Forte, James A.; And Others
Tests Frank's model of oppressive situations and asymmetric role-taking in a survey of 66 battered women and 80 nonbattered women. Battered women's social situations were characterized by powerlessness, social isolation, and economic dependency. Develops the value of this theoretical approach with its emphasis on enhancing women's power base and…
Keller, L E
Violence against women by their male partners is widespread and infrequently identified as a causal factor in multiple physical and psychological problems of female patients in medical and psychiatric settings. Three main countertransferences that interfere with accurate identification of battered women are described: (1) counter- identification, (2)countertransference rage, and (3) countertransference helplessness. Battering men and battered women are found in all levels of society, although younger, lower income, less-educated men who have observed parental violence in their own home are at higher risk of abusing their spouses. Additionally, antisocial personality disorder, depression, and/or alcohol and drug abuse increase the risk of male violence in the home. Contrary to popular belief, the husband-to-wife violence is usually motivated by his need to control her rather than a result of his loss of control. Battered women show no consistent prebattering risk markers, except for a history of parental violence in their family of origin. Violence against women by their male partners is a serious public health problem that has not been adequately addressed by the medical and psychiatric professions. Myths and clinical realities of battered women are described and detailed recommendations for clinical inquiry and evaluation of level of danger are given.
Gleason, W J
Prevalence of mental disorders in 62 battered women receiving services from a Florida battered woman agency was identified by means of a structured interview, the Diagnostic Interview Schedule. Of the total sample of battered women, 30 were in a shelter operated by the agency and 32 were living in their own homes and receiving assistance from the agency. Resultant diagnoses met diagnostic criteria developed in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (3rd. ed.) of the American Psychiatric Association. The Diagnostic Interview Schedule is a 263 item structured interview used in the National Institute of Mental Health Epidemiological Catchment Area program carried out in the early 1980s. The Diagnostic Interview Schedule permits the use of 10,953 females in the epidemiological study as a comparison group of normal women. Scoring of the interviews was done by a computer diagnostic program with absolute decision rules. Extremely high prevalence was found for psychosexual dysfunction, major depression, post traumatic stress disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, and obsessive compulsive disorder. These diagnoses appear to reflect the major components of the battered woman syndrome developed by Lenore Walker and the study approximates Walker's request for improved methodology in the research into the psychology of the battered woman.
Arzy, Ronit; Amir, Marianne; Kotler, Moshe
The increasing prevalence of domestic violence in Israel has engendered a critical need to identify and treat battered women. This paper looks at Posttraumatic Stress disorder (PTSD) and considers its predictors among battered women. The research sample was comprised of a sample of 91 battered women between the ages of 20 and 60 who applied to the…
Kim, Jinseok; Gray, Karen A.
Battered women's reasons for staying with or leaving their male partners are varied and complex. Using data from the Domestic Violence Experience in Omaha, Nebraska, a discrete-time hazard model was employed to examine a woman's decision based on four factors: financial independence, witness of parental violence, psychological factors, and the…
Rodriguez, M A; Quiroga, S S; Bauer, H M
To determine the barriers to identification and management of domestic violence from the battered women's perspective. Qualitative research methods using semistructured focus groups. Urban and suburban community-based organizations serving women and their families in the San Francisco Bay (Calif) area. Fifty-one women with histories of domestic violence comprised eight focus groups divided as follows: two groups of Latino (n=14), two groups of white (n=14), Asian (n=14), and two groups of African-American (n=9) women. Participants from all ethnic groups identified major factors that affect identification and management of battered women in the health care setting. Factors that interfere with patient disclosure included threats of violence from the partner, embarrassment, adherence to gender roles, concerns about police involvement and lack of trust in the health care provider. One factor that predisposed a woman to seek help from providers was a need for the providers to exhibit compassion, awareness, and respect for the patient's need to make the final decisions about her situation. Most participants said that providers should take the initiative to ask directly about domestic violence, establish a supportive patient-provider relationship, and refer battered women to available community resources. The major institutional barriers to using the health care system included the high cost of medical care and long waiting periods. Many battered women experience social, institutional, and provider barriers to obtaining help from the health care system for problems related to domestic violence. Providers as well as institutions can overcome these barriers through an understanding of the social context of domestic violence and the victim's needs. Identification may be improved through a trusting patient-provider relationship and by direct questioning about domestic violence.
Juana Robledo Martín
Full Text Available Violence towards and against women consists in any kind of violation of woman’s personality, her physical integrity or her freedom of movement. Nowadays, gender-based violence is considered a state and public health problem as well as a social concerning subject.Objective: To identify the factors that influence on the decisions that battered women make.Methodology: The study population are battered women who live in Madrid province and who are being attended in the Municipal Points of the Regional Observatory against the Gender Violence.The information was collected by performing focus groups and deep interviews.Results: There are several factors which influence on the decisions that battered women make, like the existence or not of children they have to take care of, the economic dependence and the ignorance of the woman, in some cases, of the existence of this ill-treatment, but over all, we could even say beyond all these, there is one that is the most important, common and we could say it is the main axis that determine their behaviour. This factor is fear.Discussion: When attending these women we may be aware of the psychological situation they are, and we should be able to identify if the woman is asking us for help when she comes to us and try to identify and treat this factor that influences the decisions the woman we attend makes.
Peled, E; Edleson, J L
As this century ends there continues to be little public attention devoted to child witnesses of woman abuse and few social programs exist to meet their needs. This article presents the findings of a qualitative evaluation of a group program for children of battered women. Interviews were conducted with 16 mothers, 5 fathers, 9 group leaders, and 30 children who participated in 8 groups. Data also included observations of one complete group process (10 groups and 3 family sessions). Both intended and unintended results are presented and recommendations for practice are discussed.
Jaramillo-Vélez, Diva E; Ospina-Muñoz, Doris E; Cabarcas-Iglesias, Germán; Humphreys, Janice
Determining the relationship of resilience and spirituality in battered women to distress, the frequency and intensity of mistreatment and the severity of injury. A sample was taken of 199 women who consulted Comisarías de Familia de Medellín, Colombia (family police/counselling stations). Resilience scales (RS), spiritual perspective (SPS), SCL-90R and conflict tactics (CTS) were used. Internal consistency, correlation and main exploratory components were measured. The scales revealed internal consistency. Resilience was positively correlated to spirituality (r = 0.22; p = 0.0015) and negatively correlated to total positive distress symptoms (PST) (r = -0.39; p spirituality, a lower number of positive distress symptoms and less distress.
To identify nursing diagnoses and interventions applicable for post-acute-phase battered women. Eight battered women were interviewed twice for 2 hours. Gordon's functional health patterns provided the framework for data collection. Fifty-three nursing diagnoses and 52 nursing interventions were indicated in the data; 24 nursing diagnoses and 26 nursing interventions were present in all participants' data. With the use of comprehensive interventions, nurses can make a major contribution to society by enabling battered women to move to a more protected lifestyle.
Fleury-Steiner, Ruth E.; Bybee, Deborah; Sullivan, Cris M.; Belknap, Joanne; Melton, Heather C.
While a small number of past studies have examined either situational, relational, or systems-level factors that influence battered women's use of either the police, prosecutorial, or court systems, no study to date has examined how these factors each influence women's intentions to reuse these systems. To address this gap, in-person interviews…
Febres, Jeniimarie; Shorey, Ryan C.; Brasfield, Hope; Zucosky, Heather C.; Ninnemann, Andrew; Elmquist, Joanna; Bucossi, Meggan M.; Andersen, Shawna M.; Schonbrun, Yael C.; Stuart, Gregory L.
The substantial increase in the enrollment of women in batterer intervention programs (BIPs) over the past 30 years has greatly outpaced research on women who perpetrate intimate partner violence (IPV). As a result, it is unknown whether existing programs, which were originally designed to treat male perpetrators, are effective at preventing…
Eman H. Alsabhan
Full Text Available Background: Violence against women is an important public-health problem that draws attention of a wide spectrum of clinicians. However, multiple barriers undermine the efforts of primary health care workers to properly manage and deal with battered women. Objectives: The aim of the present study was to reveal barriers that might impede administering comprehensive health care to battered women and compare these barriers between nurses and physicians and identify factors affecting such barriers. Methods: A total of 1553 medical staff from 78 primary health care units agreed to share in this study, of these 565 were physicians and 988 were nurses. Results: Barriers related to the battered woman topped the list of ranks for both physicians (93.1 ± 17.4% and nurses (82.1 ± 29.3%. Institutional barriers (87.2 ± 21.5%, barriers related to the health staff (79.8 ± 20. 5%, and social barriers (77.5 ± 21.7% followed, respectively, in the rank list of physicians while for the list of nurses, social barriers (75.1 ± 30.1%, institutional barriers (74.3 ± 31.7% followed with barriers related to health staff (70.0 ± 30.0% at the bottom of the list. Only duration spent at work and degree of education of nurses were significantly affecting the total barrier score, while these factors had no significant association among physicians. Conclusion: Real barriers exist that might interfere with administering proper comprehensive health care at the primary health care units by both physicians and nurses. This necessitates design of specific programs to improve both the knowledge and skills of the medical staff to deal with violence among women. Also, available resources and infrastructure must be strengthened to face this problem and enable primary health care staff to care for battered women. Keywords: Battered women, Barriers, Physicians, Nurses, Primary health care
Wahed, Tania; Bhuiya, Abbas
Violence against women is a common and insidious phenomenon in Bangladesh. The types of violence commonly committed are domestic violence, acid throwing, rape, trafficking and forced prostitution. Domestic violence is the most common form of violence and its prevalence is higher in rural areas. A higher prevalence of verbal abuse than physical abuse by partners has been observed. The reasons mentioned for abuse were trivial and included questioning of the husband, failure to perform household work and care of children, economic problems, stealing, refusal to bring dowry, etc. The factors associated with violence were the age of women, age of husband, past exposure to familial violence, and lack of spousal communication. The majority of abused women remained silent about their experience because of the high acceptance of violence within society, fear of repercussion, tarnishing family honour and own reputation, jeopardizing children's future, and lack of an alternative place to stay. However, severely abused women, women who had frequent verbal disputes, higher level of education, and support from natal homes were more likely to disclose violence. A very small proportion of women approached institutional sources for help and only when the abuse was severe, became life threatening or children were at risk. Interestingly, violence increased with membership of women in micro-credit organizations initially but tapered off as duration of involvement increased. The high acceptability of violence within society acts as a deterrent for legal redress. Effective strategies for the prevention of violence should involve public awareness campaigns and community-based networks to support victims.
In this qualitative study with women who have left abusive heterosexual relationships, the informants labeling themselves stupid is investigated. Several different meanings ascribed to stupidity were found, with feeling stupid for allowing oneself to be mistreated and for staying in the abusive relationship as main themes. Four frames for interpreting the findings are presented: abusive relationship dynamics, gendered shame, the gender-equality-oriented Nordic context, and leaving processes. It is proposed that feeling- and labeling oneself-stupid is an expression of gendered shame or, more explicitly, of battered shame.
Full Text Available Background & aim: Domestic violence is an individual and social damage, which is affected by personality traits and can cause a crisis for the mental health of individuals; thus, the present study aimed to investigating personality traits and its impact on mental health of battered women in Tehran, 2013. Methods:In this cross-sectional study, 196 married women who referred to Tehran Legal Medicine Center in 2013 were selected based on simple sampling method, and then were studied based on General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28 and the NEO Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI. In this cross-sectional study, the data were analyzed with the Pearson Correlation Test using the SPSS-16. Results: The present study revealed that statistically mental health has a significant and positive correlation with neuroticism personality trait (r=0.318, P
Khadra, Christelle; Wehbe, Nancy; Lachance Fiola, Jacinthe; Skaff, Wadih; Nehmé, Mona
Intimate partner violence against women is common in Lebanon and can lead to major health problems. However, the incidence of symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in battered women has not been extensively explored in the Lebanese cultural context. The objectives of this study were as follows: (a) to determine the prevalence of PTSD symptoms among women in Lebanon who have been physically abused by their partners, (b) to assess whether the rate of PTSD symptoms varied according to sociodemographic variables, and (c) to reveal other attributes that might be risk factors for developing symptoms of PTSD. Of the 95 physically abused women who met inclusion criteria, 85 completed a questionnaire including sociodemographic questions, the physical abuse subscale of the Composite Abuse Scale (CAS), and the PTSD Checklist-Civilian Version (PCL-C). Results showed a high prevalence of PTSD symptoms (97%), positively correlated with physical violence (r = .719). Lower education level and recent abuse were correlated with symptom severity, as were the number of problematic habitual behaviors in the abusive partner and the use of psychotherapy. Increased involvement of health care professionals in the detection of women at risk, with referral to appropriate resources, is suggested to improve prevention and management efforts. © The Author(s) 2014.
Perez, Sara; Johnson, Dawn M.; Wright, Caroline Vaile
Intimate partner violence (IPV) is associated with significant psychological distress, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, factors that attenuate the impact of IPV on PTSD remain largely unknown. Using hierarchical regression, this investigation explored the impact of resource acquisition and empowerment on the relationship between IPV and PTSD. Empowerment demonstrated greater relative importance over resource acquisition. Specifically, empowerment was found to attenuate the impact of IPV severity on PTSD at low and moderate levels of violence. The importance of fostering empowerment and addressing PTSD in addition to provision of resources in battered women is discussed. PMID:22411301
Full Text Available This article examines the promoting and impeding factors that advance the turning point in thelives of battered women. The subject is important because of the contribution of the turning pointstage to the ability of women to leave the violent relationship and the way in which the publicwelfare agencies become involved in order to help the victim to advance towards the turning point.The article also reviews the influence of the entertainment media in shaping the positions of thepublic regarding marital violence, the presentation of battered women in the media, and theconnection between their media presentation and their advancement towards the turning point inreality.The research is based on a combination of qualitative and quantitative data, and focuses on contentanalysis. The qualitative content analysis included 40 journal articles, 1 documentary film and onedrama series, the personal interviews included 8 social workers and 6 journalists, and the focusgroup included 8 battered women. The findings indicate an awareness of battered women in thevarious media, and of a gap between the perception of social workers and the journalists regardingthe role of the media in raising social problems.The article calls for cooperation between the media and the professionals in order to construct messages of empowerment that will enable women to advance towards the turning point in theirlives.
Elmquist, JoAnna; Hamel, John; Shorey, Ryan C.; Labrecque, Lindsay; Ninnemann, Andrew; Stuart, Gregory L.
Research has attempted to elucidate men and women’s proximal motivations for perpetrating intimate partner violence (IPV). However, previous research has yet to clarify and resolve contention regarding whether motives for IPV are gender-neutral or gender specific. Thus, the purpose of this present study was to compare motives for physical IPV perpetration among a sample of men (n =90) and women (n =87) arrested for domestic violence and court-referred to batterer intervention programs. Results demonstrated that the most frequently endorsed motives for IPV by both men and women were self-defense, expression of negative emotions, and communication difficulties. With the exception of expression of negative emotions and retaliation, with women endorsing these motives more often than men, there were no significant differences between men and women’s self-reported reasons for perpetrating physical aggression. The implications of these findings for future research and intervention programs are discussed. PMID:25332752
Renzetti, Claire M; Follingstad, Diane R
The delivery of therapeutic services to clients is influenced by service providers' understanding of the "fit" of a specific program with their service mandate as well as their perceptions of the potential benefits of the program. This article discusses the development and implementation of a therapeutic horticulture (TH) program at a battered women's shelter that serves 17 counties in Central Kentucky. Through semistructured interviews, we gauge the shelter staff's perceptions of the relationship of the TH program to the shelter's overall mission; their sense of the program's benefits for residents, for the shelter as a community organization, and for themselves; and their concerns about the TH program. We consider how these findings may impact future programming at the shelter, and we discuss plans for further evaluation of the TH program in terms of its impact on shelter residents' long-term outcomes.
Vidal-Fernández, Ana; Megías, Jesús L
This study aimed to analyze the influence of victim-related and observer-related factors in victim blaming of battered women. Two hundred and forty six college students participated. They were asked to read a scenario describing a hypothetical case of physical violence perpetrated by a man against his partner. Depending on the experimental condition, the victim was described either as a feminist and/or as exhibiting difficulties in her relationship with others or not. A hierarchical regression analysis was performed with victim blaming as dependent variable. Participants' hostile sexism positively predicted victim blaming when the victim was described as a feminist and as a "difficult to deal with" woman (p feminist woman (p < .001). These results underscore the importance of victim-related and observer-related factors, and of their interaction, in blaming the victim of gender-based violence.
Gatowski, S I; Dobbin, S A; Richardson, J T; Ginsburg, G P
A theoretical framework is proposed for understanding how the innovative use of behavioral science evidence is both produced and diffused among members of the global legal community. Using case law analyses and interviews with key individuals involved in selected cases, we examine how battered woman syndrome (BWS) is produced and diffused between and among Australia, Canada, England, and the United States. The following diffusion mechanisms are proposed: (1) The availability and accessibility of credible dissemination sources; (2) characteristics of the overall practice environment operating in each legal culture; (3) the attitudes and knowledge of attorneys and judges about the use of scientific evidence; (4) political and social support for the use of the evidence in the legal culture; and (5) the level of structural equivalence, communication, and "neighbor effects" between and among legal cultures. Each mechanism is discussed and supplemented with information from interviews with individuals involved in key cases involving BWS evidence.
Derks, S.W.; Heessels, M.
Scholarly literature on domestic violence in Latin America often relates it to machismo and marianismo. Within this gender paradigm, women are understood to embrace the values of the Virgin Mary as a passive submissive role model. However, these studies omit facts relating to the actual role of the
Margolies, L; Leeder, E
This article presents the clinical experiences on more than 30 lesbian batterers during a 5-year period in a large city and a small rural community in the US. Data on the psychological profile of batterers and relationships in which abuse occurs are given. The two treatment models described are group therapy, and a three-phase community model. The authors suggest that lesbian batterers are women who have broken the norm of compliant victim, running counter to the expectations of female survivors of childhood family violence. This study concluded that lesbian battering is a social and psychological problem, which can be solved through proper therapy. This was demonstrated by the treatment models, which have been successful in eliminating violence among a diverse group of batterers. However, the lack of understanding about lesbian batterers has resulted to the cycle of violence that continues to be unchallenged.
Ascione, Frank R; Weber, Claudia V; Thompson, Teresa M; Heath, John; Maruyama, Mika; Hayashi, Kentaro
Women residing at domestic violence shelters (S group) were nearly 11 times more likely to report that their partner had hurt or killed pets than a comparison group of women who said they had not experienced intimate violence (NS group). Reports of threatened harm to pets were more than 4 times higher for the S group. Using the Conflict Tactics Scale, the authors demonstrated that severe physical violence was a significant predictor of pet abuse. The vast majority of shelter women described being emotionally close to their pets and distraught by the abuse family pets experienced. Children were often exposed to pet abuse, and most reported being distressed by these experiences. A substantial minority of S-group women reported that their concern for their pets' welfare prevented them from seeking shelter sooner. This seemed truer for women without children, who may have had stronger pet attachments. This obstacle to seeking safety should be addressed by domestic violence agencies.
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Explorar las experiencias de las parteras en la detección de mujeres maltratadas durante el embarazo, además de conocer los tipos de violencia que identifican con mayor facilidad. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Estudio cualitativo en donde se entrevistó, entre enero y septiembre de 2001, a 12 parteras que forman parte del grupo de parteras del Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia de Morelos, México. Se hizo una selección de aquellas que se ubicaban en Cuernavaca y sus alrededores. RESULTADOS: Se reporta: a el proceso de identificación de violencia realizado por las parteras en la atención prenatal, el cual se basa en un patrón de conductas y actitudes de las mujeres maltratadas tales como descuido en su persona, timidez y, sobre todo, una falta de control en las decisiones sobre el cuidado a su salud, lo cual permite a las parteras hacer preguntas directas sobre violencia; b las violencias que identifican las parteras con mayor facilidad son la física y la emocional. La violencia sexual fue más difícil para su identificación de manera directa. CONCLUSIONES: Incluir a las parteras dentro de los planes y programas para atender a la violencia intrafamiliar, debido a que su práctica permite una respuesta de apoyo directo a las mujeres maltratadas que lo solicitan. Se propone desarrollar estrategias de capacitación especializada para esta población que atiende a un sector importante de mujeres embarazadas en México.OBJECTIVE: To explore the experiences of midwives in the identification of battered women during pregnancy and to describe the types of violence they identify most easily. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A qualitative study was conducted between January and September 2001 among twelve midwives from a group of midwives ascribed to the Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia (INAH, National Institute of Anthropology and History, in Morelos, Mexico. Participants were selected from those living in Cuernavaca City and
Hepworth, H. Philip
The surfacing of battered wives as a specific problem comes out of the many social changes occurring in Britain and many other countries in the 1960's. It comes in part from the growing number of marriages, the peaking of the baby boom in 1959, a decrease in family size, and a steady growth in female labor force participation. Importantly, women's…
Cultural heritage, societal values, role expectations, the legal system, and sex stereotyping are examples of the multi-level collusion of forces which keep victims of domestic violence from challenging the legitimacy of the abusive behavior. Powerless subjects of injustice, specifically battered women, who are eager to maintain high self-regard…
Sorantin, E.; Lindbichler, F.
The recognition of a battered child represents a challenge for all groups of adults dealing with children. Radiology plays a special role in this setting. By detection typical injuries, imaging is able to confirm the suspicion of a battered child. Recognition of those injuries on films, taken for other reasons, gives the caretaker an important hint, thus maybe preventing a fatal outcome for the child. One of the most important injury types is represented by the so called ''shakin baby syndrome''. The infant is held by the thorax and shaken. Thus causing a repetitive acceleration-deceleration trauma, which leads to the typical paravertebral rib fractures, intracranial bleeding and eye injuries. After shaking the child is thrown away, with subsequent injuries. The aim of this article is the presentation of an overview regarding the radiology of the battered child. Typical examples will be shown. (orig.) [de
Lichtendonk, W.J.; Vliet, van T.; Visser, J.E.; Hamer, R.J.
A batter is provided comprising flour, water and optionally starch, wherein the batter comprises glutenin particles having a volume surface averaged particle size smaller than 10 µm. A batter according to the invention comprises flour and optionally starch, and optionally baking powder and salt. At
As Evan Stark observes, getting domestic violence against women recognized as coercive control will require a major effort of storytelling. Women's accounts of subjugation have to be narrated in a way that is both true to their experiences and capable of eliciting public understanding, sympathy, and action. This essay draws on an interdisciplinary literature on narrative to show why doing that poses such a formidable challenge. In lieu of the tragic form that has dominated battered women's storytelling, and in lieu of the quest and mystery forms that appear in Stark's own accounts, this article argues for using a rebirth story line.This genre, which has affinities with the fairytales Snow White and Sleeping Beauty, seems an unlikely vehicle for asserting battered women's combination of victimization and agency. Drawing on the stories told by battered women as part of a successful reform effort, however, this article shows how women have used the form effectively.
Elsner, K.; Merk, J.; Sokiranski, R.
Synonyms for the 'battered child' syndrome (BCS) are terms describing the physical and body aspects of the process, such as 'child abuse', or 'non-accidental injury'. These are to be distinguished from the psychic aspects and abuse, emotional and bodily neglect, and sexual abuse. Most cases are one or another combination of these aspects. Radiology is the essential method for giving proof of such abuses, identifying the signs of maltreatment in a medical record, or for disproving suspected abuse. (orig./AJ) [de
women by men'. Rather society must appreciate that gender battering is a reality across the gender divide, particularly in the 21st century Africa. In its methodology, the article has engaged a theophilosophical approach that involves a social, ...
Wind, P.; Linden, van der E.
This invention describes a batter that is suitable for preparing a pasta. The batter comprises water, a starch and a protein, whereby the weight ratio between the protein and the total amount of starch in the batter is represented by the symbol y and whereby the weight percentage of the total amount
Stein, Michelle L.; Miller, Audrey K.
Intimate partner violence (IPV) constitutes the majority of assaults against women in the United States, and greater than one third of female homicide victims are murdered by an intimate partner. In a small percentage of cases, battered women kill their abusers, and evidence of battering and its effects may be used to support a plea of…
Full Text Available This study analyzed, first, if there were any differences in attitudes towards partner violence (i.e., perceivedseverity, victim blaming, and acceptability, responsibility attributions, sexism, and risk of recidivismbetween Latin American immigrants and Spanish offenders convicted of intimate-partner violence at thebeginning of a batterer intervention program. Second, differences in the batterer intervention programoutcomes between Spanish and Latin American offenders were explored. The sample consisted of 278batterers (211 Spanish and 67 Latin American who participated in a community-based battererintervention program. Results showed significant differences between Spanish and Latin Americanoffenders in perceived severity, victim blaming, violence against women acceptability, and benevolentsexism. Regarding batterer intervention program outcomes, results showed that despite initial differencesbetween Spanish and Latin American offenders, both groups benefit equally from the intervention.
Smith, Marilyn E; Randall, Elizabeth J
Intimate partner violence continues to be a confounding national health problem, especially for women and children. Certified batterers' intervention programs are one means currently being used to combat intimate partner violence. Existential phenomenology was utilized in this qualitative study to gain an understanding of the perceptions of the perpetrator prior to beginning a batterer intervention program. The batterer's experience is divided into two major themes: lack of justification of behaviors toward him and minimization and justification of his behaviors toward the victim and others. It is hoped that obtaining this understanding will encourage program personnel working in the area of batterers' intervention programs to include more emotional skills training within such programs, thus improving the quality of life for victims, perpetrators, and their families.
Sorantin, E.; Lindbichler, F. [Universitaetsklinik fuer Radiologie, Graz (Austria). Abt. fuer Kinderradiologie
The recognition of a battered child represents a challenge for all groups of adults dealing with children. Radiology plays a special role in this setting. By detection typical injuries, imaging is able to confirm the suspicion of a battered child. Recognition of those injuries on films, taken for other reasons, gives the caretaker an important hint, thus maybe preventing a fatal outcome for the child. One of the most important injury types is represented by the so called ''shakin baby syndrome''. The infant is held by the thorax and shaken. Thus causing a repetitive acceleration-deceleration trauma, which leads to the typical paravertebral rib fractures, intracranial bleeding and eye injuries. After shaking the child is thrown away, with subsequent injuries. The aim of this article is the presentation of an overview regarding the radiology of the battered child. Typical examples will be shown. (orig.) [German] Die Aufdeckung einer Kindesmisshandlung stellt eine grosse Herausforderung fuer alle in der Kinderbetreuung taetigen Berufsgruppen dar. Der Radiologie kommt eine besondere Rolle zu, da sie einerseits durch die Erkennung typischer Verletzungsmuster einen Verdacht bestaetigen, als auch bei ''Zufallsbefunden'' die moeglicherweise fatalen Folgen fuer die betroffenen Kinder verhindern kann. Der typische Verletzungsmechanismus im Rahmen einer Kindesmisshandlung stellt das sog. ''shakin baby syndrome'' dar. Dabei wird der Thorax mit beiden Haenden umfasst und das Kind geschuettelt. Durch dieses repetitive Akzelerations-Dezelerationstrauma entstehen typische Verletzungen mit paravertebralen Rippenfrakturen, ZNS- sowie Retinablutungen. Anschliessend wird das Kind weggeworfen mit entsprechend weiteren Verletzungen. Ziel dieses Artikels ist es, einen Ueberblick ueber die Radiologie der wichtigsten Verletzungen und deren Abklaerung im Rahmen einer Kindesmisshandlung zu geben sowie die Demonstration der Befunde
Elsner, K.; Merk, J.; Sokiranski, R. [Ulm Univ. (Germany). Abt. Diagnostische Radiologie
Synonyms for the `battered child` syndrome (BCS) are terms describing the physical and body aspects of the process, such as `child abuse`, or `non-accidental injury`. These are to be distinguished from the psychic aspects and abuse, emotional and bodily neglect, and sexual abuse. Most cases are one or another combination of these aspects. Radiology is the essential method for giving proof of such abuses, identifying the signs of maltreatment in a medical record, or for disproving suspected abuse. (orig./AJ) [Deutsch] Als Synonym fuer das `Battered-Child`-Syndrom (BCS) stehen die Begriffe der koerperlichen-/physikalischen-Kindesmisshandlung, im angelsaechsischen Sprachraum die Begriffe `Child Abuse` und `Nonaccidental Injury`. Vom Syndrom abzugrenzen sind die seelische Misshandlung, die seelische und koerperliche Vernachlaessigung, und der sexuelle Missbrauch. Kombinationsformen sind nicht selten. Bei der Diagnostik des Syndroms spielt die Radiologie eine entscheidende Rolle. So hilft der Einsatz adaequater Untersuchungsmethoden, den Tatbestand der Misshandlung zu identifizieren und zu dokumentieren, aber auch einen Verdacht zu widerlegen. (orig./AJ)
Barata, Paula C.; Stewart, Donna E.
Individual battered women have reported experiencing housing discrimination, but the extent of this problem has not been examined. This research used two experiments and a survey to determine if landlord discrimination could keep women from accessing rental units. In Study 1, a confederate asked 181 landlords about the availability of a rental…
Nazir, Ashraf; Nasr, Ahmed
Many offshore structures are subjected to overturning moments due to wind load, wave pressure, and ship impacts. Also most of retaining walls are subjected to horizontal forces and bending moments, these forces are due to earth pressure. For foundations in such structures, usually a combination of vertical and batter piles is used. Little information is available in the literature about estimating the capacity of piles under uplift. In cases where these supporting piles are not vertical, the behavior under axial pullout is not well established. In order to delineate the significant variables affecting the ultimate uplift shaft resistance of batter pile in dry sand, a testing program comprising 62 pullout tests was conducted. The tests are conducted on model steel pile installed in loose, medium, and dense sand to an embedded depth ratio, L/d, vary from 7.5 to 30 and with various batter angles of 0°, 10°, 20°, and 30°. Results indicate that the pullout capacity of a batter pile constructed in dense and/or medium density sand increases with the increase of batter angle attains maximum value and then decreases, the maximum value of Pα occurs at batter angle approximately equal to 20°, and it is about 21-31% more than the vertical pile capacity, while the pullout capacity for batter pile that constructed in loose sand decreases with the increase of pile inclination. The results also indicated that the circular pile is more resistant to pullout forces than the square and rectangular pile shape. The rough model piles tested is experienced 18-75% increase in capacity compared with the smooth model piles. The suggested relations for the pullout capacity of batter pile regarding the vertical pile capacity are well predicted.
Full Text Available Many offshore structures are subjected to overturning moments due to wind load, wave pressure, and ship impacts. Also most of retaining walls are subjected to horizontal forces and bending moments, these forces are due to earth pressure. For foundations in such structures, usually a combination of vertical and batter piles is used. Little information is available in the literature about estimating the capacity of piles under uplift. In cases where these supporting piles are not vertical, the behavior under axial pullout is not well established. In order to delineate the significant variables affecting the ultimate uplift shaft resistance of batter pile in dry sand, a testing program comprising 62 pullout tests was conducted. The tests are conducted on model steel pile installed in loose, medium, and dense sand to an embedded depth ratio, L/d, vary from 7.5 to 30 and with various batter angles of 0°, 10°, 20°, and 30°. Results indicate that the pullout capacity of a batter pile constructed in dense and/or medium density sand increases with the increase of batter angle attains maximum value and then decreases, the maximum value of Pα occurs at batter angle approximately equal to 20°, and it is about 21–31% more than the vertical pile capacity, while the pullout capacity for batter pile that constructed in loose sand decreases with the increase of pile inclination. The results also indicated that the circular pile is more resistant to pullout forces than the square and rectangular pile shape. The rough model piles tested is experienced 18–75% increase in capacity compared with the smooth model piles. The suggested relations for the pullout capacity of batter pile regarding the vertical pile capacity are well predicted.
Kapur, Sonia; Zajicek, Anna
How are the images of abused South Asian marriage migrants shaped by domestic violence advocates? We explore the social constructions of battered Asian Indian marriage migrants in the victim advocates' narratives. First, we find the narratives both reproduce and challenge the dominant stereotypes, utilizing some individualistic typifications while constructing these images with an understanding of the broader context of battered South Asian women's experiences. Second, depending on the issue (e.g., economic dependence or religion), the advocates paint either a multidimensional or a one-dimensional picture of their clients. We emphasize the need for further intersectional studies of the images of abused immigrants constructed by victim advocates.
Koch-Nielsen, Inger; Caceres, Lucia
The first Danish crises centres were part of the women’s move-ment back into the 1970’s and were originally based mainly upon female volunteers, who saw the volunteering as part of their engagement in the movement. The centres were created upon and ran according to the principles of sister solida...
Miller, Susan L; Wasileski, Gabriela
Following the fall of communism, Slovakia found itself in a challenging position: to openly acknowledge the existence of intimate partner violence (IPV) and its disproportionate effect on women and children without an infrastructure to address victim safety, and provide resources and legal help. With collaboration with non-governmental organizations (NGOs), the government responded by developing shelters and introducing legislation that criminalized IPV and created social services for victims. To assess implementation efforts, we conducted in-depth interviews with governmental officials and NGO personnel who provide services for battered women. We focus on the operation and efficacy of shelters to discover what services are most needed for battered women, the criminal justice system's response to IPV, and what long-range goals will facilitate more permanent solutions to the social problem of violence against women in Slovakia. © The Author(s) 2015.
Full Text Available Background Since the 70s there was a proliferation of intervention programs for batterers; however the results remain controversial. Objectives This study aims to analyse the literature published between the years of 2000 and 2013 about the effectiveness of the intervention with batterers. Methods A review of papers about intervention with batterers published during this period (2000-2013 was conducted. Social sciences databases were checked. Papers about programs for a specific public or programs with a broad intervention focus, and with female and homosexual offenders were excluded. Results Thirty-six studies that described 37 intervention programs fulfilled the inclusion criteria. In general, the analysed programs adopted a group format (70.3% and a cognitive-behavioural (56.8% or psychoeducational (18.9% intervention model (32.4% assumed to adopt a Duluth model. Concerning the effectiveness, results showed success rates of 39.4%-97%, dropout rates of 10%-58% and recidivism rates of 0%-65.9%. Discussion The effectiveness of intervention with batterers remains controversial, which seems to be due to the different methodologies used in the studies. Despite the inconsistencies, programs for perpetrators are an important way to reduce intimate partner violence recidivism.
More than a decade after its passing, Sri Lanka's Prevention of Domestic Violence Act (PDVA) remains a remedy of last resort for female survivors of intimate partner violence, as there is little support to take on a rights-defined identity as a battered woman both inside and outside the courtroom. However, large numbers of women are accessing the Maintenance Act of 1999 to exit violent relationships without the censure and stigma that attaches to the PDVA. The key to understanding this phenomenon is to consider how familial ideology works in unpredictable ways within the Sri Lankan judicial system. This article examines the reach and different impacts of familial ideology within the judiciary and argues that female survivors of violence navigate this ideology to their own advantage. However, the preference to address violence through the Maintenance Act renders such violence invisible. The price for judicial redress is silence.
Rothman, Emily F.; Johnson, Renee M.; Hemenway, David
Batterers with access to firearms present a serious lethal threat to their partners. The purpose of this exploratory study is to estimate the prevalence of and risk markers for gun possession among Massachusetts men enrolled in batterer intervention programs. The authors found that 1.8% of the men reported having a gun in or around their home.…
This study used signal detection theory to conceptualize the problem a baseball batter faces when deciding whether or not to swing at a pitch. It examined the launch angle (LA) criteria used by expert (college players) and less experienced (recreational league players) batters using a baseball batting simulation. This study showed that, although…
José M. Pozueco-Romero
Full Text Available This theoretical study reviews two of the most cited profiles of intimate partner batterers in the scientific literature, paying special attention to the most notable differences between them, as well as to their common criteria. The study also discusses one of the longest standing controversies in various research studies, including the particular overview with respect to Spain: it being the constant yet erroneous reference to the equivalence of psychopathy and antisocial personality disorder. Similarly, special attention is paid to the implications of considering intimate partner batterers as having either a psychopathological or psychopathic profile, while also stressing the specific role played by psychopathy in the intimate partner batterer and, concerning psychopathic intimate partner batterers, such aspects as their specific motives for perpetrating intimate partner violence and the evaluation instruments of this particular profile. Finally, a series of future directives for research concerning psychopathic intimate partner batterers are also pointed out.
Figen KAYMAK ERTEN
Full Text Available The coating process of food products with various mixtures prior to frying is a common application in kitchens whereas it still requires much investigation in technological area. In this study, batter and breading technology used in coating of foods is reviewed. The coating process was defined, and the function of predusting, battering and breading, the general composition of batter and breading mixtures and the functions of the ingradients were explained. In the coating application, the most important problem known as adhesion and the effects of it on the efficiency and cost were investigated. Batter and breading processing equipments used in the industry and the process lines were reviewed, and the problems, new designs and the latest patents relating them were discussed. New coating systems known as tumbling and fluidization were investigated and compared with other systems.
