WorldWideScience

Sample records for battery capacity indicator

  1. Rechargeable Battery Capacity Level Indicator

    OpenAIRE

    Ongere, Jared

    2015-01-01

    Technology on rechargeable batteries has advanced over the years as a result of the need to power portable devices that have risen in numbers in the last decade. Just like primary cells, rechargeable batteries work in the same way, only their chemical reactions are reversible. This project aimed at building a system that would indicate the capacity level of a Nickel Metal Hydride battery upon charging and discharging. The Nickel Metal Hydride battery was selected in this project due to it...

  2. A new battery capacity indicator for lithium-ion battery powered electric vehicles using adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes a new adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) model to estimate accurately the battery residual capacity (BRC) of the lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery for modern electric vehicles (EVs). The key to this model is to adopt newly both the discharged/regenerative capacity distributions and the temperature distributions as the inputs and the state of available capacity (SOAC) as the output, which represents the BRC. Moreover, realistic EV discharge current profiles are newly used to formulate the proposed model. The accuracy of the estimated SOAC obtained from the model is verified by experiments under various EV discharge current profiles

  3. A new battery capacity indicator for lithium-ion battery powered electric vehicles using adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chau, K.T.; Wu, K.C.; Chan, C.C. [University of Hong Kong (China). Dept. of Electrical and Electronic Engineering

    2004-07-01

    This paper describes a new adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) model to estimate accurately the battery residual capacity (BRC) of the lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery for modern electric vehicles (EVs). The key to this model is to adopt newly both the discharged/regenerative capacity distributions and the temperature distributions as the inputs and the state of available capacity (SOAC) as the output, which represents the BRC. Moreover, realistic EV discharge current profiles are newly used to formulate the proposed model. The accuracy of the estimated SOAC obtained from the model is verified by experiments under various EV discharge current profiles. (author)

  4. A new battery capacity indicator for nickel-metal hydride battery powered electric vehicles using adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes a new approach to estimate accurately the battery residual capacity (BRC) of the nickel-metal hydride (Ni-MH) battery for modern electric vehicles (EVs). The key to this approach is to model the Ni-MH battery in EVs by using the adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) with newly defined inputs and output. The inputs are the temperature and the discharged capacity distribution describing the discharge current profile, while the output is the state of available capacity (SOAC) representing the BRC. The estimated SOAC from ANFIS model and the measured SOAC from experiments are compared, and the results confirm that the proposed approach can provide an accurate estimation of the SOAC under variable discharge currents

  5. A new battery capacity indicator for nickel-metal hydride battery powered electric vehicles using adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system

    CERN Document Server

    Chau, K T; Chan, C C; Shen, W X

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes a new approach to estimate accurately the battery residual capacity (BRC) of the nickel-metal hydride (Ni-MH) battery for modern electric vehicles (EVs). The key to this approach is to model the Ni-MH battery in EVs by using the adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) with newly defined inputs and output. The inputs are the temperature and the discharged capacity distribution describing the discharge current profile, while the output is the state of available capacity (SOAC) representing the BRC. The estimated SOAC from ANFIS model and the measured SOAC from experiments are compared, and the results confirm that the proposed approach can provide an accurate estimation of the SOAC under variable discharge currents.

  6. A new battery capacity indicator for nickel-metal hydride battery powered electric vehicles using adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chau, K.T. E-mail: ktchau@eee.hku.hk; Wu, K.C.; Chan, C.C.; Shen, W.X

    2003-08-01

    This paper describes a new approach to estimate accurately the battery residual capacity (BRC) of the nickel-metal hydride (Ni-MH) battery for modern electric vehicles (EVs). The key to this approach is to model the Ni-MH battery in EVs by using the adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) with newly defined inputs and output. The inputs are the temperature and the discharged capacity distribution describing the discharge current profile, while the output is the state of available capacity (SOAC) representing the BRC. The estimated SOAC from ANFIS model and the measured SOAC from experiments are compared, and the results confirm that the proposed approach can provide an accurate estimation of the SOAC under variable discharge currents.

  7. Hubble Space Telescope Battery Capacity Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollandsworth, Roger; Armantrout, Jon; Rao, Gopalakrishna M.

    2007-01-01

    Orbital battery performance for the Hubble Space Telescope is discussed and battery life is predicted which supports decision to replace orbital batteries by 2009-2010 timeframe. Ground characterization testing of cells from the replacement battery build is discussed, with comparison of data from battery capacity characterization with cell studies of Cycle Life and 60% Stress Test at the Naval Weapons Surface Center (NWSC)-Crane, and cell Cycle Life testing at the Marshal Space Flight Center (MSFC). The contents of this presentation includes an update to the performance of the on-orbit batteries, as well as a discussion of the HST Service Mission 4 (SM4) batteries manufactured in 1996 and activated in 2000, and a second set of SM4 backup replacement batteries which began manufacture Jan 11, 2007, with delivery scheduled for July 2008.

  8. High-capacity nanocarbon anodes for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The nanocarbon anodes in lithium-ion batteries deliver a high capacity of ∼1100 mA h g−1. • The nanocarbon anodes exhibit excellent cyclic stability. • A novel structure of carbon materials, hollow carbon nanoboxes, has potential application in lithium-ion batteries. - Abstract: High energy and power density of secondary cells like lithium-ion batteries become much more important in today’s society. However, lithium-ion battery anodes based on graphite material have theoretical capacity of 372 mA h g−1 and low charging-discharging rate. Here, we report that nanocarbons including mesoporous graphene (MPG), carbon tubular nanostructures (CTN), and hollow carbon nanoboxes (HCB) are good candidate for lithium-ion battery anodes. The nanocarbon anodes have high capacity of ∼1100, ∼600, and ∼500 mA h g−1 at 0.1 A g−1 for MPG, CTN, and HCB, respectively. The capacity of 181, 141, and 139 mA h g−1 at 4 A g−1 for MPG, CTN, and HCB anodes is retained. Besides, nanocarbon anodes show high cycling stability during 1000 cycles, indicating formation of a passivating layer—solid electrolyte interphase, which support long-term cycling. Nanocarbons, constructed with graphene layers which fulfill lithiation/delithiation process, high ratio of graphite edge structure, and high surface area which facilitates capacitive behavior, deliver high capacity and improved rate-capability

  9. 46 CFR 112.55-15 - Capacity of storage batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... LIGHTING AND POWER SYSTEMS Storage Battery Installation § 112.55-15 Capacity of storage batteries. (a) A storage battery for an emergency lighting and power system must have the capacity— (1) To close all... time specified in paragraph (a) of this section, the potential of the storage battery must be at...

  10. Battery prices and capacity sensitivity: Electric drive vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Nina

    2012-01-01

    the next decade or two. These vehicles can provide some of the flexibility needed in the power system, in terms of both flexible demand and electricity storage. However, what are the batteries worth to the power system? And does the value depend on battery capacity? This article presents an analysis...... of the integrated power and transport system, focusing on the sensitivity of the power system configuration according to battery capacity and price of the electric drive vehicle. The value of different battery capacities is estimated, given that the batteries are used for both driving and storage....... Likewise, the prices at which the electric drive vehicles become of interest to the power system are found. Smart charge, including the opportunity to discharge (vehicle-to-grid) is used in all scenarios. Analyses show that the marginal benefits decrease the larger the battery. For very high battery prices...

  11. A LiFePO4 battery pack capacity estimation approach considering in-parallel cell safety in electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Find the influence of in-parallel battery cell variations on battery pack capacity. • Redefine the battery module capacity with considering ANY battery cell safety. • Discuss the safety end-of-charge voltage for an aged in-parallel battery module. • Build an algorithm for battery pack capacity estimation with the charge curve. • Bench tests are used to verify the validity of the proposed algorithm. - Abstract: In electric vehicles (EVs), several battery cells are connected in parallel to establish a battery module. The safety of the battery module is influenced by inconsistent battery cell performance which causes uneven currents flowing through internal in-parallel battery cells. A battery cell model is developed based on the Matlab–Simscape platform and validated by tests. The battery cell model is used to construct simulation models for analyzing the effect of battery cell inconsistency on the performance of an in-parallel battery module. Simulation results indicate that the state-of-charge (SOC) of a battery module cannot characterize the SOC of ALL the internal battery cells in the battery module. When the battery management system (BMS) controls the end-of-charge (EOC) time according to the SOC of a battery module, some internal battery cells are over-charged. To guarantee the safety of ALL battery cells through the whole battery life, a safety EOC voltage of the battery module should be set according to the number of battery cells in the battery module and the applied charge current. Simulations reveal that the SOC of the “normal battery module” is related to its charge voltage when aged battery module is charged to the EOC voltage. Then, a function describing their relationship is established. Both the capacity and the charge voltage shift are estimated by comparing the measured voltage-to-capacity curve with the standard one provided by the manufactory. A battery pack capacity estimation method is proposed according to the SOC

  12. Fail-safe designs for large capacity battery systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Gi-Heon; Smith, Kandler; Ireland, John; Pesaran, Ahmad A.; Neubauer, Jeremy

    2016-05-17

    Fail-safe systems and design methodologies for large capacity battery systems are disclosed. The disclosed systems and methodologies serve to locate a faulty cell in a large capacity battery, such as a cell having an internal short circuit, determine whether the fault is evolving, and electrically isolate the faulty cell from the rest of the battery, preventing further electrical energy from feeding into the fault.

  13. Optimised battery capacity utilisation within battery management systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilkins, S.; Rosca, B.; Jacob, J.; Hoedmaekers, E.

    2015-01-01

    Battery Management Systems (BMSs) play a key role in the performance of both hybrid and fully electric vehicles. Typically, the role of the BMS is to help maintain safety, performance, and overall efficiency of the battery pack. One important aspect of its operation is the estimation of the state of

  14. Capacity Enhancement of a Lithium Oxygen Flow Battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A two-dimensional model is developed for an aprotic lithium oxygen (Li–O2) flow battery, in which the organic electrolyte is recirculated through the cathode to enhance oxygen supply. The conventional Li–O2 battery model is extended to incorporate convection effects. In contrast to the classic flow battery models, the pore structure change caused by the insoluble discharge product of Li–O2 batteries is considered. A parametric study is performed to study the influence of model parameters on cathode specific capacity. Results show that contrary to conventional Li–O2 cells, electrolyte with a lower conductivity would increase the specific capacity of the Li–O2 flow cell. The results also reveal those parameters that are influential to battery capacity. Based on the analysis, two methods, dual layer cathode and alternating electrolyte flow, are proposed to enhance battery capacity. The dual layer cathode has 105% higher capacity than a single layer cathode at the current density of 1.5 mA cm−2. Alternating electrolyte flow can increase the cathode capacity by 3.7% at the current density of 0.2 mA cm−2

  15. Post-vehicle-application lithium-ion battery remanufacturing, repurposing and recycling capacity: Modeling and analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Robert Standridge

    2015-05-01

    recycling is relatively constant regardless of the percent of post-vehicle-application batteries that are remanufactured.  The sum of the capacity for remanufacturing and recycling is relatively constant as well.  The need for new battery production capacity is reduced significantly (> 10% for remanufacturing percentages of 55% and above. Research limitations/implications: There is a high degree of uncertainty associated with any forecast concerning post-vehicle-application lithium-ion batteries due to a lack of experience with their remanufacturing, repurposing, and recycling. Practical implications: Electrification of vehicles appears to be the only technically feasible approach to meeting government regulations concerning mileage and emissions (Center for Climate and Energy Solutions 2013.  The planning in the present for the remanufacturing, repurposing, and recycling of the lithium-ion batteries used in electrification of vehicles is necessary.  Capacity estimation is one important component of such planning. Social implications: The electrification of vehicles versus the use of fossil fuels is consistent with the guiding principles of sustainability in helping to meet current needs without compromising the needs and resources of future generations.  Reusing entire lithium-ion batteries or recycling the materials of which they are composed further reinforces the sustainability of vehicle electrification. Originality/value: Estimates of recycling capacity needed in 2030, about 2.69M kWh, change little with the percent of post-vehicle-application batteries that are remanufactured.  The need for significant recycling capacity appears between 2022 and 2024, increasing steadily thereafter.  Similarly, the sum of remanufacturing and repurposing capacity is relatively constant indicating the need for flexible facilities that can do either task.  In addition by 2030, up to approximately 25% of new battery production could be replaced by remanufactured batteries.

  16. Battery Management Systems: Accurate State-of-Charge Indication for Battery-Powered Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pop, V.; Bergveld, H.J.; Danilov, D.; Regtien, P.P.L.; Notten, P.H.L.

    2008-01-01

    Battery Management Systems – Universal State-of-Charge indication for portable applications describes the field of State-of-Charge (SoC) indication for rechargeable batteries. With the emergence of battery-powered devices with an increasing number of power-hungry features, accurately estimating the

  17. Prediction of Retained Capacity and EODV of Li-ion Batteries in LEO Spacecraft Batteries

    CERN Document Server

    Ramakrishnan, S; Jeyakumar, A Ebenezer

    2010-01-01

    In resent years ANN is widely reported for modeling in different areas of science including electro chemistry. This includes modeling of different technological batteries such as lead acid battery, Nickel cadmium batteries etc. Lithium ion batteries are advance battery technology which satisfy most of the space mission requirements. Low earth orbit (LEO)space craft batteries undergo large number of charge discharge cycles (about 25000 cycles)compared to other ground level or space applications. This study is indented to develop ANN model for about 25000 cycles, cycled under various temperature, Depth Of Discharge (DOD) settings with constant charge voltage limit to predict the retained capacity and End of Discharge Voltage (EODV). To extract firm conclusion and distinguish the capability of ANN method, the predicted values are compared with experimental result by statistical method and Bland Altman plot.

  18. Battery Management Systems: Accurate State-of-Charge Indication for Battery-Powered Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Pop, V.; Bergveld, H.J.; Danilov, D.; Regtien, P.P.L.; Notten, P.H.L.

    2008-01-01

    Battery Management Systems – Universal State-of-Charge indication for portable applications describes the field of State-of-Charge (SoC) indication for rechargeable batteries. With the emergence of battery-powered devices with an increasing number of power-hungry features, accurately estimating the battery SoC, and even more important the remaining time of use, becomes more and more important. Therefore, many leading semiconductor companies, e.g. NXP Semiconductors, Texas Instruments, Microch...

  19. Satellite Lithium-Ion Battery Remaining Cycle Life Prediction with Novel Indirect Health Indicator Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haitao Liao

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Prognostics and remaining useful life (RUL estimation for lithium-ion batteries play an important role in intelligent battery management systems (BMS. The capacity is often used as the fade indicator for estimating the remaining cycle life of a lithium-ion battery. For spacecraft requiring high reliability and long lifetime, in-orbit RUL estimation and reliability verification on ground should be carefully addressed. However, it is quite challenging to monitor and estimate the capacity of a lithium-ion battery on-line in satellite applications. In this work, a novel health indicator (HI is extracted from the operating parameters of a lithium-ion battery to quantify battery degradation. Moreover, the Grey Correlation Analysis (GCA is utilized to evaluate the similarities between the extracted HI and the battery’s capacity. The result illustrates the effectiveness of using this new HI for fading indication. Furthermore, we propose an optimized ensemble monotonic echo state networks (En_MONESN algorithm, in which the monotonic constraint is introduced to improve the adaptivity of degradation trend estimation, and ensemble learning is integrated to achieve high stability and precision of RUL prediction. Experiments with actual testing data show the efficiency of our proposed method in RUL estimation and degradation modeling for the satellite lithium-ion battery application.

  20. High capacity anode materials for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Herman A.; Anguchamy, Yogesh Kumar; Deng, Haixia; Han, Yongbon; Masarapu, Charan; Venkatachalam, Subramanian; Kumar, Suject

    2015-11-19

    High capacity silicon based anode active materials are described for lithium ion batteries. These materials are shown to be effective in combination with high capacity lithium rich cathode active materials. Supplemental lithium is shown to improve the cycling performance and reduce irreversible capacity loss for at least certain silicon based active materials. In particular silicon based active materials can be formed in composites with electrically conductive coatings, such as pyrolytic carbon coatings or metal coatings, and composites can also be formed with other electrically conductive carbon components, such as carbon nanofibers and carbon nanoparticles. Additional alloys with silicon are explored.

  1. Porous graphene for high capacity lithium ion battery anode material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yusheng; Zhang, Qiaoli; Jia, Min; Yang, Dapeng; Wang, Jianjun; Li, Meng; Zhang, Jing; Sun, Qiang; Jia, Yu

    2016-02-01

    Based on density functional theory calculations, we studied the Li dispersed on porous graphene (PG) for its application as Li ion battery anode material. The hybridization of Li atoms and the carbon atoms enhanced the interaction between Li atoms and the PG. With holes of specific size, the PG can provide excellent mobility with moderate barriers of 0.37-0.39 eV. The highest Li storage composite can be LiC0.75H0.38 which corresponds to a specific capacity of 2857.7 mA h/g. Both specific capacity and binding energy are significantly larger than the corresponding value of graphite, this makes PG a promising candidate for the anode material in battery applications. The interactions between the Li atoms and PG can be easily tuned by an applied strain. Under biaxial strain of 16%, the binding energy of Li to PG is increased by 17% compared to its unstrained state.

  2. Organotrisulfide: A High Capacity Cathode Material for Rechargeable Lithium Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Min; Cui, Yi; Bhargav, Amruth; Losovyj, Yaroslav; Siegel, Amanda; Agarwal, Mangilal; Ma, Ying; Fu, Yongzhu

    2016-08-16

    An organotrisulfide (RSSSR, R is an organic group) has three sulfur atoms which could be involved in multi-electron reduction reactions; therefore it is a promising electrode material for batteries. Herein, we use dimethyl trisulfide (DMTS) as a model compound to study its redox reactions in rechargeable lithium batteries. With the aid of XRD, XPS, and GC-MS analysis, we confirm DMTS could undergo almost a 4 e(-) reduction process in a complete discharge to 1.0 V. The discharge products are primarily LiSCH3 and Li2 S. The lithium cell with DMTS catholyte delivers an initial specific capacity of 720 mAh g(-1) DMTS and retains 82 % of the capacity over 50 cycles at C/10 rate. When the electrolyte/DMTS ratio is 3:1 mL g(-1) , the reversible specific energy for the cell including electrolyte can be 229 Wh kg(-1) . This study shows organotrisulfide is a promising high-capacity cathode material for high-energy rechargeable lithium batteries. PMID:27411083

  3. Online Capacity Estimation of Lithium-Ion Batteries Based on Novel Feature Extraction and Adaptive Multi-Kernel Relevance Vector Machine

    OpenAIRE

    Yang Zhang; Bo Guo

    2015-01-01

    Prognostics is necessary to ensure the reliability and safety of lithium-ion batteries for hybrid electric vehicles or satellites. This process can be achieved by capacity estimation, which is a direct fading indicator for assessing the state of health of a battery. However, the capacity of a lithium-ion battery onboard is difficult to monitor. This paper presents a data-driven approach for online capacity estimation. First, six novel features are extracted from cyclic charge/discharge cycles...

  4. High voltage and high specific capacity dual intercalating electrode Li-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, William C. (Inventor); Blanco, Mario (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention provides high capacity and high voltage Li-ion batteries that have a carbonaceous cathode and a nonaqueous electrolyte solution comprising LiF salt and an anion receptor that binds the fluoride ion. The batteries can comprise dual intercalating electrode Li ion batteries. Methods of the present invention use a cathode and electrode pair, wherein each of the electrodes reversibly intercalate ions provided by a LiF salt to make a high voltage and high specific capacity dual intercalating electrode Li-ion battery. The present methods and systems provide high-capacity batteries particularly useful in powering devices where minimizing battery mass is important.

  5. Thermal analysis of large-capacity LiFePO4 power batteries for electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chunjing; Xu, Sichuan; Li, Zhao; Li, Bin; Chang, Guofeng; Liu, Jinling

    2015-10-01

    Excellent design of a thermal management system requires good understanding of the thermal behaviors of power batteries. In this study, the electrochemical and heat performances of a prismatic 40 Ah C/LiFePO4 battery are investigated with a focus on the influence of temperature on cell capacity in a mixed charge-discharge cycle. In addition, the heat generation and energy efficiency of a battery are determined during charge and discharge at different current rates. The experimental results indicate that in certain temperature ranges, both the charging and discharging capacities increase significantly as the temperature increases. In addition, the energy efficiency reaches more than 95% when the battery runs at a current rate of 0.33 C-2 C and temperature of 25-45 °C. A thermal mathematical model based on experimentally obtained internal resistances and entropy coefficients is developed. Using this model, the increase in the battery temperature is simulated based on specific heat values that are measured experimentally and calculated theoretically. The results from the simulation indicate that the temperature increase agrees well with the experimental values, the measured specific heat provides better results than the calculated specific heat and the heat generated decreases as the temperature increases.

  6. Temperature dependent capacity contribution of thermally treated anode current collectors in lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► We studied the influence of the thermal treatment of current collectors on the energy capacity. ► Different current collectors show different thermal treatment effect on performance. ► The non-negligible capacity contribution is closely related to the treatment temperatures. ► Our results could be beneficial to designing battery architectures. - Abstract: Metal current collectors, offering a good connection between the active materials and the external circuit, is an important component in a rechargeable lithium ion battery. Some necessary thermal treatment in the battery fabrication and assembly procedure results in current collectors with some non-negligible reversible energy capacities; however, these energy capacities were negligible in the previous references. In this research, for the first time, we investigated the influence of the thermal treatment of current collectors (such as copper foil and stainless steel disk) on energy capacities. Our results indicate that different current collector materials have different thermal treatment effects on their electrochemical performance. The non-negligible capacity contribution is closely related to the treatment temperature.

  7. A novel health indicator for on-line lithium-ion batteries remaining useful life prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yapeng; Huang, Miaohua; Chen, Yupu; Tao, Ye

    2016-07-01

    Prediction of lithium-ion batteries remaining useful life (RUL) plays an important role in an intelligent battery management system. The capacity and internal resistance are often used as the batteries health indicator (HI) for quantifying degradation and predicting RUL. However, on-line measurement of capacity and internal resistance are hardly realizable due to the not fully charged and discharged condition and the extremely expensive cost, respectively. Therefore, there is a great need to find an optional way to deal with this plight. In this work, a novel HI is extracted from the operating parameters of lithium-ion batteries for degradation modeling and RUL prediction. Moreover, Box-Cox transformation is employed to improve HI performance. Then Pearson and Spearman correlation analyses are utilized to evaluate the similarity between real capacity and the estimated capacity derived from the HI. Next, both simple statistical regression technique and optimized relevance vector machine are employed to predict the RUL based on the presented HI. The correlation analyses and prediction results show the efficiency and effectiveness of the proposed HI for battery degradation modeling and RUL prediction.

  8. Rating batteries for initial capacity, charging parameters and cycle life in the photovoltaic application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrington, S.R. [Ktech Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hund, T.D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-11-01

    Stand-alone photovoltaic (PV) systems typically depend on battery storage to supply power to the load when there is cloudy weather or no sun. Reliable operation of the load is often dependent on battery performance. This paper presents test procedures for lead-acid batteries which identify initial battery preparation, battery capacity after preparation, charge regulation set-points, and cycle life based on the operational characteristics of PV systems.

  9. Selective poisoning of Li-air batteries for increased discharge capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mýrdal, Jón Steinar Garðarsson; Vegge, Tejs

    2014-01-01

    The main discharge product at the cathode of non-aqueous Li-air batteries is insulating Li2O2 and its poor electronic conduction is a main limiting factor in the battery performance. Here, we apply density functional theory calculations (DFT) to investigate the potential of circumventing this...... accessible battery capacity at the expense of a limited increase in the overpotentials....

  10. Capacity-limiting mechanisms in Li/O2 batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing; Khaleghi Rahimian, Saeed; Monroe, Charles W

    2016-08-17

    A continuum model of an aprotic lithium/oxygen battery is validated against experimental first-discharge data and used to examine how the apparent cell capacity is affected by macroscopic multicomponent mass transfer, interfacial kinetics, and electronic conduction or tunneling through the discharge product. The model accounts for the three-phase nature of the positive electrode in detail, including an explicit discharge-product layer whose properties and volume distribution generally depend on the local discharge depth. Several hypothetical positive-electrode reaction mechanisms involving different product morphologies and electron-transfer sites are explored within the theoretical framework. To match experimental discharge-voltage vs. capacity and capacity vs. discharge-current trends qualitatively, the discharge-product layer must be assumed to have electronic resistivity several orders of magnitude lower than typical insulators, supporting the notion that the presence of lithium peroxide does not wholly prevent electrons from reaching dissolved reactants. The discharge product also appears to allow charge transport over length scales longer than electron tunneling permits. 'Sudden death' of voltage in lithium/oxygen cells is explained by macroscopic oxygen-diffusion limitations in the positive electrode at high rates, and by pore clogging associated with discharge-product formation at low rates. PMID:27459368

  11. Tracking inhomogeneity in high-capacity lithium iron phosphate batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paxton, William A.; Zhong, Zhong; Tsakalakos, Thomas

    2015-02-01

    Energy-dispersive x-ray diffraction (EDXRD) is one of the few techniques that can internally probe a sealed battery under operating conditions. In this paper, we use EDXRD with ultrahigh energy synchrotron radiation to track inhomogeneity in a cycled high-capacity lithium iron phosphate cell under in-situ and operando conditions. A sequence of depth-profile x-ray diffraction spectra are collected with 40 μm resolution as the cell is discharged. Additionally, nine different locations of the cell are tracked independently throughout a second discharge process. In each case, a two-peak reference intensity ratio analysis (RIR) was used on the LiFePO4 311 and the FePO4 020 reflections to estimate the relative phase abundance of the lithiated and non-lithiated phases. The data provide a first-time look at the dynamics of electrochemical inhomogeneity in a real-world battery. We observe a strong correlation between inhomogeneity and overpotential in the galvanic response of the cell. Additionally, the data closely follow the behavior that is predicted by the resistive-reactant model originally proposed by Thomas-Alyea. Despite a non-linear response in the independently measured locations, the behavior of the ensemble is strikingly linear. This suggests that effects of inhomogeneity can be elusive and highlights the power of the EDXRD technique.

  12. Critical review of on-board capacity estimation techniques for lithium-ion batteries in electric and hybrid electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmann, Alexander; Waag, Wladislaw; Marongiu, Andrea; Sauer, Dirk Uwe

    2015-05-01

    This work provides an overview of available methods and algorithms for on-board capacity estimation of lithium-ion batteries. An accurate state estimation for battery management systems in electric vehicles and hybrid electric vehicles is becoming more essential due to the increasing attention paid to safety and lifetime issues. Different approaches for the estimation of State-of-Charge, State-of-Health and State-of-Function are discussed and analyzed by many authors and researchers in the past. On-board estimation of capacity in large lithium-ion battery packs is definitely one of the most crucial challenges of battery monitoring in the aforementioned vehicles. This is mostly due to high dynamic operation and conditions far from those used in laboratory environments as well as the large variation in aging behavior of each cell in the battery pack. Accurate capacity estimation allows an accurate driving range prediction and accurate calculation of a battery's maximum energy storage capability in a vehicle. At the same time it acts as an indicator for battery State-of-Health and Remaining Useful Lifetime estimation.

  13. Modeling of lead-acid battery capacity loss in a photovoltaic application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JUNGST,RUDOLPH G.; URBINA,ANGEL; PAEZ,THOMAS L.

    2000-04-12

    The authors have developed a model for the probabilistic behavior of a rechargeable battery acting as the energy storage component in a photovoltaic power supply system. Stochastic and deterministic models are created to simulate the behavior of the system components. The components are the solar resource, the photovoltaic power supply system, the rechargeable battery, and a load. One focus of this research is to model battery state of charge and battery capacity as a function of time. The capacity damage effect that occurs during deep discharge is introduced via a non-positive function of duration and depth of deep discharge events. Because the form of this function is unknown and varies with battery type, the authors model it with an artificial neural network (ANN) whose parameters are to be trained with experimental data. The battery capacity loss model will be described and a numerical example will be presented showing the predicted battery life under different PV system use scenarios.

  14. AFM as an analysis tool for high-capacity sulfur cathodes for Li–S batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renate Hiesgen

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In this work, material-sensitive atomic force microscopy (AFM techniques were used to analyse the cathodes of lithium–sulfur batteries. A comparison of their nanoscale electrical, electrochemical, and morphological properties was performed with samples prepared by either suspension-spraying or doctor-blade coating with different binders. Morphological studies of the cathodes before and after the electrochemical tests were performed by using AFM and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The cathodes that contained polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF and were prepared by spray-coating exhibited a superior stability of the morphology and the electric network associated with the capacity and cycling stability of these batteries. A reduction of the conductive area determined by conductive AFM was found to correlate to the battery capacity loss for all cathodes. X-ray diffraction (XRD measurements of Li2S exposed to ambient air showed that insulating Li2S hydrolyses to insulating LiOH. This validates the significance of electrical ex-situ AFM analysis after cycling. Conductive tapping mode AFM indicated the existence of large carbon-coated sulfur particles. Based on the analytical findings, the first results of an optimized cathode showed a much improved discharge capacity of 800 mA·g(sulfur−1 after 43 cycles.

  15. Mechanics of high-capacity electrodes in lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, Zhu

    2016-01-01

    Rechargeable batteries, such as lithium-ion batteries, play an important role in the emerging sustainable energy landscape. Mechanical degradation and resulting capacity fade in high-capacity electrode materials critically hinder their use in high-performance lithium-ion batteries. This paper presents an overview of recent advances in understanding the electrochemically-induced mechanical behavior of the electrode materials in lithium-ion batteries. Particular emphasis is placed on stress generation and facture in high-capacity anode materials such as silicon. Finally, we identify several important unresolved issues for future research. Project support by the NSF (Grant Nos. CMMI 1100205 and DMR 1410936).

  16. A multiscale framework with extended Kalman filter for lithium-ion battery SOC and capacity estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► We develop a mutiscale framework with EKF to estimate SOC and capacity. ► The framework is a hybrid of coulomb counting and adaptive filtering techniques. ► It decouples SOC and capacity estimation in terms of measurement and time-scale. ► Results verify the framework achieves higher accuracy and efficiency than dual EKF. -- Abstract: State-of-charge (SOC) and capacity estimation plays an essential role in many battery-powered applications, such as electric vehicle (EV) and hybrid electric vehicle (HEV). However, commonly used joint/dual extended Kalman filter (EKF) suffers from the lack of accuracy in the capacity estimation since (i) the cell voltage is the only measurable data for the SOC and capacity estimation and updates and (ii) the capacity is very weakly linked to the cell voltage. The lack of accuracy in the capacity estimation may further reduce the accuracy in the SOC estimation due to the strong dependency of the SOC on the capacity. Furthermore, although the capacity is a slowly time-varying quantity that indicates cell state-of-health (SOH), the capacity estimation is generally performed on the same time-scale as the quickly time-varying SOC, resulting in high computational complexity. To resolve these difficulties, this paper proposes a multiscale framework with EKF for SOC and capacity estimation. The proposed framework comprises two ideas: (i) a multiscale framework to estimate SOC and capacity that exhibit time-scale separation and (ii) a state projection scheme for accurate and stable capacity estimation. Simulation results with synthetic data based on a valid cell dynamic model suggest that the proposed framework, as a hybrid of coulomb counting and adaptive filtering techniques, achieves higher accuracy and efficiency than joint/dual EKF. Results of the cycle test on Lithium-ion prismatic cells further verify the effectiveness of our framework.

  17. An Empirical Rate Constant Based Model to Study Capacity Fading in Lithium Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srivatsan Ramesh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A one-dimensional model based on solvent diffusion and kinetics to study the formation of the SEI (solid electrolyte interphase layer and its impact on the capacity of a lithium ion battery is developed. The model uses the earlier work on silicon oxidation but studies the kinetic limitations of the SEI growth process. The rate constant of the SEI formation reaction at the anode is seen to play a major role in film formation. The kinetics of the reactions for capacity fading for various battery systems are studied and the rate constants are evaluated. The model is used to fit the capacity fade in different battery systems.

  18. A comparative study of commercial lithium ion battery cycle life in electric vehicle: Capacity loss estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xuebing; Ouyang, Minggao; Lu, Languang; Li, Jianqiu

    2014-12-01

    Now the lithium ion batteries are widely used in electric vehicles (EV). The cycle life is among the most important characteristics of the power battery in EV. In this report, the battery cycle life experiment is designed according to the actual working condition in EV. Five different commercial lithium ion cells are cycled alternatively under 45 °C and 5 °C and the test results are compared. Based on the cycle life experiment results and the identified battery aging mechanism, the battery cycle life models are built and fitted by the genetic algorithm. The capacity loss follows a power law relation with the cycle times and an Arrhenius law relation with the temperature. For automotive application, to save the cost and the testing time, a battery SOH (state of health) estimation method combined the on-line model based capacity estimation and regular calibration is proposed.

  19. Adaptive neuro-fuzzy modeling of battery residual capacity for electric vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Shen, WX; Chan, CC; Lo, EWC; Chau, KT

    2002-01-01

    This paper proposes and implements a new method for the estimation of the battery residual capacity (BRC) for electric vehicles (EVs). The key of the proposed method is to model the EV battery by using the adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system. Different operating profiles of the EV battery are investigated, including the constant current discharge and the random current discharge as well as the standard EV driving cycles in Europe, the U.S., and Japan. The estimated BRCs are directly compare...

  20. On the understanding and improvement of high capacity lithium/sulfur (Li/S) batteries

    OpenAIRE

    Cañas, Natalia A.; Pascucci, Brigitta; Wagner, Norbert; Friedrich, K. Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Li/S batteries present many advantages including a high theoretical capacity (1675 Ah∙kg−1), high energy density (2500 Wh∙kg−1), and low cost of sulfur. However, degradation of the battery components at high cycle number and high discharge rates is still a problem. In this work, the investigations are focused on the understanding of the critical issues associated with the electrochemical and degradation processes occurring in Li-S batteries. For this, different characterization techniques and...

  1. SGCC successfully developed large-capacity sodium-sulfur monomeric battery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Through many years' cooperation,SGCC and Shanghai Silicate Research Institute of Chinese Academy of Science successfully developed 650 ampere-hours capacity sodium-sulfur monomeric storage battery with the independent intellectual property right

  2. Optimal Capacity Allocation of Large-Scale Wind-PV-Battery Units

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    An optimal capacity allocation of large-scale wind-photovoltaic- (PV-) battery units was proposed. First, an output power model was established according to meteorological conditions. Then, a wind-PV-battery unit was connected to the power grid as a power-generation unit with a rated capacity under a fixed coordinated operation strategy. Second, the utilization rate of renewable energy sources and maximum wind-PV complementation was considered and the objective function of full life cycle-net...

  3. High Capacity Anodes for Advanced Lithium Ion Batteries Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Lithium-ion batteries are slowly being introduced into satellite power systems, but their life still presents concerns for longer duration missions. Future NASA...

  4. Co3O4 nanowires as high capacity anode materials for lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► The Co3O4 nanowires are synthesized from decomposition of CoC2O4·2H2O nanowires. ► The synthesis procedure shows us a facile and highly productive strategy. ► The Co3O4 nanowires are suitable as a promising anode material for LIBs. ► High capacity and good cycling stability are achieved for the Co3O4 nanowires. - Abstract: Co3O4 nanowires were synthesized from the decomposition of CoC2O4·2H2O nanowires which were obtained through a polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)-assisted solution-based precipitation process. And the formation mechanism of CoC2O4·2H2O nanowires was discussed. The Co3O4 nanowires had diameters in the range of 30–60 nm and lengths of several micrometers, inheriting the morphology of the CoC2O4·2H2O nanowires. The Co3O4 nanowires as an anode material in lithium-ion batteries exhibited a stable specific discharge/charge capacity of 611 mAh/g and 598 mAh/g after fifty cycles at a current density of 0.11 A/g, which were much higher than that of commercial Co3O4 nanoparticles. In addition, the charge capacity of the as-synthesized Co3O4 nanowires was more than two times higher than that of the commercial Co3O4 nanoparticles at a current density of 1.1 A/g. These results indicate that the as-prepared Co3O4 nanowires have potential to be a promising candidate as high capacity anode material in the next generation lithium-ion batteries.

  5. State of available capacity estimation for lead-acid batteries in electric vehicles using neural network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reviews recent definitions of the state of charge (SOC) that are often used to estimate the battery residual available capacity (BRAC) for lead-acid batteries in electric vehicles (EVs) and identifies their shortcomings. Then, the state of available capacity (SOAC), instead of the SOC, is defined to denote the BRAC in EVs, which refers to the percentage of the battery available capacity (BAC) of the discharge current profile for the EV battery at the fully charged state. Based on the experimentation of different discharge current profiles, including theoretical current profiles and practical current profiles under EV driving cycles, the discharged and regenerative capacity distribution is proposed to describe discharge current profiles for the SOAC estimation. Because of the complexity and nonlinearity of the relationship between the SOAC and the capacity distribution at different temperatures, a neural network (NN) is applied to this SOAC estimation. Comparisons between the estimated SOACs by the NN and the calculated SOACs from the experimental data are used for verification. The results confirm that the proposed approach can provide an accurate and effective estimation of the BRAC for lead-acid batteries in EVs

  6. A generalized mathematical model to understand the capacity fading in lithium ion batteries - Effects of solvent and lithium transport

    OpenAIRE

    Abhishek Deshpande; Saksham Phul; Balaji Krishnamurthy

    2015-01-01

    A general mathematical model to study capacity fading in lithium ion batteries is developed. The model assumes that the formation of the Solid Electrolyte interphase(SEI) layer is the primary reason behind the capacity fading in lithium ion batteries. Previous models have assumed that either the solvent or the lithium plays a key role in the film formation reaction which drives the capacity fading in lithium ion batteries. The current model postulates that the solvent species and lithium ions...

  7. Theory of SEI Formation in Rechargeable Batteries: Capacity Fade, Accelerated Aging and Lifetime Prediction

    OpenAIRE

    Pinson, Matthew B.; Bazant, Martin Z.

    2012-01-01

    Cycle life is critically important in applications of rechargeable batteries, but lifetime prediction is mostly based on empirical trends, rather than mathematical models. In practical lithium-ion batteries, capacity fade occurs over thousands of cycles, limited by slow electrochemical processes, such as the formation of a solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI) in the negative electrode, which compete with reversible lithium intercalation. Focusing on SEI growth as the canonical degradation mecha...

  8. Indicative energy technology assessment of advanced rechargeable batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Several ‘Advanced Rechargeable Battery Technologies’ (ARBT) have been evaluated. • Energy, environmental, economic, and technical appraisal techniques were employed. • Li-Ion Polymer (LIP) batteries exhibited the most attractive energy and power metrics. • Lithium-Ion batteries (LIB) and LIP batteries displayed the lowest CO2 and SO2 emissions per kW h. • Comparative costs for LIB, LIP and ZEBRA batteries were estimated against Nickel–Cadmium cells. - Abstract: Several ‘Advanced Rechargeable Battery Technologies’ (ARBT) have been evaluated in terms of various energy, environmental, economic, and technical criteria. Their suitability for different applications, such as electric vehicles (EV), consumer electronics, load levelling, and stationary power storage, have also been examined. In order to gain a sense of perspective regarding the performance of the ARBT [including Lithium-Ion batteries (LIB), Li-Ion Polymer (LIP) and Sodium Nickel Chloride (NaNiCl) {or ‘ZEBRA’} batteries] they are compared to more mature Nickel–Cadmium (Ni–Cd) batteries. LIBs currently dominate the rechargeable battery market, and are likely to continue to do so in the short term in view of their excellent all-round performance and firm grip on the consumer electronics market. However, in view of the competition from Li-Ion Polymer their long-term future is uncertain. The high charge/discharge cycle life of Li-Ion batteries means that their use may grow in the electric vehicle (EV) sector, and to a lesser extent in load levelling, if safety concerns are overcome and costs fall significantly. LIP batteries exhibited attractive values of gravimetric energy density, volumetric energy density, and power density. Consequently, they are likely to dominate the consumer electronics market in the long-term, once mass production has become established, but may struggle to break into other sectors unless their charge/discharge cycle life and cost are improved

  9. Factors affecting Capacity Retention in Hybrid Lithium-Sulfur Battery

    OpenAIRE

    Kasemchainan, Jitti

    2015-01-01

    A composite protective layer of LiPON and LATP is installed with Li metal electrode in lithium-sulfur battery cells on the goal to improve the cycleability. The Li-S cells with the protective layer as solid electrolyte and ether-based liquid electrolyte, named as hybrid cells, are compared to the standard cells. The investigations of galvanostatic cycling, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), and X-ray Photo-electron Spectroscopy (XPS) were performed.

  10. Good discharge capacities of NaV6O15 material for an aqueous rechargeable lithium battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • NaV6O15 rod-like single crystalline was proposed for an aqueous lithium-ion battery. • NaV6O15//LiMn2O4 ARLB was firstly found an abnormal capacity performance. • NaV6O15//LiMn2O4 ARLB showed better discharge capacity at higher current density. - Abstract: NaV6O15 anode materials are prepared by the hydrothermal method and the precursor calcinations. The phase structure and the morphology of as-synthesized materials are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The cyclic voltammogram curves of NaV6O15 electrodes in the saturated LiNO3 electrolyte show that there exist three redox couples, which is in accordance with the charge-discharge voltage-capacity curves. The electrochemical cycle behaviors of LiMn2O4//NaV6O15 aqueous rechargeable lithium battery (ARLB) at the current densities of 50, 100, 200, 500, 800 and 1000 mA g−1 indicate that this ARLB has larger discharge capacity and better cycle ability at higher current density than that at lower current density, which is much more different from those in the traditional lithium ion battery. Most notably, this abnormal electrochemical phenomenon is very crucial in the applications of the large-scale power source and the energy storage devices

  11. Optimal Capacity Allocation of Large-Scale Wind-PV-Battery Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kehe Wu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An optimal capacity allocation of large-scale wind-photovoltaic- (PV- battery units was proposed. First, an output power model was established according to meteorological conditions. Then, a wind-PV-battery unit was connected to the power grid as a power-generation unit with a rated capacity under a fixed coordinated operation strategy. Second, the utilization rate of renewable energy sources and maximum wind-PV complementation was considered and the objective function of full life cycle-net present cost (NPC was calculated through hybrid iteration/adaptive hybrid genetic algorithm (HIAGA. The optimal capacity ratio among wind generator, PV array, and battery device also was calculated simultaneously. A simulation was conducted based on the wind-PV-battery unit in Zhangbei, China. Results showed that a wind-PV-battery unit could effectively minimize the NPC of power-generation units under a stable grid-connected operation. Finally, the sensitivity analysis of the wind-PV-battery unit demonstrated that the optimization result was closely related to potential wind-solar resources and government support. Regions with rich wind resources and a reasonable government energy policy could improve the economic efficiency of their power-generation units.

  12. Sol-gel synthesized zirconium pyrovanadate as a high-capacity cathode for rechargeable Li batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rechargeable Li-based electrochemical cells are regarded as the most promising candidate for electric vehicle (EV) applications. High-capacity cathode combined with Li anode is a excellent and realizable choice to promote the endurance of rechargeable Li batteries. In this paper, single phase of zirconium pyrovanadate ZrV2O7 was first synthesized via sol-gel method in a low sintering temperature of 500 °C. The Li-absent mixed-metal-oxide ZrV2O7, previously regarded as negative thermal expansion (NTE) material only, revealed a high specific capacity of 282.6 mAh g−1 and a voltage plateau of 2.48 V vs. Li as potential cathode for rechargeable Li batteries. These findings suggest that the ZrV2O7 after further optimization can be employed as high-capacity electrode for rechargeable Li batteries

  13. Study on Battery Capacity for Grid-connection Power Planning with Forecasts in Clustered Photovoltaic Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Takae; Kawasaki, Norihiro; Ueda, Yuzuru; Sugihara, Hiroyuki; Kurokawa, Kosuke

    This paper aims to clarify the battery capacity required by a residential area with densely grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) systems. This paper proposes a planning method of tomorrow's grid-connection power from/to the external electric power system by using demand power forecasting and insolation forecasting for PV power predictions, and defines a operation method of the electricity storage device to control the grid-connection power as planned. A residential area consisting of 389 houses consuming 2390 MWh/year of electricity with 2390kW PV systems is simulated based on measured data and actual forecasts. The simulation results show that 8.3MWh of battery capacity is required in the conditions of half-hour planning and 1% or less of planning error ratio and PV output limiting loss ratio. The results also show that existing technologies of forecasting reduce required battery capacity to 49%, and increase the allowable installing PV amount to 210%.

  14. Experimental study of an air-cooled thermal management system for high capacity lithium-titanate batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliano, Michael R.; Prasad, Ajay K.; Advani, Suresh G.

    2012-10-01

    Lithium-titanate batteries have become an attractive option for battery electric vehicles and hybrid electric vehicles. In order to maintain safe operating temperatures, these batteries must be actively cooled during operation. Liquid-cooled systems typically employed for this purpose are inefficient due to the parasitic power consumed by the on-board chiller unit and the coolant pump. A more efficient option would be to circulate ambient air through the battery bank and directly reject the heat to the ambient. We designed and fabricated such an air-cooled thermal management system employing metal-foam based heat exchanger plates for sufficient heat removal capacity. Experiments were conducted with Altairnano's 50 Ah cells over a range of charge-discharge cycle currents at two air flow rates. It was found that an airflow of 1100 mls-1 per cell restricts the temperature rise of the coolant air to less than 10 °C over ambient even for 200 A charge-discharge cycles. Furthermore, it was shown that the power required to drive the air through the heat exchanger was less than a conventional liquid-cooled thermal management system. The results indicate that air-cooled systems can be an effective and efficient method for the thermal management of automotive battery packs.

  15. Positive role of surface defects on carbon nanotube cathodes in overpotential and capacity retention of rechargeable lithium-oxygen batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shiting; Fan, Wugang; Guo, Xiangxin; Meng, Fanhao; Liu, Xuanyong

    2014-12-10

    Surface defects on carbon nanotube cathodes have been artificially introduced by bombardment with argon plasma. Their roles in the electrochemical performance of rechargeable Li-O2 batteries have been investigated. In batteries with tetraethylene glycol dimethyl ether (TEGDME)- and N-methyl-N-propylpiperidinium bis(trifluoromethansulfonyl)imide (PP13TFSI)-based electrolytes, the defects increase the number of nucleation sites for the growth of Li2O2 particles and reduce the size of the formed particles. This leads to increased discharge capacity and reduced cycle overpotential. However, in the former batteries, the hydrophilic surfaces induced by the defects promote carbonate formation, which imposes a deteriorating effect on the cycle performance of the Li-O2 batteries. In contrast, in the latter case, the defective cathodes promote Li2O2 formation without enhancing formation of carbonates on the cathode surfaces, resulting in extended cycle life. This is most probably attributable to the passivation effect on the functional groups of the cathode surfaces imposed by the ionic liquid. These results indicate that defects on carbon surfaces may have a positive effect on the cycle performance of Li-O2 batteries if they are combined with a helpful electrolyte solvent such as PP13TFSI. PMID:25397991

  16. Higher-capacity lithium ion battery chemistries for improved residential energy storage with micro-cogeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Characterized two novel high capacity electrode materials for Li-ion batteries. • A numerical discharge model was run to characterize Li-ion cell behavior. • Engineering model of Li-ion battery pack developed from cell fundamentals. • ESP-r model integrated micro-cogeneration and high capacity Li-ion storage. • Higher capacity batteries shown to improve micro-cogeneration systems. - Abstract: Combined heat and power on a residential scale, also known as micro-cogeneration, is currently gaining traction as an energy savings practice. The configuration of micro-cogeneration systems is highly variable, as local climate, energy supply, energy market and the feasibility of including renewable type components such as wind turbines or photovoltaic panels are all factors. Large-scale lithium ion batteries for electrical storage in this context can provide cost savings, operational flexibility, and reduced stress on the distribution grid as well as a degree of contingency for installations relying upon unsteady renewables. Concurrently, significant advances in component materials used to make lithium ion cells offer performance improvements in terms of power output, energy capacity, robustness and longevity, thereby enhancing their prospective utility in residential micro-cogeneration installations. The present study evaluates annual residential energy use for a typical Canadian home connected to the electrical grid, equipped with a micro-cogeneration system consisting of a Stirling engine for supplying heat and power, coupled with a nominal 2 kW/6 kW h lithium ion battery. Two novel battery cathode chemistries, one a new Li–NCA material, the other a high voltage Ni-doped lithium manganate, are compared in the residential micro-cogeneration context with a system equipped with the presently conventional LiMn2O4 spinel-type battery

  17. A Novel Data-Driven Fast Capacity Estimation of Spent Electric Vehicle Lithium-ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caiping Zhang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Fast capacity estimation is a key enabling technique for second-life of lithium-ion batteries due to the hard work involved in determining the capacity of a large number of used electric vehicle (EV batteries. This paper tries to make three contributions to the existing literature through a robust and advanced algorithm: (1 a three layer back propagation artificial neural network (BP ANN model is developed to estimate the battery capacity. The model employs internal resistance expressing the battery’s kinetics as the model input, which can realize fast capacity estimation; (2 an estimation error model is established to investigate the relationship between the robustness coefficient and regression coefficient. It is revealed that commonly used ANN capacity estimation algorithm is flawed in providing robustness of parameter measurement uncertainties; (3 the law of large numbers is used as the basis for a proposed robust estimation approach, which optimally balances the relationship between estimation accuracy and disturbance rejection. An optimal range of the threshold for robustness coefficient is also discussed and proposed. Experimental results demonstrate the efficacy and the robustness of the BP ANN model together with the proposed identification approach, which can provide an important basis for large scale applications of second-life of batteries.

  18. Online Capacity Estimation of Lithium-Ion Batteries Based on Novel Feature Extraction and Adaptive Multi-Kernel Relevance Vector Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Zhang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Prognostics is necessary to ensure the reliability and safety of lithium-ion batteries for hybrid electric vehicles or satellites. This process can be achieved by capacity estimation, which is a direct fading indicator for assessing the state of health of a battery. However, the capacity of a lithium-ion battery onboard is difficult to monitor. This paper presents a data-driven approach for online capacity estimation. First, six novel features are extracted from cyclic charge/discharge cycles and used as indirect health indicators. An adaptive multi-kernel relevance machine (MKRVM based on accelerated particle swarm optimization algorithm is used to determine the optimal parameters of MKRVM and characterize the relationship between extracted features and battery capacity. The overall estimation process comprises offline and online stages. A supervised learning step in the offline stage is established for model verification to ensure the generalizability of MKRVM for online application. Cross-validation is further conducted to validate the performance of the proposed model. Experiment and comparison results show the effectiveness, accuracy, efficiency, and robustness of the proposed approach for online capacity estimation of lithium-ion batteries.

  19. Method for estimating capacity and predicting remaining useful life of lithium-ion battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We develop an integrated method for the capacity estimation and RUL prediction. • A state projection scheme is derived for capacity estimation. • The Gauss–Hermite particle filter technique is used for the RUL prediction. • Results with 10 years’ continuous cycling data verify the effectiveness of the method. - Abstract: Reliability of lithium-ion (Li-ion) rechargeable batteries used in implantable medical devices has been recognized as of high importance from a broad range of stakeholders, including medical device manufacturers, regulatory agencies, physicians, and patients. To ensure Li-ion batteries in these devices operate reliably, it is important to be able to assess the capacity of Li-ion battery and predict the remaining useful life (RUL) throughout the whole life-time. This paper presents an integrated method for the capacity estimation and RUL prediction of Li-ion battery used in implantable medical devices. A state projection scheme from the author’s previous study is used for the capacity estimation. Then, based on the capacity estimates, the Gauss–Hermite particle filter technique is used to project the capacity fade to the end-of-service (EOS) value (or the failure limit) for the RUL prediction. Results of 10 years’ continuous cycling test on Li-ion prismatic cells in the lab suggest that the proposed method achieves good accuracy in the capacity estimation and captures the uncertainty in the RUL prediction. Post-explant weekly cycling data obtained from field cells with 4–7 implant years further verify the effectiveness of the proposed method in the capacity estimation

  20. Suppressing vertical displacement of lithiated silicon particles in high volumetric capacity battery electrodes

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Denis Y. W.; Zhou, Ming; Hoster, Harry

    2015-01-01

    Silicon is a potential high-capacity anode material for lithium-ion batteries. However, the large volume expansion of the material remains a bottleneck to its commercialization. Many studies were devoted to nanostructured silicon composites with voids to accommodate the volume expansion. Yet, full capability of silicon cannot be utilized because of the low volumetric capacity of these nanostructured electrodes. Here, we re-design dense silicon electrodes with three times the volumetric capaci...

  1. Theory of SEI Formation in Rechargeable Batteries: Capacity Fade, Accelerated Aging and Lifetime Prediction

    CERN Document Server

    Pinson, Matthew B

    2012-01-01

    Cycle life is critically important in applications of rechargeable batteries, but lifetime prediction is mostly based on empirical trends, rather than mathematical models. In practical lithium-ion batteries, capacity fade occurs over thousands of cycles, limited by slow electrochemical processes, such as the formation of a solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI) in the negative electrode, which compete with reversible lithium intercalation. Focusing on SEI growth as the canonical degradation mechanism, we show that a simple single-particle model can accurately explain experimentally observed capacity fade in commercial cells with graphite anodes, and predict future fade based on limited accelerated aging data for short times and elevated temperatures. The theory is extended to porous electrodes, predicting that SEI growth is essentially homogeneous throughout the electrode, even at high rates. The lifetime distribution for a sample of batteries is found to be consistent with Gaussian statistics, as predicted by th...

  2. Transient Stability Improvement of Multi-Machine Power System with Large-Capacity Battery Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabe, Ken-Ichi; Yokoyama, Akihiko

    An emergency control has been applied to power systems to avoid cascading outages by making the best use of existing equipment under severe fault conditions. Battery energy storage system (BESS) is one of the attractive equipment for the emergency control according to its growing installed capacity in the current grid. This paper investigates an effective use of BESS for transient stability improvement, and proposes a novel control scheme using wide-area information. The proposed control scheme adopts two stability indices, the energy function and rotor speed of the critical machine, to make it applicable to multi-machine power systems. Besides, it can control active and reactive power injection of the BESS coordinately to make the best use of its converter capacity for the stability enhancement. Digital simulations are conducted on the 32-machine meshed system with multiple BESSs. The results demonstrate that the BESSs controlled by the proposed method can improve the first swing stability and the system damping, and it is made clear how they improve the transient stability of the multi-machine power system. In addition, an impact of the reactive power control on the bus voltages around the installation sites is investigated to discuss a preferable way of their installation.

  3. High-capacity battery cathode prelithiation to offset initial lithium loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yongming; Lee, Hyun-Wook; Seh, Zhi Wei; Liu, Nian; Sun, Jie; Li, Yuzhang; Cui, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Loss of lithium in the initial cycles appreciably reduces the energy density of lithium-ion batteries. Anode prelithiation is a common approach to address the problem, although it faces the issues of high chemical reactivity and instability in ambient and battery processing conditions. Here we report a facile cathode prelithiation method that offers high prelithiation efficacy and good compatibility with existing lithium-ion battery technologies. We fabricate cathode additives consisting of nanoscale mixtures of transition metals and lithium oxide that are obtained by conversion reactions of metal oxide and lithium. These nanocomposites afford a high theoretical prelithiation capacity (typically up to 800 mAh g-1, 2,700 mAh cm-3) during charging. We demonstrate that in a full-cell configuration, the LiFePO4 electrode with a 4.8% Co/Li2O additive shows 11% higher overall capacity than that of the pristine LiFePO4 electrode. The use of the cathode additives provides an effective route to compensate the large initial lithium loss of high-capacity anode materials and improves the electrochemical performance of existing lithium-ion batteries.

  4. Spongelike Nanosized Mn 3 O 4 as a High-Capacity Anode Material for Rechargeable Lithium Batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Gao, Jie

    2011-07-12

    Mn3O4 has been investigated as a high-capacity anode material for rechargeable lithium ion batteries. Spongelike nanosized Mn 3O4 was synthesized by a simple precipitation method and characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, Raman scattering and scanning electron microscopy. Its electrochemical performance, as an anode material, was evaluated by galvanostatic discharge-charge tests. The results indicate that this novel type of nanosized Mn3O4 exhibits a high initial reversible capacity (869 mA h/g) and significantly enhanced first Coulomb efficiency with a stabilized reversible capacity of around 800 mA h/g after over 40 charge/discharge cycles. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  5. A new strategy to mitigate the initial capacity loss of lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xin; Lin, Chikai; Wang, Xiaoping; Maroni, Victor A.; Ren, Yang; Johnson, Christopher S.; Lu, Wenquan

    2016-08-01

    Hard carbon (non-graphitizable) and related materials, like tin, tin oxide, silicon, and silicon oxide, have a high theoretical lithium delivery capacity (>550 mAh/g depending on their structural and chemical properties) but unfortunately they also exhibit a large initial capacity loss (ICL) that overrides the true reversible capacity in a full cell. Overcoming the large ICL of hard carbon in a full-cell lithium-ion battery (LIB) necessitates a new strategy wherein a sacrificial lithium source additive, such as, Li5FeO4 (LFO), is inserted on the cathode side. Full batteries using hard carbon coupled with LFO-LiCoO2 (LCO) are currently under development at our laboratory. We find that the reversible capacity of a cathode containing LFO can be increased by 14%. Furthermore, the cycle performance of full cells with LFO additive is improved from 95%. We show that the LFO additive not only can address the irreversible capacity loss of the anode, but can also provide the additional lithium ion source required to mitigate the lithium loss caused by side reactions. In addition, we have explored the possibility to achieve higher capacity with hard carbon, whereby the energy density of full cells can be increased from ca. 300 Wh/kg to >400 Wh/kg.

  6. Effects of Capacity Ratios between Anode and Cathode on Electrochemical Properties for Lithium Polymer Batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The areal capacity ratio of negative to positive electrodes (N/P ratio) is the most important factor to design the lithium ion batteries with high performance in the consideration of balanced electrochemical reactions. In this study, the effect of N/P ratio (1.10, 1.20, and 1.30) on electrochemical properties has been investigated with a lithium polymer battery with PVdF-coated separator and 1.40 Ah of capacity. The N/P ratio is controlled by adjusting the anode thickness with a fixed anode density. The cell with an N/P ratio higher than 1.10 effectively suppresses the lithium plating at the 0.85C-rate charging at 25 °C and the cell with 1.20 of N/P ratio shows the enhanced cycle performance in comparison with other cells. Among the cells with differently designed N/P ratios, significant difference was not observed in the aging test with fully charged batteries at 25 and 45 °C. The effect of N/P ratio on electrochemical properties of lithium batteries can help to design the safe full cell without lithium plating

  7. Development of high-capacity nickel-metal hydride batteries using superlattice hydrogen-absorbing alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New R-Mg-Ni (R: rare earths) superlattice alloys with higher-capacity and higher-durability than the conventional Mm-Ni alloys with CaCu5 structure have been developed. The oxidation resistibility of the superlattice alloys has been improved by optimizing the alloy composition by such as substituting aluminum for nickel and optimizing the magnesium content in order to prolong the battery life. High-capacity nickel-metal hydride batteries for the retail market, the Ni-MH2500/900 series (AA size type 2500mAh, AAA size type 900mAh), have been developed and commercialized by using an improved superlattice alloy for negative electrode material. alized by using an improved superlattice alloy for negative electrode material. (author)

  8. Role of Manganese Deposition on Graphite in the Capacity Fading of Lithium Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vissers, Daniel R; Chen, Zonghai; Shao, Yuyan; Engelhard, Mark; Das, Ujjal; Redfern, Paul; Curtiss, Larry A; Pan, Baofei; Liu, Jun; Amine, Khalil

    2016-06-01

    Lithium ion batteries utilizing manganese-based cathodes have received considerable interest in recent years for their lower cost and more favorable environmental friendliness relative to their cobalt counterparts. However, Li ion batteries using these cathodes combined with graphite anodes suffer from severe capacity fading at high operating temperatures. In this paper, we report on how the dissolution of manganese impacts the capacity fading within the Li ion batteries. Our investigation reveals that the manganese dissolves from the cathode, transports to the graphite electrode, and deposits onto the outer surface of the innermost solid-electrolyte interphase layer, which is known to be a mixture of inorganic salts (e.g., Li2CO3, LiF, and Li2O). In this location, the manganese facilitates the reduction of the electrolyte and the subsequent formation of lithium-containing products on the graphite, which removes lithium ions from the normal operation of the cell and thereby induces the severe capacity fade. PMID:27152912

  9. Reducing capacity fade in vanadium redox flow batteries by altering charging and discharging currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agar, Ertan; Benjamin, A.; Dennison, C. R.; Chen, D.; Hickner, M. A.; Kumbur, E. C.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the operation of a vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB) under asymmetric current conditions (i.e., different current densities during charge and discharge) was investigated as a technique to reduce its capacity loss. Two different membrane types (a convection-dominated membrane and a diffusion-dominated membrane) were analyzed. In these analyses, the charging current density was varied while the discharging current was held constant. For both membranes, it was found that increasing the charging current decreases the net convective crossover of vanadium ions, which reduces the capacity loss of the battery. When the tested membranes were compared, the improvement in capacity retention was found to be larger for the diffusion-dominated membrane (12.4%) as compared to the convection-dominated membrane (7.1%). The higher capacity retention in the diffusion-dominated membrane was attributed to the reduction in the cycling time (and hence, suppressed contribution of diffusion) due to the increased charging current. While asymmetric current operation helps reduce capacity loss, it comes at the expense of a reduction in the voltage efficiencies. Increasing the charging current was found to increase the ohmic losses, which lead to a decrease of 6% and 4.3% in the voltage efficiencies of the convection-dominated and diffusion-dominated membranes, respectively.

