WorldWideScience

Sample records for battelle pacific northwest laboratories

  1. BOUND PERIODICAL HOLDINGS BATTELLE - NORTHWEST LIBRARY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1967-05-01

    This report lists the bound periodicals in the Technical Library at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory, operated by Battelle Memorial Institute. It was prepared from a computer program and is arranged in two parts. Part one is an alphabetical list of journals by title; part two is an arrangement of the journals by subject. The list headings are self-explanatory, with the exception of the title code, which is necessary in the machine processing. The listing is complete through June, 1966 and updates an earlier publication issued in March, 1965.

  2. Pacific Northwest Laboratory facilities radionuclide inventory assessment CY 1992-1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assessments for evaluating compliance with airborne radionuclide emission monitoring requirements in the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs - U.S. Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40 Part 61, Subparts H and I) were performed for 33 buildings at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Pacific Northwest Laboratory on the Hanford Site, and for five buildings owned and operated by Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratories in Richland, Washington. The assessments were performed using building radionuclide inventory data obtained in 1992 and 1993. Results of the assessments are summarized in Table S.1 for DOE-PNL buildings and in Table S.2 for Battelle-owned buildings. Based on the radionuclide inventory assessments, four DOE-PNL buildings (one with two emission points) require continuous sampling for radionuclides per 40 CFR 61. None of the Battelle-owned buildings require continuous emission sampling

  3. Pacific Northwest Laboratory Maintenance Implementation plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Maintenance Implementation plan has been developed for Pacific Northwest Laboratory's (PNL) Nuclear Facilities: 306W, 324, 325, 327 and 329NMF. It is based on a graded approach, self-assessment of the existing maintenance program(s) per the requirements specified by US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 4330.4A, Chapter II, Change number-sign 3. The results of this assessment were evaluated to determine needed improvements in PNL Craft Services' current maintenance program. The objective of this implementation plan is to provide baseline information for compliance to the DOE 4330.4A, and for needed improvements. The prime consideration in applying a graded approach to the Order has been to maintain safe and reliable operations, environmental compliance, safeguards and security, programmatic mission, facility preservation, and/or other facility-specific requirements. Using the results of the self-assessment, PNL has selected nine of the 18 elements of the Maintenance Program defined by DOE Order 4330.4A for improvement. The elements selected for improvement are Training and Qualification of Maintenance Personnel; Maintenance Procedures; Planning, Scheduling, and Coordination of Maintenance; Control of Maintenance Activities; Post-Maintenance Testing; Facility Condition Inspection; Management Involvement; Maintenance History; and Additional Maintenance Requirements. Based upon graded approach and current funding, those elements considered most important have been selected as goals for earliest compliance. Commitment dates for these elements have been established for compliance. The remaining elements of noncompliance will be targeted for implementation during later budget periods

  4. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory institutional plan: FY 1996--2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-01

    This report contains the operation and direction plan for the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory of the US Department of Energy. The topics of the plan include the laboratory mission and core competencies, the laboratory strategic plan; the laboratory initiatives in molecular sciences, microbial biotechnology, global environmental change, complex modeling of physical systems, advanced processing technology, energy technology development, and medical technologies and systems; core business areas, critical success factors, and resource projections.

  5. Pacific Northwest Laboratory monthly activities report, April 1965

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1965-05-14

    This report discusses research at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory on topics relating to hanford production reactors. The topic deal with: reactor and material technology; reactor physics and instruments; chemistry; biology and medicine; applied mathematics; radiation protection; and test reactor and engineering services.

  6. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Institutional Plan FY 2004-2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quadrel, Marilyn J.

    2004-04-15

    This Institutional Plan for FY 2004-2008 is the principal annual planning document submitted to the Department of Energy's Office of Science by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory in Richland, Washington. This plan describes the Laboratory's mission, roles, and technical capabilities in support of Department of Energy priorities, missions, and plans. It also describes the Laboratory strategic plan, key planning assumptions, major research initiatives, and program strategy for fundamental science, energy resources, environmental quality, and national security.

  7. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory institutional plan FY 1997--2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory`s core mission is to deliver environmental science and technology in the service of the nation and humanity. Through basic research fundamental knowledge is created of natural, engineered, and social systems that is the basis for both effective environmental technology and sound public policy. Legacy environmental problems are solved by delivering technologies that remedy existing environmental hazards, today`s environmental needs are addressed with technologies that prevent pollution and minimize waste, and the technical foundation is being laid for tomorrow`s inherently clean energy and industrial processes. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory also applies its capabilities to meet selected national security, energy, and human health needs; strengthen the US economy; and support the education of future scientists and engineers. Brief summaries are given of the various tasks being carried out under these broad categories.

  8. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Institutional Plan FY 2000-2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearson, Erik W.

    2000-03-01

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Institutional Plan for FY 2000-2004 sets forth the laboratory's mission, roles, technical capabilities, and laboratory strategic plan. In the plan, major initiatives also are proposed and the transitioning initiatives are discussed. The Programmatic Strategy section details our strategic intent, roles, and research thrusts in each of the U.S. Department of Energy's mission areas. The Operations/Infrastructure Strategic Plan section includes information on the laboratory's human resources; environment, safety, and health management; safeguards and security; site and facilities management; information resources management; management practices and standards; and communications and trust.

  9. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Institutional Plan FY 2001-2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, Darrell R.; Pearson, Erik W.

    2000-12-29

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Institutional Plan for FY 2001-2005 sets forth the laboratory's mission, roles, technical capabilities, and laboratory strategic plan. In the plan, major initiatives also are proposed and the transitioning initiatives are discussed. The Programmatic Strategy section details our strategic intent, roles, and research thrusts in each of the U.S. Department of Energy's mission areas. The Operations/Infrastructure Strategic Plan section includes information on the laboratory's human resources; environment, safety, and health management; safeguards and security; site and facilities management; information resources management; managaement procatices and standards; and communications and trust.

  10. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1988 to the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety, and Health: Part 5, Environment, safety, health, and quality assurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document summarizes the research programs now underway at Battelle's Pacific Northwest Laboratory in the areas of environmental safety, health, and quality assurance. Topics include internal irradiation, emergency plans, dose equivalents, risk assessment, dose equivalents, surveys, neutron dosimetry, and radiation accidents

  11. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1988 to the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety, and Health: Part 5, Environment, safety, health, and quality assurance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faust, L.G.; Pennell, W.T.; Selby, J.M.

    1989-02-01

    This document summarizes the research programs now underway at Battelle's Pacific Northwest Laboratory in the areas of environmental safety, health, and quality assurance. Topics include internal irradiation, emergency plans, dose equivalents, risk assessment, dose equivalents, surveys, neutron dosimetry, and radiation accidents. (TEM)

  12. 2010 Ecological Survey of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chamness, Michele A.; Perry, Christopher; Downs, Janelle L.; Powell, Sylvia D.

    2011-02-16

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Pacific Northwest Site Office (PNSO) oversees and manages the DOE contract for the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), a DOE Office of Science multi-program laboratory located in Richland, Washington. PNSO is responsible for ensuring that all activities conducted on the PNNL Site comply with applicable laws, policies, and DOE orders. The DOE Pacific Northwest Site Office Cultural and Biological Resources Management Plan (DOE/PNSO 2008) addresses the requirement for annual surveys and monitoring for species of concern and to identify and map invasive species. In addition to the requirement for an annual survey, proposed project activities must be reviewed to assess any potential environmental consequences of conducting the project. The assessment process requires a thorough understanding of the resources present, the potential impacts of a proposed action to those resources, and the ultimate consequences of those actions. The PNNL Site is situated on the southeastern corner of the DOE Hanford Site, located at the north end of the city of Richland in south-central Washington. The site is bordered on the east by the Columbia River, on the west by Stevens Drive, and on the north by the Hanford Site 300 Area (Figure 1). The environmental setting of the PNNL Site is described in Larson and Downs (2009). There are currently two facilities on the PNNL Site: the William R. Wiley Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL), and the recently completed Physical Sciences Facility (PSF). This report describes the results of the annual survey of the biological resources found on the undeveloped portions of the PNNL Site in 2010. A brief description of the methods PNNL ecologists used to conduct the surveys and the results of the surveys are presented. Actions taken to fully delineate noxious weed populations discovered in 2009 and efforts in 2010 to control those weeds also are described. Appendix A provides a list of plant and

  13. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory institutional plan FY 1998--2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory`s core mission is to deliver environmental science and technology in the service of the nation and humanity. Through basic research the lab creates fundamental knowledge of natural, engineered, and social systems that is the basis for both effective environmental technology and sound public policy. They solve legacy environmental problems by delivering technologies that remedy existing environmental hazards, they address today`s environmental needs with technologies that prevent pollution and minimize waste, and they are laying the technical foundation for tomorrow`s inherently clean energy and industrial processes. The lab also applies their capabilities to meet selected national security, energy, and human health needs; strengthen the US economy; and support the education of future scientists and engineers. The paper summarizes individual research activities under each of these areas.

  14. 2011 Annual Ecological Survey: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, James M.; Chamness, Michele A.

    2012-02-27

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Pacific Northwest Site Office (PNSO) oversees and manages the DOE contract for the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), a DOE Office of Science multi-program laboratory located in Richland, Washington. PNSO is responsible for ensuring that all activities conducted on the PNNL site comply with applicable laws, policies, and DOE Orders. The DOE Pacific Northwest Site Office Cultural and Biological Resources Management Plan (DOE/PNSO 2008) addresses the requirement for annual surveys and monitoring for species of concern and to identify and map invasive species. In addition to the requirement for an annual survey, proposed project activities must be reviewed to assess any potential environmental consequences of conducting the project. The assessment process requires a thorough understanding of the resources present, the potential impacts of a proposed action to those resources, and the ultimate consequences of those actions. The PNNL site is situated on the southeastern corner of the DOE Hanford Site, located at the north end of the city of Richland in south-central Washington. The site is bordered on the east by the Columbia River, on the west by Stevens Drive, and on the north by the Hanford Site 300 Area (Figure 1). The environmental setting of the PNNL site is described in Larson and Downs (2009). There are currently two facilities on the PNNL site: the William R. Wiley Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory and the Physical Sciences Facility. This report describes the annual survey of biological resources found on the undeveloped upland portions of the PNNL site. The annual survey is comprised of a series of individual field surveys conducted on various days in late May and throughout June 2011. A brief description of the methods PNNL ecologists used to conduct the baseline surveys and a summary of the results of the surveys are presented. Appendix A provides a list of plant and animal species identified in the

  15. Customer satisfaction assessment at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is developing and implementing a customer satisfaction assessment program (CSAP) to assess the quality of research and development provided by the laboratory. This report presents the customer survey component of the PNNL CSAP. The customer survey questionnaire is composed of two major sections: Strategic Value and Project Performance. Both sections contain a set of questions that can be answered with a 5-point Likert scale response. The strategic value section consists of five questions that are designed to determine if a project directly contributes to critical future national needs. The project Performance section consists of nine questions designed to determine PNNL performance in meeting customer expectations. A statistical model for customer survey data is developed and this report discusses how to analyze the data with this model. The properties of the statistical model can be used to establish a gold standard or performance expectation for the laboratory, and then to assess progress. The gold standard is defined using laboratory management input-answers to four questions, in terms of the information obtained from the customer survey: (1) What should the average Strategic Value be for the laboratory project portfolio? (2) What Strategic Value interval should include most of the projects in the laboratory portfolio? (3) What should average Project Performance be for projects with a Strategic Value of about 2? (4) What should average Project Performance be for projects with a Strategic Value of about 4? To be able to provide meaningful answers to these questions, the PNNL customer survey will need to be fully implemented for several years, thus providing a link between management perceptions of laboratory performance and customer survey data

  16. PACIFIC NORTHWEST CYBER SUMMIT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lesperance, Ann M.; Matlock, Gordon W.; Becker-Dippmann, Angela S.; Smith, Karen S.