Brasfield, Hope; Febres, Jeniimarie; Shorey, Ryan; Strong, David; Ninnemann, Andrew; Elmquist, Joanna; Andersen, Shawna M; Bucossi, Meggan; Schonbrun, Yael C; Temple, Jeff R; Stuart, Gregory L
Little work has examined the interrelations among intimate partner violence (IPV), alcohol use, and gambling behavior, and no studies have examined these relationships among males court-ordered to batterer intervention programs (BIPs). The aim of the current investigation was to explore the associations between IPV, alcohol use, and gambling behavior among 341 males court-mandated to attend BIPs utilizing self-report measures. Voluntary, anonymous questionnaires were administered and completed during regularly scheduled BIP sessions. Compared to the general population, a higher percentage of the sample met criteria for pathological gambling (9%), and problem gambling (17%). Further, males exhibiting pathological gambling were more likely to be hazardous drinkers, and hazardous drinkers were more likely to exhibit pathological gambling. Additionally, pathological gamblers were at an increased risk for the perpetration of both physical and sexual aggression. Finally, gambling behavior uniquely predicted the perpetration of sexual aggression above and beyond alcohol use, impulsivity, and relationship satisfaction. The implications of these results for future research and intervention are discussed.
Visser, J.E.; Beukelaer, de H.J.; Hamer, R.J.; Vliet, van T.
The formation and properties of a crust during and after deep frying are difficult to study. Batter pickup (the amount of batter adhering to a product) and core properties affect crust formation and properties of the crust in such way that it is difficult to compare batters of different viscosity or
I shall draw from the philosophy of Ubuntu and the work of French philosopher Michel Foucault. I shall tease out how the elderly perceive wife battering as love, discipline and punishment. Data used in this paper shall be drawn from structured interviews and focus groups that were conducted in 2015 under the auspices of ...
Messier, Stephen P.; Owen, Marjorie G.
Female fast pitch softball batters served in an examination of the dynamic characteristics of the bat during the swing through the use of three-dimensional cinematographic analysis techniques. These results were compared with those from previous studies of baseball batting. Findings are listed. (Author/DF)
The main interest in this paper is to reflect upon how one might approach the study of transformations in the field of Women’s shelters in Denmark. Drawing on Prof. Andrew Woolford and his Bourdieu-inspired approach to studying changes (‘neoliberal restructuring’) in the Canadian non-profit field...
This study was conducted to investigate the physicochemical properties of meat batters prepared with fresh pork meat, back fat, water, and salt and formulated with three different amounts (5%, 10%, and 15%) of silkworm pupae (Bombyx mori) powder and transglutaminase (TG). Meat batters formulated with silkworm pupae powder showed significantly higher contents of protein and ash than control batter. Addition of silkworm pupae to batter also showed significantly lower cooking loss than the control. Moreover, meat batter containing 15% silkworm pupae showed no significant difference in redness value compared to the control. In addition, pH, viscosity, hardness, gumminess, and chewiness were improved after the addition of silkworm pupae. Furthermore, meat batter formulated with TG and silkworm pupae showed improved hardness, gumminess, chewiness and viscosity compared to control batter. Addition of 1% TG with 15% silkworm pupae to meat batter resulted in significantly higher pH, textures, and viscosity. Our data suggest that both silkworm pupae and TG can be added to meat batter to improve its physicochemical properties. Therefore, combination of silkworm pupae and TG could be a new nutritional and functional source for meat products. PMID:28747820
Park, Yoo-Sun; Choi, Yun-Sang; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Kim, Tae-Kyung; Lee, Cheol-Won; Shin, Dong-Min; Han, Sung Gu
This study was conducted to investigate the physicochemical properties of meat batters prepared with fresh pork meat, back fat, water, and salt and formulated with three different amounts (5%, 10%, and 15%) of silkworm pupae ( Bombyx mori ) powder and transglutaminase (TG). Meat batters formulated with silkworm pupae powder showed significantly higher contents of protein and ash than control batter. Addition of silkworm pupae to batter also showed significantly lower cooking loss than the control. Moreover, meat batter containing 15% silkworm pupae showed no significant difference in redness value compared to the control. In addition, pH, viscosity, hardness, gumminess, and chewiness were improved after the addition of silkworm pupae. Furthermore, meat batter formulated with TG and silkworm pupae showed improved hardness, gumminess, chewiness and viscosity compared to control batter. Addition of 1% TG with 15% silkworm pupae to meat batter resulted in significantly higher pH, textures, and viscosity. Our data suggest that both silkworm pupae and TG can be added to meat batter to improve its physicochemical properties. Therefore, combination of silkworm pupae and TG could be a new nutritional and functional source for meat products.
Eisikovits, Z; Buchbinder, E
This analysis examined the language and metaphors used by men who perpetrated domestic violence in an attempt to shed light on the impulsive and reflective aspects of violent acts as they appear in the context of batterers' experiences. The study is introduced with a brief review of the literature on "intimate violence" to show that it is recognized that batterers rarely define their behavior as violent and aberrant and that they suffer cognitive distortions and an inability to identify emotions accurately. Data were gathered through in-depth, semistructured interviews with 35 couples in Israel who reported at least one incidence of violence in the prior year. Content analysis of the interviews revealed that the men used 1) war metaphors to construct and express conflict and violence, 2) metaphors that presented the self as a dangerous space characterized by inner struggles, and 3) metaphors of de-escalation and balancing. The discussion notes that the metaphors of war were interconnected (war with the self and with the world) and allowed men to threaten violence as a means of self defense and, paradoxically, to attempt to gain self-control by losing control. For these men, the world was dichotomous and life was a constant struggle against real and imagined enemies. Survival depended upon suppression of feelings of weakness (symbolized by the feminine). Interventions should examine metaphors used by batterers and help men develop an alternative metaphoric structure that renders violence foreign and meaningless. This requires that clinicians first assess their own use of metaphors.
Edleson, Jeffrey L.; Brygger, Mary Pat
Examined difference between male and female reports of violence and threats directed by the man toward the woman. In many categories, significantly more women were found at intake to report more threats and violence than their male partners. After extensive intervention these differences were not found in the more severe categories of violence.…
David L Mann
Full Text Available Hitters in fast ball-sports do not align their gaze with the ball throughout ball-flight; rather, they use predictive eye movement strategies that contribute towards their level of interceptive skill. Existing studies claim that (i baseball and cricket batters cannot track the ball because it moves too quickly to be tracked by the eyes, and that consequently (ii batters do not - and possibly cannot - watch the ball at the moment they hit it. However, to date no studies have examined the gaze of truly elite batters. We examined the eye and head movements of two of the world's best cricket batters and found both claims do not apply to these batters. Remarkably, the batters coupled the rotation of their head to the movement of the ball, ensuring the ball remained in a consistent direction relative to their head. To this end, the ball could be followed if the batters simply moved their head and kept their eyes still. Instead of doing so, we show the elite batters used distinctive eye movement strategies, usually relying on two predictive saccades to anticipate (i the location of ball-bounce, and (ii the location of bat-ball contact, ensuring they could direct their gaze towards the ball as they hit it. These specific head and eye movement strategies play important functional roles in contributing towards interceptive expertise.
Choi, Yun-Sang; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Song, Dong-Hun; Jeong, Tae-Jun; Jeon, Ki-Hong; Kim, Young-Boong; Kim, Cheon-Jei
We examined the combined effects of prerigor and postrigor batter mixtures on protein gelation. The postrigor batter was prepared with 2% salt, whereas the prerigor meat at 5 min postmortem was used to prepare postrigor batters at different salt levels. For 5 treatments, prerigor batters were mixed with postrigor batter that had 2% salt (control) as follows: T1: ground presalted (1%) hot-boned breast with 1% salt for 50% total batch; T2: ground presalted (2%) hot-boned breast for 50% total batch; T3: ground presalted (3%) hot-boned breast for 30% total batch that was mixed with cold-boned batter for 50% total batch; T4: ground presalted (4%) hot-boned breast for 25% total batch that was mixed with cold-boned batter for 50% total batch; and T5: ground presalted (5%) hot-boned breast for 20% total batch that was mixed with cold-boned batter for 50% total batch. Treatments with both presalted prerigor and postrigor muscle showed less cooking loss and lower emulsion stability than the control, except T5. The protein solubility and apparent viscosity of the control was the lowest. Thus, presalted hot-boned muscle combined with cold-boned muscle positively affected physicochemical properties. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.
Tinbergen, B.J.; Olsman, W.J.
A method was developed for the selective extraction of fat from ruptured fat cells in comminuted sausage batters. It was found that over a wide range of chopping temperatures (4–28°C) the level of extractable fat in an unheated meat batter is significantly correlated (P < 0.001) with the percentage
Full Text Available Considering a typical steel pipe pile-supported wharf as the research object, finite element analytical models of batter and vertical pile structures were established under the same construction site, service, and geological conditions to investigate the seismic dynamic damage characteristics of vertical and batter pile-supported wharf structures. By the numerical simulation and the nonlinear time history response analysis of structure system and the moment–axial force relation curve, we analyzed the dynamic damage characteristics of the two different structures of batter and vertical piles under different seismic ground motions to provide reasonable basis and reference for designing and selecting a pile-supported wharf structure. Results showed that the axial force of batter piles was dominant in the batter pile structure and that batter piles could effectively bear and share seismic load. Under the seismic ground motion with peak ground acceleration (PGA of 350 Gal and in consideration of the factors of the design requirement of horizontal displacement, the seismic performance of the batter pile structure was better than that of the vertical pile structure. Under the seismic ground motion with a PGA of 1000 Gal, plastic failure occurred in two different structures. The contrastive analysis of the development of plastic damage and the absorption and dissipation for seismic energy indicated that the seismic performance of the vertical pile structure was better than that of the batter pile structure.
Okra was coated and deep-fat fried with batters of flour sources, including rice flour, a mixture of rice flour, and small amounts of pregelatinized rice flour (PGRF), and, as a control, the traditional wheat flour. The addition of PGRF, up to 8%, enhanced batter viscosity and the coating properties...
Kang, Zhuang-Li; Li, Xiang; He, Hong-Ju; Ma, Han-Jun; Song, Zhao-Jun
A comprehensive study was conducted to evaluate the structural changes of meat and protein of pork batters produced by chopping or beating process through the phase-contrast micrograph, laser light scattering analyzer, scanning electronic microscopy and Raman spectrometer. The results showed that the shattered myofibrilla fragments were shorter and particle-sizes were smaller in the raw batter produced by beating process than those in the chopping process. Compared with the raw and cooked batters produced by chopping process, modifications in amide I and amide III bands revealed a significant decrease of α -helix content and an increase of β -sheet, β -turn and random coils content in the beating process. The changes in secondary structure of protein in the batter produced by beating process was thermally stable. Moreover, more tyrosine residues were buried, and more gauche-gauche-trans disulfide bonds conformations and hydrophobic interactions were formed in the batter produced by beating process.
Román, Laura; Santos, Isabel; Martínez, Mario M; Gómez, Manuel
The effects of three levels of fat replacement (1/3, 2/3, and 3/3) by extruded flour paste and the effects of the presence of emulsifier on layer cake batter characteristics and final cake quality were studied. Replacement of oil by extruded flour paste modified the batter density and microscopy, reducing the number of air bubbles and increasing their size, while emulsifier incorporation facilitated air entrapment in batter. Emulsifier addition also increased the elastic and viscous moduli of the batter, while oil reduction resulted in a less structured batter. Emulsifier incorporation leads to good quality cakes, minimizing the negative effect of oil reduction, maintaining the volume and reducing the hardness of cakes. Furthermore, consumer acceptability of the reduced fat cakes was improved by the addition of emulsifier. Thus, the results confirmed the positive effect of partial oil substitution (up to 2/3) by extruded flour paste on the quality of reduced fat cakes when emulsifier was incorporated.
Pickett, W.J.; Faleski, E.J.; Chacko, A.; Jarrett, R.V.
A review of 13 cases of suspected child abuse in which radionuclide (RN) scans, radiographic skeletal surveys, and sufficient follow-up were available showed that the RN scans were insensitive, even though fractures were more than 48 hours old at the time of the scan. Frequently missed lesions included skull and extremity fractures. Furthermore, soft tissue and visceral abnormalities that were identified on radiographic examination went undetected on RN scan. We conclude that, although the RN scan may augment the radiographic examination, it should not be used alone to screen for the battered child
Full Text Available Different studies have proposed that batterers can be classified into distinct groups according topsychopathology, violence severity and frequency. The aim of the current study was to define a data-basedbatterer’s typology and its implications for rehabilitation. Data were collected from 187 male sentenced forintimate partner violence –111 of them to prison and 76 to community service. A cluster analysis supporteda three-cluster solution: non-pathological (NP, 40%, antisocial/violent (AV, 27% and disturbed batterers(DB, 33%. Subsequent analysis showed that AV batterers were profiled through the perpetration of physicaland psychological violence, antisocial behaviour, deviant lifestyle, criminal records, inter parental violenceand drug abuse; DB batterers, were profiled through behaviours of psychological violence, physicalaggression and hostility, clinical symptomatology (e.g., somatisation, depression, anxiety, paranoidideation, criminal records, antisocial behaviour, and a deviant lifestyle; and NP batterers were not profiledthrough any of the variables related to criminality and recidivism. Multinomial logistic regressionsupported different logistic models for batterer types in terms of psychopathological, antisocial andperpetrated violence-type variables. Implications of batterer typology on treatment are discussed.
Nakamura, Sumiko; Ohtsubo, Ken'ichi
The physicochemical properties of rice flour and wheat flour influenced the oil uptake of tempura frying batter. Rice flour was better than wheat flour in the overall quality and crispness of the fried tempura batter. Rice flour resisted oil absorption more than wheat flour, and a higher level of apparent starch amylose and higher consistency/breakdown ratio of the pasting properties led to a lower oil uptake of the batter. Super hard EM10 rice showed the highest apparent amylose content and higher consistency/breakdown ratio than the other flour samples, the batter from EM10 revealing the lowest oil content after frying among all the batters examined. The apparent amylose content, consistency/breakdown ratio and oil absorption index are proposed as useful guides for oil absorption when frying from among the physicochemical properties that influence the oil content of fried batter. Our proposal for the "oil absorption index" could be a simple, although not perfect method for estimating the oil content of batter flour.
Chandra, Sadanandavalli Retnaswami; Issac, Thomas Gregor
Pseudodystonia is the term used to define abnormal postures, which are not due to the disorders of the basal ganglia and is encountered very rarely in clinical practice and often difficult to distinguish from true dystonia syndromes. We report a rare case of a battered woman who was managed as restricted resistant dystonia with pharmacotherapy and intrathecal baclofen and referred for considering deep brain stimulation (DBS). The patient turned out to be a case of pseudodystonia due to bilateral hip dislocation. This was due to assault by a close relative and the history was masked by the patient for more than one and a half years. In a patient with late onset dystonia, who is resistant to the recommended treatment for dystonia along with atypical clinical features and electrophysiological parameters, pseudodystonia should always be considered as a possible diagnosis and evaluated for causes of the same. PMID:24966567
Victoria A. Ferrer-Perez
Full Text Available The Organic Law 1/2004 of 28 December on Integrated Protection Measures against Gender Violence has had, among other consequences, the generalization of intervention programs for batterers in cases of gender violence. The objective of this research is to explore the point of view of specialized professionals about these programs. For this purpose a qualitative methodology was used, by applying semi-structured interviews to 65 key informants, i.e. professionals with experience in implementing and/or managing and evaluating such programs. In general, these professionals were satisfied with the programs in which they had participated and they valued them positively. They considered that certain characteristics of participants and of the programs themselves contribute to promoting or hindering their success and also that they could obtain better results by customizing interventions. These results provide valuable information for understanding the difficulties encountered in implementing these programs and to improve them.
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine how men who have perpetrated violence toward their partners and participated in batterer group talked about being a father and how they perceived their own fatherhood. The discussion in the group was analyzed qualitatively by using the methods of content analysis. In traditional fatherhood, they talked about avoidant, passiveness, distant, indifference, and authoritative controlling ways of acting. These men also created an image of themselves as active and caring fathers, thus including empathy and nurture in the concept of fatherhood. This new fatherhood was considered an achieved goal and an objective for the men as being a father. Talking about fatherhood in these groups is important as fatherhood and relations to children are both an important motivator toward nonviolence.
Vedprakash D. SURVE
Full Text Available Traditional Indian cereal based fermented food products like Kurdi (Maharashtra and Seera (Himachal Pradesh are prepared from batter of fermented wheat grains. These wheat batters were prepared by soaking wheat grains (Triticum Astivum L., variety: PBN51 in water at different temperatures (30, 37.5 and 45°C for four days (natural fermentation, crushed, centrifuged and characterized for rheological properties. The present study was aimed to test the effect of soaking temperature (during natural fermentation of wheat grains on the rheological behavior of wheat batter. It was determined that viscosity and yield stress of the wheat batter decreased with increase in soaking temperature of natural fermentation. Yield stress decreased by 65% and 82% for wheat grains soaked at 37.5°C and 45°C, respectively as compared to those soaked at 30°C. This was attributed to the degradation of the carbohydrates by the natural flora of microorganisms. Increasing the soaking temperature during natural fermentation decreased the fluid consistency index and increased the flow behavior index of the batter, demonstrating a lower viscosity and increased fluidity. All the samples revealed shear thinning behavior. Gelatinization temperature of the wheat batter decreased with increase in soaking temperature as demonstrated by viscoelastic analysis (loss modulus, storage modulus, Tan δ of the samples.
Jo, Cheo Run; Byun, Myung Woo
An emulsion-type product was prepared to determine the effect of irradiation on lipid and cholesterol oxidation, color change, and volatile production in raw pork with different fat content. Lipid oxidation increased with an increase in fat content or irradiation dose. Irradiated batters had higher cholesterol oxides than did non-irradiated batters, and the major cholesterol oxides formed in irradiated pork batters were 7α- and 7β- hydroxycholesterol. Hunter color a- and b-values of raw pork batters were decreased by irradiation regardless of fat content. Irradiation significantly increased the amount of volatile compounds. Although lipid oxidation of high fat products (10 and 15% fat) was higher than that of low fat products (4%), high fat products did not always produce greater amount of volatile compounds in raw pork batters. In summary, irradiation increased lipid and cholesterol oxidation, and volatile compounds production, and had detrimental effects on the color of raw pork batter under aerobic conditions
Victoria A. Ferrer Perez
Full Text Available This study analyse the evolution and characteristics of scientific production on intervention programmes with gender violence perpetrators performed in Spain. The standard bibliometric indicators were applied to 148 studies identified. The greatest productivity is focused between 2008 and 2010 and the largest number of records corresponds to articles in specialised scientific journals. As far as authorship is concerned, an analysis of the number of studies per person indicates that the results obtained are only initially consistent with Lotka’s Law, that is, there are a majority of not very productive authors and a minority who publish frequently, but the data do not fit this law. An analysis of collaboration between authors enables us to determine the existence of one “Social Circle” or “Invisible College”, at least. Most of the records analysed focus on the description of one or several intervention programmes with men who abuse their partner. Results show that there are progressively more evidence based studies on batterers and their treatment.
Perumal Jayaprabha Agaliya
Full Text Available Lactic acid bacteria are non pathogenic organism widely distributed in nature typically involved in a large number of spontaneous food fermentation. The purpose of this study was to characterize the bacteriocinogenic lactobacilli from fermented idli batter which can find application in biopreservation and biomedicine. Eight most promising lactobacilli were chosen from twenty two isolates based on their spectrum of activity against other lactic acid bacteria and pathogens. The eight lactobacilli were characterized based on the various classical phenotypic tests, physiological tests and biochemical tests including various carbohydrate utilization profiles. All isolates were homo fermentative, catalase, and gelatin negative. Molecular characterization was performed by RAPD, 16S rRNA analysis, 16S ARDRA, and Multiplex PCR for species identification. RAPD was carried out using the primer R2 and M13. Five different clusters were obtained based on RAPD indicating strain level variation. 16S rRNA analysis showed 99 to 100% homology towards Lactobacillus plantarum. The restriction digestion pattern was similar for all the isolates with the restriction enzyme AluI. The subspecies were identified by performing Multiplex PCR using species specific primer. Among the five clusters, three clusters were clearly identified as Lactobacillus plantarum subsp. plantarum, Lactobacillus pentosus, and Lactobacillus plantarum subsp. argentoratensis.
Verdejo-Román, Juan; Contreras-Rodríguez, Oren; Carmona-Perera, Martina; Pérez-García, Miguel; Hidalgo-Ruzzante, Natalia
Abstract Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a complex and global phenomenon that requires a multi-perspective analysis. Nevertheless, the number of neuroscientific studies conducted on this issue is scarce as compared with studies of other types of violence, and no neuroimaging studies comparing batterers to other criminals have been conducted. Thus, the main aim of this study was to compare the brain functioning of batterers to that of other criminals when they are exposed to IPV or general violence pictures. An fMRI study was conducted in 21 batterers and 20 other criminals while they observed IPV images (IPVI), general violence images (GVI) and neutral images (NI). Results demonstrated that batterers, compared with other criminals, exhibited a higher activation in the anterior and posterior cingulate cortex and in the middle prefrontal cortex and a decreased activation in the superior prefrontal cortex to IPVI compared to NI. The paired t-test comparison between IPVI and GVI for each group showed engagement of the medial prefrontal cortex, the posterior cingulate and the left angular cortices to IPVI in the batterer group only. These results could have important implications for a better understanding of the IPV phenomenon. PMID:26884544
Mahalik, James R.; Aldarondo, Etiony; Gilbert-Gokhale, Steven; Shore, Erika
The authors hypothesized that masculine gender role stress would mediate the relationship between insecure attachment and controlling behaviors in a sample of men who batter. To examine this hypothesis, 143 men who were court mandated to attend a batterers' intervention program in a northeastern state completed measures including the Controlling…
Eman H. Alsabhan
Sep 15, 2011 ... Abstract Background: Violence against women is an important public-health problem that draws attention of a wide ... try study on women's health and domestic violence (DV) showed that the lifetime ..... Malaysia. All Women's ...
Xing, Liting; Niu, Fuge; Su, Yujie; Yang, Yanjun
The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of egg freshness on baking properties and final qualities in batter systems. Batters were made with eggs of different freshness, and the properties of batter systems were studied through rheological analysis, rapid viscosity analysis (RVA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), batter density and expansion rate during the baking and cooling processes. Moreover, the qualities of final baked systems were investigated, including specific volume and texture profile analysis (TPA). The flow behavior of batters showed that the consistency index (K) decreased as the Haugh unit (HU) value decreased, while the flow behavior index (n) increased. Both the storage modulus (G') and loss modulus (G″) determined by mechanical spectra at 20 °C decreased with decreasing HU. RVA and DSC determinations revealed that lower-HU samples had a lower viscosity in the baking process and a shorter time for starch gelatinization and egg protein denaturation. Observation of the batter density revealed an increasing change, which was reflected by a decrease in the specific volume of final models. TPA showed significant differences in hardness and chewiness, but no significant differences in springiness and cohesiveness were found. The egg freshness affected the properties of batter systems. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.
Zhou, Fen; Dong, Hui; Shao, Jun-Hua; Zhang, Jun-Long; Liu, Deng-Yong
The effect of chopping time and heating on physicochemical properties of meat batters was investigated by low-field nuclear magnetic resonance and rheology technology. Cooking loss and L* increased while texture profile analysis index decreased between chopping 5 and 6 min. The relaxation time T 21 (bound water) and its peak area ratio decreased, while the ratio of T 22 peak area (immobilized water) in raw meat batters gradually increased with the extension of chopping time. However, T 22 was opposite after being heated and a new component T 23 (free water) appeared (T 2i is the spin - spin relaxation time for the ith component.). The initial damping factor (Tan δ) gradually decreased and there were significant difference between 4 and 5 min of chopping time. There were significantly positive correlations between the ratio of peak area of T 22 and chopping time, the storage modulus (G'), cooking loss, and L*, respectively. Continued chopping time could improve the peak area proportion of T 22 in raw meat batters. Further, the higher the peak area proportion of T 22 in raw meat batters, the cooking loss of heated meat gel was higher. Also, the stronger the mobility of immobilized water in meat batter, the higher the L* of the fresh meat batters. Thus, it is revealed that the physicochemical properties of meat batter are significantly influenced by chopping time which further affects the water holding capacity and the texture of emulsification gel. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.
Jo, Cheorun; Ahn, D.U.; Byun, M.W. E-mail: email@example.com
An emulsion-type raw pork batter was prepared using 10% (meat weight) of backfat or commercial soybean oil enriched with vitamin E to determine the effect of irradiation on lipid oxidation and volatile production during storage. Batters (approximately 100 g) were vacuum- or aerobically packaged and irradiated at 0, 2.5 or 4.5 kGy. Irradiation increased lipid oxidation of aerobically packaged raw pork batters prepared with both backfat and soybean oil. Lipid oxidation of vacuum-packaged pork batters was not influenced by irradiation except for the batter prepared with backfat at day 0. Aerobically packaged batters prepared with soybean oil had lower (P<0.05) TBARS than that with backfat, but vacuum-packaged ones were not different. The sum of volatile compounds with short retention time (<1.80) increased by irradiation, and with storage time except for aerobic packaging at day 7. The amount of total volatile compounds had an increasing trend until day 3, but not at day 7. Irradiation increased the production of total volatile compounds in the batters prepared with soybean oil and vacuum packaged, but irradiation effect on volatile production was not consistent with other treatments.
Jo, Cheorun; Ahn, D.U.; Byun, M.W.
An emulsion-type raw pork batter was prepared using 10% (meat weight) of backfat or commercial soybean oil enriched with vitamin E to determine the effect of irradiation on lipid oxidation and volatile production during storage. Batters (approximately 100 g) were vacuum- or aerobically packaged and irradiated at 0, 2.5 or 4.5 kGy. Irradiation increased lipid oxidation of aerobically packaged raw pork batters prepared with both backfat and soybean oil. Lipid oxidation of vacuum-packaged pork batters was not influenced by irradiation except for the batter prepared with backfat at day 0. Aerobically packaged batters prepared with soybean oil had lower (P<0.05) TBARS than that with backfat, but vacuum-packaged ones were not different. The sum of volatile compounds with short retention time (<1.80) increased by irradiation, and with storage time except for aerobic packaging at day 7. The amount of total volatile compounds had an increasing trend until day 3, but not at day 7. Irradiation increased the production of total volatile compounds in the batters prepared with soybean oil and vacuum packaged, but irradiation effect on volatile production was not consistent with other treatments
Full Text Available Some lactic acid bacteria (LAB can overexpress heat shock proteins and thus survive the heat treatment of meat products. The objective of this work was the effect of probiotic thermotolerant lactic acid bacteria on the physicochemical, microbiological and sensorial characteristics in a meat batter. Two thermotolerant probiotic lactic bacteria were used: Pediococcus pentosaceus and Enterococcus faecium, which were inoculated to 5% in a meat batter, another batter was made with the mixture of both strains; a batter without bacteria was the control. Both physicochemical and microbiological analyses were performed at day 1, 6, 13 and 16. At day 1 a discriminatory sensory evaluation was performed. The results show that the stability to cooking, expressible moisture, hardness and cohesion increased during storage in the batters inoculated with the 2 strains of LAB. The LAB increased in the inoculated meat batters and the coliforms decreased overall, when the strain mixture was used, the inhibition was total at day 6. Sensory analysis showed that judges detect when E. faecium are inoculated. Thermotolerant BALs can be used as functional ingredients in meat batters and improve physical-chemical and microbiological characteristics.
Yorke, Nada J.; Friedman, Bruce D.; Hurt, Pat
This study discusses the pretest and posttest results of a batterer's intervention program (BIP) implemented within a California state prison substance abuse program (SAP), with a recommendation for further programs to be implemented within correctional institutions. The efficacy of utilizing correctional facilities to reach offenders who…
Cake and pancake are major batter-based products made with soft wheat flour. A standardized baking method for high-ratio cake has been widely used for evaluating the cake-baking performance of soft wheat flour. Chlorinated flour is used to make high-ratio cake, and the cake formula contains relative...
Mann, D.L.; Spratford, W.; Abernethy, B.
Hitters in fast ball-sports do not align their gaze with the ball throughout ball-flight; rather, they use predictive eye movement strategies that contribute towards their level of interceptive skill. Existing studies claim that (i) baseball and cricket batters cannot track the ball because it moves
The aim of this study was to investigate levels of inulin and pectin replacing pork back fat (BF) in meat batters (MB) of frankfurter sausage. Six treatments were evaluated: control (T1), control + 70% BF (T2), control + 85% BF + 15% inulin (T3), control + 70% BF + 30% inulin (T4), control + 85% B...
Chelliah, R; Ramakrishnan, S R; Premkumar, D; Antony, U
Among several traditional foods of India, idli is one of the most popular and commonly consumed steamed products. A new method of adding Murraya koenigii (curry leaves) to idli batter as a vehicle for fortification and extension of shelf-life has been developed. Dried curry leaves powder was incorporated with other ingredients like rice and dehusked black gram in different proportions to optimize the most palatable formulation. Rate of fermentation and microbial changes in the batter; nutritional qualities, texture and sensory properties of the prepared product were assessed. Incorporation of curry leaves powder (5 %) in idli batter increased the shelf-life and also increased the flavour, texture and appearance of the idli. The calcium content of the prepared idli was 10 times more than that of the control idli, while dietary fiber content increased by 18.6 %. Anti-microbial activity of the curry leaves in idli batter extended the shelf-life from 2 to 5 days when stored at 30 °C.
Seave, Paul L.
Laws that prohibit persons under a domestic violence restraining order from purchasing or possessing a firearm are a primary way to keep guns out of the hands of batterers. In July 2005, the California Attorney General's Task Force on the Local Criminal Justice Response to Domestic Violence issued a report called Keeping the Promise: Victim Safety…
Fox, Paul D.; Smith, Penny Probert
A low cost perspex buffer rod design for the measurement of specific gravity during the processing of industrial food batters is reported. Operation was conducted in pulsed mode using a 2.25 MHz, 15 mm diameter transducer and the intensity and an analytic calibration curve relating buffer rod...
Color, determined by tristimulus colorimeters, and related structural properties, i.e., microstructure, surface rheology, and bulk rheology, of cured porcine meat batters were studied.
Effects of various processing factors (such as, temperature, air pressure during chopping, and
Christensen, Mikkel Holm
Child abuse is a very serious offence and is often underdiagnosed. This case report shows how the use of electronic medical records from different hospitals aided in diagnosing a case of battered child in a 16-month-old girl with an unusual acromion fracture. This illustrates the need for thorough...
Frattaroli, Shannon; Vernick, Jon S.
Firearms play an important role in lethal domestic violence incidents. The authors review state laws regarding two policies to separate batterers from firearms: laws authorizing police to remove firearms when responding to a domestic violence complaint ("police gun removal laws") and laws authorizing courts to order guns removed from batterers…
Primo-Martín, C.; Sanz, T.; Steringa, D.W.; Salvador, A.; Fiszman, S.M.; Vliet, T. van
The performance of batters containing cellulose derivatives (methyl cellulose (A4M), three hydroxypropylmethyl celluloses (E4M, F4M and K4M) with different degree of hydroxypropyl and/or methyl substitution and carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC)) to produce crispy deep-fried snacks crusts was studied by
José Luis Graña
Full Text Available This study explores the existence of different types of batterers in a sample of 266 men who had been court referred for intimate partner violence. The data collected in the assessment that have been used to perform a hierarchical and a two-step cluster analysis fall into three areas: aggression towards the partner, general aggression and presence of psychopathology and personality traits, more specifically, alcohol use, borderline and antisocial personality traits, psychopathy traits, state anger and trait anger, anger expression and control, anger, hostility, and, finally, impulsivity. The results show a typology consisting of 3 types of batterers on the basis of violence level and psychopathology: low (65%, moderate (27.8% and high (7.1%. This study provides empirical support for the development of batterer typologies. These typologies will help achieve early detection of different types of batterers, allowing us to tailor interventions on the basis of the needs of each of the types.
Describes an educational program that enables women to explore, in a safe environment, male violence and its impact on their lives. Topics include battered women, rape, incest, pornography, nonphysical violence, and sexual harassment. The course helps women realize that violence is a societal, not individual, problem and empowers them to take…
Barbut, S; Youssef, M K
The effects of endpoint cooking temperature (40, 50, 60, 70, 80, and 90 °C) on emulsion stability, texture, color, and microstructure of meat batters prepared with different fats/oils were studied. Canola oil treatments showed the highest cooking loss whereas hydrogenated palm oil provided the most stable meat batters. Rendered beef fat was less stable than regular beef fat. Increasing endpoint cooking temperatures resulted in a progressive reduction of water holding capacity in all treatments. As temperature was raised, meat batters showed higher hardness and cohesiveness values, but no appreciable changes in cohesiveness above 60 °C. Canola and hydrogenated palm oil treatments showed the highest hardness and chewiness values. Lightness (L(*) ) values of all meat batters increased significantly with increasing temperature from 40 to 60 or 70 °C; no major changes observed above 70 °C. Light microscopy revealed no substantial changes in the microstructure of all the stable meat batters cooked to between 50 and 70 °C. Heating to 90 °C changed the microstructure in all meat batters except the hydrogenated palm oil treatments, which still showed nonround fat particles and a less aggregated protein matrix. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®
Full Text Available The focus of this study was the effect of 1.5%, 3% and 4.5% pre-gelatinized wheat starch (based on the total weight of cake batter on improving the qualitative properties of shortened cake batter. Specific volume and viscosity of the shortened cake batter were measured for controls, 1.5%, 3% and 4.5% gelatinized starch; some important properties such as texture and sensory evaluation were examined. By increasing pre-gelatinized wheat starch used in the batter, a significant difference was observed in the rheological properties of the batter. Cake batter properties were found improved compared to the control samples. The sample with 3% pre-gelatinized starch had a lower viscosity than other treatments. The treatment with 4.5% pre-gelatinized starch had the lowest specific volume compared to other treatments. The overall results showed that the shortened cake with 3% pre-gelatinized starch was the best treatment in terms of texture and sensory evaluation factors.
Borochowitz, Dalit Yassour
Constructing a life story is a need shared by all humans to give their lives meaning and coherence. This article explores some of the narrative devices that batterers use to achieve a sense of coherence when telling their stories and justifying their violent behavior. A central theme that emerged from these stories centered on the men's perception of their wives as the embodiment of their own emotions and inner world. Two narrative strategies were identified in this context: (a) The construction of a "couple narrative" that focused on an idealized marital relationship rather than "allowing" the wife her story and (b) constructing a story around the theme of "she's not the same woman I married," which portrays the wife as "a shrew" and the violence as an attempt to discipline her. The stories of 18 batterers were used for this analysis, and two narratives were used to illustrate these strategies.
Latorre-Moratalla, M L; Bover-Cid, S; Aymerich, T; Marcos, B; Vidal-Carou, M C; Garriga, M
The application of high hydrostatic pressure (200MPa) to meat batter just before sausage fermentation and the inoculation of starter culture were studied to improve the safety and quality of traditional Spanish fermented sausages (fuet and chorizo). Higher amounts of biogenic amines were formed in chorizo than in fuet. Without interfering with the ripening performance in terms of acidification, drying and proteolysis, hydrostatic pressure prevented enterobacteria growth but did not affect Gram-positive bacteria significantly. Subsequently, a strong inhibition of diamine (putrescine and cadaverine) accumulation was observed, but that of tyramine was not affected. The inoculated decarboxylase-negative strains, selected from indigenous bacteria of traditional sausages, were resistant to the HHP treatment, being able to lead the fermentation process, prevent enterococci development and significantly reduce enterobacteria counts. In sausages manufactured with either non-pressurized or pressurized meat batter, starter culture was the most protective measure against the accumulation of tyramine and both diamines.
Singh, Mukti; Byars, Jeffrey A; Liu, Sean X
Whole navy bean flour and its fine and coarse particle size fractions were used to completely replace wheat flour in cakes. Replacement of wheat flour with whole bean flour significantly increased the protein content. The protein content was adjusted to 3 levels with navy bean starch. The effect of navy bean flour and its fractions at 3 levels of protein on cake batter rheology and cake quality was studied and compared with wheat flour samples. Batters prepared from navy bean flour and its fractions had higher viscosity than the cake flour. Reducing the protein content by addition of starch significantly lowered the viscosity of cake batters. The whole navy bean flour and coarse bean fraction cakes were softer than cakes made with wheat flour but had reduced springiness. Principal component analysis showed a clear discrimination of cakes according to protein. It also showed that low protein navy bean flour cakes were similar to wheat flour cakes. Navy bean flour with protein content adjusted to the level of cake (wheat) flour has potential as a healthy alternative in gluten-free cakes. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.
