries and other fields. (author)

  5. Resorcinol-formaldehyde carbon xerogels as lithium-ion battery anode materials: influence of porosity on capacity and cycling behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Léonard, Alexandre; Piedboeuf, Marie-Laure; Khomenko, Volodymyr; Senyk, Ilona; Pirard, Jean-Paul; Job, Nathalie

    2012-01-01

    Carbon xerogels are promising candidates in the development of new high performance C-based anode materials for Li-ion batteries. Indeed, their specific capacities widely exceed that of conventional graphitic structures, and they can be intercalated/deintercalated in a low-cost electrolyte based on propylene carbonate (PC), which has an excellent conductivity at low temperatures. In addition, such carbonaceous materials show very small changes of volume during the charge/discharge, providing ...

  6. Strain-tolerant High Capacity Silicon Anodes via Directed Lithium Ion Transport for High Energy Density Lithium-ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Jason

    2012-02-01

    Energy storage is an essential component of modern technology, with applications including public infrastructure, transportation systems, and consumer electronics. Lithium-ion batteries are the preeminent form of energy storage when high energy / moderate power densities are required. Improvements to lithium-ion battery energy / power density through the adoption of silicon anodes—with approximately an order of magnitude greater gravimetric capacity than traditional carbon-based anodes--have been limited by ˜300% strains during electrochemical lithium insertion which result in short operational lifetimes. In two different systems we demonstrated improvements to silicon-based anode performance via directed lithium ion transport. The first system demonstrated a crystallographic-dependent anisotropic electrochemical lithium insertion in single-crystalline silicon anode microstructures. Exploiting this anisotropy, we highlight model silicon anode architectures that limit the maximum strain during electrochemical lithium insertion. This self-strain-limiting is a result of selecting a specific microstructure design such that during lithiation the anisotropic evolution of strain, above a given threshold, blocks further lithium intercalation. Exemplary design rules have achieved self-strain-limited charging capacities ranging from 677 mAhg-1 to 2833 mAhg-1. A second system with variably encapsulated silicon-based anodes demonstrated greater than 98% of their initial capacity after 130+ cycles. This anode also can operate stably at high energy/power densities. A lithium-ion battery with this anode was able to continuously (dis)charge in 10 minutes, corresponding to a power / energy density of ˜1460 W/kg and ˜243 Wh/kg--up to 780% greater power density and 220% higher energy density than conventional lithium-ion batteries. Anodes were also demonstrated with areal capacities of 12.7 mAh/cm^2, two orders of magnitude greater than traditional thin-film silicon anodes.[4pt

  7. Incremental Capacity Analysis of a Lithium-Ion Battery Pack for Different Charging Rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalogiannis, Theodoros; Stroe, Daniel-Ioan; Nyborg, Jonas

    2017-01-01

    -depth investigation of two battery packs composed of 14 Lithium-ion cells each; for the purpose of evaluating the applicability and the challenges of the ICA on a battery pack level by means of different charging current rates. Also, at a certain charging current, the influence of the temperature on the ICA curves...

  8. Mn 3 O 4 −Graphene Hybrid as a High-Capacity Anode Material for Lithium Ion Batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Hailiang

    2010-10-13

    We developed two-step solution-phase reactions to form hybrid materials of Mn3O4 nanoparticles on reduced graphene oxide (RGO) sheets for lithium ion battery applications. Selective growth of Mn3O 4 nanoparticles on RGO sheets, in contrast to free particle growth in solution, allowed for the electrically insulating Mn3O4 nanoparticles to be wired up to a current collector through the underlying conducting graphene network. The Mn3O4 nanoparticles formed on RGO show a high specific capacity up to ∼900 mAh/g, near their theoretical capacity, with good rate capability and cycling stability, owing to the intimate interactions between the graphene substrates and the Mn 3O4 nanoparticles grown atop. The Mn3O 4/RGO hybrid could be a promising candidate material for a high-capacity, low-cost, and environmentally friendly anode for lithium ion batteries. Our growth-on-graphene approach should offer a new technique for the design and synthesis of battery electrodes based on highly insulating materials. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  9. Basic Study on Battery Capacity Evaluation for Load Frequency Control (LFC) in Power System with a Large Penetration of Wind Power Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Akiko; Yokoyama, Akihiko; Tada, Yasuyuki

    In recent years, a lot of distributed power generation such as photovoltaic and wind power generation are going to be installed in power systems. However, the fluctuation of these generator outputs affects the system frequency. Therefore, introduction of battery system to the power system has been considered in order to level the fluctuation of the total power output of the distributed generation. In the present paper, the authors propose a systematic method to evaluate the appropriate battery storage capacity and the power converter capacity of the battery for the various type of wind power outputs. The minimum required capacity of the battery is determined reasonably from the viewpoints of battery cost and load frequency control system in a power system with a large penetration of wind power generation.

  10. Communication: The influence of CO2 poisoning on overvoltages and discharge capacity in non-aqueous Li-Air batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mekonnen, Yedilfana Setarge; Knudsen, Kristian Bastholm; Mýrdal, Jón Steinar Garðarsson

    2014-01-01

    The effects of Li2CO3 like species originating from reactions between CO2 and Li2O2 at the cathode of non-aqueous Li-air batteries were studied by density functional theory (DFT) and galvanostatic charge-discharge measurements. Adsorption energies of CO2 at various nucleation sites on a stepped (1...... the Li2O2 growth mechanism, capacity, and overvoltages. The charging processes are strongly influenced by CO2 contamination, and exhibit increased overvoltages and increased capacity, as a result of poisoning of nucleation sites: this effect is predicted from DFT calculations and observed experimentally...

  11. Rational Functionalization of Perylene Diimide for Stable Capacity and Long-term Cycling Performance for Li-ion Batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    M, Veerababu; R, Kothandaraman

    2017-01-01

    Perylene based dilithium salt of N,N'-bis (glycinyl) perylene diimide (Li 2 -PDI) was synthesized and studied as an electrode material for lithium-ion batteries. The −CH 2 −COOLi functionalization of perylene diimide is a simple strategy to mitigate the dissolution of the monomer in the electrolyte. The Li 2 -PDI electrode exhibits excellent capacity retention behaviour and delivers a stable specific capacity of 101 mAh g −1 after 100 cycles at a current density of 17 mA g −1 , which is 98% of theoretical specific capacity. A remarkably stable capacity of 87 mAh g −1 was observed even after 1000 cycles with 100% coulombic efficiency at a current density of 200 mA g −1 . The reversible electrochemical lithiation/delithiation mechanism of Li 2 -PDI was studied by ex-situ XRD and FT-IR spectroscopic techniques.

  12. A Power Smoothing Control Strategy and Optimized Allocation of Battery Capacity Based on Hybrid Storage Energy Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Li

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Wind power parallel operation is an effective way to realize the large scale use of wind power, but the fluctuations of power output from wind power units may have great influence on power quality, hence a new method of power smoothing and capacity optimized allocation based on hybrid energy storage technology is proposed in terms of the uncontrollable and unexpected characteristics of wind speed in wind farms. First, power smoothing based on a traditional Inertial Filter is introduced and the relationship between the time constant, its smoothing effect and capacity allocation are analyzed and combined with Proportional Integral Differential (PID control to realize power smoothing control of wind power. Then wavelet theory is adopted to realize a multi-layer decomposition of power output in some wind farms, a power smoothing model based on hybrid energy storage technology is constructed combining the characteristics of the Super Capacitor (SC and Battery Energy Storage System (BESS technologies. The hybrid energy storage system is available for power fluctuations with high frequency-low energy and low frequency-high energy to achieve good smoothing effects compared with a single energy storage system. The power fluctuations filtered by the Wavelet Transform is regarded as the target value of BESS, the charging and discharging control for battery is completed quickly by Model Algorithm Control (MAC. Because of the influence of the inertia and the response speed of the battery, its actual output is not completely equal to the target value which mainly reflects in high-frequency part, the difference part uses SC to compensate and makes the output of battery and SC closer to the target value on the whole. Compared with the traditional Inertial Filter and PID control method, the validity of the model was verified by simulation results. Finally under the premise of power grid standards, the corresponding capacity design had been given to reduce the

  13. Modeling Li-ion Battery Capacity Depletion in a Particle Filtering Framework

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This paper presents an empirical model to describe battery behavior during individual discharge cycles as well as over its cycle life. The basis for the form of the...

  14. Quantifying capacity loss due to solid-electrolyte-interphase layer formation on silicon negative electrodes in lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadimpalli, Siva P. V.; Sethuraman, Vijay A.; Dalavi, Swapnil; Lucht, Brett; Chon, Michael J.; Shenoy, Vivek B.; Guduru, Pradeep R.

    2012-10-01

    Charge lost per unit surface area of a silicon electrode due to the formation of solid-electrolyte-interphase (SEI) layer during initial lithiation was quantified, and the species that constitute this layer were identified. Coin cells made with Si thin-film electrodes were subjected to a combination of galvanostatic and potentiostatic lithiation and delithiation cycles to accurately measure the capacity lost to SEI layer formation. While the planar geometry of amorphous thin films allows accurate calculation of surface area, creation of additional surface by cracking was prevented by minimizing the thickness of the Si film. The cycled electrodes were analyzed with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to characterize the composition of the SEI layer. The charge lost due to SEI formation measured from coin cell experiments was found to be in good agreement with the first-cycle capacity loss during the initial lithiation of a Si(100) crystal with planar geometry. The methodology presented in this work is expected to provide a useful practical tool for battery-material developers in estimating the expected capacity loss due to first cycle SEI layer formation and in choosing an appropriate particle size distribution that balances mechanical integrity and the first cycle capacity loss in large volume expansion electrodes for lithium-ion batteries.

  15. Similarity recognition of online data curves based on dynamic spatial time warping for the estimation of lithium-ion battery capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Laifa; Lu, Chen; Noktehdan, Azadeh

    2015-10-01

    Battery capacity estimation is a significant recent challenge given the complex physical and chemical processes that occur within batteries and the restrictions on the accessibility of capacity degradation data. In this study, we describe an approach called dynamic spatial time warping, which is used to determine the similarities of two arbitrary curves. Unlike classical dynamic time warping methods, this approach can maintain the invariance of curve similarity to the rotations and translations of curves, which is vital in curve similarity search. Moreover, it utilizes the online charging or discharging data that are easily collected and do not require special assumptions. The accuracy of this approach is verified using NASA battery datasets. Results suggest that the proposed approach provides a highly accurate means of estimating battery capacity at less time cost than traditional dynamic time warping methods do for different individuals and under various operating conditions.

  16. Unravelling the origin of irreversible capacity loss in NaNiO 2 for high voltage sodium ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Liguang; Wang, Jiajun; Zhang, Xiaoyi; Ren, Yang; Zuo, Pengjian; Yin, Geping; Wang, Jun

    2017-04-01

    Layered transition metal compounds have attracted much attention due to their high theoretical capacity and energy density for sodium ion batteries. However, this kind of material suffers from serious irreversible capacity decay during the charge and discharge process. Here, using synchrotron-based operando transmission X-ray microscopy and high-energy X-ray diffraction combined with electrochemical measurements, the visualization of the dissymmetric phase transformation and structure evolution mechanism of layered NaNiO2 material during initial charge and discharge cycles are clarified. Phase transformation and deformation of NaNiO2 during the voltage range of below 3.0 V and over 4.0 V are responsible for the irreversible capacity loss during the first cycling, which is also confirmed by the evolution of reaction kinetics behavior obtained by the galvanostatic intermittent titration technique. These findings reveal the origin of the irreversibility of NaNiO2 and offer valuable insight into the phase transformation mechanism, which will provide underlying guidance for further development of high-performance sodium ion batteries.

  17. High Capacity and Superior Cyclic Performances of All-Solid-State Lithium Batteries Enabled by a Glass-Ceramics Solo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yibo; Chen, Rujun; Liu, Ting; Xu, Bingqing; Zhang, Xue; Li, Liangliang; Lin, Yuanhua; Nan, Ce-Wen; Shen, Yang

    2018-03-28

    By using highly Li-ion conductive 78Li 2 S-22P 2 S 5 glass-ceramic (7822gc) as both the electrolyte and active material in the composite cathode obtained via ball-milling the 7822gc with multiple carbons, a kind of monolithic all-solid-state batteries were prepared with a lithium-indium foil as the anode. Such 7822gc-based monolithic batteries present stable discharge capacity of 480.3 mA h g -1 at 0.176 mA cm -2 after 60 cycles, which is three times larger than that of the previous work, with the highest capacity obtained so far among all attempts of using sulfide electrolytes as the active materials. High capacity retention of 90.6% and Coulombic efficiency of higher than 99% with high active material loading of 7 mg cm -2 were also obtained. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used to reveal the electrochemical reaction mechanisms in the 7822gc cathode.

  18. Thermal management for high-capacity large format Li-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hsin; Kepler, Keith Douglas; Pannala, Sreekanth; Allu, Srikanth

    2017-05-30

    A lithium ion battery includes a cathode in electrical and thermal connection with a cathode current collector. The cathode current collector has an electrode tab. A separator is provided. An anode is in electrical and thermal connection with an anode current collector. The anode current collector has an electrode tab. At least one of the cathode current collector and the anode current collector comprises a thermal tab for heat transfer with the at least one current collector. The thermal tab is separated from the electrode tab. A method of operating a battery is also disclosed.

  19. High-Capacity Micrometer-Sized Li 2 S Particles as Cathode Materials for Advanced Rechargeable Lithium-Ion Batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Yuan

    2012-09-19

    Li 2S is a high-capacity cathode material for lithium metal-free rechargeable batteries. It has a theoretical capacity of 1166 mAh/g, which is nearly 1 order of magnitude higher than traditional metal oxides/phosphates cathodes. However, Li 2S is usually considered to be electrochemically inactive due to its high electronic resistivity and low lithium-ion diffusivity. In this paper, we discover that a large potential barrier (∼1 V) exists at the beginning of charging for Li 2S. By applying a higher voltage cutoff, this barrier can be overcome and Li 2S becomes active. Moreover, this barrier does not appear again in the following cycling. Subsequent cycling shows that the material behaves similar to common sulfur cathodes with high energy efficiency. The initial discharge capacity is greater than 800 mAh/g for even 10 μm Li 2S particles. Moreover, after 10 cycles, the capacity is stabilized around 500-550 mAh/g with a capacity decay rate of only ∼0.25% per cycle. The origin of the initial barrier is found to be the phase nucleation of polysulfides, but the amplitude of barrier is mainly due to two factors: (a) charge transfer directly between Li 2S and electrolyte without polysulfide and (b) lithium-ion diffusion in Li 2S. These results demonstrate a simple and scalable approach to utilizing Li 2S as the cathode material for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries with high specific energy. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  20. Iron titanium phosphates as high-specific-capacity electrode materials for lithium ion batteries

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Essehli, R.; El Bali, B.; Faik, A.; Naji, M.; Benmokhtar, S.; Zhong, Y.R.; Su, L.W.; Zhou, Z.; Kim, J.; Kang, K.; Dušek, Michal

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 585, FEB (2014), s. 434-441 ISSN 0925-8388 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : crystal structure * electrolyte * nasicon * oxyphosphate * lithium-ion batteries Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.999, year: 2014

  1. Impedance change and capacity fade of lithium nickel manganese cobalt oxide-based batteries during calendar aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Julius; Maheshwari, Arpit; Heck, Michael; Lux, Stephan; Vetter, Matthias

    2017-06-01

    The calendar aging of commercial 18650 lithium-ion batteries with lithium nickel manganese cobalt oxide cathode and graphite anode is studied by regular electrochemical characterization of batteries stored at defined conditions. The cell capacity is found to decrease linearly with time and shows a faster decrease at higher storage temperatures. From current pulse tests, it is determined that both higher temperature and higher state of charge (SOC) cause accelerated resistance increase with storage time. Changes in different battery parameters during storage are also quantified by analyzing electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) spectra. The cell degradation causes a gradual increase of the ohmic and the total polarization resistance with storage duration, where the latter one is found to be the main contributor to the increased cell impedance. An increase in the mean relaxation time constant and changes in the porous structure for the electrode processes are observed from EIS analysis. Resistance for this cell chemistry is found to be current independent by comparing the cell resistance calculated from the current pulse method after 1s and from the EIS analysis at 1 Hz. Furthermore, it is seen that the additional charge throughput due to the periodic electrochemical characterization induces significant cell degradation effects.

  2. Tailoring nanostructured MnO2 as anodes for lithium ion batteries with high reversible capacity and initial Coulombic efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lifeng; Song, Jiajia; Liu, Yi; Yuan, Xiaoyan; Guo, Shouwu

    2018-03-01

    Developing high energy storage lithium ion batteries (LIBs) using manganese oxides as anodes is an attractive challenge due to their high theoretical capacity and abundant resources. However, the manganese oxides anodes still suffer from the low initial Coulombic efficiency and poor rate performance. Herein, we demonstrate that nano-sized morphological engineering is a facile and effective strategy to improve the electrochemical performance of the manganese dioxide (MnO2) for LIBs. The tailored MnO2 nanoparticles (NPs) exhibit high reversible capacity (1095 mAh g-1 at 100 mA g-1), high initial Coulombic efficiency (94.5%) and good rate capability (464 mAh g-1 at 2000 mA g-1). The enhanced electrochemical performance of MnO2 NPs can be attributed to the presences of numerous electrochemically active sites and interspaces among the NPs.

  3. Behavior of Lithium Metal Anodes under Various Capacity Utilization and High Current Density in Lithium Metal Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiao, Shuhong; Zheng, Jianming; Li, Qiuyan; Li, Xing; Engelhard, Mark H.; Cao, Ruiguo; Zhang, Ji-Guang; Xu, Wu

    2018-01-01

    Lithium (Li) metal batteries (LMBs) are regarded as the most promising power sources for electric vehicles. Besides the Li dendrite growth and low Li Coulombic efficiency, how to well match Li metal anode with a high loading (normally over 3.0 mAh cm-2) cathode is another key challenge to achieve the real high energy density battery. In this work, we systematically investigate the effects of the Li metal capacity usage in each cycle, manipulated by varying the cathode areal loading, on the stability of Li metal anode and the cycling performance of LMBs using the LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 (NMC) cathode and an additive-containing dual-salt/carbonate-solvent electrolyte. It is demonstrated that the Li||NMC cells show decent long-term cycling performance even with NMC areal capacity loading up to ca. 4.0 mAh cm-2 and at a charge current density of 1.0 mA cm-2. The increase of the Li capacity usage in each cycle causes variation in the components of the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) layer on Li metal anode and generates more ionic conductive species from this electrolyte. Further study reveals for the first time that the degradation of Li metal anode and the thickness of SEI layer on Li anode show linear relationship with the areal capacity of NMC cathode. Meanwhile, the expansion rate of consumed Li and the ratio of SEI thickness to NMC areal loading are kept almost the same value with increasing cathode loading, respectively. These fundamental findings provide new perspectives on the rational evaluation of Li metal anode stability for the development of rechargeable LMBs.

  4. Correlating capacity and Li content in layered material for Li-ion battery using XRD and particle size distribution measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Tabbakh, A. A. A.; Al-Zubaidi, A. B.; Kamarulzaman, N.

    2016-03-01

    A lithiated transition-metal oxide material was successfully synthesized by a combustion method for Li-ion battery. The material was characterized using thermogravimetric and particle size analyzers, scanning electron microscope and X-ray diffractometer. The calcined powders of the material exhibited a finite size distribution and a single phase of pure layered structure of space group Roverline{3} m . An innovative method was developed to calculate the material electrochemical capacity based on considerations of the crystal structure and contributions of Li ions from specified unit cells at the surfaces and in the interiors of the material particles. Results suggested that most of the Li ions contributing to the electrochemical current originated from the surface region of the material particles. It was possible to estimate the thickness of the most delithiated region near the particle surfaces at any delithiation depth accurately. Furthermore, results suggested that the core region of the particles remained electrochemically inaccessible in the conventional applied voltages. This result was justified by direct quantitative comparison of specific capacity values calculated from the particle size distribution with those measured experimentally. The present analysis is believed to be of some value for estimation of the failure mechanism in cathode compounds, thus assisting the development of Li-ion batteries.

  5. High capacity electrode materials for batteries and process for their manufacture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Christopher S.; Xiong, Hui; Rajh, Tijana; Shevchenko, Elena; Tepavcevic, Sanja

    2018-04-03

    The present invention provides a nanostructured metal oxide material for use as a component of an electrode in a lithium-ion or sodium-ion battery. The material comprises a nanostructured titanium oxide or vanadium oxide film on a metal foil substrate, produced by depositing or forming a nanostructured titanium dioxide or vanadium oxide material on the substrate, and then charging and discharging the material in an electrochemical cell from a high voltage in the range of about 2.8 to 3.8 V, to a low voltage in the range of about 0.8 to 1.4 V over a period of about 1/30 of an hour or less. Lithium-ion and sodium-ion electrochemical cells comprising electrodes formed from the nanostructured metal oxide materials, as well as batteries formed from the cells, also are provided.

  6. Porous one-dimensional carbon/iron oxide composite for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries with high and stable capacity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Jiadeng, E-mail: jzhu14@ncsu.edu; Lu, Yao, E-mail: ylu14@ncsu.edu; Chen, Chen, E-mail: cchen20@ncsu.edu; Ge, Yeqian, E-mail: yge3@ncsu.edu; Jasper, Samuel, E-mail: smjasper@ncsu.edu; Leary, Jennifer D., E-mail: jdleary@ncsu.edu; Li, Dawei, E-mail: ldw19900323@163.com; Jiang, Mengjin, E-mail: mjiang5@ncsu.edu; Zhang, Xiangwu, E-mail: xiangwu_zhang@ncsu.edu

    2016-07-05

    Hematite iron oxide (α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) is considered to be a prospective anode material for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) because of its high theoretical capacity (1007 mAh g{sup −1}), nontoxicity, and low cost. However, the low electrical conductivity and large volume change during Li insertion/extraction of α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} hinder its use in practical batteries. In this study, carbon-coated α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanofibers, prepared via an electrospinning method followed by a thermal treatment process, are employed as the anode material for LIBs. The as-prepared porous nanofibers with a carbon content of 12.5 wt% show improved cycling performance and rate capability. They can still deliver a high and stable capacity of 715 mAh g{sup −1} even at superior high current density of 1000 mA g{sup −1} after 200 cycles with a large Coulombic efficiency of 99.2%. Such improved electrochemical performance can be assigned to their unique porous fabric structure as well as the conductive carbon coating which shorten the distance for Li ion transport, enhancing Li ion reversibility and kinetic properties. It is, therefore, demonstrated that carbon-coated α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanofiber prepared under optimized conditions is a promising anode material candidate for LIBs. - Graphical abstract: Carbon-coated α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanofibers are employed as anode material to achieve high and stable electrochemical performance for lithium-ion batteries, enhancing their commercial viability. - Highlights: • α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/C nanofibers were fabricated by electrospinning and thermal treatment. • α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/C nanofibers exhibit stable cyclability and good rate capability. • α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}–C nanofibers maintain high capacity at 1000 mA g{sup −1} for 200 cycles. • A capacity retention of 99.2% is achieved by α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}–C nanofibers after 200 cycles.

  7. Nanoscale surface modification of Li-rich layered oxides for high-capacity cathodes in Li-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Xiwei; Xin, Yue; Wang, Libin; Hu, Xianluo

    2018-03-01

    Li-rich layered oxides (LLOs) have been developed as a high-capacity cathode material for Li-ion batteries, but the structural complexity and unique initial charging behavior lead to several problems including large initial capacity loss, capacity and voltage fading, poor cyclability, and inferior rate capability. Since the surface conditions are critical to electrochemical performance and the drawbacks, nanoscale surface modification for improving LLO's properties is a general strategy. This review mainly summarizes the surface modification of LLOs and classifies them into three types of surface pre-treatment, surface gradient doping, and surface coating. Surface pre-treatment usually introduces removal of Li2O for lower irreversible capacity while surface doping is aimed to stabilize the structure during electrochemical cycling. Surface coating layers with different properties, protective layers to suppress the interface side reaction, coating layers related to structural transformation, and electronic/ionic conductive layers for better rate capability, can avoid the shortcomings of LLOs. In addition to surface modification for performance enhancement, other strategies can also be investigated to achieve high-performance LLO-based cathode materials.

  8. Adaptive capacity indicators to assess sustainability of urban water systems - Current application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiller, Marc

    2016-11-01

    Sustainability is commonly assessed along environmental, societal, economic and technological dimensions. A crucial aspect of sustainability is that inter-generational equality must be ensured. This requires that sustainability is attained in the here and now as well as into the future. Therefore, what is perceived as 'sustainable' changes as a function of societal opinion and technological and scientific progress. A concept that describes the ability of systems to change is adaptive capacity. Literature suggests that the ability of systems to adapt is an integral part of sustainable development. This paper demonstrates that indicators measuring adaptive capacity are underrepresented in current urban water sustainability studies. Furthermore, it is discussed under which sustainability dimensions adaptive capacity indicators are lacking and why. Of the >90 indicators analysed, only nine are adaptive capacity indicators, of which six are socio-cultural, two technological, one economical and none environmental. This infrequent use of adaptive capacity indicators in sustainability assessments led to the conclusion that the challenge of dynamic and uncertain urban water systems is, with the exception of the socio-cultural dimension, not yet sufficiently reflected in the application of urban water sustainability indicators. This raises concerns about the progress towards urban water systems that can transform as a response variation and change. Therefore, research should focus on developing methods and indicators that can define, evaluate and quantify adaptive capacity under the economic, environmental and technical dimension of sustainability. Furthermore, it should be evaluated whether sustainability frameworks that focus on the control processes of urban water systems are more suitable for measuring adaptive capacity, than the assessments along environmental, economic, socio-cultural and technological dimensions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Event-related potential indices of inter-individual and age differences in visual attention capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiegand, Iris; Töllner, Thomas; Dyrholm, Mads

    in these two functions: The posterior N1 was smaller for participants with faster relative to slower processing speed and the Contralateral Delay Activity (CDA) was larger for participants with higher relative to lower storage capacity. When we extended the approach to investigate neural underpinnings of age......-related changes in attentional capacities, these ERP markers of individual differences in processing speed and storage capacity were validated in an older group. Furthermore, additional components were related to performance exclusively in older inidividuals: Anterior N1 amplitudes were reduced for slower older...... participants (relative to younger and faster older participants) and high-storage capacity older participants (relative to younger and low-storage capacity older participants) obtained a stronger right-central positivity, which correlated with K-values only in the older group. Our findings indicate...

  10. Capacity Enhancement of the Quenched Li-Ni-Mn-Co Oxide High-voltage Li-ion Battery Positive Electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jena, Anirudha; Lee, Cho-Hsueh; Pang, Wei Kong; Peterson, Vanessa K.; Sharma, Neeraj; Wang, Chun-Chieh; Song, Yen-Fang; Lin, Chun-Che; Chang, Ho; Liu, Ru-Shi

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Co-precipitation method has been used to obtain Li 1.207 Ni 0.127 Mn 0.54 Co 0.127 O 2 . • Slow cooled and air quenched samples are obtained and characterized. • Unique spheres are obtained quenching than fragments in slow cooling. • Quenched sample show higher specific capacity due to easier Li-ion passage in bulk. - Abstract: Li-rich metal oxides, regarded as a high-voltage composite cathode, is currently one of the hottest positive electrode material for lithium-ion batteries, due to its high-capacity and high-energy performance. The crystallography, phase composition and morphology can be altered by synthesis parameters, which can influence drastically the capacity and cycling performance. In this work, we demonstrate Li 1.207 Ni 0.127 Mn 0.54 Co 0.127 O 2 , obtained by a co-precipitation method, exhibits super-high specific capacity up to 298 mAh g −1 and excellent capacity retention of ∼100% up to 50 cycles. Using neutron powder diffraction and transmission X-ray microscopy, we have found that the cooling-treatments applied after sintering during synthesis are crucially important in controlling the phase composition and morphology of the cathodes, thereby influencing the electrochemical performance. Unique spherical microstructure, larger lattice, and higher content of Li-rich monoclinic component can be achieved in the rapid quenching process, whereas severe particle cracking along with the smaller lattice and lower monoclinic component content is obtained when natural cooling of the furnace is applied. Combined with electrochemical impedance spectra, a plausible mechanism is described for the poorer specific capacity and cycling stability of the composite cathodes.

  11. Determination of installation capacity in reservoir hydro-power plants considering technical, economical and reliability indices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hosseini, S.M.H.; Forouzbakhsh, Farshid; Fotouh-Firuzabad, Mahmood

    2008-01-01

    One of the most important issues in planning the ‘‘reservoir” type of hydro-power plants (HPP) is to determine the installation capacity of the HPPs and estimate its annual energy value. In this paper, a method is presented. A computer program has been developed to analyze energy calculation...... the technical, economic and reliability indices will determine the installation capacity of an HPP. By applying the above-mentioned algorithm to an existing HPP named ‘‘Bookan” (located in the westnorth of Iran); the capacity of 30 MW is obtained....

  12. Online available capacity prediction and state of charge estimation based on advanced data-driven algorithms for lithium iron phosphate battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng, Zhongwei; Yang, Lin; Cai, Yishan; Deng, Hao; Sun, Liu

    2016-01-01

    The key technology of a battery management system is to online estimate the battery states accurately and robustly. For lithium iron phosphate battery, the relationship between state of charge and open circuit voltage has a plateau region which limits the estimation accuracy of voltage-based algorithms. The open circuit voltage hysteresis requires advanced online identification algorithms to cope with the strong nonlinear battery model. The available capacity, as a crucial parameter, contributes to the state of charge and state of health estimation of battery, but it is difficult to predict due to comprehensive influence by temperature, aging and current rates. Aim at above problems, the ampere-hour counting with current correction and the dual adaptive extended Kalman filter algorithms are combined to estimate model parameters and state of charge. This combination presents the advantages of less computation burden and more robustness. Considering the influence of temperature and degradation, the data-driven algorithm namely least squares support vector machine is implemented to predict the available capacity. The state estimation and capacity prediction methods are coupled to improve the estimation accuracy at different temperatures among the lifetime of battery. The experiment results verify the proposed methods have excellent state and available capacity estimation accuracy. - Highlights: • A dual adaptive extended Kalman filter is used to estimate parameters and states. • A correction term is introduced to consider the effect of current rates. • The least square support vector machine is used to predict the available capacity. • The experiment results verify the proposed state and capacity prediction methods.

  13. Mesoporous Silicon-Based Anodes for High Capacity, High Performance Li-ion Batteries, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A new high capacity anode composite based on mesoporous silicon is proposed. By virtue of a structure that resembles a pseudo one-dimensional phase, the active anode...

  14. Mesoporous Silicon-Based Anodes for High Capacity, High Performance Li-ion Batteries, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A new high capacity anode composite based on mesoporous silicon is proposed. By virtue of a structure that resembles a pseudo one-dimensional phase, the active anode...

  15. Lithiation Behavior of High Capacity SiCO Anode Material for Lithium-ion Battery: A First Principle Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao, Ningbo; Zheng, Beirong; Zhou, Hongming; Xue, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Polymer-derived silicon oxycarbide (SiCO) has a reversible capacity of ∼800 mA h g −1 and is considered as a promising anode material for Li-ion battery. Further study needs to be conducted in terms of energy and structure in atomic scale, which could be very challenging for current experimental technologies. To better understand the mechanism of lithium insertion in SiCO, first principle calculations are performed to study the atomic structures, bonding mechanism, mechanical properties and lithiation voltage of lithiated SiC 1/4 O 7/4 . The predominate feature of the lithiated configuration is the presence of several Li involved tetrahedrons with the formation of Li−C/Li−O bonds. By the calculations of relative volume and bulk modulus, SiC 1/4 O 7/4 presents a considerably better performance in expansion and mechanical property than Si and SiO 1/3 . The formation energy and voltage curve also show that the lithium is more preferable in incorporation with SiC 1/4 O 7/4 than Si and SiO 1/3 , which is attributed to the formation of Li−O, Li−C bonds and corresponding Li involved tetrahedrons. Our calculations are in agreement with the available experiments, and provide a deeper insight into the lithiation mechanism of SiCO anode for Li-ion batteries

  16. SiOx-C dual-phase glass for lithium ion battery anode with high capacity and stable cycling performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Pengpeng; Zhao, Hailei; Gao, Chunhui; Du, Zhihong; Wang, Jie; Liu, Xin

    2015-01-01

    Glass-like Si-O-C composites have recently attracted considerable attention because of their potential as high capacity anode for rechargeable lithium ion batteries. However, the existence of Si-C bonds in Si-O-C phase restricts in a certain degree the electrochemical activity of silicon. Here, we demonstrate the synthesis and electrochemical performance of SiOx-C dual-phase glass consisting of amorphous SiOx and free carbon phases and without Si-C bonds in SiOx phase. Dual-phase glass synthesis is achieved through a simple sol-gel route. The SiOx-C dual-phase glass electrode delivers high reversible capacity of 840 mAh g-1 for 100 cycles and exhibits excellent rate-capability. The superior electrochemical properties can be attributed to the unique dual-phase glass structure that the amorphous SiOx phase well-disperses and dense-contacts with free carbon component at nanoscale level. The SiOx phase with a lower O/Si ratio contributes the high reversible capacity while the well-contacted free carbon provides a good electronic conductivity for electrode reaction. In addition, the free carbon component can alleviate the volume change of SiOx component during discharge/charge process, which ensures an enhanced structural stability and an excellent cycling performance.

  17. Cost-effectiveness of plug-in hybrid electric vehicle battery capacity and charging infrastructure investment for reducing US gasoline consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, Scott B.; Michalek, Jeremy J.

    2013-01-01

    Federal electric vehicle (EV) policies in the United States currently include vehicle purchase subsidies linked to EV battery capacity and subsidies for installing charging stations. We assess the cost-effectiveness of increased battery capacity vs. nondomestic charging infrastructure installation for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles as alternate methods to reduce gasoline consumption for cars, trucks, and SUVs in the US. We find across a wide range of scenarios that the least-cost solution is for more drivers to switch to low-capacity plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (short electric range with gasoline backup for long trips) or gasoline-powered hybrid electric vehicles. If more gasoline savings are needed per vehicle, nondomestic charging infrastructure installation is substantially more expensive than increased battery capacity per gallon saved, and both approaches have higher costs than US oil premium estimates. Cost effectiveness of all subsidies are lower under a binding fuel economy standard. Comparison of results to the structure of current federal subsidies shows that policy is not aligned with fuel savings potential, and we discuss issues and alternatives. - Highlights: ► We compare cost of PHEV batteries vs. charging infrastructure per gallon of gasoline saved. ► The lowest cost solution is to switch more drivers to low-capacity PHEVs and HEVs. ► If more gasoline savings is needed, batteries offer a better value than chargers. ► Extra batteries and chargers are both more costly per gal than oil premium estimates. ► Current subsidies are misaligned with fuel savings. We discuss alternatives.

  18. Investigation of Battery Heat Generation and Key Performance Indicator Efficiency Using Isothermal Calorimeter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Mohammad Rezwan; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2016-01-01

    , and the heat flux of the battery cell at the same time. Temperatures on the surface of the cell are measured using contact thermocouples, whereas, the heat flux is measured simultaneously by the isothermal calorimeter. This heat flux measurement is used for determining the heat generation inside the cell...

  19. Steam-etched spherical carbon/sulfur composite with high sulfur capacity and long cycle life for Li/S battery application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meiri; Zhang, Hongzhang; Wang, Qian; Qu, Chao; Li, Xianfeng; Zhang, Huamin

    2015-02-18

    Spherical carbon material with large pore volume and specific area was designed for lithium/sulfur (Li/S) soft package battery cathode with sulfur loading over 75%, exhibiting good capacity output (about 1300 mAh g(-1)-S) and excellent capacity retention (70% after 600 cycles) at 0.1 C. The spherical carbon is prepared via in situ steam etching method, which has the advantages of low cost and easy scale up.

  20. Optimization for a fuel cell/battery/capacity tram with equivalent consumption minimization strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Wenbin; Li, Jianqiu; Xu, Liangfei; Ouyang, Minggao

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The hybridization of the fuel cell with the energy storage systems is realized for the tram. • A protype tram is tested based on an operation mode switching method. • An equivalent consumption minimization strategy is proposed and verified for optimization. - Abstract: This paper describes a hybrid tram powered by a Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell (FC) stack supported by an energy storage system (ESS) composed of a Li-ion battery (LB) pack and an ultra-capacitor (UC) pack. This configuration allows the tram to operate without grid connection. The hybrid tram with its full load is tested in the CRRC Qingdao Sifang Co.; Ltd. It firstly works on the operation mode switching method (OPMS) without energy regenerative and proper power management. Therefore, an equivalent consumption minimization strategy (ECMS) aimed at minimizing the hydrogen consumption is proposed to improve the characteristics of the tram. The results show that the proposed control system enhances drivability and economy, and is effective for application to this hybrid system.

  1. Enhanced Capacity of Polypyrrole/Anthraquinone Sulfonate/Graphene Composite as Cathode in Lithium Batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Yang; He, Kuangchi; Yan, Peng; Wang, Dan; Wu, Xiaoyan; Zhao, Xin; Huang, Zilong; Zhang, Chunming; He, Dannong

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A polypyrrole (PPy)/anthraquinone sulfonate (AQS)/reduced graphene oxide (r-GO) composite was obtained via a facile electrochemical route. • A great enhancement in electrochemical performance was obtained for PPy/AQS/r-GO due to a remarkable combination of the redox property of AQS and the conductivity of r-GO. • The composite electrode delivered a specific discharge capacity of 127.2 mAh g −1 with a ca. 100% coulombic efficiency at 0.1 A g −1 . - Abstract: A facile electrochemical route was applied to prepare polypyrrole (PPy)/anthraquinone sulfonate (AQS)/reduced graphene oxide (r-GO) composite. The as-synthesized composite showed an interconnected porous structure, which is related to the competitive relationship between two dopants. The cyclic voltammograms and electrochemical impedance spectra confirmed that the presence of highly conductive r-GO in PPy matrix ensured an efficient redox reaction obtained for redox-active AQS. As a result, the PPy/AQS/r-GO composite exhibited an enhanced specific capacity of 127.2 mAh g −1 with ca. 100% coulombic efficiency at 0.1 A g −1 . Furthermore, the superior rate capability and cycling stability were also observed for PPy/AQS/r-GO, compared to AQS doped PPy. It is possible to adopt this co-dopants system for creating electro-active polymer materials with high capacities that are comparable to that of conventional inorganic intercalation electrode materials

  2. Ordered mesoporous titania/carbon hybrid monoliths for lithium-ion battery anodes with high areal and volumetric capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dörr, Tobias S; Fleischmann, Simon; Zeiger, Marco; Grobelsek, Ingrid; de Oliveira, Peter W; Presser, Volker

    2018-03-06

    Free-standing, binder-free, and conductive additive-free mesoporous titanium dioxide/carbon hybrid electrodes were prepared from co-assembly of a poly(isoprene)-block-poly(styrene)-block-poly(ethylene oxide) block copolymer and a titanium alkoxide. By tailoring an optimized morphology, we prepared macroscopic mechanically stable 300 µm thick monoliths that were directly employed as lithium-ion battery electrodes. High areal mass loading of up to 26.4 mg/cm2 and a high bulk density of 0.88 g/cm3 were obtained. This resulted in a highly increased volumetric capacity of 155 mAh/cm3, compared to casted thin film electrodes. Further, the areal capacity of 4.5 mAh/cm2 represented a 9-fold increase compared to conventionally casted electrodes. These attractive performance metrics are related to the superior electrolyte transport and shortened diffusion lengths provided by the interconnected mesoporous nature of the monolith material, assuring superior rate handling even at high cycling rates. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Fabrication and Characterization of SnO2/Graphene Composites as High Capacity Anodes for Li-Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abirami Dhanabalan

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Tin-oxide and graphene (TG composites were fabricated using the Electrostatic Spray Deposition (ESD technique, and tested as anode materials for Li-ion batteries. The electrochemical performance of the as-deposited TG composites were compared to heat-treated TG composites along with pure tin-oxide films. The heat-treated composites exhibited superior specific capacity and energy density than both the as-deposited TG composites and tin oxide samples. At the 70th cycle, the specific capacities of the as-deposited and post heat-treated samples were 534 and 737 mA·h/g, respectively, and the corresponding energy densities of the as-deposited and heat-treated composites were 1240 and 1760 W·h/kg, respectively. This improvement in the electrochemical performance of the TG composite anodes as compared to the pure tin oxide samples is attributed to the synergy between tin oxide and graphene, which increases the electrical conductivity of tin oxide and helps alleviate volumetric changes in tin-oxide during cycling.

  4. Crystallographic Habit Tuning of Li2MnSiO4 Nanoplates for High-Capacity Lithium Battery Cathodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Zhengping; Feng, Yiming; Zhang, Datong; Ji, Ran; Chen, Libao; Ivey, Douglas G; Wei, Weifeng

    2018-02-21

    Li 2 MnSiO 4 has attracted significant attention as a cathode material for lithium ion batteries because of its high theoretical capacity (330 mA h g -1 with two Li + ions per formula unit), low cost, and environmentally friendly nature. However, its intrinsically poor Li diffusion, low electronic conductivity, and structural instability preclude its use in practical applications. Herein, elongated hexagonal prism-shaped Li 2 MnSiO 4 nanoplates with preferentially exposed {001} and {210} facets have been successfully synthesized via a solvothermal method. Density functional theory calculations and experimental characterization reveal that the formation mechanism involves the decomposition of solid precursors to nanosheets, self-assembly into nanoplates, and Ostwald ripening. Hydroxyl-containing solvents such as ethylene glycol and diethylene glycol play a crucial role as capping agents in tuning the preferential growth. Li 2 MnSiO 4 @C nanoplates demonstrate a near theoretical discharge capacity of 326.7 mA h g -1 at 0.05 C (1 C = 160 mA h g -1 ), superior rate capability, and good cycling stability. The enhanced electrochemical performance is ascribed to the electrochemically active {001} and {210} exposed facets, which provide short and fast Li + diffusion pathways along the [001] and [100] axes, a conformal carbon nanocoating, and a nanoscaled platelike structure, which offers a large electrode/electrolyte contact interface for Li + extraction/insertion processes.

  5. Reversible Data Hiding Scheme with High Embedding Capacity Using Semi-Indicator-Free Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiann-Der Lee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel reversible data-hiding scheme is proposed to embed secret data into a side-matched-vector-quantization- (SMVQ- compressed image and achieve lossless reconstruction of a vector-quantization- (VQ- compressed image. The rather random distributed histogram of a VQ-compressed image can be relocated to locations close to zero by SMVQ prediction. With this strategy, fewer bits can be utilized to encode SMVQ indices with very small values. Moreover, no indicator is required to encode these indices, which yields extrahiding space to hide secret data. Hence, high embedding capacity and low bit rate scenarios are deposited. More specifically, in terms of the embedding rate, the bit rate, and the embedding capacity, experimental results show that the performance of the proposed scheme is superior to those of the former data hiding schemes for VQ-based, VQ/SMVQ-based, and search-order-coding- (SOC- based compressed images.

  6. Operational analysis of a small-capacity cogeneration system with a gas hydrate battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obara, Shin'ya; Kikuchi, Yoshinobu; Ishikawa, Kyosuke; Kawai, Masahito; Kashiwaya, Yoshiaki

    2014-01-01

    In a cold region during winter, energy demand for residential heating is high and energy saving, the discharge of greenhouse gases, and air pollution are all of significant concern. We investigated the fundamental characteristics of an energy storage system with a GHB (gas hydrate battery) in which heat cycle by a unique change in state of gas hydrate operates using the low-temperature ambient air of a cold region. The proposed system with the GHB can respond to a high heat to power ratio caused by a small-scale CGS (cogeneration system) that is powered by a gas engine, a polymer electrolyte fuel cell, or a solid oxide fuel cell. In this paper, we explain how the relation between fossil fuel consumption and heat to power ratio of the different types of systems differ. We investigated the proposed system by laboratory experiments and analysis of the characteristics of power load and heat load of such a system in operation in Kitami, a cold district in Japan. If a hydrate formation space of 2 m 3 is introduced into the proposed system, 48%–52% (namely, power rate by green energy) of total electric power consumption is supplied by the GHB. - Highlights: • Heat cycle by unique change in state of gas hydrate was developed. • Characteristics of energy storage equipment using CO 2 hydrate were investigated. • Hybrid system of small-scale cogeneration and gas hydrate heat cycle was examined. • Proposed system can reduce fuel consumption during winter in a cold region

  7. MAXIMAL OXIGEN UPTAKE (VO2 MAX AS THE INDICATOR OF PHYSICAL WORKING CAPACITY IN SPORTSMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zvezdana Rajkovaca

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The term “aerobic capacity” represents the sum of aerobic metabolic processes in human organism. It is the basis of the physical working capacity. Value of the maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max is the best indicator for the aerobic capacity evaluation.The purpose of this study was to check the possibility of using VO2max as the indicator of aerobic capacity in sportsmen and to check differences in VO2max values in regard to non-sportsmen.The goals were: 1.Analyses of the VO2max values in sportsmen of various sports 2. Comparison of values of sportsmen with the values of non-sportsmen.This study included 67 sportsmen (rowers, football players and judoists and 28 nonsportsmen. VO2max was measured by using a direct method.The results obtained show statistically higher VO2max values in rowers (4,52 L/min - 55,8 mL/kg/min in regard to football players (4,2 L/min – 53,6 mL/kg/min, judoists (3,58 L/min - 47,2 mL/ kg/min and non-sportsmen (3,28 L/min – 42,3 mL/kg/min. Successful rowing requires high anaerobic capacity and, therefore, high VO2max.These results show higher values of VO2max in sportsmen in regard to non-sportsmen, which is the result of training only.

  8. Structural and Electrochemical Investigation during the First Charging Cycles of Silicon Microwire Array Anodes for High Capacity Lithium Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmut Föll

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Silicon microwire arrays embedded in Cu present exceptional performance as anode material in Li ion batteries. The processes occurring during the first charging cycles of batteries with this anode are essential for good performance. This paper sheds light on the electrochemical and structural properties of the anodes during the first charging cycles. Scanning Electron Microscopy, X-ray diffractommetry, and fast Fourier transformation impedance spectroscopy are used for the characterization. It was found that crystalline phases with high Li content are obtained after the first lithiation cycle, while for the second lithiation just crystalline phases with less Li are observable, indicating that the lithiated wires become amorphous upon cycling. The formation of a solid electrolyte interface of around 250 nm during the first lithiation cycle is evidenced, and is considered a necessary component for the good cycling performance of the wires. Analog to voltammetric techniques, impedance spectroscopy is confirmed as a powerful tool to identify the formation of the different Si-Li phases.

  9. Structural and Electrochemical Investigation during the First Charging Cycles of Silicon Microwire Array Anodes for High Capacity Lithium Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroga-González, Enrique; Carstensen, Jürgen; Föll, Helmut

    2013-02-22

    Silicon microwire arrays embedded in Cu present exceptional performance as anode material in Li ion batteries. The processes occurring during the first charging cycles of batteries with this anode are essential for good performance. This paper sheds light on the electrochemical and structural properties of the anodes during the first charging cycles. Scanning Electron Microscopy, X-ray diffractommetry, and fast Fourier transformation impedance spectroscopy are used for the characterization. It was found that crystalline phases with high Li content are obtained after the first lithiation cycle, while for the second lithiation just crystalline phases with less Li are observable, indicating that the lithiated wires become amorphous upon cycling. The formation of a solid electrolyte interface of around 250 nm during the first lithiation cycle is evidenced, and is considered a necessary component for the good cycling performance of the wires. Analog to voltammetric techniques, impedance spectroscopy is confirmed as a powerful tool to identify the formation of the different Si-Li phases.

  10. Modeling of the capacity loss of a 12 V automotive lead-acid battery due to ageing and comparison with measurement data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ui Seong; Shin, Chee Burm [Department of Chemical Engineering and Division of Energy Systems Research, Ajou University, Suwon 443-749 (Korea); Chung, Seung Myun; Kim, Sung Tae [Research and Development Division, Hyundai Motor Company, Whasung 445-706 (Korea); Cho, Byung Won [Battery Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul 136-791 (Korea)

    2009-05-01

    One-dimensional modeling was carried-out to predict the capacity loss of a 12 V automotive lead-acid battery due to ageing. The model not only accounted for electrochemical kinetics and ionic mass transfer in a battery cell, but also considered the anodic corrosion of lead in sulfuric acid. In order to validate the modeling, modeling results were compared with the measurement data of the cycling behaviors of the lead-acid batteries having nominal capacity of 68 Ah that are mounted on the automobiles manufactured by Hyundai Motor Company. The cycling was performed under the protocol of the constant-current discharge and the constant-voltage charge. The discharge rate of C/3 was used. The range of state of charge was between 1 and 0.85. The voltage was kept constant at the gassing voltage until the charge current tapered to 10 mA. The retention capacity of the battery was measured with C/3 discharge rate before the beginning of cycling and after every 40 cycles of cycling. The modeling results were in good agreement with the measurement data. (author)

  11. Indices of cognitive function measured in rugby union players using a computer-based test battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Luke A; Minahan, Clare L

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the intra- and inter-day reliability of cognitive performance using a computer-based test battery in team-sport athletes. Eighteen elite male rugby union players (age: 19 ± 0.5 years) performed three experimental trials (T1, T2 and T3) of the test battery: T1 and T2 on the same day and T3, on the following day, 24 h later. The test battery comprised of four cognitive tests assessing the cognitive domains of executive function (Groton Maze Learning Task), psychomotor function (Detection Task), vigilance (Identification Task), visual learning and memory (One Card Learning Task). The intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) for the Detection Task, the Identification Task and the One Card Learning Task performance variables ranged from 0.75 to 0.92 when comparing T1 to T2 to assess intraday reliability, and 0.76 to 0.83 when comparing T1 and T3 to assess inter-day reliability. The ICCs for the Groton Maze Learning Task intra- and inter-day reliability were 0.67 and 0.57, respectively. We concluded that the Detection Task, the Identification Task and the One Card Learning Task are reliable measures of psychomotor function, vigilance, visual learning and memory in rugby union players. The reliability of the Groton Maze Learning Task is questionable (mean coefficient of variation (CV) = 19.4%) and, therefore, results should be interpreted with caution.

  12. The concurrent validity of the technical test battery as an indicator of work performance in a telecommunications company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marelize Barnard

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to assess the concurrent validity of the Technical Test Battery (TTB in a South African telecommunications institution. The Technical Test Battery (TTB was administered to a sample of 107 technical officers. Their test scores were compared to the scores obtained from a job performance rating scale specifically designed for this position on the basis of a thorough job analysis. The TTB demonstrated high concurrent validity as an indicator of work performance for technical posts in the telecommunications environment. These results suggest that the TTB may have a high predictive validity for performance in technical positions. The findings and implications of the study are discussed. Opsomming Die doel van hierdie studie was om die samevallende geldigheid van die “Technical Test Battery (TTB�? in ’n Suid-Afrikaanse telekommunikasie instansie te bepaal. Die TTB is op ’n steekproef van 107 tegniese personeel toegepas. Die toetstellings is in verband gebring met die tellings van ’n werksprestasiemaatstaf wat spesifiek vir die pos ontwikkel is op grond van ’n deeglike posanalise. Daar is bevind dat die TTB ’n hoë samevallende geldigheid as aanduider van werksprestasie vir tegniese poste in the telekommunikasiebedryf toon. Dié resultate dui op ’n sterk moontlikheid dat die TTB ’n goeie voorspeller van werksprestasie vir tegniese beroepe kan wees. Die bevindinge en implikasies van die studie word bespreek.

  13. Method of fabricating electrodes including high-capacity, binder-free anodes for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ban, Chunmei; Wu, Zhuangchun; Dillon, Anne C.

    2017-01-10

    An electrode (110) is provided that may be used in an electrochemical device (100) such as an energy storage/discharge device, e.g., a lithium-ion battery, or an electrochromic device, e.g., a smart window. Hydrothermal techniques and vacuum filtration methods were applied to fabricate the electrode (110). The electrode (110) includes an active portion (140) that is made up of electrochemically active nanoparticles, with one embodiment utilizing 3d-transition metal oxides to provide the electrochemical capacity of the electrode (110). The active material (140) may include other electrochemical materials, such as silicon, tin, lithium manganese oxide, and lithium iron phosphate. The electrode (110) also includes a matrix or net (170) of electrically conductive nanomaterial that acts to connect and/or bind the active nanoparticles (140) such that no binder material is required in the electrode (110), which allows more active materials (140) to be included to improve energy density and other desirable characteristics of the electrode. The matrix material (170) may take the form of carbon nanotubes, such as single-wall, double-wall, and/or multi-wall nanotubes, and be provided as about 2 to 30 percent weight of the electrode (110) with the rest being the active material (140).

  14. Electrochemical behavior of zinc particles with silica based coatings as anode material for zinc air batteries with improved discharge capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, M.; Willert-Porada, M.