    2013-08-07

    On March 26, 2013, the Snohomish County Public Utility District (PUD) and the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) jointly hosted the Pacific Northwest Cyber Summit with the DOE’s Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, the White House, Washington State congressional delegation, Washington State National Guard, and regional energy companies.

  17. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Catalysis Highlights for FY2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrett, Bruce C.

    2007-11-15

    To reduce the nation’s dependence on imported oil, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and other federal and private agencies are investing in understanding catalysis. This report focuses on catalysis research conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and its collaborators. Using sophisticated instruments in DOE’s Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, a national scientific user facility, research was conducted to answer key questions related to the nation’s use of automotive fuels. Research teams investigated how hydrogen can be safely stored and efficiently released, critical questions to use this alternative fuel. Further, they are answering key questions to design molecular catalysts to control the transfer of hydrogen atoms, hydrides, and protons important to hydrogen production. In dealing with today’s fuels, researchers examined adsorption of noxious nitrous oxides in automotive exhaust. Beyond automotive fuel, researchers worked on catalysts to harness solar power. These catalysts include the rutile and anatase forms of titanium dioxide. Basic research was conducted on designing catalysts for these and other applications. Our scientists examined how to build catalysts with the desired properties atom by atom and molecule by molecule. In addition, this report contains brief descriptions of the outstanding accomplishments of catalysis experts at PNNL.

  18. Surface concrete decontamination equipment developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report documents a project that the Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted to identify and develop techniques for removing contaminated concrete surfaces. A major problem associated with nuclear facility decontamination and decommissioning is how to economically demolish and dispose of contaminated concrete. Removing only the contaminated portion of the concrete can substantially reduce costs. Evaluation of various methods for removing concrete surfaces shows that several techniques presently used require excessive manpower, time, and energy. Many times more material is removed than necessary, increasing the quantity of waste that must be handled under controlled conditions. These evaluations generated the basic criteria for developing a suitable concrete removal technique: provide a convenient method for cleaning surfaces (such as those contaminated by a small spill); reduce the contaminated waste volume that has to be placed into controlled storage; remove surfaces quickly; and minimize personal exposure to potentially harmful radiation or toxic materials. Removal to 1/4 to 1/2 in. of contaminated surface layer is sufficient for cleanup of most facilities. Two unique decontamination methods have been developed: the concrete spaller and the water cannon. The concrete spaller is the most efficient technique: it removes the concrete surface faster than the water cannons and at a lower cost (as little as $3.00/ft2 of concrete surface). However, the .458 magnum water cannon may be well suited for small or hard-to-reach locations

  19. Meet the best Award-winning technologies from Pacific Northwest Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-09-01

    The Battelle Memorial Institute has managed the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy for 25 years. During this time, numerous new technologies have been discovered and developed at PNL as a result of our research programs. This document will introduce you to some of the more significant discoveries and newly commercialized technologies. Each of the technologies described has received an award from Research Development magazine or the Federal Laboratory Consortium--sometimes both Each technology is available to you through PNL's technology transfer program or one of our licensees. Similarly, our award-winning scientists and engineers are available to assist you as you search for innovative technologies to solve your technical problems. These researchers are familiar with current problems confronting industry, government agencies, and the academic community. They are happy to apply their skills and PNL's resources to your problems. PNL encourages its researchers to work with government agencies, universities, and US industries. PNL technology transfer programs address the nation's drive toward increased competitiveness by being flexible and aggressive, and are designed to tailor results to fit your needs and those of your clients. If you are in search of a new technology or increased competitiveness, consider collaborative efforts with our award-winning staff, whose accomplishments are synopsized in this booklet.

  20. Pacific Northwest Laboratory ALARA Report for Calendar Year 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report provides summary results of the Calendar Year (CY) 1993 As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) Program at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). This report includes information regarding whole-body exposures to radiation, and skin contaminations. The collective whole-body radiation dose to employees during 1993 was 0.58 person-sievert (58 person-rem). This dose was 11 percent lower than the projected dose of 0.65 person-sievert (65 person-rem). The Radiation Protection Section's Field Dosimetry Services group projected that no PNL employee's dose would exceed 0.02 sievert (2 rem) based on dosimeters processed during the year; no worker actually exceeded the limit by the end of CY 1993. There were 15 reported cases of skin contamination for PNL employees during 1993. This number of 60 percent of the projected total of 25 cases. There were an additional 21 cases of personal-effects contamination to PNL staff: Nine of these contamination events occurred at the 324 Building, nine occurred at the 325 Building, one occurred in the 327 Building, one occurred in the 3720 Building, and one occurred in the 326 Building. Line management set numerous challenging and production ALARA goals for their facilities. Appendix A describes the final status of the 1993 ALARA goals. Appendix B describes the radiological ALARA goals for 1994. The Radiation Protection Section of the Laboratory Safety Dept. routinely perform audits of radiological ALARA requirements for specific facilities with significant potential for exposure. These ALARA audits are part of a comprehensive safety audit of the facility, designed to evaluate and improve total safety performance

  1. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Annual Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duncan, Joanne P.; Sackschewsky, Michael R.; Tilden, Harold T.; Barnett, J. Matthew; Su-Coker, Jennifer; Ballinger, Marcel Y.; Fritz, Brad G.; Stoetzel, Gregory A.; Lowry, Kami L.; Moon, Thomas W.; Becker, James M.; Mendez, Keith M.; Raney, Elizabeth A.; Chamness, Michele A.; Larson, Kyle B.

    2014-09-30

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), one of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science’s 10 national laboratories, provides innovative science and technology development in the areas of energy and the environment, fundamental and computational science, and national security. DOE’s Pacific Northwest Site Office (PNSO) is responsible for oversight of PNNL at its Campus in Richland, Washington, as well as its facilities in Sequim, Seattle, and North Bonneville, Washington, and Corvallis and Portland, Oregon.

  2. Energy and Water Conservation Assessment of the Radiochemical Processing Laboratory (RPL) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Stephanie R.; Koehler, Theresa M.; Boyd, Brian K.

    2014-05-31

    This report summarizes the results of an energy and water conservation assessment of the Radiochemical Processing Laboratory (RPL) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The assessment was performed in October 2013 by engineers from the PNNL Building Performance Team with the support of the dedicated RPL staff and several Facilities and Operations (F&O) department engineers. The assessment was completed for the Facilities and Operations (F&O) department at PNNL in support of the requirements within Section 432 of the Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) of 2007.

  3. FY 1999 Annual Self-Evaluation Report of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randy R. LaBarge

    1999-11-05

    This is a report of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's (Pacific Northwest's) FY1999 Annual Self-Evaluation Report. This report summarizes our progress toward accomplishment of the critical outcomes, objectives, and performance indicators as delineated in the FY1999 Performance Evaluation & Fee Agreement. It also summarizes our analysis of the results of Pacific Northwest's Division and Directorate annual self-assessments, and the implementation of our key operational improvement initiatives. Together, these provide an indication of how well we have used our Integrated Assessment processes to identify and plan improvements for FY2000. As you review the report you will find areas of significantly positive progress; you will also note areas where I believe the Laboratory could make improvements. Overall, however, I believe you will be quite pleased to note that we have maintained, or exceeded, the high standards of performance we have set for the Laboratory.

  4. Pacific Northwest Laboratory plan to maintain radiation exposure as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document describes the radiation safety program at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). The practices and administrative policies of this program support the principles of ALARA (to maintain radiation exposure as low as reasonably achievable). This document also describes a program to establish safety goals at PNL to help ensure that operations are conducted according to ALARA principles

  5. Cleanup Verification Package for the 100-F-20, Pacific Northwest Laboratory Parallel Pits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 100-F-20, Pacific Northwest Laboratory Parallel Pits waste site. This waste site consisted of two earthen trenches thought to have received both radioactive and nonradioactive material related to the 100-F Experimental Animal Farm

  6. Pacific Northwest regional assessment program 1975 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-06-01

    The objective of the Pacific Northwest Regional Assessment Program is to establish and exercise an integrated analytical assessment program for evaluation of potential changes that may result from various energy development or conservation scenarios. Such scenarios may themselves result from Federal development policies and programs, from regionally specific actions by the states and energy industries, or from actions taken by international factors currently importing energy resources into the region. After consideration of a variety of approaches to integrated assessment at a regional level, Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratories (BNW) has concluded that dynamic simulation techniques provide the best available approach to evaluating the issues pertinent to the Northwest. As a result, the Pacific Northwest Regional Assessment Program has been structured in a framework involving ten sectors. Each of these sectors involve their own submodels that receive information either from outside the model as exogenous inputs or from other sector submodels.

  7. Pacific Northwest Laboratory Institutional Plan FY 1995-2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-12-01

    This report serves as a document to describe the role PNL is positioned to take in the Department of Energy`s plans for its national centers in the period 1995-2000. It highlights the strengths of the facilities and personnel present at the laboratory, touches on the accomplishments and projects they have contributed to, and the direction being taken to prepare for the demands to be placed on DOE facilities in the near and far term. It consists of sections titled: director`s statement; laboratory mission and core competencies; laboratory strategic plan; laboratory initiatives; core business areas; critical success factors.

  8. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Facility Radionuclide Emission Points and Sampling Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barfuss, Brad C.; Barnett, J. Matthew; Ballinger, Marcel Y.

    2009-04-08

    Battelle—Pacific Northwest Division operates numerous research and development laboratories in Richland, Washington, including those associated with the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) on the Department of Energy’s Hanford Site that have the potential for radionuclide air emissions. The National Emission Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP 40 CFR 61, Subparts H and I) requires an assessment of all effluent release points that have the potential for radionuclide emissions. Potential emissions are assessed annually. Sampling, monitoring, and other regulatory compliance requirements are designated based upon the potential-to-emit dose criteria found in the regulations. The purpose of this document is to describe the facility radionuclide air emission sampling program and provide current and historical facility emission point system performance, operation, and design information. A description of the buildings, exhaust points, control technologies, and sample extraction details is provided for each registered or deregistered facility emission point. Additionally, applicable stack sampler configuration drawings, figures, and photographs are provided.

  9. Safety evaluation for packaging (onsite) for the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory HEPA filter box

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCoy, J.C.

    1998-07-15

    This safety evaluation for packaging (SEP) evaluates and documents the safe onsite transport of eight high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters in the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory HEPA Filter Box from the 300 Area of the Hanford Site to the Central Waste Complex and on to burial in the 200 West Area. Use of this SEP is authorized for 1 year from the date of release.