Bushra S. Albusoda
Full Text Available This study introduces a series of single and pile group model tests subjected to lateral loads in . multilayered sand from Karbala, Iraq. The aim of this study is to investigate: the performance of the pile groups subjected to lateral loads; in which the pile batter inclination angle is changed; the effect of pile spacing (s/d ratio, the influence of using different number of piles and pile group configuration. Results revealed that the performance of single negative (Reverse Battered piles with inclination of 10° and 20° show a gain of 32% and 76 % in the ultimate lateral capacity over the regular ones. For pile groups, the use of a combination of regular, negative and positive battered piles in different angles of inclination within the same group shows a significant increase in the ultimate lateral load carrying capacity. Increasing the spacing between piles in groups of the same category shows an increase in the group efficiency, also changing the piles number within the group by using different patterns will influence the ultimate lateral resistance of the pile group.
Mullen, Roseland McG; Carroll, Marguerite R.
Discusses factors that deter counselors in responding to wife abuse. Characteristics of the abused wife are outlined. Strategies used in helping abused women are discussed, including support groups, feminist-oriented counseling, and exploring the possibility of ending the relationship. (Author/JAC)
Jones, Norma Gray
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between protective factors and the responses of African American males in traditional batterers' interventions. African American male batterers have been viewed as responding poorly to batterers' interventions and were reported in the literature as at risk for dropout and treatment failure. This research proposed that there were culturally related protective factors that enhanced traditional interventions for African American males, increasing their potential for changing abusive behaviors. This within-group study used secondary data to examine the influence of protective factors on the responses of 268 active duty Navy African American males. They were a sub-sample of 861 males randomly assigned to one of four different interventions for batterers. The interventions included a cognitive behavioral men's group, couple's group, safety and stabilization group, and a control group. Each of their cases had been officially substantiated by the Navy for assault of their spouses. The measures for the protective factors of religion, self-esteem, and family support were drawn from the original study's self-report measurement tool. The results of the statistical analyses were found to be significant. The protective factors performed as social controls for reducing certain types of abusive behaviors. Little research has been conducted on the influence of cultural factors on batterers intervention outcome for African Americans. This study established a strong support for further research.
María Dolores Alvarez
Full Text Available An attempt was made to analyze the elastic modulus (G0 of chickpea ﬂour (CF-based mufﬁn batters made with CF alone and with added biopolymers (whey protein (WP, xanthan gum (XG, inulin (INL, and their blends in order to evaluate their suitability to be a wheat ﬂour (WF substitute in mufﬁns, and to model the heat-induced gelatinization of batters under non-isothermal heating condition from 25 ◦C to 90 ◦C. A rheological approach is proposed to determine the kinetic parameters (reaction order (n, frequency factor (k0, and activation energy (Ea using linearly-increasing temperature. Zero-order reaction kinetics adequately described batter gelatinization process, therefore assuming a constant rate independent of the initial G0 value. The change of the derivative of G0 with respect to time (dG0/dt versus temperature is described by one exponential function with activation energies ranging from 118 to 180 kJ·mol−1. Control wheat gluten batter, with higher and lower starch and protein contents, respectively, than CF-based batters, exhibited the highest Ea value. Formulation of CF-based gluten-free batters with starch and protein contents closer to the levels of WF-based batter could be a strategy to decrease differences in kinetic parameters of mufﬁn batters and, therefore, in technological characteristics of baked mufﬁns.
Shao, Jun-Hua; Deng, Ya-Min; Jia, Na; Li, Ru-Ren; Cao, Jin-Xuan; Liu, Deng-Yong; Li, Jian-Rong
The objective was to elucidate the influence of NaCl and polyphosphates in the stage of protein swelling on the water-holding capacity (WHC) of meat batter. The meat batters were formulated with salt in different ways by adding established amounts of only NaCl, only polyphosphates, jointly adding NaCl and polyphosphates, and a control without any salt. An increase (pwater retention was found when a combination of NaCl and polyphosphates was used. A high textural parameter was observed in the two treatments with NaCl, but not in the group with only polyphosphate. For the polyphosphate group, T22 was lower (pwater, particularly with polyphosphate, but polyphosphate could not be an equal substitute for NaCl given its resulting lowest textural properties and poor microstructure. By presenting different hydration states in the protein swelling stage, the meat batter qualities were differentiated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ruiz-Capillas, C; Aller-Guiote, P; Carballo, J; Colmenero, F Jiménez
Changes in biogenic amine formation and nitrite depletion in meat batters as affected by pressure-temperature combinations (300 MPa/30 min/7, 20, and 40 degrees C), cooking process (70 degrees C/30 min), and storage (54 days/2 degrees C) were studied. Changes in residual nitrite concentration in raw meat batters were conditioned by the temperature and not by the pressure applied. Cooking process decreased (P nitrite concentration in all samples. High-pressure processing and cooking treatment increased (P nitrite concentration decreased with pressure processing, no effect was observed with the heating process of meat batters. High-pressure processing conditions had no effect on the rate of residual nitrite loss throughout the storage. The application of high pressure decreased (P processing conditions, generally, throughout storage biogenic amine levels did not change or increased, although quantitatively this effect was not very important.
Bázan-Lugo, Eduardo; García-Martínez, Ignacio; Alfaro-Rodríguez, Rosa Hayde; Totosaus, Alfonso
Nitrite is a key ingredient the manufacture of meat products, forming a stable pink color characteristic of cured products, retarding the development of rancidity and off-odors and flavors during storage, and preventing microbial growth. The negative aspects of nitrite and the demands for healthy foods result in the need to reduce nitrite in cured meat products. Paprika or tomato has been employed as natural pigments in meat products. The objective of this work was to determine the effect of incorporating paprika powder or tomato paste on the texture, rancidity and instrumental and sensory color compensation in nitrite-reduced meat batters. Addition of tomato paste improved moisture content, resulting in harder but less cohesive samples as compared to control and paprika-containing meat batters. Color characteristics of reduced nitrite samples obtained higher a* red coloration (8.9 for paprika and 7.7-8.0 for tomato paste), as compared to control samples (5.65). Instrumental color was low in control samples, with high values for tomato paste and paprika samples. Nonetheless, tomato paste used to compensate color in nitrite-reduced meat batters was ranked closer to the control sample in sensory evaluation. Color characteristics-instrumental and sensory-in these kinds of meat products were enhanced by the addition of 2.5-3.0% of tomato paste, presenting results close to the non-reduced nitrite control. Similarly, antioxidant components of tomato paste or paprika reduced lipid oxidation. Nitrite reduction from 150 to 100 ppm could be achieved employing tomato paste as a natural pigment to improve color and texture. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.
Gyasi-Agyei, Y.; Nissen, D.
Water has been identified as a key component to the success of grass establishment on railway embankment batters (side slope) within Central Queensland, Australia, to control erosion. However, the region under study being semi-arid experiences less than 600 mm average annual rainfall occurring on about 60 days of the year. Culverts and bridges are integral part of railway embankments. They are used to cross water courses, be it an ephemeral creek or just a surface runoff path. Surface runoff through an ungauged railway embankment culvert is diverted to a temporary excavated pond located at the downstream side of the hydraulic structure. The temporary excavated pond water is used to feed an automated drip irrigation system, with solar as a source of energy to drive a pump. Railway embankment batter erosion remediation is timed in the wet season when irrigation is used to supplement natural rainfall. Hydrologic analysis of ungauged catchments for sizing the temporary excavated pond is presented. It is based on scenarios of runoff coefficient and curve number, and mass curve (Rippl diagram). Three years of continuous rainfall data (1997/1998 -1999/2000) were used to design a pond. The performance of the designed pond was evaluated in a field experiment during the next wet season (2000/2001). It supplied adequate water for irrigation as predicted by the hydrologic analysis during the grass establishment. This helped to achieve 100% grass cover on the railway embankment batter within 12 weeks. The proposed irrigation system has been demonstrated t o be feasible and cost effective.
Irmscher, Stefan B; Gibis, Monika; Herrmann, Kurt; Oechsle, Anja Maria; Kohlus, Reinhard; Weiss, Jochen
A vane pump-grinder system was extended to enable the manufacture of finely dispersed emulsion-type sausages by constructing and attaching a high-shear homogenizer at the outlet. We hypothesized that the dispersing capabilities of the extended system may be improved to the point of facilitating meat-fat emulsification due to an overall increased volumetric energy input EV . Coarsely ground raw material mixtures were processed to yield meat batters at varying volume flow rates (10 to 60 L/min) and rotational rotor speeds of the homogenizer nrotor (1000 to 3400 rpm). The normalized torques acting on pump, grinder, and homogenizer motors were recorded and unit power consumptions were calculated. The structure of the manufactured meat batters and sausages were analyzed via image analysis. Key physicochemical properties of unheated and heated batters, that is, texture, water-binding, color, and solubilized protein were determined. The mean diameter d10 of the visible lean meat particles varied between 352 and 406 μm whereas the mean volume-surface diameter d32 varied between 603 and 796 μm. The lightness L* ranged from 66.2 to 70.7 and correlated with the volumetric energy input and product structure. By contrast, varying process parameters did not impact color values a* (approximately 11) and b* (approximately 8). Interestingly, water-binding and protein solubilization were not affected. An exponential process-structure relationship was identified allowing manufacturers to predict product properties as a function of applied process parameters. Raw material mixtures can be continuously comminuted, emulsified, and subsequently filled into casings using an extended vane pump-grinder. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®
Greinacher, I.; Troeger, J.
The diagnosis of the Battered-Child-Syndrome (BSC) is made by the pediatrician and the radiologist. The recognition of this entity by the radiologist is possible because of the high frequency of the typical skeletal lesions. This skeletal changes are illustrated by X-ray pictures and bone scans. Not only skeletal trauma can be discovered but also visceral injuries may be combined and diagnosed in the BCS. For the detection of all changes in the BCS nowadays all possible imaging procedures should be used. Some forensic problems in this field are added. (orig.)
Das, Rashmi; Pawar, Deepthi P.; Modi, Vinod Kumar
The marinated and battered chicken leg meat and breast meat were pressure fried and their physico-chemical qualities were compared to the conventional fried product (open pan deep fat frying). Shrinkage due to frying process was significantly lesser in case of pressure fried leg meat (PLM) and breast meat (PBM) as compared to products prepared by conventional frying leg meat (CLM) and breast meat (CBM). Also, juiciness of pressure fried chicken products was superior (p ≤ 0.05) than fried prod...
Makkat, S.; Vandevenne, J.E.; Parizel, P.M.; Schepper, A.M. de
A growing fracture usually results from a skull fracture with dural tear after blunt head trauma during infancy. We present a case of child abuse with multiple growing fractures resulting from penetrating head trauma by scissors. MR imaging confirmed the presence of growing fractures and revealed a presumably post-traumatic venous anomaly (occluded left cavernous sinus and aberrant posterior venous drainage via the internal cerebral veins). Diagnosis of the growing fractures and venous anomaly was delayed until the age of 15 years. Medical expertise should be more readily available to battered children, and MR imaging is advocated in growing skull fracture to exclude associated post-traumatic brain lesions. (orig.)
Makkat, S.; Vandevenne, J.E.; Parizel, P.M.; Schepper, A.M. de [Dept. of Radiology, Universitair Ziekenhuis Antwerpen, Edegem (Belgium)
A growing fracture usually results from a skull fracture with dural tear after blunt head trauma during infancy. We present a case of child abuse with multiple growing fractures resulting from penetrating head trauma by scissors. MR imaging confirmed the presence of growing fractures and revealed a presumably post-traumatic venous anomaly (occluded left cavernous sinus and aberrant posterior venous drainage via the internal cerebral veins). Diagnosis of the growing fractures and venous anomaly was delayed until the age of 15 years. Medical expertise should be more readily available to battered children, and MR imaging is advocated in growing skull fracture to exclude associated post-traumatic brain lesions. (orig.)
Hashemi, Ala; Jafarpour, Ali
Rheological properties and microstructure of beef meat sausage batter, incorporated with different percentages of fish fillet mince (5 %, 20 %, 35 % and 50 %), were investigated and compared to the control (0 % fish). By increasing the proportion of fish fillet mince to the sausage formula up to 35 % and 50 %, hardness was increased by 40 % and 16 %, respectively, (P 0.05). In terms of temperature sweep test, storage modulus (G') of control sample faced a substantial slop from 10 °C to 58 °C, corresponding to the lowest magnitude of G' at its gelling point (~58°), but completed at around 70 °C, as same as the other treatments. Whereas the gelling point of batter sample with 50 % fish mince remained at nearly 42 °C, which was remarkably lowest among all treatments, indicating the better gel formation process. SEM micrographs revealed a previous orderly set gel before heating in all treatments whereas after heating up to 90 °C gel matrices became denser with more obvious granular pattern and aggregated structure, specifically in sample with 50 % fish mince. In conclusion, addition of fish mince up to 50 % into beef sausage formula, positively interacted in gel formation process, without diminishing its rheological properties.
Aydogdu, Ayca; Sumnu, Gulum; Sahin, Serpil
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of addition of dietary fibers on rheological properties of batter and cake quality. Wheat flour was replaced by 5 and 10% (wt%) oat, pea, apple and lemon fibers. All cake batters showed shear thinning behavior. Incorporation of fibers increased consistency index (k), storage modulus (G') and loss modulus (G″). As quality parameters, specific volume, hardness, weight loss, color and microstructure of cakes were investigated. Cakes containing oat and pea fibers (5%) had similar specific volume and texture with control cakes which contained no fiber. As fiber concentration increased, specific volume decreased but hardness increased. No significant difference was found between weight loss of control cake and cakes with oat, pea and apple fibers. Lemon fiber enriched cakes had the lowest specific volume, weight loss and color difference. When microstructural images were examined, it was seen that control cake had more porous structure than fiber enriched cakes. In addition, lemon and apple fiber containing cakes had less porous crumb structure as compared to oat and pea containing ones. Oat and pea fiber (5%) enriched cakes had similar physical properties (volume, texture and color) with control cakes.
Honda, Yuji; Inoue, Nanami; Sugimoto, Reina; Matsumoto, Kenji; Koda, Tomonori; Nishioka, Akihiro
Papain (cysteine protease), subtilisin (Protin SD-AY10, serine protease), and bacillolysin (Protin SD-NY10, metallo protease) increased the specific volume of gluten-free rice breads by 19-63% compared to untreated bread. In contrast, Newlase F (aspartyl protease) did not expand the volume of the rice bread. In a rheological analysis, the viscoelastic properties of the gluten-free rice batters also depended on the protease categories. Principal component analysis (PCA) analysis suggested that the storage and loss moduli (G' and G″, respectively) at 35 °C, and the maximum values of G' and G″, were important factors in the volume expansion. Judging from the PCA of the viscoelastic parameters of the rice batters, papain and Protin SD-AY10 improved the viscoelasticity for gluten-free rice bread making, and Protin SD-NY effectively expanded the gluten-free rice bread. The rheological properties differed between Protin SD-NY and the other protease treatments.
Lindhorst, Taryn; Nurius, Paula; Macy, Rebecca J.
Given the prevalence of domestic violence and the likelihood that many victims will not receive services from specialized domestic violence providers, this article provides a framework for contextualized assessment that can be used by generalist practitioners. Drawing from stress and coping theory, the authors discuss the relevance of assessing appraisals and emotional responses within the context of environmental and individual risk and protective factors. Through an illustrative case assess...
Mitchell, Roger E.; Hodson, Christine A.
Recent research on domestic violence has sought to provide insight into the psychological consequences of such violence. A conceptual framework, which suggests that both situational and person-centered factors contribute to adjustment to violence and affect a woman's personal and social resources, was formulated to examine the impact of stress,…
Wauchope, Barbara A.
This study tested the learned helplessness theory, stress theory, and a modified stress theory to determine the best model for predicting the probability that a woman would seek help when she experienced severe violence from a male partner. The probability was hypothesized to increase as the stress of the violence experienced increased. Data were…
Should the South African courts abolish the traditional imminence standard, something must be used to stand in its place. The identification of the various alternatives which have been suggested to replace imminence - most notably the establishment of the "reasonable woman standard" as advanced in the case of S v ...
Zhuang Li KANG
Full Text Available Abstract Physical-chemical and rheological properties of pork batters as affected by replacing pork back-fat with pre-emulsified sesame oil were investigated. Replacement of pork back-fat with pre-emulsified sesame oil, improved L* value, moisture and protein content, hardness, cohesiveness, and chewiness, declined a* value, fat content and energy, but not affect cooking yield. When used pre-emulsified sesame oil to replace pork back-fat 50%, the sample had the highest L* value and texture. According to the results of dynamic rheological, replaced pork back-fat by pre-emulsified sesame oil increased the storage modulus (G' values at 80 °C, and formed firm gel. The result of Low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (LF-NMR shown that the batters with pre-emulsified sesame oil had higher water holding capacity than the control. Overall, the batters with pre-emulsified sesame oil enabled lowering of fat and energy contents, making the pork batter had better texture.
Conclusions: Having knowledge of and being able to identify battered child syndrome may prevent fatal injuries. It is important to equip healthcare staff on first-contact care units with the knowledge to establish a presumptive diagnosis of child/adolescent abuse. Only through proper investigation of social events may just solutions be sought and implemented.
Barbut, S; Somboonpanyakul, P; Quinton, M; Smith, A
1. In the first experiment, the effect of adding purified malva nut gum (PMG) to comminuted poultry breast meat batters formulated with different contents of sodium chloride (NaCl; 10 to 30 g/kg) and tripolyphosphate (TPP; 0 and 5 g/kg) was studied. 2. Increasing salt (sodium chloride) content, along with the addition of 1 g/kg PMG, was beneficial in reducing cooking loss. At all salt contents, batters with PMG showed lower springiness than batters without PMG. Adding PMG to the batter with 20 g/kg salt and TPP decreased fracture force, springiness and chewiness. 3. In a second experiment, the effects of PMG (0.0, 3.0 and 6.0 g/kg), crude malva nut gum (CMG; 3.0 g/kg) and TPP (0.0 and 4.0 g/kg) on cooking loss, fat loss, colour, texture, rheology and microstructure of emulsified chicken meat batters were studied. 4. Increasing PMG reduced cooking and fat losses. Adding TPP increased hardness, springiness, cohesiveness and chewiness. The 1.0 g/kg PMG and TPP provided the greatest hardness. The batter with 3.0 g/kg PMG resulted in the lowest lightness (L*) and highest redness (a*). Adding PMG and TPP resulted in stable batters, as was evident by light microscopy results. The rheological evaluation showed the highest G' in the batter with 4.0 g/kg TPP followed in decreasing order by the batters containing TPP plus 3.0 g/kg PMG, TPP plus 1.0 g/kg PMG, 3.0 g/kg PMG, 1.0 g/kg PMG, 3.0 g/kg CMG and the control. 5. Overall, the results are important for developing new applications where malva nut gum can be used to improve yield and stability of meat products.
Vanniarajan, C.; Sri Subalakhshmi, V.K.I.; Se Shamyugtha; Rajeswaran, G.; Monica, R.; Veni, K.
Black gram (Vignamungo (L) Hepper) is one among the mostly preferred sources of protein, especially in vegetarian diet. One of the most notable biochemical attributes of black gram is Arabinose. As it plays a vital role in the yeast metabolism, it has a direct correlation with the battering quality of Black gram. MDU 1 variety has the highest Arabinose content of 7.5 per cent and VBN(Bg)4yields higher. Both the varieties have indeterminate growth habit. Hence, these two varieties were chosen and treated with Gamma rays and Electron beam of 100–500 Gy and 200–600 Gy respectively. Twenty desirable mutants were selected in M6 generation based on determinate growth habit and high yield with short duration. These mutants were tested for the Arabinose content along with MDU 1 and VBN (Bg)4, using Bial (1902) method. The results of the selected M6 generation mutants revealed that only three mutants excelled in Arabinose content than MDU 1. Two mutants were found to retain the same Arabinose content as that of MDU 1.Three mutants containing higher Arabinose content, one with lower Arabinose content and the parents were further analysed for batter quantity. The unveiled fact is that the increase in Arabinose content increases the batter volume to a certain extent (Arabinose = 10 %). Eventually, with a due course of increase in Arabinose content, the batter volume decreases. The results were tested for significance and were found to be significant. In this present investigation, it was found that the optimum Arabinose content is 10 per cent, which showed an increased batter volume. It has to be further confirmed by using advanced biochemical and molecular methods. (author)
King, M C; Ryan, J
Our society abounds with myths and misperceptions in relation to the battering of women. These myths impede the identification of women who are experiencing violence and abuse, and inhibit appropriate intervention. Abuse is not too private a matter to assess for, nor does abuse affect only poor black or Hispanic women. No woman deserves to be beaten. Women do not like or seek out abuse. Abused women are courageous, competent women; what abused women have in common is that they are threatened and controlled by a male partner and live under the constant fear of violence and abuse. Raising one's consciousness about the victimization and oppression of women in our society, and uncovering the myths which leave practitioners powerless and ineffective agents of change for women are important tasks for health care providers. By focusing attention on this enormous health problem, clinicians can provide a leadership role in using health care responses that actually empower women to take control of their own lives.
Brewster, Ryan; Bi, Wenya Linda; Smith, Timothy R; Gormley, William B; Dunn, Ian F; Laws, Edward R
Baseball maintains one of the highest impact injury rates in all athletics. A principal causative factor is the "beanball," referring to a pitch thrown directly at a batter's head. Frequent morbidities elicited demand for the development of protective gear development in the 20th century. In this setting, Dr. Walter Dandy was commissioned to design a "protective cap" in 1941. His invention became widely adopted by professional baseball and inspired subsequent generations of batting helmets. As a baseball aficionado since his youth, Walter Dandy identified a natural partnership between baseball and medical practice for the reduction of beaning-related brain injuries. This history further supports the unique position of neurosurgeons to leverage clinical insights, inform innovation, and expand service to society.
In the course of a research project sponsored by the State of North Rhine-Westphalia the mine surveying methods used when measuring deformation on open cut batters were further developed, by taking into account the special conditions prevailing in open cuts, to such an extent that the essential monitoring of soil movements can be carried out reliably and promptly. As an integral part of an optimised, accurate geodetic measurement of points, the direct measurement of longitude across the open cut was introduced as a rapid measuring method. The aerophotogrammetric measurement of points is practically as accurate as terrestrial surveying. The author describes the prototype of an automatically operated instrument system for the monitoring of points. In conclusion he also stresses that the first promising advance has already been made as regards the sufficiently accurate monitoring of rock movements in boreholes.
Smith, S M; Hanson, R
The self-reported child-rearing practices of 214 parents of battered babies were characterized in a few but not all respects by demanding behaviour which exceeded that to be expected in relation to their social class and age. Inconsistency in child management was noted in the comparison between lack of demonstrativeness and emotional over-involvement, and between physical punishment and a tendency to be lax in the supervision of the child, and was reminiscent of parents of delinquents. Unhappiness and hostility in relationships with members of their families of origin, with unsupporting partners and with people in general were other important features. Generally, identified perpetrators were characterized by features significant for the sample as a whole.
... immigration laws, and made amendments to other statutes, including certain HUD statutes, to support and... ``Housing Opportunities and Safety for Battered Women and Children.'' Section 601 of VAWA 2005 amended VAWA.../pih/publications/notices/06/pih2006-23.pdf . PIH Notice 2006-23 was followed by PIH Notice 2006-42...
Full Text Available A battered shrimp burger, as a new value-added shrimp product, was developed by increasing the juiciness of a frozen battered shrimp burger using a mixture of hydrocolloids. The formulations of hydrocolloid mixtures containing modified tapioca starch (MTS, sodium alginate (AL, and iota-carrageenan (CA were optimized. Juiciness measurements were defined and analyzed by 13 trained panelists. Texture Profile Analysis (TPA as well as moisture and fat contents of the products were analyzed. The mixture of MTS and AL had an impact on moisture content and juiciness scores, while CA influenced the hardness. The product made using the optimized formulation (0.3% MTS + 0.7% AL had a higher moisture content andjuiciness scores (p0.05. However, higher springiness and gumminess were found in the control burger (p0.05.
Srivastava, Yashi; Semwal, Anil Dutt
Virgin coconut meal (VCM) cakes were prepared by replacing refined wheat flour (maida) (5 to 20 % level) to check its effect on chemical, textural and rheological attributes of cake. The addition of VCM significantly (p ≤ 0.05) increased redness (a*), yellowness (b*) while reduced lightness (L*) of cakes. The incorporation of VCM affects the hardness, adhesiveness gumminess and chewiness of cake. The effect of flour replacement with VCM increased the viscosity of batter which leads to increase in consistency index and lower the shearthining behavior. The viscoelastic behavior of cake batter in which elastic modulus (G') and viscous modulus (G") both were decreased with the increase in percentage of VCM. The differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis revealed that the onset (To), end set (Tc) and enthalpy of gelatinization (ΔH) increased with the increased level of VCM.
Radatz, Dana L; Wright, Emily M
The majority of batterer intervention program (BIP) evaluations have indicated they are marginally effective in reducing domestic violence recidivism. Meanwhile, correctional programs used to treat a variety of offenders (e.g., substance users, violent offenders, and so forth) that adhere to the "principles of effective intervention" (PEI) have reported significant reductions in recidivism. This article introduces the PEI-the principles on which evidence-based practices in correctional rehabilitation are based-and identifies the degree to which they are currently integrated into BIPs. The case is made that batterer programs could be more effective if they incorporate the PEI. Recommendations for further integration of the principles into BIPs are also provided. © The Author(s) 2015.
Annesley, Claire; Himmelweit, Susan
This chapter examines the government's approach to fairness in its Comprehensive Spending Review and shows that it fails to acknowledge that men and women start from unequal positions, and that there are many barriers to social mobility other than lack of educational qualifications.\\ud Unequal employment opportunities and unpaid caring responsibilities are given as two examples. As a result women rely on public services to be able to combine care with employment and so cuts in public services...
The syndrome of the battered, abused and neglected child is becoming manifest also in our country with increasing frequency and severity, not only because much more attention is paid to it than ever before. Our system of child care and protection is, however, by far not yet ready to resolve this serious problem in the life of children, families and society as a whole and therefore ways and means must be sought how to face it, how to recognize it, treat it and in particular how to prevent it. One of the important means how to tackle this dangerous social phenomenon is a specialized department concerned in a comprehensive way on an interdisciplinary basis, with skilled and effective clinical work with every single abused child and its family in close association with all disciplines and institutions interested in the problem as well as by conceptual work, research, training and expert opinions etc. The crisis centre for children in Prague 4-Michle wants to serve with its experience and findings as a model workplace for building special institutions within the framework of a rational, interdisciplinary network of child care and protection in this country. The results of its two-year work and the great interest in it on the part of many localities and regions justify its efforts.
Das, Rashmi; Pawar, Deepthi P; Modi, Vinod Kumar
The marinated and battered chicken leg meat and breast meat were pressure fried and their physico-chemical qualities were compared to the conventional fried product (open pan deep fat frying). Shrinkage due to frying process was significantly lesser in case of pressure fried leg meat (PLM) and breast meat (PBM) as compared to products prepared by conventional frying leg meat (CLM) and breast meat (CBM). Also, juiciness of pressure fried chicken products was superior (p ≤ 0.05) than fried products obtained by the conventional method. PLM and PBM had lower fat content (p ≤ 0.05) compared to conventionally fried CLM and CBM. Lipid oxidation was higher (p ≤ 0.05) in conventional frying as compared to pressure frying. Irrespective of the type of chicken meat, conventionally fried meat required higher shear force as compared to pressure fried products. Salmonella, Staphylococcus aureus, Shigella and E. coli were not detected. The study indicates the usefulness and superiority of pressure frying in comparison to conventional deep fat frying.
The dynamic stiffness (impedance function) and the corresponding seismic input motion of a group of battered piles, which can be end-bearing and floating, situated in any desired configuration in horizontally stratified soil, are determined. The soil and the piles consist of (frequency-dependent) visco-elastic material with hysteretic damping. The base mat can be rigid or flexible. Any seismic excitation, for which the free-field motion can be calculated, can be specified (body waves, propagating at an arbitrary angle, generalized surface waves). The soil is discretized by toroidal finite elements in conjunction with a Fourier expansion in the circumferential direction. Radiation and hysteretic damping are accounted for. The dynamic-flexibility matrix of the soil is generated, superimposing the basic dynamic-flexibility coefficients calculated by applying sequentially a horizontal and a vertical force at all nodes located on the axis of symmetry. The influence of the soil which is subsequently replaced by piles is taken into consideration. Pile-soil-pile interaction is accounted for in this method. The formulation can also be applied to embedded foundation and buried structures such as tunnels and pipe systems. (Auth.)
Aguilar, Núria; Albanell, Elena; Miñarro, Begoña; Guamis, Buenaventura; Capellas, Marta
Tiger nut is a tuber used to produce tiger nut milk that yields a high quantity of solid waste, which can be dried and used as fiber source. The objective of this paper was to evaluate the quality of gluten-free bread formulated with different tiger nut-derived products in order to substitute soya flour (which is an allergen ingredient) and, at the same time, increase the use of tiger nut-derived products. Four gluten-free formulations based on corn starch and containing tiger nut milk, tiger nut milk by-product, tiger nut flour, or soya flour (as reference formulation) were studied. Tiger nut milk increased G' of gluten-free batter and rendered breads with the softest crumb (502.46 g ± 102.05), the highest loaf-specific volume (3.35 cm(3)/g ± 0.25), and it was mostly preferred by consumers (61.02%). Breads elaborated with tiger nut flour had similar characteristics than soya flour breads (except in color and crumb structure). The addition of tiger nut milk by-product resulted in a hard (1047.64 g ± 145.74) and dark (L(*) = 70.02 ± 3.38) crumb bread, which was the least preferred by consumers. Results showed that tiger nut is a promising ingredient to formulate gluten-free baked products. © The Author(s) 2014.
Camp, Christopher L; Wang, Dean; Sinatro, Alec S; D'Angelo, John; Coleman, Struan H; Dines, Joshua S; Fealy, Stephen; Conte, Stan
Although batters are frequently hit by pitch (HBP) in baseball, the effect of HBP injuries remains undefined in the literature. To determine the effect of HBP injuries in terms of time out of play, injury patterns resulting in the greatest time out of play, and the value of protective gear such as helmets and elbow pads. Descriptive laboratory study. Based on the Major League Baseball (MLB) Health and Injury Tracking System, all injuries to batters HBP during the 2011-2015 MLB and Minor League Baseball (MiLB) seasons were identified and analyzed. Video analysis was performed on all HBP events from the 2015 MLB season. Multivariate stepwise regression analysis was utilized to determine the predictive capacity of multiple variables (velocity, pitch type, location, etc) on injury status and severity. A total of 2920 HBP injuries resulted in 24,624 days missed (DM) over the 5 seasons. MLB HBP injuries occurred at a rate of 1 per 2554 plate appearances (1 per 9780 pitches thrown). Mean DM per injury were 8.4 (11.7 for MLB vs 8.0 for MiLB, P hit in the head/face (odds ratio, 28.7) or distal upper extremity (odds ratio, 6.4) were more likely to be injured than players HBP in other locations. Players with an unprotected elbow missed 1.7 more days (95% CI, -4.1 to 7.6) than those with an elbow protector ( P = .554) when injured after being HBP. Although HBP injuries occur infrequently in the course of normal play, they collectively represent a significant source of time out of play. The most common body regions injured include the hands/fingers and head/face, and batters hit in these locations are significantly more likely to be injured. After contusions, concussions were the most common injury diagnosis.
Timko, Christine; Valenstein, Helen; Stuart, Gregory L; Moos, Rudolf H
The association between substance abuse and intimate partner violence is quite robust. A promising area to improve treatment for the dual problems of substance abuse and violence perpetration is the identification of client characteristics and organisational and programme factors as predictors of health outcomes. Therefore, we examined associations of client, organisational and programme factors with outcomes in community health settings. Directors of 241 substance use disorder programmes (SUDPs) and 235 batterer intervention programmes (BIPs) reported outcomes of programme completion and substance use and violence perpetration rates at discharge; data collection and processing were completed in 2012. SUDPs having more female, non-white, younger, uneducated, unemployed and lower income clients reported lower completion rates. In SUDPs, private, for-profit programmes reported higher completion rates than public or private, non-profit programmes. SUDPs with lower proportions of their budgets from government sources, and higher proportions from client fees, reported better outcomes. Larger SUDPs had poorer programme completion and higher substance use rates. Completion rates in SUDPs were higher when clients could obtain substance- and violence-related help at one location, and programmes integrated violence-prevention contracting into care. In BIPs, few client, organisational and programme factors were associated with outcomes, but the significant factors associated with programme completion were consistent with those for SUDPs. Publicly owned and larger programmes, and SUDPs lacking staff to integrate violence-related treatment, may be at risk of poorer client outcomes, but could learn from programmes that perform well to yield better outcomes. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Wyszynski, M E
In the United States, a woman is battered in her home every 9 seconds, and up to 4,000 women are beaten to death every year, making family violence one of the most common crimes in the United States today. Family violence has been identified as a national health concern; however, long-standing societal belief, myths regarding family violence, and the lack of training for healthcare professionals have created barriers to identifying and caring for these women. There is no single profile of the victim or perpetrator of family violence. All women should be asked about family violence in a safe, nonthreatening manner at all healthcare visits, including when bringing children for pediatric visits. Family violence begins slowly and increases with time. Goals for caring for the battered woman include decreasing her isolation, increasing her safety, accurate documentation, and appropriate referrals.
Domestic violence constitutes historical behavior in accord with patriarchal systems. Family and domestic violence includes female infanticide, higher female mortality, female genital mutilation, bride burning, rape, wife battering, and early marriage. These practices are commonly integrated into values and beliefs. Women accept domestic violence in violation of their basic human rights due to social prejudice and low self esteem. Mothers who perpetuate female genital mutilation believe that they are acting in the best interests of the child by adhering to centuries-long traditions. Women who allow female infanticide or female abortion are motivated to do so in order to maintain the security of their marriage. Women are in unequal power relationships and submit to their own detriment. Negative attitudes against women are perpetuated through incorrect interpretations of religious principles and myths. Economic self-reliance gives women the courage to stand up against domestic violence. Empowerment through education and appropriate and protective legislation also gives women the means to fight violence. Nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) at the national, regional, and international levels are active in creating awareness of domestic violence and influencing policy change. The NGO Working Group on Traditional Practices and the Inter-African Committee have a 10-year history of fighting against practices such as female genital mutilation. In order to bring about change, there must be cooperative and joint action among governmental and inter-governmental groups and NGOs.
Thompson, Benjamin R; Horozov, Tommy S; Stoyanov, Simeon D; Paunov, Vesselin N
We report the use of a temperature insensitive, food-grade hydrogel to reduce the caloric density of pancakes that were prepared at temperatures much higher than the boiling point of water. This cheap, facile method utilises a mixed agar-methylcellulose hydrogel, which was blended to produce a slurry of hydrogel microbeads. The pancake batter was mixed with a controlled volume percentage of slurry of hydrogel beads and cooked. From bomb calorimetry experiments, the composites were found to have a reduced caloric density that reflects the volume percentage of hydrogel beads mixed with the batter. Using this procedure, we were able to reduce the caloric density of pancakes by up to 23 ± 3% when the volume percentage of hydrogel beads initially used was 25%. The method is not limited to pancakes and could potentially be applied to various other food products. The structure and morphology of the freeze-dried pancakes and pancake-hydrogel composites were investigated and pores of a similar size to the hydrogel beads were found, confirming that the gel beads maintained their structure during the cooking process. There is scope for further development of this method by the encapsulation of nutritionally beneficial or flavour enhancing ingredients within the hydrogel beads.
Jongsutjarittam, Nisachon; Charoenrein, Sanguansri
This study aimed to improve the freeze-thawed cake properties by10-20% waxy rice flour (WRF) substitution for wheat flour (WF). Viscosity of WRF-substituted batters was lower; consequently, trapped air was less uniformly distributed than WF batter. After five freeze-thaw cycles, firmness and enthalpy of melting retrograded amylopectin of WF- and WRF-substituted cakes increased and the matrix surrounding the air pores from SEM images was denser than in fresh-baked cakes. Sensory evaluation showed an increase in firmness and a decrease in firmness acceptability of freeze-thawed cakes. However, freeze-thawed cake with WRF substitution had significantly less firmness, less dense matrix and more acceptability than WF cake. This could have been due to a low amylose content of WRF and the spread of ruptured waxy rice starch granules around swollen wheat starch granules as observed by CLSM. Thus, WRF could be used for WF substitution to improve the firmness in freeze-thawed cake. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
FORMULASI TEPUNG PENYALUT BERBASIS TEPUNG JAGUNG DAN PENENTUAN UMUR SIMPANNYA DENGAN PENDEKATAN KADAR AIR KRITIS [Formulation of Corn Flour-Based Batter and Prediction of Its Shelf Life using Critical Moisture Approach
Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to obtain the best formula for corn flour-based batter and to predict its shelf life using critical moisture approach. According to a hedonic test, the best batter formula was composed of 60% corn flour, 12.5% rice flour, 12.5% tapioca starch, and 15% glutinous rice flour. Addition of glutinous rice flour in the formula changed the proportion of amylose and amylopectin in the batter. As a result, the retrogradation of the batter decreased and the texture of its fried product was preferred. A critical moisture approach was used to predict the shelf life of the batter. The critical moisture content of the batter was 0.16 g H2O/g solid.The isotherm sorption phenomenon of the batter was best described using Hasley model. The shelf life of the product was 7 months when packaged in polypropylene (0,07 g/m2day.mmHg at 85% RH.