  10. A Capacity Fading Model of Lithium-Ion Battery Cycle Life Based on the Kinetics of Side Reactions for Electric Vehicle Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Describe the aging mechanism of lithium-ion battery with electrochemical kinetics. • Establish the fading rate equation based on Eyring Equation. • The established equation is applicable to any reaction order. • Integrate the internal kinetics with external degradation characteristics. - Abstract: Battery life prediction is one of the critical issues that restrict the development of electric vehicles. Among the typical battery life models, the mechanism model focusing on the internal physical or electrochemical processes has a stronger theoretical foundation and greater accuracy. The empirical formula, which relies on the simplified mechanism, has a concise model structure and more flexibility in vehicle applications. However, the internal aging mechanism rarely correlates with the external operating characteristics. Based on the summary of the capacity fading mechanism and the reasoning of the internal kinetics of side reactions during the aging process, a lifetime model of the lithium-ion battery is established in this paper. The solutions to the vital parameters based on the external accelerated life testing results are also presented. The testing sample is a manganese oxide lithium-ion battery of 8 Ah. The validation results indicated that the life model established in this paper can describe the capacity fading law of the lithium-ion battery and the operability and accuracy for vehicle applications

  11. Capacity decay and remediation of nafion-based all-vanadium redox flow batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Qingtao; Li, Liyu; Wang, Wei; Nie, Zimin; Wei, Xiaoliang; Li, Bin; Chen, Baowei; Yang, Zhenguo; Sprenkle, Vincent

    2013-02-01

    The relationship between electrochemical performance of vanadium redox flow batteries (VRBs) and electrolyte composition is investigated, and the reasons for capacity decay over charge-discharge cycling are analyzed and discussed herein. The results show that the reasons for capacity fading over real charge-discharge cycling include not only the imbalanced vanadium active species, but also the asymmetrical valence of vanadium ions in positive and negative electrolytes. The asymmetrical valence of vanadium ions leads to a state-of-charge (SOC)-range decrease in positive electrolytes and a SOC-range increase in negative electrolytes. As a result, the higher SOC range in negative half-cells further aggravates capacity fading by creating a higher overpotential and possible hydrogen evolution. Based on this finding, we developed two methods for restoring lost capacity, thereby enabling long-term operation of VRBs to be achieved without the substantial loss of energy resulting from periodic total remixing of electrolytes. PMID:23208862

  12. A Generalized Mathematical model to understand the capacity fading in lithium ion batteries-Effects of solvent and lithium transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Deshpande

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A general mathematical model to study capacity fading in lithium ion batteries is developed. The model assumes that the formation of the Solid Electrolyte interphase(SEI layer is the primary reason behind the capacity fading in lithium ion batteries. Previous models have assumed that either the solvent or the lithium plays a key role in the film formation reaction which drives the capacity fading in lithium ion batteries. The current model postulates that the solvent species and lithium ions could play a limiting role in the capacity fade in a lithium ion battery. The model studies the concentration profiles of the solvent species and lithium ions at the electrode/film interphase as a function of diffusion and migration parameters. Model predictions are found to fit experimental data very well.

  13. Tradeoffs between battery energy capacity and stochastic optimal power management in plug-in hybrid electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent results in plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) power management research suggest that battery energy capacity requirements may be reduced through proper power management algorithm design. Specifically, algorithms which blend fuel and electricity during the charge depletion phase using smaller batteries may perform equally to algorithms that apply electric-only operation during charge depletion using larger batteries. The implication of this result is that ''blended'' power management algorithms may reduce battery energy capacity requirements, thereby lowering the acquisition costs of PHEVs. This article seeks to quantify the tradeoffs between power management algorithm design and battery energy capacity, in a systematic and rigorous manner. Namely, we (1) construct dynamic PHEV models with scalable battery energy capacities, (2) optimize power management using stochastic control theory, and (3) develop simulation methods to statistically quantify the performance tradeoffs. The degree to which blending enables smaller battery energy capacities is evaluated as a function of both daily driving distance and energy (fuel and electricity) pricing. (author)

  14. Crystalline-Amorphous Core−Shell Silicon Nanowires for High Capacity and High Current Battery Electrodes

    KAUST Repository

    Cui, Li-Feng

    2009-01-14

    Silicon is an attractive alloy-type anode material for lithium ion batteries because of its highest known capacity (4200 mAh/g). However silicon\\'s large volume change upon lithium insertion and extraction, which causes pulverization and capacity fading, has limited its applications. Designing nanoscale hierarchical structures is a novel approach to address the issues associated with the large volume changes. In this letter, we introduce a core-shell design of silicon nanowires for highpower and long-life lithium battery electrodes. Silicon crystalline- amorphous core-shell nanowires were grown directly on stainless steel current collectors by a simple one-step synthesis. Amorphous Si shells instead of crystalline Si cores can be selected to be electrochemically active due to the difference of their lithiation potentials. Therefore, crystalline Si cores function as a stable mechanical support and an efficient electrical conducting pathway while amorphous shells store Li ions. We demonstrate here that these core-shell nanowires have high charge storage capacity (̃1000 mAh/g, 3 times of carbon) with ̃90% capacity retention over 100 cycles. They also show excellent electrochemical performance at high rate charging and discharging (6.8 A/g, ̃20 times of carbon at 1 h rate). © 2009 American Chemical Society.

  15. New High Capacity Cathode Materials for Rechargeable Li-ion Batteries: Vanadate-Borate Glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afyon, Semih; Krumeich, Frank; Mensing, Christian; Borgschulte, Andreas; Nesper, Reinhard

    2014-11-01

    V2O5 based materials are attractive cathode alternatives due to the many oxidation state switches of vanadium bringing about a high theoretical specific capacity. However, significant capacity losses are eminent for crystalline V2O5 phases related to the irreversible phase transformations and/or vanadium dissolution starting from the first discharge cycle. These problems can be circumvented if amorphous or glassy vanadium oxide phases are employed. Here, we demonstrate vanadate-borate glasses as high capacity cathode materials for rechargeable Li-ion batteries for the first time. The composite electrodes of V2O5 - LiBO2 glass with reduced graphite oxide (RGO) deliver specific energies around 1000 Wh/kg and retain high specific capacities in the range of ~ 300 mAh/g for the first 100 cycles. V2O5 - LiBO2 glasses are considered as promising cathode materials for rechargeable Li-ion batteries fabricated through rather simple and cost-efficient methods.

  16. Manganese oxide/carbon yolk-shell nanorod anodes for high capacity lithium batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Zhengyang; Xu, Lin; Yan, Mengyu; Han, Chunhua; He, Liang; Hercule, Kalele Mulonda; Niu, Chaojiang; Yuan, Zefan; Xu, Wangwang; Qu, Longbing; Zhao, Kangning; Mai, Liqiang

    2015-01-14

    Transition metal oxides have attracted much interest for their high energy density in lithium batteries. However, the fast capacity fading and the low power density still limit their practical implementation. In order to overcome these challenges, one-dimensional yolk-shell nanorods have been successfully constructed using manganese oxide as an example through a facile two-step sol-gel coating method. Dopamine and tetraethoxysilane are used as precursors to obtain uniform polymer coating and silica layer followed by converting into carbon shell and hollow space, respectively. As anode material for lithium batteries, the manganese oxide/carbon yolk-shell nanorod electrode has a reversible capacity of 660 mAh/g for initial cycle at 100 mA/g and exhibits excellent cyclability with a capacity of 634 mAh/g after 900 cycles at a current density of 500 mA/g. An enhanced capacity is observed during the long-term cycling process, which may be attributed to the structural integrity, the stability of solid electrolyte interphase layer, and the electrochemical actuation of the yolk-shell nanorod structure. The results demonstrate that the manganese oxide is well utilized with the one-dimensional yolk-shell structure, which represents an efficient way to realize excellent performance for practical applications. PMID:25490409

  17. Hollow Carbon Nanofiber-Encapsulated Sulfur Cathodes for High Specific Capacity Rechargeable Lithium Batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Zheng, Guangyuan

    2011-10-12

    Sulfur has a high specific capacity of 1673 mAh/g as lithium battery cathodes, but its rapid capacity fading due to polysulfides dissolution presents a significant challenge for practical applications. Here we report a hollow carbon nanofiber-encapsulated sulfur cathode for effective trapping of polysulfides and demonstrate experimentally high specific capacity and excellent electrochemical cycling of the cells. The hollow carbon nanofiber arrays were fabricated using anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) templates, through thermal carbonization of polystyrene. The AAO template also facilitates sulfur infusion into the hollow fibers and prevents sulfur from coating onto the exterior carbon wall. The high aspect ratio of the carbon nanofibers provides an ideal structure for trapping polysulfides, and the thin carbon wall allows rapid transport of lithium ions. The small dimension of these nanofibers provides a large surface area per unit mass for Li2S deposition during cycling and reduces pulverization of electrode materials due to volumetric expansion. A high specific capacity of about 730 mAh/g was observed at C/5 rate after 150 cycles of charge/discharge. The introduction of LiNO3 additive to the electrolyte was shown to improve the Coulombic efficiency to over 99% at C/5. The results show that the hollow carbon nanofiber-encapsulated sulfur structure could be a promising cathode design for rechargeable Li/S batteries with high specific energy. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  18. Enhancing electrochemical intermediate solvation through electrolyte anion selection to increase nonaqueous Li-O$_2$ battery capacity

    CERN Document Server

    Burke, Colin M; Khetan, Abhishek; Viswanathan, Venkatasubramanian; McCloskey, Bryan D

    2015-01-01

    Among the 'beyond Li-ion' battery chemistries, nonaqueous Li-O$_2$ batteries have the highest theoretical specific energy and as a result have attracted significant research attention over the past decade. A critical scientific challenge facing nonaqueous Li-O$_2$ batteries is the electronically insulating nature of the primary discharge product, lithium peroxide, which passivates the battery cathode as it is formed, leading to low ultimate cell capacities. Recently, strategies to enhance solubility to circumvent this issue have been reported, but rely upon electrolyte formulations that further decrease the overall electrochemical stability of the system, thereby deleteriously affecting battery rechargeability. In this study, we report that a significant enhancement (greater than four-fold) in Li-O$_2$ cell capacity is possible by appropriately selecting the salt anion in the electrolyte solution. Using $^7$Li nuclear magnetic resonance and modeling, we confirm that this improvement is a result of enhanced Li...

  19. Capacity Optimization of Renewable Energy Sources and Battery Storage in an Autonomous Telecommunication Facility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dragicevic, Tomislav; Pandžić, Hrvoje; Škrlec, Davor;

    2014-01-01

    by a central energy storage system (ESS), consisting of a battery and a fuel cell. The optimization is carried out as a robust mixed-integer linear program (RMILP), and results in different optimal solutions, depending on budgets of uncertainty, each of which yields different RES and storage......This paper describes a robust optimization approach to minimize the total cost of supplying a remote telecommunication station exclusively by renewable energy sources (RES). Due to the intermittent nature of RES, such as photovoltaic (PV) panels and small wind turbines, they are normally supported...... capacities. These solutions are then tested against a set of possible outcomes, thus simulating the future operation of the system. Since battery cycling is inevitable in this application, an algorithm that counts the number of cycles and associated depths of discharges (DoD) is applied to the optimization...

  20. Carbon−Silicon Core−Shell Nanowires as High Capacity Electrode for Lithium Ion Batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Cui, Li-Feng

    2009-09-09

    We introduce a novel design of carbon-silicon core-shell nanowires for high power and long life lithium battery electrodes. Amorphous silicon was coated onto carbon nanofibers to form a core-shell structure and the resulted core-shell nanowires showed great performance as anode material. Since carbon has a much smaller capacity compared to silicon, the carbon core experiences less structural stress or damage during lithium cycling and can function as a mechanical support and an efficient electron conducting pathway. These nanowires have a high charge storage capacity of ∼2000 mAh/g and good cycling life. They also have a high Coulmbic efficiency of 90% for the first cycle and 98-99.6% for the following cycles. A full cell composed of LiCoO2 cathode and carbon-silicon core-shell nanowire anode is also demonstrated. Significantly, using these core-shell nanowires we have obtained high mass loading and an area capacity of ∼4 mAh/cm2, which is comparable to commercial battery values. © 2009 American Chemical Society.

  1. Effect of short-time external short circuiting on the capacity fading mechanism during long-term cycling of LiCoO2/mesocarbon microbeads battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lingling; Cheng, Xinqun; Ma, Yulin; Guan, Ting; Sun, Shun; Cui, Yingzhi; Du, Chunyu; Zuo, Pengjian; Gao, Yunzhi; Yin, Geping

    2016-06-01

    Commercial LiCoO2/mesocarbon microbeads (MCMB) batteries (CP475148AR) are short circuited by different contact resistances (0.6 mΩ and 5.0 mΩ) for short times. The short circuited battery is cycled for 1000 times, and the effect of the short-time external short circuiting on the capacity fading mechanism during long-term cycling of LiCoO2/MCMB battery is studied by analyzing the morphology, structure, and electrochemical performance. The results of SEM indicates that the morphology of LiCoO2 material is almost unchanged, except that the particle surface becomes smooth, and the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) film on the surface of MCMB electrode becomes nonuniform due to the high temperature caused by short circuiting. The lithium ions are more difficult to de-intercalate from the anode and the lattice structure of LiCoO2 degrades according to the results of X-ray diffraction (XRD). The high discharge current caused by short circuiting can damage electrodes, leaving vacancies in structure. The damage of electrode structure can lead to a decrease of diffusion coefficient of lithium (D), so polarization increases and mainly caused by the LiCoO2 electrode. The capacity deterioration of short circuited battery during long-term cycling is mainly caused by the increase of polarization and capacity loss of electrodes.

  2. High mass loading, binder-free MXene anodes for high areal capacity Li-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Though anodes with high Li gravimetric capacities, beyond commercial graphite, have been intensively studied, gravimetric capacity does not precisely reflect the performance of a packed cell. Li anodes with high mass loadings, which can achieve high areal capacities, are required for many commercial applications. Herein, anodes with high mass loadings were fabricated using two-dimensional transition metal carbides (MXenes). Powders of the latter were cold pressed, without binders, at a pressure of 1 GPa, to create ∼300 μm thick, free-standing discs. When Ti3C2 was used as the anode for lithium, the initial reversible areal capacity was ∼15 mAh/cm2, which decreased to 5.9 mAh/cm2 after 50 cycles, but the decrease after the first ∼20 cycles was very gradual. The latter is one of the highest values ever reported to date. When Nb2C was used as the anode instead, the initial reversible capacity was ∼16 mAh/cm2; this value decreased to 6.7 mAh/cm2 after 50 cycles, which is about a 14% increase compared to Ti3C2. As the research on MXenes for lithium ion batteries has just begun, there is certainly room for further improving their electrochemical performance

  3. Silicon nano-trees as high areal capacity anodes for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leveau, Lucie; Laïk, Barbara; Pereira-Ramos, Jean-Pierre; Gohier, Aurélien; Tran-Van, Pierre; Cojocaru, Costel-Sorin

    2016-06-01

    Nanostructured silicon electrodes have attracted attention as a potential candidate for high capacity anode in lithium-ion batteries, thanks to their high specific capacity and their ability to accommodate silicon volume changes upon cycling. However, the silicon amount deposited on these nanostructured electrodes is generally low and leads to low surface capacities. Here, a new structure is proposed to increase the areal density of silicon on the electrode. A second growth of secondary nanowires on a silicon nanowires electrode leads to a "nano-tree" structure with surface capacities between 1.8 and 7.1 mAh cm-2. These high loaded electrodes maintain very good rate capabilities and a rather stable cycling is observed for the intermediate loadings, with a capacity maintained above 2 mAh cm-2 after 100 cycles at C/5. This paper provides evidence of a successful synthesis of high loaded silicon electrodes for practical applications, of which the electrochemical performances outperform those of graphite commercial anodes.

  4. Improving the Capacity of Sodium Ion Battery Using a Virus-Templated Nanostructured Composite Cathode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moradi, M; Li, Z; Qi, JF; Xing, WT; Xiang, K; Chiang, YM; Belcher, AM

    2015-05-01

    In this work we investigated an energy-efficient biotemplated route to synthesize nanostructured FePO4 for sodium-based batteries. Self-assembled M13 viruses and single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) have been used as a template to grow amorphous FePO4 nanoparticles at room temperature (the active composite is denoted as Bio-FePO4-CNT) to enhance the electronic conductivity of the active material. Preliminary tests demonstrate a discharge capacity as high as 166 mAh/g at C/10 rate, corresponding to composition Na0.9FePO4, which along with higher C-rate tests show this material to have the highest capacity and power performance reported for amorphous FePO4 electrodes to date.

  5. Bismuth sulfide: A high-capacity anode for sodium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wenping; Rui, Xianhong; Zhang, Dan; Jiang, Yinzhu; Sun, Ziqi; Liu, Huakun; Dou, Shixue

    2016-03-01

    Exploring high-performance anode materials is currently one of the most urgent issues towards practical sodium-ion batteries (SIBs). In this work, Bi2S3 is demonstrated to be a high-capacity anode for SIBs for the first time. The specific capacity of Bi2S3 nanorods achieves up to 658 and 264 mAh g-1 at a current density of 100 and 2000 mA g-1, respectively. A full cell with Na3V2(PO4)3-based cathode is also assembled as a proof of concept and delivers 340 mAh g-1 at 100 mA g-1. The sodium storage mechanism of Bi2S3 is investigated by ex-situ XRD coupled with high-resolution TEM (HRTEM), and it is found that sodium storage is achieved by a combined conversion-intercalation mechanism.

  6. A capacity fade model for lithium-ion batteries including diffusion and kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A one dimensional model incorporating solvent diffusion and kinetics of solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) formation is developed to study capacity fade in lithium ion batteries. The model assumes that solvent diffuses through the SEI (solid electrolyte interphase) and undergoes a two electron reduction at the carbon SEI interface. The kinetics of the reduction reaction at the SEI–electrolyte interface and the solvent diffusivity are seen to be the most important parameters governing SEI formation. The capacity loss is seen to be a function of the thickness of the SEI layer and is seen to vary linearly over time. The rate constant governing SEI formation and solvent diffusivity are seen to follow Arrhenius type relationships. The model results are compared with and are found to be in good agreement with experimental data.

  7. Graphdiyne as a high-capacity lithium ion battery anode material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Byungryul; Koo, Jahyun; Park, Minwoo; Kwon, Yongkyung; Lee, Hoonkyung, E-mail: hkiee3@konkuk.ac.kr [School of Physics, Konkuk University, Seoul 143-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hosik [School of Mechanical and Advanced Materials Engineering, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology (UNIST), Ulsan 689-798 (Korea, Republic of); Nam, Jaewook [School of Chemical Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 300 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-23

    Using the first-principles calculations, we explored the feasibility of using graphdiyne, a 2D layer of sp and sp{sup 2} hybrid carbon networks, as lithium ion battery anodes. We found that the composite of the Li-intercalated multilayer α-graphdiyne was C{sub 6}Li{sub 7.31} and that the calculated voltage was suitable for the anode. The practical specific/volumetric capacities can reach up to 2719 mAh g{sup −1}/2032 mAh cm{sup −3}, much greater than the values of ∼372 mAh g{sup −1}/∼818 mAh cm{sup −3}, ∼1117 mAh g{sup −1}/∼1589 mAh cm{sup −3}, and ∼744 mAh g{sup −1} for graphite, graphynes, and γ-graphdiyne, respectively. Our calculations suggest that multilayer α-graphdiyne can serve as a promising high-capacity lithium ion battery anode.

  8. Enhancing electrochemical intermediate solvation through electrolyte anion selection to increase nonaqueous Li–O2 battery capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Colin M.; Pande, Vikram; Khetan, Abhishek; Viswanathan, Venkatasubramanian; McCloskey, Bryan D.

    2015-01-01

    Among the “beyond Li-ion” battery chemistries, nonaqueous Li–O2 batteries have the highest theoretical specific energy and, as a result, have attracted significant research attention over the past decade. A critical scientific challenge facing nonaqueous Li–O2 batteries is the electronically insulating nature of the primary discharge product, lithium peroxide, which passivates the battery cathode as it is formed, leading to low ultimate cell capacities. Recently, strategies to enhance solubility to circumvent this issue have been reported, but rely upon electrolyte formulations that further decrease the overall electrochemical stability of the system, thereby deleteriously affecting battery rechargeability. In this study, we report that a significant enhancement (greater than fourfold) in Li–O2 cell capacity is possible by appropriately selecting the salt anion in the electrolyte solution. Using 7Li NMR and modeling, we confirm that this improvement is a result of enhanced Li+ stability in solution, which, in turn, induces solubility of the intermediate to Li2O2 formation. Using this strategy, the challenging task of identifying an electrolyte solvent that possesses the anticorrelated properties of high intermediate solubility and solvent stability is alleviated, potentially providing a pathway to develop an electrolyte that affords both high capacity and rechargeability. We believe the model and strategy presented here will be generally useful to enhance Coulombic efficiency in many electrochemical systems (e.g., Li–S batteries) where improving intermediate stability in solution could induce desired mechanisms of product formation. PMID:26170330

  9. Robust, High Capacity, High Power Lithium Ion Batteries for Space Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Lithium ion battery technology provides the highest energy density of all rechargeable battery technologies available today. However, the majority of the research...

  10. On-board capacity estimation of lithium iron phosphate batteries by means of half-cell curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marongiu, Andrea; Nlandi, Nsombo; Rong, Yao; Sauer, Dirk Uwe

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents a novel methodology for the on-board estimation of the actual battery capacity of lithium iron phosphate batteries. The approach is based on the detection of the actual degradation mechanisms by collecting plateau information. The tracked degradation modes are employed to change the characteristics of the fresh electrode voltage curves (mutual position and dimension), to reconstruct the full voltage curve and therefore to obtain the total capacity. The work presents a model which describes the relation between the single degradation modes and the electrode voltage curves characteristics. The model is then implemented in a novel battery management system structure for aging tracking and on-board capacity estimation. The working principle of the new algorithm is validated with data obtained from lithium iron phosphate cells aged in different operating conditions. The results show that both during charge and discharge the algorithm is able to correctly track the actual battery capacity with an error of approx. 1%. The use of the obtained results for the recalibration of a hysteresis model present in the battery management system is eventually presented, demonstrating the benefit of the tracked aging information for additional scopes.

  11. The association of selected SPEEX-battery indices with the constructs of the multifactor leadership questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Sugreen

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The principal objective of the study was to determine the relationship between certain indices of the SPEEX-battery and the leadership dimensions of the MLQ. The SPEEX-battery was subjected to factor analysis and yielded six factors. The reliabilities of the composite scores calculated to represent each of the factors ranged from 0,712 to 0,925. The MLQ was also subjected to factor analysis and yielded three factors. A canonical correlation of 0,666 (p Opsomming Die hoofdoelwit van die studie was om die verband tussen sekere indekse van die SPEEX-battery en die leierskapsdimensies van die MLQ te bepaal. Die SPEEX-battery is aan ’n faktorontleding onderwerp en ses faktore is verkry. Saamgesteldetellings is bereken om elk van die faktore te verteenwoordig. Die verkreë betroubaarhede het gewissel van 0,712 tot 0,925. Die MLQ is ook aan ’n faktorontleding onderwerp en drie faktore is verkry. ’n Kanoniese korrelasie van 0,666 (p< 0,000001 is verkry tussen die dimensies van die SPEEX-battery (OV’s en die leierskapsdimensies van die MLQ (AV’s. Die implikasies van die studie word bespreek.

  12. The available capacity computation model based on artificial neural network for lead-acid batteries in electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, C. C.; Lo, E. W. C.; Weixiang, Shen

    The available capacity computation model based on the artificial neural network (ANN) for lead-acid batteries in an electric vehicle (EV) is presented. Comparing with the methods based on the Peukert equation, which is often used for the calculation of the available capacity for lead-acid batteries in EVs, this model is more accurate. The results of the experiment have proven the accuracy of the proposed model; the computation values are in good agreement with experimental data, the associated error has been considered acceptable from an engineering point of view.

  13. Charging/Discharging Nanomorphology Asymmetry and Rate-Dependent Capacity Degradation in Li-Oxygen Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushima, Akihiro; Koido, Tetsuya; Fujiwara, Yoshiya; Kuriyama, Nariaki; Kusumi, Nobuhiro; Li, Ju

    2015-12-01

    Liquid-cell in situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations of the charge/discharge reactions of nonaqueous Li-oxygen battery cathode were performed with ∼5 nm spatial resolution. The discharging reaction occurred at the interface between the electrolyte and the reaction product, whereas in charging, the reactant was decomposed at the contact with the gold current collector, indicating that the lithium ion diffusivity/electronic conductivity is the limiting factor in discharging/charging, respectively, which is a root cause for the asymmetry in discharging/charging overpotential. Detachments of lithium oxide particles from the current collector into the liquid electrolyte are frequently seen when the cell was discharged at high overpotentials, with loss of active materials into liquid electrolyte ("flotsam") under minute liquid flow agitation, as the lithium peroxide dendritic trees are shown to be fragile mechanically and electrically. Our result implies that enhancing the binding force between the reaction products and the current collector to maintain robust electronic conduction is a key for improving the battery performance. This work demonstrated for the first time the in situ TEM observation of a three-phase-reaction involving gold electrode, lithium oxides, DMSO electrolyte and lithium salt, and O2 gas. The technique described in this work is not limited to Li-oxygen battery but also can be potentially used in other applications involving gas/liquid/solid electrochemical reactions. PMID:26535921

  14. State-of-health estimation of LiFePO4/graphite batteries based on a model using differential capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torai, Soichiro; Nakagomi, Masaru; Yoshitake, Satoshi; Yamaguchi, Shuichiro; Oyama, Noboru

    2016-02-01

    A model for expressing the differential capacity characteristics of the LiFePO4 (LFP)/graphite battery for the state-of-health (SOH) estimation was proposed. Our model was based on the deformed pseudo-Voigt peak function with several parameters which are directly associated with the phase transition behavior of the active LFP and graphite materials. Charge/discharge cycle tests for accelerated battery fading were performed under a constant high-temperature condition (40 and 45 °C). The SOH estimation was carried out at different fading point of the battery using a part of the responses for the differential capacity versus voltage (dQ/dV vs. V) against the charging process at the rate of C/5 under constant temperature of 25 °C. The changes in the variables of the model with cycling were correlated to the generally mentioned phenomena that the main factors determining the capacity fading of the LFP/graphite battery are the loss of Li+ by a side reaction and that of the active electrode materials. In addition, the robustness related to the charge/discharge history was confirmed, since the memory effect of the LFP/graphite battery, being induced by the previous condition for use, has an influence on the dQ/dV vs. V. The evaluated SOH errors were within ±3%.

  15. Conductance testing compared to traditional methods of evaluating the capacity of valve-regulated lead/acid batteries and predicting state-of-health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feder, D.O. (Electrochemical Energy Storage Systems, Inc., Madison, NJ (United States)); Croda, T.G. (Sprint, Long Distance Div., Burlingame, CA (United States)); McShane, S.J.; Hlavac, M.J. (Midtronics, Inc., Willowbrook, IL (United States)); Champlin, K.S.

    1992-09-15

    Recently, timed discharge capacity tests were performed on 336 individual valve-regulated lead/acid cells in a telecommunications power system. The results were compared with traditional methods of determining cell health (i.e., float voltage, open-circuit voltage, and calculated specific gravity). At the same time, conductance measurements were taken, and these results were also compared to the results of the timed discharge capacity tests. Data will be presented which show that traditional methods indicate almost no correlation to timed discharge capacity testing. Conductance test data will be presented which show a very nearly linear correlation. Based on this correlation, these results indicate that conductance testing can provide users of valve-regulated lead/acid batteries with a valuable predictive tool for determining the state-of-health of individual cells. (orig.).

  16. Species Transport Mechanisms Governing Crossover and Capacity Loss in Vanadium Redox Flow Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agar, Ertan

    Vanadium redox flow batteries (VRFBs) are an emerging energy storage technology that offers unique advantages for grid-scale energy storage due to their flexible design and decoupled power/energy feature. Despite their popularity, a series of technical challenges hinder their widespread implementation. Among these, capacity loss (i.e., loss of energy storage capability) due to the undesired species crossover across the membrane has been identified as the key issue limiting the longevity of these systems. This issue is primarily governed by the properties of the membrane and can be mitigated by using proper membrane architectures with desired features. Presently, identifying proper membrane architectures for VRFB systems is hampered by the lack of a fundamental understanding of the nature of species transport mechanisms and how they are related to the membrane properties and key operating conditions. This Ph.D. study seeks to address this critical challenge by exploring the fundamental mechanisms responsible for species transport within the membrane. The overall objective of this dissertation study is to establish a fundamental understanding of the multi-ionic transport in VRFB membranes by investigating the ionic transport mechanisms responsible for crossover, and utilize this understanding to reveal the role of membrane properties and operating conditions on the capacity loss. To achieve these goals, a combined experimental and computational study was designed. An experimentally validated, 2-D, transient VRFB model that can track the vanadium crossover and capture the related capacity loss was developed. In addition to the model, several electrochemical techniques were used to characterize different types of membrane and study the effects of various operating conditions on the species crossover. Using these computational and experimental tools, an in-depth understanding of the species transport mechanisms within the membrane and how they are related to membrane

  17. Discharge capacity and microstructures of La Mg Pr Al Mn Co Ni alloys for nickel-metal hydride batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    La0.7-xMgxPr0.3Al0.3Mn0.4Co0.5Ni3.8 (x = 0.0, 0.3 and 0.7) alloys have been investigated aiming the production of negative electrodes for nickel-metal hydride batteries. The alloys employed in this work were used in the as cast state. The results showed that the substitution of magnesium by lanthanum increased the discharge capacity of the Ni-MH batteries. A battery produced with the La0.4Mg0.3Pr0.3Al0.3Mn0.4Co0.5Ni3.8 alloy shown a high discharge capacity (380mAh/g) also good stability compared to other alloys. The electrode materials were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). (author)

  18. Hard carbon nanoparticles as high-capacity, high-stability anodic materials for Na-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, Lifen; Cao, Yuliang; Henderson, Wesley A.; Sushko, Maria L.; Shao, Yuyan; Xiao, Jie; Wang, Wei; Engelhard, Mark H.; Nie, Zimin; Liu, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Hard carbon nanoparticles (HCNP) were synthesized by the pyrolysis of a polyaniline precursor. The measured Na+ cation diffusion coefficient (10-13-10-15cm2s-1) in the HCNP obtained at 1150 °C is two orders of magnitude lower than that of Li+ in graphite (10-10-13-15cm2s-1), indicating that reducing the carbon particle size is very important for improving electrochemical performance. These measurements also enable a clear visualization of the stepwise reaction phases and rate changes which occur throughout the insertion/extraction processes in HCNP, The electrochemical measurements also show that the nano-sized HCNP obtained at 1150 °C exhibited higher practical capacity at voltages lower than 1.2 V (vs. Na/Na⁺), as well as a prolonged cycling stability, which is attributed to an optimum spacing of 0.366 nm between the graphitic layers and the nano particular size resulting in a low-barrier Na+ cation insertion. These results suggest that HCNP is a very promising high-capacity/stability anode for low cost sodium-ion batteries (SIBs).

  19. Reliability of a Test Battery Designed for Quickly and Safely Assessing Diverse Indices of Neuromuscular Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiering, Barry A.; Lee, Stuart M. C.; Mulavara, Ajitkumar P.; Bentley, Jason, R.; Buxton, Roxanne E.; Lawrence, Emily L.; Sinka, Joseph; Guilliams, Mark E.; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori L.; Bloomberg, Jacob J.

    2010-01-01

    Spaceflight affects nearly every physiological system. Spaceflight-induced alterations in physiological function translate to decrements in functional performance. Purpose: To develop a test battery for quickly and safely assessing diverse indices of neuromuscular performance. I. Quickly: Battery of tests can be completed in approx.30-40 min. II. Safely: a) No eccentric muscle actions or impact forces. b) Tests present little challenge to postural stability. III. Diverse indices: a) Strength: Excellent reliability (ICC = 0.99) b) Central activation: Very good reliability (ICC = 0.87) c) Power: Excellent reliability (ICC = 0.99) d) Endurance: Total work has excellent reliability (ICC = 0.99) e) Force steadiness: Poor reliability (ICC = 0.20 - 0.60) National

  20. An unexpected large capacity of ultrafine manganese oxide as a sodium-ion battery anode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Yu-Ting; Huang, Tzu-Yang; Lim, Chek-Hai; Shao, Pei-Sian; Hy, Sunny; Kuo, Chao-Yen; Cheng, Ju-Hsiang; Hwang, Bing-Joe; Lee, Jyh-Fu; Wu, Nae-Lih

    2015-12-21

    MnO2 is shown for the first time to be electrochemically active as a conversion anode for Na-ion batteries (NIBs). Space-confined ultrafine (UF)-MnO2, with an average crystal size of 4 nm, synthesized using a porous silicon dioxide templated hydrothermal process exhibits a high reversible sodiation capacity of 567 mA h g(-1), in contrast to the negligible activity shown by the aggregates of larger (14 nm) MnO2 nanocrystallites. The remarkably enhanced sodiation activity of the UF-MnO2 is attributable to its greatly reduced crystal size, which facilitates diffusion of Na ions, along with high surface energy arising from extensive heterogeneous interfacial bonding with the SiO2 surrounding. The UF-MnO2 anode exhibits an exceptional rate and cycle performance, exhibiting >70% capacity retention after 500 cycles. In operando synchrotron X-ray absorption near-edge structural analysis reveals combined charge-storage mechanisms involving conversion reaction between Mn(III) and Mn(II) oxides, Mn(III)-O1.5 + Na(+) + e(-)- ↔ 1/2Na2O + Mn(II)-O, and non-Mn-centered redox reactions. The finding suggests a new strategy for "activating" the potential electrochemical electrode materials that appear inactive in the bulk form. PMID:26567463

  1. High capacity tin-iron oxide-carbon nanostructured anode for advanced lithium ion battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verrelli, Roberta; Hassoun, Jusef

    2015-12-01

    A novel nanostructured Sn-Fe2O3-C anode material, prepared by high-energy ball milling, is here originally presented. The anode benefits from a unique morphology consisting in Fe2O3 and Sn active nanoparticles embedded in a conductive buffer carbon matrix of micrometric size. Furthermore, the Sn metal particles, revealed as amorphous according to X-ray diffraction measurement, show a size lower than 10 nm by transmission electron microscopy. The optimal combination of nano-scale active materials and micrometric electrode configuration of the Sn-Fe2O3-C anode reflects into remarkable electrochemical performances in lithium cell, with specific capacity content higher than 900 mAh g-1 at 1C rate (810 mA g-1) and coulombic efficiency approaching 100% for 100 cycles. The anode, based on a combination of lithium conversion, alloying and intercalation reactions, exhibits exceptional rate-capability, stably delivering more than 400 mAh g-1 at the very high current density of 4 A g-1. In order to fully confirm the suitability of the developed Sn-Fe2O3-C material as anode for lithium ion battery, the electrode is preliminarily studied in combination with a high voltage LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathode in a full cell stably and efficiently operating with a 3.7 V working voltage and a capacity exceeding 100 mAh g-1.

  2. Morphology control of ordered mesoporous carbons for high capacity lithium sulfur batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuster, Joerg David

    2011-06-07

    The focus of this thesis concerns the morphology control of ordered mesoporous carbon (OMC) materials. Ordered mesoporous carbons with diverse morphologies, that are thin films, fibers - embedded in anodic alumina membranes and free-standing - or spherical nanoparticles, have been successfully prepared by soft-templating procedures. The mechanisms of structure formation and processing were investigated with in-situ SAXS measurements and their application in high capacity lithium-sulfur batteries was successfully tested in cooperation with Guang He and Linda Nazar from the University of Waterloo in Canada. The Li-S batteries receive increasing attention due to their high theoretical energy density which is 3 to 5 times higher than from lithium-ion batteries. For this type of battery the specific pore volume is crucial for the content of the active component (sulfur) in the cathode and therefore correlates with the capacity and gravimetric energy density of the battery. At first, mesoporous thin films with 2D-hexagonal structure were obtained through organic-organic self-assembly of a preformed oligomeric resol precursor and the triblock copolymer template Pluronic P123. The formation of a condensed-wall material through thermopolymerization of the precursor oligomers resulted in mesostructured phenolic resin films. Subsequent decomposition of the surfactant and partial carbonization were achieved through thermal treatment in inert atmosphere. The films were crack-free with tunable homogenous thicknesses, and showed either 2D-hexagonal or lamellar mesostructure. An additional, yet unknown 3D-mesostructure was also found. In the second part, cubic and circular hexagonal mesoporous carbon phases in the confined environment of tubular anodic alumina membrane (AAM) pores were obtained by self-assembly of the mentioned resol precursor and the triblock copolymer templates Pluronic F127 or P123, respectively. Casting and solvent-evaporation were also followed by

  3. High Capacity Nano-Composite Cathodes for Human-Rated Lithium-Ion Batteries Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Non-incremental improvements are necessary in lithium-ion batteries order to meet future space applications demands such as NASA's call for lithium-ion battery...

  4. Metamodel for Efficient Estimation of Capacity-Fade Uncertainty in Li-Ion Batteries for Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaewook Lee

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an efficient method for estimating capacity-fade uncertainty in lithium-ion batteries (LIBs in order to integrate them into the battery-management system (BMS of electric vehicles, which requires simple and inexpensive computation for successful application. The study uses the pseudo-two-dimensional (P2D electrochemical model, which simulates the battery state by solving a system of coupled nonlinear partial differential equations (PDEs. The model parameters that are responsible for electrode degradation are identified and estimated, based on battery data obtained from the charge cycles. The Bayesian approach, with parameters estimated by probability distributions, is employed to account for uncertainties arising in the model and battery data. The Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC technique is used to draw samples from the distributions. The complex computations that solve a PDE system for each sample are avoided by employing a polynomial-based metamodel. As a result, the computational cost is reduced from 5.5 h to a few seconds, enabling the integration of the method into the vehicle BMS. Using this approach, the conservative bound of capacity fade can be determined for the vehicle in service, which represents the safety margin reflecting the uncertainty.

  5. A phosphorene-graphene hybrid material as a high-capacity anode for sodium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jie; Lee, Hyun-Wook; Pasta, Mauro; Yuan, Hongtao; Zheng, Guangyuan; Sun, Yongming; Li, Yuzhang; Cui, Yi

    2015-11-01

    Sodium-ion batteries have recently attracted significant attention as an alternative to lithium-ion batteries because sodium sources do not present the geopolitical issues that lithium sources might. Although recent reports on cathode materials for sodium-ion batteries have demonstrated performances comparable to their lithium-ion counterparts, the major scientific challenge for a competitive sodium-ion battery technology is to develop viable anode materials. Here we show that a hybrid material made out of a few phosphorene layers sandwiched between graphene layers shows a specific capacity of 2,440 mA h g-1 (calculated using the mass of phosphorus only) at a current density of 0.05 A g-1 and an 83% capacity retention after 100 cycles while operating between 0 and 1.5 V. Using in situ transmission electron microscopy and ex situ X-ray diffraction techniques, we explain the large capacity of our anode through a dual mechanism of intercalation of sodium ions along the x axis of the phosphorene layers followed by the formation of a Na3P alloy. The presence of graphene layers in the hybrid material works as a mechanical backbone and an electrical highway, ensuring that a suitable elastic buffer space accommodates the anisotropic expansion of phosphorene layers along the y and z axial directions for stable cycling operation.

  6. Uniform carbon layer coated Mn3O4 nanorod anodes with improved reversible capacity and cyclic stability for lithium ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Changbin; Yin, Longwei; Xiang, Dong; Qi, Yongxin

    2012-03-01

    A facile one-step solvothermal reaction route to large-scale synthesis of carbon homogeneously wrapped manganese oxide (Mn(3)O(4)@C) nanocomposites for anode materials of lithium ion batteries was developed using manganese acetate monohydrate and polyvinylpyrrolidone as precursors and reactants. The synthesized Mn(3)O(4)@C nanocomposites were characterized by X-ray diffraction, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy. The synthesized tetragonal structured Mn(3)O(4) (space group I41/amd) samples display nanorodlike morphology, with a width of about 200-300 nm and a thickness of about 15-20 nm. It is shown that the carbon layers with a thickness of 5 nm are homogeneously coated on the Mn(3)O(4) nanorods. It is indicated from lithium storage capacity estimation that the Mn(3)O(4)@C samples display enhanced capacity retention on charge/discharge cycling. Even after 50 cycles, the products remains stable capacity of 473 mA h g(-1), which is as much 3.05 times as that of pure Mn(3)O(4) samples. Because of the low-cost, nonpollution, and stable capacity, the carbon homogeneously coated Mn(3)O(4)@C nanocomposites are promising anode material for lithium ion batteries. PMID:22394097

  7. Capacity-loss diagnostic and life-time prediction in lithium-ion batteries: Part 1. Development of a capacity-loss diagnostic method based on open-circuit voltage analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tiansi; Pei, Lei; Wang, Tingting; Lu, Rengui; Zhu, Chunbo

    2016-01-01

    Effective capacity-loss diagnosis and life-time prediction are the foundations of battery second-use technology and will play an important role in the development of the new energy industry. Of the two, the capacity-loss diagnostic, as a precondition of the life-time prediction, needs to be studied first. Performing a capacity-loss diagnosis for an aging cell consists of finding the decisive degradation mechanisms for the cell's capacity degradation. Because a cell's capacity just equals the span of the open-circuit voltage (OCV), when suspect degradation mechanisms affect a cell's capacity, they will leave corresponding and particular clues in the OCV curve. Taking a cell's OCV as the diagnostic indicator, a multi-mechanistic and non-destructive diagnostic method is developed in this paper. To establish an unambiguous relationship between OCV changes and the combinations of the decisive mechanisms, all the possible OCV changes under various aging situations are systematically analyzed based on a novel simultaneous coordinate system, in which the effects of each suspect capacity-loss mechanism on the OCV curve can be clearly represented. As a summary of the analysis results, a straightforward diagnostic flowchart is presented. By following the flowchart, an aging cell can be diagnosed within three steps by observation of the OCV changes.

  8. An unexpected large capacity of ultrafine manganese oxide as a sodium-ion battery anode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Yu-Ting; Huang, Tzu-Yang; Lim, Chek-Hai; Shao, Pei-Sian; Hy, Sunny; Kuo, Chao-Yen; Cheng, Ju-Hsiang; Hwang, Bing-Joe; Lee, Jyh-Fu; Wu, Nae-Lih

    2015-11-01

    MnO2 is shown for the first time to be electrochemically active as a conversion anode for Na-ion batteries (NIBs). Space-confined ultrafine (UF)-MnO2, with an average crystal size of 4 nm, synthesized using a porous silicon dioxide templated hydrothermal process exhibits a high reversible sodiation capacity of 567 mA h g-1, in contrast to the negligible activity shown by the aggregates of larger (14 nm) MnO2 nanocrystallites. The remarkably enhanced sodiation activity of the UF-MnO2 is attributable to its greatly reduced crystal size, which facilitates diffusion of Na ions, along with high surface energy arising from extensive heterogeneous interfacial bonding with the SiO2 surrounding. The UF-MnO2 anode exhibits an exceptional rate and cycle performance, exhibiting >70% capacity retention after 500 cycles. In operando synchrotron X-ray absorption near-edge structural analysis reveals combined charge-storage mechanisms involving conversion reaction between Mn(iii) and Mn(ii) oxides, Mn(iii)-O1.5 + Na+ + e-- 1/2Na2O + Mn(ii)-O, and non-Mn-centered redox reactions. The finding suggests a new strategy for ``activating'' the potential electrochemical electrode materials that appear inactive in the bulk form.MnO2 is shown for the first time to be electrochemically active as a conversion anode for Na-ion batteries (NIBs). Space-confined ultrafine (UF)-MnO2, with an average crystal size of 4 nm, synthesized using a porous silicon dioxide templated hydrothermal process exhibits a high reversible sodiation capacity of 567 mA h g-1, in contrast to the negligible activity shown by the aggregates of larger (14 nm) MnO2 nanocrystallites. The remarkably enhanced sodiation activity of the UF-MnO2 is attributable to its greatly reduced crystal size, which facilitates diffusion of Na ions, along with high surface energy arising from extensive heterogeneous interfacial bonding with the SiO2 surrounding. The UF-MnO2 anode exhibits an exceptional rate and cycle performance, exhibiting

  9. Adaptive capacity indicators to assess sustainability of urban water systems - Current application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiller, Marc

    2016-11-01

    Sustainability is commonly assessed along environmental, societal, economic and technological dimensions. A crucial aspect of sustainability is that inter-generational equality must be ensured. This requires that sustainability is attained in the here and now as well as into the future. Therefore, what is perceived as 'sustainable' changes as a function of societal opinion and technological and scientific progress. A concept that describes the ability of systems to change is adaptive capacity. Literature suggests that the ability of systems to adapt is an integral part of sustainable development. This paper demonstrates that indicators measuring adaptive capacity are underrepresented in current urban water sustainability studies. Furthermore, it is discussed under which sustainability dimensions adaptive capacity indicators are lacking and why. Of the >90 indicators analysed, only nine are adaptive capacity indicators, of which six are socio-cultural, two technological, one economical and none environmental. This infrequent use of adaptive capacity indicators in sustainability assessments led to the conclusion that the challenge of dynamic and uncertain urban water systems is, with the exception of the socio-cultural dimension, not yet sufficiently reflected in the application of urban water sustainability indicators. This raises concerns about the progress towards urban water systems that can transform as a response variation and change. Therefore, research should focus on developing methods and indicators that can define, evaluate and quantify adaptive capacity under the economic, environmental and technical dimension of sustainability. Furthermore, it should be evaluated whether sustainability frameworks that focus on the control processes of urban water systems are more suitable for measuring adaptive capacity, than the assessments along environmental, economic, socio-cultural and technological dimensions. PMID:27390059

  10. Biologically enhanced cathode design for improved capacity and cycle life for lithium-oxygen batteries

    OpenAIRE

    Oh, Dahyun; QI, JIFA; Lu, Yi-Chun; Zhang, Yong; Shao-Horn, Yang; Belcher, Angela M.

    2013-01-01

    Lithium-oxygen batteries have a great potential to enhance the gravimetric energy density of fully packaged batteries by 2–3 times that of lithium-ion cells. Recent studies have focused on finding stable electrolytes to address poor cycling capability and improve practical limitations of current lithium-oxygen batteries. In this study, the catalyst electrode, where discharge products are deposited and decomposed, was investigated since it plays a critical role in the operation of rechargeable...

  11. Optimal Installation Capacity of Medium Hydro-Power Plants Considering Technical, Economic and Reliability Indices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hosseini, S. M. H.; Forouzbakhsh, Farshid; Fotuhi-Firuzabad, Mahmood

    2008-01-01

    been developed to analyse energy calculation and estimation of the most important economic indices of an MHPP using the sensitivity analysis method. Another program, developed by Matlab software, calculates the reliability indices for a number of units of an MHPP with a specified load duration curve...... using the Monte Carlo method. Ultimately, com- paring the technical, economic and reliability indices will determine the optimal installation capacity of an MHPP. By applying the above-mentioned algorithm to an existing MHPP named "Bookan( located in the west-north of Iran); the optimal capacity of 30...

  12. Determination of installation capacity in reservoir hydro-power plants considering technical, economical and reliability indices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hosseini, S.M.H.; Forouzbakhsh, Farshid; Fotouh-Firuzabad, Mahmood;

    2008-01-01

    estimation of the most important economic indices of an HPP using the sensitivity analysis method. Another program, developed by Matlab software, calculates the reliability indices for a number of units of an HPP with a specified load duration curve using the Monte Carlo method. Ultimately, comparing the...... technical, economic and reliability indices will determine the installation capacity of an HPP. By applying the above-mentioned algorithm to an existing HPP named ‘‘Bookan” (located in the westnorth of Iran); the capacity of 30 MW is obtained....

  13. Gait speed as a functional capacity indicator in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    OpenAIRE

    Ilgin Duygu; Ozalevli Sevgi; Kilinc Oguz; Sevinc Can; Cimrin Arif; Ucan Eyup

    2011-01-01

    Aim: Walking distance is generally accepted as a functional capacity determinant in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, the use of gait speed in COPD patients has not been directly investigated. Thus, the aim of our study was to assess the use of gait speed as a functional capacity indicator in COPD patients. Methods: A total 511 patients with mild-to-very severe COPD and 113 healthy controls were included. The lung functions (pulmonary function test), general health- and ...

  14. Mn 3 O 4 −Graphene Hybrid as a High-Capacity Anode Material for Lithium Ion Batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Hailiang

    2010-10-13

    We developed two-step solution-phase reactions to form hybrid materials of Mn3O4 nanoparticles on reduced graphene oxide (RGO) sheets for lithium ion battery applications. Selective growth of Mn3O 4 nanoparticles on RGO sheets, in contrast to free particle growth in solution, allowed for the electrically insulating Mn3O4 nanoparticles to be wired up to a current collector through the underlying conducting graphene network. The Mn3O4 nanoparticles formed on RGO show a high specific capacity up to ∼900 mAh/g, near their theoretical capacity, with good rate capability and cycling stability, owing to the intimate interactions between the graphene substrates and the Mn 3O4 nanoparticles grown atop. The Mn3O 4/RGO hybrid could be a promising candidate material for a high-capacity, low-cost, and environmentally friendly anode for lithium ion batteries. Our growth-on-graphene approach should offer a new technique for the design and synthesis of battery electrodes based on highly insulating materials. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  15. Facile fabrication of binder-free NiO electrodes with high rate capacity for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Lili; Xie, Wenhe; Bai, Shuai; Liu, Boli; Xue, Song; Li, Qun; He, Deyan

    2016-04-01

    NiO nanocone arrays are fabricated on nickel foam substrate by a simple hydrothermal synthesis and a subsequent annealing in air. The obtained architecture is directly used as an anode for lithium-ion batteries without any binder. It delivers a capacity of 969 mAh g-1 in the 120th cycle at a current density of 0.5 C. Even at 10 C, the electrode can still deliver a capacity as high as 605.9 mAh g-1. The excellent electrochemical performance could be ascribed to the integrity and porosity of the cycled electrodes.

  16. Capacity decay mechanism of microporous separator-based all-vanadium redox flow batteries and its recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bin; Luo, Qingtao; Wei, Xiaoliang; Nie, Zimin; Thomsen, Edwin; Chen, Baowei; Sprenkle, Vincent; Wang, Wei

    2014-02-01

    The results of the investigation of the capacity decay mechanism of vanadium redox flow batteries with microporous separators as membranes are reported. The investigation focuses on the relationship between the electrochemical performance and electrolyte compositions at both the positive and negative half-cells. Although the concentration of total vanadium ions remains nearly constant at both sides over cycling, the net transfer of solution from one side to the other and thus the asymmetrical valance of vanadium ions caused by the subsequent disproportionate self-discharge reactions at both sides lead to capacity fading. Through in situ monitoring of the hydraulic pressure of the electrolyte during cycling at both sides, the convection was found to arise from differential hydraulic pressures at both sides of the separators and plays a dominant role in capacity decay. A capacity-stabilizing method is developed and was successfully demonstrated through the regulation of gas pressures in both electrolyte tanks. PMID:24488680

  17. Understanding the capacity fading mechanism in LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4/graphite Li-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High voltage LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 (LNMO) spinel with an operating voltage of 4.7 V is a promising candidate as the positive electrode in future lithium ion batteries for electric vehicle applications. However, LNMO displays a capacity fading problem in LNMO/graphite full-cells. Understanding the capacity fading mechanism of LNMO is important for implementing it in next-generation lithium ion batteries. Performance comparisons between LNMO/Li half-cell cycled and LNMO/graphite full-cell cycled were carried out. Whereas no degradation was observed for half-cells, full-cell usable capacity decreased by >50% after 100 cycles. The performance of LNMO and graphite electrodes that experienced full-cell cycling for >100 cycles were then evaluated in fresh half-cells. Results indicated that there is no degradation of the individual LNMO and graphite electrodes. The voltage profiles and dQ/dV curves of full-cells were compared with those of simulated profiles based on half-cell data. Experimental data were successfully reproduced by simulation based on an assumption that the capacity fading in full-cells was originated from the Li+ loss in LNMO. The amount of Mn deposited on Li-metal in the LNMO/Li half-cells was determined to be ∼0.3% of the total Mn weight in the LNMO electrode after 200 cycles at 30 °C. The capacity fading of the LNMO/graphite can be explained by the impact of Mn dissolution, and active Li+ loss in the full-cell system through continuous SEI formation (electrolyte reduction) prompted by Mn reduced on top of graphite surface

  18. 3D Fe{sub 2}(MoO{sub 4}){sub 3} microspheres with nanosheet constituents as high-capacity anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Hao; Wang, Shiqiang [Hubei University, Key Laboratory for Synthesis and Applications of Organic Functional Molecules (China); Wang, Jiazhao; Wang, Jun [University of Wollongong, Institute for Superconducting and Electronic Materials (Australia); Li, Lin; Yang, Yun; Feng, Chuanqi, E-mail: cfeng@hubu.edu.cn [Hubei University, Key Laboratory for Synthesis and Applications of Organic Functional Molecules (China); Sun, Ziqi, E-mail: ziqi.sun@qut.edu.au [Queensland University of Technology, School of Chemistry, Physics and Mechanical Engineering, Science and Engineering Faculty (Australia)

    2015-11-15

    Three-dimensional (3D) Fe{sub 2}(MoO{sub 4}){sub 3} microspheres with ultrathin nanosheet constituents are first synthesized as anode materials for the lithium-ion battery. It is interesting that the single-crystalline nanosheets allow rapid electron/ion transport on the inside, and the high porosity ensures fast diffusion of liquid electrolyte in energy storage applications. The electrochemical properties of Fe{sub 2}(MoO{sub 4}){sub 3} as anode demonstrates that 3D Fe{sub 2}(MoO{sub 4}){sub 3} microspheres deliver an initial capacity of 1855 mAh/g at a current density of 100 mA/g. Particularly, when the current density is increased to 800 mA/g, the reversible capacity of Fe{sub 2}(MoO{sub 4}){sub 3} anode still arrived at 456 mAh/g over 50 cycles. The large and reversible capacities and stable charge–discharge cycling performance indicate that Fe{sub 2}(MoO{sub 4}){sub 3} is a promising anode material for lithium battery applications.Graphical abstractThe electrochemical properties of Fe{sub 2}(MoO{sub 4}){sub 3} as anode demonstrates that 3D Fe{sub 2}(MoO{sub 4}){sub 3} microspheres delivered an initial capacity of 1855 mAh/g at a current density of 100 mA/g. When the current density was increased to 800 mA/g, the Fe{sub 2}(MoO{sub 4}){sub 3} still behaved high reversible capacity and good cycle performance.

  19. Facile complex-coprecipitation synthesis of mesoporous Fe3O4 nanocages and their high lithium storage capacity as anode material for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A facile complex-coprecipitation synthesis of mesoporous Fe3O4 nanocages and their high capacities and excellent cycling performance as anode material for LIBs are reported. - Highlights: • MFONs are synthesized by a facile complex-coprecipitation method. • MFONs with high surface area lead to excellent electrochemical performance. • MFONs anode retains a capacity of 573 mAh g−1 at 1 A g−1 after 300 cycles. - Abstract: In this study, high-quality mesoporous Fe3O4 nanocages (MFONs) have been synthesized by a facile complex-coprecipitation method at 100 °C with addition of triethanolamine and ethylene glycol. The as-prepared Fe3O4 nanocages possess a mesoporous structure and highly uniform dispersion. When used as an anode material for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries, MFONs anode shows high specific capacities and excellent cycling performance at high and low current rates. At a current density of 200 mA g−1, the discharge specific capacities are 876 mAh g−1 at the 2nd cycle and 830 mAh g−1 at the 100th cycle. Even at the high current density of 1000 mA g−1, MFONs anode still retains a stable capacity of 573 mAh g−1 after 300 cycles. This superior electrochemical performance is attributed to the unique mesoporous cage-like structure and high specific surface area (133 m2 g−1) of MFONs, which may offer large electrode/electrolyte contact area for the electron conduction and Li+ storage. Furthermore, the good mechanical flexibility of the mesoporous nanocages can readily buffer the massive volume expansion/shrinkage associated with the reversible electrode reaction. These results indicate that MFONs can be used as a promising high-performance anode material for lithium-ion batteries

  20. A Power Smoothing Control Strategy and Optimized Allocation of Battery Capacity Based on Hybrid Storage Energy Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Li

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Wind power parallel operation is an effective way to realize the large scale use of wind power, but the fluctuations of power output from wind power units may have great influence on power quality, hence a new method of power smoothing and capacity optimized allocation based on hybrid energy storage technology is proposed in terms of the uncontrollable and unexpected characteristics of wind speed in wind farms. First, power smoothing based on a traditional Inertial Filter is introduced and the relationship between the time constant, its smoothing effect and capacity allocation are analyzed and combined with Proportional Integral Differential (PID control to realize power smoothing control of wind power. Then wavelet theory is adopted to realize a multi-layer decomposition of power output in some wind farms, a power smoothing model based on hybrid energy storage technology is constructed combining the characteristics of the Super Capacitor (SC and Battery Energy Storage System (BESS technologies. The hybrid energy storage system is available for power fluctuations with high frequency-low energy and low frequency-high energy to achieve good smoothing effects compared with a single energy storage system. The power fluctuations filtered by the Wavelet Transform is regarded as the target value of BESS, the charging and discharging control for battery is completed quickly by Model Algorithm Control (MAC. Because of the influence of the inertia and the response speed of the battery, its actual output is not completely equal to the target value which mainly reflects in high-frequency part, the difference part uses SC to compensate and makes the output of battery and SC closer to the target value on the whole. Compared with the traditional Inertial Filter and PID control method, the validity of the model was verified by simulation results. Finally under the premise of power grid standards, the corresponding capacity design had been given to reduce the

  1. Sulfone-carbonate ternary electrolyte with further increased capacity retention and burn resistance for high voltage lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Leigang; Lee, Seung-Yul; Zhao, Zuofeng; Angell, C. Austen

    2015-11-01

    Safety and high energy density are the two focus issues for current lithium ion batteries. For safety, it has been demonstrated that sulfone electrolytes are much less flammable than the prevailing all-carbonate type, and they are also promising for high voltage batteries due to the high oxidization resistance. However, the high melting points and viscosities greatly restricted their application. Based on our previous work on use of fluidity-enhancing cosolvents to make binary sulfone-carbonate electrolytes, we report here a three-component system that is more conductive and should be even less flammable while additionally having better low temperature stability. The conductivity-viscosity relations have been determined for this electrolyte and are comparable to those of the "standard" carbonate electrolyte. The additional component also produces much improved capacity retention for the LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathode. As with carbonate electrolytes, increase of temperature to 55 °C leads to rapid capacity decrease during cycling, but the capacity loss is due to the salt, not the solvent. The high discharge capacity observed at 25 °C when LiBF4 replaces LiPF6, is fully retained at 55 °C.

  2. Modeling Li-ion Battery Capacity Depletion in a Particle Filtering Framework

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This paper presents an empirical model to describe battery behavior during individual discharge cycles as well as over its cycle life. The basis for the form of the...

  3. Binder-free Ge-three dimensional graphene electrodes for high-rate capacity Li-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A binder-free, high-rate Ge-three dimensional (3D) graphene composite was synthesized by directly depositing Ge film atop 3D graphene grown by microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition on Ni substrate. The Ge-3D graphene structure demonstrates excellent electrochemical performance as a lithium ion battery (LIB) anode with a reversible capacity of 1140 mAh g−1 at 1/3C over 100 cycles and 835 mAh g−1 at 8C after 60 cycles, and significantly a discharge capacity of 186 mAh g−1 was still achieved at 32C. The high capacity and outstanding stability of the Ge-3D graphene composite propose it as a promising electrode in high-performance thin film LIBs

  4. Nitrogen-doped porous interconnected double-shelled hollow carbon spheres with high capacity for lithium ion batteries and sodium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitrogen-doped porous interconnected double-shelled hollow carbon spheres (N-DHCSs) have been synthesized by chemical treatment of Fe3O4@C precursors using HNO3 at low temperature. When the precursors are disposed with HCl or H2SO4, uniform porous interconnected double-shelled hollow carbon spheres (DHCSs) are prepared. Comparing with DHCSs, the as-prepared N-DHCSs show higher Li-storage capacity and both show good cycling stability as anode materials in lithium ion batteries. The N-DHCSs offer a capacity of 512 mA h g−1 at 1.5 C after 500 cycles and their porous interconnected double-shelled hollow structure could be well kept. The N-DHCSs also show high reversible capacity of 598 mA h g−1 at 1 C after cycled at different current densities. In addition, the N-DHCSs as anode materials in sodium half-cell exhibit high reversible capacity of 120 mA h g−1 at a current rate of 0.2 A g−1 after 100 cycles

  5. Battery performance monitoring by internal ohmic measurements: Application guidelines for stationary batteries. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various routine inspections and checks offer a general indication of a battery's health and its state of charge. However, none of these routine checks provide definitive information about a battery's actual capacity. Consequently, capacity discharge tests have been and remain the traditional means by which adequate battery discharge tests have been and remain the traditional means by which adequate battery capacity is confirmed. Although technically prudent, the time and expense associated with capacity discharge testing is increasingly at odds with pressures to reduce operating and maintenance budgets. These pressures, in combination with new battery types that cannot be inspected by conventional mans, spurred development efforts for more cost-effective battery test techniques. Resulting advancements in battery monitoring equipment have produced new methods of evaluating battery health and reliability. The results presented here are based on a detailed research program to determine the degree of correlation between capacity and internal ohmic measurements. For each evaluated battery, internal ohmic measurements were recorded for individual cells prior to conducting a capacity discharge test of the battery. The discharge test results were then evaluated with respect to the internal ohmic measurements to determine the degree of correlation between capacity and internal ohmic measurements. The project goal was to obtain the necessary data to demonstrate the technology's value while also providing users with practical information about (1) the relationship between battery capacity and internal ohmic measurements, (2) how to use the test equipment in the field for best results, and (3) suggested guidelines for interpreting the measurements

  6. High-Capacity Micrometer-Sized Li 2 S Particles as Cathode Materials for Advanced Rechargeable Lithium-Ion Batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Yuan

    2012-09-19

    Li 2S is a high-capacity cathode material for lithium metal-free rechargeable batteries. It has a theoretical capacity of 1166 mAh/g, which is nearly 1 order of magnitude higher than traditional metal oxides/phosphates cathodes. However, Li 2S is usually considered to be electrochemically inactive due to its high electronic resistivity and low lithium-ion diffusivity. In this paper, we discover that a large potential barrier (∼1 V) exists at the beginning of charging for Li 2S. By applying a higher voltage cutoff, this barrier can be overcome and Li 2S becomes active. Moreover, this barrier does not appear again in the following cycling. Subsequent cycling shows that the material behaves similar to common sulfur cathodes with high energy efficiency. The initial discharge capacity is greater than 800 mAh/g for even 10 μm Li 2S particles. Moreover, after 10 cycles, the capacity is stabilized around 500-550 mAh/g with a capacity decay rate of only ∼0.25% per cycle. The origin of the initial barrier is found to be the phase nucleation of polysulfides, but the amplitude of barrier is mainly due to two factors: (a) charge transfer directly between Li 2S and electrolyte without polysulfide and (b) lithium-ion diffusion in Li 2S. These results demonstrate a simple and scalable approach to utilizing Li 2S as the cathode material for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries with high specific energy. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  7. Battery Modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Jongerden, M.R.; Haverkort, B.R.