  10. Safety evaluation for packaging (onsite) for the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory HEPA filter box

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This safety evaluation for packaging (SEP) evaluates and documents the safe onsite transport of eight high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters in the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory HEPA Filter Box from the 300 Area of the Hanford Site to the Central Waste Complex and on to burial in the 200 West Area. Use of this SEP is authorized for 1 year from the date of release

  11. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory FY1996 midyear self-evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    As stated in our mission, the Laboratory is concentrated on DOE`s environmental quality mission and the scientific research required to support that mission. The Laboratory also supports the energy resources and national security missions in areas where an overlap between our core competencies and DOE`s goals exists. Our intent for fiscal year l996 is to focus our efforts on the critical outcomes necessary for us to meet DOE`s needs. Six Critical Outcomes were established and substantial progress has been made against five of those outcomes during the first half of the fiscal year. A summary of progress and key issues is provided. The Critical Outcomes are: Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory; Environmental Management; Scientific Excellence and Productivity; ES&H/Conduct of Operations; Leadership; and Economic Development. The Laboratory has also made a significant commitment to the implementation of a fully integrated self-assessment program. Efforts during the first half of the fiscal year have been focused on developing an approach for the overall program and implementation in selected organizations. The approach is holistic and focuses assessment on activities important to the successful completion of our critical outcomes. Progress towards full implementation of the integrated assessment program is meeting expectations in general, but significant effort still needs to be applied to obtain effective implementation across the Laboratory and to ensure integration with the business planning process.

  12. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1993 to the DOE Office of Energy Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This 1993 Annual Report from Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to the US DOE describes research in environment and health conducted during fiscal year (FY) 1993. The report is divided into four parts, each in a separate volume. This part, Volume 2, covers Environmental Sciences. The research is directed toward developing a fundamental understanding of subsurface and terrestrial systems as a basis for both managing these critical resources and addressing environmental problems such as environmental restoration and global change. There are sections on Subsurface Science, Terrestrial Science, Technology Transfer, Interactions with Educational Institutions, and Laboratory Directed Research and Development

  13. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory FY96 Annual Self-Evaluation Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) research and development efforts are concentrated on DOE`s environmental quality mission and the scientific research required to support that mission. The Laboratory also supports the energy resources and national security missions in areas where an overlap between our core competencies and DOE`s goals exists. Fiscal year 1996 saw the Laboratory focus its efforts on the results necessary for us to meet DOE`s most important needs and expectations. Six Critical Outcomes were established in partnership with DOE. The Laboratory met or exceeded performance expectations in most areas, including these outcomes and the implementation of the Laboratory`s Integrated Assessment Program. We believe our overall performance for this evaluation period has been outstanding. A summary of results and key issues is provided.

  14. FY 1996 performance evaluation and incentive fee agreement for the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-08

    The document describes the critical outcomes, objectives, performance indicators, expected levels of performance, specific detail on incentive fee, and agreements concerning the evaluation of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory`s FY 1996 Self-Assessment. This information will be the basis for the evaluation of the Laboratory`s performance as required by Articles H-24 and H-25 of the Contract. For the period October 1, 1995 through September 30, 1996, the Parties have agreed to measure and evaluate the individual areas of Laboratory activities identified herein. This reflects the fact that the Contractor will be evaluated on two dimensions, namely (1) accomplishment of critical outcomes and (2) the effectiveness of the Contractor`s self-assessment program. Each area will receive its own evaluation rating and they will be combined to determined an overall rating with the first area weighted at 75% and the second area weighted at 25%.

  15. Inventory of Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Emissions at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judd, Kathleen S.; Kora, Angela R.; Shankle, Steve A.; Fowler, Kimberly M.

    2009-06-29

    The Carbon Management Strategic Initiative (CMSI) is a lab-wide initiative to position the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) as a leader in science, technology and policy analysis required to understand, mitigate and adapt to global climate change as a nation. As part of an effort to walk the talk in the field of carbon management, PNNL conducted its first carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions inventory for the 2007 calendar year. The goal of this preliminary inventory is to provide PNNL staff and management with a sense for the relative impact different activities at PNNL have on the lab’s total carbon footprint.

  16. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Apatite Investigation at the 100-NR-2 Quality Assurance Project Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fix, N. J.

    2008-03-28

    This Quality Assurance Project Plan provides the quality assurance requirements and processes that will be followed by staff working on the 100-NR-2 Apatite Project. The U.S. Department of Energy, Fluor Hanford, Inc., Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, and the Washington Department of Ecology agreed that the long-term strategy for groundwater remediation at 100-N would include apatite sequestration as the primary treatment, followed by a secondary treatment. The scope of this project covers the technical support needed before, during, and after treatment of the targeted subsurface environment using a new high-concentration formulation.

  17. FY2000 Annual Self-Evaluation Report for the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    RR Labarge

    2000-11-15

    This self-evaluation report offers a summary of results from FY2000 actions to achieve Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's strategy and provides an analysis of the state of their self-assessment process. The result of their integrated planning and assessment process identifies Laboratory strengths and opportunities for improvement. Critical elements of that process are included in this report; namely, a high-level summary of external oversight activities, progress against Operations Improvement Initiatives, and a summary of Laboratory strengths and areas for improvement developed by management from across the laboratory. Some key areas targeted for improvement in FY2001 are: systems approach to resource management; information protection; integrated safety management flow-down to the benchtop; cost management; integrated assessment; Price Anderson Amendments Act (PAAA) Program; and travel risk mitigation.

  18. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Facility Radionuclide Emissions Units and Sampling Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnett, J. Matthew; Brown, Jason H.; Walker, Brian A.

    2012-04-01

    Battelle–Pacific Northwest Division operates numerous research and development (R&D) laboratories in Richland, WA, including those associated with Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) on the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)’s Hanford Site and PNNL Site that have the potential for radionuclide air emissions. The National Emission Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP 40 CFR 61, Subparts H and I) requires an assessment of all emission units that have the potential for radionuclide air emissions. Potential emissions are assessed annually by PNNL staff members. Sampling, monitoring, and other regulatory compliance requirements are designated based upon the potential-to-emit dose criteria found in the regulations. The purpose of this document is to describe the facility radionuclide air emission sampling program and provide current and historical facility emission unit system performance, operation, and design information. For sampled systems, a description of the buildings, exhaust units, control technologies, and sample extraction details is provided for each registered emission unit. Additionally, applicable stack sampler configuration drawings, figures, and photographs are provided. Deregistered emission unit details are provided as necessary for up to 5 years post closure.

  19. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1990 to the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety, and Health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Part 5 of the 1990 Annual Report to the US Department of Energy's Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety, and Health presents Pacific Northwest Laboratory's progress on work performed for the Office of Environmental Guidance, the Office of Environmental Compliance, the Office of Environmental Audit, the Office of National Environmental Policy Act Project Assistance, the Office of Nuclear Safety, the Office of Safety Compliance, and the Office of Policy and Standards. For each project, as identified by the Field Work Proposal, there is an article describing progress made during fiscal year 1990. Authors of these articles represent a broad spectrum of capabilities derived from five of the seven technical centers of the Laboratory, reflecting the interdisciplinary nature of the work

  20. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1989 to the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety, and Health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Part 5 of the 1989 Annual Report to the US Department of Energy's Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety, and Health presents Pacific Northwest Laboratory's progress on work performed for the Office of Environmental Guidance and Compliance, the Office of Environmental Audit, the Office of National Environmental Policy Act Project Assistance, the Office of Nuclear Safety, the Office of Safety Compliance, and the Office of Policy and Standards. For each project, as identified by the Field Work Proposal, there is an article describing progress made during fiscal year 1989. Authors of these articles represent a broad spectrum of capabilities derived from five of the seven technical centers of the Laboratory, reflecting the interdisciplinary nature of the work. 35 refs., 1 fig

  1. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1990 to the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety, and Health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faust, L.G.; Moraski, R.V.; Selby, J.M.

    1991-05-01

    Part 5 of the 1990 Annual Report to the US Department of Energy's Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety, and Health presents Pacific Northwest Laboratory's progress on work performed for the Office of Environmental Guidance, the Office of Environmental Compliance, the Office of Environmental Audit, the Office of National Environmental Policy Act Project Assistance, the Office of Nuclear Safety, the Office of Safety Compliance, and the Office of Policy and Standards. For each project, as identified by the Field Work Proposal, there is an article describing progress made during fiscal year 1990. Authors of these articles represent a broad spectrum of capabilities derived from five of the seven technical centers of the Laboratory, reflecting the interdisciplinary nature of the work.

  2. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory National Environmental Policy Act Compliance Program -- FY 2010 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weeks, Regan S.

    2011-04-20

    During fiscal year (FY) 2010, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Environmental Protection and Regulatory Programs Division (before March 1, 2011 known as the Environmental Management Services Department) staff performed a number of activities as part of PNNL’s National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) compliance program. These activities helped to verify U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Pacific Northwest Site Office (PNSO) and Richland Operations Office (RL) compliance with NEPA requirements and streamline the NEPA process for federal activities conducted at PNNL. Self-assessments were performed to address NEPA compliance and cultural and biological resource protection. The NEPA self-assessments focused on implementation within the PNNL Energy and Environment Directorate and routine maintenance activities conducted during the previous calendar year. The cultural and biological resource self-assessments were conducted in accordance with the PNSO Cultural and Biological Resources Management Plan, which specifies annual monitoring of important resources to assess and document the status of the resources and the associated protective mechanisms in place to protect sensitive resources.

  3. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory 300 area facility liquid effluent monitoring: 1994 and 1995 field tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, R.G.; Thompson, C.J.; Damberg, E.G.; Ballinger, M.Y.

    1997-07-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Effluent Management Services manages liquid waste streams from some of the 300 Area buildings on the Hanford Site near Richland, Washington, to ensure liquid discharges to the Columbia River are in compliance with permit requirements. The buildings are owned by the U.S. Department of Energy and operated by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. In fiscal year (FY) 1994 and FY 1995, three field tests were conducted to gather information that could be used to (1) increase the understanding of 300 Area building liquid waste streams based on the characterization and monitoring data collected during calendar year (CY) 1994 and CY 1995 and (2) establish improved methods for evaluating facility releases. The three field tests were (1) an evaluation of a continuous monitoring/event-triggered sampling system, (2) a volatile organic compound hold-time study, and (3) an investigation of the dilution and retention properties of the 300 Area process sewer. The results from the first field test showed that future characterization and monitoring of 300 Area facility liquid waste streams could benefit significantly from augmenting continuous monitoring with event-triggered sampling. Current continuous-monitoring practices (i.e., monitoring of pH, conductivity, and flow) cannot detect discharges of organic pollutants. Effluent control effectiveness would be enhanced by incorporating a continuous total organic carbon analyzer in the system to detect events involving releases of organic compounds. In the second field test, sample hold times were shown to have a significant effect on volatile organic compound data. Samples analyzed in the field within 1 hour of collection generally had 1.5 to 3 times higher volatile organic compound concentrations than those analyzed 1.5 to 4 weeks later at on-site and off-site laboratories, respectively. The number of volatile organic compounds detected also decreased with increasing hold times.

  4. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory FY96 evaluation of Integrated Assessment Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory`s Integrated Assessment Program (IAP) is the primary system to assess and monitor overall performance and to drive continuous improvement in the Laboratory. The approach used is a significant departure from the Laboratory`s traditional reliance on auditing methods. It is a move toward the contemporary concepts of measuring organizational performance by encouraging scientific, operational, and business excellence, through self-assessment and strengthening line management accountability for results in product and service quality, safety, and cost. This report describes the approach used (methods and processes), the deployment of that approach in the six Laboratory organizations selected to pilot the approach, and a summary of how the pilot organizations used the results they obtained. Section 3.0 of this report summarizes the top strengths and weaknesses in performance as identified by Division/Directorate self-assessments, Independent Oversight, Internal Audit and peer reviews, and includes the actions that have been, or will be taken, to improve performance in areas that are weak.

  5. Area Monitoring Dosimeter Program for the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory: Results for CY 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bivins, Steven R.; Stoetzel, Gregory A.