    2017-05-01

    Silica coatings on zinc particles as anode material for alkaline zinc air batteries are expected to reduce early formation of irreversible ZnO passivation layers during discharge by controlling zinc dissolution and precipitation of supersaturated zincates, Zn(OH)42-. Zinc particles were coated with SiO2 (thickness: 15 nm) by chemical solution deposition and with Zn2SiO4 (thickness: 20 nm) by chemical vapor deposition. These coatings formed a Si(OH)4 gel in aqueous KOH and retarded hydrogen evolution by 40%. By treatment in aqueous KOH and drying afterwards, the silica coatings were changed into ZnO-K2O·SiO2 layers. In this work, the electrochemical performance of such coated zinc particles is investigated by different electrochemical methods in order to gain a deeper understanding of the mechanisms of the coatings, which reduce zinc passivation. In particular, zinc utilization and changes in internal resistance are investigated. Moreover, methods for determination of diffusion coefficients, charge carrier numbers and activation energies for electrochemical oxidation are determined. SiO2-coated zinc particles show improved discharge capacity (CVD-coated zinc: 69% zinc utilization, CSD-coated zinc: 62% zinc utilization) as compared to as-received zinc (57% zinc utilization) at C/20 rate, by reducing supersaturation of zincates. Additionally, KOH-modified SiO2-coated zinc particles enhance rechargeability after 100% depth-of-discharge.

  15. Octahedral Tin Dioxide Nanocrystals Anchored on Vertically Aligned Carbon Aerogels as High Capacity Anode Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mingkai; Liu, Yuqing; Zhang, Yuting; Li, Yiliao; Zhang, Peng; Yan, Yan; Liu, Tianxi

    2016-08-01

    A novel binder-free graphene - carbon nanotubes - SnO2 (GCNT-SnO2) aerogel with vertically aligned pores was prepared via a simple and efficient directional freezing method. SnO2 octahedrons exposed of {221} high energy facets were uniformly distributed and tightly anchored on multidimensional graphene/carbon nanotube (GCNT) composites. Vertically aligned pores can effectively prevent the emersion of “closed” pores which cannot load the active SnO2 nanoparticles, further ensure quick immersion of electrolyte throughout the aerogel, and can largely shorten the transport distance between lithium ions and active sites of SnO2. Especially, excellent electrical conductivity of GCNT-SnO2 aerogel was achieved as a result of good interconnected networks of graphene and CNTs. Furthermore, meso- and macroporous structures with large surface area created by the vertically aligned pores can provide great benefit to the favorable transport kinetics for both lithium ion and electrons and afford sufficient space for volume expansion of SnO2. Due to the well-designed architecture of GCNT-SnO2 aerogel, a high specific capacity of 1190 mAh/g with good long-term cycling stability up to 1000 times was achieved. This work provides a promising strategy for preparing free-standing and binder-free active electrode materials with high performance for lithium ion batteries and other energy storage devices.

  16. From Metal-Organic Framework to Li2S@C-Co-N Nanoporous Architecture: A High-Capacity Cathode for Lithium-Sulfur Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jiarui; Chen, Yuanfu; Lv, Weiqiang; Wen, Kechun; Xu, Chen; Zhang, Wanli; Li, Yanrong; Qin, Wu; He, Weidong

    2016-12-27

    Owing to the high theoretical specific capacity (1166 mAh g -1 ), lithium sulfide (Li 2 S) has been considered as a promising cathode material for Li-S batteries. However, the polysulfide dissolution and low electronic conductivity of Li 2 S limit its further application in next-generation Li-S batteries. In this report, a nanoporous Li 2 S@C-Co-N cathode is synthesized by liquid infiltration-evaporation of ultrafine Li 2 S nanoparticles into graphitic carbon co-doped with cobalt and nitrogen (C-Co-N) derived from metal-organic frameworks. The obtained Li 2 S@C-Co-N architecture remarkably immobilizes Li 2 S within the cathode structure through physical and chemical molecular interactions. Owing to the synergistic interactions between C-Co-N and Li 2 S nanoparticles, the Li 2 S@C-Co-N composite delivers a reversible capacity of 1155.3 (99.1% of theoretical value) at the initial cycle and 929.6 mAh g -1 after 300 cycles, with nearly 100% Coulombic efficiency and a capacity fading of 0.06% per cycle. It exhibits excellent rate capacities of 950.6, 898.8, and 604.1 mAh g -1 at 1C, 2C, and 4C, respectively. Such a cathode structure is promising for practical applications in high-performance Li-S batteries.

  17. High-capacity electrode materials for rechargeable lithium batteries: Li3NbO4-based system with cation-disordered rocksalt structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yabuuchi, Naoaki; Takeuchi, Mitsue; Nakayama, Masanobu; Shiiba, Hiromasa; Ogawa, Masahiro; Nakayama, Keisuke; Ohta, Toshiaki; Endo, Daisuke; Ozaki, Tetsuya; Inamasu, Tokuo; Sato, Kei; Komaba, Shinichi

    2015-06-23

    Rechargeable lithium batteries have rapidly risen to prominence as fundamental devices for green and sustainable energy development. Lithium batteries are now used as power sources for electric vehicles. However, materials innovations are still needed to satisfy the growing demand for increasing energy density of lithium batteries. In the past decade, lithium-excess compounds, Li2MeO3 (Me = Mn(4+), Ru(4+), etc.), have been extensively studied as high-capacity positive electrode materials. Although the origin as the high reversible capacity has been a debatable subject for a long time, recently it has been confirmed that charge compensation is partly achieved by solid-state redox of nonmetal anions (i.e., oxide ions), coupled with solid-state redox of transition metals, which is the basic theory used for classic lithium insertion materials, such as LiMeO2 (Me = Co(3+), Ni(3+), etc.). Herein, as a compound with further excess lithium contents, a cation-ordered rocksalt phase with lithium and pentavalent niobium ions, Li3NbO4, is first examined as the host structure of a new series of high-capacity positive electrode materials for rechargeable lithium batteries. Approximately 300 mAh ⋅ g(-1) of high-reversible capacity at 50 °C is experimentally observed, which partly originates from charge compensation by solid-state redox of oxide ions. It is proposed that such a charge compensation process by oxide ions is effectively stabilized by the presence of electrochemically inactive niobium ions. These results will contribute to the development of a new class of high-capacity electrode materials, potentially with further lithium enrichment (and fewer transition metals) in the close-packed framework structure with oxide ions.

  18. Hierarchical micron-sized mesoporous/macroporous graphene with well-tuned surface oxygen chemistry for high capacity and cycling stability Li-O2 battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wei; Zhang, Hongzhang; Nie, Hongjiao; Ma, Yiwen; Zhang, Yining; Zhang, Huamin

    2015-02-11

    Nonaqueous Li-O2 battery is recognized as one of the most promising energy storage devices for electric vehicles due to its super-high energy density. At present, carbon or catalyst-supporting carbon materials are widely used for cathode materials of Li-O2 battery. However, the unique electrode reaction and complex side reactions lead to numerous hurdles that have to be overcome. The pore blocking caused by the solid products and the byproducts generated from the side reactions severely limit the capacity performance and cycling stability. Thus, there is a great need to develop carbon materials with optimized pore structure and tunable surface chemistry to meet the special requirement of Li-O2 battery. Here, we propose a strategy of vacuum-promoted thermal expansion to fabricate one micron-sized graphene matrix with a hierarchical meso-/macroporous structure, combining with a following deoxygenation treatment to adjust the surface chemistry by reducing the amount of oxygen and selectively removing partial unstable groups. The as-made graphene demonstrates dramatically tailored pore characteristics and a well-tuned surface chemical environment. When applied in Li-O2 battery as cathode, it exhibits an outstanding capacity up to 19 800 mA h g(-1) and is capable of enduring over 50 cycles with a curtaining capacity of 1000 mA h g(-1) at a current density of 1000 mA g(-1). This will provide a novel pathway for the design of cathodes for Li-O2 battery.

  19. Design method of a power management strategy for variable battery capacities range-extended electric vehicles to improve energy efficiency and cost-effectiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, Jiuyu; Chen, Jingfu; Song, Ziyou; Gao, Mingming; Ouyang, Minggao

    2017-01-01

    Energy management strategy and battery capacity are the primary factors for the energy efficiency of range-extended electric buses (REEBs). To improve the energy efficiency of REEBs developed by Tsinghua University, an optimal design method of global optimization-based strategy is investigated. It is real-time and adaptive to variable traction battery capacities of series REEBs. For simulation, the physical model of REEB and key components are established. The optimal strategy is first extracted by the power split ratio (PSR) from REEB simulation result with dynamic program (DP) algorithm. The power distribution map is obtained by series simulations for variable battery capacity options. The control law for developing optimal strategy are achieved by cluster regression for power distribution data. To verify the effect of the proposed energy management strategy, characteristics of powertrain, energy efficiency, operating cost, and computing time are ultimately analyzed. Simulation results show that the energy efficiency of the global optimization-based strategy presented in this paper is similar to that of the DP strategy. Therefore, the overall energy efficiency can be significantly improved compared with that of the CDCS strategy, and operating costs can be substantially reduced. The feasibility of candidate control strategies is thereby assessed via the employment of variable parameters. - Highlights: • Analysis method of powertrain energy efficiency and power distribution is proposed. • The power distribution rules of strategy with variable battery capacities are achieved. • The parametric method of proposed PSR-RB strategy is presented. • The energy efficiency of powertrain is analysis by flow analysis method. • The energy management strategy is global optimization-based and real-time.

  20. ICP Versus Laser Doppler Cerebrovascular Reactivity Indices to Assess Brain Autoregulatory Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeiler, F A; Donnelly, J; Cardim, D; Menon, D K; Smielewski, P; Czosnyka, M

    2017-10-17

    To explore the relationship between various autoregulatory indices in order to determine which approximate small vessel/microvascular (MV) autoregulatory capacity most accurately. Utilizing a retrospective cohort of traumatic brain injury patients (N = 41) with: transcranial Doppler (TCD), intracranial pressure (ICP) and cortical laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF), we calculated various continuous indices of autoregulation and cerebrovascular responsiveness: A. ICP derived [pressure reactivity index (PRx)-correlation between ICP and mean arterial pressure (MAP), PAx-correlation between pulse amplitude of ICP (AMP) and MAP, RAC-correlation between AMP and cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP)], B. TCD derived (Mx-correlation between mean flow velocity (FVm) and CPP, Mx_a-correlation between FVm and MAP, Sx-correlation between systolic flow velocity (FVs) and CPP, Sx_a-correlation between FVs and MAP, Dx-correlation between diastolic flow index (FVd) and CPP, Dx_a-correlation between FVd and MAP], and LDF derived (Lx-correlation between LDF cerebral blood flow [CBF] and CPP, Lx_a-correlation between LDF-CBF and MAP). We assessed the relationship between these indices via Pearson correlation, Friedman test, principal component analysis (PCA), agglomerative hierarchal clustering (AHC), and k-means cluster analysis (KMCA). LDF-based autoregulatory index (Lx) was most associated with TCD-based Mx/Mx_a and Dx/Dx_a across Pearson correlation, PCA, AHC, and KMCA. Lx was only remotely associated with ICP-based indices (PRx, PAx, RAC). TCD-based Sx/Sx_a was more closely associated with ICP-derived PRx, PAx and RAC. This indicates that vascular-derived indices of autoregulatory capacity (i.e., TCD and LDF based) covary, with Sx/Sx_a being the exception, whereas indices of cerebrovascular reactivity derived from pulsatile CBV (i.e., ICP indices) appear to not be closely related to those of vascular origin. Transcranial Doppler Mx is the most closely associated with LDF-based Lx

  1. In Situ Analysis of the Li-O2 Battery with Thermally Reduced Graphene Oxide Cathode: Influence of Water Addition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storm, Mie Møller; Christensen, Mathias Kjærgård; Younesi, Reza

    2016-01-01

    The Li-O2 battery technology holds the promise to deliver a battery with significantly increased specific energy compared to today's Li-ion batteries. As a cathode support material, reduced graphene oxide has received increasing attention in the Li-O2 battery community due to the possibility...... of increased discharge capacity, increased battery cyclability, and decreased, charging, overpotential. In this. article we investigate the effect of water on a thermally, redircedigraphene, oxide cathode in a Li-O2 battery. Differential electrochemical mass spectrciscnieveals a, decreased electron count...... for batteries with 1000 ppm water added- to the electrolyte in comparison to dry batteries, indicating additional parasitic electrochemical or chemical processes. A comparable capacity of the wet and dry batteries indicates that the reaction mechanism in the Li-O2 battery also depends on the 'surface...

  2. Electrostatic Self-Assembly of Fe3O4 Nanoparticles on Graphene Oxides for High Capacity Lithium-Ion Battery Anodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Kyoo Lee

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Magnetite, Fe3O4, is a promising anode material for lithium ion batteries due to its high theoretical capacity (924 mA h g−1, high density, low cost and low toxicity. However, its application as high capacity anodes is still hampered by poor cycling performance. To stabilize the cycling performance of Fe3O4 nanoparticles, composites comprising Fe3O4 nanoparticles and graphene sheets (GS were fabricated. The Fe3O4/GS composite disks of mm dimensions were prepared by electrostatic self-assembly between negatively charged graphene oxide (GO sheets and positively charged Fe3O4-APTMS [Fe3O4 grafted with (3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (APTMS] in an acidic solution (pH = 2 followed by in situ chemical reduction. Thus prepared Fe3O4/GS composite showed an excellent rate capability as well as much enhanced cycling stability compared with Fe3O4 electrode. The superior electrochemical responses of Fe3O4/GS composite disks assure the advantages of: (1 electrostatic self-assembly between high storage-capacity materials with GO; and (2 incorporation of GS in the Fe3O4/GS composite for high capacity lithium-ion battery application.

  3. Route to sustainable lithium-sulfur batteries with high practical capacity through a fluorine free polysulfide catholyte and self-standing Carbon Nanofiber membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Du-Hyun; Agostini, Marco; Nitze, Florian; Manuel, James; Ahn, Jou-Hyeon; Matic, Aleksandar

    2017-07-24

    We report on a new strategy to improve the capacity, reduce the manufacturing costs and increase the sustainability of Lithium-Sulfur (LiS) batteries. It is based on a semi-liquid cathode composed of a Li 2 S 8 polysulphide catholyte and a binder-free carbon nanofiber membrane with tailored morphology. The polysulphides in the catholyte have the dual role of active material and providing Li + -conduction, i.e. no traditional Li-salt is used in this cell. The cell is able to deliver an areal capacity as high as 7 mAh cm -2 , twice than that of commercial Lithium-ion batteries (LiBs) and 2-4 times higher than that of state-of-the-art LiS cells. In addition, the battery concept has an improved sustainability from a material point of view by being mainly based on sulfur and carbon and being completely fluorine-free, no fluorinated salt or binders are used, and has potential for upscaling and competitive price. The combination of these properties makes the semi-liquid LiS cell here reported a very promising new concept for practical large-scale energy storage applications.

  4. Predictive capacity of anthropometric indicators for dyslipidemia screening in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quadros, Teresa Maria Bianchini; Gordia, Alex Pinheiro; Silva, Rosane Carla Rosendo; Silva, Luciana Rodrigues

    2015-01-01

    To analyze the predictive capacity of anthropometric indicators and their cut-off values for dyslipidemia screening in children and adolescents. This was a cross-sectional study involving 1139 children and adolescents, of both sexes, aged 6-18 years. Body weight, height, waist circumference, subscapular, and triceps skinfold thickness were measured. The body mass index and waist-to-height ratio were calculated. Children and adolescents exhibiting at least one of the following lipid alterations were defined as having dyslipidemia: elevated total cholesterol, low high-density lipoprotein, elevated low-density lipoprotein, and high triglyceride concentration. A receiver operating characteristic curve was constructed and the area under the curve, sensitivity, and specificity was calculated for the parameters analyzed. The prevalence of dyslipidemia was 62.1%. The waist-to-height ratio, waist circumference, subscapular, body mass index, and triceps skinfold thickness, in this order, presented the largest number of significant accuracies, ranging from 0.59 to 0.78. The associations of the anthropometric indicators with dyslipidemia were stronger among adolescents than among children. Significant differences between accuracies of the anthropometric indicators were only observed by the end of adolescence; the accuracy of waist-to-height ratio was higher than that of subscapular (p=0.048) for females, and the accuracy of waist circumference was higher than that of subscapular (p=0.029) and body mass index (p=0.012) for males. In general, the cut-off values of the anthropometric predictors of dyslipidemia increased with age, except for waist-to-height ratio. Sensitivity and specificity varied substantially between anthropometric indicators, ranging from 75.6 to 53.5 and from 75.0 to 50.0, respectively. The anthropometric indicators studied had little utility as screening tools for dyslipidemia, especially in children. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria

  5. Alkaline battery operational methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sholklapper, Tal; Gallaway, Joshua; Steingart, Daniel; Ingale, Nilesh; Nyce, Michael

    2016-08-16

    Methods of using specific operational charge and discharge parameters to extend the life of alkaline batteries are disclosed. The methods can be used with any commercial primary or secondary alkaline battery, as well as with newer alkaline battery designs, including batteries with flowing electrolyte. The methods include cycling batteries within a narrow operating voltage window, with minimum and maximum cut-off voltages that are set based on battery characteristics and environmental conditions. The narrow voltage window decreases available capacity but allows the batteries to be cycled for hundreds or thousands of times.

  6. Amorphous MoS 3 Infiltrated with Carbon Nanotubes as an Advanced Anode Material of Sodium-Ion Batteries with Large Gravimetric, Areal, and Volumetric Capacities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye, Hualin [Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials (FUNSOM), Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Carbon-Based Functional Materials and Devices, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 China; Wang, Lu [Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials (FUNSOM), Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Carbon-Based Functional Materials and Devices, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 China; Deng, Shuo [Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials (FUNSOM), Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Carbon-Based Functional Materials and Devices, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 China; Zeng, Xiaoqiao [Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont IL 60439 USA; Nie, Kaiqi [Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials (FUNSOM), Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Carbon-Based Functional Materials and Devices, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 China; Duchesne, Paul N. [Department of Chemistry, Dalhousie University, Halifax NS B3H 4R2 Canada; Wang, Bo [Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials (FUNSOM), Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Carbon-Based Functional Materials and Devices, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 China; Liu, Simon [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 Canada; Zhou, Junhua [Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials (FUNSOM), Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Carbon-Based Functional Materials and Devices, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 China; Zhao, Feipeng [Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials (FUNSOM), Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Carbon-Based Functional Materials and Devices, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 China; Han, Na [Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials (FUNSOM), Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Carbon-Based Functional Materials and Devices, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 China; Zhang, Peng [Department of Chemistry, Dalhousie University, Halifax NS B3H 4R2 Canada; Zhong, Jun [Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials (FUNSOM), Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Carbon-Based Functional Materials and Devices, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 China; Sun, Xuhui [Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials (FUNSOM), Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Carbon-Based Functional Materials and Devices, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 China; Li, Youyong [Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials (FUNSOM), Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Carbon-Based Functional Materials and Devices, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 China; Li, Yanguang [Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials (FUNSOM), Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Carbon-Based Functional Materials and Devices, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 China; Lu, Jun [Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont IL 60439 USA

    2016-11-17

    The search for earth-abundant and high-performance electrode materials for sodium-ion batteries represents an important challenge to current battery research. 2D transition metal dichalcogenides, particularly MoS2, have attracted increasing attention recently, but few of them so far have been able to meet expectations. In this study, it is demonstrated that another phase of molybdenum sulfide—amorphous chain-like MoS3—can be a better choice as the anode material of sodium-ion batteries. Highly compact MoS3 particles infiltrated with carbon nanotubes are prepared via the facile acid precipitation method in ethylene glycol. Compared to crystalline MoS2, the resultant amorphous MoS3 not only exhibits impressive gravimetric performance—featuring excellent specific capacity (≈615 mA h g−1), rate capability (235 mA h g−1 at 20 A g−1), and cycling stability but also shows exceptional volumetric capacity of ≈1000 mA h cm−3 and an areal capacity of >6.0 mA h cm−2 at very high areal loadings of active materials (up to 12 mg cm−2). The experimental results are supported by density functional theory simulations showing that the 1D chains of MoS3 can facilitate the adsorption and diffusion of Na+ ions. At last, it is demonstrated that the MoS3 anode can be paired with an Na3V2(PO4)3 cathode to afford full cells with great capacity and cycling performance.

  7. High-rate aluminium yolk-shell nanoparticle anode for Li-ion battery with long cycle life and ultrahigh capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sa; Niu, Junjie; Zhao, Yu Cheng; So, Kang Pyo; Wang, Chao; Wang, Chang An; Li, Ju

    2015-08-05

    Alloy-type anodes such as silicon and tin are gaining popularity in rechargeable Li-ion batteries, but their rate/cycling capabilities should be improved. Here by making yolk-shell nanocomposite of aluminium core (30 nm in diameter) and TiO2 shell (∼3 nm in thickness), with a tunable interspace, we achieve 10 C charge/discharge rate with reversible capacity exceeding 650 mAh g(-1) after 500 cycles, with a 3 mg cm(-2) loading. At 1 C, the capacity is approximately 1,200 mAh g(-1) after 500 cycles. Our one-pot synthesis route is simple and industrially scalable. This result may reverse the lagging status of aluminium among high-theoretical-capacity anodes.

  8. Amorphous Hierarchical Porous GeOx as High-Capacity Anodes for LiIon Batteries with Very Long Cycling Life

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, X.L.; Han, W.-Q.; Chen, H.; Bai, J.; Tyson, T.A.; Yu, X.-Q.; Wang, X.-J.; Yang, X.-Q.

    2011-12-28

    Many researchers have focused in recent years on resolving the crucial problem of capacity fading in Li ion batteries when carbon anodes are replaced by other group-IV elements (Si, Ge, Sn) with much higher capacities. Some progress was achieved by using different nanostructures (mainly carbon coatings), with which the cycle numbers reached 100-200. However, obtaining longer stability via a simple process remains challenging. Here we demonstrate that a nanostructure of amorphous hierarchical porous GeO{sub x} whose primary particles are {approx}3.7 nm diameter has a very stable capacity of {approx}1250 mA h g{sup -1} for 600 cycles. Furthermore, we show that a full cell coupled with a Li(NiCoMn){sub 1/3}O{sub 2} cathode exhibits high performance.

  9. An interrelation of physical working capacity and body component composition indicators of amateur athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoya Gorenko

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: determine the features of the body component composition and the level of physical performance, as well as the structure of the correlation between these indicators in amateur athletes. Material & Methods: in conditions of the test with physical load with stepwise increasing power in the 71-st physically active person, the reaction of the cardio-respiratory system to physical activity. The body component composition was determined by the bioelectrical impedance method. Result: in amateur athletes, the relative VO2max and power ratings are positively correlated with the relative body water content and have a negative relationship with age, body weight, body mass index, fat content. Oxygen pulse with a high degree of probability positively correlated with body weight, body mass index, metabolic rate, fat-free mass, water content and predictable muscle mass in all body segments. Conclusion: Conducted studies indicate a sufficient level of aerobic capacity, overall performance, the efficiency of the cardiac cycle, the functioning of the О2-transport system and skeletal muscles ability to absorb oxygen from the amateur athletes, and excess fat tissue negatively affects physical performance, overall endurance and achieving high sports results in sports on the endurance.

  10. Simulation and experimental study on lithium ion battery short circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Rui; Liu, Jie; Gu, Junjie

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Both external and internal short circuit tests were performed on Li-ion batteries. • An electrochemical–thermal model with an additional nail site heat source is presented. • The model can accurately simulate the temperature variations of non-venting batteries. • The model is reliable in predicting the occurrence and start time of thermal runaway. • A hydrogel cooling system proves its strength in preventing battery thermal runaway. - Abstract: Safety is the first priority in lithium ion (Li-ion) battery applications. A large portion of electrical and thermal hazards caused by Li-ion battery is associated with short circuit. In this paper, both external and internal short circuit tests are conducted. Li-ion batteries and battery packs of different capacities are used. The results indicate that external short circuit is worse for smaller size batteries due to their higher internal resistances, and this type of short can be well managed by assembling fuses. In internal short circuit tests, higher chance of failure is found on larger capacity batteries. A modified electrochemical–thermal model is proposed, which incorporates an additional heat source from nail site and proves to be successful in depicting temperature changes in batteries. Specifically, the model is able to estimate the occurrence and approximate start time of thermal runaway. Furthermore, the effectiveness of a hydrogel based thermal management system in suppressing thermal abuse and preventing thermal runaway propagation is verified through the external and internal short tests on batteries and battery packs.

  11. Catalyst-free synthesis of Si-SiOx core-shell nanowire anodes for high-rate and high-capacity lithium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Kwan Woo; Lee, Jung-In; Yang, Jieun; Kim, Young-Ki; Jeong, Hu Young; Park, Soojin; Shin, Hyeon Suk

    2014-05-14

    Si-SiOx core-shell nanowires (NWs) ranging from 10 to 30 nm in diameter are prepared by a simple evaporation of silicon monoxide and control of substrate temperatures without any catalyst. The Si-SiOx NWs grown at 735 and 955 °C are strongly anchored to the Cu current collector by forming copper silicide at the interface between Si and Cu, and subsequently used as anodes in lithium-ion batteries, in which no binder or conducting materials are used. The Si-SiOx NWs anodes show excellent electrochemical performances in terms of capacity retention and rate capability. In particular, the Si-SiOx NW anode grown at 955 °C shows a reversible capacity of ∼1000 mAh g(-1) even at a high-rate of 50 C. This catalyst-free synthetic route of Si-SiOx NWs that are strongly anchored to the Cu current collector opens up an effective process for fabricating other high-capacity anodes in lithium-ion batteries (LIBs).

  12. In Situ Wrapping Si Nanoparticles with 2D Carbon Nanosheets as High-Areal-Capacity Anode for Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Lijing; Liu, Jie; Wang, Qianqian; Sun, Minghao; Jiang, Zhanguo; Liang, Chengdu; Pan, Feng; Lin, Zhan

    2017-11-08

    Silicon (Si) has aroused great interest as the most attractive anode candidate for energy-dense lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) in the past decade because of its significantly high capacity and low discharge potential. However, the large volume change during cycling impedes its practical application, which is more serious in the case of high mass loading. Designing Si anode with high mass loading and high areal capacity by a simple, scalable, and environmentally friendly method is still a big challenge. Herein, we report in situ one-pot synthesis of Si/C composite, where Si nanoparticles are wrapped by graphene-like 2D carbon nanosheets. After 500 cycles at 420 mA g -1 , the Si/C anode displays a gravimetric capacity of 881 mAh g -1 with 86.4% capacity being retained. More specially, a high areal capacity of 3.13 mAh cm -2 at 5.00 mg cm -2 after 100 cycles is achieved. This study demonstrates a novel route for the preparation of the Si/C composite with high material utilization and may expand the possibility of future design Si-based anode with high areal capacity for high energy LIBs.

  13. High-Capacity and Long-Cycle Life Aqueous Rechargeable Lithium-Ion Battery with the FePO4Anode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuesheng; Yang, Shi-Ze; You, Ya; Feng, Zimin; Zhu, Wen; Gariépy, Vincent; Xia, Jiexiang; Commarieu, Basile; Darwiche, Ali; Guerfi, Abdelbast; Zaghib, Karim

    2018-02-28

    Aqueous lithium-ion batteries are emerging as strong candidates for a great variety of energy storage applications because of their low cost, high-rate capability, and high safety. Exciting progress has been made in the search for anode materials with high capacity, low toxicity, and high conductivity; yet, most of the anode materials, because of their low equilibrium voltages, facilitate hydrogen evolution. Here, we show the application of olivine FePO 4 and amorphous FePO 4 ·2H 2 O as anode materials for aqueous lithium-ion batteries. Their capacities reached 163 and 82 mA h/g at a current rate of 0.2 C, respectively. The full cell with an amorphous FePO 4 ·2H 2 O anode maintained 92% capacity after 500 cycles at a current rate of 0.2 C. The acidic aqueous electrolyte in the full cells prevented cathodic oxygen evolution, while the higher equilibrium voltage of FePO 4 avoided hydrogen evolution as well, making them highly stable. A combination of in situ X-ray diffraction analyses and computational studies revealed that olivine FePO 4 still has the biphase reaction in the aqueous electrolyte and that the intercalation pathways in FePO 4 ·2H 2 O form a 2-D mesh. The low cost, high safety, and outstanding electrochemical performance make the full cells with olivine or amorphous hydrated FePO 4 anodes commercially viable configurations for aqueous lithium-ion batteries.

  14. Route to sustainable lithium-sulfur batteries with high practical capacity through a fluorine free polysulfide catholyte and self-standing Carbon Nanofiber membranes

    OpenAIRE

    Lim, Du-Hyun; Agostini, Marco; Nitze, Florian; Manuel, James; Ahn, Jou-Hyeon; Matic, Aleksandar

    2017-01-01

    We report on a new strategy to improve the capacity, reduce the manufacturing costs and increase the sustainability of Lithium-Sulfur (LiS) batteries. It is based on a semi-liquid cathode composed of a Li2S8 polysulphide catholyte and a binder-free carbon nanofiber membrane with tailored morphology. The polysulphides in the catholyte have the dual role of active material and providing Li+-conduction, i.e. no traditional Li-salt is used in this cell. The cell is able to deliver an areal capaci...

  15. Neurophysiological Indicators of Residual Cognitive Capacity in the Minimally Conscious State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solveig L. Hauger

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The diagnostic usefulness of electrophysiological methods in assessing disorders of consciousness (DoC remains to be established on an individual patient level, and there is need to determine what constitutes robust experimental paradigm to elicit electrophysiological indices of covert cognitive capacity. Objectives. Two tasks encompassing active and passive conditions were explored in an event-related potentials (ERP study. The task robustness was studied in healthy controls, and their utility to detect covert signs of command-following on an individual patient level was investigated in patients in a minimally conscious state (MCS. Methods. Twenty healthy controls and 20 MCS patients participated. The active tasks included (1 listening for a change of pitch in the subject’s own name (SON and (2 counting SON, both contrasted to passive conditions. Midline ERPs are reported. Results. A larger P3 response was detected in the counting task compared to active listening to pitch change in the healthy controls. On an individual level, the counting task revealed a higher rate of responders among both healthy subjects and MCS patients. Conclusion. ERP paradigms involving actively counting SON represent a robust paradigm in probing for volitional cognition in minimally conscious patients and add important diagnostic information in some patients.

  16. Nuclear Energy Readiness Indicator Index (NERI): A benchmarking tool for assessing nuclear capacity in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saum-Manning,L.

    2008-07-13

    ) nuclear infrastructure; (6) the utilization of IAEA technical assistance; (7) participation in regional arrangements; and (8) public support for nuclear power. In this paper, the Index aggregates the indicators and evaluates and compares the level of readiness in seven countries that have recently expressed various degrees of interest in establishing a nuclear energy program. The NERI Index could be a valuable tool to be utilized by: (1) country officials who are considering nuclear power; (2) the international community, desiring reassurance of a country's capacity for the peaceful, safe, and secure use of nuclear energy; (3) foreign governments/NGO's, seeking to prioritize and direct resources toward developing countries; and (4) private stakeholders interested in nuclear infrastructure investment opportunities.

  17. Nuclear Energy Readiness Indicator Index (NERI): A benchmarking tool for assessing nuclear capacity in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saum-Manning, L.

    2008-01-01

    utilization of IAEA technical assistance; (7) participation in regional arrangements; and (8) public support for nuclear power. In this paper, the Index aggregates the indicators and evaluates and compares the level of readiness in seven countries that have recently expressed various degrees of interest in establishing a nuclear energy program. The NERI Index could be a valuable tool to be utilized by: (1) country officials who are considering nuclear power; (2) the international community, desiring reassurance of a country's capacity for the peaceful, safe, and secure use of nuclear energy; (3) foreign governments/NGO's, seeking to prioritize and direct resources toward developing countries; and (4) private stakeholders interested in nuclear infrastructure investment opportunities

  18. A novel approach of battery pack state of health estimation using artificial intelligence optimization algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xu; Wang, Yujie; Liu, Chang; Chen, Zonghai

    2018-02-01

    An accurate battery pack state of health (SOH) estimation is important to characterize the dynamic responses of battery pack and ensure the battery work with safety and reliability. However, the different performances in battery discharge/charge characteristics and working conditions in battery pack make the battery pack SOH estimation difficult. In this paper, the battery pack SOH is defined as the change of battery pack maximum energy storage. It contains all the cells' information including battery capacity, the relationship between state of charge (SOC) and open circuit voltage (OCV), and battery inconsistency. To predict the battery pack SOH, the method of particle swarm optimization-genetic algorithm is applied in battery pack model parameters identification. Based on the results, a particle filter is employed in battery SOC and OCV estimation to avoid the noise influence occurring in battery terminal voltage measurement and current drift. Moreover, a recursive least square method is used to update cells' capacity. Finally, the proposed method is verified by the profiles of New European Driving Cycle and dynamic test profiles. The experimental results indicate that the proposed method can estimate the battery states with high accuracy for actual operation. In addition, the factors affecting the change of SOH is analyzed.

  19. On the Static Accuracy of Charge-Discharge Units Intended for Electrical Tests of High Capacity Li-ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizrah, E. A.; Lobanov, D. K.; Kopylov, E. A.; Balakirev, R. V.; Fedchenko, A. S.

    2017-10-01

    Performing of the cycle testing according to the principles of Dynamic Stress Test can significantly reduce the overall time of development and production of batteries, which in turn allows reducing the cost of designing and testing of the spacecraft power systems. Performing of Dynamic Stress Test require special charge-discharge units that allows to perform a full cycle of electrical tests of batteries, including cyclic testing. Providing the required accuracy of measurement and stabilization of certain attributes of Li-ion battery operating modes is one of the problems that arise during thedevelopment of such charge-discharge units. The following attributes are of particular interest: charge and discharge currents, discharge powers, battery voltages. Analysis of the charge-discharge unit as a control system allows evaluating the steady-state stabilization error of the required attributes of the developed device. Moreover, using a digital integrator in the control system of the charge-discharge unit allows providing specified values of steady-state stabilization error of required attributes in different test modes.

  20. Molecular Sieve Induced Solution Growth of Li2O2in the Li-O2Battery with Largely Enhanced Discharge Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wei; Wang, Huwei; Hu, Jing; Yang, Wei; Qin, Lei; Liu, Ruliang; Li, Baohua; Zhai, Dengyun; Kang, Feiyu

    2018-03-07

    The formation of the insulated film-like discharge products (Li 2 O 2 ) on the surface of the carbon cathode gradually hinders the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) process, which usually leads to the premature death of the Li-O 2 battery. In this work, by introducing the molecular sieve powder into the ether electrolyte, the Li-O 2 battery exhibits a largely improved discharge capacity (63 times) compared with the one in the absence of this inorganic oxide additive. Meanwhile, XRD and SEM results qualitatively demonstrate the generation of the toroid Li 2 O 2 as the dominated discharge products, and the chemical titration quantifies a higher yield of the Li 2 O 2 with the presence of the molecular sieve additive. The addition of the molecular sieve controls the amount of the free water in the electrolyte, which distinguishes the effect of the molecular sieve and the free water on the discharge process. Hence, a possible mechanism has been proposed that the adsorption of the molecular sieves toward the soluble lithium superoxides improves the disproportionation of the lithium superoxides and consequently enhances the solution-growth of the lithium peroxides in the low donor number ether electrolyte. In general, the application of the molecular sieve triggers further studies concerning the improvement of the discharge performance in the Li-O 2 battery by adding the inorganic additives.

  1. High Area Capacity Lithium-Sulfur Full-cell Battery with Prelitiathed Silicon Nanowire-Carbon Anodes for Long Cycling Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Andreas; Dörfler, Susanne; Piwko, Markus; Wisser, Florian M.; Jaumann, Tony; Ahrens, Eike; Giebeler, Lars; Althues, Holger; Schädlich, Stefan; Grothe, Julia; Jeffery, Andrea; Grube, Matthias; Brückner, Jan; Martin, Jan; Eckert, Jürgen; Kaskel, Stefan; Mikolajick, Thomas; Weber, Walter M.

    2016-01-01

    We show full Li/S cells with the use of balanced and high capacity electrodes to address high power electro-mobile applications. The anode is made of an assembly comprising of silicon nanowires as active material densely and conformally grown on a 3D carbon mesh as a light-weight current collector, offering extremely high areal capacity for reversible Li storage of up to 9 mAh/cm2. The dense growth is guaranteed by a versatile Au precursor developed for homogenous Au layer deposition on 3D substrates. In contrast to metallic Li, the presented system exhibits superior characteristics as an anode in Li/S batteries such as safe operation, long cycle life and easy handling. These anodes are combined with high area density S/C composite cathodes into a Li/S full-cell with an ether- and lithium triflate-based electrolyte for high ionic conductivity. The result is a highly cyclable full-cell with an areal capacity of 2.3 mAh/cm2, a cyclability surpassing 450 cycles and capacity retention of 80% after 150 cycles (capacity loss <0.4% per cycle). A detailed physical and electrochemical investigation of the SiNW Li/S full-cell including in-operando synchrotron X-ray diffraction measurements reveals that the lower degradation is due to a lower self-reduction of polysulfides after continuous charging/discharging. PMID:27319783

  2. High Area Capacity Lithium-Sulfur Full-cell Battery with Prelitiathed Silicon Nanowire-Carbon Anodes for Long Cycling Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Andreas; Dörfler, Susanne; Piwko, Markus; Wisser, Florian M.; Jaumann, Tony; Ahrens, Eike; Giebeler, Lars; Althues, Holger; Schädlich, Stefan; Grothe, Julia; Jeffery, Andrea; Grube, Matthias; Brückner, Jan; Martin, Jan; Eckert, Jürgen; Kaskel, Stefan; Mikolajick, Thomas; Weber, Walter M.

    2016-06-01

    We show full Li/S cells with the use of balanced and high capacity electrodes to address high power electro-mobile applications. The anode is made of an assembly comprising of silicon nanowires as active material densely and conformally grown on a 3D carbon mesh as a light-weight current collector, offering extremely high areal capacity for reversible Li storage of up to 9 mAh/cm2. The dense growth is guaranteed by a versatile Au precursor developed for homogenous Au layer deposition on 3D substrates. In contrast to metallic Li, the presented system exhibits superior characteristics as an anode in Li/S batteries such as safe operation, long cycle life and easy handling. These anodes are combined with high area density S/C composite cathodes into a Li/S full-cell with an ether- and lithium triflate-based electrolyte for high ionic conductivity. The result is a highly cyclable full-cell with an areal capacity of 2.3 mAh/cm2, a cyclability surpassing 450 cycles and capacity retention of 80% after 150 cycles (capacity loss physical and electrochemical investigation of the SiNW Li/S full-cell including in-operando synchrotron X-ray diffraction measurements reveals that the lower degradation is due to a lower self-reduction of polysulfides after continuous charging/discharging.

  3. Intercalating Ti2Nb14O39Anode Materials for Fast-Charging, High-Capacity and Safe Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chunfu; Deng, Shengjue; Kautz, David J; Xu, Zhihao; Liu, Tao; Li, Jianbao; Wang, Ning; Lin, Feng

    2017-12-01

    Ti-Nb-O binary oxide materials represent a family of promising intercalating anode materials for lithium-ion batteries. In additional to their excellent capacities (388-402 mAh g -1 ), these materials show excellent safety characteristics, such as an operating potential above the lithium plating voltage and minimal volume change. Herein, this study reports a new member in the Ti-Nb-O family, Ti 2 Nb 14 O 39 , as an advanced anode material. Ti 2 Nb 14 O 39 porous spheres (Ti 2 Nb 14 O 39 -S) exhibit a defective shear ReO 3 crystal structure with a large unit cell volume and a large amount of cation vacancies (0.85% vs all cation sites). These morphological and structural characteristics allow for short electron/Li + -ion transport length and fast Li + -ion diffusivity. Consequently, the Ti 2 Nb 14 O 39 -S material delivers significant pseudocapacitive behavior and excellent electrochemical performances, including high reversible capacity (326 mAh g -1 at 0.1 C), high first-cycle Coulombic efficiency (87.5%), safe working potential (1.67 V vs Li/Li + ), outstanding rate capability (223 mAh g -1 at 40 C) and durable cycling stability (only 0.032% capacity loss per cycle over 200 cycles at 10 C). These impressive results clearly demonstrate that Ti 2 Nb 14 O 39 -S can be a promising anode material for fast-charging, high capacity, safe and stable lithium-ion batteries. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Screening Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, and Clostridium perfringens as Indicator Organisms in Evaluating Pathogen-Reducing Capacity in Biogas Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Watcharasukarn, Montira; Kaparaju, Prasad Laxmi-Narasimha; Steyer, Jean-Philippe

    2009-01-01

    This study was conducted to identify an indicator organism(s) in evaluating the pathogen-reducing capacity of biogas plants. Fresh cow manure containing 10(4) to 10(5) colony forming unit (CFU) per milliliter of Escherichia coli and Enterococcus faecalis along with an inoculated Clostridium...... as indicator organisms to evaluate pathogen-reducing capacity in biogas plants at high temperatures of 55A degrees C and 70A degrees C while at 37A degrees C E. coli could also be included as indicator organism....

  5. Sandwich-like MoS2@SnO2@C with High Capacity and Stability for Sodium/Potassium Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhi; Yin, Dangui; Zhang, Ming

    2018-03-15

    Sandwich-like MoS 2 @SnO 2 @C nanosheeets are prepared by facile hydrothermal reactions. SnO 2 nanosheets can attach to exfoliated MoS 2 nanosheets to prevent restacking of adjacent MoS 2 nanosheets, and carbon transformed from polyvinylpyrrolidone is coated on MoS 2 @SnO 2 , forming a sandwich structure to maintain cycling stability. As an anode for sodium-ion batteries, the electrode greatly deliverers a high initial discharge specific capacity of 530 mA h g -1 and maintains at 396 mA h g -1 after 150 cycles at 0.1 A g -1 . Even at a large current density of 1 A g -1 , it can hold 230 mA h g -1 after 450 cycles. Besides, as an anode for K + storage, the electrode also shows a discharge capacity of 312 mA h g -1 after 25 cycles at 0.05 A g -1 . This work may provide a new strategy to prepare other composites which can be applied to new kind of rechargeable batteries. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Evaluation of genotoxic effects of surface waters using a battery of bioassays indicating different mode of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yingnan; Li, Na; Oda, Yoshimitsu; Ma, Mei; Rao, Kaifeng; Wang, Zijian; Jin, Wei; Hong, Gang; Li, Zhiguo; Luo, Yi

    2016-11-01

    With the burgeoning contamination of surface waters threatening human health, the genotoxic effects of surface waters have received much attention. Because mutagenic and carcinogenic compounds in water cause tumors by different mechanisms, a battery of bioassays that each indicate a different mode of action (MOA) is required to evaluate the genotoxic effects of contaminants in water samples. In this study, 15 water samples from two source water reservoirs and surrounding rivers in Shijiazhuang city of China were evaluated for genotoxic effects. Target chemical analyses of 14 genotoxic pollutants were performed according to the Environmental quality standards for surface water of China. Then, the in vitro cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN) assay, based on a high-content screening technique, was used to detect the effect of chromosome damage. The SOS/umu test using strain TA1535/pSK1002 was used to detect effects on SOS repair of gene expression. Additionally, two other strains, NM2009 and NM3009, which are highly sensitive to aromatic amines and nitroarenes, respectively, were used in the SOS/umu test to avoid false negative results. In the water samples, only two of the genotoxic chemicals listed in the water standards were detected in a few samples, with concentrations that were below water quality standards. However, positive results for the CBMN assay were observed in two river samples, and positive results for the induction of umuC gene expression in TA1535/pSK1002 were observed in seven river samples. Moreover, positive results were observed for NM2009 with S9 and NM3009 without S9 in some samples that had negative results using the strain TA1535/pSK1002. Based on the results with NM2009 and NM3009, some unknown or undetected aromatic amines and nitroarenes were likely in the source water reservoirs and the surrounding rivers. Furthermore, these compounds were most likely the causative pollutants for the genotoxic effect of these water samples. Therefore

  7. Battery sizing and rule-based operation of grid-connected photovoltaic-battery system: A case study in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yang; Lundblad, Anders; Campana, Pietro Elia; Benavente, F.; Yan, Jinyue

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Battery sizing and rule-based operation are achieved concurrently. • Hybrid operation strategy that combines different strategies is proposed. • Three operation strategies are compared through multi-objective optimization. • High Net Present Value and Self Sufficiency Ratio are achieved at the same time. - Abstract: The optimal components design for grid-connected photovoltaic-battery systems should be determined with consideration of system operation. This study proposes a method to simultaneously optimize the battery capacity and rule-based operation strategy. The investigated photovoltaic-battery system is modeled using single diode photovoltaic model and Improved Shepherd battery model. Three rule-based operation strategies—including the conventional operation strategy, the dynamic price load shifting strategy, and the hybrid operation strategy—are designed and evaluated. The rule-based operation strategies introduce different operation parameters to run the system operation. multi-objective Genetic Algorithm is employed to optimize the decisional variables, including battery capacity and operation parameters, towards maximizing the system’s Self Sufficiency Ratio and Net Present Value. The results indicate that employing battery with the conventional operation strategy is not profitable, although it increases Self Sufficiency Ratio. The dynamic price load shifting strategy has similar performance with the conventional operation strategy because the electricity price variation is not large enough. The proposed hybrid operation strategy outperforms other investigated strategies. When the battery capacity is lower than 72 kW h, Self Sufficiency Ratio and Net Present Value increase simultaneously with the battery capacity.

  8. Ultrathin Nitrogen-Doped Carbon Layer Uniformly Supported on Graphene Frameworks as Ultrahigh-Capacity Anode for Lithium-Ion Full Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yanshan; Li, Ke; Yang, Guanhui; Aboud, Mohamed F Aly; Shakir, Imran; Xu, Yuxi

    2018-01-24

    The designable structure with 3D structure, ultrathin 2D nanosheets, and heteroatom doping are considered as highly promising routes to improve the electrochemical performance of carbon materials as anodes for lithium-ion batteries. However, it remains a significant challenge to efficiently integrate 3D interconnected porous frameworks with 2D tunable heteroatom-doped ultrathin carbon layers to further boost the performance. Herein, a novel nanostructure consisting of a uniform ultrathin N-doped carbon layer in situ coated on a 3D graphene framework (NC@GF) through solvothermal self-assembly/polymerization and pyrolysis is reported. The NC@GF with the nanosheets thickness of 4.0 nm and N content of 4.13 at% exhibits an ultrahigh reversible capacity of 2018 mA h g -1 at 0.5 A g -1 and an ultrafast charge-discharge feature with a remarkable capacity of 340 mA h g -1 at an ultrahigh current density of 40 A g -1 and a superlong cycle life with a capacity retention of 93% after 10 000 cycles at 40 A g -1 . More importantly, when coupled with LiFePO 4 cathode, the fabricated lithium-ion full cells also exhibit high capacity and excellent rate and cycling performances, highlighting the practicability of this NC@GF. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. MoO2-ordered mesoporous carbon hybrids as anode materials with highly improved rate capability and reversible capacity for lithium-ion battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ailian; Li, Caixia; Tang, Rui; Yin, Longwei; Qi, Yongxin

    2013-08-28

    A novel hybrid of MoO2-ordered mesoporous carbon (MoO2-OMC) was prepared through a two-step solvothermal chemical reaction route. The electrochemical performances of the mesoporous MoO2-OMC hybrids were examined using galvanostatical charge-discharge, cyclic voltammetry, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) techniques. The MoO2-OMC hybrid exhibits significantly improved electrochemical performance of high reversible capacity, high-rate capability, and excellent cycling performance as an anode electrode material for Li ion batteries. It is revealed that the MoO2-OMC hybrid could deliver the first discharge capacity of 1641.8 mA h g(-1) with an initial Coulombic efficiency of 63.6%, and a reversible capacity as high as 1049.1 mA h g(-1) even after 50 cycles at a current density of 100 mA g(-1), much higher than the theoretical capacity of MoO2 (838 mA h g(-1)) and OMC materials. The MoO2-OMC hybrid demonstrates an excellent high rate capability with capacity of ∼600 mA h g(-1) even at a charge current density of 1600 mA g(-1) after 50 cycles, which is approximately 11.1 times higher than that of the OMC (54 mA h g(-1)) materials. The improved rate capability and reversible capacity of the MoO2-OMC hybrid are attributed to a synergistic reaction between the MoO2 nanoparticles and mesoporous OMC matrices. It is noted that the electrochemical performance of the MoO2-OMC hybrid is evidently much better than the previous MoO2-based hybrids.

  10. Working Memory Capacity and Stroop Interference: Global versus Local Indices of Executive Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Matt E.; Kane, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Two experiments examined the relations among working memory capacity (WMC), congruency-sequence effects, proportion-congruency effects, and the color-word Stroop effect to test whether congruency-sequence effects might inform theoretical claims regarding WMC's prediction of Stroop interference. In Experiment 1, subjects completed either a…

  11. Production capacity of estuarine ecosystems and filter feeder stock size: indices for under- or overgrazing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smaal, A.C.

    2012-01-01

    For extensive shellfish culture, the trophic capacity of the culture system is a major production factor and this is determined by the primary production, the flux of food to the culture sites and the role of competing filter feeders. Various control mechanisms play a role in these processes:

  12. Evidencing the association between swimming capacities and performance indicators in water polo: a multiple regression study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontic, Dean; Zenic, Natasa; Uljevic, Ognjen; Sekulic, Damir; Lesnik, Blaz

    2017-06-01

    Swimming capacities are hypothesized to be important determinants of water polo performance but there is an evident lack of studies examining different swimming capacities in relation to specific offensive and defensive performance variables in this sport. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between five swimming capacities and six performance determinants in water polo. The sample comprised 79 high-level youth water polo players (all males, 17-18 years of age). The variables included six performance-related variables (agility in offence and defense, efficacy in offence and defense, polyvalence in offence and defense), and five swimming-capacity tests (water polo sprint test [15 m], swimming sprint test [25 m], short-distance [100 m], aerobic endurance [400 m] and an anaerobic lactate endurance test [4× 50 m]). First, multiple regressions were calculated for one-half of the sample of subjects which were then validated with the remaining half of the sample. The 25-m swim was not included in the regression analyses due to the multicollinearity with other predictors. The originally calculated regression models were validated for defensive agility (R=0.67 and R=0.55 for the original regression calculation and validation subsample, respectively) offensive agility (R=0.59 and R=0.61), and offensive efficacy (R=0.64 and R=0.58). Anaerobic lactate endurance is a significant predictor of offensive and defensive agility, while 15 m sprint significantly contributes to offensive efficacy. Swimming capacities are not found to be related to the polyvalence of the players. The most superior offensive performance can be expected from those players with a high level of anaerobic lactate endurance and advanced sprinting capacity, while anaerobic lactate endurance is recognized as most important quality in defensive duties. Future studies should observe players' polyvalence in relation to (theoretical) knowledge of technical and tactical tasks. Results reinforce

  13. Negative plates for dry-charged lead storage batteries. [higher charging capacity when impregnated with tannin solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiedler, V.; Malikova, V.; Weber, H.

    1970-09-15

    Impregnation of negative plates with acid solutions of sulfomethylated tannins was found to improve the charging properties at low temperatures. Methods for synthesizing tannins are described. Charging capacity at 0/sup 0/ was 7.3A. (RWR)

  14. Exploring climate change vulnerability across sectors and scenarios using indicators of impacts and coping capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunford, R; Harrison, P A; Jäger, J; Rounsevell, M D A; Tinch, R

    Addressing climate change vulnerability requires an understanding of both the level of climate impacts and the capacity of the exposed population to cope. This study developed a methodology for allowing users to explore vulnerability to changes in ecosystem services as a result of climatic and socio-economic changes. It focuses on the vulnerability of Europe across multiple sectors by combining the outputs of a regional integrated assessment (IA) model, the CLIMSAVE IA Platform, with maps of coping capacity based on the five capitals approach. The presented methodology enables stakeholder-derived socio-economic futures to be represented within a quantitative integrated modelling framework in a way that changes spatially and temporally with the socio-economic storyline. Vulnerability was mapped for six key ecosystem services in 40 combined climate and socio-economic scenarios. The analysis shows that, whilst the north and west of Europe are generally better placed to cope with climate impacts than the south and east, coping could be improved in all areas. Furthermore, whilst the lack of coping capacity in dystopian scenarios often leads to greater vulnerability, there are complex interactions between sectors that lead to patterns of vulnerability that vary spatially, with scenario and by sector even within the more utopian futures.