    2008-01-01

    The use of mobile devices is often limited by the capacity of the employed batteries. The battery lifetime determines how long one can use a device. Battery modeling can help to predict, and possibly extend this lifetime. Many different battery models have been developed over the years. However, with these models one can only compute lifetimes for specific discharge profiles, and not for workloads in general. In this paper, we give an overview of the different battery models that are availabl...

  8. A New Method to Plan the Capacity and Location of Battery Swapping Station for Electric Vehicle Considering Demand Side Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenxia Liu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Compared to electric vehicle (EV charging mode, battery swapping mode can realize concentrated and orderly charging. Therefore battery swapping stations (BSS can participate in the demand side management (DSM as an integrated form. In this context, a new method to plan the capacity and location of BSS for EV, considering DSM, is proposed in this paper. Firstly, based on the original charging power of BSS with the rule of “First-In First-Out”, a bi-level optimal configuration model of BSS, in which net profit of BSS is maximized in the upper model and operating cost of Distribution Company is minimized in the lower model, is developed to decide the rated power, number of batteries, contract pricing and dispatched power of BSS for DSM. Then, the optimal locating model of BSS with the objective of minimizing network loss is built. A mesh adaptive direct search algorithm with YALMIP toolbox is applied to optimize the bi-level model. Simulation calculation was carried on IEEE-33 nodes distribution system and the results show that participating in DSM can improve the economic benefits of both BSS and distribution network and promote the consumption of distributed generation, verifying the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method.

  9. Borophene as an extremely high capacity electrode material for Li-ion and Na-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoming; Hu, Junping; Cheng, Yingchun; Yang, Hui Ying; Yao, Yugui; Yang, Shengyuan A

    2016-08-18

    "Two-dimensional (2D) materials as electrodes" is believed to be the trend for future Li-ion and Na-ion battery technologies. Here, by using first-principles methods, we predict that the recently reported borophene (2D boron sheets) can serve as an ideal electrode material with high electrochemical performance for both Li-ion and Na-ion batteries. The calculations are performed on two experimentally stable borophene structures, namely β12 and χ3 structures. The optimized Li and Na adsorption sites are identified, and the host materials are found to maintain good electric conductivity before and after adsorption. Besides advantages including small diffusion barriers and low average open-circuit voltages, most remarkably, the storage capacity can be as high as 1984 mA h g(-1) in β12 borophene and 1240 mA h g(-1) in χ3 borophene for both Li and Na, which are several times higher than the commercial graphite electrode and are the highest among all the 2D materials discovered to date. Our results highly support that borophenes can be appealing anode materials for both Li-ion and Na-ion batteries with extremely high power density. PMID:27502997

  10. Dynamic modelling of the effects of ion diffusion and side reactions on the capacity loss for vanadium redox flow battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Ao; Bao, Jie; Skyllas-Kazacos, Maria

    The diffusion of vanadium ions across the membrane along with side reactions can have a significant impact on the capacity of the vanadium redox flow battery (VFB) over long-term charge-discharge cycling. Differential rates of diffusion of the vanadium ions from one half-cell into the other will facilitate self-discharge reactions, leading to an imbalance between the state-of-charge of the two half-cell electrolytes and a subsequent drop in capacity. Meanwhile side reactions as a result of evolution of hydrogen or air oxidation of V 2+ can further affect the capacity of the VFB. In this paper, a dynamic model is developed based on mass balances for each of the four vanadium ions in the VFB electrolytes in conjunction with the Nernst Equation. This model can predict the capacity as a function of time and thus can be used to determine when periodic electrolyte remixing or rebalancing should take place to restore cell capacity. Furthermore, the dynamic model can be potentially incorporated in the control system of the VFB to achieve long term optimal operation. The performance of three different types of membranes is studied on the basis of the above model and the simulation results together with potential operational issues are analysed and discussed.

  11. Overcharge performance of LiMn_2O_4/graphite battery with large capacity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yun-jian; LI Xin-hai; GUO Hua-jun; WANG Zhi-xing; HU Qi-yang; PENG Wen-jie

    2009-01-01

    The LiMn_2O_4/graphite battery was fabricated and its 3 C/10 V overcharge performance was studied. Spinel LiMn_2O_4 was synthesized by solid-state method and 325680-type size full battery was fabricated. The structure and morphology of the powders were characterized by XRD and SEM technique, respectively. The battery explodes after 3 C/10 V overcharged test, and surface temperature of the battery case arrives at 290℃ in 12 s after exploding. Black air is given out with blast. Carbon, MnO, and Li_2CO_3 are observed in the exploded powders. The cathode electrode remains spinel structure with 5.0 V charged. Cracks in the cathode electrode particles are detected with the increase of voltage by SEM technique. The 5.0 V charged electrode can decompose into Mn_30_4 at 400 ℃. It is demonstrated that the decomposition of 5.0 V charged electrode can be promoted and Mn~(4+) can be deoxidized to Mn~(2+) by carbon and electrolyte through the simulation of blast process.

  12. Lithium alloys and metal oxides as high-capacity anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: •Progress in lithium alloys and metal oxides as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries is reviewed. •Electrochemical characteristics and lithium storage mechanisms of lithium alloys and metal oxides are summarized. •Strategies for improving electrochemical lithium storage properties of lithium alloys and metal oxides are discussed. •Challenges in developing lithium alloys and metal oxides as commercial anodes for lithium-ion batteries are pointed out. -- Abstract: Lithium alloys and metal oxides have been widely recognized as the next-generation anode materials for lithium-ion batteries with high energy density and high power density. A variety of lithium alloys and metal oxides have been explored as alternatives to the commercial carbonaceous anodes. The electrochemical characteristics of silicon, tin, tin oxide, iron oxides, cobalt oxides, copper oxides, and so on are systematically summarized. In this review, it is not the scope to retrace the overall studies, but rather to highlight the electrochemical performances, the lithium storage mechanism and the strategies in improving the electrochemical properties of lithium alloys and metal oxides. The challenges and new directions in developing lithium alloys and metal oxides as commercial anodes for the next-generation lithium-ion batteries are also discussed

  13. Iron titanium phosphates as high-specific-capacity electrode materials for lithium ion batteries

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Essehli, R.; El Bali, B.; Faik, A.; Naji, M.; Benmokhtar, S.; Zhong, Y.R.; Su, L.W.; Zhou, Z.; Kim, J.; Kang, K.; Dušek, Michal

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 585, FEB (2014), s. 434-441. ISSN 0925-8388 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : crystal structure * electrolyte * nasicon * oxyphosphate * lithium-ion batteries Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.999, year: 2014

  14. Ultrahigh capacity anode material for lithium ion battery based on rod gold nanoparticles decorated reduced graphene oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atar, Necip, E-mail: necipatar@gmail.com [Department of Chemical Engineering, Pamukkale University, Denizli (Turkey); Eren, Tanju [Department of Chemical Engineering, Pamukkale University, Denizli (Turkey); Yola, Mehmet Lütfi [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Sinop University, Sinop (Turkey)

    2015-09-01

    In this study, we report the synthesis of rod shaped gold nanoparticles/2-aminoethanethiol functionalized reduced graphene oxide composite (rdAuNPs/AETrGO) and its application as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries. The structure of the rdAuNPs/AETrGO composite was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. The electrochemical performance was investigated at different current rates by using a coin-type cell. It was found that the rod shaped gold nanoparticles were highly dispersed on the reduced graphene oxide sheets. Moreover, the rdAuNPs/AETrGO composite showed a high specific gravimetric capacity of about 1320 mAh g{sup −1} and a long-term cycle stability. - Highlights: • We prepared rod shaped gold nanoparticles functionalized reduced graphene oxide. • The nanocomposite was used as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries. • The nanocomposite showed a high specific gravimetric capacity of about 1320 mAh g{sup −1}. • The nanocomposite exhibited a long-term cycle stability.

  15. Ultrahigh capacity anode material for lithium ion battery based on rod gold nanoparticles decorated reduced graphene oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, we report the synthesis of rod shaped gold nanoparticles/2-aminoethanethiol functionalized reduced graphene oxide composite (rdAuNPs/AETrGO) and its application as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries. The structure of the rdAuNPs/AETrGO composite was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. The electrochemical performance was investigated at different current rates by using a coin-type cell. It was found that the rod shaped gold nanoparticles were highly dispersed on the reduced graphene oxide sheets. Moreover, the rdAuNPs/AETrGO composite showed a high specific gravimetric capacity of about 1320 mAh g−1 and a long-term cycle stability. - Highlights: • We prepared rod shaped gold nanoparticles functionalized reduced graphene oxide. • The nanocomposite was used as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries. • The nanocomposite showed a high specific gravimetric capacity of about 1320 mAh g−1. • The nanocomposite exhibited a long-term cycle stability

  16. Carbon-Confined SnO2-Electrodeposited Porous Carbon Nanofiber Composite as High-Capacity Sodium-Ion Battery Anode Material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirican, Mahmut; Lu, Yao; Ge, Yeqian; Yildiz, Ozkan; Zhang, Xiangwu

    2015-08-26

    Sodium resources are inexpensive and abundant, and hence, sodium-ion batteries are promising alternative to lithium-ion batteries. However, lower energy density and poor cycling stability of current sodium-ion batteries prevent their practical implementation for future smart power grid and stationary storage applications. Tin oxides (SnO2) can be potentially used as a high-capacity anode material for future sodium-ion batteries, and they have the advantages of high sodium storage capacity, high abundance, and low toxicity. However, SnO2-based anodes still cannot be used in practical sodium-ion batteries because they experience large volume changes during repetitive charge and discharge cycles. Such large volume changes lead to severe pulverization of the active material and loss of electrical contact between the SnO2 and carbon conductor, which in turn result in rapid capacity loss during cycling. Here, we introduce a new amorphous carbon-coated SnO2-electrodeposited porous carbon nanofiber (PCNF@SnO2@C) composite that not only has high sodium storage capability, but also maintains its structural integrity while ongoing repetitive cycles. Electrochemical results revealed that this SnO2-containing nanofiber composite anode had excellent electrochemical performance including high-capacity (374 mAh g(-1)), good capacity retention (82.7%), and large Coulombic efficiency (98.9% after 100th cycle). PMID:26252051

  17. Smart Meter Privacy with Renewable Energy and a Finite Capacity Battery

    OpenAIRE

    Giaconi, Giulio; Gunduz, Deniz

    2016-01-01

    We address the smart meter (SM) privacy problem by considering the availability of a renewable energy source (RES) and a battery which can be exploited by a consumer to partially hide the consumption pattern from the utility provider (UP). Privacy is measured by the mutual information rate between the consumer's energy consumption and the renewable energy generation process, and the energy received from the grid, where the latter is known by the UP through the SM readings, and the former two ...

  18. Influence of the environmental safety indicator on the structure of power generation capacity in Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The largest amount of greenhouse gas emissions in the world (60%) come from the energy sector. Greenhouse gas emissions during the electricity and heat production strongly depend on the fuel mix and combustion technologies, tariff and tax policy, etc. The environmental factor at present is considered as one of the energy security indicators. Specific greenhouse gas emission per unit of heat and electricity produced was chosen as such indicator. The MESSAGE model was used for the Belantsian energy system for analysis of the scenarios by considering possible diversification by type of energy resources and by suppliers. For the considered scenarios specific emissions of CO2 per unit of heat and electricity produced had been calculated. The tax on fossil fuels burning was taken as an influencing factor on the environmental indicator. Established results show its impact on optimal structure of the generating capacity and greenhouse gas emissions in the energy sector. (author)

  19. Capacity Decay Mechanism of Microporous Separator-Based All-Vanadium Redox Flow Batteries and its Recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Bin; Luo, Qingtao; Wei, Xiaoliang; Nie, Zimin; Thomsen, Edwin; Chen, Baowei; Sprenkle, Vincent; Wang, Wei

    2013-10-29

    For all vanadium redox flow batteries (VRBs) with porous separators as membranes, convection effect is found to play a dominant role in the capacity decay of the cells over cycling by investigating the relationship between electrical performances and electrolyte compositions at both positive and negative sides. Although the concentration of total vanadium ions hardly changes at both sides over cycling, the net transfer of solutions from one side to another and thus asymmetrical valance of vanadium ions at both sides lead to the capacity fading and lower energy efficiency, which is confirmed to result from the hydraulic pressure differential at both sides of separators. In this paper, the hydraulic pressures of solutions at both sides can be in-situ monitored, and regulated by varying the gas pressures in electrolyte tanks. It is found that the capacity can be stabilized and the net transfer of solutions can be prevented by slightly tailoring the hydraulic pressure differential at both sides of separators, which, however, doesn’t work for Nafion membranes, suggesting the negligible convection factor in flow cells using Nafion membranes. Therefore, the possibility of porous separators allows long-term running for VRBs without capacity loss, highlighting a new pathway to develop membranes used in VRBs.

  20. Electrical, Mechanical, and Capacity Percolation Leads to High-Performance MoS2/Nanotube Composite Lithium Ion Battery Electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuping; He, Xiaoyun; Hanlon, Damien; Harvey, Andrew; Khan, Umar; Li, Yanguang; Coleman, Jonathan N

    2016-06-28

    Advances in lithium ion batteries would facilitate technological developments in areas from electrical vehicles to mobile communications. While two-dimensional systems like MoS2 are promising electrode materials due to their potentially high capacity, their poor rate capability and low cycle stability are severe handicaps. Here, we study the electrical, mechanical, and lithium storage properties of solution-processed MoS2/carbon nanotube anodes. Nanotube addition gives up to 10(10)-fold and 40-fold increases in electrical conductivity and mechanical toughness, respectively. The increased conductivity results in up to a 100× capacity enhancement to ∼1200 mAh/g (∼3000 mAh/cm(3)) at 0.1 A/g, while the improved toughness significantly boosts cycle stability. Composites with 20 wt % nanotubes combine high reversible capacity with excellent cycling stability (e.g., ∼950 mAh/g after 500 cycles at 2 A/g) and high rate capability (∼600 mAh/g at 20 A/g). The conductivity, toughness, and capacity scale with nanotube content according to percolation theory, while the stability increases sharply at the mechanical percolation threshold. We believe that the improvements in conductivity and toughness obtained after addition of nanotubes can be transferred to other electrode materials, such as silicon nanoparticles. PMID:27203558

  1. Iron oxide/carbon microsphere lithium-ion battery electrode with high capacity and good cycling stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iron oxide/carbon composite microspheres were prepared by a simple solution polymerization followed by pyrolysis in flowing nitrogen atmosphere at high temperature. The composites were characterized using various characterization techniques including powder X-ray diffraction, high resolution transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, N2 physical adsorption and the electrochemical performance test. The results show that the iron oxide/carbon composites consist of uniform microspheres with an average diameter of ∼2.1 μm. These iron oxide/carbon composite microspheres exhibit high capacity and good cycle stability when used as a lithium-ion battery anode. When the iron oxide content is 66%, the composite reveals the best electrochemical performance with an initial charge capacity of 730 mAh g−1, and even after ninety cycles the electrode still maintains a capacity of 664 mAh g−1, giving high capacity retention of 91%. The good electrochemical performance of the composite anode is close related with its structure, in which Fe2O3 particles are uniformly dispersed in the spherical carbon matrix; hence the volume change and aggregation of the Fe2O3 particles during lithium ion insertion/extraction process can be effectively hindered by the carbon matrix. On the other hand, carbon itself is an electronic conductor, the carbon layer and Fe2O3 particles connect closely, which ensures a good electrical contact during lithium insertion and extraction.

  2. 3-dimensional porous NiCo2O4 nanocomposite as a high-rate capacity anode for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • D-glucose molecules as organic carbon source, have a crucial effect on the morphology and pore distribution of the synthetic products. • Facile synthesis: solvothermal method. • High rate capacity: 625 mAh g−1 at 4.4 C. • Improved long-term cycling stability: 1389 mAh g−1 after 180 cycles at 0.55 C. - Abstract: In this work, organic carbon modified NiCo2O4 (NCO@C) nanocomposite with porous 3-dimensional (3D) structure was successfully synthesized by a facile hydrothermal method in D-glucose-mediated processes. A detailed research reveals that D-glucose molecules play an important role in the formation of the porous 3D structure and also provide a conductive carbon network within the NCO@C nanocomposite materials. Such a porous 3D interconnected carbonaceous nanostructure applied as electrode material for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) shows that its reversible capacity, cycling stability, and rate capability are significantly enhanced in comparison with those of pure NiCo2O4 (NCO) electrode. The as-prepared NCO@C composite electrode with porous 3D nanostructure displays a higher discharge specific capacity of 1389 mAh g−1 even after 180 cycles at a current rate of 0.55 C. Furthermore, this composite material also presents a high rate capacity, when the current rate gradually increases to 0.55 C, 1.1 C, 2.2 C, and 4.4 C, the reversible capacity can still render about 1082, 1029, 850, and 625 mAh g−1, respectively. The enhanced electrochemical performance indicated that the NCO@C nanocomposite might be a very promising candidate to replace conventional graphite-based anode materials for LIBs

  3. Gait speed as a functional capacity indicator in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilgin Duygu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Walking distance is generally accepted as a functional capacity determinant in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. However, the use of gait speed in COPD patients has not been directly investigated. Thus, the aim of our study was to assess the use of gait speed as a functional capacity indicator in COPD patients. Methods: A total 511 patients with mild-to-very severe COPD and 113 healthy controls were included. The lung functions (pulmonary function test, general health- and disease-related quality of life (Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form of Health Survey, St George′s Respiratory Questionnaire, and gait speed (6-minute walk test were assessed. Results: The mean gait speed values were slower in moderate (75.7 ± 14.0 m/min, severe (64.3 ± 16.5 m/min, and very severe (60.2 ± 15.5 m/min COPD patients than controls (81.3 ± 14.3 m/min. There were significant correlations between gait speed and age, dyspnea-leg fatigue severities, pulmonary function test results (FEV 1 , FVC, FVC%, FEV 1 /FVC ratio, PEF, PEF%, and all subscores of Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form of Health Survey and activity, impact and total subscores of St George′s Respiratory Questionnaire in patients with moderate, severe, and very severe COPD. However, these correlations were higher especially in patients with severe and very severe COPD. Conclusions: As a conclusion, according to our results gait speed slows down with increasing COPD severity. Also, gait speed has correlations with age, clinical symptoms, pulmonary functions, and quality of life scores in COPD patients. Thus, we consider that gait speed might be used as a functional capacity indicator, especially for patients with severe and very severe COPD.

  4. Nanocrystalline TiO2 Electrodes Exhibiting High Storage Capacity and Stability in Rechargeable Lithium Batteries

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Grätzel; Andreas Kay; Ladislav Kavan; Sui-Yang Huang; Ivan Exnar

    1995-01-01

    Nanocrystalline TiO2 films were explored for the first time as electrode material for a rechargeable lithium intercalation cell, i.e., Li/LiCF3SO3 + PC/TiO2. Two kinds of nanocrystalline films, TiO2 F387 (Degussa) and TiO2 colloid-240, were investigated. These films exhibited excellent performance renderings them a promising choice for secondary battery applications. At a current density of 0.01 mA/cm2, two voltage plateaus at 1.78 and 1.89 V were observed for TiO2 F387 films during charge an...

  5. Mesoporous Silicon-Based Anodes for High Capacity, High Performance Li-ion Batteries Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A new high capacity anode composite based on mesoporous silicon is proposed. By virtue of a structure that resembles a pseudo one-dimensional phase, the active...

  6. High-Capacity Te Anode Confined in Microporous Carbon for Long-Life Na-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Juan; Yin, Ya-Xia; Guo, Yu-Guo

    2015-12-23

    Sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) have attracted considerable attention as an alternative energy-storage technology in recent years. Developing advanced sodium storage anode materials with appropriate working potential, high capacity, and good cycling performance is very important. Herein, we demonstrate a nanostructured tellurium@carbon (nano-Te@C) composite by confining nano-Te molecules in the space of carbon micropores as an attractive anode material for SIBs. The nano-Te@C anode presents an appropriate redox potential in the range of 1.05-1.35 V (vs Na(+)/Na), which avoids the Na dendrite problem and achieves a high reversible capacity of 410 mA h g(-1) on the basis of a two-electron redox reaction mechanism. Notably, the nano-Te@C exhibits an admirable long-term cycling stability with a high capacity retention of 90% for 1000 cycles (i.e., ultralow capacity decay of 0.01% per cycle). The excellent electrochemical property of nano-Te@C benefits from the high electroactivity from the nanostructure design and the effective confinement of the microporous carbon host. In addition, a Na-ion full cell by using nano-Te@C as anode and Na2/3Ni1/3Mn2/3O2 as cathode is demonstrated for the first time and exhibits a remarkable capacity retention up to 95% after 150 cycles. The results put new insights for the development of advanced SIBs with long-cycle lifespan. PMID:26618232

  7. Effect of cathode binder on capacity retention and cycle life in transition metal phosphate of a rechargeable lithium battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With an objective of understanding the differences in the capacity retention behavior and cycle life of cathode consisting transition metal phosphate, Cr0.5Nb1.5(PO4)3, active material and the binder polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) or polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), the role of these binders have been analyzed. An electrochemical analysis of the active material mixed with the binders PVDF or PTFE reveals that the PTFE cell experiences an additional discharge capacity of 93 mA h g-1 during the discharge cycle compared to the PVDF cell. The results of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies of the PTFE mixed cathode reveals nearly the same intensity of F (1s) spectra for before and after discharge cycles suggests that the fluorine atom is not decomposed but permits high utilization of the reactant to be achieved in the cathode during discharge/charge cycles. A remarkable improvement in cell performance in terms of capacity and cycle life for PTFE suggests that the binder PTFE should be an attractive candidate in lithium batteries than that of PVDF

  8. Monolayer MoS2-Graphene Hybrid Aerogels with Controllable Porosity for Lithium-Ion Batteries with High Reversible Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Lianfu; Lin, Binghui; Li, Xiaoming; Song, Xiufeng; Xia, Hui; Li, Liang; Zeng, Haibo

    2016-02-01

    Monolayer MoS2 nanosheets (NSs) are promising anode materials for lithium-ion batteries because all redox reactions take place at the surface without lithium-ion diffusion limit. However, the expanded band gap of monolayer MoS2 NSs (∼1.8 eV) compared to their bulk counterparts (∼1.2 eV) and restacking tendency due to the van der Waals forces result in poor electron transfer and loss of the structure advantage. Here, a facile approach is developed to fabricate the MoS2-graphene aerogels comprising controlled three-dimensional (3D) porous architectures constructed by interconnected monolayer MoS2-graphene hybrid NSs. The robust 3D architectures combining with the monolayer feature of the hybrid NSs not only prevent the MoS2 and graphene NSs from restacking, but also enable fast electrode kinetics due to the surface reaction mechanism and highly conductive graphene matrix. As a consequence, the 3D porous monolayer MoS2-graphene composite aerogels exhibit a large reversible capacity up to 1200 mAh g(-1) as well as outstanding cycling stability and rate performance, making them promising as advanced anode materials for lithium-ion batteries. PMID:26761564

  9. Lithiation Behavior of High Capacity SiCO Anode Material for Lithium-ion Battery: A First Principle Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polymer-derived silicon oxycarbide (SiCO) has a reversible capacity of ∼800 mA h g−1 and is considered as a promising anode material for Li-ion battery. Further study needs to be conducted in terms of energy and structure in atomic scale, which could be very challenging for current experimental technologies. To better understand the mechanism of lithium insertion in SiCO, first principle calculations are performed to study the atomic structures, bonding mechanism, mechanical properties and lithiation voltage of lithiated SiC1/4O7/4. The predominate feature of the lithiated configuration is the presence of several Li involved tetrahedrons with the formation of Li−C/Li−O bonds. By the calculations of relative volume and bulk modulus, SiC1/4O7/4 presents a considerably better performance in expansion and mechanical property than Si and SiO1/3. The formation energy and voltage curve also show that the lithium is more preferable in incorporation with SiC1/4O7/4 than Si and SiO1/3, which is attributed to the formation of Li−O, Li−C bonds and corresponding Li involved tetrahedrons. Our calculations are in agreement with the available experiments, and provide a deeper insight into the lithiation mechanism of SiCO anode for Li-ion batteries

  10. Cost-effectiveness of plug-in hybrid electric vehicle battery capacity and charging infrastructure investment for reducing US gasoline consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Federal electric vehicle (EV) policies in the United States currently include vehicle purchase subsidies linked to EV battery capacity and subsidies for installing charging stations. We assess the cost-effectiveness of increased battery capacity vs. nondomestic charging infrastructure installation for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles as alternate methods to reduce gasoline consumption for cars, trucks, and SUVs in the US. We find across a wide range of scenarios that the least-cost solution is for more drivers to switch to low-capacity plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (short electric range with gasoline backup for long trips) or gasoline-powered hybrid electric vehicles. If more gasoline savings are needed per vehicle, nondomestic charging infrastructure installation is substantially more expensive than increased battery capacity per gallon saved, and both approaches have higher costs than US oil premium estimates. Cost effectiveness of all subsidies are lower under a binding fuel economy standard. Comparison of results to the structure of current federal subsidies shows that policy is not aligned with fuel savings potential, and we discuss issues and alternatives. - Highlights: ► We compare cost of PHEV batteries vs. charging infrastructure per gallon of gasoline saved. ► The lowest cost solution is to switch more drivers to low-capacity PHEVs and HEVs. ► If more gasoline savings is needed, batteries offer a better value than chargers. ► Extra batteries and chargers are both more costly per gal than oil premium estimates. ► Current subsidies are misaligned with fuel savings. We discuss alternatives.

  11. Interconnected MoO2 nanocrystals with carbon nanocoating as high-capacity anode materials for lithium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Liang; Wu, Hao Bin; Wang, Zhiyu; Lou, Xiong Wen David

    2011-12-01

    A facile one-pot hydrothermal method has been developed for the preparation of carbon-coated MoO(2) nanocrystals. The annealed MoO(2)-C nanocomposite consists of interconnected MoO(2)@C nanocrystals. When evaluated for lithium storage capabilities, these MoO(2)@C nanocrystals exhibit high specific capacities (~640 mA h g(-1) at 200 mA g(-1) and ~575 mA h g(-1) at 400 mA g(-1)) and excellent cycling stability. In view of the excellent lithium storage properties and the ease in large-scale preparation, the as-synthesized MoO(2)-C nanocomposite might be used as promising anode materials for high-performance lithium-ion batteries. PMID:22077330

  12. Detection of capacity imbalance in vanadium electrolyte and its electrochemical regeneration for all-vanadium redox-flow batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roznyatovskaya, Nataliya; Herr, Tatjana; Küttinger, Michael; Fühl, Matthias; Noack, Jens; Pinkwart, Karsten; Tübke, Jens

    2016-01-01

    A vanadium electrolyte for redox-flow batteries (VRFB) with different VIII and VIV mole fractions has been studied by UV-vis spectroscopy. Spectrophotometric detection enables a rough estimate of the VIV and VIII content, which can be used to detect an electrolyte capacity imbalance, i.e. a deviation in the mole fraction of VIV or VIII away from 50%. The isosbestic point at 600 nm can be used as a reference point in the analysis of common VRFB electrolyte batches. The VRFB electrolyte is observed to have an imbalance after prolonged storage (a couple of years) in a tank under ambient conditions. A regeneration procedure, which involves pre-charging the unbalanced electrolyte and mixing part of it with a portion of initial unbalanced electrolyte, has been tested. The resulting rebalanced electrolyte has been compared with a common electrolyte in a charge-discharge cell test and is shown to be suitable for cell operation.

  13. Visualization of O-O peroxo-like dimers in high-capacity layered oxides for Li-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCalla, Eric; Abakumov, Artem M; Saubanère, Matthieu; Foix, Dominique; Berg, Erik J; Rousse, Gwenaelle; Doublet, Marie-Liesse; Gonbeau, Danielle; Novák, Petr; Van Tendeloo, Gustaaf; Dominko, Robert; Tarascon, Jean-Marie

    2015-12-18

    Lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries that rely on cationic redox reactions are the primary energy source for portable electronics. One pathway toward greater energy density is through the use of Li-rich layered oxides. The capacity of this class of materials (>270 milliampere hours per gram) has been shown to be nested in anionic redox reactions, which are thought to form peroxo-like species. However, the oxygen-oxygen (O-O) bonding pattern has not been observed in previous studies, nor has there been a satisfactory explanation for the irreversible changes that occur during first delithiation. By using Li2IrO3 as a model compound, we visualize the O-O dimers via transmission electron microscopy and neutron diffraction. Our findings establish the fundamental relation between the anionic redox process and the evolution of the O-O bonding in layered oxides. PMID:26680196

  14. A Mathematical model to study the effect of potential drop across the SEI layer on the capacity fading of a lithium ion battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A mathematical model is developed to study the effect of the potential drop across the SEI layer on the growth of the SEI layer and the subsequent capacity fading in a lithium ion battery. The model assumes that the formation of the SEI layer is principally because of the diffusion and migration of lithium ions across the SEI layer. Film formation and capacity fading in a lithium ion battery is studied as a function of diffusion of lithium ions, kinetics of reaction at the interphase and potential drop across the SEI layer. Capacity loss is found to increase with increasing potential drop across the SEI layer. Capacity fade is found to be very dependent on the kinetics of the reaction as compared to diffusion. Model results are found to compare very well with experimental data

  15. Printed microelectrodes for scalable, high-areal-capacity lithium-sulfur batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milroy, Craig; Manthiram, Arumugam

    2016-03-10

    Printed microelectrodes for lithium-sulfur cathodes are produced with aqueous inks and a one-step printing process. The cathodes exhibit high areal capacities of ≥5 mA h cm(-2) for 50 cycles and withstand ≥500 cycles. This performance meets energy-storage benchmarks for powering microdevices, and presents a strategic option for future microbatteries. PMID:26833188

  16. Order of Conners' CPT-II Administration within a Cognitive Test Battery Influences ADHD Indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdodi, Laszlo A.; Lajiness-O'Neill, Renee; Saules, Karen K.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To study the effect of administration sequence on Conner's continuous performance test (CPT-II) scores in clients requesting psychological assessment. It was hypothesized that when administered at the end rather than beginning of a test battery, the test scores will show higher symptom severity. If present, order effects may cause the…

  17. High Voltage and High Capacity Characteristics of LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 Cathode for Lithium Battery Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.Periasamy, N.Kalaiselvi, H.S.-Kim

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Possibility of synthesizing LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 cathode via., soft chemistry based Gelatin Assisted Combustion [GAC] approach has been examined through the present study. GAC method with a calcination temperature as high as 750°C for a period of 24h. was found to be essential to prepare LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 powders with good hexagonal ordering and better cycling performance. The intensity ratio of (003 and (104 bragg peaks is greater than unity, which is an indication for the absence of cation mixing. The observed CV peaks confirm the presence of Ni, Co and Mn ions in their +3 oxidation state. A maximum discharge capacity of ~180mAh/g has been exhibited by the synthesized LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 cathode, when charged up to 4.6V. Hence, it is demonstrated that the LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 cathode synthesized through the present study could be exploited both as a high voltage and high capacity cathode material for use in rechargeable lithium battery applications.

  18. Fabrication and Characterization of SnO2/Graphene Composites as High Capacity Anodes for Li-Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abirami Dhanabalan

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Tin-oxide and graphene (TG composites were fabricated using the Electrostatic Spray Deposition (ESD technique, and tested as anode materials for Li-ion batteries. The electrochemical performance of the as-deposited TG composites were compared to heat-treated TG composites along with pure tin-oxide films. The heat-treated composites exhibited superior specific capacity and energy density than both the as-deposited TG composites and tin oxide samples. At the 70th cycle, the specific capacities of the as-deposited and post heat-treated samples were 534 and 737 mA·h/g, respectively, and the corresponding energy densities of the as-deposited and heat-treated composites were 1240 and 1760 W·h/kg, respectively. This improvement in the electrochemical performance of the TG composite anodes as compared to the pure tin oxide samples is attributed to the synergy between tin oxide and graphene, which increases the electrical conductivity of tin oxide and helps alleviate volumetric changes in tin-oxide during cycling.

  19. Oxide catalysts for rechargeable high-capacity Li-O{sub 2} batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Si Hyoung; Nazar, Linda F. [University of Waterloo, ON (Canada)

    2012-07-15

    Nano-crystalline mixed metal oxides with an expanded pyrochlore structure are synthesized by a chemical precipitation route in alkaline media. The high concentration of surface active sites afforded by their high surface area, intrinsically variable oxidation state and good electron transport lead to promising electrocatalytic properties for oxygen evolution in Li-O{sub 2} cells, yielding rechargeable discharge capacities over 10 000 mAh g{sup -1} and lowering anodic overpotentials significantly. The discharge capacity of the Li-O{sub 2} cell is increased further when a small amount of gold is deposited on the pyrochlore oxide, which serves as a more efficient oxygen reduction catalyst. The amount of catalyst necessary for oxygen evolution performance is reduced to as little as 5 wt% by supporting the highly-divided pyrochlore oxide crystallites on carbon using in-situ deposition methods. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  20. Operational analysis of a small-capacity cogeneration system with a gas hydrate battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a cold region during winter, energy demand for residential heating is high and energy saving, the discharge of greenhouse gases, and air pollution are all of significant concern. We investigated the fundamental characteristics of an energy storage system with a GHB (gas hydrate battery) in which heat cycle by a unique change in state of gas hydrate operates using the low-temperature ambient air of a cold region. The proposed system with the GHB can respond to a high heat to power ratio caused by a small-scale CGS (cogeneration system) that is powered by a gas engine, a polymer electrolyte fuel cell, or a solid oxide fuel cell. In this paper, we explain how the relation between fossil fuel consumption and heat to power ratio of the different types of systems differ. We investigated the proposed system by laboratory experiments and analysis of the characteristics of power load and heat load of such a system in operation in Kitami, a cold district in Japan. If a hydrate formation space of 2 m3 is introduced into the proposed system, 48%–52% (namely, power rate by green energy) of total electric power consumption is supplied by the GHB. - Highlights: • Heat cycle by unique change in state of gas hydrate was developed. • Characteristics of energy storage equipment using CO2 hydrate were investigated. • Hybrid system of small-scale cogeneration and gas hydrate heat cycle was examined. • Proposed system can reduce fuel consumption during winter in a cold region

  1. High capacity hydrogen storage alloy negative electrodes for use in nickel–metal hydride batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Rare earth-free TiV2.1−xCrxNi0.3 (x = 0.4–1.0) alloys were prepared by arc-melting. • All alloys were composed of two phases, bcc phase and TiNi-based phase. • The higher Cr content, the lower discharge capacity, the higher cycle durability. • The lower charge-transfer resistance led to the higher HRD. • The TiV1.6Cr0.5Ni0.3 alloy electrode had the highest HRD. - Abstract: Rare earth-free V-based TiV2.1−xCrxNi0.3 (x = 0.4–1.0) alloys were prepared by arc-melting. All alloys were composed of two phases, the primary phase in which the V and Cr constituents were mainly distributed and the secondary phase in which the Ti and Ni constituents were mainly distributed. When the Cr content was increased, the maximum discharge capacity was decreased, but charge–discharge cycle durability was improved. The lower the charge-transfer resistance and the higher the specific discharge current at which the positive shift of potential at degree of discharge of 50% stagnates, the higher the HRD. In the present study, the TiV1.6Cr0.5Ni0.3 alloy electrode had the highest HRD

  2. Community Capacity for Watershed Conservation: A Quantitative Assessment of Indicators and Core Dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkman, Elliot; Seekamp, Erin; Davenport, Mae A.; Brehm, Joan M.

    2012-10-01

    Community capacity for watershed management has emerged as an important topic for the conservation of water resources. While much of the literature on community capacity has focused primarily on theory construction, there have been few efforts to quantitatively assess community capacity variables and constructs, particularly for watershed management and conservation. This study seeks to identify predictors of community capacity for watershed conservation in southwestern Illinois. A subwatershed-scale survey of residents from four communities located within the Lower Kaskaskia River watershed of southwestern Illinois was administered to measure three specific capacity variables: community empowerment, shared vision and collective action. Principal component analysis revealed key dimensions of each variable. Specifically, collective action was characterized by items relating to collaborative governance and social networks, community empowerment was characterized by items relating to community competency and a sense of responsibility and shared vision was characterized by items relating to perceptions of environmental threats, issues with development, environmental sense of place and quality of life. From the emerging factors, composite measures were calculated to determine the extent to which each variable contributed to community capacity. A stepwise regression revealed that community empowerment explained most of the variability in the composite measure of community capacity for watershed conservation. This study contributes to the theoretical understanding of community capacity by quantifying the role of collective action, community empowerment and shared vision in community capacity, highlighting the need for multilevel interaction to address watershed issues.

  3. Nuclear Energy Readiness Indicator Index (NERI): A benchmarking tool for assessing nuclear capacity in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    utilization of IAEA technical assistance; (7) participation in regional arrangements; and (8) public support for nuclear power. In this paper, the Index aggregates the indicators and evaluates and compares the level of readiness in seven countries that have recently expressed various degrees of interest in establishing a nuclear energy program. The NERI Index could be a valuable tool to be utilized by: (1) country officials who are considering nuclear power; (2) the international community, desiring reassurance of a country's capacity for the peaceful, safe, and secure use of nuclear energy; (3) foreign governments/NGO's, seeking to prioritize and direct resources toward developing countries; and (4) private stakeholders interested in nuclear infrastructure investment opportunities

  4. Structural and Electrochemical Investigation during the First Charging Cycles of Silicon Microwire Array Anodes for High Capacity Lithium Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmut Föll

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Silicon microwire arrays embedded in Cu present exceptional performance as anode material in Li ion batteries. The processes occurring during the first charging cycles of batteries with this anode are essential for good performance. This paper sheds light on the electrochemical and structural properties of the anodes during the first charging cycles. Scanning Electron Microscopy, X-ray diffractommetry, and fast Fourier transformation impedance spectroscopy are used for the characterization. It was found that crystalline phases with high Li content are obtained after the first lithiation cycle, while for the second lithiation just crystalline phases with less Li are observable, indicating that the lithiated wires become amorphous upon cycling. The formation of a solid electrolyte interface of around 250 nm during the first lithiation cycle is evidenced, and is considered a necessary component for the good cycling performance of the wires. Analog to voltammetric techniques, impedance spectroscopy is confirmed as a powerful tool to identify the formation of the different Si-Li phases.

  5. Achieving high capacity in bulk-type solid-state lithium ion battery based on Li6.75La3Zr1.75Ta0.25O12 electrolyte: Interfacial resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ting; Ren, Yaoyu; Shen, Yang; Zhao, Shi-Xi; Lin, Yuanhua; Nan, Ce-Wen

    2016-08-01

    A bulk-type all-solid-state lithium ion battery based on Ta-doped Li6.75La3Zr1.75Ta0.25O12 (LLZ-Ta) is prepared by a simple solid state process with high capacity of 279.0 μAh cm-2 at 80 °C. However, severe polarization is discovered during charging/discharging cycles at room temperature (RT) for battery with a higher active cathode loading. Large interfacial resistance due to the poor contact at the interfaces between cathode and LLZ-Ta solid electrolyte and at the interfaces within the composite cathode layer is proven to be the main reason for the poor electrochemical performance of the battery at RT. The polarization could be suppressed at elevated temperature, which is attributed to the decreased interfacial resistance as indicated by the results of impedance measurements and gives rise to much enhanced performance of the all-solid-state battery.

  6. Event-related potential indices of inter-individual and age differences in visual attention capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiegand, Iris; Töllner, Thomas; Dyrholm, Mads;

    The ‘Theory of Visual Attention’ quantifies an individual’s capacity of attentional resources in parameters visual processing speed C and vSTM storage capacity K. By combining TVA-based assessment with neurophysiology, we showed that distinct ERP components index inter-individual differences in...

  7. High capacity hydrogen storage alloy negative electrodes for use in nickel–metal hydride batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, Hiroshi, E-mail: inoue-h@chem.osakafu-u.ac.jp; Kotani, Norihiro; Chiku, Masanobu; Higuchi, Eiji

    2015-10-05

    Highlights: • Rare earth-free TiV{sub 2.1−x}Cr{sub x}Ni{sub 0.3} (x = 0.4–1.0) alloys were prepared by arc-melting. • All alloys were composed of two phases, bcc phase and TiNi-based phase. • The higher Cr content, the lower discharge capacity, the higher cycle durability. • The lower charge-transfer resistance led to the higher HRD. • The TiV{sub 1.6}Cr{sub 0.5}Ni{sub 0.3} alloy electrode had the highest HRD. - Abstract: Rare earth-free V-based TiV{sub 2.1−x}Cr{sub x}Ni{sub 0.3} (x = 0.4–1.0) alloys were prepared by arc-melting. All alloys were composed of two phases, the primary phase in which the V and Cr constituents were mainly distributed and the secondary phase in which the Ti and Ni constituents were mainly distributed. When the Cr content was increased, the maximum discharge capacity was decreased, but charge–discharge cycle durability was improved. The lower the charge-transfer resistance and the higher the specific discharge current at which the positive shift of potential at degree of discharge of 50% stagnates, the higher the HRD. In the present study, the TiV{sub 1.6}Cr{sub 0.5}Ni{sub 0.3} alloy electrode had the highest HRD.

  8. Indices of cognitive function measured in rugby union players using a computer-based test battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Luke A; Minahan, Clare L

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the intra- and inter-day reliability of cognitive performance using a computer-based test battery in team-sport athletes. Eighteen elite male rugby union players (age: 19 ± 0.5 years) performed three experimental trials (T1, T2 and T3) of the test battery: T1 and T2 on the same day and T3, on the following day, 24 h later. The test battery comprised of four cognitive tests assessing the cognitive domains of executive function (Groton Maze Learning Task), psychomotor function (Detection Task), vigilance (Identification Task), visual learning and memory (One Card Learning Task). The intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) for the Detection Task, the Identification Task and the One Card Learning Task performance variables ranged from 0.75 to 0.92 when comparing T1 to T2 to assess intraday reliability, and 0.76 to 0.83 when comparing T1 and T3 to assess inter-day reliability. The ICCs for the Groton Maze Learning Task intra- and inter-day reliability were 0.67 and 0.57, respectively. We concluded that the Detection Task, the Identification Task and the One Card Learning Task are reliable measures of psychomotor function, vigilance, visual learning and memory in rugby union players. The reliability of the Groton Maze Learning Task is questionable (mean coefficient of variation (CV) = 19.4%) and, therefore, results should be interpreted with caution. PMID:26756946

  9. Synergistic Na-storage reactions in Sn4P3 as a high-capacity, cycle-stable anode of Na-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Jiangfeng; Xiong, Ya; Cao, Yuliang; Ai, Xinping; Yang, Hanxi

    2014-01-01

    Room-temperature Na-ion batteries have attracted great interest as a low cost and environmentally benign technology for large scale electric energy storage, however their development is hindered by the lack of suitable anodic host materials. In this paper, we described a green approach for the synthesis of Sn4P3/C nanocomposite and demonstrated its excellent Na-storage performance as a novel anode of Na-ion batteries. This Sn4P3/C anode can deliver a very high reversible capacity of 850 mA h g(-1) with a remarkable rate capability with 50% capacity output at 500 mA g(-1) and can also be cycled with 86% capacity retention over 150 cycles due to a synergistic Na-storage mechanism in the Sn4P3 anode, where the Sn nanoparticles act as electronic channels to enable electrochemical activation of the P component, while the elemental P and its sodiated product Na3P serve as a host matrix to alleviate the aggregation of the Sn particles during Na insertion reaction. This mechanism may offer a new approach to create high capacity and cycle-stable alloy anodes for Na-ion batteries and other electrochemical energy storage applications. PMID:24611662

  10. High capacity and good cycling stability of multi-walled carbon nanotube/SnO2 core-shell structures as anode materials of lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The multi-walled carbon nanotube/SnO2 core-shell structures were fabricated by a wet chemical route. The electrochemical performance of the core-shell structures as anode materials of lithium-ion batteries was investigated. The initial discharge capacity and reversible capacity are up to 1472.7 and 1020.5 mAh g-1, respectively. Moreover, the reversible capacity still remains above 720 mAh g-1 over 35 cycles, and the capacity fading is only 0.8% per cycle. Such high capacities and good cyclability are attributed to SnO2 network structures, excellent mechanical property and good electrical conductivity of the multi-walled carbon nanotubes.

  11. Octahedral Tin Dioxide Nanocrystals Anchored on Vertically Aligned Carbon Aerogels as High Capacity Anode Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mingkai; Liu, Yuqing; Zhang, Yuting; Li, Yiliao; Zhang, Peng; Yan, Yan; Liu, Tianxi

    2016-01-01

    A novel binder-free graphene - carbon nanotubes - SnO2 (GCNT-SnO2) aerogel with vertically aligned pores was prepared via a simple and efficient directional freezing method. SnO2 octahedrons exposed of {221} high energy facets were uniformly distributed and tightly anchored on multidimensional graphene/carbon nanotube (GCNT) composites. Vertically aligned pores can effectively prevent the emersion of “closed” pores which cannot load the active SnO2 nanoparticles, further ensure quick immersion of electrolyte throughout the aerogel, and can largely shorten the transport distance between lithium ions and active sites of SnO2. Especially, excellent electrical conductivity of GCNT-SnO2 aerogel was achieved as a result of good interconnected networks of graphene and CNTs. Furthermore, meso- and macroporous structures with large surface area created by the vertically aligned pores can provide great benefit to the favorable transport kinetics for both lithium ion and electrons and afford sufficient space for volume expansion of SnO2. Due to the well-designed architecture of GCNT-SnO2 aerogel, a high specific capacity of 1190 mAh/g with good long-term cycling stability up to 1000 times was achieved. This work provides a promising strategy for preparing free-standing and binder-free active electrode materials with high performance for lithium ion batteries and other energy storage devices. PMID:27510357

  12. Octahedral Tin Dioxide Nanocrystals Anchored on Vertically Aligned Carbon Aerogels as High Capacity Anode Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mingkai; Liu, Yuqing; Zhang, Yuting; Li, Yiliao; Zhang, Peng; Yan, Yan; Liu, Tianxi

    2016-01-01

    A novel binder-free graphene - carbon nanotubes - SnO2 (GCNT-SnO2) aerogel with vertically aligned pores was prepared via a simple and efficient directional freezing method. SnO2 octahedrons exposed of {221} high energy facets were uniformly distributed and tightly anchored on multidimensional graphene/carbon nanotube (GCNT) composites. Vertically aligned pores can effectively prevent the emersion of "closed" pores which cannot load the active SnO2 nanoparticles, further ensure quick immersion of electrolyte throughout the aerogel, and can largely shorten the transport distance between lithium ions and active sites of SnO2. Especially, excellent electrical conductivity of GCNT-SnO2 aerogel was achieved as a result of good interconnected networks of graphene and CNTs. Furthermore, meso- and macroporous structures with large surface area created by the vertically aligned pores can provide great benefit to the favorable transport kinetics for both lithium ion and electrons and afford sufficient space for volume expansion of SnO2. Due to the well-designed architecture of GCNT-SnO2 aerogel, a high specific capacity of 1190 mAh/g with good long-term cycling stability up to 1000 times was achieved. This work provides a promising strategy for preparing free-standing and binder-free active electrode materials with high performance for lithium ion batteries and other energy storage devices. PMID:27510357

  13. Chemical State of Surface Oxygen on Carbon and Its Effects on the Capacity of the Carbon Anode in a Lithium-Ion Battery Investigated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Ching-Cheh

    2001-01-01

    In a lithium-ion battery, the lithium-storage capacity of the carbon anode is greatly affected by a surface layer formed during the first half cycle of lithium insertion and release into and out of the carbon anode. The formation of this solid-electrolyte interface, in turn, is affected by the chemistry of the carbon surface. A study at the NASA Glenn Research Center examined the cause-and-effect relations. Information obtained from this research could contribute in designing a high-capacity lithium-ion battery and, therefore, small, powerful spacecraft. In one test, three types of surfaces were examined: (1) a surface with low oxygen content (1.5 at.%) and a high concentration of active sites, (2) a surface with 4.5 at.% -OH or -OC type oxygen, and (3) a surface with 6.5 at.% O=C type oxygen. The samples were made from the same precursor and had similar bulk properties. They were tested under a constant current of 10 mA/g in half cells that used lithium metal as the counter electrode and 0.5 M lithium iodide in 50/50 (vol%) ethylene carbonate and dimethyl carbonate as the electrolyte. For the first cycle of the electrochemical test, the graph describes the voltage of the carbon anode versus the lithium metal as a function of the capacity (amount of lithium insertion or release). From these data, it can be observed that the surface with low oxygen and a high concentration of active sites could result in a high irreversible capacity. Such a high irreversible capacity could be prevented if the active sites were allowed to react with oxygen in air, producing -OH or -OC type oxygen. The O=C type oxygen, on the other hand, could greatly reduce the capacity of lithium intercalation and, therefore, needs to be avoided during battery fabrication.

  14. Designed hybrid nanostructure with catalytic effect: beyond the theoretical capacity of SnO2 anode material for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ye; Huang, Zhi Xiang; Shi, Yumeng; Wong, Jen It; Ding, Meng; Yang, Hui Ying

    2015-01-01

    Transition metal cobalt (Co) nanoparticle was designed as catalyst to promote the conversion reaction of Sn to SnO2 during the delithiation process which is deemed as an irreversible reaction. The designed nanocomposite, named as SnO2/Co3O4/reduced-graphene-oxide (rGO), was synthesized by a simple two-step method composed of hydrothermal (1st step) and solvothermal (2nd step) synthesis processes. Compared to the pristine SnO2/rGO and SnO2/Co3O4 electrodes, SnO2/Co3O4/rGO nanocomposites exhibit significantly enhanced electrochemical performance as the anode material of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). The SnO2/Co3O4/rGO nanocomposites can deliver high specific capacities of 1038 and 712 mAh g−1 at the current densities of 100 and 1000 mA g−1, respectively. In addition, the SnO2/Co3O4/rGO nanocomposites also exhibit 641 mAh g−1 at a high current density of 1000 mA g−1 after 900 cycles, indicating an ultra-long cycling stability under high current density. Through ex-situ TEM analysis, the excellent electrochemical performance was attributed to the catalytic effect of Co nanoparticles to promote the conversion of Sn to SnO2 and the decomposition of Li2O during the delithiation process. Based on the results, herein we propose a new method in employing the catalyst to increase the capacity of alloying-dealloying type anode material to beyond its theoretical value and enhance the electrochemical performance. PMID:25776280

  15. Designed hybrid nanostructure with catalytic effect: beyond the theoretical capacity of SnO2 anode material for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ye; Huang, Zhi Xiang; Shi, Yumeng; Wong, Jen It; Ding, Meng; Yang, Hui Ying

    2015-03-01

    Transition metal cobalt (Co) nanoparticle was designed as catalyst to promote the conversion reaction of Sn to SnO2 during the delithiation process which is deemed as an irreversible reaction. The designed nanocomposite, named as SnO2/Co3O4/reduced-graphene-oxide (rGO), was synthesized by a simple two-step method composed of hydrothermal (1st step) and solvothermal (2nd step) synthesis processes. Compared to the pristine SnO2/rGO and SnO2/Co3O4 electrodes, SnO2/Co3O4/rGO nanocomposites exhibit significantly enhanced electrochemical performance as the anode material of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). The SnO2/Co3O4/rGO nanocomposites can deliver high specific capacities of 1038 and 712 mAh g-1 at the current densities of 100 and 1000 mA g-1, respectively. In addition, the SnO2/Co3O4/rGO nanocomposites also exhibit 641 mAh g-1 at a high current density of 1000 mA g-1 after 900 cycles, indicating an ultra-long cycling stability under high current density. Through ex-situ TEM analysis, the excellent electrochemical performance was attributed to the catalytic effect of Co nanoparticles to promote the conversion of Sn to SnO2 and the decomposition of Li2O during the delithiation process. Based on the results, herein we propose a new method in employing the catalyst to increase the capacity of alloying-dealloying type anode material to beyond its theoretical value and enhance the electrochemical performance.

  16. High-rate aluminium yolk-shell nanoparticle anode for Li-ion battery with long cycle life and ultrahigh capacity

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Sa; Niu, Junjie; Zhao, Yu Cheng; So, Kang Pyo; Wang, Chao; Wang, Chang An; Li, Ju

    2015-01-01

    Alloy-type anodes such as silicon and tin are gaining popularity in rechargeable Li-ion batteries, but their rate/cycling capabilities should be improved. Here by making yolk-shell nanocomposite of aluminium core (30 nm in diameter) and TiO[subscript 2] shell (~3 nm in thickness), with a tunable interspace, we achieve 10 C charge/discharge rate with reversible capacity exceeding 650 mAh g[superscript −1] after 500 cycles, with a 3 mg cm[superscript −2] loading. At 1 C, the capacity is approxi...

  17. Electrical conductivity in Li2O2 and its role in determining capacity limitations in non-aqueous Li-O2 batteries

    OpenAIRE

    Viswanathan, V.; Thygesen, Kristian Sommer; Hummelshøj, J.S.; Nørskov, Jens Kehlet; Girishkumar, G.; McCloskey, B.D.; Luntz, A. C.

    2011-01-01

    Non-aqueous Li-air or Li-O2 cells show considerable promise as a very high energy density battery couple. Such cells, however, show sudden death at capacities far below their theoretical capacity and this, among other problems, limits their practicality. In this paper, we show that this sudden death arises from limited charge transport through the growing Li 2O2 film to the Li2O2-electrolyte interface, and this limitation defines a critical film thickness, above which it is not possible to su...

  18. Working Memory Capacity and Stroop Interference: Global versus Local Indices of Executive Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Matt E.; Kane, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Two experiments examined the relations among working memory capacity (WMC), congruency-sequence effects, proportion-congruency effects, and the color-word Stroop effect to test whether congruency-sequence effects might inform theoretical claims regarding WMC's prediction of Stroop interference. In Experiment 1, subjects completed either a…

  19. A three-dimensional porous MoP@C hybrid as a high-capacity, long-cycle life anode material for lithium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xia; Sun, Pingping; Qin, Jinwen; Wang, Jianqiang; Xiao, Ying; Cao, Minhua

    2016-05-21

    Metal phosphides are great promising anode materials for lithium-ion batteries with a high gravimetric capacity. However, significant challenges such as low capacity, fast capacity fading and poor cycle stability must be addressed for their practical applications. Herein, we demonstrate a versatile strategy for the synthesis of a novel three-dimensional porous molybdenum phosphide@carbon hybrid (3D porous MoP@C hybrid) by a template sol-gel method followed by an annealing treatment. The resultant hybrid exhibits a 3D interconnected ordered porous structure with a relatively high surface area. Benefiting from its advantages of microstructure and composition, the 3D porous MoP@C hybrid displays excellent lithium storage performance as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries in terms of specific capacity, cycling stability and long-cycle life. It presents stable cycling performance with a high reversible capacity up to 1028 mA h g(-1) at a current density of 100 mA g(-1) after 100 cycles. By ex situ XRD, HRTEM, SAED and XPS analyses, the 3D porous MoP@C hybrid was found to follow the Li-intercalation reaction mechanism (MoP + xLi(+) + e(-)↔ LixMoP), which was further confirmed by ab initio calculations based on density functional theory. PMID:27136974

  20. Discrimination of degradation processes in lithium-ion cells based on the sensitivity of aging indicators towards capacity loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Marius; Guenther, Clemens; Kasper, Michael; Petzl, Mathias; Danzer, Michael A.

    2015-06-01

    In typical applications of lithium-ion batteries, the cells are monitored in order to guarantee a safe and stable performance during operation. Therefore, methods to characterize aging processes in a non-destructive way are desired. In this work, internal resistance and power capability calculated from time domain measurements are investigated. Test cells (NMC/graphite) are cycled at the lowest temperature in the operational range (T = 0 °C) as well as under high temperature conditions (T = 50 °C) in order to characterize the aging behavior for extreme temperatures. For both internal resistance and power capability, an analysis of their sensitivities towards capacity loss induced by high or low temperature cycling is carried out. It is demonstrated how discrepancies in sensitivity can be used for the diagnostic purpose of discriminating between low and high temperature aging effects during cycling. A baseline diagnostic approach for constant operating conditions and an extended algorithm for varying conditions are presented. The extended approach is based on the evaluation of cell trajectories in a state space with capacity loss and polarization parameters. It provides measures which characterize the aging behavior and allow to identify the dominant aging mechanism.

  1. Na3MnCO3PO4 – A High Capacity, Multi-Electron Transfer Redox Cathode Material for Sodium Ion Batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Na3MnCO3PO4 has been predicted via ab initio calculations (Hautier et al., 2011) to have a high specific capacity of 191 mAh/g, owing to its potential to deliver two-electron transfer reactions per formula via Mn2+/Mn3+ and Mn3+/Mn4+ redox reactions. This study demonstrates, for the first time, that Na3MnCO3PO4 can indeed display a specific capacity of 176.7 mAh/g experimentally, reaching 92.5% of its theoretical. The low electronic conductivity is found to be the limiting factor for the previously observed low specific capacities for Na3MnCO3PO4. With a specific capacity as high as 176.7 mAh/g, Na3MnCO3PO4 has a great potential to be a viable cathode material for Na-ion batteries

  2. Reduced graphene oxide decorated with FeF3 nanoparticles: Facile synthesis and application as a high capacity cathode material for rechargeable lithium batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we demonstrate the preparation of reduced graphene oxide (rGO) decorated with FeF3 nanoparticles (FeF3NPs) by adding FeF3 aqueous solution to the rGO ethanol/water dispersion. The obtained FeF3/rGO nanocomposite is further tested as a cathode material for rechargeable lithium batteries and found to have high discharge capacities, good rate capabilities and cycling performance. It can deliver a high discharge capacity of 476 mAh g−1 at a current density of 50 mA g−1 in the voltage range 1.0–4.5 V. It still delivers a discharge capacity of 146 mAh g−1 with 81% capacity retention after 50 charge–discharge cycles under a current density of 1000 mA g−1 in the voltage range 1.7–4.5 V

  3. Dietary total antioxidant capacity: a novel indicator of diet quality in healthy young adults

    OpenAIRE

    B. Puchau; Zulet, M.A. (María Ángeles); Gonzalez-de-Echavarri, A. (Amaia); Hermsdorff, H.H. (H. H.); Martinez, J. A.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Overall diet quality measurements have been suggested as a useful tool to assess diet-disease relationships. Oxidative stress has been related to the development of obesity and other chronic diseases. Furthermore, antioxidant intake is being considered as protective against cell oxidative damage and related metabolic complications. Objective: To evaluate potential associations between the dietary total antioxidant capacity of foods (TAC), the energy density of the diet, and ot...

  4. Battery Monitoring System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavuluri Mounika* , M.Anil Kumar

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The project of BMS (Battery Monitoring System gives online and offline status of batteries which are monitored by the bank so that we can prevent the batteries prior to failure However, Battery Monitoring System specifically measure, record and analyze the individual cell and battery module parameters in detail.Continuous monitoring and analysis of these parameters can be used to identify battery or cell deterioration, hence prompting action to avoid unplanned power interruption.Battery Monitoring System (BMS is a microprocessor based intelligent system capable of monitoring the health of battery bank. BMS calculates the battery’s capacity, deterioration of batteries in battery bank during the charge / discharge cycles and actual efficiency of the batteries.It continuously monitors each cell in the battery bank to identify deterioration in the cell prior to failure,identifies the net charge in the battery bank by monitoring charging and discharging currents.

  5. Electrostatic Self-Assembly of Fe3O4 Nanoparticles on Graphene Oxides for High Capacity Lithium-Ion Battery Anodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Kyoo Lee

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Magnetite, Fe3O4, is a promising anode material for lithium ion batteries due to its high theoretical capacity (924 mA h g−1, high density, low cost and low toxicity. However, its application as high capacity anodes is still hampered by poor cycling performance. To stabilize the cycling performance of Fe3O4 nanoparticles, composites comprising Fe3O4 nanoparticles and graphene sheets (GS were fabricated. The Fe3O4/GS composite disks of mm dimensions were prepared by electrostatic self-assembly between negatively charged graphene oxide (GO sheets and positively charged Fe3O4-APTMS [Fe3O4 grafted with (3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (APTMS] in an acidic solution (pH = 2 followed by in situ chemical reduction. Thus prepared Fe3O4/GS composite showed an excellent rate capability as well as much enhanced cycling stability compared with Fe3O4 electrode. The superior electrochemical responses of Fe3O4/GS composite disks assure the advantages of: (1 electrostatic self-assembly between high storage-capacity materials with GO; and (2 incorporation of GS in the Fe3O4/GS composite for high capacity lithium-ion battery application.