    2006-06-21

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) established an area monitoring dosimeter program in accordance with Article 514 of the Department of Energy (DOE) Radiological Control Manual (RCM) in January 1993. This program is to minimize the number of areas requiring issuance of personnel dosimeters and to demonstrate that doses outside Radiological Buffer Areas are negligible. In accordance with 10 CFR Part 835.402 (a)(1)-(4) and Article 511.1 of the PNNL Radiological Control Program Description, personnel dosimetry shall be provided to (1) radiological workers who are likely to receive at least 100 mrem annually, and (2) declared pregnant workers, minors, and members of the public who are likely to receive at least 50 mrem annually. Program results for calendar years 1993-2005 confirm that personnel dosimetry is not needed for individuals located in areas monitored by the program

  6. Area Monitoring Dosimeter Program for the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory: Results for CY 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bivins, Steven R.; Stoetzel, Gregory A.

    2007-07-19

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) established an area monitoring dosimeter program in accordance with Article 514 of the Department of Energy (DOE) Radiological Control Manual (RCM) in January 1993. This program is to minimize the number of areas requiring issuance of personnel dosimeters and to demonstrate that doses outside Radiological Buffer Areas are negligible. In accordance with 10 CFR Part 835.402 (a)(1)-(4) and Article 511.1 of the PNNL Radiological Control Program Description, personnel dosimetry shall be provided to 1) radiological workers who are likely to receive at least 100 mrem annually, and 2) declared pregnant workers, minors, and members of the public who are likely to receive at least 50 mrem annually. Program results for calendar years 1993-2005 confirm that personnel dosimetry is not needed for individuals located in areas monitored by the program.

  7. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1993 to the DOE Office of Energy Research. Part 4: Physical sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Part 4 of the Pacific Northwest Laboratory Annual Report for 1993 to the DOE Office of Energy Research includes those programs funded under the title ''Physical and Technological Research.'' The Field Task Program Studies reported in this document are grouped by budget category. Attention is focused on the following subject areas: dosimetry research; and radiological and chemical physics

  8. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1980 to the DOE Assistant Secretary for Environment. Part 2 supplement, ecological sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaughan, B.E.

    1981-06-01

    This supplement replaces the list of Publications and Presentations in the Pacific Northwest Laboratory Annual Report for 1980 to the Assistant Secretary for Environment, PNL-3700 PT2, Ecological Sciences. The listings in the report as previously distributed were incomplete owing to changeovers in the bibliographic-tracking system.

  9. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1993 to the DOE Office of Energy Research. Part 4: Physical sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braby, L.A.

    1994-08-01

    Part 4 of the Pacific Northwest Laboratory Annual Report for 1993 to the DOE Office of Energy Research includes those programs funded under the title ``Physical and Technological Research.`` The Field Task Program Studies reported in this document are grouped by budget category. Attention is focused on the following subject areas: dosimetry research; and radiological and chemical physics.

  10. Assessment of Unabated Facility Emission Potentials for Evaluating Airborne Radionuclide Monitoring Requirements at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory - 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assessments were performed to evaluate compliance with the airborne radionuclide emission monitoring requirements in the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP - U.S. Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40 Part 61, Subpart H). In these assessments, potential unabated offsite doses were evaluated for emission locations at facilities owned by the U.S. Department of Energy and operated by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (Pacific Northwest) on the Hanford Site. Two of the facilities evaluated, 325 Building Radiochemical Processing Laboratory, and 331 Building Life Sciences Laboratory met state and federal criteria for continuous sampling of airborne radionuclide emissions. One other building, the 3720 Environmental Sciences Laboratory, was recognized as being in transition with the potential for meeting the continuous sampling criteria

  11. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1990 to the DOE Office of Energy Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, J. F.; Kreml, S. A.; Wildung, R. E.; Hefty, M. G.; Perez, D. A.; Chase, K. K.; Elderkin, C. E.; Owczarski, E. L.; Toburen, L. H.; Parnell, K. A.; Faust, L. G.; Moraski, R. V.; Selby, J. M.; Hilliard, D. K.; Tenforde, T. S.

    1991-02-01

    This report summarizes progress in the environmental sciences research conducted by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the Office of Health and Environment Research in FY 1990. Research is directed toward developing the knowledge needed to guide government policy and technology development for two important environmental problems: environmental restoration and global change. The report is organized by major research areas contributing to resolution of these problems. Additional sections summarize exploratory research, educational institutional interactions, technology transfer, and publications. The PNL research program continues make contributions toward defining and quantifying processes that effect the environment at the local, regional, and global levels. Each research project forms a component in an integrated laboratory, intermediate-scale, and field approach designed to examine multiple phenomena at increasing levels of complexity. This approach is providing system-level insights into critical environmental processes. University liaisons continue to be expanded to strengthen the research and to use PNL resources to train the scientists needed to address long-term environmental problems.

  12. Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan for Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Balance-of-Plant Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballinger, M.Y.; Shields, K.D.

    1999-04-02

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) operates a number of research and development (R and D) facilities for the Department of Energy on the Hanford Site. According to DOE Order 5400.1, a Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan is required for each site, facility, or process that uses, generates, releases, or manages significant pollutants or hazardous materials. Three of the R and D facilities: the 325, 331, and 3720 Buildings, are considered major emission points for radionuclide air sampling and thus individual Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans (FEMPs) have been developed for them. Because no definition of ''significant'' is provided in DOE Order 5400.1 or the accompanying regulatory guide DOE/EH-0173T, this FEMP was developed to describe monitoring requirements in the DOE-owned, PNNL-operated facilities that do not have individual FEMPs. The remainder of the DOE-owned, PNNL-operated facilities are referred to as Balance-of-Plant (BOP) facilities. Activities in the BOP facilities range from administrative to laboratory and pilot-scale R and D. R and D activities include both radioactive and chemical waste characterization, fluid dynamics research, mechanical property testing, dosimetry research, and molecular sciences. The mission and activities for individual buildings are described in the FEMP.

  13. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1991 to the DOE Office of Energy Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, D.A. (ed.)

    1992-02-01

    This report summarizes progress in environmental sciences research conducted by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Health and Environmental Research in FY 1991. Each project in the PNL research program is a component in an integrated laboratory, intermediate-scale, and field approach designed to examine multiple phenomena at increasing levels of complexity. Examples include definition of the role of fundamental geochemical and physical phenomena on the diversity and function of microorganisms in the deep subsurface, and determination of the controls on nutrient, water, and energy dynamics in arid ecosystems and their response to stress at the landscape scale. The Environmental Science Research Center has enable PNL to extend fundamental knowledge of subsurface science to develop emerging new concepts for use in natural systems and in environmental restoration of DOE sites. New PNL investments have been made in developing advanced concepts for addressing chemical desorption kinetics, enzyme transformations and redesign, the role of heterogeneity in contaminant transport, and modeling of fundamental ecological processes.

  14. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1991 to the DOE Office of Energy Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes progress in environmental sciences research conducted by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Health and Environmental Research in FY 1991. Each project in the PNL research program is a component in an integrated laboratory, intermediate-scale, and field approach designed to examine multiple phenomena at increasing levels of complexity. Examples include definition of the role of fundamental geochemical and physical phenomena on the diversity and function of microorganisms in the deep subsurface, and determination of the controls on nutrient, water, and energy dynamics in arid ecosystems and their response to stress at the landscape scale. The Environmental Science Research Center has enable PNL to extend fundamental knowledge of subsurface science to develop emerging new concepts for use in natural systems and in environmental restoration of DOE sites. New PNL investments have been made in developing advanced concepts for addressing chemical desorption kinetics, enzyme transformations and redesign, the role of heterogeneity in contaminant transport, and modeling of fundamental ecological processes

  15. Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan for Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Balance-of-Plant Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) operates a number of research and development (R and D) facilities for the Department of Energy on the Hanford Site. According to DOE Order 5400.1, a Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan is required for each site, facility, or process that uses, generates, releases, or manages significant pollutants or hazardous materials. Three of the R and D facilities: the 325, 331, and 3720 Buildings, are considered major emission points for radionuclide air sampling and thus individual Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans (FEMPs) have been developed for them. Because no definition of ''significant'' is provided in DOE Order 5400.1 or the accompanying regulatory guide DOE/EH-0173T, this FEMP was developed to describe monitoring requirements in the DOE-owned, PNNL-operated facilities that do not have individual FEMPs. The remainder of the DOE-owned, PNNL-operated facilities are referred to as Balance-of-Plant (BOP) facilities. Activities in the BOP facilities range from administrative to laboratory and pilot-scale R and D. R and D activities include both radioactive and chemical waste characterization, fluid dynamics research, mechanical property testing, dosimetry research, and molecular sciences. The mission and activities for individual buildings are described in the FEMP

  16. TECHNICAL PUBLICATIONS OF BATTELLE-NORTHWEST DURING 1970

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, E. F.

    1971-03-01

    This report is one of an annual series and announces formal research and development reports and technical articles published during 1970 by Battelle-NorthwesL The reports and articles are grouped by broad subject categories and arranged alphabetically by author within each category, except Progress Reports, which are arranged chronologically, An author index and report number index are also included"

  17. PCI fuel failure analysis: a report on a cooperative program undertaken by Pacific Northwest Laboratory and Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reactor fuel failure data sets in the form of initial power (P/sub i/), final power (P/sub f/), transient increase in power (ΔP), and burnup (Bu) were obtained for pressurized heavy water reactors (PHWRs), boiling water reactors (BWRs), and pressurized water reactors (PWRs). These data sets were evaluated and used as the basis for developing two predictive fuel failure models, a graphical concept called the PCI-OGRAM, and a nonlinear regression based model called PROFIT. The PCI-OGRAM is an extension of the FUELOGRAM developed by AECL. It is based on a critical threshold concept for stress dependent stress corrosion cracking. The PROFIT model, developed at Pacific Northwest Laboratory, is the result of applying standard statistical regression methods to the available PCI fuel failure data and an analysis of the environmental and strain rate dependent stress-strain properties of the Zircaloy cladding

  18. DOE life-span radiation effects studies at Pacific Northwest Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Major life-span radiation effects studies at Pacific Northwest Laboratory fall into three categories: (1) studies with beagle dogs exposed to plutonium compounds via a single inhalation; (2) studies with dogs and rats exposed chronically via inhalation to various combinations and concentrations of radon, radon daughters, and other components of uranium mine atmospheres; and (3) a study in which rats are exposed via single inhalation, in very large numbers, to very low concentrations of 239PuO2. Exposure of beagles currently on study was initiated in 1970 with 239PuO2, in 1973 with 238PuO2, and in 1976 with 239Pu(NO3)4. These experiments involve more than 500 animals, many of them still alive. Experiments seeking to explain the increased incidence of lung cancer in uranium miners have been in progress since 1966. Present emphasis is on studies with rats, in an attempt to define dose-effect relationships at the lowest feasible radon-daughter exposure levels. Our very-low-level experiment with inhaled 239PuO2 in rats, with exposures still under way, includes 1000 rats in the control group and 1000 rats in the lowest-exposure group, where life-span lung doses of <5 rads are anticipated

