WorldWideScience

Sample records for battered women

  1. Battered Women, Their Siblings and Batterers in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edinboro, Lawrie M.

    The violence women experience in battering is both physical and psychological. A study in 1980 found that 1 in 10 women was hit, kicked, beaten, punched and terrorized by her husband or partner in Canada. Children living in battered homes may suffer a higher risk of direct physical or sexual abuse and many are neglected. Some progress has been…

  2. Strategy of Career Interventions for Battered Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Joshua C.

    2011-01-01

    Female victims of domestic violence--also referred to as "battered women"--face serious career development challenges that necessitate the intervention and aid of human resource development (HRD) practice.The purpose of this article is to identify critical factors having an impact on the career development (CD) of battered women and to offer…

  3. Providing sanctuary for battered women: Nicaragua's casas de la mujer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessel, L; Campbell, J C

    1997-01-01

    A combination of participant observation and in-depth interviews (10 with key informants; 21 with battered women) was used to investigate wife battering in Nicaragua and the casas de la mujer, or women's centers, that have been established to help abused women. The results are presented within the context of the historical and structural realities of women's lives in Nicaragua and the sanctions and sanctuary framework of cultural analysis of wife battering. Nicaraguan wife battering is exacerbated in the context of cultural traditions of acceptance of wife beating, machismo, and the recent history of warfare. Findings about the relationship context and intervention outcomes were similar to those found in studies of battered women and shelters in the United States. The results were generally supportive of the framework, demonstrating the importance of women's solidarity groups, community sanctions against domestic violence, and sanctuary for battered women.

  4. A battered women's movement perspective of Coercive Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Gretchen

    2009-12-01

    In Coercive Control, Evan Stark calls on battered women's activists to reorient their understanding of abusive relationships. Rather than being primarily about physical violence, he maintains, domestic violence is better conceptualized as men's attempts to destroy women's autonomy and reinstate patriarchy in intimate relationships. His analysis suggests important changes to defending battered women in court, modifications to the kinds of support services the movement provides for battered women, and changes in the laws and law enforcement regarding battering. Stark also maintains that, to end coercive control, the battered women's movement must renew its commitment not only to ensuring the safety of individual women but also to attaining the feminist goal of substantive freedom and equality for women in both public and private life. I contend that Stark's reframing of woman abuse is useful for battered women's advocates and may, in some cases but not in others, lead to more effective practices in battered women's programs. At the same time, it is likely to complicate activists' efforts to mobilize public opinion, resources, and public policy to address the problem of woman abuse.

  5. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Childhood Abuse in Battered Women: Comparisons with Maritally Distressed Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astin, Millie C.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Compared posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) prevalence rates among battered women and nonbattered, maritally distressed women. Battered women exhibited significantly higher rates of PTSD than the maritally distressed women. Women with PTSD were more likely than non-PTSD women to have experienced self-reported childhood sexual abuse and numerous…

  6. White privilege, color blindness, and services to battered women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Denise A; Cook, Kimberly J; van Ausdale, Debra; Foley, Lara

    2005-01-01

    White privilege is a system of benefits, advantages, and opportunities experienced by White persons in our society simply because of their skin color. In this article, the authors present the results of a descriptive, exploratory study of White privilege in battered women's shelters in the Deep South. Based on a qualitative analysis, the authors show how White privilege is intricately connected to executive directors' claims of color blindness, the othering of women of color, and viewing White as the norm. The authors conclude the article with implications for service provision to battered women and directions for future research.

  7. Vulnerability to Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder among Battered Women in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arzy, Ronit; Amir, Marianne; Kotler, Moshe

    The increasing prevalence of domestic violence in Israel has engendered a critical need to identify and treat battered women. This paper looks at Posttraumatic Stress disorder (PTSD) and considers its predictors among battered women. The research sample was comprised of a sample of 91 battered women between the ages of 20 and 60 who applied to the…

  8. "Battered Women" and Previous Victimization: Is the Question Relevant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudim, Laurie, Comp.; And Others

    This report discusses battered women and the role of their previous victimization. After a literature review on family violence in general, these topics are discussed: (1) family violence and the patriarchy; (2) the historical background of family violence; (3) intergenerational cycle of violence; and (4) psychological literature's four ways…

  9. Factors that influence on the decisions of battered women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juana Robledo Martín

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Violence towards and against women consists in any kind of violation of woman’s personality, her physical integrity or her freedom of movement. Nowadays, gender-based violence is considered a state and public health problem as well as a social concerning subject.Objective: To identify the factors that influence on the decisions that battered women make.Methodology: The study population are battered women who live in Madrid province and who are being attended in the Municipal Points of the Regional Observatory against the Gender Violence.The information was collected by performing focus groups and deep interviews.Results: There are several factors which influence on the decisions that battered women make, like the existence or not of children they have to take care of, the economic dependence and the ignorance of the woman, in some cases, of the existence of this ill-treatment, but over all, we could even say beyond all these, there is one that is the most important, common and we could say it is the main axis that determine their behaviour. This factor is fear.Discussion: When attending these women we may be aware of the psychological situation they are, and we should be able to identify if the woman is asking us for help when she comes to us and try to identify and treat this factor that influences the decisions the woman we attend makes.

  10. Reframing the narrative of the battered women's movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Gretchen; Ake, Jami

    2013-05-01

    Many claim that the battered women's movement has been co-opted and depoliticized. We argue that this narrative of decline should be reframed as one of continual growth that has incorporated evolving feminist frameworks. We show how the movement's first generation of activists has learned from its mistakes and continues to challenge systems that fail survivors of abuse. In addition, a second generation of activists, many of whom are minority women, has created new organizations and new ways to practice intersectionality. We conclude that each strand within the movement brings complementary strengths that can prepare it to meet future challenges.

  11. Adulthood Animal Abuse among Women Court-Referred to Batterer Intervention Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Febres, Jeniimarie; Shorey, Ryan C.; Brasfield, Hope; Zucosky, Heather C.; Ninnemann, Andrew; Elmquist, Joanna; Bucossi, Meggan M.; Andersen, Shawna M.; Schonbrun, Yael C.; Stuart, Gregory L.

    2012-01-01

    The substantial increase in the enrollment of women in batterer intervention programs (BIPs) over the past 30 years has greatly outpaced research on women who perpetrate intimate partner violence (IPV). As a result, it is unknown whether existing programs, which were originally designed to treat male perpetrators, are effective at preventing…

  12. Contextual Factors Impacting Battered Women's Intentions to Reuse the Criminal Legal System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleury-Steiner, Ruth E.; Bybee, Deborah; Sullivan, Cris M.; Belknap, Joanne; Melton, Heather C.

    2006-01-01

    While a small number of past studies have examined either situational, relational, or systems-level factors that influence battered women's use of either the police, prosecutorial, or court systems, no study to date has examined how these factors each influence women's intentions to reuse these systems. To address this gap, in-person interviews…

  13. Are Battered Women Responsible for Protection of Their Children in Domestic Violence Cases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Charles

    1998-01-01

    Describes past perceptions of battered women's protection of their children. Examines the role of the child protection service worker in cases where an abused mother does not leave or returns to a household with an abusive male. Discusses the differences in the roles of child protection service professional and domestic violence professionals.…

  14. From Victim to Offender: How Nuisance Property Laws Affect Battered Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Gretchen W

    2016-05-04

    Nuisance property laws, which fine people for excessive 911 calls, have become increasingly popular in cities of all sizes. However, research into how these laws affect battered women is still in its early stages. This research study was designed to address the question of whether nuisance property laws harm battered women and, if so, how. Using a qualitative research design, in-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with 27 primarily low-income African American battered women in St. Louis metropolitan area who had come into contact with a nuisance property law because of domestic violence. Interviews addressed circumstances of contact with a nuisance law, the response of law enforcement officials, and how the law affected the participant's housing, ability to call 911, sense of safety, finances, access to health care, and family stability. Using a multi-stage qualitative analytic procedure, each transcript was coded for themes and then descriptive categories developed for each theme. The data demonstrate that nuisance property laws harm victims of domestic violence in several ways, including by hindering their access to safe and secure housing, discouraging them from calling 911, increasing their vulnerability to violence, and compounding the trauma of the intimate partner violence. This research also reveals ways in which nuisance laws reinforce gender, race, and class inequality. The findings show that nuisance property laws enhance the abuser's power over his victim, hold victims accountable for the abuse, exacerbate the class- and race-based risks many battered women already face, and obscure the real crime of domestic violence. Policy makers need to be informed of these consequences so that they can take action to reform nuisance laws.

  15. The psychosocial repercussions of domestic violence in battered women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polychronopoulou, M; Douzenis, A

    2016-01-01

    This study is trying to record the consequences of domestic violence to the mental health of abused women. The tools that were used were the following: PCL-S and GHQ. The research was conducted by B΄Psychiatric Clinic of Attica General Hospital in collaboration with the National Centre of Social Solidarity and the WIN HELLAS (NGO). The victims did not have any diagnosed mental disorder before the present study. Concerning the form of violence that they had gone through, 33% of the victims had suffered psychological abuse, 30% has suffered physical abuse and the 16% sexual abuse, while 20% of the victims has suffered all the above forms of violence. As arises from the preliminary results of our research, 60% of the victims presented symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder while 46% from the above percentage presented chronic PTSD. Regarding to the state of their psychosomatic health, 40% of victims has declared that during the last two weeks they felt worse than usual. More specifically, 60% feels a physical discomfort, 73% of victims presents reduction in functionalism while 56% seems to have stress symptoms. Finally 53% of victims show symptoms of depressions. By referring to the duration of abuse, 72% of total victims declared that had suffered violence during the last months; while 13% of total declared that they were being abused for more than five years.1,2.

  16. Sanitary professional’s attention on gender violence seen from battered women perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Sánchez Castro

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Qualitative study whose objective is to know battered women perception regarding sanitary professional’s attention on gender violence in Madrid Community. The results were validated by a triangulation process. Women identified sanitary assistance with those given when there exist physical injuries. However, if we keep questioning about it, they do express to look for something else from the professionals who attended them, although they are not able to say it before them.Somatizations that ill-treatment produces are treated by sanitary professionals without attending to the cause that caused them, and, when it is identified ill-treatment as the cause, rarely sanitary professionals send them to psychologies or psychiatrics. However, this is not identified as a bad practice, because women establish a very defined and rigid function for each professional, where, as they understand, Primary Care doctor will not be required to worry about psychic health and wellbeing of people who attend to their offices.We think, therefore, that it would be recommended that Madrid Community should create a specific health program to attend these women in order to guarantee, this way, a proper attention to people who may be in this situation as well as a minimum quality on the attention they received.

  17. Neural responses during emotional processing before and after cognitive trauma therapy for battered women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aupperle, Robin L; Allard, Carolyn B; Simmons, Alan N; Flagan, Taru; Thorp, Steven R; Norman, Sonya B; Paulus, Martin P; Stein, Murray B

    2013-10-30

    Therapy for combat and accident-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been reported to influence amygdala and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) response during emotional processing. It is not yet understood how therapy influences different phases of emotional processing, and whether previous findings generalize to other PTSD populations. We hypothesized that cognitive trauma therapy for battered women (CTT-BW) would alter insula, amygdala, and cingulate responses during anticipation and presentation of emotional images. Fourteen female patients with PTSD related to domestic violence completed the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) before and after CTT-BW. The fMRI task involved cued anticipation followed by presentation of positive versus negative affective images. CTT-BW was associated with decreases in CAPS score, enhanced ACC and decreased anterior insula activation during anticipation, and decreased dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and amygdala response during image presentation (negative-positive). Pre-treatment ACC activation during anticipation and image presentation exhibited positive and negative relationships to treatment response, respectively. Results suggest that CTT-BW enhanced efficiency of neural responses during preparation for upcoming emotional events in a way that reduced the need to recruit prefrontal-amygdala responses during the occurrence of the event. Results also suggest that enhancing ACC function during anticipation may be beneficial for PTSD treatment.

  18. From Blue to Green: The Development and Implementation of a Therapeutic Horticulture Program for Residents of a Battered Women's Shelter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renzetti, Claire M; Follingstad, Diane R

    2015-01-01

    The delivery of therapeutic services to clients is influenced by service providers' understanding of the "fit" of a specific program with their service mandate as well as their perceptions of the potential benefits of the program. This article discusses the development and implementation of a therapeutic horticulture (TH) program at a battered women's shelter that serves 17 counties in Central Kentucky. Through semistructured interviews, we gauge the shelter staff's perceptions of the relationship of the TH program to the shelter's overall mission; their sense of the program's benefits for residents, for the shelter as a community organization, and for themselves; and their concerns about the TH program. We consider how these findings may impact future programming at the shelter, and we discuss plans for further evaluation of the TH program in terms of its impact on shelter residents' long-term outcomes.

  19. Capturing sexual violence experiences among battered women using the revised sexual experiences survey and the revised conflict tactics scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, Catherine; Boucher, Sophie; Hébert, Martine; Lemelin, Jacinthe

    2015-01-01

    The assessment of intimate partner sexual violence (IPSV) has garnered increased attention in recent years. However, uncertainty about which measure best captures experiences of IPSV remains. The present study focused on the direct comparison of two widely used measures of IPSV: the revised Sexual Experiences Survey (SES) and the revised Conflict Tactics Scales (CTS2). A secondary aim of the study was to extend the scope of IPSV acts by evaluating the presence of pornographic acts and experiences of forced sexual relations with other individuals. The current sample consisted of 138 battered women using the services of shelters. Results indicated that 79.7 % of women reported at least one incident of IPSV on either the CTS2 or the SES. The concordance rate between both measures was 76.8 %, with the highest concordance being for severe sexual violence. The Sexual Violence scale of the CTS2, which is more concise than the SES, identified 16.7 % more cases of IPSV. In addition, 26.1 % of women reported at least one incident involving pornography and 9.4 % had been forced to engage in sexual activities with other individuals. Women who reported experiences associated with pornography were 12-20 times more likely to be victims of severe sexual violence on the two measures. Such findings confirm the high prevalence of sexual violence among this population and indicate how rates can vary depending on the measures used. This study also underscores the relevance of investigating diverse types of violent acts to better understand how IPSV manifests itself.

  20. Addressing violence by female partners is vital to prevent or stop violence against women: evidence from the multisite batterer intervention evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straus, Murray A

    2014-07-01

    This article presents a reanalysis of data from Gondolf's (2012) article in this journal on reoffending by men in the 15-month period subsequent to participation in batterer intervention programs. Gondolf concludes that violence by the female partners "was relatively low and does not appear to influence the program outcome in terms of men's reassault" (p. 10). The reanalyzed data lead to the opposite conclusion. The policy and practice implications are that the high rate of assault by women, including initiation of violence by female partners, needs to be addressed to enhance the effectiveness of programs to prevent and stop violence against women.

  1. Battered women venerating a vicious Virgin: reconsidering marianismo at a Bolivian pilgrimage shrine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derks, S.W.; Heessels, M.

    2011-01-01

    Scholarly literature on domestic violence in Latin America often relates it to machismo and marianismo. Within this gender paradigm, women are understood to embrace the values of the Virgin Mary as a passive submissive role model. However, these studies omit facts relating to the actual role of the

  2. Acts without agents: an analysis of linguistic avoidance in journal articles on men who batter women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, S

    1991-04-01

    Articles on abuse of women by men were surveyed in eleven journals across four disciplines. Introductory sections from 46 articles were coded for linguistic choices--such as use of the passive voice, nominalization, and diffuse terminology--that obscure the attribution of responsibility. In half or more of the references to abuse, sentence structure and language were deemed problematic, with diffusion of responsibility the most frequent strategy of avoidance. Professional and gender biases were found, with articles by social workers less likely, and articles with male authors more likely, to contain problematic writing.

  3. Experiencia de las parteras en la identificación de mujeres maltratadas durante el embarazo The midwives' experiences in the identification of battered women in pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosario Valdez-Santiago

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Explorar las experiencias de las parteras en la detección de mujeres maltratadas durante el embarazo, además de conocer los tipos de violencia que identifican con mayor facilidad. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Estudio cualitativo en donde se entrevistó, entre enero y septiembre de 2001, a 12 parteras que forman parte del grupo de parteras del Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia de Morelos, México. Se hizo una selección de aquellas que se ubicaban en Cuernavaca y sus alrededores. RESULTADOS: Se reporta: a el proceso de identificación de violencia realizado por las parteras en la atención prenatal, el cual se basa en un patrón de conductas y actitudes de las mujeres maltratadas tales como descuido en su persona, timidez y, sobre todo, una falta de control en las decisiones sobre el cuidado a su salud, lo cual permite a las parteras hacer preguntas directas sobre violencia; b las violencias que identifican las parteras con mayor facilidad son la física y la emocional. La violencia sexual fue más difícil para su identificación de manera directa. CONCLUSIONES: Incluir a las parteras dentro de los planes y programas para atender a la violencia intrafamiliar, debido a que su práctica permite una respuesta de apoyo directo a las mujeres maltratadas que lo solicitan. Se propone desarrollar estrategias de capacitación especializada para esta población que atiende a un sector importante de mujeres embarazadas en México.OBJECTIVE: To explore the experiences of midwives in the identification of battered women during pregnancy and to describe the types of violence they identify most easily. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A qualitative study was conducted between January and September 2001 among twelve midwives from a group of midwives ascribed to the Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia (INAH, National Institute of Anthropology and History, in Morelos, Mexico. Participants were selected from those living in Cuernavaca City and

  4. Mi Vecina es una Mujer Colpeada (My Neighbor Is a Battered Woman).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Melissa

    This book, the Spanish version of "My Neighbor is a Battered Woman," is intended as a general introduction to the problems of battered women. The format for part 1 consists of the presentation of facts about wife beating, i.e., who are victims, characteristics of batterers, the environment in which family violence exists, and services for battered…

  5. Entrapment of victims of spousal abuse in Ghana: A discursive analysis of family identity and agency of battered women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adjei, Stephen Baffour

    2015-01-01

    Drawing on discursive psychology and positioning theory, this study explores the influence of cultural and familial value orientations on battered women’s identity, agency and decision to leave or stay in abusive conjugal relationship in Ghana. Two semi-structured focus group discussions and four......, and partly constituted by familial relationships and identities. The study suggests that intervention initiatives in Ghana should focus on the phenomenon of conjugal violence beyond immediate victims to include families and the larger communities in which victims are embedded....

  6. The medical treatment of battered wives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowker, L H; Maurer, L

    1987-01-01

    Knowledge gained from a literature summary was tested against data obtained from a national volunteer sample of 1,000 battered women recruited primarily through solicitation by an advertisement in Woman's Day magazine. In comparison with other help-sources (social service agencies, the clergy, the police, lawyers, women's groups, shelters), medical personnel were found to have been used fairly frequently, but they were seen by the battered women as less effective than any other group. Quotes taken from indepth interviewers with 146 of the battered wives are used to bring life to the comparative statistics. Specific reasons for the low effectiveness ratings of the medical profession are considered, and ways to improve service delivery ratings are discussed.

  7. How to tell a new story about battering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polletta, Francesca

    2009-12-01

    As Evan Stark observes, getting domestic violence against women recognized as coercive control will require a major effort of storytelling. Women's accounts of subjugation have to be narrated in a way that is both true to their experiences and capable of eliciting public understanding, sympathy, and action. This essay draws on an interdisciplinary literature on narrative to show why doing that poses such a formidable challenge. In lieu of the tragic form that has dominated battered women's storytelling, and in lieu of the quest and mystery forms that appear in Stark's own accounts, this article argues for using a rebirth story line.This genre, which has affinities with the fairytales Snow White and Sleeping Beauty, seems an unlikely vehicle for asserting battered women's combination of victimization and agency. Drawing on the stories told by battered women as part of a successful reform effort, however, this article shows how women have used the form effectively.

  8. Batter, food product having a coating compromising the batter and method of making batter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lichtendonk, W.J.; Vliet, van T.; Visser, J.E.; Hamer, R.J.

    2007-01-01

    A batter is provided comprising flour, water and optionally starch, wherein the batter comprises glutenin particles having a volume surface averaged particle size smaller than 10 µm. A batter according to the invention comprises flour and optionally starch, and optionally baking powder and salt. At

  9. Male Social Workers Working with Men Who Batter: Dilemmas in Gender Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Benjamin; Buchbinder, Eli; Eisikovits, Zvi

    2011-01-01

    Research into the impact of dealing with intimate partner violence has focused mainly on women who treated victims. The present article explores the interaction between male social workers and battering men. The sample included 15 male social workers who worked with battering men in social services. Data collection was performed through…

  10. Poetry, Healing, and the Latin American Battered Woman.

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    Booker, Marja

    1999-01-01

    Explores how poetry can be used in support groups as an adjunctive treatment technique to empower and to raise consciousness of Latina battered women. Offers examples of Latin American women's literary works to demonstrate the connections poetry has to everyday lives, and how Latina spouse-abuse survivors can gain a deeper understanding of…

  11. Why Straus's "Reanalysis" of physical tactics used by female partners is wrong: a response to "Addressing violence by female partners is vital to prevent or stop violence against women: evidence from the multisite batterer intervention evaluation," by Murray Straus, Violence Against Women, 20, 889-899.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gondolf, Edward W

    2014-12-01

    This article refutes Straus's reinterpretation of our study, "Physical Tactics of Female Partners Against Male Batterer Program Participants," drawing on our extended follow-up of batterer program participants and their partners in four cities (Gondolf, 2002). Straus claims that the rate of women's violence in the sample is "high" and asserts the need to address women's violence to reduce the men's violence, which is the opposite of our findings and interpretation. We contend that our focus on the men and women who both used tactics in the total sample addresses the research question. We elaborate why our regression analyses to "explain" the women's violence are sound, despite Straus's unsubstantiated speculations. We argue further that the evidence points to women's "violent resistance" against severe, repeated violence, and that those cases do not fit the "both victim" dyad type that Straus promotes. Moreover, they are inappropriate for couples counseling. Finally, we revisit the limitations of the Conflict Tactics Scales (CTS) as a sufficient measure of the women's experience of male violence and raise concern about the implications of Straus's claims.

  12. The things that batter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ames, David

    2016-06-01

    Over 20 years ago, the Australian Liberal/National Party Federal Opposition had a set of policies with which it hoped to persuade the Australian people to return it to government in the election due in 1996. This particular collection of proposed initiatives was called "The things that matter". When the then leader of the opposition, Alexander Downer (later Australia's Foreign Minister 1996-2007 and now Australian High Commissioner in London), launched the Opposition's policy on family violence (the Coalition parties, like their Labor opponents, were and are against it in principle), his introductory line was: "From the things that matter to the things that batter". Not long afterwards he lost his job as Opposition Leader, his engagement with what was and is a serious and troubling issue having been deemed too glib by half by the shapers of public opinion.

  13. Batter and method for preparing a pasta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wind, P.; Linden, van der E.

    2011-01-01

    This invention describes a batter that is suitable for preparing a pasta. The batter comprises water, a starch and a protein, whereby the weight ratio between the protein and the total amount of starch in the batter is represented by the symbol y and whereby the weight percentage of the total amount

  14. Testing a typology of batterers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waltz, J; Babcock, J C; Jacobson, N S; Gottman, J M

    2000-08-01

    A. Holtzworth-Munroe and G. L. Stuart (1994) proposed a tripartite typology of men who batter their female partners based on the severity of violence, extent of violence, and personality disorder characteristics. The current study attempts to empirically validate this typology using data from 75 domestically violent (DV) men and their partners, and 32 maritally distressed, nonviolent (DNV) comparison couples. Mixture analysis results generally supported the model, although 2 types were not distinguishable on personality disorder characteristics as predicted. Generally violent batterers were significantly more violent within and outside the relationship. The pathological group was moderately violent within and outside the relationship and endorsed numerous psychological symptoms. Family-only batterers endorsed fewer symptoms and were less violent. Violence in the family of origin, attachment, and communication skills also differentiated the 3 types and DNV men.

  15. Working with Men Who Batter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edleson, Jeffrey L.

    1984-01-01

    Examines factors associated with wife abuse and describes major components of a small group program designed to help men who batter. These include self-observation, cognitive restructuring, interpersonal skills training, relaxation training, and establishing a small group environment for intervention. (JAC)

  16. Do cultural differences influence batterer intervention program outcomes? A studywith Spanish and Latin American offenders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviana Vargas

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed, first, if there were any differences in attitudes towards partner violence (i.e., perceivedseverity, victim blaming, and acceptability, responsibility attributions, sexism, and risk of recidivismbetween Latin American immigrants and Spanish offenders convicted of intimate-partner violence at thebeginning of a batterer intervention program. Second, differences in the batterer intervention programoutcomes between Spanish and Latin American offenders were explored. The sample consisted of 278batterers (211 Spanish and 67 Latin American who participated in a community-based battererintervention program. Results showed significant differences between Spanish and Latin Americanoffenders in perceived severity, victim blaming, violence against women acceptability, and benevolentsexism. Regarding batterer intervention program outcomes, results showed that despite initial differencesbetween Spanish and Latin American offenders, both groups benefit equally from the intervention.

  17. Can a "Psychosocial Model" Help Explain Violence Perpetrated by Female Batterers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Regardt J.; Buttell, Frederick P.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of the study was to evaluate the psychosocial predictors of propensity for abusiveness among a large sample of women ordered into a 26-week batterer intervention program (BIP). Method: The study employed a nonequivalent, control group design (comparing program completers to dropouts) in a secondary analysis of 485 women.…

  18. Searching for Housing as a Battered Woman: Does Discrimination Affect Reported Availability of a Rental Unit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barata, Paula C.; Stewart, Donna E.

    2010-01-01

    Individual battered women have reported experiencing housing discrimination, but the extent of this problem has not been examined. This research used two experiments and a survey to determine if landlord discrimination could keep women from accessing rental units. In Study 1, a confederate asked 181 landlords about the availability of a rental…

  19. Men battering as the new form of domestic violence? A pastoral care perspective from the Kenyan context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julius Gathogo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article sets out to show that gender-based violence is no longer restricted to ‘women by men’. Rather society must appreciate that gender battering is a reality across the gender divide, particularly in the 21st century Africa. In its methodology, the article has engaged a theo-philosophical approach that involves a social, religious, and a cultural analytical approach. The materials are gathered primarily after interviewing the staff and students from Kenyatta University, Mombasa Campus, and some selected people from the campus surroundings who were consulted orally. To this end, a questionnaire was released in June and July 2012 where about 200 respondents from across the various counties of Kenya were called upon to shed light on men battering in Kenya. In particular, some of the questions that were posed included: Has battering of men by women been part of our African societies from ancient times or is it a new phenomenon? Statistically, who are battered more men or women? How does domestic violence against men manifest itself? What causes it? Why does it sound new to our society? What can we do about it? The article rests on the premise that even though battering of women is more explicit, men battering by women, which takes many forms, has been there for quite some time, albeit unreported. By taking a holistic approach hence ‘collective responsibility’ across the gender divide, the society can be healed from all forms of gender-based violence.

  20. Battered Baby: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mondal

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction We report on a three-year-old child, a case of battered baby syndrome. Case Presentation A three-year-old female child was brought with multiple bruises, fracture of left femur and features of raised intracranial tension. The etiology was unclear at presentation. Inconsistencies in history given by the mother, a background of poverty and single parenthood, presence of multiple bruises over the body, multiple infarcts in Computerized Tomography (CT scan, absence of external calvarial injuries and finally subdural hematoma in the autopsy report led to the diagnosis of child abuse. Conclusions Every clinician must be alert to the possibility of battered baby in a child with multiple injuries.

  1. A Systematic Treatment Approach to Wife Battering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, David R.; Frantz-Cook, Anne

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the problem of wife battering in a systemic framework. Reviews literature that bears most directly on a systemic understanding and treatment of wife battering and outlines a comprehensive approach to treatment as it might be utilized by marriage and family therapists. A case example is presented. (Author/JAC)

  2. The battered child syndrome; Die nicht unfallbedingte Verletzung (battered child)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorantin, E.; Lindbichler, F. [Universitaetsklinik fuer Radiologie, Graz (Austria). Abt. fuer Kinderradiologie

    2002-03-01

    The recognition of a battered child represents a challenge for all groups of adults dealing with children. Radiology plays a special role in this setting. By detection typical injuries, imaging is able to confirm the suspicion of a battered child. Recognition of those injuries on films, taken for other reasons, gives the caretaker an important hint, thus maybe preventing a fatal outcome for the child. One of the most important injury types is represented by the so called ''shakin baby syndrome''. The infant is held by the thorax and shaken. Thus causing a repetitive acceleration-deceleration trauma, which leads to the typical paravertebral rib fractures, intracranial bleeding and eye injuries. After shaking the child is thrown away, with subsequent injuries. The aim of this article is the presentation of an overview regarding the radiology of the battered child. Typical examples will be shown. (orig.) [German] Die Aufdeckung einer Kindesmisshandlung stellt eine grosse Herausforderung fuer alle in der Kinderbetreuung taetigen Berufsgruppen dar. Der Radiologie kommt eine besondere Rolle zu, da sie einerseits durch die Erkennung typischer Verletzungsmuster einen Verdacht bestaetigen, als auch bei ''Zufallsbefunden'' die moeglicherweise fatalen Folgen fuer die betroffenen Kinder verhindern kann. Der typische Verletzungsmechanismus im Rahmen einer Kindesmisshandlung stellt das sog. ''shakin baby syndrome'' dar. Dabei wird der Thorax mit beiden Haenden umfasst und das Kind geschuettelt. Durch dieses repetitive Akzelerations-Dezelerationstrauma entstehen typische Verletzungen mit paravertebralen Rippenfrakturen, ZNS- sowie Retinablutungen. Anschliessend wird das Kind weggeworfen mit entsprechend weiteren Verletzungen. Ziel dieses Artikels ist es, einen Ueberblick ueber die Radiologie der wichtigsten Verletzungen und deren Abklaerung im Rahmen einer Kindesmisshandlung zu geben sowie die Demonstration der Befunde

  3. ``Battered child`` syndrome; Das ``Battered-Child``-Syndrom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elsner, K.; Merk, J.; Sokiranski, R. [Ulm Univ. (Germany). Abt. Diagnostische Radiologie

    1997-10-01

    Synonyms for the `battered child` syndrome (BCS) are terms describing the physical and body aspects of the process, such as `child abuse`, or `non-accidental injury`. These are to be distinguished from the psychic aspects and abuse, emotional and bodily neglect, and sexual abuse. Most cases are one or another combination of these aspects. Radiology is the essential method for giving proof of such abuses, identifying the signs of maltreatment in a medical record, or for disproving suspected abuse. (orig./AJ) [Deutsch] Als Synonym fuer das `Battered-Child`-Syndrom (BCS) stehen die Begriffe der koerperlichen-/physikalischen-Kindesmisshandlung, im angelsaechsischen Sprachraum die Begriffe `Child Abuse` und `Nonaccidental Injury`. Vom Syndrom abzugrenzen sind die seelische Misshandlung, die seelische und koerperliche Vernachlaessigung, und der sexuelle Missbrauch. Kombinationsformen sind nicht selten. Bei der Diagnostik des Syndroms spielt die Radiologie eine entscheidende Rolle. So hilft der Einsatz adaequater Untersuchungsmethoden, den Tatbestand der Misshandlung zu identifizieren und zu dokumentieren, aber auch einen Verdacht zu widerlegen. (orig./AJ)

  4. Generalists versus specialists: Toward a typology of batterers in prison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Herrero

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study we apply the versatile/specialist offender debate to the research of intimate partner violence. We propose the existence of two types of imprisoned male batterers: the generalist and the specialist batterer. The individual, family, and community characteristics of these types of batterers are further explored in 110 imprisoned males in the Penitentiary of Villabona (Spain. As for the individual characteristics, results indicate that the generalist batterer present higher levels of psychopathology (specially antisocial and borderline personality, sexist attitudes, and substance dependence. Specialist batterers presented higher levels of conflict in their family of origin. Finally, generalist batterers reported coming from more socially disordered communities and showed lower levels of participation and integration in these communities than the specialist batterer. These results suggest that the classical distinctions among batterers based on psychopathology and context of violence (whether general or family only might be of little utility when applied to imprisoned male batterers.

  5. A latent classification of male batterers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauricio, Anne M; Lopez, Frederick G

    2009-01-01

    Regression latent class analysis was used to identify batterer subgroups with distinct violence patterns and to examine associations between class membership and adult attachment orientations as well as antisocial and borderline personality disorders. Results supported three batterer subgroups, with classes varying on frequency and severity of violence. The high-level violence class represented 40% of batterers, and both anxious and avoidant adult attachment orientations as well as borderline personality characteristics predicted membership in this class. The moderate-level violence class represented 35% of the batterers, and adult anxious attachment orientation was associated with membership in this class. The low-level violence class represented 25% of the sample and reported significantly less violence than other classes. Neither adult attachment orientations nor personality disorders predicted membership in this class.

  6. Pullout capacity of batter pile in sand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazir, Ashraf; Nasr, Ahmed

    2013-03-01

    Many offshore structures are subjected to overturning moments due to wind load, wave pressure, and ship impacts. Also most of retaining walls are subjected to horizontal forces and bending moments, these forces are due to earth pressure. For foundations in such structures, usually a combination of vertical and batter piles is used. Little information is available in the literature about estimating the capacity of piles under uplift. In cases where these supporting piles are not vertical, the behavior under axial pullout is not well established. In order to delineate the significant variables affecting the ultimate uplift shaft resistance of batter pile in dry sand, a testing program comprising 62 pullout tests was conducted. The tests are conducted on model steel pile installed in loose, medium, and dense sand to an embedded depth ratio, L/d, vary from 7.5 to 30 and with various batter angles of 0°, 10°, 20°, and 30°. Results indicate that the pullout capacity of a batter pile constructed in dense and/or medium density sand increases with the increase of batter angle attains maximum value and then decreases, the maximum value of Pα occurs at batter angle approximately equal to 20°, and it is about 21-31% more than the vertical pile capacity, while the pullout capacity for batter pile that constructed in loose sand decreases with the increase of pile inclination. The results also indicated that the circular pile is more resistant to pullout forces than the square and rectangular pile shape. The rough model piles tested is experienced 18-75% increase in capacity compared with the smooth model piles. The suggested relations for the pullout capacity of batter pile regarding the vertical pile capacity are well predicted.

  7. Pullout capacity of batter pile in sand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Nazir

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Many offshore structures are subjected to overturning moments due to wind load, wave pressure, and ship impacts. Also most of retaining walls are subjected to horizontal forces and bending moments, these forces are due to earth pressure. For foundations in such structures, usually a combination of vertical and batter piles is used. Little information is available in the literature about estimating the capacity of piles under uplift. In cases where these supporting piles are not vertical, the behavior under axial pullout is not well established. In order to delineate the significant variables affecting the ultimate uplift shaft resistance of batter pile in dry sand, a testing program comprising 62 pullout tests was conducted. The tests are conducted on model steel pile installed in loose, medium, and dense sand to an embedded depth ratio, L/d, vary from 7.5 to 30 and with various batter angles of 0°, 10°, 20°, and 30°. Results indicate that the pullout capacity of a batter pile constructed in dense and/or medium density sand increases with the increase of batter angle attains maximum value and then decreases, the maximum value of Pα occurs at batter angle approximately equal to 20°, and it is about 21–31% more than the vertical pile capacity, while the pullout capacity for batter pile that constructed in loose sand decreases with the increase of pile inclination. The results also indicated that the circular pile is more resistant to pullout forces than the square and rectangular pile shape. The rough model piles tested is experienced 18–75% increase in capacity compared with the smooth model piles. The suggested relations for the pullout capacity of batter pile regarding the vertical pile capacity are well predicted.

  8. The struggle to address woman battering in Slovakia: stories from service providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Susan L; Wasileski, Gabriela

    2015-06-01

    Following the fall of communism, Slovakia found itself in a challenging position: to openly acknowledge the existence of intimate partner violence (IPV) and its disproportionate effect on women and children without an infrastructure to address victim safety, and provide resources and legal help. With collaboration with non-governmental organizations (NGOs), the government responded by developing shelters and introducing legislation that criminalized IPV and created social services for victims. To assess implementation efforts, we conducted in-depth interviews with governmental officials and NGO personnel who provide services for battered women. We focus on the operation and efficacy of shelters to discover what services are most needed for battered women, the criminal justice system's response to IPV, and what long-range goals will facilitate more permanent solutions to the social problem of violence against women in Slovakia.

  9. Shelters in Denmark for Battered Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch-Nielsen, Inger; Caceres, Lucia

    The first Danish crises centres were part of the women’s move-ment back into the 1970’s and were originally based mainly upon female volunteers, who saw the volunteering as part of their engagement in the movement. The centres were created upon and ran according to the principles of sister...... in as the users of the centres are considered to be more and more difficult to deal with, requests for quality standards, requests for statistics. The recent focus upon domestic violence can’t be seen as a revival of a feminist approach. It is part of the general trend in crime policy where the focus is upon...... the victims in general. Victims of violence attract the attention of the politician and among those victims of domes-tic violence....

  10. Exploring Burnout in Batterer Intervention Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahner, Angela D.; Berkel, LaVerne A.

    2007-01-01

    This study used the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) to explore burnout in a sample of 115 batterer intervention program (BIP) workers (56% female, 44% male) from four midwestern states. The purpose of this study was to explore the role that demographic variables, job-setting variables, supervisor support, and personality characteristics played in…

  11. A report on the psychological test results of battering parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyman, C A

    1977-09-01

    The short form of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale and Cattell's 16PF test have been given to patients attending the National Advisory Centre on the Battered Child (NSPCC) and in the case of the personality questionnaire the results compared to non-battering control adults' scores. The intelligence levels of battering parents conform to normal expectation although there is a non-significant trend to marginally lower than normal results especially in verbal tests. The 16PF test reveals immature impetuosity on the part of the mothers as a main finding and introversion in the fathers. The relevance of these findings to battering is discussed.

  12. Services for Men Who Batter: Implications for Programs and Policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feazell, Carann Simpson; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Analyzed data on services offered to battering males in a survey of 90 agencies. Found that most agencies are young, inadequately funded, and provide diverse services independent of each other, and that batterers exhibit characteristics that need specific treatment. Described a developing model for successful treatment. (JAC)

  13. Psychopathology Differences between Batterers and Nonbatterers: Psychosocial Modifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamberger, L. Kevin; Hastings, James E.

    Research attention on men who batter their female partners has focused on psychological and personality characteristics of the men. However, occupational status, educational attainment, and abuse history may have been confounded with the personality variables studied. This study made within-group and between-group comparisons of batterers and…

  14. Expert Baseball Batters Have Greater Sensitivity in Making Swing Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Rob

    2010-01-01

    This study used signal detection theory to conceptualize the problem a baseball batter faces when deciding whether or not to swing at a pitch. It examined the launch angle (LA) criteria used by expert (college players) and less experienced (recreational league players) batters using a baseball batting simulation. This study showed that, although…

  15. Women's Rights Network (WRN).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slote, K; Cuthbert, C

    1997-02-01

    The Massachusetts-based Women's Rights Network (WRN) was founded in 1995 in response to the need to develop collaborative, crosscultural, and international strategies to eliminate domestic violence. The WRN initiated meetings with local advocates to identify the most pressing issues facing the US battered women's movement and then began to contact advocates for battered women throughout the world. To date, the WRN offers a resource center documenting strategies used around the world to end domestic violence, gives workshops and presentations to increase public education and awareness about domestic violence, organizes international strategy sessions between women's advocates in Massachusetts and those in other countries, facilitates one-on-one partnerships between groups for battered women in Massachusetts and sister organizations in other countries, and participates in the annual "16 Days of Activism Against Gender Violence." The WRN also plans to publish a biannual journal.

  16. Cooked sausage batter cohesiveness as affected by sarcoplasmic proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farouk, M M; Wieliczko, K; Lim, R; Turnwald, S; Macdonald, G A

    2002-05-01

    In the first trial, m. semitendinosus and m. biceps femoris were held at 0, 10 and 35 °C until they entered rigor, and in the second trial, minced m. semitendinosus was washed in water for 15, 30, 45 or 60 min. The samples from both the trials were then used to make a finely comminuted sausage batter. Soluble sarcoplasmic protein (SSP) levels decreased with increasing rigor temperature (P batter shear stress was not affected by SSP level, but batter shear strain decreased with the decreasing SSP level associated with an increasing rigor temperature (P batter from the washed samples compared to that of controls. The results suggest that sarcoplasmic proteins are important in determining the strain values (cohesiveness) of cooked sausage batter.

  17. The psychopathic intimate partner batterer: a non-psychopathological profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José M. Pozueco-Romero

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This theoretical study reviews two of the most cited profiles of intimate partner batterers in the scientific literature, paying special attention to the most notable differences between them, as well as to their common criteria. The study also discusses one of the longest standing controversies in various research studies, including the particular overview with respect to Spain: it being the constant yet erroneous reference to the equivalence of psychopathy and antisocial personality disorder. Similarly, special attention is paid to the implications of considering intimate partner batterers as having either a psychopathological or psychopathic profile, while also stressing the specific role played by psychopathy in the intimate partner batterer and, concerning psychopathic intimate partner batterers, such aspects as their specific motives for perpetrating intimate partner violence and the evaluation instruments of this particular profile. Finally, a series of future directives for research concerning psychopathic intimate partner batterers are also pointed out.

  18. Patterns of minor psychiatric disorders among battered women treated at an emergency care unit Padrão de distúrbios psíquicos menores em mulheres vítimas de violência atendidas em uma unidade de urgência e emergência

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iracema Viterbo Silva

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this cross-sectional study was to describe the patterns in minor psychiatric disorders among women who suffered different types of violence. Using a version of the Abuse Assessment Screen, face-to-face interviews were conducted in a cluster sample of women ages 15 to 49 years using an emergency care hospital. Women's mental status was assessed with a version of the Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20. From a total of 273 women, 77.3% (95%CI: 78.2-82.2 scored 7 or more on the SRQ-20, indicating the presence of psychiatric illness. The findings suggest that women who had experienced more than one type of violence (PR = 1.31; 95%CI: 1.11-1.56 and who had been battered in the previous 12 months (PR = 1.30; 95%CI: 1.08-1.58 were more likely to suffer minor mental disorders. The results show a positive association between violence and mental illness, suggesting the need for more effective measures in the care of victims, such as the creation of institutional nets to guarantee comprehensive care for women.Este estudo de corte transversal teve como objetivo descrever o padrão de ocorrência de distúrbios psíquicos menores entre mulheres de 15 a 49 anos, atendidas em um hospital de emergência de Salvador, Bahia, Brasil, e que sofreram diferentes tipos de violência. As mulheres foram identificadas a partir de entrevistas face a face, utilizando-se o Abuse Assessment Screen. Para avaliar o estado mental, utilizou-se uma versão do Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20. Do total de 273 mulheres, 77,3% (IC95%: 78,2-82,2 apresentaram escore igual ou acima de sete no SRQ-20, sugerindo provável morbidade psiquiátrica. Mulheres que sofreram mais de um tipo de violência (RP = 1,31; IC95%: 1,11-1,56 e foram agredidas nos últimos 12 meses (RP= 1,30; IC95%: 1,08-1,58 apresentaram maior prevalência de distúrbios psíquicos menores. Os resultados sugerem uma associação positiva entre violência e doença mental, o que requer medidas mais

  19. Mechanisms of meat batter stabilization: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, A; Barbut, S

    1992-01-01

    Comminuted meat products are a complex mixture of muscle tissue, solubilized proteins, fat, salt, and water. The two theories that have been presented to explain meat batters stabilization are reviewed. The emulsion theory explains stabilization by the formation of a protein film around fat globules, whereas the physical entrapment theory emphasizes the role of the protein matrix in holding the fat in place during chopping and subsequent heating. However, some aspects of stabilization cannot be explained adequately by either one of these theories. In this article the role of meat proteins, aqueous phase, and lipid phase are examined in light of past and recent research findings.

  20. COATING OF FOOD PRODUCTS : BATTER AND BREADING TECHNIQUES AND EQUIPMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Figen KAYMAK ERTEN

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The coating process of food products with various mixtures prior to frying is a common application in kitchens whereas it still requires much investigation in technological area. In this study, batter and breading technology used in coating of foods is reviewed. The coating process was defined, and the function of predusting, battering and breading, the general composition of batter and breading mixtures and the functions of the ingradients were explained. In the coating application, the most important problem known as adhesion and the effects of it on the efficiency and cost were investigated. Batter and breading processing equipments used in the industry and the process lines were reviewed, and the problems, new designs and the latest patents relating them were discussed. New coating systems known as tumbling and fluidization were investigated and compared with other systems.

  1. Raman spectroscopic evaluation of meat batter structural changes induced by thermal treatment and salt addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero, A M; Carmona, P; López-López, I; Jiménez-Colmenero, F

    2008-08-27

    Raman spectroscopy, texture, proximate composition, and water binding analysis were carried out to evaluate the effect of thermal treatment and/or salt addition to meat batter. For this purpose, different meat batters were elaborated: control meat batter (no salt) and meat batters with low (1.0%) and high (2.5%) NaCl content with and without thermal treatment (70 degrees C/30 min). Increase (P batter. Raman spectroscopy analysis revealed a significant (P batter. In this way, a significant correlation was found between beta-sheets, salt content, hardness, and chewiness in heated samples.