  6. One-pot synthesis of a metal–organic framework as an anode for Li-ion batteries with improved capacity and cycling stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metal–organic framework is a kind of novel electrode materials for lithium ion batteries. Here, a 3D metal–organic framework Co2(OH)2BDC (BDC=1,4-benzenedicarboxylate) was synthesized for the first time by the reaction of Co2+ with a bio-inspired renewable organic ligand 1,4-benzenedicarboxylic acid through a solvothermal method. As an anode material for lithium ion batteries, this material exhibited an excellent cyclic stability as well as a large reversible capacity of ca. 650 mA h g−1 at a current density of 50 mA g−1 after 100 cycles within the voltage range of 0.02–3.0 V, higher than that of other BDC based anode. - Graphical abstract: The PXRD pattern and the cycleability curves (inset) of Co2(OH)2BDC. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Co2(OH)2BDC was synthesized through a one pot solvothermal process. • The solvent had a great effect on the purity of this material. • This material was used as anode material for lithium ion batteries for the first time. • Co2(OH)2BDC showed improved capacity and cycling stability

  7. How To Improve Capacity and Cycling Stability for Next Generation Li-O2 Batteries: Approach with a Solid Electrolyte and Elevated Redox Mediator Concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergner, Benjamin J; Busche, Martin R; Pinedo, Ricardo; Berkes, Balázs B; Schröder, Daniel; Janek, Jürgen

    2016-03-30

    Because of their exceptionally high specific energy, aprotic lithium oxygen (Li-O2) batteries are considered as potential future energy stores. Their practical application is, however, still hindered by the high charging overvoltages and detrimental side reactions. Recently, the use of redox mediators dissolved in the electrolyte emerged as a promising tool to enable charging at moderate voltages. The presented work advances this concept and distinctly improves capacity and cycling stability of Li-O2 batteries by combining high redox mediator concentrations with a solid electrolyte (SE). The use of high redox mediator concentrations significantly increases the discharge capacity by including the oxidation and reduction of the redox mediator into charge cycling. Highly efficient cycling is achieved by protecting the lithium anode with a solid electrolyte, which completely inhibits unfavored deactivation of oxidized species at the anode. Surprisingly, the SE also suppresses detrimental side reactions at the carbon electrode to a large extent and enables stable charging completely below 4.0 V over a prolonged period. It is demonstrated that anode and cathode communicate deleteriously via the liquid electrolyte, which induces degradation reactions at the carbon electrode. The separation of cathode and anode with a SE is therefore considered as a key step toward stable Li-O2 batteries, in conjunction with a concentrated redox mediator electrolyte. PMID:26942895

  8. Structural and Electrochemical Investigation during the First Charging Cycles of Silicon Microwire Array Anodes for High Capacity Lithium Ion Batteries

    OpenAIRE

    Helmut Föll; Jürgen Carstensen; Enrique Quiroga-González

    2013-01-01

    Silicon microwire arrays embedded in Cu present exceptional performance as anode material in Li ion batteries. The processes occurring during the first charging cycles of batteries with this anode are essential for good performance. This paper sheds light on the electrochemical and structural properties of the anodes during the first charging cycles. Scanning Electron Microscopy, X-ray diffractommetry, and fast Fourier transformation impedance spectroscopy are used for the characterization. I...

  9. Communication: The influence of CO2 poisoning on overvoltages and discharge capacity in non-aqueous Li-Air batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mekonnen, Yedilfana Setarge; Knudsen, Kristian Bastholm; Mýrdal, Jón Steinar Garðarsson;

    2014-01-01

    The effects of Li2CO3 like species originating from reactions between CO2 and Li2O2 at the cathode of non-aqueous Li-air batteries were studied by density functional theory (DFT) and galvanostatic charge-discharge measurements. Adsorption energies of CO2 at various nucleation sites on a stepped (1...... Li2O2 growth mechanism, capacity, and overvoltages. The charging processes are strongly influenced by CO2 contamination, and exhibit increased overvoltages and increased capacity, as a result of poisoning of nucleation sites: this effect is predicted from DFT calculations and observed experimentally...... already at 1% CO2. Large capacity losses and overvoltages are seen at higher CO2 concentrations. © 2014 AIP Publishing LLC....

  10. High-rate aluminium yolk-shell nanoparticle anode for Li-ion battery with long cycle life and ultrahigh capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sa; Niu, Junjie; Zhao, Yu Cheng; So, Kang Pyo; Wang, Chao; Wang, Chang An; Li, Ju

    2015-01-01

    Alloy-type anodes such as silicon and tin are gaining popularity in rechargeable Li-ion batteries, but their rate/cycling capabilities should be improved. Here by making yolk-shell nanocomposite of aluminium core (30 nm in diameter) and TiO2 shell (∼3 nm in thickness), with a tunable interspace, we achieve 10 C charge/discharge rate with reversible capacity exceeding 650 mAh g(-1) after 500 cycles, with a 3 mg cm(-2) loading. At 1 C, the capacity is approximately 1,200 mAh g(-1) after 500 cycles. Our one-pot synthesis route is simple and industrially scalable. This result may reverse the lagging status of aluminium among high-theoretical-capacity anodes. PMID:26243004

  11. Riverine threat indices to assess watershed condition and identify primary management capacity of agriculture natural resource management agencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fore, Jeffrey D; Sowa, Scott P; Galat, David L; Annis, Gust M; Diamond, David D; Rewa, Charles

    2014-03-01

    Managers can improve conservation of lotic systems over large geographies if they have tools to assess total watershed conditions for individual stream segments and can identify segments where conservation practices are most likely to be successful (i.e., primary management capacity). The goal of this research was to develop a suite of threat indices to help agriculture resource management agencies select and prioritize watersheds across Missouri River basin in which to implement agriculture conservation practices. We quantified watershed percentages or densities of 17 threat metrics that represent major sources of ecological stress to stream communities into five threat indices: agriculture, urban, point-source pollution, infrastructure, and all non-agriculture threats. We identified stream segments where agriculture management agencies had primary management capacity. Agriculture watershed condition differed by ecoregion and considerable local variation was observed among stream segments in ecoregions of high agriculture threats. Stream segments with high non-agriculture threats were most concentrated near urban areas, but showed high local variability. 60 % of stream segments in the basin were classified as under U.S. Department of Agriculture's Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) primary management capacity and most segments were in regions of high agricultural threats. NRCS primary management capacity was locally variable which highlights the importance of assessing total watershed condition for multiple threats. Our threat indices can be used by agriculture resource management agencies to prioritize conservation actions and investments based on: (a) relative severity of all threats, (b) relative severity of agricultural threats, and (c) and degree of primary management capacity. PMID:24390081

  12. Silicon on conductive self-organized TiO2 nanotubes - A high capacity anode material for Li-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumbarov, Jassen; Kunze-Liebhäuser, Julia

    2014-07-01

    The study of high energy density electrode materials is central to the development of Li+-ion batteries. Si is among the most promising anode materials for next generation Li+-ion batteries. Model composite electrodes of self-organized, conductive titania (TiO2-x-C) nanotubes coated with silicon (Si) via plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) are produced and studied in terms of their lithiation/delithiation characteristics. The nanotube array provides direct one dimensional electron transport to the current collector, without the need of adding binders or conductive additives. Both components of the composite can be lithiated delivering 120 μAh cm-2 total capacity for a film thickness of 1 μm and a Si loading of ∼10 wt.%. 86% capacity retention upon 88 cycles at a rate of C/5 and 60 μAh cm-2 total capacity at a rate of 10 C are achieved owing to the low lateral expansion and thus good adhesion of the thin Si coating to the TiO2-x-C nanotubes, and due to the formation of a stable solid electrolyte interface (SEI) in ethylene-carbonate (EC), dimethyl-carbonate (DMC), vinylene-carbonate (VC) electrolyte with 1 M LiPF6.

  13. Graphite-coated ZnO nanosheets as high-capacity, highly stable, and binder-free anodes for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quartarone, Eliana; Dall'Asta, Valentina; Resmini, Alessandro; Tealdi, Cristina; Tredici, Ilenia Giuseppina; Tamburini, Umberto Anselmi; Mustarelli, Piercarlo

    2016-07-01

    ZnO is one of the materials of choice as anode for lithium batteries, due to its high theoretical capacity, natural abundance, low toxicity, and low cost. At present, however, its industrial exploitation is impeded by massive capacity fading, and by cycling instability due to the drastic volume expansions during the electrochemical lithiation/delithiation process. Herein, we present a novel graphite coated-ZnO anode for LiBs based on films of nanosheets, coated with graphite. The electrode is obtained by a simple and inexpensive solution hydrothermal synthesis, whereas the graphite is deposited by thermal evaporation, which is easier to perform than a wet chemistry technique. Our approach leads to a substantial increase of the permanent specific capacity, obtaining values of 600 mAhg-1 after 100 cycles at a high specific current of 1 Ag-1. This represents the best performance for long-cycled, ZnO-based anodes obtained so far. Such result derives from the peculiar porous structure of the nanosheets film (pore diameter < 1 nm), as well as by the graphite coating that works as a dimensional buffer and preserves its morphology during cycling. This appears a very promising strategy for designing more stable ZnO-based anodes for Li batteries and microbatteries.

  14. Catalyst-free synthesis of Si-SiOx core-shell nanowire anodes for high-rate and high-capacity lithium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Kwan Woo; Lee, Jung-In; Yang, Jieun; Kim, Young-Ki; Jeong, Hu Young; Park, Soojin; Shin, Hyeon Suk

    2014-05-14

    Si-SiOx core-shell nanowires (NWs) ranging from 10 to 30 nm in diameter are prepared by a simple evaporation of silicon monoxide and control of substrate temperatures without any catalyst. The Si-SiOx NWs grown at 735 and 955 °C are strongly anchored to the Cu current collector by forming copper silicide at the interface between Si and Cu, and subsequently used as anodes in lithium-ion batteries, in which no binder or conducting materials are used. The Si-SiOx NWs anodes show excellent electrochemical performances in terms of capacity retention and rate capability. In particular, the Si-SiOx NW anode grown at 955 °C shows a reversible capacity of ∼1000 mAh g(-1) even at a high-rate of 50 C. This catalyst-free synthetic route of Si-SiOx NWs that are strongly anchored to the Cu current collector opens up an effective process for fabricating other high-capacity anodes in lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). PMID:24754908

  15. Species transport mechanisms governing capacity loss in vanadium flow batteries: Comparing Nafion® and sulfonated Radel membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Species transport mechanisms are investigated in Nafion® and s-Radel for VRFBs. • Unlike diffusion in Nafion®, crossover in s-Radel is dominated by convection. • In particular, electro-osmotic convection is the dominant mode in s-Radel. • Change in direction of convection causes a lower crossover in s-Radel. • Hydraulic and electrokinetic permeability are as important as vanadium permeability. -- Abstract: In this study, a 2-D, transient vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB) model was used to investigate and compare the ion transport mechanisms responsible for vanadium crossover in Nafion® 117 and sulfonated Radel (s-Radel) membranes. Specifically, the model was used to distinguish the relative contribution of diffusion, migration, osmotic and electro-osmotic convection to the net vanadium crossover in Nafion® and s-Radel. Model simulations indicate that diffusion is the dominant mode of vanadium transport in Nafion®, whereas convection dominates the vanadium transport through s-Radel due to the lower vanadium permeability, and thus diffusivity of s-Radel. Among the convective transport modes, electro-osmotic convection (i.e., electro-osmotic drag) is found to govern the species crossover in s-Radel due to its higher fixed acid concentration and corresponding free ions in the membrane. Simulations also show that vanadium crossover in s-Radel changes direction during charge and discharge due to the change in the direction of electro-osmotic convection. This reversal in the direction of crossover during charge and discharge is found to result in significantly lower “net” crossover for s-Radel when compared to Nafion®. Comparison of these two membranes also provides guidance for minimizing crossover in VRFB systems and underscores the importance of measuring the hydraulic and the electro-kinetic permeability of a membrane in addition to vanadium diffusion characteristics, when evaluating new membranes for VRFB applications

  16. 基于等效电路法的大容量蓄电池系统建模与仿真%Modeling and Simulation of Large Capacity Battery Systems Based on the Equivalent Circuit Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭思敏; 施刚; 蔡旭; 李睿

    2013-01-01

    As an alternative, a battery energy storage system (BESS) is widely regarded as an effective solution to deal with the large scale integration of renewable energy sources into electric networks, such as wind energy and photovoltaic energy. A large capacity battery system (LCBS) can supply high capacity when its cells are connected in series and parallel. In this paper, the operation principle of LCBS in series and parallel connection was analyzed in details. Considering the nonlinear parameters and inconsistent quality of the cells, an accurate equivalent circuit model of Li-ion LCBS was presented, which was applicable for electrical circuit design and simulations. The accurate models of the battery system in series and/or parallel connection were realized by the Matlab/Simulink. The close agreement between simulations and experimental results indicates that the models can accurately capture the discharging behavior of LCBS under various load conditions and validates the correctness of the proposed model of LCBS.%储能系统为可再生能源(如风电、光伏等)大规模接入电网提供了一种有效的方法.通过电池单体的串/并联可实现电池系统容量的扩大.该文针对由电池单体串并联组成的大容量蓄电池系统(large capacity battery system,LCBS),考虑到电池单体的参数非线性及容量不一致性等特点,结合串/并联电路工作特性,提出一种适宜于电气设计与仿真的LCBS等效电路建模方法,并在Matlab/Simulink中对串联、并联及串/并联型的锂离子LCBS进行了建模与仿真.通过仿真结果与实验数据的对比表明,在不同带载情况下,所提出LCBS模型能准确预测其放电工作特性,进而验证了所提出模型的准确性.

  17. Multiwalled carbon nanotube@a-C@Co9S8 nanocomposites: a high-capacity and long-life anode material for advanced lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yanli; Yan, Dong; Xu, Huayun; Liu, Shuo; Yang, Jian; Qian, Yitai

    2015-02-01

    A one-dimensional MWCNT@a-C@Co9S8 nanocomposite has been prepared via a facile solvothermal reaction followed by a calcination process. The amorphous carbon layer between Co9S8 and MWCNT acts as a linker to increase the loading of sulfides on MWCNT. When evaluated as anode materials for lithium ion batteries, the MWCNT@a-C@Co9S8 nanocomposite shows the advantages of high capacity and long life, superior to Co9S8 nanoparticles and MWCNT@Co9S8 nanocomposites. The reversible capacity could be retained at 662 mA h g-1 after 120 cycles at 1 A g-1. The efficient synthesis and excellent performances of this nanocomposite offer numerous opportunities for other sulfides as a new anode for lithium ion batteries.A one-dimensional MWCNT@a-C@Co9S8 nanocomposite has been prepared via a facile solvothermal reaction followed by a calcination process. The amorphous carbon layer between Co9S8 and MWCNT acts as a linker to increase the loading of sulfides on MWCNT. When evaluated as anode materials for lithium ion batteries, the MWCNT@a-C@Co9S8 nanocomposite shows the advantages of high capacity and long life, superior to Co9S8 nanoparticles and MWCNT@Co9S8 nanocomposites. The reversible capacity could be retained at 662 mA h g-1 after 120 cycles at 1 A g-1. The efficient synthesis and excellent performances of this nanocomposite offer numerous opportunities for other sulfides as a new anode for lithium ion batteries. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Infrared spectrogram (IR) of glucose treated MWCNT; TEM images of MWCNT@a-C treated by different concentrations of glucose; SEM and TEM images of the intermediate product obtained from the solvothermal reaction between thiourea and Co(Ac)2; EDS spectrum of MWCNT@a-C@Co9S8 composites; SEM and TEM images of MWCNT@Co9S8 nanocomposites obtained without the hydrothermal treatment by glucose; SEM and TEM images of Co9S8 nanoparticles; Galvanostatic discharge-charge profiles and cycling performance of MWCNT@a-C; TEM images

  18. Binder-Free and Carbon-Free 3D Porous Air Electrode for Li-O2 Batteries with High Efficiency, High Capacity, and Long Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Wen-Bin; Gao, Xuan-Wen; Shi, Dong-Qi; Chou, Shu-Lei; Wang, Jia-Zhao; Liu, Hua-Kun

    2016-06-01

    Pt-Gd alloy polycrystalline thin film is deposited on 3D nickel foam by pulsed laser deposition method serving as a whole binder/carbon-free air electrode, showing great catalytic activity enhancement as an efficient bifunctional catalyst for the oxygen reduction and evolution reactions in lithium oxygen batteries. The porous structure can facilitate rapid O2 and electrolyte diffusion, as well as forming a continuous conductive network throughout the whole energy conversion process. It shows a favorable cycle performance in the full discharge/charge model, owing to the high catalytic activity of the Pt-Gd alloy composite and 3D porous nickel foam structure. Specially, excellent cycling performance under capacity limited mode is also demonstrated, in which the terminal discharge voltage is higher than 2.5 V and the terminal charge voltage is lower than 3.7 V after 100 cycles at a current density of 0.1 mA cm(-2) . Therefore, this electrocatalyst is a promising bifunctional electrocatalyst for lithium oxygen batteries and this depositing high-efficient electrocatalyst on porous substrate with polycrystalline thin film by pulsed laser deposition is also a promising technique in the future lithium oxygen batteries research. PMID:27120699

  19. High Area Capacity Lithium-Sulfur Full-cell Battery with Prelitiathed Silicon Nanowire-Carbon Anodes for Long Cycling Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Andreas; Dörfler, Susanne; Piwko, Markus; Wisser, Florian M.; Jaumann, Tony; Ahrens, Eike; Giebeler, Lars; Althues, Holger; Schädlich, Stefan; Grothe, Julia; Jeffery, Andrea; Grube, Matthias; Brückner, Jan; Martin, Jan; Eckert, Jürgen; Kaskel, Stefan; Mikolajick, Thomas; Weber, Walter M.

    2016-01-01

    We show full Li/S cells with the use of balanced and high capacity electrodes to address high power electro-mobile applications. The anode is made of an assembly comprising of silicon nanowires as active material densely and conformally grown on a 3D carbon mesh as a light-weight current collector, offering extremely high areal capacity for reversible Li storage of up to 9 mAh/cm2. The dense growth is guaranteed by a versatile Au precursor developed for homogenous Au layer deposition on 3D substrates. In contrast to metallic Li, the presented system exhibits superior characteristics as an anode in Li/S batteries such as safe operation, long cycle life and easy handling. These anodes are combined with high area density S/C composite cathodes into a Li/S full-cell with an ether- and lithium triflate-based electrolyte for high ionic conductivity. The result is a highly cyclable full-cell with an areal capacity of 2.3 mAh/cm2, a cyclability surpassing 450 cycles and capacity retention of 80% after 150 cycles (capacity loss <0.4% per cycle). A detailed physical and electrochemical investigation of the SiNW Li/S full-cell including in-operando synchrotron X-ray diffraction measurements reveals that the lower degradation is due to a lower self-reduction of polysulfides after continuous charging/discharging. PMID:27319783

  20. High Area Capacity Lithium-Sulfur Full-cell Battery with Prelitiathed Silicon Nanowire-Carbon Anodes for Long Cycling Stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Andreas; Dörfler, Susanne; Piwko, Markus; Wisser, Florian M; Jaumann, Tony; Ahrens, Eike; Giebeler, Lars; Althues, Holger; Schädlich, Stefan; Grothe, Julia; Jeffery, Andrea; Grube, Matthias; Brückner, Jan; Martin, Jan; Eckert, Jürgen; Kaskel, Stefan; Mikolajick, Thomas; Weber, Walter M

    2016-01-01

    We show full Li/S cells with the use of balanced and high capacity electrodes to address high power electro-mobile applications. The anode is made of an assembly comprising of silicon nanowires as active material densely and conformally grown on a 3D carbon mesh as a light-weight current collector, offering extremely high areal capacity for reversible Li storage of up to 9 mAh/cm(2). The dense growth is guaranteed by a versatile Au precursor developed for homogenous Au layer deposition on 3D substrates. In contrast to metallic Li, the presented system exhibits superior characteristics as an anode in Li/S batteries such as safe operation, long cycle life and easy handling. These anodes are combined with high area density S/C composite cathodes into a Li/S full-cell with an ether- and lithium triflate-based electrolyte for high ionic conductivity. The result is a highly cyclable full-cell with an areal capacity of 2.3 mAh/cm(2), a cyclability surpassing 450 cycles and capacity retention of 80% after 150 cycles (capacity loss <0.4% per cycle). A detailed physical and electrochemical investigation of the SiNW Li/S full-cell including in-operando synchrotron X-ray diffraction measurements reveals that the lower degradation is due to a lower self-reduction of polysulfides after continuous charging/discharging. PMID:27319783

  1. FePO4 nanoparticles embedded in a large mesoporous carbon matrix as a high-capacity and high-rate cathode for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Self-made nano-CaCO3 templated LMC as a novel supporting matrix for FePO4 cathode. ► The 3D porous structure of LMC is well retained in LMC–FePO4 nanohybrid. ► Its reaction kinetics of lithium insertion/extraction is significantly improved. ► Markedly higher capacities and rate capability by virtue of its structure superiority. -- Abstract: By using large mesoporous carbon (LMC) as a novel host matrix, LMC–FePO4 nanohybrid has been synthesized through a facile homogeneous precipitation process and subsequent annealing approach. When evaluated as a cathode for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), the LMC–FePO4 nanohybrid exhibits higher specific capacities, improved rate capability, and better cycling performance by virtue of its unique structural characteristics

  2. Indices of Sulfur—Supplying Capacities of Upland Soils in North China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LINBAO; ZHOUWEI; 等

    1999-01-01

    Fifteen upland soils collected from the major arable areas in NOrth China were used to assess the availability of soil sulfur(S) to plants in a pot experiment.Soils were extracted with various reagents and the extractable S was determined using turbidimetric method or inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES),respectively.In addition,mineralizable organic S,organic S,N/S ratio,sulfur availability index(SAI) and available sulfur correction value(ASC) in soils were also determined.The S amout extracted by 1.5g L-1 CaCl2 was nearly equivalent to that by 0.25mol L-1 KCl(40℃),and both of them were slightly smaller than that by 0.01 molL-1 Ca(H2PO4)2 solution,as measured by turbidimetric method or ICP-AES.The extractable S measured by turbidimetric method was consistently smaller than that by ICP-AES.All methods tested except that for organic S and N/S ratio produced satisfactoy results in the regression analyses of the relationships between the amounts of S extracted and plant dry matter weight and S uptake in the pot experiment,In general,0.01 mol L-1 Ca(H2PO4)2-extracted S determined by ICP-AES or turbidimetric method and 0.25mol L-1 KCl(40℃)-extracted S determined by ICP-AES appeared to be the best indicators for evaluation of soil available S.

  3. Alkaline battery operational methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sholklapper, Tal; Gallaway, Joshua; Steingart, Daniel; Ingale, Nilesh; Nyce, Michael

    2016-08-16

    Methods of using specific operational charge and discharge parameters to extend the life of alkaline batteries are disclosed. The methods can be used with any commercial primary or secondary alkaline battery, as well as with newer alkaline battery designs, including batteries with flowing electrolyte. The methods include cycling batteries within a narrow operating voltage window, with minimum and maximum cut-off voltages that are set based on battery characteristics and environmental conditions. The narrow voltage window decreases available capacity but allows the batteries to be cycled for hundreds or thousands of times.

  4. A comparison of lead-acid and lithium-based battery behavior and capacity fade in off-grid renewable charging applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of variable charging rates and incomplete charging in off-grid renewable energy applications are studied by comparing battery degradation rates and mechanisms in lead-acid, LCO (lithium cobalt oxide), LCO-NMC (LCO-lithium nickel manganese cobalt oxide composite), and LFP (lithium iron phosphate) cells charged with wind-based charging protocols. Poor pulse charge acceptance, particularly for long pulses, contributes to incomplete charging and rapid degradation of lead-acid cells due to apparent high rates of sulphation and resistance growth. Partial charging and pulse charging, common lead-acid stressors in off-grid applications, are found to have little if any effect on degradation in the lithium-based cells when compared to constant current charging. These cells all last much longer than the lead-acid cells; the LFP batteries show the greatest longevity, with minimal capacity fade observed after over 1000 cycles. Pulse charge acceptance is found to depend on pulse length in lead-acid and LFP cells, but not in LCO and LCO-NMC cells. Excellent power performance and consistent voltage and power behavior during cycling suggest that LFP batteries are well-suited to withstand the stresses associated with off-grid renewable energy storage and have the potential to reduce system lifetime costs. - Highlights: • Degradation in lead-acid and Li-ion batteries compared in off-grid wind systems. • Lead-acid cells show poor pulse charge acceptance and rapid degradation. • Li-ion cells perform better with off-grid stressors like pulsed and partial charge. • Longevity of LFP (lithium iron phosphate) cells reduces their lifetime cost in off-grid renewable systems

  5. Long-Life and High-Areal-Capacity Li-S Batteries Enabled by a Light-Weight Polar Host with Intrinsic Polysulfide Adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Quan; Nazar, Linda F

    2016-04-26

    Lithium-sulfur batteries are attractive electrochemical energy storage systems due to their high theoretical energy density and very high natural abundance of sulfur. However, practically, Li-S batteries suffer from short cycling life and low sulfur utilization, particularly in the case of high-sulfur-loaded cathodes. Here, we report on a light-weight nanoporous graphitic carbon nitride (high-surface-area g-C3N4) that enables a sulfur electrode with an ultralow long-term capacity fade rate of 0.04% per cycle over 1500 cycles at a practical C/2 rate. More importantly, it exhibits good high-sulfur-loading areal capacity (up to 3.5 mAh cm(-2)) with stable cell performance. We demonstrate the strong chemical interaction of g-C3N4 with polysulfides using a combination of spectroscopic experimental studies and first-principles calculations. The 53.5% concentration of accessible pyridinic nitrogen polysulfide adsorption sites is shown to be key for the greatly improved cycling performance compared to that of N-doped carbons. PMID:26841116

  6. Optimization of batteries for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, Jeffrey Robb

    . Three sample optimizations were performed: a compact car, a, truck, and a sports car. The compact car benefits from increased battery capacity despite the associated higher cost. The truck returned the smallest possible battery of each chemistry, indicating that electrification is not advisable. The sports car optimization resulted in the largest possible battery, indicating large performance from increased electrification. These results mirror the current state of the electric vehicle market.

  7. CoSn5 Phase: Crystal Structure Resolving and Stable High Capacity as Anodes for Li Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Liang; Chen, Haiyan; Bai, Jianming; Han, Wei-Qiang

    2012-06-01

    Tin alloys form a class of interesting high-energy-density anode materials for Li ion batteries, but the improvement of their cycling stability is elusive. Here, we provide new insight on this fatal issue by synthesizing novel CoSn5-phase nanospheres via a conversion chemistry route and directly comparing their cell behavior with that of recently found FeSn5-phase nanospheres. The CoSn5 phase is absent in previous Co-Sn phase diagrams. Co0.83Sn5 nanospheres show a much longer cycle life, which partially is related to milder evolution of their cycling profiles over time. PMID:26285626

  8. Improved positive electrode materials for lithium-ion batteries: Exploring the high specific capacity of lithium cobalt dioxide and the high rate capability of lithium iron phosphate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhaohui

    During the past decade, the search for better electrode materials for Li-ion batteries has been of a great commercial interest, especially since Li-ion technology has become a major rechargeable battery technology with a market value of $3 billion US dollars per year. This thesis focuses on improving two positive electrode materials: one is a traditional positive electrode material--LiCoO2; the other is a new positive electrode material--LiFePO 4. Cho et al. reported that coating LiCoO2 with oxides can improve the capacity retention of LiCoO2 cycled to 4.4 V. The study of coatings in this thesis confirms this effect and shows that further improvement (30% higher energy density than that used in a commercial cell with excellent capacity retention) can be obtained. An in-situ XRD study proves that the mechanism of the improvement in capacity retention by coating proposed by Cho et al. is incorrect. Further experiments identify the suppression of impedance growth in the cell as the key reason for the improvement caused by coating. Based on this, other methods to improve the energy density of LiCoO2, without sacrificing capacity retention, are also developed. Using an XRD study, the structure of the phase between the O3-phase Li 1-xCoO2 (x > 0.5) and the O1 phase CoO2 was measured experimentally for the first time. XRD results confirmed the prediction of an H1-3 phase by Ceder's group. Apparently, because of the structural changes between the O3 phase and the H1-3 phase, good capacity retention cannot be attained for cycling LiCoO2 to 4.6 V with respect to Li metal. An effort was also made to reduce the carbon content in a LiFePO 4/C composite without sacrificing its rate capability. It was found that about 3% carbon by weight maintains both a good rate capability and a high pellet density for the composite.

  9. Carbon/SnO2/carbon core/shell/shell hybrid nanofibers: tailored nanostructure for the anode of lithium ion batteries with high reversibility and rate capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Junhua; Liu, Zhaolin; Yang, Zhengchun; Tan, Hui Ru; Xiong, Shanxin; Wong, Siew Yee; Li, Xu; Lu, Xuehong

    2012-01-01

    A carbon/SnO2/carbon core/shell/shell hybrid nanofibrous mat was successfully prepared via single-spinneret electrospinning followed by carbonization and hydrothermal treatment. The morphology and structure of carbon/SnO2/carbon hybrid nanofibers were characterized by field-emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, wide-angle X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and their electrochemical properties were studied as an anode in lithium ion batteries (LIBs). It is shown that the designed hybrid nanofibrous mat exhibits excellent electrochemical properties, including high reversible capacity with high columbic efficiency and impressive rate capacity. The greatly enhanced electrochemical performance is mainly due to the morphological stability and reduced diffusion resistance, which are induced by both the carbon core and deposited carbon skin. Furthermore, the embedded and de-aggregated SnO2 nanoparticles in the carbon phase, which are less than 10 nm in size, provide large numbers of reaction sites for lithium ions and ensure complete alloying with them.A carbon/SnO2/carbon core/shell/shell hybrid nanofibrous mat was successfully prepared via single-spinneret electrospinning followed by carbonization and hydrothermal treatment. The morphology and structure of carbon/SnO2/carbon hybrid nanofibers were characterized by field-emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, wide-angle X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and their electrochemical properties were studied as an anode in lithium ion batteries (LIBs). It is shown that the designed hybrid nanofibrous mat exhibits excellent electrochemical properties, including high reversible capacity with high columbic efficiency and impressive rate capacity. The greatly enhanced electrochemical performance is mainly due to the morphological stability and reduced diffusion

  10. Negative plates for dry-charged lead storage batteries. [higher charging capacity when impregnated with tannin solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiedler, V.; Malikova, V.; Weber, H.

    1970-09-15

    Impregnation of negative plates with acid solutions of sulfomethylated tannins was found to improve the charging properties at low temperatures. Methods for synthesizing tannins are described. Charging capacity at 0/sup 0/ was 7.3A. (RWR)

  11. Novel graphene papers with sporadic alkyl brushes on the basal plane as a high-capacity flexible anode for lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphene paper that exhibits an excellent stabilized capacity, as high as 1300 mAh g−1 at a current rate of 60 mA g−1, as a lithium ion battery anode is fabricated and evaluated. The few-layer graphene used to make the graphene paper is prepared via the thermal reduction of graphite oxide. The graphene is then modified by a novel method utilizing inherent defects, namely epoxy groups, on the graphene as active sites for a reaction with methanol, 1-butanol, 1-hexanol, and 1-octanol. The density values and X-ray diffraction patterns obtained for the graphene paper demonstrate that the alkyl brushes on the graphene sheets expand the d-spacing and hinder close restacking of the sheets, thereby inducing the formation of extra cavities within the paper. This loose packing due to the alkyl brushes increases sensitively as the alkyl chain length of the alcohol becomes longer. The lithium ion insertion capacity of a graphene paper electrode at the first cycle also increases with the alkyl chain length. However, fading of the capacity at early charge/discharge cycles is accelerated by the modification process because of electrolyte penetration into the gallery and the acceleration of protective solid electrolyte interface film formation due to looser packing. The paper composed of graphene modified with 1-butanol rather than shorter or longer alcohols exhibits the best reversible storage capacity, more than two-fold higher when compared to that of pristine graphene paper, due to a compromise between two conflicting effects on the reversible storage capacity by long alkyl brushes. The tensile properties and electrical conductivity of the graphene papers are also examined

  12. High specific capacity retention of graphene/silicon nanosized sandwich structure fabricated by continuous electron beam evaporation as anode for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A graphene/silicon multilayer is fabricated by electron beam deposition. • It exhibits specific capacity retention over 1000 mA h g−1. • Capacity retention at 100 nm and 7-layer exceeds 90%. • It can be used for lighting of light-emitting diodes. - Abstract: A graphene/silicon (Si) multilayer sandwich structures are fabricated using electron beam (EB) deposition without air exposure. The graphene and Si thin films are formed on Cu current correctors through a continuous process in high-vacuum EB chamber. Synthesized graphene should be suggested to the stacked multiple layer from Raman analysis. The fabricated multilayer films are used as anodes. In the beginning, the half-cell, which used a seven-layer of each thickness 50-nm graphene and Si film, exhibits good specific capacity retention over 1000 mA h g−1 after 30 charge/discharge cycles. The capacity value changed with the number of graphene and Si layers. In this study, the number of layers that exhibited optimal properties is seven. Morphological investigation showed a fine layer-by-layer structure. The relationship between different thicknesses of graphene and Si is investigated at 7 L. A 100-nm thickness exhibited optimal properties. Finally, the optimal 7 L and 100-nm thick graphene/Si exhibited high discharge capacitance >1600 mA h g−1 at a current density of 100 mA g−1 after 30 cycles. Initial coulombic and reversible efficiencies exceed 84%. The capacity retention (30th/1st discharge value) at 100 nm and 7 L exceeds 90%. Finally, the soft package battery is assembled by combining the fabricated graphene and Si electrode as anode, LiCoO2 as cathode, separator and liquid electrolyte. It can be used for commercial light-emitting diode (LED) lighting even under bending status

  13. Multicore-shell carbon-coated lithium manganese phosphate and lithium vanadium phosphate composite material with high capacity and cycling performance for lithium-ion battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The energy crisis and energy security leads a great attention to Li-ion batteries (LIB) as the excellent power candidates. We successfully synthesized LiMnPO4·Li3V2(PO4)3/C composite cathode material with high capacity and excellent cycling performance from prickly MnV2O6·2H2O precursor, following chemical reduction and lithiation with double carbon sources. The LiMnPO4·Li3V2(PO4)3/C sample has a special multicore-shell structure, whose inner stuffing are LiMnPO4 and Li3V2(PO4)3 in the range of 5-25nm. The initial discharge capacity of LiMnPO4·Li3V2(PO4)3/C composite delivers 221.4 mAh g−1, 202.3 mAh g−1 and 152.9 mAh g−1 at the rate of 0.1C, 1C and 5C in the range of 1.5-4.5 V, and retains 99.5%, 99.1% and 94.3% of its initial discharge capacity after 50 cycles, respectively

  14. Cathode material influence on the power capability and utilizable capacity of next generation lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roscher, Michael A.; Sauer, Dirk Uwe [RWTH Aachen University, Electrochemical Energy Conversion and Storage Systems Group, Institute for Power Electronics and Electrical Drives (ISEA), 52066 Aachen (Germany); Vetter, Jens [BMW Group, 80788 Muenchen (Germany)

    2010-06-15

    Lithium-ion cells (Li-ion) comprising lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO{sub 4}) based cathode active material are a promising battery technology for future automotive applications and consumer electronics in terms of safety, cycle and calendar lifetime and cost. Those cells comprise flat open circuit voltage (OCV) characteristics and long-term load history dependent cell impedance. In this work the special electric characteristics of LiFePO{sub 4} based cells are elucidated, quantified and compared to Li-ion cells containing a competing cathode technology. Through pulse tests and partial cycle tests, performed with various olivine based cells, the cycling history dependency of the internal resistance and therefore on the power capability is shown. Hence, methods are illustrated to quantify this load history impact on the cells performance. Subsequently, methods to achieve a safe battery operation are elucidated. Furthermore strategies are given to obtain reliable information about the cells power capability, taking the mentioned properties into consideration. (author)

  15. Germanium as a Sodium Ion Battery Material: In Situ TEM Reveals Fast Sodiation Kinetics with High Capacity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Xiaotang; Adkins, Emily R.; He, Yang; Zhong, Li; Luo, Langli; Mao, Scott X.; Wang, Chong M.; Korgel, Brian A.

    2016-01-29

    Amorphous germanium (a-Ge) nanowires have great potential for application as anodes in Na-ion batteries. However, the Na-Ge reaction is much less studied and understood compared with other metal alloy anodes. Here, in situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is used to study the sodiation/desodiation behavior of a-Ge nanowires. Unexpectedly, our experiments revealed that a-Ge nanowires can be charged at a very fast rate and the final sodiation product, with over 300% volume expansion, is close to Na3Ge instead of NaGe which was considered as the ultimate sodiation state that Ge could achieve. Porous structure was observed in desodiation and, in contrast to delithiation, Na extraction is more likely to create pores in the nanowires due to the much larger radius of the Na ion. This porous structure has demonstrated excellent robustness upon cycling: it could recover flawlessly from the giant pores that were created during experimentation. These results show that the potential of a-Ge for Na-ion battery applications may have been previously underestimated.

  16. Ultradispersed Nanoarchitecture of LiV3O8 Nanoparticle/Reduced Graphene Oxide with High-Capacity and Long-Life Lithium-Ion Battery Cathodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Runwei; Du, Ying; Rooney, David; Ding, Guqiao; Sun, Kening

    2016-01-01

    Lack of high-performance cathode materials has become the major barriers to lithium-ion battery applications in advanced communication equipment and electric vehicles. In this paper, we report a versatile interfacial reaction strategy, which is based on the idea of space confinement, for the synthesis of ultradispersed LiV3O8 nanoparticles (~10 nm) on graphene (denoted as LVO NPs-GNs) with an unprecedented degree of control on the separation and manipulation of the nucleation, growth, anchoring, and crystallization of nanoparticles in a water-in-oil emulsion system over free growth in solution. The prepared LVO NPs-GNs composites displayed high performance as an cathode material for lithium-ion battery, including high reversible lithium storage capacity (237 mA h g-1 after 200 cycles), high Coulombic efficiency (about 98%), excellent cycling stability and high rate capability (as high as 176 mA h g-1 at 0.9 A g-1, 128 mA h g-1 at 1.5 A g-1, 91 mA h g-1 at 3 A g-1 and 59 mA h g-1 at 6 A g-1, respectively). Very significantly, the preparation method employed can be easily adapted and may opens the door to complex hybrid materials design and engineering with graphene for advanced energy storage.

  17. Ultradispersed Nanoarchitecture of LiV3O8 Nanoparticle/Reduced Graphene Oxide with High-Capacity and Long-Life Lithium-Ion Battery Cathodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Runwei; Du, Ying; Rooney, David; Ding, Guqiao; Sun, Kening

    2016-01-01

    Lack of high-performance cathode materials has become the major barriers to lithium-ion battery applications in advanced communication equipment and electric vehicles. In this paper, we report a versatile interfacial reaction strategy, which is based on the idea of space confinement, for the synthesis of ultradispersed LiV3O8 nanoparticles (~10 nm) on graphene (denoted as LVO NPs-GNs) with an unprecedented degree of control on the separation and manipulation of the nucleation, growth, anchoring, and crystallization of nanoparticles in a water-in-oil emulsion system over free growth in solution. The prepared LVO NPs-GNs composites displayed high performance as an cathode material for lithium-ion battery, including high reversible lithium storage capacity (237 mA h g(-1) after 200 cycles), high Coulombic efficiency (about 98%), excellent cycling stability and high rate capability (as high as 176 mA h g(-1) at 0.9 A g(-1), 128 mA h g(-1) at 1.5 A g(-1), 91 mA h g(-1) at 3 A g(-1) and 59 mA h g(-1) at 6 A g(-1), respectively). Very significantly, the preparation method employed can be easily adapted and may opens the door to complex hybrid materials design and engineering with graphene for advanced energy storage. PMID:26817818

  18. Flake-by-flake ZnCo2O4 as a high capacity anode material for lithium-ion battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The ZnCo2O4 with porous structure was prepared by co-precipitation method. • Flake-by-flake used in ZnCo2O4 was studied for the first time. • The as-prepared ZCO shows excellent electrochemical performances. • The preparation method has mild experiment conditions and high production rate. -- Abstract: A novel flake-by-flake ZnCo2O4 (ZCO) with porous nanostructure is prepared by a typical and facile co-precipitation method using oxalic acid as complex agent. XRD, SEM, and TEM analyses show the as-prepared ZCO nanoparticles have a high purity and a good crystallinity, and the ZCO nanoflakes with a thickness of 30–80 nm are composed of uniform ZCO nanocrystals with a diameter of 20–40 nm. The novel structure with enough free space is beneficial to improving the electrochemical performance. The as-prepared ZCO used as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries exhibits a high specific capacity of 1275 mA h/g at a current rate of 100 mA/g after 50 cycles, as well as a high power capability at elevated current rates, i.e., 1130 and 730 mA h/g at current rates of 500 and 3000 mA/g, respectively. It has a great prospect for the application of anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

  19. MoS2-reduced graphene oxide composites via microwave assisted synthesis for sodium ion battery anode with improved capacity and cycling performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MoS2-reduced graphene oxide (RGO) composites were synthesized via a facile microwave assisted reduction of graphene oxide in MoS2 precursor solution and subsequent annealing in N2/H2 atmosphere at 800 °C for 2 h. Their morphology, structure and electrochemical performance were characterized by field-emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, N2 adsorption-desorption isotherm, cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The MoS2-RGO composites with different RGO loadings were applied as anode materials of sodium ion batteries (SIBs) and they exhibit a maximum reversible specific capacity of about 305 mAh g−1 at a current density of 100 mA g−1 after 50 cycles and excellent rate performance. The results demonstrate that MoS2-RGO could be a potential electrode material for rechargeable SIBs

  20. The capacity fading mechanism and improvement of cycling stability in MoS2-based anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Haibo; Li, Feng; Hu, Chenli; Liang, Pei; Cao, Dan; Chen, Xiaoshuang

    2016-01-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) layered MoS2 nanosheets possess great potential as anode materials for lithium ion batteries (LIBs), but they still suffer from poor cycling performance. Improving the cycling stability of electrode materials depends on a deep understanding of their dynamic structural evolution and reaction kinetics in the lithiation process. Herein, thermodynamic phase diagrams and the lithiation dynamics of MoS2-based nanostructures with the intercalation of lithium ions are studied by using first-principles calculations and ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. Our results demonstrate that the continuous intercalation of Li ions induces structural destruction of 2H phase MoS2 nanosheets in the discharge process that follows a layer-by-layer dissociation mechanism. Meanwhile, the intercalation of Li ions leads to a structural transition of MoS2 nanosheets from the 2H to the 1T phase due to the ultralow transition barriers (~0.1 eV). We find that the phase transition can slow down the dissociation of MoS2 nanosheets during lithiation. The result can be applied to explain extensive experimental observation of the fast capacity fading of MoS2-based anode materials between the first and the subsequent discharges. To suppress the dissociation of MoS2 nanosheets in the lithiation process, we propose a strategy by constructing a sandwich-like graphene/MoS2/graphene structure that indicates high chemical stability, superior conductivity, and high Li-ion mobility in the charge/discharge process, implying the possibility to induce an improvement in the anode cycling performance. This work opens a new route to rational design layered transition-metal disulfide (TMD) anode materials for LIBs with superior cycling stability and electrochemical performance.Two-dimensional (2D) layered MoS2 nanosheets possess great potential as anode materials for lithium ion batteries (LIBs), but they still suffer from poor cycling performance. Improving the cycling stability of

  1. Indicators of implicit and explicit social anxiety influence threat-related interpretive bias as a function of working memory capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elske eSalemink

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Interpretive biases play a crucial role in anxiety disorders. The aim of the current study was to examine factors that determine the relative strength of threat-related interpretive biases that are characteristic of individuals high in social anxiety. Different (dual process models argue that both implicit and explicit processes determine information processing biases and behaviour, and that their impact is moderated by the availability of executive resources such as working memory capacity (WMC. Based on these models, we expected indicators of implicit social anxiety to predict threat-related interpretive bias in individuals low, but not high in WMC. Indicators of explicit social anxiety should predict threat-related interpretive bias in individuals high, but not low in WMC. As expected, WMC moderated the impact of implicit social anxiety on threat-related interpretive bias, although the simple slope for individuals low in WMC was not statistically significant. The hypotheses regarding explicit social anxiety (with fear of negative evaluation used as an indicator were fully supported. The clinical implications of these findings are discussed.

  2. Theoretical investigation for Li2CuSb as multifunctional materials: Electrode for high capacity rechargeable batteries and novel materials for second harmonic generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → We predict that Li2CuSb should be good electrode materials for high capacity rechargeable batteries and novel materials for SHG. → We found that intercalation of lithium leads to phase transitions, which agrees well with the experiment. → Intercalation of Li leads to increase the conductivity and break the symmetry along optical axis make the material useful for SHG application. → The microscopic second order hyperpolarizability, the vector component along the dipole moment direction is about 31.01x10-30 esu. - Abstract: Based on the first-principles electronic structure calculations, we predict that Li2CuSb should be good electrode materials for high capacity rechargeable batteries and novel materials for second harmonic generation. This prediction is based on the experimental measurements of Fransson et al. , and as step forward to do deep investigation on these materials we addressed ourselves for performing theoretical calculation. We found that intercalation of lithium leads to phase transitions, which agrees well with the experiment, increasing the conductivity of the material, and break the symmetry along the optical axis making the material useful for second harmonic generation (SHG) applications. We should emphasize that lithiated compound show very high second order optical susceptibility. We present the total charge densities in the (1 1 0) and (1 0 0) planes for the parent and lithiated phases and it was found that the parent compound shows a considerable anisotropy between the two planes in consistence with our calculated optical properties. We found that Li2CuSb possesses high second harmonic generation and its second order optical susceptibility of the total absolute value at zero frequency is equal to 142 pm/V. Based on the value of the second order optical susceptibility the microscopic second order hyperpolarizability, βijk, the vector component along the dipole moment direction is about 31.01 x 10-30 esu.

  3. Thin Rechargeable Batteries for CMOS SRAM Memory Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouse, Dennis N.

    1993-01-01

    New rechargeable battery technology is described and compared with classical primary battery back-up of SRAM PC cards. Thin solid polymer electrolyte cells with the thickness of TSOP memory components (1 mm nominal, 1.1 mm max) and capacities of 14 mAh/sq cm can replace coin cells. The SRAM PC cards with permanently installed rechargeable cells and optional electrochromic low battery voltage indicators will free the periodic PC card user from having to 'feed' their PC cards with coin cells and will allow a quick visual check of stored cards for their battery voltage status.

  4. Structural stabilization on SiOx film anode with large areal capacity for enhanced cyclability in lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takezawa, Hideharu; Ito, Shuji; Yoshizawa, Hiroshi; Abe, Takeshi

    2016-08-01

    We investigated a structural stabilizing effect of large x values on enhancing cyclability for the SiOx electrode with large areal capacity. Electrodes composed of a-SiOx film on roughened Cu substrate with the same areal capacity (2 mAh cm-2) were prepared, so that changes in volume of the lithiated SiOx per unit electrode area were equal. Cycle tests were performed for three x values (0.17, 0.68, 1.02) using half-cell and the morphology of electrodes were analyzed by SEM. Higher x values were found to result in larger inactive phase contents and demonstrated superior cyclability. The SiO1.02 electrode contained 11 times more inactive phase than the SiO0.17 and showed a capacity retention of 98% after 30 cycles. For the SiO0.17 electrode, structural changes such as the pulverization of the particles, fracturing of the electrodeposited Cu tips caused electrical isolation of Li-Si. For the SiO1.02 electrode, the structure was extremely stable. These results reveal that even in electrodes with large areal capacity, the inactive phase exhibited the great buffering effect of the change in volume of Li-Si.

  5. Sensitivity on Battery Prices and Capacity on board Electric Drive Vehicles and the Effects on the Power System Configuration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Nina

    2011-01-01

    on reviewing the current knowledge on risks and vulnerabilities of energy systems and on potential adaptation options. The paper finds that short and longer term action on climate risk management of energy systems strongly depends on: Strengthening the capacity to model and project climate change and...

  6. Communication: The influence of CO2 poisoning on overvoltages and discharge capacity in non-aqueous Li-Air batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mekonnen, Yedilfana Setarge; Knudsen, Kristian Bastholm; Mýrdal, Jón Steinar Garðarsson; Younesi, Reza; Højberg, Jonathan; Hjelm, Johan; Norby, Poul; Vegge, Tejs

    2014-01-01

    The effects of Li2CO3 like species originating from reactions between CO2 and Li2O2 at the cathode of non-aqueous Li-air batteries were studied by density functional theory (DFT) and galvanostatic charge-discharge measurements. Adsorption energies of CO2 at various nucleation sites on a stepped (1......‾100) Li2O2 surface were determined and even a low concentration of CO2 effectively blocks the step nucleation site and alters the Li2O2 shape due to Li2CO3 formation. Nudged elastic band calculations show that once CO2 is adsorbed on a step valley site, it is effectively unable to diffuse and impacts the...... Li2O2 growth mechanism, capacity, and overvoltages. The charging processes are strongly influenced by CO2 contamination, and exhibit increased overvoltages and increased capacity, as a result of poisoning of nucleation sites: this effect is predicted from DFT calculations and observed experimentally...

  7. Nanosized Si/cellulose fiber/carbon composites as high capacity anodes for lithium-ion batteries: A galvanostatic and dilatometric study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, we reported a simple method for obtaining nanosized silicon with promising electrochemical properties as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries; the method involves the formation of a composite electrode with cellulose fibers. It is demonstrated that the performance of these electrodes can be enhanced by the addition of conductive carbon black (CCB). This beneficial effect is not only a result of the improvement of electrical conductivity and inter-particle contacts, but also due to a reduction of the expansion and shrinkage undergone by the electrode when Li is inserted into Si or extracted from LixSi, as revealed by in situ electrochemical dilatometry measurements. The best results were obtained with a CCB of high surface area and porosity. The Si/cellulose fiber/carbon electrodes obtained delivered charge capacities as high as 1800 mAh g-1 and exhibited good capacity retention on cycling. These electrodes also exhibited lower expansion/shrinkage compared to carbon-free electrodes on discharging and charging the cell, respectively.

  8. Facile synthesis of nickel-foam-based nano-architectural composites as binder-free anodes for high capacity Li-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Shudi; Zhao, Chongjun; Ju, Peiwen; Zhou, Tengfei; Gao, Hong; Zheng, Yang; Wang, Hongqiang; Chen, Guorong; Qian, Xiuzhen; Guo, Zaiping

    2016-02-01

    A series of nickel foam (NF)-based composites of MxOy/RGO/Ni(OH)2 [MxOy = Co3O4, MnO2, and Ni(OH)2] with diverse multilayer nano-architectures were designed and grown in situ on NF through a one-pot hydrothermal process. Based on the redox reaction between the active NF substrate and graphene oxide (GO), along with electrostatic forces between the Mn+ ions and GO in the solution, strong interactions take place at the interfaces of MxOy/RGO, RGO/Ni(OH)2, and Ni(OH)2/Ni, and thus, there is good contact for electron transfer. These MxOy/RGO/Ni(OH)2 samples were directly used as conductive-agent- and binder-free anodes for lithium ion batteries (LIBs), and the Ni(OH)2/RGO/Ni(OH)2/NF composite electrode showed a high specific capacity, good rate capability, and excellent cycling stability, especially, it had a high reversible capacity of about 1330 mAh g-1 even after 200 cycles at 100 mA g-1. This general strategy presents a promising route for the design and synthesis of various multilayer nano-architectural transition metal oxides (hydroxide)/RGO composites on NF as energy storage materials.

  9. Designing Si/porous-C composite with buffering voids as high capacity anode for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel Si/porous-C composite with buffering voids was prepared by the co-assembly of phenol-formaldehyde resin, SiO2 and Si nanoparticles, followed by a carbonizing process and subsequent removal of SiO2 template. Si nanoparticle was coated with a layer of porous carbon shell with rationally designed void in between which provides the accommodating space for the volume change of Si over cycling. The as-prepared composite electrode exhibited good electrochemical performances as an anode material in lithium-ion cells, showing a stable reversible capacity of 980 mAh g−1 over 80 cycles with small capacity fade of 0.17%/cycle and high rate capability (721 mAh g−1 at 2000 mA g−1)

  10. A Power Smoothing Control Strategy and Optimized Allocation of Battery Capacity Based on Hybrid Storage Energy Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Yong Li; Xiangjun Li; Fang Chen; Xiwang Cui; Xiaojuan Han

    2012-01-01

    Wind power parallel operation is an effective way to realize the large scale use of wind power, but the fluctuations of power output from wind power units may have great influence on power quality, hence a new method of power smoothing and capacity optimized allocation based on hybrid energy storage technology is proposed in terms of the uncontrollable and unexpected characteristics of wind speed in wind farms. First, power smoothing based on a traditional Inertial Filter is introduced and th...

  11. Fiber optical sensors for enhanced battery safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Jan; Nedjalkov, Antonio; Doering, Alexander; Angelmahr, Martin; Schade, Wolfgang

    2015-05-01

    Over the last years, battery safety becomes more and more important due to the wide spread of high-capacity lithium ion batteries applied in e.g. consumer electronics and electrical power storages for vehicles or stationary energy storage systems. However, for these types of batteries, malfunctions could be highly dangerous and all aspects of safety issues are not sufficiently considered, yet. Therefore, the improvement of the battery safety behavior is one of the most important issues discussed in actual research projects. In this paper the application of fiber optical sensors for enhanced battery safety is presented. The temperature is one of the most critical parameters indicating a failure of the cell, but even state-to-the-art battery management systems (BMS) are not able to monitor and interpret the distributed temperature field of a total battery storage system sufficiently. Furthermore, the volume expansion of the battery cell, which could be monitored by the strain on the cells' surfaces, is one additional parameter not considered up to now. Both parameters could be simultaneous monitored by fiber optical sensor arrays, consisting of discrete fiber Bragg grating (FBG) elements. The FBG sensors are directly attached on the surface of the cell, recording the temperature as well as the strain distribution highly accurate and close-meshed. Failures and malfunction such as overcharging, gassing, and thermal runaway can be early predicted and avoided to extend the battery lifetime and enhance the operational battery safety. Moreover, battery aging effects lead to variations in the volume change behavior which can be detected additionally. Hence, a battery fully equipped with fiber optical sensor arrays in combination with an appropriate BMS enables a safe and continuous utilization of the energy storage system even under harsh conditions like rapid charging.

  12. Exfoliated-SnS2 restacked on graphene as a high-capacity, high-rate, and long-cycle life anode for sodium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yongchang; Kang, Hongyan; Jiao, Lifang; Chen, Chengcheng; Cao, Kangzhe; Wang, Yijing; Yuan, Huatang

    2015-01-01

    Designed as a high-capacity, high-rate, and long-cycle life anode for sodium ion batteries, exfoliated-SnS2 restacked on graphene is prepared by the hydrolysis of lithiated SnS2 followed by a facile hydrothermal method. Structural and morphological characterizations demonstrate that ultrasmall SnS2 nanoplates (with a typical size of 20-50 nm) composed of 2-5 layers are homogeneously decorated on the surface of graphene, while the hybrid structure self-assembles into a three-dimensional (3D) network architecture. The obtained SnS2/graphene nanocomposite delivers a remarkable capacity as high as 650 mA h g-1 at a current density of 200 mA g-1. More impressively, the capacity can reach 326 mA h g-1 even at 4000 mA g-1 and remains stable at ~610 mA h g-1 without fading up to 300 cycles when the rate is brought back to 200 mA g-1. The excellent electrochemical performance is attributed to the synergetic effects between the ultrasmall SnS2 and the highly conductive graphene network. The unique structure can simultaneously facilitate Na+ ion diffusion, provide more reaction sites, and suppress aggregation and volume fluctuation of the active materials during prolonged cycling.Designed as a high-capacity, high-rate, and long-cycle life anode for sodium ion batteries, exfoliated-SnS2 restacked on graphene is prepared by the hydrolysis of lithiated SnS2 followed by a facile hydrothermal method. Structural and morphological characterizations demonstrate that ultrasmall SnS2 nanoplates (with a typical size of 20-50 nm) composed of 2-5 layers are homogeneously decorated on the surface of graphene, while the hybrid structure self-assembles into a three-dimensional (3D) network architecture. The obtained SnS2/graphene nanocomposite delivers a remarkable capacity as high as 650 mA h g-1 at a current density of 200 mA g-1. More impressively, the capacity can reach 326 mA h g-1 even at 4000 mA g-1 and remains stable at ~610 mA h g-1 without fading up to 300 cycles when the rate is

  13. Screening Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, and Clostridium perfringens as Indicator Organisms in Evaluating Pathogen-Reducing Capacity in Biogas Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Watcharasukarn, Montira; Kaparaju, Prasad Laxmi-Narasimha; Steyer, Jean-Philippe;

    2009-01-01

    This study was conducted to identify an indicator organism(s) in evaluating the pathogen-reducing capacity of biogas plants. Fresh cow manure containing 10(4) to 10(5) colony forming unit (CFU) per milliliter of Escherichia coli and Enterococcus faecalis along with an inoculated Clostridium...... perfringens strain were exposed to 37A degrees C for 15 days, 55A degrees C for 48 h, and 70A degrees C for 24 h. C. perfringens was the most heat-resistant organism followed by E. faecalis, while E. coli was the most heat-sensitive organism. E. coli was reduced below detection limit at all temperatures......, maximum log(10) reduction at 37A degrees C was 1.35 log(10) units (15 days) compared to less than 1 unit at 55 and 70A degrees C. Modeling results showed that E. faecalis and C. perfringens had higher amount of heat-resistant fraction than E. coli. Thus, E. faecalis and C. perfringens can be used...

  14. Surface modification by sulfated zirconia on high-capacity nickel-based cathode materials for Li-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Sulfated zirconia is successfully synthesized and uniformly coated onto a nickel-rich layered lithium oxide. • The electrochemical properties of the sulfated-zirconia-coated LiNi0.8Co0.1Mn0.1O2 electrode are greatly improved. • Sulfated zirconia coating is effective in reducing side reactions between the active materials and electrolyte. • Sulfated zirconia coating contributes to forming a more stable solid electrolyte interphase layer on the cathode surface. - ABSTRACT: Sulfated zirconia was successfully synthesized and uniformly coated onto a nickel-rich layered lithium oxide (LiNi0.8Co0.1Mn0.1O2), and investigated with a view to its potential use as a cathode material in Li-ion batteries. The uniformity of this sulfated zirconia coating was confirmed through electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Furthermore, the electrochemical properties of the sulfated-zirconia-coated LiNi0.8Co0.1Mn0.1O2 electrode were found to be greatly improved compared to those of pristine LiNi0.8Co0.1Mn0.1O2 and zirconia-coated LiNi0.8Co0.1Mn0.1O2, especially at elevated temperature (60 °C). These results are directly attributed to the sulfated zirconia coating, which is effective in reducing side reactions by preventing direct contact between the active materials and electrolyte solutions, as well as forming a more stable solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) layer on the active material surface

  15. Two dimensional layered Co0.85Se nanosheets as a high-capacity anode for lithium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jisheng; Wang, Ye; Zhang, Jun; Chen, Tupei; Song, Huaihe; Yang, Hui Ying

    2016-08-11

    In recent years, two-dimensional (2D) layered transitional metal chalcogenides (TMCs) have received much attention as promising electrode materials in energy storage. Although recent reports on 2D TMC nanostructures have demonstrated promising electrochemical performances, the major scientific challenge is to develop a viable synthesis process to produce layered structures of chalcogenides (Co, Ni or Fe based TMCs) as anode materials. In this work, we propose the synthesis of layered Co0.85Se nanosheets in a solution based method by using a 2D oriented attachment strategy. The as-prepared Co0.85Se nanosheets exhibit specific capacities as high as 675 mA h g(-1) at 100 mA g(-1). When the current densities were further increased to 200, 500 and 1000 mA g(-1), the reversible capacities can still reach up to 645, 574 and 493 mA h g(-1) with excellent cycling life of 95, 85 and 73%, respectively. Li-ion storage performance of layered Co0.85Se nanosheets is higher than that of Co0.85Se microspheres as well as cobalt sulfide. The superior electrochemical performance of Co0.85Se nanosheets is attributed to their 2D layered structure which enhances electrical conductivity and improves diffusion pathways of the Li-ion within the host material. The synthesis method described in this work serves as a general route for the design and preparation of other 2D layered TMCs. PMID:27471135

  16. High capacity spherical Li[Li0.24Mn0.55Co0.14Ni0.07]O2 cathode material for lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li[Li0.24Mn0.55Co0.14Ni0.07]O2 cathode materials with controlled spherical morphology and particle size in the range of 5 - 10 [{μ-pm were synthesized by a modified co- precipitation method. The crystal structure of Li[Li0.24Mn0.55Co0.14Ni0.07]O2 were investigated by Rietveld analysis of structural models using X-ray and neutron powder diffraction data, indicating a well-defined layered structure of the final product. Li[Li0.)24Mn0.55Co0.14Ni0.07]02 shows low initial irreversible capacity loss (47.2 mAh/g), high reversible capacity (264.6 mAh/g), good capacity retention (90.4 % over 50 cycles) and satisfactory rate capability when used as the cathode material in lithium ion batteries. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis of the pristine, charged and discharged electrodes of Li[Li0.24Mn0.55Co0.14Ni0.07]O2 reveal that the Mn4+/Mn3+ redox couple participates in the delithiation/lithiation process Overall, the improved electrochemical performance of the Li[Li0.24Mn0.55Co0.14Ni0.07]O2 electrode can be ascribed to the controlled and specially designed morphology and the composition of the sample that is produced.

  17. Forecasting Battery Surplus Capacity in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Using Grey Theory%应用灰色理论预测混合动力汽车蓄电池的剩余容量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡建明; 陈渊睿

    2009-01-01

    Forecasting battery surplus capacity is a key technology in hybrid electric vehicle. On the basis of the pulse charge and discharge characteristic of the storage cell used for hybrid electric vehicle, a real-time online GM (1, 1) forecast model is established to forecast the cell capacity in consideration of the non-linear relationship between the internal resistance of the battery and cell capacity. The normal modeling theory of GM (1, 1) are introduced firstly, however, the online forecast of storage cell is worked with the grey GM (1, 1) model group to improve the precision. Then the principle and method of grey GM (1, 1) model group to improve the precision are analyzed in detail The results of simulation indicate that the grey GM (1, 1) model group can obviously improve the precision of forecasting, increase the reliability of forecasting and also avoid the deficiencies of simple gray model, which was easily affected by unstable information. So it can do the early forecasting evaluation to the capacity of battery, which is fit for the request of the HEV well.%电池剩余容量预测是混合动力汽车一个非常关键的问题,文章在分析混合动力汽车蓄电池充电和放电特性的基础上,针对蓄电池内阻与剩余容量之间的非线性关系,采用了一种在线的灰色GM(1,1)模型群方法对蓄电池单元的剩余容量进行预测.但是采用简单的灰色模型对蓄电池的容量进行预测会带来很大的误差,文中首先用灰色GM(1,1)的常规模型原理并对蓄电池剩余容量建立了简单的模型,其次详细分析了采用灰色GM(1,1)模型群的方法来提高预测精度的原理及方法.仿真模型的结果不但表明灰色GM(1,1)的模型群能有效地提高预测精度,而且避免了单个灰色GM(1,1)的模型由于不稳定信息造成的不足;最后通过残差检验,检测误差较小,具有较强的可信度,适用于混合动力汽车的蓄电池剩余容量预测.