  15. Improved positive electrode materials for lithium-ion batteries: Exploring the high specific capacity of lithium cobalt dioxide and the high rate capability of lithium iron phosphate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhaohui

    During the past decade, the search for better electrode materials for Li-ion batteries has been of a great commercial interest, especially since Li-ion technology has become a major rechargeable battery technology with a market value of $3 billion US dollars per year. This thesis focuses on improving two positive electrode materials: one is a traditional positive electrode material--LiCoO2; the other is a new positive electrode material--LiFePO 4. Cho et al. reported that coating LiCoO2 with oxides can improve the capacity retention of LiCoO2 cycled to 4.4 V. The study of coatings in this thesis confirms this effect and shows that further improvement (30% higher energy density than that used in a commercial cell with excellent capacity retention) can be obtained. An in-situ XRD study proves that the mechanism of the improvement in capacity retention by coating proposed by Cho et al. is incorrect. Further experiments identify the suppression of impedance growth in the cell as the key reason for the improvement caused by coating. Based on this, other methods to improve the energy density of LiCoO2, without sacrificing capacity retention, are also developed. Using an XRD study, the structure of the phase between the O3-phase Li 1-xCoO2 (x > 0.5) and the O1 phase CoO2 was measured experimentally for the first time. XRD results confirmed the prediction of an H1-3 phase by Ceder's group. Apparently, because of the structural changes between the O3 phase and the H1-3 phase, good capacity retention cannot be attained for cycling LiCoO2 to 4.6 V with respect to Li metal. An effort was also made to reduce the carbon content in a LiFePO 4/C composite without sacrificing its rate capability. It was found that about 3% carbon by weight maintains both a good rate capability and a high pellet density for the composite.

  16. A hydrogen-ferric ion rebalance cell operating at low hydrogen concentrations for capacity restoration of iron-chromium redox flow batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Y. K.; Zhao, T. S.; Zhou, X. L.; Zou, J.; Ren, Y. X.

    2017-06-01

    To eliminate the adverse impacts of hydrogen evolution on the capacity of iron-chromium redox flow batteries (ICRFBs) during the long-term operation and ensure the safe operation of the battery, a rebalance cell that reduces the excessive Fe(III) ions at the positive electrolyte by using the hydrogen evolved from the negative electrolyte is designed, fabricated and tested. The effects of the flow field, hydrogen concentration and H2/N2 mixture gas flow rate on the performance of the hydrogen-ferric ion rebalance cell have been investigated. Results show that: i) an interdigitated flow field based rebalance cell delivers higher limiting current densities than serpentine flow field based one does; ii) the hydrogen utilization can approach 100% at low hydrogen concentrations (≤5%); iii) the apparent exchange current density of hydrogen oxidation reaction in the rebalance cell is proportional to the square root of the hydrogen concentration at the hydrogen concentration from 1.3% to 50%; iv) a continuous rebalance process is demonstrated at the current density of 60 mA cm-2 and hydrogen concentration of 2.5%. Moreover, the cost analysis shows that the rebalance cell is just approximately 1% of an ICRFB system cost.

  17. Hierarchically-structured hollow NiO nanospheres/nitrogen-doped graphene hybrid with superior capacity retention and enhanced rate capability for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiayuan; Wu, Xiaofeng; Liu, Ya; Gong, Yan; Wang, Pengfei; Li, Wenhui; Mo, Shengpeng; Tan, Qiangqiang; Chen, Yunfa

    2017-12-01

    A facile template-free synthesis strategy is demonstrated to fabricate nanostructured NiO/N-doped graphene hybrid, in which NiO hollow nanospheres with hierarchically mesoporous structure are tightly anchored on N-doped graphene matrix. The mesoporous shell of NiO can not only provide sufficient electrode/electrolyte contact areas to accelerate ion diffusion and electron exchange, but also efficiently mitigate the volume change that occurs during long-time reactions. Simultaneously, the reduced graphene oxide with doping nitrogen atoms are employed as effectively conductive backbone, further enhancing the electrochemical performances. When used as anodic material for lithium ion batteries, the synergistic system delivers a reversible capacity up to 1104.6 mAh g-1 after 150 cycles at a current density of 0.08 A g-1 and 422.3 mAh g-1 at a high charging rate of 4 A g-1, which is better than those of the bare counterparts and most other NiO-based materials reported in the previous literatures. The hierarchically hollow NiO nanostructure combined with N-doped graphene matrix provides a promising candidate applied in advanced anode materials for lithium ion batteries.

  18. Strain measurement based battery testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jeff Qiang; Steiber, Joe; Wall, Craig M.; Smith, Robert; Ng, Cheuk

    2017-05-23

    A method and system for strain-based estimation of the state of health of a battery, from an initial state to an aged state, is provided. A strain gauge is applied to the battery. A first strain measurement is performed on the battery, using the strain gauge, at a selected charge capacity of the battery and at the initial state of the battery. A second strain measurement is performed on the battery, using the strain gauge, at the selected charge capacity of the battery and at the aged state of the battery. The capacity degradation of the battery is estimated as the difference between the first and second strain measurements divided by the first strain measurement.

  19. Novel graphene papers with sporadic alkyl brushes on the basal plane as a high-capacity flexible anode for lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Kyung Min; Cho, Sung-Woo; Kim, Gyeong-Ok; Ryu, Kwang-Sun; Jeong, Han Mo

    2014-01-01

    Graphene paper that exhibits an excellent stabilized capacity, as high as 1300 mAh g −1 at a current rate of 60 mA g −1 , as a lithium ion battery anode is fabricated and evaluated. The few-layer graphene used to make the graphene paper is prepared via the thermal reduction of graphite oxide. The graphene is then modified by a novel method utilizing inherent defects, namely epoxy groups, on the graphene as active sites for a reaction with methanol, 1-butanol, 1-hexanol, and 1-octanol. The density values and X-ray diffraction patterns obtained for the graphene paper demonstrate that the alkyl brushes on the graphene sheets expand the d-spacing and hinder close restacking of the sheets, thereby inducing the formation of extra cavities within the paper. This loose packing due to the alkyl brushes increases sensitively as the alkyl chain length of the alcohol becomes longer. The lithium ion insertion capacity of a graphene paper electrode at the first cycle also increases with the alkyl chain length. However, fading of the capacity at early charge/discharge cycles is accelerated by the modification process because of electrolyte penetration into the gallery and the acceleration of protective solid electrolyte interface film formation due to looser packing. The paper composed of graphene modified with 1-butanol rather than shorter or longer alcohols exhibits the best reversible storage capacity, more than two-fold higher when compared to that of pristine graphene paper, due to a compromise between two conflicting effects on the reversible storage capacity by long alkyl brushes. The tensile properties and electrical conductivity of the graphene papers are also examined

  20. Controllable synthesis of Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanostructures with good cycling performance and rate capacity in lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Ling, E-mail: yuling1987@yeah.net [Sinan School, State Key Laboratory for Chemistry (China); Chen, Yuejiao; Feng, Dandan; Li, Qiuhong, E-mail: liqiuhong2004@hotmail.com [Hunan University, Key Laboratory for Micro-Nano Optoelectronic Devices of Ministry of Education, State Key Laboratory for Chemo/Biosensing and Chemometrics (China)

    2013-08-15

    The structure modification of Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nano-parachute (i.e., nanosheets with part of nanowires as backbones) grown directly on conducting Ni foam substrates was successfully realized via a facile solution route followed by calcinations. By adjusting [OH{sup -}] value, two kinds of (Co(CO{sub 3}){sub 0.5}(OH){sub 0.11}H{sub 2}O) nanostructures (nanoarray and parachute-like) were obtained. Compared with other Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanosheets, such nano-parachute not only inherits the advantages of nanosheet but also shows enormous net space between nanobuilding units. A possible formation mechanism for the two structures has been proposed. As anode materials for lithium-ion batteries, this sheet-like morphology on Ni foam exhibited enhanced lithium storage capacity.

  1. Penta-graphene: A Promising Anode Material as the Li/Na-Ion Battery with Both Extremely High Theoretical Capacity and Fast Charge/Discharge Rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Bo; Li, Yan-Chun; Yu, Xue-Fang; Cheng, Jian-Bo

    2016-12-28

    Recently, a new two-dimensional (2D) carbon allotrope named penta-graphene was theoretically proposed ( Zhang , S. ; et al. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2015 , 112 , 2372 ) and has been predicted to be the promising candidate for broad applications due to its intriguing properties. In this work, by using first-principles simulation, we have further extended the potential application of penta-graphene as the anode material for a Li/Na-ion battery. Our results show that the theoretical capacity of Li/Na ions on penta-graphene reaches up to 1489 mAh·g -1 , which is much higher than that of most of the previously reported 2D anode materials. Meanwhile, the calculated low open-circuit voltages (from 0.24 to 0.60 V), in combination with the low diffusion barriers (≤0.33 eV) and the high electronic conductivity during the whole Li/Na ions intercalation processes, further show the advantages of penta-graphene as the anode material. Particularly, molecular dynamics simulation (300 K) reveals that Li ion could freely diffuse on the surface of penta-graphene, and thus the ultrafast Li ion diffusivity is expected. Superior performance of penta-graphene is further confirmed by comparing with the other 2D anode materials. The light weight and unique atomic arrangement (with isotropic furrow paths on the surface) of penta-graphene are found to be mainly responsible for the high Li/Na ions storage capacity and fast diffusivity. In this regard, except penta-graphene, many other recently proposed 2D metal-free materials with pentagonal Cairo-tiled structures may be the potential candidates as the Li/Na-ion battery anodes.

  2. Riverine threat indices to assess watershed condition and identify primary management capacity of agriculture natural resource management agencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fore, Jeffrey D; Sowa, Scott P; Galat, David L; Annis, Gust M; Diamond, David D; Rewa, Charles

    2014-03-01

    Managers can improve conservation of lotic systems over large geographies if they have tools to assess total watershed conditions for individual stream segments and can identify segments where conservation practices are most likely to be successful (i.e., primary management capacity). The goal of this research was to develop a suite of threat indices to help agriculture resource management agencies select and prioritize watersheds across Missouri River basin in which to implement agriculture conservation practices. We quantified watershed percentages or densities of 17 threat metrics that represent major sources of ecological stress to stream communities into five threat indices: agriculture, urban, point-source pollution, infrastructure, and all non-agriculture threats. We identified stream segments where agriculture management agencies had primary management capacity. Agriculture watershed condition differed by ecoregion and considerable local variation was observed among stream segments in ecoregions of high agriculture threats. Stream segments with high non-agriculture threats were most concentrated near urban areas, but showed high local variability. 60 % of stream segments in the basin were classified as under U.S. Department of Agriculture's Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) primary management capacity and most segments were in regions of high agricultural threats. NRCS primary management capacity was locally variable which highlights the importance of assessing total watershed condition for multiple threats. Our threat indices can be used by agriculture resource management agencies to prioritize conservation actions and investments based on: (a) relative severity of all threats, (b) relative severity of agricultural threats, and (c) and degree of primary management capacity.

  3. HST Replacement Battery Initial Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krol, Stan; Waldo, Greg; Hollandsworth, Roger

    2009-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) original Nickel-Hydrogen (NiH2) batteries were replaced during the Servicing Mission 4 (SM4) after 19 years and one month on orbit.The purpose of this presentation is to highlight the findings from the assessment of the initial sm4 replacement battery performance. The batteries are described, the 0 C capacity is reviewed, descriptions, charts and tables reviewing the State Of Charge (SOC) Performance, the Battery Voltage Performance, the battery impedance, the minimum voltage performance, the thermal performance, the battery current, and the battery system recharge ratio,

  4. Solution-combustion synthesized nickel-substituted spinel cathode materials (LiNixMn2-xO4; 0≤x≤0.2) for lithium ion battery: enhancing energy storage, capacity retention, and lithium ion transport

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kebede, MA

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Spherically shaped Ni-substituted LiNi(subx)Mn(sub2-x)O(sub4) (x=0, 0.1, 0.2) spinel cathode materials for lithium ion battery with high first cycle discharge capacity and remarkable cycling performance were synthesized using the solution-combustion...

  5. Quantifying Capacity Loss due to Solid-Electrolyte-Interphase Layer Formation on Silicon Negative Electrodes in Lithium-ion Batteries

    OpenAIRE

    Nadimpalli, Siva P. V.; Sethuraman, Vijay A.; Dalavi, Swapnil; Lucht, Brett; Chon, Michael J.; Shenoy, Vivek B.; Guduru, Pradeep R.

    2012-01-01

    Charge lost per unit surface area of a silicon electrode due to the formation of solid-electrolyte-interphase (SEI) layer during initial lithiation was quantified, and the species that constitute this layer were identified. Coin cells made with Si thin-film electrodes were subjected to a combination of galvanostatic and potentiostatic lithiation and delithiation cycles to accurately measure the capacity lost to SEI-layer formation. While the planar geometry of amorphous thin films allows accu...

  6. A Further Indication of the Self-Ordering Capacity of Water Via the Droplet Evaporation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Jerman

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The droplet evaporation method (DEM is increasingly used for assessing various characteristics of water. In our research we tried to use DEM to detect a possible self-ordering capability of (spring water that would be similar to the already found and described autothixotropic phenomenon, namely increasing order of non-distilled water subject to aging. The output of DEM is a droplet remnant pattern (DRP. For analysis of DRP images we used a specially developed computer program that does the frequency distribution analysis of certain parameters of the images. The results of experiments demonstrated statistically significant differences in both aging of water as well as in the glass exposed surface/volume ratio of the aged water. The most important result supporting the self-ordering character of water was found in an increasing dependence between two analyzed parameters: distance and frequency, at the peak frequency. As the result concerns mostly aging and shows increasing order it further corroborates other findings concerning increasing order by aging. Such further confirmation of self-ordering capacity of water is not important only for physical chemistry, but also for biology.

  7. Working memory capacity and Stroop interference: global versus local indices of executive control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Matt E; Kane, Michael J

    2013-05-01

    Two experiments examined the relations among working memory capacity (WMC), congruency-sequence effects, proportion-congruency effects, and the color-word Stroop effect to test whether congruency-sequence effects might inform theoretical claims regarding WMC's prediction of Stroop interference. In Experiment 1, subjects completed either a high-congruency or low-congruency Stroop task that restricted trial-to-trial repetitions of stimulus dimensions to examine WMC's relation to congruency-sequence effects while minimizing bottom-up, stimulus-driven contributions. Congruency-sequence effects and congruency-proportion effects were significant but did not interact. WMC predicted global Stroop interference under low-congruency conditions but neither local congruency-sequence effects nor global Stroop interference under high-congruency conditions, contrary to previous studies (e.g., Kane & Engle, 2003). A high-congruency Stroop task in Experiment 2 removed the Experiment 1 task constraints, and, here, we obtained the typical, global association between WMC and Stroop interference but still no relation between WMC and congruency-sequence effects. We thus examined the methodological differences between Experiments 1 and 2 to determine whether any of these were locally responsible for the global WMC-related differences. They were not, suggesting that the changes between Experiments 1 and 2 created a general task context that engaged (or disengaged) the executive processes associated with WMC.

  8. Caveolin-1 as a novel indicator of wound-healing capacity in aged human corneal epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhim, Ji Heon; Kim, Jae Hoon; Yeo, Eui-Ju; Kim, Jae Chan; Park, Sang Chul

    2010-01-01

    Excess caveolin-1 has been reported to play a role in age-dependent hyporesponsiveness to growth factors in vitro. Therefore, we hypothesized that caveolin-1-dependent hyporesponsiveness to growth factors in aged corneal epithelial cells might be responsible for delayed wound healing in vivo. To test this hypothesis, we evaluated corneal wound-healing time by vital staining using fluorescein after laser epithelial keratomileusis (LASEK). We compared wound-healing times in young, middle-aged and elderly patients. We also examined caveolin-1 levels and other aging markers, such as p53 and p21, in the corneal epithelium. Elderly patients generally had higher caveolin-1 levels in the corneal epithelia than young patients. There were, however, variations among individuals with increased caveolin-1 in some young patients and decreased levels in some elderly patients. Wound-healing time after LASEK correlated well with the corneal caveolin-1 status. Therefore, we suggest that caveolin-1 status might be responsible for delayed wound healing in elderly patients after LASEK. Caveolin-1 status might be a regulator for wound-healing capacity and a novel target for in vivo adjustment.

  9. State Capacity to Link K-12/Postsecondary Data Systems and Report Key Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Data Quality Campaign, 2016

    2016-01-01

    The Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA) provides an opportunity to produce high quality postsecondary indicators and, as available, publicly report them in ways that inform, engage, and empower communities. As first "required" in 2009's American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) stimulus law, almost every state has linked its K-12 and…

  10. Relationship between vagal withdrawaland reactivation indices and aerobic capacity in taekwondo athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Augusto Perandini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between vagal withdrawal and reactivation indices and maximal running velocity (Vmax in taekwondo athletes. Eleven elite taekwondo athletes (seven men: 23.7±2.2 years, 72.4±7.0 kg, 178.8±7.5 cm, 51.9±2.9 ml.kg-1.min-1, and four women: 18.8±1.5 years, 61.8±1.8 kg, 168.0±4.4 cm, 41.6±2.4 ml.kg-1.min-1 performed a graded exercise test until exhaustion, with the last complete stage performed corresponding to Vmax. Heart rate variability (HRV parameters were calculated at 1-minute intervals until 85% of maximum HR and plotted against time for the estimation of vagal withdrawal indices (τ, amplitude (A and area under the curve (AUC. Vagal reactivation indices were determined based on HR recovery during the first 60 s (HRR60s and negative reciprocal of the slope of the regression line obtained during the first 30 s of HRR (T30. The vagal withdrawal parameters A and AUC were moderately and significantly correlated with Vmax (r = 0.61-0.71, P 0.05. T30 and HRR60s were also significantly correlated with Vmax (r = -0.77 and 0.64, P < 0.05, respectively. The present results showed that vagal withdrawal (A and AUC and vagal reactivation (T30 and HRR60s indices were significantly correlated with Vmax, suggesting that these indices can be used for the evaluation and monitoring of aerobic fitness in taekwondo athletes.

  11. Predictive capacity of anthropometric indicators for abdominal fat in the oldest old

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Ribeiro Santos

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular diseases are a growing public health problem that affects most people over the age of 65 years and abdominal obesity is one of the risk factors for the development of these diseases. There are several methods that can be used to measure body fat, but their accuracy needs to be evaluated, especially in specific populations such as the elderly. The aim of this study was to assess the accuracy of anthropometric indicators to estimate the percentage of abdominal fat in subjects aged 80 years or older. A total of 125 subjects ranging in age from 80 to 95 years (83.5 ± 3, including 79 women (82.4 ± 3years and 46 men (83.6 ± 3 years, were studied. The following anthropometric indicators were used: body mass index (BMI, waist circumference (WC, waist-hip ratio (WHR, and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR. The percentage of abdominal fat was measured by DEXA. Sensitivity and specificity were analyzed using an ROC curve. The sensitivity, specificity and AUC were 0. 578, 0. 934 and 0. 756 for BMI, respectively; 0.703, 0.820 and 0.761 for WC; 0.938, 0.213 and 0.575 for WHR, and 0.984, 0.344 and 0.664 for WHtR. BMI and WC were the anthropometric indicators with the largest area under the curve and were therefore more adequate to identify the presence or absence of abdominal obesity.

  12. Sensitivity on Battery Prices and Capacity on board Electric Drive Vehicles and the Effects on the Power System Configuration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Nina

    2011-01-01

    on reviewing the current knowledge on risks and vulnerabilities of energy systems and on potential adaptation options. The paper finds that short and longer term action on climate risk management of energy systems strongly depends on: Strengthening the capacity to model and project climate change and its...... concerns establishing improved understanding of potential trade-offs and synergies between energy system adaptation and mitigation options, and adaptation and development prospects in other sectors or areas. Finally, improved knowledge on damage costs, and adaptation costs and benefits is likely to remove...

  13. Highly Porous Silicon Embedded in a Ceramic Matrix: A Stable High-Capacity Electrode for Li-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrankovic, Dragoljub; Graczyk-Zajac, Magdalena; Kalcher, Constanze; Rohrer, Jochen; Becker, Malin; Stabler, Christina; Trykowski, Grzegorz; Albe, Karsten; Riedel, Ralf

    2017-11-28

    We demonstrate a cost-effective synthesis route that provides Si-based anode materials with capacities between 2000 and 3000 mAh·g Si -1 (400 and 600 mAh·g composite -1 ), Coulombic efficiencies above 99.5%, and almost 100% capacity retention over more than 100 cycles. The Si-based composite is prepared from highly porous silicon (obtained by reduction of silica) by encapsulation in an organic carbon and polymer-derived silicon oxycarbide (C/SiOC) matrix. Molecular dynamics simulations show that the highly porous silicon morphology delivers free volume for the accommodation of strain leading to no macroscopic changes during initial Li-Si alloying. In addition, a carbon layer provides an electrical contact, whereas the SiOC matrix significantly diminishes the interface between the electrolyte and the electrode material and thus suppresses the formation of a solid-electrolyte interphase on Si. Electrochemical tests of the micrometer-sized, glass-fiber-derived silicon demonstrate the up-scaling potential of the presented approach.

  14. Suppressing the chromium disproportionation reaction in O3-type layered cathode materials for high capacity sodium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Ming-Hui; Wang, Yong; Shadike, Zulipiya; Yue, Ji-Li; Hu, Enyuan; Bak, Seong-Min; Zhou, Yong-Ning; Yang, Xiao-Qing; Fu, Zheng-Wen

    2017-01-01

    Chromium-based layered cathode materials suffer from the irreversible disproportionation reaction of Cr4+ to Cr3+ and Cr6+, which hinders the reversible multi-electron redox of Cr ions in layered cathodes, and limits their capacity and reversibility. To address this problem, a novel O3-type layer-structured transition metal oxide of NaCr1/3Fe1/3Mn1/3O2 (NCFM) was designed and studied as a cathode material. A high reversible capacity of 186 mA h g-1 was achieved at a current rate of 0.05C in a voltage range of 1.5 to 4.2 V. X-ray diffraction revealed an O3 → (O3 + P3) → (P3 + O3'') → O3'' phase-transition pathway for NCFM during charge. X-ray absorption, X-ray photoelectron and electron energy-loss spectroscopy measurements revealed the electronic structure changes of NCFM during Na+ deintercalation/intercalation processes. It is confirmed that the disproportionation reaction of Cr4+ to Cr3+ and Cr6+ can be effectively suppressed by Fe3+ and Mn4+ substitution. These results demonstrated that the reversible multi-electron oxidation/reduction of Cr ions can be achieved in NCFM during charge and discharge accompanied by CrO6 octahedral distortion and recovery.

  15. Selected Test Results from the Encell Technology Nickel Iron Battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Summer Kamal Rhodes [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Advanced Power Sources R& D; Baca, Wes Edmund [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Advanced Power Sources R& D; Avedikian, Kristan [Encell Technology, Alachua, FL (United States)

    2014-09-01

    The performance of the Encell Nickel Iron (NiFe) battery was measured. Tests included capacity, capacity as a function of rate, capacity as a function of temperature, charge retention (28-day), efficiency, accelerated life projection, and water refill evaluation. The goal of this work was to evaluate the general performance of the Encell NiFe battery technology for stationary applications and demonstrate the chemistry's capabilities in extreme conditions. Test results have indicated that the Encell NiFe battery technology can provide power levels up to the 6C discharge rate, ampere-hour efficiency above 70%. In summary, the Encell batteries have met performance metrics established by the manufacturer. Long-term cycle tests are not included in this report. A cycle test at elevated temperature was run, funded by the manufacturer, which Encell uses to predict long-term cycling performance, and which passed their prescribed metrics.

  16. Bismuth as a New Chloride-Storage Electrode Enabling the Construction of a Practical High Capacity Desalination Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Do-Hwan; Choi, Kyoung-Shin

    2017-08-16

    Materials that can selectively store Na and Cl ions in the bulk of their structures and release these ions with good cycle stability can enable the construction of a high capacity, rechargeable desalination cell for use in seawater desalination. In this study, the ability of a nanocrystalline Bi foam electrode to serve as an efficient and high capacity Cl-storage electrode using its conversion to BiOCl was investigated. When Bi as a Cl-storage electrode was coupled with NaTi 2 (PO 4 ) 3 as a Na-storage electrode, a new type of rechargeable desalination cell, which is charged during desalination and discharged during salination, was constructed. The resulting Bi-NaTi 2 (PO 4 ) 3 cell was tested under various salination and desalination conditions to investigate advantages and potential limitations of using Bi as a Cl-storage electrode. Slow Cl - release kinetics of BiOCl in neutral conditions and an imbalance in Cl and Na storage (i.e., Cl storage requires three electrons/Cl, while Na storage requires one electron/Na) were identified as possible drawbacks, but strategies to address these issues were developed. On the basis of these investigations, optimum desalination and salination conditions were identified where the Bi/NaTi 2 (PO 4 ) 3 cell achieved a desalination/salination cycle at ±1 mA cm -2 with a net potential input of only 0.20 V. The kinetics of Cl - release from BiOCl was significantly improved by the use of an acidic solution, and therefore, a divided cell was used for the salination process. We believe that with further optimizations the Bi/BiOCl electrode will enable efficient and practical desalination applications.

  17. Diversification Synthetic Indicator for Evaluating the Financial Capacity of Local Government. The Case of Polish Voivodeships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Dziekański

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Financial situation is a fundamental issue for the local government. Financial problems could result in insolvency that is why the analysis of financial situation is essential not only for current management, but also for the protection against side effects of economic downturn. One of the most important determinants of the development of the local government unit is its financial situation, which has an undeniable impact on the whole activities conducted by the local government. The aim of the article is to present the financial situation of the territorial self‑government – the voivodeship, and its changes in the years 2009–2014. The voivodeships which are in good financial situation are more competitive and efficient in conducting development policy. The best voivodeships in 2014 and 2011 were Mazowieckie and Dolnośląskie, in 2009 – Mazowieckie and Łódzkie; in 2014 were Lubuskie and Opolskie, in 2011 – Kujawsko‑pomorskie and Warmińsko‑mazurskie, and in 2009 – Lubuskie and Warmińsko‑mazurskie. The value of the index in 2014 fluctuated between 0.16 and 0.59, in 2011 between 0.22–0.64, and in 2009 – 0.16–0.64. The resulting measure depends on the number and type of variables taken for testing. It allows you to identify weaker areas and improved functioning of the unit, if its own position in relation to competitors. The behavior indicated methodology, and partial variables, allows the assessment of individuals between countries.

  18. Trains of sleep sequences are indices of learning capacity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piscopo, S; Mandile, P; Montagnese, P; Cotugno, M; Giuditta, A; Vescia, S

    2001-04-08

    In previous work dealing with the identification of four sleep sequences (SS-->W, SS-->PS, SS-->TS-->W and SS-->TS-->PS) in the baseline session of adult male Wistar rats [Mandile P, Vescia S, Montagnese P, Romano F, Giuditta A. Characterization of transition sleep episodes in baseline EEG recordings of adults rats, Physiol Behav 1996;60:1435-1439], we have shown that those containing an intervening episode of transition sleep (TS) strongly correlate with the number of avoidances scored the following day [Vescia S, Mandile P, Montagnese P, Romano F, Cataldo G, Cotugno M, Giuditta A. Baseline transition sleep and associated sleep episodes are related to the learning ability of rats, Physiol Behav 1996;60:1513-152]. More recently, clusters of sleep sequences (trains) separated by waking intervals longer than 60 s have been identified in the baseline session of the same rats [Piscopo S, Mandile P, Montagnese P, Cotugno M, Giuditta A, Vescia S. Identification of trains of sleep sequences in adult rats, Behav Brain Res, this volume], and distinguished in homogeneous or mixed trains according to the presence of a single sleep sequence or more than one sequence. Mixed trains have been further separated into trains containing the SS-->TS-->W sequence (+TSW trains) and trains lacking it (-TSW trains). Analysis of the distribution of variables of baseline trains (and of their sleep sequences and components) among fast learning (FL), slow learning (SL), or non-learning (NL) rats, indicates that variables of +TSW trains prevail in FL rats, while variables of -TSW trains prevail in NL rats. In addition, variables of +TSW trains correlate with the number of avoidances of the training session, while variables of -TSW trains do not significantly correlate, or show inverse correlations. Interestingly, sleep sequences such as SS-->W or SS-->TS-->W show direct or inverse correlations with avoidances depending on whether they are included in +TSW trains or in -TSW trains. The data are

  19. Structure Interlacing and Pore Engineering of Zn2GeO4 Nanofibers for Achieving High Capacity and Rate Capability as an Anode Material of Lithium Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Qin, Jinwen; Cao, Minhua

    2016-01-20

    An interlaced Zn2GeO4 nanofiber network with continuous and interpenetrated mesoporous structure was prepared using a facile electrospinning method followed by a thermal treatment. The mesoporous structure in Zn2GeO4 nanofibers is directly in situ constructed by the decomposition of polyvinylpyrolidone (PVP), while the interlaced nanofiber network is achieved by the mutual fusion of the junctions between nanofibers in higher calcination temperatures. When used as an anode material in lithium ion batteries (LIBs), it exhibits superior lithium storage performance in terms of specific capacity, cycling stability, and rate capability. The pore engineering and the interlaced network structure are believed to be responsible for the excellent lithium storage performance. The pore structure allows for easy diffusion of electrolyte, shortens the pathway of Li(+) transport, and alleviates large volume variation during repeated Li(+) extraction/insertion. Moreover, the interlaced network structure can provide continuous electron/ion pathways and effectively accommodate the strain induced by the volume change during the electrochemical reaction, thus maintaining structural stability and mechanical integrity of electrode materials during lithiation/delithiation process. This strategy in current work offers a new perspective in designing high-performance electrodes for LIBs.

  20. Computing lifetimes for battery-powered devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongerden, M.R.; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.H.M.

    The battery lifetime of mobile devices depends on the usage pattern of the battery, next to the discharge rate and the battery capacity. Therefore, it is important to include the usage pattern in battery lifetime computations. We do this by combining a stochastic workload, modeled as a

  1. The correlation between pulsatile intracranial pressure and indices of intracranial pressure-volume reserve capacity: results from ventricular infusion testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eide, Per Kristian

    2016-12-01

    OBJECTIVE The objective of this study was to examine how pulsatile and static intracranial pressure (ICP) scores correlate with indices of intracranial pressure-volume reserve capacity, i.e., intracranial elastance (ICE) and intracranial compliance (ICC), as determined during ventricular infusion testing. METHODS All patients undergoing ventricular infusion testing and overnight ICP monitoring during the 6-year period from 2007 to 2012 were included in the study. Clinical data were retrieved from a quality registry, and the ventricular infusion pressure data and ICP scores were retrieved from a pressure database. The ICE and ICC (= 1/ICE) were computed during the infusion phase of the infusion test. RESULTS During the period from 2007 to 2012, 82 patients with possible treatment-dependent hydrocephalus underwent ventricular infusion testing within the department of neurosurgery. The infusion tests revealed a highly significant positive correlation between ICE and the pulsatile ICP scores mean wave amplitude (MWA) and rise-time coefficient (RTC), and the static ICP score mean ICP. The ICE was negatively associated with linear measures of ventricular size. The overnight ICP recordings revealed significantly increased MWA (> 4 mm Hg) and RTC (> 20 mm Hg/sec) values in patients with impaired ICC ( 4 mm Hg, RTC > 20 mm Hg/sec), but not increased mean ICP (pressure-volume reserve capacity, i.e., ICE and ICC.

  2. Report on Lithium Ion Battery Trade Studies to Support the Exploration Technology Development Program (ETDP) Energy Storage Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Robert D.; Kissock, Barbara I.; Bennett, William R.

    2010-01-01

    This report documents the results of two system related analyses to support the Exploration Technology Development Program (ETDP) Energy Storage Project. The first study documents a trade study to determine the optimum Li-ion battery cell capacity for the ascent stage battery for the Altair lunar lander being developed under the Constellation Systems program. The battery cell capacity for the Ultra High Energy (UHE) Li-ion battery initially chosen as the target for development was 35 A-hr; this study concludes that a 19.4 A-hr cell capacity would be more optimum from a minimum battery mass perspective. The second study in this report is an assessment of available low temperature Li-ion battery cell performance data to determine whether lowering the operating temperature range of the Li-ion battery, in a rover application, could save overall system mass by eliminating thermal control system mass normally needed to maintain battery temperature within a tighter temperature limit than electronics or other less temperature sensitive components. The preliminary assessment for this second study indicates that the reduction in the thermal control system mass is negated by an increase in battery mass to compensate for the loss in battery capacity due to lower temperature operating conditions.

  3. Batteries: Overview of Battery Cathodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doeff, Marca M

    2010-07-12

    The very high theoretical capacity of lithium (3829 mAh/g) provided a compelling rationale from the 1970's onward for development of rechargeable batteries employing the elemental metal as an anode. The realization that some transition metal compounds undergo reductive lithium intercalation reactions reversibly allowed use of these materials as cathodes in these devices, most notably, TiS{sub 2}. Another intercalation compound, LiCoO{sub 2}, was described shortly thereafter but, because it was produced in the discharged state, was not considered to be of interest by battery companies at the time. Due to difficulties with the rechargeability of lithium and related safety concerns, however, alternative anodes were sought. The graphite intercalation compound (GIC) LiC{sub 6} was considered an attractive candidate but the high reactivity with commonly used electrolytic solutions containing organic solvents was recognized as a significant impediment to its use. The development of electrolytes that allowed the formation of a solid electrolyte interface (SEI) on surfaces of the carbon particles was a breakthrough that enabled commercialization of Li-ion batteries. In 1990, Sony announced the first commercial batteries based on a dual Li ion intercalation system. These devices are assembled in the discharged state, so that it is convenient to employ a prelithiated cathode such as LiCoO{sub 2} with the commonly used graphite anode. After charging, the batteries are ready to power devices. The practical realization of high energy density Li-ion batteries revolutionized the portable electronics industry, as evidenced by the widespread market penetration of mobile phones, laptop computers, digital music players, and other lightweight devices since the early 1990s. In 2009, worldwide sales of Li-ion batteries for these applications alone were US$ 7 billion. Furthermore, their performance characteristics (Figure 1) make them attractive for traction applications such as

  4. Indicators of implicit and explicit social anxiety influence threat-related interpretive bias as a function of working memory capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salemink, Elske; Friese, Malte; Drake, Emily; Mackintosh, Bundy; Hoppitt, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Interpretive biases play a crucial role in anxiety disorders. The aim of the current study was to examine factors that determine the relative strength of threat-related interpretive biases that are characteristic of individuals high in social anxiety. Different (dual process) models argue that both implicit and explicit processes determine information processing biases and behavior, and that their impact is moderated by the availability of executive resources such as working memory capacity (WMC). Based on these models, we expected indicators of implicit social anxiety to predict threat-related interpretive bias in individuals low, but not high in WMC. Indicators of explicit social anxiety should predict threat-related interpretive bias in individuals high, but not low in WMC. As expected, WMC moderated the impact of implicit social anxiety on threat-related interpretive bias, although the simple slope for individuals low in WMC was not statistically significant. The hypotheses regarding explicit social anxiety (with fear of negative evaluation used as an indicator) were fully supported. The clinical implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:23734123

  5. Indicators of implicit and explicit social anxiety influence threat-related interpretive bias as a function of working memory capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elske eSalemink

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Interpretive biases play a crucial role in anxiety disorders. The aim of the current study was to examine factors that determine the relative strength of threat-related interpretive biases that are characteristic of individuals high in social anxiety. Different (dual process models argue that both implicit and explicit processes determine information processing biases and behaviour, and that their impact is moderated by the availability of executive resources such as working memory capacity (WMC. Based on these models, we expected indicators of implicit social anxiety to predict threat-related interpretive bias in individuals low, but not high in WMC. Indicators of explicit social anxiety should predict threat-related interpretive bias in individuals high, but not low in WMC. As expected, WMC moderated the impact of implicit social anxiety on threat-related interpretive bias, although the simple slope for individuals low in WMC was not statistically significant. The hypotheses regarding explicit social anxiety (with fear of negative evaluation used as an indicator were fully supported. The clinical implications of these findings are discussed.

  6. TVA–based assessment of attentional capacities – associations with age and indices of brain white matter microstructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas eEspeseth

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study the primary aims were to characterize the effects of age on basic components of visual attention derived from assessments based on a theory of visual attention (TVA in 325 healthy volunteers covering the adult lifespan (19-81 years. Furthermore, we aimed to investigate how age-related differences on TVA parameters are associated with white matter (WM microstructure as indexed by diffusion tensor imaging (DTI. Finally, we explored how TVA parameter estimates were associated with complex, or multicomponent indices of processing speed (Digit-symbol substitution, DSS and fluid intelligence (gF. The results indicated that the TVA parameters for visual short-term memory capacity, K, and for attentional selectivity, α, were most strongly associated with age before the age of 50. However, in this age range, it was the parameter for processing speed, C, that was most clearly associated with DTI indices, in this case fractional anisotropy (FA, particularly in the genu and body of the corpus callosum. Furthermore, differences in the C parameter partially mediated differences in DSS within this age range. After the age of 50, the TVA parameter for the perceptual threshold, t0, as well as K, were most strongly related to participant age. Both parameters, but t0 more strongly so than K, were associated WM diffusivity, particularly in projection fibers such as the internal capsule, the sagittal stratum, and the corona radiata. Within this age range, t0 partially mediated age-related differences in gF. The results are consistent with, and provide novel empirical support for the neuroanatomical localization of TVA computations as outlined in the neuronal interpretation of TVA (NTVA. Furthermore, the results indicate that to understand the biological sources of age-related changes in processing speed and fluid cognition, it may be useful to employ methods that allow for computational fractionation of these multicomponent measures.

  7. Battery Thermal Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keyser, Matthew A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-08-08

    The operating temperature is critical in achieving the right balance between performance, cost, and life for both Li-ion batteries and ultracapacitors. The chemistries of advanced energy-storage devices - such as lithium-based batteries - are very sensitive to operating temperature. High temperatures degrade batteries faster while low temperatures decrease their power and capacity, affecting vehicle range, performance, and cost. Understanding heat generation in battery systems - from the individual cells within a module, to the inter-connects between the cells, and across the entire battery system - is imperative for designing effective thermal-management systems and battery packs. At NREL, we have developed unique capabilities to measure the thermal properties of cells and evaluate thermal performance of battery packs (air or liquid cooled). We also use our electro-thermal finite element models to analyze the thermal performance of battery systems in order to aid battery developers with improved thermal designs. NREL's tools are used to meet the weight, life, cost, and volume goals set by the U.S. Department of Energy for electric drive vehicles.

  8. Validation of Battery Safety for Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeevarajan, Judith

    2012-01-01

    Presentation covers: (1) Safety Certification Process at NASA (2) Safety Testing for Lithium-ion Batteries (3) Limitations Observed with Li-ion Batteries in High Voltage and High Capacity Configurations.

  9. Fibrous zinc anodes for high power batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X. Gregory

    This paper introduces newly developed solid zinc anodes using fibrous material for high power applications in alkaline and large size zinc-air battery systems. The improved performance of the anodes in these two battery systems is demonstrated. The possibilities for control of electrode porosity and for anode/battery design using fibrous materials are discussed in light of experimental data. Because of its mechanical integrity and connectivity, the fibrous solid anode has good electrical conductivity, mechanical stability, and design flexibility for controlling mass distribution, porosity and effective surface area. Experimental data indicated that alkaline cells made of such anodes can have a larger capacity at high discharging currents than commercially available cells. It showed even greater improvement over commercial cells with a non-conventional cell design. Large capacity anodes for a zinc-air battery have also been made and have shown excellent material utilization at various discharge rates. The zinc-air battery was used to power an electric bicycle and demonstrated good results.

  10. A study on parameter variation effects on battery packs for electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Long; Zheng, Yuejiu; Ouyang, Minggao; Lu, Languang

    2017-10-01

    As one single cell cannot meet power and driving range requirement in an electric vehicle, the battery packs with hundreds of single cells connected in parallel and series should be constructed. The most significant difference between a single cell and a battery pack is cell variation. Not only does cell variation affect pack energy density and power density, but also it causes early degradation of battery and potential safety issues. The cell variation effects on battery packs are studied, which are of great significant to battery pack screening and management scheme. In this study, the description for the consistency characteristics of battery packs was first proposed and a pack model with 96 cells connected in series was established. A set of parameters are introduced to study the cell variation and their impacts on battery packs are analyzed through the battery pack capacity loss simulation and experiments. Meanwhile, the capacity loss composition of the battery pack is obtained and verified by the temperature variation experiment. The results from this research can demonstrate that the temperature, self-discharge rate and coulombic efficiency are the major affecting parameters of cell variation and indicate the dissipative cell equalization is sufficient for the battery pack.

  11. Model-based energy analysis of battery powered systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongerden, M.R.

    2010-01-01

    The use of mobile devices is often limited by the lifetime of the included batteries. This lifetime naturally depends on the battery's capacity and on the rate at which the battery is discharged. However, it also depends on the usage pattern, i.e., the workload, of the battery. When a battery is

  12. Battery Peak Power Shaving Strategy to Prolong Battery Life for Electric Buses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pham, T.H.; Rosea, B.; Wilkins, S.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a battery peak power shaving strategy for battery electric buses. The developed strategy restricts the battery charge/discharge power when the propulsion power demand is high to avoid high deterioration of the battery capacity during operation. Without reducing the propulsion

  13. A Capacity-Restraint Transit Assignment Model When a Predetermination Method Indicates the Invalidity of Time Independence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haoyang Ding

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The statistical independence of time of every two adjacent bus links plays a crucial role in deciding the feasibility of using many mathematical models to analyze urban transit networks. Traditional research generally ignores the time independence that acts as the ground of their models. Assumption is usually made that time independence of every two adjacent links is sound. This is, however, actually groundless and probably causes problematic conclusions reached by corresponding models. Many transit assignment models such as multinomial probit-based models lose their effects when the time independence is not valid. In this paper, a simple method to predetermine the time independence is proposed. Based on the predetermination method, a modified capacity-restraint transit assignment method aimed at engineering practice is put forward and tested through a small contrived network and a case study in Nanjing city, China, respectively. It is found that the slope of regression equation between the mean and standard deviation of normal distribution acts as the indicator of time independence at the same time. Besides, our modified assignment method performs better than the traditional one with more reasonable results while keeping the property of simplicity well.

  14. Cycle Life of Commercial Lithium-Ion Batteries with Lithium Titanium Oxide Anodes in Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuebing Han

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The lithium titanium oxide (LTO anode is widely accepted as one of the best anodes for the future lithium ion batteries in electric vehicles (EVs, especially since its cycle life is very long. In this paper, three different commercial LTO cells from different manufacturers were studied in accelerated cycle life tests and their capacity fades were compared. The result indicates that under 55 °C, the LTO battery still shows a high capacity fade rate. The battery aging processes of all the commercial LTO cells clearly include two stages. Using the incremental capacity (IC analysis, it could be judged that in the first stage, the battery capacity decreases mainly due to the loss of anode material and the degradation rate is lower. In the second stage, the battery capacity decreases much faster, mainly due to the degradation of the cathode material. The result is important for the state of health (SOH estimation and remaining useful life (RUL prediction of battery management system (BMS for LTO batteries in EVs.

  15. Correlating cycling history with structural evolution in commercial 26650 batteries using in operando neutron powder diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goonetilleke, Damian; Pramudita, James C.; Hagan, Mackenzie; Al Bahri, Othman K.; Pang, Wei Kong; Peterson, Vanessa K.; Groot, Jens; Berg, Helena; Sharma, Neeraj

    2017-03-01

    Ex situ and time-resolved in operando neutron powder diffraction (NPD) has been used to study the structural evolution of the graphite negative electrode and LiFePO4 positive electrode within ANR26650M1A commercial batteries from A123 Systems, in what to our knowledge is the first reported NPD study investigating a 26650-type battery. Batteries with different and accurately-known electrochemical and storage histories were studied, enabling the tell-tale signs of battery degradation to be elucidated using NPD. The ex-situ NPD data revealed that the intensity of the graphite/lithiated graphite (LixC6 or LiyC) reflections was affected by battery history, with lower lithiated graphite (LiC12) reflection intensities typically corresponding to more abused batteries. This indicates that the lithiation of graphite is less progressed in more abused batteries, and hence these batteries have lower capacities. In operando NPD allows the rate of structural evolution in the battery electrode materials to be correlated to the applied current. Interestingly, the electrodes exhibit different responses to the applied current that depend on the battery cycling history, with this particularly evident for the negative electrode. Therefore, this work illustrates how NPD can be used to correlate a battery history with electrode structure.

  16. A degradation-based sorting method for lithium-ion battery reuse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Chen

    Full Text Available In a world where millions of people are dependent on batteries to provide them with convenient and portable energy, battery recycling is of the utmost importance. In this paper, we developed a new method to sort 18650 Lithium-ion batteries in large quantities and in real time for harvesting used cells with enough capacity for battery reuse. Internal resistance and capacity tests were conducted as a basis for comparison with a novel degradation-based method based on X-ray radiographic scanning and digital image contrast computation. The test results indicate that the sorting accuracy of the test cells is about 79% and the execution time of our algorithm is at a level of 200 milliseconds, making our method a potential real-time solution for reusing the remaining capacity in good used cells.

  17. SnO2@a-Si core-shell nanowires on free-standing CNT paper as a thin and flexible Li-ion battery anode with high areal capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abnavi, Amin; Sadati Faramarzi, Mojtaba; Abdollahi, Ali; Ramzani, Reza; Ghasemi, Shahnaz; Sanaee, Zeinab

    2017-06-01

    Here, we report 3D hierarchical SnO2 nanowire (NW) core-amorphous silicon shell on free-standing carbon nanotube paper (SnO2@a-Si/CNT paper) as an effective anode for flexible lithium-ion battery (LIB) application. This binder-free electrode exhibits a high initial discharge capacity of 3020 mAh g-1 with a large reversible charge capacity of 1250 mAh g-1 at a current density of 250 mA g-1. Compared to other SnO2 NW or its core-shell nanostructured anodes, the fabricated SnO2@a-Si/CNT structure demonstrates an outstanding performance with high mass loading (˜5.9 mg cm-2), high areal capacity (˜5.2 mAh cm-2), and large volumetric capacity (˜1750 mAh cm-3) after 25 cycles. Due to the incorporation of CNT paper as the current collector, the weight and thickness of the total electrode is effectively reduced with respect to the conventional LIB anodes. The fabricated electrode has a total thickness of only 30 μm and considering the total weight of the electrode (active mass + current collector), an initial discharge/charge capacity of 2460/1018 mAh g-1 is obtained. Hence, this thin, lightweight and highly flexible structure is proposed as an excellent candidate for high-performance LIB anode materials, especially in flexible electronics.

  18. Battery equalization active methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardo-Lozano, Javier; Romero-Cadaval, Enrique; Milanes-Montero, M. Isabel; Guerrero-Martinez, Miguel A.

    2014-01-01

    Many different battery technologies are available for the applications which need energy storage. New researches are being focused on Lithium-based batteries, since they are becoming the most viable option for portable energy storage applications. As most of the applications need series battery strings to meet voltage requirements, battery imbalance is an important matter to be taken into account, since it leads the individual battery voltages to drift apart over time, and premature cells degradation, safety hazards, and capacity reduction will occur. A large number of battery equalization methods can be found, which present different advantages/disadvantages and are suitable for different applications. The present paper presents a summary, comparison and evaluation of the different active battery equalization methods, providing a table that compares them, which is helpful to select the suitable equalization method depending on the application. By applying the same weight to the different parameters of comparison, switch capacitor and double-tiered switching capacitor have the highest ratio. Cell bypass methods are cheap and cell to cell ones are efficient. Cell to pack, pack to cell and cell to pack to cell methods present a higher cost, size, and control complexity, but relatively low voltage and current stress in high-power applications.

  19. Are low back pain and low physical capacity risk indicators for dropout among recently qualified eldercare workers?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, Anne; Giver, Hanne; Strøyer, Jesper

    2010-01-01

    to labour market, educational status, and association to trade from Statistics Denmark in 2006. METHODS: Data on physical capacity, duration, and severity of low back pain the last 12 months among the female participants were analysed by multinomial logistic regression to estimate odds-ratios for being...

  20. Energy storage mechanism for hybrid battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jun; Chernova, Natasha; Omenya, Fredrick; Rastogi, Alok; Whittingham, Stanley

    Many devices require both high energy and high power density, and lithium ion batteries and super-capacitors cannot separately always meet the requirements. In this work, we study the operating mechanism of a hybrid battery, which combines the best properties of batteries and supercapacitors. We analyze the lithium ion storage mechanism using XRD, Raman, TEM and electrochemical measurements. The model system studied combines a non-intercalating carbon black anode with a LiFePO4 cathode. At 50% state of charge, XRD data for LiFePO4 cathode material shows a mixture of LiFePO4 and FePO4, indicating battery reaction. On the other hand, the activated carbon remains structurally unchanged. We also discuss the impact of a range of activated carbon/ LiFePO4 (AC/LFP) ratios. From cyclic voltammetry and charge/discharge results, the system exhibits battery-domain characteristics when the AC/ LFP ratio is below one, but showing more supercapacitor-domain traits when the ratio is higher. Besides, the systems have higher rate capacity at AC/LFP ratio around four as compared to one. This research is supported by NSF under Award Number 1318202.

  1. Novel Approach for Lithium-Ion Battery On-Line Remaining Useful Life Prediction Based on Permutation Entropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luping Chen

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The degradation of lithium-ion battery often leads to electrical system failure. Battery remaining useful life (RUL prediction can effectively prevent this failure. Battery capacity is usually utilized as health indicator (HI for RUL prediction. However, battery capacity is often estimated on-line and it is difficult to be obtained by monitoring on-line parameters. Therefore, there is a great need to find a simple and on-line prediction method to solve this issue. In this paper, as a novel HI, permutation entropy (PE is extracted from the discharge voltage curve for analyzing battery degradation. Then the similarity between PE and battery capacity are judged by Pearson and Spearman correlation analyses. Experiment results illustrate the effectiveness and excellent similar performance of the novel HI for battery fading indication. Furthermore, we propose a hybrid approach combining Variational mode decomposition (VMD denoising technique, autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA, and GM(1,1 models for RUL prediction. Experiment results illustrate the accuracy of the proposed approach for lithium-ion battery on-line RUL prediction.

  2. Antioxidant Capacity and Polyphenolic Composition as Quality Indicators for Aqueous Infusions of Salvia officinalis L. (sage tea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walch, Stephan G; Tinzoh, Laura Ngaba; Zimmermann, Benno F; Stühlinger, Wolf; Lachenmeier, Dirk W

    2011-01-01

    Sage (Salvia officinalis L.) is used as an herbal medicinal product, with the most typical form of application as infusion with boiling water (sage tea). The well-established traditional uses include symptomatic treatment of mild dyspeptic complaints, the treatment of inflammations in the mouth and the throat, and relief of excessive sweating and relief of minor skin inflammations. In this study, sage teas prepared from commercially available products were chemically analyzed for polyphenolic content using liquid chromatography, for antioxidant potential using the oxygen radical absorbance capacity method, and for the Folin-Ciocalteu (FC) index. The sage teas showed a high variation for all parameters studied (up to 20-fold differences for rosmarinic acid). Univariate and multivariate analyses showed that the antioxidant potential, which varied between 0.4 and 1.8 mmol trolox equivalents/100 mL, was highly dependent on rosmarinic acid and its derivatives. The FC index also showed a high correlation to these polyphenols, and could therefore be used as a screening parameter for sage tea quality. The considerable differences in polyphenolic composition and antioxidant capacity between the brands lead to a demand for quality standardization, especially if these sage teas are to be used for therapeutic purposes. Further research also appears to be necessary to characterize the dose-benefit relationship, as sage may also contain a constituent (thujone) with potentially adverse effects.

  3. Antioxidant capacity and polyphenolic composition as quality indicators for aqueous infusions of Salvia officinalis L. (sage tea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan G Walch

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Sage (Salvia officinalis L. is used as an herbal medicinal product, with the most typical form of application as infusion with boiling water (sage tea. The well-established traditional uses include symptomatic treatment of mild dyspeptic complaints, the treatment of inflammations in the mouth and the throat, and relief of excessive sweating and relief of minor skin inflammations. In this study, sage teas prepared from commercially available products were chemically analysed for polyphenolic content using liquid chromatography, for antioxidant potential using the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC method, and for the Folin-Ciocalteu (FC index. The sage teas showed a high variation for all parameters studied (up to 20-fold differences for rosmarinic acid. Univariate and multivariate analyses showed that the antioxidant potential, which varied between 0.4 and 1.8 mmol trolox equivalents/100 mL, was highly dependent on rosmarinic acid and its derivatives. The FC index also showed a high correlation to these polyphenols, and could therefore be used as a screening parameter for sage tea quality. The considerable differences in polyphenolic composition and antioxidant capacity between the brands lead to a demand for quality standardisation, especially if these sage teas are to be used for therapeutic purposes. Further research also appears to be necessary to characterise the dose-benefit relationship, as sage may also contain a constituent (thujone with potentially adverse effects.