  2. Equal Rights to Trial for Women: Sex Bias in the Law of Self Defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Elizabeth

    1980-01-01

    Examines how sexual stereotypes of women and the male orientation built into the law prevents judges and jurors from appreciating the circumstances of battered women's perception and their acts of self-defense. (Author/MK)

  3. A New Device for Studying Deep-Frying Behavior of Batters and Resulting Crust Properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, J.E.; Beukelaer, de H.J.; Hamer, R.J.; Vliet, van T.

    2008-01-01

    The formation and properties of a crust during and after deep frying are difficult to study. Batter pickup (the amount of batter adhering to a product) and core properties affect crust formation and properties of the crust in such way that it is difficult to compare batters of different viscosity or

  4. Rheological Study of Batter Dough for Yorkshire Pudding Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migliori, M.; Gabriele, D.; Baldino, N.; Lupi, F. R.; de Cindio, B.

    2008-07-01

    Batter dough are widely used in manufacturing of baked goods having different texture characteristics. The analysis of "liquid-like" properties of these systems allows the control of product shape and consistency during production, because of the flow pattern definition. This work deals with "batter" for "Yorkshire Pudding" production, having a characteristic shape mainly due to the combination of shear flow and bubble expansion during baking. Some of mechanical properties can be controlled by varying the recipe as normally done during industrial production. Dynamic measurement and viscosity data at some characteristic temperatures are reported in the view of supporting the modeling of the shape variation under shear flow and bubble expansion.

  5. Accelerated fermentation of 'idli' batter using soy residue okara.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rekha, C R; Vijayalakshmi, G

    2011-06-01

    The aim of this work was to reduce the natural fermentation period of 'idli' from the conventional 14 h to 10 h by adding underutilized okara for the preparation of 'idli'. Black gram was partially substituted with soy residue okara in the ratio of (1:1). After 14 h of natural fermentation, the pH and total acidity of control 'idli' batter was 4.51 and 0.64% and that of okara fortified 'idli' batter was 4.53 and 0.43%, respectively. The amount of CO2 released by the control and okara fortified batter was 19.7% and 33.6% respectively. The viable count of yeast and mold, lactics and mesophilic bacteria in control & okara batter increased with time reaching 9.00 & 10.34, 8.66 & 7.69, and 8.65 & 9.47 log10 cfu/g, respectively at the end of 10 h of natural fermentation. Okara fortified 'idli' was soft and spongy compared to control 'idli' .

  6. Bat Dynamics of Female Fast Pitch Softball Batters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messier, Stephen P.; Owen, Marjorie G.

    1984-01-01

    Female fast pitch softball batters served in an examination of the dynamic characteristics of the bat during the swing through the use of three-dimensional cinematographic analysis techniques. These results were compared with those from previous studies of baseball batting. Findings are listed. (Author/DF)

  7. Identifying transformations in welfare work addressing battered women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Eva

    , I present a preliminary selection of concepts and understandings in order to construct a theoretic-analytical approach to access oral accounts/interview material. The overall idea is to construct transformations in a field, and let these function as background in a study of how practitioners...

  8. Men who batter intimate partners: a grounded theory study of the development of male violence in intimate partner relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilley, Donna Scott; Brackley, Margaret

    2005-04-01

    Intimate partner violence is a serious and pervasive problem in U.S. society, with 25% of women and 7.6% of men reporting physical abuse by an intimate partner each year. Understanding the risk factors for development of violence is essential toward the development of interventions to reduce partner violence. Much of the understanding about the development of partner violence is based on research with victims rather than perpetrators. The study was conducted with men convicted of assault on an intimate female partner. Grounded theory was the method used to analyze data from interviews with 16 men participating in a batterers' intervention and prevention program. From the data, the Violent Couples Model was developed. The primary elements of the Violent Couples Model are justifying violence, minimizing violence, childhood exposure to violence, ineffective anger management, childhood experience of violence, and ineffective conflict resolution. Social and familial factors serve as moderating elements. Contextual elements of the model include power and control, social isolation, desensitization, insecure maternal relationships, the view of violence as a private problem, ambivalent intimate relationships, objectification of women, immaturity, lack of awareness about what constitutes violence, mistrust, traditional views of the roles of women, financial issues, and jealousy. Interventions indicated in the model are primary, or preventive, in nature. The model focuses on prevention efforts with the family as a whole, rather than on batterers alone.

  9. A comparative quality appraisal of finely comminuted batters produced using three types of knives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzywdzińska-Bartkowiak, Mirosława; Piątek, Michał; Dolata, Włodzimierz

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the work efficiency of three types of knives mounted successively on a knife roll of a cutter by evaluating the quality and structure of produced finely comminuted batters as well as power consumption and electric energy consumption during chopping. Experimental material comprised finely comminuted meat batters produced under commercial scale production conditions using smooth knives, knives with riffles and knives with holes. Parameters measured in batter included temperature, water, fat, free water, apparent viscosity, thermal drip and batter structure using computer image analysis. Computer image analysis showed that the best comminution and dispersion of fat globules in the protein matrix together with very good comminution of collagen fibres were observed at the application of knives with holes. Among the three types of knives used in the production of finely comminuted meat batters the best batter in terms of its quality and structure was produced using knives with holes.

  10. Jilebi 2: Flowability, pourability and pH of batter as affected by fermentation

    OpenAIRE

    Chakkaravarthi, A.; Kumar, H. N. Punil; Bhattacharya, Suvendu

    2011-01-01

    Fermentation of batter is an integral part of the preparation of jilebi, a traditional ready-to-eat sweet product of Indian sub-continent. The flowability and pourability of batter are crucial for forming jilebi strands during frying. Flowability and pourability have been determined from simulation studies based on the movement of batter on an inclined surface and the exit from an orifice, respectively; simple gadgets have been designed to determine these two characteristics along with provid...

  11. Changes in baseball batters' brain activity with increased pitch choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Kwangmin; Kim, Jingu; Ali, Asif; Kim, Woojong; Radlo, Steven J

    2015-09-01

    In baseball, one factor necessary for batters to decide whether to swing or not depends on what type of pitch is thrown. Oftentimes batters will look for their pitch (i.e., waiting for a fastball). In general, when a pitcher has many types of pitches in his arsenal, batters will have greater difficulty deciding upon the pitch thrown. Little research has been investigated the psychophysiology of a batters decision-making processes. Therefore, the primary purpose of this study was to determine how brain activation changes according to an increase in the number of alternatives (NA) available. A total of 15 male college baseball players participated in this study. The stimuli used in this experiment were video clips of a right-handed pitcher throwing fastball, curve, and slider pitches. The task was to press a button after selecting the fastball as the target stimulus from two pitch choices (fastball and curve), and then from three possibilities (fastball, curve, and slider). Functional and anatomic image scanning magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) runs took 4 and 5[Formula: see text]min, respectively. According to our analysis, the right precentral gyrus, left medial frontal gyrus, and right fusiform gyrus were activated when the NA was one. The supplementary motor areas (SMA) and primary motor cortex were activated when there were two alternatives to choose from and the inferior orbitofrontal gyrus was specifically activated with three alternatives. Contrary to our expectations, the NA was not a critical factor influencing the activation of related decision making areas when the NA was compared against one another. These findings highlight that specific brain areas related to decision making were activated as the NA increased.

  12. Seismic Dynamic Damage Characteristics of Vertical and Batter Pile-supported Wharf Structure Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Jiren

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Considering a typical steel pipe pile-supported wharf as the research object, finite element analytical models of batter and vertical pile structures were established under the same construction site, service, and geological conditions to investigate the seismic dynamic damage characteristics of vertical and batter pile-supported wharf structures. By the numerical simulation and the nonlinear time history response analysis of structure system and the moment–axial force relation curve, we analyzed the dynamic damage characteristics of the two different structures of batter and vertical piles under different seismic ground motions to provide reasonable basis and reference for designing and selecting a pile-supported wharf structure. Results showed that the axial force of batter piles was dominant in the batter pile structure and that batter piles could effectively bear and share seismic load. Under the seismic ground motion with peak ground acceleration (PGA of 350 Gal and in consideration of the factors of the design requirement of horizontal displacement, the seismic performance of the batter pile structure was better than that of the vertical pile structure. Under the seismic ground motion with a PGA of 1000 Gal, plastic failure occurred in two different structures. The contrastive analysis of the development of plastic damage and the absorption and dissipation for seismic energy indicated that the seismic performance of the vertical pile structure was better than that of the batter pile structure.

  13. Combined effects of presalted prerigor and postrigor batter mixtures on chicken breast gelation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yun-Sang; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Song, Dong-Hun; Jeong, Tae-Jun; Jeon, Ki-Hong; Kim, Young-Boong; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2015-04-01

    We examined the combined effects of prerigor and postrigor batter mixtures on protein gelation. The postrigor batter was prepared with 2% salt, whereas the prerigor meat at 5 min postmortem was used to prepare postrigor batters at different salt levels. For 5 treatments, prerigor batters were mixed with postrigor batter that had 2% salt (control) as follows: T1: ground presalted (1%) hot-boned breast with 1% salt for 50% total batch; T2: ground presalted (2%) hot-boned breast for 50% total batch; T3: ground presalted (3%) hot-boned breast for 30% total batch that was mixed with cold-boned batter for 50% total batch; T4: ground presalted (4%) hot-boned breast for 25% total batch that was mixed with cold-boned batter for 50% total batch; and T5: ground presalted (5%) hot-boned breast for 20% total batch that was mixed with cold-boned batter for 50% total batch. Treatments with both presalted prerigor and postrigor muscle showed less cooking loss and lower emulsion stability than the control, except T5. The protein solubility and apparent viscosity of the control was the lowest. Thus, presalted hot-boned muscle combined with cold-boned muscle positively affected physicochemical properties.

  14. A typology of men who batter: three types derived from cluster analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, D G

    1992-04-01

    Important theoretical and treatment implications may be revealed when men who batter their intimate partners are categorized according to type. Data on 165 batterers were cluster analyzed, and three types identified: family-only aggressors, generalized aggressors, and emotionally volatile aggressors. The clustering variables explained 90% of the variance in category assignment. Implications for treatment are discussed.

  15. Effect of extruded wheat flour as a fat replacer on batter characteristics and cake quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Román, Laura; Santos, Isabel; Martínez, Mario M; Gómez, Manuel

    2015-12-01

    The effects of three levels of fat replacement (1/3, 2/3, and 3/3) by extruded flour paste and the effects of the presence of emulsifier on layer cake batter characteristics and final cake quality were studied. Replacement of oil by extruded flour paste modified the batter density and microscopy, reducing the number of air bubbles and increasing their size, while emulsifier incorporation facilitated air entrapment in batter. Emulsifier addition also increased the elastic and viscous moduli of the batter, while oil reduction resulted in a less structured batter. Emulsifier incorporation leads to good quality cakes, minimizing the negative effect of oil reduction, maintaining the volume and reducing the hardness of cakes. Furthermore, consumer acceptability of the reduced fat cakes was improved by the addition of emulsifier. Thus, the results confirmed the positive effect of partial oil substitution (up to 2/3) by extruded flour paste on the quality of reduced fat cakes when emulsifier was incorporated.

  16. A complexity-based approach to batterer intervention programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina-Maldonado, Venus E; Medina-Maldonado, Rossana; Parada-Cores, Germán

    2014-01-01

    This paper was aimed at providing opinion by adopting a complexity-based approach to coordinating nursing science and psychology concerning psycho-educational intervention for batterers regarding their partner or ex-partner. Improving both disciplines' interrelationship should facilitate implementing relevant action, thereby engendering motivation for change in participants and modifying sexist attitudes and beliefs. The document has analyzed the importance of coordinating scientific disciplines' action and defined guidelines for an approach involving intervention as well as highlighting implications for practice and research.

  17. Pick-up of early visual information to guide kinetics and kinematics within a group of highly skilled baseball batters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MüLler, Sean; Lalović, Alex; Dempsey, Alasdair R; Rosalie, Simon M; Harbaugh, Allen G

    2014-10-01

    This pilot study integrated sport expertise and biomechanics methodologies within a baseball batting task. Purpose was to examine differences within a highly skilled group of baseball batters to use visual information to guide weight transfer and bat movements. One batter who played at Major League Baseball (MLB) level was compared to five batters who played at Australian Baseball League (ABL) level in a case-control design. Batters faced pitchers in a simulated competition and attempted to hit pitches, while vision was temporally occluded during ball flight or not occluded. Time of weight transfer (kinetics), as well as bat downswing initiation and duration (kinematics) from the point of ball release, were compared between the MLB batter and ABL batters. Results indicated that the MLB batter coordinated his striking pattern by completing his weight transfer earlier than the ABL batters. His bat downswing was also initiated earlier than some ABL batters, but there was no difference in duration of bat downswing between batters. All batters initiated bat downswing prior to completion of weight transfer. Understanding of motor expertise is furthered using a novel methodology.

  18. Violence against women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keizire, J

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses the prevalence of violence against women in Uganda. The incidence of violence against women has been increasing despite efforts by law enforcement orders. In the broadest sense, violence against women is any violation of a woman's personhood, mental or physical integrity or freedom of movement. Violence against women is considered as an obstacle to the achievement of the objectives of equality, development and peace. Moreover, the act violates and impairs women's rights and fundamental freedoms. The low social and economic status of women can be both a cause and a consequence of violence against women. Physical, sexual and psychological violence occurring in the family, including battering, sexual abuse of female children, dowry-related violence, marital rape, female genital mutilation and other traditional practices harmful to women, limit the ability to make choices on women's lives.

  19. Rheological properties of rice-blackgram batter while replacing white rice with brown rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manickavasagan, Annamalai; Al-Marhubi, Insaaf Mohd; Dev, Satyanarayan

    2014-06-01

    Rice-blackgram batter is a raw material for many traditional convenience foods in Asia. Reformulation of traditional convenience food by replacing white rice with whole rice (brown rice) is a novel method to reduce the consumption of refined grain and increase the intake of whole grain in our diet. In this study, rheological properties of rice-blackgram batter was investigated while replacing white rice with brown rice at five levels (T1--0% replacement (control), T2--25% replacement, T3--50% replacement, T4--75% replacement, and T5--100% replacement). The shear stress versus shear rate plot indicates that the rice-blackgram batter exhibited non-Newtonian fluid behavior (shear thinning property) even after 100% replacement of white rice with brown rice. The rheological characteristics of rice-blackgram batters fitted reasonably well in Cassan (r2 = 0.8521-0.9856) and power law (r2 = 0.8042-0.9823) models. Brown rice replacement at all levels did not affect the flow behavior index, yield stress, consistency coefficient, and apparent viscosity of batter at 25 degrees C. However, at higher temperature, the viscosity was greater for T4 and T5 (no difference between them) than T1, T2, and T3 (no difference between them) batters. Further research is required to determine the sensory attributes and acceptability of the cooked products with brown rice-blended batter.

  20. Influence of physicochemical properties of rice flour on oil uptake of tempura frying batter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Sumiko; Ohtsubo, Ken'ichi

    2010-01-01

    The physicochemical properties of rice flour and wheat flour influenced the oil uptake of tempura frying batter. Rice flour was better than wheat flour in the overall quality and crispness of the fried tempura batter. Rice flour resisted oil absorption more than wheat flour, and a higher level of apparent starch amylose and higher consistency/breakdown ratio of the pasting properties led to a lower oil uptake of the batter. Super hard EM10 rice showed the highest apparent amylose content and higher consistency/breakdown ratio than the other flour samples, the batter from EM10 revealing the lowest oil content after frying among all the batters examined. The apparent amylose content, consistency/breakdown ratio and oil absorption index are proposed as useful guides for oil absorption when frying from among the physicochemical properties that influence the oil content of fried batter. Our proposal for the "oil absorption index" could be a simple, although not perfect method for estimating the oil content of batter flour.

  1. Intimate partner violence offenders: Generating a data-based typology of batterers and implications for treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Cunha

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Different studies have proposed that batterers can be classified into distinct groups according topsychopathology, violence severity and frequency. The aim of the current study was to define a data-basedbatterer’s typology and its implications for rehabilitation. Data were collected from 187 male sentenced forintimate partner violence –111 of them to prison and 76 to community service. A cluster analysis supporteda three-cluster solution: non-pathological (NP, 40%, antisocial/violent (AV, 27% and disturbed batterers(DB, 33%. Subsequent analysis showed that AV batterers were profiled through the perpetration of physicaland psychological violence, antisocial behaviour, deviant lifestyle, criminal records, inter parental violenceand drug abuse; DB batterers, were profiled through behaviours of psychological violence, physicalaggression and hostility, clinical symptomatology (e.g., somatisation, depression, anxiety, paranoidideation, criminal records, antisocial behaviour, and a deviant lifestyle; and NP batterers were not profiledthrough any of the variables related to criminality and recidivism. Multinomial logistic regressionsupported different logistic models for batterer types in terms of psychopathological, antisocial andperpetrated violence-type variables. Implications of batterer typology on treatment are discussed.

  2. Guidelines for doctors on identifying and helping their patients who batter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, D

    1996-01-01

    While there are a growing number of medical guides for assisting physicians to identify and help victims of domestic violence, there has been scant attention to how physicians can best respond to perpetrators. The medical model's deficient grasp of violence, combined with the minimizing and excuse-making strategies employed by batterers hinder physicians' ability to detect batterers in their practices and to prescribe the right solutions. Earlier detection is possible, however, when doctors adopt routine diagnostic procedures for all patients and ask informed follow-up questions when there are indications of domestic violence. Finally, physicians should become aware of the effective batterer treatment programs in their areas and make this information easily available to their patients who batter.

  3. Substance abuse among men who batter their mates. The dangerous mix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, A R

    1988-01-01

    The relationship between battering and alcohol abuse has been recognized but little research has been done on the incidence of combined drug and alcohol abuse among men who batter. This exploratory study is based on data obtained from the intake records of 234 male batterers who had charges filed against them at the Marion County Prosecutor's Office in Indianapolis. The findings show that men who were charged with Battery A (the more violent offenses) were considerably more likely than those charged with Battery B to have either a drug problem or a dual alcohol and drug problem. This article concludes by suggesting the need for well-coordinated interagency treatment programs. It also documents the need for establishing valid assessment instruments that have the potential for identifying high risk chemically dependent batterers.

  4. Heat resistance of an outbreak strain of Listeria monocytogenes in hot dog batter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzotta, A S; Gombas, D E

    2001-03-01

    The heat resistance of a strain of Listeria monocytogenes responsible for a listeriosis outbreak in hot dogs was not higher than the heat resistance of other L. monocytogenes strains when tested in tryptic soy broth and in laboratory-prepared hot dog batter. For the thermal death time experiments, the cells were grown to stationary phase or were starved in phosphate-buffered saline, pH 7, for 6 h at 30 degrees C. Starvation increased the heat resistance of L. monocytogenes in broth but not in hot dog batter. D-values in hot dog batter were higher than in broth. For the hot dog formulation used in this study, cooking the hot dog batter for 30 s at 71.1 degrees C (160 degrees F), or its equivalent using a z-value of 6 degrees C (11 degrees F), would inactivate 5 logs of L. monocytogenes.

  5. Selected methods of fat content reduction in battered and/or breaded products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Tyburcy

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The survey of selected methods developed for reduction of the fat content in battered and/or breaded products of animal origin was presented in this article. Modifications of batter properties using whey and soy protein, xanthan, starch, cellulose derivatives, pectin, gelatin and replacers of lipophilic wheat gluten were described. Examples of application of heat treatments other than deep fat frying were given.

  6. Batterer intervention programs in Spain: The professionals perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria A. Ferrer-Perez

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The Organic Law 1/2004 of 28 December on Integrated Protection Measures against Gender Violence has had, among other consequences, the generalization of intervention programs for batterers in cases of gender violence. The objective of this research is to explore the point of view of specialized professionals about these programs. For this purpose a qualitative methodology was used, by applying semi-structured interviews to 65 key informants, i.e. professionals with experience in implementing and/or managing and evaluating such programs. In general, these professionals were satisfied with the programs in which they had participated and they valued them positively. They considered that certain characteristics of participants and of the programs themselves contribute to promoting or hindering their success and also that they could obtain better results by customizing interventions. These results provide valuable information for understanding the difficulties encountered in implementing these programs and to improve them.

  7. Discussions of Fatherhood in Male Batterer Treatment Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anu Veteläinen

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine how men who have perpetrated violence toward their partners and participated in batterer group talked about being a father and how they perceived their own fatherhood. The discussion in the group was analyzed qualitatively by using the methods of content analysis. In traditional fatherhood, they talked about avoidant, passiveness, distant, indifference, and authoritative controlling ways of acting. These men also created an image of themselves as active and caring fathers, thus including empathy and nurture in the concept of fatherhood. This new fatherhood was considered an achieved goal and an objective for the men as being a father. Talking about fatherhood in these groups is important as fatherhood and relations to children are both an important motivator toward nonviolence.

  8. Lipid and cholesterol oxidation, color changes, and volatile compounds production in irradiated raw pork batters with different fat content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Cheo Run; Byun, Myung Woo [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-05-01

    An emulsion-type product was prepared to determine the effect of irradiation on lipid and cholesterol oxidation, color change, and volatile production in raw pork with different fat content. Lipid oxidation increased with an increase in fat content or irradiation dose. Irradiated batters had higher cholesterol oxides than did non-irradiated batters, and the major cholesterol oxides formed in irradiated pork batters were 7{alpha}- and 7{beta}- hydroxycholesterol. Hunter color a- and b-values of raw pork batters were decreased by irradiation regardless of fat content. Irradiation significantly increased the amount of volatile compounds. Although lipid oxidation of high fat products (10 and 15% fat) was higher than that of low fat products (4%), high fat products did not always produce greater amount of volatile compounds in raw pork batters. In summary, irradiation increased lipid and cholesterol oxidation, and volatile compounds production, and had detrimental effects on the color of raw pork batter under aerobic conditions.

  9. Selection of starter cultures for idli batter fermentation and their effect on quality of idlis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridevi, J; Halami, Prakash M; Vijayendra, S V N

    2010-10-01

    Idli batter samples were prepared using lactic starter cultures like Pediococcus pentosaceus (Pp), Enterococcus faecium MTCC 5153 (Ef), Ent. faecium (IB2 Ef-IB2), individually, along with the yeast culture, Candida versatilis (Cv). Idli batter prepared using Ef and Ef-IB2 cultures gave better results, when evaluated for the rise in batter volume (80 ml), level of CO2 production (23.8%), titratable acidity 2.4-3.5% (lactic acid) and pH 4.3-4.4. Storage stability of batter made with selected starter cultures was determined by analyzing the idlis prepared using the batter stored for 1 and 5 days for texture, nutrient composition and sensory quality. Slight variations in the results were seen among the idlis of different combination of cultures, whereas these results are better than that of the idlis made using naturally fermented idli batter. Sensory profile of idlis prepared using starter cultures had a higher score (3.9-4.4) compared to the control (3.6) for overall acceptability.

  10. Effect of water content and heating temperature on thermal properties of brown rice batter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboukzail, Jehan; Abdullah, Aminah; Ghani, Maaruf Abd

    2015-09-01

    The objectives of this research were to assess the effect of water content in the formulation (60%,80%, 100%, 105%, 110%, 120% flour basis) on starch gelatinization of brown rice batter, and to identify the effects of heat treatment at 50°C, 60°C, 70°C, 80°C on starch gelatinization and degree of starch gelatinization of brown rice batter and wheat dough. At 60% water content, there was no gelatinization of brown rice batter, but the batter was gelatinized by increasing the water content to 80%. No significant differences in onset (To) peak (Tp) and endest (Tend) temperature when the water content increased from 80% to 120%; however, enthalpy (ΔH) decreased when water content grew up. Heat treatment of brown rice batter at 60% water content made brown rice batter gelatinized. Starch gelatinization temperature To, Tend and ΔH did not have significant differences when temperature of heat treatment increased from 50°C to 80°C while Tp increased significantly (pbatter.

  11. Rheological behavior of indian traditional fermented wheat batters used for preparation of Kurdi & Seera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vedprakash D. SURVE

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Traditional Indian cereal based fermented food products like Kurdi (Maharashtra and Seera (Himachal Pradesh are prepared from batter of fermented wheat grains. These wheat batters were prepared by soaking wheat grains (Triticum Astivum L., variety: PBN51 in water at different temperatures (30, 37.5 and 45°C for four days (natural fermentation, crushed, centrifuged and characterized for rheological properties. The present study was aimed to test the effect of soaking temperature (during natural fermentation of wheat grains on the rheological behavior of wheat batter. It was determined that viscosity and yield stress of the wheat batter decreased with increase in soaking temperature of natural fermentation. Yield stress decreased by 65% and 82% for wheat grains soaked at 37.5°C and 45°C, respectively as compared to those soaked at 30°C. This was attributed to the degradation of the carbohydrates by the natural flora of microorganisms. Increasing the soaking temperature during natural fermentation decreased the fluid consistency index and increased the flow behavior index of the batter, demonstrating a lower viscosity and increased fluidity. All the samples revealed shear thinning behavior. Gelatinization temperature of the wheat batter decreased with increase in soaking temperature as demonstrated by viscoelastic analysis (loss modulus, storage modulus, Tan δ of the samples.

  12. Quantitative evaluation of strategies for erosion control on a railway embankment batter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyasi-Agyei, Y.; Sibley, J.; Ashwath, N.

    2001-12-01

    Strategies for erosion control on a railway embankment batter (side slope) are quantitatively evaluated in this paper. The strategies were centred on control (do nothing treatment), grass seeding, gypsum application, jute mat (an erosion control blanket) placement and planting hedgerows of Monto vetiver grass. Rainfall and runoff were monitored at 1 min intervals on 10 m wide embankment batter plots during 1998 and 1999. Total bedload and suspended sediment eroded from the plots were also measured but only for a group of storm events within sampling intervals. It has been demonstrated that vetiver grass is not cost-effective in controlling erosion on railway batters within Central Queensland region. Seeding alone could cause 60% reduction in the erosion rate compared with the control treatment. Applying gypsum to the calcium-deficient soil before seeding yielded an additional 25% reduction in the erosion rate. This is the result, primarily, of 100% grass cover establishment within seven months of sowing. Therefore, for railway embankment batter erosion control, the emphasis needs to be on rapid establishment of 100% grass cover. For rapid establishment of grass cover, irrigation is necessary during the initial stages of growth as the rainfall is unpredictable and the potential evaporation exceeds rainfall in the study region. The risk of seeds and fertilizers being washed out by short-duration and high-intensity rainfall events during the establishment phase may be reduced by the use of erosion control blankets on sections of the batters. Accidental burning of grasses on some plots caused serious erosion problems, resulting in very slow recovery of grass growth. It is therefore recommended that controlled burning of grasses on railway batters should be avoided to protect batters from being exposed to severe erosion.

  13. Rheometric Non-Isothermal Gelatinization Kinetics of Chickpea Flour-Based Gluten-Free Muffin Batters with Added Biopolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, María Dolores; Cuesta, Francisco Javier; Herranz, Beatriz; Canet, Wenceslao

    2017-01-01

    An attempt was made to analyze the elastic modulus (G′) of chickpea flour (CF)-based muffin batters made with CF alone and with added biopolymers (whey protein (WP), xanthan gum (XG), inulin (INL), and their blends) in order to evaluate their suitability to be a wheat flour (WF) substitute in muffins, and to model the heat-induced gelatinization of batters under non-isothermal heating condition from 25 °C to 90 °C. A rheological approach is proposed to determine the kinetic parameters (reaction order (n), frequency factor (k0), and activation energy (Ea)) using linearly-increasing temperature. Zero-order reaction kinetics adequately described batter gelatinization process, therefore assuming a constant rate independent of the initial G′ value. The change of the derivative of G′ with respect to time (dG′/dt) versus temperature is described by one exponential function with activation energies ranging from 118 to 180 kJ·mol−1. Control wheat gluten batter, with higher and lower starch and protein contents, respectively, than CF-based batters, exhibited the highest Ea value. Formulation of CF-based gluten-free batters with starch and protein contents closer to the levels of WF-based batter could be a strategy to decrease differences in kinetic parameters of muffin batters and, therefore, in technological characteristics of baked muffins. PMID:28231082

  14. Effect of enzymatic treatments on the rheological and oil-resisting properties of wheat flour-based frying batters

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new enzymatic approach was introduced to reduce the oil uptake of batter-coated fried foods. Cross-linking (transglutaminase) and cell wall-degrading (viscozyme) enzymes were incorporated into the formulation of wheat flour-based frying batters and their rheological/oil-resisting effects were eva...

  15. The Role of Insecure Attachment and Gender Role Stress in Predicting Controlling Behaviors in Men Who Batter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahalik, James R.; Aldarondo, Etiony; Gilbert-Gokhale, Steven; Shore, Erika

    2005-01-01

    The authors hypothesized that masculine gender role stress would mediate the relationship between insecure attachment and controlling behaviors in a sample of men who batter. To examine this hypothesis, 143 men who were court mandated to attend a batterers' intervention program in a northeastern state completed measures including the Controlling…

  16. Effect of crude malva nut gum and phosphate on yield, texture, color, and microstructure of emulsified chicken meat batter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbut, S; Somboonpanyakul, P

    2007-07-01

    The effect of crude malva nut gum (CMG) use (0.0, 0.2, 0.6%) and sodium tripolyphosphate (TPP) addition (0.0, 0.5%) on the cook loss, texture, color, and microstructure of mechanically deboned chicken meat batters was studied. Increasing the level of CMG (a gum currently not used by the meat industry) in batters without TPP significantly increased yield. The batters with both CMG and TPP showed lower cook and fat losses compared with batters with CMG alone. Using 0.2 or 0.6% CMG and 0.5% TPP provided higher hardness values compared with using 0.6% CMG alone. The batter with 0.5% TPP and the batters with both CMG and TPP showed higher springiness compared with batters with CMG alone. Increasing the CMG level to 0.6% reduced the lightness and redness of the cooked products. Overall, the study demonstrated the beneficial effect of using CMG and TPP in improving the yield, stability, and texture of emulsified meat batters.

  17. Deep-fat fried battered snacks prepared using super heated steam (SHS): Crispness and low oil content

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Primo-Martín, C.; Deventer, H. van

    2011-01-01

    The suitability of using super heated steam (SHS) as an alternative to pre-frying in oil, to decrease the oil content of deep-fried battered foods while obtaining crispy crusts, is shown in this manuscript. Pre-treatment of the batters in SHS for 1, 2 and 3. min was compared to pre-frying with oil f

  18. Molecular characterization of lactobacilli isolated from fermented idli batter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agaliya, Perumal Jayaprabha; Jeevaratnam, Kadirvelu

    2013-12-01

    Lactic acid bacteria are non pathogenic organism widely distributed in nature typically involved in a large number of spontaneous food fermentation. The purpose of this study was to characterize the bacteriocinogenic lactobacilli from fermented idli batter which can find application in biopreservation and biomedicine. Eight most promising lactobacilli were chosen from twenty two isolates based on their spectrum of activity against other lactic acid bacteria and pathogens. The eight lactobacilli were characterized based on the various classical phenotypic tests, physiological tests and biochemical tests including various carbohydrate utilization profiles. All isolates were homo fermentative, catalase, and gelatin negative. Molecular characterization was performed by RAPD, 16S rRNA analysis, 16S ARDRA, and Multiplex PCR for species identification. RAPD was carried out using the primer R2 and M13. Five different clusters were obtained based on RAPD indicating strain level variation. 16S rRNA analysis showed 99 to 100% homology towards Lactobacillus plantarum. The restriction digestion pattern was similar for all the isolates with the restriction enzyme AluI. The subspecies were identified by performing Multiplex PCR using species specific primer. Among the five clusters, three clusters were clearly identified as Lactobacillus plantarum subsp. plantarum, Lactobacillus pentosus, and Lactobacillus plantarum subsp. argentoratensis.

  19. Molecular characterization of lactobacilli isolated from fermented idli batter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perumal Jayaprabha Agaliya

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Lactic acid bacteria are non pathogenic organism widely distributed in nature typically involved in a large number of spontaneous food fermentation. The purpose of this study was to characterize the bacteriocinogenic lactobacilli from fermented idli batter which can find application in biopreservation and biomedicine. Eight most promising lactobacilli were chosen from twenty two isolates based on their spectrum of activity against other lactic acid bacteria and pathogens. The eight lactobacilli were characterized based on the various classical phenotypic tests, physiological tests and biochemical tests including various carbohydrate utilization profiles. All isolates were homo fermentative, catalase, and gelatin negative. Molecular characterization was performed by RAPD, 16S rRNA analysis, 16S ARDRA, and Multiplex PCR for species identification. RAPD was carried out using the primer R2 and M13. Five different clusters were obtained based on RAPD indicating strain level variation. 16S rRNA analysis showed 99 to 100% homology towards Lactobacillus plantarum. The restriction digestion pattern was similar for all the isolates with the restriction enzyme AluI. The subspecies were identified by performing Multiplex PCR using species specific primer. Among the five clusters, three clusters were clearly identified as Lactobacillus plantarum subsp. plantarum, Lactobacillus pentosus, and Lactobacillus plantarum subsp. argentoratensis.

  20. Improvements in the bread-making quality of gluten-free rice batter by glutathione.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, Hiroyuki

    2010-07-14

    The wide prevalence of celiac disease and wheat allergy has led to a growing demand for gluten-free foods. Rice proteins do not possess the viscoelastic properties typically found in gluten, thus making rice flour unsuitable for the production of yeast-leavened products. In the present study, we found that the addition of glutathione to rice batter improves its gas-retaining properties. Glutathione was found to prevent the formation of the disulfide-linked macromolecular protein barrier, which is reported to confer resistance to the deformation of rice batter in the baking process. Also, glutathione appeared to gelatinize rice starch at lower temperatures. Microstructure analyses of glutathione-added rice bread revealed it to have a perforated structure like wheat bread but with a smoother-looking surface. These data collectively suggest that glutathione facilitates the deformation of rice batter, thus increasing its elasticity in the early stages of bread baking and the volume of the resulting bread.

  1. Adhesion of rice flour-based batter to chicken drumsticks evaluated by laser scanning confocal microscopy and texture analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukprasirt, A; Herald, T J; Boyle, D L; Rausch, K D

    2000-09-01

    The convenience and appeal of battered or breaded products have resulted in a sales increase of 100% since 1980. Because of the rapid growth of the Asian-American population and increasing consumption of rice and rice products, rice flour is a logical alternative for wheat flour in traditional batter formulation. The effects of ingredients used in rice flour-based batters on adhesion characteristic for deep-fat fried chicken drumsticks were studied by laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM) and texture analysis. Raw chicken drumsticks were predusted with egg albumin powder before dipping into batters prepared from combinations of rice flour, yellow corn flour, oxidized cornstarch, methylcellulose, or xanthan gum. The drumsticks were fried at 175+/-5 C until the internal temperature reached at least 71 C. For LSCM, samples were fixed overnight and were sectioned by vibratome (200 microm) before viewing. Batter adhesion was determined using an attachment specifically designed for chicken drumsticks. Microstructural analysis showed that batter formulated with a 50:50 mixture of rice and corn flours adhered better to drumsticks than batter with other rice flour ratios. Xanthan gum (0.2%) or methylcellulose (0.3%) alone had poor adhesion to chicken skin. However, when combined with other ingredients, xanthan gum increased the amount of batter pick-up before frying by increasing viscosity. Egg albumin significantly facilitated batter adhesion. The results from texture analysis supported the microstructural studies. As rice flour ratio increased from 50 to 70%, the binding force decreased. Rice flour showed potential as an alternative to wheat flour for batter formulas when the appropriate levels of oxidized starch, xanthan gum, and methylcellulose were included in the formulation.

  2. Abused Women's Perspectives on the Criminal Justice System's Response to Domestic Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barata, Paula C.

    2007-01-01

    This study used Q methodology to better understand battered women's views about the criminal justice system (CJS). Fifty-eight abused and formerly abused women, representing a broad range of experiences, were involved in the study. Participants sorted 72 statements about domestic violence and the CJS according to how strongly they agreed with each…

  3. Effects of the sugarcane dietary fiber and pre-emulsified sesame oil on low-fat meat batter physicochemical property, texture, and microstructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Xinbo; Han, Minyi; Kang, Zhuang-li; Wang, Kai; Bai, Yun; Xu, Xing-lian; Zhou, Guang-hong

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of sugarcane dietary fiber (SDF) and pre-emulsified sesame oil for pork fat replacement on batter characteristics. Replacing pork fat with SDF and pre-emulsified sesame oil significantly affected color, water- and fat-binding properties, texture, dynamic rheology, microstructure and sensory analysis. With SDF and pre-emulsified sesame oil, the batters had improved textures and gave good sensory scores. These batters containing SDF had reduced the cholesterol and fat contents. With increasing levels of SDF, the batters had higher water- and fat-binding properties, improved texture (hardness, gumminess and chewiness), dynamic rheology and a more balanced nutritional composition. However, when the level of SDF reached 3%, the pores formed by SDF in batter were too large to hinder aggregation and the hardness of batter was unacceptable, which result the allover acceptability to be unsatisfactory. The sample 2% SDF had comparable overall acceptability to the control batter.

  4. Performance of cellulose derivatives in deep-fried battered snacks: Oil barrier and crispy properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Primo-Martín, C.; Sanz, T.; Steringa, D.W.; Salvador, A.; Fiszman, S.M.; Vliet, T. van

    2010-01-01

    The performance of batters containing cellulose derivatives (methyl cellulose (A4M), three hydroxypropylmethyl celluloses (E4M, F4M and K4M) with different degree of hydroxypropyl and/or methyl substitution and carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC)) to produce crispy deep-fried snacks crusts was studied by

  5. Jilebi 2: Flowability, pourability and pH of batter as affected by fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakkaravarthi, A; Kumar, H N Punil; Bhattacharya, Suvendu

    2013-04-01

    Fermentation of batter is an integral part of the preparation of jilebi, a traditional ready-to-eat sweet product of Indian sub-continent. The flowability and pourability of batter are crucial for forming jilebi strands during frying. Flowability and pourability have been determined from simulation studies based on the movement of batter on an inclined surface and the exit from an orifice, respectively; simple gadgets have been designed to determine these two characteristics along with providing the definitions. Response surface experimental design consisting of moisture content (50-65%), amount of added curd (0-10%) and time of fermentation (0-24 h) has been employed. The response functions are pH, flowability and pourability. Strong interaction effects of added curd and time of fermentation on the response functions have been observed. An increase in added curd and time of fermentation decreases pH in a curvilinear manner as both linear and quadratic effects are significant (p ≤ 0.01). Moisture content has a non-significant effect on pH but markedly affects the flowability and pourability of batter. Flowability and pourability decreases when there is an increase in consistency index or apparent viscosity.

  6. Factors affecting quality of batter-based gluten-free bread

    Science.gov (United States)

    While wheat bread has been extensively studied, the quality basis for gluten-free bread remains controversial. Common gluten-free breads are prepared from soft batters, and in such systems, intact and damaged starch, pentosans, added hydrocolloids like xanthan gum and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (...

  7. Batter's Choice: Lessons for Teaching Tactics in a Modified Striking/Fielding Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Christina

    2004-01-01

    When played in their standard form, striking/fielding games are often a favorite among elementary students; yet they allow for only limited participation, which is contradictory to quality physical education. This article presents a sequence of lessons leading to Batter's Choice, a modified striking/fielding game, designed to maximize the…

  8. Reduced functionality of PSE-like chicken breast meat batter resulting from alterations in protein conformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, K; Zhao, Y Y; Kang, Z L; Wang, P; Han, M Y; Xu, X L; Zhou, G H

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate protein thermal stability, water-protein interaction, microstructure, and protein conformation between PSE-like and normal chicken breast meat batters. Sixty pale, soft, and exudative (PSE)-like (L*>53, pH24 hbatters were formulated to 14% meat protein and 2% salt, and they were analyzed for the protein changes and the microstructure using differential scanning calorimetry, low-field (LF)-NMR, SEM, and Raman spectroscopy. PSE-like meat batter had lower gel strength, water-holding capacity, and salt-soluble protein extraction (Pbatter formed an aggregated gel matrix, while normal meat batter produced a compact gel network with fine, cross-linked strands by many protein filaments. LF-NMR revealed an increase in the water mobility in heated PSE-like meat batter with an increasing amount of loosely bound water (Pbatter had less unfolded α-helix and β-sheet structure formation, reduced exposure of hydrophobic and tyrosine residues (P<0.05), and changes in the microenvironment of aliphatic residues and tryptophan, which affected salt-soluble protein extraction, gel properties, and water-holding capacity. In conclusion, the inferior functional properties of PSE-like meat were attributed to not only myosin denaturation, but also actin denaturation after salt addition and different protein structural states.

  9. A model study on color and related structural properties of cured porcine batters.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palombo, R.

    1990-01-01

    Color, determined by tristimulus colorimeters, and related structural properties, i.e., microstructure, surface rheology, and bulk rheology, of cured porcine meat batters were studied.Effects of various processing factors (such as, temperature, air pressure during chopping, and cutter type) on chang

  10. Cognitive Styles and Socialized Attitudes of Men Who Batter: Where Should We Intervene?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisikovits, Zvi C.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Attempted to differentiate among violent and nonviolent Israeli men (n=120) and predict their physical violence. Violent and nonviolent men could be differentiated primarily on basis of their attitudes and, to lesser degree, on basis of cognitions. Batterers' physical violence was significantly predicted by men's negative attitudes toward battered…

  11. Bio-fortification and shelf-life extension of idli batter using curry leaves (Murraya koenigii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelliah, R; Ramakrishnan, S R; Premkumar, D; Antony, U

    2016-06-01

    Among several traditional foods of India, idli is one of the most popular and commonly consumed steamed products. A new method of adding Murraya koenigii (curry leaves) to idli batter as a vehicle for fortification and extension of shelf-life has been developed. Dried curry leaves powder was incorporated with other ingredients like rice and dehusked black gram in different proportions to optimize the most palatable formulation. Rate of fermentation and microbial changes in the batter; nutritional qualities, texture and sensory properties of the prepared product were assessed. Incorporation of curry leaves powder (5 %) in idli batter increased the shelf-life and also increased the flavour, texture and appearance of the idli. The calcium content of the prepared idli was 10 times more than that of the control idli, while dietary fiber content increased by 18.6 %. Anti-microbial activity of the curry leaves in idli batter extended the shelf-life from 2 to 5 days when stored at 30 °C.

  12. What Attracts Men Who Batter to Their Partners? An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Daniel G.; Kurko, Jennifer F.; Barlow, Kirsten; Crane, Colleen E.

    2011-01-01

    Men who batter, because of particular personality traits and sense of entitlement, may select partners whom they perceive will be dependent on them, meet their emotional needs, or be "objects" of physical attractiveness. During treatment intake, 181 offenders responded to the question, "What attracted you to her (your partner)?" We explored…

  13. Oxidative gelation measurement and influence on soft wheat batter viscosity and end-use quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viscosity is an important end-use attribute for some soft wheat flour formulations. Specifically, in formulations with minimal gluten development, such as batters (cake, pancake and doughnut) and coatings (tempura), viscosity is important to leavening gas retention and flow characteristics. Current ...

  14. Performance of cellulose derivates in deep-fried battered snacks: Oil barrier and crispy properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Primo Martin, C.; Sanz, T.; Steringa, D.W.; Salvador, A.; Fiszman, S.M.; Vliet, van T.

    2010-01-01

    The performance of batters containing cellulose derivatives (methylcellulose(A4M), three hydroxypropylmethyl celluloses (E4M, F4M and K4M) with different degree of hydroxypropyl and/or methyl substitution and carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC)) to produce crispy deep-fried snacks crusts was studied by us

  15. A Qualitative Look at the Perceived Strengths of Male Batterers: Implications for Intervention Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, Regina T. P.; Lehmann, Peter; Patton, Joy D.

    2011-01-01

    Currently, batterer intervention programs tend to focus on education and confrontation, with outcomes being less than promising. Limitations of current interventions have encouraged development of alternative treatment forms aimed at ending relationship violence. An emerging trend in the fields of social work and positive psychology is to build on…

  16. Preparation of idli batter, its properties and nutritional improvement during fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Debasree; Chattopadhyay, Parimal

    2011-10-01

    Idli is a traditional fermented rice and black gram based food. Idli batter is prepared by soaking polished parboiled rice and decorticated black gram for 4 h at 30 ± 1 °C in water. The soaked mass was ground using a grinder with adequate amount of water. The blend ratios of 2:1, 3:1 and 4:1 (w/w) batter were allowed for fermentation for different periods with the addition of 2% (w/w) of salt. The rheology of the product was assessed using a Brookfield Viscometer having disc spindles. Shear stress values were in the range of 0.22 and 4 Pa and reached a maximum value at 7 h of fermentation. The density, pH, and percentage total acidity of batter during fermentation for different blend ratios ranged between 0.93 and 0.59 gm cm(-3), 4.21 and 5.9 and 0.44 and 0.91% respectively. During fermentation, maximum production of riboflavin and thiamine were found to be 0.76 mg/100 gm and 0.73 mg/100 gm in 3:1 blend ratio of idli batter; and the folic acid content was found to be at a maximum of 0.75 mg/100 gm of idli batter after 10 h of fermentation. Digestibility in terms of amino N2 content was analysed by formol titration.