  19. Area monitoring dosimeter program for the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory: Results for CY 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In January 1993, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) established an area monitoring dosimeter program in accordance with Article 514 of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Radiological Control Manual (RCM). The purpose of the program was to minimize the number of areas requiring issuance of personnel dosimeters and to demonstrate that doses outside Radiological Buffer Areas are negligible. In accordance with 10 CFR Part 835.402 (a) (1)--(3) and Article 511.1 of the RCM, personnel dosimetry shall be provided to (1) radiological workers who are likely to receive at least 100 mrem annually, and (2) declared pregnant workers, minors, and members of the public who are likely to receive at least 50 mrem annually. Program results for calendar years (CY) 1993--1996 confirmed that personnel dosimetry was not needed for individuals located in areas monitored by the program. A total of 93 area thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) were placed in PNNL facilities during CY 1997. The TLDs were exchanged and analyzed quarterly. All routine area monitoring TLD results were less than 50 mrem annually after correcting for worker occupancy. The results support the conclusions that personnel dosimeters are not necessary for staff, declared pregnant workers, minors, or members of the public in these monitored areas

  20. Annotated bibliography of radioactive waste management publications at Pacific Northwest Laboratory, January 1978 through July 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This bibliography lists publications (831 abstracts) from the Pacific Northwest Laboratory's Department of Energy sponsored research and development programs from January 1978 through July of 1982. The abstracts are grouped in subject categories, as shown in the table of contents. Entries in the subject index also facilitate access by subject, e.g., High-Level Radioactive Wastes. Three indexes, each preceded by a brief description, are provided: personal author, subject, and report number. Cited are research reports, journal articles, books, patents, theses, and conference papers. Excluded are technical progress reports. Since 1978 the Nuclear Waste Management Quarterly Progress Report has been published under the series number PNL-3000. Beginning in 1982, this publication has been issued semiannually, under the series number PNL-4250. This bibliography is the successor to two others, BNWL-2201 (covering the years 1965-1976) and PNL-4050 (1975-1978). It is intended to provide a useful reference to literature in waste management written or compiled by PNL staff

  1. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1991 to the DOE Office of Energy Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of Health and Environmental Research (OHER), the atmospheric sciences and carbon dioxide research programs are part of the Environmental Sciences Division (ESD). One of the central missions of the division Is to provide the DOE with scientifically defensible information on the local, regional, and global distributions of energy-related pollutants and their effects on climate. This information is vital to the definition and Implementation of a sound national energy strategy. This volume reports on the progress and status of all OHER atmospheric science and climate research projects at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). Research at PNL provides basic scientific underpinnings to DOE's program of global climate research. Research projects within the core carbon dioxide and ocean research programs are now integrated with those in the Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM), the Computer Hardware, Advanced Mathematics and Model Physics (CHAMMP), and quantitative links programs to form DOEs contribution to the US Global Change Research Program. Climate research in the ESD has the common goal of improving our understanding of the physical, chemical, biological, and social processes that influence the Earth system so that national and international policymaking relating to natural and human-induced changes in the Earth system can be given a firm scientific basis. This report describes the progress In FY 1991 in each of these areas

  2. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1991 to the DOE Office of Energy Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-05-01

    Within the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of Health and Environmental Research (OHER), the atmospheric sciences and carbon dioxide research programs are part of the Environmental Sciences Division (ESD). One of the central missions of the division Is to provide the DOE with scientifically defensible information on the local, regional, and global distributions of energy-related pollutants and their effects on climate. This information is vital to the definition and Implementation of a sound national energy strategy. This volume reports on the progress and status of all OHER atmospheric science and climate research projects at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). Research at PNL provides basic scientific underpinnings to DOE's program of global climate research. Research projects within the core carbon dioxide and ocean research programs are now integrated with those in the Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM), the Computer Hardware, Advanced Mathematics and Model Physics (CHAMMP), and quantitative links programs to form DOEs contribution to the US Global Change Research Program. Climate research in the ESD has the common goal of improving our understanding of the physical, chemical, biological, and social processes that influence the Earth system so that national and international policymaking relating to natural and human-induced changes in the Earth system can be given a firm scientific basis. This report describes the progress In FY 1991 in each of these areas.

  3. Economic Impact of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory on the State of Washington in Fiscal Year 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, Michael J.; Niemeyer, Jackie M.

    2014-12-18

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is a large economic entity, with $1.06 billion in annual funding, $936 million in total spending, and 4,344 employees in fiscal year (FY) 2013. Four thousand, one hundred and one (4,101) employees live in Washington State. The Laboratory directly and indirectly supports almost $1.31 billion in economic output, 6,802 jobs, and $514 million in Washington State wage income from current operations. The state also gains more than $1.21 billion in output, more than 6,400 jobs, and $459 million in income through closely related economic activities, such as visitors, health care spending, spending by resident retirees, and spinoff companies. PNNL affects Washington’s economy through commonly recognized economic channels, including spending on payrolls and other goods and services that support Laboratory operations. Less-commonly recognized channels also have their own impacts and include company-supported spending on health care for its staff members and retirees, spending of its resident retirees, Laboratory visitor spending, and the economic activities in a growing constellation of “spinoff” companies founded on PNNL research, technology, and managerial expertise. PNNL also has a significant impact on science and technology education and community nonprofit organizations. PNNL is an active participant in the future scientific enterprise in Washington with the state’s K-12 schools, colleges, and universities. The Laboratory sends staff members to the classroom and brings hundreds of students to the PNNL campus to help train the next generation of scientists, engineers, mathematicians, and technicians. This investment in human capital, though difficult to measure in terms of current dollars of economic output, is among the important lasting legacies of the Laboratory. Finally, PNNL contributes to the local community with millions of dollars’ worth of cash and in-kind corporate and staff contributions, all of which

  4. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1992 to the DOE Office of Energy Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grove, L.K. (ed.)

    1993-03-01

    The 1992 Annual Report from Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to the US Department of Energy (DOE) describes research in environment and health conducted during fiscal year 1992. This report consists of four volumes oriented to particular segments of the PNL program, describing research performed for the DOE Office of Health and Environmental Research in the Office of Energy Research. The parts of the 1992 Annual Report are: Biomedical Sciences; Environmental Sciences; Atmospheric Sciences; and Physical Sciences. This Report is Part II: Environmental Sciences. Included in this report are developments in Subsurface Science, Terrestrial Science, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development, Interactions with Educational Institutions, Technology Transfer, Publications, and Presentations. The research is directed toward developing a fundamental understanding of subsurface and terrestrial systems as a basis for both managing these critical resources and addressing environmental problems such as environmental restoration and global change. The Technology Transfer section of this report describes a number of examples in which fundamental research is laying the groundwork for the technology needed to resolve important environmental problems. The Interactions with Educational Institutions section of the report illustrates the results of a long-term, proactive program to make PNL facilities available for university and preuniversity education and to involve educational institutions in research programs. The areas under investigation include the effect of geochemical and physical phenomena on the diversity and function of microorganisms in deep subsurface environments, ways to address subsurface heterogeneity, and ways to determine the key biochemical and physiological pathways (and DNA markers) that control nutrient, water, and energy dynamics in arid ecosystems and the response of these systems to disturbance and climatic change.

  5. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1992 to the DOE Office of Energy Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 1992 Annual Report from Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to the US Department of Energy (DOE) describes research in environment and health conducted during fiscal year 1992. This report consists of four volumes oriented to particular segments of the PNL program, describing research performed for the DOE Office of Health and Environmental Research in the Office of Energy Research. The parts of the 1992 Annual Report are: Biomedical Sciences; Environmental Sciences; Atmospheric Sciences; and Physical Sciences. This Report is Part 2: Environmental Sciences. Included in this report are developments in Subsurface Science, Terrestrial Science, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development, Interactions with Educational Institutions, Technology Transfer, Publications, and Presentations. The research is directed toward developing a fundamental understanding of subsurface and terrestrial systems as a basis for both managing these critical resources and addressing environmental problems such as environmental restoration and global change. The Technology Transfer section of this report describes a number of examples in which fundamental research is laying the groundwork for the technology needed to resolve important environmental problems. The Interactions with Educational Institutions section of the report illustrates the results of a long-term, proactive program to make PNL facilities available for university and preuniversity education and to involve educational institutions in research programs. The areas under investigation include the effect of geochemical and physical phenomena on the diversity and function of microorganisms in deep subsurface environments, ways to address subsurface heterogeneity, and ways to determine the key biochemical and physiological pathways (and DNA markers) that control nutrient, water, and energy dynamics in arid ecosystems and the response of these systems to disturbance and climatic change

  6. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1992 to the DOE Office of Energy Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schrempf, R.E. (ed.)

    1993-04-01

    Within the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of Health and Environmental Research (OHER), the atmospheric sciences and carbon dioxide research programs are part of the Environmental Sciences Division (ESD). One of the central missions of the division is to provide the DOE with scientifically defensible information on the local, regional, and global distributions of energy-related pollutants and their effects on climate. This information is vital to the definition and implementation of a sound national energy strategy. This volume reports on the progress and status of all OHER atmospheric science and climate research projects at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). PNL has had a long history of technical leadership in the atmospheric sciences research programs within OHER. Within the ESD, the Atmospheric Chemistry Program (ACP) continues DOE's long-term commitment to study the continental and oceanic fates of energy-related air pollutants. Research through direct measurement, numerical modeling, and laboratory studies in the ACP emphasizes the long-range transport, chemical transformation, and removal of emitted pollutants, oxidant species, nitrogen-reservoir species, and aerosols. The Atmospheric Studies in Complex Terrain (ASCOT) program continues to apply basic research on density-driven circulations and on turbulent mixing and dispersion in the atmospheric boundary layer to the micro- to mesoscale meteorological processes that affect air-surface exchange and to emergency preparedness at DOE and other facilities. Research at PNL provides basic scientific underpinnings to DOE's program of global climate research. Research projects within the core carbon dioxide and ocean research programs are now integrated with those in the Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM), the Computer Hardware, Advanced Mathematics and Model Physics (CHAMMP), and Quantitative Links programs to form DOE's contribution to the US Global Change Research

  7. Pacific Northwest regional assessment program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Pacific Northwest (comprised of the states of Alaska, Idaho, Montana, Oregon, Washington and Wyoming) can by several measures be regarded as a national warehouse of fossil energy resources. This condition coupled with an evolving national policy stressing utilization of fossil fuels in the near term prior to development of more advanced technologies for energy supply, could result in the imposition of major changes in the region's environmental, socioeconomic and possibly health status. The objective of the Pacific Northwest Regional Assessment Program is to establish and exercise an integrated analytical assessment program for evaluation of these potential changes that may result from various energy development or conservation scenarios. After consideration of a variety of approaches to integrated assessment at a regional level, Pacific Northwest Laboratories (PNL) has concluded that dynamic simulation techniques provide the best available approach to evaluating the issues pertinent to the Northwest. As a result, the PNW Regional Assessment Program has been structured in a framework involving ten sectors. Each of these sectors involve their own submodels that receive information either from outside the model as exogenous inputs or from other sector submodels

  8. STP K Basin Sludge Sample Archive at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory FY2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiskum, Sandra K.; Smoot, Margaret R.; Schmidt, Andrew J.