  4. Indication of temperature inverted microbial assimilative capacities (extracellular enzymes activities in the pelagic of Lake Sevan (Armenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arevik MINASYAN

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Pioneering records of extracellular enzymes activities (EEA in Lake Sevan waters highlight dependence of heterotrophic functioning on physicochemical characteristics and bacterial assemblage. Values of EEA, ranged 0.11-30.39 µg C/P L-1h-1, were higher in upper layers compared to the omission in deeper parts. Particles associated (ecto- enzymes mainly predominated over free dissolved (exo- enzymes. In June activities of all studied enzymes followed similar pattern, particularly, decreasing at thermocline and increasing twice/more in cold deeper waters. Regardless higher bacterial density and temperature in June, with no similar records up to now, EEA revealed reverse relationship to temperature and bacteria data and were significantly lesser than in March. Our finding might be suggested as temperature inverted impact to heterotrophic activities in eutrophic conditions. We assume that observed, with temperature raise, declined EEA was due to blocked enzymatic active center from colloids and DOM components interaction, which, in overall, may suppress organic substrate utilization and result in weakening of first and rate limiting step of biological self-purification in Lake Sevan waters. Therefore, since temperature is co-regulator of assimilative/carrying capacity of aquatic ecosystems, climate warming might have unexpected negative feedbacks also through lowering assimilative capacities of water bodies, jeopardizing their quality and ecology.

  5. Model-based energy analysis of battery powered systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongerden, M.R.

    2010-01-01

    The use of mobile devices is often limited by the lifetime of the included batteries. This lifetime naturally depends on the battery’s capacity and on the rate at which the battery is discharged. However, it also depends on the usage pattern, i.e., the workload, of the battery. When a battery is

  6. Dry cell battery poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batteries - dry cell ... Acidic dry cell batteries contain: Manganese dioxide Ammonium chloride Alkaline dry cell batteries contain: Sodium hydroxide Potassium hydroxide Lithium dioxide dry cell batteries ...

  7. High Capacity, Superior Cyclic Performances in All-Solid-State Lithium-Ion Batteries Based on 78Li2S-22P2S5Glass-Ceramic Electrolytes Prepared via Simple Heat Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yibo; Chen, Rujun; Liu, Ting; Shen, Yang; Lin, Yuanhua; Nan, Ce-Wen

    2017-08-30

    Highly Li-ion conductive 78Li 2 S-22P 2 S 5 glass-ceramic electrolytes were prepared by simple heat treatment of the glass phase obtained via mechanical ball milling. A high ionic conductivity of ∼1.78 × 10 -3 S cm -1 is achieved at room temperature and is attributed to the formation of a crystalline phase of high lithium-ion conduction. All-solid-state lithium-ion batteries based on these glass-ceramic electrolytes are assembled by using Li 2 S nanoparticles or low-cost commercially available FeS 2 as active cathode materials and Li-In alloys as anode. A high discharge capacity of 535 mAh g -1 is achieved after at least 50 cycles for the all-solid-state cells with Li 2 S as cathode materials, suggesting a rather high capacity retention of 97.4%. Even for the cells using low-cost FeS 2 as cathode materials, same high discharge capacity of 560 mAh g -1 is also achieved after at least 50 cycles. Moreover, the Coulombic efficiency remain at ∼99% for these all-solid-state cells during the charge-discharge cycles.

  8. Doped Si nanoparticles with conformal carbon coating and cyclized-polyacrylonitrile network as high-capacity and high-rate lithium-ion battery anodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Ming; Molina Piper, Daniela; Tian, Miao; Clancey, Joel; George, Steven M.; Lee, Se-Hee; Zhou, Yun

    2015-09-01

    Doped Si nanoparticles (SiNPs) with conformal carbon coating and cyclized-polyacrylonitrile (PAN) network displayed capacities of 3500 and 3000 mAh g-1 at C/20 and C/10, respectively. At 1 C, the electrode preserves a specific discharge capacity of ˜1500 mAh g-1 for at least 60 cycles without decay. Al2O3 atomic layer deposition (ALD) helps improve the initial Coulombic efficiency (CE) to 85%. The dual coating of conformal carbon and cyclized-PAN help alleviate volume change and facilitate charge transfer. Ultra-thin Al2O3 ALD layers help form a stable solid electrolyte interphase interface.

  9. Thin-film Rechargeable Lithium Batteries for Implantable Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, J. B.; Dudney, N. J.

    1997-05-01

    Thin films of LiCoO{sub 2} have been synthesized in which the strongest x ray reflection is either weak or missing, indicating a high degree of preferred orientation. Thin film solid state batteries with these textured cathode films can deliver practical capacities at high current densities. For example, for one of the cells 70% of the maximum capacity between 4.2 V and 3 V ({approximately}0.2 mAh/cm{sup 2}) was delivered at a current of 2 mA/cm{sup 2}. When cycled at rates of 0.1 mA/cm{sup 2}, the capacity loss was 0.001%/cycle or less. The reliability and performance of Li LiCoO{sub 2} thin film batteries make them attractive for application in implantable devices such as neural stimulators, pacemakers, and defibrillators.

  10. ZEBRA battery meets USABC goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dustmann, Cord-H.

    In 1990, the California Air Resources Board has established a mandate to introduce electric vehicles in order to improve air quality in Los Angeles and other capitals. The United States Advanced Battery Consortium has been formed by the big car companies, Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and the Department of Energy in order to establish the requirements on EV-batteries and to support battery development. The ZEBRA battery system is a candidate to power future electric vehicles. Not only because its energy density is three-fold that of lead acid batteries (50% more than NiMH) but also because of all the other EV requirements such as power density, no maintenance, summer and winter operation, safety, failure tolerance and low cost potential are fulfilled. The electrode material is plain salt and nickel in combination with a ceramic electrolyte. The cell voltage is 2.58 V and the capacity of a standard cell is 32 Ah. Some hundred cells are connected in series and parallel to form a battery with about 300 V OCV. The battery system including battery controller, main circuit-breaker and cooling system is engineered for vehicle integration and ready to be mounted in a vehicle [J. Gaub, A. van Zyl, Mercedes-Benz Electric Vehicles with ZEBRA Batteries, EVS-14, Orlando, FL, Dec. 1997]. The background of these features are described.

  11. Improving the capacity of lithium-sulfur batteries by tailoring the polysulfide adsorption efficiency of hierarchical oxygen/nitrogen-functionalized carbon host materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Artur; Janek, Jürgen; Brezesinski, Torsten

    2017-03-22

    The use of monolithic carbons with structural hierarchy and varying amounts of nitrogen and oxygen functionalities as sulfur host materials in high-loading lithium-sulfur cells is reported. The primary focus is on the strength of the polysulfide/carbon interaction with the goal of assessing the effect of (surface) dopant concentration on cathode performance. The adsorption capacity - which is a measure of the interaction strength between the intermediate lithium polysulfide species and the carbon - was found to scale almost linearly with the nitrogen level. Likewise, the discharge capacity of lithium-sulfur cells increased linearly. This positive correlation can be explained by the favorable effect of nitrogen on both the chemical and electronic properties of the carbon host. The incorporation of additional oxygen-containing surface groups into highly nitrogen-functionalized carbon helped to further enhance the polysulfide adsorption efficiency, and therefore the reversible cell capacity. Overall, the areal capacity could be increased by almost 70% to around 3 mA h cm -2 . We believe that the design parameters described here provide a blueprint for future carbon-based nanocomposites for high-performance lithium-sulfur cells.

  12. Electrochemically Synthesized Sb/Sb2O3 Composites as High-Capacity Anode Materials Utilizing a Reversible Conversion Reaction for Na-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Kyung-Sik; Nam, Do-Hwan; Lim, Sung-Jin; Sohn, DongRak; Kim, Tae-Hee; Kwon, HyukSang

    2015-08-12

    Sb/Sb2O3 composites are synthesized by a one-step electrodeposition process from an aqueous electrolytic bath containing a potassium antimony tartrate complex. The synthesis process involves the electrodeposition of Sb simultaneously with the chemical deposition of Sb2O3, which allows for the direct deposition of morula-like Sb/Sb2O3 particles on the current collector without using a binder. Structural characterization confirms that the Sb/Sb2O3 composites are composed of approximately 90 mol % metallic Sb and 10 mol % crystalline Sb2O3. The composite exhibits a high reversible capacity (670 mAh g(-1)) that is higher than the theoretical capacity of Sb (660 mAh g(-1)). The high reversible capacity results from the conversion reaction between Na2O and Sb2O3 that occurs additionally to the alloying/dealloying reaction of Sb with Na. Moreover, the Sb/Sb2O3 composite shows excellent cycle performance with 91.8% capacity retention over 100 cycles, and a superior rate capability of 212 mAh g(-1) at a high current density of 3300 mA g(-1). The outstanding cycle performance is attributed to an amorphous Na2O phase generated by the conversion reaction, which inhibits agglomeration of Sb particles and acts as an effective buffer against volume change of Sb during cycling.

  13. Nanowire Electrodes for Advanced Lithium Batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Lei; Wei, Qiulong; Sun, Ruimin; Mai, Liqiang

    2014-01-01

    Since the commercialization of lithium ion batteries (LIBs) in the past two decades, rechargeable LIBs have become widespread power sources for portable devices used in daily life. However, current demands require higher energy density and power density of batteries. The electrochemical energy storage performance of LIBs could be improved by applying nanomaterial electrodes, but their fast capacity fading is still one of the key limitations and the mechanism need to be clearly understood. Single nanowire electrode devices are considered as a versatile platform for in situ probing the direct relationship between electrical transport, structure change, and other properties of the single nanowire electrode along with the charge/discharge process. The results indicate that the conductivity decrease of the nanowire electrode and the structural disorder/destruction during electrochemical reaction limit the cycling performance of LIBs. Based on the in situ observations, some feasible optimization strategies, including prelithiation, coaxial structure, nanowire arrays, and hierarchical structure architecture, are proposed and utilized to restrain the conductivity decrease and structural disorder/destruction. Further, the applications of nanowire electrodes in some “beyond Li-ion” batteries, such as Li-S and Li-air batteries are also described.

  14. Electrochemical performance of CuNCN for sodium ion batteries and comparison with ZnNCN and lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eguia-Barrio, A.; Castillo-Martínez, E.; Klein, F.; Pinedo, R.; Lezama, L.; Janek, J.; Adelhelm, P.; Rojo, T.

    2017-11-01

    Transition metal carbodiimides (TMNCN) undergo conversion reactions during electrochemical cycling in lithium and sodium ion batteries. Micron sized copper and zinc carbodiimide powders have been prepared as single phase as confirmed by PXRD and IR and their thermal stability has been studied in air and nitrogen atmosphere. CuNCN decomposes at ∼250 °C into CuO or Cu while ZnNCN can be stable until 400 °C and 800 °C in air and nitrogen respectively. Both carbodiimides were electrochemically analysed for sodium and lithium ion batteries. The electrochemical Na+ insertion in CuNCN exhibits a relatively high reversible capacity (300 mAh·g-1) which still indicates an incomplete conversion reaction. This incomplete reaction confirmed by ex-situ EPR analysis, is partly due to kinetic limitations as evidenced in the rate capability experiments and in the constant potential measurements. On the other hand, ZnNCN shows incomplete conversion reaction but with good capacity retention and lower hysteresis as negative electrode for sodium ion batteries. The electrochemical performance of these materials is comparable to that of other materials which operate through displacement reactions and is surprisingly better in sodium ion batteries in comparison with lithium ion batteries.

  15. Flexible lithium-ion planer thin-film battery

    KAUST Repository

    Kutbee, Arwa T.

    2016-02-03

    Commercialization of wearable electronics requires miniaturized, flexible power sources. Lithium ion battery is a strong candidate as the next generation high performance flexible battery. The development of flexible materials for battery electrodes suffers from the limited material choices. In this work, we present a flexible inorganic lithium-ion battery with no restrictions on the materials used. The battery showed an enhanced normalized capacity of 146 ??Ah/cm2.

  16. Primary battery design and safety guidelines handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragg, Bobby J.; Casey, John E.; Trout, J. Barry

    1994-12-01

    This handbook provides engineers and safety personnel with guidelines for the safe design or selection and use of primary batteries in spaceflight programs. Types of primary batteries described are silver oxide zinc alkaline, carbon-zinc, zinc-air alkaline, manganese dioxide-zionc alkaline, mercuric oxide-zinc alkaline, and lithium anode cells. Along with typical applications, the discussions of the individual battery types include electrochemistry, construction, capacities and configurations, and appropriate safety measures. A chapter on general battery safety covers hazard sources and controls applicable to all battery types. Guidelines are given for qualification and acceptance testing that should precede space applications. Permissible failure levels for NASA applications are discussed.

  17. Lithium batteries, anodes, and methods of anode fabrication

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Lain-Jong

    2016-12-29

    Prelithiation of a battery anode carried out using controlled lithium metal vapor deposition. Lithium metal can be avoided in the final battery. This prelithiated electrode is used as potential anode for Li- ion or high energy Li-S battery. The prelithiation of lithium metal onto or into the anode reduces hazardous risk, is cost effective, and improves the overall capacity. The battery containing such an anode exhibits remarkably high specific capacity and a long cycle life with excellent reversibility.

  18. Evaluation of the indexes of income yield capacity of energetic projects; Evaluacion de los indices de rentabilidad de proyectos energeticos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villanueva M, C. [Facultad de Quimica, UNAM, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2008-07-01

    An economic-financial model to evaluate in the class living room those indexes of profitability of projects of productive infrastructure of the energy sector was developed, as for example: generation projects, transmission and electric energy distribution; projects of transport and distribution of natural gas; projects of cogeneration of vapor and electricity; projects of refinement of petroleum; and other industrial projects. It is described the structure and operation of the pattern, which has been implemented in an Excel calculation sheet that the students use in their personal computers to apply it to the evaluation of the indexes of profitability, specified by the Secretaria de Hacienda y Credito Publico (SHCP) in their limits for the elaboration and presentation of the cost and benefit analysis of the programs and projects of investment of the public sector. The indicators are: present net value VPN, quotient benefits cost B/C, return internal rate TIR, and equivalent annual cost CAE, which should be calculated with methodological rigor according to the SHCP lineaments. The pattern uses the pre-programmed financial functions in the Excel calculation sheet to carry out the compute of the indicators starting from the effective flow of the projects. It is described the technician-economic configuration and the effective flows during the useful life of three power stations of electric power generation that are designed, builds and operated to sell electric power to the national interconnected system in a nodal marginal prices market: a hydroelectric one, a combined cycle power station that uses natural gas, and a nucleo electric. The effective flows are developed and the central profitability of three centrals are evaluated and they are also carried out the corresponding sensitivity analyses and indifference required by the SHCP in their lineaments. Finally, the conditions in that the projects should operate and the prices in those that should sell their

  19. Circulating current battery heater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashtiani, Cyrus N.; Stuart, Thomas A.

    2001-01-01

    A circuit for heating energy storage devices such as batteries is provided. The circuit includes a pair of switches connected in a half-bridge configuration. Unidirectional current conduction devices are connected in parallel with each switch. A series resonant element for storing energy is connected from the energy storage device to the pair of switches. An energy storage device for intermediate storage of energy is connected in a loop with the series resonant element and one of the switches. The energy storage device which is being heated is connected in a loop with the series resonant element and the other switch. Energy from the heated energy storage device is transferred to the switched network and then recirculated back to the battery. The flow of energy through the battery causes internal power dissipation due to electrical to chemical conversion inefficiencies. The dissipated power causes the internal temperature of the battery to increase. Higher internal temperatures expand the cold temperature operating range and energy capacity utilization of the battery. As disclosed, either fixed frequency or variable frequency modulation schemes may be used to control the network.

  20. Three-dimensional graphene sheets with NiO nanobelt outgrowths for enhanced capacity and long term high rate cycling Li-ion battery anode material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Waipeng; Zhang, Yingmeng; Key, Julian; Shen, Pei Kang

    2018-03-01

    An efficient synthesis method to grow well attached NiO nanobelts from 3D graphene sheets (3DGS) is reported herein. Ni-ion exchanged resin provides the initial Ni reactant portion, which serves both as a catalyst to form 3DGS and then as a seeding agent to grow the NiO nanobelts. The macroporous structure of 3DGS provides NiO containment to achieve a high cycling stability of up to 445 mAh g-1 after 360 cycles (and >112% capacity retention after 515 cycles) at a high current density of 2 A g-1. With a 26.8 wt.% content of NiO on 3DGS, increases in specific and volumetric capacity were 41.6 and 75.7% respectively over that of 3DGS at matching current densities. Therefore, the seeded growth of NiO nanobelts from 3DGS significantly boosts volumetric capacity, while 3DGS enables high rate long term cycling of the NiO. The high rate cycling stability of NiO on 3DGS can be attributed to (i) good attachment and contact to the large surface of 3DGS, (ii) high electron conductivity and rapid Li-ion transfer (via the interconnected, highly conductive graphitized walls of 3DGS) and (iii) buffering void space in 3DGS to contain volume expansion of NiO during charge/discharge.

  1. Large-scale synthesis and application of SnS2–graphene nanocomposites as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries with enhanced cyclic performance and reversible capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, Ning; Wu, Xiaolei; Zhai, Chuanxin; Zhang, Hui; Yang, Deren

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •SnS 2 –graphene nanocomposites have been synthesized via one-pot chemical reaction. •Thioacetamide plays a key role in the formation of SnS 2 –graphene nanocomposites. •The nanocomposites show a high initial Coulombic efficiency and a large capacity. •The three-dimensionally porous structure is responsible for the good performance. -- Abstract: We report the synthesis of SnS 2 –graphene nanocomposites via an in situ chemical reaction between Sn 4+ and thioacetamide on graphene with the assistance of sonication. Thioacetamide plays a key role in the reaction by controlling the reaction rate through slow hydrolyzation. The as-synthesized SnS 2 –graphene nanocomposites have been applied as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries, which show a higher initial Coulombic efficiency and larger reversible capacity, than both pure graphene and SnS 2 nanoparticles. The layered and porous structures contribute to the enhanced electrochemical performance due to its ability to buffer the volume change, reduce pulverization, and enhance electronic conductivity during the alloying/dealloying process

  2. Synthesis and characterization of Cu/sub 11/V/sub 6/O/sub 26/ as high -- capacity cathodes for lithium secondary batteries via a wet chemistry route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, C.; Binqiang, M.A.; Suhong, L.U.

    2009-01-01

    The cathode material of Cu/sub 11/ V/sub 6/O/sub 26/ has been synthesized for the lithium secondary batteries via the wet-chemistry method. The as-prepared powders were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and laser particle size analysis (LPSA) The electrochemical performances were evaluated by the galvanostatic discharge-charge and cyclic voltammetry technique. These results revealed that Cu/sub 11/ V/sub 6/O/sub 26/ powder could be formed at a temperature as low as 300 degree C, and its particle size was smaller and distributed in a narrower range compared to the other powders synthesized at 400 degree C and 500 degree C. The initial discharge capacity of the powder synthesized at 300 degree C whose D/sub 50/ was only 24.251 macro m was 318.2 mAh/g. It was also found that a severe structure modification of Cu/sub 11/ V/sub 6/ O/sub 26/ powder might take place after the first cycle according to cyclic voltammetry test, which should be responsible for its irreversible capacity. (author)

  3. Alpha-L-Fucosidase Serves as a Prognostic Indicator for Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma and Inhibits Its Invasion Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeyu Shuang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Alpha-L-fucosidase (AFU has been reported to be a predictor of survival in patients with several cancers, but it is unclear whether AFU is associated with prognosis in patients with intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (iCCA. In this study, we used receiver operating characteristic (ROC analysis to generate the cutoff point of AFU for overall survival (OS. The prognostic influence of the AFU level in serum on OS was studied using Kaplan-Meier curves. Moreover, invasion assays and Western blotting were performed to explore the effects of AFU on iCCA invasion in vitro. We found that higher AFU levels (≥20.85 U/L were significantly associated with favorable median OS (44.3 months versus 20.1 months; P=0.022 in iCCA patients. Cox regression models’ analyses showed that the AFU level was an independent predictor for OS (P=0.006. Moreover, our results revealed that the AFU could impair the invasion capability of the iCCA cells, HuH28, and also downregulated the expression of matrix metalloproteinase 2 and matrix metalloproteinase 9. In conclusion, our results indicate that AFU is a significantly favorable prognostic factor in iCCA patients.

  4. Lithium-ion battery aging mechanisms and life model under different charging stresses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yang; Jiang, Jiuchun; Zhang, Caiping; Zhang, Weige; Ma, Zeyu; Jiang, Yan

    2017-07-01

    The charging time-consuming and lifespan of lithium-ion batteries have always been the bottleneck for the tremendous application of electric vehicles. In this paper, cycle life tests are conducted to reveal the influence of different charging current rates and cut-off voltages on the aging mechanism of batteries. The long-term effects of charging current rates and cut-off voltages on capacity degradation and resistance increase are compared. The results show that there exists a critical charging current and a critical charging cut-off voltage. When the charging stress exceeds the critical value, battery degradation speed will be greatly accelerated. Furthermore, battery aging mechanisms at various charging currents and cut-off voltages are investigated using incremental capacity analysis. It is indicated that charging current and cut-off voltage should be reduced to retard battery degradation when the battery degrades to a certain extent. The time when the loss of electrode material accelerates is taken as the crisis to reduce charging current and the time when the loss of lithium inventory accelerates is taken as the crisis to reduce charging cut-off voltage. Moreover, an experiential model quantitatively describing the relationship between capacity degradation rate and charging stresses at different aging states is established.

  5. High Lithium Insertion Voltage Single-Crystal H2 Ti12 O25 Nanorods as a High-Capacity and High-Rate Lithium-Ion Battery Anode Material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qiang; Chen, Li; Shan, Zizhao; Lee, Wee Siang Vincent; Xiao, Wen; Liu, Zhifang; Liang, Jingjing; Yang, Gaoli; Xue, Junmin

    2018-01-10

    H 2 Ti 12 O 25 holds great promise as a high-voltage anode material for advanced lithium-ion battery applications. To enhance its electrochemical performance, control of the crystal orientation and morphology is an effective way to cope with slow Li + -ion diffusion inside H 2 Ti 12 O 25 with severe anisotropy. In this report, Na 2 Ti 6 O 13 nanorods, prepared from Na 2 CO 3 and anatase TiO 2 in molten NaCl medium, were used as a precursor in the synthesis of long single-crystal H 2 Ti 12 O 25 nanorods with reactive facets. The as-prepared H 2 Ti 12 O 25 nanorods with a diameter of 100-200 nm showed higher charge (extraction) specific capacity and better rate performance than previously reported systems. The reversible capacity of H 2 Ti 12 O 25 was 219.8 mAh g -1 at 1C after 100 cycles, 172.1 mAh g -1 at 10C, and 144.4 mAh g -1 at 20C after 200 cycles; these values are higher than those of H 2 Ti 12 O 25 prepared by the conventional soft-chemical method. Moreover, the as-prepared H 2 Ti 12 O 25 nanorods exhibited superior cycle stability with more than 94 % retention of capacity with nearly 100 % coulombic efficiency after 100 cycles at 1C. On the basis of the above results, long single-crystal H 2 Ti 12 O 25 nanorods synthesized in molten NaCl with outstanding electrochemical characteristics hold a significant amount of promise for hybrid electric vehicles and energy-storage systems. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Battery available power prediction of hybrid electric vehicle based on improved Dynamic Matrix Control algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Limei; Cheng, Yong; Zou, Ju

    2014-09-01

    The core technology to any hybrid engine vehicle (HEV) is the design of energy management strategy (EMS). To develop a reasonable EMS, it is necessary to monitor the state of capacity, state of health and instantaneous available power of battery packs. A new method that linearizes RC equivalent circuit model and predicts battery available power according to original Dynamic Matrix Control algorithm is proposed. To verify the validity of the new algorithm, a bench test with lithium-ion battery cell and a HEV test with lithium-ion battery packs are carried out. The bench test results indicate that a single RC block equivalent circuit model could be used to describe the dynamic and the steady state characteristics of a battery under testing conditions. However, lacking of long time constant of RC modules, there is a sample deviation in the open-circuit voltage identified and that measured. The HEV testing results show that the battery voltage predicted is in good agreement with that measured, the maximum difference is within 3.7%. Fixing the time constant to a numeric value, satisfactory results can still be achieved. After setting a battery discharge cut-off voltage, the instantaneous available power of the battery can be predicted.

  7. Efficient conversion of sand to nano-silicon and its energetic Si-C composite anode design for high volumetric capacity lithium-ion battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furquan, Mohammad; Raj Khatribail, Anish; Vijayalakshmi, Savithri; Mitra, Sagar

    2018-04-01

    Silicon is an attractive anode material for Li-ion cells, which can provide energy density 30% higher than any of the today's commercial Li-ion cells. In the current study, environmentally benign, high abundant, and low cost sand (SiO2) source has been used to prepare nano-silicon via scalable metallothermic reduction method using micro wave heating. In this research, we have developed and optimized a method to synthesis high purity nano silicon powder that takes only 5 min microwave heating of sand and magnesium mixture at 800 °C. Carbon coated nano-silicon electrode material is prepared by a unique method of coating, polymerization and finally in-situ carbonization of furfuryl alcohol on to the high purity nano-silicon. The electrochemical performance of a half cell using the carbon coated high purity Si is showed a stable capacity of 1500 mAh g-1 at 6 A g-1 for over 200 cycles. A full cell is fabricated using lithium cobalt oxide having thickness ≈56 μm as cathode and carbon coated silicon thin anode of thickness ≈9 μm. The fabricated full cell of compact size exhibits excellent volumetric capacity retention of 1649 mAh cm-3 at 0.5 C rate (C = 4200 mAh g-1) and extended cycle life (600 cycles). The full cell is demonstrated on an LED lantern and LED display board.

  8. The Evaluation of Saliva Flow Rate, pH, Buffer Capacity, Microbiological Content and Indice of Decayed, Missing and Filled Teeth in Behçet's Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdem, Vildan; Yıldız, Mehmet; Erdem, Teoman

    2013-06-01

    Several lines of evidence indicate that oral microbial flora play a critical role in the pathogenesis of Behçet disease. Saliva flow rate, buffer capacity and microorganism content are very important in the maintenance of oral health. We aimed to evaluate saliva flow rate, pH, buffer capacity and Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacilli content along with the decayed, missing, and filled tooth index in Behçet's patients. Case-control study. Forty patients with active Behçet disease [female:male (F/M) 21/19, mean age 31.05±11.08 years] and forty healthy persons (F/M 21/19, mean age 31.03±9.14 years) were included in the study. The oral region was first examined, and the decayed, missing, and filled tooth index was calculated for each person. Stimulated saliva was collected and divided into two separate millimetric tubes to calculate the buffer capacity of the saliva, determine Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacilli levels and measure the pH of the saliva. A Caries Risk Test buffer strip was used to calculate the buffer capacity. Caries Risk Test bacterial kit was used to determine Streptococcus mutans and lactobacilli levels. A pH meter was used to measure the pH of the saliva. The mean saliva pH of the patients was higher than the controls (7.76±0.51, 7.18±0.46, respectively) (p0.05). We think that the maintenance of oral health by effective, regular tooth brushing, regular dental check-ups and dental treatment for Behçet patients is very important for the prevention and therapy of Behçet disease.

  9. The Evaluation of Saliva Flow Rate, pH, Buffer Capacity, Microbiological Content and Indice of Decayed, Missing and Filled Teeth in Behçet"s Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vildan Erdem

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Several lines of evidence indicate that oral microbial flora play a critical role in the pathogenesis of Behçet disease. Saliva flow rate, buffer capacity and microorganism content are very important in the maintenance of oral health. Aims: We aimed to evaluate saliva flow rate, pH, buffer capacity and Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacilli content along with the decayed, missing, and filled tooth index in Behçet’s patients. Study Design: Case-control study Methods: Forty patients with active Behçet disease [female:male (F/M 21/19, mean age 31.05±11.08 years] and forty healthy persons (F/M 21/19, mean age 31.03±9.14 years were included in the study. The oral region was first examined, and the decayed, missing, and filled tooth index was calculated for each person. Stimulated saliva was collected and divided into two separate millimetric tubes to calculate the buffer capacity of the saliva, determine Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacilli levels and measure the pH of the saliva. A Caries Risk Test buffer strip was used to calculate the buffer capacity. Caries Risk Test bacterial kit was used to determine Streptococcus mutans and lactobacilli levels. A pH meter was used to measure the pH of the saliva. Results: The mean saliva pH of the patients was higher than the controls (7.76±0.51, 7.18±0.46, respectively (p0.05. Conclusion: We think that the maintenance of oral health by effective, regular tooth brushing, regular dental check-ups and dental treatment for Behçet patients is very important for the prevention and therapy of Behçet disease.

  10. Button batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... recovery. Alternative Names Swallowing batteries References Hess JM, Lowell MJ. Esophagus, stomach and duodenum. In: Marx JA, ... Jacob L. Heller, MD, MHA, Emergency Medicine, Virginia Mason Medical Center, Seattle, WA. Also reviewed by David ...

  11. Prussian blue: a new framework of electrode materials for sodium batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yuhao; Wang, Long; Cheng, Jinguang; Goodenough, John B

    2012-07-04

    Prussian blue and its analogues consisting of different transition-metal ions (Fe, Mn, Ni, Cu, Co and Zn) have been synthesized at room temperature. Insertion of Na into KFe(2)(CN)(6) in a carbonate electrolyte exhibited a reversible capacity near 100 mA h g(-1) with no capacity fade in 30 cycles. The data indicate that a Na-ion battery with a Prussian blue framework as a cathode will be feasible.

  12. Dual-shell hollow polyaniline/sulfur-core/polyaniline composites improving the capacity and cycle performance of lithium–sulfur batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An, Yanling; Wei, Pan; Fan, Meiqiang, E-mail: fanmeiqiang@126.com; Chen, Da; Chen, Haichao; Ju, QiangJian; Tian, Guanglei; Shu, Kangying

    2016-07-01

    Highlights: • A dual core-shell hPANI/S/PANI composite was prepared in situ synthesis. • Cycle performance of the hPANI/S/PANI composite was enhanced. • The improvement was due to fine sulfur particles wrapped by two PANI films. • Some positive effects were elaborated. - Abstract: In this study, a dual-shell hollow polyaniline/sulfur-core/polyaniline (hPANI/S/PANI) composite was prepared by successively depositing PANI, S, and PANI on the surface of a template silicon sphere. The electrochemical properties of this composite were evaluated using a lithium plate as an anode in lithium/sulfur cells. The hPANI/S/PANI composite showed a discharge capacity of 572.2 mAh g{sup −1} after 214 cycles at 0.1 C, and the Coulombic efficiency was above 87% in the whole charge/discharge cycle. The improved cycle property of the hPANI/S/PANI composite can be ascribed to the fine sulfur particles homogeneously deposited on the PANI surface and sprawled inside the two PANI layers during the charge/discharge cycle. This behavior stabilized the nanostructure of sulfur and enhanced its conductivity.

  13. Experimental Investigations of the Energy and Environmental Indices of Operation of a Low-Capacity Combined Gas Producer and Hot-Water Boiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodnar, L. A.; Stepanov, D. V.; Dovgal‧, A. N.

    2015-07-01

    It has been shown that the introduction of combined gas producers and boilers on renewable energy sources is a pressing issue. A structural diagram of a low-capacity combined gas producer and boiler on renewable energy sources has been given; a bench and procedures for investigation and processing of results have been developed. Experimental investigations of the energy and environmental indices of a 40-kW combined gas producer and hotwater boiler burning wood have been carried out. Results of the experimental investigations have been analyzed. Distinctive features have been established and a procedure of thermal calculation of the double furnace of a lowcapacity combined gas producer and boiler burning solid fuel has been proposed. The calculated coefficients of heat transfer from the gases in the convection bank have been compared with the obtained experimental results. A calculation dependence for the heat transfer from the gases in convection banks of low-capacity hot-water boilers has been proposed. The quantities of harmful emissions from the combined gas producer and boiler on renewable energy sources have been compared with the existing Ukrainian and foreign standards. It has been established that the environmental efficiency of the boiler under study complies with most of the standard requirements of European countries.

  14. Development of Advanced Li Rich xLi2MO3 (1-x)LiMO2 Composite Cathode for High Capacity Li Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-22

    Fig3.SEM image and particle size distribution of 0.5Li2MnO3-0.5LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 powder 0.5Li2MnO3-0.5LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 may...stoichiometry of the prepared powders . Table 1. Chemical composition results from inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometry (ICP) analysis of...particles surface, indicating a phase transformation from layered to spinel-like structure. The electron diffraction analysis and HRTEM images showing

  15. Batteries not included

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, M.

    2001-01-01

    This article traces the development of clockwork wind-up battery chargers that can be used to recharge mobile phones, laptop computers, torches or radio batteries from the pioneering research of the British inventor Trevor Baylis to the marketing of the wind-up gadgets by Freeplay Energy who turned the idea into a commercial product. The amount of cranking needed to power wind-up devices is discussed along with a hand-cranked charger for mobile phones, upgrading the phone charger's mechanism, and drawbacks of the charger. Details are given of another invention using a hand-cranked generator with a supercapacitor as a storage device which has a very much higher capacity for storing electrical charge

  16. Phthalocyanines in batteries and supercapacitors

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oni, J

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available of their lower cost. This review article looks through a very narrow window of the applications of phthalocyanines in batteries and supercapacitors as a means of improving the qualities such as cycle property, energy density, capacity, open circuit voltage, etc...

  17. Disease Activity in Psoriatic Arthritis: Comparison of the Discriminative Capacity and Construct Validity of Six Composite Indices in a Real World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fausto Salaffi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To compare, “in a real world,” the performance of the most common composite activity indices in a cohort of PsA patients. Methods. A total of 171 PsA patients were involved. The following variables were evaluated: peripheral joint assessment, patient reported of pain, physician and patient assessments of disease activity, patient general health status, dactylitis digit count, Leeds Enthesitis Index, Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ, physical and mental component summary score of the Medical Outcome Survey (SF-36, Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI, Dermatology Life Quality Index, C-reactive protein (CRP, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR. To measure the disease activity, the Disease Activity Score (DAS28-ESR and DAS28-CRP, Simple Disease Activity Index (SDAI, Composite Psoriatic Disease Activity Index (CPDAI, disease activity in psoriatic arthritis (DAPSA, and Psoriatic Arthritis Disease Activity Score (PASDAS have been calculated. The criteria for minimal disease activity (MDA and remission were applied as external criterion. Results. The ROC were similar in all the composite measures. Only the CPDAI showed less discriminative ability. There was a high degree of correlation between all the indices (P<0.0001. The highest correlations were between DAPSA and SDAI (rho = 0.996 and between DAPSA and DAS28-CRP (rho = 0.957. CPDAI, DAPSA, and PASDAS had the most stringent definitions of remission and MDA category. DAS28-ESR and DAS28-CRP had the highest proportions in remission and MDA. Conclusions. Although a good concurrent validity and discriminant capacity of six disease activity indices were observed, the proportions of patients classified in the disease activity levels differed. In particular, the rate of patients in remission was clearly different among the respective indices.

  18. the comparative analysis of indicators of quality of life and eyesight capacity among the patients after different types of eye mechanical injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Kochergin

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: the comparative evaluation of indicators of quality of life and eyesight capacity among groups of patients with different types of eye mechanical trauma for studying of the possibility of the authentic qualitative and quantitative analysis.Methods: 120 patients (101 men and 19 women with a mechanical injury of an eye are included in research. the mean age was 42.3±17.4 years, from 18 to 74 years. Patients are divided according to the type of trauma: with a contusion — 67 patients (group A, with penetrating wounds — 53 patients (group B.Results: the study shows the expediency of early (at the stage of hospitalization determination by the patient his own condition, in order to trace dynamics in indicators of quality of life, timely reacting to them, making changes in treatment tactics in the post- traumatic period.Conclusion: Profound attention from experts for definition of strategy of recovering is demanded by a pain syndrome and a psy- chological stress of patients. the individual approach provides competent application of questionnaires, as tools of the assessment of quality of life.

  19. the comparative analysis of indicators of quality of life and eyesight capacity among the patients after different types of eye mechanical injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Kochergin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: the comparative evaluation of indicators of quality of life and eyesight capacity among groups of patients with different types of eye mechanical trauma for studying of the possibility of the authentic qualitative and quantitative analysis.Methods: 120 patients (101 men and 19 women with a mechanical injury of an eye are included in research. the mean age was 42.3±17.4 years, from 18 to 74 years. Patients are divided according to the type of trauma: with a contusion — 67 patients (group A, with penetrating wounds — 53 patients (group B.Results: the study shows the expediency of early (at the stage of hospitalization determination by the patient his own condition, in order to trace dynamics in indicators of quality of life, timely reacting to them, making changes in treatment tactics in the post- traumatic period.Conclusion: Profound attention from experts for definition of strategy of recovering is demanded by a pain syndrome and a psy- chological stress of patients. the individual approach provides competent application of questionnaires, as tools of the assessment of quality of life.

  20. Innovation Meets Performance Demands of Advanced Lithium-ion Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-06-01

    Advancements in high capacity and low density battery technologies have led to a growing need for battery materials with greater charge capacity and therefore stability. NREL's developments in ALD and molecular layer MLD allow for thin film coatings to battery composite electrodes, which can improve battery lifespan, high charge capacity, and stability. Silicon, one of the best high-energy anode materials for Li-ion batteries, can experience capacity fade from volumetric expansion. Using MLD to examine how surface modification could stabilize silicon anode material in Li-ion batteries, researchers discovered a new reaction precursor that leads to a flexible surface coating that accommodates volumetric expansion of silicon electrodes.

  1. Non-Destructive Analysis of Degradation Mechanisms in Cycle-Aged Graphite/LiCoO2 Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liqiang Zhang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Non-destructive analysis of degradation mechanisms can be very beneficial for the prognostics and health management (PHM study of lithium-ion batteries. In this paper, a type of graphite/LiCoO2 battery was cycle aged at high ambient temperature, then 25 parameters of the multi-physics model were identified. Nine key parameters degraded with the cycle life, and they were treated as indicators of battery degradation. Accordingly, the degradation mechanism was discussed by using the multi-physics model and key parameters, and the reasons for capacity fade and the internal resistance increase were analyzed in detail. All evidence indicates that the formation reaction of the solid electrolyte interface (SEI film is the main cause of battery degradation at high ambient temperature.

  2. Battery Fault Detection with Saturating Transformers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Francis J. (Inventor); Graika, Jason R. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A battery monitoring system utilizes a plurality of transformers interconnected with a battery having a plurality of battery cells. Windings of the transformers are driven with an excitation waveform whereupon signals are responsively detected, which indicate a health of the battery. In one embodiment, excitation windings and sense windings are separately provided for the plurality of transformers such that the excitation waveform is applied to the excitation windings and the signals are detected on the sense windings. In one embodiment, the number of sense windings and/or excitation windings is varied to permit location of underperforming battery cells utilizing a peak voltage detector.

  3. Indices of heart rate variability as potential early markers of metabolic stress and compromised regulatory capacity in dried-off high-yielding dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdmann, S; Mohr, E; Derno, M; Tuchscherer, A; Schäff, C; Börner, S; Kautzsch, U; Kuhla, B; Hammon, H M; Röntgen, M

    2017-10-25

    High performing dairy cows experience distinct metabolic stress during periods of negative energy balance. Subclinical disorders of the cow's energy metabolism facilitate failure of adaptational responses resulting in health problems and reduced performance. The autonomic nervous system (ANS) with its sympathetic and parasympathetic branches plays a predominant role in adaption to inadequate energy and/or fuel availability and mediation of the stress response. Therefore, we hypothesize that indices of heart rate variability (HRV) that reflect ANS activity and sympatho-vagal balance could be early markers of metabolic stress, and possibly useful to predict cows with compromised regulatory capacity. In this study we analysed the autonomic regulation and stress level of 10 pregnant dried-off German Holstein cows before, during and after a 10-h fasting period by using a wide range of HRV parameters. In addition heat production (HP), energy balance, feed intake, rumen fermentative activity, physical activity, non-esterified fatty acids, β-hydroxybutyric acid, cortisol and total ghrelin plasma concentrations, and body temperature (BT) were measured. In all cows fasting induced immediate regulatory adjustments including increased lipolysis (84%) and total ghrelin levels (179%), reduction of HP (-16%), standing time (-38%) and heart rate (-15%). However, by analysing frequency domain parameters of HRV (high-frequency (HF) and low-frequency (LF) components, ratio LF/HF) cows could be retrospectively assigned to groups reacting to food removal with increased or decreased activity of the parasympathetic branch of the ANS. Regression analysis reveals that under control conditions (feeding ad libitum) group differences were best predicted by the nonlinear domain HRV component Maxline (L MAX, R 2=0.76, threshold; TS=258). Compared with cows having L MAX values above TS (>L MAX: 348±17), those with L MAX values below TS (stress-induced hyperthermia. The data indicate a higher

  4. Phosphidation of Li4Ti5O12 nanoparticles and their electrochemical and biocompatible superiority for lithium rechargeable batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Mi Ru; Nam, Ki Min; Lee, Youngmin; Song, Kyeongse; Park, Joon T; Kang, Yong-Mook

    2011-11-07

    Phosphidated-Li(4)Ti(5)O(12) shows high capacity with a significantly enhanced kinetics opening new possibilities for ultra-fast charge/discharge of lithium rechargeable batteries. The in vitro cytotoxicity test proves its fabulous cell viability, indicating that the toxicity problem of nanoparticles can be also solved by phosphidation. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2011

  5. NiZn battery as the alternative battery technology for PHEV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faris, S.M.; Tsai, T. [Xellerion Inc., Hawthorne, NY (United States)

    2007-07-01

    Xellerion Inc. (USA) has developed a rechargeable nickel-zinc (NiZn) battery using a proprietary solid-state electrolyte. Xellerion's proprietary hydroxide conductive membrane technology provides superior power and energy performance. The company manufactures high capacity batteries ranging from 20 to 60 ampere hours (AH) for different applications. NiZn battery with a capacity higher than 100 AH will be available in 2008 for large battery electric vehicles (BEV) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) applications. This presentation provided a detailed comparison of Xellerion NiZn battery to other leading battery technologies, including lithium based batteries, for PHEV applications. It was noted that although lithium based batteries have been considered as the main stream for new PHEV development, some safety and cost issues remain to be addressed. In addition, concerns have been raised regarding the lithium consumption rate and worldwide reserve for future large scale deployment. For these reasons, Xellerion's NiZn battery is regarded as a viable alternative battery technology for PHEVs. 27 figs.

  6. Functional materials for rechargeable batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Fangyi; Liang, Jing; Tao, Zhanliang; Chen, Jun

    2011-04-19

    There is an ever-growing demand for rechargeable batteries with reversible and efficient electrochemical energy storage and conversion. Rechargeable batteries cover applications in many fields, which include portable electronic consumer devices, electric vehicles, and large-scale electricity storage in smart or intelligent grids. The performance of rechargeable batteries depends essentially on the thermodynamics and kinetics of the electrochemical reactions involved in the components (i.e., the anode, cathode, electrolyte, and separator) of the cells. During the past decade, extensive efforts have been dedicated to developing advanced batteries with large capacity, high energy and power density, high safety, long cycle life, fast response, and low cost. Here, recent progress in functional materials applied in the currently prevailing rechargeable lithium-ion, nickel-metal hydride, lead acid, vanadium redox flow, and sodium-sulfur batteries is reviewed. The focus is on research activities toward the ionic, atomic, or molecular diffusion and transport; electron transfer; surface/interface structure optimization; the regulation of the electrochemical reactions; and the key materials and devices for rechargeable batteries. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Comparison of the Battery Life of Nonrechargeable Generators for Deep Brain Stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmers, Ann-Kristin; Lübbing, Isabel; Deuschl, Günther; Witt, Karsten; Synowitz, Michael; Mehdorn, Hubertus Maximilian; Falk, Daniela

    2017-11-03

    Nonrechargeable deep brain stimulation (DBS) generators must be replaced when the battery capacity is exhausted. Battery life depends on many factors and differs between generator models. A new nonrechargeable generator model replaced the previous model in 2008. Our clinical impression is that the earlier model had a longer battery life than the new one. We conducted this study to substantiate this. We determined the battery life of every DBS generator that had been implanted between 2005 and 2012 in our department for the treatment of Parkinson's disease, and compared the battery lives of the both devices. We calculated the current used by estimating the total electrical energy delivered (TEED) based on the stimulation parameters in use one year after electrode implantation. One hundred ninety-two patients were included in the study; 105 with the old and 86 with the new model generators. The mean battery life in the older model was significantly longer (5.44 ± 0.20 years) than that in the new model (4.44 ± 0.17 years) (p = 0.023). The mean TEED without impedance was 219.9 ± 121.5 mW * Ω in the older model and 145.1 ± 72.7 mW * Ω in the new one, which indicated significantly lower stimulation parameters in the new model (p = 0.00038). The battery life of the new model was significantly shorter than that of the previous model. A lower battery capacity is the most likely reason, since current consumption was similar in both groups. © 2017 International Neuromodulation Society.

  8. Nanostructured titanium nitride as a novel cathode for high performance lithium/dissolved polysulfide batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosavati, Negar; Chitturi, Venkateswara Rao; Salley, Steven O.; Ng, K. Y. Simon

    2016-07-01

    Lithium-sulfur (Lisbnd S) batteries could potentially revolutionize the rechargeable battery market due to their high energy density and low cost. However, low active material utilization, electrode volumetric expansion and a high rate of capacity fade due to the dissolution of lithium polysulfide intermediates in the liquid electrolyte are the main challenges facing further Lisbnd S battery development. Here, we enhanced Lisbnd S batteries active material utilization and decreased the volumetric expansion by using the lithium/dissolved polysulfide configuration. Moreover, a novel class of cathode materials, Titanium Nitride (TiN), was developed for polysulfide conversion reactions. The surface chemical environment of the TiN has been investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis. The existence of Ssbnd Tisbnd N bonding at the cathode electrode surface was observed, which indicates the strong interactions between TiN and polysulfides. Therefore, the TiN electrode retains the sulfur species on the cathode surface, minimizing the active material and surface area loss and consequently, improves the capacity retention. The resultant cells demonstrated a high initial capacity of 1524 mAh g-1 and a good capacity retention for 100 cycles at a C/10 current rate.

  9. Carrying Capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schroll, Henning; Andersen, Jan; Kjærgård, Bente

    2012-01-01

    A spatial planning act was introduced inIndonesia 1992 and renewed in 2008. It emphasised the planning role of decentralised authorities. The spatial planning act covers both spatial and environmental issues. It defines the concept of carrying capacity and includes definitions of supportive....../cities. Four different sectors (water, food production, waste, and forests) were selected as core areas for decentralised spatial planning. Indicators for SCC and ACC were identified and assessed with regard to relevance and quantifiability. For each of the indicators selected, a legal threshold or guiding...... was introduced inIndonesia 1992 and renewed in 2008. It emphasised the planning role of decentralised authorities. The spatial planning act covers both spatial and environmental issues. It defines the concept of carrying capacity and includes definitions of supportive carrying capacity (SCC) and assimilative...

  10. Modeling and simulation of the zinc-nickel single flow batteries based on MATLAB/Simulink

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shouguang Yao

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on the working principle of the zinc-nickel single flow batteries (ZNBs, this paper builds the electrochemical model and mechanical model, analyzes the effect of electrolyte flux on the battery performance and obtains a single cell with a 216 Ah charge-discharge capacity as an example, and thereafter conducts a simulation to obtain several results under the condition of constant current charge and discharge. The simulation results are well matched in comparison with the experimental results. An optimal flux exists during the charge and discharge, which indicates that the model can well simulate the charge and discharge characteristics of the ZNBs under the condition of constant current.

  11. Energy analysis of batteries in photovoltaic systems. Part II: Energy return factors and overall battery efficiencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rydh, Carl Johan; Sanden, Bjoern A.

    2005-01-01

    Energy return factors and overall energy efficiencies are calculated for a stand-alone photovoltaic (PV)-battery system. Eight battery technologies are evaluated: lithium-ion (nickel), sodium-sulphur, nickel-cadmium, nickel-metal hydride, lead-acid, vanadium-redox, zinc-bromine and polysulphide-bromide. With a battery energy storage capacity three times higher than the daily energy output, the energy return factor for the PV-battery system ranges from 2.2 to 10 in our reference case. For a PV-battery system with a service life of 30 yr, this corresponds to energy payback times between 2.5 and 13 yr. The energy payback time is 1.8-3.3 yr for the PV array and 0.72-10 yr for the battery, showing the energy related significance of batteries and the large variation between different technologies. In extreme cases, energy return factors below one occur, implying no net energy output. The overall battery efficiency, including not only direct energy losses during operation but also energy requirements for production and transport of the charger, the battery and the inverter, is 0.41-0.80. For some batteries, the overall battery efficiency is significantly lower than the direct efficiency of the charger, the battery and the inverter (0.50-0.85). The ranking order of batteries in terms of energy efficiency, the relative importance of different battery parameters and the optimal system design and operation (e.g. the use of air conditioning) are, in many cases, dependent on the characterisation of the energy background system and on which type of energy efficiency measure is used (energy return factor or overall battery efficiency)

  12. Battery Safety Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Ken

    2010-01-01

    Batteries commonly used in flashlights and other household devices produce hydrogen gas as a product of zinc electrode corrosion. The amount of gas produced is affected by the batteries' design and charge rate. Dangerous levels of hydrogen gas can be released if battery types are mixed, batteries are damaged, batteries are of different ages, or…

  13. Batteries for Electric Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conover, R. A.

    1985-01-01

    Report summarizes results of test on "near-term" electrochemical batteries - (batteries approaching commercial production). Nickel/iron, nickel/zinc, and advanced lead/acid batteries included in tests and compared with conventional lead/acid batteries. Batteries operated in electric vehicles at constant speed and repetitive schedule of accerlerating, coasting, and braking.

  14. Battery Control Boards for Li-Ion Batteries on Mars Exploration Rovers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewell, R.; Ratnakumar, B. V.; Smart, M.; Chin, K. B.; Whitcanack, L.; Narayanan, S. R.; Surampudi, S.

    2006-01-01

    Rechargeable Lithium-ion batteries have been operating successfully on both Spirit and Opportunity rovers for the last two years, which includes six months of Assembly Launch and Test Operations (ATLO), seven months of cruise and about eleven months of surface operations. The Battery Control Boards designed and fabricated in-house would protect cells against overcharge and over-discharge and provide cell balance. Their performance has thus far been quite satisfactory. The ground data o the mission simulation battery project little capacity loss of less than 3% during cruise and 180 sols. Batteries are poised to extend the mission beyond six months, if not a couple of years.

  15. Stand Alone Battery Thermal Management System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodie, Brad [Denso International America, Incorporated, Southfield, MI (United States)

    2015-09-30

    The objective of this project is research, development and demonstration of innovative thermal management concepts that reduce the cell or battery weight, complexity (component count) and/or cost by at least 20%. The project addresses two issues that are common problems with current state of the art lithium ion battery packs used in vehicles; low power at cold temperatures and reduced battery life when exposed to high temperatures. Typically, battery packs are “oversized” to satisfy the two issues mentioned above. The first phase of the project was spent making a battery pack simulation model using AMEsim software. The battery pack used as a benchmark was from the Fiat 500EV. FCA and NREL provided vehicle data and cell data that allowed an accurate model to be created that matched the electrical and thermal characteristics of the actual battery pack. The second phase involved using the battery model from the first phase and evaluate different thermal management concepts. In the end, a gas injection heat pump system was chosen as the dedicated thermal system to both heat and cool the battery pack. Based on the simulation model. The heat pump system could use 50% less energy to heat the battery pack in -20°C ambient conditions, and by keeping the battery cooler at hot climates, the battery pack size could be reduced by 5% and still meet the warranty requirements. During the final phase, the actual battery pack and heat pump system were installed in a test bench at DENSO to validate the simulation results. Also during this phase, the system was moved to NREL where testing was also done to validate the results. In conclusion, the heat pump system can improve “fuel economy” (for electric vehicle) by 12% average in cold climates. Also, the battery pack size, or capacity, could be reduced 5%, or if pack size is kept constant, the pack life could be increased by two years. Finally, the total battery pack and thermal system cost could be reduced 5% only if the

  16. High-rate capability of lithium-ion batteries after storing at elevated temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Mao-Sung; Chiang, Pin-Chi Julia

    2007-01-01

    High-rate performances of a lithium-ion battery after storage at elevated temperature are investigated electrochemically by means of three-electrode system. The high-rate capability is decreased significantly after high-temperature storage. A 3 C discharge capacities after room-temperature storage and 60 o C storage are 650 and 20 mAh, respectively. Lithium-ion diffusion in lithium cobalt oxide cathode limits the battery's capacity and the results show that storage temperature changes this diffusion behavior. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images show that many defects are directly observed in the cathode after storage compared with the fresh cathode; the structural defects block the diffusion within the particles. Electrochemical impedance and polarization curve indicate that mass-transfer (diffusion) dominates the discharge capacity during high-rate discharge

  17. Second Life for Electric Vehicle Batteries: Answering Questions on Battery Degradation and Value

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neubauer, J. S.; Wood, E.; Pesaran, A.