  17. Intimate Partner Violence and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms in Women: What We Know and Need to Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Stephanie J.

    2005-01-01

    This article presents a review of knowledge regarding post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in women experiencing intimate partner violence. Knowledge related to the prevalence and predictors of PTSD in battered women, the association between PTSD and physical health, and the emerging science regarding PTSD and physiological and immune parameters…

  18. Subtypes of batterers in treatment: empirical support for a distinction between type I, type II and type III.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Graña

    Full Text Available This study explores the existence of different types of batterers in a sample of 266 men who had been court referred for intimate partner violence. The data collected in the assessment that have been used to perform a hierarchical and a two-step cluster analysis fall into three areas: aggression towards the partner, general aggression and presence of psychopathology and personality traits, more specifically, alcohol use, borderline and antisocial personality traits, psychopathy traits, state anger and trait anger, anger expression and control, anger, hostility, and, finally, impulsivity. The results show a typology consisting of 3 types of batterers on the basis of violence level and psychopathology: low (65%, moderate (27.8% and high (7.1%. This study provides empirical support for the development of batterer typologies. These typologies will help achieve early detection of different types of batterers, allowing us to tailor interventions on the basis of the needs of each of the types.

  19. Low-field NMR determination of water distribution in meat batters with NaCl and polyphosphate addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Jun-Hua; Deng, Ya-Min; Jia, Na; Li, Ru-Ren; Cao, Jin-Xuan; Liu, Deng-Yong; Li, Jian-Rong

    2016-06-01

    The objective was to elucidate the influence of NaCl and polyphosphates in the stage of protein swelling on the water-holding capacity (WHC) of meat batter. The meat batters were formulated with salt in different ways by adding established amounts of only NaCl, only polyphosphates, jointly adding NaCl and polyphosphates, and a control without any salt. An increase (pbatter qualities were differentiated.

  20. Effect of Gradual Heating and Fat/Oil Type on Fat Stability, Texture, Color, and Microstructure of Meat Batters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbut, S; Youssef, M K

    2016-09-01

    The effects of endpoint cooking temperature (40, 50, 60, 70, 80, and 90 °C) on emulsion stability, texture, color, and microstructure of meat batters prepared with different fats/oils were studied. Canola oil treatments showed the highest cooking loss whereas hydrogenated palm oil provided the most stable meat batters. Rendered beef fat was less stable than regular beef fat. Increasing endpoint cooking temperatures resulted in a progressive reduction of water holding capacity in all treatments. As temperature was raised, meat batters showed higher hardness and cohesiveness values, but no appreciable changes in cohesiveness above 60 °C. Canola and hydrogenated palm oil treatments showed the highest hardness and chewiness values. Lightness (L(*) ) values of all meat batters increased significantly with increasing temperature from 40 to 60 or 70 °C; no major changes observed above 70 °C. Light microscopy revealed no substantial changes in the microstructure of all the stable meat batters cooked to between 50 and 70 °C. Heating to 90 °C changed the microstructure in all meat batters except the hydrogenated palm oil treatments, which still showed nonround fat particles and a less aggregated protein matrix.

  1. Prevalence and characteristics of intimate partner violence against women with severe mental illness: a prevalence study in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Cases, Juan; Polo Usaola, Cristina; González Aguado, Francisco; López Gironés, Marisa; Rullas Trincado, Margarita; Fernández Liria, Alberto

    2014-10-01

    This study examined the prevalence and characteristics of intimate partner violence (IPV) towards women with a severe mental illness (SMI). The sample consisted of 142 adult women with SMI treated in public mental health services in three districts of Madrid (Spain). The prevalence of IPV in the 12 months preceding the interview was 30.3% and over the lifespan was 79.6%. 32.7% of women victims of violence do not qualify themselves as battered women. 48.5% of battered women do not talk about their abusive situation with anyone or come to any resource or service. Women victims of abuse have low social support. Women who have suffered physical abuse in childhood are at 2.22 times higher risk of being victims of IPV in the past year. Mental health professionals identified 50% of recent abuse cases. This research highlights the extent of IPV experienced by women with SMI.

  2. ROLE OF LEUCONOSTOC MESENTEROIDES IN LEAVENING THE BATTER OF IDLI, A FERMENTED FOOD OF INDIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MUKHERJEE, S K; ALBURY, M N; PEDERSON, C S; VANVEEN, A G; STEINKRAUS, K H

    1965-03-01

    The fermentation of the batter of idli, a fermented food of India, was studied. The microorganisms responsible for the characteristic changes in the batter were isolated and identified. Although there is a sequential change in the bacterial flora, the predominant microorganism responsible for souring, as well as for gas production, was found to be Leuconostoc mesenteroides. In the later stages of fermentation, growth of Streptococcus faecalis and, still later, of Pediococcus cerevisiae becomes significant. The fermentation of idli demonstrates a leavening action caused by the activity of the heterofermentative lactic acid bacterium, L. mesenteroides. As far as is known, this is the first record of a leavening action produced exclusively by the activity of a lactic acid bacterium.

  3. Motivational interviewing as a mechanism for change in men who batter: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kistenmacher, Barbara R; Weiss, Robert L

    2008-01-01

    The present study reports on the potential effectiveness of motivational interviewing (MI) in changing the way batterers think about their violent behavior. Thirty-three domestic violence offenders who were court-mandated to treatment were randomly assigned to MI or a control condition before attending their first mandated treatment group. Consistent with predictions, the MI group demonstrated generally more improvement on stages of change subscales than the control group. Further, the MI group demonstrated a significantly greater decrease in the extent to which they blamed their violence on external factors. Current data indicate that MI has the potential to increase batterers' motivation to change, although validation trials with larger sample sizes and more refined measures are required.

  4. How far have we come? A critical review of the research on men who batter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, W V; Weinstein, S P

    1997-01-01

    Although the effects of domestic violence and partner abuse have been known throughout history, the topic has recently begun to receive attention in the research literature. Indeed, it was not until 1986 that two interdisciplinary journals were dedicated exclusively to the study of family violence. Popular lore has frequently cited a connection between substance use (particularly alcohol) and domestic violence; however, this interaction has now begun to be formally recognized and addressed in research and treatment paradigms. This chapter presents some of the research findings regarding the multidimensional relationship between family violence and alcohol and/or drug abuse. Theories and data about the causes of family violence and characteristics of the male batterer and of the substance-abusing men who batter are offered. The final section examines several current models of treatment and their outcome.

  5. Aminogenesis control in fermented sausages manufactured with pressurized meat batter and starter culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latorre-Moratalla, M L; Bover-Cid, S; Aymerich, T; Marcos, B; Vidal-Carou, M C; Garriga, M

    2007-03-01

    The application of high hydrostatic pressure (200MPa) to meat batter just before sausage fermentation and the inoculation of starter culture were studied to improve the safety and quality of traditional Spanish fermented sausages (fuet and chorizo). Higher amounts of biogenic amines were formed in chorizo than in fuet. Without interfering with the ripening performance in terms of acidification, drying and proteolysis, hydrostatic pressure prevented enterobacteria growth but did not affect Gram-positive bacteria significantly. Subsequently, a strong inhibition of diamine (putrescine and cadaverine) accumulation was observed, but that of tyramine was not affected. The inoculated decarboxylase-negative strains, selected from indigenous bacteria of traditional sausages, were resistant to the HHP treatment, being able to lead the fermentation process, prevent enterococci development and significantly reduce enterobacteria counts. In sausages manufactured with either non-pressurized or pressurized meat batter, starter culture was the most protective measure against the accumulation of tyramine and both diamines.

  6. Expert testimony pertaining to battered woman syndrome: its impact on jurors' decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuller, Regina A; Rzepa, Sara

    2002-12-01

    Participants (N = 200) were presented with a criminal homicide trial involving a battered woman who had killed her abuser. Within the trial, both the response history (passive, active) and presence of expert testimony pertaining to battered woman syndrome (present, absent) were systematically varied. As well, half of the participants in each of these conditions were provided with a nullification instruction informing them that they were free to disregard the law and acquit should a strict application of the law result in an unjust verdict. Results indicated that, compared to the passive response condition, the mock jurors were no less receptive to the expert testimony in the active response condition. The impact of the testimony on participants' verdicts, however, was moderated by the nullification instruction. That is, although the presence of the testimony did result in greater verdict leniency, this only occurred when the mock jurors had been released from a strict application of the law. The implications of these findings are discussed.

  7. Group interventions for men who batter: a summary of program descriptions and research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Daniel G

    2008-01-01

    This article provides a summary of the latest research on men's group interventions for men who batter their intimate partners. The major components of current programs are described, along with studies on treatment effectiveness. Evidence for the effectiveness of treatment combined with a coordinated community response is also presented. Several related topics are covered, in particular methods for enhancing treatment motivation and culturally competent practice.

  8. Buffer Rod Design for Measurement of Specific Gravity in the Processing of Industrial Food Batters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fox, Paul D.; Smith, Penny Probert

    2002-01-01

    A low cost perspex buffer rod design for the measurement of specific gravity during the processing of industrial food batters is reported. Operation was conducted in pulsed mode using a 2.25 MHz, 15 mm diameter transducer and the intensity and an analytic calibration curve relating buffer rod...... output to specific gravity is obtained. The probe design may have application to other similar mixtures or industrial sludges in which similar material properties are observed....

  9. Effect of different fibers on batter and gluten-free layer cake properties

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The effect of different fibers, added individually or in combination, to improve the functional properties of gluten-free layer cakes was examined. Soluble (inulin and guar gum), and insoluble (oat fiber) fibers were used to replace up to 20% of rice flour in gluten-free layer cakes formulation. The incorporation of fibers increased the batter viscosity, with the exception of inulin. Fiber enriched gluten-free cakes containing blends of oat fiber-inulin resulted in improved specific volume. S...

  10. Insufficient knowledge about battered child syndrome among doctors in the emergency department

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villadsen, Jenny Korsgaard; Bersang, Ann Buhl; Thorninger, Rikke;

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the present knowledge regarding battered child syndrome (BCS) among doctors in the emergency department. Nineteen doctors with different educational levels from seven hospitals in Denmark were interviewed. For children younger than 18 months, 68%, 65% and 25......% of the participants related femur-, collum costae- and corner fractures to BCS respectively. We found that more than one third of the 19 doctors did not know which fractures to look for when suspecting BCS....

  11. Navy Bean Flour Particle Size and Protein Content Affect Cake Baking and Batter Quality(1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Mukti; Byars, Jeffrey A; Liu, Sean X

    2015-06-01

    Whole navy bean flour and its fine and coarse particle size fractions were used to completely replace wheat flour in cakes. Replacement of wheat flour with whole bean flour significantly increased the protein content. The protein content was adjusted to 3 levels with navy bean starch. The effect of navy bean flour and its fractions at 3 levels of protein on cake batter rheology and cake quality was studied and compared with wheat flour samples. Batters prepared from navy bean flour and its fractions had higher viscosity than the cake flour. Reducing the protein content by addition of starch significantly lowered the viscosity of cake batters. The whole navy bean flour and coarse bean fraction cakes were softer than cakes made with wheat flour but had reduced springiness. Principal component analysis showed a clear discrimination of cakes according to protein. It also showed that low protein navy bean flour cakes were similar to wheat flour cakes. Navy bean flour with protein content adjusted to the level of cake (wheat) flour has potential as a healthy alternative in gluten-free cakes.

  12. A Response to Danis and Lockhart: What Guides Social Work Knowledge about Violence against Women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colarossi, Lisa

    2005-01-01

    This article responds to Fran Danis and Lettie Lockhart's editorial in the Summer 2003 "Journal of Social Work Education" (Vol. 29, No. 2), which questions the disconnect between the battered women's movement and the social work profession regarding knowledge and practices related to domestic violence. The author examines how two factors might…

  13. Career Counseling for Women Preparing to Leave Abusive Relationships: A Social Cognitive Career Theory Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachter Morris, Carrie A.; Shoffner, Marie F.; Newsome, Deborah W.

    2009-01-01

    Career counselors work with people from varied segments of society. For battered women, some of the challenges they face from intimate partner violence may significantly influence their career exploration and decision making. Social cognitive career theory (SCCT; R. W. Lent, S. D. Brown, & G. Hackett, 1994) is a framework that has important…

  14. Psychological factors in the longitudinal course of battering: when do the couples split up? When does the abuse decrease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, N S; Gottman, J M; Gortner, E; Berns, S; Shortt, J W

    1996-01-01

    The longitudinal course of battering was investigated over a 2-year time span. Forty-five batterers and their spouses were assessed with self-report, psychophysiological, and marital interaction measures. Both the stability of the relationship and of the battering were assessed. At the two-year follow-up, 62% of the couples were still married and living together, while 38% had separated or divorced. A combination of six variables, reflecting severity of husband emotional abuse, wife dissatisfaction, husband physiological arousal, and wife defending herself assertively, was 90.2% accurate in predicting separation or divorce 2 years later. Of the couples still living together at follow-up, 46% of the batterers did not reduce their levels of severe violence, while 54% did significantly decrease levels of violence. Husbands who continued to be severely violent at 2-year follow-up were more domineering, globally negative and emotionally abusive toward their wives at Time 1 than husbands who reduced their levels of violence. Even though 54% of the batterers decreased the frequency of violent acts over the 2-year period, only 7% achieved complete desistance. Moreover, husband emotional abuse did not decrease over the 2-year period, even when physical abuse did.

  15. Spirituality and resilience in battered women that denounce intimate partner violence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gladys Eugenia Canaval

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: Entender qué tan resilientes y espirituales son las mujeres maltratadas y la relación entre las dos variables ayuda a ampliar la comprensión que se tiene de la respuesta humana a situaciones de violencia de pareja. El modelo de manejo de síntomas guió la investigación. Pregunta de investigación: ¿Cuál es el grado de espiritualidad y resiliencia que muestran las mujeres maltratadas y cómo se relacionan estas variables? Objetivos: Generales. Examinar la relación entre espiritualidad y resiliencia en mujeres maltratadas que denuncian su situación en Comisarías de Familia de la ciudad de Cali, Colombia. Específicos: 1. Identificar el grado de espiritualidad y de resiliencia que poseen las mujeres maltratadas. 2. Establecer si existe o no relación entre la espiritualidad y la resiliencia en mujeres maltratadas. Materiales y métodos: Diseño correlacional con una muestra a propósito de 100 mujeres, que denuncian situaciones de violencia de pareja ante las Comisarías de Familia de Cali, Colombia. Se aplicó la escala de perspectiva espiritual y la de resiliencia. Resultados: La edad de las mujeres osciló entre 18 y 65 años, promedio igual a 36.5+10.4. El promedio de la escala de espiritualidad fue 4.8+0.48. La escala de resiliencia obtuvo un promedio de la suma total de 143.3+19.07. La correlación de Pearson entre espiritualidad y resiliencia fue de r=0.301 p=0.004. Discusión: Los resultados son consistentes con los informes de la literatura en este campo. La correlación entre espiritualidad y resiliencia señala una relación positiva y significativa e indica que resiliencia y espiritualidad son fenómenos diferentes pero relacionados. Se propone que enfermería juegue un papel preponderante en alentar a las mujeres a expresar sus creencias y practicas espirituales. Conclusión: La espiritualidad y la resiliencia de las mujeres del estudio son altas. Estos hallazgos indican la necesidad de valorar la espiritualidad y la resiliencia e identificar los recursos de apoyo que las mujeres poseen. Se recomienda realizar intervenciones que aumenten las fortalezas de las mujeres maltratadas.

  16. Biogenic amine formation and nitrite reactions in meat batter as affected by high-pressure processing and chilled storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Capillas, C; Aller-Guiote, P; Carballo, J; Colmenero, F Jiménez

    2006-12-27

    Changes in biogenic amine formation and nitrite depletion in meat batters as affected by pressure-temperature combinations (300 MPa/30 min/7, 20, and 40 degrees C), cooking process (70 degrees C/30 min), and storage (54 days/2 degrees C) were studied. Changes in residual nitrite concentration in raw meat batters were conditioned by the temperature and not by the pressure applied. Cooking process decreased (P batters. High-pressure processing conditions had no effect on the rate of residual nitrite loss throughout the storage. The application of high pressure decreased (P < 0.05) the concentration of some biogenic amines (tyramine, agmatine, and spermine). Irrespective of the high processing conditions, generally, throughout storage biogenic amine levels did not change or increased, although quantitatively this effect was not very important.

  17. Violence against women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-04-01

    Domestic violence constitutes historical behavior in accord with patriarchal systems. Family and domestic violence includes female infanticide, higher female mortality, female genital mutilation, bride burning, rape, wife battering, and early marriage. These practices are commonly integrated into values and beliefs. Women accept domestic violence in violation of their basic human rights due to social prejudice and low self esteem. Mothers who perpetuate female genital mutilation believe that they are acting in the best interests of the child by adhering to centuries-long traditions. Women who allow female infanticide or female abortion are motivated to do so in order to maintain the security of their marriage. Women are in unequal power relationships and submit to their own detriment. Negative attitudes against women are perpetuated through incorrect interpretations of religious principles and myths. Economic self-reliance gives women the courage to stand up against domestic violence. Empowerment through education and appropriate and protective legislation also gives women the means to fight violence. Nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) at the national, regional, and international levels are active in creating awareness of domestic violence and influencing policy change. The NGO Working Group on Traditional Practices and the Inter-African Committee have a 10-year history of fighting against practices such as female genital mutilation. In order to bring about change, there must be cooperative and joint action among governmental and inter-governmental groups and NGOs.

  18. Hydrologic Analysis of Ungauged Catchments For The Supply of Water For Irrigation On Railway Embankment Batters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyasi-Agyei, Y.; Nissen, D.

    Water has been identified as a key component to the success of grass establishment on railway embankment batters (side slope) within Central Queensland, Australia, to control erosion. However, the region under study being semi-arid experiences less than 600 mm average annual rainfall occurring on about 60 days of the year. Culverts and bridges are integral part of railway embankments. They are used to cross water courses, be it an ephemeral creek or just a surface runoff path. Surface runoff through an ungauged railway embankment culvert is diverted to a temporary excavated pond located at the downstream side of the hydraulic structure. The temporary excavated pond water is used to feed an automated drip irrigation system, with solar as a source of energy to drive a pump. Railway embankment batter erosion remediation is timed in the wet season when irrigation is used to supplement natural rainfall. Hydrologic analysis of ungauged catchments for sizing the temporary excavated pond is presented. It is based on scenarios of runoff coefficient and curve number, and mass curve (Rippl diagram). Three years of continuous rainfall data (1997/1998 -1999/2000) were used to design a pond. The performance of the designed pond was evaluated in a field experiment during the next wet season (2000/2001). It supplied adequate water for irrigation as predicted by the hydrologic analysis during the grass establishment. This helped to achieve 100% grass cover on the railway embankment batter within 12 weeks. The proposed irrigation system has been demonstrated t o be feasible and cost effective.

  19. Extension of the Vane Pump-Grinder Technology to Manufacture Finely Dispersed Meat Batters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irmscher, Stefan B; Gibis, Monika; Herrmann, Kurt; Oechsle, Anja Maria; Kohlus, Reinhard; Weiss, Jochen

    2016-03-01

    A vane pump-grinder system was extended to enable the manufacture of finely dispersed emulsion-type sausages by constructing and attaching a high-shear homogenizer at the outlet. We hypothesized that the dispersing capabilities of the extended system may be improved to the point of facilitating meat-fat emulsification due to an overall increased volumetric energy input EV . Coarsely ground raw material mixtures were processed to yield meat batters at varying volume flow rates (10 to 60 L/min) and rotational rotor speeds of the homogenizer nrotor (1000 to 3400 rpm). The normalized torques acting on pump, grinder, and homogenizer motors were recorded and unit power consumptions were calculated. The structure of the manufactured meat batters and sausages were analyzed via image analysis. Key physicochemical properties of unheated and heated batters, that is, texture, water-binding, color, and solubilized protein were determined. The mean diameter d10 of the visible lean meat particles varied between 352 and 406 μm whereas the mean volume-surface diameter d32 varied between 603 and 796 μm. The lightness L* ranged from 66.2 to 70.7 and correlated with the volumetric energy input and product structure. By contrast, varying process parameters did not impact color values a* (approximately 11) and b* (approximately 8). Interestingly, water-binding and protein solubilization were not affected. An exponential process-structure relationship was identified allowing manufacturers to predict product properties as a function of applied process parameters. Raw material mixtures can be continuously comminuted, emulsified, and subsequently filled into casings using an extended vane pump-grinder.

  20. Alcohol consumption, illicit substances, and intimate partner violence in a sample of batterers in psychological treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redondo Rodríguez, Natalia; Graña Gómez, José Luis

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the alcohol and illicit substance consumption characteristics in a sample of 572 batterers in treatment by court order. The results indicate that the prevalence of alcohol consumption in the past year was 89.3%, whereas within illicit substances, the prevalences were higher for cannabis (27.8%), followed by cocaine 20.3%). In order to analyze the possible effect of consumption on levels of perpetration and victimization of partner-aggression, the sample was divided into 4 groups: nonconsumers (16.3%), alcohol consumers (58.6%), illicit drug consumers (3.5%), and consumers of alcohol and illicit drugs (21.7%), finding that the groups of nonconsumers and alcohol consumers presented the lowest level of perpetration of psychological, physical, and sexual aggression and of victimization of psychological and physical aggression, whereas the group of consumers of alcohol and illicit drugs presented the highest levels. The results reveal the need to assess substance consumption when designing intervention protocols with batterers.

  1. Rheological and microstructural properties of beef sausage batter formulated with fish fillet mince.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi, Ala; Jafarpour, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Rheological properties and microstructure of beef meat sausage batter, incorporated with different percentages of fish fillet mince (5 %, 20 %, 35 % and 50 %), were investigated and compared to the control (0 % fish). By increasing the proportion of fish fillet mince to the sausage formula up to 35 % and 50 %, hardness was increased by 40 % and 16 %, respectively, (P  0.05). In terms of temperature sweep test, storage modulus (G') of control sample faced a substantial slop from 10 °C to 58 °C, corresponding to the lowest magnitude of G' at its gelling point (~58°), but completed at around 70 °C, as same as the other treatments. Whereas the gelling point of batter sample with 50 % fish mince remained at nearly 42 °C, which was remarkably lowest among all treatments, indicating the better gel formation process. SEM micrographs revealed a previous orderly set gel before heating in all treatments whereas after heating up to 90 °C gel matrices became denser with more obvious granular pattern and aggregated structure, specifically in sample with 50 % fish mince. In conclusion, addition of fish mince up to 50 % into beef sausage formula, positively interacted in gel formation process, without diminishing its rheological properties.

  2. The effect of rosemary preparations on the microbial quality and TBARS value of model pork batters

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    Elżbieta Hać-Szymańczuk

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L. extracts have a potent antioxidant and antibacterial activity and are widely used in the food industry. The effect of added rosemary preparations on the microbiological quality and process of lipid oxidation of model pork batters, immediately after preparation (“0” and 1, 3 and 7 days of chill-storage (4-6°C was analysed in the study. Material and methods. Experiments were conducted with three types of rosemary preparations, i.e.: dried spice, essential oil and a commercial preparation (TasteGuard P. The experimental material consisted of meat batter produced from porcine musculus longissimus dorsi and water. Microbiological examinations covered determinations of the total count of mesophilic aerobic microorganisms, psychrophilic bacteria, coliforms and enterococci. In turn, chemical analyses involved determination of the TBARS value. Results. The rosemary preparations did not exhibit either antibacterial properties against aerobic mesophilic or psychrophilic bacteria. The essential rosemary oil was observed to inhibit the growth of coliform bacteria and enterococci, whereas the dried spice examined was found to increase the counts of aerobic mesophilic bacteria, coliforms and enterococci. None of the rosemary preparations terminated the lipid oxidation process. Conclusions. The results obtained in this study point to the necessity of continuing investigations to determine the dose of rosemary preparations that would inhibit the growth of microflora being the most frequent cause of raw materials and products spoilage and, simultaneously, restrict oxidation of their lipids.

  3. A simplified analysis method for piled raft and pile group foundations with batter piles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitiyodom, Pastsakorn; Matsumoto, Tatsunori

    2002-11-01

    A simplified method of numerical analysis has been developed to estimate the deformation and load distribution of piled raft foundations subjected to vertical, lateral, and moment loads, using a hybrid model in which the flexible raft is modelled as thin plates and the piles as elastic beams and the soil is treated as springs. Both the vertical and lateral resistances of the piles as well as the raft base are incorporated into the model. Pile-soil-pile, pile-soil-raft and raft-soil-raft interactions are taken into account based on Mindlin's solutions for both vertical and lateral forces. The validity of the proposed method is verified through comparisons with several existing methods for single piles, pile groups and piled rafts. Workable design charts are given for the estimation of the lateral displacement and the load distribution of piled rafts from the stiffnesses of the raft alone and the pile group alone. Additionally, parametric studies were carried out concerning batter pile foundations. It was found that the use of batter piles can efficiently improve the deformation characteristics of pile foundations subjected to lateral loads.

  4. Development of hypoimmunogenic muffins: batter rheology, quality characteristics, microstructure and immunochemical validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashwini; Umashankar, K; Rajiv, Jyotsna; Prabhasankar, P

    2016-01-01

    A high demand exists for gluten free and hypoimmunogenic products from gluten sensitive population. The present study focuses on the development of hypoimmunogenic muffins using a combination of the blend (CB) consisting of modified (protease treated) Whole Wheat Flour (WWF) and Pearl Millet Flour (PMF). The batter density of CB was 0.97, and it varied between 0.91-0.93 and 0.97-0.99 g/cc with the use of emulsifiers and hydrocolloids respectively. The volume of the muffin made using CB was 70 mL, and it increased to 120 mL with the combination of additives (CAD) comprising of Carboxy Methyl Cellulose (CMC) and Polysorbate-60 (PS-60). The muffins made of CB + CAD had the lowest hardness (19.8 N) and gumminess (6.6 N) values and highest springiness value (13.3 mm) indicating that the texture was soft. Sensory characteristics of the muffin made with CB + CAD were good and had an overall quality score of 90.5 out of 100. Rheometer studies showed that the incorporation of additives improved the visco-elastic properties of muffin batters. Microstructure studies showed a change in gluten matrix of muffins followed by treatments. Immunochemical validation of muffins made using CB + CAD showed that the immunogenicity reduced by 70.8 % which may be suitable for patients with gluten sensitivity.

  5. Comparison of oxidized and reduced glutathione in the bread-making qualities of rice batter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, Hiroyuki

    2012-02-01

    The demand for gluten-free bread is growing as the recognition of celiac disease and wheat allergy has increased worldwide. In our previous study, reduced glutathione (GSH) was found to improve the gas-retaining properties of rice batter used for gluten-free bread. In this article, oxidized glutathione (GSSG) was shown to have the same effect. Moreover, sensory tests revealed that GSSG bread had a significantly reduced sulfurous odor. Analyses by a gas chromatography-flame photometric detector demonstrated the presence of hydrogen sulfide and methyl mercaptan in the headspace of GSH bread, and also their significant reduction in GSSG bread. The viscoelastic properties and microstructures of GSSG and GSH bread did not noticeably differ. These observations suggest the usefulness of GSSG in making gluten-free rice bread and extend our knowledge of the use of glutathione in food processing. Practical Application: Glutathione, a widely-distributed peptide in cells, improves the bread-making quality of gluten-free rice batter. While both the reduced (GSH) and oxidized (GSSG) glutathione are effective, GSSG-bread has significantly reduced sulfurous odor compared to GSH-bread.

  6. Cold-batter mincing of hot-boned and crust-frozen air-chilled turkey breast allows for reduced sodium content in protein gels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, H C; Medellin-Lopez, M; Singh, P; Sansawat, T; Chin, K B; Kang, I

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this research was to evaluate sodium reduction in the protein gels that were prepared with turkey breasts after hot boning (HB), quarter (¼) sectioning, crust-frozen air-chilling (CFAC), and cold temperature mincing. For each of 4 replications, 36 turkeys were slaughtered and eviscerated. One-half of the carcasses were randomly assigned to water immersion chilling for chill boning (CB), whereas the remaining carcasses were immediately HB and quarter-sectioned/crust-frozen air-chilled (HB-¼CFAC) in a freezing room (-12°C, 1.0 m/s). After deboning, CB fillets were conventionally minced, whereas HB-¼CFAC fillets were cold minced up to 27 min with 1 or 2% salt. From the beginning of mincing, the batter temperatures of HB-¼CFAC were lower (P batters up to 12 and 21 min for 2 and 1% salts, respectively. Upon mincing, the batter pH of the HB-¼CFAC (P 0.05) from the pH of CB batters, except for the 1% salt HB-¼CFAC batter after 15 min of mincing. The pattern of pH was not changed when the batters were stored overnight. The protein of 2% salt HB-¼CFAC fillets was more extractable (P batter appears to have more open space, less protein aggregation, and more protein-coated fat particles than those of postrigor batters. Based on these results, the combination of HB-¼CFAC and cold-batter-mincing technologies appear to improve protein functionality and sodium reduction capacity.

  7. Effects of Sodium Tripolyphosphate, Microbial Transglutaminase and Enzyme-hydrolyzed Soy Protein Fraction on the Quality of Cooked Pork Batter by Response Surface Methodology

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    Xingjian Huang

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the compound effects of sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP, microbial transglutaminase (MTGase and enzyme-hydrolyzed soy protein fraction (denoted as TSF, molecular weight cut-off = 0.5 kDa to 10 kDa on the texture properties (hardness, springiness, cohesiveness and chewiness, cooking yield and sensory attributes (firmness, elasticity and juiciness of cooked pork batter. The hardness and springiness of the cooked pork batter were both significantly affected by the amount of MTGase and TSF added. In the presence of TSF, the textural characteristics of cooked pork batter were not significantly affected by STPP (p>0.05. The amount of TSF elicited negative linear (p<0.001 and positive quadratic effects (p<0.01 on the cohesiveness and chewiness of cooked pork batter. The interaction between MTGase and TSF positively affected (p<0.01 the cohesiveness of cooked pork batter. Furthermore, the amount of MTGase showed positive linear (p<0.01 effects on the chewiness of cooked pork batter. However, the interaction between STPP and TSF significantly weakened (p<0.05 the chewiness of cooked pork batter. Both TSF and MTGase positively affected (p<0.01 and p<0.05, respectively cooking yield. Both hardness versus firmness and springiness versus elasticity presented distinct correlations (p<0.01 and p<0.001, respectively. The cohesiveness and chewiness of cooked pork batter significantly affected cooking yield and sensory attributes (firmness, elasticity and juiciness. Overall acceptability poorly correlated with instrumental attributes and sensory partial attribute. Sensory analysis results indicated that the cooked pork batter with 0.4% MTGase, 4% TSF and 0.4% STPP was the most common sample, which presented the best synthetic mouth feeling.

  8. Court-Mandated Counseling for Men Who Batter: A Three-Day Workshop for Mental Health Professionals. Participant's Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganley, Anne L.

    The purpose of this manual is to provide a written tool for those participating in a 3-day workshop designed to train mental health professionals from diverse settings and communities to counsel court-mandated batterers. The manual consists of: (1) an outline of the workshop; (2) an introduction; (3) six chapters/sections; (4) notes; and (5) three…

  9. Battered Children and Child Abuse. Highlights and Recommendations of the CIOMS/WHO Conference (Berne, Switzerland, December 1985).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bankowski, Z., Ed.; Carballo, M., Ed.

    This document provides highlights and recommendations of a conference on battered children and child abuse sponsored by the Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences (CIOMS) and the World Health Organization (WHO). In a discussion of the nature of the child abuse problem, the history of child maltreatment is briefly reviewed and…

  10. The Relationship of Negative Self-Schemas and Insecure Partner Attachment Styles with Anger Experience and Expression among Male Batterers

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Michael; Roring, Steven; Winterowd, Carrie; Porras, Claudia

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to explore how negative self-schemas and partner attachments were related to the experience and expression of anger (i.e., trait anger, inward and outward expression of anger) in a sample of male batterers (n = 40) who participated in court-mandated group services. They completed the Experience in Close Relationships…

  11. The neurosurgeon as baseball fan and inventor: Walter Dandy and the batter's helmet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewster, Ryan; Bi, Wenya Linda; Smith, Timothy R; Gormley, William B; Dunn, Ian F; Laws, Edward R

    2015-07-01

    Baseball maintains one of the highest impact injury rates in all athletics. A principal causative factor is the "beanball," referring to a pitch thrown directly at a batter's head. Frequent morbidities elicited demand for the development of protective gear development in the 20th century. In this setting, Dr. Walter Dandy was commissioned to design a "protective cap" in 1941. His invention became widely adopted by professional baseball and inspired subsequent generations of batting helmets. As a baseball aficionado since his youth, Walter Dandy identified a natural partnership between baseball and medical practice for the reduction of beaning-related brain injuries. This history further supports the unique position of neurosurgeons to leverage clinical insights, inform innovation, and expand service to society.

  12. Effect of virgin coconut meal (VCM) on the rheological, micro-structure and baking properties of cake and batter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Yashi; Semwal, Anil Dutt

    2015-12-01

    Virgin coconut meal (VCM) cakes were prepared by replacing refined wheat flour (maida) (5 to 20 % level) to check its effect on chemical, textural and rheological attributes of cake. The addition of VCM significantly (p ≤ 0.05) increased redness (a*), yellowness (b*) while reduced lightness (L*) of cakes. The incorporation of VCM affects the hardness, adhesiveness gumminess and chewiness of cake. The effect of flour replacement with VCM increased the viscosity of batter which leads to increase in consistency index and lower the shearthining behavior. The viscoelastic behavior of cake batter in which elastic modulus (G') and viscous modulus (G") both were decreased with the increase in percentage of VCM. The differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis revealed that the onset (To), end set (Tc) and enthalpy of gelatinization (ΔH) increased with the increased level of VCM.

  13. Integrating the Principles of Effective Intervention into Batterer Intervention Programming: The Case for Moving Toward More Evidence-Based Programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radatz, Dana L; Wright, Emily M

    2016-01-01

    The majority of batterer intervention program (BIP) evaluations have indicated they are marginally effective in reducing domestic violence recidivism. Meanwhile, correctional programs used to treat a variety of offenders (e.g., substance users, violent offenders, and so forth) that adhere to the "principles of effective intervention" (PEI) have reported significant reductions in recidivism. This article introduces the PEI-the principles on which evidence-based practices in correctional rehabilitation are based-and identifies the degree to which they are currently integrated into BIPs. The case is made that batterer programs could be more effective if they incorporate the PEI. Recommendations for further integration of the principles into BIPs are also provided.

  14. Juiciness improvement of frozen battered shrimp burger using modified tapioca starch, sodium alginate, and iota-carrageenan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kongkarn Kijroongrojana

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available A battered shrimp burger, as a new value-added shrimp product, was developed by increasing the juiciness of a frozen battered shrimp burger using a mixture of hydrocolloids. The formulations of hydrocolloid mixtures containing modified tapioca starch (MTS, sodium alginate (AL, and iota-carrageenan (CA were optimized. Juiciness measurements were defined and analyzed by 13 trained panelists. Texture Profile Analysis (TPA as well as moisture and fat contents of the products were analyzed. The mixture of MTS and AL had an impact on moisture content and juiciness scores, while CA influenced the hardness. The product made using the optimized formulation (0.3% MTS + 0.7% AL had a higher moisture content andjuiciness scores (p0.05. However, higher springiness and gumminess were found in the control burger (p0.05.

  15. Influence of technological parameters on the structure of the batter and the texture of frankfurter type sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, J P; Culioli, J; Maillard, T; Denoyer, C; Touraille, C

    1990-01-01

    The aim of the study was, on the one hand, to determine the relationships between various technological factors, the structure of the batters and the texture characteristics of frankfurter type sausages, and, on the other, to define the possibilities of realizing a reference scale for texture. The addition of sodium chloride in the 0-2% range induces a large increase (60%) in the cooking yield, a decrease in the specific gravity and an increase in the viscosity of the batter determined indirectly through the evolution of the product temperature during chopping. These variations together, give a 30% decrease in the mechanical firmness and a 100% and 90% increase in the juiciness and elasticity of the final products, respectively. However, beyond 2%, sodium chloride does not induce any significant effect on these characteristics. The addition of caseinate in a 1-3% range induces a degassing of the batter and a 10-37% decrease in the water losses during cooking. The higher the caseinate content in the 0-6% range, the larger the rise in the batter temperature during chopping. Sausages are also considered harder (+22%) and less juicy and elastic (-50%) when caseinate content increases. Addition of 0·1-0·5% polyphosphates and chopping under vacuum (0·2 atm) induce variations in the cooking yield, +3% and -1%, respectively, but have no influence on the texture of the final products. Modifications of all these technological parameters induced variations by a factor of 2 in the different mechanical parameters and in parallel differences of 1-2 points on a 6 point scale for sensory characteristics.

  16. Domestic violence against women in Kosovo: a qualitative study of women's experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelmendi, Kaltrina

    2015-02-01

    Research on gender-based violence describes domestic violence by male partners as a major public health issue and serious human rights violation. Many studies have been conducted in Kosovo to understand the factors that contribute to violence against women. The present study aims to examine the experiences of battered women and their understanding of the violence from an ecological framework, by asking questions regarding personal, situational, and socio-cultural factors. The study is qualitative, consisting of 50 in-depth interviews with victims of domestic violence, and uses a grounded theory approach to identify main themes of the women's experiences. Findings from the study suggest that poverty, a patriarchal culture, strictly defined gender roles, and lack of programs for reintegrating victims subordinate women and leave them susceptible to domestic violence.

  17. Portrayal of women as intimate partner domestic violence perpetrators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hester, Marianne

    2012-09-01

    The article explores some of the ways heterosexual women are portrayed as perpetrators of intimate partner domestic violence (IPV) in police domestic violence records in England and is the first study in the United Kingdom to examine the issue of gender and domestic violence perpetrators in any detail and over time. The article is based on a study of 128 IPV cases tracked longitudinally over 6 years, including 32 cases where women were the sole perpetrators and a further 32 cases where women were "dual" perpetrators alongside men. Women were 3 times more likely than men to be arrested when they were construed as the perpetrator. However, Pence and Dasgupta's category of "pathological violence" appeared more useful as an analytical category in the construction of women as "perpetrators" and men as "victims" than the notion of "battering."

  18. Characterization and in vitro probiotic evaluation of lactic acid bacteria isolated from idli batter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, Bharti K; Singhal, Rekha S; Ananthanarayan, Laxmi

    2013-12-01

    An Indian traditional fermented food, idli batter, was used as a source for isolation of lactic acid bacteria (LAB). A total of 15 LAB strains were isolated on the basis of their Gram nature and catalase activity. Of these, one lactobacilli strain and one lactococci strain which showed antimicrobial activity were identified using biochemical characterization, sugar utilization and molecular sequencing. The microbes, labeled as IB-1 (Lactobacillus plantarum) and IB-2 (Lactococcus lactis) were tested for their in vitro tolerance to bile salts, resistance to low pH values and acidifying activity. Both the strains showed good viability (IB1- 58.11%; IB2- 60.84%) when exposed to high bile salt concentration (2%) and acidic pH of ≤pH 3.0 (IB1- 88.13%; IB2- 89.85%). Lactic acid (IB1- 181.93 mM; IB2- 154.44 mM), biomass production (IB1- 0.65; IB2- 0.58 g/l) after 54 h as well as qualitative estimation of β-galactosidase and vitamin B12 production were also studied to check their suitability as an industrially important strain for production of important biomolecules.

  19. Effect of ultrasound treatment on functional properties of reduced-salt chicken breast meat batter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ke; Kang, Zhuang-Li; Zou, Yu-Feng; Xu, Xing-Lian; Zhou, Guang-Hong

    2015-05-01

    The effect of ultrasound treatments (40 kHz, 300 W) for different times (10, 20, 30 and 40 min) combined with different salt contents (1.0 %, 1.5 % and 2.0 %) on gel properties and water holding capacity (WHC) of chicken breast meat batter were investigated. Results showed salt level significantly (p  0.05) on texture, cooking loss or WHC. However, longer ultrasound (40 min) treatment resulted in a decrease in hardness, G' value and WHC. Microstructural analysis revealed that gels treated with ultrasound for 20 min had a compact structure whereas those treated for 40 min contained more protein aggregations and more cavities. Low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (LF-NMR) indicated that ultrasound treatment for 20 min lowered the values of spin-spin relaxation time (T2) and increased the proportion of myofibillar water. Overall, high power ultrasound technology is a promising process which can improve the gelation properties and thereby allowing for a partial reduction in the salt levels in chicken meat gels.

  20. Seismic Demands for Pile-Supported Wharf Structures with Batter Piles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rouhollah Amirabadi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This study develops an optimal Probabilistic Seismic Demand Model (PSDM for pile-supported wharves whit batter plies. Four bins with twenty non-near-field ground motions and three typical pile-supported wharf structures from western United States ports are used to determine an optimal PSDM by using Probabilistic Seismic Demand Analysis (PSDA. PSDA is used to compute the relationship between Engineering Demand Parameters (EDPs and earthquake Intensity Measures (IMs. An optimal PSDM should be practical, sufficient, effective and efficient-all tested through several IM-EDP pairs. It has been found that for these types of structures, the optimal model comprises a spectral IM, such as spectral acceleration and one of several EDPs. These EDPs are considered for local (moment curvature ductility factor, intermediate (displacement ductility factor and horizontal displacement of embankment and global (differential settlement between deck and behind land response quantities. The considered PSDMs are a critical component in performance-based seismic design and seismic risk assessment. Results can be used in probabilistic framework for performance-based design developed by Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research (PEER center.

  1. Effect of tiger nut-derived products in gluten-free batter and bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Núria; Albanell, Elena; Miñarro, Begoña; Guamis, Buenaventura; Capellas, Marta

    2015-07-01

    Tiger nut is a tuber used to produce tiger nut milk that yields a high quantity of solid waste, which can be dried and used as fiber source. The objective of this paper was to evaluate the quality of gluten-free bread formulated with different tiger nut-derived products in order to substitute soya flour (which is an allergen ingredient) and, at the same time, increase the use of tiger nut-derived products. Four gluten-free formulations based on corn starch and containing tiger nut milk, tiger nut milk by-product, tiger nut flour, or soya flour (as reference formulation) were studied. Tiger nut milk increased G' of gluten-free batter and rendered breads with the softest crumb (502.46 g ± 102.05), the highest loaf-specific volume (3.35 cm(3)/g ± 0.25), and it was mostly preferred by consumers (61.02%). Breads elaborated with tiger nut flour had similar characteristics than soya flour breads (except in color and crumb structure). The addition of tiger nut milk by-product resulted in a hard (1047.64 g ± 145.74) and dark (L(*)  = 70.02 ± 3.38) crumb bread, which was the least preferred by consumers. Results showed that tiger nut is a promising ingredient to formulate gluten-free baked products.

  2. Evaluation of protein structural changes and water mobility in chicken liver paste batters prepared with plant oil substituting pork back-fat combined with pre-emulsification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Guoyuan; Han, Minyi; Kang, Zhuangli; Zhao, Yingying; Xu, Xinglian; Zhu, Yingying

    2016-04-01

    Protein structural changes and water mobility properties in chicken liver paste batters prepared with plant oil (sunflower and canola oil combinations) substituting 0-40% pork back-fat combined with pre-emulsification were studied by Raman spectroscopy and low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Results showed that pre-emulsifying back-fat and plant oil, including substituting higher than 20% back-fat with plant oil increased the water- and fat-binding (pproperties, formed more even and fine microstructures, and gradually decreased the NMR relaxation times (T21a, T21b and T22), which was related to the lower fluid losses in chicken liver paste batters. Raman spectroscopy revealed that compared with a control, there was a decrease (poil combined with pre-emulsification. Pre-emulsification and plant oil substitution changed tryptophan and tyrosine doublet hydrophobic residues in chicken liver paste batters.