The particle size effects of high-amylose rice (Goami 2) flour on quality attributes of frying batters were characterized in terms of physicochemical, rheological, and oil-resisting properties. High-amylose rice flours were fractionated into four fractions (70, 198, 256, and 415 µm) of which morpho...
Estudio Meta-Analítico de Características Diferenciales Entre Maltratadores y no Maltratadores: El Caso de la Psicopatología y el Consumo de Alcohol o Drogas Meta-Analytic Study of Differential Characteristics Between Batterers and Non-Batterers: The Case of Psychopathology and Consumption of Alcohol and Drugs
Full Text Available Últimamente la violencia doméstica ha pasado a ser considerada como un verdadero problema social. Entre las cuestiones que han generado mayor interés está la caracterización de los agresores, es decir, tratar de delimitar las características que diferencian a maltratadores de no maltratadores. Este interés ha dado lugar a gran cantidad de literatura cuyas conclusiones parecen provisionales y en ocasiones confusas. El objetivo de este trabajo es realizar una revisión meta-analítica de la literatura que compara a maltratadores y no maltratadores en cuanto a psicopatología y consumo de alcohol y drogas. Los resultados obtenidos indican que, en general, hay diferencias significativas aunque limitadas en cuanto a su magnitud entre unos y otros en cuanto a estas variables. Se discuten las implicaciones y limitaciones de estos resultados.Domestic violence has been regarded as an important social problem during the last years. One of the questions that have generated more interest is the perpetrator profile, that is the features that differentiate male batterers from male non-batterers. A raising amount of literature exists on this matter, although conclusions seem yet to be provisional. This piece of research offers a meta-analytic review about the literature that compares male batterers and non-batterers in psychopathology and use of alcohol and drugs. These meta-analytic findings offer support for the existence of limited differences between male batterers and non-batterers in these variables. The implications and limitations of these results are discussed.
In the search for mainly automatic measuring techniques that furnish real-time areal data on deformations in marginal batters of opencast workings, it was decided inter alia to adopt the technique of direct linear measurement across the workings at the brown coal opencast mines in the Rhineland. The present paper describes the development of this technique from the use of instruments which initially were operated manually to the introduction of automatic measuring stations. The successful application of this technique in all the opencast workings in the Rhineland brown coal mining area is discussed. Since the accuracy obtained in electro-optical telemetering depends to a large extent on the meteorological conditions, it can hardly be increased with the instruments at present available. Hence, it is essential that two-colour telemeters which are perfected for field-work and are not refraction-prone should be developed. (orig.).
Chandrasekar Rajendran, S C; Chamlagain, B; Kariluoto, S; Piironen, V; Saris, P E J
Lactococcus lactis N8 and Saccharomyces boulardii SAA655 were investigated for their ability to synthesize B-vitamins (riboflavin and folate) and their functional role as microbial starters in idli fermentation. In this study, ultra-high performance liquid chromatography and microbiological assay were used to determine the total riboflavin and folate content respectively. Increased levels of folate were evident in both L. lactis N8 and S. boulardii SAA655 cultivated medium. Enhanced riboflavin levels were found only in S. boulardii SAA655 grown medium, whereas decreased riboflavin level was found in L. lactis N8 cultivated medium. To evaluate the functional role of microbial starter strains, L. lactis N8 and S. boulardii SAA655 were incorporated individually and in combination into idli batter, composed of wet grounded rice and black gram. For the experiments, naturally fermented idli batter was considered as control. The results indicated that natural idli fermentation did not enhance the riboflavin level and depleted folate levels by half. In comparison with control, L. lactis N8 and S. boulardii SAA655 incorporated idli batter (individually and in combination) increased riboflavin and folate levels by 40-90%. Apart from compensating the folate loss caused by natural fermentation, S. boulardii SAA655 fermented idli batter individually and in combination with L. lactis N8 also showed the highest leavening character. Moreover, the microbial starter incorporation did not significantly influence the pH of idli batter. Incorporation of L. lactis N8 and S. boulardii SAA655 can evidently enhance the functional and technological characteristics of idli batter. UN General Assembly declared 2016 the International Year of pulses emphasizing the importance of legumes as staple food. Furthermore, this is the first experimental report of in situ biofortifcation of riboflavin and folate using microbes in pulse based fermented staple food. The current study suggests possible
Research on gender-based violence describes domestic violence by male partners as a major public health issue and serious human rights violation. Many studies have been conducted in Kosovo to understand the factors that contribute to violence against women. The present study aims to examine the experiences of battered women and their understanding of the violence from an ecological framework, by asking questions regarding personal, situational, and socio-cultural factors. The study is qualitative, consisting of 50 in-depth interviews with victims of domestic violence, and uses a grounded theory approach to identify main themes of the women's experiences. Findings from the study suggest that poverty, a patriarchal culture, strictly defined gender roles, and lack of programs for reintegrating victims subordinate women and leave them susceptible to domestic violence. © The Author(s) 2014.
Kandall, Stephen R
The history of women and addiction in America extends back more than 150 years. Although the true epidemiology of women and addiction has always been difficult to determine, the spectrum of female addicts extends well beyond those women who make sensationalistic headlines by "abandoning" or "battering" their children. Historically, female addiction has been largely the result of inappropriate overmedication practices by physicians and pharmacists, media manipulation, or individuals own attempts to cope with social or occupational barriers preventing equality and self-fulfillment. From the mid-nineteenth century, uneasy tolerance, social ostracism, vilification, persecution, and legal prosecution have grudgingly, but not completely, given way to more humane treatment opportunities in the setting of more enlightened comprehensive care.
Żelaziński, Tomasz; Ekielski, Adam; Siwek, Adam; Dardziński, Leszek
Novel food batters, recommended for various products, are at present manufactured by extru- sion. Thanks to this, it is possible to look for and process new raw materials, if their processing has so far been considered impossible or economically unviable. The purpose of the work was therefore to investigate the extrudates produced from the corn and brewers' spent grain compounds that are subsequently used as raw material for food batter production. The work presents the findings of research on extrusion of corn mixes with varying levels of brewers' spent grains, to the maximum amount of 30%. Tests were conducted using a co-rotating double screw extruder, equipped with a single-outlet matrix with a diameter of 2.5mm. The products obtained were subjected to analysis of their parameters (apparent density, strength parameters, abrasiveness index) and the granulation of a single fraction was checked. The sample for which the percentage content was the highest was subjected to a detailed analysis of particle shape using vision software. It was found that an increase in the content of brewers' spent grains resulted in increased hardness of the products obtained. During the tests it was observed that the increasing hardness of the measured sam- ples is opposite to their abrasion resistance. The maximum decrement of the brasion parameters was seen for extrudates with 30% spent grain addition and was 1.4%, while the minimum decrement values for extrudates with brewers' grain content (10%) amounted to 0.85%. It was noted that this may prove the high brittleness of such products, particularly on the outer surface. It was also observed that lower grindability was recorded for samples produced by extrusion at a temperature of 140°C. On the other hand, higher grindability obtained at a temperature of 120°C may facilitate the grinding of such products, which may be particularly important in the production of food batter. Brewers' spent grains used as an addition to corn groats
Mengo, Cecilia; Small, Eusebius; Black, Beverly
Many variables explain the link between intimate partner violence (IPV) and its impact on women's mental health. This proposition is mostly from samples drawn from battered women's shelters, batterer intervention programs (BIPs), emergency rooms, and medical clinics. We know little about the psychological well-being of women who report abuse to police departments. This study used data from case records of women who experience IPV and sought help from a city police station located in the southwest United States. These case records were examined to identify how sociodemographic characteristics of age, ethnicity, marital status, financial dependence, resources of social support, and coping strategies related with type and number of IPV incidents as well as mental health symptoms. The sample consisted of 154 women, majority of whom experienced physical violence (70.1%), sexual violence (9.1%), emotional violence/stalking (14.9%), and combined, that is, reporting more than one (5.8%). Approximately 67.5% of the women reported some mental health symptoms. Social support and coping strategies significantly distinguished women's experience of mental health symptoms. Unexpectedly, the current data indicate that women who scored higher in perceived social support significantly reported more mental health symptoms. Coping strategies mediated the relationship between IPV and mental health symptoms. The findings suggest that availability of coping resources may mitigate repeated IPV and modify the impact of mental health. In discussing prevention and intervention efforts with women who have experienced or are at risk of experiencing IPV, practitioners can help women employ empowering coping strategies that are built on their resilience. In addition, mental health professionals working with the police, especially in community policing setting, can achieve promising outcomes for women experiencing violence.
Full Text Available The eff ect of dried pods of Caesalpinia spinosa, known as tara, on pH, cooking loss, lipid oxidation, colour stability and texture of model meat systems stored at 4 °C for 21 days was investigated. Tara pod powder showing a potential antioxidant activity was added at 0.02, 0.04 and 0.08 % (by mass directly to the pork batt er and compared with a synthetic antioxidant, butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA and control (no added antioxidants. The addition of tara pod powder at 0.02 % was as effective as BHA (0.02 % in retarding lipid oxidation in pork products during storage. Results showed that redness increased after the addition of tara pod powder. Specifically, 0.02 % of tara pod powder was effective in keeping the red colour of meat batter stored under illumination at 4 °C for 48 h. Hardness of pork products was the lowest in samples manufactured with tara pod powder compared with control. Results highlight the potential of using tara pod powder as natural functional ingredient in the development of pork products with enhanced quality and shelf life.
Ninomiya, Y [JDC Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Omori, H [Nippon Kokan Koji K.K., Yokohama (Japan)
This report introduces the practical examples of the present system of execution manegement. Necessary functions and basic problems are described as well as the possibility of utilizing hydraulic/pneumatic pressure for the automation or the robotization which are the future technical problems. Application examples are also shown on the execution management system by means of an accelometer which was developed by the authors. This area is not long after the start of study. Essential points of the execution management of the batter piles are that the front tips of the piles are confirmed to be securely penetrated to the specified depth in the specific support layer giving the required supporting strength at the same time. For this purpose, what are required are to accurately measure the penetration displacement of the piles and assess the maximum penetration and final penetration and the amount of the rebound. Then the support strength should be checked from the dynamic support force. For this, it is required to develop an execution management system which is simple and adept for the operation at the spot. 9 refs., 12 figs., 5 tabs.
Semaan, Ingrid; Jasinski, Jana L; Bubriski-McKenzie, Anne
Drawing on in-depth interviews with mothers who were abused by intimate partners, we argue that mothering can be a source of empowerment that helps battered women both care for their children and survive and assert themselves. Women in the study sample described a violation of some aspect of their mothering as the reason they left their partners. However, narrative analysis exposed contradictions in participants' stories, revealing multiple factors that shaped their decisions to leave. Although motherhood was significant for the women who participated in the study, it was not their only motivation for ending their relationships with abusive partners.
Huber, Regina; Schoenlechner, Regine
Fresh egg waffles are a sweet convenience product typically baked from eggs, water, sugar, flour, fat, leavening agents, emulsifiers, preservatives, and flavors. In industrial production, waffles are baked continuously in high amounts of up to 200 kg raw material per hour. Therefore, it is important that the waffles do not stick onto the baking plates, which can cause significant product loss and increased costs due to interruption of the baking process, required cleaning procedures, and restarting of the energy-consuming start-up phase. Sticking of waffles is greatly influenced not only by baking plate material, release agent, baking temperature, and time, but also by the batter ingredients. In this study, effects of different starches and sugar components were investigated. Within the selected starches, potato starch demonstrated the highest effects on increasing waffle stability and releasing properties compared to wheat and lupine flour (less than 7% sticking waffles). Rice flour performed worst, with almost 50% of sticking waffles. Most of these waffles were broken during take-off, due to their crumbly texture. Within the sugar components, glycerine was better suitable than sorbitol and crystal sugar was superior compared to powdered sugar. They required less take-off force. It could be demonstrated that waffles with increased stability and texture were those that showed the least number of sticking waffles, thus the main aim of batter ingredients was to improve waffle quality. Waffle quality was influenced by batter parameters, significant correlations could be found, for example, a positive correlation between pH- and L-value, negative correlations between pH- and a-value, or density and aw-value. This resulted in significant correlations with take-off-force, which was correlated with L*- and b*-value (negative) and positive to a*-value. Sticking behavior was strongly associated with b*-value (positive) and to a*-value (negative).
Mariana Meloni Vieira Botti
Full Text Available Este artigo investiga a imagem da mulher fetichizada, socialmente construída enquanto objeto de desejo. Através da análise de imagens dos fotógrafos Elmer Batters, Eric Kroll e Cristiano, buscando decodificar alguns elementos simbólicos do universo do fetiche, e interpretar a construção de seus significados a partir de questões de gênero.This article investigates the image of fetishized women, socially constructed as an object of desire. Analyzing the images of photographers Elmer Batters, Eric Kroll and Cristiano, it decodes the symbolic elements of the fetishist universe, and intends to interpret its constructions and meanings concerning gender issues.
Full Text Available This paper addresses the difficulties inherent in providing mental health treatment for men who commit acts of violence against their intimate partners. The effectiveness of available treatment programs for men who batter, both in the international literature and in Spain, is analyzed. In all studies the dropout rates in the treatment of men involved in intimate partner violence are very high. Different studies have pointed to multiple psychological and social causes to explain the poor adherence to treatment in men who batter. The main predictors of poor adherence to therapy are described. Therefore, motivational enhancement strategies are being developed to strengthen subjects' commitment to change by helping them to identify their goals for recovery and to determine ways to reach these goals. Finally, some suggestions are discussed about how to successfully deal with these issues. It is necessary to implement strategies to improve motivation for treatment. Implications of this study for clinical practice, policy decisions, and future research in this field are commented upon.
Sokoloff, Natalie J; Dupont, Ida
This article provides a comprehensive review of the emerging domestic violence literature using a race, class, gender, sexual orientation intersectional analysis and structural framework fostered by women of color and their allies to understand the experiences and contexts of domestic violence for marginalized women in U.S. society. The first half of the article lays out a series of challenges that an intersectional analysis grounded in a structural framework provides for understanding the role of culture in domestic violence. The second half of the article points to major contributions of such an approach to feminist methods and practices in working with battered women on the margins of society.
Maria del Carmen Herrera
Full Text Available Violence against women in close relationships is one of the most worrying and controversial situations in modern society. The main goal of this study was to identify the social perception that people generally have of gender violence in order to obtain profiles of both men who resort to violence against their partners and women who are victims of abuse, identifying both individual (e.g. self-esteem and social (power in relationship characteristics related to gender violence. Using a questionnaire (designed between groups, 268 participants were asked to estimate the probability of men (Batterers vs. Non-batterers and women (Victims vs. Non-victims displaying certain behaviours, beliefs or attitudes. The results revealed the existence of clear social profiles of both aggressors and victims, comprising both individual and psychosocial characteristics. These profiles contained aspects that coincide with the roles traditionally associated with men and women, thus highlighting inequality between both sexes, and which seems to be one of the main causes of gender violence.
Irmscher, Stefan B; Terjung, Eva-Maria; Gibis, Monika; Herrmann, Kurt; Kohlus, Reinhard; Weiss, Jochen
The integration of a nozzle in an extended vane pump-grinder system may enable the continuous injection of curing salt solutions during meat batter production. The purpose of this work was to examine the influence of the curing salt amount injected with the solution (0-100%) on protein solubilisation, water-binding, structure, colour and texture of emulsion-type sausages. The amount of myofibrillar protein solubilised during homogenisation varied slightly from 33 to 36 g kg -1 . Reddening was not noticeably impacted by the later addition of nitrite. L * ranged from 66.9 ± 0.3 to 67.8 ± 0.3, a * from 10.9 ± 0.1 to 11.2 ± 0.1 and b * from 7.7 ± 0.1 to 8.0 ± 0.1. Although softer sausages were produced when only water was injected, firmness increased with increasing curing salt amount injected and was similar to the control when the full amount of salt was used. The substitution of two-thirds of ice with a liquid brine may enable energy savings due to reduced power consumptions of the extended vane pump-grinder system by up to 23%. The injection of curing salt solutions is feasible without affecting structure and colour negatively. This constitutes a first step towards of an 'ice-free' meat batter production allowing for substantial energy savings due to lower comminution work. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.
Extensive formation of sinkholes in unconsolidated rock due to underground erosive removal of sand at a marginal batter of an opencast mine - causes, process and geotechnical safety measures. Grossflaechige Erdfallbildungen im Lockergestein durch unterirdische erosive Ausraeumung von Sand and einer Tagebauendboeschung - Ursachen, Verlauf und geotechnische Sicherung
When the ground water rose in the marginal batter of an opencast mine damage occurred. This was caused by the processes of internal erosion and suffusion in fine sand layers of slight thickness and by the disintegration of the overlying strata due to the formation of sinkholes. Effective safety measures involved lowering the ground-water level in the zone immediately in front of the area in question and installing an auxiliary filter unit at the marginal batter. (orig.).
Wollersheim, J P
Depression is a highly prevalent disorder that causes much personal distress and difficulties in functioning at home and in the workplace. In the workplace, as elsewhere, depression can manifest as a variation in normal mood, as a symptom, as a disorder, or as a disease. Occupational health professionals are more concerned with clinical depression, a term used to signify any type of depression that causes significant personal distress and/or problems in functioning. Clinical depression is manifest in the workplace and adversely affects the employee's work satisfaction and performance. For most types of depression, women are at a higher risk than men. A number of events and variables related to women and depression were reviewed. Although the effects of some of these events, such as menopause, can be manifest in the workplace, they are not associated with an increased incidence of clinical depression. Other events, such as victimization (e.g., childhood sexual abuse or battering by an intimate partner), are associated with higher risks of depression in women. Women derive substantial satisfaction from interpersonal relationships but also are at greater risk for depression when strains and conflicts in these relationships occur. In the workplace women who have no difficulty in arranging for child care and whose spouses share in the care of children show lower rates of depression. When marriages are unhappy, women are three times as likely as men to be depressed. These findings speak to the importance of relationships to women. In the workplace, when women are depressed, problems with relationships are likely to be involved. Clinically depressed women are not difficult to identify in work settings. Dejected mood and loss of interest in usual activities are noticeable, along with numerous other symptoms that accompany depression. The effective treatment of depression depends on careful diagnosis and assessment. Both drug therapy and the more structured psychotherapies
Stuart, Gregory L.; Moore, Todd M.; Elkins, Sara R.; O’Farrell, Timothy J.; Temple, Jeff R.; Ramsey, Susan; Shorey, Ryan C.
Objective There is a paucity of research on the temporal association between substance use and intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration and victimization, especially among women arrested for domestic violence. The current study examined whether the probability of IPV perpetration and victimization increases following alcohol or drug use relative to days of no use among women arrested for domestic violence. Method Women arrested for domestic violence and court referred to batterer intervention programs who met criteria for hazardous drinking participated in the current study (N=105). Women who reported drinking four or more drinks on one occasion at least once per month for the past six months were considered hazardous drinkers. Violence and substance use were assessed with the Timeline Followback Interviews for substance use and IPV. Results Women were more likely to perpetrate physical violence on a drinking day (OR=10.58; 95% CI=5.38–20.79) and on a heavy drinking day (OR=12.81; 95% CI=8.10–33.57), relative to a non-drinking day. Women were more likely to be victimized by physical violence on a drinking day (OR=5.22; 95% CI=2.79–9.77) and on a heavy drinking day (OR=6.16; 95% CI=3.25–11.68), relative to a non-drinking day. They were more likely to be victims of sexual coercion (OR=6.06; 95% CI=1.19–30.80) on a cocaine use day relative to a non-use day. Conclusions Alcohol use was temporally associated with physical violence perpetration and victimization, and cocaine use was temporally associated with sexual coercion victimization, suggesting that substance use should be targeted in batterer intervention programs for women. PMID:23647284
Majzoobi, Mahsa; Vosooghi Poor, Zahra; Mesbahi, Gholamreza; Jamalian, Jalal; Farahnaky, Asgar
Carrot pomace powder (CPP) is a valuable by-product of carrot processing containing nutrients and fiber and can be utilized for enrichment of gluten-free products. The main purpose of this study was to determine the effects of various levels of CPP (0, 10, 20, and 30%) and a mixture of hydrocolloids (HC) including pectin and xanthan (1.5% of each) on the quality of batter and gluten-free cakes. With increasing the level of CPP and inclusion of HC the viscosity of the batter increased significantly from 87 mPa s for the control to >7000 mPa s for 30%CCP + HC sample. The density of the control batter was 1.2 g/cm 3 which reduced significantly to 0.899 g/cm 3 for HC sample. The pH of the cake reduced from 7.23 to 6.78 with addition of CPP but increased slightly with inclusion of HC. The density of the cake reduced from 0.510 g/cm 3 for the control to 0.395 g/cm 3 for 20%CCP + C sample. The texture of the cakes became softer, more springy and chewable with addition of CPP, CPP + HC, and HC. The control sample had the lowest uniformity index (0.178) which improved with addition of CPP and CPP + HC and a highly uniform cake with a uniformity index of 0.045 was obtained for the 30%CCP + HC cake. Addition of CPP increased the dark color of the cakes while inclusion of HC had no effect on the appearance of the cake and color. It was concluded that inclusion of maximum 30%CCP and 20%CPP + HC promoted the quality and sensory attributes of gluten-free cakes. Although different types of gluten-free products are available in the market, most of them contain insufficient amount of fiber and nutrients. Despite popularity, gluten-free cakes are poor in fiber and nutrient contents. Therefore, improving the nutritional value of these products has received an increasing attention by the food industry. Carrot pomace powder (CPP) is an available source of fiber and nutrients and hence can be utilized for enrichment of gluten-free products. This study showed that
Ricardo da Costa Padovani
Full Text Available A violência doméstica é um fenômeno complexo, afetando famílias indistintamente. O objetivo deste trabalho consistiu em oferecer um atendimento psicológico de forma a reduzir o comportamento violento do marido à esposa. O cliente tinha o terceiro grau completo, pertencendo à classe média alta. O trabalho foi desenvolvido na sala de Psicologia da Delegacia da Mulher. Foram realizadas 15 sessões durante 6 meses. Os instrumentos de coleta de dados envolveram as técnicas Entrevistas com agressor, Questionário sobre crenças, Escala de auto-estima, Inventário de depressão, Escala de tática de conflito. As técnicas consistiram de: tarefa de casa, registro de comportamentos violentos/pensamentos que desencadeavam agressões, técnicas de autocontrole, auto-aplicação de time-out, manejo de raiva, análise de pensamentos disfuncionais, treino de assertividade, relaxamento, role-play, leitura/discussão de textos. Durante o atendimento houve um episódio de agressão à esposa, de proporção menor, se comparado a anteriores. O cliente não apresentou episódios de violência à esposa nos dois meses subseqüentes ao término da intervenção.Domestic violence is a complex phenomenon which indistinctly affects families. The goal of this work consisted in eliminating the violent behavior of a male batterer . The client was an upper-middle class man who had a University education. The intervention took place at the Psychology Office of the Woman’s Police Station. Fifteen sessions were held over a period of six months. Assessment instruments involved: Interviews with Batterer, Questionnaire about Domestic Violence Believes, Self- esteem scales, Beck depression Inventory and the Conflict Tactics Scale. Intervention techniques involved: homework, self-recording of violent behavior and thoughts that triggered aggression, self-control techniques, time-out, anger management, analysis of dysfunctional thoughts, assertiveness training
A brief, vivid portrait of the human rights conditions for women in Asia was presented: "kapit sa patalim" or utter despair, urban migration, export processing zones, tourism and prostitution, political repression, and military sexual slavery. Advocates of women's human rights for Asian women must contend with patriarchal and male-dominated systems that oppress and exploit women to a much greater extent than men. Liberation from these systems and the domination and exploitation by wealthier nations must be a goal of a new economic world order. Unjust and repressive structures must be destroyed, and equitable distribution of wealth and democracy and popular initiatives promoted. The status of women must be raised to coequal status with men. The most important objective of human rights advocates should be the empowerment of women at the individual, community, national, regional, and international level. The Asian Women's Human Rights Council was established as an addition to 3 already operating regional commissions of women's organizations. The aim was not just to describe women as victims, but to pressure development activity to account for women's human rights. Sex tribunals have been scheduled between 1993 and 1994 to address the following issues: 1) sex trafficking (Japan, May 1993); 2) violence against women (Pakistan, December 1993); 3) militarism, environment, and violence against women (Korea, March 1994); 4) crimes of development against women in Asia (India); 5) religion and violence against women (Malaysia, 1994); and 6) indigenous women (December 1994). Women were victims when Filipino domestic workers were stranded and raped in Iraq during the chaos of war, when girls from landless peasant families migrated near Clark Air Force Base to earn a living as prostitutes for US servicemen, when women were forced to work 36-hour shifts in foreign-owned garment factories in Bataan, when women migrated for work, and when women were abused and battered in
Fernández-Martín, F; López-López, I; Cofrades, S; Colmenero, F Jiménez
Standard and modulated differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, MDSC) and dynamic rheological thermal analysis (DRTA) were used to in situ simulate the batter gelation process. Texture profile analysis (TPA) and conventional quality evaluations were applied to processed products. Sea Spaghetti seaweed addition was highly effective at reinforcing water/oil retention capacity, hardness and elastic modulus in all formulations. Olive oil substituting half pork fat yielded a presumably healthier product with slightly better characteristics than control. A konjac-starch mixed gel replacing 70% of pork fat produced a similar product to control but with nearly 10% more water. DSC revealed the currently unknown phenomenon that Sea Spaghetti alginates apparently prevented thermal denaturation of a considerable protein fraction. MDSC confirmed that this mainly concerned non-reversing effects, and displayed glass transition temperatures in the range of 55-65°C. DRTA and TPA indicated however much stronger alginate-type gels. It is tentatively postulated that salt-soluble proteins associate athermally with seaweed alginates on heating to constitute a separate phase in a thermal composite-gelling process.
On September 15, 1995, government delegations finished the Platform for Action of the United Nations Fourth World Conference on Women in Beijing, China. In this historic document, individual governments and the international community committed themselves to the advancement of women worldwide. Human rights issues (violence against women and female children, and reproductive freedom and health) were discussed and affirmed. Paragraph 2 of the human rights section states that "the human rights of women and the girl child are an inalienable, integral and indivisible part of universal human rights." Paragraph 9 adds "full realization of all human rights and fundamental freedoms of all women is essential for the empowerment of women." Acknowledging "the significance of national and regional particularities and various historical, cultural and religious backgrounds," the document still calls for "states, regardless of their political, economic and cultural systems, to promote and protect all human rights and fundamental freedoms." The human rights section "reaffirms that [reproductive rights] rest on the recognition of the basic right of all couples and individuals to decide freely and responsibly the number, spacing, and timing of their children and to have the information and means to do so, and the right to attain the highest standard of sexual and reproductive health. It also includes their right to make decisions concerning reproduction free of discrimination, coercion and violence, as expressed in human rights documents." The platform recognizes violence against women and girls in all societies (physical, psychological, and sexual abuse that includes murder; systematic rape; forced pregnancy, sterilization, contraception, and abortion; female infanticide; battering; and trafficking in women that is perpetrated by state and nonstate actors). The section on women and armed conflict declares that "rape in the conduct of armed conflict constitutes a war crime and under
Women have unique health issues. And some of the health issues that affect both men and women can affect women differently. Unique issues ... and men also have many of the same health problems. But these problems can affect women differently. ...
Revisión sistemática de los estudios sobre el nivel socioeconómico de los hombres que maltratan a sus parejas Systematic review of studies on the socioeconomic status of men who batter their intimate partners
Full Text Available Introducción: A pesar de la visibilidad de los casos de violencia del compañero íntimo contra las mujeres en parejas con problemas socioeconómicos, su relación con el hecho concreto de desarrollar una conducta violenta no está clara. Se plantea realizar una revisión sistemática de la evidencia empírica sobre el papel del nivel socioeconómico de los perpetradores en este problema. Métodos: Revisión sistemática. Bases de datos: Eric (1966-2004, Sociological Abstracts (1963-2005, Science Citation Index (1945-2005, Social Science Citation Index (1956-2005, Medline a través de Pubmed (1966-2005, Social Service Abstracts (1980-2005, Lilacs (1982-2005 y Psycinfo (1972-2005. Se incluyeron los artículos empíricos con objetivos o hipótesis sobre la relación causal entre el bajo nivel socioeconómico -empleo, educación e ingresos- de los hombres y la violencia del compañero íntimo contra mujeres. Resultados: Se localizaron 251 estudios. Sólo 10 cumplieron los criterios de inclusión. Se encontró un estudio de cohortes, uno de casos y controles, un estudio ecológico y una serie de casos. Dos estudios calculan las odds ratio (OR en sus análisis. En uno se obtiene una OR de 1,4 (intervalo de confianza del 95%, 1,1-1,9 con el desempleo, y en el otro no se alcanzó en nivel de significación estadística ni con este factor ni con el bajo nivel de ingresos y educativo. Conclusiones: Se requiere más información, y de más calidad, que permita establecer resultados concluyentes sobre el papel causal del nivel socioeconómico de los hombres que maltratan a sus parejas. Aún es insuficiente la evidencia empírica que asocia la conducta violenta de los hombres contra sus parejas con determinados grupos de bajo nivel socioeconómico.Background: Despite the visibility of intimate partner violence against women in low socioeconomic groups, the association of low socioeconomic status and violent behavior is unclear. We performed a systematic
Lempert, L B
origin and persistence of problems of women patients, as demonstrated by the correlation between subordinate group status and mental health. Many changes have been initiated as a result of pressure from individual women and from the women's health care movement. For example, medical schools are reforming their training in values, ethics, and human relations. Women have begun to assume more control over their own lives and well being. Women's groups such as the Boston Women's Health Collective have set the pattern for a proliferation of self-help manuals available to the general readership. Recent media attention has focused on such women's health issues as family violence, incest, and battering. Women have challenged the medical professionals in their treatments, and medical professionals need to see beyond individual symptoms to the context of illness in women. Complete health for women can be a new model for other social movements.
Macías-Cortés, Emma Del Carmen; Llanes-González, Lidia; Aguilar-Faisal, Leopoldo; Asbun-Bojalil, Juan
Although individualized homeopathic treatment is effective for depression in climacteric women, there is a lack of well-designed studies of its efficacy for depression in battered women or in post-traumatic stress disorder. The aim of this study was to assess the association between individualized homeopathic treatment or fluoxetine and response to depression treatment in climacteric women with high levels of domestic violence, sexual abuse or marital dissatisfaction. One hundred and thirty-three Mexican climacteric women with moderate-to-severe depression enrolled in the HOMDEP-MENOP Study (a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, double-dummy, three-arm trial, with a 6-week follow-up study) were evaluated. Domestic violence, marital dissatisfaction and sexual abuse were assessed at baseline. Response to depression treatment was defined by a decrease of 50% or more from baseline score of Hamilton scale. Association between domestic violence, sexual abuse, and marital dissatisfaction and response to depression treatment was analyzed with bivariate analysis in the three groups. Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated. Homeopathy versus placebo had a statistically significant association with response to depression treatment after adjusting for sexual abuse (OR [95% CI]: 11.07 [3.22 to 37.96]), domestic violence (OR [95% CI]: 10.30 [3.24 to 32.76]) and marital dissatisfaction (OR [95% CI]: 8.61 [2.85 to 25.99]). Individualized homeopathic treatment is associated with response to depression treatment in climacteric women with high levels of domestic violence, sexual abuse or marital dissatisfaction. Further studies should be conducted to evaluate its efficacy specifically for post-traumatic stress disorder in battered women. CLINICALTRIALS. NCT01635218,: URL: http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01635218?term=depression+homeopathy&rank=1. The Faculty of Homeopathy.
Somer, Eli; Ross, Colin; Kirshberg, Revital; Bakri, Rana Shawahdy; Ismail, Shefa
This study examined the association between exposure to domestic violence and dissociative symptoms. A sample of 68 Israeli opiate use disorder patients in recovery, 80 battered Arab Israeli women, and 103 respondents from a community sample participated in structured interviews that included the Dissociative Disorders Interview Schedule (DDIS), the Dissociative Trance Disorder Interview Schedule (DTDIS), and the Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES). As predicted, community participants reported significantly less exposure to traumatizing events and lower levels of dissociative psychopathology than individuals sampled from specialized treatment centers. In all, 91% of battered female participants were taxon-positive for dissociative disorder with 1 of every 2 respondents reporting symptoms corresponding to dissociative amnesia and depersonalization disorder, suggesting that this group may be particularly vulnerable to dissociative psychopathology. Extrasensory and paranormal experiences (ESP) and dissociative trance disorder experiences were strongly related to dissociative experiences and features of dissociative identity disorder (DID). These statistical associations suggest that dissociative disorders and ESP/trance experiences may share an underlying construct. Further research is needed on trauma and dissociation among female victims of domestic abuse in patriarchal, collectivist societies, particularly in the Arab world. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.
Aghakhani, Nader; Sharif Nia, Hamid; Moosavi, Ehsan; Eftekhari, Ali; Zarei, Abbas; Bahrami, Nasim; Nikoonejad, Ali Reza
Today, domestic violence against women is a growing epidemic that can be observed in many countries. This study was carried out to determine the types of domestic violence against women who were referred to the Legal Medical Organization of Iran in Urmia, Iran in 2012. The descriptive survey included demographic information, abuse screening, and items regarding partner involvement. Data was gathered using face-to-face structured interviews. The study population included 300, women 18 years of age or older, and data was collected about their demographic characteristics and the types of domestic violence they experienced. SPSS software version 16 was used for the analyses. The majority of participants were in the 25 - 30 age group, and 83% of them were battered by their husbands in various ways. No significant relationships were observed between violence and unemployment, increasing age, and home ownership. The prevalence of abuse reported by women in this population suggests that many women that are referred to the Legal Medical Organization of Iran may have a history of abuse. Abused women may have different reasons for seeking a divorce. If routine screening for abuse is included in counseling, health providers will have the opportunity to develop a safety plan and initiate appropriate referrals.
Crespo, María; Arinero, María
This study evaluates the long-term efficacy of a brief psychotherapeutic cognitive-behavioral program in group format for female victims of violence by their intimate partner. 53 battered women were randomized into one of two intervention programs: one including among others exposure technique (n = 28) and another one in which exposure procedures were substituted by communication skills training (n = 25). Additionally, both programs included: psycho-education, breath control, training to improve self-esteem, cognitive restructuring, problem-solving, planning pleasant activities, and relapse prevention. The treatment was carried out in 8 weekly sessions. Measures of posttraumatic symptoms, anxiety, depression, self-esteem and anger expression were analyzed at pre- and post-treatment, and at 1-, 3-, 6- and 12-months follow-ups. Results show a pronounced decrease of posttraumatic, depressive and anxiety symptoms, which maintained in the different measure moments, with scarce difference between the two programs. The results and their clinical implications are discussed.
Kuitert, L.; Spiers, J.
One of the striking phenomena in the 19th century publishing history is the abundant publication of publisher''s series. This contribution concerns series specifically meant for women. The focus is on Dutch literary series for women, mostly 19th century.
Gems, Gerald; Pfister, Gertrud Ursula
of women as the weak sex. Vaudeville provided women with an opportunity to present physical performances that surpassed the restrictions placed on women within the mainstream middle-class society. This article includes biographical sketches of some of the outstanding female boxers of the era by drawing......This article fills a gap in the very limited literature on women's boxing by examining the gendered space in which women engaged in the sport as participants in saloons, vaudeville theatres and the prize ring. In doing so, they challenged the contemporary gender order and disputed the notion...