    2014-06-01

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) currently houses 88 samples (~10.5 kg) of K Basin sludge (81 wet and seven dry samples) on behalf of the Sludge Treatment Project (STP), which is managed for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) by the CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC). Selected samples are intended to serve, in part, as sentinels to enhance understanding of sludge properties after long-term storage, and thus enhance understanding of sludge behavior following transfer to sludge transfer and storage containers (STSCs) and storage at the Hanford 200 Area central plateau. In addition, remaining samples serve in contingency for future testing requirements. At PNNL, the samples are tracked and maintained under a prescriptive and disciplined monthly sample-monitoring program implemented by PNNL staff. This report updates the status of the K Basin archive sludge sample inventory to April 2014. The previous inventory status report, PNNL 22245 (Fiskum et al. 2013, limited distribution report), was issued in February of 2013. This update incorporates changes in the inventory related to repackaging of 17 samples under test instructions 52578 TI052, K Basin Sludge Sample Repackaging for Continued Long Term Storage, and 52578 TI053, K Basin Sludge Sample Repackaging Post-2014 Shear Strength Measurements. Note that shear strength measurement results acquired in 2014 are provided separately. Specifically, this report provides the following: • a description of the K Basin sludge sample archive program and the sample inventory • a summary and images of the samples that were repackaged in April 2014 • up-to-date images and plots of the settled density and water loss from all applicable samples in the inventory • updated sample pedigree charts, which provide a roadmap of the genesis and processing history of each sample in the inventory • occurrence and deficiency reports associated with sample storage and repackaging

  9. Pacific Northwest Laboratory tasks supporting the Office of Technology Development national program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this document is to provide a concise summary of the Pacific Northwest Laboratory's (PNL) tasks being conducted for the Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Technology Development (OTD). The summaries are useful to principal investigators who want to link their work to others doing similar work, to staff in DOE operating programs who are looking for better solutions to current problems, and to private industry which may be interested in teaming with PNL to commercialize the technology. The tasks are organized within Hanford's overall Work Breakdown Structure (WBS), which is a hierarchical organization of the Hanford mission into subordinate missions. The technology development tasks are all in WBS 3.2. The first subordinate steps under WBS 3.2 are general categories of technology development, such as Soils and Groundwater Cleanup. The next level is the Integrated Program (IP) and Integrated Demonstration (ID) level. An IP is a centrally managed series of projects which explore and develop a particular technology, such as characterization, for application to a wide spectrum of problems. An ID brings multiple technology systems to bear on an actual problem; for example, a carbon tetrachloride plume migrating through the soil is being remediated with biological agents, heating the soil, and destruction of the contamination in vapor removed from the soil. IDs and IPs are identified by an alphanumeric code: GSO2 is the second ID under Groundwater and Soils Cleanup. The final step in the breakout is the Technical Task Plan (TTP). These are individual tasks which support the ID/IP. They are identified by a six-digit number in the format 3211-01. The WBS structure for Technology Development down to the ID/IP level is shown

  10. Assessment of Unabated Facility Emission Potentials for Evaluating Airborne Radionuclide Monitoring Requirements at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory - 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballinger, Marcel Y.; Gervais, Todd L.; Barnett, J. M.

    2011-05-13

    Assessments were performed to evaluate compliance with the airborne radionuclide emission monitoring requirements in the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants ([NESHAP]; U.S. Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, Part 61, Subpart H) and Washington Administrative Code 246-247: Radiation Protection - Air Emissions. In these NESHAP assessments, potential unabated off-site doses were evaluated for emission locations at buildings that are part of the consolidated laboratory campus of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. This report describes the inventory-based methods and provides the results for the NESHAP assessment performed in 2010.

  11. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1993 to the DOE Office of Energy Research. Part 2: Environmental sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-01

    This 1993 Annual Report from Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to the US DOE describes research in environment and health conducted during fiscal year (FY) 1993. The report is divided into four parts, each in a separate volume. This part, Volume 2, covers Environmental Sciences. The research is directed toward developing a fundamental understanding of subsurface and terrestrial systems as a basis for both managing these critical resources and addressing environmental problems such as environmental restoration and global change. There are sections on Subsurface Science, Terrestrial Science, Technology Transfer, Interactions with Educational Institutions, and Laboratory Directed Research and Development.

  12. Cursory radiological assessment: Battelle Columbus Laboratory Decommissioning and Decontamination Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document reports on the results obtained from a cursory radiological assessment of various properties at the Battelle Columbus Laboratory, Columbia, Ohio. The cursory radiological assessment is part of a preliminary investigation for the Battelle Columbus Laboratory Decommissioning and Decontamination Project. The radiological assessment of Battelle Columbus Laboratory's two sites included conducting interior and exterior building surveys and collecting and analyzing air, sewer system, and soil samples. Direct radiological surveys were made of floor, wall, and overhead areas. Smear surveys were made on various interior building surfaces as well as the exterior building vents. Air samples were collected in select areas to determine concentrations of Rn-222, Rn-220, and Rn-219 daughters, in addition to any long-lived radioactive particulates. Radon-222 concentrations were continuously monitored over a 24-hr period at several building locations using a radon gas monitoring system. The sanitary sewer systems at King Avenue, West Jefferson-North, and West Jefferson-South were each sampled at select locations. All samples were submitted to the Argonne Analytical Chemistry Laboratory for various radiological and chemical analyses. Environmental soil corings were taken at both the King Avenue and West Jefferson sites to investigate the potential for soil contamination within the first 12-inches below grade. Further subsurface investigations at the West Jefferson-North and West Jefferson-South areas were conducted using soil boring techniques. 4 refs., 10 figs., 10 tabs

  13. Pacific Northwest: paradise lost

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, W.V.

    1980-04-18

    An influx of new residents to the Pacific Northwest is changing social patterns and is endangering the region's valued wilderness and resources. A growing population and a feeling that the national govenment is more exploitive than conserving of its resources combines with a political tension between progressive populism and conservative Mormon influences to make residents wary of either newcomers or new prosperity. The abundant hydro power is threatened as power demand increases and utilities, industries, and the state and local governments compete for their fair share. A plan to restructure the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) has been introduced in Congress to give it a single appointed administrator with the authority to decide how power will be distributed and which new power sources to develop. Concern about the two national nuclear waste repositories at Hanford and Idaho Falls led to a six-month moratorium at Hanford to warn the government that the site was not intended to be a permanent solution. A legislative proposal to set up regional nuclear parks will not relieve the Pacific Northwest's problems for some time. Leaders blame the policymakers for looking on the area as too remote and underpopulated to worry about. 18 references (DCK)

  14. Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan for Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Balance-of-Plant Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballinger, Marcel Y.; Gervais, Todd L.

    2004-11-15

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) operates a number of Research & Development (R&D) facilities for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) on the Hanford Site. Facility effluent monitoring plans (FEMPs) have been developed to document the facility effluent monitoring portion of the Environmental Monitoring Plan (DOE 2000) for the Hanford Site. Three of PNNL’s R&D facilities, the 325, 331, and 3720 Buildings, are considered major emission points for radionuclide air sampling, and individual FEMPs were developed for these facilities in the past. In addition, a balance-of-plant (BOP) FEMP was developed for all other DOE-owned, PNNL-operated facilities at the Hanford Site. Recent changes, including shutdown of buildings and transition of PNNL facilities to the Office of Science, have resulted in retiring the 3720 FEMP and combining the 331 FEMP into the BOP FEMP. This version of the BOP FEMP addresses all DOE-owned, PNNL-operated facilities at the Hanford Site, excepting the Radiochemical Processing Laboratory, which has its own FEMP because of the unique nature of the building and operations. Activities in the BOP facilities range from administrative to laboratory and pilot-scale R&D. R&D activities include both radioactive and chemical waste characterization, fluid dynamics research, mechanical property testing, dosimetry research, and molecular sciences. The mission and activities for individual buildings are described in Appendix A. Potential radioactive airborne emissions in the BOP facilities are estimated annually using a building inventory-based approach provided in federal regulations. Sampling at individual BOP facilities is based on a potential-to-emit assessment. Some of these facilities are considered minor emission points and thus are sampled routinely, but not continuously, to confirm the low emission potential. One facility, the 331 Life Sciences Laboratory, has a major emission point and is sampled continuously. Sampling systems are

  15. Pacific Northwest Laboratory, annual report for 1983 to the DOE Office of Energy Research. Part 4. Physical sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Part 4 of the Pacific Northwest Laboratory Annual Report for 1983 to the Office of Energy Research, includes those programs funded under the title Physical and Technological Research. The Field Task Program Studies reports in this document are grouped under the subheadings and each section is introduced by a divider page that indicates the Field Task Agreement reported in that section. These reports only briefly indicate progress made during 1983. The reader should contact the principal investigators named or examine the publications cited for more details

  16. Pacific Northwest Laboratory: Annual report for 1986 to the DOE Office of Energy Research: Part 4, Physical sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This 1986 annual report from Pacific Northwest Laboratory describes research in environment, health, and safety conducted during fiscal year 1986. The report again consists of five parts, each in a separate volume. Part 4 includes those programs funded under the title ''Physical and Technological Research.'' The Field Task Program Studies reports in this document are grouped by budget category and each section is introduced by an abstract that indicates the Field Task Proposal/Agreement reported in that section. These reports only briefly indicate progress made during 1985

  17. Pacific Northwest Laboratory: Annual report for 1986 to the DOE Office of Energy Research: Part 4, Physical sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toburen, L.H.

    1987-02-01

    This 1986 annual report from Pacific Northwest Laboratory describes research in environment, health, and safety conducted during fiscal year 1986. The report again consists of five parts, each in a separate volume. Part 4 includes those programs funded under the title ''Physical and Technological Research.'' The Field Task Program Studies reports in this document are grouped by budget category and each section is introduced by an abstract that indicates the Field Task Proposal/Agreement reported in that section. These reports only briefly indicate progress made during 1985.

  18. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1985 to the DOE Office of Energy Research. Part 4. Physical sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Part 4 of the Pacific Northwest Laboratory Annual Report for 1985 to the DOE Office of Energy Research includes those programs funded under the title ''Physical and Technological Research.'' The Field Task Program Studies reports in this document are grouped by budget category and each section is introduced by an abstract that indicates the Field Task Proposal/Agreement reported in that section. These reports only briefly indicate progress made during 1985. The reader should contact the principal investigators named or examine the publications cited for more details

  19. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1984 to the DOE Office of Energy Research. Part 3. Atmospheric sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The goals of atmospheric research at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) are to assess, describe, and predict the nature and fate of atmospheric contaminants and to study the impacts of contaminants on local, regional, and global climates. The contaminants being investigated are those resulting from the development and use of conventional resources (coal, gas, oil, and nuclear power) as well as alternative energy sources. The description of the research is organized into 3 sections: (1) Atmospheric Studies in Complex Terrain (ASCOT); (2) Boundary Layer Meteorology; and (3) Dispersion, Deposition, and Resuspension of Atmospheric Contaminants. Separate analytics have been done for each of the sections and are indexed and contained in the EDB

  20. Pacific Northwest Laboratory: Annual report for 1986 to the DOE Office of Energy Research: Part 2, Environmental sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-09-01

    This report summarizes progress in environmental sciences research conducted by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the Office of Health and Environmental Research in FY 1986. The program is focused on terrestrial, subsurface, and coastal marine systems, and this research forms the basis, in conjunction with remote sensing, for definition and quantification of processes leading to impacts at the global level. This report is organized into sections devoted to Detection and Management of Change in Terrestrial Systems, Biogeochemical Phenomena, Subsurface Microbiology and Transport, Marine Sciences, and Theoretical (Quantitative) Ecology. Separate abstracts have been prepared for individual projects.

  1. Pacific Northwest Laboratory Gulfstream I measurements of the Kuwait oil-fire plume, July--August 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busness, K M; Hales, J M; Hannigan, R V; Thorp, J M; Tomich, S D; Warren, M J [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Al-Sunaid, A A [Saudi ARAMCO, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia); Daum, P H; Mazurek, M [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1992-11-01

    In 1991, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted a series of aircraft measurements to determine pollutant and radiative properties of the smoke plume from oil fires in Kuwait. This work was sponsored by the US Department emanating of Energy, in cooperation with several other agencies as part of an extensive effort coordinated by the World Meteorological Organization, to obtain a comprehensive data set to assess the characteristics of the plume and its environmental impact. This report describes field measurement activities and introduces the various data collected, but provides only limited analyses of these data. Results of further data analyses will be presented in subsequent open-literature publications.