    2015-05-04

    Battery second use – putting used plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) batteries into secondary service following their automotive tenure – has been proposed as a means to decrease the cost of PEVs while providing low cost energy storage to other fields (e.g. electric utility markets). To understand the value of used automotive batteries, however, we must first answer several key questions related to National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has developed a methodology and the requisite tools to answer these questions, including NREL’s Battery Lifetime Simulation Tool (BLAST). Herein we introduce these methods and tools, and demonstrate their application. We have found that capacity fade from automotive use has a much larger impact on second use value than resistance growth. Where capacity loss is driven by calendar effects more than cycling effects, average battery temperature during automotive service – which is often driven by climate – is found to be the single factor with the largest effect on remaining value. Installing hardware and software capabilities onboard the vehicle that can both infer remaining battery capacity from in-situ measurements, as well as track average battery temperature over time, will thereby facilitate the second use of automotive batteries.

  18. Vehicle Battery Safety Roadmap Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doughty, D. H.

    2012-10-01

    The safety of electrified vehicles with high capacity energy storage devices creates challenges that must be met to assure commercial acceptance of EVs and HEVs. High performance vehicular traction energy storage systems must be intrinsically tolerant of abusive conditions: overcharge, short circuit, crush, fire exposure, overdischarge, and mechanical shock and vibration. Fail-safe responses to these conditions must be designed into the system, at the materials and the system level, through selection of materials and safety devices that will further reduce the probability of single cell failure and preclude propagation of failure to adjacent cells. One of the most important objectives of DOE's Office of Vehicle Technologies is to support the development of lithium ion batteries that are safe and abuse tolerant in electric drive vehicles. This Roadmap analyzes battery safety and failure modes of state-of-the-art cells and batteries and makes recommendations on future investments that would further DOE's mission.

  19. INFLUENCE OF THE MODERN SYSTEMS OF THE BLAST STEEL-FURNACE ELECTRICAL PARAMETERS CONTROL ON CAPACITY AND TECHNICAL AND ECONOMICAL INDICES OF MELTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. N. Andrianov

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The reduction of time under the current, electric energy rate, electrodes rate at working of arc steel-furnace with new transformer of capacity 95 MBA and with regulating system SIMELT-AC-NEC are noted.

  20. Polyanthraquinone-Based Organic Cathode for High-Performance Rechargeable Magnesium-Ion Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Baofei [Joint Center for Energy Storage Research, Chemical Science and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont IL 60439 USA; Huang, Jinhua [Joint Center for Energy Storage Research, Chemical Science and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont IL 60439 USA; Feng, Zhenxing [Joint Center for Energy Storage Research, Chemical Science and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont IL 60439 USA; Zeng, Li [Applied Physics Program, Department of Materials Science and Engineering and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University, Evanston IL 60208 USA; He, Meinan [Joint Center for Energy Storage Research, Chemical Science and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont IL 60439 USA; Zhang, Lu [Joint Center for Energy Storage Research, Chemical Science and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont IL 60439 USA; Vaughey, John T. [Joint Center for Energy Storage Research, Chemical Science and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont IL 60439 USA; Bedzyk, Michael J. [Applied Physics Program, Department of Materials Science and Engineering and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University, Evanston IL 60208 USA; Fenter, Paul [Joint Center for Energy Storage Research, Chemical Science and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont IL 60439 USA; Zhang, Zhengcheng [Joint Center for Energy Storage Research, Chemical Science and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont IL 60439 USA; Burrell, Anthony K. [Joint Center for Energy Storage Research, Chemical Science and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont IL 60439 USA; Liao, Chen [Joint Center for Energy Storage Research, Chemical Science and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont IL 60439 USA

    2016-05-09

    Two anthraquinone-based polymers aiming at improving the capacity and voltage of magnesium ion batteries, were synthesized and characterized. The excellent battery cycling performance was demonstrated with the electrolyte consisting of magnesium bis(hexamethyldisilazide) and magnesium chloride.

  1. Novel Battery Thermal Management System for Greater Lifetime Ratifying Current Quality and Safety Standard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Mohammad Rezwan; Andreasen, Søren Juhl; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2014-01-01

    , vehicles, telecommunications installations, large industrial and commercial installations, large uninterruptible power supply (UPS) installations and renewable energy plant installations etc. The capacity of the battery pack increases as the operating temperature is raised for a battery pack however...

  2. Analysis of Low Temperature Preheating Effect Based on Battery Temperature-Rise Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaogang Wu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available It is difficult to predict the heating time and power consumption associated with the self-heating process of lithium-ion batteries at low temperatures. A temperature-rise model considering the dynamic changes in battery temperature and state of charge is thus proposed. When this model is combined with the ampere-hour integral method, the quantitative relationship among the discharge rate, heating time, and power consumption, during the constant-current discharge process in an internally self-heating battery, is realized. Results show that the temperature-rise model can accurately reflect actual changes in battery temperature. The results indicate that the discharge rate and the heating time present an exponential decreasing trend that is similar to the discharge rate and the power consumption. When a 2 C discharge rate is selected, the battery temperature can rise from −10 °C to 5 °C in 280 s. In this scenario, power consumption of the heating process does not exceed 15% of the rated capacity. As the discharge rate gradually reduced, the heating time and power consumption of the heating process increase slowly. When the discharge rate is 1 C, the heating time is more than 1080 s and the power consumption approaches 30% of the rated capacity. The effect of discharge rate on the heating time and power consumption during the heating process is significantly enhanced when it is less than 1 C.

  3. SnSe2 Two Dimensional Anodes for Advanced Sodium Ion Batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Fan

    2017-05-30

    Sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) are considered as a promising alternative to lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) for large-scale renewable energy storage units due to the abundance of sodium resource and its low cost. However, the development of anode materials for SIBs to date has been mainly limited to some traditional anodes for LIBs, such as carbonaceous materials. SnSe2 is a member of two dimensional layered transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD) family, which has been predicted to have high theoretical capacity as anode material for sodium ion batteries (756 mAh g-1), thanks to its layered crystal structure. Yet, there have been no studies on using SnSe2 as Na ion battery anode. In this thesis, we developed a simple synthesis method to prepare pure SnSe2 nanosheets, employing N2 saturated NaHSe solution as a new selenium source. The SnSe2 2D sheets achieve theoretical capacity during the first cycle, and a stable and reversible specific capacity of 515 mAh g-1 at 0.1 A g-1 after 100 cycles, with excellent rate performance. Among all of the reported transition metal selenides, our SnSe2 sample has the highest reversible capacity and the best rate performances. A combination of ex-situ high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and X-ray diffraction was used to study the mechanism of sodiation and desodiation process in this SnSe2, and to understand the reason for the excellent results that we have obtained. The analysis indicate that a combination of conversion and alloying reactions take place with SnSe2 anodes during battery operation, which helps to explain the high capacity of SnSe2 anodes for SIBs compared to other binary selenides. Density functional theory was used to elucidate the volume changes taking place in this important 2D material.

  4. Radioactive battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deaton, R.L.; Silver, G.L.

    1975-01-01

    A radioactive battery is described that is comprised of a container housing an electrolyte, two electrodes immersed in the electrolyte and insoluble radioactive material disposed adjacent one electrode. Insoluble radioactive material of different intensity of radioactivity may be disposed adjacent the second electrode. If hydrobromic acid is used as the electrolyte, Br 2 will be generated by the radioactivity and is reduced at the cathode: Br 2 + 2e = 2 Br - . At the anode Br - is oxidized: 2Br - = Br 2 + 2e. (U.S.)

  5. Transportation Safety of Lithium Iron Phosphate Batteries - A Feasibility Study of Storing at Very Low States of Charge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barai, Anup; Uddin, Kotub; Chevalier, Julie; Chouchelamane, Gael H; McGordon, Andrew; Low, John; Jennings, Paul

    2017-07-11

    In freight classification, lithium-ion batteries are classed as dangerous goods and are therefore subject to stringent regulations and guidelines for certification for safe transport. One such guideline is the requirement for batteries to be at a state of charge of 30%. Under such conditions, a significant amount of the battery's energy is stored; in the event of mismanagement, or indeed an airside incident, this energy can lead to ignition and a fire. In this work, we investigate the effect on the battery of removing 99.1% of the total stored energy. The performance of 8Ah C 6 /LiFePO 4 pouch cells were measured following periods of calendar ageing at low voltages, at and well below the manufacturer's recommended value. Battery degradation was monitored using impedance spectroscopy and capacity tests; the results show that the cells stored at 2.3 V exhibited no change in cell capacity after 90 days; resistance rise was negligible. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy results indicate that there was no significant copper dissolution. To test the safety of the batteries at low voltages, external short-circuit tests were performed on the cells. While the cells discharged to 2.3 V only exhibited a surface temperature rise of 6 °C, cells at higher voltages exhibited sparks, fumes and fire.

  6. Carbonized cellulose paper as an effective interlayer in lithium-sulfur batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Shiqi; Ren, Guofeng; Hoque, Md Nadim Ferdous [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering and Nano Tech Center, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Dong, Zhihua [Hangzhou Dianzi University, No. 1158, 2nd Street, Xiasha Higher Education District, Hangzhou City, Zhejiang Province (China); Warzywoda, Juliusz [Materials Characterization Center, Whitacre College of Engineering, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Fan, Zhaoyang, E-mail: zhaoyang.fan@ttu.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering and Nano Tech Center, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States)

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • A facile and economical method to fabricate interlayer for high-performance lithium-sulfur battery was demonstrated. • The performance of lithium-sulfur batteries without and with interlayer was compared. • The mechanism for the function of interlayer was explained. - Abstract: One of the several challenging problems hampering lithium-sulfur (Li-S) battery development is the so-called shuttling effect of the highly soluble intermediates (Li{sub 2}S{sub 8}–Li{sub 2}S{sub 6}). Using an interlayer inserted between the sulfur cathode and the separator to capture and trap these soluble intermediates has been found effective in diminishing this effect. Previously, most reported interlayer membranes were synthesized in a complex and expensive process, and might not be suitable for practical cheap batteries. Herein, a facile method is reported to pyrolyze the commonly used cellulose filter paper into highly flexible and conductive carbon fiber paper. When used as an interlayer, such a carbon paper can improve the cell capacity by several folds through trapping the soluble polysulfides. The enhanced electronic conductivity of the cathode, due to the interlayer, also significantly improves the cell rate performance. In addition, it was demonstrated that such an interlayer can also effectively mitigate the self-discharge problem of the Li-S batteries. This study indicates that the cost-effective pyrolyzed cellulose paper has potential as interlayer for practical Li-S batteries.

  7. Mathematical modeling of a primary zinc/air battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Z.; White, R. E.

    1992-01-01

    The mathematical model developed by Sunu and Bennion has been extended to include the separator, precipitation of both solid ZnO and K2Zn(OH)4, and the air electrode, and has been used to investigate the behavior of a primary Zn-Air battery with respect to battery design features. Predictions obtained from the model indicate that anode material utilization is predominantly limited by depletion of the concentration of hydroxide ions. The effect of electrode thickness on anode material utilization is insignificant, whereas material loading per unit volume has a great effect on anode material utilization; a higher loading lowers both the anode material utilization and delivered capacity. Use of a thick separator will increase the anode material utilization, but may reduce the cell voltage.

  8. Lithium and sodium batteries with polysulfide electrolyte

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Mengliu

    2017-12-28

    A battery comprising: at least one cathode, at least one anode, at least one battery separator, and at least one electrolyte disposed in the separator, wherein the anode is a lithium metal or lithium alloy anode or an anode adapted for intercalation of lithium ion, wherein the cathode comprises material adapted for reversible lithium extraction from and insertion into the cathode, and wherein the separator comprises at least one porous, electronically conductive layer and at least one insulating layer, and wherein the electrolyte comprises at least one polysulfide anion. The battery provides for high energy density and capacity. A redox species is introduced into the electrolyte which creates a hybrid battery. Sodium metal and sodium-ion batteries also provided.

  9. Silicene for Na-ion battery applications

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Jiajie

    2016-08-19

    Na-ion batteries are promising candidates to replace Li-ion batteries in large scale applications because of the advantages in natural abundance and cost of Na. Silicene has potential as the anode in Li-ion batteries but so far has not received attention with respect to Na-ion batteries. In this context, freestanding silicene, a graphene-silicene-graphene heterostructure, and a graphene-silicene superlattice are investigated for possible application in Na-ion batteries, using first-principles calculations. The calculated Na capacities of 954mAh/g for freestanding silicene and 730mAh/g for the graphenesilicene superlattice (10% biaxial tensile strain) are highly competitive and potentials of >0.3 V against the Na/Na potential exceed the corresponding value of graphite. In addition, the diffusion barriers are predicted to be <0.3 eV.

  10. Carbon nanotube-wrapped Fe2O3 anode with improved performance for lithium-ion batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoliang Gao

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Metall oxides have been proven to be potential candidates for the anode material of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs because they offer high theoretical capacities, and are environmentally friendly and widely available. However, the low electronic conductivity and severe irreversible lithium storage have hindered a practical application. Herein, we employed ethanolamine as precursor to prepare Fe2O3/COOH-MWCNT composites through a simple hydrothermal synthesis. When these composites were used as electrode material in lithium-ion batteries, a reversible capacity of 711.2 mAh·g−1 at a current density of 500 mA·g−1 after 400 cycles was obtained. The result indicated that Fe2O3/COOH-MWCNT composite is a potential anode material for lithium-ion batteries.

  11. The rechargeable aluminum-ion battery

    KAUST Repository

    Jayaprakash, N.

    2011-01-01

    We report a novel aluminium-ion rechargeable battery comprised of an electrolyte containing AlCl3 in the ionic liquid, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride, and a V2O5 nano-wire cathode against an aluminium metal anode. The battery delivered a discharge capacity of 305 mAh g-1 in the first cycle and 273 mAh g-1 after 20 cycles, with very stable electrochemical behaviour. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2011.

  12. Railway capacity

    OpenAIRE

    Lavrič, Tadeja

    2012-01-01

    In the first part of the thesis, the concepts of railway capacity and capacity consumption are defined. Experts have in the past defined railway capacity in many different ways. This thesis outlines some definitions of railway capacity and capacity consumption, including the definition of railway capacity in accordance with the UIC code 406 (2004), given by the International Union of Railways in order to standardize the definition of railway capacity. Capacity and capacity consumption are dir...

  13. Electric vehicle battery reuse: Preparing for a second life

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casals, Lluc Canals; García, Beatriz Amante; Cremades, Lázaro V.

    2017-07-01

    Purpose: On pursue of economic revenue, the second life of electric vehicle batteries is closer to reality. Common electric vehicles reach the end of life when batteries loss between a 20 or 30% of its capacity. However, battery technology is evolving fast and the next generation of electric vehicles will have between 300 and 400 km range. This study will analyze different End of Life scenarios according to battery capacity and their possible second life’s opportunities. Additionally, an analysis of the electric vehicle market will define possible locations for battery repurposing or remanufacturing plants. Design/methodology/approach: Calculating the barycenter of the electric vehicle market offers an optimal location to settle the battery repurposing plant from a logistic and environmental perspective. This paper presents several possible applications and remanufacture processes of EV batteries according to the state of health after their collection, analyzing both the direct reuse of the battery and the module dismantling strategy. Findings: The study presents that Netherlands is the best location for installing a battery repurposing plant because of its closeness to EV manufacturers and the potential European EV markets, observing a strong relation between the EV market share and the income per capita. 15% of the batteries may be send back to the an EV as a reposition battery, 60% will be prepared for stationary or high capacity installations such as grid services, residential use, Hybrid trucks or electric boats, and finally, the remaining 25% is to be dismantled into modules or cells for smaller applications, such as bicycles or assisting robots. Originality/value: Most of studies related to the EV battery reuse take for granted that they will all have an 80% of its capacity. This study analyzes and proposes a distribution of battery reception and presents different 2nd life alternatives according to their state of health.

  14. Electric vehicle battery reuse: Preparing for a second life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casals, Lluc Canals; García, Beatriz Amante; Cremades, Lázaro V.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: On pursue of economic revenue, the second life of electric vehicle batteries is closer to reality. Common electric vehicles reach the end of life when batteries loss between a 20 or 30% of its capacity. However, battery technology is evolving fast and the next generation of electric vehicles will have between 300 and 400 km range. This study will analyze different End of Life scenarios according to battery capacity and their possible second life’s opportunities. Additionally, an analysis of the electric vehicle market will define possible locations for battery repurposing or remanufacturing plants. Design/methodology/approach: Calculating the barycenter of the electric vehicle market offers an optimal location to settle the battery repurposing plant from a logistic and environmental perspective. This paper presents several possible applications and remanufacture processes of EV batteries according to the state of health after their collection, analyzing both the direct reuse of the battery and the module dismantling strategy. Findings: The study presents that Netherlands is the best location for installing a battery repurposing plant because of its closeness to EV manufacturers and the potential European EV markets, observing a strong relation between the EV market share and the income per capita. 15% of the batteries may be send back to the an EV as a reposition battery, 60% will be prepared for stationary or high capacity installations such as grid services, residential use, Hybrid trucks or electric boats, and finally, the remaining 25% is to be dismantled into modules or cells for smaller applications, such as bicycles or assisting robots. Originality/value: Most of studies related to the EV battery reuse take for granted that they will all have an 80% of its capacity. This study analyzes and proposes a distribution of battery reception and presents different 2nd life alternatives according to their state of health.

  15. Distribution of electrolytes in a flow battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darling, Robert Mason; Smeltz, Andrew; Junker, Sven Tobias; Perry, Michael L.

    2017-12-26

    A method of determining a distribution of electrolytes in a flow battery includes providing a flow battery with a fixed amount of fluid electrolyte having a common electrochemically active specie, a portion of the fluid electrolyte serving as an anolyte and a remainder of the fluid electrolyte serving as a catholyte. An average oxidation state of the common electrochemically active specie is determined in the anolyte and the catholyte and, responsive to the determined average oxidation state, a molar ratio of the common electrochemically active specie between the anolyte and the catholyte is adjusted to increase an energy discharge capacity of the flow battery for the determined average oxidation state.

  16. Machine Learning Based Diagnosis of Lithium Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibe-Ekeocha, Chinemerem Christopher

    The depletion of the world's current petroleum reserve, coupled with the negative effects of carbon monoxide and other harmful petrochemical by-products on the environment, is the driving force behind the movement towards renewable and sustainable energy sources. Furthermore, the growing transportation sector consumes a significant portion of the total energy used in the United States. A complete electrification of this sector would require a significant development in electric vehicles (EVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), thus translating to a reduction in the carbon footprint. As the market for EVs and HEVs grows, their battery management systems (BMS) need to be improved accordingly. The BMS is not only responsible for optimally charging and discharging the battery, but also monitoring battery's state of charge (SOC) and state of health (SOH). SOC, similar to an energy gauge, is a representation of a battery's remaining charge level as a percentage of its total possible charge at full capacity. Similarly, SOH is a measure of deterioration of a battery; thus it is a representation of the battery's age. Both SOC and SOH are not measurable, so it is important that these quantities are estimated accurately. An inaccurate estimation could not only be inconvenient for EV consumers, but also potentially detrimental to battery's performance and life. Such estimations could be implemented either online, while battery is in use, or offline when battery is at rest. This thesis presents intelligent online SOC and SOH estimation methods using machine learning tools such as artificial neural network (ANN). ANNs are a powerful generalization tool if programmed and trained effectively. Unlike other estimation strategies, the techniques used require no battery modeling or knowledge of battery internal parameters but rather uses battery's voltage, charge/discharge current, and ambient temperature measurements to accurately estimate battery's SOC and SOH. The developed

  17. Results of electric-vehicle propulsion system performance on three lead-acid battery systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewashinka, J. G.

    1984-01-01

    Three types of state of the art 6 V lead acid batteries were tested. The cycle life of lead acid batteries as a function of the electric vehicle propulsion system design was determined. Cycle life, degradation rate and failure modes with different battery types (baseline versus state of the art tubular and thin plate batteries) were compared. The effects of testing strings of three versus six series connected batteries on overall performance were investigated. All three types do not seem to have an economically feasible battery system for the propulsion systems. The tubular plate batteries on the load leveled profile attained 235 cycles with no signs of degradation and minimal capacity loss.

  18. Research, development, and demonstration of nickel-iron batteries for electric vehicle propulsion. Annual report, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-03-01

    The objective of the Eagle-Picher nickel-iron battery program is to develop a nickel-iron battery for use in the propulsion of electric and electric-hybrid vehicles. To date, the program has concentrated on the characterization, fabrication and testing of the required electrodes, the fabrication and testing of full-scale cells, and finally, the fabrication and testing of full-scale (270 AH) six (6) volt modules. Electrodes of the final configuration have now exceeded 1880 cycles and are showing minimal capacity decline. Full-scale cells have presently exceeded 600 cycles and are tracking the individual electrode tests almost identically. Six volt module tests have exceeded 500 cycles, with a specific energy of 48 Wh/kg. Results to date indicate the nickel-iron battery is beginning to demonstrate the performance required for electric vehicle propulsion.

  19. Nanoscale battery materials based on the self-assembly of block copolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullock, Steven E.; Kofinas, Peter

    An ionically conducting block copolymer was used as a template for the synthesis and confinement of lithium manganese oxide nanoparticles. The block copolymer functions as a polyelectrolyte and as a composite anode in a lithium battery system. Impedance spectroscopy and galvanostatic testing, X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy were used to characterize the anode and polyelectrolyte. Galvanostatic testing indicates 300 or more cycles were possible without appreciable capacity fade.

  20. Household batteries: Evaluation of collection methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seeberger, D.A.

    1992-12-31

    While it is difficult to prove that a specific material is causing contamination in a landfill, tests have been conducted at waste-to-energy facilities that indicate that household batteries contribute significant amounts of heavy metals to both air emissions and ash residue. Hennepin County, MN, used a dual approach for developing and implementing a special household battery collection. Alternative collection methods were examined; test collections were conducted. The second phase examined operating and disposal policy issues. This report describes the results of the grant project, moving from a broad examination of the construction and content of batteries, to a description of the pilot collection programs, and ending with a discussion of variables affecting the cost and operation of a comprehensive battery collection program. Three out-of-state companies (PA, NY) were found that accept spent batteries; difficulties in reclaiming household batteries are discussed.

  1. Household batteries: Evaluation of collection methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seeberger, D.A.

    1992-01-01

    While it is difficult to prove that a specific material is causing contamination in a landfill, tests have been conducted at waste-to-energy facilities that indicate that household batteries contribute significant amounts of heavy metals to both air emissions and ash residue. Hennepin County, MN, used a dual approach for developing and implementing a special household battery collection. Alternative collection methods were examined; test collections were conducted. The second phase examined operating and disposal policy issues. This report describes the results of the grant project, moving from a broad examination of the construction and content of batteries, to a description of the pilot collection programs, and ending with a discussion of variables affecting the cost and operation of a comprehensive battery collection program. Three out-of-state companies (PA, NY) were found that accept spent batteries; difficulties in reclaiming household batteries are discussed.

  2. Multicell LiSOCl sub 2 reserve battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, A. R.; Garoutte, K. F.

    Recent development work on reverse lithium thionyl chloride (RLTC) batteries at SNLA and Honeywell has included safety and performance evaluations. The RLTC battery is being considered for applications that were traditionally fulfilled by state-of-the-art thermal batteries and reserve silver oxide zinc electrochemical systems. These applications typically demand a reserve battery having a rapid voltage rise, high reliability, operational safety and useful active lifetime ranging from minutes to hours. The RLTC work reported here was directed toward a power battery capable of meeting or exceeding the design requirements. Performance and safety test data indicate that the RLTC battery may be better suited than thermal batteries for some long-life applications. A comparison between Li(Si)/FeS2 thermal battery and an RLTC battery, both of which were designed to fulfill the requirements is presented.

  3. Financial Capacity and its Cognitive Predictors in Progressive Multiple Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerstenecker, Adam; Myers, Terina; Lowry, Kathleen; Martin, Roy C; Triebel, Kristen L; Bashir, Khurram; Marson, Daniel C

    2017-12-01

    Financial capacity is a cognitively-complex activity of daily living that has been shown to decline in a number of neurocognitive disorders. Although it has been well established that cognitive decline is common in multiple sclerosis (MS), little is known about possible financial capacity impairment in people with MS. Thus, the objective of the current study is to investigate financial capacity and its neurocognitive correlates in MS. Data from 22 people with progressive MS and a healthy comparison group composed of 18 adults were analyzed. MS diagnoses were made by a board-certified neurologist with experience in MS. Study participants were administered the Financial Capacity Instrument, a performance-based measure of financial capacity, and neuropsychological battery. Overall financial capacity and most complex financial domains were significantly poorer for people with progressive MS in relation to the healthy comparison group, and a number of cognitive variables were associated with financial capacity declines. Financial capacity is a complex cognitively-mediated functional ability that was impaired in 50% of the current sample of people with progressive MS. These results indicate that people with progressive MS are at greater risk for showing impairment in complex financial tasks and should be clinically monitored for possible deficits in financial capacity. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Performance Analysis of Power Bank Fitted with Recycled Laptop Batteries

    OpenAIRE

    Hartono, H; Sunarno, W; Sarwanto, S

    2017-01-01

    The result of observation at Science Laboratory of State Vocational High School 3 of Surakarta shows that the power capacity of power bank fitted with recycled laptop batteries was not tested. Power bank test was conducted by preparing used laptop batteries type 18650 from its packaging for a total of five cells, selecting batteries based on their physical appearance, cleaning the pole connections, testing the voltage, testing temperature when power charging from electric outlet to power bank...

  5. Charge/discharge characteristics of sulfurized polyacrylonitrile composite with different sulfur content in carbonate based electrolyte for lithium batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Li; He Xiangming; Li Jianjun; Chen Min; Gao Jian; Jiang Changyin

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The sulfurized polyacrylonitrile composite shows good performance. ► Stable cycling capacity over 700 mAh g −1 of the composite. ► Close to 100% utilization of elemental sulfur. ► Capacity retention over 97% after 80 cycles. ► Average capacity degradation rate less than 0.03% per cycle. - Abstract: The charge/discharge characteristics of sulfurized polyacrylonitrile composite (SPAN) cathodes with different sulfur content in conventional carbonate based electrolyte for rechargeable lithium batteries have been investigated. The good performance of SPAN in the carbonate based electrolyte indicates a material difference between SPAN and elemental sulfur/carbon composite materials. The SPAN with sulfur contents of 33.7%, 42.0% and 46.3% are prepared by control of heating time. The SPAN with sulfur content of 42.0% shows the best electrochemical performance, it can deliver stable cycling capacity over 700 mAh g −1 , and keep capacity retention over 97% after 80 cycles in the electrolyte of 1 M LiPF 6 /EC + DEC. The average capacity degradation rate is less than 0.03% per cycle excluding the first discharge capacity. Prototype 100 mAh Li/SPAN cell is assembled, showing energy density of 437 Wh kg −1 excluding the weight of package and capacity retention of 90.4% after 30 cycles at 100% depth of discharge. This study demonstrates that the sulfurized polyacrylonitrile composite in the electrolyte of 1 M LiPF 6 /EC + DEC is a promising battery chemistry, which materials are abundant, of low cost and easily available, to fabricate Li/SPAN batteries, paving an alternative avenue to develop high performance lithium batteries for energy storage and vehicular application.

  6. Advances of aqueous rechargeable lithium-ion battery: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alias, Nurhaswani; Mohamad, Ahmad Azmin

    2015-01-01

    The electrochemical characteristic of the aqueous rechargeable lithium-ion battery has been widely investigated in efforts to design a green and safe technology that can provide a highly specific capacity, high efficiency and long life for high power applications such as the smart grid and electric vehicle. It is believed that the advantages of this battery will overcome the limitations of the rechargeable lithium-ion battery with organic electrolytes that comprise safety and create high fabrication cost issues. This review focuses on the opportunities of the aqueous rechargeable lithium-ion battery compared to the conventional rechargeable lithium-ion battery with organic-based electrolytes. Previously reported studies are briefly summarised, together with the presentation of new findings based on the conductivity, morphology, electrochemical performance and cycling stability results. The factors that influence the electrochemical performance, the challenges and potential of the aqueous rechargeable lithium-ion battery are highlighted in order to understand and maintained the excellent battery performance.

  7. Exerting Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leger, J Michael; Phillips, Carolyn A

    2017-05-01

    Patient safety has been at the forefront of nursing research since the release of the Institute of Medicine's report estimating the number of preventable adverse events in hospital settings; yet no research to date has incorporated the perspectives of bedside nurses using classical grounded theory (CGT) methodology. This CGT study explored the perceptions of bedside registered nurses regarding patient safety in adult acute care hospitals. Data analysis used three techniques unique to CGT-the constant comparative method, coding, and memoing-to explore the values, realities, and beliefs of bedside nurses about patient safety. The analysis resulted in a substantive theory, Exerting Capacity, which explained how bedside nurses balance the demands of keeping their patients safe. Exerting Capacity has implications for health care organization leaders, nursing leaders, and bedside nurses; it also has indications for future research into the concept of patient safety.

  8. Reactivation of dead sulfide species in lithium polysulfide flow battery for grid scale energy storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yang; Zhou, Guangmin; Shi, Feifei; Zhuo, Denys; Zhao, Jie; Liu, Kai; Liu, Yayuan; Zu, Chenxi; Chen, Wei; Zhang, Rufan; Huang, Xuanyi; Cui, Yi

    2017-09-06

    Lithium polysulfide batteries possess several favorable attributes including low cost and high energy density for grid energy storage. However, the precipitation of insoluble and irreversible sulfide species on the surface of carbon and lithium (called "dead" sulfide species) leads to continuous capacity degradation in high mass loading cells, which represents a great challenge. To address this problem, herein we propose a strategy to reactivate dead sulfide species by reacting them with sulfur powder with stirring and heating (70 °C) to recover the cell capacity, and further demonstrate a flow battery system based on the reactivation approach. As a result, ultrahigh mass loading (0.125 g cm -3 , 2 g sulfur in a single cell), high volumetric energy density (135 Wh L -1 ), good cycle life, and high single-cell capacity are achieved. The high volumetric energy density indicates its promising application for future grid energy storage.Lithium polysulfide batteries suffer from the precipitation of insoluble and irreversible sulfide species on the surface of carbon and lithium. Here the authors show a reactivation strategy by a reaction with cheap sulfur powder under stirring and heating to recover the cell capacity.

  9. Research, development, and demonstration of lead-acid batteries for electric-vehicle propulsion. Annual report, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-03-01

    The first development effort in improving lead-acid batteries fore electric vehicles was the improvement of electric vehicle batteries using flat pasted positive plates and the second was for a tubular long life positive plate. The investigation of 32 component variables based on a flat pasted positive plate configuration is described. The experiment tested 96 - six volt batteries for characterization at 0, 25, and 40/sup 0/C and for cycle life capability at the 3 hour discharge rate with a one cycle, to 80% DOD, per day regime. Four positive paste formulations were selected. Two commercially available microporous separators were used in conjunction with a layer of 0.076 mm thick glass mat. Two concentrations of battery grade sulfuric acid were included in the test to determine if an increase in concentration would improve the battery capacity sufficient to offset the added weight of the more concentrated solution. Two construction variations, 23 plate elements with outside negative plates and 23 plate elements with outside positive plates, were included. The second development effort was an experiment designed to study the relationship of 32 component variables based on a tubular positive plate configuration. 96-six volt batteries were tested at various discharge rates at 0, 25, and 40/sup 0/C along with cycle life testing at 80% DOD of the 3 hour rate. 75 batteries remain on cycle life testing with 17 batteries having in excess of 365 life cycles. Preliminary conclusions indicate: the tubular positive plate is far more capable of withstanding deep cycles than is the flat pasted plate; as presently designed 40 Whr/kg can not be achieved, since 37.7 Whr/kg was the best tubular data obtained; electrolyte circulation is impaired due to the tight element fit in the container; and a redesign is required to reduce the battery weight which will improve the Whr/kg value. This redesign is complete and new molds have been ordered.

  10. Stress-induced Ageing of Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Held, Marcel; Sennhauser, Urs

    2015-01-01

    Lithium-ion batteries are well established for use in portable consumer products and are increasingly used in high power electro-mobility and photovoltaic storage applications. In hybrid and plug-in electric vehicles degradation and useful lifetime at standard operation conditions are critical parameters in addition to performance and safety. Here stress-induced ageing of commercially available high power battery cells of the type A123 AHR32113M1 Ultra-B, consisting of a LiFePO(4) cathode and a graphite anode have been investigated. A usually accepted capacity loss for electric vehicles of 20% was reached after 8560 stress profiles corresponding to a driving distance of almost 200'000 km. Cycling with a stress profile applying constant power corresponding to the average power and energy of a full stress profile and starting at 60% state of charge showed a much faster capacity loss. Electric impedance measurements show the dependence of the capacity loss and constant phase element at low frequency, indicating Li-ion diffusion blocking in the cathode. Microscopic analysis of anode, separator, and cathode, shows defect formation in bulk material and at interfaces.

  11. The Science of Battery Degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, John P. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Materials Physics; El Gabaly Marquez, Farid [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Materials Physics; McCarty, Kevin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Materials Physics; Sugar, Joshua Daniel [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Materials Physics; Talin, Alec A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Materials Physics; Fenton, Kyle R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Power Sources Design and Development; Nagasubramanian, Ganesan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Power Sources Design and Development; Harris, Charles Thomas [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Nanosystems Synthesis/Analysis; Jungjohann, Katherine Leigh [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Nanosystems Synthesis/Analysis; Hayden, Carl C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Combustion Chemistry Dept.; Kliewer, Christopher Jesse [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Combustion Chemistry Dept.; Hudak, Nicholas S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Power Sources Research and Development; Leung, Kevin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Nanostructure Physics; McDaniel, Anthony H. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Hydrogen and Combustion Technology; Tenney, Craig M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Chemical and Biological Systems; Zavadil, Kevin R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Advanced Materials Lab.

    2015-01-01

    This report documents work that was performed under the Laboratory Directed Research and Development project, Science of Battery Degradation. The focus of this work was on the creation of new experimental and theoretical approaches to understand atomistic mechanisms of degradation in battery electrodes that result in loss of electrical energy storage capacity. Several unique approaches were developed during the course of the project, including the invention of a technique based on ultramicrotoming to cross-section commercial scale battery electrodes, the demonstration of scanning transmission x-ray microscopy (STXM) to probe lithium transport mechanisms within Li-ion battery electrodes, the creation of in-situ liquid cells to observe electrochemical reactions in real-time using both transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and STXM, the creation of an in-situ optical cell utilizing Raman spectroscopy and the application of the cell for analyzing redox flow batteries, the invention of an approach for performing ab initio simulation of electrochemical reactions under potential control and its application for the study of electrolyte degradation, and the development of an electrochemical entropy technique combined with x-ray based structural measurements for understanding origins of battery degradation. These approaches led to a number of scientific discoveries. Using STXM we learned that lithium iron phosphate battery cathodes display unexpected behavior during lithiation wherein lithium transport is controlled by nucleation of a lithiated phase, leading to high heterogeneity in lithium content at each particle and a surprising invariance of local current density with the overall electrode charging current. We discovered using in-situ transmission electron microscopy that there is a size limit to lithiation of silicon anode particles above which particle fracture controls electrode degradation. From electrochemical entropy measurements, we discovered that entropy

  12. Bacterial Acclimation Inside an Aqueous Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Dexian; Chen, Baoling; Chen, P

    2015-01-01

    Specific environmental stresses may lead to induced genomic instability in bacteria, generating beneficial mutants and potentially accelerating the breeding of industrial microorganisms. The environmental stresses inside the aqueous battery may be derived from such conditions as ion shuttle, pH gradient, free radical reaction and electric field. In most industrial and medical applications, electric fields and direct currents are used to kill bacteria and yeast. However, the present study focused on increasing bacterial survival inside an operating battery. Using a bacterial acclimation strategy, both Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis were acclimated for 10 battery operation cycles and survived in the battery for over 3 days. The acclimated bacteria changed in cell shape, growth rate and colony color. Further analysis indicated that electrolyte concentration could be one of the major factors determining bacterial survival inside an aqueous battery. The acclimation process significantly improved the viability of both bacteria E. coli and B. subtilis. The viability of acclimated strains was not affected under battery cycle conditions of 0.18-0.80 mA cm(-2) and 1.4-2.1 V. Bacterial addition within 1.0×10(10) cells mL(-1) did not significantly affect battery performance. Because the environmental stress inside the aqueous battery is specific, the use of this battery acclimation strategy may be of great potential for the breeding of industrial microorganisms.

  13. Quantifying EV battery end-of-life through analysis of travel needs with vehicle powertrain models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Samveg; Le Floch, Caroline; MacDonald, Jason; Moura, Scott

    2015-05-01

    Electric vehicles enable clean and efficient transportation, however concerns about range anxiety and battery degradation hinder EV adoption. The common definition for battery end-of-life is when 70-80% of original energy capacity remains, however little analysis is available to support this retirement threshold. By applying detailed physics-based models of EVs with data on how drivers use their cars, we show that EV batteries continue to meet daily travel needs of drivers well beyond capacity fade of 80% remaining energy storage capacity. Further, we show that EV batteries with substantial energy capacity fade continue to provide sufficient buffer charge for unexpected trips with long distances. We show that enabling charging in more locations, even if only with 120 V wall outlets, prolongs useful life of EV batteries. Battery power fade is also examined and we show EVs meet performance requirements even down to 30% remaining power capacity. Our findings show that defining battery retirement at 70-80% remaining capacity is inaccurate. Battery retirement should instead be governed by when batteries no longer satisfy daily travel needs of a driver. Using this alternative retirement metric, we present results on the fraction of EV batteries that may be retired with different levels of energy capacity fade.

  14. Battery, especially for portable devices, has an anode containing silicon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kan, S.Y.

    2002-01-01

    The anode (2) contains silicon. A battery with a silicon-containing anode is claimed. An Independent claim is also included for a method used to make the battery, comprising the doping of a silicon substrate (1) with charge capacity-increasing material (preferably boron, phosphorous or arsenic),

  15. An Aqueous Ca-Ion Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gheytani, Saman; Liang, Yanliang; Wu, Feilong; Jing, Yan; Dong, Hui; Rao, Karun K; Chi, Xiaowei; Fang, Fang; Yao, Yan

    2017-12-01

    Multivalent-ion batteries are emerging as low-cost, high energy density, and safe alternatives to Li-ion batteries but are challenged by slow cation diffusion in electrode materials due to the high polarization strength of Mg- and Al-ions. In contrast, Ca-ion has a low polarization strength similar to that of Li-ion, therefore a Ca-ion battery will share the advantages while avoiding the kinetics issues related to multivalent batteries. However, there is no battery known that utilizes the Ca-ion chemistry due to the limited success in Ca-ion storage materials. Here, a safe and low-cost aqueous Ca-ion battery based on a highly reversible polyimide anode and a high-potential open framework copper hexacyanoferrate cathode is demonstrated. The prototype cell shows a stable capacity and high efficiency at both high and low current rates, with an 88% capacity retention and an average 99% coloumbic efficiency after cycling at 10C for 1000 cycles. The Ca-ion storage mechanism for both electrodes as well as the origin of the fast kinetics have been investigated. Additional comparison with a Mg-ion cell with identical electrodes reveals clear kinetics advantages for the Ca-ion system, which is explained by the smaller ionic radii and more facile desolvation of hydrated Ca-ions.

  16. Materials for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayner, Cary M; Zhao, Xin; Kung, Harold H

    2012-01-01

    The lithium-ion battery is the most promising battery candidate to power battery-electric vehicles. For these vehicles to be competitive with those powered by conventional internal combustion engines, significant improvements in battery performance are needed, especially in the energy density and power delivery capabilities. Recent discoveries and advances in the development of electrode materials to improve battery performance are summarized. Promising substitutes for graphite as the anode material include silicon, tin, germanium, their alloys, and various metal oxides that have much higher theoretical storage capacities and operate at slightly higher and safer potentials. Designs that attempt to accommodate strain owing to volumetric changes upon lithiation and delithiation are presented. All known cathode materials have storage capacities inferior to those of anode materials. In addition to variations on known transition metal oxides and phosphates, other potential materials, such as metal fluorides, are discussed as well as the effects of particle size and electrode architecture. New electrolyte systems and additives as well as their effects on battery performance, especially with regard to safety, are described.

  17. Three-dimensional reticular tin-manganese oxide composite anode materials for lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, X.J.; Guo, Z.P.; Zhang, P.; Du, G.D.; Poh, C.K.; Chen, Z.X.; Li, S.; Liu, H.K.

    2010-01-01

    Tin-manganese oxide film with three-dimensional (3D) reticular structure has been prepared by electrostatic spray deposition (ESD). X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) indicate that the film is amorphous. X-ray-photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) demonstrates that the 3D grid is composed of tin-manganese oxide. As an anode electrode for the lithium ion battery, the tin-manganese oxide film has 1188.3 mAh g -1 of initial discharge capacity and very good capacity retention of 656.2 mAh g -1 up to the 30th cycle. Such a composite film can be used as an anode for lithium ion batteries with higher energy densities.

  18. Performance of Sony's Alloy Based Li-Ion Battery

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Foster, Donald; Wolfenstine, Jeff; Read, Jeffrey; Allen, Jan L

    2008-01-01

    Cells from the new Nexelion battery from Sony Corporation were tested for capacity, low temperature performance, high power capability, high temperature storage, rapid recharge and cycle life on deep discharge...

  19. A Foldable Lithium-Sulfur Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lu; Wu, Zi Ping; Sun, Hao; Chen, Deming; Gao, Jian; Suresh, Shravan; Chow, Philippe; Singh, Chandra Veer; Koratkar, Nikhil

    2015-11-24

    The next generation of deformable and shape-conformable electronics devices will need to be powered by batteries that are not only flexible but also foldable. Here we report a foldable lithium-sulfur (Li-S) rechargeable battery, with the highest areal capacity (∼3 mAh cm(-2)) reported to date among all types of foldable energy-storage devices. The key to this result lies in the use of fully foldable and superelastic carbon nanotube current-collector films and impregnation of the active materials (S and Li) into the current-collectors in a checkerboard pattern, enabling the battery to be folded along two mutually orthogonal directions. The carbon nanotube films also serve as the sulfur entrapment layer in the Li-S battery. The foldable battery showed batteries with significantly greater energy density than traditional lithium-ion batteries could power the flexible and foldable devices of the future including laptops, cell phones, tablet computers, surgical tools, and implantable biomedical devices.

  20. Membranes for Redox Flow Battery Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prifti, Helen; Parasuraman, Aishwarya; Winardi, Suminto; Lim, Tuti Mariana; Skyllas-Kazacos, Maria

    2012-01-01

    The need for large scale energy storage has become a priority to integrate renewable energy sources into the electricity grid. Redox flow batteries are considered the best option to store electricity from medium to large scale applications. However, the current high cost of redox flow batteries impedes the wide spread adoption of this technology. The membrane is a critical component of redox flow batteries as it determines the performance as well as the economic viability of the batteries. The membrane acts as a separator to prevent cross-mixing of the positive and negative electrolytes, while still allowing the transport of ions to complete the circuit during the passage of current. An ideal membrane should have high ionic conductivity, low water intake and excellent chemical and thermal stability as well as good ionic exchange capacity. Developing a low cost, chemically stable membrane for redox flow cell batteries has been a major focus for many groups around the world in recent years. This paper reviews the research work on membranes for redox flow batteries, in particular for the all-vanadium redox flow battery which has received the most attention. PMID:24958177

  1. Membranes for Redox Flow Battery Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Skyllas-Kazacos

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The need for large scale energy storage has become a priority to integrate renewable energy sources into the electricity grid. Redox flow batteries are considered the best option to store electricity from medium to large scale applications. However, the current high cost of redox flow batteries impedes the wide spread adoption of this technology. The membrane is a critical component of redox flow batteries as it determines the performance as well as the economic viability of the batteries. The membrane acts as a separator to prevent cross-mixing of the positive and negative electrolytes, while still allowing the transport of ions to complete the circuit during the passage of current. An ideal membrane should have high ionic conductivity, low water intake and excellent chemical and thermal stability as well as good ionic exchange capacity. Developing a low cost, chemically stable membrane for redox flow cell batteries has been a major focus for many groups around the world in recent years. This paper reviews the research work on membranes for redox flow batteries, in particular for the all-vanadium redox flow battery which has received the most attention.

  2. Lithium ion batteries based on nanoporous silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolbert, Sarah H.; Nemanick, Eric J.; Kang, Chris Byung-Hwa

    2015-09-22

    A lithium ion battery that incorporates an anode formed from a Group IV semiconductor material such as porous silicon is disclosed. The battery includes a cathode, and an anode comprising porous silicon. In some embodiments, the anode is present in the form of a nanowire, a film, or a powder, the porous silicon having a pore diameters within the range between 2 nm and 100 nm and an average wall thickness of within the range between 1 nm and 100 nm. The lithium ion battery further includes, in some embodiments, a non-aqueous lithium containing electrolyte. Lithium ion batteries incorporating a porous silicon anode demonstrate have high, stable lithium alloying capacity over many cycles.

  3. Recent advances in zinc-air batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanguang; Dai, Hongjie

    2014-08-07

    Zinc-air is a century-old battery technology but has attracted revived interest recently. With larger storage capacity at a fraction of the cost compared to lithium-ion, zinc-air batteries clearly represent one of the most viable future options to powering electric vehicles. However, some technical problems associated with them have yet to be resolved. In this review, we present the fundamentals, challenges and latest exciting advances related to zinc-air research. Detailed discussion will be organized around the individual components of the system - from zinc electrodes, electrolytes, and separators to air electrodes and oxygen electrocatalysts in sequential order for both primary and electrically/mechanically rechargeable types. The detrimental effect of CO2 on battery performance is also emphasized, and possible solutions summarized. Finally, other metal-air batteries are briefly overviewed and compared in favor of zinc-air.

  4. A Responsive Battery with Controlled Energy Release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaopeng; Gao, Jian; Cheng, Zhihua; Chen, Nan; Qu, Liangti

    2016-11-14

    A new type of responsive battery with the fascinating feature of pressure perceptibility has been developed, which can spontaneously, timely and reliably control the power outputs (e.g., current and voltage) in response to pressure changes. The device design is based on the structure of the Zn-air battery, in which graphene-coated sponge serves as pressure-sensitive air cathode that endows the whole system with the capability of self-controlled energy release. The responsive batteries exhibit superior battery performance with high open-circuit voltage (1.3 V), and competitive areal capacity of 1.25 mAh cm -2 . This work presents an important move towards next-generation intelligent energy storage devices with energy management function. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Binder-Free and Carbon-Free Nanoparticle Batteries: A Method for Nanoparticle Electrodes without Polymeric Binders or Carbon Black

    KAUST Repository

    Ha, Don-Hyung

    2012-10-10

    In this work, we have developed a new fabrication method for nanoparticle (NP) assemblies for Li-ion battery electrodes that require no additional support or conductive materials such as polymeric binders or carbon black. By eliminating these additives, we are able to improve the battery capacity/weight ratio. The NP film is formed by using electrophoretic deposition (EPD) of colloidally synthesized, monodisperse cobalt NPs that are transformed through the nanoscale Kirkendall effect into hollow Co 3O 4. EPD forms a network of NPs that are mechanically very robust and electrically connected, enabling them to act as the Li-ion battery anode. The morphology change through cycles indicates stable 5-10 nm NPs form after the first lithiation remained throughout the cycling process. This NP-film battery made without binders and conductive additives shows high gravimetric (>830 mAh/g) and volumetric capacities (>2100 mAh/cm 3) even after 50 cycles. Because similar films made from drop-casting do not perform well under equal conditions, EPD is seen as the critical step to create good contacts between the particles and electrodes resulting in this significant improvement in battery electrode assembly. This is a promising system for colloidal nanoparticles and a template for investigating the mechanism of lithiation and delithiation of NPs. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  6. Battery charge and health state monitoring via ultrasonic guided-wave-based methods using built-in piezoelectric transducers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladpli, Purim; Kopsaftopoulos, Fotis; Nardari, Raphael; Chang, Fu-Kuo

    2017-04-01

    This work presents a novel scalable and field-deployable framework for monitoring lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery state of charge (SoC) and state of health (SoH), based on ultrasonic guided waves using low-profile built-in piezoelectric transducers. The feasibility of this technique is demonstrated through experiments using surface-mounted piezoelectric disc transducers on commercial Li-ion pouch batteries. Pitch-catch guided-wave propagation is performed in synchronization with electrical charge and discharge cycling, and cycle life testing. Simple time-domain analysis shows strong and repeatable correlation between waveform signal parameters, and battery SoC and SoH. The correlation thus provides a building block for constructing a technique for accurate real-time monitoring of battery charge and health states using ultrasonic guided-wave signals. Moreover, capacity-differential signal analysis reveals the underlying physical changes associated with cyclic electrochemical activities and phase transitioning. This finding allows accurate pinpointing of the root cause of capacity fade and mechanical degradation. The results of this study indicate that the use of guided waves can potentially offer a new avenue for in-situ characterization of Li-ion batteries, providing insight on the complex coupling between electrochemistry and mechanics, heretofore not fully understood within the scientific community.

  7. Metal carbonates as anode materials for lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shao, Lianyi; Ma, Rui; Wu, Kaiqiang; Shui, Miao; Lao, Mengmeng; Wang, Dongjie; Long, Nengbing; Ren, Yuanlong; Shu, Jie

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Metal carbonates are probable anode materials for lithium ion batteries. •CoCO 3 /C composite can deliver an initial discharge capacity of 2096.6 mAh g −1 . •Co, Li 2 CO 3 , Li 2 O, and low-valence carbon are final lithiated products for CoCO 3 . -- Abstract: Six metal carbonates (Li 2 CO 3 , Na 2 CO 3 , SrCO 3 , BaCO 3 , K 2 CO 3 , CoCO 3 ) are tested and compared as anode materials for lithium ion batteries. The electrochemical results show that only CoCO 3 is electrochemically active material and can deliver a high initial capacity of 1425.9 mAh g −1 . The lithium storage mechanism in CoCO 3 is studied by ex situ X-ray diffraction technique, ex situ infrared method, ex situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and in situ X-ray diffraction technique. It is found that the electrochemical reactions between CoCO 3 and Li firstly result in the formation of metal Co and Li 2 CO 3 , and then partial Li 2 CO 3 is further reduced into carbon (C 0 ), low-valence carbon (C 2+ ), and Li 2 O. It also demonstrates that the electrochemical reaction between CoCO 3 and Li is a partially reversible process. Based on these electrochemical results, it is obvious that narrow potential range can acquire a better reversibility for CoCO 3 /Li batteries by suppressing particle pulverization. Besides, the comparison of CoCO 3 , ball-milled CoCO 3 and ball-milled CoCO 3 /C composite also indicates that smaller active particle and carbon buffer are beneficial to obtain better cycling performance and higher reversible capacity

  8. Complex hydrides as room-temperature solid electrolytes for rechargeable batteries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jongh, P. E.; Blanchard, D.; Matsuo, M.; Udovic, T. J.; Orimo, S.

    A central goal in current battery research is to increase the safety and energy density of Li-ion batteries. Electrolytes nowadays typically consist of lithium salts dissolved in organic solvents. Solid electrolytes could facilitate safer batteries with higher capacities, as they are compatible with

  9. Thermal Characteristics of an Oscillating Heat Pipe Cooling System for Electric Vehicle Li-Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ri-Guang Chi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The heat generation of lithium ion batteries in electric vehicles (EVs leads to a degradation of energy capacity and lifetime. To solve this problem, a new cooling concept using an oscillating heat pipe (OHP is proposed. In the present study, an OHP has been adopted for Li-ion battery cooling. Due to the limited space in EVs, the cooling channel is installed on the bottom of the battery module. In the bottom cooling method with an OHP, generated heat can be dissipated easily and conveniently. However, most studies on heat pipes have used bottom heating and top or side cooling methods, so we investigate the various effects of parameters with a top heating/bottom cooling mode with the OHP, i.e., the inclination angle of the system, amount of working fluid charged, the heating amount, and the cold plate temperature with ethanol as a working fluid. The experimental results show that the thermal resistance (0.6 °C/W and uneven pulsating features influence the heat transfer performance. A heater used as a simulated battery was sustained under 60 °C under 10 W and 14 W heating conditions. This indicates that the proposed cooling system with the bottom cooling is feasible for use as an EV’s battery cooling system.

  10. High Performance Li4Ti5O12/Si Composite Anodes for Li-Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunhui Chen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Improving the energy capacity of spinel Li4Ti5O12 (LTO is very important to utilize it as a high-performance Li-ion battery (LIB electrode. In this work, LTO/Si composites with different weight ratios were prepared and tested as anodes. The anodic and cathodic peaks from both LTO and silicon were apparent in the composites, indicating that each component was active upon Li+ insertion and extraction. The composites with higher Si contents (LTO:Si = 35:35 exhibited superior specific capacity (1004 mAh·g−1 at lower current densities (0.22 A·g−1 but the capacity deteriorated at higher current densities. On the other hand, the electrodes with moderate Si contents (LTO:Si = 50:20 were able to deliver stable capacity (100 mAh·g−1 with good cycling performance, even at a very high current density of 7 A·g−1. The improvement in specific capacity and rate performance was a direct result of the synergy between LTO and Si; the former can alleviate the stresses from volumetric changes in Si upon cycling, while Si can add to the capacity of the composite. Therefore, it has been demonstrated that the addition of Si and concentration optimization is an easy yet an effective way to produce high performance LTO-based electrodes for lithium-ion batteries.