  18. Nitrogen-doped graphene/sulfur composite as cathode material for high capacity lithium-sulfur batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiwen; Zhang, Zhian; Qu, Yaohui; Lai, Yanqing; Li, Jie

    2014-06-01

    Two types of nitrogen-doped graphene sheets (NGS) synthesized by a facile hydrothermal method are used to immobilize sulfur via an in situ sulfur deposition route. The structure and composition of the prepared nitrogen doped graphene/sulfur (NGS/S) composites are confirmed with X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Raman spectroscopy. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and Transmission electron microscope (TEM) images shows the porous sulfur particles are well wrapped by NGS. Compared with graphene/sulfur (GS/S) composite, the NGS-1/S composite with high loading (80 wt%) of sulfur presents a remarkably higher reversible capacity (1356.8 mAh g-1 at 0.1 C) and long cycle stability (578.5 mAh g-1 remaining at 1 C up to 500 cycles). Pyridinic-N rich NGS-1/S exhibits a better electrochemical performance than pyrrolic-N enriched NGS-2/S. The improvement of electrochemical properties could be attributed to the chemical interaction between the nitrogen functionalities on the surface of NGS and polysulfide as well as the enhanced electronic conductivity of the carbon matrix.

  19. Lithium ion battery production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Sustainable battery manufacturing focus on more efficient methods and recycling. ► Temperature control and battery management system increase battery lifetime. ► Focus on increasing battery performance at low- and high temperatures. ► Production capacity of 100 MWh equals the need of 3000 full-electric cars. - Abstract: Recently, new materials and chemistry for lithium ion batteries have been developed. There is a great emphasis on electrification in the transport sector replacing part of motor powered engines with battery powered applications. There are plans both to increase energy efficiency and to reduce the overall need for consumption of non-renewable liquid fuels. Even more significant applications are dependent on energy storage. Materials needed for battery applications require specially made high quality products. Diminishing amounts of easily minable metal ores increase the consumption of separation and purification energy and chemicals. The metals are likely to be increasingly difficult to process. Iron, manganese, lead, zinc, lithium, aluminium, and nickel are still relatively abundant but many metals like cobalt and rare earths are becoming limited resources more rapidly. The global capacity of industrial-scale production of larger lithium ion battery cells may become a limiting factor in the near future if plans for even partial electrification of vehicles or energy storage visions are realized. The energy capacity needed is huge and one has to be reminded that in terms of cars for example production of 100 MWh equals the need of 3000 full-electric cars. Consequently annual production capacity of 106 cars requires 100 factories each with a 300 MWh capacity. Present day lithium ion batteries have limitations but significant improvements have been achieved recently . The main challenges of lithium ion batteries are related to material deterioration, operating temperatures, energy and power output, and lifetime. Increased lifetime

  20. A macaroni-like Li1.2V3O8 nanomaterial with high capacity for aqueous rechargeable lithium batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A macaroni-like Li1.2V3O8 nanomaterial was directly prepared through a facile solution route using β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) as a template reagent. Its crystal structure was determined by the X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern. From the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) micrographs, we observed that the as-prepared Li1.2V3O8 material consisted of the aggregated macaroni-like nanoparticles and showed a porous structure. The electrochemical properties of the as-prepared Li1.2V3O8 in 1.0 M Li2SO4 aqueous electrolyte were studied through cyclic voltammograms and charge-discharge measurements. The results revealed that the as-prepared Li1.2V3O8 could deliver the initial specific capacities of 189, 140, and 101 mAh g-1 at 0.1, 0.5, and 1.0 C, respectively. It suggests that the as-prepared Li1.2V3O8 should have an attractive future to be applied in aqueous rechargeable lithium battery (ARLB).

  1. Molten Air -- A new, highest energy class of rechargeable batteries

    CERN Document Server

    Licht, Stuart

    2013-01-01

    This study introduces the principles of a new class of batteries, rechargeable molten air batteries, and several battery chemistry examples are demonstrated. The new battery class uses a molten electrolyte, are quasi reversible, and have amongst the highest intrinsic battery electric energy storage capacities. Three examples of the new batteries are demonstrated. These are the iron, carbon and VB2 molten air batteries with respective intrinsic volumetric energy capacities of 10,000, 19,000 and 27,000 Wh per liter.

  2. Molten Air -- A new, highest energy class of rechargeable batteries

    OpenAIRE

    Licht, Stuart

    2013-01-01

    This study introduces the principles of a new class of batteries, rechargeable molten air batteries, and several battery chemistry examples are demonstrated. The new battery class uses a molten electrolyte, are quasi reversible, and have amongst the highest intrinsic battery electric energy storage capacities. Three examples of the new batteries are demonstrated. These are the iron, carbon and VB2 molten air batteries with respective intrinsic volumetric energy capacities of 10,000, 19,000 an...

  3. Determination of the optimal installation capacity of small hydro-power plants through the use of technical, economic and reliability indices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hosseini, S.M.H.; Forouzbakhsh, Farshid; Rahimpoor, M.

    2005-01-01

    One of the most important issues in planning Small Hydro-Power Plants (SHPPs) of the ‘‘run-off river’’ type is to determine the optimal installation capacity of the SHPP andestimate its optimal annual energy value. In this paper, a methodto calculate the annual energy is presented, as is the...... program developed using Excel software. This program analyzes and estimates the most important economic indices of an SHPP using the sensitivity analysis method. Another program, developed by Matlab software, calculates the reliability indices for a number of units of an SHPP with a specified load...... duration curve using the Monte Carlo method. Ultimately, comparing the technical, economic and reliability indices will determine the optimal installation capacity of an SHPP. By applying the above-mentionedalgorithm to a sample SHPP named‘‘Nari’’ (locatedin the northern part of Iran), the optimal capacity...

  4. BP neural networks based on genetic algorithms and its application in prediction of battery capacity%基于遗传算法和BP神经网络的电池容量预测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯楠; 王振臣; 胖莹

    2011-01-01

    为了对纯电动汽车的电池剩余电量进行准确的预测,在分析了影响电池剩余容量的多种因素后,应用了BP神经网络建立了电池模型,并应用遗传算法对其权值阈值进行了优化.最后,用MATLAB编写了仿真程序进行了多组数据的测试,并与纯BP网络进行了对比,结果表明,优化后的网络具有训练时间短,精度高的特点,对电池容量的预测是有效的.%For predicting the state of charge (SOC) of pure electric car battery precisely, BP neural network was adopted to predict the state of charge of battery, to create the model and to utilize GA to optimize its weights and bias, analyzing many factors that affecting the battery residual capacity. Finally, the emulation program written by MATLAB multiple sets of data were tested and compared with pure BP network. The results show that the optimized network has a short training time and high accuracy, and the prediction of the battery capacity is effective.

  5. Nanotubes for Battery Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Nordlinder, Sara

    2005-01-01

    Nanomaterials have attracted great interest in recent years, and are now also being considered for battery applications. Reducing the particle size of some electrode materials can increase battery performance considerably, especially with regard to capacity, power and rate capability. This thesis presents a study focused on the performance of such a material, vanadium oxide nanotubes, as cathode material for rechargeable lithium batteries. These nanotubes were synthesized by a sol-gel process...

  6. Capacity diagnosis of short-term discharge of battery based on multi-frequency measurement%基于多频点测试的蓄电池短时放电容量诊断

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄世回; 杨忠亮; 王汝钢; 白海江

    2016-01-01

    多频点测试技术可辨识出蓄电池 Thevenin模型中双电层极化电容参数。通过分析满充蓄电池0.1C恒流核容放电过程极化电容的变化,得出极化电容变化率曲线过零点的时刻为完全放电过程用时一半的时间点的规律。据此得出蓄电池实际容量为该时刻为止放出电量的2倍。用时节约了50%左右,实现了快速短时的蓄电池容量诊断,极大降低了核容过程的操作成本和直流电源系统安全风险。%The polarization capacitor parameter of electric double layer in the Thevenin battery model is identiifed by multi-frequency testing. The regularity which the zero-crossing time of polarization capacitor change rate curve is half the time of completely discharge process is got by analyzing the change of the polarization capacitor during 0.1C constant current discharge process for battery capacity check. According to this, the actual capacity of the battery is double that at the zero-crossing time. The rapid short-term battery capacity diagnosis can be realized because the test time is saved by 50 %. The operation cost of the capacity check and the safety risk of DC power supply system are reduced greatly.

  7. Batteries: Charging ahead rationally

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freunberger, Stefan A.

    2016-06-01

    Redox mediators facilitate the oxidation of the highly insulating discharge product in metal–oxygen batteries during recharge and offer opportunities to achieve high reversible capacities. Now a design principle for selecting redox mediators that can recharge the batteries more efficiently is suggested.

  8. Single Switched Capacitor Battery Balancing System Enhancements

    OpenAIRE

    Joeri Van Mierlo; Peter Van den Bossche; Noshin Omar; Mailier Antoine; Mohamed Daowd

    2013-01-01

    Battery management systems (BMS) are a key element in electric vehicle energy storage systems. The BMS performs several functions concerning to the battery system, its key task being balancing the battery cells. Battery cell unbalancing hampers electric vehicles’ performance, with differing individual cell voltages decreasing the battery pack capacity and cell lifetime, leading to the eventual failure of the total battery system. Quite a lot of cell balancing topologies have been proposed, ...

  9. Effects of ranolazine on exercise capacity, right ventricular indices, and hemodynamic characteristics in pulmonary arterial hypertension: a pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Sadiya S.; Cuttica, Michael J.; Beussink-Nelson, Lauren; Kozyleva, Anastasia; Sanchez, Cynthia; Mkrdichian, Hamorabi; Selvaraj, Senthil; Dematte, Jane E.; Daniel C. Lee; Shah, Sanjiv J.

    2015-01-01

    Ranolazine, a late inward sodium current and fatty acid oxidation inhibitor, may improve right ventricular (RV) function in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH); however, the safety and efficacy of ranolazine in humans with PAH is unknown. Therefore, we sought to (1) determine whether ranolazine is safe and well tolerated in PAH and (2) explore ranolazine’s effect on symptoms, exercise capacity, RV structure and function, and hemodynamic characteristics. We therefore conducted a 3-month, pro...

  10. 3D simulation on the internal distributed properties of lithium-ion battery with planar tabbed configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jie; Cheng, Yun; Ai, Lihua; Jia, Ming; Du, Shuanglong; Yin, Baohua; Woo, Stanley; Zhang, Hongliang

    2015-10-01

    The internal distributed physicochemical characteristics of a battery significantly affect its performance. However, these properties are difficult to measure experimentally. This study presents a validated three-dimensional (3D) battery model covering the conservation of charge, mass, and energy and the electrochemical reaction of a laminated 10 Ah lithium iron phosphate battery. Using this 3D battery model, the space and time distributions of the internal physicochemical properties of the battery are investigated. The results indicate that the maximum gradients of the properties are at the transition region between the tabs and electrode plates. Thus, the tabs in a battery should be reasonably designed. For this LiFePO4/Graphite battery, anode plays a more important role than cathode in the overall overpotential and is likely to be crucial in the sharp decrease of output voltage at the later discharge process. And a higher battery capacity can be obtained by increasing the amount of anode material.

  11. Report on Lithium Ion Battery Trade Studies to Support the Exploration Technology Development Program (ETDP) Energy Storage Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Robert D.; Kissock, Barbara I.; Bennett, William R.

    2010-01-01

    This report documents the results of two system related analyses to support the Exploration Technology Development Program (ETDP) Energy Storage Project. The first study documents a trade study to determine the optimum Li-ion battery cell capacity for the ascent stage battery for the Altair lunar lander being developed under the Constellation Systems program. The battery cell capacity for the Ultra High Energy (UHE) Li-ion battery initially chosen as the target for development was 35 A-hr; this study concludes that a 19.4 A-hr cell capacity would be more optimum from a minimum battery mass perspective. The second study in this report is an assessment of available low temperature Li-ion battery cell performance data to determine whether lowering the operating temperature range of the Li-ion battery, in a rover application, could save overall system mass by eliminating thermal control system mass normally needed to maintain battery temperature within a tighter temperature limit than electronics or other less temperature sensitive components. The preliminary assessment for this second study indicates that the reduction in the thermal control system mass is negated by an increase in battery mass to compensate for the loss in battery capacity due to lower temperature operating conditions.

  12. Battery Thermal Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keyser, Matthew; Saxon, Aron; Powell, Mitchell; Shi, Ying

    2016-06-07

    This poster shows the progress in battery thermal characterization over the previous year. NREL collaborated with U.S. DRIVE and USABC battery developers to obtain thermal properties of their batteries, obtained heat capacity and heat generation of cells under various power profiles, obtained thermal images of the cells under various drive cycles, and used the measured results to validate thermal models. Thermal properties are used for the thermal analysis and design of improved battery thermal management systems to support achieve life and performance targets.

  13. Capacity and power fade cycle-life model for plug-in hybrid electric vehicle lithium-ion battery cells containing blended spinel and layered-oxide positive electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordoba-Arenas, Andrea; Onori, Simona; Guezennec, Yann; Rizzoni, Giorgio

    2015-03-01

    This paper proposes and validates a semi-empirical cycle-life model for lithium-ion pouch cells containing blended spinel and layered-oxide positive electrodes. For the model development and validation experimental data obtained during an aging campaign is used. During the campaign the influence of charge sustaining/depleting operation, minimum state of charge (SOC), charging rate and temperature on the aging process is studied. The aging profiles, which are prescribed in power mode, are selected to be representative of realistic plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) operation. The proposed model describes capacity fade and resistance increase as function of the influencing stress factors and battery charge throughput. Due to its simplicity but still good accuracy, the applications of the proposed aging model include the design of algorithms for battery state-of-health (SOH) monitoring and prognosis, PHEV optimal energy management including battery aging, and the study of aging propagation among battery cells in advanced energy storage systems.

  14. BLET:Battery Lifetime Enhancement Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong-Ju; Jang; Seongsoo; Lee

    2010-01-01

    <正>In recent years,mobile devices and high-hearth because of the multifunctional,battery capacity has been increased.In this paper,without the overhead by using the battery discharge characteristics,and application of technology to extend the battery life is explained. Experiment H.264 video transmission to take some losses and extended battery life was achieved.

  15. Model-based condition monitoring for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Taesic; Wang, Yebin; Fang, Huazhen; Sahinoglu, Zafer; Wada, Toshihiro; Hara, Satoshi; Qiao, Wei

    2015-11-01

    Condition monitoring for batteries involves tracking changes in physical parameters and operational states such as state of health (SOH) and state of charge (SOC), and is fundamentally important for building high-performance and safety-critical battery systems. A model-based condition monitoring strategy is developed in this paper for Lithium-ion batteries on the basis of an electrical circuit model incorporating hysteresis effect. It systematically integrates 1) a fast upper-triangular and diagonal recursive least squares algorithm for parameter identification of the battery model, 2) a smooth variable structure filter for the SOC estimation, and 3) a recursive total least squares algorithm for estimating the maximum capacity, which indicates the SOH. The proposed solution enjoys advantages including high accuracy, low computational cost, and simple implementation, and therefore is suitable for deployment and use in real-time embedded battery management systems (BMSs). Simulations and experiments validate effectiveness of the proposed strategy.

  16. Effects of ranolazine on exercise capacity, right ventricular indices, and hemodynamic characteristics in pulmonary arterial hypertension: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Sadiya S; Cuttica, Michael J; Beussink-Nelson, Lauren; Kozyleva, Anastasia; Sanchez, Cynthia; Mkrdichian, Hamorabi; Selvaraj, Senthil; Dematte, Jane E; Lee, Daniel C; Shah, Sanjiv J

    2015-09-01

    Ranolazine, a late inward sodium current and fatty acid oxidation inhibitor, may improve right ventricular (RV) function in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH); however, the safety and efficacy of ranolazine in humans with PAH is unknown. Therefore, we sought to (1) determine whether ranolazine is safe and well tolerated in PAH and (2) explore ranolazine's effect on symptoms, exercise capacity, RV structure and function, and hemodynamic characteristics. We therefore conducted a 3-month, prospective, open-label pilot study involving patients with symptomatic PAH (n = 11) and echocardiographic evidence of RV dysfunction. We evaluated the safety and tolerability of ranolazine and compared symptoms, exercise capacity, exercise bicycle echocardiographic parameters, and invasive hemodynamic parameters between baseline and 3 months of ranolazine therapy using paired t tests. Of the 11 patients enrolled, one discontinued ranolazine therapy due to a drug-drug interaction after 3 days of therapy. All 10 of the remaining patients continued therapy for 3 months, and 8 (80%) of 10 completed all study tests. After 3 months, ranolazine administration was safe and associated with improvement in functional class (P = 0.0013), reduction in RV size (P = 0.015), improved RV function (improvement in RV strain during exercise at 3 months; P = 0.037), and a trend toward improved exercise time and exercise watts on bicycle echocardiography (P = 0.06 and 0.01, respectively). Ranolazine was not associated with improvement in invasive hemodynamic parameters. In conclusion, in a pilot study involving PAH, ranolazine therapy was safe and well tolerated, and it resulted in improvement in symptoms and echocardiographic parameters of RV structure and function but did not alter invasive hemodynamic parameters. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01174173. PMID:26401256

  17. Hierarchical mesoporous perovskite La0.5Sr0.5CoO2.91 nanowires with ultrahigh capacity for Li-air batteries

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Yunlong; Xu, Lin; Mai, Liqiang; Han, Chunhua; An, Qinyou; Xu, Xu; Liu, Xue; Zhang, Qingjie

    2012-01-01

    Lithium-air batteries have captured worldwide attention due to their highest energy density among the chemical batteries. To provide continuous oxygen channels, here, we synthesized hierarchical mesoporous perovskite La0.5Sr0.5CoO2.91 (LSCO) nanowires. We tested the intrinsic oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER) activity in both aqueous electrolytes and nonaqueous electrolytes via rotating disk electrode (RDE) measurements and demonstrated that the hierarchical ...

  18. Button batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swallowing batteries ... These devices use button batteries: Calculators Cameras Hearing aids Penlights Watches ... If a person puts the battery up their nose and breathes it further in, ... problems Cough Pneumonia (if the battery goes unnoticed) ...

  19. 基于等可信容量的风光储电源优化配置方法%Optimal Configuration of Distributed Generation System Containing Wind PV Battery Power Sources Based on Equivalent Credible Capacity Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何俊; 邓长虹; 徐秋实; 刘翠琳; 潘华

    2013-01-01

    含风光储的发电系统容量优化问题中,所要考虑的不确定性不仅包括常规机组的随机停运,还包括风速和光照强度的随机变化对机组出力造成的波动。提出一种基于等可信容量的风光储容量优化配置方法,综合计及自然资源的随机波动和常规机组的随机停运影响,按照满足电力平衡的需求确定所需风光储发电系统的整体可信容量以及常规机组容量,通过蒙特卡罗仿真计算得到等可信容量所需的风光储机组组合,根据风光储容量优化配置模型,从上述组合集合中选出使全生命周期总投资成本最小的风、光、储容量配置。采用加入了风电和光伏发电后的某实际海岛算例验证了该方法的正确性和有效性。%In the capacity optimization of coordination power generation system containing wind farm, photovoltaic (PV) generation and battery hybrid system, the uncertainty factors to be considered include not only the random outage of conventional generation units, but also unit output fluctuation due to random variation of wind speed and illumination intensity. Based on equivalent credible capacity theory an optimal configuration method of wind PV battery hybrid generation system, in which the impacts due to random fluctuation of natural resources and random outage of conventional generation units are synthetically taken into account, is proposed and according to the demand on satisfying electric power balance the needed overall capacity of wind/PV/battery hybrid generation system and the capacity of conventional generation units are determined;then through Monte Carlo simulation the wind/PV/battery hybrid unit combinations needed by equivalent credible capacity are calculated; and then according to the optimal configuration model of wind/PV/battery capacity, the wind PV battery capacity configuration, which makes the total investment cost in full lifecycle minimized, is selected from

  20. Capacity Building and Community Resilience: A Pilot Analysis of Education and Employment Indicators before and after an Extension Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Russell

    2016-01-01

    This article reports on an analysis of the effects of a quasinatural experiment in which 16 rural communities participated in public discussion, leadership training, and community visioning as part of an Extension program at Montana State University. Difference-in-differences methods reveal that key U.S. Census socioeconomic indicators either…

  1. Spatial Assessment of soil drought indicators at regional scale: hydrolimits and soil water storage capacity in Záhorská Nížina Lowland

    OpenAIRE

    Orfánus, Tomáš

    2005-01-01

    Serious attention is paid today to the problems of landscape regionalization with respect to its hydrological response. The quantification and the spatial pattern of soil drought indicators (SDI) are considered crucial for a correct hydrological zonation of agricultural lands with regard to water-related phenomena of practical importance, such as drought risk, runoff generation and soil erosion. The paper deals with regional estimation of hydrolimits (field capacity, point of limited availabi...

  2. Cycle Life of Commercial Lithium-Ion Batteries with Lithium Titanium Oxide Anodes in Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuebing Han

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The lithium titanium oxide (LTO anode is widely accepted as one of the best anodes for the future lithium ion batteries in electric vehicles (EVs, especially since its cycle life is very long. In this paper, three different commercial LTO cells from different manufacturers were studied in accelerated cycle life tests and their capacity fades were compared. The result indicates that under 55 °C, the LTO battery still shows a high capacity fade rate. The battery aging processes of all the commercial LTO cells clearly include two stages. Using the incremental capacity (IC analysis, it could be judged that in the first stage, the battery capacity decreases mainly due to the loss of anode material and the degradation rate is lower. In the second stage, the battery capacity decreases much faster, mainly due to the degradation of the cathode material. The result is important for the state of health (SOH estimation and remaining useful life (RUL prediction of battery management system (BMS for LTO batteries in EVs.

  3. 锂/二氧化硫电池比热容的测量与分析%Test and Analysis of the Specific Heat Capacity of Lithium/Sulfur Dioxide Battery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白清源; 张兴娟; 杨春信

    2011-01-01

    Lithium/sulfur dioxide(Li-SO2) single cell usually presents as battery pack in practical application.Because the temperature caused by self-heating of the battery pack during discharging process is very high,specific thermal design is required.As one of the important thermodynamics parameters,specific heat capacity of battery is usually obtained by test.Based on preliminary studies,improvement is made in the following three aspects in this paper: transformer oil is employed for cooling,the test equipment of nylon material is designed for insulation,the thermal loss of the test devices is determined through brass test.Tests of specific heat capacity based on Li-SO2 battery conducted before and after discharging are carried out.The results show that the scheme is feasible and reasonable;it has the features of high accuracy and easy implement.Specific heat capacity of the battery will change after discharging,which should be considered in thermal design.%锂/二氧化硫(Li-SO2)单体电池在实际应用中多以电池组形式存在,当电池组工作时会因自身发热引起温度过高,因此需要对电池组进行热设计。比热容作为重要的热物性参数之一,通常由试验获得。文中在前期研究基础上,在3个方面进行了改进:采用变压器油为冷却工质;设计尼龙材料容器用于系统保温;通过黄铜确定试验装置的散热损失。针对未放电及2种放电时间后的Li-SO2单体电池进行了比热容测试。试验结果表明:该方案合理可行,具有测量精度高、易于实现的特点;电池放电后比热容会发生变化,应在热设计中给予考虑。

  4. Key strategies for enhancing the cycling stability and rate capacity of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 as high-voltage cathode materials for high power lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Ting-Feng; Mei, Jie; Zhu, Yan-Rong

    2016-06-01

    Spinel LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 (LNMO) is one of the most promising high voltage cathode materials for future application due to its advantages of large reversible capacity, high thermal stability, low cost, environmental friendliness, and high energy density. LNMO can provide 20% and 30% higher energy density than traditional cathode materials LiCoO2 and LiFePO4, respectively. Unfortunately, LNMO-based batteries with LiPF6-based carbonate electrolytes always suffer from severe capacity deterioration and poor thermostability because of the oxidization of organic carbonate solvents and decomposition of LiPF6, especially at elevated temperatures and water-containing environment. Hence, it is necessary to systematically and comprehensively summarize the progress in understanding and modifying LNMO cathode from various aspects. In this review, the structure, transport properties and different reported possible fading mechanisms of LNMO cathode are first discussed detailedly. And then, the major goal of this review is to highlight new progress in using proposed strategies to improve the cycling stability and rate capacity of LNMO-based batteries, including synthesis, control of special morphologies, element doping and surface coating etc., especially at elevated temperatures. Finally, an insight into the future research and further development of LNMO cathode is discussed.

  5. Validation of Battery Safety for Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeevarajan, Judith

    2012-01-01

    Presentation covers: (1) Safety Certification Process at NASA (2) Safety Testing for Lithium-ion Batteries (3) Limitations Observed with Li-ion Batteries in High Voltage and High Capacity Configurations.

  6. Reducing of internal resistance lithium ion battery using glucose addition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are two indicators of battery performance, i.e : capacity and the internal resistance of battery. In this research, the affect of glucose addition to decrease the internal resistance of lithium battery was investigated. The ratio of glucose addition were varied at weight ratio 1%, 3%, and 5% and one mixtures without glucose addition. Lithium ferri phosphate (LiFePO4), polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF), acetylene black (AB) and glucose were materials that used in this study. Both of mixtures were mixed in the vacuum mixer until became homogeneous. The slurry was coated on an aluminium foil sheet and the coated thickness was 200 µm. The performance of battery lithium was examined by Eight Channel Battery Analyzer and the Internal resistance was examined by Internal Resistance of Battery Meter. The result from all analyzer were showed that the internal resistance reduced as well as the battery capacity. The best internal resistance value is owned by mixtures with 3wt% ratio glucose addition. It has an internal resistance value about 64 miliohm

  7. Reducing of internal resistance lithium ion battery using glucose addition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salim, Andri Pratama; Hafidlullah, Noor; Purwanto, Agus, E-mail: aguspurw@gmail.com [Research Group of Battery & Advanced Material, Department of Chemical Engineering, Sebelas Maret University, Jl. Ir. Sutami 36 A Kentingan, Surakarta Indonesia 57126 (Indonesia)

    2016-02-08

    There are two indicators of battery performance, i.e : capacity and the internal resistance of battery. In this research, the affect of glucose addition to decrease the internal resistance of lithium battery was investigated. The ratio of glucose addition were varied at weight ratio 1%, 3%, and 5% and one mixtures without glucose addition. Lithium ferri phosphate (LiFePO{sub 4}), polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF), acetylene black (AB) and glucose were materials that used in this study. Both of mixtures were mixed in the vacuum mixer until became homogeneous. The slurry was coated on an aluminium foil sheet and the coated thickness was 200 µm. The performance of battery lithium was examined by Eight Channel Battery Analyzer and the Internal resistance was examined by Internal Resistance of Battery Meter. The result from all analyzer were showed that the internal resistance reduced as well as the battery capacity. The best internal resistance value is owned by mixtures with 3wt% ratio glucose addition. It has an internal resistance value about 64 miliohm.

  8. Reducing of internal resistance lithium ion battery using glucose addition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salim, Andri Pratama; Hafidlullah, Noor; Purwanto, Agus

    2016-02-01

    There are two indicators of battery performance, i.e : capacity and the internal resistance of battery. In this research, the affect of glucose addition to decrease the internal resistance of lithium battery was investigated. The ratio of glucose addition were varied at weight ratio 1%, 3%, and 5% and one mixtures without glucose addition. Lithium ferri phosphate (LiFePO4), polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF), acetylene black (AB) and glucose were materials that used in this study. Both of mixtures were mixed in the vacuum mixer until became homogeneous. The slurry was coated on an aluminium foil sheet and the coated thickness was 200 µm. The performance of battery lithium was examined by Eight Channel Battery Analyzer and the Internal resistance was examined by Internal Resistance of Battery Meter. The result from all analyzer were showed that the internal resistance reduced as well as the battery capacity. The best internal resistance value is owned by mixtures with 3wt% ratio glucose addition. It has an internal resistance value about 64 miliohm.

  9. Exploring the Capacity of Water Framework Directive Indices to Assess Ecosystem Services in Fluvial and Riparian Systems: Towards a Second Implementation Phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal-Abarca, M. R.; Santos-Martín, F.; Martín-López, B.; Sánchez-Montoya, M. M.; Suárez Alonso, M. L.

    2016-06-01

    We explored the capacity of the biological and hydromorphological indices used in the Water Framework Directive (WFD) to assess ecosystem services by evaluating the ecological status of Spanish River Basins. This analysis relies on an exhaustive bibliography review which showed scientific evidence of the interlinkages between some ecosystem services and different hydromorphological and biological elements which have been used as indices in the WFD. Our findings indicate that, of a total of 38 ecosystem services analyzed, biological and hydromorphological indices can fully evaluate four ecosystem services. In addition, 18 ecosystem services can be partly evaluated by some of the analyzed indices, while 11 are not related with the indices. While Riparian Forest Quality was the index that was able to assess the largest number of ecosystem services ( N = 12), the two indices of macrophytes offered very poor guarantees. Finally, biological indices related to diatoms and aquatic invertebrates and the Fluvial Habitat Index can be related with 7, 6, and 6 ecosystem services, respectively. Because the WFD indices currently used in Spain are not able to assess most of the ecosystem services analyzed, we suggest that there is potential to develop the second phase of the WFD implementation taking this approach into consideration. The incorporation of the ecosystem services approach into the WFD could provide the framework for assess the impacts of human activities on the quality of fluvial ecosystems and could give insights for water and watershed management in order to guarantee the delivery of multiple ecosystem services.

  10. Exploring the Capacity of Water Framework Directive Indices to Assess Ecosystem Services in Fluvial and Riparian Systems: Towards a Second Implementation Phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal-Abarca, M R; Santos-Martín, F; Martín-López, B; Sánchez-Montoya, M M; Suárez Alonso, M L

    2016-06-01

    We explored the capacity of the biological and hydromorphological indices used in the Water Framework Directive (WFD) to assess ecosystem services by evaluating the ecological status of Spanish River Basins. This analysis relies on an exhaustive bibliography review which showed scientific evidence of the interlinkages between some ecosystem services and different hydromorphological and biological elements which have been used as indices in the WFD. Our findings indicate that, of a total of 38 ecosystem services analyzed, biological and hydromorphological indices can fully evaluate four ecosystem services. In addition, 18 ecosystem services can be partly evaluated by some of the analyzed indices, while 11 are not related with the indices. While Riparian Forest Quality was the index that was able to assess the largest number of ecosystem services (N = 12), the two indices of macrophytes offered very poor guarantees. Finally, biological indices related to diatoms and aquatic invertebrates and the Fluvial Habitat Index can be related with 7, 6, and 6 ecosystem services, respectively. Because the WFD indices currently used in Spain are not able to assess most of the ecosystem services analyzed, we suggest that there is potential to develop the second phase of the WFD implementation taking this approach into consideration. The incorporation of the ecosystem services approach into the WFD could provide the framework for assess the impacts of human activities on the quality of fluvial ecosystems and could give insights for water and watershed management in order to guarantee the delivery of multiple ecosystem services. PMID:26884142

  11. Usage Autocorrelation Function in the Capacity of Indicator Shape of the Signal in Acoustic Emission Testing of Intricate Castings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popkov, Artem

    2016-01-01

    The article contains information about acoustic emission signals analysing using autocorrelation function. Operation factors were analysed, such as shape of signal, the origins time and carrier frequency. The purpose of work is estimating the validity of correlations methods analysing signals. Acoustic emission signal consist of different types of waves, which propagate on different trajectories in object of control. Acoustic emission signal is amplitude-, phase- and frequency-modeling signal. It was described by carrier frequency at a given point of time. Period of signal make up 12.5 microseconds and carrier frequency make up 80 kHz for analysing signal. Usage autocorrelation function like indicator the origin time of acoustic emission signal raises validity localization of emitters.

  12. Evaluation of the indexes of income yield capacity of energetic projects; Evaluacion de los indices de rentabilidad de proyectos energeticos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villanueva M, C. [Facultad de Quimica, UNAM, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2008-07-01

    An economic-financial model to evaluate in the class living room those indexes of profitability of projects of productive infrastructure of the energy sector was developed, as for example: generation projects, transmission and electric energy distribution; projects of transport and distribution of natural gas; projects of cogeneration of vapor and electricity; projects of refinement of petroleum; and other industrial projects. It is described the structure and operation of the pattern, which has been implemented in an Excel calculation sheet that the students use in their personal computers to apply it to the evaluation of the indexes of profitability, specified by the Secretaria de Hacienda y Credito Publico (SHCP) in their limits for the elaboration and presentation of the cost and benefit analysis of the programs and projects of investment of the public sector. The indicators are: present net value VPN, quotient benefits cost B/C, return internal rate TIR, and equivalent annual cost CAE, which should be calculated with methodological rigor according to the SHCP lineaments. The pattern uses the pre-programmed financial functions in the Excel calculation sheet to carry out the compute of the indicators starting from the effective flow of the projects. It is described the technician-economic configuration and the effective flows during the useful life of three power stations of electric power generation that are designed, builds and operated to sell electric power to the national interconnected system in a nodal marginal prices market: a hydroelectric one, a combined cycle power station that uses natural gas, and a nucleo electric. The effective flows are developed and the central profitability of three centrals are evaluated and they are also carried out the corresponding sensitivity analyses and indifference required by the SHCP in their lineaments. Finally, the conditions in that the projects should operate and the prices in those that should sell their

  13. The Impact of Long-Term Physical Activity Interventions for Overweight/Obese Postmenopausal Women on Adiposity Indicators, Physical Capacity, and Mental Health Outcomes: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Amanda; Sirois-Leclerc, Héloïse; Tulloch, Heather

    2016-01-01

    Physical activity interventions have recently become a popular strategy to help postmenopausal women prevent and manage obesity. The current systematic review evaluates the efficacy of physical activity interventions among overweight and obese postmenopausal women and sheds light on the behavioral change techniques that were employed in order to direct future research. Method. Five electronic databases were searched to identify all prospective RCT studies that examine the impact of physical activity on adiposity indicators, physical capacity, and/or mental health outcomes among healthy, sedentary overweight, and obese postmenopausal women in North America. The behavior change technique taxonomy was used to identify the various strategies applied in the programs. Results. Five RCTs met the inclusion criteria. The findings showed that adiposity indicators and physical capacity outcomes significantly improved following long-term interventions; however, mental health outcomes showed nonsignificant changes. Furthermore, 17 behavior change techniques were identified with the taxonomy across all trials. The intrapersonal-level techniques were the most common. Conclusion. Physical activity interventions had a positive effect on adiposity measures and physical capacity. Future research should focus on testing the effectiveness of physical activity interventions on mental health and incorporate strategies at the individual and environmental level to maximize the health impact on the population. PMID:27293882

  14. The Impact of Long-Term Physical Activity Interventions for Overweight/Obese Postmenopausal Women on Adiposity Indicators, Physical Capacity, and Mental Health Outcomes: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Baker

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Physical activity interventions have recently become a popular strategy to help postmenopausal women prevent and manage obesity. The current systematic review evaluates the efficacy of physical activity interventions among overweight and obese postmenopausal women and sheds light on the behavioral change techniques that were employed in order to direct future research. Method. Five electronic databases were searched to identify all prospective RCT studies that examine the impact of physical activity on adiposity indicators, physical capacity, and/or mental health outcomes among healthy, sedentary overweight, and obese postmenopausal women in North America. The behavior change technique taxonomy was used to identify the various strategies applied in the programs. Results. Five RCTs met the inclusion criteria. The findings showed that adiposity indicators and physical capacity outcomes significantly improved following long-term interventions; however, mental health outcomes showed nonsignificant changes. Furthermore, 17 behavior change techniques were identified with the taxonomy across all trials. The intrapersonal-level techniques were the most common. Conclusion. Physical activity interventions had a positive effect on adiposity measures and physical capacity. Future research should focus on testing the effectiveness of physical activity interventions on mental health and incorporate strategies at the individual and environmental level to maximize the health impact on the population.

  15. 基于磷酸铁锂电池的110kV变电站直流系统中的电池容量选择%Battery Capacity Options of the 110 kV Substation DC System Based on Lithium Iron Phosphate Battery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王洪; 林雄武; 李丽; 金林; 刘平; 刘轶

    2011-01-01

    Lithium iron phosphate battery is a new kind of lithium ion battery with the ability of reliable operation in rigorous conditions, which is being widely concerned in many industries, especially being promoted in the electric car industry and energy storage industry. But it has not been applied in substation as a backup power. Taking a 110 kV substation as an example, combining with the rules of substation and characteristics of Lithium iron phosphate battery, the capacity calculation of lithium iron phosphate battery in substation power field is detailed introduced.%磷酸铁理电池作为新型锂离子电池,以其能在苛刻的条件下可靠运行的能力,正受到各行业的广泛关注,特别是在电动汽车领域和储能领域,已经开始大力推广。但其作为后备电源,在变电站站用电源领域尚未见到应用。文中以某110kv变电站作为范例,结合变电站的规程和磷酸铁锂电池的特性,详细介绍了在站用电源领域磷酸铁锂电池的容量计算。

  16. Computing lifetimes for battery-powered devices

    OpenAIRE

    Jongerden, Marijn; Haverkort, Boudewijn

    2010-01-01

    The battery lifetime of mobile devices depends on the usage pattern of the battery, next to the discharge rate and the battery capacity. Therefore, it is important to include the usage pattern in battery lifetime computations. We do this by combining a stochastic workload, modeled as a continuous-time Markov model, with a well-known battery model. For this combined model, we provide new algorithms to efficiently compute the expected lifetime and the distribution and expected value of the deli...

  17. Batteries: Overview of Battery Cathodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doeff, Marca M

    2010-07-12

    The very high theoretical capacity of lithium (3829 mAh/g) provided a compelling rationale from the 1970's onward for development of rechargeable batteries employing the elemental metal as an anode. The realization that some transition metal compounds undergo reductive lithium intercalation reactions reversibly allowed use of these materials as cathodes in these devices, most notably, TiS{sub 2}. Another intercalation compound, LiCoO{sub 2}, was described shortly thereafter but, because it was produced in the discharged state, was not considered to be of interest by battery companies at the time. Due to difficulties with the rechargeability of lithium and related safety concerns, however, alternative anodes were sought. The graphite intercalation compound (GIC) LiC{sub 6} was considered an attractive candidate but the high reactivity with commonly used electrolytic solutions containing organic solvents was recognized as a significant impediment to its use. The development of electrolytes that allowed the formation of a solid electrolyte interface (SEI) on surfaces of the carbon particles was a breakthrough that enabled commercialization of Li-ion batteries. In 1990, Sony announced the first commercial batteries based on a dual Li ion intercalation system. These devices are assembled in the discharged state, so that it is convenient to employ a prelithiated cathode such as LiCoO{sub 2} with the commonly used graphite anode. After charging, the batteries are ready to power devices. The practical realization of high energy density Li-ion batteries revolutionized the portable electronics industry, as evidenced by the widespread market penetration of mobile phones, laptop computers, digital music players, and other lightweight devices since the early 1990s. In 2009, worldwide sales of Li-ion batteries for these applications alone were US$ 7 billion. Furthermore, their performance characteristics (Figure 1) make them attractive for traction applications such as

  18. 可再生能源发电系统中的储能电池选型分析%Application analysis and capacity configuration of battery energy storage in renewable generation system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶季蕾; 薛金花; 吴福保; 杨波; 洪丹

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the technology and economic characteristics of various battery storage systems were compared. The lead acid batteries were emphatically summarized, involving categories, principles and crucial technique. According to the running condition and performance needs of energy storage in renewable energy power generation system, the appropriate lead acid battery was selected. The power and capacity of energy storage system control method based on low-pass filter were systematically expatiated. Finally, the deployment of energy storage in micro-grid was also decided by satisfying reliable power supply of load within certain time.%比较了各类电池储能的技术特性和经济特性,着重总结了铅酸电池的种类、原理和关键技术;分析了可再生能源发电中储能系统的运行条件和特性需求,表明管式胶体电池更具优势;基于低通滤波原理,系统总结了用于平滑风电功率波动的储能系统功率/容量的计算方法;简述了储能在微电网中基于负荷供电时间需求的功率/容量计算方法.

  19. 计及缺电成本的用户侧蓄电池储能系统容量规划%Capacity Plan of Battery Energy Storage System in User Side Considering Power Outage Cost

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    颜志敏; 王承民; 连鸿波; 衣涛; 时志雄; 张宇

    2012-01-01

    Based on the relevant studies, in order to bring the battery energy storage system economical benefits in the user side caused by reducing capacity of user's distribution station and decreasing the power expenses for user, a value model for reducing loss of the transformer and power outage cost is built. In the mean time, considering the investment cost and operation and maintenance cost, the capacity optimization plan model for user' s battery energy storage system is developed and particle swarm optimization algorithm is used to solve it.%在相关研究的基础上,考虑了用户侧电池储能系统在减少用户配电站建设容量和降低购电费用方面为用户带来的经济价值,建立了其降低配电变压器损耗和停电损失的价值模型。同时,考虑蓄电池储能系统的投资成本和运行维护成本,建立了其容量优化规划模型,并用粒子群优化算法进行了求解。

  20. Simulation and optimization of site and capacity selection in the planning of charge infrastructure for battery electric vehicle fleets; Simulation und Optimierung der Standort- und Kapazitaetsauswahl in der Planung von Ladeinfrastruktur fuer batterieelektrische Fahrzeugflotten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siefen, Kostja

    2012-07-15

    Political, technological and economic factors have led to a new upswing in the development of Electric Mobility. In addition to the private sector, certain industrial fleets are especially suited as pilot customers for battery electric vehicles. Economic advantages compared to conventional vehicles are caused by low energy costs if vehicles reach high mileage and still have enough time to recharge the needed energy. To supply energy to all fleet vehicles, a proper charging infrastructure has to be available in the operational area. The focus of this work is the development of new simulation and optimization models for this strategic planning task. The developed simulation model allows a detailed analysis and evaluation of the impact of various business models. It allows the variation of the fleet size, the vehicle types, the battery capacity, the infrastructure configuration and charging rules in the operational concept. The developed optimization model allows the cost-minimal selection of supply locations and their capacity to ensure the required quality of service. For medium and large problem instances exact solution methods reach their limits, so that a separate heuristic method is presented. The developed methods were used in a real project to demonstrate the practicality.

  1. Synthesis of dandelion-like TiO2 microspheres as anode materials for lithium ion batteries with enhanced rate capacity and cyclic performances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Jin; Liu, Yan-lin; Wang, Yuan; Li, Xiao-ping; Hu, She-jun; Li, Wei-shan

    2012-11-01

    Dandelion-like TiO2 microspheres consisting of numerous rutile single-crystalline nanorods were synthesized for the first time by a hydrothermal method. Their crystal structure, morphology and electrochemical properties were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and galvanostatic charge and discharge tests. The results show that the synthesized TiO2 microspheres exhibit good rate and cycle performances as anode materials of lithium ion batteries. It can be found that the dandelion-like structure provides a larger specific surface area and the single-crystalline nanorod provides a stable structure and fast pathways for electron and lithium ion transport, which contribute to the rate and cycle performances of the battery.

  2. The degree of heart rate asymmetry is crucial for the validity of the deceleration and acceleration capacity indices of heart rate: A model-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Qing; Zhou, Gongzhan; Wang, Ruofan; Yu, Yihua; Li, Feng; Fang, Luping; Yan, Jing; Ning, Gangmin

    2016-09-01

    The deceleration capacity (DC) and acceleration capacity (AC) of heart rate are a pair of indices used for evaluating the autonomic nervous system (ANS). We assessed the role of heart rate asymmetry (HRA) in defining the relative performance of DC and AC using a mathematical model, which is able to generate a realistic RR interval (RRI) time series with controlled ANS states. The simulation produced a set of RRI series with random sympathetic and vagal activities. The multi-scale DCs and ACs were computed from the RRI series, and the correlation of DC and AC with the ANS functions was analyzed to evaluate the performance of the indices. In the model, the HRA level was modified by changing the inspiration/expiration (I/E) ratio to examine the influence of HRA on the performances of DC and AC. The results show that on the conventional scales (T=1, s=2), an HRA level above 50% results in a stronger association of DC with the ANS, compared with AC. On higher scales (T=4, s=6), there was no HRA and DC showed a similar performance to AC for all I/E ratios. The data suggest that the HRA level determines which of DC or AC is the optimal index for expressing ANS functions. Future clinical applications of DC and AC should be accompanied by an HRA analysis to provide a better index for assessing ANS. PMID:27392228

  3. The ZEBRA electric vehicle battery: power and energy improvements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, Roy C.; Haslam, Steven

    Vehicle trials with the first sodium/nickel chloride ZEBRA batteries indicated that the pulse power capability of the battery needed to be improved towards the end of the discharge. A research programme led to several design changes to improve the cell which, in combination, have improved the power of the battery to greater than 150 W kg -1 at 80% depth of discharge. Bench and vehicle tests have established the stability of the high power battery over several years of cycling. The gravimetric energy density of the first generation of cells was less than 100 Wh kg -1. Optimisation of the design has led to a cell with a specific energy of 120 Wh kg -1 or 86 Wh kg -1 for a 30 kWh battery. Recently, the cell chemistry has been altered to improve the useful capacity. The cell is assembled in the over-discharged state and during the first charge the following reactions occur: at 1.6 V: Al+4NaCl=NaAlCl 4+3Na; at 2.35 V: Fe+2NaCl=FeCl 2+2Na; at 2.58 V: Ni+2NaCl=NiCl 2+2 Na. The first reaction serves to prime the negative sodium electrode but occurs at too low a voltage to be of use in providing useful capacity. By minimising the aluminium content more NaCl is released for the main reactions to improve the capacity of the cell. This, and further composition optimisation, have resulted in cells with specific energies in excess of 140 Wh kg -1, which equates to battery energies>100 Wh kg -1. The present production battery, as installed in a Mercedes Benz A class electric vehicle, gives a driving range of 205 km (128 miles) in city and hill climbing. The cells with improved capacity will extend the practical driving range to beyond 240 km (150 miles).

  4. Porous Perovskite LaNiO3 Nanocubes as Cathode Catalysts for Li-O2 Batteries with Low Charge Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian; Zhao, Yubao; Zhao, Xiao; Liu, Zhaolin; Chen, Wei

    2014-08-01

    Developing efficient catalyst for oxygen evolution reaction (OER) is essential for rechargeable Li-O2 battery. In our present work, porous LaNiO3 nanocubes were employed as electrocatalyst in Li-O2 battery cell. The as-prepared battery showed excellent charging performance with significantly reduced overpotential (3.40 V). The synergistic effect of porous structure, large specific surface area and high electrocatalytic activity of porous LaNiO3 nanocubes ensured the Li-O2 battery with enchanced capacity and good cycle stability. Furthermore, it was found that the lithium anode corrosion and cathode passivation were responsible for the capacity fading of Li-O2 battery. Our results indicated that porous LaNiO3 nanocubes represent a promising cathode catalyst for Li-O2 battery.

  5. Carbon nanotube/Co3O4 composite for air electrode of lithium-air battery

    OpenAIRE

    Yoon, Taek Han; Park, Yong Joon

    2012-01-01

    A carbon nanotube [CNT]/Co3O4 composite is introduced as a catalyst for the air electrode of lithium-air [Li/air] batteries. Co3O4 nanoparticles are successfully attached to the sidewall of the CNT by a hydrothermal method. A high discharge capacity and a low overvoltage indicate that the CNT/Co3O4 composite is a very promising catalyst for the air electrode of Li/air batteries.

  6. Experimental Investigations of the Energy and Environmental Indices of Operation of a Low-Capacity Combined Gas Producer and Hot-Water Boiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodnar, L. A.; Stepanov, D. V.; Dovgal‧, A. N.

    2015-07-01

    It has been shown that the introduction of combined gas producers and boilers on renewable energy sources is a pressing issue. A structural diagram of a low-capacity combined gas producer and boiler on renewable energy sources has been given; a bench and procedures for investigation and processing of results have been developed. Experimental investigations of the energy and environmental indices of a 40-kW combined gas producer and hotwater boiler burning wood have been carried out. Results of the experimental investigations have been analyzed. Distinctive features have been established and a procedure of thermal calculation of the double furnace of a lowcapacity combined gas producer and boiler burning solid fuel has been proposed. The calculated coefficients of heat transfer from the gases in the convection bank have been compared with the obtained experimental results. A calculation dependence for the heat transfer from the gases in convection banks of low-capacity hot-water boilers has been proposed. The quantities of harmful emissions from the combined gas producer and boiler on renewable energy sources have been compared with the existing Ukrainian and foreign standards. It has been established that the environmental efficiency of the boiler under study complies with most of the standard requirements of European countries.

  7. Energy storage mechanism for hybrid battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jun; Chernova, Natasha; Omenya, Fredrick; Rastogi, Alok; Whittingham, Stanley

    Many devices require both high energy and high power density, and lithium ion batteries and super-capacitors cannot separately always meet the requirements. In this work, we study the operating mechanism of a hybrid battery, which combines the best properties of batteries and supercapacitors. We analyze the lithium ion storage mechanism using XRD, Raman, TEM and electrochemical measurements. The model system studied combines a non-intercalating carbon black anode with a LiFePO4 cathode. At 50% state of charge, XRD data for LiFePO4 cathode material shows a mixture of LiFePO4 and FePO4, indicating battery reaction. On the other hand, the activated carbon remains structurally unchanged. We also discuss the impact of a range of activated carbon/ LiFePO4 (AC/LFP) ratios. From cyclic voltammetry and charge/discharge results, the system exhibits battery-domain characteristics when the AC/ LFP ratio is below one, but showing more supercapacitor-domain traits when the ratio is higher. Besides, the systems have higher rate capacity at AC/LFP ratio around four as compared to one. This research is supported by NSF under Award Number 1318202.

  8. Advanced state prediction of lithium-ion traction batteries in hybrid and battery electric vehicle applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jadidi, Yasser

    2011-07-01

    Automotive power trains with high energy efficiencies - particularly to be found in battery and hybrid electric vehicles - find increasing attention in the focus of reduction of exhaust emissions and increase of mileage. The underlying concept, the electrification of the power train, is subject to the traction battery and its battery management system since the capability of the battery permits and restricts electric propulsion. Consequently, the overall vehicle efficiency and in particular the operation strategy performance strongly depends on the quality of information about the battery. Besides battery technology, the key challenges are given by both the accurate prediction of battery behaviour and the electrochemical battery degradation that leads to power and capacity fade of the traction battery. This book provides the methodology for development of a battery state monitoring and prediction algorithm for application in a battery management system that accounts for the effects of electrochemical degradation. (orig.)

  9. In situ and operando atomic force microscopy of high-capacity nano-silicon based electrodes for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitung, Ben; Baumann, Peter; Sommer, Heino; Janek, Jürgen; Brezesinski, Torsten

    2016-07-01

    Silicon is a promising next-generation anode material for high-energy-density lithium-ion batteries. While the alloying of nano- and micron size silicon with lithium is relatively well understood, the knowledge of mechanical degradation and structural rearrangements in practical silicon-based electrodes during operation is limited. Here, we demonstrate, for the first time, in situ and operando atomic force microscopy (AFM) of nano-silicon anodes containing polymer binder and carbon black additive. With the help of this technique, the surface topography is analyzed while electrochemical reactions are occurring. In particular, changes in particle size as well as electrode structure and height are visualized with high resolution. Furthermore, the formation and evolution of the solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI) can be followed and its thickness determined by phase imaging and nano-indentation, respectively. Major changes occur in the first lithiation cycle at potentials below 0.6 V with respect to Li/Li+ due to increased SEI formation - which is a dynamic process - and alloying reactions. Overall, these results provide insight into the function of silicon-based composite electrodes and further show that AFM is a powerful technique that can be applied to important battery materials, without restriction to thin film geometries.Silicon is a promising next-generation anode material for high-energy-density lithium-ion batteries. While the alloying of nano- and micron size silicon with lithium is relatively well understood, the knowledge of mechanical degradation and structural rearrangements in practical silicon-based electrodes during operation is limited. Here, we demonstrate, for the first time, in situ and operando atomic force microscopy (AFM) of nano-silicon anodes containing polymer binder and carbon black additive. With the help of this technique, the surface topography is analyzed while electrochemical reactions are occurring. In particular, changes in particle

  10. A Novel Application of Lithium Heteropoly Blue as Non-aqueous Electrolyte in Polyacenic Semiconductor-Li Secondary Batteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Lithium heteropoly blue(Li5PWⅥ10WⅤ2O40) was used as a non-aqueous electrolyte in the polyacenic semiconductor (PAS)-Li secondary battery instead of LiClO4. The properties of the PAS-Li secondary battery, especially the effect of Li5PWⅥ10WⅤ2O40 on the capacity, the cycle property and the self-discharging of the battery have been investigated. The results indicate that not only Li5PWⅥ10WⅤ2O40 can overcome the disadvantages of LiClO4, which is apt to explode when heated or rammed, but also the PAS-Li secondary battery assembled with the novel electrolyte has a larger capacity and smaller self-discharging than that assembled with LiClO4. Therefore, it is believed that lithium heteropoly blue is a better and novel electrolyte for the PAS secondary battery and exhibits significant and practical application.

  11. An online model-based method for state of energy estimation of lithium-ion batteries using dual filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Guangzhong; Chen, Zonghai; Wei, Jingwen; Zhang, Chenbin; Wang, Peng

    2016-01-01

    The state-of-energy of lithium-ion batteries is an important evaluation index for energy storage systems in electric vehicles and smart grids. To improve the battery state-of-energy estimation accuracy and reliability, an online model-based estimation approach is proposed against uncertain dynamic load currents and environment temperatures. Firstly, a three-dimensional response surface open-circuit-voltage model is built up to improve the battery state-of-energy estimation accuracy, taking various temperatures into account. Secondly, a total-available-energy-capacity model that involves temperatures and discharge rates is reconstructed to improve the accuracy of the battery model. An extended-Kalman-filter and particle-filter based dual filters algorithm is then developed to establish an online model-based estimator for the battery state-of-energy. The extended-Kalman-filter is employed to update parameters of the battery model using real-time battery current and voltage at each sampling interval, while the particle-filter is applied to estimate the battery state-of-energy. Finally, the proposed approach is verified by experiments conducted on a LiFePO4 lithium-ion battery under different operating currents and temperatures. Experimental results indicate that the battery model simulates battery dynamics robustly with high accuracy, and the estimates of the dual filters converge to the real state-of-energy within an error of ±4%.

  12. Water mosses as indicators of acidification. Practice-oriented biological indication techniques using water mosses for acidification monitoring of running waters with a low buffer capacity; Wassermoose als Versauerungsindikatoren. Praxisorientierte Bioindikationsverfahren mit Wassermoosen zur Ueberwachung des Saeurezustandes von pufferschwachen Fliessgewaessern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tremp, H. [Hohenheim Univ., Stuttgart (Germany). Inst. fuer Landschafts- und Pflanzenoekologie; Kohler, A. [Hohenheim Univ., Stuttgart (Germany). Inst. fuer Landschafts- und Pflanzenoekologie

    1993-12-31

    Since the beginning of the eighties, research in the Federal Republic of Germany on the acidification of rivers and lakes has been dominated by water-chemical investigation programmes. The use of biological indicators of water acidification is to complement water-chemical data surveys; therefore, the development of easily and rapidly applicable techniques must be given priority. This work has the aim to point out opportunities for, and limits to, the use of submersed mosses and liverworts for practice-oriented indication of acidification. Its main points of emphasis are the indicator value of mosses in running waters with a low buffer capacity and their use in passive monitoring, with iron and aluminium accumulation being primarily of interest. Investigations that build on these deal with the simple topochemical verification of these metals in moss leaves. (vhe) [Deutsch] Seit Beginn der achtziger Jahre ist die Erforschung der Gewaesserversauerung in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland in erster Linie von wasserchemischen Untersuchungsprogrammen gepraegt. Der Einsatz von Bioindikatoren fuer die Gewaesserversauerung soll die Erhebung der wasserchemischen Kenngroessen ergaenzen, daher muss die Entwicklung von leicht und schnell anwendbaren Verfahren Vorrang haben. Ziel der vorliegenden Untersuchung ist es, die Moeglichkeiten und Grenzen der Verwendung submerser Laub- und Lebermoose fuer eine praxisorientierte Versauerungsindikation aufzuzeigen. Die Untersuchungsschwerpunkte beschraenken sich auf den Zeigerwert von Moosen pufferschwacher Fliessgewaesser und ihren Einsatz im passiven Monitoring. Im Mittelpunkt stehen dabei die Eisen- und Aluminiumakkumulation. Darauf aufbauende Untersuchungen befassen sich mit dem einfachen topochemischen Nachweis dieser Metalle in Moosblaettern. (vhe)

  13. In situ and operando atomic force microscopy of high-capacity nano-silicon based electrodes for lithium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitung, Ben; Baumann, Peter; Sommer, Heino; Janek, Jürgen; Brezesinski, Torsten

    2016-08-01

    Silicon is a promising next-generation anode material for high-energy-density lithium-ion batteries. While the alloying of nano- and micron size silicon with lithium is relatively well understood, the knowledge of mechanical degradation and structural rearrangements in practical silicon-based electrodes during operation is limited. Here, we demonstrate, for the first time, in situ and operando atomic force microscopy (AFM) of nano-silicon anodes containing polymer binder and carbon black additive. With the help of this technique, the surface topography is analyzed while electrochemical reactions are occurring. In particular, changes in particle size as well as electrode structure and height are visualized with high resolution. Furthermore, the formation and evolution of the solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI) can be followed and its thickness determined by phase imaging and nano-indentation, respectively. Major changes occur in the first lithiation cycle at potentials below 0.6 V with respect to Li/Li(+) due to increased SEI formation - which is a dynamic process - and alloying reactions. Overall, these results provide insight into the function of silicon-based composite electrodes and further show that AFM is a powerful technique that can be applied to important battery materials, without restriction to thin film geometries. PMID:27222212

  14. Rechargeable lead-acid batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-09-01

    Batteries used in medical equipment, like their counterparts in consumer products, attract little attention until they fail to function effectively. In some applications, such as in emergency medical devices, battery failure can have fatal consequences. While modern batteries are usually quite reliable, ECRI has received 53 written problem reports and countless verbal reports or questions related to battery problems in hospitals during the past five years. This large number of reports is due, at least in part, to the enormous quality of batteries used to operate or provide backup power in contemporary hospital equipment. As part of an ongoing evaluation of rehabilitation assistive equipment, ECRI has been studying the performance of 12 V rechargeable deep-cycle lead-acid batteries used in powered wheelchairs. During the course of this evaluation, it has become apparent that many professionals, both clinical and industrial, regard batteries as "black box" devices and know little about proper care and maintenance--and even less about battery selection and purchase. Because equipment performance and reliability can be strongly influenced by different battery models, an understanding of battery characteristics and how they affect performance is essential when selecting and purchasing batteries. The types of rechargeable batteries used most commonly in hospitals are lead-acid and nickel-cadmium (nicad), which we compare below; however, the guidance we provide in this article focuses on lead-acid batteries. While the examples given are for high-capacity 12 V deep-cycle batteries, similar analyses can be applied to smaller lead-acid batteries of different voltages. PMID:2211174

  15. High-capacity Li2Mn0.8Fe0.2SiO4/carbon composite nanofiber cathodes for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shu; Li, Ying; Xu, Guanjie; Li, Shuli; Lu, Yao; Toprakci, Ozan; Zhang, Xiangwu

    2012-09-01

    Li2MnSiO4 has been considered as a promising cathode material with an extremely high theoretically capacity of 332 mAh g-1. However, due to its low intrinsic conductivity and poor structural stability, only about half of the theoretical capacity has been realized in practice and the capacity decays rapidly during cycling. To realize the high capacity and improve the cycling performance, Li2Mn0.8Fe0.2SiO4/carbon composite nanofibers were prepared by the combination of iron doping and electrospinning. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope, and transmission electronic microscope were applied to characterize the Li2Mn0.8Fe0.2SiO4/carbon nanofibers. It was found that Li2Mn0.8Fe0.2SiO4 nanoparticles were embedded into continuous carbon nanofiber matrices, which formed free-standing porous mats that could be used as binder-free cathodes. The iron doping improved the conductivity and purity of the active material, and the carbon nanofiber matrix facilitated ion transfer and charge diffusion. As a result, Li2Mn0.8Fe0.2SiO4/carbon nanofiber cathodes showed promising improvement on reversible capacity and cycling performance.

  16. Vehicles testing of near-term batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conover, R. C.; Hardy, K. S.; Sandberg, J. J.

    1980-01-01

    Vehicles test results are reported for nickel-iron, nickel-zinc, and improved lead-acid batteries developed under the Near-Term Battery Program sponsored by the Department of Energy. The batteries have demonstrated a range improvement of up to 90% over current lead-acid batteries due to improved energy density and ampere-hour capacity, combined with relatively small weight and volume. However, the nickel-iron battery requires a substantial development effort in packaging the circulating electrolyte system and handling the generated hydrogen volume, while the nickel-zinc batteries tested suffer from short cycle life.

  17. Disease Activity in Psoriatic Arthritis: Comparison of the Discriminative Capacity and Construct Validity of Six Composite Indices in a Real World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fausto Salaffi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To compare, “in a real world,” the performance of the most common composite activity indices in a cohort of PsA patients. Methods. A total of 171 PsA patients were involved. The following variables were evaluated: peripheral joint assessment, patient reported of pain, physician and patient assessments of disease activity, patient general health status, dactylitis digit count, Leeds Enthesitis Index, Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ, physical and mental component summary score of the Medical Outcome Survey (SF-36, Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI, Dermatology Life Quality Index, C-reactive protein (CRP, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR. To measure the disease activity, the Disease Activity Score (DAS28-ESR and DAS28-CRP, Simple Disease Activity Index (SDAI, Composite Psoriatic Disease Activity Index (CPDAI, disease activity in psoriatic arthritis (DAPSA, and Psoriatic Arthritis Disease Activity Score (PASDAS have been calculated. The criteria for minimal disease activity (MDA and remission were applied as external criterion. Results. The ROC were similar in all the composite measures. Only the CPDAI showed less discriminative ability. There was a high degree of correlation between all the indices (P<0.0001. The highest correlations were between DAPSA and SDAI (rho = 0.996 and between DAPSA and DAS28-CRP (rho = 0.957. CPDAI, DAPSA, and PASDAS had the most stringent definitions of remission and MDA category. DAS28-ESR and DAS28-CRP had the highest proportions in remission and MDA. Conclusions. Although a good concurrent validity and discriminant capacity of six disease activity indices were observed, the proportions of patients classified in the disease activity levels differed. In particular, the rate of patients in remission was clearly different among the respective indices.