  3. Viability of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in salami following conditioning of batter, fermentation and drying of sticks, and storage of slices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faith, N G; Parniere, N; Larson, T; Lorang, T D; Kaspar, C W; Luchansky, J B

    1998-04-01

    The fate of Escherichia coli O157:H7 was monitored in salami during conditioning of batter, fermentation and drying of sticks, and storage of slices. The raw batter (75% pork: 25% beef, wt/wt, fat content about 20%) was inoculated with a pediococcal starter culture (about 10(8) CFU/g) and a five-strain cocktail of E. coli O157:H7 ( > or = 2 x 10(7) CFU/g) and stuffed into 104-mm diameter fibrous casings. After being refrigerated at 4 degrees C or being tempered at 13 degrees C, frozen at -20 degrees C, and thawed at 4 degrees C, or being frozen at -20 degrees C, and thawed at 4 degrees C, the inoculated batter was fermented at 24 degrees C and 90% relative humidity (RH) to pH batter-conditioning treatments; pathogen numbers were reduced from original levels by 2.1, 1.6, or 1.1 log10 units when batter was tempered, frozen, and thawed, frozen and thawed, or refrigerated, respectively. Similarly, regardless of storage temperature or atmosphere, within 7 days salami slices cut from sticks prepared from batter that was tempered, frozen, and thawed (2.7- to 4.9-log10-unit reduction) or frozen and thawed (2.3- to 4.8-log10-unit reduction) displayed a greater impact on pathogen numbers than slices cut from sticks prepared from batter that was refrigerated (1.6- to 3.1-log10-unit reduction). The effects of batter conditioning notwithstanding, a greater reduction in levels of E. coli O157:H7 was observed when slices were stored at 21 degrees C compared to otherwise similar slices stored at 4 degrees C. After storage for 60 days the pathogen was only detected by enrichment in slices stored at 21 degrees C, whereas pathogen levels ranged from 1.4 to 4.5 log10 CFU/g in slices stored at 4 degrees C. Differences related to storage atmosphere were first observed after slices were stored for 21 days. Such differences were more readily demonstrable after 60 and 90 days, with pathogen numbers for treatments that were statistically different ranging from 0.6- to 1.5-log10 units higher

  4. "En el grupo tomas conciencia (in group you become aware)": Latino immigrants' satisfaction with a culturally informed intervention for men who batter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra-Cardona, José Rubén; Escobar-Chew, Ana Rocío; Holtrop, Kendal; Carpenter, Georgia; Guzmán, Ricardo; Hernández, Dolores; Zamudio, Efraín; González Ramírez, Dolores

    2013-01-01

    Qualitative interviews were conducted with 21 Latino immigrant men who participated in a culturally informed batterer intervention. The objectives of this investigation were twofold. First, to identify the treatment components that facilitated the participants' willingness to engage in a process of change aimed at terminating their abusive behaviors. Second, to describe the treatment components that led to their satisfaction with the intervention. Research findings confirm that the Spanish version of the Duluth curriculum can be beneficial for Latino immigrant batterers. Results also demonstrate the critical role of culture as it refers to content of the intervention and method of delivery.

  5. Subjection, subjectivity, and agency: the power, meaning, and practice of mothering among women experiencing intimate partner abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semaan, Ingrid; Jasinski, Jana L; Bubriski-McKenzie, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Drawing on in-depth interviews with mothers who were abused by intimate partners, we argue that mothering can be a source of empowerment that helps battered women both care for their children and survive and assert themselves. Women in the study sample described a violation of some aspect of their mothering as the reason they left their partners. However, narrative analysis exposed contradictions in participants' stories, revealing multiple factors that shaped their decisions to leave. Although motherhood was significant for the women who participated in the study, it was not their only motivation for ending their relationships with abusive partners.

  6. FORMULASI TEPUNG PENYALUT BERBASIS TEPUNG JAGUNG DAN PENENTUAN UMUR SIMPANNYA DENGAN PENDEKATAN KADAR AIR KRITIS [Formulation of Corn Flour-Based Batter and Prediction of Its Shelf Life using Critical Moisture Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugiyono1*

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to obtain the best formula for corn flour-based batter and to predict its shelf life using critical moisture approach. According to a hedonic test, the best batter formula was composed of 60% corn flour, 12.5% rice flour, 12.5% tapioca starch, and 15% glutinous rice flour. Addition of glutinous rice flour in the formula changed the proportion of amylose and amylopectin in the batter. As a result, the retrogradation of the batter decreased and the texture of its fried product was preferred. A critical moisture approach was used to predict the shelf life of the batter. The critical moisture content of the batter was 0.16 g H2O/g solid.The isotherm sorption phenomenon of the batter was best described using Hasley model. The shelf life of the product was 7 months when packaged in polypropylene (0,07 g/m2day.mmHg at 85% RH.

  7. Influence of waxy rice flour substitution for wheat flour on characteristics of batter and freeze-thawed cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongsutjarittam, Nisachon; Charoenrein, Sanguansri

    2013-09-12

    This study aimed to improve the freeze-thawed cake properties by10-20% waxy rice flour (WRF) substitution for wheat flour (WF). Viscosity of WRF-substituted batters was lower; consequently, trapped air was less uniformly distributed than WF batter. After five freeze-thaw cycles, firmness and enthalpy of melting retrograded amylopectin of WF- and WRF-substituted cakes increased and the matrix surrounding the air pores from SEM images was denser than in fresh-baked cakes. Sensory evaluation showed an increase in firmness and a decrease in firmness acceptability of freeze-thawed cakes. However, freeze-thawed cake with WRF substitution had significantly less firmness, less dense matrix and more acceptability than WF cake. This could have been due to a low amylose content of WRF and the spread of ruptured waxy rice starch granules around swollen wheat starch granules as observed by CLSM. Thus, WRF could be used for WF substitution to improve the firmness in freeze-thawed cake.

  8. Genetic associations with intimate partner violence in a sample of hazardous drinking men in batterer intervention programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Gregory L; McGeary, John E; Shorey, Ryan C; Knopik, Valerie S; Beaucage, Kayla; Temple, Jeff R

    2014-04-01

    The etiology of intimate partner violence (IPV) is multifactorial. However, etiological theories of IPV have rarely included potential genetic factors. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether a cumulative genetic score (CGS) containing the monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) and the human serotonin transporter gene linked polymorphism (5-HTTLPR) was associated with IPV perpetration after accounting for the effects of alcohol problems, drug problems, age, and length of relationship. We obtained DNA from 97 men in batterer intervention programs in the state of Rhode Island. In the full sample, the CGS was significantly associated with physical and psychological aggression and injuries caused to one's partner, even after controlling for the effects of alcohol problems, drug problems, age, and length of relationship. Two of the men in the sample likely had Klinefelter's syndrome, and analyses were repeated excluding these two individuals, leading to similar results. The implications of the genetic findings for the etiology and treatment of IPV among men in batterer intervention programs are briefly discussed.

  9. Particle size fractionation of high-amylose rice (Goami 2) flour as an oil barrier in a batter-coated fried system

    Science.gov (United States)

    The particle size effects of high-amylose rice (Goami 2) flour on quality attributes of frying batters were characterized in terms of physicochemical, rheological, and oil-resisting properties. High-amylose rice flours were fractionated into four fractions (70, 198, 256, and 415 µm) of which morpho...

  10. Fotografia e fetiche: um olhar sobre a imagem da mulher Photography and fetish: a glance at women's image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Meloni Vieira Botti

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo investiga a imagem da mulher fetichizada, socialmente construída enquanto objeto de desejo. Através da análise de imagens dos fotógrafos Elmer Batters, Eric Kroll e Cristiano, buscando decodificar alguns elementos simbólicos do universo do fetiche, e interpretar a construção de seus significados a partir de questões de gênero.This article investigates the image of fetishized women, socially constructed as an object of desire. Analyzing the images of photographers Elmer Batters, Eric Kroll and Cristiano, it decodes the symbolic elements of the fetishist universe, and intends to interpret its constructions and meanings concerning gender issues.

  11. Technological, physico-chemical and sensory properties of raw and cooked meat batter incorporated with various levels of cold milled flaxseed powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yogesh, K; Langoo, B A; Sharma, S K; Yadav, D N

    2015-03-01

    Flaxseed has been proven for its multidimensional health benefits and can be used for development of emulsion type functional meat products. In view of this the incorporation of cold milled flaxseed powder (FSP) in meat batter at level 1-5 % was investigated. The results revealed that incorporation significantly (P batter. The surface and internal color values were differed significantly (P < 0.05) among treatments at initial as well as during refrigerated storage period. Texture values especially hardness and chewiness values were found less (P < 0.05) in FSP treated samples and textural properties in FSP treated samples were not deteriorated during storage as compared to control samples. Thus incorporation of FSP had some beneficial effects on physico-chemical properties and textural properties which were also stable during storage period. However the redness values and sensory scores were observed less in FSP treated samples.

  12. Application of Battering Methods in Research on Slope-sliding%测斜技术在滑坡研究中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梅其岳; 吴世明

    2001-01-01

    采用测斜技术,观测和分析天荒坪大溪滑坡体的位移发展规律,并与稳定性计算相结合,揭示滑动后残余边坡体的工作状态,为滑坡体研究和治理提供依据。%The battering methods were used for observing and analyzing the development regularity of the slope-sliding deformation in Tianhuangping Project. The working state of the residual slope after sliding would be revealed by combining battering observation with calculating results of slope stability, thus assisting research and remedial treatment of the slope-sliding.

  13. Social perception of violence against women: Individual and psychosocial characteristics of victims and abusers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria del Carmen Herrera

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Violence against women in close relationships is one of the most worrying and controversial situations in modern society. The main goal of this study was to identify the social perception that people generally have of gender violence in order to obtain profiles of both men who resort to violence against their partners and women who are victims of abuse, identifying both individual (e.g. self-esteem and social (power in relationship characteristics related to gender violence. Using a questionnaire (designed between groups, 268 participants were asked to estimate the probability of men (Batterers vs. Non-batterers and women (Victims vs. Non-victims displaying certain behaviours, beliefs or attitudes. The results revealed the existence of clear social profiles of both aggressors and victims, comprising both individual and psychosocial characteristics. These profiles contained aspects that coincide with the roles traditionally associated with men and women, thus highlighting inequality between both sexes, and which seems to be one of the main causes of gender violence.

  14. Application of soybean protein in recombinant chicken batter%大豆组织蛋白在重组肉糜制品中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张秋会; 岳喜庆; 李苗云; 高晓平; 张建威; 赵改名

    2015-01-01

    研究了大豆组织蛋白对重组肉糜制品的感官评价、色差、出品率、微观结构等品质指标的影响.结果表明:添加大豆组织蛋白对肉糕的风味、色泽、质地、口感等感官指标都有显著的影响;大豆组织蛋白的添加改善了肉糕的微观结构,并显著提高了肉糕的出品率,10%的添加量使肉糕出品率达到了94.71%;肉糕感官品质之间均存在显著的相关性,L*、a*和b*之间存在极显著的相关性.%In this paper,the effects of soybean tissue protein on the batter sensory properties,products yield and color were studied.The results showed that the addition of soybean tissue protein extremely significantly changed the sensory properties of batter,including flavor,color,texture and taste ; The soybean tissue protein improved the microstructure of the recombinant batter,and significantly raised the batter yield,with the maximum yield of 94.71% at the soybean tissue protein content of 10% ; The relationship between L*,a *,b* was extremely significantly relative and it was significantly relative between all the sensory properties of thebatter.

  15. Design and Implementation of the Galician Program for Batterers’ Re-education: A Psychosocial Answer to a Social and Penitentiary Need

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón Arce

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The introduction in Spain of the Spanish Law on Comprehensive Preventive and Protective Measures against Gender Violence, (L.O. 1/2004, has supposed that a very large number of sentenced as batterers who are eligible to parole or supervision orders as an alternative to incarceration. This paper reviews the state of the art in terms of the theoretical explanations and efficacy of the interventions, concluding that the intervention that has proven to be more effective is one driven the specific needs and characteristics of the batterer than those based on general intervention programs for all the batterers. The evaluation schedule for this aim is discussed. Other additional features of the intervention that mediate the efficiency of the outcomes are also discussed. For the treatment under these conditions, in Galician, Norwest of Spain, a psychosocial program was developed the Galician Programme for the Treatment and Re-education of Convicted Gender Aggressors (Arce and Fariña, 2007. The results of the implementation of this program from 2005 to 2010 are satisfactory.

  16. Discussing the Duluth Curriculum: creating a process of change for men who batter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Scott

    2010-09-01

    This is an edited version of a heretofore unpublished conversation between Ellen Pence and Luis Aravena. It provides a clear explanation of the philosophy and method of the Duluth Model men's program, emphasizing the need to put the experience of women who have been abused at the center of our work with abusive men, especially by helping abusive men become more self-reflective with regard to their behavior.

  17. Characterization of a heat stable anti-listerial bacteriocin produced by vancomycin sensitive Enterococcus faecium isolated from idli batter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayendra, S V N; Rajashree, K; Halami, Prakash M

    2010-06-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are known to produce various types of bacteriocins, ribosomally synthesized polypeptides, which have antibacterial spectrum against many food borne pathogens. Listeria monocytogenes, a pathogenic bacterium, is of particular concern to the food industry because of its ability to grow even at refrigeration temperatures and its tolerance to preservative agents. Some of the bacteriocins of LAB are known to have anti-listerial property. In the present study, the bacteriocin produced by vancomycin sensitive Enterococcus faecium El and J4 isolated from idli batter samples was characterized. The isolates were found to tolerate high temperatures of 60°C for 15 and 30 min and 70°C for 15 min. The bacteriocin was found to be heat stable and had anti-listerial activity. The bacteriocin did not lost anti-listerial activity when treated at 100°C for 30 min or at 121°C for 15 min. The bacteriocin lost its antimicrobial activity after treating with trypsin, protinase-K, protease and peptidase.

  18. Characterization of an Antibacterial Compound, 2-Hydroxyl Indole-3-Propanamide, Produced by Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Fermented Batter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeevaratnam, Kadirvelu; Vidhyasagar, Venkatasubramanian; Agaliya, Perumal Jayaprabha; Saraniya, Appukuttan; Umaiyaparvathy, Muthukandan

    2015-09-01

    Lactic acid bacteria are known to produce numerous antimicrobial compounds that are active against various pathogens. Here, we have purified and characterized a novel low-molecular-weight (LMW) antimicrobial compound produced by Lactobacillus and Pediococcus isolated from fermented idly and uttapam batter. The LMW compound was extracted from cell-free supernatant using ice-cold acetone, purified by gel permeation and hydrophobic interaction chromatography. It exhibited antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria sparing the probiotic strains like Lactobacillus rhamnosus. The molecular weight of the LMW compound was identified as 204 Da using LC-MS-ESI. In addition, the structure of the compound was predicted using spectroscopic methods like FTIR and NMR and identified as 2-hydroxyl indole-3-propanamide. The LMW compound was differentiated from its related compound, tryptophan, by Salkowski reaction and thin-layer chromatography. This novel LMW compound, 2-hydroxyl indole-3-propanamide, may have an effective application as an antibiotic which can spare prevailing probiotic organisms but target only the pathogenic strains.

  19. Parametric study on the effects of pile inclination angle on the response of batter piles in offshore jacket platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminfar, Ali; Ahmadi, Hamid; Aminfar, Mohammad Hossein

    2016-06-01

    Offshore jacket-type platforms are attached to the seabed by long batter piles. In this paper, results from a finite element analysis, verified against experimental data, are used to study the effect of the pile's inclination angle, and its interaction with the geometrical properties of the pile and the geotechnical characteristics of the surrounding soil on the behavior of the inclined piles supporting the jacket platforms. Results show that the inclination angle is one of the main parameters affecting the behavior of an offshore pile. We investigated the effect of the inclination angle on the maximum von Mises stress, maximum von Mises elastic strain, maximum displacement vector sum, maximum displacement in the horizontal direction, and maximum displacement in the vertical direction. The pile seems to have an operationally optimal degree of inclination of approximately 5°. By exceeding this value, the instability in the surrounding soil under applied loads grows extensively in all the geotechnical properties considered. Cohesive soils tend to display poorer results compared to grained soils.

  20. Evaluation of antimicrobial activity and probiotic properties of wild-strain Pichia kudriavzevii isolated from frozen idli batter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelliah, Ramachandran; Ramakrishnan, Sudha Rani; Prabhu, Prince R; Antony, Usha

    2016-08-01

    The present research was undertaken to study the probiotic characteristics of Pichia kudriavzevii isolated from frozen idli batter. Polymerase chain reaction amplification with 18S rRNA primers confirmed Pichia kudriavzevii, a xylose-utilizing probiotic strain. It was resistant to physiological concentrations of bile salts, pepsin and pancreatic enzyme. It also showed efficient auto-aggregation as well as co-aggregation ability with four commercial probiotic yeasts and exhibited good hydrophobicity in xylene and toluene. The strain inhibited the growth of 13 enteropathogens and showed a commensal relationship with four commercial probiotic yeast and bacteria. Moreover, it was resistant to 30 antibiotics with different modes of action. The yeast exhibited thermotolerance up to 95 °C for 2 h. The cell-free supernatants were also found to be heat stable, indicating the presence of thermostable secondary metabolites. Hence it could be exploited as starter culture, co-culture or probiotic in the preparation of fermented products or incorporated in heatable foods as well. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. In vitro probiotic evaluation of phytase producing Lactobacillus species isolated from Uttapam batter and their application in soy milk fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraniya, Appukuttan; Jeevaratnam, Kadirvelu

    2015-09-01

    Probiotic lactic acid bacteria are health promoters and have been traditionally consumed without the knowledge that they have beneficial properties. These bacteria mainly involve in secreting antimicrobials, enhance immune-modulatory effects, and preserve the intestinal epithelial barrier by competitively inhibiting the pathogenic organisms. The aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro probiotic properties of Lactobacillus pentosus, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus plantarum ssp. argentoratensis, and Lactobacillus plantarum ssp. plantarum isolated from fermented Uttapam batter. The isolates produced bacteriocins that were effective against several pathogens. All the isolates exhibited tolerance to bile, gastric, and intestinal conditions. Beneficial properties like cholesterol assimilation and production of enzymes such as β-galactosidase, phytase and bile hydrolase varied among the isolates. Four isolates from each sub-species effectively adhered to Caco-2 cells and prevented pathogen adhesion. Using these strains, the soy milk was fermented, which exhibited higher antioxidant activity, 2,2-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activity and decreased phytate content when compared to unfermented soy milk. Thus, these probiotic isolates can be successfully used for formulation of functional foods that thereby help to improvise human health.

  2. Probiotic Potential of Lactobacillus plantarum LD1 Isolated from Batter of Dosa, a South Indian Fermented Food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Aabha; Tiwari, Santosh Kumar

    2014-06-01

    Lactobacillus plantarum LD1 was isolated from dosa batter and identified by biochemical, physiological and genetic methods. Species level identification was done by 16S rDNA amplification and sequencing. The probiotic potential of strain LD1 was assessed by different standard parameters. Cell surface hydrophobicity was recorded to be 62% with SAT value <0.007 M. Seventy-eight percent of viable count was found after treatment with simulated gastric juice containing pepsin (pH 2.0). Bile salt tolerance and bile salt hydrolase activity were also demonstrated by strain LD1. The culture supernatant was able to inhibit food-borne as well as clinical pathogenic microorganisms such as Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhimurium, Shigella flexneri, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, urogenic Escherichia coli and Vibrio sp. Strain LD1 was found to be sensitive to most of the antibiotics used in the study. Since strain has been isolated from food source that is most typical of Southern India, it would be safe for further consumption in probiotic products.

  3. "Clutching a knifeblade": human rights and development from Asian women's perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sancho-liao, N

    1993-06-01

    A brief, vivid portrait of the human rights conditions for women in Asia was presented: "kapit sa patalim" or utter despair, urban migration, export processing zones, tourism and prostitution, political repression, and military sexual slavery. Advocates of women's human rights for Asian women must contend with patriarchal and male-dominated systems that oppress and exploit women to a much greater extent than men. Liberation from these systems and the domination and exploitation by wealthier nations must be a goal of a new economic world order. Unjust and repressive structures must be destroyed, and equitable distribution of wealth and democracy and popular initiatives promoted. The status of women must be raised to coequal status with men. The most important objective of human rights advocates should be the empowerment of women at the individual, community, national, regional, and international level. The Asian Women's Human Rights Council was established as an addition to 3 already operating regional commissions of women's organizations. The aim was not just to describe women as victims, but to pressure development activity to account for women's human rights. Sex tribunals have been scheduled between 1993 and 1994 to address the following issues: 1) sex trafficking (Japan, May 1993); 2) violence against women (Pakistan, December 1993); 3) militarism, environment, and violence against women (Korea, March 1994); 4) crimes of development against women in Asia (India); 5) religion and violence against women (Malaysia, 1994); and 6) indigenous women (December 1994). Women were victims when Filipino domestic workers were stranded and raped in Iraq during the chaos of war, when girls from landless peasant families migrated near Clark Air Force Base to earn a living as prostitutes for US servicemen, when women were forced to work 36-hour shifts in foreign-owned garment factories in Bataan, when women migrated for work, and when women were abused and battered in

  4. Effect of starches on the quality of deep-fried battered pork slices%淀粉对油炸挂糊猪肉片品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张令文; 杨铭铎; 计红芳; 边冰冰; 李健

    2013-01-01

    研究了小麦淀粉、玉米淀粉、马铃薯淀粉、红薯淀粉和绿豆淀粉等5种淀粉对面糊的黏度和挂糊率的影响,同时探讨了它们对油炸挂糊猪肉片的表观色度、水分含量、吸油量、肉的嫩度及感官品质的影响.结果表明,含马铃薯淀粉的糊黏度最大(8.7Pa·s),挂糊率最高(57%);含小麦淀粉的糊黏度最小(仅为7.5Pa·s),挂糊率最低(42%).经油炸后,含马铃薯淀粉的制品外壳水分含量最高(31.02%),吸油率最低(16.03%),肉的嫩度最好(剪切力为13.84N),产品感官评分最高(88.89分);含玉米淀粉的制品的外壳水分含量最小(仅为24.82%);含红薯淀粉的制品外壳吸油率最大(20.32%),其感官评分最低(58.88分);含绿豆淀粉的产品色度b*值最高,为10.99.综合考虑,马铃薯淀粉最适于油炸猪肉片的加工.%The effect of wheat starch,corn starch,potato starch,sweet potato starch and mung bean starch on the viscosity and batter pick-up of batters were studied. Simultaneously,the influences of these starches on the color,moisture and fat content,tender of the meat and sensory evaluation of deep-fried battered pork slices were explored. Results showed that,the viscosity of batter made with potato starch was the highest (8.7Pa·s),and its batter pick-up was the highest (57%). While.the viscosity of batter consisted with wheat starch was the lowest(only 7.5Pa·s),and its batter pick-up was the lowest(42%). After being fried,the moisture content of batter crust consisted with potato starch was as high as 31.02%, and its fat content was the lowest(16.03%),and the sensory evaluation value was the highest(88.89). On the contrary,the moisture content of batter crust treated with corn starch was as low as 24.82%. The fat content of batter crust treated with sweet potato starch was the highest(20.32%) and its sensory evaluation value was the lowest(58.88). Additionally,the b* value of the batter crust obtained with mung

  5. Women's Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Women have unique health issues. And some of the health issues that affect both men and women can affect women differently. Unique issues ... and men also have many of the same health problems. But these problems can affect women differently. ...

  6. Strength trapped within weakness/ weakness trapped within strength: the influence of family of origin experiences on the lives of abused women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchbinder, Eli; Birnbaum, Liora

    2010-06-01

    By conceptualizing abused women as victims or survivors, the literature offers two contradictory narratives of abused women. The aim of this article is to show that these two narratives are not mutually exclusive but rather can be used simultaneously to represent battered women's existential experiences. The study sample was comprised of 20 Israeli battered women. Three in-depth interviews were conducted with each participant-twice for data collection purposes and once for validating the themes that emerged from the content analysis. "Strength trapped in weakness/weakness trapped in strength" was found to be a dominant theme in the life narratives of the interviewees. Most interviewees grew up in families of origin in distress; most were abused physically and emotionally. Although this anguish colored their lives with pain and turmoil, their experiences were the key to their ability to overcome difficulties. From the onset, interviewees' lives were marked by a sense of threat and deprivation, but these very difficulties were also the source of a sense of power that emerged from the women's struggle with their past. In their attempts to cope with and transcend the legacies of their past, interviewees' feelings oscillated continuously between past and present, creating a unique powerful sense of simultaneously being victims and survivors. Implications for intervention are suggested.

  7. 钻孔灌注斜桩施工技术研究%Study on the Construction Technique of Bored Cast-in-situ Battered Pile

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘术文

    2009-01-01

    相比普通钻孔灌注桩,钻孔灌注斜桩施工难度大,施工设备要求高.针对某港口工程特点及其所设计钢管钻孔灌注斜桩的施工要求,通过钻杌与钻具改造、施工工艺等一系列技术措施,保证了桩基础施工的顺利进行,相关的经验与方法值得类似工程借鉴.%Compared with that of ordinary cast-in-situ pile, the construction of bored cast-in-situ battered pile is more difficult and has a higher demand from the equipment. In the construction of bored cast-in-situ battered pile in a port project, the borer and drill used were transformed and special technical measures were adopted, which has ensured a smooth engineering progress. The experience can be consulted by similar engineering later.

  8. Adherence to treatment in male batterers against their intimate partners in a community setting: State of the art and future challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Echeburúa

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the difficulties inherent in providing mental health treatment for men who commit acts of violence against their intimate partners. The effectiveness of available treatment programs for men who batter, both in the international literature and in Spain, is analyzed. In all studies the dropout rates in the treatment of men involved in intimate partner violence are very high. Different studies have pointed to multiple psychological and social causes to explain the poor adherence to treatment in men who batter. The main predictors of poor adherence to therapy are described. Therefore, motivational enhancement strategies are being developed to strengthen subjects' commitment to change by helping them to identify their goals for recovery and to determine ways to reach these goals. Finally, some suggestions are discussed about how to successfully deal with these issues. It is necessary to implement strategies to improve motivation for treatment. Implications of this study for clinical practice, policy decisions, and future research in this field are commented upon.

  9. Viability of a multi-strain mixture of Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella typhimurium, or Escherichia coli O157:H7 inoculated into the batter or onto the surface of a soudjouk-style fermented semi-dry sausage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multi-strain mixtures of Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella typhimurium, or Escherichia coli O157:H7 were separately inoculated either into soudjouk batter or onto the surface of slices of commercial soudjouk to levels of ca. 6.0 log10 CFU per gram or slice, respectively. After fermentation and dryi...

  10. Thermal tolerance of O157 and non-O157 Shiga toxigenic strains of Escherichia coli, Salmonella, and potential pathogen surrogates, in frankfurter batter and ground beef of varying fat levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasan, Akhila; Geier, Renae; Ingham, Steve C; Ingham, Barbara H

    2014-09-01

    The non-O157 Shiga toxigenic Escherichia coli (STEC) serogroups most commonly associated with illness are O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, and O145. We compared the thermal tolerance (D55°C) of three or more strains of each of these six non-O157 STEC serogroups with five strains of O157:H7 STEC in 7% fat ground beef. D55°C was also determined for at least one heat-tolerant STEC strain per serogroup in 15 and 27% fat ground beef. D55°C of single-pathogen cocktails of O157 and non-O157 STEC, Salmonella, and potential pathogen surrogates, Pediococcus acidilactici and Staphylococcus carnosus, was determined in 7, 15, and 27% fat ground beef and in frankfurter batter. Samples (25 g) were heated for up to 120 min at 55°C, survivors were enumerated, and log CFU per gram was plotted versus time. There were significant differences in D55°C across all STEC strains heated in 7% fat ground beef (P batter was significantly less than for O157 and non-O157 STEC (P batter was significantly less than for potential pathogen surrogates (P batter would be of limited utility to processors.

  11. 不同成分裹浆的流变学特性及其对裹面虾品质的影响%Rheological properties of different component batters and their effect on qualities of coated metapenaeus ensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩晓银; 张莉莉; 田鑫; 姜晓明; 薛勇; 薛长湖

    2012-01-01

    实验测定了高酶大豆蛋白粉、黄原胶、甲基纤维素(A4M)、羧甲基纤维素(CMC)四种不同成分裹浆的流变学特性,并以裹面率、颜色、水分含量、含油量和脆性为指标,考察了四种裹浆和两种再加热方式(深度油炸和烘焙处理)对裹面虾产品品质的影响。研究表明,在流变学方面,四种裹浆均是假塑性流体,属于Herschel-Bulkley模型;A4M和黄原胶具有较大的粘度,可以提高裹浆的热定型特性和粘附特性以及产品的裹面率。在产品品质方面,A4M组和高酶大豆蛋白粉组可增加产品的脆性、改善产品的色泽和降低含油量;与深度油炸相比,烘焙处理能降低产品的含油量,提高产品色泽和脆性。%Rheological properties of the batters with different materials such as high enzyme level soy flour,xanthan gum,methyl cellulose(A4M),carboxymethyl cellulose(CMC) were evaluated.The effect of four batters and two re-heat treatments(deep frying and baking treatment) on product qualities were studied using pick-up value,moisture content,color,oil content,and crispness as indicators.All the four batters belonged to soft reuuber matrix and Herschel-Bulkley model.High viscosity property were found in batters containing A4M and xanthan gum,which could enhance setting and adherence properties of the batters and pick-up values of the products.The batters containing A4M or high enzyme soy flour showed improved crispness,golden color and lower oil content than other batters.Compared with deep frying,baking treatment reduced oil content and improved color and crispness of the products.

  12. 斜向荷载作用下桩群中设置斜桩对其沉降的影响分析%Effect analysis of battered pile on the settlement of pile group under inclined loadings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨阳; 王国才; 金菲力

    2012-01-01

    The setting mode of pile group has much effect on pile group's bearing capacity and settlement under inclined loadings. In order to reveal this effect, the nonlinear finite element software is used and a 3-D model is developed to simulate the battered pile group under inclined loadings. The effect of inclined angle, pile-soil elastic modulus, battered pile length and number, etc. , on the settlement of battered pile group, is analyzed. The results indicate that: the geometry of soil, the inclined angle of battered pile, pile rigidity, length and number, etc. , has much effect on the settlement of battered pile group. Some useful conclusions are obtained for the design and construction of pile group that subjected to inclined loadings.%斜向荷载作用下桩群的设置方式对其承载力和沉降有较大影响.为揭示这一影响规律,采用非线性有限元软件对斜向荷载作用下桩群中设置的斜桩进行三维建模,分析了斜桩的倾角、桩-土弹性模量、斜桩桩长以及桩数等因素对群桩沉降的影响.结果表明:地基土质情况、斜桩的倾角、刚度和桩长与桩数等对倾斜群桩的沉降影响较大,所得结论对斜向荷载作用下群桩基础的设计与施工具有一定的指导意义.

  13. Women's health from a woman's point of view: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lempert, L B

    1986-01-01

    origin and persistence of problems of women patients, as demonstrated by the correlation between subordinate group status and mental health. Many changes have been initiated as a result of pressure from individual women and from the women's health care movement. For example, medical schools are reforming their training in values, ethics, and human relations. Women have begun to assume more control over their own lives and well being. Women's groups such as the Boston Women's Health Collective have set the pattern for a proliferation of self-help manuals available to the general readership. Recent media attention has focused on such women's health issues as family violence, incest, and battering. Women have challenged the medical professionals in their treatments, and medical professionals need to see beyond individual symptoms to the context of illness in women. Complete health for women can be a new model for other social movements.

  14. Cold-batter mincing of hot-boned and crust-freezing air-chilled turkey breast improved meat turnover time and product quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medellin-Lopez, M; Sansawat, T; Strasburg, G; Marks, B P; Kang, I

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this research was to evaluate the combined effects of turkey hot-boning and cold-batter mincing technology on acceleration of meat turnover and meat quality improvement. For each of 3 replications, 15 turkeys were slaughtered and eviscerated. Three of the eviscerated carcasses were randomly assigned to water-immersion chilling for chill-boning (CB) and the remaining were immediately hot-boned (HB), half of which were used without chilling whereas the remaining were subjected to crust-freezing air chilling (CFAC) in an air-freezing room (1.0 m/s, -12°C) with/without 1/4; sectioning (HB-1/4;CFAC, HB-CFAC). As a result, CB and HB breasts were minced using 1 of 5 treatments: (1) CB and traditional mincing (CB-T), (2) HB and mincing with no chilling (HB-NC), (3) HB and mincing with CO2 (HB-CO2), (4) HB and mincing after CFAC (HB-CFAC), and (5) HB and mincing after quarter sectioning and CFAC (HB-1/4;CFAC). Traditional water-immersion chilling took an average of 5.5 h to reduce the breast temperature to 4°C, whereas HB-CFAC and HB-1/4;CFAC took 1.5 and 1 h, respectively. The breast of HB-CFAC and HB-1/4;CFAC showed significantly higher pH (6.0-6.1), higher fragmentation index (196-198), and lower R-value (1.0-1.1; P 0.05) in sarcomere length were seen between CB-T and HB-CFAC filets regardless of quarter sectioning. When muscle was minced, the batter pH (5.9) of CB-T was significantly lower (P batters were cooked, higher cooking yield (90 - 91%; P < 0.05) was found in HB-CFAC, HB-1/4;CFAC, and HB-CO2, followed by HB-NC (90%) and finally CB-T (86%). Stress values (47-51 kPa) of HB-CFAC gels were significantly higher (P < 0.05) than those of CB-T (30 kPa) and HB-NC (36 kPa). A similar trend was found in strain values.

  15. 轴向荷载对斜桩水平承载特性影响试验及理论研究%Test and theoretical research on influence of axial load on lateral bearing capacity of batter piles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

      斜群桩受水平荷载作用时,群桩中的基桩受到径向荷载、轴向荷载和弯矩的共同作用。为研究轴向荷载对斜桩水平承载特性的影响,完成了3根单桩以及1组1×2斜桩的大尺寸模型试验。试验结果表明:轴向拉力作用会降低斜桩的水平刚度和极限承载力;而轴向压力作用则会使其水平刚度和极限承载力提高。基于桩侧浅层土体楔形破坏假定,推导了考虑轴向荷载影响的斜桩水平极限土抗力计算公式,提出了桩侧土抗力的p-y曲线方法,并通过模型试验及现场试验验证其合理性。%When batter pile group are under lateral load, the foundation piles in pile group are subjected to radial load, axial load and bending moment. In order to study the influence of axial load on lateral bearing capacity of batter piles, large-scale model tests of three single piles and a 1×2 batter pile group have been conducted in a larger soil tank. It is found that the upward axial force on the pile top decreases the lateral stiffness and the lateral ultimate bearing capacity of batter pile; while the downward axial force enhances the horizontal stiffness and the lateral ultimate bearing capacity of batter pile. Based on the assumption of wedge failure of the shallow soil around piles, considering the influence of axial load on piles, a formula for calculating the lateral ultimate resistance force of soil is deduced. Then, a p-y curve method for resistance force of soil around piles is proposed. Finally, the formula and the proposed p-y curve method for batter pile are verified by model tests and field tests.

  16. Experiences of physical violence by women living with intimate partners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.C. Madzimbalale

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Intimate partner violence directed towards females by male partners is a common significant global public health problem. Most victims of physical aggression such as women and children are subjected to multiple acts of violence over extended periods of time, suffering from more than one type of abuse, for example physical which is more symbolic and evidenced by scars. The purpose of this study is to increase understanding of the symbols of physical violence as experienced by women who live with intimate partners in the Vhembe district of the Limpopo Province. The research design of this study was qualitative, exploratory and descriptive in nature. The accessible population was those participants who used the trauma unit A in a particular hospital. Seven women comprised the sample of the study. In-depth individual interviews were conducted exploring the women’s experiences in the context of physical violence. From the data collected all seven participants experienced some form of physical violence which resulted in permanent deformity. They experienced some form of battering such as kicking, stabbing, burning, fracturing, strangling and choking. Recommendations were made that health care providers are encouraged to implement screening for physical violence, to provide appropriate interventions if assault is identified and to provide appropriate education regarding, employment opportunities, legal literacy, and rights to inheritance. Human rights education and information regarding domestic violence should be provided to them because this is their absolute right (UNICEF, 2000:14.

  17. Women boxers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gems, Gerald; Pfister, Gertrud Ursula

    2014-01-01

    This article fills a gap in the very limited literature on women's boxing by examining the gendered space in which women engaged in the sport as participants in saloons, vaudeville theatres and the prize ring. In doing so, they challenged the contemporary gender order and disputed the notion...... of women as the weak sex. Vaudeville provided women with an opportunity to present physical performances that surpassed the restrictions placed on women within the mainstream middle-class society. This article includes biographical sketches of some of the outstanding female boxers of the era by drawing...

  18. Control of lightness and firmness of cold and reheated frankfurter-type sausages using different spectroscopic methods applied to raw batter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egelandsdal, B; Dingstad, G I; Tøgersen, G; Hildrum, K I

    2007-03-01

    Muscle types and collagen, fat, and muscle protein minus collagen were varied in cooked frankfurter-type sausages made from beef and pork meat as well as pork backfat. The content of collagen was fixed at preset levels with pork rind. The amount of total muscle protein in the sausages varied between 5.9% and 11.9% and the fat between 16.1% and 22.1%. The collagen content varied between 1.3% and 4%. Spectroscopic measurements (near-infrared reflectance spectra 1100 to 2500 nm; front-face autofluorescence emission spectra 360 to 640 nm) on raw batters were used to predict the amounts of total muscle protein minus collagen, collagen, myoglobin, and fat (biochemical components), L* values from a Minolta chromameter, and firmness of cold (22 degrees C) and reheated sausages (60 degrees C). Lightness of sausages was most accurately determined from the batter data with a Minolta chromameter or the autofluorescence measurement system. Firmness of cold sausages could be described by the amounts of biochemical components plus the type of muscle used in the sausage. The 2nd-best approach was to use the shape of the near-infrared spectra to determine firmness. This was possible as the shape of near-infrared spectra depended on total protein content, and total protein content largely determined the firmness of cold sausages. If the sausages were reheated to 60 degrees C, near-infrared spectroscopy alone determined firmness of the sausages with a lower accuracy than a combined solution of fluorescence and near-infrared spectroscopy. The 2 spectroscopic techniques could thus be used to estimate the amount of biochemical components in sausages. Once these components were known, firmness could be calculated from a model between the amounts of biochemical components and firmness. For reheated sausages, as opposed to cold ones, there was a need to differentiate between collagen and the other muscle proteins in order to determine firmness. This was optimally achieved by using both

  19. Intervenção psicoterapêutica com agressor conjugal: um estudo de caso Psycotherapy intervention with a batterer: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo da Costa Padovani

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available A violência doméstica é um fenômeno complexo, afetando famílias indistintamente. O objetivo deste trabalho consistiu em oferecer um atendimento psicológico de forma a reduzir o comportamento violento do marido à esposa. O cliente tinha o terceiro grau completo, pertencendo à classe média alta. O trabalho foi desenvolvido na sala de Psicologia da Delegacia da Mulher. Foram realizadas 15 sessões durante 6 meses. Os instrumentos de coleta de dados envolveram as técnicas Entrevistas com agressor, Questionário sobre crenças, Escala de auto-estima, Inventário de depressão, Escala de tática de conflito. As técnicas consistiram de: tarefa de casa, registro de comportamentos violentos/pensamentos que desencadeavam agressões, técnicas de autocontrole, auto-aplicação de time-out, manejo de raiva, análise de pensamentos disfuncionais, treino de assertividade, relaxamento, role-play, leitura/discussão de textos. Durante o atendimento houve um episódio de agressão à esposa, de proporção menor, se comparado a anteriores. O cliente não apresentou episódios de violência à esposa nos dois meses subseqüentes ao término da intervenção.Domestic violence is a complex phenomenon which indistinctly affects families. The goal of this work consisted in eliminating the violent behavior of a male batterer . The client was an upper-middle class man who had a University education. The intervention took place at the Psychology Office of the Woman’s Police Station. Fifteen sessions were held over a period of six months. Assessment instruments involved: Interviews with Batterer, Questionnaire about Domestic Violence Believes, Self- esteem scales, Beck depression Inventory and the Conflict Tactics Scale. Intervention techniques involved: homework, self-recording of violent behavior and thoughts that triggered aggression, self-control techniques, time-out, anger management, analysis of dysfunctional thoughts, assertiveness training

  20. A p-y curve method for horizontal bearing characteristics of single batter pile in sands%砂土地基斜桩水平承载特性p-y曲线法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    凌道盛; 任涛; 王云岗

    2013-01-01

    Based on the p-y curve method for plumb pile in sand proposed by Reese, a new p-y curve method and its corresponding finite element method for analyzing horizontal bearing characteristics of single batter pile are presented. Firstly, according to the mechanical behavior of the shallow soil near a batter pile, a three-dimensional wedge model is put forward to describe the passive region which is in the limit state. By using limit equilibrium analysis method, the expression of ultimate soil resistance of batter pile is derived. Then, the influences of pile angle and the friction between pile and soil are numerically studied; and the method for determining the initial modulus of p-y curve of batter pile is given. By modifying the p-y curve for plumb pile in sands proposed by Reese, the p-y curve for batter pile in sand is obtained. Using the virtual work principle, the finite element formulations for horizontal bearing analysis of single batter pile are deduced; and the iteration algorithm is put forwards. The corresponding program is coded by authors; and numerical examples are taken to illustrate the effectiveness of the method. Finally, a printed centrifuge model test of batter pile is analyzed by the presented method. The numerical results show fine agreement with those of model test.%基于Reese建议的砂土p-y曲线,提出了适用于斜桩水平承载特性分析的修正p-y曲线及相应的有限元分析方法.根据桩前土体受力特点,假设桩前浅层土体达到极限破坏状态时桩侧被动破坏区为一个三维楔形体,采用极限平衡分析方法导出了斜桩桩侧极限土抗力表达式,对比研究了斜桩倾角、桩-土界面摩擦系数等因素对极限土抗力的影响规律,并给出了斜桩初始地基反力模量确定方法.在此基础上,修正Reese提出的直桩p-y曲线,提出了砂土地基中斜桩p-y曲线确定方法.利用虚功原理,导出了斜桩水平承载特性分析的有限单元列式,编制相应

  1. 有斜桩和无斜桩高桩码头地震反应的非线性有限元分析%Nonlinear finite element analysis for seismic performance of wharf structures with and without batter piles attached

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李颖; 贡金鑫

    2011-01-01

    为清楚了解斜桩在地震中的性能,采用非线性有限元软件ABAQUS对全直桩码头和斜桩码头分别进行了弹塑性时程分析.全直桩码头为全部采用直桩的码头,有斜桩码头分2种情况,一种是1根直桩顶部另设置1对斜桩,其余直桩全部与全直桩码头相同,另一种是将直桩截面尺寸和配筋减小后设置1对斜桩使其荷载-变形特性与全直桩码头相近.研究表明,有斜桩码头的刚度较大,水平位移、直桩桩端弯矩和水平力均较小,但残余位移较大.当地震作用较强时,由于斜桩变形能力较差,混凝土容易压碎,丧失水平承载力.计算分析也同时表明,近陆侧直桩比斜桩承受更大的地震弯矩和水平侧向力.%Recent experiences have demonstrated that earthquake-induced damage to wharf structure is highly susceptible to batter piles. In the United States, wharf structures without batter piles attached are commonly constructed in seismically active regions, however, batter piles are still being advocated in new wharf designs in China. In order to better understand seismic performance of batter piles, elastic-plastic time history analysis is implemented for two cases using ABAQUS. The first case analysis is carried out with and without the batter piles attached at identical input accelerations. The second case focuses on the wharf which has a similar load-displacement curve with vertical pile-supported structure. The evaluation of model behavior is summarized: ( 1 )batter piles attract less lateral load and moment than surrounding vertical piles; (2)horizontal displacements increase where batter piles are detached due to less stiffness; (3)significant increases in residual displacement are observed when the batter piles are attached; (4) the deformability of batter piles is weak, resulting in concrete cracks and bearing capacity loss; (5) the onshore vertical pile attracts more load than the offshore vertical pile which has a greater

  2. A Few Thousand Battered Books: Eugene O'Neill's Use of Myth in Desire Under The Elms And Mourning Becomes Electra A Few Thousand Battered Books: Eugene O'Neill's Use of Myth in Desire Under The Elms And Mourning Becomes Electra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnold Gordenstein

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Ezra Pound put it this way: There died a myriad, ... For an old bitch gone in the teeth, For a botched civilization, ... For two gross of broken statues, For a few thousand battered books The humblest commonplace of post World War One cultural history has it that that generation found the old creeds of the west destroyed and the old rules broken. It is somewhat more problematic, however, to identify the means by which the search for new values was conducted. The pregnant suggestion of Matthew Arnold that Hellenism and Hebraism served as the dual fundaments of western cultural values was exploited artistically by T.S. Eliot and James Joyce. But neither the use of Greek and Bible myth nor myth criticism was invented in 1922. Ezra Pound put it this way: There died a myriad, ... For an old bitch gone in the teeth, For a botched civilization, ... For two gross of broken statues, For a few thousand battered books The humblest commonplace of post World War One cultural history has it that that generation found the old creeds of the west destroyed and the old rules broken. It is somewhat more problematic, however, to identify the means by which the search for new values was conducted. The pregnant suggestion of Matthew Arnold that Hellenism and Hebraism served as the dual fundaments of western cultural values was exploited artistically by T.S. Eliot and James Joyce. But neither the use of Greek and Bible myth nor myth criticism was invented in 1922.

  3. Offshore construction of batter pile of steel pipe rock- socketed pile%海上钢管嵌岩桩斜桩施工技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁昆; 张禹; 陈冬宇

    2014-01-01

    结合境外工程现场实际情况,将JK-8冲击钻钻头改装成圆筒形锤头进行钢管嵌岩斜桩的成孔,打破了嵌岩斜桩只能由顶置式回转钻机或立轴式回转钻机施工的固定模式。该工法适应性好,安全系数高,具有推广价值。%Combined with the practical situation of overseas projects, we changed the JK-8 impact drill bit into a tubular type impact hammer to drilling the steel pipe rock-socketed pile. This technology has broken the fixed pattern of batter pile con-struction using overhead type slewing drilling machine or vertical shafts slewing drilling machine only. The technology has good adaptability, high safety, and promotional value.