  2. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1984 to the DOE Office of Energy Research. Part 3. Atmospheric sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elderkin, C.E.

    1985-02-01

    The goals of atmospheric research at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) are to assess, describe, and predict the nature and fate of atmospheric contaminants and to study the impacts of contaminants on local, regional, and global climates. The contaminants being investigated are those resulting from the development and use of conventional resources (coal, gas, oil, and nuclear power) as well as alternative energy sources. The description of the research is organized into 3 sections: (1) Atmospheric Studies in Complex Terrain (ASCOT); (2) Boundary Layer Meteorology; and (3) Dispersion, Deposition, and Resuspension of Atmospheric Contaminants. Separate analytics have been done for each of the sections and are indexed and contained in the EDB. (MDF)

  3. Systems methodology for assessing the demographic implications of energy development. [Northwest Pacific region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobsen, J.J.

    1976-09-01

    The objective of the Pacific Northwest Regional Assessment Program is to estimate changes in the Region's environmental, socioeconomic, and health status that could result from various energy development or conservation scenarios. Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratories, uses a dynamic simulation model to help evaluate pertinent issues in the Northwest (Alaska, Idaho, Montana, Oregon, Washington, and Wyoming). One of the primary sectors of this model is the demographic sector, which provides the needed demographic information to other model sectors. Specifically, it traces the effects of various energy development scenarios on employment and population growth. The demographic sector simulates the interactions among the population, birth rate, death rate, net migration rate, and jobs available in the Region from 1960 to 2020. The population is disaggregated so that age-specific birth and death rates, age-specific propensity to migrate, and age-specific labor force participation rates can be used.

  4. Corrosion experience in nuclear waste processing at Battelle Northwest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emphasis is on corrosion as related to waste storage canister. Most work has been done in support of the In-Can Melter (ICM) vitrification system. It is assumed that the canister goes through the ICM process and is then stored in a water basin. The most severe corrosion effect seen is oxidation of stainless steel (SS) surfaces in contact with gases containing oxygen during processing. The processing temperature is near 11000C and furnace atmosphere, used until now, has been air with unrestricted flow to the furnace. The oxidation rate at 11000C is 15.8 g/cm2 for 304L SS. Techniques for eliminating this corrosion currently being investigated include the use of different materials, such as Inconel 601, and the use of an inert cover gas. Corrosion due to the waste melt is not as rapid as the air oxidation. This effect has been studied extensively in connection with the development of a metallic crucible melter at Battelle. Data are available on the corrosion rates of several waste compositions in contact with various materials. Long-term compatibility tests between the melt and the metal have been run; it was found the corrosion rates due to the melt or its vapor do not pose a serious problem to the waste canister. However, these rates are high enough to preclude the practical use of a metallic melter. Interim water storage of the canister may be a problem if proper corrective measurements are not taken.The canister may be susceptible to stress corrosion cracking (SCC) because it will be sensitized to some extent and it will be nearly stressed to yield. The most favorable solution to SCC involves minimizing canister sensitization and stress plus providing good water quality control. It has been recommended to keep the chlorine ion concentration below 1 ppM and the pH above 10. At these conditions no failures of 304L are predicted due to SCC. It is concluded that corrosion of a canister used during the In-Can Melter process and interim storage can be controlled

  5. Annual progress report to Battelle Pacific Northwest National Laboratories on prediction of phase separation of simulated nuclear waste glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this research is to predict the immiscibility boundaries of multi-component borosilicate glasses, on which many nuclear waste glass compositions are based. The method used is similar to the prediction method of immiscibility boundaries of multi-component silicate glass systems successfully made earlier and is based upon the superposition of immiscibility boundaries of simple systems using an appropriate parameter. This method is possible because many immiscibility boundaries have similar shapes and can be scaled by a parameter. In the alkali and alkaline earth binary silicate systems, for example, the critical temperature and compositions were scaled using the Debye-Hueckel theory. In the present study on borosilicate systems, first, immiscibility boundaries of various binary alkali and alkaline borate glass systems (e.g. BaO-B2O3) were examined and their critical temperatures were evaluated in terms of Debye-Hueckel theory. The mixing effects of two alkali and alkaline-earth borate systems on the critical temperature were also explored. Next immiscibility boundaries of ternary borosilicate glasses (e.g. Na2O-SiO2-B2O3, K2O-SiO2-B2O3, Rb2O-SiO2-B2O3, and Cs2O-SiO2-B2O3) were examined. Their mixing effects are currently under investigation

  6. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1993 to the DOE Office of Energy Research. Part 1: Biomedical Sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lumetta, C.C. [ed.; Park, J.F.

    1994-03-01

    This report summarizes FY 1993 progress in biological and general life sciences research programs conducted for the Department of Energy`s Office of Health and Environmental REsearch (OHER) at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). This research provides knowledge of fundamental principles necessary to identify, understand, and anticipate the long-term health consequences of exposure to energy-related radiation and chemicals. The Biological Research section contains reports of studies using laboratory animals, in vitro cell systems, and molecular biological systems. This research includes studies of the impact of radiation, radionuclides, and chemicals on biological responses at all levels of biological organization. The General Life Sciences Research section reports research conducted for the OHER human genome program.

  7. Science To Support DOE Site Cleanup: The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Environmental Management Science Program Awards; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was awarded ten Environmental Management Science Program (EMSP) research grants in fiscal year 1996, six in fiscal year 1997, nine in fiscal year 1998, seven in fiscal year 1999, and five in fiscal year 2000. All of the fiscal year 1996 award projects have published final reports. The 1997 and 1998 award projects have been completed or are nearing completion. Final reports for these awards will be published, so their annual updates will not be included in this document. This section summarizes how each of the 1999 and 2000 grants address significant U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) cleanup issues, including those at the Hanford Site. The technical progress made to date in each of these research projects is addressed in more detail in the individual progress reports contained in this document. The 1999 and 2000 EMSP awards at PNNL are focused primarily in two areas: Tank Waste Remediation, and Soil and Groundwater Cleanup

  8. Area Monitoring Dosimeter Program for the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory: results for CY 1993 and CY 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In January 1993, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) established an area monitoring dosimeter program in accordance with Article 514 of the Department of Energy (DOE) Radiological Control Manual (RCM)(DOE 1994). The purpose of the program was to minimize the number of areas requiring issuance of personnel dosimeters and to demonstrate that doses outside Radiological Buffer Areas are negligible. Article 51 1. la of the RCM requires issuance of personnel dosimeters if individuals are likely to receive a dose of at least 100 mrem annually. The area monitoring TLD program was a useful tool in determining exposure trends in work areas located outside of radiological areas. In several situations, the information obtained from this program was used to relocate staff or radioactive material resulting in potential dose reductions for staff

  9. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1987 to the DOE Office of Energy Research: Part 1, Biomedical Sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, J.F.

    1988-02-01

    This report summarizes progress on OHER biomedical and health-effects research conducted at Pacific Northwest Laboratory in FY 1987. The research develops the knowledge and scientific principles necessary to identify, understand, and anticipate the long-term health consequences of energy-related radiation and chemicals. Our continuing emphasis is to decrease the uncertainty of health-effects risk estimates from existing and/or developing energy-related technologies through an increased understanding of how radiation and chemicals cause health effects. The report is arranged to reflect PNL research relative to OHER programmatic structure. The first section, on human health effects, concerns statistical and epidemiological studies for assessing health risks. The next section, which contains reports of health-effects research in biological systems, includes research with radiation and chemicals. The last section is related to medical applications of nuclear technology.

  10. Pacific Northwest Laboratory: Annual report for 1986 to the DOE Office of Energy Research: Part 3, Atmospheric sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The goals of atmospheric research at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) are to describe and predict the nature and fate of atmospheric contaminants and to develop an understanding of the atmospheric processes contributing to their distribution on local, regional, and continental scales. In 1986, atmospheric research examined the transport and diffusion of atmospheric contaminants in areas of complex terrain and participated in a large, multilaboratory program to assess the precipitation scavenging processes important to the transformation and wet deposition of chemicals composing ''acid rain.'' In addition, during 1986, a special opportunity for measuring the transport and removal of radioactivity occurred after the Chernobyl reactor accident in April 1986. Separate abstracts were prepared for individual projects

  11. Hanford High-Level Waste Vitrification Program at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory: technology development - annotated bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larson, D.E.

    1996-09-01

    This report provides a collection of annotated bibliographies for documents prepared under the Hanford High-Level Waste Vitrification (Plant) Program. The bibliographies are for documents from Fiscal Year 1983 through Fiscal Year 1995, and include work conducted at or under the direction of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The bibliographies included focus on the technology developed over the specified time period for vitrifying Hanford pretreated high-level waste. The following subject areas are included: General Documentation; Program Documentation; High-Level Waste Characterization; Glass Formulation and Characterization; Feed Preparation; Radioactive Feed Preparation and Glass Properties Testing; Full-Scale Feed Preparation Testing; Equipment Materials Testing; Melter Performance Assessment and Evaluations; Liquid-Fed Ceramic Melter; Cold Crucible Melter; Stirred Melter; High-Temperature Melter; Melter Off-Gas Treatment; Vitrification Waste Treatment; Process, Product Control and Modeling; Analytical; and Canister Closure, Decontamination, and Handling

  12. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1987 to the DOE Office of Energy Research: Part 1, Biomedical Sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes progress on OHER biomedical and health-effects research conducted at Pacific Northwest Laboratory in FY 1987. The research develops the knowledge and scientific principles necessary to identify, understand, and anticipate the long-term health consequences of energy-related radiation and chemicals. Our continuing emphasis is to decrease the uncertainty of health-effects risk estimates from existing and/or developing energy-related technologies through an increased understanding of how radiation and chemicals cause health effects. The report is arranged to reflect PNL research relative to OHER programmatic structure. The first section, on human health effects, concerns statistical and epidemiological studies for assessing health risks. The next section, which contains reports of health-effects research in biological systems, includes research with radiation and chemicals. The last section is related to medical applications of nuclear technology

  13. Hanford High-Level Waste Vitrification Program at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory: technology development - annotated bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report provides a collection of annotated bibliographies for documents prepared under the Hanford High-Level Waste Vitrification (Plant) Program. The bibliographies are for documents from Fiscal Year 1983 through Fiscal Year 1995, and include work conducted at or under the direction of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The bibliographies included focus on the technology developed over the specified time period for vitrifying Hanford pretreated high-level waste. The following subject areas are included: General Documentation; Program Documentation; High-Level Waste Characterization; Glass Formulation and Characterization; Feed Preparation; Radioactive Feed Preparation and Glass Properties Testing; Full-Scale Feed Preparation Testing; Equipment Materials Testing; Melter Performance Assessment and Evaluations; Liquid-Fed Ceramic Melter; Cold Crucible Melter; Stirred Melter; High-Temperature Melter; Melter Off-Gas Treatment; Vitrification Waste Treatment; Process, Product Control and Modeling; Analytical; and Canister Closure, Decontamination, and Handling

  14. Research Advances: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Finds New Way to Detect Destructive Enzyme Activity--Hair Dye Relies on Nanotechnology--Ways to Increase Shelf Life of Milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Angela G.