Barry Konikov, a hypnotherapist, of Potentials Unlimited Inc., a Michigan-based company which produces approximately 160 Subliminal Persuasion/Self Hypnosis tapes, promises his listeners miracles. The tapes on premenstrual syndrome, abortion, and sexual abuse were analyzed. The self-hypnosis message by Konikov is dangerous for women, because his antifeminism, misogyny, and patriarchism are couched insidiously within New Age neofeminism. Under therapeutic guidance the woman listener can direct her own transformation to complete mental, physical, and spiritual well-being, and her new and improved self is so empowered as to accept total and complete responsibility to overcome the hurt about menstruation, abortion, or sexual abuse. Growth therapies such as Gestalt, guided fantasies, and bioenergetics undermine women with false promises of power. If women are so powerful, then it is their fault if they got raped, or battered, or if they have not received love, money, and inner peace. While seemingly empowering women to develop a strong sense of personal agency, Konikov ignores the patriarchal structures which intersect his women listeners' experience of menstrual discomfort, abortion, and sexual abuse. Konikov's New Age, neofeminist stance contains 4 stages of healing: responsibility, absolution, forgiveness, and resolution. Accepting responsibility for the wound next leads to absolution, and particularly absolution for men. As an example of absolution, Konikov's woman client-ex-plantation slave accepted her past-life relationship to her husband, absolved him of guild, and decided upon a divorce. The issue of absolution widens into forgiveness in the healing process, whereby Konikov wants women to hypnotize themselves therapy should be to help a woman see how her own power as an individual is inextricably bound to the collective power of women as a group. There is no doubt that the New Age neofeminist stance taken by Konikov on the tapes leaves women profoundly
Susana Rodríguez Escanciano
Full Text Available It has been nearly a decade since the Fourth World Conference on Women held in Beijing in 1995, where the violence against women was recognized as being an attack on women’s human rights. Under such perspective and following the recommendations of the community institutions and international organizations, States such as Spain and Brazil have incorporated into their systems specific laws -- Organic Law 1/2004 of 28th December, on Integral Protection Measures against Gender Violence (LPIVG, in Spain and Law 11.340/2006 (Lei Maria da Penha, in Brazil --.These two provisions have as one of its fundamental objectives, firmly attack such despicable behaviors of violence against women, articulating a set of measures to ensure a whole, full and consistent protection of battered women, making them hold a wide range of rights pertaining to prevention, education, welfare or criminal repression, and down to what is relevant, a series of labor and social security prerogatives, confirming in the end, a dual purpose endowed strategy: on the one hand, facilitate the employment access for women victims of gender violence and, on the other, ensure the maintenance of their jobs. A comparative study of both legal systems may serve to introduce technical improvements that result in benefit of the protected group.
UNCTAD; World Bank
This note addresses practices for reducing gender inequalities and for empowering women to make a positive contribution to development through agricultural investments. Women make a crucial contribution to the agriculture sector and account for over 40 percent of agricultural labor in developing countries. However, they are frequently marginalized and their contributions under-acknowledged...
On March 31, 1997, the Association for Women Geoscientists will award two Chrysalis Scholarships to women who have returned to school after an interruption in their education for a year or longer. The $750 awards will be given to geoscience master's or Ph.D. candidates to cover expenses in finishing their theses.The application deadline is February 28, 1997.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Intimate partner violence (IPV, defined as actual or threatened physical, sexual, psychological, and emotional abuse by current or former partners is a global public health concern. The prevalence and determinants of intimate partner violence (IPV against pregnant women has not been described in Rwanda. A study was conducted to identify variables associated with IPV among Rwandan pregnant women. Methods A convenient sample of 600 pregnant women attending antenatal clinics were administered a questionnaire which included items on demographics, HIV status, IPV, and alcohol use by the male partner. Mean age and proportions of IPV in different groups were assessed. Odds of IPV were estimated using logistic regression analysis. Results Of the 600 respondents, 35.1% reported IPV in the last 12 months. HIV+ pregnant women had higher rates of all forms of IVP violence than HIV- pregnant women: pulling hair (44.3% vs. 20.3%, slapping (32.0% vs. 15.3%, kicking with fists (36.3% vs. 19.7%, throwing to the ground and kicking with feet (23.3% vs. 12.7%, and burning with hot liquid (4.1% vs. 3.5%. HIV positive participants were more than twice likely to report physical IPV than those who were HIV negative (OR = 2.38; 95% CI [1.59, 3.57]. Other factors positively associated with physical IPV included sexual abuse before the age of 14 years (OR = 2.69; 95% CI [1.69, 4.29], having an alcohol drinking male partner (OR = 4.10; 95% CI [2.48, 6.77] for occasional drinkers and OR = 3.37; 95% CI [2.05, 5.54] for heavy drinkers, and having a male partner with other sexual partners (OR = 1.53; 95% CI [1.15, 2.20]. Education was negatively associated with lifetime IPV. Conclusion We have reported on prevalence of IPV violence among pregnant women attending antenatal care in Rwanda, Central Africa. We advocate that screening for IPV be an integral part of HIV and AIDS care, as well as routine antenatal care. Services for battered women should also be
Association of Domestic Violence Against Women With Sociodemographic Factors, Clinical Features, and Dissociative Symptoms in Patients Who Receive Services From Psychiatric Outpatient Units in Turkey.
Kotan, Zeynep; Kotan, Vahap Ozan; Yalvaç, Hayriye Dilek; Demir, Sibel
Domestic violence (DV) against women is a serious problem with its negative effects on all family members and the society. Women exposed to DV not only have physical but also psychological damage. This study investigates prevalence of DV and its relations with some descriptive and clinical features in a psychiatric outpatient population in Turkey. A total of 277 female outpatients were included in the study. After a semistructured clinical interview, they were assessed by sociodemographic data form, DV questionnaire, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS), Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HARS), Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES), and Somatoform Dissociation Questionnaire (SDQ). Prevalence of exposure to DV by intimate partner is found to be 58.8% ( n = 163). The current study provided strong evidence that occupation status of the woman, education level of the partner, and family type are predictors of DV. Another predictor of DV exists where the child is battered by either parent. Prevalence of depression, conversion disorder, and other somatoform disorders are higher in women exposed to DV. These women also have higher scores from HDRS, HARS, DES, and SDQ compared with female patients who have not experienced DV ( p < .001). Number of women scoring above cutoff levels for DES and SDQ were significantly higher in women exposed to DV ( p < .001).
... Nurse midwives This list may not be all-inclusive. References Freund K. Approach to women's health. In: ... of Gynecology and Obstetrics at Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD. Review provided by VeriMed ...
May 17, 2016 ... It describes the economic benefits to women's economic empowerment, .... Public procurement makes up a significant proportion of a ...... vides a comparison of cost effectiveness of programs), Cho and Honorati (2013),.
Enlightenment natural philosophers were linked to one another in an extended correspondence network, but the female participants in this international Republic of Letters are rarely mentioned. Gottfried Leibniz relied on several such women not only for financial patronage, but also for intellectual stimulation. Although this hardworking and underpaid librarian at the Hanoverian Court is now one of the world's most famous mathematical philosophers, the women on whom he depended for ideas as well as support have been largely forgotten.
Domestic violence causes short- and long-term negative consequences, both physical (e.g., bodily injury) and psychological (e.g., depression, anxiety, low self-esteem, and symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder). It is possible that these negative consequences vary according to the type of
Domestic violence causes short- and long-term negative consequences, both physical (e.g., bodily injury) and psychological (e.g., depression, anxiety, low self-esteem, and symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder). It is possible that these negative consequences vary according to the type of
I am a primary health care (PHC) coordinator working with the May Day Rural project, a local NGO involved in integrated approaches and programs with rural communities in the Ga District of the Greater-Accra region in Ghana. When we talk about the community development approach we must first and foremost recognize that we are talking about women, because in the developing world frequent childbirths mean that her burden of mortality is higher than a man's; her workload is extremely heavy--whether in gardening, farming, other household duties, caring for the sick, or the rearing of children; she has a key role in PHC and community development, because men are always looking for greener pastures elsewhere, leaving the women behind. Women's concerns are critical in most health care projects and women and children are their main beneficiaries. Why not include women in the management team, project design, implementation and evaluation processes? That is what the May Day Rural project is practicing, encouraging women's participation and creating a relationship of trust. full text
Hefner, M Kristen; Baboolal, Aneesa A; Fleury-Steiner, Ruth E; Miller, Susan L
Mediation use has grown rapidly in the past few decades as an efficacious method of civil dispute resolution. However, early research suggests that civil mediation may cause further harm to victims of intimate partner abuse because, based on the inherent power dynamics of abusive relationships, they are not able to effectively advocate on their own behalf. In addition, organizational efficiency concerns have led to the development of consent processes for civil protection orders (POs). However, research has yet to examine the extent to which victims of intimate partner violence who take part in these consent processes perceive the process and associated outcomes as fair. Using qualitative data ( N = 19 interviews) collected from women who sought civil POs through Family Court in Delaware, this research finds that the consent process and women's interactions with mediators reproduce power inequalities that are inherent in cases of intimate partner abuse, which shape their perceptions of fairness in the PO process and outcomes. Victims being silenced and disempowered throughout the consent process results in cumulative effects-similar tactics used by batterers-which continue to leave victims vulnerable. In addition, the power asymmetry victims experience in abusive relationships is replicated by the legal institution and court structure in terms of not having access to attorneys, not receiving guidance and advocacy, and, at times, experiencing insensitive treatment. Thus, this study provides insight into the inequalities present within the PO consent process that can create further harm to victims.
Full Text Available ... Information by Audience For Women Women's Health Topics Women and Diabetes Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ... women during pregnancy. Diabetes and Pregnancy (CDC) Diverse Women in Clinical Trials Campaign Clinical trials can help ...
Suggesting that women are at a disadvantage in cities and towns, discusses experiences of women at home, working women, women traveling, shopping, and growing old in cities. Includes suggestions for studying women in cities. (JN)
At the background of a short presentation of concepts of discourse (in particular in Jürgen Habermas and Michel Foucault) and of the concept of shari'a a Spanish court case against an imam in reference to his publication on Women in Islam, where sura 4 verse 34 of the Quran is a central reference...
Daniels, Arlene Kaplan
The women's movement may show us some of the changes to come in the content and form of the social sciences. Among issues which will be increasingly addressed are those of work and the family, personal growth and social responsibility, and the emotional component in rational, objective, and scientific enterprise. (Author/GC)
Jill Conway is a feminist historian, writer, teacher, and now-emerita 1st woman president of Smith College. She claims that women today still suffer from a great deal of oppression. Women around the world are currently in a disadvantage position. In 7 countries women do not have the right to vote. In the US less that .5% of top executives are women. The wage gap in the US between 1939 and 1989 has only shrunk $.10, from $.58-$.68. Conway points out that we are all constrained by our social mores, generational attitudes, political events, and economic circumstances. Few people are able to overcome these things in the way that they live their lives. Conway questions the validity of history written from a male dominated point of view. Around the world the value of women's work is almost always lower than that of men. India is just 1 example, there 75% of women are illiterate and 1/2 the population lives in poverty based on a caste system. Female literacy tripled in the 1st 30 years of independence and by 1981 it had reached 25%. The literacy gap is actually growing in India Today with 44% of girls aged 6 to 11, who are eligible to attend school, not doing so. Rural poverty keeps them at home because their domestic work is more valuable than their education. Other cultural tradition compound the problem: arranged marriages often result in motherhood for 14 year old girls. This is done for many reasons, 1 of which is crop failure insurance. When 2 families are combined through marriage, their total land share grows and they are thus more likely to have enough to eat. Education is just 1 necessary step. Developed nations must realize the realities that exist in the countries they provide aid for. In Africa for example, 70% of continent's food is produced by women. Yet the aid programs of the past have only been designed to offer assistant to men and create jobs for men.
Cristina Estrada Pineda
Full Text Available The main goal of the present research is to identify the support networks of women victims of partner violence paying attention to both sources and type of support provided. Information about network support from 204 participants living in Guadalajara (Jalisco, México was obtained using the Relationship-specific Perceived Social Support (Gracia & Herrero, 2004. Cluster analysis revealed that the most frequent type of support network included friends as the main source of social support. Two other types of network support were found in this study: family of origin support (mother and sisters, mainly and partner and offspring’s support (in some cases the batterer was also included in this support network.
CERN Women's Club
Coffee Morning Tuesday 7th February 2012, 9:00 – 11:00 Bldg 504 (Restaurant n°2 – DSR) 1st Floor, Club Room 3 Presentation of cheque to Terre des Hommes Those interested in helping should come along. New arrivals and all members are cordially invited.You can enrol for membership, renew membership, find out about and sign up for our activities. Visit our website: http://club-womensclub.web.cern.ch/Club-WomensClub/
Club des cernoises
Coffee MorningTuesday 9th October 2012, 9:00 – 11:00 Bldg 504 (Restaurant No 2 – DSR) 1st Floor, Club Room 3 Presentation of the charity to benefit from the Christmas Sale “Nous aussi”. Those interested in helping should come along. New arrivals and all members are cordially invited. You can enrol for membership, renew membership, find out about and sign up for our activities. Visit our website: http://cern.ch/Club-WomensClub/
CERN WOMEN’S CLUB Coffee Morning Tuesday 8th Avril 2014, 9:30 – 14:00 Bldg 504 (Restaurant No 2 – DSR) Ground Floor Spring Jumble Sale Those interested in helping should come along. New arrivals and all members are cordially invited. You can enrol for membership, renew membership, find out about and sign up for our activities. Visit our website: http://cern.ch/Club-WomensClub/
Club des Cernoises
Coffee Morning Tuesday 24th April 2012, 9:00 – 14:00 Bldg 504, Ground Floor Spring Jumble Sale Those interested in helping should come along. New arrivals and all members are cordially invited. You can enrol for membership, renew membership, find out about and sign up for our activities. Visit our website: http://club-womensclub.web.cern.ch/Club-WomensClub/
Full Text Available The economic, social and political changes that have occurred in Russia over the last 10 years have had a profound effect on Russian women’s lives. Economic reform has brought poverty, insecurity and high levels of anxiety and stress to much of the population, both male and female. The impact of these changes on women was amplified in the early 1990s by their structural positioning both within the workforce and within the population, brought about by the legacies of the Soviet planned economy, Soviet attitudes to gender and long established demographic trends. Alongside these historical influences, ‘new’ essentialist attitudes towards gender and the appropriate roles and responsibilities of women in post-Soviet Russian society have been strongly promoted through the media, political and social discourses, imposing new pressures and dilemmas on many post-Soviet Russian women. Numerous women’s organisations have been established in Russia since the early 1990s, many of them with a specific remit of helping Russian women to overcome the upheavals and hardships which they face. Struggling to survive themselves with very few resources and minimal external support, Russia’s grassroots women’s organisations have nonetheless offered practical help and advice and emotional support and solidarity to their members. This paper is based on the findings of a period of intensive fieldwork carried out in 1995-6 with grassroots women’s organisations in Moscow and three Russian provincial centres. It will present the aims, activities and impact of the groups studied. It will also investigate the ways in which these groups and their membership positioned themselves in relation to the development of essentialist attitudes and opinions on gender within Russia on the one hand, and a dialogue with ‘western’ feminist theory and practice on the other.
... Information by Audience For Women Women's Health Topics Women's Health Topics Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options Linkedin Pin it Email Print National Women's Health Week May 13 - 19, 2018 Join us ...
Club des Cernoises
CWC – Chinese Women's Community at CERN With an increasing number of Chinese people working at CERN, there are also surely an increasing number of Chinese women in the area, who are not always familiar with the environment, languages, or the people. In the context of the CERN Women’s Club, let's meet together and chat about integrating into the local community, available activities, commerce’s, restaurants, etc. It is also obviously a good opportunity to meet new friends. Everyone is welcome to join us to meet for tea, coffee, and a chat. We will meet every 3rd Tuesday of the month, starting on 20th March 2012, in building 504 (Restaurant 2) in room E-005. 20th March at 9-11am 17th April at 9-11am 22nd May at 9-11am 19th June at 9-11am For more details contact Mme Jean RODERICK, +41 (0) 76 426 61 08, firstname.lastname@example.org http://club-womensclub.web.cern.ch/Club-WomensClub/ CWC-華人茶敍 越來�...
Club des Cernoises
Coffee Morning Tuesday 13th March 2012, 9:00 – 11:00 - Bldg 504 (Restaurant No 2 – DSR) - 1st Floor, Club Room 3. German Theme Those interested in helping should come along. New arrivals and all members are cordially invited. You can enrol for membership, renew membership, find out about and sign up for our activities. Visit our website: http://club-womensclub.web.cern.ch/Club-WomensClub/ CWC – Chinese Women's Community at CERN With an increasing number of Chinese people working at CERN, there are also surely an increasing number of Chinese women in the area, who are not always familiar with the environment, languages, or the people. In the context of the CERN Women’s Club, let's meet together and chat about integrating into the local community, available activities, commerce’s, restaurants, etc. It is also obviously a good opportunity to meet new friends. Everyone is welcome to join us to meet fo...
Leonard, Carolyn M.; Baradar, Mariam
This teachers' guide to activities celebrating Women's History Month focuses on women whose important contributions have been omitted from history textbooks. Women's History Month grew from a 1977 celebration of Women's History Week and is intended to bring women's history into the school curriculum. International Women's Day, celebrated on March…
Patrícia Moreira Rabello
, divided into 130 battered individuals and 130 non-battered. The case study group consisted of women who lodged complaints for domestic violence at the Specialist Women's Police Station. The control group was made up of women living in the same neighborhood as those who had made the complaint. Cohesion, adaptability and mental risk were all measured using the "Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scales". For the statistical analysis the Chi-square and the Fisher's Exact Tests ere used, at a significance level of 5%. RESULTS: The two groups differed for measures relating to mental risk and cohesion, but had similar results for family adaptability (p=0.0917. The women victims of domestic violence had high (43.1% and medium (39.2% mental risk, while the non-victims had only medium risk (55.4%. There was a significant difference in drug use between the two groups, with greater consumption among the families of battered women (90.8% compared with those of non-battered women (56.9%. The most widely used drug was alcohol, which also represented the highest risk factor for aggression if consumed daily (OR=37.33 or in conjunction with other drugs (OR=29,56. CONCLUSIONS: Both the instability caused by a lack of family unity and the use of drugs significantly affect family functioning and may give rise to conflict and domestic violence.
I think that the equal opportunity and the underprivileged marginal labour-market layers’ significance play an important role in the economics of our days, so the women’s labour-market participation. Analysing the Hungarian data lines, we can see that the women’s labour-market participation significantly lags behind the men’s. I wish to prove with a questionnaire survey that in the North-Hungarian region the women’s labour-market situation and the career opportunities of the researcher women ...
Full Text Available I think that the equal opportunity and the underprivileged marginal labour-market layers’ significance play an important role in the economics of our days, so the women’s labour-market participation. Analysing the Hungarian data lines, we can see that the women’s labour-market participation significantly lags behind the men’s. I wish to prove with a questionnaire survey that in the North-Hungarian region the women’s labour-market situation and the career opportunities of the researcher women lags behind the men’s slightly. Based on my research, beyond the women’s traditional home tasks have appeared the claims for work derives from the employment, so the double burden is put into practice, too. we can explain with the difficulties of the compatibility of childbearing and the work, the undertaking extra limited tasks of the workplace, providing extra performance which is sensible for the women, that in the North-Hungarian region the female career path move more slowly than the men’s.
Science News, 1978
Investigates the effect of school violence on classroom teachers. The study of 253 Los Angeles inner city classroom teachers reveals that many of them have developed conditions similar to the combat neurosis found in soldiers at war. (HM)
Conclusion: Although hematodermic tumors are relatively rare, clinicians should broaden the differential diagnosis, to include malignancies, when unexplained clinical pictures are brought to their attention.
Andersen, Mikael Skou
Først i de seneste år har miljøafgifter fået en central placering i dansk politik. Men for 20 år siden var miljøafgifter ikke populære. Hverken i Danmark eller i de andre nordiske lande. Det almindelige synspunkt var dengang, at hvis man »satte pris på miljøet«, ville forurenerne blot kunne betal...
Lamy, C; Dubois, F; Jaafari, N; Carl, T; Gaillard, P; Camus, V; El Hage, W
Partner violence is a serious public health problem, due to their potential short-, medium- or long-term physical and psychological consequences. Violence is unbearable when it occurs between family members, and often remains unrevealed, invisible, hidden and repeated. The woman possibly feels trapped in a relationship of imprisonment. International studies have well-explored the psychopathological aspects of physical and sexual abuse within couples, but few explored the clinical profile of women victims of psychological violence or moral harassment. This study aims to define the clinical and psychopathological profile of women who are victims of psychological intimate partner violence. We contacted 628 women who consulted consecutively at the emergency ward of a university hospital covering a 300,000 catchment area. The telephone screening of psychological violence was therefore carried out using the Women's Experience with Battering (WEB) questionnaire (N=226). An optional clinical interview was given to the women declaring themselves as victims of psychological intimate partner violence (N=56) to evaluate the life events and the psychiatric disorders according to the DSM-IV. Finally, 43 participants (77%) gave their opinion on the qualitative aspects of the WEB questionnaire and their level of ease with this report. In 63% (N=35) of the cases, the victims and their partners had a rather high socioprofessional level. Women refer to emergency ward mostly for complaint of vague idiopathic pain (49%) or for psychiatric disorders (52%) with predominance of anxiety (28%) or addictive disorders (19%). The prevalence of potentially traumatic life events was found to be high in this group (83%). The traumatic psychological intimate partner violence was associated with a heightened prevalence of psychiatric comorbidities, like anxiety (72%), depression (100%), posttraumatic stress disorder (100%), and addiction to alcohol (100%) or another psychoactive substance (50
Full Text Available Background: There is a growing concern that medical education does not prepare the future health professional to effectively deal with violence against women. Against this background, the present study was undertaken. Aims: To elicit perception of violence against women among medical and nursing students, and study the association of these perceptions with certain demographic and social variables. Settings and Design: The study was conducted among students of a Medical College and a Nursing College both located at Pune, India. A cross-sectional descriptive study design was used to elicit the perceptions of the study subjects toward violence against women. Materials and Methods: A random sample of 125 medical and 125 nursing students was selected. Both quantitative and qualitative methods of data collection were employed. Qualitative data collection was done by focus group discussions with key persons such as dean and faculty of medical and nursing colleges. The syllabi of medical and nursing colleges were also reviewed for any topic related to domestic violence. Statistical analysis: The WHO/CDC Statistical and Epidemiology Software Package was used for data entry and statistical analysis. Various associations were explored by nonparametric tests (Mann-Whitney for ordinal data and by Chi-square and ODDS ratio (with 95% confidence intervals, for categorical data. Results: Overall 35.6% (95% CI 29.1%-42.6% of the study participants had witnessed/were aware of violence against women among their family/acquaintances. This awareness was significantly more among female respondents (OR=2.65, 95% CI 1.37-5.16, Chi Sq=9.81, df=1, P=0.001. Other socioeconomic variables such as urban/rural background, education, and income were not associated with perception about family violence. Majority (>80% agreed/strongly agreed that social agencies should do more to help battered women. Course content on violence against women was lacking in both medical and nursing
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Biles, George E.; Pryatel, Holly A.
The article discusses some of the outmoded but still prevailing misconceptions about women in management positions. Suggestions are offered for increasing the number of women managers and providing equal treatment and opportunity for women. (MF)
Over the past 20 years, women's real earnings rose whereas those of men declined. Even as the gender pay gap narrowed, earnings differences between white women and black and Hispanic women continued to grow. (Author)
Full Text Available ... Consumer Information by Audience For Women Women's Health Topics Women and ... blood sugar. Follow Us on Twitter There is good news. Diabetes can be controlled by maintaining a ...
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Women play key roles in the ATLAS Experiment: from young physicists at the start of their careers to analysis group leaders and spokespersons of the collaboration. Celebrate International Women's Day by meeting a few of these inspiring ATLAS researchers.
more effective and offer greater benefits in the development of Nigeria and. Nigerian women. ... taboos averse to women education should be dismantled. Keywords: ... were gender blind, and gave no specific place to gender issues in Nigeria.
Block, Betty Ann; Tietjen-Smith, Tara
The authors argue that there will be a critical mass of women in leadership positions in kinesiology and across higher education for substantial gender-based mentoring to take place in the 21st century. First, the current state of women in higher education leadership, trends in mentoring, and the reasons it is important for women who have…
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Stimpson, Catharine R.; And Others
Barnard College has created a Women's Center that devotes itself to the task of reaffirming the dignity, autonomy, and equality of women. For too long society has held that women are less rational than men, less capable than men, and thus that educating women is less useful than educating men. Replacing myth with fact is the responsibility of…
Citizens Advisory Council on the Status of Women, Washington, DC.
This is a report on the legal, political and social status of women in the year1974. The report includes the laws passed by Congress for equal rights for women, laws for equal pay, amendments that provide for flexible working hours and childbearing leave for women; and some cases of job discrimination against women. Legal amendments to insure…
Stuart, Gregory L; Temple, Jeff R; Follansbee, Katherine W; Bucossi, Meggan M; Hellmuth, Julianne C; Moore, Todd M
In a previous study, alcohol problems in perpetrators and their partners contributed directly and indirectly to intimate partner violence (IPV), even after including other correlates of violence in the model (G. L. Stuart et al., 2006). The present study extends these findings by examining the role of illicit drug use. We recruited 271 men and 135 women arrested for IPV and used structural equation modeling to examine the data. Results showed that drug use, as reported by the perpetrators, was a stronger predictor of IPV than were alcohol problems in perpetrators and their partners. Arrested males' marijuana use and stimulant use (i.e., cocaine and amphetamines) were associated with perpetration of IPV, and their report of their female partners' stimulant use was associated with her violence perpetration. In arrested women, specific substances used did not predict violence perpetration beyond other model variables; however, female perpetrators' report of male partners' stimulant use predicted male psychological and physical aggression, after controlling for other variables. These results provide further evidence that drug problems by both partners may be important in the evolution of aggression. Implications for batterer intervention programs are discussed.
Women & Social responsibility. ➢ Women and Human Resource. Development & Management. ➢ Women and Agricultural & Rural. Development. ➢ Women & Technological Development. ➢ Women and Medicine & Health Care. ➢ Women and Education. ➢ Women and Population Growth. ➢ Women and Indian Economy.
In this ethnographic study, I examine personal, kinship, and social obligations and the role of women in the traditional Thai family. Under what circumstances do women take on the responsibility to care or not care, and how do they cope with the disease and care when they are also infected? Fifteen women who were afflicted or affected by HIV/AIDS participated in in-depth interviews and participant observations. Analysis employed mainly qualitative methods following Spradley. I show that women who are responsible for caring for both themselves and others, including members of their immediate families or extended family members, face a double jeopardy by virtue of their inferior role and status. When HIV-infected women experience illness, sometimes they feel split; they are incapable of functioning normally, yet they are obligated to do "What they've got to do." Women as carers feel that they have to care because they want to free someone else from suffering despite the fact that they are also suffering. Women roles as family carers seem to be both psychologically and socially constructed. AIDS care is not just a labour of love, but also is done in the spirit of work following Buddhist beliefs of karma and metta. In conclusion, traditional, persistent gender imbalances and inequalities influence women's sexuality, vulnerability, responsibility, and caregiving. When women become infected with HIV and sick with AIDS, their quality of life drops because of the physical, psychological, cultural value, and economic burdens of care they face. AIDS then necessitates rather than prevents women from fulfilling their multiple roles. Consequently, there is a need for greater support especially among Thai women who are afflicted and affected with AIDS.
Deda, Antoneta; Alushllari, Mirela; Mico, Silvana
In this report, presented at the 5th IUPAP International Conference on Women in Physics, we describe the status of women physicists in Albania and offer some statistical data illustrating the present situation. Undergraduate physics enrollment by girls is high and stable, more women are receiving financial support for doctoral studies, women are well represented in recent academic promotions, and recently women scientists have been appointed to several leadership positions. However, both women and men are challenged by the overall low levels of funding for research and by issues of availability and affordability of child care.
The UN Division for the Advancement of Women publication has devoted an issue to the role of women in public lie based on an analysis of women's status in industrialized countries presented in Vienna, Austria, in May 1991. Women already contribute to political life and make a difference in politics, but societal institutions and government processes have not yet adapted to this fact. Women's nongovernmental organizations promote women's interests at the governmental level, but often do not have the economic or political power as do other interests groups such as trade unions. Women often participation public life via their membership in women's organizations, community action groups, voluntary organizations, and other close to home groups. They prefer to participate in activities which are problem solving rather than institution building. These activities and groups operate outside established political institutions and are not considered as part of public and political life. Society's exclusion of women from leadership positions in public life keeps it from benefiting from the special contributions that women bring to decision making. Women show a tendency to have different leadership styles than men (e.g., ability to relate to people affected by their decisions), which are most needed for the modern world. They often do not campaign just for women's issues, but, once in office, they do tend to become more involved in women's issues. Women have affected positive changes in career and child care, often on a non-Socialist agenda, in various countries (e.g. Norway). This effect is referred to as the politics of motherhood. More access to politics and public life calls for removal of structural and situational barriers including the glass ceiling, discrimination, insufficient funds, and bearing most of the responsibility for child care. The UN women's groups has drafted a platform for interregional consultation on women's role in public life and scheduled the 4th
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Department of Veterans Affairs — This report summarizes the history of women Veterans in the military and as Veterans. It profiles the characteristics of women Veterans in 2015, and illustrates how...
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This women's health podcast focuses on gestational diabetes (GDM) to help educate women who may have been diagnosed with GDM now or in the past. GDM is a condition that can lead to pregnancy complications.
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Progressive social movements around water and women's rights. • Drought prone state ... What role does civil society (NGOs, CBOs, networks, academia) play in this ... Women's presence in the public sphere improved but class, caste, martial ...
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This National Women's Science Congress is planned essentially to bring women to the forefront ... The following areas are indicative of this wide coverage, in each of which ... C. V. Raman, two great scientists of the world; Marie Curie Mahila.
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Nagappa, T. R.
Apathy, indifference, and neglect has characterized adult education for women in India. The National Adult Education Programme must focus attention and funding on women if the extremely low percentage of female literacy is to be improved. (SK)
Bozkurt, Biykem; Khalaf, Shaden
Heart failure is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in women, and they tend to develop it at an older age compared to men. Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction is more common in women than in men and accounts for at least half the cases of heart failure in women. When comparing men and women who have heart failure and a low left ventricular ejection fraction, the women are more symptomatic and have a similarly poor outcome. Overall recommendations for guideline-directed medical therapies show no differences in treatment approaches between men and women. Overall, women are generally underrepresented in clinical trials for heart failure. Further studies are needed to shed light into different mechanisms, causes, and targeted therapies of heart failure in women. PMID:29744014
Thara, R.; Kamath, Shantha
Women's mental health is closely linked to their status in society. This paper outlines the clinical features of women with schizophrenia and highlights the interpersonal and social ramifications on their lives. There is no significant gender difference in the incidence and prevalence of schizophrenia. There is no clear trend in mortality, although suicides seem to be more in women with schizophrenia. In India, women face a lot of problems, especially in relation to marriage, pregnancy, child...
Stela N. Meneghel
Full Text Available Este estudo avalia a experiência com grupos de mulheres em situação de violência de gênero, desenvolvida em um programa de extensão da Universidade do Vale do Rio dos Sinos (Unisinos, no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul. Os pesquisadores organizaram três grupos de mulheres durante os anos de 2002 e 2003. Os grupos tiveram o formato de oficina, abertos a toda mulher em situação de violência de gênero perpetrada pelo companheiro e constituíram um espaço protegido de acolhimento e escuta para as mulheres. O objetivo principal das oficinas foi contribuir para o "empoderamento" das mulheres, tornando-as agentes da sua própria transformação. Foram construídas dinâmicas como narrativas e pinturas, objetivando impactar sobre a violência de gênero. O grupo proporcionou troca interdisciplinar, experiência e avaliação contínua para os pesquisadores e as participantes.This study represents an evaluation about battered women's group experience developed as part of a university extension program of Universidade do Vale do Rio dos Sinos (Unisinos in Rio Grande do Sul State. The researchers organized three groups of women during the years 2002 and 2003. The groups worked like a workshop open to any woman suffering domestic violence perpetrate by partner and was a protect space to receive and listen to women. The main objective of the workshops was to contribute to the empowerment of women, turning them into agents of their own transformation. Researchers built actions like stories and paintings to impact gender violence. The group provided interdisciplinary exchange, experience and ongoing evaluation for researchers and participants.
Home; Initiatives; Women in Science; Women Fellows of INSA. Women Fellows of INSA. INSA - Indian National Science Academy ... Charusita Chakravarty, one of the stars of our community of women scientists, at a young age of 52, after a ...
Home; Initiatives; Women in Science; Women Young Scientists of INSA. Women Young Scientists of INSA. INSA - Indian National Science Academy .... Charusita Chakravarty, one of the stars of our community of women scientists, at a young ...
The questions related to the role of women in the world of labour and to the rate of female and male employees are issues that have been discussed since long ago. Equality of women and the fight against the discrimination of women are hot topics not only for the "weaker sex" as there are abundant research and literature dealing with the…
Full Text Available ... raise awareness about diverse women of different ages, races, ethnic backgrounds, and health conditions participating in clinical trials. Visit the Women in Clinical Trials webpage to learn how women with diabetes can make a difference. Other Resources from the FDA FDA Information on ...
The Indispensability of Women in Conflict Resolution in the Niger Delta ... The situation leads to a shift in gender roles with a dramatic increase in the number of women .... organization is to work in partnership with the Nigerian Government and the .... that “women are the impartial arbitrators in family or clan disputes or.
Argues that women's history should stress the broad sociological view of women's roles not only in politics but in mundane, day-to-day life throughout all of history, rather that reducing women's history to a few token figures. Notes that many college and secondary texts and testing materials have recognized the trend toward the inclusion of…
Full Text Available ... Pregnancy (CDC) Diverse Women in Clinical Trials Campaign Clinical trials can help doctors learn more about treatments for diabetes. The FDA Office of Women's Health is partnering with the NIH Office of Research on Women's Health to raise awareness about diverse ...
Pitts, Elaine R.
The author's personal account of her experiences in being promoted from an engineer with limited management responsibility to vice president of a large company in New York City. She notes that many women are still isolated from the executive society, which puts the burden on those women who do achieve positions of power to help those women who…
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Devi, D. Radha; Ravindran, M.
The proportion of women in paid employment in India is very low, and working women tend to be concentrated in low-wage, low-status, unskilled jobs, especially in agriculture. Even for the few women working in the modern sector, discrimination is pervasive, and change seems unlikely to occur soon. (IS)
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This women's health podcast focuses on four important issues for women at work: job stress, work schedules, reproductive health, and workplace violence. Created: 5/11/2009 by Office of Women's Health (OWH) and National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). Date Released: 5/11/2009.
Personality theories and scientific data on women frequently contribute negatively to the psychotherapy of female clients. This paper examines some of the background factors which have shaped our information about women, and then reviews some contemporaneous approaches to the therapy of women. (Author)
The purpose of this document is to present statistics which show clearly that poverty is a women's issue. The position of poor women relative to the total population living below the Federal poverty line is demonstrated. Income levels are analyzed to reveal the percentages of women whose annual income is below $5,000. The relationship of income…
Towns, Kathryn; And Others
Women have undergone a revolution in their self-perception and their traditional relationships to work, money, marriage, and family. These social changes have implications for every aspect of women's lives, including their mental health. Because of the special problems and conflicts confronting women today, data need to be analyzed on policies,…
Surveys literature on the history of coeducation, focusing on the marginalization of women. Discusses these themes: republican education; female literacy; the girls' academy; women and the history of teaching; life-cycle patterns; the migration of teachers from New England; black women teachers; urbanization and feminization; immigration; students…
Sethna, Kim C.
Public schools are facing a leadership crisis regarding the lack of women superintendents in the United States. Although, historically, women have dominated the positions of classroom teachers and outnumbered men in receiving administrative leadership certificates, there is a disproportion in the number of men and women superintendents leading the…
This document describes a proposed new health policy for Colombian women. The rationale for the new policy, known as "Health for women, women for health", is discussed, and the general and specific objectives, program description, actions and strategies are presented for each of 5 subprograms. The subprograms cover health promotion and self-care for women, reproductive and sexual health care, prevention of abuse and services for women and children who are victims of violence, mental health, and occupational health Changes in Colombian society and living conditions and in the role of women over the past few decades have been reflected in changing epidemiologic profiles, life expectancy, and demands placed on health services. The Health for women, women for health policy takes into account social discrimination against women and its impact on female health. The subprogram of health promotion and self-care is intended to complement, reinforce, and broaden preventive interventions already offered by the health services. The subprogram will require a mobile interdisciplinary team to conduct educational campaigns and to coordinate activities. Promotional actions include staff training in a gender focus on health and health policy for women, development of a health manual for women, and a mass media campaign on self-care for women. The subprogram for reproductive health and sexuality will reorient existing maternal health services away from their emphasis on increasing coverage of prenatal care, promoting births in health facilities, and actions to reduce infant mortality and toward services appropriate to the different phases of the female reproductive cycle. The subprogram will include provision of family planning services, preventing and managing high risk pregnancies, providing adequate care in maternity centers for labor and delivery, and preventing avoidable maternal deaths. Reviewing and revising existing legislation to protect reproductive health is among proposed
... and Asian American Women Osteoporosis and Asian American Women Asian American women are at high risk for ... medications. Are There Any Special Issues for Asian Women Regarding Bone Health? Recent studies indicate a number ...