  4. Influence of adding Sea Spaghetti seaweed and replacing the animal fat with olive oil or a konjac gel on pork meat batter gelation. Potential protein/alginate association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Martín, F; López-López, I; Cofrades, S; Colmenero, F Jiménez

    2009-10-01

    Standard and modulated differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, MDSC) and dynamic rheological thermal analysis (DRTA) were used to in situ simulate the batter gelation process. Texture profile analysis (TPA) and conventional quality evaluations were applied to processed products. Sea Spaghetti seaweed addition was highly effective at reinforcing water/oil retention capacity, hardness and elastic modulus in all formulations. Olive oil substituting half pork fat yielded a presumably healthier product with slightly better characteristics than control. A konjac-starch mixed gel replacing 70% of pork fat produced a similar product to control but with nearly 10% more water. DSC revealed the currently unknown phenomenon that Sea Spaghetti alginates apparently prevented thermal denaturation of a considerable protein fraction. MDSC confirmed that this mainly concerned non-reversing effects, and displayed glass transition temperatures in the range of 55-65°C. DRTA and TPA indicated however much stronger alginate-type gels. It is tentatively postulated that salt-soluble proteins associate athermally with seaweed alginates on heating to constitute a separate phase in a thermal composite-gelling process.

  5. Removing guns from batterers: findings from a pilot survey of domestic violence restraining order recipients in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vittes, Katherine A; Webster, Daniel W; Frattaroli, Shannon; Claire, Barbara E; Wintemute, Garen J

    2013-05-01

    Persons under certain domestic violence restraining orders in California are required to surrender any firearms in their possession within 24 hours of service. The California Department of Justice funded a pilot program in which Sheriff's Offices in two counties developed a system for better enforcing the firearm surrender requirement. As part of a larger process evaluation, 17 restraining order recipients were interviewed about their experiences with and feelings about the removal of firearms from their abusers. Most women surveyed wanted firearms removed and felt safer as a result of their removal. Implications of the findings are discussed.

  6. An Analysis of the Application of Battered Woman Syndrome Theory in Chinese Judicial Practices%对受虐妇女综合症理论在中国实践的分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶怀民

    2012-01-01

    In Western countries, surging feminist movements and the development of feminist theories have con- duced to arousing female' s slumbering mind and self-consciousness, and as a result, many females have now turned their attention to the domain of domestic violence. Alongside with the progress in medical jurisprudence, the theory of Battered Woman Syndrome has been invoked to protect the rights of women in judicial practices. This the- ory is of some referential value to Chinese judicial practices in that it provides us with a renewed perspective on Chi- nese legislation that are chiefly based on male values. In the concrete, this theory also provides the theoretical sup- port for such provisions in Chinese criminal laws as "criminal cases involving justifiable homicide committed by fe- male offenders because of constant and severe domestic violence usually involving physical abuse may take account of a lesser punishment or a mitigated punishment to be imposed". Meanwhile, where there appear disagreements on penalty imposition across different levels of courts in China regarding such cases or pertaining to mitigating circum- stances, the Supreme People' s Court of China is supposed to issue guiding principles through various means to ho- mogenize the adjudication of such cases.%在西方国家,女性主义的运动以及理论的发展不断地唤起女性沉睡的意识,女性逐渐将目光转向家庭暴力领域,加上法医学的进步,受虐妇女综合症成为女性权益在法律方面的“护花使者”。此理论对中国有一定借鉴价值,我们可以在宏观层面上对一些以男性价值观为主导的立法加以重新审视。而在具体层面上,该理论可以为中国刑事法律中增加规定“因长期受暴而被迫伤害,杀害施暴人的犯罪是法定从轻、减轻处罚情节”提供理论依据。同时,对各地法院面对此类案件与酌定情节从轻判判断中,出现裁判不一的情况,最高

  7. Women's steps of change and entry into drug abuse treatment. A multidimensional stages of change model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, V B; Melchior, L A; Panter, A T; Slaughter, R; Huba, G J

    2000-04-01

    The Transtheoretical, or Stages of Change Model, has been applied to the investigation of help-seeking related to a number of addictive behaviors. Overall, the model has shown to be very important in understanding the process of help-seeking. However, substance abuse rarely exists in isolation from other health, mental health, and social problems. The present work extends the original Stages of Change Model by proposing "Steps of Change" as they relate to entry into substance abuse treatment programs for women. Readiness to make life changes in four domains-domestic violence, HIV sexual risk behavior, substance abuse, and mental health-is examined in relation to entry into four substance abuse treatment modalities (12-step, detoxification, outpatient, and residential). The Steps of Change Model hypothesizes that help-seeking behavior of substance-abusing women may reflect a hierarchy of readiness based on the immediacy, or time urgency, of their treatment issues. For example, women in battering relationships may be ready to make changes to reduce their exposure to violence before admitting readiness to seek substance abuse treatment. The Steps of Change Model was examined in a sample of 451 women contacted through a substance abuse treatment-readiness program in Los Angeles, California. A series of logistic regression analyses predict entry into four separate treatment modalities that vary. Results suggest a multidimensional Stages of Change Model that may extend to other populations and to other types of help-seeking behaviors.

  8. Relationships between experiences of parental violence during childhood and women's self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, W R; Miller, B A

    1998-01-01

    The interrelationships between experience of parental verbal aggression and physical violence during childhood and the development of low self-esteem during adulthood were explored separately for the father-daughter and mother-daughter relationships. Data were collected from 472 women between the ages of 18 and 45 during in-depth interviews drawn from five sources: outpatient alcoholism treatment, DWI (Driving While Intoxicated) education programs, shelter for battered women, outpatient mental health treatment, and randomly from the community. Control variables included respondents' alcohol problems and help-seeking behavior, parental alcohol problems, number of changes in childhood family (e.g., divorce), and respondents' race and social class. Controlling for these variables, experiences of father-to-daughter verbal aggression, moderate violence, and severe violence were found related to lower self-esteem in adulthood for women. Conversely, controlling for these variables, experiences of mother-to-daughter verbal aggression, moderate violence, and severe violence were not found related to lower self-esteem in adulthood for women.

  9. Accepting "total and complete responsibility": new age neo-feminist violence against women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethna, C

    1992-02-01

    Barry Konikov, a hypnotherapist, of Potentials Unlimited Inc., a Michigan-based company which produces approximately 160 Subliminal Persuasion/Self Hypnosis tapes, promises his listeners miracles. The tapes on premenstrual syndrome, abortion, and sexual abuse were analyzed. The self-hypnosis message by Konikov is dangerous for women, because his antifeminism, misogyny, and patriarchism are couched insidiously within New Age neofeminism. Under therapeutic guidance the woman listener can direct her own transformation to complete mental, physical, and spiritual well-being, and her new and improved self is so empowered as to accept total and complete responsibility to overcome the hurt about menstruation, abortion, or sexual abuse. Growth therapies such as Gestalt, guided fantasies, and bioenergetics undermine women with false promises of power. If women are so powerful, then it is their fault if they got raped, or battered, or if they have not received love, money, and inner peace. While seemingly empowering women to develop a strong sense of personal agency, Konikov ignores the patriarchal structures which intersect his women listeners' experience of menstrual discomfort, abortion, and sexual abuse. Konikov's New Age, neofeminist stance contains 4 stages of healing: responsibility, absolution, forgiveness, and resolution. Accepting responsibility for the wound next leads to absolution, and particularly absolution for men. As an example of absolution, Konikov's woman client-ex-plantation slave accepted her past-life relationship to her husband, absolved him of guild, and decided upon a divorce. The issue of absolution widens into forgiveness in the healing process, whereby Konikov wants women to hypnotize themselves therapy should be to help a woman see how her own power as an individual is inextricably bound to the collective power of women as a group. There is no doubt that the New Age neofeminist stance taken by Konikov on the tapes leaves women profoundly

  10. Women and Diabetes

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Information by Audience For Women Women's Health Topics Women and Diabetes Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ... women during pregnancy. Diabetes and Pregnancy (CDC) Diverse Women in Clinical Trials Campaign Clinical trials can help ...

  11. Women and Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Information by Audience For Women Women's Health Topics Women and Diabetes Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ... women during pregnancy. Diabetes and Pregnancy (CDC) Diverse Women in Clinical Trials Campaign Clinical trials can help ...

  12. Women's health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... use at a later date Egg donation Sperm banking BLADDER CARE SERVICES The women's health services team ... urac.org). URAC's accreditation program is an independent audit to verify that A.D.A.M. follows ...

  13. Tu Women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    When honored guests visit, Tu women will block the door and invite them to show their respect by drinking three cups of wine. Only after this ritual can the guests be led indoors and shown to their seats.

  14. 剪切时间对脂肪微粒大小和肉糜品质的影响%Effect of shearing time on size of fat particles and quality of meat batter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪张贵; 闫利萍; 彭增起

    2011-01-01

    In order to study the effect of shearing time(1 min, 3 min, 5 min and 7 min) on size of fat particles and quality of meat batter, size distribution of fat particles, emulsion stability and emulsion gel strength of the four different meat batter were investigated at 3000 r/min. The results showed that the two emulsion systems of 5min and 7min had smaller fat particles, more uniform distribution of fat particles, better emulsion stability and greater emulsion gel strength. But there were no significant difference between these two emulsion systems. It was concluded that it could form a good meat batter by shearing 5 min at 3000 r/min in this current study.%为研究剪切时间对肉糜中脂肪微粒大小和品质的影响,研究分别测定4种不同剪切时间(1、3、5min和7min)下肉糜中脂肪微粒粒径大小和粒度分布特点、乳化稳定性和凝胶强度大小。结果表明,剪切时间为5min和7min的肉糜中脂肪微粒比较小、粒度均匀,乳化稳定性好,凝胶强度大,但这两处理组间差异并不显著(P〉0.05)。因而,试验研究认为3000r/min剪切速度下剪切5min就可制成品质好的肉糜。

  15. 剪切时间对肉糜中微粒分散特性的影响%Effect of Chopping Time on Particle Size Distribution in Meat Batters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高菲菲; 汪张贵; 彭增起; 靳红果; 王蓉蓉; 张雅玮; 姚瑶

    2012-01-01

    In order to form a fine emulsified meat batters, the fat must be cut into particles with appropriate size. Therefore, shear conditions were particularly important to emulsion of meat batters. Too long shearing time can cause the product out of oil and too short shearing time cannot meet the emulsion requirements. In the present study, fresh pork and back fat were used as raw materials and the raw meat was chopped within 1, 3, 5 rain and 7 min under the shearing rate of 3000 r/min, respectively. Laser particle size analyzer was used to analyze fat particles size and distribution characterization under different chopping time. The results showed that under the condition of chopping time for 5 min and 7 min, fat particles in meat batters have a smaller size as well as concentrated distribution, and did not revealed significant difference.%为形成乳化性良好的肉糜,研究不同剪切时间对肉糜中脂肪微粒粒径的影响。实验以猪背最长肌和背膘为原料肉,在3000r/min剪切速率下分别斩拌1、3、5、7min制成生肉糜,利用激光粒度分析仪测定不同剪切时间下肉糜中脂肪微粒大小和粒度分布特点。结果显示:剪切5min和7min条件下,肉糜中脂肪微粒粒径比较小、粒度分布集中,且尢显著性差异。

  16. Women Words

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan Yuan

    2012-01-01

    Jiangyong County,a remote place in central China's Hunan Province,has been gathering more attention due to a strange-looking language passed down exclusively by women for hundreds of years. The language,which is called nushu,or women's script,is said to originate from Chinese square-block characters,but the orthography and pronunciation are quite different from all other branches of Chinese dialects.

  17. Leibniz's women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fara, Patricia

    2004-12-01

    Enlightenment natural philosophers were linked to one another in an extended correspondence network, but the female participants in this international Republic of Letters are rarely mentioned. Gottfried Leibniz relied on several such women not only for financial patronage, but also for intellectual stimulation. Although this hardworking and underpaid librarian at the Hanoverian Court is now one of the world's most famous mathematical philosophers, the women on whom he depended for ideas as well as support have been largely forgotten.

  18. Revisión sistemática de los estudios sobre el nivel socioeconómico de los hombres que maltratan a sus parejas Systematic review of studies on the socioeconomic status of men who batter their intimate partners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes Carrasco-Portiño

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: A pesar de la visibilidad de los casos de violencia del compañero íntimo contra las mujeres en parejas con problemas socioeconómicos, su relación con el hecho concreto de desarrollar una conducta violenta no está clara. Se plantea realizar una revisión sistemática de la evidencia empírica sobre el papel del nivel socioeconómico de los perpetradores en este problema. Métodos: Revisión sistemática. Bases de datos: Eric (1966-2004, Sociological Abstracts (1963-2005, Science Citation Index (1945-2005, Social Science Citation Index (1956-2005, Medline a través de Pubmed (1966-2005, Social Service Abstracts (1980-2005, Lilacs (1982-2005 y Psycinfo (1972-2005. Se incluyeron los artículos empíricos con objetivos o hipótesis sobre la relación causal entre el bajo nivel socioeconómico -empleo, educación e ingresos- de los hombres y la violencia del compañero íntimo contra mujeres. Resultados: Se localizaron 251 estudios. Sólo 10 cumplieron los criterios de inclusión. Se encontró un estudio de cohortes, uno de casos y controles, un estudio ecológico y una serie de casos. Dos estudios calculan las odds ratio (OR en sus análisis. En uno se obtiene una OR de 1,4 (intervalo de confianza del 95%, 1,1-1,9 con el desempleo, y en el otro no se alcanzó en nivel de significación estadística ni con este factor ni con el bajo nivel de ingresos y educativo. Conclusiones: Se requiere más información, y de más calidad, que permita establecer resultados concluyentes sobre el papel causal del nivel socioeconómico de los hombres que maltratan a sus parejas. Aún es insuficiente la evidencia empírica que asocia la conducta violenta de los hombres contra sus parejas con determinados grupos de bajo nivel socioeconómico.Background: Despite the visibility of intimate partner violence against women in low socioeconomic groups, the association of low socioeconomic status and violent behavior is unclear. We performed a systematic

  19. Feminist-cognitive-behavioral and process-psychodynamic treatments for men who batter: interaction of abuser traits and treatment models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, D G

    1996-01-01

    At a community-based domestic violence program, 218 men with a history of partner abuse were randomly assigned to either feminist-cognitive-behavioral or process-psychodynamic group treatments. The treatments were not hypothesized to differ in outcome. However, men with particular characteristics were expected to have lower recidivism rates depending on the type of treatment received. Treatment integrity was verified through audio-taped codings of each session. The partners of 79% of the 136 treatment completers gave reports of the men's behavior an average of 2 years post-treatment. These reports were supplemented with arrest records and self-reports. Rates of violence did not differ significantly between the two types of treatment nor did reports from the women of their fear level, general changes perceived in the men, and conflict resolution methods. However, interaction effects were found between some offender traits and the two treatments. As predicted, men with dependent personalities had better outcomes in the process-psychodynamic groups and those with antisocial traits had better outcomes in the cognitive-behavioral groups. The results suggest that more effective treatment may occur if it is tailored to specific characteristics of offenders.

  20. Women's Rights Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Helen; Weigel, Margaret

    Designed for use in the intermediate grades, this interdisciplinary unit helps students examine traditional and modern roles of women. Fourteen lessons focus on women's activities in colonial America, reasons for women's discontent, the women's rights movement of the 1800's, changes in the roles of women, enfranchisement of women, women's role…

  1. Intimate partner violence among pregnant women in Rwanda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siziya Seter

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intimate partner violence (IPV, defined as actual or threatened physical, sexual, psychological, and emotional abuse by current or former partners is a global public health concern. The prevalence and determinants of intimate partner violence (IPV against pregnant women has not been described in Rwanda. A study was conducted to identify variables associated with IPV among Rwandan pregnant women. Methods A convenient sample of 600 pregnant women attending antenatal clinics were administered a questionnaire which included items on demographics, HIV status, IPV, and alcohol use by the male partner. Mean age and proportions of IPV in different groups were assessed. Odds of IPV were estimated using logistic regression analysis. Results Of the 600 respondents, 35.1% reported IPV in the last 12 months. HIV+ pregnant women had higher rates of all forms of IVP violence than HIV- pregnant women: pulling hair (44.3% vs. 20.3%, slapping (32.0% vs. 15.3%, kicking with fists (36.3% vs. 19.7%, throwing to the ground and kicking with feet (23.3% vs. 12.7%, and burning with hot liquid (4.1% vs. 3.5%. HIV positive participants were more than twice likely to report physical IPV than those who were HIV negative (OR = 2.38; 95% CI [1.59, 3.57]. Other factors positively associated with physical IPV included sexual abuse before the age of 14 years (OR = 2.69; 95% CI [1.69, 4.29], having an alcohol drinking male partner (OR = 4.10; 95% CI [2.48, 6.77] for occasional drinkers and OR = 3.37; 95% CI [2.05, 5.54] for heavy drinkers, and having a male partner with other sexual partners (OR = 1.53; 95% CI [1.15, 2.20]. Education was negatively associated with lifetime IPV. Conclusion We have reported on prevalence of IPV violence among pregnant women attending antenatal care in Rwanda, Central Africa. We advocate that screening for IPV be an integral part of HIV and AIDS care, as well as routine antenatal care. Services for battered women should also be

  2. 水平偏心荷载下斜桩群桩受力性状的离心机模型试验%Centrifugal model tests on batter pile groups under eccentric lateral loads

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾明; 陈仁朋; 孔令刚; 陈云敏; 张浙杭

    2014-01-01

    A series of centrifugal model tests are conducted to investigate the behavior of pile groups in sand subjected to eccentric lateral loads, especially the role of batter pile groups in resisting lateral or eccentric loads. The preparation and the procedure of the tests are described. The test results reveal that the eccentric distance of the lateral loads will affect the lateral response of the pile groups to some extent within the experimental range, but have little effect on the torsional behavior of the pile groups. The bearing capacity of the plumb pile group under lateral loads with eccentric distance of 4.3D is higher than that of zero and 7.1D. The capacity of the batter pile groups subjected to lateral, eccentric or torsional loads is much higher than that of the plumb pile groups. Under the eccentric loads, the differences between the lateral displacements of individual piles within the batter pile groups are larger than those in the plumb pile groups, and they also increase with the eccentric distance of the lateral loads. The shear forces and lateral displacements at head of individual piles are different in direction. The axial forces of individual piles within the batter pile groups are dramatically larger than those in the plumb pile groups under the same load condition, which illustrates that batter pile groups can more effectively resist the lateral loads than the plumb pile groups by taking full advantages of the axial capacity of individual piles.%为研究斜桩群桩在水平偏心荷载下的受力性状,在砂土中开展了一系列离心机模型试验,着重对比了直桩群桩和斜桩群桩抵抗水平及偏心荷载的不同特性。详细介绍了模型试验的装置、方法以及内容。试验结果表明:水平荷载偏心距大小对群桩水平承载力有一定的影响,但是对群桩扭转承载力的影响较小。对于直桩群桩,在试验范围内小偏心距(4.3倍桩径)加载对应的水平承载力大

  3. 膳食纤维减少油炸外裹糊鱼块油脂含量的研究%Reduction of fat content of fried battered and breaded fish nuggets using dietary fiber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈季旺; 解丹; 曾恒; 夏文水; 王海滨; 熊幼翎

    2016-01-01

    在外裹糊中分别添加大豆纤维、小麦麸纤维、米糠纤维和苹果纤维,研究膳食纤维对油炸外裹糊鱼块油脂和水分含量、裹糊率、色度、质构、微观结构和油脂吸收的影响。结果显示,与未添加膳食纤维组(外壳油脂含量22.81%,鱼块油脂含量1.66%)比较,添加4种膳食纤维组均能显著降低油炸外裹糊鱼块的油脂含量(P≤0.05),添加1.5%小麦麸纤维或2.0%大豆纤维、米糠纤维及苹果纤维时油炸外裹糊鱼块的油脂含量较低,水分含量及裹糊率较高。其中添加2.0%大豆纤维的油脂含量最低,外壳和鱼块油脂含量分别为16.59%和1.14%。同时,油炸外裹糊鱼块外壳金黄色,酥性值较高、硬度较低和鱼块的弹性、咀嚼性好;外壳结构较紧密,鱼块无较大气孔形成;苏丹红染色幅度较轻。说明外裹糊中添加大豆纤维可用于低脂油炸外裹鱼块的生产。%The effects of dietary fiber on fat and moisture content , pick-up rate, color, textural characteristics , mi-croscopic structure , and fat absorption of fried battered and breaded fish nuggets ( BBFNs ) were investigated through the addition of soybean fiber , wheat bran fiber , rice bran fiber , and apple fiber in the batter .The results showed that fried BBFNs with the addition of 1.5%wheat bran fiber and 2.0%soybean fiber, rice bran fiber, and apple fiber in the batter had lower fat content and higher moisture content and pick -up rate compared to that without dietary fiber (22.81%of the crust and 1.66%of the core).The addition of 2% soybean fiber in the batter im-proved sensory quality ( higher brightness and a golden-yellow crust ) , texture ( lower hardness and higher crispness of the crust and better chewiness and springiness of the core ) , and microstructure ( the compact crust and less pores in the core ) of fried BBFNs .of all the treatments , the addition of 2 .0%soybean

  4. Smokefree Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... infographic that presents all the benefits to quitting smoking during pregnancy to help you have a happy, healthy birth ... of smoke… Read full story: 3 Very Real Dangers of Secondhand Smoke » share 4 Benefits of Quitting Smoking Many women are surprised by how well… Read ...

  5. Rebellious Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Peter

    2010-01-01

    At the background of a short presentation of concepts of discourse (in particular in Jürgen Habermas and Michel Foucault) and of the concept of shari'a a Spanish court case against an imam in reference to his publication on Women in Islam, where sura 4 verse 34 of the Quran is a central reference...

  6. Women's worth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloch, N

    1992-01-01

    Jill Conway is a feminist historian, writer, teacher, and now-emerita 1st woman president of Smith College. She claims that women today still suffer from a great deal of oppression. Women around the world are currently in a disadvantage position. In 7 countries women do not have the right to vote. In the US less that .5% of top executives are women. The wage gap in the US between 1939 and 1989 has only shrunk $.10, from $.58-$.68. Conway points out that we are all constrained by our social mores, generational attitudes, political events, and economic circumstances. Few people are able to overcome these things in the way that they live their lives. Conway questions the validity of history written from a male dominated point of view. Around the world the value of women's work is almost always lower than that of men. India is just 1 example, there 75% of women are illiterate and 1/2 the population lives in poverty based on a caste system. Female literacy tripled in the 1st 30 years of independence and by 1981 it had reached 25%. The literacy gap is actually growing in India Today with 44% of girls aged 6 to 11, who are eligible to attend school, not doing so. Rural poverty keeps them at home because their domestic work is more valuable than their education. Other cultural tradition compound the problem: arranged marriages often result in motherhood for 14 year old girls. This is done for many reasons, 1 of which is crop failure insurance. When 2 families are combined through marriage, their total land share grows and they are thus more likely to have enough to eat. Education is just 1 necessary step. Developed nations must realize the realities that exist in the countries they provide aid for. In Africa for example, 70% of continent's food is produced by women. Yet the aid programs of the past have only been designed to offer assistant to men and create jobs for men.

  7. Arrest History and Intimate Partner Violence Perpetration in a Sample of Men and Women Arrested for Domestic Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorey, Ryan C; Ninnemann, Andrew; Elmquist, Joanna; Labrecque, Lindsay; Zucosky, Heather; Febres, Jeniimarie; Brasfield, Hope; Temple, Jeff R; Stuart, Gregory L

    2012-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a serious and prevalent problem throughout the United States. Currently, individuals arrested for domestic violence are often court mandated to batterer intervention programs (BIPs). However, little is known about the arrest histories of these individuals, especially women. The current study examined the arrest histories of men (n = 303) and women (n = 82) arrested for domestic violence and court-referred to BIPs. Results demonstrated that over 30% of the entire sample had been previously arrested for a non-violent offense, and over 25% of the participants had been previously arrested for a violent offense other than domestic violence. Moreover, men were arrested significantly more frequently for violence-related and non-violent offenses than their female counterparts. In addition, men were more likely than women to have consumed binge-levels of alcohol prior to the offense that led to their most recent arrest and court-referral to a BIP. Lastly, arrest history was positively associated with physical and psychological aggression perpetration against an intimate partner for men only, such that more previous arrests were associated with more frequent aggression. These results provide evidence that many men and women arrested for domestic violence have engaged in a number of diverse criminal acts during their lifetimes, suggesting that BIPs may need to address general criminal behavior.

  8. Women's Club

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Women's Club

    2012-01-01

     Coffee Morning Tuesday 7th February 2012, 9:00 – 11:00 Bldg 504 (Restaurant n°2 – DSR) 1st Floor, Club Room 3 Presentation of cheque to Terre des Hommes Those interested in helping should come along. New arrivals and all members are cordially invited.You can enrol for membership, renew membership, find out about and sign up for our activities. Visit our website: http://club-womensclub.web.cern.ch/Club-WomensClub/

  9. Women's club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club des cernoises

    2012-01-01

    Coffee MorningTuesday 9th October 2012, 9:00 – 11:00 Bldg 504 (Restaurant No 2 – DSR) 1st Floor, Club Room 3 Presentation of the charity to benefit from the Christmas Sale “Nous aussi”. Those interested in helping should come along. New arrivals and all members are cordially invited. You can enrol for membership, renew membership, find out about and sign up for our activities. Visit our website: http://cern.ch/Club-WomensClub/

  10. Women's Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Women's Club

    2014-01-01

        CERN WOMEN’S CLUB Coffee Morning Tuesday 8th Avril 2014, 9:30 – 14:00 Bldg 504 (Restaurant No 2 – DSR) Ground Floor Spring Jumble Sale   Those interested in helping should come along. New arrivals and all members are cordially invited. You can enrol for membership, renew membership, find out about and sign up for our activities. Visit our website: http://cern.ch/Club-WomensClub/

  11. Women's Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club des Cernoises

    2012-01-01

    Coffee Morning   Tuesday 24th  April 2012, 9:00 – 14:00 Bldg 504, Ground Floor Spring Jumble Sale   Those interested in helping should come along. New arrivals and all members are cordially invited. You can enrol for membership, renew membership, find out about and sign up for our activities. Visit our website: http://club-womensclub.web.cern.ch/Club-WomensClub/

  12. Women's Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club des Cernoises

    2012-01-01

    Coffee Morning Tuesday 13th  March 2012, 9:00 – 11:00 - Bldg 504 (Restaurant No 2 – DSR) - 1st Floor, Club Room 3. German Theme Those interested in helping should come along. New arrivals and all members are cordially invited. You can enrol for membership, renew membership, find out about and sign up for our activities. Visit our website: http://club-womensclub.web.cern.ch/Club-WomensClub/     CWC – Chinese Women's Community at CERN With an increasing number of Chinese people working at CERN, there are also surely an increasing number of Chinese women in the area, who are not always familiar with the environment, languages, or the people. In the context of the CERN Women’s Club, let's meet together and chat about integrating into the local community, available activities, commerce’s, restaurants, etc. It is also obviously a good opportunity to meet new friends. Everyone is welcome to join us to meet fo...

  13. Women's club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club des Cernoises

    2012-01-01

        CWC – Chinese Women's Community at CERN With an increasing number of Chinese people working at CERN, there are also surely an increasing number of Chinese women in the area, who are not always familiar with the environment, languages, or the people. In the context of the CERN Women’s Club, let's meet together and chat about integrating into the local community, available activities, commerce’s, restaurants, etc. It is also obviously a good opportunity to meet new friends. Everyone is welcome to join us to meet for tea, coffee, and a chat. We will meet every 3rd Tuesday of the month, starting on 20th March 2012, in building 504 (Restaurant 2) in room E-005. 20th March at 9-11am 17th April at 9-11am 22nd May at 9-11am 19th June at 9-11am For more details contact Mme Jean RODERICK, +41 (0) 76 426 61 08, jean.chow.roderick@gmail.com http://club-womensclub.web.cern.ch/Club-WomensClub/     CWC-華人茶敍 越來�...

  14. Importance of shearing fat emulsification and protein matrix in meat batter stability%脂肪剪切乳化和蛋白基质对肉糜乳化稳定性的重要作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪张贵; 闫利萍; 彭增起; 周光宏

    2011-01-01

    Finely comminuted meat products were a mixture of proteins,fat particles,water,salt and carbohydrates,and so on.During the process of preparing meat batter,fat was chopped into solid particles and/or liquid fat droplets of different shapes and sizes.Nowadays,the challenge is how to minimize and/or prevent fat and moisture separation from the product.There were two alternative theories for meat batter stabilization:the oil-in-water emulsion theory,which was based on the formation of an interfacial protein film(IPF)around fat globules,and the physical entrapment theory,which centered on the entrapment of the fat within the protein matrix.The exact mechanism by which finely comminuted meat batters stabilized was still uncertain.Arguments presented to support both research thrusts were discussed.Based on this,several pieces of suggestions were also put forward.%完全粉碎肉制品由肌肉蛋白质、脂肪颗粒、水、盐和碳水化合物等物质组成。在肉糜生产过程中,脂肪被剪切成形状和大小不同的固态脂肪颗粒或液态脂肪滴,如何防止脂肪和水分从产品中分离成为挑战。在过去几十年里,涌现出两种学说用于解释肉糊乳化稳定性:水包油型乳化学说和蛋白基质物理镶嵌固定学说,前者强调脂肪球周围形成界面蛋白膜作用,后者强调蛋白基质对脂肪的固定作用。本文讨论了支持这两个研究方向的成果,并在此基础上提出几点建议。

  15. Estilo parental de origem e ansiedade em homens com histórico de agressão à parceira Parental style in families of origin and anxiety among batterers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo da Costa Padovani

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo investigou o estilo parental da família de origem do agressor conjugal e o nível de ansiedade de tal homem, comparando-os com dados de homens não agressores de idade, nível sócio-econômico, escolaridade e estado civil semelhantes. A amostra foi constituída por 20 agressores conjugais e 20 não agressores. Os instrumentos utilizados foram: Roteiro de Entrevista Individual Semi-Estruturada da Família de Origem do Agressor, Inventário de Estilos Parentais e o Inventário de Ansiedade Beck (BAI. Os grupos não se diferenciaram estatisticamente no que se refere à idade, escolaridade, renda e estado civil. Os grupos se diferiram estatisticamente nas duas variáveis analisadas: estilo parental de origem e ansiedade. Pode-se sugerir que a ansiedade, quando combinada com práticas parentais inapropriadas na família de origem, contribua para a agressão do parceiro íntimo. Futuros estudos com amostras maiores poderiam fortalecer tal relação.The present study was aimed at investigating male batterers' family of origin's parental style, and its relationship with anxiety symptoms in such men, by comparing these variables with men without a history of domestic violence with similar age, socio-economic status, education and marital status. A sample of 20 batterers and 20 men without a violence history was utilized. The instruments in Portuguese included: a Batterer's Family of Origin Semi-Structured Interview, The Parental Style Inventory, and the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI. Both groups did not differ statistically in regards to age, socio-economic status, education and marital status. However, the groups were statistically different in terms of the variables family of origin's parental style and anxiety. It is suggested that anxiety, combined with family of origin's inappropriate parenting, may contribute to intimate partner violence. Future studies could further investigate this possibility using larger samples.

  16. Calculation of axially bearing capacity of a batter pile based on mechanism of deformation compatibility%基于变形协调的斜桩轴向承载力计算方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张麒蛰; 卓卫东; 范立础

    2013-01-01

    In order to obtain the axial bearing capacity of a batter pile , the calculation formula for the axially bearing capacity of a batter pile was deduced based on the non-uniform distribution char-acteristics of the friction resistance around the batter pile shaft and the mechanism of pile -soil deformation compatibility .The results calculated by the proposed formula and the method given by the design code of pile were compared to explore the influence of the factors , such as pile inclina-tion, diameter, length and utmost friction resistance around pile shaft , on axial bearing capacity. The calculated results showed that the value of the pile axially bearing capacity calculated by the proposed formula decreased with the increase of pile inclination .For different pile diameters , the pile axially bearing capacity was 7%smaller than that calculated by the code's formula.The shorter of the pile length or the lesser of the utmost friction resistance of the pile was , the smaller bearing capacity calculated by the code's formula was than the values calculated by the proposed formula . Finally , with the increase of the pile length or utmost friction resistance , the value of bearing capaci-ty calculated by this proposed formula was greater than the value calculated by the code's formula. The proposed formula also takes into account of the influence of pile inclination and the mechanism of pile-soil deformation compatibility .It can be a reference to calculate axial bearing capacity of bat-ter piles.%为进一步研究斜桩轴向承载力计算方法,基于斜桩的桩周摩阻力不均匀分布的特性和桩-土受力变形协调的原则,推导了斜桩轴向承载力计算公式,通过对比本文公式与规范公式的计算结果,揭示了桩身倾角、桩径、桩长和桩侧极限摩阻力等因素对斜桩轴向容许承载力的影响规律。结果表明:鉴于规范公式未考虑斜桩桩身倾角对承载力的影响,本文公式计算得

  17. Aspectos médico legales del síndrome del menor agredido Legal-Medical Aspects of the Battered Child Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Édgar Alonso Madrigal-Ramírez

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available El Síndrome del Menor Agredido en cuya génesis participan múltiples factores biopsicosociales, afecta a niños de todas las edades alrededor del mundo, principalmente a niños pequeños y con ciertos factores de riesgo. Aunque los daños físicos que produce suelen ser transitorios, pueden ocurrir secuelas físicas y generalmente psicológicas persistentes, o la muerte. En Costa Rica existe amplia legislación que ampara al menor contra los maltratos, correspondiéndole al equipo del sistema de salud nacional salvaguardar su salud y, en muchos casos, su vida. En este contexto, le compete al médico ser un ejecutante habilidoso en la valoración clínica a través de la cual se aborde al paciente. Desde el interrogatorio no revictimizante, el personal de salud debe realizar un abordaje inmediato conducente a evitar mayor lesionología para con el niño del que se ha abusado física y sexualmente, y para lo cual debe comprender temas tales como: establecimiento de la compatibilidad del mecanismo y fisiopatología del trauma, diagnóstico diferencial y evaluación clínico forense, además de contar con elementos que identifiquen indicadores psicológicos en la dinámica traumatogénica del menor. Especial atención debe prestarse a la toma, conservación y manipulación de las muestras biológicas en casos de delitos sexuales. con el fin de evitar la pérdida de evidencia forense.The battered child syndrome, whose genesis involves multiple biopsychosocial factors, affects children of all ages around the world, especially young children with certain risk factors. Although the physical damage that occurs could be temporary, physical scars can also occur and, particularly, psychological ones, that are usually persistent or even death. In Costa Rica there is a comprehensive legislation that protects children against abuse, corresponding to the national health system team to safeguard their health and often their lives. In this context, it is up to

  18. Rural Women Get Help from Women Students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JANE SHAW

    1994-01-01

    SINCE more and more rural women have become involved in commercial production, they have become more and more eager to learn about scientific technology. The Women’s Federation of Beijing had long been looking for a direct and effective way to help them. Luo Xiaolu, vicedirector of the Federation, found in her investigation of the present conditions of intellectual women in Beijing that women students were also eager to get in touch with society. Then she had an idea that women students in universities and colleges should go to the countryside. Thus, an activity developed called "women college students and rural women, hand in hand."

  19. Unsettled women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, J

    2001-01-01

    SUMMARY Amy Bock (alias Percy Redwood) created a media sensation when "The Case of the Woman Bridegroom" hit the newspapers throughout New Zealand in 1909. She was hailed as the "queerest and most interesting character that has ever been before the New Zealand public" and "pitiable in her freakish exploits." Debates ensued as to whether her crimes were evidence of a mania, a disease, or simply due to a flawed, criminal character. This article focuses on media portrayals of women who did not conform to normative constructions of acceptable womanhood within the latter decades of the nineteenth century and the early twentieth century in New Zealand, as a means of tracing the mutable boundaries of intelligible genders. Newspaper debates and emergent discourses around the medicalisation of social de-viancy are drawn upon to demonstrate how normative constructions of gender were premised upon a defining matrix of mad/bad/woman.

  20. Women and Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Audience For Women Women's Health Topics Women and Diabetes Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... Diabetes How to Report Problems with Glucose Meters Diabetes Treatments Some people with diabetes need to take ...

  1. Women and Diabetes

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Audience For Women Women's Health Topics Women and Diabetes Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... Diabetes How to Report Problems with Glucose Meters Diabetes Treatments Some people with diabetes need to take ...

  2. Women and HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Consumer Information by Audience For Women Women and HIV Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... HIV? What should pregnant women know about HIV? HIV Quick Facts What is HIV? HIV is the ...

  3. Competition between Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, R.

    1985-01-01

    Examined competition and physical attractiveness among women. Results indicated that a large number of females are highly critical of other women, particularly attractive ones, and are highly concerned about their own appearance in relation to other women. (Author/BL)

  4. Women and Industrial Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjorkquist, David C.

    1973-01-01

    Deals with these three questions: (1) What is the employment status of women, (2) What do advocates of the women's rights movement want, (3) How should industrial educators respond to the women's rights movement? (SB)

  5. Minority Women and Advocacy for Women's Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumanyika, Shiriki K.; Morssink, Christiaan B.; Nestle, Marion

    2001-01-01

    US minority health issues involve racial/ethnic disparities that affect both women and men. However, women's health advocacy in the United States does not consistently address problems specific to minority women. The underlying evolution and political strength of the women's health and minority health movements differ profoundly. Women of color comprise only one quarter of women's health movement constituents and are, on average, socioeconomically disadvantaged. Potential alliances may be inhibited by vestiges of historical racial and social divisions that detract from feelings of commonality and mutual support. Nevertheless, insufficient attention to minority women's issues undermines the legitimacy of the women's health movement and may prevent important advances that can be achieved only when diversity is fully considered. PMID:11527764

  6. Women of ATLAS - International Women's Day 2016

    CERN Multimedia

    Biondi, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    Women play key roles in the ATLAS Experiment: from young physicists at the start of their careers to analysis group leaders and spokespersons of the collaboration. Celebrate International Women's Day by meeting a few of these inspiring ATLAS researchers.

  7. Resources for Women's Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridinger, Robert B.

    Over 120 bibliographies and other reference sources relevant to women's studies are identified in this annotated listing. Subjects include feminist scholarship, women in management, popular culture, autobiographies, other cultures and countries, history, lesbian women, women's education, the arts, politics, and rape. In addition to author, title,…

  8. Hypertension in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Roberta; Wofford, Marion; Reckelhoff, Jane F

    2012-06-01

    Blood pressure is typically lower in premenopausal women than in men. However, after menopause, the prevalence of hypertension in women is higher than it is in men. Hypertension is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease in women and men, but cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in women. Furthermore, there is evidence that blood pressure may not be as well-controlled in women as in men, despite the fact that most women adhere better to their therapeutic regimens and medications than do men, and have their blood pressures measured more frequently than do men. This review describes possible mechanisms by which blood pressure may be increased in postmenopausal women.

  9. WOMEN AND RUSSIAN MODERNIZATION

    OpenAIRE

    KIREGIAN ELISE

    2015-01-01

    This article analyzes Russian women and their ability to embrace Western educational and business practices following the fall of the Soviet Union. As recently as the 1980s, women managers in Russia were rare. Today, a total of 42 percent of senior management posts in Russia are held by women. Unlike women in Western nations who tend to frame their emerging role in ideological terms, Russian women enrolled in academic programs that gave them valuable skills for the market economy. The paper a...

  10. Women Battle Inequality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    WTTH women parliamentarians worldwide gathering in Beijing on 15 September 1996, China’s capital city was once again in the spotlight as women gathered to promote gender equality. One year after the Fourth World Conference on Women and the NGO Forum, and one day before the Inter-Parliamentary Union (IPU) held its 96th Conference, 150 women parliamentarians from more than 70 countries gathered in Beijing to attend the 96th Women

  11. Support networks of women victims of partner violence in Jalisco (Mexico [La red de apoyo en mujeres víctimas de violencia contra la pareja en el estado de Jalisco (México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Estrada Pineda

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of the present research is to identify the support networks of women victims of partner violence paying attention to both sources and type of support provided. Information about network support from 204 participants living in Guadalajara (Jalisco, México was obtained using the Relationship-specific Perceived Social Support (Gracia & Herrero, 2004. Cluster analysis revealed that the most frequent type of support network included friends as the main source of social support. Two other types of network support were found in this study: family of origin support (mother and sisters, mainly and partner and offspring’s support (in some cases the batterer was also included in this support network.

  12. Violência contra a mulher, coesão familiar e drogas Violence against women, family cohesion and drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Moreira Rabello

    2007-12-01

    , divided into 130 battered individuals and 130 non-battered. The case study group consisted of women who lodged complaints for domestic violence at the Specialist Women's Police Station. The control group was made up of women living in the same neighborhood as those who had made the complaint. Cohesion, adaptability and mental risk were all measured using the "Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scales". For the statistical analysis the Chi-square and the Fisher's Exact Tests ere used, at a significance level of 5%. RESULTS: The two groups differed for measures relating to mental risk and cohesion, but had similar results for family adaptability (p=0.0917. The women victims of domestic violence had high (43.1% and medium (39.2% mental risk, while the non-victims had only medium risk (55.4%. There was a significant difference in drug use between the two groups, with greater consumption among the families of battered women (90.8% compared with those of non-battered women (56.9%. The most widely used drug was alcohol, which also represented the highest risk factor for aggression if consumed daily (OR=37.33 or in conjunction with other drugs (OR=29,56. CONCLUSIONS: Both the instability caused by a lack of family unity and the use of drugs significantly affect family functioning and may give rise to conflict and domestic violence.

  13. Perception of violence against women among future health professionals in an industrial township

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddharth Agrawal

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is a growing concern that medical education does not prepare the future health professional to effectively deal with violence against women. Against this background, the present study was undertaken. Aims: To elicit perception of violence against women among medical and nursing students, and study the association of these perceptions with certain demographic and social variables. Settings and Design: The study was conducted among students of a Medical College and a Nursing College both located at Pune, India. A cross-sectional descriptive study design was used to elicit the perceptions of the study subjects toward violence against women. Materials and Methods: A random sample of 125 medical and 125 nursing students was selected. Both quantitative and qualitative methods of data collection were employed. Qualitative data collection was done by focus group discussions with key persons such as dean and faculty of medical and nursing colleges. The syllabi of medical and nursing colleges were also reviewed for any topic related to domestic violence. Statistical analysis: The WHO/CDC Statistical and Epidemiology Software Package was used for data entry and statistical analysis. Various associations were explored by nonparametric tests (Mann-Whitney for ordinal data and by Chi-square and ODDS ratio (with 95% confidence intervals, for categorical data. Results: Overall 35.6% (95% CI 29.1%-42.6% of the study participants had witnessed/were aware of violence against women among their family/acquaintances. This awareness was significantly more among female respondents (OR=2.65, 95% CI 1.37-5.16, Chi Sq=9.81, df=1, P=0.001. Other socioeconomic variables such as urban/rural background, education, and income were not associated with perception about family violence. Majority (>80% agreed/strongly agreed that social agencies should do more to help battered women. Course content on violence against women was lacking in both medical and nursing

  14. Albanian women in physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deda, Antoneta; Alushllari, Mirela; Mico, Silvana

    2015-12-01

    In this report, presented at the 5th IUPAP International Conference on Women in Physics, we describe the status of women physicists in Albania and offer some statistical data illustrating the present situation. Undergraduate physics enrollment by girls is high and stable, more women are receiving financial support for doctoral studies, women are well represented in recent academic promotions, and recently women scientists have been appointed to several leadership positions. However, both women and men are challenged by the overall low levels of funding for research and by issues of availability and affordability of child care.

  15. Women's rights to health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-08-01

    Women's rights and health are threatened by cultural, religious, and social biases against women that create barriers in women's ability to access health information, education, and services. The fact that women's basic human rights include a right to health has been incorporated in international rights covenants, but violations occur in the form of 1) direct state actions, such as coercive abortion; 2) failure of states to meet health needs; 3) discrimination that denies health care to specific groups; and 4) failure of states to protect women from violence, child marriage, female infanticide, and other forms of health- and life-threatening discrimination. In order to improve this situation, a basic set of indicators must be developed to monitor implementation of agreements to protect women. Health professionals must continue to incorporate women's rights into the ethics or charters of health practices, to improve service to women, and to increase governmental advocacy on behalf of women. Governments must acknowledge the benefits of applying a rights approach to women's health status and must develop plans to implement recommendations arising from international conferences on women's rights. Women-centered nongovernmental organizations must create a clear framework on women's rights to health and develop advocacy and networking strategies.

  16. Women and Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... turn JavaScript on. Feature: Rethinking Drinking Women and Alcohol Past Issues / Spring 2014 Table of Contents Women react differently than men to alcohol and face higher risks from it. Pound for ...