  11. Analysis of battery behavior in small photovoltaic systems; Analise do comportamento da bateria utilizada em sistemas fotovoltaicos de pequeno porte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraga, Jose Renato Castro Pompeia; Cagnon, Jose Angelo [Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Agronomia - Energia na Agricultura - FCA/UNESP, Botucatu, SP (Brazil); Dept. de Engenharia Eletrica - FEB/UNESP, Bauru, SP (Brazil)], e-mails: jrfraga@feb.unesp.br, jacagnon@feb.unesp.br

    2011-07-01

    This work aimed to analyze the electric energy storage system generated from a photovoltaic system with lead-acid batteries. The increasing claim for energy in the world in addition to the need of using renewable energy sources in order to preserve the environment makes necessary the development of efficient techniques of power supply and control. Two photovoltaic systems were used in this work, a conventional one with stationary solar panel and another with automatic solar position system. The comparative analysis has allowed assessing the advantages of both systems. The following characteristics were obtained during the development of this work: charge, discharge, battery capacity, operating time rate, auto-discharge reaction (through fluctuation state), among other important information that allows an extended life to the stationary battery studied. The obtained results indicate that the battery connected to the mobile system provides 36% of additional energy compared to the fixed system. When the battery was unable to provide energy to the load, the battery connected to the mobile system consumed about 33% less energy than that one connected to the fixed system (author)

  12. Experimental investigations of an AC pulse heating method for vehicular high power lithium-ion batteries at subzero temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jiangong; Sun, Zechang; Wei, Xuezhe; Dai, Haifeng; Gu, Weijun

    2017-11-01

    Effect of the AC (alternating current) pulse heating method on battery SoH (state of health) for large laminated power lithium-ion batteries at low temperature is investigated experimentally. Firstly, excitation current frequencies, amplitudes, and voltage limitations on cell temperature evolution are studied. High current amplitudes facilitate the heat accumulation and temperature rise. Low frequency region serves as a good innovation to heat the battery because of the large impedance. Wide voltage limitations also enjoy better temperature evolution owing to the less current modulation, but the temperature difference originated from various voltage limitations attenuates due to the decrement of impedance resulting from the temperature rise. Experiments with the thermocouple-embedded cell manifest good temperature homogeneity between the battery surface and interior during the AC heating process. Secondly, the cell capacity, Direct Current resistance and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy are all calibrated to assess the battery SoH after the hundreds of AC pulse heating cycles. Also, all cells are disassembled to investigate the battery internal morphology with the employment of Scanning Electron Microscope and Energy-Dispersive x-ray Spectroscopy techniques. The results indicate that the AC heating method does not aggravate the cell degradation even in the low frequency range (0.5 Hz) under the normal voltage protection limitation.

  13. Research, development, and demonstration of lead-acid batteries for electric vehicle propulsion. Annual report for 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-03-01

    Work performed during Oct. 1, 1979 to Sept. 30, 1980 for the development of lead-acid batteries for electric vehicle propulsion is described. During this report period many of the results frpm Globe Battery's design, materials and process development programs became evident in the achievement of the ISOA (Improved State of Art) specific energy, specific power, and energy efficiency goals while testing in progress also indicates that the cycle life goal can be met. These programs led to the establishment of a working pilot assembly line which produced the first twelve volt ISOA modules. Five of these modules were delivered to the National Battery Test Laboratory during the year for capacity, power and life testing, and assembly is in progress of three full battery systems for installation in vehicles. In the battery subsystem area, design of the acid circulation system for a ninety-six volt ISOA battery pack was completed and assembly of the first such system was initiated. Charger development has been slowed by problems encountered with reliability of some circuits but a prototype unit is being prepared which will meet the charging requirements of our ninety-six volt pack. This charger will be available during the 1981 fiscal year.

  14. Multilayer Approach for Advanced Hybrid Lithium Battery

    KAUST Repository

    Ming, Jun

    2016-06-06

    Conventional intercalated rechargeable batteries have shown their capacity limit, and the development of an alternative battery system with higher capacity is strongly needed for sustainable electrical vehicles and hand-held devices. Herein, we introduce a feasible and scalable multilayer approach to fabricate a promising hybrid lithium battery with superior capacity and multivoltage plateaus. A sulfur-rich electrode (90 wt % S) is covered by a dual layer of graphite/Li4Ti5O12, where the active materials S and Li4Ti5O12 can both take part in redox reactions and thus deliver a high capacity of 572 mAh gcathode -1 (vs the total mass of electrode) or 1866 mAh gs -1 (vs the mass of sulfur) at 0.1C (with the definition of 1C = 1675 mA gs -1). The battery shows unique voltage platforms at 2.35 and 2.1 V, contributed from S, and 1.55 V from Li4Ti5O12. A high rate capability of 566 mAh gcathode -1 at 0.25C and 376 mAh gcathode -1 at 1C with durable cycle ability over 100 cycles can be achieved. Operando Raman and electron microscope analysis confirm that the graphite/Li4Ti5O12 layer slows the dissolution/migration of polysulfides, thereby giving rise to a higher sulfur utilization and a slower capacity decay. This advanced hybrid battery with a multilayer concept for marrying different voltage plateaus from various electrode materials opens a way of providing tunable capacity and multiple voltage platforms for energy device applications. © 2016 American Chemical Society.

  15. Testing of the Eagle-Picher nickel-iron, the Globe ISOA lead-acid, and the Westinghouse nickel-iron battery subsystems in an electric-vehicle environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, R.; Bryant, J.

    1982-07-01

    Three full size developmental batteries were tested with electric vehicles; two nickel-iron batteries and a lead-acid battery. Constant speed and driving schedule tests were done on a chassis dynamometer. Several aspects of battery performance were evaluated for capacity, recharge efficiency, voltage response, and self discharge. Each of these three batteries exhibited some strengths and some weaknesses.

  16. Battery Aging and the Kinetic Battery Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongerden, M.R.; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.H.M.

    2016-01-01

    Batteries are omnipresent, and with the uprise of the electrical vehicles will their use will grow even more. However, the batteries can deliver their required power for a limited time span. They slowly degrade with every charge-discharge cycle. This degradation needs to be taken into account when

  17. Battery systems engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Rahn, Christopher D

    2012-01-01

    A complete all-in-one reference on the important interdisciplinary topic of Battery Systems Engineering Focusing on the interdisciplinary area of battery systems engineering, this book provides the background, models, solution techniques, and systems theory that are necessary for the development of advanced battery management systems. It covers the topic from the perspective of basic electrochemistry as well as systems engineering topics and provides a basis for battery modeling for system engineering of electric and hybrid electric vehicle platforms. This original

  18. Rechargeable batteries applications handbook

    CERN Document Server

    1998-01-01

    Represents the first widely available compendium of the information needed by those design professionals responsible for using rechargeable batteries. This handbook introduces the most common forms of rechargeable batteries, including their history, the basic chemistry that governs their operation, and common design approaches. The introduction also exposes reader to common battery design terms and concepts.Two sections of the handbook provide performance information on two principal types of rechargeable batteries commonly found in consumer and industrial products: sealed nickel-cad

  19. Micro Calorimeter for Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santhanagopalan, Shriram [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-08-01

    As battery technology forges ahead and consumer demand for safer, more affordable, high-performance batteries grows, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has added a patented Micro Calorimeter to its existing family of R&D 100 Award-winning Isothermal Battery Calorimeters (IBCs). The Micro Calorimeter examines the thermal signature of battery chemistries early on in the design cycle using popular coin cell and small pouch cell designs, which are simple to fabricate and study.

  20. Simulation of the Impact of Si Shell Thickness on the Performance of Si-Coated Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanofiber as Li-Ion Battery Anode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Susobhan; Li, Jun; Hui, Rongqing

    2015-01-01

    Micro- and nano-structured electrodes have the potential to improve the performance of Li-ion batteries by increasing the surface area of the electrode and reducing the diffusion distance required by the charged carriers. We report the numerical simulation of Lithium-ion batteries with the anode made of core-shell heterostructures of silicon-coated carbon nanofibers. We show that the energy capacity can be significantly improved by reducing the thickness of the silicon anode to the dimension comparable or less than the Li-ion diffusion length inside silicon. The results of simulation indicate that the contraction of the silicon electrode thickness during the battery discharge process commonly found in experiments also plays a major role in the increase of the energy capacity. PMID:28347120

  1. Simulation of the Impact of Si Shell Thickness on the Performance of Si-Coated Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanofiber as Li-Ion Battery Anode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susobhan Das

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Micro- and nano-structured electrodes have the potential to improve the performance of Li-ion batteries by increasing the surface area of the electrode and reducing the diffusion distance required by the charged carriers. We report the numerical simulation of Lithium-ion batteries with the anode made of core-shell heterostructures of silicon-coated carbon nanofibers. We show that the energy capacity can be significantly improved by reducing the thickness of the silicon anode to the dimension comparable or less than the Li-ion diffusion length inside silicon. The results of simulation indicate that the contraction of the silicon electrode thickness during the battery discharge process commonly found in experiments also plays a major role in the increase of the energy capacity.

  2. Simulation of the Impact of Si Shell Thickness on the Performance of Si-Coated Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanofiber as Li-Ion Battery Anode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Susobhan; Li, Jun; Hui, Rongqing

    2015-12-15

    Micro- and nano-structured electrodes have the potential to improve the performance of Li-ion batteries by increasing the surface area of the electrode and reducing the diffusion distance required by the charged carriers. We report the numerical simulation of Lithium-ion batteries with the anode made of core-shell heterostructures of silicon-coated carbon nanofibers. We show that the energy capacity can be significantly improved by reducing the thickness of the silicon anode to the dimension comparable or less than the Li-ion diffusion length inside silicon. The results of simulation indicate that the contraction of the silicon electrode thickness during the battery discharge process commonly found in experiments also plays a major role in the increase of the energy capacity.

  3. Surface oxidized mesoporous carbons derived from porous silicon as dual polysulfide confinement and anchoring cathodes in lithium sulfur batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Rachel; Ejorh, Dennis; Share, Keith; Cohn, Adam P.; Douglas, Anna; Muralidharan, Nitin; Tovar, Trenton M.; Pint, Cary L.

    2016-10-01

    Despite widespread focus on porous carbons for lithium-sulfur battery cathode materials, electrode design to preserve mass-specific performance and sustained extended cycling stability remains a challenge. Here, we demonstrate electrochemically etched porous silicon as a sacrificial template to produce a new class of functional mesoporous carbons optimized for dual chemical and physical confinement of soluble polysulfides in lithium-sulfur battery cathodes. Melt infiltration loading of sulfur at 60 wt% enables initial discharge capacity of 1350 mAh/gsulfur at rates of 0.1 C - approaching theoretical capacity of 1675 mAh/gsulfur. Cycling performance measured at 0.2 C indicates 81% capacity retention measured over 100 cycles with 830 mAh/gsulfur capacity. Unlike other carbons, this template combines structural properties necessary for sulfur containment and polysulfide confinement to achieve high specific capacity, but also boasts surface-bound oxygen-containing functional groups that are able to chemically anchor the soluble Li2Sn species on the interior of the mesoporous carbon to sustain cycling performance. In turn, this elucidates a scalable and competitive material framework that is capable, without the addition of additional membranes or inactive anchoring materials, of providing the simultaneous anchoring and confinement effects necessary to overcome performance limitations in lithium sulfur batteries.

  4. Electric Vehicle Battery Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2014-01-01

    A serious drawback to electric vehicles [batteries only] is the idle time needed to recharge their batteries. In this challenge, students can develop ideas and concepts for battery change-out at automotive service stations. Such a capability would extend the range of electric vehicles.

  5. Fire Tests on E-vehicle Battery Cells and Packs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturk, David; Hoffmann, Lars; Ahlberg Tidblad, Annika

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of abuse conditions, including realistic crash scenarios, on Li ion battery systems in E-vehicles in order to develop safe practices and priorities when responding to accidents involving E-vehicles. External fire tests using a single burning item equipment were performed on commercial Li ion battery cells and battery packs for electric vehicle (E-vehicle) application. The 2 most common battery cell technologies were tested: Lithium iron phosphate (LFP) and mixed transition metal oxide (lithium nickel manganese cobalt oxide, NMC) cathodes against graphite anodes, respectively. The cell types investigated were "pouch" cells, with similar physical dimensions, but the NMC cells have double the electric capacity of the LFP cells due to the higher energy density of the NMC chemistry, 7 and 14 Ah, respectively. Heat release rate (HRR) data and concentrations of toxic gases were acquired by oxygen consumption calorimetry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), respectively. The test results indicate that the state of charge (SOC) affects the HRR as well as the amount of toxic hydrogen fluoride (HF) gas formed during combustion. A larger number of cells increases the amount of HF formed per cell. There are significant differences in response to the fire exposure between the NMC and LFP cells in this study. The LFP cells generate a lot more HF per cell, but the overall reactivity of the NMC cells is higher. However, the total energy released by both batteries during combustion was independent of SOC, which indicates that the electric energy content of the test object contributes to the activation energy of the thermal and heat release process, whereas the chemical energy stored in the materials is the main source of thermal energy in the batteries. The results imply that it is difficult to draw conclusions about higher order system behavior with respect to HF emissions based on data from tests on single

  6. Nanoshell Encapsulated Li-ion Battery Anodes for Long Cycle Life, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A new high capacity rechargeable Li battery anode based on Li metal alloys protected by carbon nanoshells will be developed. A reversible Li-ion capacity exceeding...

  7. An Overview of Different Approaches for Battery Lifetime Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng; Liang, Jun; Zhang, Feng

    2017-05-01

    With the rapid development of renewable energy and the continuous improvement of the power supply reliability, battery energy storage technology has been wildly used in power system. Battery degradation is a nonnegligible issue when battery energy storage system participates in system design and operation strategies optimization. The health assessment and remaining cycle life estimation of battery gradually become a challenge and research hotspot in many engineering areas. In this paper, the battery capacity falling and internal resistance increase are presented on the basis of chemical reactions inside the battery. The general life prediction models are analysed from several aspects. The characteristics of them as well as their application scenarios are discussed in the survey. In addition, a novel weighted Ah ageing model with the introduction of the Ragone curve is proposed to provide a detailed understanding of the ageing processes. A rigorous proof of the mathematical theory about the proposed model is given in the paper.

  8. In Situ Synchrotron XRD on a Capillary Li-O2 Battery Cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storm, Mie Møller; Johnsen, Rune E.; Younesi, Reza

    In situ studies give an opportunity to explore systems with a minimum of external interference. As Li-air batteries hold the promise for a future battery technology the investigation of the discharge and charge components of the cathode and anode is of importance, as these components may hold...... the key to making a large capacity rechargeable battery[1]. Different design for in situ XRD studies of Li-O2 batteries has been published, based on coin cell like configuration[2] [3] or Swagelok designs [4]. Capillary batteries have been investigated for the Li-ion system since its development[5......], but no capillary batteries of Li-air has yet been designed. Some of the advantage of the capillary battery design lies in its ability to separate the cathode and anode and avoid the use of glass fiber or separators, which may enable ex situ analysis of battery components. The battery design consist...

  9. Extraction of battery parameters of the equivalent circuit model using a multi-objective genetic algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Jonathan; Zhang, Zheming; Agarwal, Ramesh K.

    2014-02-01

    A simple but reasonably accurate battery model is required for simulating the performance of electrical systems that employ a battery for example an electric vehicle, as well as for investigating their potential as an energy storage device. In this paper, a relatively simple equivalent circuit based model is employed for modeling the performance of a battery. A computer code utilizing a multi-objective genetic algorithm is developed for the purpose of extracting the battery performance parameters. The code is applied to several existing industrial batteries as well as to two recently proposed high performance batteries which are currently in early research and development stage. The results demonstrate that with the optimally extracted performance parameters, the equivalent circuit based battery model can accurately predict the performance of various batteries of different sizes, capacities, and materials. Several test cases demonstrate that the multi-objective genetic algorithm can serve as a robust and reliable tool for extracting the battery performance parameters.

  10. In Situ Synchrotron XRD on a Capillary Li-O2 Battery Cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storm, Mie Møller; Johnsen, Rune E.; Younesi, Reza

    2014-01-01

    In situ studies give an opportunity to explore systems with a minimum of external interference. As Li-air batteries hold the promise for a future battery technology the investigation of the discharge and charge components of the cathode and anode is of importance, as these components may hold...... the key to making a large capacity rechargeable battery[1]. Different design for in situ XRD studies of Li-O2 batteries has been published, based on coin cell like configuration[2] [3] or Swagelok designs [4]. Capillary batteries have been investigated for the Li-ion system since its development[5......], but no capillary batteries of Li-air has yet been designed. Some of the advantage of the capillary battery design lies in its ability to separate the cathode and anode and avoid the use of glass fiber or separators, which may enable ex situ analysis of battery components. The battery design consist...

  11. Results of cycling with battery charging management; Resultats de cyclage avec gestion de charge au niveau batterie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verniolle, J.; Fernandez, C. [European Space Research and Technology Centre, Noordwijk (Netherlands)

    1996-12-31

    In order to investigate the charging mode of an in-series assembly of lithium-carbon battery cells, a test has been performed on 5 commercial cells (18650) of 0.95 Ah nominal capacity. Results show that it is possible to cycle the cells at 80% of their output capacities during more than 2000 cycles. The management of the battery consists in maintaining a constant battery voltage as soon as a cell reaches its limit voltage during constant current charging. The initial dispersion of cells has been maintained practically constant during the cycling and the charge state of all cells has decreased progressively. (J.S.)

  12. System dynamic model and charging control of lead-acid battery for stand-alone solar PV system

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, B.J.

    2010-05-01

    The lead-acid battery which is widely used in stand-alone solar system is easily damaged by a poor charging control which causes overcharging. The battery charging control is thus usually designed to stop charging after the overcharge point. This will reduce the storage energy capacity and reduce the service time in electricity supply. The design of charging control system however requires a good understanding of the system dynamic behaviour of the battery first. In the present study, a first-order system dynamics model of lead-acid battery at different operating points near the overcharge voltage was derived experimentally, from which a charging control system based on PI algorithm was developed using PWM charging technique. The feedback control system for battery charging after the overcharge point (14 V) was designed to compromise between the set-point response and the disturbance rejection. The experimental results show that the control system can suppress the battery voltage overshoot within 0.1 V when the solar irradiation is suddenly changed from 337 to 843 W/m2. A long-term outdoor test for a solar LED lighting system shows that the battery voltage never exceeded 14.1 V for the set point 14 V and the control system can prevent the battery from overcharging. The test result also indicates that the control system is able to increase the charged energy by 78%, as compared to the case that the charging stops after the overcharge point (14 V). © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. High-performance lithium battery anodes using silicon nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Candace K; Peng, Hailin; Liu, Gao; McIlwrath, Kevin; Zhang, Xiao Feng; Huggins, Robert A; Cui, Yi

    2008-01-01

    There is great interest in developing rechargeable lithium batteries with higher energy capacity and longer cycle life for applications in portable electronic devices, electric vehicles and implantable medical devices. Silicon is an attractive anode material for lithium batteries because it has a low discharge potential and the highest known theoretical charge capacity (4,200 mAh g(-1); ref. 2). Although this is more than ten times higher than existing graphite anodes and much larger than various nitride and oxide materials, silicon anodes have limited applications because silicon's volume changes by 400% upon insertion and extraction of lithium which results in pulverization and capacity fading. Here, we show that silicon nanowire battery electrodes circumvent these issues as they can accommodate large strain without pulverization, provide good electronic contact and conduction, and display short lithium insertion distances. We achieved the theoretical charge capacity for silicon anodes and maintained a discharge capacity close to 75% of this maximum, with little fading during cycling.

  14. Two-dimensional layered compound based anode materials for lithium-ion batteries and sodium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xiuqiang; Wang, Shijian; Kretschmer, Katja; Wang, Guoxiu

    2017-08-01

    Rechargeable batteries, such as lithium-ion and sodium-ion batteries, have been considered as promising energy conversion and storage devices with applications ranging from small portable electronics, medium-sized power sources for electromobility, to large-scale grid energy storage systems. Wide implementations of these rechargeable batteries require the development of electrode materials that can provide higher storage capacities than current commercial battery systems. Within this greater context, this review will present recent progresses in the development of the 2D material as anode materials for battery applications represented by studies conducted on graphene, molybdenum disulfide, and MXenes. This review will also discuss remaining challenges and future perspectives of 2D materials in regards to a full utilization of their unique properties and interactions with other battery components. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Coaxial MnO2/carbon nanotube array electrodes for high-performance lithium batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Arava Leela Mohana; Shaijumon, Manikoth M; Gowda, Sanketh R; Ajayan, Pulickel M

    2009-03-01

    Coaxial manganese oxide/carbon nanotube (CNT) arrays deposited inside porous alumina templates were used as cathodes in a lithium battery. Excellent cyclic stability and capacity of MnO2/CNT coaxial nanotube electrodes resulted from the hybrid nature of the electrodes with improved electronic conductivity and dual mechanism of lithium storage. The reversible capacity of the battery was increased by an order compared to template grown MnO2 nanotubes, making them suitable electrodes for advanced Li ion batteries.

  16. Bulk solid state rechargeable lithium ion battery fabrication with Al-doped Li7La3Zr2O12 electrolyte and Cu0.1V2O5 cathode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Ying; McGinn, Paul J.

    2013-01-01

    A simple, low-temperature route was developed to process bulk solid-state Li-ion batteries employing Al-doped Li 7 La 3 Zr 2 O 12 solid electrolyte (thickness: ∼ 0.5 mm; 25 °C conductivity: ∼ 2 × 10 −4 S cm −1 ). A composite Cu 0.1 V 2 O 5 –based slurry was directly painted on Li 7 La 3 Zr 2 O 12 and dried at 120 °C to prepare the cathode film. The opposite side of the electrolyte was subsequently exposed to molten Li to form the anode. The discharge capacity of the solid state battery was 53 mAh g −1 (calculated based on the weight of active cathode material) at room temperature with 5 μA cm −2 discharging current. Severe capacity decay occurred after the initial discharging. A comparable liquid electrolyte battery was tested at room temperature for comparison and had a much slower decay rate. However, when the operating temperature of the solid state battery was increased to 50 °C, the cell performance significantly improved. At 50 °C, the battery exhibited 176 mAh g −1 initial discharging capacity at 5 μA cm −2 current density and 93 mAh g −1 initial capacity under a 10 μA cm −2 discharging current density. After 20 cycles, the capacity decayed to 68.6 mAh g −1 when cycled at a 10 μA cm −2 current density. Impedance spectroscopy was used to investigate the interface resistance of the battery at different temperatures. The results indicated that both the cathode and anode interface resistance were dramatically reduced at 50 °C. The decrease in interface resistances at elevated temperature is proposed as the main reason for the observed battery performance enhancement

  17. Flexible Grouping for Enhanced Energy Utilization Efficiency in Battery Energy Storage Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiping Diao

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available As a critical subsystem in electric vehicles and smart grids, a battery energy storage system plays an essential role in enhancement of reliable operation and system performance. In such applications, a battery energy storage system is required to provide high energy utilization efficiency, as well as reliability. However, capacity inconsistency of batteries affects energy utilization efficiency dramatically; and the situation becomes more severe after hundreds of cycles because battery capacities change randomly due to non-uniform aging. Capacity mismatch can be solved by decomposing a cluster of batteries in series into several low voltage battery packs. This paper introduces a new analysis method to optimize energy utilization efficiency by finding the best number of batteries in a pack, based on capacity distribution, order statistics, central limit theorem, and converter efficiency. Considering both battery energy utilization and power electronics efficiency, it establishes that there is a maximum energy utilization efficiency under a given capacity distribution among a certain number of batteries, which provides a basic analysis for system-level optimization of a battery system throughout its life cycle. Quantitative analysis results based on aging data are illustrated, and a prototype of flexible energy storage systems is built to verify this analysis.

  18. Electrochemical accumulators batteries; Accumulateurs electrochimiques batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ansart, F.; Castillo, S.; Laberty- Robert, C.; Pellizon-Birelli, M. [Universite Paul Sabatier, Lab. de Chimie des Materiaux Inorganiques et Energetiques, CIRIMAT, UMR CNRS 5085, 31 - Toulouse (France)] [and others

    2000-07-01

    It is necessary to storage the electric power in batteries to join the production and the utilization. In this domain progresses are done every days in the technics and also in the available materials. These technical days present the state of the art in this domain. Many papers were presented during these two days giving the research programs and recent results on the following subjects: the lithium batteries, the electrolytes performances and behaviour, lead accumulators, economic analysis of the electrochemical storage market, the batteries applied to the transportation sector and the telephones. (A.L.B.)

  19. Characterization of lithium batteries for application to photovoltaic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzman Ortiz, S.

    2015-01-01

    This master's thesis addresses the characterization of four different types of Battery technologies; the li-ion, the LiFePO4, the lead crystal and the lead acid. Because these devices are used in electric applications, calculations were made to assess the capacities and energies of the batteries while at different discharges ratios in runs from 5 to 50 hours, which are the most common on the photovoltaic sector. Also, we observed the behavior of the batteries when put through a rise of temperature to measure the fluctuations in the voltage, capacity and energy. Tests were performed at constant power to observe the behavior of the discharge intensity. When making the comparisons of the capacity and the energy, the LiFePO4 battery proved to be the best and better behavior in the tests at constant discharge rates. (Author)

  20. Nickel-iron battery system safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltat, R. C.

    1984-06-01

    The generated flow rates of gaseous hydrogen and gaseous oxygen from an electrical vehicle nickel-iron battery system were determined and used to evaluate the flame quenching capabilities of several candidate devices to prevent flame propagation within batteries having central watering/venting systems. The battery generated hydrogen and oxygen gases were measured for a complete charge and discharge cycle. The data correlates well with accepted theory during strong overcharge conditions indicating that the measurements are valid for other portions of the cycle. Tests confirm that the gas mixture in the cells is always flammable regardless of the battery status. The literature indicated that a conventional flame arrestor would not be effective over the broad spectrum of gassing conditions presented by a nickel-iron battery. Four different types of protective devices were evaluated. A foam-metal arrestor design was successful in quenching gaseous hydrogen and gaseous oxygen flames, however; the application of this flame arrestor to individual cell or module protection in a battery is problematic. A possible rearrangement of the watering/venting system to accept the partial protection of simple one-way valves is presented which, in combination with the successful foam-metal arrestor as main vent protection, could result in a significant improvement in battery protection.

  1. Recent advances in lithium-sulfur batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lin; Shaw, Leon L.

    2014-12-01

    Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries have attracted much attention lately because they have very high theoretical specific energy (2500 Wh kg-1), five times higher than that of the commercial LiCoO2/graphite batteries. As a result, they are strong contenders for next-generation energy storage in the areas of portable electronics, electric vehicles, and storage systems for renewable energy such as wind power and solar energy. However, poor cycling life and low capacity retention are main factors limiting their commercialization. To date, a large number of electrode and electrolyte materials to address these challenges have been investigated. In this review, we present the latest fundamental studies and technological development of various nanostructured cathode materials for Li-S batteries, including their preparation approaches, structure, morphology and battery performance. Furthermore, the development of other significant components of Li-S batteries including anodes, electrolytes, additives, binders and separators are also highlighted. Not only does the intention of our review article comprise the summary of recent advances in Li-S cells, but also we cover some of our proposals for engineering of Li-S cell configurations. These systematic discussion and proposed directions can enlighten ideas and offer avenues in the rational design of durable and high performance Li-S batteries in the near future.

  2. Lithium-thionyl chloride battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, D.; Bowden, W.; Hamilton, N.; Cubbison, D.; Dey, A. N.

    1981-04-01

    The main objective is to develop, fabricate, test, and deliver safe high rate lithium-thionyl chloride batteries for various U.S. Army applications such as manpack ratios and GLLD Laser Designators. We have devoted our efforts in the following major areas: (1) Optimization of the spirally wound D cell for high rate applications, (2) Development of a 3 inch diameter flat cylindrical cell for the GLLD laser designator application, and (3) Investigation of the reduction mechanism of SOCl2. The rate capability of the spirally wound D cell previously developed by us has been optimized for both the manpack radio (BA5590) battery and GLLD laser designator battery application in this program. A flat cylindrical cell has also been developed for the GLLD laser designator application. It is 3 inches in diameter and 0.9 inch in height with extremely low internal cell impedance that minimizes cell heating and polarization on the GLLD load. Typical cell capacity was found to be 18.0-19.0 Ahr with a few cells delivering up to about 21.0 Ahr on the GLLD test load. Study of the reduction mechanism of SOCl2 using electrochemical and spectroscopic techniques has also been carried out in this program which may be directly relevant to the intrinsic safety of the system.

  3. Batteries for electric road vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodenough, John B; Braga, M Helena

    2018-01-15

    The dependence of modern society on the energy stored in a fossil fuel is not sustainable. An immediate challenge is to eliminate the polluting gases emitted from the roads of the world by replacing road vehicles powered by the internal combustion engine with those powered by rechargeable batteries. These batteries must be safe and competitive in cost, performance, driving range between charges, and convenience. The competitive performance of an electric car has been demonstrated, but the cost of fabrication, management to ensure safety, and a short cycle life have prevented large-scale penetration of the all-electric road vehicle into the market. Low-cost, safe all-solid-state cells from which dendrite-free alkali-metal anodes can be plated are now available; they have an operating temperature range from -20 °C to 80 °C and they permit the design of novel high-capacity, high-voltage cathodes providing fast charge/discharge rates. Scale-up to large multicell batteries is feasible.

  4. Li-ion EMU Battery Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehm, Raymond; Bragg, Bobby; Strangways, Brad

    2001-01-01

    A 45Ah Lithium ion (Li-Ion) battery comprised of 5 Yardney prismatic cells was evaluated to replace the silver-zinc cells in the Extra-vehicular Mobility Unit (EMU). Tests determined that the five cell battery can meet the mission objective of 500 duty cycles and maintain a minimum voltage of 16.0 V without an individual cell voltage dropping below 3.0V. Forty real time cycles were conducted to develop BOL trend data. Decision to switch to accelerated cycling for the remaining 460 cycles was made since Real Time cycling requires 1 day/cycle. Conclusions indicate that battery replacement would indeed be prudent.

  5. A novel parameter for evaluation on power performance of Ni-MH rechargeable batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Lian-Xing; Tang, Xin-Cun [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Luo, Zhuo; Song, Xia-Wei; Liu, Hong-Tao [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China)

    2010-04-15

    In the work, two novel conceptions of ''capacity quality'' (CQ) and ''capacity quality coefficient'' ({lambda}) were defined to evaluate cycling power capabilities of Ni-MH rechargeable batteries when considering the effect of the kinetic limitation. For convenient comparison, the capacity quality coefficient ({lambda}) and the efficiency of charge/discharge ({eta}) were in parallel applied to characterize cycling capabilities based on the data from BYD H-3/4AAA800 Ni-MH batteries at 1C-3.5C. The results show that there is an obvious difference between {lambda} and {eta} which served as evaluation indexes for rechargeable batteries, and that the secondary battery with good capacity quality also has a good cycling capability and rate capability, especially at high rate. The introduced capacity quality not only subtly covered kinetic information of the rechargeable batteries but also factually reflected stability of the electrode materials. (author)

  6. Indicative capacity of NDVI in predictive mapping of the properties of plow horizons of soils on slopes in the south of Western Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopp, N. V.; Nechaeva, T. V.; Savenkov, O. A.; Smirnova, N. V.; Smirnov, V. V.

    2017-11-01

    The informativeness of NDVI for predictive mapping of the physical and chemical properties of plow horizons of soils on different slope positions within the first (280-310 m a.s.l.) and second (240-280 m a.s.l.) altitudinal steps has been examined. This index is uninformative for mapping soil properties in small hollows, whose factual width is less than the Landsat image resolution (30 m). In regression models, NDVI index explains 52% of variance in the content of humus; 35 and 24% of variance in the contents of total and nitrate nitrogen; 19 and 29% of variance in the contents of total and available phosphorus; 25 and 50% of variance in the contents of exchangeable calcium and manganese; and 30 and 29% of variance in the contents of fine silt and soil water, respectively. On the basis of the models obtained, prognostic maps of the soil properties have been developed. Spatial distribution patterns of NDVI calculated from Landsat 8 images (30-m resolution) serve as the cartographic base and the main indicator of the soil properties. The NDVI values and the contents of humus, physical clay (<0.01 mm) and fine silt particles, total and nitrate nitrogen, total phosphorus, and exchangeable calcium and manganese in the soils of the first altitudinal step are higher than those in the soils of the second altitudinal step. An opposite tendency has been found for the available phosphorus content: in the soils of the second altitudinal step and the hollow, its content is higher than that in the soils of the first altitudinal step by 1.8 and 2.4 times, respectively. Differences in the pH of soil water suspensions, easily available phosphorus, and clay in the soils of the compared topographic positions (first and second altitudinal steps and the hollow) are statistically unreliable.

  7. Environmental impact assessment and end-of-life treatment policy analysis for Li-ion batteries and Ni-MH batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yajuan; Chen, Bo; Huang, Kai; Wang, Xiang; Wang, Dong

    2014-03-18

    Based on Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and Eco-indicator 99 method, a LCA model was applied to conduct environmental impact and end-of-life treatment policy analysis for secondary batteries. This model evaluated the cycle, recycle and waste treatment stages of secondary batteries. Nickel-Metal Hydride (Ni-MH) batteries and Lithium ion (Li-ion) batteries were chosen as the typical secondary batteries in this study. Through this research, the following results were found: (1) A basic number of cycles should be defined. A minimum cycle number of 200 would result in an obvious decline of environmental loads for both battery types. Batteries with high energy density and long life expectancy have small environmental loads. Products and technology that help increase energy density and life expectancy should be encouraged. (2) Secondary batteries should be sorted out from municipal garbage. Meanwhile, different types of discarded batteries should be treated separately under policies and regulations. (3) The incineration rate has obvious impact on the Eco-indicator points of Nickel-Metal Hydride (Ni-MH) batteries. The influence of recycle rate on Lithium ion (Li-ion) batteries is more obvious. These findings indicate that recycling is the most promising direction for reducing secondary batteries' environmental loads. The model proposed here can be used to evaluate environmental loads of other secondary batteries and it can be useful for proposing policies and countermeasures to reduce the environmental impact of secondary batteries.

  8. Modeling of Li-Ion Battery Packs as Basis for Design of Battery Thermal Management Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coman, Paul Tiberiu

    Li-ion batteries are one of the most popular battery types on the market, due to their prime properties such as high capacity, low self-discharge rate, zero-maintenance, high energy density and long lifetime. However, safety still remains a major drawback, due to overheating and thermal runaway...... conservation equations, and the results were compared against experimental data from the open literature; 2. A simplified thermal runaway model for investigating the propagation of thermal runaway in a battery pack designed by NASA for astronaut spacesuits. A simplified model was initially built for single...... battery cells with an internal short circuit device (ISCD) implanted inside, used for triggering thermal runaway at low temperatures. The simplified lumped model was then coupled with a 2D thermal FEM for investigating the pack design. The simplification consists of implementing an efficiency factor term...

  9. A Combined State of Charge Estimation Method for Lithium-Ion Batteries Used in a Wide Ambient Temperature Range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Feng

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Ambient temperature is a significant factor that influences the characteristics of lithium-ion batteries, which can produce adverse effects on state of charge (SOC estimation. In this paper, an integrated SOC algorithm that combines an advanced ampere-hour counting (Adv Ah method and multistate open-circuit voltage (multi OCV method, denoted as “Adv Ah + multi OCV”, is proposed. Ah counting is a simple and general method for estimating SOC. However, the available capacity and coulombic efficiency in this method are influenced by the operating states of batteries, such as temperature and current, thereby causing SOC estimation errors. To address this problem, an enhanced Ah counting method that can alter the available capacity and coulombic efficiency according to temperature is proposed during the SOC calculation. Moreover, the battery SOCs between different temperatures can be mutually converted in accordance with the capacity loss. To compensate for the accumulating errors in Ah counting caused by the low precision of current sensors and lack of accurate initial SOC, the OCV method is used for calibration and as a complement. Given the variation of available capacities at different temperatures, rated/non-rated OCV–SOCs are established to estimate the initial SOCs in accordance with the Ah counting SOCs. Two dynamic tests, namely, constant- and alternated-temperature tests, are employed to verify the combined method at different temperatures. The results indicate that our method can provide effective and accurate SOC estimation at different ambient temperatures.

  10. Lifetime Improvement by Battery Scheduling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongerden, M.R.; Schmitt, Jens B.; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.H.M.

    The use of mobile devices is often limited by the lifetime of their batteries. For devices that have multiple batteries or that have the option to connect an extra battery, battery scheduling, thereby exploiting the recovery properties of the batteries, can help to extend the system lifetime. Due to

  11. Lifetime improvement by battery scheduling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongerden, M.R.; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.H.M.

    The use of mobile devices is often limited by the lifetime of its battery. For devices that have multiple batteries or that have the option to connect an extra battery, battery scheduling, thereby exploiting the recovery properties of the batteries, can help to extend the system lifetime. Due to the

  12. A desalination battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasta, Mauro; Wessells, Colin D; Cui, Yi; La Mantia, Fabio

    2012-02-08

    Water desalination is an important approach to provide fresh water around the world, although its high energy consumption, and thus high cost, call for new, efficient technology. Here, we demonstrate the novel concept of a "desalination battery", which operates by performing cycles in reverse on our previously reported mixing entropy battery. Rather than generating electricity from salinity differences, as in mixing entropy batteries, desalination batteries use an electrical energy input to extract sodium and chloride ions from seawater and to generate fresh water. The desalination battery is comprised by a Na(2-x)Mn(5)O(10) nanorod positive electrode and Ag/AgCl negative electrode. Here, we demonstrate an energy consumption of 0.29 Wh l(-1) for the removal of 25% salt using this novel desalination battery, which is promising when compared to reverse osmosis (~ 0.2 Wh l(-1)), the most efficient technique presently available. © 2012 American Chemical Society

  13. A Desalination Battery

    KAUST Repository

    Pasta, Mauro

    2012-02-08

    Water desalination is an important approach to provide fresh water around the world, although its high energy consumption, and thus high cost, call for new, efficient technology. Here, we demonstrate the novel concept of a "desalination battery", which operates by performing cycles in reverse on our previously reported mixing entropy battery. Rather than generating electricity from salinity differences, as in mixing entropy batteries, desalination batteries use an electrical energy input to extract sodium and chloride ions from seawater and to generate fresh water. The desalination battery is comprised by a Na 2-xMn 5O 10 nanorod positive electrode and Ag/AgCl negative electrode. Here, we demonstrate an energy consumption of 0.29 Wh l -1 for the removal of 25% salt using this novel desalination battery, which is promising when compared to reverse osmosis (∼ 0.2 Wh l -1), the most efficient technique presently available. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  14. A method of computer modelling the lithium-ion batteries aging process based on the experimental characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czerepicki, A.; Koniak, M.

    2017-06-01

    The paper presents a method of modelling the processes of aging lithium-ion batteries, its implementation as a computer application and results for battery state estimation. Authors use previously developed behavioural battery model, which was built using battery operating characteristics obtained from the experiment. This model was implemented in the form of a computer program using a database to store battery characteristics. Batteries aging process is a new extended functionality of the model. Algorithm of computer simulation uses a real measurements of battery capacity as a function of the battery charge and discharge cycles number. Simulation allows to take into account the incomplete cycles of charge or discharge battery, which are characteristic for transport powered by electricity. The developed model was used to simulate the battery state estimation for different load profiles, obtained by measuring the movement of the selected means of transport.

  15. Lithium battery management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Thomas J [Waukesha, WI

    2012-05-08

    Provided is a system for managing a lithium battery system having a plurality of cells. The battery system comprises a variable-resistance element electrically connected to a cell and located proximate a portion of the cell; and a device for determining, utilizing the variable-resistance element, whether the temperature of the cell has exceeded a predetermined threshold. A method of managing the temperature of a lithium battery system is also included.

  16. Nonleaking battery terminals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snider, W. E.; Nagle, W. J.

    1972-01-01

    Three different terminals were designed for usage in a 40 ampere/hour silver zinc battery which has a 45% KOH by weight electrolyte in a plastic battery case. Life tests, including thermal cycling, electrical charge and discharge for up to three years duration, were conducted on these three different terminal designs. Tests for creep rate and tensile strength were conducted on the polyphenylene oxide plastic battery cases. Some cases were unused and others containing KOH electrolyte were placed on life tests. The design and testing of nonleaking battery terminals for use with a KOH electrolyte in a plastic case are considered.

  17. Ballistic negatron battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prasad, M.S.R. [Koneru Lakshmiah Univ.. Dept. of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Green fields, Vaddeswaram (India)

    2012-07-01

    If we consider the Statistics there is drastic increase in dependence of batteries from year to year, due to necessity of power storage equipment at homes, power generating off grid and on grid Wind, PV systems, etc.. Where wind power is leading in renewable sector, there is a need to look at its development. Considering the scenario in India, most of the wind resource areas are far away from grid and the remaining areas which are near to grid are of low wind currents which is of no use connecting these equipment directly to grid. So, there is a need for a power storage utility to be integrated, such as the BNB (Ballistic Negatron Battery). In this situation a country like India need a battery which should be reliable, cheap and which can be industrialized. So this paper presents the concept of working, design, operation, adaptability of a Ballistic Negatron Battery. Unlike present batteries with low energy density, huge size, more weight, more charging time and low resistant to wear level, this Ballistic Negatron Battery comes with, 1) High energy storage capability (many multiples more than the present most advanced battery). 2) Very compact in size. 3) Almost negligible in weight compared to present batteries. 4) Charges with in very less time. 5) Never exhibits a wear level greater than zero. Seems like inconceivable but adoptable with simple physics. This paper will explains in detail the principle, model, design, construction and practical considerations considered in making this battery. (Author)

  18. Recycling readiness of advanced batteries for electric vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jungst, R.G.

    1997-09-01

    Maximizing the reclamation/recycle of electric-vehicle (EV) batteries is considered to be essential for the successful commercialization of this technology. Since the early 1990s, the US Department of Energy has sponsored the ad hoc advanced battery readiness working group to review this and other possible barriers to the widespread use of EVs, such as battery shipping and in-vehicle safety. Regulation is currently the main force for growth in EV numbers and projections for the states that have zero-emission vehicle (ZEV) programs indicate about 200,000 of these vehicles would be offered to the public in 2003 to meet those requirements. The ad hoc Advanced Battery Readiness Working Group has identified a matrix of battery technologies that could see use in EVs and has been tracking the state of readiness of recycling processes for each of them. Lead-acid, nickel/metal hydride, and lithium-ion are the three EV battery technologies proposed by the major automotive manufacturers affected by ZEV requirements. Recycling approaches for the two advanced battery systems on this list are partly defined, but could be modified to recover more value from end-of-life batteries. The processes being used or planned to treat these batteries are reviewed, as well as those being considered for other longer-term technologies in the battery recycling readiness matrix. Development efforts needed to prepare for recycling the batteries from a much larger EV population than exists today are identified.

  19. Two-Dimensional SnO Anodes with a Tunable Number of Atomic Layers for Sodium Ion Batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Fan

    2017-01-18

    We have systematically changed the number of atomic layers stacked in 2D SnO nanosheet anodes and studied their sodium ion battery (SIB) performance. The results indicate that as the number of atomic SnO layers in a sheet decreases, both the capacity and cycling stability of the Na ion battery improve. The thinnest SnO nanosheet anodes (two to six SnO monolayers) exhibited the best performance. Specifically, an initial discharge and charge capacity of 1072 and 848 mAh g-1 were observed, respectively, at 0.1 A g-1. In addition, an impressive reversible capacity of 665 mAh g-1 after 100 cycles at 0.1 A g-1 and 452 mAh g-1 after 1000 cycles at a high current density of 1.0 A g-1 was observed, with excellent rate performance. As the average number of atomic layers in the anode sheets increased, the battery performance degraded significantly. For example, for the anode sheets with 10-20 atomic layers, only a reversible capacity of 389 mAh g-1 could be obtained after 100 cycles at 0.1 A g-1. Density functional theory calculations coupled with experimental results were used to elucidate the sodiation mechanism of the SnO nanosheets. This systematic study of monolayer-dependent physical and electrochemical properties of 2D anodes shows a promising pathway to engineering and mitigating volume changes in 2D anode materials for sodium ion batteries. It also demonstrates that ultrathin SnO nanosheets are promising SIB anode materials with high specific capacity, stable cyclability, and excellent rate performance.

  20. The Asian battery market—a decade of change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckfeld, S.; Manders, J. E.; Stevenson, M. W.

    The Asian battery industry will undergo significant change over the next decade as it adapts to the enormous economic and technological pressures of our rapidly changing world. Europe and North America in recent years have seen significant rationalisation in battery manufacturing capacity and ownership for a variety of reasons. Into the future, Asia will be no exception, but the rate and magnitude of change may conceivably be greater than that already experienced elsewhere. Rationalisation in battery manufacturing plants will occur as a result of the establishment of super plants to manufacture batteries in order to improve the economies of scale and to facilitate the heavy investment in new capital and equipment that will be required to supply the newer technology battery types. The impact of 42 V automotive systems and valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries will be influential on this scenario. It is expected that China, Japan, South Korea, and Thailand will feature heavily in the future Asian battery scene at the expense of some established countries and producers. The current state of the battery industry in Asia, factors driving change in Asia, and the likely implications for those companies that are currently manufacturing batteries in Asia or considering a future role in Asia within the coming decade are examined in this paper.

  1. Controllable synthesis of graphene sheets with different numbers of layers and effect of the number of graphene layers on the specific capacity of anode material in lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tong, Xin; Wang, Hui; Wang, Gang; Wan, Lijuan; Ren, Zhaoyu; Bai, Jintao; Bai, Jinbo

    2011-01-01

    High quality graphene sheets are synthesized through efficient oxidation process followed by rapid thermal expansion and reduction by H 2 . The number of graphene layers is controlled by tuning the oxidation degree of GOs. The higher the oxidation degree of GOs is getting, the fewer the numbers of graphene layers can be obtained. The material is characterized by elemental analysis, thermo-gravimetric analysis, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopies. The obtained graphene sheets with single, triple and quintuplicate layers as anode materials exhibit a high reversible capacity of 1175, 1007, and 842 mA h g -1 , respectively, which show that the graphene sheets with fewer layers have higher reversible capacity. -- Graphical abstract: The typical TEM images of the graphene sheets derived from GO3(a), GO2(b) and GO1(c). Display Omitted Highlights: → With the oxidation degree of GO increasing, the numbers of graphene layers decreased. → With the numbers of graphene layers decreasing, the reversible capacity improved. → Graphene sheets with single-layer exhibit the best electrochemical performances.

  2. Management of deep brain stimulator battery failure: battery estimators, charge density, and importance of clinical symptoms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaihan Fakhar

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We aimed in this investigation to study deep brain stimulation (DBS battery drain with special attention directed toward patient symptoms prior to and following battery replacement. BACKGROUND: Previously our group developed web-based calculators and smart phone applications to estimate DBS battery life (http://mdc.mbi.ufl.edu/surgery/dbs-battery-estimator. METHODS: A cohort of 320 patients undergoing DBS battery replacement from 2002-2012 were included in an IRB approved study. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 20.0 (IBM, Armonk, NY. RESULTS: The mean charge density for treatment of Parkinson's disease was 7.2 µC/cm(2/phase (SD = 3.82, for dystonia was 17.5 µC/cm(2/phase (SD = 8.53, for essential tremor was 8.3 µC/cm(2/phase (SD = 4.85, and for OCD was 18.0 µC/cm(2/phase (SD = 4.35. There was a significant relationship between charge density and battery life (r = -.59, p<.001, as well as total power and battery life (r = -.64, p<.001. The UF estimator (r = .67, p<.001 and the Medtronic helpline (r = .74, p<.001 predictions of battery life were significantly positively associated with actual battery life. Battery status indicators on Soletra and Kinetra were poor predictors of battery life. In 38 cases, the symptoms improved following a battery change, suggesting that the neurostimulator was likely responsible for symptom worsening. For these cases, both the UF estimator and the Medtronic helpline were significantly correlated with battery life (r = .65 and r = .70, respectively, both p<.001. CONCLUSIONS: Battery estimations, charge density, total power and clinical symptoms were important factors. The observation of clinical worsening that was rescued following neurostimulator replacement reinforces the notion that changes in clinical symptoms can be associated with battery drain.

  3. Finger wear detection for production line battery tester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depiante, Eduardo V.

    1997-01-01

    A method for detecting wear in a battery tester probe. The method includes providing a battery tester unit having at least one tester finger, generating a tester signal using the tester fingers and battery tester unit with the signal characteristic of the electrochemical condition of the battery and the tester finger, applying wavelet transformation to the tester signal including computing a mother wavelet to produce finger wear indicator signals, analyzing the signals to create a finger wear index, comparing the wear index for the tester finger with the index for a new tester finger and generating a tester finger signal change signal to indicate achieving a threshold wear change.

  4. Novel Battery Management System with Distributed Wireless and Fiber Optic Sensors for Early Detection and Suppression of Thermal Runaway in Large Battery Packs, FY13 Q4 Report, ARPA-E Program: Advanced Management Protection of Energy Storage Devices (AMPE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmer, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Chang, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Zumstein, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Kovotsky, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Puglia, F. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Dobley, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Moore, G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Osswald, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Wolf, K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Kaschmitter, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Eaves, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2013-10-08

    Technology has been developed that enables monitoring of individual cells in highcapacity lithium-ion battery packs, with a distributed array of wireless Bluetooth 4.0 tags and sensors, and without proliferation of extensive wiring harnesses. Given the safety challenges facing lithium-ion batteries in electric vehicle, civilian aviation and defense applications, these wireless sensors may be particularly important to these emerging markets. These wireless sensors will enhance the performance, reliability and safety of such energy storage systems. Specific accomplishments to date include, but are not limited to: (1) the development of wireless tags using Bluetooth 4.0 standard to monitor a large array of sensors in battery pack; (2) sensor suites enabling the simultaneous monitoring of cell voltage, cell current, cell temperature, and package strain, indicative of swelling and increased internal pressure, (3) small receivers compatible with USB ports on portable computers; (4) software drivers and logging software; (5) a 7S2P battery simulator, enabling the safe development of wireless BMS hardware in the laboratory; (6) demonstrated data transmission out of metal enclosures, including battery box, with small variable aperture opening; (7) test data demonstrating the accurate and reliable operation of sensors, with transmission of terminal voltage, cell temperature and package strain at distances up to 110 feet; (8) quantification of the data transmission error as a function of distance, in both indoor and outdoor operation; (9) electromagnetic interference testing during operation with live, high-capacity battery management system at Yardney Technical Products; (10) demonstrated operation with live high-capacity lithium-ion battery pack during charge-discharge cycling; (11) development of special polymer-gel lithium-ion batteries with embedded temperature sensors, capable of measuring the core temperature of individual of the cells during charge-discharge cycling

  5. Research on Frequency Control of Grid Connected Sodium-Sulfur Battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Fenglin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Sodium sulfur battery is the only energy storage battery with large capacity and high energy density. It has a great application prospect in the peak load shifting of power grid, due to the lack of domestic research on it, it is urgent to evaluate the effect of grid-connection of sodium sulfur battery scientifically. According to the experimental data of the sodium sulfur battery project, the battery model is built. Compared with the real discharge curve, the error of the model simulation curve is small, so the battery model is effective. The AC / DC power grid model is built, and the rectifier and inverter control circuits are designed to simulate the scenario that the wind turbine and the battery are supplied to the passive load. The simulation results show that the grid-connected model of the sodium sulfur battery under the two control strategies can stabilize the larger frequency fluctuation.

  6. Environmental characteristics comparison of Li-ion batteries and Ni–MH batteries under the uncertainty of cycle performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Yajuan; Wang, Xiang; Wang, Dong; Huang, Kai; Wang, Lijing; Bao, Liying; Wu, Feng

    2012-01-01

    An environmental impact assessment model for secondary batteries under uncertainty is proposed, which is a combination of the life cycle assessment (LCA), Eco-indicator 99 system and Monte Carlo simulation (MCS). The LCA can describe the environmental impact mechanism of secondary batteries, whereas the cycle performance was simulated through MCS. The composite LCA–MCS model was then carried out to estimate the environmental impact of two kinds of experimental batteries. Under this kind of standard assessment system, a comparison between different batteries could be accomplished. The following results were found: (1) among the two selected batteries, the environmental impact of the Li-ion battery is lower than the nickel–metal hydride (Ni–MH) battery, especially with regards to resource consumption and (2) the lithium ion (Li-ion) battery is less sensitive to cycle uncertainty, its environmental impact fluctuations are small when compared with the selected Ni–MH battery and it is more environmentally friendly. The assessment methodology and model proposed in this paper can also be used for any other secondary batteries and they can be helpful in the development of environmentally friendly secondary batteries.