  18. Thermal battery degradation mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Missert, Nancy A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Brunke, Lyle Brent [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Diffuse reflectance IR spectroscopy (DRIFTS) was used to investigate the effect of accelerated aging on LiSi based anodes in simulated MC3816 batteries. DRIFTS spectra showed that the oxygen, carbonate, hydroxide and sulfur content of the anodes changes with aging times and temperatures, but not in a monotonic fashion that could be correlated to phase evolution. Bands associated with sulfur species were only observed in anodes taken from batteries aged in wet environments, providing further evidence for a reaction pathway facilitated by H2S transport from the cathode, through the separator, to the anode. Loss of battery capacity with accelerated aging in wet environments was correlated to loss of FeS2 in the catholyte pellets, suggesting that the major contribution to battery performance degradation results from loss of active cathode material.

  19. the comparative analysis of indicators of quality of life and eyesight capacity among the patients after different types of eye mechanical injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Kochergin

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: the comparative evaluation of indicators of quality of life and eyesight capacity among groups of patients with different types of eye mechanical trauma for studying of the possibility of the authentic qualitative and quantitative analysis.Methods: 120 patients (101 men and 19 women with a mechanical injury of an eye are included in research. the mean age was 42.3±17.4 years, from 18 to 74 years. Patients are divided according to the type of trauma: with a contusion — 67 patients (group A, with penetrating wounds — 53 patients (group B.Results: the study shows the expediency of early (at the stage of hospitalization determination by the patient his own condition, in order to trace dynamics in indicators of quality of life, timely reacting to them, making changes in treatment tactics in the post- traumatic period.Conclusion: Profound attention from experts for definition of strategy of recovering is demanded by a pain syndrome and a psy- chological stress of patients. the individual approach provides competent application of questionnaires, as tools of the assessment of quality of life.

  20. High Area Capacity Lithium-Sulfur Full-cell Battery with Prelitiathed Silicon Nanowire-Carbon Anodes for Long Cycling Stability

    OpenAIRE

    Andreas Krause; Susanne Dörfler; Markus Piwko; Florian M. Wisser; Tony Jaumann; Eike Ahrens; Lars Giebeler; Holger Althues; Stefan Schädlich; Julia Grothe; Andrea Jeffery; Matthias Grube; Jan Brückner; Jan Martin; Jürgen Eckert

    2016-01-01

    We show full Li/S cells with the use of balanced and high capacity electrodes to address high power electro-mobile applications. The anode is made of an assembly comprising of silicon nanowires as active material densely and conformally grown on a 3D carbon mesh as a light-weight current collector, offering extremely high areal capacity for reversible Li storage of up to 9 mAh/cm2. The dense growth is guaranteed by a versatile Au precursor developed for homogenous Au layer deposition on 3D su...

  1. Portable Battery Charger Berbasis Sel Surya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budhi Anto

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A type of solar battery charger is introduced in this paper. This equipment functions as a medium size rechargeable battery that is needed to move culinary merchants and coastal fishermen living in area which is not supplied by electrical networks. The equipment consists of solar module mounted onto portable mechanical construction, a 12-V 7.5-Ah lead acid battery and charge controller. Solar module charges the battery through charge controller and then the battery can be discharged to power on electric lamps for lightening culinary wagon or fisherman’s boat at night. Charge controller charges the battery with float charging which is implemented by maintaining 13.5 Volt between battery terminals and limiting the charging current to 1.5 Amperes. Charge controller circuit is based on adjustable linear voltage regulator LM338. The battery is of sealed lead acid type. This type of battery is maintenance free and more hygiene than other types of lead acid battery. The field experiment of charging the baterry of 50% residual capacity from 8 am to 4 pm under sunny weather shows that the solar module has charged the battery to its full capacity under battery safe charging conditions.Keywords: portable solar battery charger, float charging, LM338

  2. Thin-film Rechargeable Lithium Batteries for Implantable Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, J. B.; Dudney, N. J.

    1997-05-01

    Thin films of LiCoO{sub 2} have been synthesized in which the strongest x ray reflection is either weak or missing, indicating a high degree of preferred orientation. Thin film solid state batteries with these textured cathode films can deliver practical capacities at high current densities. For example, for one of the cells 70% of the maximum capacity between 4.2 V and 3 V ({approximately}0.2 mAh/cm{sup 2}) was delivered at a current of 2 mA/cm{sup 2}. When cycled at rates of 0.1 mA/cm{sup 2}, the capacity loss was 0.001%/cycle or less. The reliability and performance of Li LiCoO{sub 2} thin film batteries make them attractive for application in implantable devices such as neural stimulators, pacemakers, and defibrillators.

  3. Paintable Battery

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Neelam; Galande, Charudatta; Miranda, Andrea; Mathkar, Akshay; Gao, Wei; Reddy, Arava Leela Mohana; Vlad, Alexandru; Ajayan, Pulickel M.

    2012-01-01

    If the components of a battery, including electrodes, separator, electrolyte and the current collectors can be designed as paints and applied sequentially to build a complete battery, on any arbitrary surface, it would have significant impact on the design, implementation and integration of energy storage devices. Here, we establish a paradigm change in battery assembly by fabricating rechargeable Li-ion batteries solely by multi-step spray painting of its components on a variety of materials...

  4. Mesoporous silica/ionic liquid quasi-solid-state electrolytes and their application in lithium metal batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaowei; Zhang, Zhengxi; Yin, Kun; Yang, Li; Tachibana, Kazuhiro; Hirano, Shin-ichi

    2015-03-01

    In this work, the ordered mesoporous silica, SBA-15, is chosen as the matrix for the first time to prepare quasi-solid-state electrolytes (QSSEs) with an ionic liquid, LiTFSI salt and PVdF-HFP. The as-obtained QSSEs are evaluated by electrochemical methods. Lithium metal batteries containing these QSSEs exhibit high discharge capacity and good cycle performance at room temperature, indicating successful battery operation.

  5. Oxidation state and local structure of a high-capacity LiF/Fe(V2O5) conversion cathode for Li-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We prepared LiF/Fe(V2O5) nanocomposites with varying (0–20 wt.%) V2O5 by high-energy ball milling and found a stable specific capacity of 450 mA h g−1 for a period of 20 cycles without a noticeable reduction in capacity for the composite with 15 wt.% V2O5. X-ray diffraction was unable to identify new phases present in the nanocomposite. To identify the phases formed during ball milling and cycling, we collected in situ X-ray absorption spectra at the Fe K- and V K-edges. During the first charge, LiF/Fe was converted to ∼35% FeF2, and during the second discharge, the initial V3.9+ oxidation state was reduced to V3.5+. Using principal component analysis, we decomposed the series of Fe K-edge spectra into three components consisting of Fe, FeF2 and a new phase, which was identified by comparison with theoretical X-ray absorption near edge structure spectra of model compounds with tetrahedral and octahedral V coordination and 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy to be the inverse spinel V[FeV]O4. From the calculations, we also identified the lithium vanadate LixVO2−xFx. Both LixVO2−xFx and V[FeV]O4 have open crystal structures with the ability to reversibly store lithium in interstitial lattice sites, and the effect of these compounds on capacity and cyclic stability of the LiF/Fe(V2O5) nanocomposites is discussed

  6. Li-S电池硫正极性能衰减机理分析及研究现状概述%Analysis of the Sulfur Cathode Capacity Fading Mechanism and Review of the Latest Development for Li-S Battery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刁岩; 谢凯; 洪晓斌; 熊仕昭

    2013-01-01

    be electronic insulators. So the cathode structure must contain electronic conductors (carbon or metal powder) which will decrease the energy density. Secondly, researchers impute the capacity fading into the residual Li2S2 and Li2S in sulfur cathode even at 100% depth of charge. The formation of Li2S2 and Li2S increasing with cycling results in active material loss. And the deposition of irreversible Li2S or Li2S2 at cracked surfaces of carbon particles causes cathode structural failure. Thirdly, high ordered lithium polysulfide (Li2Sn, 3≤n≤8) is soluble in electrolyte, but low ordered lithium polysulfide (Li2S2 and Li2S) is insoluble. Thus chemical precipitation/dissolution reactions occur during the electrochemical process resulting in active material transition between liquid phase and solid phase. But it is difficult for the high ordered lithium polysulfide to transfer completely from liquid phase to solid phase at the end of cycles, so that will lead to the active material loss. Fourthly, another serious problem is the irreversible oxidation of cathode active material. The formation of LixSOy species increasing with cycling indicates an important capacity fading mechanism of Li-S battery. In this paper, the main research directions and the latest development to enhance the performance of sulfur cathode are reviewed from the aspects of carbon conductive structure, polymer coatings and metal oxides additives, and also the problems in each research directions are analyzed. Finally, the further development of Li-S battery is discussed.

  7. Facile formation of a Li3PO4 coating layer during the synthesis of a lithium-rich layered oxide for high-capacity lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yongho; Lee, Jieun; Lee, Kwan Young; Mun, Junyoung; Lee, Joong Kee; Choi, Wonchang

    2016-05-01

    The facile surface modification of transition-metal hydroxide precursors with ammonium dihydrogen phosphate was performed by ball-milling before the calcination process. The prepared precursors were mixed with the required amount of lithium hydroxide and then simply calcined to obtain lithium-phosphate-coated lithium transition metal oxide cathodes during the one-pot calcination process. A thin, homogeneous Li3PO4 coating is firstly formed on the surface of the precursor owing to the abundance of lithium at a lower-temperature range, and subsequent formation of lithium transition metal oxide is achieved at a higher-temperature range during the calcination process. The Li3PO4-coated cathode electrode with the high loading level over 12 mg cm-1 exhibits a discharge capacity of 106 mAh g-1 at 5C at ambient temperature. Furthermore, it delivers 90% capacity retention after 50 cycles at 60 °C.

  8. In situ synthesis of Co3O4/graphene nanocomposite material for lithium-ion batteries and supercapacitors with high capacity and supercapacitance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → In situ solution-based preparation of Co3O4/graphene composite material. → Well dispersed Co3O4 nanoparticles on graphene nanosheets. → Co3O4/graphene exhibits highly reversible lithium storage capacity. → Co3O4/graphene delivers superior supercapacitance up to 478 F g-1. → Functional groups make contributions to the overall supercapacitance. - Abstract: Co3O4/graphene nanocomposite material was prepared by an in situ solution-based method under reflux conditions. In this reaction progress, Co2+ salts were converted to Co3O4 nanoparticles which were simultaneously inserted into the graphene layers, upon the reduction of graphite oxide to graphene. The prepared material consists of uniform Co3O4 nanoparticles (15-25 nm), which are well dispersed on the surfaces of graphene nanosheets. This has been confirmed through observations by field emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. The prepared composite material exhibits an initial reversible lithium storage capacity of 722 mAh g-1 in lithium-ion cells and a specific supercapacitance of 478 F g-1 in 2 M KOH electrolyte for supercapacitors, which were higher than that of the previously reported pure graphene nanosheets and Co3O4 nanoparticles. Co3O4/graphene nanocomposite material demonstrated an excellent electrochemical performance as an anode material for reversible lithium storage in lithium ion cells and as an electrode material in supercapacitors.

  9. Dry cell battery poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batteries - dry cell ... Acidic dry cell batteries contain: Manganese dioxide Ammonium chloride Alkaline dry cell batteries contain: Sodium hydroxide Potassium hydroxide Lithium dioxide dry cell batteries ...

  10. The Extravehicular Maneuvering Unit's New Long Life Battery and Lithium Ion Battery Charger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Samuel P.; Elder, Mark A.; Williams, Anthony G.; Dembeck, Jacob

    2010-01-01

    The Long Life (Lithium Ion) Battery is designed to replace the current Extravehicular Mobility Unit Silver/Zinc Increased Capacity Battery, which is used to provide power to the Primary Life Support Subsystem during Extravehicular Activities. The Charger is designed to charge, discharge, and condition the battery either in a charger-strapped configuration or in a suit-mounted configuration. This paper will provide an overview of the capabilities and systems engineering development approach for both the battery and the charger

  11. Nanowire Electrodes for Advanced Lithium Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei eHuang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Since the commercialization of lithium ion batteries (LIBs in the past two decades, rechargeable LIBs have become widespread power sources for portable devices used in daily life. However, current demands require higher energy density and power density of batteries. The electrochemical energy storage performance of LIBs could be improved by applying nanomaterial electrodes, but their fast capacity fading is still one of the key limitations and the mechanism needs to be clearly understood. Single nanowire electrode devices are considered as a versatile platform for in situ probing the direct relationship between electrical transport, structure change, and other properties of the single nanowire electrode along with the charge/discharge process. The results indicate the conductivity decrease of the nanowire electrode and the structural disorder/destruction during electrochemical reactions which limit the cycling performance of LIBs. Based on the in situ observations, some feasible structure architecture strategies, including prelithiation, coaxial structure, nanowire arrays and hierarchical structure architecture, are proposed and utilized to restrain the conductivity decrease and structural disorder/destruction. Further, the applications of nanowire electrodes in some beyond Li-ion batteries, such as Li-S and Li-air battery, are also described.

  12. Charge/discharge characteristics of sulfur composite cathode materials in rechargeable lithium batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The charge and discharge characteristics of lithium batteries with sulfur composite cathodes have been investigated. The sulfur composites showed novel electrochemical characteristics. The analysis of the differential capacity indicated that the discharge process showed two voltage plateaus of 2.10 V and 1.88 V, and the charge process also presented two voltage plateaus of 2.22 V and 2.36 V. The overcharge test showed that the composite cannot be charged over 4.0 V, the voltage always stopped at about 3.9 V during charging, indicating that the composite presented the intrinsic safety for the overcharge of lithium batteries. The overcharge can cause serious safety problem for the conventional Li-ion batteries. The overcharge test also showed that the batteries with sulfur composite were destroyed when the upper cut-off voltage was over 3.6 V. However, the composite presented good reversible capacity after it was deep discharged even to 0 V. It showed stable cycleability and high cycling capacity of 1000 mAh g-1 when cycling between 0.1 V and 3.0 V, indicative of the different characteristic from the conventional oxide cathode materials. The prototype polymer battery with the composite cathode material presented the energy density of 246 Wh kg-1 and 401 Wh L-1

  13. Dual-shell hollow polyaniline/sulfur-core/polyaniline composites improving the capacity and cycle performance of lithium-sulfur batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Yanling; Wei, Pan; Fan, Meiqiang; Chen, Da; Chen, Haichao; Ju, QiangJian; Tian, Guanglei; Shu, Kangying

    2016-07-01

    In this study, a dual-shell hollow polyaniline/sulfur-core/polyaniline (hPANI/S/PANI) composite was prepared by successively depositing PANI, S, and PANI on the surface of a template silicon sphere. The electrochemical properties of this composite were evaluated using a lithium plate as an anode in lithium/sulfur cells. The hPANI/S/PANI composite showed a discharge capacity of 572.2 mAh g-1 after 214 cycles at 0.1 C, and the Coulombic efficiency was above 87% in the whole charge/discharge cycle. The improved cycle property of the hPANI/S/PANI composite can be ascribed to the fine sulfur particles homogeneously deposited on the PANI surface and sprawled inside the two PANI layers during the charge/discharge cycle. This behavior stabilized the nanostructure of sulfur and enhanced its conductivity.

  14. ZEBRA battery meets USABC goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dustmann, Cord-H.

    In 1990, the California Air Resources Board has established a mandate to introduce electric vehicles in order to improve air quality in Los Angeles and other capitals. The United States Advanced Battery Consortium has been formed by the big car companies, Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and the Department of Energy in order to establish the requirements on EV-batteries and to support battery development. The ZEBRA battery system is a candidate to power future electric vehicles. Not only because its energy density is three-fold that of lead acid batteries (50% more than NiMH) but also because of all the other EV requirements such as power density, no maintenance, summer and winter operation, safety, failure tolerance and low cost potential are fulfilled. The electrode material is plain salt and nickel in combination with a ceramic electrolyte. The cell voltage is 2.58 V and the capacity of a standard cell is 32 Ah. Some hundred cells are connected in series and parallel to form a battery with about 300 V OCV. The battery system including battery controller, main circuit-breaker and cooling system is engineered for vehicle integration and ready to be mounted in a vehicle [J. Gaub, A. van Zyl, Mercedes-Benz Electric Vehicles with ZEBRA Batteries, EVS-14, Orlando, FL, Dec. 1997]. The background of these features are described.

  15. A polymeric electrolyte rechargeable lithium battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The characteristics and performance of a Li/Li/sub 1+chi/ V/sub 3/O/sub 8/ rechargeable battery using PEO-based polymeric electrolytes, have been examined at 1000C by potential-composition curves, cyclic voltammetry, and cycling tests. The results indicate that the electrochemical process, which involves the intercalation of lithium in the vanadium bronze may be reversible extended up to levels of chi equal to 3. Prolonged cycling with good capacity retention have been obtained using both (PEO)/sub 9/LiCF/sub 3/SO/sub 3/ and (PEO)/sub 8/LiClO/sub 4/ electrolytes

  16. A field operational test on valve-regulated lead-acid absorbent-glass-mat batteries in micro-hybrid electric vehicles. Part II. Results based on multiple regression analysis and tear-down analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaeck, S.; Karspeck, T.; Ott, C.; Weirather-Koestner, D.; Stoermer, A. O.

    2011-03-01

    In the first part of this work [1] a field operational test (FOT) on micro-HEVs (hybrid electric vehicles) and conventional vehicles was introduced. Valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries in absorbent glass mat (AGM) technology and flooded batteries were applied. The FOT data were analyzed by kernel density estimation. In this publication multiple regression analysis is applied to the same data. Square regression models without interdependencies are used. Hereby, capacity loss serves as dependent parameter and several battery-related and vehicle-related parameters as independent variables. Battery temperature is found to be the most critical parameter. It is proven that flooded batteries operated in the conventional power system (CPS) degrade faster than VRLA-AGM batteries in the micro-hybrid power system (MHPS). A smaller number of FOT batteries were applied in a vehicle-assigned test design where the test battery is repeatedly mounted in a unique test vehicle. Thus, vehicle category and specific driving profiles can be taken into account in multiple regression. Both parameters have only secondary influence on battery degradation, instead, extended vehicle rest time linked to low mileage performance is more serious. A tear-down analysis was accomplished for selected VRLA-AGM batteries operated in the MHPS. Clear indications are found that pSoC-operation with periodically fully charging the battery (refresh charging) does not result in sulphation of the negative electrode. Instead, the batteries show corrosion of the positive grids and weak adhesion of the positive active mass.

  17. Research Progress of High Capacity Si Based Anode Material for Li-Ion Battery%锂离子电池用高容量合金类硅基负极材料研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈龙; 董爱想; 乔永民; 吴敏昌

    2012-01-01

      锡、硅负极材料由于具有高的比容量等优点,成为提高锂离子电池能量密度的首选负极材料。首先介绍了目前产业界开发锡、硅负极材料的进展,并从商业化的角度比较了这两类材料在开发工艺及实际使用电性能方面的区别。进一步从基础研发角度重点阐述了不同结构的硅基材料(单质硅、硅氧化物、硅碳复合物及硅合金)的电性能改性研究进展,指出了具有工业化前景的工艺方法。%  Tin and Silicon-based compounds are the research focuses of high capacity anode material for lithium ion batteries. The research progress of Si&Sn materials is introduced, and their process development from commercial perspective is also compared. The electrochemical behaviors modification progresses of Si materials, which are crystal silicon、silicon oxygen compound, Si/C composite and silicon alloy, have been reported. The process route which is fit for industrialization has been provided.

  18. [Study of the effect of gymnastics on health indicators and work capacity of workers in an experimental shop of new anti-corrosion devices].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ana'nev, N I; Sergeev, V N; Navrotskaia, N I

    1989-01-01

    Application of specially developed physical exercises (an interval for sports, sports minute, a microinterval for sports) and hygienic procedures at the end of the working day resulted in a more rapid restoration of work capacity and in decrease of fatigue in the main group both in the process of work and after office hours, compared to the control one. PMID:2630401

  19. Carbon nanotube film anodes for flexible lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Sora; Lee, Sehyun; Kim, Soyoung; Park, Kyung-Won; Cho, Daehwan; Jeong, Youngjin

    2015-04-01

    In this study, carbon nanotube (CNT) film anodes are prepared for use in flexible lithium ion batteries, and the electrochemical performance of the CNT film anodes is evaluated. The CNT films are synthesized via chemical vapor deposition and direct spinning. The films are heat-treated under a nitrogen atmosphere at a high temperature to study the effects of heat treatment on the battery performance. The electrodes made with the CNT films are characterized via charge-discharge test, cyclic voltammetry, and impedance measurement. The results indicate that batteries with films heat-treated under a nitrogen atmosphere show a higher capacity, which can be a result of their high crystalline perfection. The impedance analysis shows that a lower resistance at the interface can be obtained by using heat-treated films. The charge-discharge tests are carried out by adjusting the rate from C/2 to 10C, and when the rate slows from 10C to 1C, the capacity of the samples largely recovers. The nitrogen/heat-treated CNT film electrodes present a capacity that is twice as high, such as 2C, 5C, and 10C, than untreated CNT film electrodes. These results indicate that the carbon nanotube film anodes have high potential for use in portable and wearable computers due to their flexibility.

  20. A support vector machine-based state-of-health estimation method for lithium-ion batteries under electric vehicle operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klass, Verena; Behm, Mårten; Lindbergh, Göran

    2014-12-01

    Capacity and resistance are state-of-health (SOH) indicators that are essential to monitor during the application of batteries on board electric vehicles. For state-of-health determination in laboratory environment, standard battery performance tests are established and well-functioning. Since standard performance tests are not available on-board a vehicle, we are developing a method where those standard tests are applied virtually to a support vector machine-based battery model. This data-driven model is solely based on variables available during ordinary electric vehicle (EV) operation such as battery current, voltage and temperature. This article contributes with a thorough experimental validation of this method, as well as the introduction of new features - capacity estimation and temperature dependence. Typical EV battery usage data is generated and exposed to the suggested method in order to estimate capacity and resistance. These estimations are compared to direct measurements of the SOH indicators with standard tests. The obtained estimations of capacities and instantaneous resistances demonstrate good accuracy over a temperature and state-of-charge range typical for EV operating conditions and allow thus for online detection of battery degradation. The proposed method is also found to be suitable for on-board application in respect of processing power and memory restrictions.

  1. Battery charging in float vs. cycling environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    COREY,GARTH P.

    2000-04-20

    In lead-acid battery systems, cycling systems are often managed using float management strategies. There are many differences in battery management strategies for a float environment and battery management strategies for a cycling environment. To complicate matters further, in many cycling environments, such as off-grid domestic power systems, there is usually not an available charging source capable of efficiently equalizing a lead-acid battery let alone bring it to a full state of charge. Typically, rules for battery management which have worked quite well in a floating environment have been routinely applied to cycling batteries without full appreciation of what the cycling battery really needs to reach a full state of charge and to maintain a high state of health. For example, charge target voltages for batteries that are regularly deep cycled in off-grid power sources are the same as voltages applied to stand-by systems following a discharge event. In other charging operations equalization charge requirements are frequently ignored or incorrectly applied in cycled systems which frequently leads to premature capacity loss. The cause of this serious problem: the application of float battery management strategies to cycling battery systems. This paper describes the outcomes to be expected when managing cycling batteries with float strategies and discusses the techniques and benefits for the use of cycling battery management strategies.

  2. Towards a fully printable battery: robocast deposition of separators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    transport rates high within the cell during charge and discharge. In order to evaluate the effect of each layer being printed using the robocasting technique, coin cells using printed separator materials were assembled and cycled vs. Li/Li+. This allows for the standardization of a test procedure in order to evaluate each layer of a printed cell one layer at a time. A typical charge/discharge curve can be seen in Figure 2 using a printed LiFePO4 cathode and a printed separator with a commercial Celgard separator. This experiment was run to evaluate the loss in capacity and slowdown of transport within the cell due to the addition of the printed separator. This cell was cycled multiple times and showed a capacity of 75 mAh/g. The ability for this cell to cycle with good capacity indicates that a fully printable separator material is viable for use in a full lithium cell due to the retention of capacity. Most of the fully printed cathode and separator cells exhibit working capacities between 65 and 95 mAh/g up to this point. This capacity should increase as the efficiency of the printed separator increases. The ability to deposit each layer within the cell allows for intimate contact of each layer and ensures for a reduction of interfacial impedance of each layer within the cell. The overall effect of printing multiple layers within the cell will be an overall increase in the ionic conductivity during charge and discharge cycles. Several different polymer membranes have been investigated for use as a printed separator. The disadvantage of using polymer separators or solid electrolyte batteries is that they have relatively low conductivities at room temperature (10-6 - 10-8 S cm-1). This is orders of magnitude lower than the typically accepted 10-3 S cm-1 needed for proper ionic transport during battery discharge Because of their low conductivity, typical polymer separators such as polyethylene oxide (PEO) have a normal operational temperature well above ambient. At elevated

  3. Comparing the Net Cost of CSP-TES to PV Deployed with Battery Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jorgenson, Jennie; Mehos, Mark; Denholm, Paul

    2016-05-31

    Concentrated solar power with thermal energy storage (CSP-TES) is a unique source of renewable energy in that its energy can be shifted over time and it can provide the electricity system with dependable generation capacity. In this study, we provide a framework to determine if the benefits of CSP-TES (shiftable energy and the ability to provide firm capacity) exceed the benefits of PV and firm capacity sources such as long-duration battery storage or conventional natural gas combustion turbines (CTs). The results of this study using current capital cost estimates indicate that a combination of PV and conventional gas CTs provides a lower net cost compared to CSP-TES and PV with batteries. Some configurations of CSP-TES have a lower net cost than PV with batteries for even the lowest battery cost estimate. Using projected capital cost targets, however, some configurations of CSP-TES have a lower net cost than PV with either option for even the lowest battery cost estimate. The net cost of CSP-TES varies with configuration, and lower solar multiples coupled with less storage are more attractive at current cost levels, due to high component costs. However, higher solar multiples show a lower net cost using projected future costs for heliostats and thermal storage materials.

  4. Comparing the net cost of CSP-TES to PV deployed with battery storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgenson, Jennie; Mehos, Mark; Denholm, Paul

    2016-05-01

    Concentrated solar power with thermal energy storage (CSP-TES) is a unique source of renewable energy in that its energy can be shifted over time and it can provide the electricity system with dependable generation capacity. In this study, we provide a framework to determine if the benefits of CSP-TES (shiftable energy and the ability to provide firm capacity) exceed the benefits of PV and firm capacity sources such as long-duration battery storage or conventional natural gas combustion turbines (CTs). The results of this study using current capital cost estimates indicate that a combination of PV and conventional gas CTs provides a lower net cost compared to CSP-TES and PV with batteries. Some configurations of CSP-TES have a lower net cost than PV with batteries for even the lowest battery cost estimate. Using projected capital cost targets, however, some configurations of CSP-TES have a lower net cost than PV with either option for even the lowest battery cost estimate. The net cost of CSP-TES varies with configuration, and lower solar multiples coupled with less storage are more attractive at current cost levels, due to high component costs. However, higher solar multiples show a lower net cost using projected future costs for heliostats and thermal storage materials.

  5. Research Advances in Silicon-Based Anode Materials of High Capacity Lithium Ion Battery%高容量型锂离子电池硅基负极材料的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡社军; 张苗; 侯贤华; 王洁; 李敏; 刘祥

    2013-01-01

    Due to its high capacity , silicon based anode materials have been widely studied in recent years .How-ever,the commercialization of silicon-based materials as the anode of lithium-ion batteries( LIBs) has been hindered by the huge volume change , poor cycle life and low initial coulombic efficiency during the charge /discharge process .This article analyses the insertion/interinsertion lithium ion principle of silicon anodes , reviews the change of the crystal structure and the surface/interface of Si-based material during the intercalation/deintercalation of lith-ium, and the methods for improving the electrochemical performance .The prospects of silicon-based materials as the anode of LIBs are also discussed .%硅基负极材料由于具有高容量而被广泛研究,该材料在充/放电过程中巨大的体积变化、低的循环寿命和初始库仑效率阻碍了其商业化应用。在作者多年从事硅基负极材料的研究基础上,分析了硅基负极材料的工作原理,回顾了Si负极在脱/嵌锂过程中的晶体结构、表面/界面的变化以及提高其电化学性能的方法,讨论了锂离子电池硅基负极材料的前景。

  6. Electrochemical Model for Ionic Liquid Electrolytes in Lithium Batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ABSTRACT: Room temperature ionic liquids are considered as potential electrolytes for high performance and safe lithium batteries due to their very low vapor pressure and relatively wide electrochemical and thermal stability windows. Unlike organic electrolytes, ionic liquid electrolytes are molten salts at room temperature with dissociated cations and anions. These dissociated ions interfere with the transport of lithium ions in lithium battery. In this study, a mathematical model is developed for transport of ionic components to study the performance of ionic liquid based lithium batteries. The mathematical model is based on a univalent ternary electrolyte frequently encountered in ionic liquid electrolytes of lithium batteries. Owing to the very high concentration of components in ionic liquid, the transport of lithium ions is described by the mutual diffusion phenomena using Maxwell-Stefan diffusivities, which are obtained from atomistic simulation. The model is employed to study a lithium-ion battery where the electrolyte comprises ionic liquid with mppy+ (N-methyl-N-propyl pyrrolidinium) cation and TFSI− (bis trifluoromethanesulfonyl imide) anion. For a moderate value of reaction rate constant, the electric performance results predicted by the model are in good agreement with experimental data. We also studied the effect of porosity and thickness of separator on the performance of lithium-ion battery using this model. Numerical results indicate that low rate of lithium ion transport causes lithium depleted zone in the porous cathode regions as the porosity decreases or the length of the separator increases. The lithium depleted region is responsible for lower specific capacity in lithium-ion cells. The model presented in this study can be used for design of optimal ionic liquid electrolytes for lithium-ion and lithium-air batteries

  7. Investigation and application of polysiloxane-based gel electrolyte in valve-regulated lead-acid battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Zheng; Wang, Jianming; Mao, Xian-xian; Shao, Haibo; Chen, Quanqi; Xu, Zhihua; Zhang, Jianqing

    Polysiloxane-based gel electrolyte (PBGE) is prepared and investigated as a new gel electrolyte for valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries. PBGE particles, characterized by means of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry (CV) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), reveal good stability and their particle sizes are 30-50 nm. The initial cyclic properties of the absorptive glass mat (AGM)-PBGE and AGM-colloid silica gel electrolyte (CSGE) hybrid batteries are investigated by electrochemical techniques, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The addition of PBGE improves the utilization efficiency of positive active material (PAM) in AGM-PBGE hybrid batteries and thus enhances the batteries capacity compared with the AGM-CSGE reference batteries. Cyclic overdischarge tests show that the AGM-PBGE hybrid batteries have superior recharge and discharge during partial-state-of-charge (PSoC). It is also found that the greatly enhanced electrochemical performance of the AGM-PBGE batteries may be due to higher charge efficiency, good conductivity with lower internal resistance and the open three-dimensional network structure of the polyelectrolyte. The analysis results of SEM and XRD indicate that softening and shedding of positive active material are the main causes of failure for the two hybrid batteries.

  8. Investigation and application of polysiloxane-based gel electrolyte in valve-regulated lead-acid battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Zheng; Wang, Jianming; Shao, Haibo; Chen, Quanqi; Xu, Zhihua [Department of Chemistry, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Mao, Xian-xian [Zhejiang Narada Power Source Co., Ltd., Hangzhou 310013 (China); Zhang, Jianqing [Department of Chemistry, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Chinese State Key Laboratory for Corrosion and Protection, Shenyang 110015 (China)

    2007-05-25

    Polysiloxane-based gel electrolyte (PBGE) is prepared and investigated as a new gel electrolyte for valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries. PBGE particles, characterized by means of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry (CV) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), reveal good stability and their particle sizes are 30-50 nm. The initial cyclic properties of the absorptive glass mat (AGM)-PBGE and AGM-colloid silica gel electrolyte (CSGE) hybrid batteries are investigated by electrochemical techniques, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The addition of PBGE improves the utilization efficiency of positive active material (PAM) in AGM-PBGE hybrid batteries and thus enhances the batteries capacity compared with the AGM-CSGE reference batteries. Cyclic overdischarge tests show that the AGM-PBGE hybrid batteries have superior recharge and discharge during partial-state-of-charge (PSoC). It is also found that the greatly enhanced electrochemical performance of the AGM-PBGE batteries may be due to higher charge efficiency, good conductivity with lower internal resistance and the open three-dimensional network structure of the polyelectrolyte. The analysis results of SEM and XRD indicate that softening and shedding of positive active material are the main causes of failure for the two hybrid batteries. (author)

  9. Factors on Storage Performance of MH-Ni Battery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Zhong; Jia Chunming; Xing Zhiqiang; Li Li; Ma Yijun

    2004-01-01

    The open voltage of batteries shows different status after MH-Ni batteries are stored for a period of time.Some batteries with 0, 0.9 ~ 1.1V and above 1.1 V were chosen to study their corresponding internal resistances, open voltages and the reduction of capacities, etc.On the basis of battery reaction principle, battery samples were analyzed,and factors causing different storage performance were found out.Therefore, some references on the improvement of battery storage performance were provided.

  10. Organic Cathode Materials for Rechargeable Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Ruiguo; Qian, Jiangfeng; Zhang, Jiguang; Xu, Wu

    2015-06-28

    This chapter will primarily focus on the advances made in recent years and specify the development of organic electrode materials for their applications in rechargeable lithium batteries, sodium batteries and redox flow batteries. Four various organic cathode materials, including conjugated carbonyl compounds, conducting polymers, organosulfides and free radical polymers, are introduced in terms of their electrochemical performances in these three battery systems. Fundamental issues related to the synthesis-structure-activity correlations, involved work principles in energy storage systems, and capacity fading mechanisms are also discussed.

  11. Innovation Meets Performance Demands of Advanced Lithium-ion Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-06-01

    Advancements in high capacity and low density battery technologies have led to a growing need for battery materials with greater charge capacity and therefore stability. NREL's developments in ALD and molecular layer MLD allow for thin film coatings to battery composite electrodes, which can improve battery lifespan, high charge capacity, and stability. Silicon, one of the best high-energy anode materials for Li-ion batteries, can experience capacity fade from volumetric expansion. Using MLD to examine how surface modification could stabilize silicon anode material in Li-ion batteries, researchers discovered a new reaction precursor that leads to a flexible surface coating that accommodates volumetric expansion of silicon electrodes.

  12. Status of life cycle inventories for batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    material flows are missing. For each battery, a comparison of battery material production with its manufacturing and assembly counterpart is discussed. Combustion and process emissions for battery production have also been included in our assessment. In cases where emissions were not reported in the original literature, we estimated them using fuels data if reported. Whether on a per kilogram or per watt-hour capacity basis, lead-acid batteries have the lowest cradle-to-gate production energy, and fewest carbon dioxide and criteria pollutant emissions. The other batteries have higher values in all three categories.

  13. On battery recovery effect in wireless sensor nodes

    OpenAIRE

    Narayanaswamy, Swaminathan; Schlueter, Steffan; Steinhorst, Sebastian; Lukasiewycz, Martin; Chakraborty, Samarjit; Hoster, Harry Ernst

    2016-01-01

    With the perennial demand for longer runtime of battery-powered Wireless Sensor Nodes (WSNs), several techniques have been proposed to increase the battery runtime. One such class of techniques exploiting the battery recovery effect phenomenon claims that performing an intermittent discharge instead of a continuous discharge will increase the usable battery capacity. Several works in the areas of embedded systems and wireless sensor networks have assumed the existence of this recovery effect ...

  14. Electrical characterization of the Magellan batteries after storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deligiannis, Frank; Perrone, D.; Distefano, Sal; Timmerman, Paul

    1993-01-01

    Two 22 cell batteries designed by Martin Marietta were tested. The batteries were rated at 26.5 Amp-Hr. The battery design is characterized by the following: Gates Aerospace 42B030AB15, 11 pos/12 neg, Pellon 2536 separator, passivated pos/teflonated neg. The tests can be summarized as follows: (1) no noticeable capacity loss after storage period; and (2) batteries exhibited larger non-uniformity of cell voltages during constant current charge.

  15. Nanostructured titanium nitride as a novel cathode for high performance lithium/dissolved polysulfide batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosavati, Negar; Chitturi, Venkateswara Rao; Salley, Steven O.; Ng, K. Y. Simon

    2016-07-01

    Lithium-sulfur (Lisbnd S) batteries could potentially revolutionize the rechargeable battery market due to their high energy density and low cost. However, low active material utilization, electrode volumetric expansion and a high rate of capacity fade due to the dissolution of lithium polysulfide intermediates in the liquid electrolyte are the main challenges facing further Lisbnd S battery development. Here, we enhanced Lisbnd S batteries active material utilization and decreased the volumetric expansion by using the lithium/dissolved polysulfide configuration. Moreover, a novel class of cathode materials, Titanium Nitride (TiN), was developed for polysulfide conversion reactions. The surface chemical environment of the TiN has been investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis. The existence of Ssbnd Tisbnd N bonding at the cathode electrode surface was observed, which indicates the strong interactions between TiN and polysulfides. Therefore, the TiN electrode retains the sulfur species on the cathode surface, minimizing the active material and surface area loss and consequently, improves the capacity retention. The resultant cells demonstrated a high initial capacity of 1524 mAh g-1 and a good capacity retention for 100 cycles at a C/10 current rate.

  16. Thermoelectric battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The battery for the power supply of heart pacemakers consists of a cylindrical case with a thermoelectric module consisting of thermoelectric elements which are fastened to each other in the form of a thermal column and a heat source made of PU-238. In order to reduce the radial sensitivity to shocks of the battery, a spring cage is arranged around the heat source at the free end of the module. Cushioning against longitudinal shocks is provided by another spring. (DG)

  17. Batteries not included

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article traces the development of clockwork wind-up battery chargers that can be used to recharge mobile phones, laptop computers, torches or radio batteries from the pioneering research of the British inventor Trevor Baylis to the marketing of the wind-up gadgets by Freeplay Energy who turned the idea into a commercial product. The amount of cranking needed to power wind-up devices is discussed along with a hand-cranked charger for mobile phones, upgrading the phone charger's mechanism, and drawbacks of the charger. Details are given of another invention using a hand-cranked generator with a supercapacitor as a storage device which has a very much higher capacity for storing electrical charge

  18. Design problems and resolvent for class 1E battery of nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The quantity and capacity of DC and 220 V AC uninterrupted systems have been added since the control systems use DCS. It is very difficulty for design on calculation capacity and bear time during short circuit of battery and mechanics calculation of battery bracket. These problems have been solved by tests and calculations. These are good experiments for new project on battery design. (author)

  19. Crewed Space Vehicle Battery Safety Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeevarajan, Judith A.; Darcy, Eric C.

    2014-01-01

    This requirements document is applicable to all batteries on crewed spacecraft, including vehicle, payload, and crew equipment batteries. It defines the specific provisions required to design a battery that is safe for ground personnel and crew members to handle and/or operate during all applicable phases of crewed missions, safe for use in the enclosed environment of a crewed space vehicle, and safe for use in launch vehicles, as well as in unpressurized spaces adjacent to the habitable portion of a space vehicle. The required provisions encompass hazard controls, design evaluation, and verification. The extent of the hazard controls and verification required depends on the applicability and credibility of the hazard to the specific battery design and applicable missions under review. Evaluation of the design and verification program results shall be completed prior to certification for flight and ground operations. This requirements document is geared toward the designers of battery systems to be used in crewed vehicles, crew equipment, crew suits, or batteries to be used in crewed vehicle systems and payloads (or experiments). This requirements document also applies to ground handling and testing of flight batteries. Specific design and verification requirements for a battery are dependent upon the battery chemistry, capacity, complexity, charging, environment, and application. The variety of battery chemistries available, combined with the variety of battery-powered applications, results in each battery application having specific, unique requirements pertinent to the specific battery application. However, there are basic requirements for all battery designs and applications, which are listed in section 4. Section 5 includes a description of hazards and controls and also includes requirements.

  20. High-performance flexible nanoporous Si-carbon nanotube paper anodes for micro-battery applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biserni, Erika; Scarpellini, Alice; Li Bassi, Andrea; Bruno, Paola; Zhou, Yun; Xie, Ming

    2016-06-01

    Nanoporous Si has been grown by pulsed laser deposition on a free-standing carbon nanotube (CNT) paper sheet for micro-battery anodes. The Si deposition shows conformal coverage on the CNT paper, and the Si-CNT paper anodes demonstrate high areal capacity of ∼1000 μAh cm‑2 at a current density of 54 μA cm‑2, while 69% of its initial capacity is preserved when the current density is increased by a factor 10. Excellent stability without capacity decay up to 1000 cycles at a current density of 1080 μA cm‑2 is also demonstrated. After bending along the diameter of the circular paper disc many times, the Si-CNT paper anodes preserve the same morphology and show promising electrochemical performance, indicating that nanoporous Si-CNT paper anodes can find application for flexible micro-batteries.

  1. High-rate capability of lithium-ion batteries after storing at elevated temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High-rate performances of a lithium-ion battery after storage at elevated temperature are investigated electrochemically by means of three-electrode system. The high-rate capability is decreased significantly after high-temperature storage. A 3 C discharge capacities after room-temperature storage and 60 oC storage are 650 and 20 mAh, respectively. Lithium-ion diffusion in lithium cobalt oxide cathode limits the battery's capacity and the results show that storage temperature changes this diffusion behavior. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images show that many defects are directly observed in the cathode after storage compared with the fresh cathode; the structural defects block the diffusion within the particles. Electrochemical impedance and polarization curve indicate that mass-transfer (diffusion) dominates the discharge capacity during high-rate discharge

  2. Battery Fault Detection with Saturating Transformers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Francis J. (Inventor); Graika, Jason R. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A battery monitoring system utilizes a plurality of transformers interconnected with a battery having a plurality of battery cells. Windings of the transformers are driven with an excitation waveform whereupon signals are responsively detected, which indicate a health of the battery. In one embodiment, excitation windings and sense windings are separately provided for the plurality of transformers such that the excitation waveform is applied to the excitation windings and the signals are detected on the sense windings. In one embodiment, the number of sense windings and/or excitation windings is varied to permit location of underperforming battery cells utilizing a peak voltage detector.

  3. Functional materials for rechargeable batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Fangyi; Liang, Jing; Tao, Zhanliang; Chen, Jun

    2011-04-19

    There is an ever-growing demand for rechargeable batteries with reversible and efficient electrochemical energy storage and conversion. Rechargeable batteries cover applications in many fields, which include portable electronic consumer devices, electric vehicles, and large-scale electricity storage in smart or intelligent grids. The performance of rechargeable batteries depends essentially on the thermodynamics and kinetics of the electrochemical reactions involved in the components (i.e., the anode, cathode, electrolyte, and separator) of the cells. During the past decade, extensive efforts have been dedicated to developing advanced batteries with large capacity, high energy and power density, high safety, long cycle life, fast response, and low cost. Here, recent progress in functional materials applied in the currently prevailing rechargeable lithium-ion, nickel-metal hydride, lead acid, vanadium redox flow, and sodium-sulfur batteries is reviewed. The focus is on research activities toward the ionic, atomic, or molecular diffusion and transport; electron transfer; surface/interface structure optimization; the regulation of the electrochemical reactions; and the key materials and devices for rechargeable batteries. PMID:21394791

  4. Energy analysis of batteries in photovoltaic systems. Part II: Energy return factors and overall battery efficiencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy return factors and overall energy efficiencies are calculated for a stand-alone photovoltaic (PV)-battery system. Eight battery technologies are evaluated: lithium-ion (nickel), sodium-sulphur, nickel-cadmium, nickel-metal hydride, lead-acid, vanadium-redox, zinc-bromine and polysulphide-bromide. With a battery energy storage capacity three times higher than the daily energy output, the energy return factor for the PV-battery system ranges from 2.2 to 10 in our reference case. For a PV-battery system with a service life of 30 yr, this corresponds to energy payback times between 2.5 and 13 yr. The energy payback time is 1.8-3.3 yr for the PV array and 0.72-10 yr for the battery, showing the energy related significance of batteries and the large variation between different technologies. In extreme cases, energy return factors below one occur, implying no net energy output. The overall battery efficiency, including not only direct energy losses during operation but also energy requirements for production and transport of the charger, the battery and the inverter, is 0.41-0.80. For some batteries, the overall battery efficiency is significantly lower than the direct efficiency of the charger, the battery and the inverter (0.50-0.85). The ranking order of batteries in terms of energy efficiency, the relative importance of different battery parameters and the optimal system design and operation (e.g. the use of air conditioning) are, in many cases, dependent on the characterisation of the energy background system and on which type of energy efficiency measure is used (energy return factor or overall battery efficiency)

  5. Moderate temperature rechargeable sodium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, K. M.; Rupich, M. W.; Pitts, L.; Elliott, J. E.

    1983-01-01

    Cells utilizing the organic electrolyte, NaI in triglyme, operated at approx. 130 C with Na(+) - intercalating cathodes. However, their rate and stability were inadequate. NaAlCl4 was found to be a highly useful electrolyte for cell operation at 165-190 C. Na(+) intercalating chalcogenides reacted with NaAlCl4 during cycling to form stable phases. Thus, VS2 became essentially VS2Cl, with reversible capacity of approx 2.8 e(-)/V, and a mid-discharge voltage of approx 2.5V and 100 deep discharge cycles were readily achieved. A positive electrode consisting of VCl3 and S plus NaAlCl4 was subjected to deep-discharge cycles 300 times and it demonstrated identity with the in-situ-formed BSxCly cathode. NiS2 and NiS which are not Na(+)-intercalating structures formed highly reversible electrodes in NaAlCl4. The indicated discharge mechanism implies a theoretical capacity 4e(-)/Ni for NiS2 and 2e(-)/Ni for NiS. The mid-discharge potentials are, respectively, 2.4V and 2.1V. A Na/NiS2 cell cycling at a C/5 rate has exceeded 500 deep discharge cycles with 2.5e(-)/Ni average utilization. A 4 A-hr nominal capacity prototype Na/NiS2 cell was tested at 190 C. It was voluntarily terminated after 80 cycles. Further development, particularly of cathode structure and hardware should produce a battery capable of at least 50-W-hr/lb and more than 1000 cycles.

  6. Modeling separator membranes physical characteristics for optimized lithium ion battery performance

    OpenAIRE

    Miranda, D; Costa, C. M.; Almeida, A. M.; Lanceros-Méndez, S.

    2015-01-01

    The effect of varying separator membrane physical parameters such as degree of porosity, tortuosity and thickness, on battery delivered capacity was studied in order to optimize performance of lithium-ion batteries. This was achieved by a theoretical mathematical model relating the Bruggeman coefficient with the degree of porosity and tortuosity. The inclusion of the separator membrane in the simulation model of the battery system does not affect the delivered capacity of the battery. Th...

  7. Novel Field Test Equipment for Lithium-Ion Batteries in Hybrid Electrical Vehicle Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Goran Lindbergh; Olle Gelin; Pontus Svens; Marten Behm; Johan Lindstrom

    2011-01-01

    Lifetime testing of batteries for hybrid-electrical vehicles (HEV) is usually performed in the lab, either at the cell, module or battery pack level. Complementary field tests of battery packs in vehicles are also often performed. There are, however, difficulties related to field testing of battery-packs. Some examples are cost issues and the complexity of continuously collecting battery performance data, such as capacity fade and impedance increase. In this paper, a novel field test equipmen...

  8. Performance Analysis of Battery Power Management Schemes in Wireless Mobile Devices

    OpenAIRE

    Prabhu, Balakrishna J; Chockalingam, A; Sharma, Vinod

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze the performance of battery power management schemes in wireless mobile devices using a queueing theory approach. We model the battery as a server with finite service capacity and data packets as customers to be served. With an intent to exploit the recharging capability of the battery when left idle, we allow the battery to go on intentional vacations during which the battery can recharge itself. The recharge thus built up can effectively increase the number of custo...

  9. Memel's Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander F. Mitrofanov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the history and equipment of the coastal and antiaircraft artillery batteries of German Navy (Kriegsmarine constructed in Memel area before and during the World War. There is given the brief description of the Soviet Navy stationed in the area in the postwar years.

  10. Single particle nanomechanics in operando batteries via lensless strain mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulvestad, Andrew; Singer, Andrej; Cho, Hyung-Man; Clark, Jesse N; Harder, Ross; Maser, Jorg; Meng, Ying Shirley; Shpyrko, Oleg G

    2014-09-10

    We reveal three-dimensional strain evolution in situ of a single LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 nanoparticle in a coin cell battery under operando conditions during charge/discharge cycles with coherent X-ray diffractive imaging. We report direct observation of both stripe morphologies and coherency strain at the nanoscale. Our results suggest the critical size for stripe formation is 50 nm. Surprisingly, the single nanoparticle elastic energy landscape, which we map with femtojoule precision, depends on charge versus discharge, indicating hysteresis at the single particle level. This approach opens a powerful new avenue for studying battery nanomechanics, phase transformations, and capacity fade under operando conditions at the single particle level that will enable profound insight into the nanoscale mechanisms that govern electrochemical energy storage systems. PMID:25141157

  11. Second Life for Electric Vehicle Batteries: Answering Questions on Battery Degradation and Value

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neubauer, J. S.; Wood, E.; Pesaran, A.

    2015-05-04

    Battery second use – putting used plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) batteries into secondary service following their automotive tenure – has been proposed as a means to decrease the cost of PEVs while providing low cost energy storage to other fields (e.g. electric utility markets). To understand the value of used automotive batteries, however, we must first answer several key questions related to National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has developed a methodology and the requisite tools to answer these questions, including NREL’s Battery Lifetime Simulation Tool (BLAST). Herein we introduce these methods and tools, and demonstrate their application. We have found that capacity fade from automotive use has a much larger impact on second use value than resistance growth. Where capacity loss is driven by calendar effects more than cycling effects, average battery temperature during automotive service – which is often driven by climate – is found to be the single factor with the largest effect on remaining value. Installing hardware and software capabilities onboard the vehicle that can both infer remaining battery capacity from in-situ measurements, as well as track average battery temperature over time, will thereby facilitate the second use of automotive batteries.

  12. Stand Alone Battery Thermal Management System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodie, Brad [Denso International America, Incorporated, Southfield, MI (United States)

    2015-09-30

    The objective of this project is research, development and demonstration of innovative thermal management concepts that reduce the cell or battery weight, complexity (component count) and/or cost by at least 20%. The project addresses two issues that are common problems with current state of the art lithium ion battery packs used in vehicles; low power at cold temperatures and reduced battery life when exposed to high temperatures. Typically, battery packs are “oversized” to satisfy the two issues mentioned above. The first phase of the project was spent making a battery pack simulation model using AMEsim software. The battery pack used as a benchmark was from the Fiat 500EV. FCA and NREL provided vehicle data and cell data that allowed an accurate model to be created that matched the electrical and thermal characteristics of the actual battery pack. The second phase involved using the battery model from the first phase and evaluate different thermal management concepts. In the end, a gas injection heat pump system was chosen as the dedicated thermal system to both heat and cool the battery pack. Based on the simulation model. The heat pump system could use 50% less energy to heat the battery pack in -20°C ambient conditions, and by keeping the battery cooler at hot climates, the battery pack size could be reduced by 5% and still meet the warranty requirements. During the final phase, the actual battery pack and heat pump system were installed in a test bench at DENSO to validate the simulation results. Also during this phase, the system was moved to NREL where testing was also done to validate the results. In conclusion, the heat pump system can improve “fuel economy” (for electric vehicle) by 12% average in cold climates. Also, the battery pack size, or capacity, could be reduced 5%, or if pack size is kept constant, the pack life could be increased by two years. Finally, the total battery pack and thermal system cost could be reduced 5% only if the

  13. Demands on automotive battery performance, what is the best alloy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, G.

    Modern automotive batteries represent a compromise between starting performance and power handling. Being designed for high starting currents, their capacity amplitude for frequent cyclic loads is relatively small, compared with their nominal capacity. Considering the category of high-class passenger cars, the two-battery concept better meets requirements and at the same time improves the reliability of the starting system. It is expected that for both the starter battery (in the engine compartment) and the power-handling battery (in the boot), the leadcalciumtin system will be the most appropriate choice for the grid alloy.

  14. Model-based energy analysis of battery powered systems

    OpenAIRE

    Jongerden, Marijn Remco

    2010-01-01

    The use of mobile devices is often limited by the lifetime of the included batteries. This lifetime naturally depends on the battery’s capacity and on the rate at which the battery is discharged. However, it also depends on the usage pattern, i.e., the workload, of the battery. When a battery is continuously discharged, a high current will cause it to provide less energy until the end of its lifetime than a lower current. This effect is termed the rate-capacity effect. On the other hand, duri...

  15. Use of natural binders and ionic liquid electrolytes for greener and safer lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, G.T.; Jeong, S.S.; Joost, M.; Rocca, E.; Winter, M.; Passerini, S.; Balducci, A. [Institute of Physical Chemistry, University of Muenster, Corrensstr. 28/30, 48149 Muenster (Germany)

    2011-02-15

    This manuscript reports on the development of a safe and green lithium-ion battery containing sodium salt of CarboxyMethylCellulose (CMC) as binder, lithium titanate (Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12}) as anodic active material, lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO{sub 4}) as cathodic active material and an electrolytic solution based on the ionic liquid N-butyl-N-methylpyrrolidinium bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide (PYR{sub 14}FSI). The battery showed, at room temperature, a very stable specific capacity of 140 mAh g{sup -1} constant for more than 150 cycles. This indicated that the introduction of low cost and environmentally benign binders, like CMC, and non-flammable electrolytes, such as PYR{sub 14}FSI, represents a viable strategy for the development of new, greener and safer lithium-ion batteries. (author)

  16. Research, development, and demonstration of nickel-iron batteries for electric vehicle propulsion. Annual report, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-03-01

    The objective of the Eagle-Picher nickel-iron battery program is to develop a nickel-iron battery for use in the propulsion of electric and electric-hybrid vehicles. To date, the program has concentrated on the characterization, fabrication and testing of the required electrodes, the fabrication and testing of full-scale cells, and finally, the fabrication and testing of full-scale (270 AH) six (6) volt modules. Electrodes of the final configuration have now exceeded 1880 cycles and are showing minimal capacity decline. Full-scale cells have presently exceeded 600 cycles and are tracking the individual electrode tests almost identically. Six volt module tests have exceeded 500 cycles, with a specific energy of 48 Wh/kg. Results to date indicate the nickel-iron battery is beginning to demonstrate the performance required for electric vehicle propulsion.

  17. Vehicle Battery Safety Roadmap Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doughty, D. H.

    2012-10-01

    The safety of electrified vehicles with high capacity energy storage devices creates challenges that must be met to assure commercial acceptance of EVs and HEVs. High performance vehicular traction energy storage systems must be intrinsically tolerant of abusive conditions: overcharge, short circuit, crush, fire exposure, overdischarge, and mechanical shock and vibration. Fail-safe responses to these conditions must be designed into the system, at the materials and the system level, through selection of materials and safety devices that will further reduce the probability of single cell failure and preclude propagation of failure to adjacent cells. One of the most important objectives of DOE's Office of Vehicle Technologies is to support the development of lithium ion batteries that are safe and abuse tolerant in electric drive vehicles. This Roadmap analyzes battery safety and failure modes of state-of-the-art cells and batteries and makes recommendations on future investments that would further DOE's mission.

  18. Battery Safety Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Ken

    2010-01-01

    Batteries commonly used in flashlights and other household devices produce hydrogen gas as a product of zinc electrode corrosion. The amount of gas produced is affected by the batteries' design and charge rate. Dangerous levels of hydrogen gas can be released if battery types are mixed, batteries are damaged, batteries are of different ages, or…

  19. Batteries for Electric Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conover, R. A.

    1985-01-01

    Report summarizes results of test on "near-term" electrochemical batteries - (batteries approaching commercial production). Nickel/iron, nickel/zinc, and advanced lead/acid batteries included in tests and compared with conventional lead/acid batteries. Batteries operated in electric vehicles at constant speed and repetitive schedule of accerlerating, coasting, and braking.

  20. Carrying Capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schroll, Henning; Andersen, Jan; Kjærgård, Bente

    2012-01-01

    carrying capacity (SCC) and assimilative carrying capacity (ACC). The act mandates that the latter two aspects must be taken into consideration in the local spatial plans. The present study aimed at developing a background for a national guideline for carrying capacity in Indonesian provinces and districts...... carrying capacity (ACC). The act mandates that the latter two aspects must be taken into consideration in the local spatial plans. The present study aimed at developing a background for a national guideline for carrying capacity in Indonesian provinces and districts/cities. Four different sectors (water...

  1. Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles: battery degradation, grid support, emissions, and battery size tradeoffs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Scott B.

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) may become a substantial part of the transportation fleet in a decade or two. This dissertation investigates battery degradation, and how introducing PHEVs may influence the electricity grid, emissions, and petroleum use in the US. It examines the effects of combined driving and vehicle-to-grid (V2G) usage on lifetime performance of commercial Li-ion cells. The testing shows promising capacity fade performance: more than 95% of the original cell capacity remains after thousands of driving days. Statistical analyses indicate that rapid vehicle motive cycling degraded the cells more than slower, V2G galvanostatic cycling. These data are used to examine the potential economic implications of using vehicle batteries to store grid electricity generated at off-peak hours for off-vehicle use during peak hours. The maximum annual profit with perfect market information and no battery degradation cost ranged from ˜US140 to 250 in the three cities. If measured battery degradation is applied the maximum annual profit decreases to ˜10-120. The dissertation predicts the increase in electricity load and emissions due to vehicle battery charging in PJM and NYISO with the current generators, with a 50/tonne CO2 price, and with existing coal generators retrofitted with 80% CO2 capture. It also models emissions using natural gas or wind+gas. We examined PHEV fleet percentages between 0.4 and 50%. Compared to 2020 CAFE standards, net CO2 emissions in New York are reduced by switching from gasoline to electricity; coal-heavy PJM shows smaller benefits unless coal units are fitted with CCS or replaced with lower CO2 generation. NOX is reduced in both RTOs, but there is upward pressure on SO2 emissions or allowance prices under a cap. Finally the dissertation compares increasing the all-electric range (AER) of PHEVs to installing charging infrastructure. Fuel use was modeled with National Household Travel Survey and Greenhouse Gasses, Regulated

  2. Effect of the seismic capacity of equipment on the core damage frequency in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of the seismic capacity of equipment on the core damage frequency (CDF) in nuclear power plants are investigated through a case study for the Younggwang Nuclear Units 5 and 6, which are operating pressurized water reactors in Korea. A probabilistic safety assessment for a seismic event (seismic PSA) is performed for the plant and then the equipment important for the CDF are selected. Then the seismic PSA is performed using different seismic capacities of the selected equipment for the investigation of the effect of their seismic capacity on the CDF. The results of the case study show that an increase of the seismic capacity of the equipment reduces the CDF significantly. This indicates that the seismic safety of the operating nuclear power plants can be significantly improved by increasing the equipment seismic capacity. When the Diesel Generator or Condensate Storage Tank has an increased seismic capacity, the CDF will decrease significantly, while in the case of the Battery Rack the CDF does not decrease significantly. When all of the selected equipment items have a 25%, 50%, and 75% increased seismic capacity, the core damage frequency will decrease by 45.8%, 64.5%, and 67%, respectively. The effective HCLPF values for the Diesel Generator, Offsite Power, Condensate Storage Tank, and Battery Rack are determined as 0.84 g, 0.35 g, 0.63 g, and 0.63 g, respectively. (authors)

  3. Results of electric-vehicle propulsion system performance on three lead-acid battery systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewashinka, J. G.

    1984-01-01

    Three types of state of the art 6 V lead acid batteries were tested. The cycle life of lead acid batteries as a function of the electric vehicle propulsion system design was determined. Cycle life, degradation rate and failure modes with different battery types (baseline versus state of the art tubular and thin plate batteries were compared. The effects of testing strings of three versus six series connected batteries on overall performance were investigated. All three types do not seem to have an economically feasible battery system for the propulsion systems. The tubular plate batteries on the load leveled profile attained 235 cycles with no signs of degradation and minimal capacity loss.

  4. The rechargeable aluminum-ion battery

    KAUST Repository

    Jayaprakash, N.

    2011-01-01

    We report a novel aluminium-ion rechargeable battery comprised of an electrolyte containing AlCl3 in the ionic liquid, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride, and a V2O5 nano-wire cathode against an aluminium metal anode. The battery delivered a discharge capacity of 305 mAh g-1 in the first cycle and 273 mAh g-1 after 20 cycles, with very stable electrochemical behaviour. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2011.

  5. Approach to advanced diagnosis of rechargable batteries at Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many number of rechargable batteries are installed as an electrical power supply system to maintain the function of the Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant. These batteries have an important role to keep the safety of the plant, so at the case of loss of normal and external alternating power supply, electrical circuits should be switched to battery powered system automatically and instantaneously. Exchange and replacement plan of these batteries are scheduled mainly based upon the capacity test data checked by battery vendors, expected life length, and the periodical inspection data. However it is difficult to remove all batteries from circuits and send them to battery vendor's facilities at the same time to diagnose their capacity whether plant is in service or not. The authors introduce the advanced inspection technology as called 'Short time discharge voltage measurement of batteries' which realize to diagnose the capacity of all them without removing off from the circuits. (author)

  6. Effect of Boron-Doping on the Graphene Aerogel Used as Cathode for the Lithium-Sulfur Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yang; Meng, Zhen; Cai, Tingwei; Han, Wei-Qiang

    2015-11-18

    A porous interconnected 3D boron-doped graphene aerogel (BGA) was prepared via a one-pot hydrothermal treatment. The BGA material was first loaded with sulfur to serve as cathode in lithium-sulfur batteries. Boron was positively polarized on the graphene framework, allowing for chemical adsorption of negative polysufide species. Compared with nitrogen-doped and undoped graphene aerogel, the BGA-S cathode could deliver a higher capacity of 994 mA h g(-1) at 0.2 C after 100 cycles, as well as an outstanding rate capability, which indicated the BGA was an ideal cathode material for lithium-sulfur batteries. PMID:26544917

  7. All solid state lithium batteries based on lamellar garnet-type ceramic electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Fuming; Zhao, Ning; Li, Yiqiu; Chen, Cheng; Liu, Ziwei; Guo, Xiangxin

    2015-12-01

    All solid-state lithium batteries are constructed by using highly conducting Ta-doped Li7La3Zr2O12 (LLZTO) as the solid electrolytes as well as the supports, coated with composite cathodes consisting of poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVdF):LiTFSI, Ketjen Black, and carbon-coated LiFePO4 on one side and attached with Li anode on the other side. At 60 °C, the batteries show the first discharge capacity of 150 mAh g-1 at 0.05 C and 93% capacity retention after 100 cycles. As the current density increases from 0.05 C to 1 C, the specific capacity decreases from 150 mAh g-1 to 100 mAh g-1. Further elevated temperature up to 100 °C leads to further improved performance, i.e. 126 mAh g-1 at 1 C and 99% capacity retention after 100 cycles. This good performance can be attributed to the highly conducting ceramic electrolytes, the optimum electronic and ionic conducting networks in the composite cathodes, and closely contacted cathode/LLZTO interface. These results indicate that the present strategy is promising for development of high-performance solid-state Li-ion batteries operated at medium temperature.