  17. Women in Academic Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibault, George E

    2016-08-01

    More than a decade ago, women achieved parity with men in the number of matriculants to medical school, nearly one-third of the faculty of medical schools were women, and there were some women deans and department chairs. These trends were promising, but today there are still significant differences in pay, academic rank, and leadership positions for women compared with men in academic medicine. Though there has been progress in many areas, the progress is too slow to achieve previously recommended goals, such as 50% women department chairs by 2025 and 50% women deans by 2030.The author points to the findings presented in the articles from the Research Partnership on Women in Biomedical Careers in this issue, as well as research being published elsewhere, as an evidence base for the ongoing discussion of gender equity in academic medicine. More attention to culture and the working environment will be needed to achieve true parity for women in academic medical careers.

  18. Women's Career Development Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, Pamela J.

    1998-01-01

    Women's career development is characterized by balance of work and family, career interruptions, and diverse career paths. Alternative work arrangements such as flexible schedules, telecommuting, and entrepreneurial opportunities may offer women more options for work. (SK)

  19. Alternatives for Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberti, Jean M.

    1975-01-01

    This article summarized the perspective of this issue by recognizing the validity of the issues being raised by the women's rights movement and also recognizing that the "liberation of women" means the liberation of men. (Author/RK)

  20. Women and Diabetes

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... during pregnancy. Diabetes and Pregnancy (CDC) Diverse Women in Clinical Trials Campaign Clinical trials can help doctors ... ages, races, ethnic backgrounds, and health conditions participating in clinical trials. Visit the Women in Clinical Trials ...

  1. College Women's Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the College Women's Social Media Kit! College Women's Social Media Toolkit Use the Social Media Toolkit to ... Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products

  2. Substance Use in Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... trigger women's substance use or other mental health disorders. Women who use certain substances may be more likely to have panic attacks, anxiety, or depression. Substance Use While Pregnant and Breastfeeding ...

  3. Osteoporosis and Hispanic Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... not supported by your browser. Home Osteoporosis Women Osteoporosis and Hispanic Women Publication available in: PDF (54 ... Are Available? Resources For Your Information What Is Osteoporosis? Osteoporosis is a condition in which the bones ...

  4. Women of Jino Nationality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    The dress of the Jino nationality differs greafiy from village to village. The upper photo shows the women of Xinyuan Village, Mengwang Township, with the photo on the right featuring women from Jiamazhai Village, Jino Township.

  5. How Women Changed History

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vivienne; Gill; 袁爱萍

    2003-01-01

    Men sometimes say, "We are better and cleverer than women. Women never invent things. We do. " It is true that men have invented a lot of useful things: the alphabet, machines, rockets, and guns, too.

  6. 受虐妇女报复性犯罪轻刑化处罚之根据%Basis of Light Punishment of Penalty to Retaliatory Crimes by Battered Women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨清惠

    2010-01-01

    家庭暴力在社会生活中普遍存在,小暴不止会愈演愈烈发展到"大暴",当受虐妇女忍无可忍,而又寻求不到有效公立救济时,会走上以暴制暴报复性犯罪的不归路.受虐妇女杀夫、伤夫案中,受虐妇女本属于家庭中的弱势群体.在家庭中处于被支配的地位,她们从原来的受害人被迫成为被告人,而成为被害人的原侵害人自身具有严重的过错,严惩这样社会危害性小、几乎没有人身危险性的受虐妇女.对国家、社会、被害人及其子女都有害无益.

  7. "Stick and stones hurt my bones but his glance and words hurt more". The impact of emotional and physical violence by current and former partners in Italian battered women.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baldry, A.C.

    2004-01-01

    Domestic violence causes short- and long-term negative consequences, both physical (e.g., bodily injury) and psychological (e.g., depression, anxiety, low self-esteem, and symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder). It is possible that these negative consequences vary according to the type of viole

  8. "Stick and stones hurt my bones but his glance and words hurt more". The impact of emotional and physical violence by current and former partners in Italian battered women.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baldry, A.C.

    2003-01-01

    Domestic violence causes short- and long-term negative consequences, both physical (e.g., bodily injury) and psychological (e.g., depression, anxiety, low self-esteem, and symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder). It is possible that these negative consequences vary according to the type of viole

  9. Crònica d'un equívoc: la construcció d'una identitat femenina en les notícies sobre maltractaments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eulàlia Lledó

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the construction of a determined and stereotypical female identity in the news on battered women. Form and content of news are analysed to draw how women are represented in written news and reports on battered women and gender violence: how women are valued. This research on battered women is based upon an exhaustive examination of news, reports and articles on gender violence which appeared for a year and a half in the main Spanish newspapers.

  10. Heart Disease in Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... United States, 1 in 4 women dies from heart disease. The most common cause of heart disease in both men and women is narrowing or ... It's the major reason people have heart attacks. Heart diseases that affect women more than men include Coronary ...

  11. Women in Technical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Mary L.

    Perhaps the most significant challenge of the 1970's will be the effect the women's rights movement will have on the nation's established institutions and the extent to which the nation responds to the call of women for equal opportunities. Social pressures and expectations have been, until recently, such that women simply have not opted for jobs…

  12. Women in Information Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wentling, Rose Mary; Thomas, Steven P.

    2004-01-01

    There is a major concern about the drop of young women entering Computer Science degree programs and a drop in the participation of women in these information technology occupations. In all levels of educational institutions across the nation, girls and women remain under-represented in computer and information science studies and subsequently,…

  13. Women and Diabetes

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Skip to common links HHS U.S. Department of Health and Human Services U.S. Food and Drug Administration ... Consumers Consumer Information by Audience For Women Women's Health Topics Women and Diabetes Share Tweet Linkedin Pin ...

  14. Workplace Safety and Women

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-05-11

    This women's health podcast focuses on four important issues for women at work: job stress, work schedules, reproductive health, and workplace violence.  Created: 5/11/2009 by Office of Women's Health (OWH) and National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH).   Date Released: 5/11/2009.

  15. Longevity of Women Superintendents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethna, Kim C.

    2014-01-01

    Public schools are facing a leadership crisis regarding the lack of women superintendents in the United States. Although, historically, women have dominated the positions of classroom teachers and outnumbered men in receiving administrative leadership certificates, there is a disproportion in the number of men and women superintendents leading the…

  16. Women of California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Harry

    This publication points out the achievements of women who contributed to the development and history of California from the 16th century, when the Spanish Conquistadores moved westward into the San Francisco Bay area, to the gold rush of 1848, and during the following period when women helped stabilize society on the rugged frontier. Women not…

  17. Four Women Bank Directors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    FOUR of the five directors of state banks in Beihai City in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region are women. These women show that women are no longer only able to manage family finance, but they are able to take charge of the important responsibility for state finance. The mayor of Beihai City calls them the city’s outstanding financial affairs managers.

  18. Feminism and Black Women's Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooks, Bell

    1989-01-01

    Women's studies programs have largely ignored Black women. Until Black women's studies courses are developed, feminist scholarship on Black women will not advance, and the contributions of Black women to women's rights movements and African American literature and scholarship may be neglected. (DM)

  19. Women in Latin American History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavrin, Asuncion

    1981-01-01

    Presents a bibliography and suggests a number of topics around which a college level history course on Latin American women could be organized. Course topics include migration of women, definition of sex roles, legal status of women, women's work and society, feminism, politics, religion, women and the family, and women's education and…

  20. Women residents, women physicians and medicine's future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, Karen

    2007-08-01

    The number of women in medicine has increased dramatically in the last few decades, and women now represent half of all incoming medical students. Yet residency training still resembles the historical model when there were few women in medicine. This article reviews the issues facing women in residency today. Data suggest that the experience of female residents is more negative than that of males. Unique challenges facing female residents include the existence of gender bias and sexual harassment, a scarcity of female mentors in leadership positions, and work/family conflicts. Further research is needed to understand the experience of female residents and to identify barriers that hinder their optimal professional and personal development. Structural and cultural changes to residency programs are needed to better accommodate the needs of female trainees.

  1. Women scientists joining Rokkasho women to sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aratani, Michi [Office of Regional Collaboration, Institute for Environmental Sciences, Rokkasho, Aomori (Japan); Sasagawa, Sumiko

    1999-09-01

    Women scientists generally play a great role in the public acceptance (PA) for the national policy of atomic energy developing in Japan. The reason may be that, when a woman scientist stands in the presence of women audience, she will be ready to be accepted by them as a person with the same gender, emotion and thought to themselves. A case of interchange between the Rokkasho women and the women scientists either resident at the nuclear site of Rokkasho or staying for a short time at Rokkasho by invitation has been described from the viewpoint of PA for the national policy of atomic energy developing, and more fundamentally, for promotion of science education. (author)

  2. Health screening - women - over age 65

    Science.gov (United States)

    Health maintenance visit - women - over age 65; Physical exam - women - over age 65; Yearly exam - women - over age 65; Checkup - women - over age 65; Women's health - over age 65; Preventive care exam - women - over ...

  3. Gestational Diabetes and Women

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-05-12

    This women's health podcast focuses on gestational diabetes (GDM) to help educate women who may have been diagnosed with GDM now or in the past. GDM is a condition that can lead to pregnancy complications.  Created: 5/12/2009 by Office of Women’s Health (OWH) and National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 5/12/2009.

  4. Chinese Women Laborers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    FOR the last three years I have been working on two big projects about women around the world. One is Mothers of the World, and the other one is Working Women of the World. So I travel to different parts of the world to meet Women and photograph them. I knew from the start that I would be able to see China only very superficially, because there was no way I could spend more than two to three weeks there. I therefore

  5. Organization Champions Menopausal Women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JANE SHAW

    1994-01-01

    CURRENTLY, the ageing of the population has created problems for a developing China. Jiangsu is one of the provinces that has encountered these problems, where the average lifespan for women is 73. Women aged 40 to 55 who are going through menopause account for about 8 percent of Jiangsu’s total population. Whether this group is able to live a healthy life during menopause or not decides whether the women are healthy and happy and influences the rest of society.

  6. Chlamydia and Women

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-04-02

    This women's health podcast focuses on chlamydia, its severe health consequences for women if left untreated, and the importance of annual chlamydia screening.  Created: 4/2/2009 by Office of Women’s Health (OWH) and National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 4/2/2009.

  7. Obesity and Women

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-05-11

    This women's health podcast focuses on obesity in women and girls. It discusses obesity-related health risks and includes tips to help achieve and maintain a healthy weight.  Created: 5/11/2009 by Office of Women’s Health (OWH) and National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 5/11/2009.

  8. WOMEN IN FAMILY BUSINESS

    OpenAIRE

    Anshu,

    2012-01-01

    The role of women in family businesses is explored in the paper. Although recognized as generally very important players, the role of women is often defined as invisible in business decision-making, supportive in men’s traditional business domains and only rarelyadequately recognized and rewarded. The paper explores possible differences in the views of men and women who manage small family firms. Their attitudes opposing the traditional business roles ofwomen, different views on managerial, o...

  9. Rediscovering Women Mathematicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rappaport, Karen D.

    The lives and mathematical contributions of seven famous women mathematicians are presented. They are: Hypatia, Agnesi, Sophie Germain, Mary Sommerville, Augusta Lovelace, Sofya Kovalevsky, and Emmy Noether. (MP)

  10. Venous thromboembolism in women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Group, ESHRE Capri Workshop; Skouby, Sven Olaf

    2013-01-01

    is associated with an inherited thrombophilia in men and women. Changes in the coagulation system and in the risk of clinical VTE in women also occur during pregnancy, with the use of reproductive hormones and as a consequence of ovarian stimulation when hyperstimulation syndrome and conception occur together...... therapy (HRT) increases the VTE risk 2- to 4-fold. There is a synergistic effect between thrombophilia and the various reproductive risks. Prevention of VTE during pregnancy should be offered to women with specific risk factors. In women who are at high risk, CHC and HRT should be avoided. CONCLUSIONS...

  11. Women in service uniforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Karaszewska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the problems of women who work in the uniformed services with the particular emphasis on the performing of the occupation of the prison service. It presents the legal issues relating to equal treatment of men and women in the workplace, formal factors influencing their employment, the status of women in prison, and the problems of their conducting in the professional role. The article also presents the results of research conducted in Poland and all over the world, on the functioning of women in prison and their relations with officers of the Prison Service, as well as with inmates.

  12. Spring of women?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Castillo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Terms such as “Islamic feminism” and “women’s movement” refer to those social movements of women that seek to assert their rights in Islamic societies. This brief study focuses on theses social movements of women and will presentan overview of the role and participation of women in the Arab Spring by examining news, events, press articles and opinions in order to contextualize the participation of women and feminists in the Arab Spring from a perspective of the social networking phenomenon as apparent drivers of the revolution.

  13. Womens Business Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    Small Business Administration — Women's Business Centers (WBCs) represent a national network of nearly 100 educational centers throughout the United States and its territories, which are designed...

  14. Women and Advertising

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    The Platform for Action adopted at the United Nations Fourth World Conference On Women acknowledges the media’s role in eliminating sexual discrimination and promoting women’s development.It lists women and media as one of the ten fields that require strategic targeting and action.

  15. Women and Heart Disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹国如

    2005-01-01

    Heart disease is the leading killer of Americans. But it kills more women than men. The American Heart Association says heart disease and other cardiovascular (心血管的) disorders kill about five hundred thousand women a year. That is more than the next seven causes of death combined.

  16. Cancer and Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z # ... CDC.gov . Cancer Home Kinds of Cancer Bladder Breast Cervical Colorectal (Colon) Head and Neck Kidney Leukemia ... Anxiety and Depression Medicine Use Among Cancer Survivors Breast Cancer Rates Among Black Women and White Women ...

  17. Shattering women's glass ceiling

    OpenAIRE

    Camilleri Podesta, Marie Therese; Duca, Edward

    2013-01-01

    The role of women in academia has always greatly interested me. Several years ago, when I was asked to become Gender Issues Committee chairperson at the University of Malta, I readily accepted. http://www.um.edu.mt/think/shattering-womens-glass-ceiling/

  18. Androgenetic alopecia in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Vera H

    2003-06-01

    Androgenetic alopecia (AGA), also known in women as female pattern hair loss, is caused by androgens in genetically susceptible women and men. The thinning begins between ages 12 and 40 years, the inheritance pattern is polygenic, and the incidence is the same as in men. In susceptible hair follicles, dihydrotestosterone binds to the androgen receptor, and the hormone-receptor complex activates the genes responsible for the gradual transformation of large terminal follicles to miniaturized follicles. Both young women and young men with AGA have higher levels of 5alpha reductase and androgen receptor in frontal hair follicles compared to occipital follicles. At the same time, young women have much higher levels of cytochrome p-450 aromatase in frontal follicles than men who have minimal aromatase, and women have even higher aromatase levels in occipital follicles. The diagnosis of AGA in women is supported by early age of onset, the pattern of increased thinning over the frontal/parietal scalp with greater density over the occipital scalp, retention of the frontal hairline, and the presence of miniaturized hairs. Most women with AGA have normal menses and pregnancies. Extensive hormonal testing is usually not needed unless symptoms and signs of androgen excess are present such as hirsutism, severe unresponsive cystic acne, virilization, or galactorrhea. Topical minoxidil solution is the only drug available for promoting hair growth in women with AGA. Efficacy has been shown in double-blind studies using hair counts and hair weight.

  19. Professional Women and Marriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Suzanne M.; Kalish, Richard A.

    1984-01-01

    Explored the phenomenon of late marriage in 41 highly educated professional women. Compared with normative marriers, the late-marrying women had higher career goals, a more egalitarian role structure in marriage, and were more accepting of premarital sex and cohabitation. Factors associated with family backgrounds were identified. (JAC)

  20. Women and Computer Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breene, L. Anne

    1992-01-01

    Discusses issues concerning women in computer science education, and in the workplace, and sex bias in the computer science curriculum. Concludes that computing environment has not improved for women over last 20 years. Warns that, although number of white males entering college is declining, need for scientists and engineers is not. (NB)

  1. Entrepreneurs: Women and Minorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akers, Lilialyce

    A program was designed to meet the needs of Kentucky women who wished to supplement their incomes by producing articles in their homes for sale. Its three-phase objective was to identify women who already had knitting skills and train them to produce a finished product; to provide basic knowledge about how to run a small business; and to provide…

  2. Oral Health and Women

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-05-12

    This women's health podcast focuses on the importance of maintaining good oral health during pregnancy.  Created: 5/12/2009 by Office of Women’s Health (OWH) and National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 5/12/2009.

  3. African Women Writing Resistance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jennifer Browdy de Hernandez; Pauline Dongala; Omotayo; Jolaosho; Anne Serafin

    2011-01-01

    AFRICAN Women Writing Resistance is the first transnational anthology to focus on women's strategies of resistance to the challenges they face in Africa today.The anthology brings together personal narratives,testimony,interviews,short stories,poetry,performance scripts,folktales and lyrics.

  4. Women and Law

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    WOMEN’S rights concern the world over. Even though China has a different legal tradition and social system, participants from the Beijing Sino-British Women and Law Symposium discovered that both Chinese and foreign scholars could reach agreement and understanding on many issues. Enacting Laws for Women Professor Yang Dawen, from the

  5. Chinese Women in Politics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    According to international research only when the percentage of women with decision-making power reaches 30 percent can their effect on policy making be seen. In 1994, women accounted for an average of 5.7 percent of state cabinet seats throughout the world. Authoritative thinking is that in the past decade almost no progress was made in realizing the 30

  6. Vietnamese women at solidarity meeting of world women in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    This article summarizes experiences of a Vietnamese delegation at a solidarity meeting of world women during April 13-16, 1998, in Cuba. The President of the Viet Nam Women's Union headed the delegation. The advisor was the vice-chairperson of the Vietnamese National Assembly. The delegation participated in 6 forums: women and sustainable economic development; women, health, education, and social security; women, communication and the mass media; women in politics and decision-making; women, violence and discrimination; and national independence, sovereignty, peace, and women. The delegation also participated in sessions on women's issues; implementation issues; women parliamentarians; and migrant and displaced women. The delegation met with delegates from other countries and participated in a world meeting and an Asian-Pacific meeting to support Cuban women. The entire delegation presented a stage show of songs, which was well received by the 3000 participants. The delegation met with Cuban delegates to discuss the formation of women's groups and to build better relations between the women of both countries. The delegation visited a training center of women cadres and the center for gender education. Participants adopted the Havana Declaration, which states the intention of world women to eradicate poverty and war and to promote peace, progress, and happiness in all countries. The Havana Declaration condemned the US embargo against Cuba. Fidel Castro spoke and expressed gratitude for the strong support from world women, especially Vietnamese women.

  7. Injuries in women's basketball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trojian, Thomas H; Ragle, Rosemary B

    2008-03-01

    Women's basketball has changed over time. It is a faster paced game than it was 30 years ago. Greatplayers, like Anne Meyers,who was the first, and only, woman to be signed to an NBA contract, would agree today's game is different. The game is played mostly "below the rim" but with players like Candice Parker, Sylvia Fowles and Maya Moore able to dunk the ball, the game is still changing. The one thing that remains constant in basketball, especially women's basketball, is injury. The majority of injuries in women's basketball are similar to those in men's basketball. Studies at the high school and college level show similar injury rates between women and men. ACL injuries are one exception, with female athletes having atwo to four times higher rate ofACL injuries. In this article, we review the common injuries in women's basketball. We discuss treatment issues and possible preventive measures.

  8. Gay and bisexual male domestic violence victimization: challenges to feminist theory and responses to violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letellier, P

    1994-01-01

    This article demonstrates how same-sex male battering challenges contemporary feminist domestic violence theory. The author shows current theory to be heterosexist and therefore insufficient to explain the phenomenon of battering among gay/bisexual men. Domestic violence theories that integrate a sociopolitical and a psychological analysis of battering are presented as more inclusive of same-sex domestic violence. Differences between battered gay/bisexual men and battered women are illustrated, focusing on how these men conceptualize and respond to violence against them. The author also examines the social context of homophobia in which same-sex battering occurs; the impact of AIDS on gay/bisexual men as it pertains to battering; the misconception of "mutual combat"; and the difficulty of seeking help. The article highlights the need for empirical research on same-sex male battering.

  9. Financial Literacy Education for Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarecke, Jodi; Taylor, Edward W.; Hira, Tahira K.

    2014-01-01

    Exploring the pedagogical approaches of four women's financial literacy education programs, this chapter provides an overview of trends and needs in financial education for women and offers pedagogical strategies for teaching women about finance.

  10. Women and Diabetes -- Diabetes Medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Audience For Women Women's Health Topics Women and Diabetes - Diabetes Medicines Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... 1-800-332-1088 to request a form. Diabetes Medicines The different kinds of diabetes medicines are ...

  11. Women's Status on the Rise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU YUNYUN

    2010-01-01

    @@ On the afternoon of March 8,Beijing's department stores and shopping malls were crowded with women on shopping sprees to celebrate International Women's Day.This year marks the 100th anniversary of the establishment of International Women's Day.

  12. HIV in women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulcahy F

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Globally over 50% of HIV-infected individuals are women. With the widespread use of HAART, we can expect women to have mortality rates approaching normal. Indeed, studies have shown that women may expect a slower disease progression than men following seroconversion; furthermore, it appears that female who injects drugs can live longer than their male counterparts. However, other studies from cohort analysis have reported worse outcomes in women. In essence, many studies are consistently underpowered to adequately address these questions. The proportion of women in clinical trials remains at 20 to 30%, with pregnancy potential being a major exclusion factor. Hence, many questions remain unanswered. Recent data suggest women are more likely to present late with a new AIDS diagnosis. Why this should be the case is not well understood. In addition, HIV-positive women should have the same access to reproduction health as their negative counterparts, but unfortunately many inequalities remain. Advise on contraception and fertility services are very variable across both the developed and developing world. Data are limited on the most appropriate use of contraceptives in the presence of HAART, the possible drug interactions and possible increased risk of HIV transmission. There remain significant differences in guidelines regarding prevention of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT across Europe, and implications of stopping and starting HAART for MTCT have not been adequately addressed. The mode of timing of delivery, and the effect of length of time of ruptured membranes on this decision is also contentious. Further issues relate to the desire for HIV-positive women to breastfeed in the setting of HIV viral suppression, where some guidelines now support women in this situation and others categorically would inform child protection authorities. Finally as women age it is more difficult to separate the effect of the menopause and its symptoms from the

  13. Do women lack ambition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fels, Anna

    2004-04-01

    For men, ambition is considered a necessary and desirable part of life. Most women, however, associate ambition with egotism, self-aggrandizement, or manipulation. Getting to the bottom of why this is so required study of what ambition consists of--for both sexes. In childhood, the research uncovered, girls are clear about their ambitions. Their goals are grand, and they make no apologies for them. In nearly all childhood ambitions, two distinct factors are in place: the mastery of a special skill, and recognition for it. And what's true in childhood is no less true in later life: We all want our efforts and accomplishments acknowledged. Yet there are dramatic differences in how women and men create, reconfigure, and realize (or abandon) their goals. Most women are demure when praised for their achievements. One could chalk up this behavior to women's innate modesty or see it as a passive way of highlighting their accomplishments. But the fear of recognition that many women express suggests otherwise. Research has shown that such behavior varies according to social context: Women more openly seek and compete for affirmation when they are with other women, but they behave differently when competing with men. The underlying problem has to do with cultural ideals of femininity. Women face the reality that to appear feminine, they must provide or relinquish scarce resources to others--and recognition is indeed a scarce resource. Although women have more opportunities than ever before, they still come under social scrutiny that makes hard choices--such as when and whether to start a family or advance in the workplace--even harder. There are no easy solutions, but there are ways women can hold fast to their dreams. They must band together, learn to blow their own horns, and structure their lives in a way that promotes recognition.

  14. SEXUAL ASSAULT ON WOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dara Durga

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Our India is a vast nation with rich cultural heritage and social diversity. We have been respecting women in the highest form as Goddesses since ages. There have been several laws to protect women from many centuries in this ancient country. Yet our country is still facing difficulties in achieving women safety. And the situation is no different in the rest of the world. The prevailing situation, laws and suggestions to prevent atrocities were discussed. AIM: The current situations of women hardships around the world were mentioned. The current legal situation and recent legal changes were described. The mammoth task ahead of us to achieve the desired social objective of women safety and respect were discussed. MATERIAL & METHODS: various news articles, police journals, legal textbooks and forensic medicine text books. CONCLUSION: Many things were done to prevent sexual assaults on women, yet the true goal is still a mirage. It’s time to look into the issue from its true grass root levels, i.e., from the psycho-social view apart from legal measures, to achieve the much desired objective of prevention of sexual assaults on women.

  15. WOMEN IN FAMILY BUSINESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr Anshu

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The role of women in family businesses is explored in the paper. Although recognized as generally very important players, the role of women is often defined as invisible in business decision-making, supportive in men’s traditional business domains and only rarelyadequately recognized and rewarded. The paper explores possible differences in the views of men and women who manage small family firms. Their attitudes opposing the traditional business roles ofwomen, different views on managerial, ownership and transition issues and possible gender discrimination are examined. The findings support the paradigm of a different, more feminine style of management, while signs of discrimination are not clearly revealed. This paper is based on a research intended to provide acomparative analysis of the status of women entrepreneurs and men entrepreneurs in Family Business in India. It first draws demographic & psychographic profiles of women and men entrepreneurs in family business, identifies & addresses operational problems faced by women and men entrepreneurs in family business, draws theirinclination for future plans for growth and expansion and also for the furtherance of research on women entrepreneurs in India.

  16. Smoking and women's health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seltzer, V

    2000-07-01

    Each year more than 600000 women have deaths associated with cigarette smoking. In addition, cigarette smoking is associated with a wide array of morbidities (such as osteoporosis, cardiovascular disease, and adverse pregnancy outcomes). Two hundred million women smoke worldwide, and this number appears to be rising, particularly in developing countries. Obstetrician-gynecologists can play a role in reducing morbidity and mortality from cigarette smoking by educating women about the dangers, advising them not to smoke, and assisting those who do smoke to quit.

  17. Hereditary angioedema in women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bouillet Laurence

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Women with hereditary angioedema (HAE are more likely to be symptomatic that men. Hormonal factors (puberty, contraception, pregnancy,.... play a significant role in the precipitation or worsening of the condition in women. So, combined contraceptive pills are not indicated and progestogen pill must be preferred. During pregnancy, attack rate can increase (38-48% of women. C1Inhibitor concentrate and tranexamic acid can be used during pregnancy. Attenuated androgens for long term prophylaxis are effective but side effects appear more often in female patients. These side effects are dose dependant and can be attenuated by titrating the dose down the lowest effective level.

  18. Migraine in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lay, Christine L; Broner, Susan W

    2009-05-01

    Of the nearly 32 million Americans with migraine, 24 million are women. It is a disorder affecting women throughout their lifetimes, from childhood and puberty through the postmenopausal years. In childhood, before puberty girls are afflicted with migraine at approximately the same rate as boys, but after puberty, there is an emerging female predominance. Estrogen plays a key role in this epidemiologic variation but is not the only factor. There are numerous times when hormonal influences have an impact on migraine and its pattern, including menarche, oral contraceptive use, pregnancy, perimenopause, and menopause. Hence practitioners treating women with migraine need to have a clear understanding of these special considerations.

  19. Women in extreme poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Population is estimated to increase from 5.5 billion in 1990 to 10 billion by 2050; the poverty level is expected to increase from 1 billion to 2-3 billion people. Women in development has been promoted throughout the UN and development system, but women in poverty who perform work in the informal sector are still uncounted, and solutions are elusive. The issue of extreme poverty can not be approached as just another natural disaster with immediate emergency relief. Many people live in precarious economic circumstances throughout their lives. Recent research reveals a greater understanding of the underlying causes and the need for inclusion of poor women in sustainable development. Sanitation, water, housing, health facilities need to be improved. Women must have access to education, opportunities for trading, and loans on reasonable terms. UNESCO makes available a book on survival strategies for poor women in the informal sector. The profile shows common problems of illiteracy, broken marriages, and full time involvement in provision of subsistence level existence. Existence is a fragile balance. Jeanne Vickers' "Women and the World" offers simple, low cost interventions for aiding extremely poor women. The 1992 Commission on the Status of Women was held in Vienna. Excerpts from several speeches are provided. The emphasis is on some global responses and an analysis of solutions. The recommendation is for attention to the gender dimension of poverty. Women's dual role contributes to greater disadvantages. Women are affected differently by macroeconomic factors, and that there is intergenerational transfer of poverty. Social services should be viewed as investments and directed to easing the burdens on time and energy. Public programs must be equipped to deal with poverty and to bring about social and economic change. Programs must be aware of the different distribution of resources within households. Women must be recognized as principal economic providers within

  20. Ten Outstanding Women Chosen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    BEFORE the celebration of the 85th anniversary of International Women’s Day, the All-China Women’s Federation sponsored an activity to choose ten outstanding Chinese women, which involved the Ministries of Labor and Personnel, the General Political Department of the People’s Liberation Army, the All-China Federation of Trade Union, the Youth League of China, the China Association of Science and about a dozen Chinese news agencies. The results were recently announced, and including following women: Yue Xicui, one of the third generation of women aviators. Since she joined the air force she has accumulated 5,180 hours

  1. The Right for Women--After Professions for women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑文莉

    2000-01-01

    Woolfwas a flag of right fighter for women. Women fight for their rights genaration after genaration and devote themselves in different professions like men. It was proved that women can do every thing as they are willing ,women can creat many outstanding achievements in their professional life.

  2. Health screening - women - ages 40 to 64

    Science.gov (United States)

    Health maintenance visit - women - ages 40 to 64; Physical exam - women - ages 40 to 64; Yearly exam - ... 64; Checkup - women - ages 40 to 64; Women's health - ages 40 to 64; Preventive care - women - ages ...

  3. Health screening - women - ages 18 to 39

    Science.gov (United States)

    Health maintenance visit - women - ages 18 to 39; Physical exam - women - ages 18 to 39; Yearly exam - ... 39; Checkup - women - ages 18 to 39; Women's health - ages 18 to 39; Preventive care - women - ages ...

  4. Violence against Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... These forms of violence can lead to depression, post-traumatic stress and other anxiety disorders, sleep difficulties, eating disorders, and suicide attempts. The same study found that women who ...

  5. Heart disease and women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007188.htm Heart disease and women To use the sharing features on ... please enable JavaScript. People often DO NOT consider heart disease a woman's disease. Yet cardiovascular disease is the ...

  6. Women and Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Women and Cholesterol Updated:Apr 1,2016 The female sex hormone ... 2014. Related Sites Nutrition Center My Life Check Cholesterol • Home • About Cholesterol • Why Cholesterol Matters • Understand Your ...

  7. Women and Mice

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is an advertisement for Dr. Pierce's "Favorite Prescription," which he developed in the 1880's to relieve women of nervous symptoms caused by disease of the...

  8. Conservation among Elderly Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughston, George A.; Protinsky, Howard O.

    1979-01-01

    The majority of 63 elderly women were able to pass tests in the conservation of mass (98 percent), volume (100 percent), and surface area (65 percent). These results conflict with previous research about Piagetian abilities of elderly people. (RL)

  9. Sexual Dysfunction in Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your sex life. Certain medicines (such as oral contraceptives and chemotherapy drugs), diseases (such as diabetes or ... have heard that taking sildenafil (Viagra) or the male hormone testosterone can help women with sexual problems. ...

  10. Women's Health Insurance Coverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... adopted policies that specifically placed women at a disadvantage, either by charging them higher premiums than men ... SOURCE: Kaiser Family Foundation analysis of 2016 ASEC Supplement to the Current Population Survey, U.S. Census Bureau. ...

  11. Women and Diabetes

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... awareness about diverse women of different ages, races, ethnic backgrounds, and health conditions participating in clinical trials. ... FEAR Act Site Map Nondiscrimination Website Policies U.S. Food and Drug Administration 10903 New Hampshire Avenue Silver ...

  12. Women, Men, and Machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Form, William; McMillen, David Byron

    1983-01-01

    Data from the first national study of technological change show that proportionately more women than men operate machines, are more exposed to machines that have alienating effects, and suffer more from the negative effects of technological change. (Author/SSH)

  13. Democracy and Women's Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalil Safaei

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available New research on broader determinants of health has culminated into the new paradigm of social determinants of health. The fundamental view that underlies this new paradigm is that socioeconomic and political contexts in which people live have significant bearing upon their health and well-being. Unlike a wealth of research on socioeconomic determinants, few studies have focused on the role of political factors. Some of these studies examine the role of political determinants on health through their mediation with the labour environments and systems of welfare state. A few others study the relationship between polity regimes and population health more directly.However, none of them have a focus on women's health.This study explores the interactions, both direct and indirect, between democracy and women's health. In doing so, it identifies some of the main health vulnerabilities for women and explains, through a conceptual model, how democracy and respect for human rights interacts with women's health.

  14. Sexual Health (Women)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gift today will help us get closer to curing diabetes and better treatments for those living with ... you can still get pregnant. Most birth control methods are safe for women with diabetes. Talk with ...

  15. Mostly Women and Leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron, Daniel D.

    1996-01-01

    Discusses educational leadership and women with a focus on roles, characteristics, stereotypes, and change. Describes some sources that deal with this topic, including an article, a study, two books, and some websites. (AEF)

  16. Women and Diabetes

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... How to Report Problems with Glucose Meters Diabetes Treatments Some people with diabetes need to take diabetes ... with your health care provider about your diabetes treatment. Diabetes Medicines - easy-to-read booklet for women ...

  17. Drum Performance Tnvolues Women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    DRUM teams from along the Yellow River are known not only in China but by many foreign friends. Recently women have formed their own teams and their performances have further increased the popularity of this ancient Chinese folk art.

  18. Women Astronomers through History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrosavljevic-Grujic, Lj.

    2008-10-01

    We review the contributions of women to astronomy starting from the antique Greece and Alexandria, and mention briefly some works of nun-scientists in the Middle Ages, which are of interest only for keeping alive the spirit of inquiry during this Dark Age. We discuss in more details important contributions coming after the Scientific Revolution and Enlightenment, made by women working within their families, as assistants to their brothers or husbands. We show that by the late 19th century the role of women in astronomy becomes more independent, with more women working not only as "computers" in the great observatories, but also making important discoveries that placed them in a very high position as scientists at the dawn of 20th century.

  19. Women in Transition

    OpenAIRE

    UNICEF Innocenti Research Centre. MONEE project

    1999-01-01

    The 1999 Central and Eastern Europe and Commonwealth of Independent States Regional Monitoring Report focuses on the experiences of girls and women during the transition, highlighting their role in regional progress and the obstacles they face. The Report covers a broad range of issues, including women’s participation in the emerging market economy and democratic governments, female access to health and education, trends in family formation and violence against women and girls. The Report cal...

  20. Maintaining women's oral health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, A L; Bonci, L

    2001-07-01

    Women must adopt health-promoting strategies for both general health and the oral cavity, because the health of a woman's body and oral cavity are bidirectional. For general health-maintenance strategies, dental practitioners should actively advise women to minimize alcohol use, abstain from or cease smoking, stay physically active, and choose the right foods to nourish both the body and mind. For oral health-maintenance strategies, dental practitioners should advise women on how to prevent or control oral infections, particularly dental caries and periodontal diseases. Specifically, women need to know how to remove plaque from the teeth mechanically, use appropriate chemotherapeutic agents and dentifrices, use oral irrigation, and control halitosis. Dental practitioners also need to stress the importance of regular maintenance visits for disease prevention. Adolescent women are more prone to gingivitis and aphthous ulcers when they begin their menstrual cycles and need advice about cessation of tobacco use, mouth protection during athletic activities, cleaning orthodontic appliances, developing good dietary habits, and avoiding eating disorders. Women in early to middle adulthood may be pregnant or using oral contraceptives with concomitant changes in oral tissues. Dental practitioners need to advise them how to take care of the oral cavity during these changes and how to promote the health of their infants, including good nutrition. Older women experience the onset of menopause and increased vulnerability to osteoporosis. They may also experience xerostomia and burning mouth syndrome. Dental practitioners need to help women alleviate these symptoms and encourage them to continue good infection control and diet practices.

  1. An Extraordinary Century for Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlach, Jeanne Marcum

    2011-01-01

    "Missing Chapters: Ten Pioneering Women in NCTE and English Education" is the first historical text to explore the impact women have had on English education. It is true that women have been a vital part of National Council of Teachers of English (NCTE) since the Council's founding in 1911 when 13 of the 34 founding members were women. As part of…

  2. Women in Italian astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Matteucci, Francesca

    2014-01-01

    This document gives some quantitative facts about the role of women in Italian astronomy. More than 26% of Italian IAU members are women: this is the largest fraction among the world leading countries in astronomy. Most of this high fraction is due to their presence in INAF, where women make up 32% of the research staff (289 out of 908) and 40% of the technical/administrative staff (173 out of 433); the percentage is slightly lower among permanent research staff (180 out of 599, about 30%). The presence of women is lower in the Universities (27 out of 161, about 17%, among staff). In spite of these (mildly) positive facts, we notice that similarly to other countries (e.g. USA and Germany) career prospects for Italian astronomers are clearly worse for women than for men. Within INAF, the fraction of women is about 35-40% among non-permanent position, 36% for Investigators, 17% for Associato/Primo Ricercatore, and only 13% among Ordinario/Dirigente di Ricerca. The situation is even worse at University (only 6% ...

  3. Women and AIDS: introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieger, N; Margo, G

    1991-01-01

    Around the world, more and more women--principally poor women of color--are being diagnosed with and are dying of AIDS, the acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Yet, effective and appropriate prevention programs for women are sorely missing from the global program to control AIDS. To help us understand why this gap exists, and what we must do to close it, the three articles in this issue focus on women and AIDS. Examining the situation in such countries as Zimbabwe and South Africa, as well as in other economically underdeveloped and developed regions, the authors argue that women with the least control over their bodies and their lives are at greatest risk of acquiring AIDS. For example, the high rate of infection among women in Africa cannot be understood apart from the legacy of colonialism (including land expropriation and the forced introduction of a migrant labor system) and the insidious combination of traditional and European patriarchal values. Only by recognizing the socioeconomic and cultural determinants of both disease and sexual behavior, and only by incorporating these insights into our AIDS prevention programs, will we be able to curb the spread of this lethal disease.

  4. Women Status and their Discrimination

    OpenAIRE

    PEŠKOVÁ, Pavlína

    2008-01-01

    My work deal with women status and their discrimination. Chapter one contains women status in different historical periods and development of their status to bigger equal with men. There is also written about present feminist trends. Chapter two is about women discrimination. There is about women´ job discrimination, job segregation according to gender and inequality in payment. There is also written about women status at home and unequal duties at home among family mates. Chapter three is ab...

  5. The Contemporary Women's Movement and Women's Education in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Ila

    1998-03-01

    The contemporary women's movement in India (1975-present) has played an important role in bringing gender issues to the forefront of development planning and defining feminist politics. This paper examines how this movement has addressed the issue of women's education. The first section highlights contributions of the social reformist movement in the 19th century and the nationalist movement in promoting women's education. The role of the contemporary women's movement in changing school curricula is examined in the second section, followed by discussion on how women's studies has contributed to redefining knowledge. The fourth section discusses women's empowerment and education from the perspective of the women's movement. The article concludes by highlighting challenges facing the women's movement in promoting women's education for equality and empowerment.

  6. Androgens and women's health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redmond, G P

    1998-01-01

    Androgenic disorders are those conditions in women characterized by excessive androgen action. They are the most common endocrinopathy of women, affecting from 10% to 20%. Signs are: persistent acne, hirsutism and androgenic alopecia, which is the female equivalent of male pattern baldness. A subgroup, those traditionally labeled as having polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), additionally have anovulation, as well as menstrual abnormalities and, often, obesity. Although women with androgenic disorders usually present themselves for help with the skin or menstrual changes, there are other important implications regarding their health. Women with PCOS have varying degrees of insulin resistance, and an increased incidence of Type II diabetes mellitus, as well as unfavorable lipid patterns. The presence of these risk factors is suggested by upper segment obesity, darkening of the skin, and the other skin changes that make up acanthosis nigricans. Diagnosis involves measurement of circulating androgens (of which free testosterone is most important), together with prolactin and FSH when menstrual dysfunction is present. Many women with androgenic skin changes have normal serum androgen levels, suggesting increased end organ sensitivity to androgens. Others have hyperandrogenism (of ovarian or adrenal origin). Treatment is usually successful in controlling acne, reducing hirsutism and stabilizing, or partially reversing, androgenic alopecia. Pharmacological approaches involve suppressing androgen levels, for example, the use of an appropriate oral contraceptive, or antagonizing androgen action with several medications that have this activity. Unfortunately, most women with androgenic disorders are frustrated in their efforts to obtain medical help. Understanding androgenic disorders will enable the physician to significantly help the majority of women with these conditions.

  7. [Hypertension in women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagle, Rodrigo; Tagle V, Rodrigo; Acevedo, Mónica; Valdés, Gloria

    2013-02-01

    The present review examines the types of hypertension that women may suffer throughout life, their physiopathological characteristics and management. In early life, the currently used low-dose oral contraceptives seldom cause hypertension. Pregnancy provokes preeclampsia, its main medical complication, secondary to inadequate transformation of the spiral arteries and the subsequent multisystem endothelial damage caused by deportation of placental factors and microparticles. Hypertension in preeclampsia is an epiphenomenon which needs to be controlled at levels that reduce maternal risk without impairing placental perfusion. The hemodynamic changes of pregnancy may unmask a hypertensive phenotype, may exacerbate a chronic hypertension, or may complicate hypertension secondary to lupus, renovascular lesions, and pheochromocytoma. On the other hand a primary aldosteronism may benefit from the effect of progesterone and present as a postpartum hypertension. A hypertensive pregnancy, especially preeclampsia, represents a risk for cardiac, vascular and renal disease in later life. Menopause may mimic a pheochromocytoma, and is associated to endothelial dysfunction and salt-sensitivity. Among women, non-pharmacological treatment should be forcefully advocated, except for sodium restriction during pregnancy. The blockade of the renin-angiotensin system should be avoided in women at risk of pregnancy; betablockers could be used with precautions during pregnancy; diuretics, ACE inhibitors and angiotensin receptor antagonists should not be used during breast feeding. Collateral effects of antihypertensives, such as hyponatremia, cough and edema are more common in women. Thus, hypertension in women should be managed according to the different life stages.

  8. Contraception in Obese Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merki Feld G

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Today obesity is an epidemic. Within Europe the prevalence of obesity is 20–30% with a tendency to increase further. Obesity is associated with severe complications like diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease increased risk for venous thromboembolism (VTE and metabolic syndrome. Especially availability of efficient methods which do not further enhance the cardiovascular and thromboembolic risk in obese women is an important point. Using contraception to prevent unwanted pregnancies is recommended to all women whatever their weight, as it reduces the risks of unplanned pregnancy, which is higher in women with overweight. Progestin-only contraceptives and IUDs have no or minimal metabolic effects and are first choices options, also it has to be taken in account that oral progestins and the implant might have lower efficacy in very obese women. CHC are associated with a higher risk for VTE in obese women,but should be used if other methods are not acceptable. A long-cycle or use of preparations with 30 mcg EE can contribute to improve efficacy.

  9. Women Physicists in Academia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrah, Nora

    2010-02-01

    The last decade marked the emergence of several important studies and workshops worldwide that focused attention on women in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM). The Committee on the Status of Women in Physics (CSWP) of the American Physical Society (APS) is very active in organizing national workshops and follow up ``conversations'' with physics departments and national laboratories [1,2] to address the gender gap in the field of physics. The International Union of Pure and Applied Physics (IUPAP) is also very devoted to this issue, and the US is involved by contributing our lesson learned and our plans to increase the number of women in physics. In the US, our goal of doubling the number of women in physics by 2022 is ambitious but could be achieved. I will present the present status on this issue and our plans for the future. [4pt] [1] http://www.aps.org/programs/women/workshops/gender-equity/index.cfm [0pt] [2] Report, ``Gender Equity: Strengthening the Physics Enterprise in Universities and National Laboratories'', 2007. )

  10. [Advances in women's rights].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-06-01

    Colombia's Constitutional Court has frequently dealt with the theme of women's rights in its pursuit of the inalienable human rights recognized in the Colombian Constitution of 1991. Equality remains a goal, as inequalities persist. The Constitutional proposal to end the historic situation of inferiority suffered by women authorizes the adoption of positive measures to correct de facto inequalities, compensate past abuses, and promote true economic and social equality. The Court has decried the invisibility and lack of social and economic recognition of domestic work. It has declared that the right to health carries the right to medical protection of reproduction and to necessary treatment. The reproductive autonomy of women has been supported with the declaration that prison regulations cannot impose the requirement to control fertility as a condition of conjugal visits, because it constitutes an arbitrary intrusion into private life and a disregard of the social functions of motherhood. The Court has also ordered the reintegration of pregnant adolescents expelled from educational establishments. It has ordered immediate protection for women suffering from aggression and abuse at the hands of their husbands or partners. These pronouncements are unprecedented in Colombian jurisprudence. The high court merits recognition by women, whose basic rights it has begun to protect.