  7. Practical state of health estimation of power batteries based on Delphi method and grey relational grade analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Bingxiang; Jiang, Jiuchun; Zheng, Fangdan; Zhao, Wei; Liaw, Bor Yann; Ruan, Haijun; Han, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Weige

    2015-05-01

    The state of health (SOH) estimation is very critical to battery management system to ensure the safety and reliability of EV battery operation. Here, we used a unique hybrid approach to enable complex SOH estimations. The approach hybridizes the Delphi method known for its simplicity and effectiveness in applying weighting factors for complicated decision-making and the grey relational grade analysis (GRGA) for multi-factor optimization. Six critical factors were used in the consideration for SOH estimation: peak power at 30% state-of-charge (SOC), capacity, the voltage drop at 30% SOC with a C/3 pulse, the temperature rises at the end of discharge and charge at 1C; respectively, and the open circuit voltage at the end of charge after 1-h rest. The weighting of these factors for SOH estimation was scored by the 'experts' in the Delphi method, indicating the influencing power of each factor on SOH. The parameters for these factors expressing the battery state variations are optimized by GRGA. Eight battery cells were used to illustrate the principle and methodology to estimate the SOH by this hybrid approach, and the results were compared with those based on capacity and power capability. The contrast among different SOH estimations is discussed.

  8. Monitoring the Electrochemical Processes in the Lithium–Air Battery by Solid State NMR Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    A multi-nuclear solid-state NMR approach is employed to investigate the lithium–air battery, to monitor the evolution of the electrochemical products formed during cycling, and to gain insight into processes affecting capacity fading. While lithium peroxide is identified by 17O solid state NMR (ssNMR) as the predominant product in the first discharge in 1,2-dimethoxyethane (DME) based electrolytes, it reacts with the carbon cathode surface to form carbonate during the charging process. 13C ssNMR provides evidence for carbonate formation on the surface of the carbon cathode, the carbonate being removed at high charging voltages in the first cycle, but accumulating in later cycles. Small amounts of lithium hydroxide and formate are also detected in discharged cathodes and while the hydroxide formation is reversible, the formate persists and accumulates in the cathode upon further cycling. The results indicate that the rechargeability of the battery is limited by both the electrolyte and the carbon cathode stability. The utility of ssNMR spectroscopy in directly detecting product formation and decomposition within the battery is demonstrated, a necessary step in the assessment of new electrolytes, catalysts, and cathode materials for the development of a viable lithium–oxygen battery. PMID:24489976

  9. Monitoring the Electrochemical Processes in the Lithium-Air Battery by Solid State NMR Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leskes, Michal; Moore, Amy J; Goward, Gillian R; Grey, Clare P

    2013-12-27

    A multi-nuclear solid-state NMR approach is employed to investigate the lithium-air battery, to monitor the evolution of the electrochemical products formed during cycling, and to gain insight into processes affecting capacity fading. While lithium peroxide is identified by 17 O solid state NMR (ssNMR) as the predominant product in the first discharge in 1,2-dimethoxyethane (DME) based electrolytes, it reacts with the carbon cathode surface to form carbonate during the charging process. 13 C ssNMR provides evidence for carbonate formation on the surface of the carbon cathode, the carbonate being removed at high charging voltages in the first cycle, but accumulating in later cycles. Small amounts of lithium hydroxide and formate are also detected in discharged cathodes and while the hydroxide formation is reversible, the formate persists and accumulates in the cathode upon further cycling. The results indicate that the rechargeability of the battery is limited by both the electrolyte and the carbon cathode stability. The utility of ssNMR spectroscopy in directly detecting product formation and decomposition within the battery is demonstrated, a necessary step in the assessment of new electrolytes, catalysts, and cathode materials for the development of a viable lithium-oxygen battery.

  10. Selected test results from the neosonic polymer Li-ion battery.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ingersoll, David T.; Hund, Thomas D.

    2010-07-01

    The performance of the Neosonic polymer Li-ion battery was measured using a number of tests including capacity, capacity as a function of temperature, ohmic resistance, spectral impedance, hybrid pulsed power test, utility partial state of charge (PSOC) pulsed cycle test, and an over-charge/voltage abuse test. The goal of this work was to evaluate the performance of the polymer Li-ion battery technology for utility applications requiring frequent charges and discharges, such as voltage support, frequency regulation, wind farm energy smoothing, and solar photovoltaic energy smoothing. Test results have indicated that the Neosonic polymer Li-ion battery technology can provide power levels up to the 10C{sub 1} discharge rate with minimal energy loss compared to the 1 h (1C) discharge rate. Two of the three cells used in the utility PSOC pulsed cycle test completed about 12,000 cycles with only a gradual loss in capacity of 10 and 13%. The third cell experienced a 40% loss in capacity at about 11,000 cycles. The DC ohmic resistance and AC spectral impedance measurements also indicate that there were increases in impedance after cycling, especially for the third cell. Cell No.3 impedance Rs increased significantly along with extensive ballooning of the foil pouch. Finally, at a 1C (10 A) charge rate, the over charge/voltage abuse test with cell confinement similar to a multi cell string resulted in the cell venting hot gases at about 45 C 45 minutes into the test. At 104 minutes into the test the cell voltage spiked to the 12 volt limit and continued out to the end of the test at 151 minutes. In summary, the Neosonic cells performed as expected with good cycle-life and safety.

  11. High performance Li3V2(PO4)3/C composite cathode material for lithium ion batteries studied in pilot scale test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Zhenyu; Dai Changsong; Wu Gang; Nelson, Mark; Hu Xinguo; Zhang Ruoxin; Liu Jiansheng; Xia Jicai

    2010-01-01

    Li 3 V 2 (PO 4 ) 3 /C composite cathode material was synthesized via carbothermal reduction process in a pilot scale production test using battery grade raw materials with the aim of studying the feasibility for their practical applications. XRD, FT-IR, XPS, CV, EIS and battery charge-discharge tests were used to characterize the as-prepared material. The XRD and FT-IR data suggested that the as-prepared Li 3 V 2 (PO 4 ) 3 /C material exhibits an orderly monoclinic structure based on the connectivity of PO 4 tetrahedra and VO 6 octahedra. Half cell tests indicated that an excellent high-rate cyclic performance was achieved on the Li 3 V 2 (PO 4 ) 3 /C cathodes in the voltage range of 3.0-4.3 V, retaining a capacity of 95% (96 mAh/g) after 100 cycles at 20C discharge rate. The low-temperature performance of the cathode was further evaluated, showing 0.5C discharge capacity of 122 and 119 mAh/g at -25 and -40 o C, respectively. The discharge capacity of graphite//Li 3 V 2 (PO 4 ) 3 batteries with a designed battery capacity of 14 Ah is as high as 109 mAh/g with a capacity retention of 92% after 224 cycles at 2C discharge rates. The promising high-rate and low-temperature performance observed in this work suggests that Li 3 V 2 (PO 4 ) 3 /C is a very strong candidate to be a cathode in a next-generation Li-ion battery for electric vehicle applications.

  12. Joint optimisation of arbitrage profits and battery life degradation for grid storage application of battery electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kies, Alexander

    2018-02-01

    To meet European decarbonisation targets by 2050, the electrification of the transport sector is mandatory. Most electric vehicles rely on lithium-ion batteries, because they have a higher energy/power density and longer life span compared to other practical batteries such as zinc-carbon batteries. Electric vehicles can thus provide energy storage to support the system integration of generation from highly variable renewable sources, such as wind and photovoltaics (PV). However, charging/discharging causes batteries to degradate progressively with reduced capacity. In this study, we investigate the impact of the joint optimisation of arbitrage revenue and battery degradation of electric vehicle batteries in a simplified setting, where historical prices allow for market participation of battery electric vehicle owners. It is shown that the joint optimisation of both leads to stronger gains then the sum of both optimisation strategies and that including battery degradation into the model avoids state of charges close to the maximum at times. It can be concluded that degradation is an important aspect to consider in power system models, which incorporate any kind of lithium-ion battery storage.

  13. Lithium storage performance of carbon nanotubes prepared from polyaniline for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiang Xiaoxia; Huang Zhengzheng; Liu Enhui; Shen Haijie; Tian Yingying; Xie Hui; Wu Yuhu; Wu Zhilian

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Polyaniline nanotube is synthesized by the self-assembly method in aqueous media. → Carbon nanotubes were prepared from polyaniline nanotube by physical activation. → Activation leads to large surface area, and surface nitrogen and oxygen functional groups. → Such physical and chemical properties lead to the good electrochemical properties. → After 20 cycles, a reversible capacity of 728 mAh g -1 was obtained. - Abstract: Carbon nanotubes with large surface area and surface nitrogen and oxygen functional groups are prepared by carbonizing and activating of polyaniline nanotubes, which is synthesized by polymerization of aniline with the self-assembly method in aqueous media. The physicochemical properties of the carbon nanotubes are characterized by scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller, elemental analyses and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements. The surface area and pore diameter are 618.9 m 2 g -1 and 3.10 nm. The electrochemical properties of the carbon nanotubes as anode materials in lithium ion batteries are evaluated. At a current density of 100 mA g -1 , the activated carbon nanotube shows an enormously first discharge capacity of about 1370 mAh g -1 and a charge capacity of 907 mAh g -1 . After 20 cycling tests, the activated carbon nanotube retains a reversible capacity of 728 mAh g -1 . These indicate it may be a promising candidate for an anode material for lithium secondary batteries.

  14. Computing Battery Lifetime Distributions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cloth, L.; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.H.M.; Jongerden, M.R.

    The usage of mobile devices like cell phones, navigation systems, or laptop computers, is limited by the lifetime of the included batteries. This lifetime depends naturally on the rate at which energy is consumed, however, it also depends on the usage pattern of the battery. Continuous drawing of a

  15. Deep diode atomic battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anthony, T.R.; Cline, H.E.

    1977-01-01

    A deep diode atomic battery is made from a bulk semiconductor crystal containing three-dimensional arrays of columnar and lamellar P-N junctions. The battery is powered by gamma rays and x-ray emission from a radioactive source embedded in the interior of the semiconductor crystal

  16. Battery energy storage system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tol, C.S.P.; Evenblij, B.H.

    2009-01-01

    The ability to store electrical energy adds several interesting features to a ships distribution network, as silent power, peak shaving and a ride through in case of generator failure. Modern intrinsically safe Li-ion batteries bring these within reach. For this modern lithium battery applications

  17. Flexible fiber batteries for applications in smart textiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Hang; Semenikhin, Oleg; Skorobogatiy, Maksim

    2015-02-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate flexible fiber-based Al-NaOCl galvanic cells fabricated using fiber drawing process. Aluminum and copper wires are used as electrodes, and they are introduced into the fiber structure during drawing of the low-density polyethylene microstructured jacket. NaOCl solution is used as electrolyte, and it is introduced into the battery after the drawing process. The capacity of a 1 m long fiber battery is measured to be ˜10 mAh. We also detail assembly and optimization of the electrical circuitry in the energy-storing fiber battery textiles. Several examples of their applications are presented including lighting up an LED, driving a wireless mouse and actuating a screen with an integrated shape-memory nitinol wire. The principal advantages of the presented fiber batteries include: ease of fabrication, high flexibility, simple electrochemistry and use of widely available materials in the battery design.

  18. Flexible fiber batteries for applications in smart textiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qu, Hang; Skorobogatiy, Maksim; Semenikhin, Oleg

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate flexible fiber-based Al–NaOCl galvanic cells fabricated using fiber drawing process. Aluminum and copper wires are used as electrodes, and they are introduced into the fiber structure during drawing of the low-density polyethylene microstructured jacket. NaOCl solution is used as electrolyte, and it is introduced into the battery after the drawing process. The capacity of a 1 m long fiber battery is measured to be ∼10 mAh. We also detail assembly and optimization of the electrical circuitry in the energy-storing fiber battery textiles. Several examples of their applications are presented including lighting up an LED, driving a wireless mouse and actuating a screen with an integrated shape-memory nitinol wire. The principal advantages of the presented fiber batteries include: ease of fabrication, high flexibility, simple electrochemistry and use of widely available materials in the battery design. (paper)

  19. Primary zinc-air batteries for space power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragg, Bobby J.; Bourland, Deborah S.; Merry, Glenn; Putt, Ron

    1992-01-01

    Prismatic HR and LC cells and batteries were built and tested, and they performed well with respect to the program goals of high capacity and high rate capability at specific energies. The HR batteries suffered reduced utilizations owing to dryout at the 2 and 3 A rates for the 50 C tests owing to the requirement for forced convection. The LC batteries suffered reduced utilizations under all conditions owing to the chimney effect at 1 G, although this effect would not occur at 0 G. An empirical model was developed which accurately predicted utilizations and average voltages for single cells, although thermal effects encountered during battery testing caused significant deviations, both positive and negative, from the model. Based on the encouraging results of the test program, we believe that the zinc-air primary battery of a flat, stackable configuration can serve as a high performance and safe power source for a range of space applications.

  20. Comparison of Different Battery Types for Electric Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iclodean, C.; Varga, B.; Burnete, N.; Cimerdean, D.; Jurchiş, B.

    2017-10-01

    Battery powered Electric Vehicles are starting to play a significant role in today’s automotive industry. There are many types of batteries found in the construction of today’s Electric Vehicles, being hard to decide which one fulfils best all the most important characteristics, from different viewpoints, such as energy storage efficiency, constructive characteristics, cost price, safety and utilization life. This study presents the autonomy of an Electric Vehicle that utilizes four different types of batteries: Lithium Ion (Li-Ion), Molten Salt (Na-NiCl2), Nickel Metal Hydride (Ni-MH) and Lithium Sulphur (Li-S), all of them having the same electric energy storage capacity. The novelty of this scientific work is the implementation of four different types of batteries for Electric Vehicles on the same model to evaluate the vehicle’s autonomy and the efficiency of these battery types on a driving cycle, in real time, digitized by computer simulation.

  1. Fundamental mechanisms in Li-air battery electrochemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højberg, Jonathan

    The lithium-air (or Li-O2) batteries have received wide attention as an enabling technology for a mass market entry of electric vehicles due to a potential capacity much higher than current Li-ion technology. The technology is a relatively new battery concept proposed in 1996, and the current...... research still focuses on developing an understanding of the reactions inside the battery. This thesis is dedicated to increase this understanding and use the knowledge to improve the performance of the battery, and the work span from detailed investigation of the atom positions to the proposal of a system...... used to manage a full size electric vehicle battery. An automated differential electrochemical mass spectrometer (DEMS) was built to investigate the relationship between current and the consumption and release of gases, which is important to identify and quantify degradation reactions. The setup...

  2. A multi-electron redox mediator for redox-targeting lithium-sulfur flow batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guochun; Yang, Liuqing; Jiang, Xi; Zhang, Tianran; Lin, Haibin; Yao, Qiaofeng; Lee, Jim Yang

    2018-02-01

    The lithium-sulfur flow battery (LSFB) is a new addition to the rechargeable lithium flow batteries (LFBs) where sulfur or a sulfur compound is used as the cathode material against the lithium anode. We report here our evaluation of an organic sulfide - dimethyl trisulfide (DMTS), as 1) a catholyte of a LFB and 2) a multi-electron redox mediator for discharging and charging a solid sulfur cathode without any conductive additives. The latter configuration is also known as the redox-targeting lithium-sulfur flow battery (RTLSFB). The LFB provides an initial discharge capacity of 131.5 mAh g-1DMTS (1.66 A h L-1), which decreases to 59 mAh g-1DMTS (0.75 A h L-1) after 40 cycles. The RTLSFB delivers a significantly higher application performance - initial discharge capacity of 1225.3 mAh g-1sulfur (3.83 A h L-1), for which 1030.9 mAh g-1sulfur (3.23 A h L-1) is still available after 40 cycles. The significant increase in the discharge and charge duration of the LFB after sulfur addition indicates that DMTS is better used as a redox mediator in a RTLSFB than as a catholyte in a LFB.

  3. Battery Pack Thermal Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pesaran, Ahmad

    2016-06-14

    This presentation describes the thermal design of battery packs at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. A battery thermal management system essential for xEVs for both normal operation during daily driving (achieving life and performance) and off-normal operation during abuse conditions (achieving safety). The battery thermal management system needs to be optimized with the right tools for the lowest cost. Experimental tools such as NREL's isothermal battery calorimeter, thermal imaging, and heat transfer setups are needed. Thermal models and computer-aided engineering tools are useful for robust designs. During abuse conditions, designs should prevent cell-to-cell propagation in a module/pack (i.e., keep the fire small and manageable). NREL's battery ISC device can be used for evaluating the robustness of a module/pack to cell-to-cell propagation.

  4. Enhancing battery efficiency for pervasive health-monitoring systems based on electronic textiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Nenggan; Wu, Zhaohui; Lin, Man; Yang, Laurence Tianruo

    2010-03-01

    Electronic textiles are regarded as one of the most important computation platforms for future computer-assisted health-monitoring applications. In these novel systems, multiple batteries are used in order to prolong their operational lifetime, which is a significant metric for system usability. However, due to the nonlinear features of batteries, computing systems with multiple batteries cannot achieve the same battery efficiency as those powered by a monolithic battery of equal capacity. In this paper, we propose an algorithm aiming to maximize battery efficiency globally for the computer-assisted health-care systems with multiple batteries. Based on an accurate analytical battery model, the concept of weighted battery fatigue degree is introduced and the novel battery-scheduling algorithm called predicted weighted fatigue degree least first (PWFDLF) is developed. Besides, we also discuss our attempts during search PWFDLF: a weighted round-robin (WRR) and a greedy algorithm achieving highest local battery efficiency, which reduces to the sequential discharging policy. Evaluation results show that a considerable improvement in battery efficiency can be obtained by PWFDLF under various battery configurations and current profiles compared to conventional sequential and WRR discharging policies.

  5. Battery, especially for portable devices, has an anode containing silicon

    OpenAIRE

    Kan, S.Y.

    2002-01-01

    The anode (2) contains silicon. A battery with a silicon-containing anode is claimed. An Independent claim is also included for a method used to make the battery, comprising the doping of a silicon substrate (1) with charge capacity-increasing material (preferably boron, phosphorous or arsenic), etching the doped substrate layer in order to increase its porosity, and applying a cathode (3) in the form of a lithium oxide compound onto the resulting anode and applying an electrolyte (4) to the ...

  6. High energy lithium-oxygen batteries - Transport barriers and thermodynamics

    KAUST Repository

    Das, Shyamal K.

    2012-01-01

    We show that it is possible to achieve higher energy density lithium-oxygen batteries by simultaneously lowering the discharge overpotential and increasing the discharge capacity via thermodynamic variables alone. By assessing the relative effects of temperature and pressure on the cell discharge profiles, we characterize and diagnose the critical roles played by multiple dynamic processes that have hindered implementation of the lithium-oxygen battery. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  7. Selected test results from the LiFeBatt iron phosphate Li-ion battery.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ingersoll, David T.; Hund, Thomas D.

    2008-09-01

    In this paper the performance of the LiFeBatt Li-ion cell was measured using a number of tests including capacity measurements, capacity as a function of temperature, ohmic resistance, spectral impedance, high power partial state of charge (PSOC) pulsed cycling, pulse power measurements, and an over-charge/voltage abuse test. The goal of this work was to evaluate the performance of the iron phosphate Li-ion battery technology for utility applications requiring frequent charges and discharges, such as voltage support, frequency regulation, and wind farm energy smoothing. Test results have indicated that the LiFeBatt battery technology can function up to a 10C{sub 1} discharge rate with minimal energy loss compared to the 1 h discharge rate (1C). The utility PSOC cycle test at up to the 4C{sub 1} pulse rate completed 8,394 PSOC pulsed cycles with a gradual loss in capacity of 10 to 15% depending on how the capacity loss is calculated. The majority of the capacity loss occurred during the initial 2,000 cycles, so it is projected that the LiFeBatt should PSOC cycle well beyond 8,394 cycles with less than 20% capacity loss. The DC ohmic resistance and AC spectral impedance measurements also indicate that there were only very small changes after cycling. Finally, at a 1C charge rate, the over charge/voltage abuse test resulted in the cell venting electrolyte at 110 C after 30 minutes and then open-circuiting at 120 C with no sparks, fire, or voltage across the cell.

  8. Graphene-based battery electrodes having continuous flow paths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiguang; Xiao, Jie; Liu, Jun; Xu, Wu; Li, Xiaolin; Wang, Deyu

    2014-05-24

    Some batteries can exhibit greatly improved performance by utilizing electrodes having randomly arranged graphene nanosheets forming a network of channels defining continuous flow paths through the electrode. The network of channels can provide a diffusion pathway for the liquid electrolyte and/or for reactant gases. Metal-air batteries can benefit from such electrodes. In particular Li-air batteries show extremely high capacities, wherein the network of channels allow oxygen to diffuse through the electrode and mesopores in the electrode can store discharge products.

  9. Analysis of effective pulse current charging method for lithium ion battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majid, N.; Hafiz, S.; Arianto, S.; Yuono, R. Y.; Astuti, E. T.; Prihandoko, B.

    2017-04-01

    Pulse charging methods has been developed as one of the fast charging methods for Lithium ion battery. This technique applies the continuous constant current pulse with certain pulse width until the battery fully charged. In this research, four Lithium polymer batteries of same type and capacity were used and subjected by several current pulses as a variable. The phenomenon of capacity loss as an effect of charging method was analysed every ten charge-discharge cycles. Four batteries were charged using constant current (1C) for 30 minutes to fill half of the total capacity, which then continued by pulse current of different pulse width in order to reach full capacity of each battery. Constant current charging for one hour was also applied to each battery as a comparison with that of pulse current charging data. The similar degradation patterns on battery capacity were observed. Nevertheless, the percentage of capacity loss is different. In conclusion, this method can be considered as one of the effective charging method, owing to the smallest capacity loss and shorter charging time.

  10. Nanomaterials for sodium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Cao, Yuliang; Xiao, Lifen; Yang, Zhenguo; Wang, Wei; Choi, Daiwon; Nie, Zimin

    2015-05-05

    A crystalline nanowire and method of making a crystalline nanowire are disclosed. The method includes dissolving a first nitrate salt and a second nitrate salt in an acrylic acid aqueous solution. An initiator is added to the solution, which is then heated to form polyacrylatyes. The polyacrylates are dried and calcined. The nanowires show high reversible capacity, enhanced cycleability, and promising rate capability for a battery or capacitor.

  11. Ex-situ and in-situ observations of the effects of gamma radiation on lithium ion battery performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Chuting; Bashian, Nicholas H.; Hemmelgarn, Chase W.; Thio, Wesley J.; Lyons, Daniel J.; Zheng, Yuan F.; Cao, Lei R.; Co, Anne C.

    2017-07-01

    Radiation effects induced by gamma rays on battery performance were investigated by measuring the capacity and resistance of a series of battery coin cells in-situ directly under gamma radiation and ex-situ. An experimental setup was developed to charge and discharge batteries directly under gamma radiation, equipped with precise temperature control, at The Ohio State University Nuclear Reactor Lab. Latent effects induced by gamma radiation on battery components directly influence their performance. Charge and discharge capacity and overall resistance throughout a time span of several weeks post irradiation were monitored and compared to control groups. It was found that exposure to gamma radiation does not significantly alter the available capacity and the overall cell resistance immediately, however, battery performance significantly decreases with time post irradiation. Also, batteries exposed to a higher cumulative dose showed close-to-zero capacity at two-week post irradiation.

  12. Utility Battery Storage Systems Program plan: FY 1994--FY 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    The Utility Battery Storage Systems Program, sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE), is addressing needed improvements so that the full benefits of these systems can be realized. A key element of the Program is the quantification of the benefits of batteries used in utility applications. The analyses of the applications and benefits are ongoing, but preliminary results indicate that the widespread introduction of battery storage by utilities could benefit the US economy by more than $26 billion by 2010 and create thousands of new jobs. Other critical elements of the DOE Program focus on improving the batteries, power electronics, and control subsystems and reducing their costs. These subsystems are then integrated and the systems undergo field evaluation. Finally, the most important element of the Program is the communication of the capabilities and benefits of battery systems to utility companies. Justifiably conservative, utilities must have proven, reliable equipment that is economical before they can adopt new technologies. While several utilities are leading the industry by demonstrating battery systems, a key task of the DOE program is to inform the entire industry of the value, characteristics, and availability of utility battery systems so that knowledgeable decisions can be made regarding future investments. This program plan for the DOE Utility Battery Storage Systems Program describes the technical and programmatic activities needed to bring about the widespread use of batteries by utilities. By following this plan, the DOE anticipates that many of the significant national benefits from battery storage will be achieved in the near future.

  13. Novel Field Test Equipment for Lithium-Ion Batteries in Hybrid Electrical Vehicle Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran Lindbergh

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Lifetime testing of batteries for hybrid-electrical vehicles (HEV is usually performed in the lab, either at the cell, module or battery pack level. Complementary field tests of battery packs in vehicles are also often performed. There are, however, difficulties related to field testing of battery-packs. Some examples are cost issues and the complexity of continuously collecting battery performance data, such as capacity fade and impedance increase. In this paper, a novel field test equipment designed primarily for lithium-ion battery cell testing is presented. This equipment is intended to be used on conventional vehicles, not hybrid vehicles, as a cheaper and faster field testing method for batteries, compared to full scale HEV testing. The equipment emulates an HEV environment for the tested battery cell by using real time vehicle sensor information and the existing starter battery as load and source. In addition to the emulated battery cycling, periodical capacity and pulse testing capability are implemented as well. This paper begins with presenting some background information about hybrid electrical vehicles and describing the limitations with today’s HEV battery testing. Furthermore, the functionality of the test equipment is described in detail and, finally, results from verification of the equipment are presented and discussed.

  14. Hierarchical N-Rich Carbon Sponge with Excellent Cycling Performance for Lithium-Sulfur Battery at High Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhen, Mengmeng; Wang, Juan; Wang, Xin; Wang, Cheng

    2018-04-17

    Lithium-sulfur batteries (LSBs) are receiving extensive attention because of their high theoretical energy density. However, practical applications of LSBs are still hindered by their rapid capacity decay and short cycle life, especially at high rates. Herein, a highly N-doped (≈13.42 at %) hierarchical carbon sponge (HNCS) with strong chemical adsorption for lithium polysulfide is fabricated through a simple sol-gel route followed by carbonization. Upon using the HNCS as the sulfur host material in the cathode and an HNCS-coated separator, the battery delivers an excellent cycling stability with high specific capacities of 424 and 326 mA h g -1 and low capacity fading rates of 0.033 % and 0.030 % per cycle after 1000 cycles under high rates of 5 and 10 C, respectively, which are superior to those of other reported carbonaceous materials. These impressive cycling performances indicate that such a battery could promote the practical application prospects of LSBs. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Testing Conducted for Lithium-Ion Cell and Battery Verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Concha M.; Miller, Thomas B.; Manzo, Michelle A.

    2004-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center has been conducting in-house testing in support of NASA's Lithium-Ion Cell Verification Test Program, which is evaluating the performance of lithium-ion cells and batteries for NASA mission operations. The test program is supported by NASA's Office of Aerospace Technology under the NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Systems Program, which serves to bridge the gap between the development of technology advances and the realization of these advances into mission applications. During fiscal year 2003, much of the in-house testing effort focused on the evaluation of a flight battery originally intended for use on the Mars Surveyor Program 2001 Lander. Results of this testing will be compared with the results for similar batteries being tested at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, the Air Force Research Laboratory, and the Naval Research Laboratory. Ultimately, this work will be used to validate lithium-ion battery technology for future space missions. The Mars Surveyor Program 2001 Lander battery was characterized at several different voltages and temperatures before life-cycle testing was begun. During characterization, the battery displayed excellent capacity and efficiency characteristics across a range of temperatures and charge/discharge conditions. Currently, the battery is undergoing lifecycle testing at 0 C and 40-percent depth of discharge under low-Earth-orbit (LEO) conditions.

  16. Metallocene-based nanocomposites as cathode materials in lithium batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prakash, Raju; Wall, Clemens; Fichtner, Maximilian [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute of Nanotechnology, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Lithium-ion batteries have been the most utilized batteries in the portable electronic market since many years. But their performance still lies behind the demands of the consumer. New electrode materials with high specific capacities are necessary to meet these demands. Metal fluorides have high theoretical specific capacity based on a novel conversion mechanism, making them promising cathode materials for high performance lithium-ion batteries. However, the metal fluoride cathodes are still hampered by loss of capacity and cyclic instability. Hence, a new approach such as encapsulation of active materials in nanotubes or carbon-coating, etc. is needed in order to improve their performance. Herein, we present a simple method based on the thermal decomposition of a metallocene/LiF mixture to produce inexpensive cathode materials which exhibit a good cyclic stability and reversibility. The detailed structural investigations of the nanocomposites as well as their electrochemical performances are presented.

  17. Application of PVDF composite for lithium-ion battery separator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabrina, Q.; Majid, N.; Prihandoko, B.

    2016-01-01

    In this study a composite observed in PVDF composite as lithium ion battery separator. Observation of performance cell battery with cyclic voltametry and charge discharge capacity. Surface morphology PVDF separator and commercial separator observed with Scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Cyclic Voltamerty test (CV) and Charge Discharge (CD) showed a capacity value on the coin cell. Coin cell is composed of material LiFePO 4 cathode, anode material of lithium metal and varies as graphite, liquid electrolyte varied use LiBOB and LiPF 6 . While the PVDF as compared to the commercial separator. Coin cell commercial separator has a better high capacity value when compared with Coin cell with the PVDF separator. Life cycle coin cell with the commercial separator material is still longer than coin cell separator with PVDF Copolymer. Development of PVDF as separator remains to be done in order to improve the performance of the battery exceeds the usage of commercial material. (paper)

  18. Hollow Nanostructured Anode Materials for Li-Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Jun

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Hollow nanostructured anode materials lie at the heart of research relating to Li-ion batteries, which require high capacity, high rate capability, and high safety. The higher capacity and higher rate capability for hollow nanostructured anode materials than that for the bulk counterparts can be attributed to their higher surface area, shorter path length for Li+ transport, and more freedom for volume change, which can reduce the overpotential and allow better reaction kinetics at the electrode surface. In this article, we review recent research activities on hollow nanostructured anode materials for Li-ion batteries, including carbon materials, metals, metal oxides, and their hybrid materials. The major goal of this review is to highlight some recent progresses in using these hollow nanomaterials as anode materials to develop Li-ion batteries with high capacity, high rate capability, and excellent cycling stability.

  19. A Novel Electric Bicycle Battery Monitoring System Based on Android Client

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanxue Song

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The battery monitoring system (BMS plays a crucial role in maintaining the safe operation of the lithium battery electric bicycle and prolonging the life of the battery pack. This paper designed a set of new battery monitoring systems based on the Android system and ARM single-chip microcomputer to enable direct management of the lithium battery pack and convenient monitoring of the state of the battery pack. The BMS realizes the goal of monitoring the voltage, current, and ambient temperature of lithium batteries, estimating the state of charge (SOC and state of health (SOH, protecting the battery from abuse during charging or discharging, and ensuring the consistency of the batteries by integrating the passive equalization circuit. The BMS was proven effective and feasible through several tests, including charging/discharging, estimation accuracy, and communication tests. The results indicated that the BMS could be used in the design and application of the electric bicycle.

  20. A rechargeable Na-Zn hybrid aqueous battery fabricated with nickel hexacyanoferrate and nanostructured zinc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ke; Song, Bin; Zhang, Jintao; Ma, Houyi

    2016-07-01

    Rechargeable aqueous batteries are very attractive as a promising alternative energy storage system, although their reversible capacity is typically limited. A new rechargeable Na-Zn hybrid aqueous battery with nickel hexacyanoferrate (NiHCF) cathode and the nanostructured zinc anode is fabricated. The rational combination of two materials with mild aqueous electrolyte renders the devices with an average operating voltage close to 1.5 V, higher specific capacity of 76.2 mAh g-1, and a good cycling stability with 81% capacity retention for 1000 cycles. These remarkable features can provide guidance for the development of rechargeable batteries from the naturally abundant electrode materials with neutral aqueous electrolytes.

  1. Rechargable Lithium-Air Batteries: Investigation of Redox Mediators Using DEMS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mathias Kjærgård; Storm, Mie Møller; Norby, Poul

    2016-01-01

    The rechargeable aprotic lithium-air battery is a promising technology that offers high theoretical energy density of as much 10 times the capacity of current Li-ion batteries. This type of battery technology differs from conventional batteries because of the gas exchange during discharge....../charge cycling. Characterizing the gas content during charge using Differential Electrochemical Mass Spectroscopy (DEMS) allows for in-situ characterization of chemistry in the battery. Using our DEMS setup we have investigated different cathode materials for lithium-air batteries. A carbon black cathode...... material or electrolyte is being decomposed. This is also seen with Thermally reduced Graphene Oxide (TrGO). The graphene based cathode is interesting as it exhibits a high surface area which in turn increases capacity. Using the additive LiI, functioning as a redox mediator, the discharge curve remains...

  2. Melt impregnation as a post processing treatment for performance enhancement in high capacity 3D microporous tin-copper-nickel intermetallic anode for Li-ion battery supported by electrodeposited nickel scaffold: A structural study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Srijan; Patra, Arghya; Mitra, Arijit; Jena, Sambedan; Das, Karabi; Majumder, Subhasish Basu; Das, Siddhartha

    2018-05-01

    This paper communicates stabilization of a Sn anode by impregnating it within the porous framework of a Ni-scaffold. The impregnation is carried out by electrodeposition Sn on Ni-foam followed by heating at 300 °C for 1 h. The Ni-foam was also electrodeposited on a Cu foil prior to deposition of Sn. The melting step leads to the formation of Nisbnd Sn and Cusbnd Sn intermetallics within pores of the Ni-scaffold. Snsbnd Cu/Ni intermetallics lithiate following the active-inactive strategy in which the inactive Cu/Ni buffers the volume expansion while Sn lithiates. Furthermore, this entire process takes place within Ni-scaffold which resists material pulverization and delamination and provide better electronic pathway for charge transfer. This active-inactive Sn:Snsbnd Cu/Ni intermetallic within a protected Ni-scaffold assembly results in 100th cycle discharge capacity of 587.9 mA h/g at a rate of 500 mA/g (0.5 C), and superior rate capability delivering 463 mAh/g at a rate of 2 A/g (2 C) while retaining structural integrity as compared to pure Sn electrodeposited (without heat-treatment) on the nickel scaffold.

  3. Battery Aging and Its Influence on the Electromotive Force

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pop, V.; Bergveld, H.J.; Regtien, Paulus P.L.; Op het Veld, J.H.G.

    2007-01-01

    Li-ion is currently the most commonly used battery chemistry in portable applications. Accurate state-of-charge (SOC) and remaining run-time indication for portable devices is important for user convenience and to prolong the lifetime of batteries. The actual SOC algorithms, which the main companies

  4. Battery Technology Stores Clean Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Headquartered in Fremont, California, Deeya Energy Inc. is now bringing its flow batteries to commercial customers around the world after working with former Marshall Space Flight Center scientist, Lawrence Thaller. Deeya's liquid-cell batteries have higher power capability than Thaller's original design, are less expensive than lead-acid batteries, are a clean energy alternative, and are 10 to 20 times less expensive than nickel-metal hydride batteries, lithium-ion batteries, and fuel cell options.

  5. Anodematerials for Metal Hydride Batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens Oluf

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the work on development of hydride forming alloys for use as electrode materials in metal hydride batteries. The work has primarily been concentrated on calcium based alloys derived from the compound CaNi5. This compound has a higher capacity compared with alloys used in today...... was developed. The parameters milling time, milling intensity, number of balls and form of the alloying metals were investigated. Based on this a final alloying technique for the subsequent preparation of electrode materials was established. The technique comprises milling for 4 hours twice possibly followed...... by annealing at 700°C for 12 hours. The alloys appeared to be nanocrystalline with an average crystallite size around 10 nm before annealing. Special steel containers was developed for the annealing of the metal powders in inert atmosphere. The use of various annealing temperatures was investigated...

  6. Supported liquid membrane battery separators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pemsler, J. P.; Dempsey, M. D.

    1984-07-01

    The feasibility of using a supported liquid membrane (SLM) as a separator in the nickel-zinc battery was investigated. In particular, SLM separators should prevent zinc dendirte growth from shorting out the cell and might also alleviate capacity loss due to zinc electrode shape changes. A number of ion exchange/solvent modifier systems for incorporation into SLMs were developed under a previous LBL contract. SLMs prepared with hese reagents exhibited resistances in the range of 0.4 to 10 ohm sq cm, selectivity transported hydroxyl ions over zincate ions by a factor of 10 to the 6th power to 10 to the 7th power, and possessed electrochemical and chemical stability in alkaline electrolytes. In order to evaluate these SLM separators under conditions closely resembling a commercial Ni-Zn cell, an accelerated cycle life test was devised using commercial electrodes.

  7. Adaptive State of Charge Estimation for Li-Ion Batteries Based on an Unscented Kalman Filter with an Enhanced Battery Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanyuan Liu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Accurate estimation of the state of charge (SOC of batteries is one of the key problems in a battery management system. This paper proposes an adaptive SOC estimation method based on unscented Kalman filter algorithms for lithium (Li-ion batteries. First, an enhanced battery model is proposed to include the impacts due to different discharge rates and temperatures. An adaptive joint estimation of the battery SOC and battery internal resistance is then presented to enhance system robustness with battery aging. The SOC estimation algorithm has been developed and verified through experiments on different types of Li-ion batteries. The results indicate that the proposed method provides an accurate SOC estimation and is computationally efficient, making it suitable for embedded system implementation.

  8. Radioluminescent nuclear batteries with different phosphor layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Liang; Tang, Xiao-Bin; Xu, Zhi-Heng; Liu, Yun-Peng; Chen, Da

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We present and test the electrical properties of the nuclear battery. • The best thickness range for ZnS:Cu phosphor layer is 12–14 mg cm −2 for 147 Pm radioisotope. • The best thickness range for Y 2 O 2 S:Eu phosphor layer is 17–21 mg cm −2147 Pm radioisotope. • The battery with ZnS:Cu phosphor layer can provide higher energy conversion efficiency. • The mechanism affecting the nuclear battery output performance is revealed. - Abstract: A radioluminescent nuclear battery based on the beta radioluminescence of phosphors is presented, and which consists of 147 Pm radioisotope, phosphor layers, and GaAs photovoltaic cell. ZnS:Cu and Y 2 O 2 S:Eu phosphor layers for various thickness were fabricated. To investigate the effect of phosphor layer parameters on the battery, the electrical properties were measured. Results indicate that the optimal thickness ranges for the ZnS:Cu and Y 2 O 2 S:Eu phosphor layers are 12 mg cm −2 to 14 mg cm −2 and 17 mg cm −2 to 21 mg cm −2 , respectively. ZnS:Cu phosphor layer exhibits higher fluorescence efficiency compared with the Y 2 O 2 S:Eu phosphor layer. Its spectrum properly matches the spectral response of GaAs photovoltaic cell. As a result, the battery with ZnS:Cu phosphor layer indicates higher energy conversion efficiency than that with Y 2 O 2 S:Eu phosphor layer. Additionally, the mechanism of the phosphor layer parameters that influence the output performance of the battery is discussed through the Monte Carlo method and transmissivity test

  9. Understanding the molecular mechanism of pulse current charging for stable lithium-metal batteries

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Qi; Tan, Shen; Li, Linlin; Lu, Yingying; He, Yi

    2017-01-01

    High energy and safe electrochemical storage are critical components in multiple emerging fields of technologies. Rechargeable lithium-metal batteries are considered to be promising alternatives for current lithium-ion batteries, leading to as much as a 10-fold improvement in anode storage capacity (from 372 to 3860 mAh g?1). One of the major challenges for commercializing lithium-metal batteries is the reliability and safety issue, which is often associated with uneven lithium electrodeposit...

  10. Next-generation batteries and fuel cells for commercial, military, and space applications

    CERN Document Server

    Jha, A R

    2012-01-01

    Distilling complex theoretical physical concepts into an understandable technical framework, Next-Generation Batteries and Fuel Cells for Commercial, Military, and Space Applications describes primary and secondary (rechargeable) batteries for various commercial, military, spacecraft, and satellite applications for covert communications, surveillance, and reconnaissance missions. It emphasizes the cost, reliability, longevity, and safety of the next generation of high-capacity batteries for applications where high energy density, minimum weight and size, and reliability in harsh conditions are

  11. Nickel-hydrogen battery design for the Transporter Energy Storage Subsystem (TESS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapinski, John R.; Bourland, Deborah S.

    1992-01-01

    Information is given in viewgraph form on nickel hydrogen battery design for the transporter energy storage subsystem (TESS). Information is given on use in the Space Station Freedom, the launch configuration, use in the Mobile Servicing Center, battery design requirements, TESS subassembley design, proof of principle testing of a 6-cell battery, possible downsizing of TESS to support the Mobile Rocket Servicer Base System (MBS) redesign, TESS output capacity, and cell testing.

  12. Modelling Inductive Charging of Battery Electric Vehicles using an Agent-Based Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Ul Abedin, Zain; Waraich, Rashid Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    The introduction of battery electric vehicles (BEVs) could help to reduce dependence on fossil fuels and emissions from transportation and as such increase energy security and foster sustainable use of energy resources. However a major barrier to the introduction of BEVs is their limited battery capacity and long charging durations. To address these issues of BEVs several solutions are proposed such as battery swapping and fast charging stations. However apart from these stationary modes of c...

  13. Optimization of reserve lithium thionyl chloride battery electrochemical design parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doddapaneni, N.; Godshall, N.A.

    1987-01-01

    The performance of Reserve Lithium Thionyl Chloride (RLTC) batteries was optimized by conducting a parametric study of seven electrochemical parameters: electrode compression, carbon thickness, presence of catalyst, temperature, electrode limitation, discharge rate, and electrolyte acidity. Increasing electrode compression (from 0 to 15%) improved battery performance significantly (10% greater carbon capacity density). Although thinner carbon cathodes yielded less absolute capacity than did thicker cathodes, they did so with considerably higher volume efficiencies. The effect of these parameters, and their synergistic interactions, on electrochemical cell peformance is illustrated. 5 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Optimization of reserve lithium thionyl chloride battery electrochemical design parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doddapaneni, N.; Godshall, N. A.

    The performance of Reserve Lithium Thionyl Chloride (RLTC) batteries was optimized by conducting a parametric study of seven electrochemical parameters: electrode compression, carbon thickness, presence of catalyst, temperature, electrode limitation, discharge rate, and electrolyte acidity. Increasing electrode compression (from 0 to 15 percent) improved battery performance significantly (10 percent greater carbon capacity density). Although thinner carbon cathodes yielded less absolute capacity than did thicker cathodes, they did so with considerably higher volume efficiencies. The effect of these parameters, and their synergistic interactions, on electrochemical cell performance is illustrated.

  15. Battery with a microcorrugated, microthin sheet of highly porous corroded metal

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaFollette, Rodney M.

    2005-09-27

    Microthin sheet technology is disclosed by which superior batteries are constructed which, among other things, accommodate the requirements for high load rapid discharge and recharge, mandated by electric vehicle criteria. The microthin sheet technology has process and article overtones and can be used to form thin electrodes used in batteries of various kinds and types, such as spirally-wound batteries, bipolar batteries, lead acid batteries silver/zinc batteries, and others. Superior high performance battery features include: (a) minimal ionic resistance; (b) minimal electronic resistance; (c) minimal polarization resistance to both charging and discharging; (d) improved current accessibility to active material of the electrodes; (e) a high surface area to volume ratio; (f) high electrode porosity (microporosity); (g) longer life cycle; (h) superior discharge/recharge characteristics; (i) higher capacities (A.multidot.hr); and (j) high specific capacitance.

  16. Storage of a lithium-ion secondary battery under micro-gravity conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sone, Yoshitsugu; Ooto, Hiroki; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Eguro, Takashi; Sakai, Shigeru; Yoshida, Teiji; Takahashi, Keiji; Uno, Masatoshi; Hirose, Kazuyuki; Tajima, Michio; Kawaguchi, Jun'ichiro

    'HAYABUSA' is a Japanese inter-planetary spacecraft built for the exploration of an asteroid named 'ITOKAWA.' The spacecraft is powered by a 13.2 Ah lithium-ion secondary battery. To realize maximum performance of the battery for long flight operation, the state-of-charge (SOC) of the battery was maintained at ca. 65% during storage, in case it is required for a loss of attitude control. The capacity of the battery was measured during flight operations. Along with the operation in orbit, a ground-test battery was discharged, and both results showed a good agreement. This result confirmed that the performance of the lithium-ion secondary battery stored under micro-gravity conditions is predictable using a ground-test battery.

  17. Aging in chemically prepared divalent silver oxide electrodes for silver/zinc reserve batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David F.; Brown, Curtis

    The instability of silver(II) oxide electrodes used in silver/zinc reserve batteries is the well known cause of capacity loss and delayed activation in reserve batteries after they are stored in the dry, unactivated state for extended periods of time. Metal contaminants in sintered/electroformed electrodes destabilize the oxide and the solid state reaction between AgO and elemental silver results in the formation of the lower capacity monovalent oxide Ag 2O. Chemically prepared (CP) AgO can be used to avoid the metal contaminants and to minimize the interfacial contact area between AgO and Ag, thus minimizing the affects of aging on the electrodes. Electrodes were fabricated with CP AgO and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) binder and expanded silver metal current collectors. Experimentally, both electrode active material compacts (AgO and binder only) and electrodes complete with AgO/binder and silver current collector were tested to evaluate the influence of the current collector on aging. The electrode samples were discharged at a constant rate of 50 mA cm -2 before and after storage at 60°C for 21 days as well as after storage at room ambient temperature conditions for 91 months. The results indicate that the affects of aging upon the AgO/binder compacts are insignificant for long term storage at room temperature. However, thermally accelerated aging at high temperature (60°C) affects both transient and stabilized load voltage as well as capacity. In terms of capacity, the AgO/binder mix itself looses about 5% capacity after 21 days dry storage at 60°C while electrodes complete with current collector loose about 8%. The 60% increase in capacity loss is attributed to the solid state reaction between AgO and elemental silver.

  18. W-Doped Li7La3Zr2O12 Ceramic Electrolytes for Solid State Li-ion Batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yiqiu; Wang, Zheng; Cao, Yang; Du, Fuming; Chen, Cheng; Cui, Zhonghui; Guo, Xiangxin

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • W Substitution for Zr stabilizes the cubic phase of LLZO grains. • W dopant improves the density of LLZO ceramics. • The LLZWO ceramics are chemically and electrochemically stable against Li. • The Li/LLZWO/Electrolyte-soaked separator/NMC batteries show good rechargeable performance. - Abstract: W-doped Li 7 La 3 Zr 2 O 12 electrolytes with composition of Li 7-2x La 3 Zr 2-x W x O 12 (LLZWO, x = 0-0.55) were prepared by conventional solid state reaction. The incorporation of W proves beneficial to stabilization of cubic phase and densification of the ceramic, resulting in relative density of 96% and ionic conductivity of 6.6 × 10 −4 S cm −1 at 25 °C. Further analysis indicates that the LLZWO is not only chemically but also electrochemically (at least up to 4.5 V) stable against Li metal anodes. The batteries consisting of Li/LLZWO/Electrolyte-soaked separator/LiNi 0.33 Mn 0.33 Co 0.33 O 2 at 25 °C exhibit the capacity of 142 mAh g −1 at a constant current of 15 mA g −1 at the first discharge, which could run for 20 cycles with capacity retention of 94%. These results indicate that the W-doped LLZO ceramics are promising electrolytes for solid state lithium ion batteries.

  19. Physical fitness and future cardiovascular risk in argentine children and adolescents: an introduction to the ALPHA test battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secchi, Jeremías David; García, Gastón César; España-Romero, Vanesa; Castro-Piñero, José

    2014-04-01

    A high level of physical fitness is associated with cardiovascular health in children and adolescents. At present, there is no systematic implementation of a test battery to assess physical fitness at schools in Argentina. The main objective of this study was to implement the ALPHA test battery to determine the physical fitness of a sample made up of Argentine children and adolescents and to establish the proportion of subjects whose aerobic capacity is indicative of future cardiovascular risk. A sample of 1867 participants (967 girls) aged 6 to 19.5 years old assessed using the ALPHA test battery. Four components of physical fitness were measured: 1) morphological component: height, body weight, and waist circumference; 2) musculoskeletal component: standing long jump test; 3) motor component: speed/agility test (4x10 m shuttle run); 4) cardiorespiratory component: course-navette 20 m, shuttle run test and estimation of maximal oxygen consumption. The 5th, 25th, 50th, 75th, and 95th percentiles were estimated for the main tests. The mean body mass index was 20.8 kg/m2, and 7.8% of participants were classified as obese. In ddition, male participants had a better performance in all physical fitness tests when compared to girls (pphysical fitness. Such differences increase with age. Approximately one every three participants had an aerobic capacity indicative of future cardiovascular risk.

  20. Thermal characteristics of Lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser, Dan

    2004-01-01

    (ARC), which uses a heat-wait-search mode until an exothermic reaction is detected. After an exotherm is found the calorimeter maintains an adiabatic environment around a bomb which holds the test sample. The ARC will help identify important reactions and what temperature these exothermic reactions take place at. In order fully understand the battery, we are first going to take apart the battery and test the individual components of the battery using the ARC. I will first conduct a test on the electrolyte solution by itself. We will then test the electrolyte solution with the anode. We would like to see how the electrolyte solution reacts with the anode and its binder material. The next would be the same test using the cathode instead of the anode. By comparing the results of the electrolyte, electrolyte with anode, and the electrolyte with the cathode we can determine the reactions that are taking place due to each component. Using the heat capacity of the each individual sample and the temperature by which the sample increases, kinetic and thermo-dynamical information can then be found. A Gas chromatograph could be used to help with the task of identifying the by-products at the end of each test. One way of increasing the cycle life is to increase the stability of the materials inside the

  1. Nickel-iron battery system safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltat, R. C.

    1984-06-01

    Eagle-Picher Industries conducted a literature search and experimental tests to characterize the generated flow rates of gaseous hydrogen (GH2) and gaseous oxygen (GO2) from an electrical vehicle (EV) nickel iron battery system. The resulting gassing rates were used to experimentally evaluate the flame quenching capabilities of several candidate devices to prevent the propagation of flame within batteries having central watering/venting systems. The battery generated hydrogen (GH2) and oxygen (GO2) gasses were measured for a complete charge and discharge cycle. The data correlates well with accepted theory during strong overcharge conditions indicating that the measurements are valid for other portions of the cycle. Tests have confirmed that the gas mixture in the cells is always flammable regardless of the battery status. Research of flame arrestor literature yielded little information regarding their operation with hydrogen-oxygen mixtures. It was indicated that a conventional flame arrestor would not be effective over the broad spectrum of gassing conditions presented by a nickel iron battery.

  2. New insight into the discharge mechanism of silicon-air batteries using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Gil; Eichel, Rüdiger A; Ein-Eli, Yair

    2013-03-07

    The mechanism of discharge termination in silicon-air batteries, employing a silicon wafer anode, a room-temperature fluorohydrogenate ionic liquid electrolyte and an air cathode membrane, is investigated using a wide range of tools. EIS studies indicate that the interfacial impedance between the electrolyte and the silicon wafer increases upon continuous discharge. In addition, it is shown that the impedance of the air cathode-electrolyte interface is several orders of magnitude lower than that of the anode. Equivalent circuit fitting parameters indicate the difference in the anode-electrolyte interface characteristics for different types of silicon wafers. Evolution of porous silicon surfaces at the anode and their properties, by means of estimated circuit parameters, is also presented. Moreover, it is found that the silicon anode potential has the highest negative impact on the battery discharge voltage, while the air cathode potential is actually stable and invariable along the whole discharge period. The discharge capacity of the battery can be increased significantly by mechanically replacing the silicon anode.

  3. CuO nanorods/graphene nanocomposites for high-performance lithium-ion battery anodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Qi; Zhao, Jun; Shan, Wanfei; Xia, Xinbei; Xing, Lili; Xue, Xinyu

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • CuO/GNS nanocomposites are synthesized by a hydrothermal method. • CuO/GNSs as LIB anodes exhibit much higher cyclability and capacity than CuO nanostructures. • Such excellent performances can be attributed to the synergistic effect between CuO and GNSs. -- Abstract: CuO/graphene nanocomposites are synthesized by a hydrothermal method, and their application as anodes of lithium-ion batteries has been investigated. CuO nanorods are uniformly coating on the surface of graphene nanosheets. CuO/graphene nanocomposites exhibit high cyclability and capacity. After 50 cycles, the capacity can maintain at 692.5 mA h g −1 at 0.1 C rate (10 h per half cycle). Such a high performance can be attributed to the synergistic effect between graphene nanosheets and CuO nanorods. The present results indicate that CuO/graphene nanocomposites have potential applications in the anodes of lithium-ion battery

  4. Preparation and Characterisation of LiFePO4/CNT Material for Li-Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rushanah Mohamed

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Li-ion battery cathode materials were synthesised via a mechanical activation and thermal treatment process and systematically studied. LiFePO4/CNT composite cathode materials were successfully prepared from LiFePO4 material. The synthesis technique involved growth of carbon nanotubes onto the LiFePO4 using a novel spray pyrolysis-modified CVD technique. The technique yielded LiFePO4/CNT composite cathode material displaying good electrochemical activity. The composite cathode exhibited excellent electrochemical performances with 163 mAh/g discharge capacity with 94% cycle efficiency at a 0.1 C discharge rate in the first cycle, with a capacity fade of approximately 10% after 30 cycles. The results indicate that carbon nanotube addition can enable LiFePO4 to display a higher discharge capacity at a fast rate with high efficiency. The research is of potential interest for the application of carbon nanotubes as a new conducting additive in cathode preparation and for the development of high-power Li-ion batteries for hybrid electric vehicles.