Aegerter, Irene [Sulzer Brothers Limited, Swiss Association ' Women for Energy' (Switzerland)
Surveys in most countries show, that women's attitude towards nuclear energy differ quite a bit from that of men. Why is this so and what can be done about it? The difference is that a cigarette is a familiar risk. But only few women are familiar with nuclear risks, especially radioactivity, be it scientifically or emotionally. Women in general are less inclined to technical subjects. Technical matters still are male. Technical issues are - by education and in schools - (at least in Switzerland) no female subjects. Therefore we have to change this in order to change women's attitudes towards technical subjects. How can women become more technology-oriented?.
Surveys in most countries show, that women's attitude towards nuclear energy differ quite a bit from that of men. Why is this so and what can be done about it? The difference is that a cigarette is a familiar risk. But only few women are familiar with nuclear risks, especially radioactivity, be it scientifically or emotionally. Women in general are less inclined to technical subjects. Technical matters still are male. Technical issues are - by education and in schools - (at least in Switzerland) no female subjects. Therefore we have to change this in order to change women's attitudes towards technical subjects. How can women become more technology-oriented?
Full Text Available The research on gender's role in bipolar disorders has drawn significant interest recently. The presentation and course of bipolar disorder differs between women and men. Women experience depressive episodes, dysphoric mood, mixed states, rapid cycling and seasonal patterns more often than men. Comorbidity, particularly thyroid disease, migraine, obesity, and anxiety disorders laso occur more frequently in women than men. On the other hand men with bipolar disorder are also more likely than women to have problems with drug or alcohol abuse. The pregnancy and postpartum period is a time of high risk for onset and recurrence of bipolar disorder in women.
Full Text Available The questions related to the role of women in the world of labour and to the rate of female and male employees are issues that have been discussed since long ago. Equality of women and the fight against the discrimination of women are hot topics not only for the “weaker sex” as there are abundant research and literature dealing with the question whether feminism, the lengthy pursuit for the equality of women can be regarded successful or there are still much to do for the elimination of negative discrimination of women at workplaces. In this context, I examine in my study whether the increasing of the share of female employees, the action plans on raising the share of executive positions filled by women, and the related conferences live up to the expectations, and can women really have the same place on the labour market as men have.
Hypertension is an important modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular (CV) morbidity and mortality, and a highly prevalent condition in both men and women. However, the prevalence of hypertension is predicted to increase more among women than men. Combined oral contraceptives (COCs) can induce hypertension in a small group of women and, increase CV risk especially among those with hypertension. Both COC-related increased CV risk and blood pressure (BP) returns to pretreatment levels by 3 months of its discontinuation. The effects of menopause and hormone replacement therapy (HRT) on BP are controversial, and COCs and HRT containing the new generation progestin drospirenone are preferred in women with established hypertension. Despite the high incidence of cancer in women, CV disease remains the major cause of death in women and comparable benefit of antihypertensive treatment have been demonstrated in both women and men.
Lima, Vera Lúcia de Azevedo; Souza, Maria de Lourdes de; Monticelli, Marisa; Oliveira, Marília de Fátima Vieira de; Souza, Carlos Benedito Marinho de; Costa, Carlos Alberto Leal da; Brüggemann, Odaléa Maria
This quantitative and exploratory study analyzed violence against Amazon women presented in print media according to type and severity, and whether aggressors fell under the Maria da Penha law. A total of 181 issues of a regional newspaper were consulted. Based on content analysis, 164 items addressing violence against women were selected and 46 were included in the corpus of analysis. Results were gathered in three thematic groups: women killed with cruelty, sexual violence against women regardless of age, and violence against women and the limitations of the Maria da Penha law. Violence against these women varied in terms of form and severity, including up to homicide. Women are submitted to sexual violence from childhood through adulthood. The enforcement of this law shows the community it has a means to cope with this social phenomenon.
Aratani, Michi [Office of Regional Collaboration, Institute for Environmental Sciences, Rokkasho, Aomori (Japan); Sasagawa, Sumiko
Women scientists generally play a great role in the public acceptance (PA) for the national policy of atomic energy developing in Japan. The reason may be that, when a woman scientist stands in the presence of women audience, she will be ready to be accepted by them as a person with the same gender, emotion and thought to themselves. A case of interchange between the Rokkasho women and the women scientists either resident at the nuclear site of Rokkasho or staying for a short time at Rokkasho by invitation has been described from the viewpoint of PA for the national policy of atomic energy developing, and more fundamentally, for promotion of science education. (author)
The number of women in medicine has increased dramatically in the last few decades, and women now represent half of all incoming medical students. Yet residency training still resembles the historical model when there were few women in medicine. This article reviews the issues facing women in residency today. Data suggest that the experience of female residents is more negative than that of males. Unique challenges facing female residents include the existence of gender bias and sexual harassment, a scarcity of female mentors in leadership positions, and work/family conflicts. Further research is needed to understand the experience of female residents and to identify barriers that hinder their optimal professional and personal development. Structural and cultural changes to residency programs are needed to better accommodate the needs of female trainees.
Aratani, Michi; Sasagawa, Sumiko
Women scientists generally play a great role in the public acceptance (PA) for the national policy of atomic energy developing in Japan. The reason may be that, when a woman scientist stands in the presence of women audience, she will be ready to be accepted by them as a person with the same gender, emotion and thought to themselves. A case of interchange between the Rokkasho women and the women scientists either resident at the nuclear site of Rokkasho or staying for a short time at Rokkasho by invitation has been described from the viewpoint of PA for the national policy of atomic energy developing, and more fundamentally, for promotion of science education. (author)
Pierron-Bohnes, Véronique [CNRS-University of Strasbourg, Strasbourg (France)
We present six associations and entities working in France on issues of women in physics: the Women and Physics Commission, French Physical Society; Women in Nuclear (WiN) France; Women and Science Association; Mission for the Place of Women at CNRS; Parity, Diversity, and Women Network, CEA; and the Network of University Equality-Diversity Representatives.
Hoepner, Barbara J., Ed.
This book is a collection of papers discussing controversial topics in women's athletics. Section one, "Overview--Women's Rights," includes articles on women's rights and equal opportunities in sports, the emergence of women in sports, and significant events in a century of American women's sports. Section two, "Women's Intercollegiate…
We present six associations and entities working in France on issues of women in physics: the Women and Physics Commission, French Physical Society; Women in Nuclear (WiN) France; Women and Science Association; Mission for the Place of Women at CNRS; Parity, Diversity, and Women Network, CEA; and the Network of University Equality-Diversity Representatives
This essay opens by invoking the dreams of women that arise from their life experiences and lead women, despite their powerlessness, to desire to create a different kind of society. The essay continues by exploring the relationship between analysis and practice and the contention that analysis of a problem shapes development practice, social policy, research priorities, and activism. Poverty provides an example of a complex, chaotic phenomenon that is often reduced to simplistic, measurable variables such as income or consumption deprivation. Attention is then paid to the population debate where linkages between the analytical framework and program development are clear. These simplified linkages led to macro analysis of events played out on the micro level and to the choice of women rather than men as the most effective change agents. The 1994 International Conference on Population and Development, however, gave rise to a new analytical framework emphasizing women's empowerment, women's health, women's rights, and men's participation and responsibility. This approach embraces the complexity of the situation and, thus, provides a road map for effective programs and policies. The next section of the essay considers gender analysis and how this concept leads to a demand on the part of women for access to men's privileges and a climate of confrontation arising from this demand. The inadequacies of using a woman-centered gender analysis as a framework for understanding male behavior are also discussed. Alternative concepts from the feminist movement are explored for their usefulness in generating social change, and the efforts of the Bangladesh Rural Achievement Committee to improve female literacy are used as an example of the value of cooperative, consciousness-raising groups. It is concluded that radical changes will be required to realize women's dreams of social changes.
In October 1997, over 200 participants attended the First Mayan Women's Congress in Mexico and called for financial assistance, capacity building, and training to help Mayan women escape poverty. The Congress was initiated by the UN Development Fund for Women in collaboration with the Small Grants Program of the UN Development Program. Traditionally, Mayan women and men have played distinct roles in society, and efforts are underway to increase gender sensitivity and achieve a new balance of power. Mayan women attending the Congress reported that they face daily challenges in gaining their husbands' approval for participation in income-generating activities outside of the home. Eventually, however, some husbands also start working in these enterprises and are learning to assume their share of domestic responsibilities. Mayan women have been forced to reevaluation their role in society by a prevailing agricultural and environmental crisis as well as a high unemployment rate. Crafts that were once produced only for household consumption are now considered for export. Because the women need funds to initiate income-generating activities, the Conference linked women's groups with development practitioners, policy-makers, and donors. The women requested financial aid for more than 30 specific projects, and Congress participants agreed to pursue innovate strategies to support the enterprises with funds, training, and technical assistance. The Congress also encouraged environmental nongovernmental organizations to include Mayan women in mainstream development activities. This successful Congress will be duplicated in other Mexican states.
Rathod, P B
A remarkable progress in women's participation in politics throughout the world was witnessed in the final decade of the 20th century. According to the Inter-Parliamentary Union report, there were only eight countries with no women in their legislatures in 1998. The number of women ministers at the cabinet level worldwide doubled in a decade, and the number of countries without any women ministers dropped from 93 to 48 during 1987-96. However, this progress is far from satisfactory. Political representation of women, minorities, and other social groups is still inadequate. This may be due to a complex combination of socioeconomic, cultural, and institutional factors. The view that women's political participation increases with social and economic development is supported by data from the Nordic countries, where there are higher proportions of women legislators than in less developed countries. While better levels of socioeconomic development, having a women-friendly political culture, and higher literacy are considered favorable factors for women's increased political representation, adopting one of the proportional representation systems (such as a party-list system, a single transferable vote system, or a mixed proportional system with multi-member constituencies) is the single factor most responsible for the higher representation of women.
Sanders, T G
Women are gradually gaining influence in Brazilian politics, especially since recent advances in the women's movement, but they still play a limited role. There have been journals devoted to feminism and some notable feminists since 1850. In 1932 suffragettes in Brazil gained women the right to vote. Women's associations burgeoned in the 1940s and 1950s, culminating in a peak in number of women in national elected positions in 1965. A repressive military regime reversed the process, which resumed in 1975. 1975 was also significant for the Brazilian women's movement because of the U.N. Women's Year. Several large, influential feminist political action groups were formed, typically by upper class women with leftist views, although some church and union groups from lower classes also appeared. In 1979-1981, the coherence of these groups fell into schism and fragmentation, because of disagreements over the feminist political doctrines and roles, views on legality of abortion, and special interest groups such as lesbians. Another bitter dispute is opposition by leftist women to BEMFAM, the Brazilian Society of Family Welfare, which provides family planning for the poor: leftists oppose BEMFAM because it is supported by funds from "imperialist" countries such as the U.S. There are several types of feminists groups: those that emphasize health, sexuality and violence; those composed of lesbians; those originating from lower classes and unions; publicly instituted organizations. Brazilian law forbids discrimination against women holding public office, but in reality very few women actually do hold office, except for mayors of small towns and a few administrators of the Education and Social Security ministries. Political office in Brazil is gained by clientism, and since women rarely hold powerful positions in business, they are outsiders of the system. Brazilian women have achieved much, considering the low female literacy rate and traditional power system, but their
Hanna Karaszewska; Maciej Muskała
The article discusses the problems of women who work in the uniformed services with the particular emphasis on the performing of the occupation of the prison service. It presents the legal issues relating to equal treatment of men and women in the workplace, formal factors influencing their employment, the status of women in prison, and the problems of their conducting in the professional role. The article also presents the results of research conducted in Poland and all over the world, on th...
This women's health podcast focuses on chlamydia, its severe health consequences for women if left untreated, and the importance of annual chlamydia screening. Created: 4/2/2009 by Office of Womenâs Health (OWH) and National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP). Date Released: 4/2/2009.
The role of women in family businesses is explored in the paper. Although recognized as generally very important players, the role of women is often defined as invisible in business decision-making, supportive in men’s traditional business domains and only rarelyadequately recognized and rewarded. The paper explores possible differences in the views of men and women who manage small family firms. Their attitudes opposing the traditional business roles ofwomen, different views on managerial, o...
Parikh Indira J
Women and Leadership Roles is culled from workshops conducted by Prof. Indira Parikh at the IIMA. From 1980 till date programmes exploring issues facing Women in Management are offered at the Institute. Issues surrounding leadership, work roles and authority are debated. The objectives are to explore the influence of the transformation of organisations on womens roles in the corporate world; to explore leadership roles and also individual life-spaces; to discover wholesome ways to actualise d...
This women's health podcast focuses on obesity in women and girls. It discusses obesity-related health risks and includes tips to help achieve and maintain a healthy weight. Created: 5/11/2009 by Office of Womenâs Health (OWH) and National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP). Date Released: 5/11/2009.
O'Connell Ferster, Ashley P; Hu, Amanda
Advances in gender equality have been sought in the field of medicine for centuries, including the specialty of otolaryngology. Currently, about 14.5% of practicing otolaryngologists are women. Strides have been made to support equality by the American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery through the development of the Women in Otolaryngology Section in 2010, among other efforts. This article reviews the literature of women in otolaryngology, as well as current trends toward equality among otolaryngologists of all genders.
Hage, Fadi G; Mansur, Sulaf J; Xing, Dongqi; Oparil, Suzanne
Hypertension is the most common modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease, the leading cause of death in both men and women. The prevalence and severity of hypertension rise markedly with age, and blood pressure control becomes more difficult with aging in both genders, particularly in women. In addition, there are forms of hypertension that occur exclusively in women, e.g., hypertension related to menopause, oral contraceptive use, or pregnancy (e.g., chronic hypertension, gestationa...
In recent decades, womenâ€™s participation in the labor market has increased considerably in most countries and is converging toward the participation rate of men. Though on a lesser scale, a similar movement toward gender convergence seems to be occurring in the criminal world, though many more men than women still engage in criminal activity. Technological progress and social norms have freed women from the home, increasing their participation in both the labor market and the crime market. ...
This women's health podcast focuses on gestational diabetes (GDM) to help educate women who may have been diagnosed with GDM now or in the past. GDM is a condition that can lead to pregnancy complications. Created: 5/12/2009 by Office of Womenâs Health (OWH) and National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP). Date Released: 5/12/2009.
Full Text Available The article discusses the problems of women who work in the uniformed services with the particular emphasis on the performing of the occupation of the prison service. It presents the legal issues relating to equal treatment of men and women in the workplace, formal factors influencing their employment, the status of women in prison, and the problems of their conducting in the professional role. The article also presents the results of research conducted in Poland and all over the world, on the functioning of women in prison and their relations with officers of the Prison Service, as well as with inmates.
Lemone, Margaret A.; Waukau, Patricia L.
The names of 927 women who are or have been active in meteorology or closely related fields have been obtained from various sources. Of these women, at least 500 are presently active. An estimated 4-5% of the total number of Ph.D.s in meteorology are awarded to women. About 10% of those receiving B.S. and M.S. degrees are women.The work patterns, accomplishments, and salaries of employed women meteorologists have been summarized from 330 responses to questionnaires, as functions of age, family status, part- or full-time working status, and employing institutions. It was found that women meteorologists holding Ph.D.s are more likely than their male counterparts to be employed by universities. As increasing number of women were employed in operational meteorology, although few of them were married and fewer still responsible for children. Several women were employed by private industry and some had advanced into managerial positions, although at the present time, such positions remain out of the reach of most women.The subjective and objective effects of several gender-related factors have been summarized from the comments and responses to the questionnaires. The primary obstacles to advancement were found to be part-time work and the responsibility for children. Part-time work was found to have a clearly negative effect on salary increase as a function of age. prejudicated discrimination and rules negatively affecting women remain important, especially to the older women, and affirmative action programs are generally seen as beneficial.Surprisingly, in contrast to the experience of women in other fields of science, women Ph.D.s in meteorology earn salaries comparable of their employment in government or large corporations and universities where there are strong affirmative action programs and above-average salaries. Based on the responses to the questionnaire, the small size of the meteorological community is also a factor, enabling women to become recognized
This article discusses the problems that women face in social, health, and nutritional areas in India. India's 135th ranking in the Human Development Index reflects the marginalization of women, the aged, the poor, the disabled, lower castes, and other neglected groups. The sex ratio has declined. Maternal mortality is high. 84% of rural women and 42% of urban women rely on untrained persons during childbirth. The systems of education, religion, health care, law, employment, and the mass media promote gender discrimination. Patriarchal structures resist efforts to build a gendered perspective and to provide gender sensitivity within health care and development. Women experience deficits in educational development, rest, food, recreation, and freedom of movement and action. Girls lack sufficient breast feeding and health care from a health system that is 80% private. 40% of the population is poor and needs access to affordable health services. Inadequate diets and nutrition have long term health consequences. Women's health deteriorates due to early marriage and childbearing. Adequate nutrition is exacerbated by high food prices, limits in the Public Distribution System, and the shift to non-edible cash crops. The family planning program focuses on women, despite the prevailing belief that women are not in a position to make decisions. Responsible use of modern contraception requires adequate health infrastructure, personnel, and gender sensitivity. The new emphasis on reproductive health must address the issues of unsafe abortion, reproductive tract infections, women's domestic burden, violence, and mental health.
Small Business Administration — Women's Business Centers (WBCs) represent a national network of nearly 100 educational centers throughout the United States and its territories, which are designed...
Gray, Janet Dreyfus
Investigated how married professional women feel about the women's movement. Data revealed that the majority were working to change societal definitions of women's roles but that a sizable minority had little interest in the women's movement. The women's movement has also brought about increased role conflicts for many. (Author/BEF)
Denisa Elena CHIRIŢĂ
Dedicated to a specific audience, women willing to be professionally successful and financially independent, the current magazines for women tend to alter the feminism`s mission stated at the beginning of the XXth century. It seems that the “new woman”, promoted by those magazines, has a single purpose: not to hide anymore her sexuality. The pages dedicated to this „liberation” abound in diets, pieces of advice, testimonials of a “more exciting sex”1, daily sensuality, leading towards a new p...
Whereas international conventions and national laws provide equal opportunities for women in employment, the reality of women's lives keeps a disproportionate number of women unemployed, underemployed, and living in poverty. The UN itself, which officially is working toward equity among its employees, has a staff composed of just 32.6% women, and women comprise only 10.5% of the top end of the hierarchy. In areas where women's labor force participation has increased dramatically, women typically earn 30-40% less than men doing the same job or else their employment is limited to "traditional female" service positions. The fact that women and girls have received an inadequate education makes it extremely difficult to break the barriers of discrimination in developing countries. The empowerment of women will break the education barrier, and, when that falls, many other barriers will follow suit. Efforts are already underway to break structural barriers caused by economic and social policies. For example, a more flexible pattern of work has been proposed which will include the voluntary assumption of flexible hours, job-sharing, and part-time work. The concept of work is also being broadened to include the important human services that women traditionally provide on a volunteer basis. This will lead to a valuation of women's contribution to society which can be added to calculations of gross domestic product. Women also need protection as they attempt to eke out a living in the informal sector which has been the traditional avenue for women to earn money. This sector is not protected by law and is subject to extortion by officials and by male competitors. A variety of measures is under consideration to increase the protection of informal sector workers. Women also need protection in the conventional work place, especially as they enter fields traditionally reserved for men. These questions are important even in the context of global unemployment because these issues
Health maintenance visit - women - over age 65; Physical exam - women - over age 65; Yearly exam - women - over age 65; Checkup - women - over age 65; Women's health - over age 65; Preventive care exam - women - over ...
Full Text Available Women have suffered from drug abuse for conturies, although formal Treatment assistance for women has been recognized as important only during the past few decades. The nature and underlying reasons for women's drug abuse differ from men’s behavior in many ways. It is finally understood that research on men will not simply translate into effective solutions for women as well. Here deal with the many issues that can arise in working with disabled women suffered from drug abuse because biologically, Culturally, and socially, their experience is different from that of men and other women and key theme For this discourse is that a woman who suffered from drug abuse is first and foremost a woman. Disabled women also have specific issues that must acknowledge and incorporate into the counseling, social work and other experince, so, here review is based on more than 25 years of the collective experience and firsthand knowledge of Monique Cohen and their Counselors at The CASPAR outpatient Clinic in Cambridge, Massachusett (2000 about women with drug abuse and alcoholism. The clinic Provides omprehensive substance abuse treatment to Individuals and Families struggling with either one or multiple addictions.
Kusnerz, Peggy A., Comp.; Pollack, Ann M., Comp.
This select bibliography lists books, monographs, journals and newsletters which relate to feminism, women's studies, and other perspectives on women. Selections are organized by topic: general, bibliographies, art and literature, biography/autobiography, economics, education, family and marriage, history, politics and sex roles. Also included is…
The integration of women in rural development means something more than mere labor involvement, but there has never been a clear definition of what it means. 4 principal concerns of policy-makers are briefly described as they affect women: unemployment and inadequate employment; 2) the satisfaction of basic needs and women's participation in decision-making; 3) population issues; and 4) rural-to-urban migration. The actual inter-household and inter-personal distribution of more work and higher productivity work could result in some hard-working people working even longer hours because of additional tasks with others losing their intermittent employment opportunities due to mechanization. These contradictions can be particularly acute for women. The non-material basic need of decision-making powers is more important in the case of women than of men, yet the personal status of women is being threatened by the institution-building that accompanies peasant-based agricultural intensification plans and anti-poverty programs. The education of females has been seen as a possible factor favoring family planning. In addition, education for women can mean access to public information and new expectations from life for themselves. At this time more women than men seem to be migrating to towns and cities in a number of countries with varied economic structures. 3 cases studies of agricultural development in Kenya, Bangladesh and Java, Indonesia are presented.
Urinary retention in women. Urinary retention in women is often transient and of no known cause. ... stones, constipation, urethral cancer, uterine fibroids ... present with abnormal bladder function secondary to ... (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or myelography ... full blood count, urea, electrolytes and creatinine can ...
Isaac, Carol A.; Behar-Horenstein, Linda S.; Koro-Ljungberg, Mirka
The term "leadership" metaphorically embodies a gendered hierarchy of labour. In this study women deans' values were found to be incongruent with the masculine discourse creating inner conflicts and alternative discourses. Data collected from 10 women deans from both male-dominated and female-dominated colleges were used to deconstruct leadership…
A program was designed to meet the needs of Kentucky women who wished to supplement their incomes by producing articles in their homes for sale. Its three-phase objective was to identify women who already had knitting skills and train them to produce a finished product; to provide basic knowledge about how to run a small business; and to provide…
Moore, Linda L.
Discusses theories that socialization or "the system" cause women's problems in management, contending that both contribute. Analyzes women manager's problems in using and misusing power and coping with stress. Discusses public/private sector differences. Suggests that networking and constructive self-analysis can alleviate some problems. (AYC)
Peterson, Yen; Brockmann, C. Thomas
The standard classification of women's roles into the traditional, dual career, and single parent constellations is unnecessarily restrictive and stereotyping. These categories reflect neither the myriad of role choices facing women today, nor the forces shaping the resulting contexts. This paper focuses upon modules, the component task or…
Full Text Available ... Education Program Diabetes Information on MedlinePlus Diabetes and Depression in Older Women More in Women's Health Topics ... Follow FDA on Facebook View FDA videos on YouTube View FDA photos on Flickr FDA Archive Combination ...
In India, violence against women is increasing and takes many forms while laws to protect women are ignored. Despite this fact, the new reproductive and child health program ignores sexual violence. Health personnel can respond by: 1) accepting the magnitude of the problem; 2) investigating the deaths of young women; 3) documenting findings; 4) ensuring that sexual abuse is recognized as a public health problem; 5) disseminating findings; 6) ensuring the protection of female field workers; 7) recognizing violence as an occupational health hazard; 8) facilitating the empowerment of women; 9) training women in self-defense; 10) ensuring that colleges and training institutes address violence as a women's health concern; 11) studying the psychological effects of violence; 12) collaborating with the National Commission for Women and the National Human Rights Commission; and 13) advocating for incorporation of sexual violence as a reproductive health issue in the national reproductive health program. In particular, domestic violence is a pervasive violation of women's human rights and has been resistant to social advances because of its "hidden" nature. Domestic violence exists because husbands believe they have an absolute right over the sexuality of their wives. Abusive husbands also abuse their daughters while sons learn violent behavior from their fathers. Crimes must be considered irrespective of whether they are committed outside or inside the home.
Durham, Marian B.; And Others
Services to imprisoned women under the age of 21 and the effects of incarceration on inmate mothers and their children are the two major subjects discussed in this report of a study conducted at the two state prison facilities for women in North Carolina. Information on these topics was obtained through site visits, interviews with staff and…
This women's health podcast focuses on the importance of maintaining good oral health during pregnancy. Created: 5/12/2009 by Office of Womenâs Health (OWH) and National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP). Date Released: 5/12/2009.
Female corporate leaders are becoming more common, but that does not mean it was a snap for them to get there. Much has been said about the hard road faced by women who seek top spots in corporate America. Many point out, for instance, that women executives still often are paid less than their male counterparts, and that they face stereotypes,…
Benson, Helene A.
This speech focuses on women and private pension plans, such as private pension coverage and smaller benefit amounts. Pension issues affecting women as employees include participation in plans, vesting, break-in service, benefit accruals, integration with Social Security, sex-based actuarial tables, portability, inflation, and individual…
Gorman, Anna M., Ed.; Vetter, Louise, Ed.
The five major papers whose full texts are included address themselves to various topics that can influence the lives of women in their career choices and advancement. Federal Legislation: Impact on Women's Careers, Mary Allen Jolley, discusses sex discrimination, legal gains made over the past 10 years, sex role stereotyping, and vocational…
Women in many African countries have a legal right to own land, but ... And so, Banda says, “we've come to see that changing the law and the ... Because the people in charge ... women's insecure tenure, despite gender-neutral statutory laws.
Full Text Available ... Monitoring Devices FDA Diabetes Information on WebMD Order Free Women's Health Publications Women's Health Information on Twitter Information from Other Government Agencies and Offices National Diabetes Education Program Diabetes Information on MedlinePlus Diabetes and Depression ...
Harassment of Women: Climate, Culture, and Consequences in Academic Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine June 12, 2018, 11 am - 12:30 pm ET Washington, DC Report Discussion Sexual Harassment of Women: Climate . EDUCATION Elementary and Secondary Mathematics and Science Education High School Graduates who Completed
Reviews four books: "Counter Cultures" (Susan Porter Benson); "Once a Cigar Maker" (Patricia A. Cooper); "To Toil the Livelong Day" (Carol Groneman and Mary Beth North eds.); and "Gender at Work" (Ruth Milkman). The works examine cultural stereotypes about the nature of work and women and they attempt to dispel the ideas that women are less…
Full Text Available ... provider about how to manage diabetes during pregnancy. Medicine and Pregnancy Fact Sheet Pregnancy Registries - Sign-up for a ... to help doctors learn more about how diabetes medicines affect women during pregnancy. Diabetes and Pregnancy (CDC) Diverse Women in Clinical ...
Silvana Pozzebon; Olivia S. Mitchell
In this paper we examine the economic and family determinants of married women's retirement behavior. A model of wives' retirement decisions is developed and tested empirically using data on working married women. Estimated response parameters are compared to those obtained previously for male workers. Our findings are directly relevant to policy questions regarding pension and Social Security reform.
... Women's Health Policy Women’s Health Insurance Coverage Women’s Health Insurance Coverage Published: Oct 31, 2017 Facebook Twitter LinkedIn ... that many women continue to face. Sources of Health Insurance Coverage Employer-Sponsored Insurance: Approximately 57.9 million ...
... United States, 1 in 4 women dies from heart disease. The most common cause of heart disease in both men and women is narrowing ... the blood vessels that supply blood to the heart itself. This is called coronary artery disease, and ...
Kramek, J; Grzymała-Krzyzostaniak, A; Celewicz, Z; Ronin-Walknowska, E
The aim of this work was the evaluation of the scale of violence towards pregnant women in the westpomeranian province, the definition of the social-biological profile of women exposed to violence and social-biological profile of their partners. The evaluation of the influence of violence on pregnant women's ending term and the weight of the newborns. 481 women were enrolled and an anonymous study was used in the form of questionnaires. A questionnaire was a modified form of a query-sheet proposed by WHO. 25% of the enrolled women were exposed to physical and psychological (emotional) abuse, 7.1% to psychical violence, women and men exposed to violence in their childhood more often become violent in their adult life. Men that physically abuse pregnant women are often of primary school education, are unemployed, drink alcohol and smoke. Physical abuse by a partner during pregnancy usually experience women with primary school education, who drink and smoke. Violence during pregnancy is usually associated with premature delivery as well as low birth weight of the newborns.
Group, ESHRE Capri Workshop; Skouby, Sven Olaf
BACKGROUND Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a specific reproductive health risk for women. METHODS Searches were performed in Medline and other databases. The selection criteria were high-quality studies and studies relevant to clinical reproductive medicine. Summaries were presented and discussed...... is associated with an inherited thrombophilia in men and women. Changes in the coagulation system and in the risk of clinical VTE in women also occur during pregnancy, with the use of reproductive hormones and as a consequence of ovarian stimulation when hyperstimulation syndrome and conception occur together...... therapy (HRT) increases the VTE risk 2- to 4-fold. There is a synergistic effect between thrombophilia and the various reproductive risks. Prevention of VTE during pregnancy should be offered to women with specific risk factors. In women who are at high risk, CHC and HRT should be avoided. CONCLUSIONS...
Trojian, Thomas H; Ragle, Rosemary B
Women's basketball has changed over time. It is a faster paced game than it was 30 years ago. Greatplayers, like Anne Meyers,who was the first, and only, woman to be signed to an NBA contract, would agree today's game is different. The game is played mostly "below the rim" but with players like Candice Parker, Sylvia Fowles and Maya Moore able to dunk the ball, the game is still changing. The one thing that remains constant in basketball, especially women's basketball, is injury. The majority of injuries in women's basketball are similar to those in men's basketball. Studies at the high school and college level show similar injury rates between women and men. ACL injuries are one exception, with female athletes having atwo to four times higher rate ofACL injuries. In this article, we review the common injuries in women's basketball. We discuss treatment issues and possible preventive measures.
their economy is the major area of importance over other sectors of life. They ensured that .... instance, a woman must have her husband's consent to open a bank account. Women are known ... in gainful employment because she should stay at home and depend on her husband and .... Okpoko, A.I. (2002). Empowering ...
This paper investigates the concept of the human rights of women and its connection with the phenomenon and the instances of discrimination against women. Discrimination against women, its social visibility and the fight against it, within the idea of the rights and the equality of women, are a source of many theoretical debates. Academic discussions and a powerful influence of the women's movement have brought about the establishment and the exercise of the human rights of women at different...
Kazibwe, S W
The objectives of the International Women's Day are: 1) to celebrate the struggle for women's rights in the economic, social, political, and cultural domain; 2) to reaffirm women's solidarity in the struggle for peace; 3) and to show what women have achieved. In 1988, Uganda's government of the National Resistance Movement created the Ministry of Women in Development. The period 1988-1990 was one of consultations, needs assessment, planning, and recruiting staff for the Ministry. From 1990 to 1993, measurable results have been achieved. The Ministry's gender concerns pertained to the sector policies of the Ministries of Agriculture, Animal Industry and Fisheries, Education, Health, Water, Energy, Minerals, and Environment Protection. Under the Umbrella Project for Women in Development, gender sensitization has been achieved with policy makers in ministries, at district level, and in the media. Gender issues have also been incorporated in the National Political School Curriculum. The Ministry has also trained a corps of 73 women trainers from 38 districts. The Ministry, with funding from DANIDA, collected women's views on the constitution through meetings and seminars in all the districts in the country. Recommendations were submitted in a consolidated report to the Constitution Commission. A pilot para-legal scheme is successfully being implemented in Kamuli district. A community-based pool of legal advisors has been developed. Legal matters that affect both women and men are undertaken at the community level. The economic emancipation of women is a crucial part of the Ministry's mandate. In conjunction with NGOs, pilot credit programs are being run in Mukono, Jinja, Mbale, and Kapchorwa districts. Cross-sectoral programs are in close collaboration with the rural water and sanitation program, the Northern Uganda rehabilitation program, and the integrated Basic Education Pilot Project to be implemented in 8 districts.
Mulheres cuidando de mulheres: um estudo sobre a Casa de Apoio Viva Maria, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Women caring for women: a study on the "Viva Maria" shelter, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil
Stela Nazareth Meneghel
Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo obter dados a respeito de mulheres vitimizadas que são atendidas em uma casa abrigo governamental denominada "Casa de Apoio Viva Maria", situada na cidade de Porto Alegre. Analisaram-se informações referentes a 110 mulheres que estiveram albergadas na casa durante os últimos dois anos - janeiro de 1996 a junho de 1998. O perfil da clientela mostrou que as mulheres eram jovens - em média, 29 anos; todas de baixa renda; 12% analfabetas, 21% negras, 80% delas com história de violência doméstica freqüente. Além disso, 18% destas mulheres retornaram à relação com o companheiro violento. Foram efetuadas visitas domiciliares a 34 ex-moradoras, convidando-as a participar de uma série de oficinas de avaliação. Um total de 118 pessoas - mães e crianças - integrou os três encontros de avaliação. Durante estes, os pesquisadores estimularam as participantes a expressar suas opiniões, percepções e sentimentos a respeito da experiência vivida na casa abrigo, assim como seus conceitos no tocante à violência. Finalmente, realizou-se um grupo focal com a equipe técnico-administrativa da casa. As trabalhadoras enfatizaram o quanto esse tipo de trabalho tem sido útil para seu desenvolvimento pessoal e auxiliou a modificar suas vidas.This research was conducted in Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, with a sample of battered women selected from a government shelter called the "Casa Viva Maria". We analyzed data on 110 women staying at the shelter during the previous two years (January 1996-June 1998. The profile of the women was as follows: abused women were young (mean age 29 years, all had low socioeconomic status, 12% were illiterate, 21% were black, 80% reported frequent abuse by their partners, and 18% had returned to violent homes. The researchers visited 34 former lodgers from the shelter and invited them to participate in a series of evaluation workshops. A total of 118 persons, including mothers and
Low sex drive in women Overview Women's sexual desires naturally fluctuate over the years. Highs and lows commonly coincide ... used for mood disorders also can cause low sex drive in women. If your lack of interest ...
... Heart Disease in Women Heart Disease in Hispanic Women “I thought it couldn’t be true,” says ... disease is their No. 1 killer. Why Hispanic women? While heart disease doesn’t discriminate, you could ...
... Audience For Women Women's Health Topics Women and Diabetes - Diabetes Medicines Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... 1-800-332-1088 to request a form. Diabetes Medicines The different kinds of diabetes medicines are ...
Jarecke, Jodi; Taylor, Edward W.; Hira, Tahira K.
Exploring the pedagogical approaches of four women's financial literacy education programs, this chapter provides an overview of trends and needs in financial education for women and offers pedagogical strategies for teaching women about finance.
Full Text Available The article is a result of a field work in three asylum seekers centres in Serbia. The author deals with migrant and refugee women's experiences on the western Balkan route. The methodology used is mainly semi-structured and un-structured interviews with migrants, employees in asylum seekers centres and local inhabitants. The article examines the specific experiences of migrant and refugee women on their way into Europe. It focuses on the different forms of violence they face, on the experiences of pregnant women and on the changes to their situations during the mobility process. It further deals with the legislation concerning refugees and tries to show how legislation indirectly creates threats to women migrants while at the same time depriving them of power and victimizing them. It is based on understanding the legislature as a male-centred, which means that it is mainly shaped by experiences of men while often not examining the specific experiences and needs of women. The author notes that refugee women need to submit to the dominant representation of them as victims, even though there is a great deal of autonomy, solidarity and perseverance in the stories of the women interviewed.
Smoking kills over half a million women each year and is the most important preventable cause of female premature death in several developed countries. However, in many countries, cigarette smoking still tends to be regarded as a mainly male problem. This paper explores the reasons why more attention needs to be paid to issues around smoking and women, even in countries which currently have low levels of female cigarette smoking. The article includes an overview of current patterns and trends of smoking among women, and the factors which influence smoking uptake and cessation in women compared to men. The experience of countries with the longest history of widespread female smoking is used to identify some of the key challenges facing developed and developing countries. Tobacco companies have identified women as a key target group, therefore particular attention is given to the ways in which they have attempted to reach women through advertising and other marketing strategies. It is concluded that in order to halt and ultimately reverse the tobacco epidemic among women, tobacco control policies need to encompass both gender-specific and gender-sensitive approaches. Examples are given of the types of action that are needed in relation to research, public policy and legislation, and education.