  11. Celebrating women in physics

    CERN Multimedia

    Rolf Heuer

    2010-01-01

    Next Monday the 8th of March is International Women’s Day. In an ideal world, there would be no need for such an event – equality would be taken as read. But since the world is not there yet, let’s take the opportunity to celebrate women in physics, and indeed the full cultural diversity of our field. Perceived as a discipline dominated by men, reality has been diverging from that perception for a long time. Today at CERN, women play key roles in every aspect of the Organization’s activities.   On Women’s Day, we will be sending a clear message to all young women interested in science and engineering that this is also a field for them. In the CERN Control Centre, half of the Engineers-in-Charge who take responsibility for operating the world’s most powerful particle accelerator are women. In the experiments, in all CERN departments and in the management, women are increasingly represented. That’s because at CERN, and in particl...

  12. Working Women: Indian Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dharmendra MEHTA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In India, due to unprecedented rise in the cost of living, ris-ing prices of commodities, growing expenses on children ed-ucation, huge rate of unemployment, and increasing cost of housing properties compel every Indian family to explore all the possible ways and means to increase the household income. It is also witnessed that after globalization Indian women are able to get more jobs but the work they get is more casual in nature or is the one that men do not prefer to do or is left by them to move to higher or better jobs. Working women refers to those in paid employment. They work as lawyers, nurses, doctors, teachers and secretaries etc. There is no profession today where women are not employed. University of Oxford’s Professor Linda Scott recently coined the term the Double X Economy to describe the global economy of women. The present paper makes an attempt to discuss issues and challenges that are being faced by Indian working women at their respective workstations.

  13. Sleep in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigeta, Sônia Maria Garcia; Hachul, Helena; Tufik, Sergio; de Oliveira, Eleonora Menicucci

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this study was to identify factors that most influence the perception of sleep quality in postmenopausal women. We used the methodological strategy of the Collective Subject Discourse (CSD), which is based on a theoretical framework of social representations theory. We obtained the data by interviewing 22 postmenopausal Brazilian women who were experiencing insomnia. The women gave accounts of their difficulties with sleep; a variety of dimensions were identified within the data. The onset of sleep disorders might have occurred during childhood or in situations considered to be stressful, and were not necessarily associated with menopause. We found that hormonal alterations occurring during menopause, psychosocial factors, and sleep-breathing disorders triggered occasional sleep disturbances during this time of life. Participants were aware of the consequences of sleep deprivation. In addition, inadequate sleep hygiene habits figured prominently as determinants in the persistence of sleep disturbances.

  14. Violence against women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohra, Neena; Sharma, Indira; Srivastava, Shruti; Bhatia, M S; Chaudhuri, Uday; Parial, Sonia; Sharma, Avdesh; Kataria, Dinesh

    2015-07-01

    Violence against women (VAW) is a major public health problem in the country. The problem is grossly under-reported. A number of factors have been blamed for crimes against women. An inefficient law enforcing machinery has often been targeted for the increasing number of cases being reported. There is little recognition that psychiatric morbidity can perpetuate such crimes. Of late, there appears to a continuous increase in the number of crimes committed against women; especially the very serious ones like gang rapes. The latter have shaken the very conscience of people. Even harsher legislation does not seem to have made any effect. One wonders how this could be possible in a society heading toward high education, economic and technological development. Media has played a pivotal role by highlighting the problem to the masses. The need for the hour is for mental health professionals to take the challenge and present a comprehensive proposal for definite action to prevent all forms of VAW.

  15. [Episiotomy: focusing women's view].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previatti, Jaqueline Fátima; de Souza, Kleyde Ventura

    2007-01-01

    Enough scientific evidences exist for the recommendation of the abolition of the used episiotomia in a liberal way. With objective of identifying the vision of a group of post-partum women in relation to the episiotomy it was done a study of qualitative approach, with the participation of 20 women, in the postpartumn period. It was used for data collection a semi-structured tool applied from April to June, 2004. The results were analyzed based in thematic analysis. The women's ignorance was verified in relation to the episiotomy and on their own body; although, they did not receive information, in any moment that this is a selective intervention, indicating the need of knowledge amplification and of the ransom of the woman's autonomy in the childbirth process and birth.

  16. Women and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, K; Stjernswärd, J; Koroltchouk, V

    1987-01-01

    The primary cause of death in women in the world is cancer. In most developing countries cancer of the cervix is the most prevalent cancer. Breast cancer has this distinction in Latin America and the developed countries of North America, Europe, Australia, and New Zealand. It is also the most prevalent cancer worldwide. The most common cancer in Japan and the Soviet Union is stomach cancer. Effective early detection programs can reduce both breast and cervical cancer mortality and also the degree and duration of treatment required. In Iceland, cervical cancer mortality declined 60% between the periods of 1959-1970 and 1975-1978. Programs consist of mammography, physician breast and self examination, and Pap smear. The sophisticated early detection equipment and techniques are expensive and largely located in urban areas, however, and not accessible to urban poor women and rural women, especially in developing countries. Tobacco smoking attributes to 80-90% of all lung cancer deaths worldwide and 30% of all cancer deaths. Passive smoking increases the risk of lung cancer to 25-35% in nonsmokers who breathe in tobacco smoke. Since smoking rates of women are skyrocketing, health specialists fear that lung cancer will replace cervical and breast cancers as the most common cancer in women worldwide in 20-30 years. Tobacco use also contributes to the high incidence of oral cancer in Southern and South Eastern Asia. For example, in India, incidence of oral cancer in women is 3-7 times higher than in developed countries with the smoking and chewing of tobacco in betel quid contributing. Techniques already exist to prevent 1/3 of all cancers. If cases can be discovered early enough and adequate treatment applied, another 1/3 of the cases can be cured. In those cases where the cancer cannot be cured, drugs can relieve 80-90% of the pain.

  17. Banking on women's spirit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunus, M

    1993-11-01

    An interview with Professor Mummadad Yunus, Managing Director of the Grameen Bank, revealed that he has provided loans to poor women in Bangladesh since 1976 and that the Grameen Bank has continued his work since 1983. The idea behind the banking system is that poor people without traditionally accepted collateral are good credit risks. In 1993, the Grameen Bank had operations in 33,000 out of a possible 68,000 villages in Bangladesh. The operations include 1030 branches and a staff of 12,000 people. 1.6 million people are recipients of loans, of whom 94% are women. The population served is the poorest and has no experience in income generation. Conclusions drawn from this experience are that women are better managers of resources and are more serious entrepreneurs than men and that the benefits of loan programs for the poor go directly to children and households. Women's self-image suffers from negative social conceptions, and one task is to convince women of their value, skills, and possibility of advancement. The bank philosophy rests with the belief that all human beings are a "treasure of potential possibilities." Women are advised to protect their money and marriage and not to sacrifice one for the other. Husbands initially are against money going to wives, but eventually they understand that the family benefits. Over 200,000 loans have been made for the provision of housing. The loan requirement is that the woman must own the land on which the house is built. Husband's have the opportunity to transfer title of the land to the wife. Ownership of land provides security for the wife.

  18. Promoting nutrition in breastfeeding women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Patty R; Pugh, Linda C

    2005-01-01

    Nurses have a vital role in providing nutritional education to breastfeeding women. In this article, the authors discuss the nutritional requirements for breast-feeding women in terms of micronutrients, macronutrients, and minerals. They provide recommendations for women with vegetarian diets and low-income women enrolled in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children program who may have dietary deficiencies, and they present a directed case study to provide an example of how to perform a dietary assessment and the educational support that may be offered by nurses to breastfeeding women.

  19. Images of Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anderberg, Birgitte

    2016-01-01

    the artists radically approptiated the exhibition space as a platform for political confrontation and involvement, while upholding the idea of artistic space as a utopian space. Thus the exhibition addressed the actual social situation of women as well as their position within the representational field.......Images of Women, which took place in Copenhagen in March 1970, at the same time as the first political interventions of the feminist movement, the "Redstockings", was the first feminist art exhibition in Scandinavia. The essay analyses the content of this collaborative project and demonstrates how...

  20. Pride of Uygur Women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    WOMEN of the Uygur nationality are known near and far for their delicate features and good manner. A popular Uygur folk song sings their praises: "Take off the scarf covering your face, Let me look at you. Your rosy cheeks smooth and glowing, Like an apple that ripens in autumn; Your eyebrows arched and fair, Like the new moon in the sky. …." Since China opened its door to the outside world a decade ago, Uygur women have taken an active part in social

  1. Women as Agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Košťál, Jaroslav; Pristed Nielsen, Helene

    2011-01-01

    This part of the project report contain an overview of some quantitative characteristics of the Eurosphere interview data, with a specific view to addressing the two broad research areas ‘where are the women?’ and ‘gendering as a process'. We consider two aspects of whether gender matters...... for the overall research questions of the project: I) women´s position/presence within the organizations, and II) gender differences in attitudes towards key questions in the interview guide....

  2. Women Doctors in 1914

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    THE five women shown here are doctors. Eighty-four years ago, they sat for this photographic portrait. The photo depicts the tasteful combination of East and West. While the photographic studio was decorated in the European style, the women doctors were dressed in traditional Chinese fashion with their hair coiled in Japanese style. We can also see that though the ladies were in vogue for their time, they still displayed shyness facing a male photographer, as most can be observed shifting their eyesight away from the lens.

  3. Social representations of women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Estramiana, José Luis

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Social Representations is one of the most important theories in contemporary social psychology. Since the social psychologist Serge Moscovici developed his theory of social representations to explain how a scientific theory such as the psychoanalysis turns into a common sense knowledge many studies have been done by different social psychologists. The analysis of the social representations of women as represented in myths and popular beliefs is an excellent opportunity to study how this theory can be applied to this representational field. At the same time it makes possible to understand the formation of attitudes towards women

  4. Spain. Women in the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galindo, E; Serrano, N

    1994-08-01

    Spanish women live almost 2 times longer today than did their great grandmothers (60-65 years vs. 35). Contraception is more accessible, resulting in fewer pregnancies and their complications. The National Health Service of Spain provides women and their families medical care. Yet, women's health risks continue. Class, race, and geography result in women having uneven access to medical care. Primary health care services are not a priority as are high- technology hospitals. Women, who already lead a busy life, still care for older people or people with disabilities. Many households have a very limited or no income and depend on welfare benefits or family. There are more women than men who are poor because women, many of whom are single, are raising large families and many live alone. Women are often the victims of violence and of domestic abuse (1993, 86 violent deaths and 200,000 cases of abuse by a partner). Spain has laws that protect women facing divorce and that allow abortion, but men have created the world order. Women suffer daily in a world which does not recognize rape and sexual harassment as war crimes (e.g., former Yugoslavia). In Seville, the Solidarity Network of Women in Black is a pacifist group working to stop violence. They plan on setting up links to publicly denounce and act against all aggression and to institutionalize women's right to full freedom. War is destroying women's lives.

  5. Women and Literacy. Women and World Development Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballara, Marcela

    This book examines the connection between poverty and illiteracy among women in a global context and presents guidelines for developing literacy activities for women. The following topics are covered: defining literacy (negative effects of illiteracy and literacy programs for women); global context (literacy gap, gender disparities, urban/rural…

  6. Grønne skatter batter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikael Skou

    1993-01-01

    Først i de seneste år har miljøafgifter fået en central placering i dansk politik. Men for 20 år siden var miljøafgifter ikke populære. Hverken i Danmark eller i de andre nordiske lande. Det almindelige synspunkt var dengang, at hvis man »satte pris på miljøet«, ville forurenerne blot kunne betal...

  7. Batter Up: Baseball for Children with Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredericks, Dorothy K.; Fredericks, H. D. Bud

    1980-01-01

    The parents of a 13-year-old boy with moderate mental retardation (due to Down's syndrome) describe their experiences with their son's participation in Little League baseball. With much parental coaching and practice, he was able to play on a team with children one year younger and was accepted by players and coaches alike. (PHR)

  8. Mulheres cuidando de mulheres: um estudo sobre a Casa de Apoio Viva Maria, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Women caring for women: a study on the "Viva Maria" shelter, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stela Nazareth Meneghel

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo obter dados a respeito de mulheres vitimizadas que são atendidas em uma casa abrigo governamental denominada "Casa de Apoio Viva Maria", situada na cidade de Porto Alegre. Analisaram-se informações referentes a 110 mulheres que estiveram albergadas na casa durante os últimos dois anos - janeiro de 1996 a junho de 1998. O perfil da clientela mostrou que as mulheres eram jovens - em média, 29 anos; todas de baixa renda; 12% analfabetas, 21% negras, 80% delas com história de violência doméstica freqüente. Além disso, 18% destas mulheres retornaram à relação com o companheiro violento. Foram efetuadas visitas domiciliares a 34 ex-moradoras, convidando-as a participar de uma série de oficinas de avaliação. Um total de 118 pessoas - mães e crianças - integrou os três encontros de avaliação. Durante estes, os pesquisadores estimularam as participantes a expressar suas opiniões, percepções e sentimentos a respeito da experiência vivida na casa abrigo, assim como seus conceitos no tocante à violência. Finalmente, realizou-se um grupo focal com a equipe técnico-administrativa da casa. As trabalhadoras enfatizaram o quanto esse tipo de trabalho tem sido útil para seu desenvolvimento pessoal e auxiliou a modificar suas vidas.This research was conducted in Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, with a sample of battered women selected from a government shelter called the "Casa Viva Maria". We analyzed data on 110 women staying at the shelter during the previous two years (January 1996-June 1998. The profile of the women was as follows: abused women were young (mean age 29 years, all had low socioeconomic status, 12% were illiterate, 21% were black, 80% reported frequent abuse by their partners, and 18% had returned to violent homes. The researchers visited 34 former lodgers from the shelter and invited them to participate in a series of evaluation workshops. A total of 118 persons, including mothers and

  9. Educated women in Syria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sparre, Sara Cathrine Lei

    2008-01-01

    in the work force and thus indirectly questioning the gender ideals of secular Arab nationalism. In Syria too, Islamization has occurred, as is evident from the increased numbers of young muhajabat women, the construction of new mosques and the significant growth in Islamic charity organizations. However...

  10. Giant prolactinomas in women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delgrange, Etienne; Raverot, Gerald; Bex, Marie

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To characterise distinctive clinical features of giant prolactinomas in women. DESIGN: A multicentre, retrospective case series and literature review. METHODS: We collected data from 15 female patients with a pituitary tumour larger than 4 cm and prolactin levels above 1000 μg/l and id......OBJECTIVE: To characterise distinctive clinical features of giant prolactinomas in women. DESIGN: A multicentre, retrospective case series and literature review. METHODS: We collected data from 15 female patients with a pituitary tumour larger than 4 cm and prolactin levels above 1000 μg....../l and identified 19 similar cases from the literature; a gender-based comparison of the frequency and age distribution was obtained from a literature review. RESULTS: The initial PubMed search using the term 'giant prolactinomas' identified 125 patients (13 women) responding to the inclusion criteria. The female...... in only 4/18 patients, and 7/18 patients were resistant to weekly doses ranging from 3.0 to 7.0 mg. CONCLUSION: Giant prolactinomas are rare in women, often resistant to dopamine agonists and seem to be distributed in two age groups, with a larger late-onset peak....

  11. HIV among Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prevention VIH En Español Get Tested Find an HIV testing site near you. Enter ZIP code or city Follow HIV/AIDS CDC HIV CDC HIV/AIDS See RSS | ... Email Updates on HIV Syndicated Content Website Feedback HIV Among Women Format: Select One File [155K] Recommend ...

  12. Hardiness among Elderly Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagnild, Gail; Young, Heather

    Hardiness has been defined as a mediator in life stress and, within the health/illness context, has been conceptualized as a personality characteristic. This study used a descriptive exploratory design to examine the concept of hardiness among elderly women. The Stress, Appraisal, and Coping model developed by Lazarus and Folkman (1986) was the…

  13. Women in Physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Laura M.; O'Fallon, Nancy M.

    This booklet presents information about career opportunities for women in physics. Included are summaries of research areas in physics (optical physics, solid-state physics, materials science, nuclear physics, high-energy physics, astrophysics, cryogenics, plasma physics, biophysics, atmospheric physics) and differences between theory and…

  14. Women at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    To mark International Women's Day on 8 March, the Weekly Bulletin has looked at the careers of six female physicists, engineers and administrators working at CERN. A frequent question on the lips of newcomers to CERN as they take a quick look around them is 'But where are the women?' However, while it's true that the Laboratory has never had a huge number of female personnel, a closer look reveals that there are in fact quite a few around. To mark International Women's Day, the Bulletin has interviewed six women working at CERN to find out how they see the Organization, what they do and what they think about their daily working lives. Creating a link 'Maybe because I grew up during World War II, my parents always taught me to respect people of other nationalities, religions, colour, etc., so one thing I have always appreciated about CERN is that it promotes this tolerance and understanding by giving us the great privilege of working side by side with colleagues from many cultures and walks of life.' Pegg...

  15. What Women Do Better

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    诸葛勤

    1994-01-01

    As any woman can attest, there are some things at which her gender naturally excels. In the past decade,academic research has offered insight into the feminine advantage. The Language Gap. Studies show that, on average, women perform better in all aspects of language usage,says Diane Halpern,a psychology professor and author of Sex Differences in Cognitive Abilities. The differ-

  16. Microneurographic research in women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi eFu

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews microneurograpic research on sympathetic neural control in women under both physiological and pathophysiological conditions across the lifespan. Specifically, the effects of sex, age, race, the menstrual cycle, oral contraceptives, estrogen replacement therapy, and normal pregnancy on neural control of blood pressure in healthy women are reviewed. In addition, sympathetic neural activity during neurally mediated (presyncope, the Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome, obesity, the Polycystic Ovary Syndrome, gestational hypertension and preeclampsia, chronic essential hypertension, heart failure, and myocardial infarction in women are also reviewed briefly. It is suggested that microneurographic studies provide valuable information regarding autonomic circulatory control in women of different ages and in most cases, excessive sympathetic activation is associated with specific medical conditions regardless of age and sex. In some situations, sympathetic inhibition or withdrawal may be the underlying mechanism. Information gained from previous and recent microneurographic studies has significant clinical implications in women’s health, and in some cases could be used to guide therapy if more widely available.

  17. Women in Sport Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Mary Ann; And Others

    1980-01-01

    The philosophy, purpose, grading procedure, and course requirements for the University of Delaware's "Women in Sports" course are set forth. A course outline is provided, along with tips and a resource materials listing for those interested in initiating similar programs. (LH)

  18. The Menba Women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    Gama Qunzong, director of the women’s federation of Lebu District, Cona County, Tibet; Menba nationality women usually wear a woolen gown with a cap and a string of colorful beads. A family enjoying home-made wine. The Menbas usually live in bamboo houses.

  19. Women, Power, and Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuman, Patricia Glass

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the concept of power in the context of women and the library profession, citing views of power by Max Weber, John Kenneth Galbraith, Letty Cottin Pogrebin, and Rosabeth Moss Kantor. Male power and female submission, defining power, organizing for power, and sharing power are highlighted. A 12-item bibliography is included. (EJS)

  20. Women's Sexual Pain Disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Lankveld, Jacques J. D. M.; Granot, Michal; Schultz, Willibrord C. M. Weijmar; Binik, Yitzchak M.; Wesselmann, Ursula; Pukall, Caroline F.; Bohm-Starke, Nina; Achtrari, Chahin

    2010-01-01

    Introduction. Women's sexual pain disorders include dyspareunia and vaginismus and there is need for state-of-the-art information in this area. Aim. To update the scientific evidence published in 2004, from the 2nd International Consultation on Sexual Medicine pertaining to the diagnosis and treatme

  1. Women and sexual problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Images Causes of sexual dysfunction References Miller M. Sexual dysfunction in women. First Consult. Available at: www.clinicalkey.com/#!/content/medical_topic/21-s2.0-1016356?scrollTo=%23top. Elsevier BV. Revised Mar 11, 2014. ... CK. Female sexual function and dysfunction. In: Wein AJ, Kavoussi LR, ...

  2. Women at Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valiant, Sharon

    During the prehistoric era, most advances in society were developed by women. These advances included agriculture, building, weaving, basketry, pottery, woodworking, trading, and domesticating animals. Pottery and basketry allowed for the long-term storage of food and water and permitted humanity to stop living the nomadic life and begin the first…

  3. Inguinal herniorrhaphy in women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay-Nielsen, Morten; Kehlet, Henrik

    2006-01-01

    Inguinal hernias in women are relatively rare, and an outcome in this specific subgroup of hernias has not been documented in the literature. An analysis was performed using data from the prospective recording of 3,696 female inguinal hernia repairs in the national Danish hernia database, in the 5...

  4. Women and Computers: An Introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Ruth; Greber, Lisa

    1990-01-01

    Discusses women's central role in the development of the computer and their present day peripheral position, a progression paralleled in the fields of botany, medical care, and obstetrics. Affirms the importance of computer education to women. (DM)

  5. Employment Age Discrimination on Women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄捧

    2015-01-01

    Employment age discrimination against women is not an unusual phenomenon in China.Through describing the present situation and negative effect of this phenomenon,this paper claims laws are very important weapon to eliminate age discrimination against women.

  6. Osteoporosis and Asian American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... not supported by your browser. Home Osteoporosis Women Osteoporosis and Asian American Women Publication available in: PDF ( ... Are Available? Resources For Your Information What Is Osteoporosis? Osteoporosis is a condition in which the bones ...

  7. The Dress of Tu Women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    Women of the Tu ethnicity, who live on the highlands in northwest China, wear bright and colorful dresses. The married women favor shirts with sleeves decorated in a rainbow of colored flowers: yellow, green, blue, red, purple, black

  8. Women and insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Ellen Hirschman

    2004-01-01

    The occurrence of insomnia in women is influenced in great part by the complex hormonal cycles they undergo. Patterns of insomnia in younger women may be physiologically different on a hormonal basis from those found in older women. Although significant objective sleep disturbances have been difficult to demonstrate across the menstrual cycle in normal women, the International Classification of Sleep Disorders (ICSD) includes premenstrual insomnia and premenstrual hypersomnia as sleep disorders within the category of menstrual-associated sleep disorder. On the other hand, during pregnancy and after childbirth, profound fluctuations in steroid and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis-related hormones produce significant physiological changes, including sleep disruption. During the menopausal transition, significant sleep disruptions are provoked by sleep-disordered breathing, vasomotor disturbance, and mood disorders. Regardless of age, women with chronic insomnia are at higher risk for developing or sustaining depression. Thoughtful management approaches must consider known relationships between menstrual or menopausal status and various sleep disorders, and should rely on pharmacologic, nonpharmacologic, or a combination of treatments to achieve successful relief from insomnia. The off-label, first-line use of antidepressants for treating insomnia in the absence of depression is now considered debatable. The long-term efficacy and safety of the newer benzodiazepine receptor agonists (BZRAs) for insomnia, whether taken nightly or episodically, are supported by existing clinical experience. US Food and Drug Administration guidelines limiting the use of hypnotics to only a few weeks predate the newer generation BZRAs, and, as such, the guidelines may no longer be truly appropriate for these new agents.

  9. Sustainable development: women as partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dem, M

    1993-02-01

    The economic recession and the structural adjustment programs imposed y the International Monetary Fund have caused sluggish or no economic growth and a decline in living conditions in sub-Saharan Africa. Senegal's New Agricultural Policy has eliminated subsidies for agricultural inputs, worsening the already declining living conditions. Population growth in Senegal exceeds food production; it is very rapid in cities (urban growth rate, 2.7%). Women, especially, suffer from the economic crisis; it increases the burden on women for income generation, but the increased workload does not equate more income. This workload restricts women's opportunities to improve their physical environment and does not improve their status within society. Women still face discrimination daily; power lies with men. Oxfam supports urban women financially and technically as they organize and pursue income generation activities to institute change leading to sustainable development. It has helped a Serere women's group in Dakar to organize and provided credit funds to support their trading activities and family planning sensitization training. Oxfam also finances rural women coming to Dakar during the dry season to pound millet to sell. Problems which have to be overcome to achieve sustainable development acceptable to women are numerous. Women need access to the ways and means of food production. Resources are insufficient and inaccessible to women because women are excluded from the decision-making process. Women generally do not have access to information and training which would help them make their own choices and manage their own lives. Political and sociocultural environments, especially those of the poor, do not easily allow women opportunities for independent reflection and expression. Grassroots women's groups provide the best base to develop female solidarity and women's representation, leading to sustainable development. Development organizations must take up a new dynamic

  10. Conditions of Elderly Chinese Women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    ACCORDING to the fourth national census in 1990, the population of women over the age of 60 had reached 51 million. With the increasing population of elderly people, the number of elderly women is becoming larger and larger The number of women who are 80 or more. is twice that of men over age 80. The problems of elderly women are attracting public attention. The information given in this article mainly comes from the 1990 national census except where noted otherwise.

  11. Barriers to Women in Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Rosemary

    2013-01-01

    The Presiding Officer of the National Assembly for Wales, Rosemary Butler AM, has put the issue of barriers to women in public life at the top of the political agenda in Wales. She has held sessions with women across Wales to find out what those barriers are and how they can be tackled. On International Women's Day in February, she invited…

  12. Three Generations of Lancashire Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biscomb, Kay

    2012-01-01

    In 1914 opportunities for working-class women's sports participation were limited and peripheral, but the 1980s, policy reforms resulted in the then Sports Council identifying women as a "target group". Subsequently the notion that barriers to women's participation are issues to be identified and resolved has become commonplace in contemporary…

  13. Success and Women's Career Adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Joyce E. A.; Burgess, Jennifer R. D.

    1998-01-01

    Women still face barriers to career success and satisfaction: stereotypes, assumptions, organizational culture, human resource practices, and lack of opportunities. Despite individual and organizational strategies, many women leave to become entrepreneurs. There is a need to investigate how women define career success. (SK)

  14. Women and Politics in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkwood, Julieta

    1983-01-01

    Political parties in Chile of both the left and right have focused more on drawing women into their ideologies than on considering what political issues mean to women. A look at feminist thought shows how political life for women includes not only the traditional political arena but also domestic life. (IS)

  15. Women's Rights Are Human Rights!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salaam, Kalamu Ya

    1979-01-01

    This article emphasizes that the women's rights movement must be viewed as a vital part of the human rights struggle. It is argued that both men and women should speak out against sexism and support the struggles of women to defend and develop themselves. (Author/EB)

  16. Women and Entrepreneurship. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerka, Sandra

    The spectrum of women-owned businesses ranges from full corporations to microenterprises. Women business owners share many characteristics and motivations of business owners generally; other factors are dissatisfaction with "glass ceiling" limits, desire for job flexibility, and age discrimination. Women entrepreneurs often face barriers…

  17. Business Education for Women Entrepreneurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Calvin

    1983-01-01

    Summarizes the importance of entrepreneurship to the American economy, presents a profile of women small business owners, reviews the research pertaining to business education for women entrepreneurs, and indicates an agenda directed toward the educational needs of women venture initiators. (NRJ)

  18. Wings: Women Entrepreneurs Take Flight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Fred D.

    1997-01-01

    Women's Initiative Networking Groups (WINGS) provides low- and moderate-income women in Appalachian Kentucky with training in business skills, contacts, and other resources they need to succeed as entrepreneurs. The women form informal networks to share business know-how and support for small business startup and operations. The program plans to…

  19. Women Prove Theil Mayoral Qualifications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    OF the 517 large and small cities in the country, more than 300 have women mayors and vice mayors. These women play an important role in the construction and development of their cities. Ordinary Chinese people like to call their local officials "father-and- mother officials," but these women

  20. Women's housing conditions in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shefali, M K

    1996-01-01

    This news article describes women's housing conditions, housing policy, and pilot programs to house poor women in Bangladesh. Although Bangladesh has a constitution that reinforces the equal status of women, in practice, men dominate and patrilineal customs determine inheritance and property rights. Religious affiliation also determines land tenure and inheritance. Muslim women can inherit 12.5% of their husband's property if there are children. 25% is inherited if wives are without children. Hindu women without sons can inherit their husband's property, but not parental property. Many families refuse to release property to women without a fight. Women, regardless of ownership of land, rarely control or use their land. The custom of requiring men to maintain wives during the marriage, and daughters until marriage, creates obstacles to women's decision making about property. Without collateral and other security women are unable to secure bank loans. Many women are also constrained by the requirement of male consent or guarantees for bank transactions. Banks do not have a gender responsive criteria for selecting loan recipients. The government does not provide sufficient housing to satisfy the growing housing needs due to population growth. Some housing is available from slum landlords. A National Housing Policy was formulated in 1993. Priority would be given to the housing needs of low income women in urban areas and women-headed households with income below the poverty line. The policy does not address the underlying factors that prevent equal access to housing for women. The government prepared a Human Settlement and Urban Development proposal for the Habitat II conference. The plan did not address gender issues. Special efforts are being made by nongovernmental groups to meet the housing needs of professional women and for some disadvantaged women.

  1. Lightening the load for women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buvinic, M

    1995-01-01

    Research is confirming the fact that women suffer more from poverty than men and that the consequences of poverty in women are felt for succeeding generations. Female poverty is linked to the rise of female-headed households with children to support. Also, between 1965 and 1988, the number of rural women living in poverty rose 51% versus 41% for men. As women have sought low-income employment or spent more of their time in unpaid community work to compensate for government cutbacks associated with structural adjustment programs, a vicious cycle of poverty has developed. Overburdened women workers hand over child care responsibilities to their oldest daughters who must then leave school, thus ensuring a continuation of the cycle of poverty. On the other hand, women's employment has a more positive effect on their children's health and nutrition than does a father's earnings. Women prefer to invest their earnings to insure the well-being of their children; therefore, the earnings of women have greater benefit to society at large than the earnings of men. It is likely that women must earn a certain level of income to avoid perpetuating poverty. Policies should be implemented that enforce the virtuous cycle of investment in children instead of the vicious cycle of deprivation. Agricultural policies should target poor farmers and give women farmers access to land, credit, and technical assistance; financial policies should promote the growth of small enterprises and foster entrepreneurship among women; and labor-intensive economic growth policies should be "pro-poor." Policy-oriented research will be necessary in such areas as the dynamics of families headed by women, the transmission of disadvantage between mothers and children, changes in women's work which occur with changes in economic conditions, and analyses of the consequences of targeting interventions to women who are heads of households and poor women.

  2. Features of Women's language

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何延凌

    2008-01-01

    Language is a means of verbal communication.People use language to communicate with each other.In the society,no two speakers are exactly alike in the way of speaking.Some differences are due to age,gender,statue and personality. Above all,gender is one of the obvious reasons.The writer of this paper tries to describe the features of women's language from these perspectives: pronunciation,intonation,diction,subjects,grammar and discourse.From the discussion of the features of women's language,more attention should be paid to language use in social context.What's more,the linguistic phenomena in a speaking community can be understood more thoroughly.

  3. Women'S issues and epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noe, Katherine H; Pack, Alison M

    2010-06-01

    Women with epilepsy (WWE) may experience changes in seizure control related to alterations in neuronal excitability mediated by estrogen and progesterone. A third or more of women will reliably note seizures that are linked to menstruation or ovulation. Reproductive hormone-related exacerbation of seizure control is also observed during perimenopause. Seizures and antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) also can adversely affect reproductive health. WWE have higher than expected rates of menstrual disorders and infertility. Enzyme-inducing AEDs interact with hormonal contraceptives, potentially limiting options for birth control. Exposure to AEDs during pregnancy increases the risk of congenital malformations and cognitive impairments in children born to WWE. Chronic AED use increases the risk of vitamin D deficiency, decreased bone quality and density, and fractures. These concerns heighten the need to taper AEDs when appropriate and to manage WWE on the simplest AED regimen that will maintain seizure freedom.

  4. Urinary incontinence in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Peggy; Brubaker, Linda

    2006-01-07

    Urinary incontinence is common in women, but is under-reported and under-treated. Urine storage and emptying is a complex coordination between the bladder and urethra, and disturbances in the system due to childbirth, aging, or other medical conditions can lead to urinary incontinence. The two main types of incontinence in women, stress urinary incontinence and urge urinary incontinence, can be evaluated by history and simple clinical assessment available to most primary care physicians. There is a wide range of therapeutic options, but the recent proliferation of new drug treatments and surgical devices for urinary incontinence have had mixed results; direct-to-consumer advertising has increased public awareness of the problem of urinary incontinence, but many new products are being introduced without long-term assessment of their safety and efficacy.

  5. Women need health education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-05-01

    Groups of 15-20 women in Dacca, Bangladesh received a 2-week training program in basic health and nutrition in addition to advice on contraceptive methods and use. Contraceptives were also supplied. There were 18 field teams at work, operating in 24 union councils around Dacca city. The basic health training included 1 week of theoretical classes on sore eyes, scabies and parasites. The 2nd week was devoted to practical application and demonstration. At this time the mothers were given the formula to prepare saline water -- oral rehydration fluid. The mothers then prepared the saline and used it for the children in case of any diarrheal incidence in the community. It was the experience of the fieldworkers of the Concerned Women for Family Planning (CWFP) that the communities under their program live under unsanitary conditions.

  6. Women and substance use disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morten Hesse

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Substance use disorders belong to the class of externalizing behaviours that are generally more common among men than women. Those women who do have substance disorders therefore deviate more from the norms of society compared with men, tend to live in an environment characterized by high risk of violence and other forms of abuse, and tend to be survivors of childhood trauma. In terms of seeking treatment, women often have difficulty acknowledging their problems with substance use disorders, and professionals are reluctant to ask women about drug or alcohol use. Even when they do seek treatment, women in many countries face practical and financial barriers to access treatment. For women who do enter treatment, outcomes are generally comparable to outcomes for men, suggesting that facilitating entry into treatment can yield substantial benefits for women with addictions.

  7. Hui’an Women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    HUI’AN women in eastern Hui’an County of Fujian’s Quanzhou are well-known for their industriousness as well as their unique dressing habits and marriage customs. The peculiarity of Hui’an women’s dress mainly focuses on the upper coats, trousers, silver chains around their waists, scarves and bamboo hats. The dresses are indigo blue, apple green, black or half green and half white. Some

  8. CERN Women's Club

    CERN Document Server

    CERN Women's Club

    2012-01-01

    offee Morning Tuesday 12th  June 2012, 12:30 Annual Club Lunch at "The Physalis" in Prévessin Those interested in helping should come along. New arrivals and all members are cordially invited. You can enrol for membership, renew membership, find out about and sign up for our activities. Visit our website: http://club-womensclub.web.cern.ch/Club-WomensClub/

  9. Women and radicalization

    OpenAIRE

    Badran, Margot

    2006-01-01

    The paper focuses on women and radicalization within the context of Muslim societies (majority, minority, and half Muslim) societies and groups, mainly in Asia and Africa. The basic argument advanced in this paper is that Islamic feminism with its gender-egalitarian discourse and practices has a major role to play in the empowerment of Muslim women—and of men and society as a whole—and should be brought to bear in devising policy, strategy, and tools.

  10. Maternal Competition in Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linney, Catherine; Korologou-Linden, Laurel; Campbell, Anne

    2017-03-01

    We examined maternal competition, an unexplored form of competition between women. Given women's high investment in offspring and mothers' key role in shaping their reproductive, social, and cultural success as adults, we might expect to see maternal competition between women as well as mate competition. Predictions about the effect of maternal characteristics (age, relationship status, educational background, number of children, investment in the mothering role) and child variables (age, sex) were drawn from evolutionary theory and sociological research. Mothers of primary school children (in two samples: N = 210 and 169) completed a series of questionnaires. A novel nine-item measure of maternal competitive behavior (MCQ) and two subscales assessing Covert (MCQ-C) and Face-to-Face (MCQ-FF) forms of competition were developed using confirmatory factor analysis. Competitiveness (MCQ score) was predicted by maternal investment, single motherhood, fewer children, and (marginally) child's older age. The effect of single motherhood (but not other predictors) was partially mediated by greater maternal investment. In response to a scenario of their child underperforming relative to their peers, a mother's competitive distress was a positive function of the importance she ascribed to their success and her estimation of her child's ability. Her competitive distress was highly correlated with the distress she attributed to a female friend, hinting at bidirectional dyadic effects. Qualitative responses indicated that nonspecific bragging and boasting about academic achievements were the most common irritants. Although 40% of women were angered or annoyed by such comments, less than 5% endorsed a direct hostile response. Instead, competitive mothers were conversationally shunned and rejected as friends. We suggest that the interdependence of mothers based on reciprocal childcare has supported a culture of egalitarianism that is violated by explicit competitiveness.

  11. Cern Women's Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club des Cernoises

    2011-01-01

    Coffee Morning Tuesday 8th November 2011, 9:00 - 11:00 Bldg 504 (Restaurant No 2 - DSR) 1st Floor, Club Room 3 Organization of our Christmas Sale In favour of “Terre des Hommes” Those interested in helping should come along. New arrivals and all members are cordially invited. You can enrol for membership, renew membership, find out about and sign up for our activities. Visit our website: http://club-womensclub.web.cern.ch/Club-WomensClub/

  12. CERN Women's Club

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Women's Club

    2011-01-01

    Coffee Morning Tuesday 10th January 2012, 9:00 – 11:00 Bldg 504 (Restaurant No 2 – DSR) 1st Floor, Club Room 3 Epiphany (French tradition – “Tirer les rois”) Those interested in helping should come along. New arrivals and all members are cordially invited. You can enrol for membership, renew membership, find out about and sign up for our activities. Visit our website: http://club-womensclub.web.cern.ch/Club-WomensClub/

  13. Women on the move

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana M. González Ramos

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The special issue Women on the Move that the reader holds in their hands is the result of the hard work of very creative specialists in gender and mobility. Research on mobility and gender has progressively advanced from traditional, non-gender-specific literature on migration or mobility of highly skilled people. And, as these authors prove, the topic is already quantitatively and qualitatively relevant.

  14. Cheering On Women Journalists

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    RECENTLY, a special seminar on Lu Xiaofei’s news works was held at the People’s Daily, the most authoritative newspaper in China. Lu is editor-in-chief of the page "Local News of the Nation" for the People’s Daily. She is one of some 200 women journalists who has made a name for herself at the newspaper. Her work, Real Facts on the Issue of the Tibet Population, reflects the sensitivity and

  15. Sexual Dysfunction in Women

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Pamela

    1989-01-01

    Sexual dysfunction takes place in the context of women's lives and affects their sexuality and self-esteem. Awareness of these influences are vital to the management of the dysfunction and the promotion of positive sexuality. The family physician's contribution to both the prevention and management of sexual concerns includes an awareness of societal influences and facilitation of a woman's sense of her own power and control over her life.

  16. WOMEN WITH FACIAL TATTOOS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    For a long time in the past,the Derungs were known for having their women's faces tattooed.I had got to know before leaving for the Nujiang Canyon that this somewhat strange tradition had long been abandoned. Once in the Derung area,however,I decided to find out whence this “tradition”, so to speak, had originated and if there wer still “living specimens” of it.

  17. CERN Women's Club

    CERN Document Server

    Club des cernoises

    2011-01-01

    Coffee Morning Tuesday 11th October, 9:00 – 11:00 Bldg 504 (Restaurant No 2) 1st Floor, Club Room 3 Presentation of the charity to benefit from the Christmas Sale TERRE DES HOMMES New arrivals and all members are cordially invited. You can enrol for membership, renew membership, find out about and sign up for our activities. Visit our website: http://club-womensclub.web.cern.ch/Club-WomensClub/

  18. Women Writers in Macheng

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Many centuries ago, Li Zhi (1527-1602), thinker andwriter of the Ming Dynasty edtablished a famousfemale-only school in China. Today, there has emergeda group of women writers. They are sparing their timefrom work and household chores and have entered thesacred hall of literature by expending greater effortsthan their male counterparts. Many of their works havebeen published. They are full of talent and have wonseveral national level prizes.

  19. Stroke and Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülçin Benbir

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate the differences in vascular risk factor and etiology of stroke in two sexes. METHODS: We reviewed the medical files of 2798 patients being followed-up in our Stroke Clinic between the years 1996-2011. The stroke subtypes and risk factors were recorded on the basis of clinical data, physical and neurological examinations, and neuroimaging findings. Data were collected in SPSS 11.5 system and Pearson chi-square and Mann-Whitney U tests were used for statistical analysis. RESULTS: Of a total of 2798 patients, 2564 patients (91,6% had ischemic stroke, and 234 of them (8,4% had hemorrhagic stroke. The mean follow-up duration was 50.2+42.7 months. Of whole study population, 1289 patients were women (46%, 1509 of them were men (54%. The analysis of stroke subtypes showed that the most common subtype was stroke of unknown etiology in both sexes. Following this, the most common subtype was atherothrombotic stroke in men, and cardioembolic stroke in women. Coronary heart disease was more common in men, while atrial fibrillation and other rhythm anomalies were more common in women. Smoking and alcohol consumption were more common in men. CONCLUSION: Our study showed that there are major differences in stroke subtypes and vascular risk factors. Better knowledge of these differences, as well as influencing factors, is of crucial value – in addition to the need of hormonal changes, pregnancy and depression to be better identified in women – for both primary and secondary prevention.

  20. Prolonged labour : women's experiences

    OpenAIRE

    Nystedt, Astrid

    2005-01-01

    Aim: The overall aim of this thesis was to illuminate, describe, and promote understanding of women’s experiences of prolonged labour. The thesis compromises four studies. Methods: Paper I describes a case-referent study that recruited women (n = 255) giving singleton live birth to their first child by spontaneous labour after more than 37 completed weeks’ pregnancy. Participants completed a questionnaire that investigated childbirth experiences, previous family relationships, and childhood e...

  1. Cern Women's Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Cern Women's Club

    2014-01-01

      CERN WOMEN’S CLUB   Coffee Morning Tuesday 10th  June 2014, 12:30   Annual Club Lunch at the restaurant “Le Coq Rouge” in St-Genis-Pouilly Those interested in helping should come along. New arrivals and all members are cordially invited. You can enrol for membership, renew membership, find out about and sign up for our activities. Visit our website: http://web.cern.ch/Club-WomensClub/

  2. Cern women's club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club des cernoises

    2014-01-01

    CERN WOMEN’S CLUB Coffee Morning Tuesday 13th  May 2014, 9:30 Bldg 504,  (Restaurant No 2 – DSR) 1st Floor, Club Room 3   Annual General Meeting Those interested in helping should come along. New arrivals and all members are cordially invited. You can enrol for membership, renew membership, find out about and sign up for our activities. Visit our website: http://cern.ch/Club-WomensClub/

  3. CERN Women's Club

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Women's Club

    2012-01-01

    Coffee Morning Tuesday 15th  May 2012, 9:00 Building 504,  (Restaurant No 2 – DSR) 1st Floor, Club Room 3 Annual General Meeting Those interested in helping should come along. New arrivals and all members are cordially invited. You can enrol for membership, renew membership, find out about and sign up for our activities. Visit our website: http://club-womensclub.web.cern.ch/Club-WomensClub/

  4. Cern Women's Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club des cernoises

    2013-01-01

    Coffee MorningTuesday 9th April 2013, 9:00 – 14:00 Bldg 504 (Restaurant No 2 – DSR) Ground Floor Spring Jumble Sale Those interested in helping should come along. New arrivals and all members are cordially invited. You can enrol for membership, renew membership, find out about and sign up for our activities. Visit our website: http://club-womensclub.web.cern.ch/Club-WomensClub/

  5. Cern Women's club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club des Cernoises

    2013-01-01

    Coffee Morning Tuesday 5th  February 2013, 9:00 – 11:00 Bldg 504 (Restaurant No 2 – DSR) 1st  Floor, Club Room 3 Presentation of cheque to Nous Aussi Those interested in helping should come along. New arrivals and all members are cordially invited. You can enrol for membership, renew membership, find out about and sign up for our activities. Visit our website: http://club-womensclub.web.cern.ch/Club-WomensClub/    

  6. Cern Women's Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club des cernoises

    2013-01-01

    Coffee MorningTuesday 12th March 2013, 9:00 – 11:00 Bldg 504 (Restaurant No 2 – DSR) 1st Floor, Club Room 3 Eastern Tradition Those interested in helping should come along. New arrivals and all members are cordially invited. You can enrol for membership, renew membership, find out about and sign up for our activities. Visit our website: http://club-womensclub.web.cern.ch/Club-WomensClub/

  7. CERN Women's Club

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Women's Club

    2013-01-01

    Coffee Morning Tuesday 10th September 2013, 9:00 Bldg 504, (Restaurant No 2 – DSR) 1st Floor, Club Room 3 Registration Those interested in helping should come along. New arrivals and all members are cordially invited. You can enrol for membership, renew membership, find out about and sign up for our activities. Visit our website: http://club-womensclub.web.cern.ch/Club-WomensClub/

  8. Cern Women's Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club des cernoises

    2012-01-01

    Coffee MorningTuesday 15th January 2013, 9:00 – 11:00 Bldg 504 (Restaurant No 2 – DSR) 1st Floor, Club Room 3 Epiphany (French tradition – “Tirer les rois”) Those interested in helping should come along. New arrivals and all members are cordially invited. You can enrol for membership, renew membership, find out about and sign up for our activities. Visit our website: http://club-womensclub.web.cern.ch/Club-WomensClub/

  9. CERN Women's Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club des Cernoises

    2013-01-01

    Coffee Morning Tuesday 11th  June 2013, 12:30 Annual Club Lunch at the restaurant “Bois Joly” in Crozet Those interested in helping should come along. New arrivals and all members are cordially invited.You can enrol for membership, renew membership, find out about and sign up for our activities. Visit our website: http://club-womensclub.web.cern.ch/Club-WomensClub/

  10. Vaccinations for pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swamy, Geeta K; Heine, R Phillips

    2015-01-01

    In the United States, eradication and reduction of vaccine-preventable diseases through immunization has directly increased life expectancy by reducing mortality. Although immunization is a public priority, vaccine coverage among adult Americans is inadequate. The Institute of Medicine, the Community Preventive Services Task Force, and other public health entities have called for the development of innovative programs to incorporate adult vaccination into routine clinical practice. Obstetrician-gynecologists are well suited to serve as vaccinators of women in general and more specifically pregnant women. Pregnant women are at risk for vaccine-preventable disease-related morbidity and mortality and adverse pregnancy outcomes, including congenital anomalies, spontaneous abortion, preterm birth, and low birth weight. In addition to providing direct maternal benefit, vaccination during pregnancy likely provides direct fetal and neonatal benefit through passive immunity (transplacental transfer of maternal vaccine-induced antibodies). This article reviews: 1) types of vaccines; 2) vaccines specifically recommended during pregnancy and postpartum; 3) vaccines recommended during pregnancy and postpartum based on risk factors and special circumstances; 4) vaccines currently under research and development for licensure for maternal-fetal immunization; and 5) barriers to maternal immunization and available patient and health care provider resources.