  8. Lithium-sulfur batteries based on nitrogen-doped carbon and an ionic-liquid electrolyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiao-Guang; Wang, Xiqing; Mayes, Richard T; Dai, Sheng

    2012-10-01

    Nitrogen-doped mesoporous carbon (NC) and sulfur were used to prepare an NC/S composite cathode, which was evaluated in an ionic-liquid electrolyte of 0.5 M lithium bis(trifluoromethane sulfonyl)imide (LiTFSI) in methylpropylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethane sulfonyl)imide ([MPPY][TFSI]) by cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and cycle testing. To facilitate the comparison, a C/S composite based on activated carbon (AC) without nitrogen doping was also fabricated under the same conditions. Compared with the AC/S composite, the NC/S composite showed enhanced activity toward sulfur reduction, as evidenced by the lower onset sulfur reduction potential, higher redox current density in the CV test, and faster charge-transfer kinetics, as indicated by EIS measurements. At room temperature under a current density of 84 mA g(-1) (C/20), the battery based on the NC/S composite exhibited a higher discharge potential and an initial capacity of 1420 mAh g(-1), whereas the battery based on the AC/S composite showed a lower discharge potential and an initial capacity of 1120 mAh g(-1). Both batteries showed similar capacity fading with cycling due to the intrinsic polysulfide solubility and the polysulfide shuttle mechanism; capacity fading can be improved by further cathode modification. PMID:22847977

  9. Ensure the electric power system's durability through battery monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Andersson, Jonas

    2015-01-01

    Battery monitoring is used to acquire information about battery conditions. It’s a regular technology that most of us uses on daily bases. The charge gauge in a cellphone, consisting of bars which indicate the degree of charge left in the battery is an example. Battery monitoring gives the cellphone user information about the battery. The background to the thesis work is that this technology is requested for vehicles because empty or broken batteries are one of the most common causes for invo...

  10. Research, development, and demonstration of lead-acid batteries for electric-vehicle propulsion. Annual report, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-03-01

    The first development effort in improving lead-acid batteries fore electric vehicles was the improvement of electric vehicle batteries using flat pasted positive plates and the second was for a tubular long life positive plate. The investigation of 32 component variables based on a flat pasted positive plate configuration is described. The experiment tested 96 - six volt batteries for characterization at 0, 25, and 40/sup 0/C and for cycle life capability at the 3 hour discharge rate with a one cycle, to 80% DOD, per day regime. Four positive paste formulations were selected. Two commercially available microporous separators were used in conjunction with a layer of 0.076 mm thick glass mat. Two concentrations of battery grade sulfuric acid were included in the test to determine if an increase in concentration would improve the battery capacity sufficient to offset the added weight of the more concentrated solution. Two construction variations, 23 plate elements with outside negative plates and 23 plate elements with outside positive plates, were included. The second development effort was an experiment designed to study the relationship of 32 component variables based on a tubular positive plate configuration. 96-six volt batteries were tested at various discharge rates at 0, 25, and 40/sup 0/C along with cycle life testing at 80% DOD of the 3 hour rate. 75 batteries remain on cycle life testing with 17 batteries having in excess of 365 life cycles. Preliminary conclusions indicate: the tubular positive plate is far more capable of withstanding deep cycles than is the flat pasted plate; as presently designed 40 Whr/kg can not be achieved, since 37.7 Whr/kg was the best tubular data obtained; electrolyte circulation is impaired due to the tight element fit in the container; and a redesign is required to reduce the battery weight which will improve the Whr/kg value. This redesign is complete and new molds have been ordered.

  11. Batteries used to power implantable biomedical devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battery systems have been developed that provide years of service for implantable medical devices. The primary systems utilize lithium metal anodes with cathode systems including iodine, manganese oxide, carbon monofluoride, silver vanadium oxide and hybrid cathodes. Secondary lithium ion batteries have also been developed for medical applications where the batteries are charged while remaining implanted. While the specific performance requirements of the devices vary, some general requirements are common. These include high safety, reliability and volumetric energy density, long service life, and state of discharge indication. Successful development and implementation of these battery types has helped enable implanted biomedical devices and their treatment of human disease.

  12. Household batteries: Evaluation of collection methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seeberger, D.A.

    1992-12-31

    While it is difficult to prove that a specific material is causing contamination in a landfill, tests have been conducted at waste-to-energy facilities that indicate that household batteries contribute significant amounts of heavy metals to both air emissions and ash residue. Hennepin County, MN, used a dual approach for developing and implementing a special household battery collection. Alternative collection methods were examined; test collections were conducted. The second phase examined operating and disposal policy issues. This report describes the results of the grant project, moving from a broad examination of the construction and content of batteries, to a description of the pilot collection programs, and ending with a discussion of variables affecting the cost and operation of a comprehensive battery collection program. Three out-of-state companies (PA, NY) were found that accept spent batteries; difficulties in reclaiming household batteries are discussed.

  13. Household batteries: Evaluation of collection methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seeberger, D.A.

    1992-01-01

    While it is difficult to prove that a specific material is causing contamination in a landfill, tests have been conducted at waste-to-energy facilities that indicate that household batteries contribute significant amounts of heavy metals to both air emissions and ash residue. Hennepin County, MN, used a dual approach for developing and implementing a special household battery collection. Alternative collection methods were examined; test collections were conducted. The second phase examined operating and disposal policy issues. This report describes the results of the grant project, moving from a broad examination of the construction and content of batteries, to a description of the pilot collection programs, and ending with a discussion of variables affecting the cost and operation of a comprehensive battery collection program. Three out-of-state companies (PA, NY) were found that accept spent batteries; difficulties in reclaiming household batteries are discussed.

  14. Quantifying EV battery end-of-life through analysis of travel needs with vehicle powertrain models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Samveg; Le Floch, Caroline; MacDonald, Jason; Moura, Scott

    2015-05-01

    Electric vehicles enable clean and efficient transportation, however concerns about range anxiety and battery degradation hinder EV adoption. The common definition for battery end-of-life is when 70-80% of original energy capacity remains, however little analysis is available to support this retirement threshold. By applying detailed physics-based models of EVs with data on how drivers use their cars, we show that EV batteries continue to meet daily travel needs of drivers well beyond capacity fade of 80% remaining energy storage capacity. Further, we show that EV batteries with substantial energy capacity fade continue to provide sufficient buffer charge for unexpected trips with long distances. We show that enabling charging in more locations, even if only with 120 V wall outlets, prolongs useful life of EV batteries. Battery power fade is also examined and we show EVs meet performance requirements even down to 30% remaining power capacity. Our findings show that defining battery retirement at 70-80% remaining capacity is inaccurate. Battery retirement should instead be governed by when batteries no longer satisfy daily travel needs of a driver. Using this alternative retirement metric, we present results on the fraction of EV batteries that may be retired with different levels of energy capacity fade.

  15. A cost analysis of electric vehicle batteries second life businesses

    OpenAIRE

    Canals Casals, Lluc; Amante García, Beatriz; González Benítez, María Margarita

    2014-01-01

    In the following years thousands of electric cars are expected to be sold. Knowing that these batteries are not useful anymore for traction services after they have lost a 20% of its capacity, there will be thousands of batteries able for re-use. The re-use represents a considerable environment improvement compared to the immediate recycling. According to battery recycling enterprises, not even half of them are collected back after their use but car manufacturers should ensure that their elec...

  16. Design of the Storage Battery Online Monitoring System

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Tian; Cheng Wang; Xixue Zhang

    2010-01-01

    Storage battery is the integrant back power supply in the communication system, and its using life and security reliability are specially concerned by users. To avoid the accidents induced by the individual battery failure in the long-term using process, the running status of the storage battery must be maintained and monitored periodically. A new and advanced capacity measurement technology, i.e. the whole-online discharge monitoring technology is proposed in this article. Comparing with oth...

  17. Redox shuttles for safer lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Overcharge protection is not only critical for preventing the thermal runaway of lithium-ion batteries during operation, but also important for automatic capacity balancing during battery manufacturing and repair. A redox shuttle is an electrolyte additive that can be used as intrinsic overcharge protection mechanism to enhance the safety characteristics of lithium-ion batteries. The advances on stable redox shuttles are briefly reviewed. Fundamental studies for designing stable redox shuttles are also discussed.

  18. High Performance Li4Ti5O12/Si Composite Anodes for Li-Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunhui Chen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Improving the energy capacity of spinel Li4Ti5O12 (LTO is very important to utilize it as a high-performance Li-ion battery (LIB electrode. In this work, LTO/Si composites with different weight ratios were prepared and tested as anodes. The anodic and cathodic peaks from both LTO and silicon were apparent in the composites, indicating that each component was active upon Li+ insertion and extraction. The composites with higher Si contents (LTO:Si = 35:35 exhibited superior specific capacity (1004 mAh·g−1 at lower current densities (0.22 A·g−1 but the capacity deteriorated at higher current densities. On the other hand, the electrodes with moderate Si contents (LTO:Si = 50:20 were able to deliver stable capacity (100 mAh·g−1 with good cycling performance, even at a very high current density of 7 A·g−1. The improvement in specific capacity and rate performance was a direct result of the synergy between LTO and Si; the former can alleviate the stresses from volumetric changes in Si upon cycling, while Si can add to the capacity of the composite. Therefore, it has been demonstrated that the addition of Si and concentration optimization is an easy yet an effective way to produce high performance LTO-based electrodes for lithium-ion batteries.

  19. Advances of aqueous rechargeable lithium-ion battery: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alias, Nurhaswani; Mohamad, Ahmad Azmin

    2015-01-01

    The electrochemical characteristic of the aqueous rechargeable lithium-ion battery has been widely investigated in efforts to design a green and safe technology that can provide a highly specific capacity, high efficiency and long life for high power applications such as the smart grid and electric vehicle. It is believed that the advantages of this battery will overcome the limitations of the rechargeable lithium-ion battery with organic electrolytes that comprise safety and create high fabrication cost issues. This review focuses on the opportunities of the aqueous rechargeable lithium-ion battery compared to the conventional rechargeable lithium-ion battery with organic-based electrolytes. Previously reported studies are briefly summarised, together with the presentation of new findings based on the conductivity, morphology, electrochemical performance and cycling stability results. The factors that influence the electrochemical performance, the challenges and potential of the aqueous rechargeable lithium-ion battery are highlighted in order to understand and maintained the excellent battery performance.

  20. Effects of dietary DL-2-hydroxy-4(methylthio)butanoic acid supplementation on growth performance, indices of ascites syndrome, and antioxidant capacity of broilers reared at low ambient temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, G. L.; Zhang, K. Y.; Ding, X. M.; Zheng, P.; Luo, Y. H.; Bai, S. P.; Wang, J. P.; Xuan, Y.; Su, Z. W.; Zeng, Q. F.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effects of dietary DL-2-hydroxy-4(methylthio)butanoic acid (DL-HMTBA) supplementation on growth performance, antioxidant capacity, and ascites syndrome (AS) in broilers reared at low ambient temperature (LAT) from 7 to 28 days of age. Eight hundred 7-day-old broilers were randomly assigned to two ambient temperatures (LAT and normal ambient temperature [NAT]), four supplemental DL-HMTBA levels (0.17, 0.34, 0.51, and 0.68 %) of the basal diet in a 2 × 4 factorial arrangement (ten replicate pens; ten birds/pen). LAT and NAT indicate temperatures of 12-14 and 24-26 °C in two chambers, respectively, and broilers were reared at these temperatures from 7 to 28 days of age. LAT significantly decreased body weight gain (P recommended supplemental of DL-HMTBA level was 0.46 %.

  1. Color-Coded Batteries - Electro-Photonic Inverse Opal Materials for Enhanced Electrochemical Energy Storage and Optically Encoded Diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dwyer, Colm

    2016-07-01

    For consumer electronic devices, long-life, stable, and reasonably fast charging Li-ion batteries with good stable capacities are a necessity. For exciting and important advances in the materials that drive innovations in electrochemical energy storage (EES), modular thin-film solar cells, and wearable, flexible technology of the future, real-time analysis and indication of battery performance and health is crucial. Here, developments in color-coded assessment of battery material performance and diagnostics are described, and a vision for using electro-photonic inverse opal materials and all-optical probes to assess, characterize, and monitor the processes non-destructively in real time are outlined. By structuring any cathode or anode material in the form of a photonic crystal or as a 3D macroporous inverse opal, color-coded "chameleon" battery-strip electrodes may provide an amenable way to distinguish the type of process, the voltage, material and chemical phase changes, remaining capacity, cycle health, and state of charge or discharge of either existing or new materials in Li-ion or emerging alternative battery types, simply by monitoring its color change. PMID:26784012

  2. Binder-Free and Carbon-Free Nanoparticle Batteries: A Method for Nanoparticle Electrodes without Polymeric Binders or Carbon Black

    KAUST Repository

    Ha, Don-Hyung

    2012-10-10

    In this work, we have developed a new fabrication method for nanoparticle (NP) assemblies for Li-ion battery electrodes that require no additional support or conductive materials such as polymeric binders or carbon black. By eliminating these additives, we are able to improve the battery capacity/weight ratio. The NP film is formed by using electrophoretic deposition (EPD) of colloidally synthesized, monodisperse cobalt NPs that are transformed through the nanoscale Kirkendall effect into hollow Co 3O 4. EPD forms a network of NPs that are mechanically very robust and electrically connected, enabling them to act as the Li-ion battery anode. The morphology change through cycles indicates stable 5-10 nm NPs form after the first lithiation remained throughout the cycling process. This NP-film battery made without binders and conductive additives shows high gravimetric (>830 mAh/g) and volumetric capacities (>2100 mAh/cm 3) even after 50 cycles. Because similar films made from drop-casting do not perform well under equal conditions, EPD is seen as the critical step to create good contacts between the particles and electrodes resulting in this significant improvement in battery electrode assembly. This is a promising system for colloidal nanoparticles and a template for investigating the mechanism of lithiation and delithiation of NPs. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  3. A Polymer Lithium-Oxygen Battery

    OpenAIRE

    Giuseppe Antonio Elia; Jusef Hassoun

    2015-01-01

    Herein we report the characteristics of a lithium-oxygen battery using a solid polymer membrane as the electrolyte separator. The polymer electrolyte, fully characterized in terms of electrochemical properties, shows suitable conductivity at room temperature allowing the reversible cycling of the Li-O2 battery with a specific capacity as high as 25,000 mAh gC −1 reflected in a surface capacity of 12.5 mAh cm−2. The electrochemical formation and dissolution of the lithium peroxide during Li-O2...

  4. 78 FR 15753 - Maintenance, Testing, and Replacement of Vented Lead-Acid Storage Batteries for Nuclear Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-12

    ... which a battery can be returned to service and be able to meet its capacity and capability requirements, and (4) consistency with standard technical specifications regarding battery monitoring criteria....

  5. Hybrid aqueous battery based on Na3V2(PO4)3/C cathode and zinc anode for potential large-scale energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guolong; Yang, Ze; Jiang, Yan; Zhang, Wuxing; Huang, Yunhui

    2016-03-01

    A hybrid aqueous rechargeable battery with Na3V2(PO4)3 as cathode and metal Zn as anode has been proposed. Na3V2(PO4)3 is co-incorporated by carbon and reduced graphene oxide. The battery delivers a capacity of 92 mAh g-1 at a current density of 50 mA g-1 with a high and flat operating voltage of 1.42 V. It exhibits a capacity of 60 mAh g-1 at a high current density of 2000 mA g-1, indicative of excellent rate capability. Such inexpensive and safe battery shows an energy density as high as 112 Wh kg-1, demonstrating that it is potential for future application in large-scale energy storage.

  6. Simulation of the Impact of Si Shell Thickness on the Performance of Si-Coated Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanofiber as Li-Ion Battery Anode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susobhan Das

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Micro- and nano-structured electrodes have the potential to improve the performance of Li-ion batteries by increasing the surface area of the electrode and reducing the diffusion distance required by the charged carriers. We report the numerical simulation of Lithium-ion batteries with the anode made of core-shell heterostructures of silicon-coated carbon nanofibers. We show that the energy capacity can be significantly improved by reducing the thickness of the silicon anode to the dimension comparable or less than the Li-ion diffusion length inside silicon. The results of simulation indicate that the contraction of the silicon electrode thickness during the battery discharge process commonly found in experiments also plays a major role in the increase of the energy capacity.

  7. Collecting battery data with Open Battery

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Gareth L.; Harrison, Peter G.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present Open Battery, a tool for collecting data on mobile phone battery usage, describe the data we have collected so far and make some observations. We then introduce the fluid queue model which we hope may prove a useful tool in future work to describe mobile phone battery traces.

  8. Advanced Battery Manufacturing (VA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stratton, Jeremy

    2012-09-30

    LiFeBATT has concentrated its recent testing and evaluation on the safety of its batteries. There appears to be a good margin of safety with respect to overheating of the cells and the cases being utilized for the batteries are specifically designed to dissipate any heat built up during charging. This aspect of LiFeBATT’s products will be even more fully investigated, and assuming ongoing positive results, it will become a major component of marketing efforts for the batteries. LiFeBATT has continued to receive prismatic 20 Amp hour cells from Taiwan. Further testing continues to indicate significant advantages over the previously available 15 Ah cells. Battery packs are being assembled with battery management systems in the Danville facility. Comprehensive tests are underway at Sandia National Laboratory to provide further documentation of the advantages of these 20 Ah cells. The company is pursuing its work with Hybrid Vehicles of Danville to critically evaluate the 20 Ah cells in a hybrid, armored vehicle being developed for military and security applications. Results have been even more encouraging than they were initially. LiFeBATT is expanding its work with several OEM customers to build a worldwide distribution network. These customers include a major automotive consulting group in the U.K., an Australian maker of luxury off-road campers, and a number of makers of E-bikes and scooters. LiFeBATT continues to explore the possibility of working with nations that are woefully short of infrastructure. Negotiations are underway with Siemens to jointly develop a system for using photovoltaic generation and battery storage to supply electricity to communities that are not currently served adequately. The IDA has continued to monitor the progress of LiFeBATT’s work to ensure that all funds are being expended wisely and that matching funds will be generated as promised. The company has also remained current on all obligations for repayment of an IDA loan and lease

  9. Testing of the Eagle-Picher nickel-iron, the Globe ISOA lead-acid, and the Westinghouse nickel-iron battery subsystems in an electric-vehicle environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, R.; Bryant, J.

    1982-01-01

    Three full size developmental batteries were tested with electric vehicles; two nickel-iron batteries and a lead-acid battery. Constant speed and driving schedule tests were done on a chassis dynamometer. Several aspects of battery performance were evaluated for capacity, recharge efficiency, voltage response, and self discharge. Each of these three batteries exhibited some strengths and some weaknesses.

  10. Utility Battery Storage Systems Program report for FY93

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, P.C.

    1994-02-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico, conducts the Utility Battery Storage Systems Program, which is sponsored by the US Department of Energy`s Office of Energy Management. In this capacity, Sandia is responsible for the engineering analyses, contract development, and testing of rechargeable batteries and systems for utility-energy-storage applications. This report details the technical achievements realized during fiscal year 1993.

  11. High energy density battery based on complex hydrides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zidan, Ragaiy

    2016-04-26

    A battery and process of operating a battery system is provided using high hydrogen capacity complex hydrides in an organic non-aqueous solvent that allows the transport of hydride ions such as AlH.sub.4.sup.- and metal ions during respective discharging and charging steps.

  12. Battery, especially for portable devices, has an anode containing silicon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kan, S.Y.

    2002-01-01

    The anode (2) contains silicon. A battery with a silicon-containing anode is claimed. An Independent claim is also included for a method used to make the battery, comprising the doping of a silicon substrate (1) with charge capacity-increasing material (preferably boron, phosphorous or arsenic), etc

  13. Analysis of battery behavior in small photovoltaic systems; Analise do comportamento da bateria utilizada em sistemas fotovoltaicos de pequeno porte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraga, Jose Renato Castro Pompeia; Cagnon, Jose Angelo [Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Agronomia - Energia na Agricultura - FCA/UNESP, Botucatu, SP (Brazil); Dept. de Engenharia Eletrica - FEB/UNESP, Bauru, SP (Brazil)], e-mails: jrfraga@feb.unesp.br, jacagnon@feb.unesp.br

    2011-07-01

    This work aimed to analyze the electric energy storage system generated from a photovoltaic system with lead-acid batteries. The increasing claim for energy in the world in addition to the need of using renewable energy sources in order to preserve the environment makes necessary the development of efficient techniques of power supply and control. Two photovoltaic systems were used in this work, a conventional one with stationary solar panel and another with automatic solar position system. The comparative analysis has allowed assessing the advantages of both systems. The following characteristics were obtained during the development of this work: charge, discharge, battery capacity, operating time rate, auto-discharge reaction (through fluctuation state), among other important information that allows an extended life to the stationary battery studied. The obtained results indicate that the battery connected to the mobile system provides 36% of additional energy compared to the fixed system. When the battery was unable to provide energy to the load, the battery connected to the mobile system consumed about 33% less energy than that one connected to the fixed system (author)

  14. Research, development, and demonstration of lead-acid batteries for electric vehicle propulsion. Annual report for 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-03-01

    Work performed during Oct. 1, 1979 to Sept. 30, 1980 for the development of lead-acid batteries for electric vehicle propulsion is described. During this report period many of the results frpm Globe Battery's design, materials and process development programs became evident in the achievement of the ISOA (Improved State of Art) specific energy, specific power, and energy efficiency goals while testing in progress also indicates that the cycle life goal can be met. These programs led to the establishment of a working pilot assembly line which produced the first twelve volt ISOA modules. Five of these modules were delivered to the National Battery Test Laboratory during the year for capacity, power and life testing, and assembly is in progress of three full battery systems for installation in vehicles. In the battery subsystem area, design of the acid circulation system for a ninety-six volt ISOA battery pack was completed and assembly of the first such system was initiated. Charger development has been slowed by problems encountered with reliability of some circuits but a prototype unit is being prepared which will meet the charging requirements of our ninety-six volt pack. This charger will be available during the 1981 fiscal year.

  15. High Temperature Battery for In Situ Exploration of Venus Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Development of batteries capable of operational temperatures of 380?C and 486oC with a specific capacity 200 Wh/kg for use as a power source on the Venusian surface...

  16. Fe-N-C catalyst modified graphene sponge as a cathode material for lithium-oxygen battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Hydrothermally-synthesized graphene sponge is excellent skeleton of Li-O2 cathode. • Fe-N-C catalyst loaded on GS was attained via pyrolysis of FePc and GS composites. • High capacity and good cyclability were achieved with Fe-N-GS air electrode. • The synergy of porous structure and catalytic activity leads to the high performance. - Abstract: The cathode of a lithium-oxygen battery needs the synergism of a porous conducting material and a catalyst to facilitate the formation and decomposition of lithium peroxide. Here we introduce a graphene sponge (GS) modified with Fe-N-C catalyst for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and the oxygen evolution reaction (OER). The porous, 3-dimensional conductive and free standing nature of the graphene sponge makes it become excellent skeleton of cathode for lithium-oxygen battery. The Fe-N-C catalyst nanoparticles dispersed uniformly on the graphene sheets show excellent catalytic reactivity in both discharge and charge processes. This kind of composite material greatly improves the capacity and cyclability of the lithium-oxygen battery. With dimethyl sulphoxide as electrolyte, the capacity reaches 6762 mAh g−1 which is twice of the pure graphene sponge. In addition, the cell containing Fe-N-GS air electrode exhibits stable cyclic performance and effective reduction of charge potential plateau, indicating that Fe-N-GS is promising as an OER catalyst in rechargeable lithium-air batteries

  17. Fe-N-C catalyst modified graphene sponge as a cathode material for lithium-oxygen battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Ling, E-mail: yulingcug@126.com; Shen, Yue, E-mail: shenyue1213@mail.hust.edu.cn; Huang, Yunhui, E-mail: huangyh@mail.hust.edu.cn

    2014-05-15

    Highlights: • Hydrothermally-synthesized graphene sponge is excellent skeleton of Li-O{sub 2} cathode. • Fe-N-C catalyst loaded on GS was attained via pyrolysis of FePc and GS composites. • High capacity and good cyclability were achieved with Fe-N-GS air electrode. • The synergy of porous structure and catalytic activity leads to the high performance. - Abstract: The cathode of a lithium-oxygen battery needs the synergism of a porous conducting material and a catalyst to facilitate the formation and decomposition of lithium peroxide. Here we introduce a graphene sponge (GS) modified with Fe-N-C catalyst for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and the oxygen evolution reaction (OER). The porous, 3-dimensional conductive and free standing nature of the graphene sponge makes it become excellent skeleton of cathode for lithium-oxygen battery. The Fe-N-C catalyst nanoparticles dispersed uniformly on the graphene sheets show excellent catalytic reactivity in both discharge and charge processes. This kind of composite material greatly improves the capacity and cyclability of the lithium-oxygen battery. With dimethyl sulphoxide as electrolyte, the capacity reaches 6762 mAh g{sup −1} which is twice of the pure graphene sponge. In addition, the cell containing Fe-N-GS air electrode exhibits stable cyclic performance and effective reduction of charge potential plateau, indicating that Fe-N-GS is promising as an OER catalyst in rechargeable lithium-air batteries.

  18. Photoelectrochemical solar battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The invention refers to the field of solar-to electric energy conservation and may be used for the creation of photoelectrochemical regenerating converters. Summary of the invention consists in that the photoelectrochemical solar battery includes a semiconducting photo-electrodes and a counter-electrode , placed into the electrolyte solution. The photo-electrode is made of the compounds A3B5, and in the capacity of electrolyte solution is used an aqueoua solution Na2SiO3. The result of the invention consists in the absorbtion from the electrtolyte solution of the ions SiO3 and HSiO3 on the photo-electrode working surface, that leads to a decrease in the corrosion of the latter

  19. Performance Comparison of Commercial Mobile Phone Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mat, Azrulnizam; Buniran, Surani; Sulaiman, Mohd Ali

    2002-12-01

    Mobile phone is not only accepted as a communication apparatus, but also as a contemporary life style. Multifunctional mobile phone requires high energy density battery and at the same time, the miniaturization of the device requires slimmer and lighter battery. There are many brands of lithium-ion battery manufactured by different companies available in the market. In order to focus on the perspective of the battery performance, a study on the performance of the commercial battery was conducted. Various brands and designs of lithium-ion batteries manufactured by different companies from different countries were purchased from open market. Samples were analyzed based on the cycle life and discharging rate. The cycle life tests were performed with 1C current discharge, whereas the discharge rate was performed using discharge current at 0.2C, 0.5C, 1C and 2C. Recovery capacity at high rate discharge, 2C is about 90 to 96% of 0.2C capacity. Cycle life performance is above 300 cycles and some good sample can achieve more than 500 cycles.

  20. Bacterial Acclimation Inside an Aqueous Battery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dexian Dong

    Full Text Available Specific environmental stresses may lead to induced genomic instability in bacteria, generating beneficial mutants and potentially accelerating the breeding of industrial microorganisms. The environmental stresses inside the aqueous battery may be derived from such conditions as ion shuttle, pH gradient, free radical reaction and electric field. In most industrial and medical applications, electric fields and direct currents are used to kill bacteria and yeast. However, the present study focused on increasing bacterial survival inside an operating battery. Using a bacterial acclimation strategy, both Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis were acclimated for 10 battery operation cycles and survived in the battery for over 3 days. The acclimated bacteria changed in cell shape, growth rate and colony color. Further analysis indicated that electrolyte concentration could be one of the major factors determining bacterial survival inside an aqueous battery. The acclimation process significantly improved the viability of both bacteria E. coli and B. subtilis. The viability of acclimated strains was not affected under battery cycle conditions of 0.18-0.80 mA cm(-2 and 1.4-2.1 V. Bacterial addition within 1.0×10(10 cells mL(-1 did not significantly affect battery performance. Because the environmental stress inside the aqueous battery is specific, the use of this battery acclimation strategy may be of great potential for the breeding of industrial microorganisms.

  1. Nanoshell Encapsulated Li-ion Battery Anodes for Long Cycle Life Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A new high capacity rechargeable Li battery anode based on Li metal alloys protected by carbon nanoshells will be developed. A reversible Li-ion capacity exceeding...

  2. Bulk solid state rechargeable lithium ion battery fabrication with Al-doped Li7La3Zr2O12 electrolyte and Cu0.1V2O5 cathode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple, low-temperature route was developed to process bulk solid-state Li-ion batteries employing Al-doped Li7La3Zr2O12 solid electrolyte (thickness: ∼ 0.5 mm; 25 °C conductivity: ∼ 2 × 10−4 S cm−1). A composite Cu0.1V2O5–based slurry was directly painted on Li7La3Zr2O12 and dried at 120 °C to prepare the cathode film. The opposite side of the electrolyte was subsequently exposed to molten Li to form the anode. The discharge capacity of the solid state battery was 53 mAh g−1 (calculated based on the weight of active cathode material) at room temperature with 5 μA cm−2 discharging current. Severe capacity decay occurred after the initial discharging. A comparable liquid electrolyte battery was tested at room temperature for comparison and had a much slower decay rate. However, when the operating temperature of the solid state battery was increased to 50 °C, the cell performance significantly improved. At 50 °C, the battery exhibited 176 mAh g−1 initial discharging capacity at 5 μA cm−2 current density and 93 mAh g−1 initial capacity under a 10 μA cm−2 discharging current density. After 20 cycles, the capacity decayed to 68.6 mAh g−1 when cycled at a 10 μA cm−2 current density. Impedance spectroscopy was used to investigate the interface resistance of the battery at different temperatures. The results indicated that both the cathode and anode interface resistance were dramatically reduced at 50 °C. The decrease in interface resistances at elevated temperature is proposed as the main reason for the observed battery performance enhancement

  3. Alkaline quinone flow battery

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Kaixiang; Chen, Qing; Gerhardt, Michael; Tong, Liuchuan; Kim, Sang Bok; Eisenach, Louise Ann; Valle, Alvaro West; Hardee, D.; Gordon, Roy Gerald; Aziz, Michael J.; Marshak, M

    2015-01-01

    Storage of photovoltaic and wind electricity in batteries could solve the mismatch problem between the intermittent supply of these renewable resources and variable demand. Flow batteries permit more economical long-duration discharge than solid-electrode batteries by using liquid electrolytes stored outside of the battery. We report an alkaline flow battery based on redox-active organic molecules that are composed entirely of Earth-abundant elements and are nontoxic, nonflammable, and safe f...

  4. The Science of Battery Degradation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, John P; Fenton, Kyle R [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM; El Gabaly Marquez, Farid; Harris, Charles Thomas [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM; Hayden, Carl C.; Hudak, Nicholas [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM; Jungjohann, Katherine Leigh [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM; Kliewer, Christopher Jesse; Leung, Kevin [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM; McDaniel, Anthony H.; Nagasubramanian, Ganesan [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM; Sugar, Joshua Daniel; Talin, Albert Alec; Tenney, Craig M [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM; Zavadil, Kevin R. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM

    2015-01-01

    This report documents work that was performed under the Laboratory Directed Research and Development project, Science of Battery Degradation. The focus of this work was on the creation of new experimental and theoretical approaches to understand atomistic mechanisms of degradation in battery electrodes that result in loss of electrical energy storage capacity. Several unique approaches were developed during the course of the project, including the invention of a technique based on ultramicrotoming to cross-section commercial scale battery electrodes, the demonstration of scanning transmission x-ray microscopy (STXM) to probe lithium transport mechanisms within Li-ion battery electrodes, the creation of in-situ liquid cells to observe electrochemical reactions in real-time using both transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and STXM, the creation of an in-situ optical cell utilizing Raman spectroscopy and the application of the cell for analyzing redox flow batteries, the invention of an approach for performing ab initio simulation of electrochemical reactions under potential control and its application for the study of electrolyte degradation, and the development of an electrochemical entropy technique combined with x-ray based structural measurements for understanding origins of battery degradation. These approaches led to a number of scientific discoveries. Using STXM we learned that lithium iron phosphate battery cathodes display unexpected behavior during lithiation wherein lithium transport is controlled by nucleation of a lithiated phase, leading to high heterogeneity in lithium content at each particle and a surprising invariance of local current density with the overall electrode charging current. We discovered using in-situ transmission electron microscopy that there is a size limit to lithiation of silicon anode particles above which particle fracture controls electrode degradation. From electrochemical entropy measurements, we discovered that entropy

  5. On Uncertainty Quantification of Lithium-ion Batteries

    CERN Document Server

    Hadigol, Mohammad; Doostan, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    In this work, a stochastic, physics-based model for Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) is presented in order to study the effects of model uncertainties on the cell capacity, voltage, and concentrations. To this end, the proposed uncertainty quantification (UQ) approach, based on sparse polynomial chaos expansions, relies on a small number of battery simulations. Within this UQ framework, the identification of most important uncertainty sources is achieved by performing a global sensitivity analysis via computing the so-called Sobol' indices. Such information aids in designing more efficient and targeted quality control procedures, which consequently may result in reducing the LIB production cost. An LiC$_6$/LiCoO$_2$ cell with 19 uncertain parameters discharged at 0.25C, 1C and 4C rates is considered to study the performance and accuracy of the proposed UQ approach. The results suggest that, for the considered cell, the battery discharge rate is a key factor affecting not only the performance variability of the ce...

  6. Lithium ion batteries based on nanoporous silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolbert, Sarah H.; Nemanick, Eric J.; Kang, Chris Byung-Hwa

    2015-09-22

    A lithium ion battery that incorporates an anode formed from a Group IV semiconductor material such as porous silicon is disclosed. The battery includes a cathode, and an anode comprising porous silicon. In some embodiments, the anode is present in the form of a nanowire, a film, or a powder, the porous silicon having a pore diameters within the range between 2 nm and 100 nm and an average wall thickness of within the range between 1 nm and 100 nm. The lithium ion battery further includes, in some embodiments, a non-aqueous lithium containing electrolyte. Lithium ion batteries incorporating a porous silicon anode demonstrate have high, stable lithium alloying capacity over many cycles.

  7. Membranes for redox flow battery applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prifti, Helen; Parasuraman, Aishwarya; Winardi, Suminto; Lim, Tuti Mariana; Skyllas-Kazacos, Maria

    2012-01-01

    The need for large scale energy storage has become a priority to integrate renewable energy sources into the electricity grid. Redox flow batteries are considered the best option to store electricity from medium to large scale applications. However, the current high cost of redox flow batteries impedes the wide spread adoption of this technology. The membrane is a critical component of redox flow batteries as it determines the performance as well as the economic viability of the batteries. The membrane acts as a separator to prevent cross-mixing of the positive and negative electrolytes, while still allowing the transport of ions to complete the circuit during the passage of current. An ideal membrane should have high ionic conductivity, low water intake and excellent chemical and thermal stability as well as good ionic exchange capacity. Developing a low cost, chemically stable membrane for redox flow cell batteries has been a major focus for many groups around the world in recent years. This paper reviews the research work on membranes for redox flow batteries, in particular for the all-vanadium redox flow battery which has received the most attention. PMID:24958177

  8. Membranes for Redox Flow Battery Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Skyllas-Kazacos

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The need for large scale energy storage has become a priority to integrate renewable energy sources into the electricity grid. Redox flow batteries are considered the best option to store electricity from medium to large scale applications. However, the current high cost of redox flow batteries impedes the wide spread adoption of this technology. The membrane is a critical component of redox flow batteries as it determines the performance as well as the economic viability of the batteries. The membrane acts as a separator to prevent cross-mixing of the positive and negative electrolytes, while still allowing the transport of ions to complete the circuit during the passage of current. An ideal membrane should have high ionic conductivity, low water intake and excellent chemical and thermal stability as well as good ionic exchange capacity. Developing a low cost, chemically stable membrane for redox flow cell batteries has been a major focus for many groups around the world in recent years. This paper reviews the research work on membranes for redox flow batteries, in particular for the all-vanadium redox flow battery which has received the most attention.

  9. Test Series 2: seismic-fragility tests of naturally-aged Class 1E Exide FHC-19 battery cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The seismic-fragility of naturally-aged nuclear station safety-related batteries is of interest for two reasons: (1) to determine actual failure modes and their thresholds and (2) to determine the validity of using the electrical capacity of individual cells as an indicator of the ''end-of-life'' of a battery if subjected to a seismic event. This report, the second in a test series of an extensive seismic research program, covers the testing of 10-year old lead-calcium Exide FHC-19 cells from the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Station operated by the Baltimore Gas and Electric Company. The Exide cells were tested in two configurations using a triaxial shake table: single-cell tests, both rigidly and loosely mounted; and multicell (three-cell) tests, mounted in a typical battery rack. A total of six electrically active cells was used in the two different cell configurations

  10. Synthesis, Characterization and Performance of Cathodes for Lithium Ion Batteries

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Jianxin

    2014-01-01

    Lithium ion batteries provide a high energy density, higher voltage as well as a long shelf life compared to traditionally used lead acid, NiMH and NiCd batteries. Thus, they are a very promising energy storage system for our daily life. As one of the most important components in a battery, cathode materials have been investigated intensively in recent years as they play a key role in determining the cell voltage and discharge capacity in a battery. Both layered Li(Ni1/3Co1/3Mn1/3)O2 (NCM) an...

  11. Bipolar batteries based on Ebonex ® technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loyns, A. C.; Hill, A.; Ellis, K. G.; Partington, T. J.; Hill, J. M.

    Continuing work by Atraverda on the production of a composite-laminate form of the Ebonex ® material, that can be cheaply formulated and manufactured to form substrate plates for bipolar lead-acid batteries, is described. Ebonex ® is the registered trade name of a range of titanium suboxide ceramic materials, typically Ti 4O 7 and Ti 5O 9, which combine electrical conductivity with high corrosion and oxidation resistance. Details of the structure of the composite, battery construction techniques and methods for filling and forming of batteries are discussed. In addition, lifetime and performance data obtained by Atraverda from laboratory bipolar lead-acid batteries and cells are presented. Battery production techniques for both conventional monopolar and bipolar batteries are reviewed. The findings indicate that substantial time and cost savings may be realised in the manufacture of bipolar batteries in comparison to conventional designs. This is due to the fewer processing steps required and more efficient formation. The results indicate that the use of Ebonex ® composite material as a bipolar substrate will provide lightweight and durable high-voltage lead-acid batteries suitable for a wide range of applications including advanced automotive, stationary power and portable equipment.

  12. Modeling and simulation of electric vehicles - The effect of different Li-ion battery technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Hülsebusch, Dirk; Schwunk, Simon; Caron, Simon; Propfe, Bernd

    2010-01-01

    Limited range is one of the main drawbacks of battery electric vehicles. Especially at low temperatures the range is reduced due to low battery capacity and power as well as additional energy demand for auxiliaries. In order to compare different battery technologies regarding their in-vehicle performance, a model based approach is chosen. Several battery technologies are modeled and implemented into a simulation environment for vehicle systems. In addition, varying test cases are defined to a...

  13. The Use of Small Cell Lithium-Ion Batteries for Small Satellite Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Pearson, Chris; Thwaite, Carl; Russel, Nick

    2004-01-01

    During solar eclipse, spacecraft rely on batteries to power all on-board electrical systems. Advances in battery technology have lead to lighter products that, in turn, allow spacecraft to fly heavier and more capable payloads. AEA Technology has pioneered the current state of the art in the space community1: Lithium-ion battery technology. Traditionally space batteries were composed of a single series connected string of cells. The cells are sized (in terms of capacity) according to mission ...

  14. Charger for NiMH batteries based on buck DC/DC converter

    OpenAIRE

    Lapčević Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    In this paper is presented charger for NiMH battery types AA. Charger is realized by Buck DC/DC converter and microcontroller. Microcontroller controls the work of Buck DC/DC converter by pulse width modulation and by measuring the current of battery charging. The current of charging is held constant by power electronics, and the time of charging is set by the user dependent of capacity of the battery. Standard battery chargers enable the recharge of NiMH b...

  15. Pre-Study for a Battery Storage for a Kinetic Energy Storage System

    OpenAIRE

    Svensson, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    This bachelor thesis investigates what kind of battery system that is suitable for an electric driveline equipped with a mechanical fly wheel, focusing on a battery with high specific energy capacity. Basic battery theory such as the principle of an electrochemical cell, limitations and C-rate is explained as well as the different major battery systems that are available. Primary and secondary cells are discussed, including the major secondary chemistries such as lead acid, nickel cadmium (Ni...

  16. Complex hydrides as room-temperature solid electrolytes for rechargeable batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jongh, P. E. de; Blanchard, D.; Matsuo, M.;

    2016-01-01

    A central goal in current battery research is to increase the safety and energy density of Li-ion batteries. Electrolytes nowadays typically consist of lithium salts dissolved in organic solvents. Solid electrolytes could facilitate safer batteries with higher capacities, as they are compatible...... electrolytes, discussing in detail LiBH4, strategies towards for fast room-temperature ionic conductors, alternative compounds, and first explorations of implementation of these electrolytes in all-solid-state batteries....

  17. Stochastic Online Control for Energy-Harvesting Wireless Networks with Battery Imperfections

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xin; Ma, Tianhui; Zhang, Rongsheng; Zhou, Xiaolin

    2016-01-01

    In energy harvesting (EH) network, the energy storage devices (i.e., batteries) are usually not perfect. In this paper, we consider a practical battery model with finite battery capacity, energy (dis-)charging loss, and energy dissipation. Taking into account such battery imperfections, we rely on the Lyapunov optimization technique to develop a stochastic online control scheme that aims to maximize the utility of data rates for EH multi-hop wireless networks. It is established that the propo...

  18. Comparison study on the battery models used for the energy management of batteries in electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► The seven representative battery models are summarized. ► The model equations are built and the model parameters are identified with an online method. ► An evaluation is performed on the battery models by an experiment approach. ► The equivalent circuit model with two RC networks has an optimal performance. - Abstract: Battery model plays an important role in the simulation of electric vehicles (EVs) and states estimation of the batteries in the development of the model-based battery management system. To build a battery model with enough precision and suitable complexity, firstly this paper summarizes the seven representative battery models, which belong to the simplified electrochemical models or the equivalent circuit models. Then the model equations are built and the model parameters are identified with an online parameter identification method. The battery test bench is built and the experiment schedule is designed. Finally an evaluation is performed on the seven battery models by an experiment approach from the aspects of the estimation accuracy of the terminal voltages. To evaluate the effect of the number of RC networks on the model’s precision, the battery general equivalent circuit models (GECMs) with different RC networks are also discussed further. The results indicate the equivalent circuit model with two RC networks, the DP model, has an optimal performance.

  19. Cardiac pacemakers and nuclear batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following the introduction giving the indications for cardiac pacemaker therapy with special regard to the use of pacemakers powered by nuclear batteries, reference is made to the resulting radiation exposure of the patient. The activities of the Federal Health Office in this field such as recommendations and surveys including the entire Federal Republic are outlined. (orig.)

  20. System dynamic model and charging control of lead-acid battery for stand-alone solar PV system

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, B.J.

    2010-05-01

    The lead-acid battery which is widely used in stand-alone solar system is easily damaged by a poor charging control which causes overcharging. The battery charging control is thus usually designed to stop charging after the overcharge point. This will reduce the storage energy capacity and reduce the service time in electricity supply. The design of charging control system however requires a good understanding of the system dynamic behaviour of the battery first. In the present study, a first-order system dynamics model of lead-acid battery at different operating points near the overcharge voltage was derived experimentally, from which a charging control system based on PI algorithm was developed using PWM charging technique. The feedback control system for battery charging after the overcharge point (14 V) was designed to compromise between the set-point response and the disturbance rejection. The experimental results show that the control system can suppress the battery voltage overshoot within 0.1 V when the solar irradiation is suddenly changed from 337 to 843 W/m2. A long-term outdoor test for a solar LED lighting system shows that the battery voltage never exceeded 14.1 V for the set point 14 V and the control system can prevent the battery from overcharging. The test result also indicates that the control system is able to increase the charged energy by 78%, as compared to the case that the charging stops after the overcharge point (14 V). © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Prismatic sealed nickel-cadmium batteries utilizing fiber structured electrodes. II - Applications as a maintenance free aircraft battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderman, Menahem; Benczur-Urmossy, Gabor; Haschka, Friedrich

    Test data on prismatic sealed Ni-Cd batteries utilizing fiber structured electrodes (sealed FNC) is discussed. It is shown that, under a voltage limited charging scheme, the charge acceptance of the sealed FNC battery is far superior to that of the standard vented aircraft Ni-Cd batteries. This results in the sealed FNC battery maintaining its capacity over several thousand cycles without any need for electrical conditioning or water topping. APU start data demonstrate superior power capabilities over existing technologies. Performance at low temperature is presented. Abuse test results reveal a safe fail mechanism even under severe electrical abuse.

  2. Investigation of the Self-Discharge Behavior of Lithium-Sulfur Batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knap, Vaclav; Stroe, Daniel Loan; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef;

    2016-01-01

    Lithium-Sulfur (Li-S) batteries represent a perspective energy storage technology, which reaches very high theoretical limits in terms of specific capacity, specific energy, and energy density. However, Li-S batteries are governed by the polysulfide shuttle mechanism, which causes fast capacity...

  3. An ultrafast rechargeable aluminium-ion battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Meng-Chang; Gong, Ming; Lu, Bingan; Wu, Yingpeng; Wang, Di-Yan; Guan, Mingyun; Angell, Michael; Chen, Changxin; Yang, Jiang; Hwang, Bing-Joe; Dai, Hongjie

    2015-04-01

    The development of new rechargeable battery systems could fuel various energy applications, from personal electronics to grid storage. Rechargeable aluminium-based batteries offer the possibilities of low cost and low flammability, together with three-electron-redox properties leading to high capacity. However, research efforts over the past 30 years have encountered numerous problems, such as cathode material disintegration, low cell discharge voltage (about 0.55 volts ref. 5), capacitive behaviour without discharge voltage plateaus (1.1-0.2 volts or 1.8-0.8 volts) and insufficient cycle life (less than 100 cycles) with rapid capacity decay (by 26-85 per cent over 100 cycles). Here we present a rechargeable aluminium battery with high-rate capability that uses an aluminium metal anode and a three-dimensional graphitic-foam cathode. The battery operates through the electrochemical deposition and dissolution of aluminium at the anode, and intercalation/de-intercalation of chloroaluminate anions in the graphite, using a non-flammable ionic liquid electrolyte. The cell exhibits well-defined discharge voltage plateaus near 2 volts, a specific capacity of about 70 mA h g-1 and a Coulombic efficiency of approximately 98 per cent. The cathode was found to enable fast anion diffusion and intercalation, affording charging times of around one minute with a current density of ~4,000 mA g-1 (equivalent to ~3,000 W kg-1), and to withstand more than 7,500 cycles without capacity decay.

  4. Performance characteristics of an electric vehicle lead-acid battery pack at elevated temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, P.

    1982-01-01

    Discharge testing data electric car battery pack over initial electrolyte temperature variations between 27 and 55 C are presented. The tests were conducted under laboratory conditions and then compared to detailed electric vehicle simulation models. Battery discharge capacity increased with temperature for constant current discharges, and battery energy capacity increased with temperature for constant power discharges. Dynamometer tests of the electric test vehicle showed an increase in range of 25% for the higher electrolyte temperature.

  5. Operando Characterization of Intermediates Produced in a Lithium-Sulfur Battery

    OpenAIRE

    Gorlin, Y.; Siebel, A; Piana, M.; Huthwelker, T.; Jha, H; Monsch, G.; Kraus, F.; Gasteiger, H.A.; Tromp, M.

    2015-01-01

    One of the technological barriers to electrification of transport is the insufficient storage capacity of the Li-ion batteries on which the current electric cars are based. The lithium-sulfur (Li-S) battery is an advanced technology whose successful commercialization can lead to significant gains in the storage capacity of batteries and promote wide-spread adoption of electric vehicles. Recently, important Li-S intermediates, including polysulfides, S3(center dot-), and Li2S, have been shown ...

  6. In Situ Synchrotron XRD on a Capillary Li-O2 Battery Cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storm, Mie Møller; Johnsen, Rune E.; Younesi, Reza; Norby, Poul

    In situ studies give an opportunity to explore systems with a minimum of external interference. As Li-air batteries hold the promise for a future battery technology the investigation of the discharge and charge components of the cathode and anode is of importance, as these components may hold the...... key to making a large capacity rechargeable battery[1]. Different design for in situ XRD studies of Li-O2 batteries has been published, based on coin cell like configuration[2] [3] or Swagelok designs [4]. Capillary batteries have been investigated for the Li-ion system since its development[5], but...... no capillary batteries of Li-air has yet been designed. Some of the advantage of the capillary battery design lies in its ability to separate the cathode and anode and avoid the use of glass fiber or separators, which may enable ex situ analysis of battery components. The battery design consist of a...

  7. Electrical performance and chemical composition studies on original and falsified Ni-MH batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Urbano

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available We show in this paper that falsifications on technological products have hit even rechargeable nickel metal hydride batteries (Ni-MH. The electrical performance and the electrode chemical composition were investigated for authentic and falsified AAA Ni-MH batteries, purchased in the Londrina market, Paraná State. Battery charge capacities were measured at 0,2 C discharge rate and average electrical power was measured at 0.2 and 0.8 C discharge rate. To perform chemical composition analysis, the batteries were vacuum dismantled and their electrodes were characterized by Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD techniques. It was observed that the charge capacities for the authentic and falsified batteries were 920 and 154 mAh, respectively. The average electrical powers were 210 mW for authentic and 41 mW for falsified batteries. The cathode chemical composition was nickel hydroxide, (Ni(OH2, for both kinds of batteries. However, the anodes of these batteries were not composed by the same materials. The alloy LaNi5 was identified as the electroactive compound in the anode of the authentic battery, while cadmium hydroxide compound, (Cd (OH2, was identified in the falsified battery anode. The authentic battery therefore presented six times more charge capacity, five times more power at 0.2 C discharge rate and 6 times at 0.8 C than the falsified battery, and are yet less dangerous to environment due cadmium absence.

  8. Flexible Grouping for Enhanced Energy Utilization Efficiency in Battery Energy Storage Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiping Diao

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available As a critical subsystem in electric vehicles and smart grids, a battery energy storage system plays an essential role in enhancement of reliable operation and system performance. In such applications, a battery energy storage system is required to provide high energy utilization efficiency, as well as reliability. However, capacity inconsistency of batteries affects energy utilization efficiency dramatically; and the situation becomes more severe after hundreds of cycles because battery capacities change randomly due to non-uniform aging. Capacity mismatch can be solved by decomposing a cluster of batteries in series into several low voltage battery packs. This paper introduces a new analysis method to optimize energy utilization efficiency by finding the best number of batteries in a pack, based on capacity distribution, order statistics, central limit theorem, and converter efficiency. Considering both battery energy utilization and power electronics efficiency, it establishes that there is a maximum energy utilization efficiency under a given capacity distribution among a certain number of batteries, which provides a basic analysis for system-level optimization of a battery system throughout its life cycle. Quantitative analysis results based on aging data are illustrated, and a prototype of flexible energy storage systems is built to verify this analysis.

  9. Surface-Coating Regulated Lithiation Kinetics and Degradation in Silicon Nanowires for Lithium Ion Battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Langli; Yang, Hui; Yan, Pengfei; Travis, Jonathan J.; Lee, Younghee; Liu, Nian; Piper, Daniela M.; Lee, Se-Hee; Zhao, Peng; George, Steven M.; Zhang, Jiguang; Cui, Yi; Zhang, Sulin; Ban, Chunmei; Wang, Chong M.

    2015-05-26

    Silicon (Si)-based materials hold promise as the next-generation anodes for high-energy lithium (Li)-ion batteries. Enormous research efforts have been undertaken to mitigate the chemo-mechanical failure due to the large volume changes of Si during lithiation and delithiation cycles. It has been found nanostructured Si coated with carbon or other functional materials can lead to significantly improved cyclability. However, the underlying mechanism and comparative performance of different coatings remain poorly understood. Herein, using in situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) through a nanoscale half-cell battery, in combination with chemo-mechanical simulation, we explored the effect of thin (~5 nm) alucone and Al2O3 coatings on the lithiation kinetics of Si nanowires (SiNWs). We observed that the alucone coating leads to a “V-shaped” lithiation front of the SiNWs , while the Al2O3 coating yields an “H-shaped” lithiation front. These observations indicate that the difference between the Li surface diffusivity and bulk diffusivity of the coatings dictates lithiation induced morphological evolution in the nanowires. Our experiments also indicate that the reaction rate in the coating layer can be the limiting step for lithiation and therefore critically influences the rate performance of the battery. Further, the failure mechanism of the Al2O3 coated SiNWs was also explored. Our studies shed light on the design of high capacity, high rate and long cycle life Li-ion batteries.

  10. Results of cycling with battery charging management; Resultats de cyclage avec gestion de charge au niveau batterie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verniolle, J.; Fernandez, C. [European Space Research and Technology Centre, Noordwijk (Netherlands)

    1996-12-31

    In order to investigate the charging mode of an in-series assembly of lithium-carbon battery cells, a test has been performed on 5 commercial cells (18650) of 0.95 Ah nominal capacity. Results show that it is possible to cycle the cells at 80% of their output capacities during more than 2000 cycles. The management of the battery consists in maintaining a constant battery voltage as soon as a cell reaches its limit voltage during constant current charging. The initial dispersion of cells has been maintained practically constant during the cycling and the charge state of all cells has decreased progressively. (J.S.)

  11. A Combined State of Charge Estimation Method for Lithium-Ion Batteries Used in a Wide Ambient Temperature Range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Feng

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Ambient temperature is a significant factor that influences the characteristics of lithium-ion batteries, which can produce adverse effects on state of charge (SOC estimation. In this paper, an integrated SOC algorithm that combines an advanced ampere-hour counting (Adv Ah method and multistate open-circuit voltage (multi OCV method, denoted as “Adv Ah + multi OCV”, is proposed. Ah counting is a simple and general method for estimating SOC. However, the available capacity and coulombic efficiency in this method are influenced by the operating states of batteries, such as temperature and current, thereby causing SOC estimation errors. To address this problem, an enhanced Ah counting method that can alter the available capacity and coulombic efficiency according to temperature is proposed during the SOC calculation. Moreover, the battery SOCs between different temperatures can be mutually converted in accordance with the capacity loss. To compensate for the accumulating errors in Ah counting caused by the low precision of current sensors and lack of accurate initial SOC, the OCV method is used for calibration and as a complement. Given the variation of available capacities at different temperatures, rated/non-rated OCV–SOCs are established to estimate the initial SOCs in accordance with the Ah counting SOCs. Two dynamic tests, namely, constant- and alternated-temperature tests, are employed to verify the combined method at different temperatures. The results indicate that our method can provide effective and accurate SOC estimation at different ambient temperatures.

  12. Sustainable Sulfur-rich Copolymer/Graphene Composite as Lithium-Sulfur Battery Cathode with Excellent Electrochemical Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Arnab; Shukla, Swapnil; Khosla, Gaganpreet Singh; Lochab, Bimlesh; Mitra, Sagar

    2016-01-01

    A sulfur-rich copolymer, poly(S-r-C-a) has been synthesized via a sustainable route, showing the utility of two major industrial wastes- elemental sulfur (petroleum waste) and cardanol (agro waste), to explore its potential as cathode material for Li-S batteries. The sulfur-rich copolymer exhibited a reduction in the active material dissolution into the electrolyte and a low self-discharge rate behavior during the rest time compared to an elemental sulfur cathode, indicating the chemical confinement of sulfur units. The presence of organosulfur moieties in copolymer suppress the irreversible deposition of end-discharge products on electrode surfaces and thus improve the electrochemical performances of Li-S batteries. This sulfur copolymer offered a reversible capacity of 892 mA h g(-1) at 2nd cycle and maintained the capacity of 528 mA h g(-1) after 50 cycles at 200 mA g(-1). Reduced graphene oxide (rGO) prepared via a sustainable route was used as a conductive filler to extract the better electrochemical performances from this sulfur copolymer. Such sustainable origin batteries prepared via economically viable showed an improved specific capacity of ~975 mA h g(-1) after 100 cycles at 200 mA g(-1) current rate with capacity fading of 0.15% per cycle and maintained a stable performance over 500 cycles at 2000 mA g(-1). PMID:27121089

  13. Sustainable Sulfur-rich Copolymer/Graphene Composite as Lithium-Sulfur Battery Cathode with Excellent Electrochemical Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Arnab; Shukla, Swapnil; Khosla, Gaganpreet Singh; Lochab, Bimlesh; Mitra, Sagar

    2016-04-01

    A sulfur-rich copolymer, poly(S-r-C-a) has been synthesized via a sustainable route, showing the utility of two major industrial wastes- elemental sulfur (petroleum waste) and cardanol (agro waste), to explore its potential as cathode material for Li-S batteries. The sulfur-rich copolymer exhibited a reduction in the active material dissolution into the electrolyte and a low self-discharge rate behavior during the rest time compared to an elemental sulfur cathode, indicating the chemical confinement of sulfur units. The presence of organosulfur moieties in copolymer suppress the irreversible deposition of end-discharge products on electrode surfaces and thus improve the electrochemical performances of Li-S batteries. This sulfur copolymer offered a reversible capacity of 892 mA h g‑1 at 2nd cycle and maintained the capacity of 528 mA h g‑1 after 50 cycles at 200 mA g‑1. Reduced graphene oxide (rGO) prepared via a sustainable route was used as a conductive filler to extract the better electrochemical performances from this sulfur copolymer. Such sustainable origin batteries prepared via economically viable showed an improved specific capacity of ~975 mA h g‑1 after 100 cycles at 200 mA g‑1 current rate with capacity fading of 0.15% per cycle and maintained a stable performance over 500 cycles at 2000 mA g‑1.

  14. Electrochemical properties of electrospun poly(5-cyanoindole) submicron-fibrous electrode for zinc/polymer secondary battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Zhijiang; Guo, Jie; Yang, Haizheng; Xu, Yi

    2015-04-01

    This study aims to develop an aqueous zinc/electrospun poly(5-cyanoindole) fibers secondary battery system. Zn foil and ZnCl2 are used as anode active materials and the electrolytic solution, respectively. Poly(5-cyanoindole) synthesized by chemical oxidation is electrospun into fibers and used as cathode active materials. FTIR and NMR test are carried out to investigate the chemical structure of poly(5-cyanoindole). Surface properties of electrospun poly(5-cyanoindole) fibers are studied by SEM, TEM, and BET. The performance of zinc/electrospun poly(5-cyanoindole) fibers battery system is evaluated in term of electrical conductivity, cyclic voltammogram, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, discharge capacity and durability test. The cell achieves 2.0 V electromotive force with about 107-61 Ah Kg-1 discharge capacity at 0.2C-10C rate. At 800th cycle, the discharge capacity remains 80-57 Ah Kg-1 at 0.2C-2C rate, which is about 75-63% of the maximum discharge capacity. These results indicate that the cell has very excellent cyclic properties as well as fast charge/discharge properties. Electrospun poly(5-cyanoindole) fibers have been proved to be a better candidate than polyindole powder as cathode material in zinc/polymer battery.

  15. Sustainable Sulfur-rich Copolymer/Graphene Composite as Lithium-Sulfur Battery Cathode with Excellent Electrochemical Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Arnab; Shukla, Swapnil; Khosla, Gaganpreet Singh; Lochab, Bimlesh; Mitra, Sagar

    2016-01-01

    A sulfur-rich copolymer, poly(S-r-C-a) has been synthesized via a sustainable route, showing the utility of two major industrial wastes- elemental sulfur (petroleum waste) and cardanol (agro waste), to explore its potential as cathode material for Li-S batteries. The sulfur-rich copolymer exhibited a reduction in the active material dissolution into the electrolyte and a low self-discharge rate behavior during the rest time compared to an elemental sulfur cathode, indicating the chemical confinement of sulfur units. The presence of organosulfur moieties in copolymer suppress the irreversible deposition of end-discharge products on electrode surfaces and thus improve the electrochemical performances of Li-S batteries. This sulfur copolymer offered a reversible capacity of 892 mA h g−1 at 2nd cycle and maintained the capacity of 528 mA h g−1 after 50 cycles at 200 mA g−1. Reduced graphene oxide (rGO) prepared via a sustainable route was used as a conductive filler to extract the better electrochemical performances from this sulfur copolymer. Such sustainable origin batteries prepared via economically viable showed an improved specific capacity of ~975 mA h g−1 after 100 cycles at 200 mA g−1 current rate with capacity fading of 0.15% per cycle and maintained a stable performance over 500 cycles at 2000 mA g−1. PMID:27121089

  16. Effects of phosphate additives on the stability of positive electrolytes for vanadium flow batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A series of phosphates is investigated as additives for vanadium flow battery. • Superior V(V) thermal stability and improved electrochemical performance. • Enhanced battery efficiency and slower capacity fading. • Mechanism for the stabilization and performance improvement is put forward. • NH4H2PO4 indicates a promising candidate for additive of the positive electrolyte. - Abstract: A series of phosphates is investigated as additives to improve the stability of the electrolyte for vanadium flow battery (VFB). Two selected additives show positive effect on the stability of electrolytes under ex-situ stability tests and in situ flow cell experiments. The effects of additives on electrolyte are studied by Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, Cyclic voltammetry (CV), Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and charge–discharge test. The results show that a VFB using the electrolyte with NH4H2PO4additive demonstrates significantly improved redox reaction reversibility and activity, and higher energy efficiency. In addition, the cell employing the electrolyte with NH4H2PO4 exhibits a charge capacity fading rate much slower than the cell without additives during the cycling at high temperature. These results indicate that the phosphate additives are highly beneficial to improving the stability and reliability of VFB

  17. Rechargeable Room-Temperature Na-CO2 Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaofei; Sun, Jianchao; Li, Zifan; Zhao, Qing; Chen, Chengcheng; Chen, Jun

    2016-05-23

    Developing rechargeable Na-CO2 batteries is significant for energy conversion and utilization of CO2 . However, the reported batteries in pure CO2 atmosphere are non-rechargeable with limited discharge capacity of 200 mAh g(-1) . Herein, we realized the rechargeability of a Na-CO2 battery, with the proposed and demonstrated reversible reaction of 3 CO2 +4 Na↔2 Na2 CO3 +C. The battery consists of a Na anode, an ether-based electrolyte, and a designed cathode with electrolyte-treated multi-wall carbon nanotubes, and shows reversible capacity of 60000 mAh g(-1) at 1 A g(-1) (≈1000 Wh kg(-1) ) and runs for 200 cycles with controlled capacity of 2000 mAh g(-1) at charge voltage clean recycling and utilization of CO2 . PMID:27089434

  18. Ionene membrane battery separator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moacanin, J.; Tom, H. Y.

    1969-01-01

    Ionic transport characteristics of ionenes, insoluble membranes from soluble polyelectrolyte compositions, are studied for possible application in a battery separator. Effectiveness of the thin film of separator membrane essentially determines battery lifetime.