  5. CuO nanorods/graphene nanocomposites for high-performance lithium-ion battery anodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Qi; Zhao, Jun; Shan, Wanfei; Xia, Xinbei; Xing, Lili; Xue, Xinyu, E-mail: xuexinyu@mail.neu.edu.cn

    2014-03-25

    Highlights: • CuO/GNS nanocomposites are synthesized by a hydrothermal method. • CuO/GNSs as LIB anodes exhibit much higher cyclability and capacity than CuO nanostructures. • Such excellent performances can be attributed to the synergistic effect between CuO and GNSs. -- Abstract: CuO/graphene nanocomposites are synthesized by a hydrothermal method, and their application as anodes of lithium-ion batteries has been investigated. CuO nanorods are uniformly coating on the surface of graphene nanosheets. CuO/graphene nanocomposites exhibit high cyclability and capacity. After 50 cycles, the capacity can maintain at 692.5 mA h g{sup −1} at 0.1 C rate (10 h per half cycle). Such a high performance can be attributed to the synergistic effect between graphene nanosheets and CuO nanorods. The present results indicate that CuO/graphene nanocomposites have potential applications in the anodes of lithium-ion battery.

  6. Advancement of technology towards developing Na-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamesh, Mohammed Ibrahim; Prakash, A. S.

    2018-02-01

    The Na-ion-batteries are considered much attention for the next-generation power-sources due to the high abundance of Na resources that lower the cost and become the alternative for the state of the art Li-ion batteries in future. In this review, the recently reported potential cathode and anode candidates for Na-ion-batteries are identified in-light-of-their high-performance for the development of Na-ion-full-cells. Further, the recent-progress on the Na-ion full-cells including the strategies used to improve the high cycling-performance (stable even up-to 50000 cycles), operating voltage (even ≥ 3.7 V), capacity (>350 mAhg-1 even at 1000 mAg-1 (based-on-mass-of-the-anode)), and energy density (even up-to 400 Whkg-1) are reviewed. In addition, Na-ion-batteries with the electrodes containing reduced graphene oxide, and the recent developments on symmetric Na-ion-batteries are discussed. Further, this paper identifies the promising Na-ion-batteries including the strategies used to assemble full-cell using hard-carbon-anodes, Na3V2(PO4)3 cathodes, and other-electrode-materials. Then, comparison between aqueous and non-aqueous Na-ion-batteries in terms of voltage and energy density has been given. Later, various types of electrolytes used for Na-ion-batteries including aqueous, non-aqueous, ionic-liquids and solid-state electrolytes are discussed. Finally, commercial and technological-developments on Na-ion-batteries are provided. The scientific and engineering knowledge gained on Na-ion-batteries afford conceivable development for practical application in near future.

  7. Interface-Induced Renormalization of Electrolyte Energy Levels in Magnesium Batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumar, Nitin; Siegel, Donald J.

    2016-01-01

    A promising strategy for increasing the energy density of Li-ion batteries is to substitute a multivalent (MV) metal for the commonly used lithiated carbon anode. Magnesium is a prime candidate for such a MV battery due to its high volumetric capacity, abundance, and limited tendency to form...

  8. Calendar Ageing of LiFePO4/C Batteries in the Second Life Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Stroe, Daniel-Ioan; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2017-01-01

    of the battery systems in the second life application are still unknown what brings significant economic risk and hinders second life battery usage. This work investigates the capacity and power degradation of the 2.5Ah nanophosphate LiFePO4/C cells under different the second life calendar ageing regimes....

  9. Application of battery-based storage systems in household-demand smoothening in electricity-distribution grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purvins, Arturs; Papaioannou, Ioulia T.; Debarberis, Luigi

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Battery system application in demand smoothening in distribution grids is analysed. ► Five European countries are studied with and without high photovoltaic deployment. ► A sensitivity analysis for different battery system parameters is performed. ► A simple battery system management is sufficient for low demand smoothening. ► More elaborate management is required for high demand smoothening. - Abstract: This article analyses in technical terms the application of battery-based storage systems for household-demand smoothening in electricity-distribution grids. The analysis includes case studies of Denmark, Portugal, Greece, France and Italy. A high penetration of photovoltaic systems in distribution grids is considered as an additional scenario. A sensitivity analysis is performed in order to examine the smoothening effect of daily demand profiles for different configurations of the battery system. In general, battery-storage systems with low rated power and low battery capacity can smooth the demand sufficiently with the aid of a simple management process. For example, with 1 kW of peak demand, a 30–45% decrease in the variability of the daily demand profile can be achieved with a battery system of 0.1 kW rated power and up to 0.6 kW h battery capacity. However, further smoothening requires higher battery-system capacity and power. In this case, more elaborate management is also needed to use the battery system efficiently.

  10. Recent Development of Carbonaceous Materials for Lithium–Sulphur Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingxing Gu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The effects of climate change are just beginning to be felt, and as such, society must work towards strategies of reducing humanity’s impact on the environment. Due to the fact that energy production is one of the primary contributors to greenhouse gas emissions, it is obvious that more environmentally friendly sources of power are required. Technologies such as solar and wind power are constantly being improved through research; however, as these technologies are often sporadic in their power generation, efforts must be made to establish ways to store this sustainable energy when conditions for generation are not ideal. Battery storage is one possible supplement to these renewable energy technologies; however, as current Li-ion technology is reaching its theoretical capacity, new battery technology must be investigated. Lithium–sulphur (Li–S batteries are receiving much attention as a potential replacement for Li-ion batteries due to their superior capacity, and also their abundant and environmentally benign active materials. In the spirit of environmental harm minimization, efforts have been made to use sustainable carbonaceous materials for applications as carbon–sulphur (C–S composite cathodes, carbon interlayers, and carbon-modified separators. This work reports on the various applications of carbonaceous materials applied to Li–S batteries, and provides perspectives for the future development of Li–S batteries with the aim of preparing a high energy density, environmentally friendly, and sustainable sulphur-based cathode with long cycle life.

  11. Aging evaluation of class 1E batteries: Seismic testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edson, J.L. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (USA))

    1990-08-01

    This report presents the results of a seismic testing program on naturally aged class 1E batteries obtained from a nuclear plant. The testing program is a Phase 2 activity resulting from a Phase 1 aging evaluation of class 1E batteries in safety systems of nuclear power plants, performed previously as a part of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Nuclear Plant Aging Research Program and reported in NUREG/CR-4457. The primary purpose of the program was to evaluate the seismic ruggedness of naturally aged batteries to determine if aged batteries could have adequate electrical capacity, as determined by tests recommended by IEEE Standards, and yet have inadequate seismic ruggedness to provide needed electrical power during and after a safe shutdown earthquake (SSE) event. A secondary purpose of the program was to evaluate selected advanced surveillance methods to determine if they were likely to be more sensitive to the aging degradation that reduces seismic ruggedness. The program used twelve batteries naturally aged to about 14 years of age in a nuclear facility and tested them at four different seismic levels representative of the levels of possible earthquakes specified for nuclear plants in the United States. Seismic testing of the batteries did not cause any loss of electrical capacity. 19 refs., 29 figs., 7 tabs.

  12. Lithium use in batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goonan, Thomas G.

    2012-01-01

    Lithium has a number of uses but one of the most valuable is as a component of high energy-density rechargeable lithium-ion batteries. Because of concerns over carbon dioxide footprint and increasing hydrocarbon fuel cost (reduced supply), lithium may become even more important in large batteries for powering all-electric and hybrid vehicles. It would take 1.4 to 3.0 kilograms of lithium equivalent (7.5 to 16.0 kilograms of lithium carbonate) to support a 40-mile trip in an electric vehicle before requiring recharge. This could create a large demand for lithium. Estimates of future lithium demand vary, based on numerous variables. Some of those variables include the potential for recycling, widespread public acceptance of electric vehicles, or the possibility of incentives for converting to lithium-ion-powered engines. Increased electric usage could cause electricity prices to increase. Because of reduced demand, hydrocarbon fuel prices would likely decrease, making hydrocarbon fuel more desirable. In 2009, 13 percent of worldwide lithium reserves, expressed in terms of contained lithium, were reported to be within hard rock mineral deposits, and 87 percent, within brine deposits. Most of the lithium recovered from brine came from Chile, with smaller amounts from China, Argentina, and the United States. Chile also has lithium mineral reserves, as does Australia. Another source of lithium is from recycled batteries. When lithium-ion batteries begin to power vehicles, it is expected that battery recycling rates will increase because vehicle battery recycling systems can be used to produce new lithium-ion batteries.

  13. Station Capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landex, Alex

    2011-01-01

    the probability of conflicts and the minimum headway times into account. The last method analyzes how optimal platform tracks are used by examining the arrival and departure pattern of the trains. The developed methods can either be used separately to analyze specific characteristics of the capacity of a station...

  14. Preparation and Investigation of a Novel Organic Polymer Consisting of 2,2,6,6-Tetramethylpiperidine-N-oxy as a Cathode Active Material in Li-Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emre Biçer

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, a novel organic polymer consisting of 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-N-oxyl group as an electroactive center is employed by synthesizing it from a commercially ready polymer. An investigation on electrochemical and battery properties of this material as a cathode active material in different electrolyte salts was conducted. A coin cell shows a discharge capacity of 40 mAh g−1 at 1 C which is 76% of its theoretical capacity. It is observed that there is no significant decrease in capacity value even at 2 C and 5 C which indicates that it is applicable for the high-power applications. Besides, a good cycle stability is obtained with the organic radical battery.

  15. Advanced Thermo-Adsorptive Battery: Advanced Thermo-Adsorptive Battery Climate Control System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2011-12-31

    HEATS Project: MIT is developing a low-cost, compact, high-capacity, advanced thermoadsorptive battery (ATB) for effective climate control of EVs. The ATB provides both heating and cooling by taking advantage of the materials’ ability to adsorb a significant amount of water. This efficient battery system design could offer up as much as a 30% increase in driving range compared to current EV climate control technology. The ATB provides high-capacity thermal storage with little-to-no electrical power consumption. The ATB is also looking to explore the possibility of shifting peak electricity loads for cooling and heating in a variety of other applications, including commercial and residential buildings, data centers, and telecom facilities.

  16. Trends in the development of radioisotope batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goeldner, R.; Leonhardt, J.W.; Radmaneche, R.; Schlegel, H.

    1978-01-01

    Improved methods for producing radioisotopes by nuclear fuel reprocessing and the rapid development of microelectronics offer new possibilities for utilizing radioisotope batteries. A review is given of the main principles of conversion of decay energy into electric power. The current state of such energy sources is evaluated. Finally, new fields of application and further trends in the development are indicated. (author)

  17. Probing the failure mechanism of nanoscale LiFePO4 for Li-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu, Meng; Yan, Pengfei; Wang, Chongmin; Shi, Wei; Zheng, Jianming; Zhang, Ji-guang

    2015-01-01

    LiFePO 4 is a high power rate cathode material for lithium ion battery and shows remarkable capacity retention, featuring a 91% capacity retention after 3300 cycles. In this work, we use high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and electron energy loss spectroscopy to study the gradual capacity fading mechanism of LiFePO 4 materials. We found that upon prolonged electrochemical cycling of the battery, the LiFePO 4 cathode shows surface amorphization and loss of oxygen species, which directly contribute to the gradual capacity fading of the battery. The finding can guide the design and improvement of LiFePO 4 cathode for high-energy and high-power rechargeable battery for electric transportation

  18. An improved high-performance lithium-air battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Hun-Gi; Hassoun, Jusef; Park, Jin-Bum; Sun, Yang-Kook; Scrosati, Bruno

    2012-07-01

    Although dominating the consumer electronics markets as the power source of choice for popular portable devices, the common lithium battery is not yet suited for use in sustainable electrified road transport. The development of advanced, higher-energy lithium batteries is essential in the rapid establishment of the electric car market. Owing to its exceptionally high energy potentiality, the lithium-air battery is a very appealing candidate for fulfilling this role. However, the performance of such batteries has been limited to only a few charge-discharge cycles with low rate capability. Here, by choosing a suitable stable electrolyte and appropriate cell design, we demonstrate a lithium-air battery capable of operating over many cycles with capacity and rate values as high as 5,000 mAh gcarbon-1 and 3 A gcarbon-1, respectively. For this battery we estimate an energy density value that is much higher than those offered by the currently available lithium-ion battery technology.

  19. Li-ion rechargeable batteries on Mars Exploration Rovers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugga, Ratnakumar; Smart, M.; Whitacanack, L.; Ewell, R.; Surampudi, S.

    2006-01-01

    Lithium-ion batteries have contributed significantly to the success of NASA's Mars Rovers, Spirit and Opportunity that have been exploring the surface of Mars for the last two years and performing astounding geological studies to answer the ever-puzzling questions of life beyond Earth and the origin of our planets. Combined with the triple-junction solar cells, the lithium-ion batteries have been powering the robotic rovers, and assist in keeping the rover electronics warm, and in supporting nighttime experimentation and communications. The use of Li-ion batteries has resulted in significant benefits in several categories, such as mass, volume, energy efficiency, self discharge, and above all low temperature performance. Designed initially for the primary mission needs of 300 cycles over 90 days of surface operation, the batteries have been performing admirably, over the last two years. After about 670 days of exploration and at least as many cycles, there is little change in the end-of discharge (EOD) voltages or capacities of these batteries, as estimated from the in-flight data and corroborated by ground testing. Aided by such impressive durability from the Li-ion batteries, both from cycling and calendar life stand point, these rovers are poised to extend their exploration well beyond two years. In this paper, we will describe the performance characteristics of these batteries during launch, cruise phase and on the surface of Mars thus far.

  20. Solid-state graft copolymer electrolytes for lithium battery applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Qichao; Caputo, Antonio; Sadoway, Donald R

    2013-08-12

    Battery safety has been a very important research area over the past decade. Commercially available lithium ion batteries employ low flash point (battery costs and can malfunction which can lead to battery malfunction and explosions, thus endangering human life. Increases in petroleum prices lead to a huge demand for safe, electric hybrid vehicles that are more economically viable to operate as oil prices continue to rise. Existing organic based electrolytes used in lithium ion batteries are not applicable to high temperature automotive applications. A safer alternative to organic electrolytes is solid polymer electrolytes. This work will highlight the synthesis for a graft copolymer electrolyte (GCE) poly(oxyethylene) methacrylate (POEM) to a block with a lower glass transition temperature (Tg) poly(oxyethylene) acrylate (POEA). The conduction mechanism has been discussed and it has been demonstrated the relationship between polymer segmental motion and ionic conductivity indeed has a Vogel-Tammann-Fulcher (VTF) dependence. Batteries containing commercially available LP30 organic (LiPF6 in ethylene carbonate (EC):dimethyl carbonate (DMC) at a 1:1 ratio) and GCE were cycled at ambient temperature. It was found that at ambient temperature, the batteries containing GCE showed a greater overpotential when compared to LP30 electrolyte. However at temperatures greater than 60 °C, the GCE cell exhibited much lower overpotential due to fast polymer electrolyte conductivity and nearly the full theoretical specific capacity of 170 mAh/g was accessed.

  1. Effects of dietary DL-2-hydroxy-4(methylthio)butanoic acid supplementation on growth performance, indices of ascites syndrome, and antioxidant capacity of broilers reared at low ambient temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, G. L.; Zhang, K. Y.; Ding, X. M.; Zheng, P.; Luo, Y. H.; Bai, S. P.; Wang, J. P.; Xuan, Y.; Su, Z. W.; Zeng, Q. F.

    2016-08-01

    This study examined the effects of dietary DL-2-hydroxy-4(methylthio)butanoic acid (DL-HMTBA) supplementation on growth performance, antioxidant capacity, and ascites syndrome (AS) in broilers reared at low ambient temperature (LAT) from 7 to 28 days of age. Eight hundred 7-day-old broilers were randomly assigned to two ambient temperatures (LAT and normal ambient temperature [NAT]), four supplemental DL-HMTBA levels (0.17, 0.34, 0.51, and 0.68 %) of the basal diet in a 2 × 4 factorial arrangement (ten replicate pens; ten birds/pen). LAT and NAT indicate temperatures of 12-14 and 24-26 °C in two chambers, respectively, and broilers were reared at these temperatures from 7 to 28 days of age. LAT significantly decreased body weight gain ( P weight ratio (RV/TV) at 21 days ( P = 0.012) and 28 days ( P = 0.046). Supplementation of DL-HMTBA markedly decreased RV/TV at day 28 ( P = 0.021), RBC (day 21, P = 0.008), HCT (day 21, P supplemental DL-HMTBA levels in basal diet of broilers aged from 7 to 28 days under low or normal temperatures were similar, so the authors recommended supplemental of DL-HMTBA level was 0.46 %.

  2. Advanced battery development

    Science.gov (United States)

    In order to promote national security by ensuring that the United States has an adequate supply of safe, assured, affordable, and environmentally acceptable energy, the Storage Batteries Division at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), Albuquerque, is responsible for engineering development of advanced rechargeable batteries for energy applications. This effort is conducted within the Exploratory Battery Technology Development and Testing (ETD) Lead center, whose activities are coordinated by staff within the Storage Batteries Division. The ETD Project, directed by SNL, is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Systems Research, Energy Storage and Distribution Division (DOE/OESD). SNL is also responsible for technical management of the Electric Vehicle Advanced Battery Systems (EV-ABS) Development Project, which is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Transportation Systems (OTS). The ETD Project is operated in conjunction with the Technology Base Research (TBR) Project, which is under the direction of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. Together these two projects seek to establish the scientific feasibility of advanced electrochemical energy storage systems, and conduct the initial engineering development on systems suitable for mobile and stationary commercial applications.

  3. Used batteries - REMINDER

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    With colder weather drawing in, it is quite likely that older car batteries will fail. On this subject, the Safety Commission wishes to remind everyone that CERN is not responsible for the disposal of used batteries from private vehicles. So please refrain from abandoning them on pavements or around or inside buildings. Used batteries can be disposed of safely, free-of-charge and without any damage to the environment at waste disposal sites (déchetteries) close to CERN in both France (Ain and Haute-Savoie) and in the Canton of Geneva in Switzerland (Cheneviers). Since the average car battery lasts a number of years, this only represents a small effort on your part over the whole lifetime of your vehicle. Most people don't need reminding that car batteries contain concentrated sulphuric acid, which can cause severe burns. Despite this, we frequently find them casually dumped in scrap metal bins! For more information, please contact R. Magnier/SC-GS 160879 We all have a responsibility for safety and th...

  4. Structures of battery- and energy management systems using lead-acid batteries and ultracaps; Strukturen von Batterie- und Energiemanagementsystemen mit Bleibatterien und Ultracaps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinemann, D.

    2007-07-01

    The publication presents methods of damage-free operation of lead batteries in electric road vehicles. The original charging method used in the citySTROMer car was based on the total voltage, causing permanent overload and fast ageing of modules. The charge state of the vehicle is defined on the basis of the residual charge state, a charge balance, and an evaluation of the temperature-compensated minimum module voltage. The time when current limiting is necessary is recognized reliably, and the charge state indicator works reliably soon after starting. The vehicle has an integrated power-assist store. Ultracap modules of various capacities were characterized in the laboratory. A variant was constructed in which the battery is discharged permanently with average driving current while the ultracap is used for making up the difference to the load at a given moment. The load cases for power-assist were identified on the basis of real driving cycles. The system can be described as an onboard dual-voltage system. The higher voltage of the ultracap provides higher power for acceleration. The availability of the ultracap is ensured in 90 percent of all accelerations. The first battery set installed in the car is now in its fourth winter, with a mileage of nearly 7000 km. In March 2006, 63 Ah were recorded in battery driving cycle in urban traffic at temperatures below freezing point. After commissioning in May 2002, 71 Ah were recorded. [German] Die vorliegende Arbeit entwickelt Verfahren zum schaedigungsfreien Betrieb von Bleibatterien in elektrischen Strassenfahrzeugen. Das urspruenglich im untersuchten citySTROMer eingesetzte Ladeverfahren war an der Gesamtspannung orientiert und hat Module hoeherer Spannungslage ueberladen. Die permanente Ueberladung fuehrt zu einem sehr schnellen Alterungsprozess. Die Ladezustandsbestimmung im Fahrzeug erfolgt ueber die Bestimmung des Restladegrades, eine Ladungsbilanzierung und die Auswertung der temperaturkompensierten

  5. Thin-film silicon for flexible metal-air batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garamoun, Ahmed; Schubert, Markus B; Werner, Jürgen H

    2014-12-01

    Due to its high energy density, theoretical studies propose silicon as a promising candidate material for metal-air batteries. Herein, for the first time, experimental results detail the use of n-type doped amorphous silicon and silicon carbide as fuel in Si-air batteries. Thin-film silicon is particularly interesting for flexible and rolled batteries with high specific energies. Our Si-air batteries exhibit a specific capacity of 269 Ah kg(-1) and an average cell voltage of 0.85 V at a discharge current density of 7.9 μA cm(-2) , corresponding to a specific energy of 229 Wh kg(-1) . Favorably in terms of safety, low concentrated alkaline solution serves as electrolyte. Discharging of the Si-air cells continues as long as there is silicon available for oxidation. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. A biomimetic redox flow battery based on flavin mononucleotide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orita, Akihiro; Verde, Michael G.; Sakai, Masanori; Meng, Ying Shirley

    2016-10-01

    The versatility in design of redox flow batteries makes them apt to efficiently store energy in large-scale applications at low cost. The discovery of inexpensive organic electroactive materials for use in aqueous flow battery electrolytes is highly attractive, but is thus far limited. Here we report on a flow battery using an aqueous electrolyte based on the sodium salt of flavin mononucleotide. Flavins are highly versatile electroactive molecules, which catalyse a multitude of redox reactions in biological systems. We use nicotinamide (vitamin B3) as a hydrotropic agent to enhance the water solubility of flavin mononucleotide. A redox flow battery using flavin mononucleotide negative and ferrocyanide positive electrolytes in strong base shows stable cycling performance, with over 99% capacity retention over the course of 100 cycles. We hypothesize that this is enabled due to the oxidized and reduced forms of FMN-Na being stabilized by resonance structures.

  7. Development of bipolar all-solid-state lithium battery based on quasi-solid-state electrolyte containing tetraglyme-LiTFSA equimolar complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambe, Yoshiyuki; Sun, Yan; Honma, Itaru

    2015-03-09

    The development of high energy-density lithium-ion secondary batteries as storage batteries in vehicles is attracting increasing attention. In this study, high-voltage bipolar stacked batteries with a quasi-solid-state electrolyte containing a Li-Glyme complex were prepared, and the performance of the device was evaluated. Via the successful production of double-layered and triple-layered high-voltage devices, it was confirmed that these stacked batteries operated properly without any internal short-circuits of a single cell within the package: Their plateau potentials (6.7 and 10.0 V, respectively) were two and three times that (3.4 V) of the single-layered device, respectively. Further, the double-layered device showed a capacity retention of 99% on the 200th cycle at 0.5 C, which is an indication of good cycling properties. These results suggest that bipolar stacked batteries with a quasi-solid-state electrolyte containing a Li-Glyme complex could readily produce a high voltage of 10 V.

  8. Battery Vent Mechanism And Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ching, Larry K. W.

    2000-02-15

    Disclosed herein is a venting mechanism for a battery. The venting mechanism includes a battery vent structure which is located on the battery cover and may be integrally formed therewith. The venting mechanism includes an opening extending through the battery cover such that the opening communicates with a plurality of battery cells located within the battery case. The venting mechanism also includes a vent manifold which attaches to the battery vent structure. The vent manifold includes a first opening which communicates with the battery vent structure opening and second and third openings which allow the vent manifold to be connected to two separate conduits. In this manner, a plurality of batteries may be interconnected for venting purposes, thus eliminating the need to provide separate vent lines for each battery. The vent manifold may be attached to the battery vent structure by a spin-welding technique. To facilitate this technique, the vent manifold may be provided with a flange portion which fits into a corresponding groove portion on the battery vent structure. The vent manifold includes an internal chamber which is large enough to completely house a conventional battery flame arrester and overpressure safety valve. In this manner, the vent manifold, when installed, lessens the likelihood of tampering with the flame arrester and safety valve.

  9. Battery venting system and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casale, Thomas J.; Ching, Larry K. W.; Baer, Jose T.; Swan, David H.

    1999-01-05

    Disclosed herein is a venting mechanism for a battery. The venting mechanism includes a battery vent structure which is located on the battery cover and may be integrally formed therewith. The venting mechanism includes an opening extending through the battery cover such that the opening communicates with a plurality of battery cells located within the battery case. The venting mechanism also includes a vent manifold which attaches to the battery vent structure. The vent manifold includes a first opening which communicates with the battery vent structure opening and second and third openings which allow the vent manifold to be connected to two separate conduits. In this manner, a plurality of batteries may be interconnected for venting purposes, thus eliminating the need to provide separate vent lines for each battery. The vent manifold may be attached to the battery vent structure by a spin-welding technique. To facilitate this technique, the vent manifold may be provided with a flange portion which fits into a corresponding groove portion on the battery vent structure. The vent manifold includes an internal chamber which is large enough to completely house a conventional battery flame arrester and overpressure safety valve. In this manner, the vent manifold, when installed, lessens the likelihood of tampering with the flame arrester and safety valve.

  10. A New Method for State of Charge Estimation of Lithium-Ion Battery Based on Strong Tracking Cubature Kalman Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bizhong Xia

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The estimation of state of charge (SOC is a crucial evaluation index in a battery management system (BMS. The value of SOC indicates the remaining capacity of a battery, which provides a good guarantee of safety and reliability of battery operation. It is difficult to get an accurate value of the SOC, being one of the inner states. In this paper, a strong tracking cubature Kalman filter (STCKF based on the cubature Kalman filter is presented to perform accurate and reliable SOC estimation. The STCKF algorithm can adjust gain matrix online by introducing fading factor to the state estimation covariance matrix. The typical second-order resistor-capacitor model is used as the battery’s equivalent circuit model to dynamically simulate characteristics of the battery. The exponential-function fitting method accomplishes the task of relevant parameters identification. Then, the developed STCKF algorithm has been introduced in detail and verified under different operation current profiles such as Dynamic Stress Test (DST and New European Driving Cycle (NEDC. Making a comparison with extended Kalman filter (EKF and CKF algorithm, the experimental results show the merits of the STCKF algorithm in SOC estimation accuracy and robustness.

  11. A review of battery life-cycle analysis : state of knowledge and critical needs.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, J. L.; Gaines, L.; Energy Systems

    2010-12-22

    A literature review and evaluation has been conducted on cradle-to-gate life-cycle inventory studies of lead-acid, nickel-cadmium, nickel-metal hydride, sodium-sulfur, and lithium-ion battery technologies. Data were sought that represent the production of battery constituent materials and battery manufacture and assembly. Life-cycle production data for many battery materials are available and usable, though some need updating. For the remaining battery materials, lifecycle data either are nonexistent or, in some cases, in need of updating. Although battery manufacturing processes have occasionally been well described, detailed quantitative information on energy and material flows is missing. For all but the lithium-ion batteries, enough constituent material production energy data are available to approximate material production energies for the batteries, though improved input data for some materials are needed. Due to the potential benefit of battery recycling and a scarcity of associated data, there is a critical need for life-cycle data on battery material recycling. Either on a per kilogram or per watt-hour capacity basis, lead-acid batteries have the lowest production energy, carbon dioxide emissions, and criteria pollutant emissions. Some process-related emissions are also reviewed in this report.

  12. Battery Storage Technologies for Electrical Applications: Impact in Stand-Alone Photovoltaic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Akinyele

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Batteries are promising storage technologies for stationary applications because of their maturity, and the ease with which they are designed and installed compared to other technologies. However, they pose threats to the environment and human health. Several studies have discussed the various battery technologies and applications, but evaluating the environmental impact of batteries in electrical systems remains a gap that requires concerted research efforts. This study first presents an overview of batteries and compares their technical properties such as the cycle life, power and energy densities, efficiencies and the costs. It proposes an optimal battery technology sizing and selection strategy, and then assesses the environmental impact of batteries in a typical renewable energy application by using a stand-alone photovoltaic (PV system as a case study. The greenhouse gas (GHG impact of the batteries is evaluated based on the life cycle emission rate parameter. Results reveal that the battery has a significant impact in the energy system, with a GHG impact of about 36–68% in a 1.5 kW PV system for different locations. The paper discusses new batteries, strategies to minimize battery impact and provides insights into the selection of batteries with improved cycling capacity, higher lifespan and lower cost that can achieve lower environmental impacts for future applications.

  13. Battery charging control methods, electric vehicle charging methods, battery charging apparatuses and rechargeable battery systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuffner, Francis K [Richland, WA; Kintner-Meyer, Michael C. W. [Richland, WA; Hammerstrom, Donald J [West Richland, WA; Pratt, Richard M [Richland, WA

    2012-05-22

    Battery charging control methods, electric vehicle charging methods, battery charging apparatuses and rechargeable battery systems. According to one aspect, a battery charging control method includes accessing information regarding a presence of at least one of a surplus and a deficiency of electrical energy upon an electrical power distribution system at a plurality of different moments in time, and using the information, controlling an adjustment of an amount of the electrical energy provided from the electrical power distribution system to a rechargeable battery to charge the rechargeable battery.

  14. Synthesis of mesoporous NiO nanospheres as anode materials for lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Guanhua; Chen Yuejiao; Qu Baihua; Hu Lingling; Mei Lin; Lei Danni; Li Qing; Chen Libao; Li Qiuhong; Wang Taihong

    2012-01-01

    In this work, three-dimensional mesoporous NiO nanostructures have been synthesized by a simple ethylene glycol (EG)-mediated self-assembly route and subsequent calcination process. The synthesized nickel alkoxide precursors annealed at 300 and 500 °C exhibit different surface area, crystallinity and pore distribution, which have been characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, selected area electron diffraction, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and Nitrogen adsorption/desorption isotherms. The electrochemical properties of these NiO mesoporous nanostructures are investigated including the cycling and rate performance as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries. It is indicated that mesoporous NiO nanospheres synthesized at 500 °C exhibit better electrochemical performance than that obtained at 300 °C. The NiO nanospheres annealed at 500 °C present a reversible specific capacity of 518 mAh g −1 at a current density of 0.1 A g −1 after 60 cycles. With varying the rate from 0.1 to 8.0 A g −1 , the capacity remains at 535 mAh g −1 at 2 A g −1 after 30 cycles and resumes to 582 mAh g −1 at 0.1 A g −1 after 60 cycles. The results indicate that our mesoporous NiO nanospheres are promising anode materials for lithium ion batteries.

  15. Lithium-ion battery state of function estimation based on fuzzy logic algorithm with associated variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, L.; Yang, F.; Shi, Y. F.; He, H. L.

    2017-11-01

    Many occasions related to batteries demand to know how much continuous and instantaneous power can batteries provide such as the rapidly developing electric vehicles. As the large-scale applications of lithium-ion batteries, lithium-ion batteries are used to be our research object. Many experiments are designed to get the lithium-ion battery parameters to ensure the relevance and reliability of the estimation. To evaluate the continuous and instantaneous load capability of a battery called state-of-function (SOF), this paper proposes a fuzzy logic algorithm based on battery state-of-charge(SOC), state-of-health(SOH) and C-rate parameters. Simulation and experimental results indicate that the proposed approach is suitable for battery SOF estimation.

  16. Surface treatment of zinc anodes to improve discharge capacity and suppress hydrogen gas evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Yung-Da; Fey, George Ting-Kuo

    The shape change and redistribution of zinc anode material over the electrode during repeated cycling have been identified as the main factors that can limit the life of alkaline zinc-air batteries. Li 2O-2B 2O 3 (lithium boron oxide, LBO) glass with high Li + conductivity and stability can be coated on the surface of zinc powders. The structures of the surface-treated and pristine zinc powders were characterized by XRD, SEM, TEM, ESCA and BET analyses. XRD patterns of LBO-coated zinc powders revealed that the coating did not affect the crystal structure. TEM images of LBO-coated on the zinc particles were compact with an average passivation layer of about 250 nm. The LBO layer can prevent zinc from coming into direct contact with the KOH electrolyte and minimize the side reactions within the batteries. The 0.1 wt.% LBO-coated zinc anode material provided an initial discharge capacity of 1.70 Ah at 0.5 V, while the pristine zinc electrode delivered only 1.57 Ah. A surface-treated zinc electrode can increase discharge capacity, decrease hydrogen evolution reaction, and reduce self-discharge. The results indicated that surface treatment should be effective for improving the comprehensive properties of anode materials for zinc-air batteries.

  17. Multiwalled carbon nanotubes-sulfur composites with enhanced electrochemical performance for lithium/sulfur batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Xin Zhou; Jin, Bo, E-mail: jinbo@jlu.edu.cn; Xin, Pei Ming; Wang, Huan Huan

    2014-07-01

    Multiwalled carbon nanotubes-sulfur (MWCNTs-S) composites were synthesized by chemical activation of MWCNTs and capillarity between sulfur and MWCNTs. The MWCNTs activated by potassium hydroxide (denoted as K-MWCNTs) were used as conductive additive. The as-prepared K-MWCNTs-S composites can display excellent cycle stability and rate capability with the initial discharge capacity of 741 mAh g⁻¹ and capacity retention of 80% after 50 cycles compared to pure S. The improvement in the electrochemical performance for K-MWCNTs-S composites is attributed to the interstitial structure of the MWCNTs resulted from the strong chemical etching, which can facilitate the insertion and extraction of Li ions and more better percolation of the electrolyte, and also ascribed to enhanced electronic conductivity of K-MWCNTs-S composites. It is indicated that the K-MWCNTs-S composites can be used as the cathode materials for lithium–sulfur batteries.

  18. Cyclic voltammetric study of tin hexacyanoferrate for aqueous battery applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denys Gromadskyi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A hybrid composite containing 65 mass % of tin hexacyanoferrate mixed with 35 mass % of carbon nanotubes has been synthesized and its electrochemical behavior as a negative electrode in alkali metal-ion batteries has been studied in 1 mol L-1 aqueous solution of sodium sulfate. The specific capacity of pure tin hexacyanoferrate is 58 mAh g-1, whereas the specific capacity normalized per total electrode mass of the composite studied reaches 34 mAh g-1. The estimated maximal specific power of an aqueous alkali-metal ion battery with a tin hexacyanoferrate electrode is ca. 3.6 kW kg-1 being comparable to characteristics of industrial electric double-layer capacitors. The maximal specific energy accumulated by this battery may reach 25.6 Wh kg-1 at least three times exceeding the specific energy for supercapacitors.

  19. Battery Monitoring and Charging System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thivierge, Daniel P

    2007-01-01

    A battery monitoring device for a battery having cells grouped in modules. The device includes a monitoring circuit for each module which monitors the voltage in each cell and the overall module voltage...

  20. Analysis and Modeling of Heat Generation in Overcharged Li-Ion Battery with Passive Cooling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coman, Paul Tiberiu; Veje, Christian

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a dynamic model for simulating the heat generation in Lithium batteries and an investigation of the heat transfer as well as the capacity of Phase Change Materials (PCM’s) to store energy inside a battery cell module when the battery is overcharged. The study is performed......-cooled and passively cooled using a PCM, respectively. As expected, the results show that for high currents, the heat generation and implicitly the temperature increases. However, using a PCM the temperature increase is found to be limited allowing the battery to be overcharged to a certain degree. It is found...

  1. Numerical algorithm for optimization of positive electrode in lead-acid batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murariu, Ancuta Teodora; Buimaga-Iarinca, Luiza; Morari, Cristian

    2017-12-01

    The positive electrode in lead-acid batteries is one of the most sensitive parts of the whole battery, since it is affected by various aggresive chemical processes during its life. Therefore, an optimal design of the positive electrode of the battery may have as efect a dramatic improvement of the properties of the battery - such as total capacity or endurance during its life. Our efforts dedicated to this goal cover a range of rather complex tasks, from the design based on numerical analysis to statistic analysis. We present the structure of the software implementation and the results obtained for three types of positive electrodes.

  2. Lithium-ion batteries

    CERN Document Server

    Yoshio, Masaki; Kozawa, Akiya

    2010-01-01

    This book is a compilation of up-to-date information relative to Li-Ion technology. It provides the reader with a single source covering all important aspects of Li-Ion battery operations. It fills the gap between the old original Li-Ion technology and present state of the technology that has developed into a high state of practice. The book is designed to provide a single source for an up-to-date description of the technology associated with the Li-Ion battery industry. It will be useful to researchers interested in energy conversion for the direct conversion of chemical energy into electrica

  3. Hollow Nanostructured Anode Materials for Li-Ion Batteries

    OpenAIRE

    Liu Jun; Xue Dongfeng

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Hollow nanostructured anode materials lie at the heart of research relating to Li-ion batteries, which require high capacity, high rate capability, and high safety. The higher capacity and higher rate capability for hollow nanostructured anode materials than that for the bulk counterparts can be attributed to their higher surface area, shorter path length for Li+ transport, and more freedom for volume change, which can reduce the overpotential and allow better reaction kinetics at th...

  4. Impact resistant battery enclosure systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsutsui, Waterloo; Feng, Yuezhong; Chen, Weinong Wayne; Siegmund, Thomas Heinrich

    2017-10-31

    Battery enclosure arrangements for a vehicular battery system. The arrangements, capable of impact resistance include plurality of battery cells and a plurality of kinetic energy absorbing elements. The arrangements further include a frame configured to encase the plurality of the kinetic energy absorbing elements and the battery cells. In some arrangements the frame and/or the kinetic energy absorbing elements can be made of topologically interlocked materials.

  5. Reduced graphene oxide encapsulated sulfur spheres for the lithium-sulfur battery cathode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feiyan Liu

    Full Text Available Reduced graphene oxide (rGO encapsulated sulfur spheres for the Li-S batteries were prepared via the redox reaction between sodium polysulfide. XRD spectra showed that the diffraction peak of graphite oxide (GO at 10° disappeared, while the relatively weak diffraction peak at 27° belongs to graphene emerged. FT-IR spectra showed that the vibrations of the functional groups of GO, such as 3603 cm−1, 1723 cm−1and 1619 cm−1 which contributed from OH, COC and CO respectively, disappeared when compared to the spectra of GSC. SEM observations indicated that the optimum experimental condition followed as: mass ratio of GO and S was 1:1, 10% NaOH was used to adjust the pH. EDX analysis showed that the sulfur content reached at 68.8% of the composite material. The resultant electric resistance was nearly less than GO’s resistance in three orders of magnitude under same condition. Further electrochemical performance tests showed a coulombic efficiency was 96% from the first cycle capacity was 827 mAh g−1, to 388 mAh g−1 in the 100 cycles. This study carries substantial significance to the development of Li-S battery cathode materials. Keywords: Lithium-sulfur battery, Graphene, Sulfur spheres, Cathode material

  6. High-Performance Ga2O3Anode for Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xun; Huang, Xin; Huang, Yongmin; Gou, Yong; Pastore, James; Yang, Yao; Xiong, Yin; Qian, Jiangfeng; Brock, Joel D; Lu, Juntao; Xiao, Li; Abruña, Héctor D; Zhuang, Lin

    2018-02-14

    There is a great deal of interest in developing battery systems that can exhibit self-healing behavior, thus enhancing cyclability and stability. Given that gallium (Ga) is a metal that melts near room temperature, we wanted to test if it could be employed as a self-healing anode material for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). However, Ga nanoparticles (NPs), when directly applied, tended to aggregate upon charge/discharge cycling. To address this issue, we employed carbon-coated Ga 2 O 3 NPs as an alternative. By controlling the pH of the precursor solution, highly dispersed and ultrafine Ga 2 O 3 NPs, embedded in carbon shells, could be synthesized through a hydrothermal carbonization method. The particle size of the Ga 2 O 3 NPs was 2.6 nm, with an extremely narrow size distribution, as determined by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller measurements. A lithium-ion battery anode based on this material exhibited stable charging and discharging, with a capacity of 721 mAh/g after 200 cycles. The high cyclability is due to not only the protective effects of the carbon shell but also the formation of Ga 0 during the lithiation process, as indicated by operando X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy.

  7. Chloride-Reinforced Carbon Nanofiber Host as Effective Polysulfide Traps in Lithium-Sulfur Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Lei; Zhuang, Houlong L; Zhang, Kaihang; Cooper, Valentino R; Li, Qi; Lu, Yingying

    2016-12-01

    Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) battery is one of the most promising alternatives for the current state-of-the-art lithium-ion batteries due to its high theoretical energy density and low production cost from the use of sulfur. However, the commercialization of Li-S batteries has been so far limited to the cyclability and the retention of active sulfur materials. Using co-electrospinning and physical vapor deposition procedures, we created a class of chloride-carbon nanofiber composites, and studied their effectiveness on polysulfides sequestration. By trapping sulfur reduction products in the modified cathode through both chemical and physical confinements, these chloride-coated cathodes are shown to remarkably suppress the polysulfide dissolution and shuttling between lithium and sulfur electrodes. From adsorption experiments and theoretical calculations, it is shown that not only the sulfide-adsorption effect but also the diffusivity in the vicinity of these chlorides materials plays an important role on the reversibility of sulfur-based cathode upon repeated cycles. Balancing the adsorption and diffusion effects of these nonconductive materials could lead to the enhanced cycling performance of an Li-S cell. Electrochemical analyses over hundreds of cycles indicate that cells containing indium chloride-modified carbon nanofiber outperform cells with other halogenated salts, delivering an average specific capacity of above 1200 mAh g -1 at 0.2 C.

  8. Seismic-fragility tests of new and accelerated-aged Class 1E battery cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonzon, L.L.; Janis, W.J.; Black, D.A.; Paulsen, G.A.

    1987-01-01

    The seismic-fragility response of naturally-aged nuclear station safety-related batteries is of interest for two reasons: (1) to determine actual failure modes and thresholds and (2) to determine the validity of using the electrical capacity of individual cells as an indicator of the potential survivability of a battery given a seismic event. Prior reports in this series discussed the seismic-fragility tests and results for three specific naturally-aged cell types: 12-year old NCX-2250, 10-year old LCU-13, and 10-year old FHC-19. This report focuses on the complementary approach, namely, the seismic-fragility response of accelerated-aged batteries. Of particular interest is the degree to which such approaches accurately reproduce the actual failure modes and thresholds. In these tests the significant aging effects observed, in terms of seismic survivability, were: embrittlement of cell cases, positive bus material and positive plate grids; and excessive sulphation of positive plate active material causing hardening and expansion of positive plates. The IEEE Standard 535 accelerated aging method successfully reproduced seismically significant aging effects in new cells but accelerated grid embrittlement an estimated five years beyond the conditional age of other components

  9. Reduced graphene oxide for Li–air batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storm, Mie Møller; Overgaard, Marc; Younesi, Reza

    2015-01-01

    Reduced graphene oxide (rGO) has shown great promise as an air-cathode for Li-air batteries with high capacity. In this article we demonstrate how the oxidation time of graphene oxide (GO) affects the ratio of different functional groups and how trends of these in GO are extended to chemically...

  10. High-performance aqueous rechargeable batteries based on zinc ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Abstract. A new aqueous Zn–NiCo2O4 rechargeable battery system with a high voltage, consisting of. NiCo2O4 as cathode and metal Zn as anode, is proposed for the first time. It is cheap and environmental friendly, and its energy density is about 202.8 Wh kg–1. The system still maintains excellent capacity retention.

  11. Nanostructured silicon anodes for lithium ion rechargeable batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teki, Ranganath; Datta, Moni K; Krishnan, Rahul; Parker, Thomas C; Lu, Toh-Ming; Kumta, Prashant N; Koratkar, Nikhil

    2009-10-01

    Rechargeable lithium ion batteries are integral to today's information-rich, mobile society. Currently they are one of the most popular types of battery used in portable electronics because of their high energy density and flexible design. Despite their increasing use at the present time, there is great continued commercial interest in developing new and improved electrode materials for lithium ion batteries that would lead to dramatically higher energy capacity and longer cycle life. Silicon is one of the most promising anode materials because it has the highest known theoretical charge capacity and is the second most abundant element on earth. However, silicon anodes have limited applications because of the huge volume change associated with the insertion and extraction of lithium. This causes cracking and pulverization of the anode, which leads to a loss of electrical contact and eventual fading of capacity. Nanostructured silicon anodes, as compared to the previously tested silicon film anodes, can help overcome the above issues. As arrays of silicon nanowires or nanorods, which help accommodate the volume changes, or as nanoscale compliant layers, which increase the stress resilience of silicon films, nanoengineered silicon anodes show potential to enable a new generation of lithium ion batteries with significantly higher reversible charge capacity and longer cycle life.

  12. Bipolar silver zinc technology for primary battery applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skelton, James; Karpinski, Alexander P.; Hoagland, Douglas

    The results of four ampere hour primary cells developed and tested in groups of 20 cell monoblocks and 100 cell batteries are presented. Discharges up to 200 amperes produced very stable voltages and full capacity yield typical of a monopolar design. Discharges at nominal current densities of 0.16 amperes/sq cm yielded excellent load voltages with flat discharge curves.

  13. Battery switch for downhole tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boling, Brian E.

    2010-02-23

    An electrical circuit for a downhole tool may include a battery, a load electrically connected to the battery, and at least one switch electrically connected in series with the battery and to the load. The at least one switch may be configured to close when a tool temperature exceeds a selected temperature.

  14. Battery Management System—Balancing Modularization Based on a Single Switched Capacitor and Bi-Directional DC/DC Converter with the Auxiliary Battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Daowd

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Lithium-based batteries are considered as the most advanced batteries technology, which can be designed for high energy or high power storage systems. However, the battery cells are never fully identical due to the fabrication process, surrounding environment factors and differences between the cells tend to grow if no measures are taken. In order to have a high performance battery system, the battery cells should be continuously balanced for maintain the variation between the cells as small as possible. Without an appropriate balancing system, the individual cell voltages will differ over time and battery system capacity will decrease quickly. These issues will limit the electric range of the electric vehicle (EV and some cells will undergo higher stress, whereby the cycle life of these cells will be shorter. Quite a lot of cell balancing/equalization topologies have been previously proposed. These balancing topologies can be categorized into passive and active balancing. Active topologies are categorized according to the active element used for storing the energy such as capacitor and/or inductive component as well as controlling switches or converters. This paper proposes an intelligent battery management system (BMS including a battery pack charging and discharging control with a battery pack thermal management system. The BMS user input/output interfacing. The battery balancing system is based on battery pack modularization architecture. The proposed modularized balancing system has different equalization systems that operate inside and outside the modules. Innovative single switched capacitor (SSC control strategy is proposed to balance between the battery cells in the module (inside module balancing, IMB. Novel utilization of isolated bidirectional DC/DC converter (IBC is proposed to balance between the modules with the aid of the EV auxiliary battery (AB. Finally an experimental step-up has been implemented for the validation of the

  15. Analysis of lithium/thionyl chloride batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Mukul

    The lithium/thionyl chloride battery (Li/SOClsb2) has received considerable attention as a primary energy source due to its high energy density, high operating cell voltage, voltage stability over 95% of the discharge, large operating temperature range (-55sp°C to 70sp°C), long storage life, and low cost of materials. In this dissertation, a one-dimensional mathematical model of a spirally wound lithium/thionyl chloride primary battery has been developed. Mathematical models can be used to tailor a battery design to a specific application, perform accelerated testing, and reduce the amount of experimental data required to yield efficient, yet safe cells. The Model was used in conjunction with the experimental data for parameter estimation and to obtain insights into the fundamental processes occurring in the battery. The diffusion coefficient and the kinetic parameters for the reactions at the anode and the cathode are obtained as a function of temperature by fitting the simulated capacity and average cell voltage to experimental data over a wide range of temperatures (-55 to 49sp°C) and discharge loads (10 to 250 ohms). The experiments were performed on D-sized, cathode-limited, spirally wound lithium/thionyl chloride cells at Sandia National Laboratories. The model is also used to study the effect of cathode thickness and current and temperature pulsing on the cell capacity. Thionyl chloride reduction in the porous cathode is accompanied with a volume reduction. The material balance used previously in one-dimensional mathematical models of porous electrodes is invalid when the volume occupied by the reactants and the products is not equal. It is shown here how the material balance has to be modified to either account for the loss in volume, or to account for the inflow of electrolyte from the header into the active pores. The one-dimensional mathematical model of lithium/thionyl chloride primary battery is used to illustrate the effect of this material balance

  16. North American fertilizer capacity data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    This listing of producers and their fertilizer production capacities was compiled in January 1991 with the cooperation of the US and Canadian fertilizer industry. Capacity is only an indicator of supply. Nameplate capacity differs from planned production levels or actual production because plants often operate above or below design capacity. Unless reported otherwise, plant capacities are based on 340 days per year of operation. No adjustment is made for partial year operation. Numerical data for the production of ammonia, ammonium nitrate, nitrogen solutions, urea, phosphate rock, phosphoric acid and ammonium phosphates is included.

  17. Variability of Battery Wear in Light Duty Plug-In Electric Vehicles Subject to Ambient Temperature, Battery Size, and Consumer Usage: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, E.; Neubauer, J.; Brooker, A. D.; Gonder, J.; Smith, K. A.

    2012-08-01

    Battery wear in plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) is a complex function of ambient temperature, battery size, and disparate usage. Simulations capturing varying ambient temperature profiles, battery sizes, and driving patterns are of great value to battery and vehicle manufacturers. A predictive battery wear model developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory captures the effects of multiple cycling and storage conditions in a representative lithium chemistry. The sensitivity of battery wear rates to ambient conditions, maximum allowable depth-of-discharge, and vehicle miles travelled is explored for two midsize vehicles: a battery electric vehicle (BEV) with a nominal range of 75 mi (121 km) and a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) with a nominal charge-depleting range of 40 mi (64 km). Driving distance distributions represent the variability of vehicle use, both vehicle-to-vehicle and day-to-day. Battery wear over an 8-year period was dominated by ambient conditions for the BEV with capacity fade ranging from 19% to 32% while the PHEV was most sensitive to maximum allowable depth-of-discharge with capacity fade ranging from 16% to 24%. The BEV and PHEV were comparable in terms of petroleum displacement potential after 8 years of service, due to the BEV?s limited utility for accomplishing long trips.

  18. Binary iron sulfides as anode materials for rechargeable batteries: Crystal structures, syntheses, and electrochemical performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qian-Ting; Li, Jia-Chuang; Xue, Huai-Guo; Guo, Sheng-Ping

    2018-03-01

    Effective utilization of energy requires the storage and conversion device with high ability. For well-developed lithium ion batteries (LIBs) and highly developing sodium ion batteries (SIBs), this ability especially denotes to high energy and power densities. It's believed that the capacity of a full cell is mainly contributed by anode materials. So, to develop inexpensive anode materials with high capacity are meaningful for various rechargeable batteries' better applications. Iron is a productive element in the crust, and its oxides, sulfides, fluorides, and oxygen acid salts are extensively investigated as electrode materials for batteries. In view of the importance of electrode materials containing iron, this review summarizes the recent achievements on various binary iron sulfides (FeS, FeS2, Fe3S4, and Fe7S8)-type electrodes for batteries. The contents are mainly focused on their crystal structures, synthetic methods, and electrochemical performance. Moreover, the challenges and some improvement strategies are also discussed.

  19. Capacity Building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molloy, Brian; Mallick, Shahid

    2014-01-01

    Outcomes & Recommendations: • Significant increase needed in the nuclear workforce both to replace soon-to-retire current generation and to staff large numbers of new units planned • Key message, was the importance of an integrated approach to workforce development. • IAEA and other International Organisations were asked to continue to work on Knowledge Management, Networks and E&T activities • IAEA requested to conduct Global Survey of HR needs – survey initiated but only 50% of operating countries (30% of capacity) took part, so results inconclusive

  20. Remote RF Battery Charging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, H.J.; Pop, V.; Op het Veld, J.H.G.; Vullers, R.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    The design of a remote RF battery charger is discussed through the analysis and design of the subsystems of a rectenna (rectifying antenna): antenna, rectifying circuit and loaded DC-to-DC voltage (buck-boost) converter. Optimum system power generation performance is obtained by adopting a system