  11. Lung cancer in women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barrera-Rodriguez R

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Raúl Barrera-Rodriguez,1 Jorge Morales-Fuentes2 1Biochemistry and Environmental Medicine Laboratory, National Institute of Respiratory Disease, 2Lung Cancer Medical Service, National Institute of Respiratory Disease, Tlalpan, Mexico City, Distrito Federal, Mexico Both authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: Recent biological advances in tumor research provide clear evidence that lung cancer in females is different from that in males. These differences appear to have a direct impact on the clinical presentation, histology, and outcomes of lung cancer. Women are more likely to present with lung adenocarcinoma, tend to receive a diagnosis at an earlier age, and are more likely to be diagnosed with localized disease. Women may also be more predisposed to molecular aberrations resulting from the carcinogenic effects of tobacco, but do not appear to be more susceptible than men to developing lung cancer. The gender differences found in female lung cancer make it mandatory that gender stratification is used in clinical trials in order to improve the survival rates of patients with lung cancer.Keywords: lung cancer, adenocarcinoma, women, genetic susceptibility, genetic differences, tobacco

  12. Enforcing women's rights through law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, R J

    1995-06-01

    Because women have to be equal partners in development to insure its sustainability, the human rights of women must be foremost on development agendas. Ratification of and adherence to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (the Women's Convention) would be a powerful international tool in this regard. In various countries, progress towards legalizing rights for women is passing through a first stage which focusses on the protection of specific rights to a second stage in which sex is included as a prohibited ground of discrimination to a third stage which addresses the pervasive and structural nature of the violation of women's rights. It is expected that governments will renew their commitment to the Women's Convention at the Fourth World Conference on Women (WCW) and, thus, take more seriously their obligations to report progress and remove reservations. Regional initiatives, such as the Organization of American States' 1994 Convention on the Prevention, Punishment, and Eradication of Violence Against Women, can also be used to protect women's rights, and the application of national constitutions and domestic laws remains the first line of defence for women. Particular attention must be paid to laws which apply to property rights, nationality, equality within the family, reproductive and other health issues, and violence against women. The Draft Plan of Action prepared for the WCW challenges states to specify their plans to eliminate discrimination. While this Plan may prove to lack vision, women's nongovernmental organizations are playing a major role in accelerating the movement of international and domestic law towards justice for women.

  13. Melatonin deficiencies in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohr, Uwe D; Herold, Jens

    2002-04-15

    The pineal hormone melatonin is the mediator of external light to physiologic adaptation to day and night rhythms, it regulates reproduction in animals but attempts to utilize melatonin in women for contraception have failed. Melatonin seems to be the natural hormone to facilitate sleep in insomniac patients and causes no hang over. When applied together with benzodiazepine it allows reduction of benzodiazepine without withdrawal effects. It should be applied 2 h before sleeping time in doses between 3 and 5 mg. Melatonin acts via the gamma-aminobutyric acid- and benzodiazepine receptor explaining its success in treatment of seizures in children and in adults. Constant application of benzodiazepine reduced the production of natural melatonin in rats, supporting the evidence that long-term application of benzodiazepine in humans does not restore sleeping habits but reduces natural sleeping habits even more. Low melatonin levels were seen in bulimia or neuralgia and in women with fibromyalgia; replacement reduced pain, sleeping disorders, and depression in fibromyalgia and bulimia. Melatonin profiles are a diagnostic tool to distinguish between several forms of depression, like major depression, winter depression (SAD), unipolar depression, delayed sleep phase syndrome (DSPS). In patients with a major depression success with antidepressants correlated with an increase in their melatonin profiles but only patients suffering from DSPS can be successfully treated with melatonin. In perimenopausal women melatonin administration did produce a change in LH, FSH and thyroid hormones. Some oncostatic properties are supported by cell culture work and studies in animals. In Nordic countries indigenous people suffer less from breast and prostate cancer, winter darkness seems to protect. The supposedly increased melatonin levels created the 'melatonin hypothesis'. Epidemiological studies did show that blind people indeed have half the rate of breast cancers, supporting the

  14. Group dialogue empowers Brazilian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badiani, R; Becker, J

    1995-11-01

    In response to an alarming rise in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection among Brazilian women during the early 1990s, the Sociedade Civil Bem-Estar Familiar no Brazil (BEMFAM) developed a project that integrates HIV prevention with clinical services, community-based prevention activities, and sexually transmitted disease diagnosis and treatment. Preliminary interviews with clinic clients revealed that women's fears they would be considered unfaithful were impeding their ability to suggest condom use to their sexual partners. Condom use within a relationship was considered appropriate only for pregnancy prevention. To facilitate dialogue about sexual health, BEMFAM developed a women's group intervention project. All women who attend a BEMFAM clinic are invited to participate in a one-hour group discussion before receiving medical services. Novela-style booklets with stories and characters women can relate to their own lives are used to stimulate discussion. Participants learn to use condoms correctly by putting them on a penis model and anticipate situations in which they would be able to negotiate condom use. The group setting enables women to gain confidence and practice assertiveness in a non-threatening, supportive environment. Their identification with other women's stories empowers women to take control of their health and sexual lives. Between October 1994 and July 1995, 3464 women participated in group discussions organized by BEMFAM and 40,688 condoms were distributed; 18% of these women returned to the clinic for additional condoms.

  15. "We will not rest." Filipino women want a fertility management program that respects women's dignity, women's bodies and women's choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, R O

    1993-03-01

    The program officer for the Institute for Social Studies and Action presents 1) her views on women's fertility management under different political administrations in the Philippines, 2) the political postures of influential groups, 3) the goals of women's and health groups, and 4) the actions taken by Filipino women. Under Ferdinand Marcos, the official family planning (FP) program emphasized reduction of population growth and established a quota system and incentives for the number of new acceptors. Women, as a result, became victims; e.g. IUDs were inserted without prior knowledge, and inadequate information and follow-up were provided on oral contraceptive use. Efforts were criticized for treating women as program targets and not as individuals capable of making choices. Under Corazon Aquino, the Roman Catholic hierarchy dominated and would have banned all forms of artificial contraception had women's and health groups not blocked the effort. Only in 1989 did President Aquino finally announce that multiple methods of family planning (FP) would be promoted. There was a transition in program services during the transfer to the Department of Health. Currently the government promotes FP within the safe motherhood and child survival context, but adolescents and unmarried women and couples are excluded from FP services. Population control advocates believe FP is a health issue. The Roman Catholic Church accepts only natural methods and believes artificial methods interfere with the natural processes of procreation. Anti-FP groups promote only natural FP methods and wage campaigns to discredit contraceptive methods. Women's and FP groups contend that it is a woman's right to regulate her own fertility. Safe abortion should be made available to those who need it. Women's networks are mobilizing to talk about the issues, to hold public activities to change laws and policies and to encourage women's involvement in decision making affecting their lives, and to conduct

  16. Fathers' Rights Groups, Domestic Violence and Political Countermobilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, Jocelyn Elise

    2009-01-01

    Domestic violence continues to be a serious problem for women in the United States. As a result, the battered women's movement has been tireless in campaigning for greater awareness of the issue, tougher penalties against offenders, and public vigilance against potential batterers, including fathers from dissolving families. In reaction to this…

  17. Women, work, and poverty women centered research for policy change

    CERN Document Server

    Hartmann, Heidi I

    2003-01-01

    Find out how welfare reform has affected women living at the poverty levelWomen, Work, and Poverty presents the latest information on women living at or below the poverty level and the changes that need to be made in public policy to allow them to rise above their economic hardships. Using a wide range of research methods, including in-depth interviews, focus groups, small-scale surveys, and analysis of personnel records, the book explores different aspects of women's poverty since the passage of the 1986 welfare reform bill. Anthropologists, economists, political scientists, socio

  18. Gender Jihad: Muslim Women, Islamic Jurisprudence, and Women's Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie P. Mejia

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Muslim women's rights have been a topic of discussion and debate over the past few decades, and with a good reason. Islamic Law (Shariah is considered by many as patriarchal and particularly oppressive to women, and yet there are also others-Muslim women-who have rigorously defended their religion by claiming that Islam is the guarantor par excellence of women's rights. A big question begs to be answered: is Islam particularly oppressive to women?The Qur'an has addressed women's issues fourteen hundred years ago by creating certain reforms to improve the status of women; however, these reforms do not seem to be practiced in Muslim societies today.1 How is this so? I contend that Islam, as revealed to Muhammad, is not oppressive to women; rather, its interpretation, in so far as it is enacted in the family laws and everyday living, is patriarchal and hence needs to be examined.2 The goal of this work is to discuss what the Qur'an says about certain problems which gravely affect Muslim women, specifically: 1. gender equality 2. polygamy 3. divorce and the concept of nushuz

  19. Obstetricians and violence against women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Sonya

    2011-12-01

    I argue that the American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG), as an organization and through its individual members, can and should be a far greater ally in the prevention of violence against women. Specifically, I argue that we need to pay attention to obstetrical practices that inadvertently contribute to the problem of violence against women. While intimate partner violence is a complex phenomenon, I focus on the coercive control of women and adherence to oppressive gender norms. Using physician response to alcohol use during pregnancy and court-ordered medical treatment as examples, I show how some obstetrical practices mirror the attitudes of abusive men insofar as they try to coercively control women's behavior through manipulation and violence. To be greater allies in the prevention of violence against women, obstetricians should stop participating in practices that inadvertently perpetuate violence against women.

  20. Women's Stereotypes and Consumer Preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Velandia Morales

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available According to The Ambivalent Sexism Theory (Glick y Fiske, 1996 there are distinct stereotypes of women that men express different attitudes. Among them, the housewife, sexy women and executive women are the clearest ones. One hundred people participated in the present study in order to test the relationship between the female stereotypes, their level of influence and prestige and the level of preference for a commercial product (described in female and male terms. The results showed that sexy women is more associated with the masculine description, whereas the executive women is more associated to the feminine product description, and in both cases the housewife is the least associated with the two different descriptions. It was also found that the influence and the women prestige mediated the relationship between the stereotypes and the preference shown for the product described in feminine terms

  1. Women in My Eyes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    Ihave many women in my life, such as my wife, mother, mother-in-law, colleagues and customers. I feel pressure from them in different ways when I am in contact with them. Sometimes these pressures make me lose my breath, but on the other hand, they also are the motivation behind my success. I was born to a common family. There are three brothers and no sisters. I was the oldest. The woman I knew the earliest was my mother. She also came from a common familv, was hardly educated and

  2. Hypothyroidism in Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Donna; Turner, Carla

    2016-01-01

    Hypothyroidism, a disease in which the thyroid gland does not make enough thyroid hormone, is the second most common endocrine disorder among women. Symptoms of hypothyroidism include fatigue, weight gain, alteration in cognition, infertility, and menstrual abnormalities. The most common cause of hypothyroidism in the United States is Hashimoto's thyroiditis. The American Thyroid Association recommends an initial screening for thyroid disease at age 35years and every 5years thereafter. Thyroid-stimulating hormone is highly sensitive to thyroid dysfunction and is used to evaluate thyroid disorders. Monotherapy with levothyroxine is the standard for treating hypothyroidism. Diagnosing hypothyroidism requires appropriate diagnostic tests to facilitate prompt diagnosis and treatment.

  3. Working Women: Indian Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Dharmendra MEHTA; Mehta, Naveen K.; Rajesh Kumar MEHTA

    2014-01-01

    In India, due to unprecedented rise in the cost of living, ris-ing prices of commodities, growing expenses on children ed-ucation, huge rate of unemployment, and increasing cost of housing properties compel every Indian family to explore all the possible ways and means to increase the household income. It is also witnessed that after globalization Indian women are able to get more jobs but the work they get is more casual in nature or is the one that men do not prefer to do or is left by them...

  4. Cern Women's club

    CERN Multimedia

    Cern Women's club

    2014-01-01

    Coffee Morning Tuesday 14th October 2014, 9:30 – 11:30 Bldg 504 (Restaurant No 2 – DSR) 1st Floor, Club Room 3 Presentation of the charity to benefit from the Christmas Sale “Les Jardins de Voltaire” Those interested in helping should come along. New arrivals and all members are cordially invited. You can enrol for membership, renew membership, find out about and sign up for our activities. Visit our website: http://club-womensclub.web.cern.ch/Club-WomensClub/  

  5. Disparities in women's cardiovascular health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSweeney, Jean C; Pettey, Christina M; Souder, Elaine; Rhoads, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in women, and disparities affect the diagnosis, treatment, and outcomes of CVD for women. Biology, genetics, and race contribute to these disparities. Obstetric-gynecologic health care providers routinely encounter women who are at risk for developing CVD and are uniquely positioned as a point of access to intervene to improve/prevent CVD by assessing for risks and discussing healthy lifestyle changes during routine visits.

  6. Protecting Grass-roots Women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    AS the president of Qianxi County Women's Federation in Hebei Province, Wang Shuzhen presents the sort of confident, modern image not normally associated with her position. Resplendent in a brooch decorated black business suit with rose-red silk shirt she looks younger and healthier than one might expect. Presenting an introduction on the situation of local women at a seminar on women's laws, the Hebei native's clear and

  7. Women's Stereotypes and Consumer Preferences

    OpenAIRE

    Andrea Velandia Morales; Rosa Rodríguez-Bailón

    2011-01-01

    According to The Ambivalent Sexism Theory (Glick y Fiske, 1996) there are distinct stereotypes of women that men express different attitudes. Among them, the housewife, sexy women and executive women are the clearest ones. One hundred people participated in the present study in order to test the relationship between the female stereotypes, their level of influence and prestige and the level of preference for a commercial product (described in female and male terms). The results showed that se...

  8. Romance Tourism and Finnish Women

    OpenAIRE

    Jussila, Johanna

    2015-01-01

    Romance tourism is a discussed quite a lot in media both in Finland and abroad. The media has create a certain kind of image of women`s romance tourism. The main aim of this study was to study how Finnish women perceive the romance tourism. The research questions were: does women travel to abroad to seek for holiday romance and why do they travel to abroad to seek for the romance. To find out women’s mental images of romance tourism was also one aim of the research. The phenomenon of women’s ...

  9. [Cardiovascular risk factors in women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cengel, Atiye

    2010-03-01

    It is estimated that at least 80% of patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD) have conventional risk factors and optimization of these risk factors can reduce morbidity and mortality due to this disease considerably. Contemporary women have increased burden of some of these risk factors such as obesity, metabolic syndrome and smoking. Turkish women have a worse CV risk profile than Turkish men in some aspects. Risk stratification systems such as Framingham have a tendency of underestimating the risk in women. Coronary artery disease remains in vessel wall for a longer period of time in women; therefore obstructive disease appear later in their lifespan necessitating risk stratification systems for estimating their lifetime risk.

  10. Career choices of lesbian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehtonen, Jukka

    2008-01-01

    I focus on lesbian women's career choices and analyse how they explain their choices in relation to their sexuality. In addition to personal accounts and experiences, I use survey data that shows that several factors influence lesbian women's occupational circumstances. The Sexual Minority Survey included 726 respondents, of which 415 are women. The survey was conducted as part of the project Sexual and Gender Minorities at Work. Although many lesbian women claim that their sexuality did not influence their career choices, their career choice processes seem to be linked in many ways with sexuality, gender, and heteronormativity in society.

  11. Women in Physics in Yemen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakhraddin, Sakina

    2009-04-01

    We presents the progress of women in Yemen in various fields of science in general and in physics in particular. Women in Yemen attending universities tend to choose science after medicine. The percentage of women in physics is low compared with those for other departments. As a special case, in Sana'a University the percentage of women in the physics department has increased greatly in the last decade. At the level of teaching staff there are only two females with PhD degrees in the whole of Yemen.

  12. Women and Smoking: Global Challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taru Kinnunen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Global tobacco control has led to a reduction in smoking prevalence and mortality in men, while the rates among women have not followed the same declining rates or patterns. Tobacco-induced diseases, including those unique to women (reproductive complications, cervical and breast cancer are becoming increasingly prevalent among women. Unfortunately, many tobacco control policies and cessation programs have been found to be less effective for women than men. This is alarming as disease risk for lung cancer, CVD, osteoporosis, and COPD, associated with smoking, is higher among women. Women are also more likely to be exposed to secondhand tobacco smoke and subsequent morbidity. Finally, quitting smoking appears to be harder for women than men. Current tobacco control and surveillance data come primarily from high resource countries. WHO estimates that in 2030, in low and medium resource countries, 7 out of 10 deaths will be smoking-related. While the prevalence of smoking in women is relatively low in these countries, more information is needed regarding their patterns of tobacco use uptake, and subsequent health outcomes, as theirs differ from men. Tobacco use in women is greatly influenced by social, cultural and political determinants, and needs to be conceptualized within an intersectional framework.

  13. Women in the labor force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatter, R H

    1994-01-01

    Unlike the rate for men, the labor force participation rate for women has increased significantly over the past three decades or so. This trend is expected to continue at least through 2005. Among the reasons for the growing role of women in the labor market are higher levels of educational attainment, improved employment opportunities, changing values in society, and economic pressures and aspirations that require women to assume dual careers as homemakers and family income producers. By the year 2005, it is estimated that women workers will number about 72 million, with more than 63 percent of all women age 16 and over either working or actively looking for work. While traditional occupations such as secretarial and clerical administrative support and professions such as nursing and teaching still predominate, about 4 million women are now in executive, administrative and managerial positions in the private sectors of the economy. As for the types of industry in which women are employed, service industries clearly predominate. Projections suggest that women workers of the future will be older on average, with the fastest growth occurring in the 45-64 age cohort. They will also be a more diverse group as the number of black, Asian and Hispanic women workers grows more rapidly than the number of white non-Hispanic labor force participants.

  14. Proceedings of the LLNL Technical Women`s Symposium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    von Holtz, E. [ed.

    1993-12-31

    This report documents events of the LLNL Technical Women`s Symposium. Topics include; future of computer systems, environmental technology, defense and space, Nova Inertial Confinement Fusion Target Physics, technical communication, tools and techniques for biology in the 1990s, automation and robotics, software applications, materials science, atomic vapor laser isotope separation, technical communication, technology transfer, and professional development workshops.

  15. Just Do It: Women Superintendents Speak to Aspiring Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Susan J.

    2006-01-01

    A mixed method study using surveys and in-depth interviews was conducted with women school superintendents in four Midwestern states during the 1999-2000 school year to understand how they perceive their leadership skills, their uses of power in their positions, and how they generally talk about the job. Results of how the women perceived their…

  16. Women miners in developing countries: pit women and others

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuntala Lahiri-Dutt; Martha Macintyre [Australian National University (Australia). Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies

    2006-05-15

    Contrary to their masculine portrayal, mines have always employed women in valuable and productive roles. Yet, pit life continues to be represented as a masculine world of work, legitimizing men as the only mineworkers and large, mechanized, and capitalized operations as the only form of mining. Bringing together a range of case studies of women miners from past and present in Asia, the Pacific Region, Latin America and Africa, this book makes visible the roles and contributions of women as miners. It also highlights the importance of engendering small and informal mining in the developing world as compared to the early European and American mines. The book shows that women are engaged in various kinds of mining and illustrates how gender and inequality are constructed and sustained in the mines, and also how ethnic identities intersect with those gendered identities. Chapters dealing with coal mining include: Introduction: Where life is in the pits (and elsewhere) and gendered; Japanese coal mining: women discovered; Mining gender at work in the Indian collieries: identity construction; Women in the mining industry of contemporary China; Roti do, ya goli do! (give us bread, or give us bullets!): stories of struggles of women workers in Bhowra colliery, India and Globalization and women's work in the mine pits in East Kalimantan, Indonesia. 17 ills.

  17. Women's rights are human rights -- why development has failed women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-08-01

    Oxfam UK/I believes that all women have the right to a livelihood, reproductive choice, health care, education, and employment. Access to resources, decision-making, political and religious freedom of expression, and freedom from all forms of violence are also equally important. Oxfam UK/I recognizes that women worldwide from a diversity of cultures and religions are arguing for similar rights, but continuing efforts to create women's equality and empowerment have had only limited success. There has been no significant improvement in women's lifestyles, the feminization of poverty is increasing, growing religious fundamentalism threatens advances made toward equality, and there has been an increasing violation of women's individual human rights to development in the last decade. Human rights instruments to tackle gender inequality exist, but they are not implemented. The rights approach to development recognizes that unless inequalities at local, national, and international levels are seen and challenged, women will continue to face poverty, inadequate representation of their needs and views, and policies which are contrary to their interests. The rights approach encompasses all aspects of women's lives, recognizing that women's rights in the civil, political, social, economic, and cultural spheres are indivisible from one another in the realities of daily life. Oxfam UK/I acknowledges the complexity of the rights debate.

  18. The Barrier within: Relational Aggression among Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, Barbara L.

    2010-01-01

    Relational aggression among women presents an overlooked barrier to women's quest for advancement in the workplace. Although research on women's leadership extols their ability to collaborate and form lasting, supportive relationships, one cannot assume that all women are supportive of other women. Research reveals that relational aggression,…

  19. The women of the Maghreb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghurayyib, R

    1992-01-01

    Women's status in Algeria, Morocco, and Tunisia is briefly summarized. It is based on a pamphlet produced by the Women's Committee of the Center for Arab Studies for Development, Canada. In Algeria, women's status has been severely restricted by fundamentalism. The independence of 1963 brought with it fundamentalist conditions: mosques became places for political sermons and schools were filled with Islamic zealots. The Family Code of 1984 was imposed. It considered women minors for life, polygamy and divorce freely available for men, and threats to women's right to vote. In 1990, women's organizations in a large rally protested abolition of the 1984 law. The 1991 elections reflected the differences in opinions on women's issues and a 3rd party may be formed with democratic tendencies and support for the Women's Liberation Movement. Morocco also has an antidemocratic regime. 78% of women in 1982 were illiterate. Many work as domestics (56.5%) or in the textile (62%), agricultural, and industrial sectors. Little girls also work as apprentices in exchange for food and clothing. 100% of women are untrained while 100% of men are trained. Rural seasonal workers are ignored. Female employment rose in public services from 16% to 28% in 1989. 53% are engaged in menial occupations; 36% are teachers, secretaries, or nurses. Prostitution thrived when oil merchants invaded. Most women are divorced or widowed, and consequently must work for subsistence because the family code does not permit these women economic independence. In the 1970s men and women protested the royal family's codes. Tunisian women have a more privileged position, due in part to the support from the male feminist leader, Tahar El Haddad, who wrote a book espousing the right of divorce and equal rights in education, and condemning polygamy, sex segregation, and the veil. In 1956, the code changed and forced marriage and polygamy were prohibited. Implementation lags behind the law. Islamic law still gives

  20. The power of women on April 27.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khumalo, B

    1994-04-01

    Women make up 54% of voters in South Africa. A delegation of 80 groups representing 2 million women under the Women' National Coalition delivered many research reports on women's issues (e.g., rape, violence, women's status, women workers' rights) to the Transitional Executive Council. If political parties want women to support them, they need to address the inequalities and discrimination women encounter at work, in their homes, and in society. The research findings were a result of 23 focus groups and will be used to draft a Women's Charter. The Coalition will use the Charter to bring about maximum equality within the constitutional framework. The research revealed that sexual harassment at work was more common than was recognized. Black women reported that men of all races in responsible positions seek sex for jobs or for promotion. 50% of women are raped. 1 of 6 women are beaten by their partner. In the past, women's groups were not well supported because White women tended to be satisfied with the status quo. Specifically, they had a servant, leisure time, and a high standard of living. Women are starting to understand that they can be forces of change. A common thread among the diversity of women in the research was a desire for control of their lives. Other issues emerging from the research were women and law, women at work, women and violence, and political awareness among women. The women call for changes in marital law to make sure that women are considered as majors. For example, they should be able to buy property and sign contracts. Women want equal pay for work of equal value, equal treatment when applying for a job. Women want society, including family members, not to ignore domestic violence. They also call on authorities and police to respond more vigorously to domestic violence. Women are becoming more involved in politics, locally, regionally, and nationally.

  1. Course Plan for Women's Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Linda A.

    In view of women's misconceptions about their bodies, their sexuality, their mental health, and the health care system, this three-credit evening community college course on women's health needs and concerns was designed. Course objectives include recording and analyzing the effects of nutrition, sleep, exercise, and stress on various body…

  2. Women of Ice and Fire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The anthology offers 11 original contributions about the women in GoT, the transmedial universe of George R.R. Martin's book series A Song of Ice and Fire, the HBO TV series Game of Thrones, computer games and online fan activities. The anthology examines the representation of women, and activity...

  3. Teaching about Women and Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Kathy

    A course entitled "Women and Violence in Literature and the Media" extends the definition of violence to include not only physical and emotional abuse but psychological manipulation and destruction as well. The course has two major objectives: to establish that violence against women does occur in our society and is culturally approved of and…

  4. Job Inequities Persist for Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Barbara Ellen

    1987-01-01

    Women earn only 64 cents for every dollar earned by men. Five and a half million women number among the "working poor." The following are suggested for change: (1) raise the minimum wage; (2) institute gender- and race-blind pay scales; (3) establish child care centers; and (4) enforce anti-discrimination laws. (PS)

  5. Alcohol and Women. Pamphlet Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomberg, Edith S. Lisansky

    Reasonable and moderate drinking is considered acceptable by the major portion of the population. Although women consume less alcohol than men, alcohol has a greater intoxicating effect for women than for men because of the differences in body water content and proportion of fatty tissue. The prevalence rate of drinking is virtually identical for…

  6. Health Issues Facing Black Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Inez Smith

    Black women in the United States experience a high incidence of serious health problems and, as a group, receive insufficient and inadequate medical care. The death rate for black women suffering from breast cancer has increased substantially since 1950. Also of great concern is the high incidence of cervical cancer in low income black women…

  7. Low Sex Drive in Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diseases and Conditions Low sex drive in women By Mayo Clinic Staff A woman's sexual desire naturally fluctuates over the years. Highs and lows commonly ... and anti-seizure medications also can cause low sex drive in women. If you have a persistent ...

  8. Chinese Women Lawyers Society Established

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    ON November 12, 1993, the Chinese Women Lawyers Society was established in Beijing. The more than 10,000 women lawyers in the country were excited to have their own organization. Xu Weihua, secretary-general of the society and a lawyer working in the All-China Women’s Federation, said: "The society’s establishment will promote the participation of

  9. World Religions, Women and Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Ursula

    1987-01-01

    Examines religious traditions--Hinduism, Buddhism, Judaism, Islam, and Western Christianity--to see how women were taught and what knowledge was transmitted to them. Notes that women have always had some access to religious knowledge in informal ways but were excluded from formal education once sacred knowledge became transmitted in an…

  10. Attachment and Women's Faith Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joung, Eun Sim

    2006-01-01

    This article explores the relationship between human attachment and God attachment, particularly in Christian women's experiences of faith. It is based on the attachment perspective as a conceptual framework. The main aim was to evolve an attachment-theoretical approach to women's faith development and to offer a complementary path to interpret…

  11. Difficulties in Science for women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otilia Val Castillo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available When we think in scientists, we remember scientic men. What about scientic women? In ancient times women had been considered by men for homework, without right to study at the university. In the beginning Hypatia from Alejandria was a pioneer scientic woman but she was assassinated for not become Christian in 416. From then sex discrimination went on by ages.

  12. Women Administrators as Instructional Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, Beth A.

    2013-01-01

    Women are under-represented in educational research and are much less likely to hold administrative positions than are men. This study, using the Liberal Feminist Theory and Structural Barrier Theory, proffers possible explanations for this phenomenon. Four women leaders were interviewed to gain insight into their instructional leadership…

  13. Young Women, Sports, and Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Sandra L.

    2007-01-01

    This article examines young women's access to two traditionally male domains, sport and science, from two perspectives. The structural approach suggests that sport and science are stratified by gender and have historically been chilly climates for women. The Critical approach argues that structure and agency are important in understanding sources…

  14. Women in Adult Basic Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Rosemarie J.

    1977-01-01

    A survey of adult basic education (ABE) program directors in five states revealed that most ABE teachers are women and work part-time without benefits while most ABE administrators are men who are employed full-time. Concludes that women employed in ABE are victims of discrimination. (EM)

  15. Comparative research on women's employment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lippe, T. van der; Dijk, L. van

    2002-01-01

    Women's employment has been widely studied in both Western countries and Eastern Europe. In this article, the most frequently used measurements and descriptions of women's paid work are given, namely, participation rate, number of hours worked, gender segregation, and the gender gap in earnings. Nex

  16. Epidemiology of infections in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risser, Jan M H; Risser, William L; Risser, Amanda L

    2008-12-01

    This article describes the epidemiologic profiles of sexually transmitted infections seen in US women. We present a brief description of the infectious agent, describe the epidemiology of the infection among women in terms of race/ethnicity and age (if those data are available), and present what is known about the behavioral risk factors associated with acquisition.

  17. AIM: Attracting Women into Sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Icial S.

    1995-01-01

    Addresses how to attract more college women into the sciences. Attracting Women into Sciences (AIM) is a comprehensive approach that begins with advising, advertising, and ambiguity. The advising process includes dispelling stereotypes and reviewing the options open to a female basic science major. Interaction, involvement and instruction, finding…

  18. Women in Higher Education Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commonwealth Secretariat, London (England).

    This volume contains 11 papers on the under-representation of women in higher education management in Bahrain, Finland, France, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Nigeria, Peru, the United States and Canada, the South Pacific and the West Indies. All papers were written by women vice-chancellors, presidents and senior managers of universities in those…

  19. Writing for Women: Civic Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Principal Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific.

    Nearly 360 million women who live in the countries of Asia and the Pacific are illiterate. In this region, and in much of the world, women have restricted access to education, and are the victims of economic, social, and political marginalization. In recent years, governments have become increasingly aware that the inferior position assigned to…

  20. Women's Voices in Experiential Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Karen, Ed.

    This book is a collection of feminist analyses of various topics in experiential education, particularly as it applies to outdoors and adventure education, as well as practical examples of how women's experiences can contribute to the field as a whole. Following an introduction, "The Quilt of Women's Voices" (Maya Angelou), the 25…

  1. Voices of women in physics...

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    We asked a few female physicists for their thoughts about why women are under-represented in the sciences, how this problem can be solved, and whether the challenges of pursuing a scientific career are different for women and men. Their responses were as diverse as their backgrounds. Here's what they had to say...   Margarete Muehlleitner is a theoretical physicist, a French university lecturer and a fellow in CERN's Theory Group. She says that in Germany, her home country, 'Only a small percentage of women studying physics go on to do a master's degree, and even fewer go further than that in their subject.' She continues, 'As far as I know, about 1% of university physics professors are women, a situation that hasn't changed much in 100 years!' In her opinion, this dramatic imbalance between the sexes can be explained by two problems. 'Women don't think they are capable of making a career in physics or maths,'...

  2. Tropical parasitic diseases and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okwa, O O

    2007-12-01

    Tropical parasitic diseases constitute the greatest threat to the health and socio-economic status of women as a gender and social group. There are some gender specific ways in which parasitic diseases affect women in contrast to men due to differences in exposure, occupational risk, sociocultural behavior, gender roles and practices. These parasitic diseases confer some social stigma, which affects the health seeking behavior of women. Women are therefore important in the control of these parasitic diseases and they are key agents of change, if they are included in community control programs. Women need more attention in endemic areas as a group that had been neglected. This deprived and excluded group have got vital role to play, as discussed in this review.

  3. Depression and codependency in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes-Hammer, C; Martsolf, D S; Zeller, R A

    1998-12-01

    Seven million American women are depressed, and 40 million Americans, primarily women, have been labeled as codependent. This study aimed to identify the prevalence of codependency in women undergoing treatment for depression, examine the relationship between codependency and depression, and determine which of the symptoms of codependency are most highly predictive of depression scores. Depression and codependency were measured in a sample of 105 depressed women by using the Beck Depression Inventory and the Codependency Assessment Tool. Descriptive statistics, Pearson's Product Moment Correlation, and multiple regression were used for analysis. Of these depressed women, 36% were moderately to severely codependent. Depression and codependency were strongly related, with the significant gamma = .92 (P codependency subscales, Low Self-Worth and Hiding Self correlate most strongly with depression; Other Focus/Self-Neglect added the least-independent--explanatory power. Thus, future research should be directed toward the relationship of codependency to power, alienation of self, and personality disorders.

  4. Women, motherhood and early childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravnbøl, Camilla Ida

    This paper explores the question of how Roma women’s situation influences Roma children’s survival, growth and development in the early years. It focuses specifically on the barriers and opportunities for action that Roma women experience and how these influence their possibilities to engage...... in efforts for their young children. The paper adopts the perspective that in poor and socially excluded Roma communities, young children’s survival, growth and development cannot be addressed effectively if the rights of women are overlooked. Roma women navigate in contexts where they, as women, experience...... an assessment of the mothers’ capacity to internalize and act upon advice. It is argued that supporting Roma women’s access to human rights is likely to have positive outcomes for the women and their families, especially the young children...

  5. Women at risk: Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubis, I

    1996-01-01

    In Indonesia, women, commercial sex workers, truck drivers, migrant workers, and people who live in port areas easily accessible to tourists and fishermen are particularly at risk of becoming infected with HIV. Recognizing the country's potential vulnerability to the HIV/AIDS epidemic, the government and the World Bank agreed to fund a $35.4 million, 3-year HIV/AIDS and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) prevention project to strengthen the capacity of government, nongovernmental organizations, and community-based organizations to carry out the basics of HIV/AIDS prevention, extend the sentinel surveillance system, ensure blood safety, launch public education campaigns, educate health workers on universal precautions and safe waste disposal, promote safer sex skills and behavioral change, and test the sensitivity of certain antibiotics to syphilis and gonorrhea. The program will also establish a STD control program and address the economic impact of the disease by improving the livelihood strategies of HIV/AIDS-affected communities.

  6. Once Ordinary Women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    ON each of their name cards, Yuan Jinxiang, Shi Yun and Ruan Youlan have distinguished titles: general manager of the Jinxiang Industrial and Commercial Company; general manager of the Dapeng Group Co. Ltd.; and chairman of the board of the Malan Direct Trading Co. Ltd., and general manager of Zhengfu Real Estate Co. Ltd. Their total capital comes to over 100 million. But when you know their history, you’ll discover a decade ago they were only a farmer, an educated youth who went to the countryside and later returned to the city, and an housewife from Hong Kong.China’s reform and opening have brought many marvels in the country’s history, but the marvels about people, especially women, are most impressive.

  7. Heart Disease Affects Women of All Ages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Heart Disease Affects Women of All Ages Past Issues / Winter ... weeks of a heart attack. For Women with Heart Disease: About 6 million American women have coronary heart ...

  8. Nazi Women Before 1933: Rebels Against Emancipation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koonz, Claudia

    1976-01-01

    The author examines the political affiliation of German women with the past Nazi party before 1933. He discusses why German women supported the anti-feminist Nazi group which showed open contempt for women. (Author/RM)

  9. The Committee for Women and Children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    FOR a long time, many Chinese women workers appealed to the government to set up a special organization for women and children under the State Council. They believed with the women movement developing rapidly, many

  10. Hirsutism in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bode, David; Seehusen, Dean A; Baird, Drew

    2012-02-15

    Hirsutism is excess terminal hair that commonly appears in a male pattern in women. Although hirsutism is generally associated with hyperandrogenemia, one-half of women with mild symptoms have normal androgen levels. The most common cause of hirsutism is polycystic ovary syndrome, accounting for three out of every four cases. Many medications can also cause hirsutism. In patients whose hirsutism is not related to medication use, evaluation is focused on testing for endocrinopathies and neoplasms, such as polycystic ovary syndrome, adrenal hyperplasia, thyroid dysfunction, Cushing syndrome, and androgen-secreting tumors. Symptoms and findings suggestive of neoplasm include rapid onset of symptoms, signs of virilization, and a palpable abdominal or pelvic mass. Patients without these findings who have mild symptoms and normal menses can be treated empirically. For patients with moderate or severe symptoms, an early morning total testosterone level should be obtained, and if moderately elevated, it should be followed by a plasma free testosterone level. A total testosterone level greater than 200 ng per dL (6.94 nmol per L) should prompt evaluation for an androgen-secreting tumor. Further workup is guided by history and physical examination, and may include thyroid function tests, prolactin level, 17-hydroxyprogesterone level, and corticotropin stimulation test. Treatment includes hair removal and pharmacologic measures. Shaving is effective but needs to be repeated often. Evidence for the effectiveness of electrolysis and laser therapy is limited. In patients who are not planning a pregnancy, first-line pharmacologic treatment should include oral contraceptives. Topical agents, such as eflornithine, may also be used. Treatment response should be monitored for at least six months before making adjustments.

  11. Women, work and pregnancy outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffman, S

    1988-01-01

    In developing countries, 1/3 of infants are born weighing less than 2500 grams. A study conducted in Ethiopia among women consuming about 1600 kcal/day, those who were very physically active during pregnancy bore smaller babies, and gained less weight during pregnancy, than those who were not so active. Average birth weight was 3068 grams for the 1st group, 3270 grams for the less active. The active group of women gained an average of 6.5 kilograms, and the less active 9.2 kilograms. Women who did not engage in heavy work during pregnancy, although they were undernourished, apparently did not bear growth-retarded babies. Indirect evidence for the effect of physical activity on pregnancy outcome comes from studies conducted in Taiwan, and the Gambia. These studies, and others from Malawi, Burkina Faso, and Kenya have shown that women's energy expenditures vary greatly with the agricultural season. Daily housekeeping tasks, however, also consume a lot of women's energy. Technologies that allow women to reduce energy expenditure can have beneficial effects, if they do not simultaneously reduce their incomes. For instance, programs improving water or fuel availability, or reducing fuel needs, reduce women's energy expenditures. Food processing mills can help too if women have access to them, and are thus not in danger of being displaced from their jobs and losing necessary income. Examples of technology improving women's tasks are pedal drying machines for nice in Bangladesh, using a greater and pressing machine to prepare gari in Ghana; but growing thicker rice stalks in Indonesia displaced women workers and reduced income.

  12. Ischemic heart disease in women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella Iraklianou

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Coronary heart disease has long been recognized as the leading cause of death among middle-aged men and an equally important cause of death and disability among older women. Women with acute ischemic syndromes tend to be older than men with such syndromes. This is considered to be attributed to the protective effects of female ovarian sex hormones. Estrogen express an antiatherogenic profile via mechanisms that cause favorable modifications of lipoprotein levels, coagulation and fibrolytic system and alterations in the wall of vessels that cause vasodilation. Women are susceptible to coronary heart disease because of differences in the anatomy and physiology of their vessels. Women's coronary arteries are smaller and have more diffuse disease than men's. Ischemia can be induced in women without flow limiting stenosis because of endothelial dysfunction or coronary spasm. Usually, the way of manifestation of the disease and ECG abnormalities are not typical in women. Female patients usually delay to seek treatment for their symptoms .The way of evaluation and treatment is usually conservative in women than male counterparts. The diagnosis of the disease is overestimated in men and the treatment is more often invasive, even in the category of low risk. Reversely, women of high risk are less likely to undergo a full assessment and invasive diagnostic and therapeutic interventions are seldom. Recommendations of the American Heart Association for ischemic heart disease in women are in accordance to alterations in the way of life interventions in major risk factors such as arterial hypertension, dyslipidemia and diabetes mellitus, preventive use of medications and drugs that are not recommended. In this category of medications belong hormone replacement therapy (HRT.The last is not recommended for primary and secondary prevention of coronary heart disease in women.

  13. Women Economy Reforming the New Market Pattern

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bai Yifeng; Liu Jinliang

    2006-01-01

    @@ From August 12 to 13, "2006women Economy Forum" was held in Beijing. This forum is organized by China Association of Women Entrepreneurs, United Nations Development Fund for Women (Beijing), USA US-China Economic and Trade Promotion Council, China Women and Children Development Center, China International Economy TV and Talents magazine. The theme of this forum is:Women Economy Power and Women Entrepreneur Spirit.

  14. Urinary Tract Infection in Postmenopausal Women

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is the most common bacterial infection in women in general and in postmenopausal women in particular. Two groups of elderly women with recurrent UTI should be differentiated regarding age and general status: healthy, young postmenopausal women aged 50 to 70 years who are neither institutionalized or catheterized and elderly institutionalized women with or without a catheter. Bacteriuria occurs more often in elderly functionally impaired women, but in general it i...

  15. Conference empowers many women, dismays others.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walford, J

    1999-11-01

    The goal of the 1999 National Conference on Women and HIV/AIDS was to share information and politically and mentally empower women to manage their health care. One major session, entitled HIV in Women in Color Communities, addressed the changing role of women in the history of the disease. Women were initially seen as carriers, but their image has changed to that of victim. Trends continue to show that infection rates among women are rising faster than those among men. Women were urged to change their roles as victims, and to demand more women-centered treatment programs, better laws to protect them from violence, and leadership development.

  16. [Valvular heart disease in women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tornos, Pilar

    2006-08-01

    Very few studies of valvular heart disease have been specifically carried out in women. It is well known that the prevalence of some types of valve disease is influenced by sex: rheumatic mitral stenosis is very common in women but degenerative valve disease affects both sexes similarly. A number of sex differences in the physiopathology of degenerative aortic stenosis have been reported: the degree of calcification is less in women than men and women's ventricles respond to equivalent reductions in valve area with a greater increase in gradient and greater contractility. With regard to prognosis, it is generally accepted that mortality associated with heart surgery is higher in women than men, for both coronary artery and valve surgery. The underlying reasons for the increase in mortality are not clear. Pregnancy presents particular difficulties for women with valvular heart disease. In those with significant valve lesions, it is advisable to correct the valve disease before pregnancy is considered. Anticoagulant treatment involves serious problems for pregnant women with a mechanical prosthesis. They suffer increased risks of prosthetic valve thrombosis and of fetal embryopathy if they take oral anticoagulants during the first trimester.

  17. Women-Only Tourism: Agency and Control in Women's Leisure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane Levy

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A trend in the travel industry has been the growth of tours marketed for women only. These often involve travel with the goal of learning new skills, developing competence, or sharing group experiences. In this study, I analyze these tours using feminist leisure theory to illustrate how women are using their agency to take control of their own leisure. Using interviews with tour participants and participant observation, I conclude that taking part in a women-only tour is a unique leisure experience with the ability to remove women from the constraints of everyday role expectations and offer them opportunities to assert independence and develop life skills that are potentially life changing and empowering.

  18. Women's Centers and Women Administrators: Breaking the Glass Slipper Together.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellow, Gail O.

    1988-01-01

    Focuses on benefits of mutually supportive relationships between female administrators and women's center directors. Identifies specific roles that female administrators can play (guardian angel, mentor). Also discusses benefits that administrators derive from closer ties with center directors. (NB)

  19. Psychogenic seizures--why women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, M

    2000-01-01

    The only consistent finding in studies of psychogenic seizures is the approximately threefold higher incidence in women. Therefore, why women? Charcot and Freud emphasized the sexual aspects of the seizure as has the current interest in childhood sexual abuse. From case studies and review of the literature the author believes that psychogenic seizures in women express rage, fear, and helplessness against the dominant and abusive male rather than sexual conflicts. Emphasizing the aggressive component of seizures does not minimize the traumatic effects of sexual abuse but rather includes it as leading to rage and helplessness.

  20. Three Laid-off Women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    THE problems of laid-off women have become a common concern in Shanghai. Laid-off women believe they should be able to find employment instead of returning to their kitchens. Women’s organizations, which are called women’s parents’ home, are also helping laid-off women return to their jobs by every possible means. Chen Xiaoli was a worker at a knitting mill which employed several hundred workers in Shanghai. She is tall, healthy and open-minded. During the "cultural revolution," teaching work was stopped in