  19. Probing Capacity

    CERN Document Server

    Asnani, Himanshu; Weissman, Tsachy

    2010-01-01

    We consider the problem of optimal probing of states of a channel by transmitter and receiver for maximizing rate of reliable communication. The channel is discrete memoryless (DMC) with i.i.d. states. The encoder takes probing actions dependent on the message. It then uses the state information obtained from probing causally or non-causally to generate channel input symbols. The decoder may also take channel probing actions as a function of the observed channel output and use the channel state information thus acquired, along with the channel output, to estimate the message. We refer to the maximum achievable rate for reliable communication for such systems as the 'Probing Capacity'. We characterize this capacity when the encoder and decoder actions are cost constrained. To motivate the problem, we begin by characterizing the trade-off between the capacity and fraction of channel states the encoder is allowed to observe, while the decoder is aware of channel states. In this setting of 'to observe or not to o...

  20. Battery systems engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Rahn, Christopher D

    2012-01-01

    A complete all-in-one reference on the important interdisciplinary topic of Battery Systems Engineering Focusing on the interdisciplinary area of battery systems engineering, this book provides the background, models, solution techniques, and systems theory that are necessary for the development of advanced battery management systems. It covers the topic from the perspective of basic electrochemistry as well as systems engineering topics and provides a basis for battery modeling for system engineering of electric and hybrid electric vehicle platforms. This original

  1. Rechargeable batteries applications handbook

    CERN Document Server

    1998-01-01

    Represents the first widely available compendium of the information needed by those design professionals responsible for using rechargeable batteries. This handbook introduces the most common forms of rechargeable batteries, including their history, the basic chemistry that governs their operation, and common design approaches. The introduction also exposes reader to common battery design terms and concepts.Two sections of the handbook provide performance information on two principal types of rechargeable batteries commonly found in consumer and industrial products: sealed nickel-cad

  2. Battery Review Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughn, Chester

    1993-01-01

    The topics covered are presented in viewgraph form: NASA Battery Review Board Charter; membership, board chronology; background; statement of problem; summary of problems with 50 AH standard Ni-Cd; activities for near term programs utilizing conventional Ni-Cd; present projects scheduled to use NASA standard Ni-Cd; other near-term NASA programs requiring secondary batteries; recommended direction for future programs; future cell/battery procurement strategy; and the NASA Battery Program.

  3. Capacity Utilization in European Railways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khadem Sameni, Melody; Landex, Alex

    2013-01-01

    At the strategic level, railways currently use different indices to estimate how ‘value’ is generated by using railway capacity. However, railway capacity is a multidisciplinary area, and attempts to develop various indices cannot provide a holistic measure of operational efficiency. European...... railways are facing a capacity challenge which is caused by passenger and freight demand exceeding the track capacity supply. In the absence of a comprehensive railway capacity manual, methodologies are needed to assess how well railways use their track capacity. This paper presents a novel and...... unprecedented approach for this aim. Relative operational efficiency of 24 European railways in capacity utilization is studied for the first time by data envelopment analysis (DEA). It deviates from previous applications of DEA in the railway industry that are conducted to analyze cost efficiency of railways...

  4. Electric Vehicle Battery Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2014-01-01

    A serious drawback to electric vehicles [batteries only] is the idle time needed to recharge their batteries. In this challenge, students can develop ideas and concepts for battery change-out at automotive service stations. Such a capability would extend the range of electric vehicles.

  5. Fuzzy logic-based battery charge controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Photovoltaic power system are generally classified according to their functional and operational requirements, their component configurations, and how the equipment is connected to other power sources and electrical loads, photovoltaic systems can be designed to provide DC and/or AC power service, can operate interconnected with or independent of the utility grid, and can be connected with other energy sources and energy storage systems. Batteries are often used in PV systems for the purpose of storing energy produced by the PV array during the day, and to supply it to electrical loads as needed (during the night and periods of cloudy weather). The lead acid battery, although know for more than one hundred years, has currently offered the best response in terms of price, energetic efficiency and lifetime. The main function of controller or regulator in PV system is too fully charge the battery without permitting overcharge while preventing reverse current flow at night. If a no-self-regulating solar array is connected to lead acid batteries with no overcharge protection, battery life will be compromised. Simple controllers contain a transistor that disconnects or reconnects the PV in the charging circuit once a pre-set voltage is reached. More sophisticated controllers utilize pulse with modulation (PWM) to assure the battery is being fully charged. The first 70% to 80% of battery capacity is easily replaced, but the last 20% to 30% requires more attention and therefore more complexity. This complexity is avoided by using a skilled operators experience in the form of the rules. Thus a fuzzy control system seeks to control the battery that cannot be controlled well by a conventional control such as PID, PD, PI etc., due to the unavailability of an accurate mathematical model of the battery. In this paper design of an intelligent battery charger, in which the control algorithm is implemented with fuzzy logic is discussed. The digital architecture is implemented with

  6. Single Switched Capacitor Battery Balancing System Enhancements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joeri van Mierlo

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Battery management systems (BMS are a key element in electric vehicle energy storage systems. The BMS performs several functions concerning to the battery system, its key task being balancing the battery cells. Battery cell unbalancing hampers electric vehicles’ performance, with differing individual cell voltages decreasing the battery pack capacity and cell lifetime, leading to the eventual failure of the total battery system. Quite a lot of cell balancing topologies have been proposed, such as shunt resistor, shuttling capacitor, inductor/transformer based and DC energy converters. The shuttling capacitor balancing systems in particular have not been subject to much research efforts however, due to their perceived low balancing speed and high cost. This paper tries to fill this gap by briefly discussing the shuttling capacitor cell balancing topologies, focusing on the single switched capacitor (SSC cell balancing and proposing a novel procedure to improve the SSC balancing system performance. This leads to a new control strategy for the SSC system that can decrease the balancing system size, cost, balancing time and that can improve the SSC balancing system efficiency.

  7. Effects of iron phthalocyanine on performance of MH/Ni battery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王芳; 吴锋

    2004-01-01

    Oxygen evolution causes a high inner pressure during charge and overcharge for MH/Ni battery, and an inappropriate eliminating way of the oxygen in the battery results in accumulation of heat. This is the main obstacle to develop and apply high capability and high power battery. How to reduce the ratio of the chemical catalysis rate to the electric catalysis rate in MH/Ni battery is considered as an urgent question. Iron phthalocyanine(FePc) was chosen as an electrochemical catalyst. The batteries were prepared by adding iron phthalocyanine with different dosages. The inner pressure, the capacity attenuation, the discharge voltage and capacity at high current of these three batteries were compared. The battery with 1 mg FePc in the negative electrode exhibits a good performance.

  8. Experiments Study on Charge Technology of Lead-Acid Electric Vehicle Batteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Wen; ZHANG Cheng-ning

    2008-01-01

    The basic theory of the fast charge and several charge methods are introduced. In order to heighten charge efficiency of valve-regulated lead-acid battery and shorten the charge time, five charge methods are investigated with experiments done on the Digatron BNT 400-050 test bench. Battery current, terminal voltage, capacity, energy and terminal pole temperature during battery experiment were recorded, and corresponding curves were depicted. Battery capacity-time ratio, energy efficiency and energy-temperature ratio are put forward to be the appraising criteria of lead-acid battery on electric vehicle (EV). According to the appraising criteria and the battery curves, multistage-current/negative-pulse charge method is recommended to charge lead-acid EV battery.

  9. Hydrogenated amorphous silicon thin film anode for proton conducting batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Tiejun; Young, Kwo; Beglau, David; Yan, Shuli; Zeng, Peng; Cheng, Mark Ming-Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogenated amorphous Si (a-Si:H) thin films deposited by chemical vapor deposition were used as anode in a non-conventional nickel metal hydride battery using a proton-conducting ionic liquid based non-aqueous electrolyte instead of alkaline solution for the first time, which showed a high specific discharge capacity of 1418 mAh g-1 for the 38th cycle and retained 707 mAh g-1 after 500 cycles. A maximum discharge capacity of 3635 mAh g-1 was obtained at a lower discharge rate, 510 mA g-1. This electrochemical discharge capacity is equivalent to about 3.8 hydrogen atoms stored in each silicon atom. Cyclic voltammogram showed an improved stability 300 mV below the hydrogen evolution potential. Both Raman spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy studies showed no difference to the pre-existing covalent Si-H bond after electrochemical cycling and charging, indicating a non-covalent nature of the Si-H bonding contributing to the reversible hydrogen storage of the current material. Another a-Si:H thin film was prepared by an rf-sputtering deposition followed by an ex-situ hydrogenation, which showed a discharge capacity of 2377 mAh g-1.

  10. Practical state of health estimation of power batteries based on Delphi method and grey relational grade analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Bingxiang; Jiang, Jiuchun; Zheng, Fangdan; Zhao, Wei; Liaw, Bor Yann; Ruan, Haijun; Han, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Weige

    2015-05-01

    The state of health (SOH) estimation is very critical to battery management system to ensure the safety and reliability of EV battery operation. Here, we used a unique hybrid approach to enable complex SOH estimations. The approach hybridizes the Delphi method known for its simplicity and effectiveness in applying weighting factors for complicated decision-making and the grey relational grade analysis (GRGA) for multi-factor optimization. Six critical factors were used in the consideration for SOH estimation: peak power at 30% state-of-charge (SOC), capacity, the voltage drop at 30% SOC with a C/3 pulse, the temperature rises at the end of discharge and charge at 1C; respectively, and the open circuit voltage at the end of charge after 1-h rest. The weighting of these factors for SOH estimation was scored by the 'experts' in the Delphi method, indicating the influencing power of each factor on SOH. The parameters for these factors expressing the battery state variations are optimized by GRGA. Eight battery cells were used to illustrate the principle and methodology to estimate the SOH by this hybrid approach, and the results were compared with those based on capacity and power capability. The contrast among different SOH estimations is discussed.

  11. Selected test results from the neosonic polymer Li-ion battery.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ingersoll, David T.; Hund, Thomas D.

    2010-07-01

    The performance of the Neosonic polymer Li-ion battery was measured using a number of tests including capacity, capacity as a function of temperature, ohmic resistance, spectral impedance, hybrid pulsed power test, utility partial state of charge (PSOC) pulsed cycle test, and an over-charge/voltage abuse test. The goal of this work was to evaluate the performance of the polymer Li-ion battery technology for utility applications requiring frequent charges and discharges, such as voltage support, frequency regulation, wind farm energy smoothing, and solar photovoltaic energy smoothing. Test results have indicated that the Neosonic polymer Li-ion battery technology can provide power levels up to the 10C{sub 1} discharge rate with minimal energy loss compared to the 1 h (1C) discharge rate. Two of the three cells used in the utility PSOC pulsed cycle test completed about 12,000 cycles with only a gradual loss in capacity of 10 and 13%. The third cell experienced a 40% loss in capacity at about 11,000 cycles. The DC ohmic resistance and AC spectral impedance measurements also indicate that there were increases in impedance after cycling, especially for the third cell. Cell No.3 impedance Rs increased significantly along with extensive ballooning of the foil pouch. Finally, at a 1C (10 A) charge rate, the over charge/voltage abuse test with cell confinement similar to a multi cell string resulted in the cell venting hot gases at about 45 C 45 minutes into the test. At 104 minutes into the test the cell voltage spiked to the 12 volt limit and continued out to the end of the test at 151 minutes. In summary, the Neosonic cells performed as expected with good cycle-life and safety.

  12. Stannous sulfate as an electrolyte additive for lead acid battery made from a novel ultrafine leady oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qin; Liu, Jianwen; Yang, Danni; Yuan, Xiqing; Li, Lei; Zhu, Xinfeng; Zhang, Wei; Hu, Yucheng; Sun, Xiaojuan; Liang, Sha; Hu, Jingping; Kumar, R. Vasant; Yang, Jiakuan

    2015-07-01

    The effects of SnSO4 as an electrolyte additive on the microstructure of positive plate and electrochemical performance of lead acid battery made from a novel leady oxide are investigated. The novel leady oxide is synthesized through leaching of spent lead paste in citric acid solution. The novel leady oxides are used to prepare working electrode (WE) subjected to electrochemical cyclic voltammetry (CV) tests. Moreover, the novel leady oxides are used as active materials of positive plate assembled as a testing battery of 1.85 A h capacity. In CV tests, SEM/EDX results show that the major crystalline phase of the paste in WE after CV cycles is PbSO4. The larger column-shaped PbSO4 crystals easily generate in the paste of WE without an electrolyte additive of SnSO4. However, PbSO4 crystals significantly become smaller with the addition of SnSO4 in the electrolyte. In batteries testing, SEM results show that an electrolyte additive of SnSO4 could effectively decrease PbO2 particle size in the positive active materials of the teardown battery at the end of charging procedure. It is indicated that an electrolyte additive of SnSO4 could have a positive influence on restraining larger particles of irreversible sulfation in charge/discharge cycles of battery testing.

  13. Capacity Building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Outcomes & Recommendations: • Significant increase needed in the nuclear workforce both to replace soon-to-retire current generation and to staff large numbers of new units planned • Key message, was the importance of an integrated approach to workforce development. • IAEA and other International Organisations were asked to continue to work on Knowledge Management, Networks and E&T activities • IAEA requested to conduct Global Survey of HR needs – survey initiated but only 50% of operating countries (30% of capacity) took part, so results inconclusive

  14. Effects of state of charge on the degradation of LiFePO4/graphite batteries during accelerated storage test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Degradation of LiFePO4/graphite batteries under different state of charge at 55 °C is investigate. • Side reactions caused by self-discharge are the main reason for performance fade during storage. • The detailed degradation mechanism is proven by post-mortem analysis. • Increased electrode resistance in LiFePO4 cathode suggests that side reactions also happen at positive electrode. - Abstract: In this paper, the degradation of LiFePO4/graphite batteries during 10 months of storage under different temperatures and states of charge (SOCs) is studied. The effects of SOC during storage process are systematically investigated using electrochemical methods and post-mortem analysis. The results show that at elevated temperature of 55 °C, higher stored SOC results in more significant increase in bulk resistance (Rb) and charge-transfer resistance (Rct) of full battery, whereas the rate-discharge capability of stored battery is unchanged. The side reactions at the electrode/electrolyte interface caused by self-discharge are the main reasons for the performance fading during storage. For LiFePO4 cathode, long-time storage does not influence the framework structure under various SOCs. The existence of little irreversible capacity loss and impedance increase indicates that side reactions also occur at the positive electrode. For graphite anode, only a little capacity loss is found upon storage. There is a significant increase in impedance and a small amount of Fe deposition on graphite anode after storage at 100% SOC and 55 °C. The lithium ion loss arises from side reactions taking place at the graphite anode, which is responsible for the capacity degradation of battery during the storage process. XPS analysis confirms that a deposit layer composed of Li2CO3 and LiF is formed on the surface of anode

  15. The work ability index and functional capacity among older workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosimeire S. Padula

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Decreases in functional ability due to aging can impair work capacity and productivity among older workers. OBJECTIVE: This study compares the sociodemographics, health conditions, and physical functioning abilities of young and old workers as well as correlates of physical functioning capacity with the work ability index (WAI. METHOD: This exploratory, cross-sectional study examined employees of a higher education institution (HEI and those of a metallurgical industry. Older workers (50 years old or above were matched for gender and occupation type with younger workers (less than 50 years old. The following evaluations were applied: the multidimensional assessment questionnaire (which included sociodemographic, clinical, health perception, and physical health indices, the WAI, and a battery of physical functional tests. RESULTS: Diseases and regularly used medications were more common among the group of aging workers. The WAI did not differ between groups (p=0.237. Both groups showed similar physical functional capacity performances with regard to walking speed, muscle strength, and lower limb physical functioning. Aging workers showed a poorer performance on a test of right-leg support (p=0.004. The WAI was moderately correlated with the sit-to-stand test among older female workers (r=0.573, p=0.051. CONCLUSIONS: Unfavorable general health conditions did not affect the assessment of work ability or most of the tests of physical functional capacity in the aging group.

  16. Synthesis and Characterization of ZnFe2O4 Anode for Lithium Ion Battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIAO Li-Xia, WANG Ming, FANG Tao, YIN Ge-Ping, ZHOU Xiao-Guang, LOU Shuai-Feng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ZnFe2O4 materials with spinel structure were synthesized from ZnCl2 and FeCl3·6H2O by solvothermal method. Crystal structure and surface morphology were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and fourier transform infrared spectrum (FT-IR. Electrochemical performance was analyzed by constant current charging-discharging technique and cyclic voltammetry. The results showed that the particle size was about 250 nm. As an active material for lithium-ion batteries, the nano ZnFe2O4 material delivered a reversible capacity of 933.1 mAh/g at a current density of 50 mA/g. The specific charge capacity slightly decreased to 813.5 mAh/g, with a retention of 87.2% after 100 cycles. Furthermore, the material was able to release a capacity of 355 mAh/g at a current density as high as 400 mA/g, which demonstrated reasonable rate performance and moderately fast charge/discharge capabilities. Data from this study indicated that ZnFe2O4 nano-material prepared by solvothermal method is a promising anode material for lithium-ion battery with high capacity and superior cycling stability.

  17. Low-Temperature Hydrogen Storage Alloy and Its Application in Ni-MH Battery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶明大; 陈云贵; 吴朝玲; 付春艳; 涂铭旌

    2004-01-01

    Rare earth compositions, La, Ce and Pr in Mm(NiCoMnAl)5 hydrogen storage alloy, were arranged by uniform design method. The discharge performances and kinetics parameters including capacity, exchange current density, symmetry factor and hydrogen diffusion coefficient of the alloy at -40 ℃, were tested in standard tri-electrode cell. And linear regression method was used to analyze the effect of rare earth compositions on the performances of hydrogen storage alloys. The results show that the capacities of the alloys are positively correlative to the square of Ce content at -40 ℃ and under both 0.4 and 0.2C rate. The kinetics parameters and hydrogen diffusion coefficient indicate that the low-temperature performances of the alloys are mainly controlled by hydrogen diffusion process, and the surface electrochemical reaction affects the low-temperature performances to a certain extent. The low-temperature discharge capacities of the battery were also tested. The results show excellent low-temperature performances.The battery delivers 69.6% of its room-temperature capacity at -40 ℃ and 0.2C rate, 77.7% at -40 ℃ and 0.4C rate, 59.1% at -45 ℃ and 0.2C rate.

  18. Interface-Induced Renormalization of Electrolyte Energy Levels in Magnesium Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Nitin; Siegel, Donald J

    2016-03-01

    A promising strategy for increasing the energy density of Li-ion batteries is to substitute a multivalent (MV) metal for the commonly used lithiated carbon anode. Magnesium is a prime candidate for such a MV battery due to its high volumetric capacity, abundance, and limited tendency to form dendrites. One challenge that is slowing the implementation of Mg-based batteries, however, is the development of efficient and stable electrolytes. Computational screening for molecular species having sufficiently wide electrochemical windows is a starting point for the identification of optimal electrolytes. Nevertheless, this window can be altered via interfacial interactions with electrodes. These interactions are typically omitted in screening studies, yet they have the potential to generate large shifts to the HOMO and LUMO of the electrolyte components. The present study quantifies the stability of several common electrolyte solvents on model electrodes of relevance for Mg batteries. Many-body perturbation theory calculations based on the G0W0 method were used to predict shifts in a solvent's electronic levels arising from interfacial interactions. In molecules exhibiting large dipole moments, our calculations indicate that these interactions reduce the HOMO-LUMO gap by ∼25% (compared to isolated molecules). We conclude that electrode interactions can narrow an electrolyte's electrochemical window significantly, thereby accelerating redox decomposition reactions. Accounting for these interactions in screening studies presents an opportunity to refine predictions of electrolyte stability. PMID:26888224

  19. Feasibility study and economic analysis of pumped hydro storage and battery storage for a renewable energy powered island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Batteries and pumped hydro storage schemes are examined. • Sizing procedure for each option is investigated in detail. • The two schemes are compared in terms of life cycle cost and technical viability. • Sensitivity analyses are conducted on five key input parameters. - Abstract: This study examined and compared two energy storage technologies, i.e. batteries and pumped hydro storage (PHS), for the renewable energy powered microgrid power supply system on a remote island in Hong Kong. The problems of energy storage for off-grid renewable energy were analyzed. The sizing methods and economic models were developed, and finally applied in the real project (case study). The results provide the most suitable energy storage scheme for local decision-makers. The two storage schemes were further divided into 4 options. Accordingly, the life-cycle costs (LCC), levelized costs for the renewable energy storage system (LCRES) and the LCC ratios between all options were calculated and compared. It was found that the employment of conventional battery (Option 2) had a higher LCC value than the advanced deep cycle battery (Option 1), indicating that using deep cycle batteries is more suitable for a standalone renewable power supply system. The pumped storage combined with battery bank option (Option 3) had only 55% LCC of that of Option 1, making this combined option more cost-competitive than the sole battery option. The economic benefit of pumped storage is even more significant in the case of purely pumped storage with a hydraulic controller (Option 4), with the lowest LCC among all options at 29–48% of Option 1. Sensitivity analysis demonstrates that PHS is even more cost competitive by controlling some adjustments such as increasing energy storage capacity and days of autonomy. Therefore, the renewable energy system coupled with pumped storage presents technically feasible opportunities and practical potential for continuous power supply in remote

  20. Effect of Overcharge on Electrochemical Performance of Sealed-Type Nickel/Metal Hydride Batteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Li; WU Feng; CHEN Ren-jie; CHEN Shi

    2005-01-01

    The effects of overcharge on electrochemical performance of AA size sealed-type nickel/metal hydride(Ni/MH) batteries and its degradation mechanism were investigated. The results indicated that the relationship between the effects of different overcharge currents on the increasing velocity of inner pressure and the degradation velocity of cycle life and discharge voltage remains in almost direct proportion. After overcharge cycles, the positive electrode materials remain the original structure, but there occur some breaks because of the irreversible expand of crystal lattice. And the negative electrode alloy particles have inconspicuous pulverization, but are covered with lots of corrosive products and its main component is rare earth hydroxide or oxide. These are all the main reasons leading to the degradation behavior of the discharge capacity and cycle life of Ni/MH batteries.

  1. Nickel-hydrogen battery self-discharge mechanism and methods for its inhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visintin, Arnaldo; Anani, Anaba; Srinivasan, Supramaniam; Appleby, A. J.; Lim, Hong S.

    1992-01-01

    A review of our studies on the elucidation of the self-discharge mechanism of the Ni/H2 battery and methods to inhibit this phenomena is presented. The results show that (1) the rate of heat generation from nickel hydroxide powders and from electrodes increases with increase of hydrogen pressure, simultaneously, the open-circuit potential of the nickel hydroxide electrode is shifted in a negative direction more rapidly, indicating the transformation of NiOOH to Ni(OH)2; (2) heat generation rates measured in the microcalorimeter are considerably faster for electrolyte starved electrodes than for electrolyte-flooded electrodes; (3) there is a good correlation between the extent of self-discharge, as determined by heat generation in microcalorimetric measurement and capacity change; and (4) the self-discharge in Ni/H2 battery occurs via direct reduction of the active material by pressurized hydrogen. The addition of cadmium to the electrode reduces the self-discharge.

  2. Carbon honeycomb grids for advanced lead-acid batteries. Part I: Proof of concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchev, Angel; Kircheva, Nina; Perrin, Marion

    2011-10-01

    The carbon honeycomb grid is proposed as innovative solution for high energy density lead acid battery. The proof of concept is demonstrated, developing grids suitable for the small capacity, scale of valve-regulated lead acid batteries with 2.5-3 Ah plates. The manufacturing of the grids, includes fast, known and simple processes which can be rescaled for mass production with a minimum, investment costs. The most critical process of green composite carbonisation by heating in inert, atmosphere from 200 to 1000 °C takes about 5 h, guaranteeing the low cost of the grids. An AGM-VRLA, cell with prototype positive plate based on the lead-2% tin electroplated carbon honeycomb grid and, conventional negative plates is cycled demonstrating 191 deep cycles. The impedance spectroscopy, measurements indicate the grid performance remains acceptable despite the evolution of the corrosion, processes during the cycling.

  3. MnO-carbon hybrid nanofiber composites as superior anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MnO-carbon hybrid nanofiber composites are fabricated by electrospinning polyimide/manganese acetylacetonate precursor and a subsequent carbonization process. The composition, phase structure and morphology of the composites are characterized by scanning and transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and thermogravimetric analysis. The results indicate that the composites exhibit good nanofibrous morphology with MnO nanoparticles uniformly encapsulated by carbon nanofibers. The hybrid nanofiber composites are used directly as freestanding anodes for lithium-ion batteries to evaluate their electrochemical properties. It is found that the optimized MnO-carbon nanofiber composite can deliver a high reversible capacity of 663 mAh g−1, along with excellent cycling stability and good rate capability. The superior performance enables the composites to be promising candidates as an anode alternative for high-performance lithium-ion batteries

  4. Fabrication of VO2 (B Nanobelts and Their Application in Lithium Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shibing Ni

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available VO2 (B nanobelts have been successfully synthesized via a simple hydrothermal route. The products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM, and Raman spectrum. These nanobelts are of rectangular cross-section with mean length about 1 μm, mean width about 80 nm, and mean thickness about 50 nm. The as-synthesized VO2 nanobelts were assembled as the cathode electrodes of lithium ion batteries. Their electrochemical properties were studied by conventional charge/discharge tests, which show an initial discharge capacity of 321 mAh g−1 with voltage plateau near 2.5 V. These results indicated that such hydrothermally synthesized VO2 (B nanobelts could be an ideal candidate of cathode material for lithium ion battery.

  5. Alkaline quinone flow battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Kaixiang; Chen, Qing; Gerhardt, Michael R; Tong, Liuchuan; Kim, Sang Bok; Eisenach, Louise; Valle, Alvaro W; Hardee, David; Gordon, Roy G; Aziz, Michael J; Marshak, Michael P

    2015-09-25

    Storage of photovoltaic and wind electricity in batteries could solve the mismatch problem between the intermittent supply of these renewable resources and variable demand. Flow batteries permit more economical long-duration discharge than solid-electrode batteries by using liquid electrolytes stored outside of the battery. We report an alkaline flow battery based on redox-active organic molecules that are composed entirely of Earth-abundant elements and are nontoxic, nonflammable, and safe for use in residential and commercial environments. The battery operates efficiently with high power density near room temperature. These results demonstrate the stability and performance of redox-active organic molecules in alkaline flow batteries, potentially enabling cost-effective stationary storage of renewable energy. PMID:26404834

  6. Selected test results from the LiFeBatt iron phosphate Li-ion battery.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ingersoll, David T.; Hund, Thomas D.

    2008-09-01

    In this paper the performance of the LiFeBatt Li-ion cell was measured using a number of tests including capacity measurements, capacity as a function of temperature, ohmic resistance, spectral impedance, high power partial state of charge (PSOC) pulsed cycling, pulse power measurements, and an over-charge/voltage abuse test. The goal of this work was to evaluate the performance of the iron phosphate Li-ion battery technology for utility applications requiring frequent charges and discharges, such as voltage support, frequency regulation, and wind farm energy smoothing. Test results have indicated that the LiFeBatt battery technology can function up to a 10C{sub 1} discharge rate with minimal energy loss compared to the 1 h discharge rate (1C). The utility PSOC cycle test at up to the 4C{sub 1} pulse rate completed 8,394 PSOC pulsed cycles with a gradual loss in capacity of 10 to 15% depending on how the capacity loss is calculated. The majority of the capacity loss occurred during the initial 2,000 cycles, so it is projected that the LiFeBatt should PSOC cycle well beyond 8,394 cycles with less than 20% capacity loss. The DC ohmic resistance and AC spectral impedance measurements also indicate that there were only very small changes after cycling. Finally, at a 1C charge rate, the over charge/voltage abuse test resulted in the cell venting electrolyte at 110 C after 30 minutes and then open-circuiting at 120 C with no sparks, fire, or voltage across the cell.

  7. Effect of lead foam grid on performance of lead-acid battery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI Chang-song; WANG Dian-long; HU Xin-guo; JIANG Zhao-hua; YAN Zhi-gang

    2005-01-01

    In order to increase the specific energy and specific power of a lead-acid battery, lead foam grid was prepared by electrodepositing Pb-Sn alloy on a copper foam substrate and used as negative current collector for a lead acid battery whose capacity was limited by the negative plate. Comparing the effect of the cast grid, under the same conditions, the mass of lead foam grid decreases by 35% , and the area of lead foam contacted with active material increases by about 20 times. Under 2 h rate discharge condition, with a high current (3.0 I2 ) e and low-temperature ( - 10 ℃, I2 ) discharge system, the lead foam grid markedly boosts the discharge performance of lead acid battery. It increases not only the negative electrode mass specific capacity by 27% ,37%and 29% ,but also the utilization efficiency of the negative active material by 5%. Compared with the negative electrode of cast grid, XRD and SEM results show that after 20 cycles at the state of charge, the sponge lead in the negative lead foam electrode has smaller crystals and less PbSO4 on its surface. Meanwhile, at the state of full discharge, the PbSO4 crystals are smaller and occur less on the surface of lead foam electrode. This indicates its active material reacts more uniformly.

  8. Cu2+1O coated polycrystalline Si nanoparticles as anode for lithium-ion battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junying; Zhang, Chunqian; Wu, Shouming; Liu, Zhi; Zheng, Jun; Zuo, Yuhua; Xue, Chunlai; Li, Chuanbo; Cheng, Buwen

    2016-12-01

    Cu2+1O coated Si nanoparticles were prepared by simple hydrolysis and were investigated as an anode material for lithium-ion battery. The coating of Cu2+1O on the surface of Si particles remarkably improves the cycle performance of the battery than that made by the pristine Si. The battery exhibits an initial reversible capacity of 3063 mAh/g and an initial coulombic efficiency (CE) of 82.9 %. With a current density of 300 mA/g, its reversible capacity can remains 1060 mAh/g after 350 cycles, corresponding to a CE ≥ 99.8 %. It is believed that the Cu2+1O coating enhances the electrical conductivity, and the elasticity of Cu2+1O further helps buffer the volume changes during lithiation/delithiation processes. Experiment results indicate that the electrode maintained a highly integrated structure after 100 cycles and it is in favour of the formation of stable solid electrolyte interface (SEI) on the Si surface to keep the extremely high CE during long charge and discharge cycles. PMID:27102903

  9. Polymeric gel electrolytes reinforced with glass-fibre cloth for lithium secondary batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ho Cheol; Chun, Jong Han; Kim, Sang Hern; Ko, Jang Myoun; Jo, Soo Ik; Chung, Jae Sik; Sohn, Hun-Joon

    Polymeric gel electrolytes (PGE), based on polyacrylonitrile blended with poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (P(VdF-co-HFP)), which are reinforced with glass-fibre cloth (GFC) to increase the mechanical strength, are prepared for the practical use in lithium secondary batteries. The resulting electrolytes exhibit electrochemical stability at 4.5 V against lithium metal and a conductivity value of (2.0-2.1)×10 -3 S cm -1 at room temperature. The GFC-PGE electrolytes show excellent strength and flexibility when used in batteries even if they contain a plasticiser. A test cell with LiCoO 2 as a positive electrode and mesophase pich-based carbon fibre (MCF) as a negative electrode display a capacity of 110 mAh g -1 based on the positive electrode weight at the 0.2 C rate at room temperature. Over 80% of the initial capacity is retained after 400 cycles. This indicates that GFC is suitable as a reinforcing material to increase the mechanical strength of gel-based electrolytes for lithium secondary batteries.

  10. Cu2+1O coated polycrystalline Si nanoparticles as anode for lithium-ion battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junying; Zhang, Chunqian; Wu, Shouming; Liu, Zhi; Zheng, Jun; Zuo, Yuhua; Xue, Chunlai; Li, Chuanbo; Cheng, Buwen

    2016-04-01

    Cu2+1O coated Si nanoparticles were prepared by simple hydrolysis and were investigated as an anode material for lithium-ion battery. The coating of Cu2+1O on the surface of Si particles remarkably improves the cycle performance of the battery than that made by the pristine Si. The battery exhibits an initial reversible capacity of 3063 mAh/g and an initial coulombic efficiency (CE) of 82.9 %. With a current density of 300 mA/g, its reversible capacity can remains 1060 mAh/g after 350 cycles, corresponding to a CE ≥ 99.8 %. It is believed that the Cu2+1O coating enhances the electrical conductivity, and the elasticity of Cu2+1O further helps buffer the volume changes during lithiation/delithiation processes. Experiment results indicate that the electrode maintained a highly integrated structure after 100 cycles and it is in favour of the formation of stable solid electrolyte interface (SEI) on the Si surface to keep the extremely high CE during long charge and discharge cycles.

  11. Effects of dietary DL-2-hydroxy-4(methylthio)butanoic acid supplementation on growth performance, indices of ascites syndrome, and antioxidant capacity of broilers reared at low ambient temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, G. L.; Zhang, K. Y.; Ding, X. M.; Zheng, P.; Luo, Y. H.; Bai, S. P.; Wang, J. P.; Xuan, Y.; Su, Z. W.; Zeng, Q. F.

    2016-08-01

    This study examined the effects of dietary DL-2-hydroxy-4(methylthio)butanoic acid (DL-HMTBA) supplementation on growth performance, antioxidant capacity, and ascites syndrome (AS) in broilers reared at low ambient temperature (LAT) from 7 to 28 days of age. Eight hundred 7-day-old broilers were randomly assigned to two ambient temperatures (LAT and normal ambient temperature [NAT]), four supplemental DL-HMTBA levels (0.17, 0.34, 0.51, and 0.68 %) of the basal diet in a 2 × 4 factorial arrangement (ten replicate pens; ten birds/pen). LAT and NAT indicate temperatures of 12-14 and 24-26 °C in two chambers, respectively, and broilers were reared at these temperatures from 7 to 28 days of age. LAT significantly decreased body weight gain ( P AOC) at 21 days ( P = 0.001, 0.015) and 28 days ( P = 0.017, 0.010) and increased feed conversion ratio (FCR) ( P < 0.001), serum malondialdehyde (day 21, P = 0.000) and protein carbonyl Level (day 14, P = 0.003; day 21, P = 0.035). As for incidence of AS, there were significant effects of LAT on red blood cell (RBC) count ( P < 0.05), hematocrit (HCT) ( P < 0.05), and the right to total ventricular weight ratio (RV/TV) at 21 days ( P = 0.012) and 28 days ( P = 0.046). Supplementation of DL-HMTBA markedly decreased RV/TV at day 28 ( P = 0.021), RBC (day 21, P = 0.008), HCT (day 21, P < 0.001), mean cell hemoglobin (day 14, P = 0.035; day 21, P = 0.003), and serum protein carbonyl level (day 21, P = 0.009), while significantly increased serum GSH content (day 14, P = 0.022; day 28, P = 0.001), SOD and GSH-Px activities at 21 days of age ( P < 0.001 and P = 0.037). The optimal supplemental DL-HMTBA levels in basal diet of broilers aged from 7 to 28 days under low or normal temperatures were similar, so the authors recommended supplemental of DL-HMTBA level was 0.46 %.

  12. 29 CFR 1926.441 - Batteries and battery charging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Batteries and battery charging. 1926.441 Section 1926.441... for Special Equipment § 1926.441 Batteries and battery charging. (a) General requirements—(1... areas. (2) Ventilation shall be provided to ensure diffusion of the gases from the battery and...

  13. Cost savings for manufacturing lithium batteries in a flexible plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Paul A.; Ahmed, Shabbir; Gallagher, Kevin G.; Dees, Dennis W.

    2015-06-01

    The flexible plant postulated in this study would produce four types of batteries for electric-drive vehicles - a hybrid (HEV), 10-mile range and 40-mile range plug-in hybrids (PHEV), and a 150-mile range battery-electric (EV). The annual production rate of the plant is 235,000 battery packs (HEV: 100,000; PHEV10: 60,000; PHEV40: 45,000; EV: 30,000). The cost savings per battery pack calculated with the Argonne BatPaC model for this flex plant vs. dedicated plants range from 9% for the EV battery packs to 21% for the HEV packs including the battery management systems (BMS). The investment cost savings are even larger, ranging from 21% for EVs to 43% for HEVs. The costs of the 1.0-kWh HEV batteries are projected to approach 714 per unit and that of the EV batteries to approach 188 per kWh with the most favorable cell chemistries. The best single indicator of the cost of producing lithium-manganate spinel/graphite batteries in a flex plant is the total cell area of the battery. For the four batteries studied, the price range is 20-24 per m2 of cell area, averaging 21 per m2 for the entire flex plant.

  14. Recycling readiness of advanced batteries for electric vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jungst, R.G.

    1997-09-01

    Maximizing the reclamation/recycle of electric-vehicle (EV) batteries is considered to be essential for the successful commercialization of this technology. Since the early 1990s, the US Department of Energy has sponsored the ad hoc advanced battery readiness working group to review this and other possible barriers to the widespread use of EVs, such as battery shipping and in-vehicle safety. Regulation is currently the main force for growth in EV numbers and projections for the states that have zero-emission vehicle (ZEV) programs indicate about 200,000 of these vehicles would be offered to the public in 2003 to meet those requirements. The ad hoc Advanced Battery Readiness Working Group has identified a matrix of battery technologies that could see use in EVs and has been tracking the state of readiness of recycling processes for each of them. Lead-acid, nickel/metal hydride, and lithium-ion are the three EV battery technologies proposed by the major automotive manufacturers affected by ZEV requirements. Recycling approaches for the two advanced battery systems on this list are partly defined, but could be modified to recover more value from end-of-life batteries. The processes being used or planned to treat these batteries are reviewed, as well as those being considered for other longer-term technologies in the battery recycling readiness matrix. Development efforts needed to prepare for recycling the batteries from a much larger EV population than exists today are identified.

  15. High rate, long cycle life battery electrode materials with an open framework structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wessells, Colin; Huggins, Robert; Cui, Yi; Pasta, Mauro

    2015-02-10

    A battery includes a cathode, an anode, and an aqueous electrolyte disposed between the cathode and the anode and including a cation A. At least one of the cathode and the anode includes an electrode material having an open framework crystal structure into which the cation A is reversibly inserted during operation of the battery. The battery has a reference specific capacity when cycled at a reference rate, and at least 75% of the reference specific capacity is retained when the battery is cycled at 10 times the reference rate.

  16. The Asian battery market—a decade of change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckfeld, S.; Manders, J. E.; Stevenson, M. W.

    The Asian battery industry will undergo significant change over the next decade as it adapts to the enormous economic and technological pressures of our rapidly changing world. Europe and North America in recent years have seen significant rationalisation in battery manufacturing capacity and ownership for a variety of reasons. Into the future, Asia will be no exception, but the rate and magnitude of change may conceivably be greater than that already experienced elsewhere. Rationalisation in battery manufacturing plants will occur as a result of the establishment of super plants to manufacture batteries in order to improve the economies of scale and to facilitate the heavy investment in new capital and equipment that will be required to supply the newer technology battery types. The impact of 42 V automotive systems and valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries will be influential on this scenario. It is expected that China, Japan, South Korea, and Thailand will feature heavily in the future Asian battery scene at the expense of some established countries and producers. The current state of the battery industry in Asia, factors driving change in Asia, and the likely implications for those companies that are currently manufacturing batteries in Asia or considering a future role in Asia within the coming decade are examined in this paper.

  17. Electrochemical accumulators batteries; Accumulateurs electrochimiques batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ansart, F.; Castillo, S.; Laberty- Robert, C.; Pellizon-Birelli, M. [Universite Paul Sabatier, Lab. de Chimie des Materiaux Inorganiques et Energetiques, CIRIMAT, UMR CNRS 5085, 31 - Toulouse (France)] [and others

    2000-07-01

    It is necessary to storage the electric power in batteries to join the production and the utilization. In this domain progresses are done every days in the technics and also in the available materials. These technical days present the state of the art in this domain. Many papers were presented during these two days giving the research programs and recent results on the following subjects: the lithium batteries, the electrolytes performances and behaviour, lead accumulators, economic analysis of the electrochemical storage market, the batteries applied to the transportation sector and the telephones. (A.L.B.)

  18. Surface treatment of zinc anodes to improve discharge capacity and suppress hydrogen gas evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Yung-Da; Fey, George Ting-Kuo [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, National Central University, Chung-Li 32054 (China)

    2008-10-01

    The shape change and redistribution of zinc anode material over the electrode during repeated cycling have been identified as the main factors that can limit the life of alkaline zinc-air batteries. Li{sub 2}O-2B{sub 2}O{sub 3} (lithium boron oxide, LBO) glass with high Li{sup +} conductivity and stability can be coated on the surface of zinc powders. The structures of the surface-treated and pristine zinc powders were characterized by XRD, SEM, TEM, ESCA and BET analyses. XRD patterns of LBO-coated zinc powders revealed that the coating did not affect the crystal structure. TEM images of LBO-coated on the zinc particles were compact with an average passivation layer of about 250 nm. The LBO layer can prevent zinc from coming into direct contact with the KOH electrolyte and minimize the side reactions within the batteries. The 0.1 wt.% LBO-coated zinc anode material provided an initial discharge capacity of 1.70 Ah at 0.5 V, while the pristine zinc electrode delivered only 1.57 Ah. A surface-treated zinc electrode can increase discharge capacity, decrease hydrogen evolution reaction, and reduce self-discharge. The results indicated that surface treatment should be effective for improving the comprehensive properties of anode materials for zinc-air batteries. (author)

  19. Gelled-electrolyte batteries for electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuphorn, Hans

    Increasing problems of air pollution have pushed activities of electric vehicle projects worldwide and in spite of projects for developing new battery systems for high energy densities, today lead/acid batteries are almost the single system, ready for technical usage in this application. Valve-regulated lead/acid batteries with gelled electrolyte have the advantage that no maintenance is required and because the gel system does not cause problems with electrolyte stratification, no additional appliances for central filling or acid addition are required, which makes the system simple. Those batteries with high density active masses indicate high endurance results and field tests with 40 VW-CityStromers, equipped with 96 V/160 A h gel batteries with thermal management show good results during four years. In addition, gelled lead/acid batteries possess superior high rate performance compared with conventional lead/acid batteries, which guarantees good acceleration results of the car and which makes the system recommendable for application in electric vehicles.

  20. Optimal recharge and driving strategies for a battery-powered electric vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, W R; Wang, S.; Teo, K L

    1999-01-01

    A major problem facing battery-powered electric vehicles is in their batteries: weight and charge capacity. Thus, a battery-powered electric vehicle only has a short driving range. To travel for a longer distance, the batteries are required to be recharged frequently. In this paper, we construct a model for a battery-powered electric vehicle, in which driving strategy is to be obtained such that the total travelling time between two locations is minimized. The problem is formulated as an opti...

  1. Electrothermal Impedance Spectroscopy as a Cost Efficient Method for Determining Thermal Parameters of Lithium Ion Batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Stroe, Daniel Loan; Stanciu, Tiberiu;

    Current lithium-ion battery research aims in not only increasing their energy density but also power density. Emerging applications of lithium-ion batteries (HEV, PHEV, grid support) are becoming more and more power demanding. The increasing charging and discharging power capability rates of...... lithium-ion batteries raises safety concerns and requires thermal management of the entire battery system. Moreover, lithium-ion battery’s temperature influences both battery short term (capacity, efficiency, self-discharge) and long-term (lifetime) behaviour. Thus, thermal modelling of lithium...

  2. Rechargeability of alkaline Zn-MnO2 batteries: Experimental and mathematical studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingale, Nilesh D.

    Batteries based on manganese dioxide (MnO2) cathodes are good candidates for grid-scale electrical energy storage, as MnO2 is low-cost, relatively energy dense, safe, water-compatible, and non-toxic. Alkaline Zn-MnO2 cells, if cycled at reduced depth of discharge (DOD), have been found to achieve substantial cycle life with battery costs projected to be in the range of $100 to 150/kWh (delivered). Commercialization of rechargeable Zn-MnO2 batteries has in the past been hampered due to poor cycle life. In view of this, the work reported here focuses on the long-term rechargeability of prismatic MnO2 cathodes at reduced DOD when exposed to the effects of Zn anodes and with no additives or specialty materials. Over 3000 cycles is shown to be obtainable at 10% DOD with energy efficiency >80%. The causes of capacity fade during long-term cycling are also investigated and appear to be mainly due to the formation of irreversible manganese oxides in the cathode. Analysis of the data indicates that capacity loss is rapid in the first 250 cycles, followed by a regime of stability that can last for thousands of cycles. A model has been developed that captures the behavior of the cells investigated using measured state of charge (SOC) data as input. An approximate economic analysis is also presented to evaluate the economic viability of Zn-MnO2 batteries based on the experiments reported here. The potential of Zn-MnO2 batteries as starting-lighting-ignition (SLI) batteries was also investigated. The impedance contributing parameters at high discharge rates were identified and their effect at high currents was investigated. It was found that prismatic configuration; optimized electrode thickness, electrolyte concentration and electrode size help to achieve high currents for short period of time. In this work, the potential of Zn-MnO 2 batteries for energy as well as power supply has been successfully investigated.

  3. A generic model-free approach for lithium-ion battery health management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A new ANN based battery model is developed and integrated with the Kalman filtering technique for battery health management. • The developed ANN based model can be updated along with the Kalman filtering process at the battery operating stage. • The developed model is adaptive and eliminates the dependency of expensive empirical battery models. • The developed approach enables accurate estimations of both short term SoC and long term capacity. • Experimental results demonstrated the efficacy of the developed battery health state estimation approach. - Abstract: Accurate estimation of the state-of-charge (SoC) and state-of-health (SoH) for an operating battery system, as a critical task for battery health management, greatly depends on the validity and generalizability of battery models. Due to the variability and uncertainties involved in battery design, manufacturing and operation, developing a generally applicable battery model remains as a grand challenge for battery health management. To eliminate the dependency of SoC and SoH estimation on battery physical models, this paper presents a generic data-driven approach that integrates an artificial neural network with a dual extended Kalman filter (DEKF) algorithm for lithium-ion battery health management. The artificial neural network is first trained offline to model the battery terminal voltages and the DEKF algorithm can then be employed online for SoC and SoH estimation, where voltage outputs from the trained artificial neural network model are used in DEKF state–space equations to replace the required battery models. The trained neural network model can be adaptively updated to account for the battery to battery variability, thus ensuring good SoC and SoH estimation accuracy. Experimental results are used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the developed model-free approach for battery health management

  4. Interconnected MnO2 nanoflakes supported by 3D nanostructured stainless steel plates for lithium ion battery anodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The peak fitting of cyclic voltammetry provides more detailed information about electrochemical reaction. • 3D nanoporous stainless steel plate was a good current collector for lithium ion battery. • MnO2 nanoflakes show an excellent electrochemical performance. - Abstract: Interconnected MnO2 nanoflakes supported by 3D nanostructured stainless steel (SS) plates are prepared by a facile hydrothermal synthesis. The resultant architecture is used as binder-free anodes of lithium ion batteries. Cyclic voltammetry analysis is conducted to distinguish the reactions between lithium ions and the active material at various discharge-charge potentials. Galvanostatic battery testing shows that the representative electrode exhibits a reversible capacity up to 1387.1 mA h g−1 at a current rate of 0.2 C after 100 cycles and a capacity higher than 492.9 mA h g−1 at a rate of 5 C. Such an excellent cycling performance, better rate capability and high capacity indicate that the simply etched 3D SS plate is a promising nanostructured current collector

  5. Electric-vehicle batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oman, Henry; Gross, Sid

    1995-02-01

    Electric vehicles that can't reach trolley wires need batteries. In the early 1900's electric cars disappeared when owners found that replacing the car's worn-out lead-acid battery costs more than a new gasoline-powered car. Most of today's electric cars are still propelled by lead-acid batteries. General Motors in their prototype Impact, for example, used starting-lighting-ignition batteries, which deliver lots of power for demonstrations, but have a life of less than 100 deep discharges. Now promising alternative technology has challenged the world-wide lead miners, refiners, and battery makers into forming a consortium that sponsors research into making better lead-acid batteries. Horizon's new bipolar battery delivered 50 watt-hours per kg (Wh/kg), compared with 20 for ordinary transport-vehicle batteries. The alternatives are delivering from 80 Wh/kg (nickel-metal hydride) up to 200 Wh/kg (zinc-bromine). A Fiat Panda traveled 260 km on a single charge of its zinc-bromine battery. A German 3.5-ton postal truck traveled 300 km with a single charge in its 650-kg (146 Wh/kg) zinc-air battery. Its top speed was 110 km per hour.

  6. High lithium electroactivity of electrospun CuFe2O4 nanofibers as anode material for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: Electrospun CuFe2O4 nanofibers were used as anode material for lithium-ion batteries for the first time. - Highlights: • We successfully synthesized electrospun CuFe2O4 nanofibers anode material for lithium-ion batteries for the first time. • The as-prepared CuFe2O4 nanofibers calcined at 800 °C exhibited a high initial discharge capacity of 1226.0 mAh g−1, and maintained a stable capacity of 572.4 mAh g−1 after 50 cycles. • The as-prepared CuFe2O4 nanofibers calcined at 800 °C also showed high capacity at higher discharge and charge rate. - Abstract: In this study, copper ferrite (CuFe2O4) nanofibers were successfully fabricated by a combination of electrospinning and calcination process. The crystal structure was investigated by X-ray diffractomentry, and the results show only peaks of CuFe2O4 could be observed from the product obtained at 800 °C, indicating the formation of pure compound. SEM and TEM images showed the as-spun CuFe2O4 nanofibers possessed good continuous fiber morphology with an average diameter of about 66 nm. The electrochemical properties of electrospun CuFe2O4 nanofibers as anode material for lithium-ion batteries were discussed for the first time. The results demonstrated that the electrospun CuFe2O4 nanofibers anode exhibited a high initial discharge capacity of 1226.0 mAh g−1, and maintained a stable capacity of 572.4 mAh g−1 after 50 cycles. Meanwhile, the electrodes showed high capacity at higher discharge and charge rate. The excellent electrochemical properties of electrospun CuFe2O4 nanofibers anode were attributed to the high crystallinity, as well as the unique mesoporous and fibrous structures

  7. V2O5/Mesoporous Carbon Composite as a Cathode Material for Lithium-ion Batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ABSTRACT: V2O5/mesoporous carbon composite has been prepared by an ultrasonically assisted method followed by a sintering process. The as-prepared V2O5/mesoporous carbon material containing 90 wt% V2O5 shows better electrochemical performance, with capacity of 163 mA h g−1 after 100 cycles at the current density of 500 mA g−1, as well as better charge/discharge rate capability for lithium storage than V2O5 nanoparticles. The improved electrochemical performance indicates that the V2O5/mesoporous carbon composite could be used as a promising cathode material for lithium ion batteries

  8. Assessment of balance indicators for key fleet segments and review of national reports on Member States efforts to achieve balance between fleet capacity and fishing opportunities (STECF-13-28)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abella, Alvaro J.; Accadia, Paolo; Berkenhagen, Jörg;

    The Expert Working Group meeting of the Scientific, Technical and Economic Committee for Fisheries EWG-13-16 on Review of national reports on Member States efforts to achieve balance between fleet capacity and fishing opportunities was from September 29 – October 4, 2013 in Edinburgh. The report...

  9. Multi-phase lattice Boltzmann simulations of transport processes in porous gas diffusion electrodes for lithium-air batteries

    OpenAIRE

    Danner, Timo; Schulz, Volker; Latz, Arnulf

    2015-01-01

    Lithium-air batteries have the potential to become the future energy source for electric vehicles. Typically, the battery consists of a lithium metal negative electrode, a porous separator soaked with liquid electrolyte, and a porous air electrode where oxygen from the surrounding atmosphere is reduced during battery discharge. This configuration yields the highest theoretical capacity of all Li batteries [1]. In our approach we focus on systems employing aqueous electrolytes [2]. O2 is fe...

  10. Management of deep brain stimulator battery failure: battery estimators, charge density, and importance of clinical symptoms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaihan Fakhar

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We aimed in this investigation to study deep brain stimulation (DBS battery drain with special attention directed toward patient symptoms prior to and following battery replacement. BACKGROUND: Previously our group developed web-based calculators and smart phone applications to estimate DBS battery life (http://mdc.mbi.ufl.edu/surgery/dbs-battery-estimator. METHODS: A cohort of 320 patients undergoing DBS battery replacement from 2002-2012 were included in an IRB approved study. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 20.0 (IBM, Armonk, NY. RESULTS: The mean charge density for treatment of Parkinson's disease was 7.2 µC/cm(2/phase (SD = 3.82, for dystonia was 17.5 µC/cm(2/phase (SD = 8.53, for essential tremor was 8.3 µC/cm(2/phase (SD = 4.85, and for OCD was 18.0 µC/cm(2/phase (SD = 4.35. There was a significant relationship between charge density and battery life (r = -.59, p<.001, as well as total power and battery life (r = -.64, p<.001. The UF estimator (r = .67, p<.001 and the Medtronic helpline (r = .74, p<.001 predictions of battery life were significantly positively associated with actual battery life. Battery status indicators on Soletra and Kinetra were poor predictors of battery life. In 38 cases, the symptoms improved following a battery change, suggesting that the neurostimulator was likely responsible for symptom worsening. For these cases, both the UF estimator and the Medtronic helpline were significantly correlated with battery life (r = .65 and r = .70, respectively, both p<.001. CONCLUSIONS: Battery estimations, charge density, total power and clinical symptoms were important factors. The observation of clinical worsening that was rescued following neurostimulator replacement reinforces the notion that changes in clinical symptoms can be associated with battery drain.

  11. Geothermal Plant Capacity Factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greg Mines; Jay Nathwani; Christopher Richard; Hillary Hanson; Rachel Wood

    2015-01-01

    The capacity factors recently provided by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) indicated this plant performance metric had declined for geothermal power plants since 2008. Though capacity factor is a term commonly used by geothermal stakeholders to express the ability of a plant to produce power, it is a term frequently misunderstood and in some instances incorrectly used. In this paper we discuss how this capacity factor is defined and utilized by the EIA, including discussion on the information that the EIA requests from operations in their 923 and 860 forms that are submitted both monthly and annually by geothermal operators. A discussion is also provided regarding the entities utilizing the information in the EIA reports, and how those entities can misinterpret the data being supplied by the operators. The intent of the paper is to inform the facility operators as the importance of the accuracy of the data that they provide, and the implications of not providing the correct information.

  12. Weather and road capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas Christian

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents estimations of the effect of bad weather on the observed speed on a Danish highway section; Køge Bugt Motorvejen. The paper concludes that weather, primarily precipitation and snow, has a clear negative effect on speed when the road is not in hypercongestion mode. Furthermore......, the capacity of the highway seems to be reduced in bad weather and there are indications that travel time variability is also increased, at least in free-flow conditions. Heavy precipitation reduces speed and capacity by around 5-8%, whereas snow primarily reduces capacity. Other weather variables......-parametrically against traffic density and in step 2 the residuals from step 1 are regressed linearly against the weather variables. The choice of a non-parametric method is made to avoid constricting ties from a parametric specification and because the focus here is not on the relationship between traffic flow...

  13. Forward and reverse differential-pulse effects applied in the formation of a solid electrolyte interface to enhance the performance of lithium batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A new solid electrolyte interface (SEI) was formed by the forward and reverse differential-pulse (FRDP) method. • This FRDP method facilitates the effective generation of the SEI by balancing the reaction kinetics of SEI formation. • The results obtained for the battery in which a suitable reverse pulse (RP)effect leads to outstanding battery performance regarding cycling ability at high temperatures (60 °C). - Abstract: In Li-ion batteries, the solid electrolyte interface (SEI) plays a crucial role in transferring Li ions into active materials through an electrochemical driving force. SEI is a composite layer containing of inorganic and organic components, which are fabricated by the salt degradation products and partial or complete reduction products of the solvent of the electrolyte at the battery's initial charge-discharge cycle. The chemical properties of SEI and the electrochemical driving force must be mutually optimized so as to strengthen its integrity, while minimizing irreversible SEI formation; thereby suppressing the decomposition at high temperatures. In this study, we investigated a new method of creating the SEI, i.e. the forward and reverse differential-pulse (FRDP) method, which balances the reaction kinetics of SEI formation. Furthermore, the use of the FRDP method also creates a SEI with a modified kinetic reaction route that affects battery performance. Here, we present data from the first charge-discharge and cycle performance at a high rate and a high temperature, obtained using scanning electron microscopy, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and Li+-diffusion kinetics analysis. Our findings indicate that the use of the FRDP method for generating the SEI results in a 58% reduction in the SEI's ionic diffusion activation energy and a 4.5% increase in battery capacity at room temperature, while increasing battery performance at 60 °C stability compared to batteries in which

  14. Fundamental mechanisms in Li-air battery electrochemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højberg, Jonathan

    The lithium-air (or Li-O2) batteries have received wide attention as an enabling technology for a mass market entry of electric vehicles due to a potential capacity much higher than current Li-ion technology. The technology is a relatively new battery concept proposed in 1996, and the current...... research still focuses on developing an understanding of the reactions inside the battery. This thesis is dedicated to increase this understanding and use the knowledge to improve the performance of the battery, and the work span from detailed investigation of the atom positions to the proposal of a system...... used to manage a full size electric vehicle battery. An automated differential electrochemical mass spectrometer (DEMS) was built to investigate the relationship between current and the consumption and release of gases, which is important to identify and quantify degradation reactions. The setup was...

  15. Flexible fiber batteries for applications in smart textiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Hang; Semenikhin, Oleg; Skorobogatiy, Maksim

    2015-02-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate flexible fiber-based Al-NaOCl galvanic cells fabricated using fiber drawing process. Aluminum and copper wires are used as electrodes, and they are introduced into the fiber structure during drawing of the low-density polyethylene microstructured jacket. NaOCl solution is used as electrolyte, and it is introduced into the battery after the drawing process. The capacity of a 1 m long fiber battery is measured to be ˜10 mAh. We also detail assembly and optimization of the electrical circuitry in the energy-storing fiber battery textiles. Several examples of their applications are presented including lighting up an LED, driving a wireless mouse and actuating a screen with an integrated shape-memory nitinol wire. The principal advantages of the presented fiber batteries include: ease of fabrication, high flexibility, simple electrochemistry and use of widely available materials in the battery design.

  16. Flexible fiber batteries for applications in smart textiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we demonstrate flexible fiber-based Al–NaOCl galvanic cells fabricated using fiber drawing process. Aluminum and copper wires are used as electrodes, and they are introduced into the fiber structure during drawing of the low-density polyethylene microstructured jacket. NaOCl solution is used as electrolyte, and it is introduced into the battery after the drawing process. The capacity of a 1 m long fiber battery is measured to be ∼10 mAh. We also detail assembly and optimization of the electrical circuitry in the energy-storing fiber battery textiles. Several examples of their applications are presented including lighting up an LED, driving a wireless mouse and actuating a screen with an integrated shape-memory nitinol wire. The principal advantages of the presented fiber batteries include: ease of fabrication, high flexibility, simple electrochemistry and use of widely available materials in the battery design. (paper)

  17. Modeling and Optimal Control of a Redox Flow Battery

    OpenAIRE

    Wrang, Daniel; Faulwasser, Timm; Billeter, Julien; Amstutz, Véronique; Vrubel, Heron; Battistel, Alberto; Girault, Hubert; Bonvin, Dominique

    2016-01-01

    Vanadium Redox Flow Batteries (VRFB) can be used as energy storage device, for example to account for wind or solar power fluctuations. In VRFBs charge is stored in two tanks containing two different vanadium solutions. This approach decouples the storage capacity and the power supply which is dependent only on the number and size of the cells [1]. A control specific model of a VRFB is proposed, which captures the essential dynamic properties of the battery while ignoring all fluid mechanica...

  18. High energy lithium-oxygen batteries - Transport barriers and thermodynamics

    KAUST Repository

    Das, Shyamal K.

    2012-01-01

    We show that it is possible to achieve higher energy density lithium-oxygen batteries by simultaneously lowering the discharge overpotential and increasing the discharge capacity via thermodynamic variables alone. By assessing the relative effects of temperature and pressure on the cell discharge profiles, we characterize and diagnose the critical roles played by multiple dynamic processes that have hindered implementation of the lithium-oxygen battery. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  19. Battery, especially for portable devices, has an anode containing silicon

    OpenAIRE

    S. Y. Kan

    2002-01-01

    The anode (2) contains silicon. A battery with a silicon-containing anode is claimed. An Independent claim is also included for a method used to make the battery, comprising the doping of a silicon substrate (1) with charge capacity-increasing material (preferably boron, phosphorous or arsenic), etching the doped substrate layer in order to increase its porosity, and applying a cathode (3) in the form of a lithium oxide compound onto the resulting anode and applying an electrolyte (4) to the ...

  20. Lithium battery electrodes with ultra-thin alumina coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Se-Hee, Lee; George, Steven M.; Cavanagh, Andrew S.; Yoon Seok, Jung; Dillon, Anne C.

    2015-11-24

    Electrodes for lithium batteries are coated via an atomic layer deposition process. The coatings can be applied to the assembled electrodes, or in some cases to particles of electrode material prior to assembling the particles into an electrode. The coatings can be as thin as 2 .ANG.ngstroms thick. The coating provides for a stable electrode. Batteries containing the electrodes tend to exhibit high cycling capacities.