Langdahl, Bente L
The scope of this review was to review the newest developments in the context of the existing knowledge on premenopausal bone fragility. Fragility fractures are common in postmenopausal women and men and diagnostic criteria for osteoporosis have been agreed and multiple pharmacological treatments have been developed over the last 25 years. In premenopausal women, fragility fractures and very low bone mass are uncommon and osteoporosis in premenopausal women has therefore attracted much less interest. Recent studies have highlighted that lifestyle and dietary habits affect premenopausal bone mass. Bone mass may be improved by sufficient intake of calcium and vitamin D together with increased physical activity in premenopausal women with idiopathic osteoporosis. If pharmacological treatment is needed, teriparatide has been demonstrated to efficiently increase bone mass; however, no fracture studies and no comparative studies against antiresorptive therapies have been conducted. Pregnancy affects bone turnover and mass significantly, but pregnancy-associated osteoporosis is a rare and heterogeneous condition. The diagnosis of osteoporosis should only be considered in premenopausal women with existing fragility fractures, diseases or treatments known to cause bone loss or fractures. Secondary causes of osteoporosis should be corrected or treated if possible. The women should be recommended sufficient intake of calcium and vitamin and physical activity. In women with recurrent fractures or secondary causes that cannot be eliminated, for example glucocorticoid or cancer treatment, pharmacological intervention with bisphosphonates or teriparatide (not in the case of cancer) may be considered.
Bonder, Bette R; Bazyk, Susan; Reilly, Bridget; Toyota, Jan
The purpose of this paper is to describe women's work in Maya communities in the Guatemala Highlands, along with some of the trends accompanying the rapid societal change there. Over the course of six years, observations and interviews focused on two specific groups of women. The first were traditional, home-based women, the second, teachers in a primary school. Resulting transcripts and field notes were analyzed by the researchers to identify themes related to the women's perspectives on work, the patterns of their work activities, and the importance of work in their lives. Women who had been interviewed were asked to reflect on the themes identified. All the women engaged in paid work activities and were responsible for obligatory tasks in the home. The traditional group preserved the tradition of weaving, but remained largely illiterate, while the emerging group was literate, but did not learn to weave. Cultural change is both positive and negative, as described by these women. It is important to understand the particular values of the culture, and to recognize that these may not conform to Western (that is to say U.S.) beliefs and practices.
Hardes, Jennifer Jane
The positive relationship between exercise and mental health is often taken for granted in today's society, despite the lack of academic literature evidencing this symbiosis. Gender is considered a significant determinant in a number of mental health diagnoses. Indeed, women are considered twice as likely as men to experience the most pervasive mental health condition, depression. Exercise for women's mental health is promoted through various macrolevel charity, as well as microlevel, campaigns that influence government healthcare policy and National Health Service guidelines. Indeed, 'exercise prescriptions' in the treatment of depression is not uncommon. Yet, this link between exercise as a treatment for women's mental health has not always been so pervasive. In fact, an examination of asylum reports and medical journals from the late 19th century highlights a significant shift in attitude towards the role of exercise in the treatment of women's emotional states and mental health. This paper specifically examines how this treatment of women's mental health through exercise has moved from what might be regarded as a focus on exercise as a 'cause' of women's mental ailments to exercise promoted as a 'cure'. Unpacking the changing medical attitudes towards exercise for women in line with larger sociopolitical and historic contexts reveals that while this shift towards exercise promotion might prima facie appear as a less essentialist view of women and their mental and physical states, it inevitably remains tied to larger policy and governance agendas. New modes of exercise 'treatment' for women's mental health are not politically neutral and, thus, what appear to emerge as forms of liberation are, in actuality, subtler forms of regulation. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Full Text Available Abstract Women with hereditary angioedema (HAE are more likely to be symptomatic that men. Hormonal factors (puberty, contraception, pregnancy,.... play a significant role in the precipitation or worsening of the condition in women. So, combined contraceptive pills are not indicated and progestogen pill must be preferred. During pregnancy, attack rate can increase (38-48% of women. C1Inhibitor concentrate and tranexamic acid can be used during pregnancy. Attenuated androgens for long term prophylaxis are effective but side effects appear more often in female patients. These side effects are dose dependant and can be attenuated by titrating the dose down the lowest effective level.
Fulu, Emma; Miedema, Stephanie
Globalization theories have proliferated over the past two decades. However, global developments have yet to be systematically incorporated into theories around violence against women. This article proposes to add a global level to the existing ecological model framework, popularized by Lori Heise in 1998, to explore the relationships between global processes and experiences of violence against women. Data from the Maldives and Cambodia are used to assess how globalized ideologies, economic development and integration, religious fundamentalisms, and global cultural exchange, as components of a larger globalization process, have affected men and women’s experiences and perceptions of violence against women. PMID:26215287
Ivie, Rachel; Guo, Stacy
More than 1350 women physicists from more than 70 countries responded to a survey designed to identify issues important to women in physics. Women physicists had many areas of concern, notably discrimination and career/family balance. However, they also had many successes in physics. The majority would choose physics again and felt that they had progressed in their careers at least as quickly as their colleagues. Many spoke eloquently about their love of physics, the support they had received from others, and about their own determination and hard work.
Kashket, E R; Robbins, M L; Leive, L; Huang, A S
The general picture that emerges from this study is that the woman microbiologist, upon entering the professional job market, faces (i) slower advancement; (ii) restricted extramural recognition; and (iii) fewer positions of a supervisory or administrative nature, when compared to men. Most striking is the salary differential, which increases with increasing educational level, with increasing rank, and with increasing seniority. From the beginning of her professional training, the woman microbiologist feels handicapped by lack of encouragement and proper role models. She generally receives little advice regarding her professional future and rarely feels pushed to take the most challenging position. Should she be married, she feels that her mobility is severely restricted. Even though the subjective nature of these feelings may be interpreted as projections of failure, subtle inducements for women to stay at lower levels may well exist, in addition to more objective measurements, such as lower salary levels and slower professional advancement. Despite these handicaps, professional women continue to work. As a group, they work for the same reasons that men do, they work as long and as hard as men do, and they remain at their positions as long as men do. Women and men rate themselves equally as to job performance, degree of independence, and publication rate. On the basis of this study, it should not be surprising that women professionals are less visible than men and that only a small proportion of women become what is considered successful by the usual external criteria. If women were to receive continued encouragement, scientific contact, and professional recognition at each stage of their professional lives, they would undoubtedly become more visible. The lack of encouragement and selfconfidence leading to isolation, which then leads to lack of recognition, is a vicious circle that must be broken for the woman professional. This can be done most easily for the
M. Tony Bledsoe; Rebecca J. Oatsvall
One outstanding impact in the twenty first century US economy is the phenomenally expanding role and importance of women entrepreneurs. The Center for Women’s Business Research reports “nearly 10.4 million firms are 50% or more owned by women, employing more than 12.8 million people, and generating $1.9 trillion in sales.” (2007) This growth is evidenced by the fact that majority women-owned firms grew at twice the rate of all firms between 1997 and 2006. (Center for Women’s Business Research...
International Rescue Committee
Full Text Available An assessment by the International Rescue Committee in 1996 in Kibondo District, Tanzania, indicated that 27 per cent of women between the ages of 12 and 49 had experienced sexual violence since becoming refugees.
Full Text Available ... Email Print Diabetes is a serious illness that affects over 29 million people in the United States. ... help doctors learn more about how diabetes medicines affect women during pregnancy. Diabetes and Pregnancy (CDC) Diverse ...
Full Text Available ... How to Report Problems with Glucose Meters Diabetes Treatments Some people with diabetes need to take diabetes ... with your health care provider about your diabetes treatment. Diabetes Medicines - easy-to-read booklet for women ...
Full Text Available ... diabetes. Food Safety for People with Diabetes Your Glucose Meter - easy-to-read booklet for women Other ... Information on Diabetes How to Report Problems with Glucose Meters Diabetes Treatments Some people with diabetes need ...
Full Text Available ... Health is partnering with the NIH Office of Research on Women's Health to raise awareness about diverse ... Federal, State & Local Officials Consumers Health Professionals Science & Research Industry Scroll back to top Popular Content Home ...
Full Text Available ... Diabetes How to Report Problems with Glucose Meters Diabetes Treatments Some people with diabetes need to take diabetes ... talk with your health care provider about your diabetes treatment. Diabetes Medicines - easy-to-read booklet for women ...
Full Text Available ... in Clinical Trials Campaign Clinical trials can help doctors learn more about treatments for diabetes. The FDA Office of Women's Health is partnering with the NIH Office of Research ...
Discusses why women managers are overrepresented in low-level, low-status positions; why they are in go-nowhere staff roles, managing functions not people; and why so few hold top management positions in America's organizations. (JOW)
... may be more vulnerable to brain damage than teen boys who drink. Women also may be more susceptible than men to alcohol-related blackouts, defined as periods of memory loss of events during intoxication without loss of consciousness. ...
... Materials Infographics Cancer and Alcohol Web Features Breast Cancer Awareness Breast Cancer in Young Women Cancer and Men ... in Childhood Cancer, the Flu, and You Cervical Cancer Awareness Colorectal Cancer Awareness Gynecologic Cancer Awareness Health Disparities ...
This study was conducted by a research team in Dar es Salaam to identify which policy changes might strengthen rural food security in Tanzania. The participatory research revealed much about the impact of gender and culture on food security. In both districts of Ngorongoro and Shinyanga, control of resources favored men. They managed the income from high-value resources like cattle, cotton, and maize, while women managed low-value resources like milk, hides, and goats. Also, it was evident that in both districts, violence against women had an impact on women's confidence and levels of control, and was felt to exacerbate food insecurity. In view of this, the research recommends support to groups of women and youths to organize themselves and lobby for change, as well as support to government and other officials to help them listen to those voices and respond more effectively.
participate in large numbers not just in learning ... earlier reports and give a summary of the situation .... noting best practices and recommendations that ..... service. This certainly has helped women working in organizations. In fact India has ...
Full Text Available ... Beware of Illegally Sold Diabetes Treatments Diabetes and Pregnancy Some women develop diabetes for the first time ... care provider about how to manage diabetes during pregnancy. Medicine and Pregnancy Fact Sheet Pregnancy Registries - Sign- ...
Full Text Available ... you need depends on your health and the type of diabetes you have. Use these resources to help you ... Diabetes and Pregnancy Some women develop diabetes for the first time ...
New research on broader determinants of health has culminated into the new paradigm of social determinants of health. The fundamental view that underlies this new paradigm is that socioeconomic and political contexts in which people live have significant bearing upon their health and well-being. Unlike a wealth of research on socioeconomic determinants, few studies have focused on the role of political factors. Some of these studies examine the role of political determinants on health through their mediation with the labour environments and systems of welfare state. A few others study the relationship between polity regimes and population health more directly. However, none of them has a focus on women's health. This study explores the interactions, both direct and indirect, between democracy and women's health. In doing so, it identifies some of the main health vulnerabilities for women and explains, through a conceptual model, how democracy and respect for human rights interacts with women's health. PMID:21836777
Full Text Available ... Us on Twitter There is good news. Diabetes can be controlled by maintaining a healthy diet, exercising, ... Diverse Women in Clinical Trials Campaign Clinical trials can help doctors learn more about treatments for diabetes. ...
Van Antwerp, Dacia
Discusses the special vocational needs of women who are planning careers in corporate management. Suggests three basic areas that counselors should cover with these clients: goals, expertise, and teamwork. (HMV)
Full Text Available ... women Other FDA Information on Diabetes How to Report Problems with Glucose Meters Diabetes Treatments Some people ... back to top Popular Content Home Latest Recalls Report an Adverse Event MedWatch Safety Alerts News Releases ...
... for example diarrhoeal disease or malnutrition). Social and economic costs The social and economic costs of intimate partner and sexual violence are ... Gynecologists (FIGO) and the UN Joint Programme on Essential Services Package for Women Subject to Violence. (1) ...
Participation-oriented research methods are much more likely to bring about .... Examining the specific types of relations that women have to land reveals the ways ..... information – builds capacity to acquire sound qualitative data and, thereby, ...
Full Text Available ... diabetes for the first time when they become pregnant. This is called gestational (jes-Tay-shun-ul) diabetes. Other women have diabetes before they get pregnant. Use these resources to help you talk to ...
Mandelbaum, Dorothy Rosenthal
Literature written since 1973 about the individual woman physician and the situation of United States women in medicine is examined and reviewed. Discrimination problems, identity conflicts, and a "typical" personality profile are some of the issues addressed. (Author/ KR)
Full Text Available ... Food Safety for People with Diabetes Your Glucose Meter - easy-to-read booklet for women Other FDA ... on Diabetes How to Report Problems with Glucose Meters Diabetes Treatments Some people with diabetes need to ...
... Easy Advocacy Checklists for Association Events Messaging Tools Recruiting Advocates Local Market Planning Training Webinars News & Events ... you can still get pregnant. Most birth control methods are safe for women with diabetes. Talk with ...
... smokers appear less attractive and prematurely old. 5 Women have been extensively targeted by tobacco marketing. These ads are dominated by themes associating cigarettes with social desirability, independence, weight control and having fun. Like most other ...
IMPROVING WOMEN'S LIVES Practical support for women gives communities a better future. October 26 ... Organized into small cooperatives, the women produce and market argan oil using a mix of traditional and modern methods. At the same time ... arts and craft. Technology helps Asian women balance family and work.
Traditionally conceived, mentoring has a male orientation that ignores women's experience as "same" and "other" in academia and the problems of men mentoring women and of women mentors socializing mentees into acceptance of the patriarchal system. An alternative view values women's unique position and critiques existing power structures. (SK)
Army womenpower re- quirements with no apparent end in sight. No country, not even Russia or Israel, has ever made a conscious decision to include...provide a basis for decision making. iiI CHAPTER ONE AN HISTORICAL OVERVIEW Few books have been written which outline the history of military women...with a bill introducing the Women’s Army Auxillary Corps (WAAC). In order 7 that the Army could maintain control over this sensitive issue, General
McCann, A L; Bonci, L
Women must adopt health-promoting strategies for both general health and the oral cavity, because the health of a woman's body and oral cavity are bidirectional. For general health-maintenance strategies, dental practitioners should actively advise women to minimize alcohol use, abstain from or cease smoking, stay physically active, and choose the right foods to nourish both the body and mind. For oral health-maintenance strategies, dental practitioners should advise women on how to prevent or control oral infections, particularly dental caries and periodontal diseases. Specifically, women need to know how to remove plaque from the teeth mechanically, use appropriate chemotherapeutic agents and dentifrices, use oral irrigation, and control halitosis. Dental practitioners also need to stress the importance of regular maintenance visits for disease prevention. Adolescent women are more prone to gingivitis and aphthous ulcers when they begin their menstrual cycles and need advice about cessation of tobacco use, mouth protection during athletic activities, cleaning orthodontic appliances, developing good dietary habits, and avoiding eating disorders. Women in early to middle adulthood may be pregnant or using oral contraceptives with concomitant changes in oral tissues. Dental practitioners need to advise them how to take care of the oral cavity during these changes and how to promote the health of their infants, including good nutrition. Older women experience the onset of menopause and increased vulnerability to osteoporosis. They may also experience xerostomia and burning mouth syndrome. Dental practitioners need to help women alleviate these symptoms and encourage them to continue good infection control and diet practices.
The study contains an analysis of size and conditions of running business by women. It also refers to the motives of starting own business. The analysis confirmed that although there is no “male” and “female” entrepreneurship, running own business by women is much more hampered by providing care for children, especially for the small ones, than in case of men. Regardless of gender, success of business prejudice personality and situational traits. Development of entrepreneurship, especially in...
Vida A. Mohorčič Špolar
Full Text Available The paper deals with the analysis of data regarding the inclusion of women in formal education by the level of education, by field of educa tion in the secondary level and by the institutions of higher education. Furthermore it presents the analysis of statistical data regarding the percentage of the employed women in 1985 and 1993 by different fields of industry.
Beginning in the mid-1800s, the American Medical Association, antiobscenity crusaders, and even women's groups supported criminalization of abortion. By 1900, it was illegal nationwide. In the late 1960s, women, physicians, and states began questioning abortion laws, since many women had unsafe, often fatal, illegal abortions. By 1973, 4 states had legalized abortion and 15 other states had liberalized abortion laws. A mid-1960 study showed that private patients comprised about 95% of all elective abortions. Poor clinic patients did not have the power to convince 3 physicians to support their request for an abortion. IN 1965, the Supreme Court agreed that a Connecticut Planned Parenthood Affiliate had the right to distribute contraceptives. The 1973 Roe v. Wade Court decision advanced this decision, by confirming a woman's right to abortion during the first 2 semesters of pregnancy. In 1976, the US Congress passed the Hyde amendment forbidding federal funding (e.g., Medicaid) for abortions except to save a mother. 2 1980 Supreme Court decisions supported the Hyde amendment. The Hyde amendment and these court decisions showed discrimination against poor women. Since then there have been other decisions that have whittled away at Roe v. Wade. Contraceptive failure is responsible for about 50% of the 1.6 million abortions/year. About 60% of women having an abortion are under 25 years old. Thus, criminalization of abortion would adversely affect many women as well as society. Many prochoice physicians had cared for women who suffered from botched abortions. Physicians under 45 years old tend to not know how to perform a 2nd trimester abortion because most obstetrician/gynecology residency training programs do not require them to learn it, and they do not want to do them. 2nd trimester abortion should be a required part of residency training. Physicians as preservers of women's health should be advocating safe abortion and not adopt the legal vs. illegal abortion
Şehriban Şahin Kaya
Full Text Available For the last couple of decades, there has been a dramatic regress in the women’seconomic, social and political positions in Turkey.The number of womenparticipating in job market decreased from 34.1 percent in 1990 to 23.5 percent in2009. Almost 85 percent of the working women are still stuck in traditionalfemale jobs. A diminishing representation of womenin politics and increasingviolence against women have been other features ofthis regression. At the sametime period, a transformation of Turkish media camewith the boom of the numberof commercial TV channels, radio stations, magazines and newspapers. Thisnewly transformed media did manage traditional gender roles to infiltrate thethoughts of women, majority of whom stayed out of job market. The images ofwomen created through the advertisements, TV serials, TV talk shows, andmagazines have been more altruistic family orientedtype than women questingfor equal rights. Today, more and more women watchTV programs, supportcosmetic industry, spend lots of money on clothing, and are very interested intheir body, value traditional gender roles and do not ask for equality. Recently,the scholars began to discuss the rise of conservatism in Turkey withoutaddressing the backward shift in women position invarious spheres of life. Allthese problematical issues mentioned above need tobe considered within asociological framework that should be able to showus the current situation ofwomen in Turkey. This presentation attempts to dothis.
Tuberculosis is responsible for far more women's deaths each year than all the causes of maternal deaths combined (e.g., in 1990, 720,000 vs. 428,000). TB attacks women in the most productive years of life, the years in which they raise children and work in the household, labor force, or fields. Mothers infected with TB are a threat to their children, since they often infect their children with TB before they die. Lack of diagnosis or poor treatment account for the deaths of around 33% of the 6 million women with TB at any given time. Various reasons explain why women do not seek or receive treatment: lack of time because of family and work demands, lack of money and transportation, the need to get permission from or be accompanied by a male family member to visit a health center, the stigma of infertility, poor education, and lack of female health workers in cultures where female modesty is important. Deaths of women to TB have major effects on child survival, economic productivity, and family well-being. In order to increase case finding and treatment, TB programs and health workers must respond to the needs of women.
Marcantoni, Carmelita; Castellino, Santina; Cicchetti, Teresa; Rastelli, Stefania; Mallamaci, Francesca
The education level of women has increased significantly in recent decades. However, although there is a continued positive trend overall, women remain underrepresented (or misrepresented?) in the main fields of science. In Europe the proportion of women in scientific research is growing faster than that of men, but women are more likely than men to choose education, arts and humanities, health and welfare. Moreover, of the total number of women graduating in all faculties (55%), the percentage of women graduating in medicine is 65%-68%, in Europe as in the United States. As far as nephrology is concerned, unpublished data from the Italian Society of Nephrology indicate that female nephrologists make up almost 30% of the total number in the age group between 40 and 55, and this proportion is even higher in the age group younger than 40 years. In comparison with the past, there are some hints that things are going to change, but the path is still a difficult one, much effort is needed and there is a long way ahead.
Krieger, N; Margo, G
Around the world, more and more women--principally poor women of color--are being diagnosed with and are dying of AIDS, the acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Yet, effective and appropriate prevention programs for women are sorely missing from the global program to control AIDS. To help us understand why this gap exists, and what we must do to close it, the three articles in this issue focus on women and AIDS. Examining the situation in such countries as Zimbabwe and South Africa, as well as in other economically underdeveloped and developed regions, the authors argue that women with the least control over their bodies and their lives are at greatest risk of acquiring AIDS. For example, the high rate of infection among women in Africa cannot be understood apart from the legacy of colonialism (including land expropriation and the forced introduction of a migrant labor system) and the insidious combination of traditional and European patriarchal values. Only by recognizing the socioeconomic and cultural determinants of both disease and sexual behavior, and only by incorporating these insights into our AIDS prevention programs, will we be able to curb the spread of this lethal disease.
Hurst, Ashalee C; Alquist, Jessica L; Puts, David A
Across three studies, we tested the hypothesis that women exhibit greater jealousy and mate guarding toward women who are in the high (vs. low) fertility phase of their cycle. Women who imagined their partner with a woman pictured at high fertility reported more jealousy than women who imagined their partner with a woman pictured at low fertility (Studies 1 and 2). A meta-analysis across studies manipulating fertility status of the pictured woman found a significant effect of fertility status on both jealousy and mate guarding. Women with attractive partners viewed fertile-phase women as less trustworthy, which led to increased mate guarding (Study 2). In Study 3, the closer women were to peak fertility, the more instances they reported of other women acting jealously and mate guarding toward them. These studies provide evidence that women selectively exhibit jealousy and mate guarding toward women who are near peak fertility.
Ganschow, Pamela S; Jacobs, Elizabeth A; Mackinnon, Jennifer; Charney, Pamela
The aim of this clinical update is to summarize articles and guidelines published in the last year with the potential to change current clinical practice as it relates to women's health. We used two independent search strategies to identify articles relevant to women's health published between March 1, 2007 and February 29, 2008. First, we reviewed the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and journal indices from the ACP Journal Club, Annals of Internal Medicine, Archives of Internal Medicine, British Medical Journal, Circulation, Diabetes, JAMA, JGIM, Journal of Women's Health, Lancet, NEJM, Obstetrics and Gynecology, and Women's Health Journal Watch. Second, we performed a MEDLINE search using the medical subject heading term "sex factors." The authors, who all have clinical and/or research experience in the area of women's health, reviewed all article titles, abstracts, and, when indicated, full publications. We excluded articles related to obstetrical aspects of women's health focusing on those relevant to general internists. We had two acceptance criteria, scientific rigor and potential to impact women's health. We also identified new and/or updated women's health guidelines released during the same time period. We identified over 250 publications with potential relevance to women's health. Forty-six articles were selected for presentation as part of the Clinical Update, and nine were selected for a more detailed discussion in this paper. Evidence-based women's health guidelines are listed in Table 1. Table 1 Important Women's Health Guidelines in 2007-2008: New or Updated Topic Issuing organization Updated recommendations and comments Mammography screening in women 40-4917 ACP Individualized risk assessment and informed decision making should be used to guide decisions about mammography screening in this age group. To aid in the risk assessment, a discussion of the risk factors, which if present in a woman in her 40s increases her risk to above that of an
Working women appear to have a personal-value structure different from that of nonworking women. Economic and political values are more prominent among women who work, whereas social and religious values play a greater role for women who stay at home. (JOW)
Ravn, Hans; Pansell-Fawcett, Karin; Björck, Martin
OBJECTIVES: Ninety-five per cent of those operated on for popliteal artery aneurysm (PA) are men. Thus, PAs in women are difficult to investigate. The aim was to study the disease in women. METHODS: Women treated for PA in 1987-2012, prospectively registered in the Swedish vascular registry......, Swedvasc, supplemented by case records, were compared with the larger male cohort. Survival was determined through cross linkage with the National Population Registry. RESULTS: 1509 patients (men and women), 1872 legs, were identified; of these 74 patients (4.9%) were women, 81 legs (4.3%). The median age...... was 70 years in women versus 69 in men. Twenty-nine centres operated on women (range 1-7 women/centre). There were no time trends in the proportion of women operated on (p=.5). Bilateral PA occurred in 9.5% of women and 27.0% of men (p=.002). For symptomatic aneurysms, there was a larger proportion...
Balayan's Municipal Center for Women was created to recognize women's role in the family and community in nation-building; to support the dignity and integrity of all people, especially women, and fight against rape, incest, wife beating, sexual harassment, and sexual discrimination; to empower women through education; to use women as equal partners in achieving progress; to end gender bias and discrimination, and improve women's status; and to enact progressive legal and moral change in favor of women and women's rights. The organization's functions in the following areas are described: education and information dissemination, community organizing, the provision of economic and livelihood assistance, women's counseling, health assistance, legislative advocacy and research, legal assistance, women's networking, and monitoring and evaluation.
Seghal, P N
In this article, Dr. P.N. Sehgal, former director of the National Institute of Communicable Diseases in Delhi, explains the steps that women need to take to protect themselves against AIDS and discusses some issues facing women who have already contracted the disease. Because of women's lack of status in the family and society, it is harder for them to ensure their safety. Women based at home often lack information on AIDS, and those women who are informed sometimes depend on their male partner for financial support, which means that they are forced to engage in unsafe sexual practices. Safer sexual practices can reduce the risk for women. Though varying in degree of safety, some safer practices include: monogamous relationships between uninfected partners; the use of condoms for all types of sexual intercourse; non-penetrative sex practices (hugging, kissing, masturbating); reducing the number of sexual partners; avoiding sex when either of the partners has open sores or any STD. Pregnant women should also receive information concerning AIDS, including: a baby born from an HIV-infected mother has a 20-40% of being infected; the risk of transmission is higher when the mother already shows signs of AIDS; and an infected baby may die within the first few years of life. the HIV transmission may occur prepartum or during birth itself, but the risk of transmission from breastfeeding is extremely low. Dr. Sehgal stresses the need for privacy and confidentiality when dealing with carriers of the disease or when carrying out HIV testing. Above all, the rights of HIV-infected people must be protected.
My work deal with women status and their discrimination. Chapter one contains women status in different historical periods and development of their status to bigger equal with men. There is also written about present feminist trends. Chapter two is about women discrimination. There is about women´ job discrimination, job segregation according to gender and inequality in payment. There is also written about women status at home and unequal duties at home among family mates. Chapter three is ab...
Berryman-Fink, Cynthia; Wheeless, Virginia Eman
A study examined the relationship among attitudes toward women in general, attitudes toward women as managers, and perceptions of the communication competencies of women managers. Subjects, 178 employees from various types of organizations, completed the Positive Regard Scale (PRS), the Women as Managers Scale (WAMS), and the Communication…
Andima, J J
More than 50% of Namibia's 1.5 million inhabitants live in reserved communal areas; most of these are women who make up a third of the country's total population. Women are the main food producers, but access to land, livestock, water, and fuelwood is determined for women by marriage arrangements and settlements. In some parts of the country, women can obtain land in their own right, but they suffer from such subtle discouragements as receiving inferior land or having their stock mysteriously disappear. In some villages, a fee must be paid to a village head upon the allocation of land. This fee guarantees land tenure until the death or eviction of the person who paid the fee. In some areas, only men or widows (and sometimes divorced women) are eligible, and widows must reapply for permission to stay on their husband's land. Women also have a heavy labor burden. Since most of the men migrate to the urban areas for wage employment, the women must tend livestock and harvest and store the grain as well as run their households. Woman also may be evicted from commercial farms if their husbands die. In some areas, all property reverts to a husband's family upon his death, and the wife must return to her own relative. In some tribes, widows must leave their houses empty-handed; their sisters-in-law inherit any stored grain or clothing available. Other tribes are more liberal, and property remains with the widow. In this case, a male relative will be assigned to help the widow manage the property. Reform efforts which attempt to end such abuses by bringing common and customary law in compliance with the Namibian constitution are having an effect. The Women and Law Committee of the Law Reform and the Development Commission is working with the Customary Law Commission to involve traditional leaders in the adaptation of customary law to modern requirements which make discrimination against women unlawful. Until woman have security of land tenure, they are unwilling to invest
Explanations of cultural patterns can be found in the economic context (carrying capacity) in which they develop. Population pressure explains the abuse of women throughout history and in modern times because overpopulation leads to devaluation of women's reproductive capacity. A cultural response to overpopulation includes practices that limit the numbers of women of reproductive age. Such practices foster son preference, which results in selective abortion, female infanticide, neglect and overwork of girls, dowry deaths, and discrimination against widows. The results of these practices are manifest in sex ratios that are culturally rather than naturally controlled and in demographic facts such as the calculation that 60 million females are missing in Asia alone (and perhaps more than 100 million worldwide). Women are also removed from a reproductive setting by being kidnapped or sold into prostitution or by being forced to adopt prostitution for economic survival. In cases where survival is threatened by environmental degradation and population growth, the most harsh cultural practices will emerge to adapt the population to the resources at hand. This situation creates an ethical dilemma posed by the problem of imposing Western values on a culture that is undertaking adaptive practices to insure its very survival. Ways to help women in these situation include limiting population growth humanely through family planning, provision of paid work to women, and creation of an environment that supports a small family ideal. Prosperity itself, through modernization, sometimes causes family sizes to increase. The most important intervention appears to be the provision of paid employment outside the home for women. On the other hand, large-scale wealth transfers and liberal immigration policies simply send signals that population pressure is a regional problem that can be alleviated by the international community. Increasing immigration to developed countries will place
Next Monday the 8th of March is International Women’s Day. In an ideal world, there would be no need for such an event – equality would be taken as read. But since the world is not there yet, let’s take the opportunity to celebrate women in physics, and indeed the full cultural diversity of our field. Perceived as a discipline dominated by men, reality has been diverging from that perception for a long time. Today at CERN, women play key roles in every aspect of the Organization’s activities. On Women’s Day, we will be sending a clear message to all young women interested in science and engineering that this is also a field for them. In the CERN Control Centre, half of the Engineers-in-Charge who take responsibility for operating the world’s most powerful particle accelerator are women. In the experiments, in all CERN departments and in the management, women are increasingly represented. That’s because at CERN, and in particl...
van Lankveld, Jacques J D M; Granot, Michal; Weijmar Schultz, Willibrord C M; Binik, Yitzchak M; Wesselmann, Ursula; Pukall, Caroline F; Bohm-Starke, Nina; Achtrari, Chahin
Women's sexual pain disorders include dyspareunia and vaginismus and there is need for state-of-the-art information in this area. To update the scientific evidence published in 2004, from the 2nd International Consultation on Sexual Medicine pertaining to the diagnosis and treatment of women's sexual pain disorders. An expert committee, invited from six countries by the 3rd International Consultation, was comprised of eight researchers and clinicians from biological and social science disciplines, for the purpose of reviewing and grading the scientific evidence on nosology, etiology, diagnosis, and treatment of women's sexual pain disorders. Expert opinion was based on grading of evidence-based medical literature, extensive internal committee discussion, public presentation, and debate. Results. A comprehensive assessment of medical, sexual, and psychosocial history is recommended for diagnosis and management. Indications for general and focused pelvic genital examination are identified. Evidence-based recommendations for assessment of women's sexual pain disorders are reviewed. An evidence-based approach to management of these disorders is provided. Continued efforts are warranted to conduct research and scientific reporting on the optimal assessment and management of women's sexual pain disorders, including multidisciplinary approaches.
Tagle, Rodrigo; Tagle V, Rodrigo; Acevedo, Mónica; Valdés, Gloria
The present review examines the types of hypertension that women may suffer throughout life, their physiopathological characteristics and management. In early life, the currently used low-dose oral contraceptives seldom cause hypertension. Pregnancy provokes preeclampsia, its main medical complication, secondary to inadequate transformation of the spiral arteries and the subsequent multisystem endothelial damage caused by deportation of placental factors and microparticles. Hypertension in preeclampsia is an epiphenomenon which needs to be controlled at levels that reduce maternal risk without impairing placental perfusion. The hemodynamic changes of pregnancy may unmask a hypertensive phenotype, may exacerbate a chronic hypertension, or may complicate hypertension secondary to lupus, renovascular lesions, and pheochromocytoma. On the other hand a primary aldosteronism may benefit from the effect of progesterone and present as a postpartum hypertension. A hypertensive pregnancy, especially preeclampsia, represents a risk for cardiac, vascular and renal disease in later life. Menopause may mimic a pheochromocytoma, and is associated to endothelial dysfunction and salt-sensitivity. Among women, non-pharmacological treatment should be forcefully advocated, except for sodium restriction during pregnancy. The blockade of the renin-angiotensin system should be avoided in women at risk of pregnancy; betablockers could be used with precautions during pregnancy; diuretics, ACE inhibitors and angiotensin receptor antagonists should not be used during breast feeding. Collateral effects of antihypertensives, such as hyponatremia, cough and edema are more common in women. Thus, hypertension in women should be managed according to the different life stages.
Governmental policies and legislation aimed at validating the dual role of women as mothers and wage earners can significantly strengthen breastfeeding promotion efforts. Examples of such laws and policies are maternity leave, breastfeeding breaks at the workplace, allowances for pregnant women and new mothers, rooming-in at hospitals, child care at the worksite, flexible work schedules for new mothers, and a national marketing code for breastmilk substitutes. The International labor Organization (ILO) has played an important role in setting international standards to protect working mothers. The ILO defines minimal maternity protection as encompassing: a compulsory period of 6 weeks' leave after delivery; entitlement to a further 6 weeks of leave; the provision during maternity leave of benefits sufficient for the full and healthy maintenance of the child; medical care by a qualified midwife or physician; authorization to interrupt work for the purpose of breastfeeding; and protection from dismissal during maternity leave. In many countries there is a lack of public awareness of existing laws or policies; i.e., working women may not know they are entitled to maternity leave, or pediatricians may not know that the government has developed a marketing code for breastmilk substitutes. Overall, the enactment and enforcement of legislation can ensure the longterm effectiveness of breastfeeding promotion by raising the consciousness of individuals and institutions, putting breastfeeding activities in the wider context of support for women's rights, recognizing the dual roles of women, and institutionalizing and legitimating support for breastfeeding.
Full Text Available In India, due to unprecedented rise in the cost of living, ris-ing prices of commodities, growing expenses on children ed-ucation, huge rate of unemployment, and increasing cost of housing properties compel every Indian family to explore all the possible ways and means to increase the household income. It is also witnessed that after globalization Indian women are able to get more jobs but the work they get is more casual in nature or is the one that men do not prefer to do or is left by them to move to higher or better jobs. Working women refers to those in paid employment. They work as lawyers, nurses, doctors, teachers and secretaries etc. There is no profession today where women are not employed. University of Oxford’s Professor Linda Scott recently coined the term the Double X Economy to describe the global economy of women. The present paper makes an attempt to discuss issues and challenges that are being faced by Indian working women at their respective workstations.
Carnes, Molly; Johnson, Paula; Klein, Wendy; Jenkins, Marjorie; Bairey Merz, C Noel
Gender-based bias and conflation of gender and status are root causes of disparities in women's health care and the slow advancement of women to leadership in academic medicine. More than a quarter of women physicians train in internal medicine and its subspecialties, and women physicians almost exclusively constitute the women's health focus within internal medicine. Thus, internal medicine has considerable opportunity to develop women leaders in academic medicine and promote women's health equity.To probe whether holding an endowed chair-which confers status-in women's health may be an effective way to advance women leaders in academic medicine and women's health, the authors explored the current status of endowed chairs in women's health in internal medicine. They found that the number of these endowed chairs in North America increased from 7 in 2013 to 19 in 2015, and all were held by women. The perceptions of incumbents and other women's health leaders supported the premise that an endowed chair in women's health would increase women's leadership, the institutional stature of women's health, and activities in women's health research, education, and clinical care.Going forward, it will be important to explore why not all recipients perceived that the endowed chair enhanced their own academic leadership, whether providing women's health leaders with fundraising expertise fosters future success in increasing the number of women's health endowed chairs, and how the conflation of gender and status play out (e.g., salary differences between endowed chairs) as the number of endowed chairs in women's health increases.
Larsen, Pelle Oliver
In Denmark women gained academic citizenship in 1875 but it took almost half a century before they obtained formal access to the professorships. Contrary to Germany where the mandarins – to use Fritz K. Ringer’s term – opposed women’s entrance into the academic world, the Danish case was much more...... double sided. Though there was indeed a strong opposition against female students and their membership of the students’ associations, there was also a stronger and stronger group among the mandarins who not only accepted women but even welcomed them – also to university chairs should they be qualified....... Around the turn of the century the modernizers had prevailed. From the beginning of the 20th century a woman would without much doubt have been appointed to a professorship if she had been thought to be the best candidate. One of the main reasons why this did not happen is, of course, that few women were...
The women who shaped and were erased from our history. The Forgotten Women series will uncover the lost histories of the influential women who have refused over hundreds of years to accept the hand they've been dealt and, as a result, have formed, shaped and changed the course of our futures. The Scientists celebrates 48* unsung scientific heroines whose hugely important, yet broadly unacknowledged or incorrectly attributed, discoveries have transformed our understanding of the scientific world. Mary Anning, the amateur paleontologist whose fossil findings changed scientific thinking about prehistoric life Emmy Noether, dubbed "The Mighty Mathematician You've Never Heard Of" Ynés Mexía, the Mexican-American botanist who discovered over 500 new plant species Wangari Maathai, who started an environmental and ecological revolution in Kenya Margaret Sanger, the maverick nurse who paved the way for the legalization of contraception Chapters including Earth & Universe; Biology & N...
Zoorob, Roger J; Sidani, Mohamad; Williams, Jamila; Grief, Samuel N
Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) therapies have become increasingly popular for the treatment of a variety of conditions. The World Health Organization has recognized the value of traditional healing techniques, which are classified as CAM, for 30 years. In the United States nearly 50% of women use CAM for common medical conditions, significantly more than men. This pattern is frequently seen in the treatment of women's health conditions such as infertility, premenstrual syndrome, and menopause. This article provides an integrative approach for conditions commonly encountered in the primary care setting among women, discusses alternative therapies used to treat these health conditions, and provides an evidence-based summary of recommendations based on a review of the literature. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The study contains an analysis of size and conditions of running business by women. It also refers to the motives of starting own business. The analysis confirmed that although there is no “male” and “female” entrepreneurship, running own business by women is much more hampered by providing care for children, especially for the small ones, than in case of men. Regardless of gender, success of business prejudice personality and situational traits. Development of entrepreneurship, especially in case of women, is supported by changes (although slow of values and attitudes, what results in altering the perception of social roles and reducing the mistrust for people starting and running own business.
Košťál, Jaroslav; Pristed Nielsen, Helene
This part of the project report contain an overview of some quantitative characteristics of the Eurosphere interview data, with a specific view to addressing the two broad research areas ‘where are the women?’ and ‘gendering as a process'. We consider two aspects of whether gender matters for the...... for the overall research questions of the project: I) women´s position/presence within the organizations, and II) gender differences in attitudes towards key questions in the interview guide.......This part of the project report contain an overview of some quantitative characteristics of the Eurosphere interview data, with a specific view to addressing the two broad research areas ‘where are the women?’ and ‘gendering as a process'. We consider two aspects of whether gender matters...
Full Text Available This paper investigates the concept of the human rights of women and its connection with the phenomenon and the instances of discrimination against women. Discrimination against women, its social visibility and the fight against it, within the idea of the rights and the equality of women, are a source of many theoretical debates. Academic discussions and a powerful influence of the women's movement have brought about the establishment and the exercise of the human rights of women at different levels of the public and the private spheres of society, as a substantial part of the universal regime of human rights.
An interview with Professor Mummadad Yunus, Managing Director of the Grameen Bank, revealed that he has provided loans to poor women in Bangladesh since 1976 and that the Grameen Bank has continued his work since 1983. The idea behind the banking system is that poor people without traditionally accepted collateral are good credit risks. In 1993, the Grameen Bank had operations in 33,000 out of a possible 68,000 villages in Bangladesh. The operations include 1030 branches and a staff of 12,000 people. 1.6 million people are recipients of loans, of whom 94% are women. The population served is the poorest and has no experience in income generation. Conclusions drawn from this experience are that women are better managers of resources and are more serious entrepreneurs than men and that the benefits of loan programs for the poor go directly to children and households. Women's self-image suffers from negative social conceptions, and one task is to convince women of their value, skills, and possibility of advancement. The bank philosophy rests with the belief that all human beings are a "treasure of potential possibilities." Women are advised to protect their money and marriage and not to sacrifice one for the other. Husbands initially are against money going to wives, but eventually they understand that the family benefits. Over 200,000 loans have been made for the provision of housing. The loan requirement is that the woman must own the land on which the house is built. Husband's have the opportunity to transfer title of the land to the wife. Ownership of land provides security for the wife.
Saunders, Daniel G.
Reviews literature comparing risk that battered women and men who batter will physically abuse their children. Challenges several tenets of social work practice lore and cautions practitioners about use of psychological tests and profiles to judge child abuse potential and parenting ability. Discusses hazards of mediation and joint custody and…
law has allowed killing in defence of life, but also has allowed killing in .... have suggested that victims of battered woman syndrome ought to be allowed to ..... There must be a certain balance between the attack and the defence.84 As Snyman ..... Work with battered women outside the medical context suggests that physical.
Thurston, Wilfreda E; Leach, Belinda; Leipert, Beverly
... about reduction of government funding and access to health care, and about the shortage of new volunteers to replace them when they burn out. These are a few of the stories told in the chapters of this book. This ground-breaking collection of essays identifies priority issues that must be addressed to ensure rural women's well-being, and offers innovative ideas for improvement and further research. Rural women play a critical role within their families and communities, and the health of these wome...
Mitringer, Antje; Pietschmann, P
Osteoporosis is a systemic disease of bone, which is characterized by decreased bone mass and changes in the microarchitecture of bone tissue followed by brittleness of bones and increased risk of fractures. Osteoporosis frequently is a disease of postmenopausal women, nevertheless, in rare cases, osteoporosis can also occur in young adults. There are only few studies on the pathophysiology of "premenopausal osteoporosis"; in addition to idiopathic forms, osteoporosis in young women can be caused by glucocorticoid treatment, by eating disorders or can be associated with pregnancy.
Images of Women, which took place in Copenhagen in March 1970, at the same time as the first political interventions of the feminist movement, the "Redstockings", was the first feminist art exhibition in Scandinavia. The essay analyses the content of this collaborative project and demonstrates how...... the artists radically approptiated the exhibition space as a platform for political confrontation and involvement, while upholding the idea of artistic space as a utopian space. Thus the exhibition addressed the actual social situation of women as well as their position within the representational field....
Full Text Available Physical activity simply means movement of the body that uses energy. Physical inactivity is more common among women than men. In women physical activity reduces the risk of dying from coronary heart disease and stroke and of developing high blood pressure, diabetes mellitus, reduces blood cholesterol level, helps control weight and reduce body fat, helps control and prevention osteoporosis and artritis, reduces symptoms of anxiety and depression, reduces the risk for breast cancer. From health benefits, physical activity should be moderate or vigorous and add up to at the least 30 minutes a day.
The recently passed 73rd Constitution Amendment Act in India focused on political structures and processes of rural India and vulnerable populations. Participation of women in Panchayati Raj Institutions was questioned in terms of the substance and effectiveness of representation. Rural women were particularly vulnerable as a group because of strong traditional values maintained in rural areas, patriarchal families, lack of women's education and access to information, poor exposure to the "outside" world, and lack of power. Local committees insufficiently represented women. Women were rarely heads of Panchayats and needed the lower positions to advance within the system. State acts have been passed to assure women's representation in Andhra Pradesh. The National Perspective Plan of 1988 provided for over 33% of seats for women and minorities as members and chairpersons of Panches and Sarpanches, based on proportional representation in the total population. Greater participation of women in politics was viewed as dependent not just on fulfilling the law but on assuring principles, democratic, and meaningful administration of government. Effort were equally necessary to address attitudinal, social, and structural barricades. Women needed to know where and how to direct their concerns so that solutions were found to the problems women faced. Women members of Panchayats needed to be educated and informed about politics: their rights, the nature of Indian democracy, policies and programs for women and the underprivileged, and voting rights. Women needed financial support for running for office. Women must view themselves as representatives of all people. Women's centers and other organizations can serve as catalysts to mobilize women and help solve political dilemmas. A combination of Constitutional provisions, government policies, social action, and self awareness among rural women will eventually result in Indian women becoming part of the mainstream political power
Allen, Martha Leslie, Ed.
This is a directory of women's media, i.e., media primarily owned and operated by and for women. The mission of this annual publication is to aid networking among women, women's organizations, and women's media, both nationally and internationally. The directory includes two sections: women's media groups, and individual media women and…
Factors influencing women\\'s decisions to purchase specific children\\'s ... they had selected a children's multi-nutrient supplement with the intention of buying it. ... Price, performance and brand loyalty, affect and normative factors were most ...
... if you feel you need it. The senior years are the best time of life for some women. For others, ... get well, alienated me from family. After 14 years, some relatives still will not ... journey I have ever experienced. That is why I share my story – ...
Westerveld, M.; Pennings, F.; Vonk, G.
Does ‘the’ social security take sufficient account of women? Are its protection schemes sufficiently aimed at safeguarding women’s interests? These are the questions I was invited to answer for this handbook on social security law. At the same time I was asked to adopt an unorthodox approach, one
Delgrange, Etienne; Raverot, Gerald; Bex, Marie
OBJECTIVE: To characterise distinctive clinical features of giant prolactinomas in women. DESIGN: A multicentre, retrospective case series and literature review. METHODS: We collected data from 15 female patients with a pituitary tumour larger than 4 cm and prolactin levels above 1000 μg/l and id......OBJECTIVE: To characterise distinctive clinical features of giant prolactinomas in women. DESIGN: A multicentre, retrospective case series and literature review. METHODS: We collected data from 15 female patients with a pituitary tumour larger than 4 cm and prolactin levels above 1000 μg....../l and identified 19 similar cases from the literature; a gender-based comparison of the frequency and age distribution was obtained from a literature review. RESULTS: The initial PubMed search using the term 'giant prolactinomas' identified 125 patients (13 women) responding to the inclusion criteria. The female......:male ratio was 1:9. Another six female patients were found by extending the literature search, while our own series added 15 patients. The median age at diagnosis was 44 years in women compared with 35 years in men (Pwomen (n=34), we...
... for the individual. Covering issues including perinatal psychiatric disorders, depression, eating disorders, schizophrenia, and alcohol and drug abuse - from a female perspective - Women and Mental Health will prove a valuable tool for all those working in the fields of mental health. Dora Kohen is a Consultant Psychiatrist and an Honorary Senior...
Schuman, Patricia Glass
Discusses the concept of power in the context of women and the library profession, citing views of power by Max Weber, John Kenneth Galbraith, Letty Cottin Pogrebin, and Rosabeth Moss Kantor. Male power and female submission, defining power, organizing for power, and sharing power are highlighted. A 12-item bibliography is included. (EJS)
Chan, Adrienne S.
This paper presents the narratives of women who work in the university and their experiences of silencing and institutional containment. Through these narratives, I describe the ways in which the narrators deal with being silenced, and their attempts to establish their voice in personal, public and institutional realms. Many of the narratives are…
What does it take to be a physicist? Lise Meitner, Katharine Blodgett, Maria Goeppert-Mayer, Chien-Shiung Wu, Ursula Franklin, Argelia Velez-Rodriguez, Sau Lan Wu, Shirley Ann Jackson, Lisa Randall and opportunities for women in physics today.
Bynum, Gregory Lewis
The philosophical anthropologist Dorothy Dinnerstein, in her 1976 work "The Mermaid and the Minotaur: Sexual Arrangements and Human Malaise," argued that in order for us to address the excesses of male-dominated rule in society (militarism, rapacious consumerism), we must attack the root cause of patriarchy--women's domination of early…
Gama Qunzong, director of the women’s federation of Lebu District, Cona County, Tibet; Menba nationality women usually wear a woolen gown with a cap and a string of colorful beads. A family enjoying home-made wine. The Menbas usually live in bamboo houses.
Full Text Available ... Skip to common links HHS U.S. Department of Health and Human Services U.S. Food and Drug Administration A to Z Index Follow FDA En EspaÃ±ol Search FDA Submit search ... Health Topics Women and Diabetes Share Tweet Linkedin Pin ...
Huck, Gary; Gilmore, Peter
This document consists of one page chapters each documenting women's roles in changing the conditions for U.S. workers during and after the industrial revolution. Each chapter is a series of period style drawings with captions detailing the story of that particular incident and cartoon balloons offering humorous comments from the participants. The…
To mark International Women's Day on 8 March, the Weekly Bulletin has looked at the careers of six female physicists, engineers and administrators working at CERN. A frequent question on the lips of newcomers to CERN as they take a quick look around them is 'But where are the women?' However, while it's true that the Laboratory has never had a huge number of female personnel, a closer look reveals that there are in fact quite a few around. To mark International Women's Day, the Bulletin has interviewed six women working at CERN to find out how they see the Organization, what they do and what they think about their daily working lives. Creating a link 'Maybe because I grew up during World War II, my parents always taught me to respect people of other nationalities, religions, colour, etc., so one thing I have always appreciated about CERN is that it promotes this tolerance and understanding by giving us the great privilege of working side by side with colleagues from many cultures and walks of life.' Pegg...
van Lankveld, Jacques J. D. M.; Granot, Michal; Schultz, Willibrord C. M. Weijmar; Binik, Yitzchak M.; Wesselmann, Ursula; Pukall, Caroline F.; Bohm-Starke, Nina; Achtrari, Chahin
Introduction. Women's sexual pain disorders include dyspareunia and vaginismus and there is need for state-of-the-art information in this area. Aim. To update the scientific evidence published in 2004, from the 2nd International Consultation on Sexual Medicine pertaining to the diagnosis and
Campus Technology, 2011
Today, female students outnumber males on campus, earn a higher number of BA degrees, and surpass men in completing advanced degrees. So there is a certain irony in the fact that executive roles on campus are still dominated by men--and IT is no exception. "Campus Technology" asked three women (Pam McQuesten, Dana Hoover, and Jill Albin-Hill)…
This paper examines the social attitudes and expectations that limit women's freedom to move in the world. The history of gendered attitudes to exercise, current gendered differences in patterns of exercise and issues of body image and ageing are discussed. The importance of these issues when considering exercise as a preventative health measure is emphasised.
Crampton, Suzanne M.; Mishra, Jitendra M.
Major issues surrounding women in management include the glass ceiling and prevalence of myths and stereotypes. Organizational and individual responses to improve use of the diversity of their skills and talents include mentors, sponsors, role models, networks, alternative schedules, family leave, employee assistance, and child care. (JOW)
Bruisten, Sylvia M.
Women who are in a low socioeconomic status are most vulnerable to genital ulcer disease (GUD). GUD is recognized as an important co-factor for acquisition of HIV. GUD etiology has been elucidated in the past decade, with the availability of multiplex polymerase chain reaction. Worldwide, herpes
O'Brien, M; Robertson, A
Women have historically taken part in sports for many centuries. The first recorded female game competitions were the Herean Games in approximately 1,000 BC, named after the Goddess Hera. Held at Olympia in Greece, these games were for women alone and were thought to have originated as part of ancient fertility rights. Historically there is evidence of sporting activities involving women, but nothing of significance until after the 1948 summer Olympic Games, when 385 female athletes participated. Over the last six decades there has been a noted rise in the number of female athletes, reaching its maximum with the 2008 Beijing Olympics, where over 42% of the 11,028 athletes were women. Similarly in 2006, at the Turin Winter Olympics in Italy, 40% of the 2,500 athletes were females. In the 2012 Olympics, the Olympic Committee anticipates that approximately 44% of all athletes participating will be female. Despite there being a significant rise in the number of elite athletes in the UK, there appears to be an overall decrease in the amount and intensity of physical exercise undertaken by teenage girls. This is considered to be due to the fact that physical education is no longer an integral part of the school curriculum in the UK. There is, however, a small but significant group of elite athletes who start to train at a very early age (9-10 years old) especially in gymnastics, skating, swimming and athletics.
Full Text Available ... EspaÃ±ol Search FDA Submit search Popular Content Home Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, ... Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Information by Audience For Women ...
Full Text Available Issues related to the mental health of women are a priority these days. Many international organisations working in the field of psychiatry are having sections on it now. This approach can go a long way in the improvement of the available mental health services for this population.
him a drink in the trading centre. You cannot win at that level.” This points to the need to “address the loopholes in the decen- tralization of land strategies,” says Ahikire. Although local courts provide hope for rural women who lack the means to appear at magistrates' court, they need the tools to be more effective.
Sparre, Sara Cathrine Lei
in the work force and thus indirectly questioning the gender ideals of secular Arab nationalism. In Syria too, Islamization has occurred, as is evident from the increased numbers of young muhajabat women, the construction of new mosques and the significant growth in Islamic charity organizations. However...
Castle, Catherine M.; Skinner, T. Chas; Hampson, Sarah E.
Adolescents' sun exposure is particularly important because of the increased risk of melanoma associated with sunburn in youth. Further education students (N=97, all women) aged 16-19 years were randomised by classroom to either receive an informational leaflet about skin cancer or not. All...
that results in, or is likely to result in, physical, sexual or psychological harm or suffering to women, including threats .... to the four international conferences which started in New Mexico in 1975 to 1979 when it was adopted. ... 9 An illustrative listing (such as marital rape, sexual harassment etc.) has been provided by Article ...
70-90% of Africans still live in rural areas, and 25-30% of rural households are headed by women. Standards of living in rural areas are lower than in urban areas. Rural African women's involvement in development is in its initial stages, and social development for women is likely to be slow. Increasing women's opportunities for education is a means of promoting social justice and fairness. Schools should offer courses of practical value for those not planning on higher education and special programs and career counseling for gifted girls. Women's organizations, African leaders, and other influential parties should aggressively create awareness about the oppressive aspects of traditional attitudes, beliefs, and views about women. Laws on ownership of property, inheritance, access to credit, and employment must be equitable and enforced. Consciousness-raising among rural women is an effective means of encouraging rural women to seek and assume new roles and for questioning unreasonable expectations and norms. Women's professional associations serve important functions and fulfill the need for role models. The quality of rural women's life is effectively improved through formulation of policies relevant to women's needs and problems and improve rural conditions. Women should have fair representation at local and national levels of government. Women's role in agriculture is likely to be enhanced through improved transportation systems, electricity supply, and introduction of intermediate technology. This assessment of rural African women's contributions to economic growth emphasizes women's involvement in farming and the informal sector and their lack of equal remuneration or low wages. Illiteracy places women in a disadvantaged position when competing for employment in the formal sector. Lack of access to credit and limits on credit are other obstacles in the informal sector. The reduced participation of rural women in the formal and informal sector is due to lack of
Galindo, E; Serrano, N
Spanish women live almost 2 times longer today than did their great grandmothers (60-65 years vs. 35). Contraception is more accessible, resulting in fewer pregnancies and their complications. The National Health Service of Spain provides women and their families medical care. Yet, women's health risks continue. Class, race, and geography result in women having uneven access to medical care. Primary health care services are not a priority as are high- technology hospitals. Women, who already lead a busy life, still care for older people or people with disabilities. Many households have a very limited or no income and depend on welfare benefits or family. There are more women than men who are poor because women, many of whom are single, are raising large families and many live alone. Women are often the victims of violence and of domestic abuse (1993, 86 violent deaths and 200,000 cases of abuse by a partner). Spain has laws that protect women facing divorce and that allow abortion, but men have created the world order. Women suffer daily in a world which does not recognize rape and sexual harassment as war crimes (e.g., former Yugoslavia). In Seville, the Solidarity Network of Women in Black is a pacifist group working to stop violence. They plan on setting up links to publicly denounce and act against all aggression and to institutionalize women's right to full freedom. War is destroying women's lives.
Mathes, Valerie Sherer
Beginning in 1879, the Women's National Indian Association, an organization of educated upper- and middle-class white women, sought to better the lot of American Indians by publicizing their mistreatment and encouraging their assimilation. The organization focused particularly on educating Indian women to the Victorian female role. (SV)
IDRC Communications. LASTING IMPACTS. IDRC has supported poor women in developing countries in their efforts to learn, to earn, and to take part in local decision-making. University degrees and decent jobs make it easier ... Two Palestinian women sit in classroom. Scholarships bring hope to poor Palestinian women ...
An investigation was carried out into the activities of various women non – governmental organizations (NGO) in Nigeria, as a veritable tool for women empowerment. The results of the research revealed that women NGO's have ventured into areas that were previously ignored by government such areas include female ...
Women's Bureau (DOL), Washington, DC.
Although the gap between women's and men's wages differs slightly depending on how the gap is measured, no matter how they are measured, women's earnings are below those received by men in 97% of the occupations for which data are available. Since 1979, women's earnings have been climbing when compared with men's earnings, gaining steeply during…
Examines how the contemporary women's movement in India (1975-present) has addressed the issue of women's education. Highlights contributions of the 19th-century social-reformist movement and the nationalist movement. Details the role of the contemporary women's movement in redefining knowledge and the curriculum. Concludes with challenges facing…
Home; Initiatives; Women in Science; Women Fellows of IASc ... The Academy governing council had in the past two women Fellows over the years and in ... young age of 52, after a valiant battle with cancer, today on 29th March 2016 in Delhi.
... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button NCHS Home Women's Health Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Data are for the U.S. Health status Percent of women aged 18 and over in fair or poor ...
Pedersen, Elsebet Frydendal
A review on the Danish situation on womens entry and participation as tradeswomen in the Danish Construction Industry.......A review on the Danish situation on womens entry and participation as tradeswomen in the Danish Construction Industry....
Reviews the 200-year-old tradition of women science fiction authors. Discusses the benefits of teaching science fiction written by women. Describes 5 science fiction short stories and 5 science fiction novels suitable for high school students. (RS)
Simmons, Charles E. P.
The role of a women's college is addressed in terms of institutional environment, student motivation, career aspiration, noncurricular activities, counseling and other student services, and breaking sex stereotyping of men as well as women. (LBH)
goats, sheep and local chickens than men. Preference ... women as benefits of indigenous chicken rearing. The very low ... especially through home consumption and occasional sales. ... neighbours (mainly by women) or sold to a collection.
Morrison, J; Colbourn, T; Budhathoki, B; Sen, A; Adhikari, D; Bamjan, J; Pathak, S; Basnet, A; Trani, J F; Costello, A; Manandhar, D; Groce, N
There is strong evidence that participatory approaches to health and participatory women's groups hold great potential to improve the health of women and children in resource poor settings. It is important to consider if interventions are reaching the most marginalized, and therefore we examined disabled women's participation in women's groups and other community groups in rural Nepal. People with disabilities constitute 15% of the world's population and face high levels of poverty, stigma, social marginalization and unequal access to health resources, and therefore their access to women's groups is particularly important. We used a mixed methods approach to describe attendance in groups among disabled and non-disabled women, considering different types and severities of disability. We found no significant differences in the percentage of women that had ever attended at least one of our women's groups, between non-disabled and disabled women. This was true for women with all severities and types of disability, except physically disabled women who were slightly less likely to have attended. Barriers such as poverty, lack of family support, lack of self-confidence and attendance in many groups prevented women from attending groups. Our findings are particularly significant because disabled people's participation in broader community groups, not focused on disability, has been little studied. We conclude that women's groups are an important way to reach disabled women in resource poor communities. We recommend that disabled persons organizations help to increase awareness of disability issues among organizations running community groups to further increase their effectiveness in reaching disabled women. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.
The economic recession and the structural adjustment programs imposed y the International Monetary Fund have caused sluggish or no economic growth and a decline in living conditions in sub-Saharan Africa. Senegal's New Agricultural Policy has eliminated subsidies for agricultural inputs, worsening the already declining living conditions. Population growth in Senegal exceeds food production; it is very rapid in cities (urban growth rate, 2.7%). Women, especially, suffer from the economic crisis; it increases the burden on women for income generation, but the increased workload does not equate more income. This workload restricts women's opportunities to improve their physical environment and does not improve their status within society. Women still face discrimination daily; power lies with men. Oxfam supports urban women financially and technically as they organize and pursue income generation activities to institute change leading to sustainable development. It has helped a Serere women's group in Dakar to organize and provided credit funds to support their trading activities and family planning sensitization training. Oxfam also finances rural women coming to Dakar during the dry season to pound millet to sell. Problems which have to be overcome to achieve sustainable development acceptable to women are numerous. Women need access to the ways and means of food production. Resources are insufficient and inaccessible to women because women are excluded from the decision-making process. Women generally do not have access to information and training which would help them make their own choices and manage their own lives. Political and sociocultural environments, especially those of the poor, do not easily allow women opportunities for independent reflection and expression. Grassroots women's groups provide the best base to develop female solidarity and women's representation, leading to sustainable development. Development organizations must take up a new dynamic
Schwartz, F N
In 1989, Felice N. Schwartz's HBR article "Management Women and the New Facts of Life" generated a huge debate over the rules established by corporations in their handling of women executives. Now in "Women as a Business Imperative," Schwartz follows up with practical insights about the costs companies incur in passing over qualified businesswomen. In the form of a memo to a fictional CEO, Schwartz describes how the atmosphere within most companies is corrosive to women and must change. Preconceptions harbored by male senior managers about women are so deeply ingrained that many men are not even aware of them. Yet senior managers must help women advance. Those companies that accept their responsibility to make radical change--both in women's treatment and in family support--can improve their bottom lines enormously. Treating women as a business imperative is the equivalent of creating a unique R&D product for which there is great demand. Most companies ignore child care and other family concerns. Many companies hire women to ensure mere adequacy and avoid litigation. Women's ambitions and energies are stifled by such businesses at the same time that women have demonstrated their competence and potential in the best business schools. High turnover results. However, the restraints that now hold women back can be loosened easily. CEOs and other senior managers must support their female employees by (1) acknowledging the fundamental difference between women and men--the biological fact of maternity; (2) allowing flexibility for women and men who need it; (3) providing training that takes advantage of women's leadership potential; and (4) eliminating the corrosive atmosphere and the barriers that exist for women in the workplace.
The number of Tunisian women conducting scientific research is comparable to that of countries where educating girls has been going on much longer. Although women play an increasingly important role in the field of research, they rarely hold positions of responsibility. Enormous similarities exist between the degree of integration of Tunisian women in science and technology and that of developed countries. Since independence and the removal of discrimination between girls and boys, Tunisian women have been catching up very quickly.
Brough, Sarah; Bauer, Amanda E.; Brooks, Kate; Hopkins, Andrew; Maddison, Sarah
Here we report on the Women in Astronomy Workshop (http://asawomeninastronomy.org/meetings/wia2011/), which was held on 13 May 2011 in Sydney, Australia. The workshop was organised by the Astronomical Society of Australia's Chapter on Women in Astronomy, to discuss some of the issues that face women in astronomy and make recommendations to help support the success of women in Australian astronomy but came to broader conclusions that have value for the whole astronomical community. The worksho...
The relationship between women's health and their (physical and economic) productivity is complex and multi-dimensional. It is characterized by"flows"in both directions and a host of intervening factors. Two simple statements summarize the major directional flows: (a) women's health affects their productivity; and (b) productivity affects women's health. In the latter case, women's own productivity, that of their households, and even that of larger units such as the local, regional or nationa...
Bettachy, Amina; Maaroufi, Fatiha; Nouira, Asmae; Baitoul, Mimouna
Despite Moroccan progress in working toward gender equity, and the removal of many discriminatory practices and barriers for women, females are still significantly underrepresented in most fields, particularly science. Attitudes about the role of women in society, which continue to define careers as either male or female, are largely responsible for this imbalance. We present statistics about the current status of women and give recommendations to encourage girls and women to pursue and take leadership positions in science.
This article lists 11 suggestions for empowering women that the government of India should take, if it has a sincere commitment to gender equality and women's empowerment grounded in social change and not just rhetoric: 1) education should be made compulsory for all female children and places held on a 50/50 basis in all technical institutions; 2) a uniform civil code should be adopted for all citizens regardless of cast, creed, and religion; 3) women should have an equal right to own property and receive inheritance; 4) the National Women's Commission should be enlarged, representative of diversity, and effective in making policy decisions related to welfare, education, recruitment, and promotion; 5) a State Women's Commission should be established with affiliates at the block, district, and division levels; 6) the National and State Women's Commission should be established as a Statutory Body with binding decisions mandating government action; 7) the National and State Women's Commissions should have transparent functions, be regulatory, and offer workshops and seminars for women; 8) state governments should not interfere in the functions of National and State Women's Commissions; 9) women should fill 50% of all Center and State government service posts and concessions should be made on minimum academic qualifications and completed years of service, until all positions are filled; 10) 50% of the seats of Parliament should be reserved for women in both the State Legislature, Council of Ministry Boards, Corporations, Committees, and Commissions; and 11) the Constitution should provide for women judges in courts of law.
Overweight and obesity are increasing worldwide. This has major adverse consequences for health in general and fertility in women in particular. With the increasing number of women in reproductive age being obese, there is also an increasing need for fertility treatment. And with more pregnant women
... A.S.T. Quiz Hidden Stroke Risk Factors for Women Updated:Nov 22,2016 Excerpted from "What Women Need To Know About The Hidden Risk Factors ... 2012) This year, more than 100,000 U.S. women under 65 will have a stroke. Stroke is ...
Baldwin, Fred D.
Women's Initiative Networking Groups (WINGS) provides low- and moderate-income women in Appalachian Kentucky with training in business skills, contacts, and other resources they need to succeed as entrepreneurs. The women form informal networks to share business know-how and support for small business startup and operations. The program plans to…
Summarizes the importance of entrepreneurship to the American economy, presents a profile of women small business owners, reviews the research pertaining to business education for women entrepreneurs, and indicates an agenda directed toward the educational needs of women venture initiators. (NRJ)
The spectrum of women-owned businesses ranges from full corporations to microenterprises. Women business owners share many characteristics and motivations of business owners generally; other factors are dissatisfaction with "glass ceiling" limits, desire for job flexibility, and age discrimination. Women entrepreneurs often face barriers…
Rayburn, Carole A.; And Others
This study examined stress, strain, and coping mechanisms in women religious leaders. Subjects were nuns (N=51), Reform women rabbis (N=45), Episcopal women priests (N=32), United Methodist clergywomen (N=45) and Presbyterian clergywomen (N=45), matched for age and years on the job and pulpit assignments. All subjects were given the Osipow and…
Association of American Colleges, Washington, DC. Project on the Status and Education of Women.
Two papers are presented that examine the barriers to women in academic decision making and identify a variety of effective strategies for improving the status of women in higher education administration. "Strategies for Advancing Women in Higher Education Administration," by Garry D. Hays, proposes that commitment to increasing the…
In sub-Saharan Africa, where women and men farm separate plots, women farmers ... and marketing.3,4 Despite their traditional specialisation in food production .... A third strategy is for extension agents, whether men or women, to meet with ...
Dumas, Bethany K.
It is possible to think of women's language in terms of the model implied by the following statement. Insofar as native speakers of English are concerned, the language of women in America has four sets of components: those shared with the language of men in America; those shared, in varying proportions, with other women living in patriarchies;…
Webster, Gerald R.
Outlines the historical development of women's legal and political status in the United States, focusing on suffrage, the three "waves" of women's movements, and access to elected office. Discusses three impediments of electing women candidates to public office: (1) solidarity; (2) political culture; and (3) the impact of the single-member…
Zuckerman, Alan M; Markham, Christine H
Studies show that women are the primary healthcare decision makers in this country; 66 cents of every healthcare dollar is spent on or by women. The Department of Health and Human Services will spend $8.3 billion on women's health in 2006.
Russell, Joyce E. A.; Burgess, Jennifer R. D.
Women still face barriers to career success and satisfaction: stereotypes, assumptions, organizational culture, human resource practices, and lack of opportunities. Despite individual and organizational strategies, many women leave to become entrepreneurs. There is a need to investigate how women define career success. (SK)
... quality care for older women, and ends the gender discrimination that requires women to pay more for the same insurance coverage ... the Affordable Care Act and 13 million more women will gain coverage by 2016. Maternity Coverage Preventive ... Expanded Insurance Coverage Endnotes Download "rb. ...
Journal of Dental Education, 1999
Presents proceedings of the American Association of Dental Schools' International Women's Leadership Conference. Addresses, panel presentations, and general-sessions topics included leadership training and promotion for women in dental education, women's health issues and research, the glass ceiling, infrastructures for research and training,…
Bajcsy, Ruzena; Reynolds, Craig
Provides a social and economic context to the information revolution and women's part in it. Speculates on how current and near-term developments in information technology can benefit women scientists from all disciplines. Discusses some of the efforts of the National Science Foundation (NSF) to increase the participation of women in computer and…
Reynolds, Nancy C.
The events of the UN Decade for Women are reviewed. The Third World Conference on Women, to be held in 1985, is seen as a forum to assess progress achieved and to look to the future needs and potential of women throughout the world. (MLW)
The WomenInNano network is helping women working on nanoscience and technology to fulfil their potential, and is encouraging both men and women to contribute to a sea change in the physical and engineering sciences that will bring about gender equality, ultimately benefiting both the scientific community and society in general.
This paper discusses the historical, political, ideological (value), and government policies of women's education in Saudi Arabia implicated within teaching and learning, how women's higher education has changed over time in the realm of Saudi cultural traditions and religious norms. It also highlights the golden era of women's higher education.…
Ramos-e-Silva, M; Ramos-e-Silva, S; Carneiro, S
This review focuses on the subject of acne in women, a disease that is increasingly common and that can also affect men. Adult acne differs from the type of acne that occurs in teenagers, and it may persist beyond adolescence or have its onset at an older age (adult-onset acne or late acne). Acne can have a negative impact on the quality of life of patients at any age, leading to a negative body image and decrease in self-esteem, and in older patients it can result in discrimination in the workplace and in other social environments. Acne in women must be understood as a specific problem, and here we discuss the pathogenesis, clinical presentation, psychology and treatment of this very prevalent problem. © 2015 British Association of Dermatologists.
Reduced maternal fertility is the consequence of depletion of follicles with maternal aging. In a 35-year-old woman, approximately 9.1% of the residual follicle pool disappears annually without entering into the growing stage, whereas, in a 45-year-old woman, this number triples. After the age of 35 years, the frequency of aneuploidies in oocytes increases sharply. Roughly 50-70% of mature oocytes from a 40-year-old woman have chromosomal abnormalities. The clinical pregnancy and implantation rates are lower in midlife women. Various controlled ovarian stimulation interventions have been suggested for the management of women in advanced age, most of whom are likely to be poor-responder patients. Currently, systematic reviews and meta-analyses suggest that there is insufficient evidence to recommend most of the treatments proposed to improve pregnancy rates in these poor responders. Minimal stimulation or natural cycle in vitro fertilization may be offered, without compromising the already existing pregnancy results.
Research is confirming the fact that women suffer more from poverty than men and that the consequences of poverty in women are felt for succeeding generations. Female poverty is linked to the rise of female-headed households with children to support. Also, between 1965 and 1988, the number of rural women living in poverty rose 51% versus 41% for men. As women have sought low-income employment or spent more of their time in unpaid community work to compensate for government cutbacks associated with structural adjustment programs, a vicious cycle of poverty has developed. Overburdened women workers hand over child care responsibilities to their oldest daughters who must then leave school, thus ensuring a continuation of the cycle of poverty. On the other hand, women's employment has a more positive effect on their children's health and nutrition than does a father's earnings. Women prefer to invest their earnings to insure the well-being of their children; therefore, the earnings of women have greater benefit to society at large than the earnings of men. It is likely that women must earn a certain level of income to avoid perpetuating poverty. Policies should be implemented that enforce the virtuous cycle of investment in children instead of the vicious cycle of deprivation. Agricultural policies should target poor farmers and give women farmers access to land, credit, and technical assistance; financial policies should promote the growth of small enterprises and foster entrepreneurship among women; and labor-intensive economic growth policies should be "pro-poor." Policy-oriented research will be necessary in such areas as the dynamics of families headed by women, the transmission of disadvantage between mothers and children, changes in women's work which occur with changes in economic conditions, and analyses of the consequences of targeting interventions to women who are heads of households and poor women.
Shefali, M K
This news article describes women's housing conditions, housing policy, and pilot programs to house poor women in Bangladesh. Although Bangladesh has a constitution that reinforces the equal status of women, in practice, men dominate and patrilineal customs determine inheritance and property rights. Religious affiliation also determines land tenure and inheritance. Muslim women can inherit 12.5% of their husband's property if there are children. 25% is inherited if wives are without children. Hindu women without sons can inherit their husband's property, but not parental property. Many families refuse to release property to women without a fight. Women, regardless of ownership of land, rarely control or use their land. The custom of requiring men to maintain wives during the marriage, and daughters until marriage, creates obstacles to women's decision making about property. Without collateral and other security women are unable to secure bank loans. Many women are also constrained by the requirement of male consent or guarantees for bank transactions. Banks do not have a gender responsive criteria for selecting loan recipients. The government does not provide sufficient housing to satisfy the growing housing needs due to population growth. Some housing is available from slum landlords. A National Housing Policy was formulated in 1993. Priority would be given to the housing needs of low income women in urban areas and women-headed households with income below the poverty line. The policy does not address the underlying factors that prevent equal access to housing for women. The government prepared a Human Settlement and Urban Development proposal for the Habitat II conference. The plan did not address gender issues. Special efforts are being made by nongovernmental groups to meet the housing needs of professional women and for some disadvantaged women.
Harfmann, Katya L; Bechtel, Mark A
Hair loss is a common cause of morbidity for many women. As a key member of the woman's health care team, the obstetrician/gynecologist may be the first person to evaluate the complaint of hair loss. Common types of nonscarring hair loss, including female pattern hair loss and telogen effluvium, may be diagnosed and managed by the obstetrician/gynecologist. A systematic approach to diagnosis and management of these common forms of hair loss is presented.