    2007-01-01

    Recent advances in various research fields are described. Scientists at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory have found a new way to detect destructive enzyme activity, scientists in France have found that an ancient hair dye used by ancient people in Greece and Rome relied on nanotechnology and in the U.S. scientists are developing new…

  15. Pacific Northwest Laboratory: Director`s overview of research performed for DOE Office of Health And Environmental Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    A significant portion of the research undertaken at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is focused on the strategic programs of the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Office of Health and Environmental Research (OHER). These programs, which include Environmental Processes (Subsurface Science, Ecosystem Function and Response, and Atmospheric Chemistry), Global Change (Climate Change, Environmental Vulnerability, and Integrated Assessments), Biotechnology (Human Genome and Structural Biology), and Health (Health Effects and Medical Applications), have been established by OHER to support DOE business areas in science and technology and environmental quality. PNL uses a set of critical capabilities based on the Laboratory`s research facilities and the scientific and technological expertise of its staff to help OHER achieve its programmatic research goals. Integration of these capabilities across the Laboratory enables PNL to assemble multidisciplinary research teams that are highly effective in addressing the complex scientific and technical issues associated with OHER-sponsored research. PNL research efforts increasingly are focused on complex environmental and health problems that require multidisciplinary teams to address the multitude of time and spatial scales found in health and environmental research. PNL is currently engaged in research in the following areas for these OHER Divisions: Environmental Sciences -- atmospheric radiation monitoring, climate modeling, carbon cycle, atmospheric chemistry, ecological research, subsurface sciences, bioremediation, and environmental molecular sciences; Health Effects and Life Sciences -- cell/molecular biology, and biotechnology; Medical Applications and Biophysical Research -- analytical technology, and radiological and chemical physics. PNL`s contributions to OHER strategic research programs are described in this report.

  16. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1987 to the DOE office of energy research: Part 2, Environmental sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-07-01

    This report summarizes progress in environmental sciences research conducted by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the Office of Health and Environmental Research in FY 1987. Research is directed toward developing a fundamental understanding of processes controlling the long-term fate and biological effects of fugitive chemicals and other stressors resulting from energy development. The research, focused on terrestrial, subsurface, and coastal marine systems, forms the basis for defining and quantifying processes that affect humans and the environment at the regional and global levels. Research is multidisciplinary and multitiered, providing integrated system-level insights into critical environmental processes. Research initiatives in subsurface microbiology and transport, global change, radon, and molecular sciences are building on PNL technical strengths in biogeochemistry, hydrodynamics, molecular biology, and theoretical ecology. Unique PNL facilities are used to probe multiple phenomena complex relationships at increasing levels of complexity. Intermediate-scale experimental systems are used to examine arid land watershed dynamics, aerosol behavior and effects, and multidimensional subsurface transport. In addition, field laboratories (the National Environmental Research Park and Marine Research Laboratory) are used in conjunction with advanced measurement techniques to validate concepts and models, and to extrapolate the results to the system and global levels. Strong university liaisons now in existence are being markedly expanded so that PNL resources and the specialized technical capabilities in the university community can be more efficiently integrated.

  17. Pacific Northwest Salmon Habitat Project Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In the Pacific Northwest Salmon Habitat Project Database Across the Pacific Northwest, both public and private agents are working to improve riverine habitat for a...

  18. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1988 to the DOE Office of Energy Research: Part 2, Environmental Sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-04-01

    This report summarizes progress in environmental sciences research conducted by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the Office of Health and Environmental Research in FY 1988. Research is directed toward developing a fundamental understanding of processes controlling the long-term fate and biological effects of fugitive chemicals and other stressors resulting from energy development. The PNL research program continues to make important contributions to the resolution of important national environmental problems. The research, focused principally on subsurface contaminant transport and detection and management of human-induced changes in biological systems, forms the basis for defining and quantifying processes that affect humans and the environment at the regional and global levels. Each research project forms a component in an integrated laboratory- intermediated scale field approach designed to examine multiple phenomena at increasing levels of complexity. This approach is providing system-level insights into critical environmental processes. Strong university liaisons now in existence are being markedly expanded so that PNL resources and the specialized technical capabilities in the university community can be more efficiently integrated. Building on PNL technical strengths in geochemistry, environment microbiology, hydrodynamics, and statistical ecology, research in the environmental sciences is in an exciting phase, and new investments have been made in molecular sciences, chemistry, biotechnology, use of remote imagery, and theoretical ecology. The section on exploratory research provides unique insight into the value of these investments and into the future of PNL environmental sciences programs.

  19. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1991 to the DOE Office of Energy Research. Part 2, Environmental sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, D.A. [ed.

    1992-02-01

    This report summarizes progress in environmental sciences research conducted by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Office of Health and Environmental Research in FY 1991. Each project in the PNL research program is a component in an integrated laboratory, intermediate-scale, and field approach designed to examine multiple phenomena at increasing levels of complexity. Examples include definition of the role of fundamental geochemical and physical phenomena on the diversity and function of microorganisms in the deep subsurface, and determination of the controls on nutrient, water, and energy dynamics in arid ecosystems and their response to stress at the landscape scale. The Environmental Science Research Center has enable PNL to extend fundamental knowledge of subsurface science to develop emerging new concepts for use in natural systems and in environmental restoration of DOE sites. New PNL investments have been made in developing advanced concepts for addressing chemical desorption kinetics, enzyme transformations and redesign, the role of heterogeneity in contaminant transport, and modeling of fundamental ecological processes.

  20. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1983 to the DOE Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environmental Protection, Safety and Emergency Preparedness. Part 5. Overview and assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 1983 annual report from Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to the Department of Energy (DOE) describes research in environment, health, and safety conducted during fiscal year 1983. The report again consists of five parts, each in a separate volume. Part 5 of the 1983 Annual Report to the Department of Energy's Assistant Secretary for Environmental Protection, Safety and Emergency Preparedness presents Pacific Northwest Laboratory's progress on work performed for the Office of Nuclear Safety and the Office of Operational Safety. For each project, as identified by the Field Task Proposal/Agreement, articles describe progress made during FY 1983. Authors of these articles represent a broad spectrum of capabilities derived from various segments of the Laboratory, reflecting the interdisciplinary nature of the work

  1. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1987 to the DOE Office of Energy Research: Part 3, Atmospheric sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elderkin, C.E.

    1988-08-01

    Currently, the broad goals of atmospheric research at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) are to describe and predict the nature and fate of atmospheric contaminants and to develop an understanding of the atmospheric processes contributing to their distribution on local, regional, and continental scales in the air, in clouds, and on the surface. For several years, studies of transport and diffusion have been extended to mesoscale areas of complex terrain. Atmospheric cleansing research has expanded to a regional scale, multilaboratory investigation of precipitation scavenging processes involving the transformation and wet deposition of chemicals composing ''acid rain.'' In addition, the redistribution and long-range transport of transformed contaminants passing through clouds is recognized as a necessary extension of our research to even larger scales in the future. A few long-range tracer experiments conducted in recent years and the special opportunity for measuring the transport and removal of radioactivity following the Chernobyl reactor accident of April 1986 offer important initial data bases for studying atmospheric processes at these super-regional scales.

  2. Annotated bibliography of radioactive waste management publications at Pacific Northwest Laboratory, January 1978 through July 1982. [831 abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-09-01

    This bibliography lists publications (831 abstracts) from the Pacific Northwest Laboratory's Department of Energy sponsored research and development programs from January 1978 through July of 1982. The abstracts are grouped in subject categories, as shown in the table of contents. Entries in the subject index also facilitate access by subject, e.g., High-Level Radioactive Wastes. Three indexes, each preceded by a brief description, are provided: personal author, subject, and report number. Cited are research reports, journal articles, books, patents, theses, and conference papers. Excluded are technical progress reports. Since 1978 the Nuclear Waste Management Quarterly Progress Report has been published under the series number PNL-3000. Beginning in 1982, this publication has been issued semiannually, under the series number PNL-4250. This bibliography is the successor to two others, BNWL-2201 (covering the years 1965-1976) and PNL-4050 (1975-1978). It is intended to provide a useful reference to literature in waste management written or compiled by PNL staff.

  3. Uranium recovery research sponsored by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission at Pacific Northwest Laboratory. Annual progress report, May 1982-May 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is currently conducting research for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) on uranium recovery process wastes for both active and inactive operations. NRC-sponsored uranium recovery research at PNL is focused on NRC regulatory responsibilities for uranium-recovery operations: license active milling and in situ extraction operations; concur on the acceptability of DOE remedial-action plans for inactive sites; and license DOE to maintain inactive sites following remedial actions. PNL's program consists of four coordinated projects comprised of a program management task and nine research tasks that address the critical technical and safety issues for uranium recovery. Specifically, the projects endeavor to find and evaluate methods to: prevent erosion of tailings piles and prevent radon release from tailings piles; evaluate the effectiveness of interim stabilization techniques to prevent wind erosion and transport of dry tailings from active piles; estimate the dewatering and consolidation behavior of slurried tailings to promote early cover placement; design a cover-protection system to prevent erosion of the cover by expected environmental stresses; reduce seepage into ground water and prevent ground-water degradation; control solution movement and reaction with ground water in in-situ extraction operations; evaluate natural and induced restoration of ground water in in-situ extraction operations; and monitor releases to the environment from uranium recovery facilities

  4. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1991 to the DOE Office of Energy Research. Part 3, Atmospheric and climate research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-05-01

    Within the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Office of Health and Environmental Research (OHER), the atmospheric sciences and carbon dioxide research programs are part of the Environmental Sciences Division (ESD). One of the central missions of the division Is to provide the DOE with scientifically defensible information on the local, regional, and global distributions of energy-related pollutants and their effects on climate. This information is vital to the definition and Implementation of a sound national energy strategy. This volume reports on the progress and status of all OHER atmospheric science and climate research projects at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). Research at PNL provides basic scientific underpinnings to DOE`s program of global climate research. Research projects within the core carbon dioxide and ocean research programs are now integrated with those in the Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM), the Computer Hardware, Advanced Mathematics and Model Physics (CHAMMP), and quantitative links programs to form DOEs contribution to the US Global Change Research Program. Climate research in the ESD has the common goal of improving our understanding of the physical, chemical, biological, and social processes that influence the Earth system so that national and international policymaking relating to natural and human-induced changes in the Earth system can be given a firm scientific basis. This report describes the progress In FY 1991 in each of these areas.

  5. Inventory of data bases, models, and graphics packages at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dionne, P.J.; Mathisen, D.I.

    1978-10-01

    The Information Coordination Focal Point (ICFP) was initiated in FY77 because DOE had a need for improved access to information at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, the Savannah River Laboratory, and the six DOE national laboratories. The task for FY77 was to establish guidelines and procedures for this activity with plans of implementing the procedures in FY78 and FY79. The purpose of this report is to document the progress that has been made during FY78 for this project.

  6. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1989 to the DOE (Department of Energy) Office of Energy Research - Part 4: Physical Sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toburen, L.H.; Stults, B.R.; Mahaffey, J.A.

    1990-04-01

    This 1989 Annual Report from Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to the US Department of Energy (DOE) describes research in environment, safety, and health conducted during fiscal year 1989. The report again consists of five parts, each in a separate volume. This volume contains 20 papers. Part 4 of the Pacific Northwest Laboratory Annual Report of 1989 to the DOE Office of Energy Research includes those programs funded under the title Physical and Technological Research.'' The Field Task Program Studies reported in this document are grouped by budget category and each Field Task proposal/agreement is introduced by an abstract that describes the projects reported in that section. These reports only briefly indicate progress made during 1989. 74 refs., 29 figs., 6 tabs.

  7. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1979 to the DOE Assistant Secretary for Environment. Part 5. Environmental assessment, control, health, and safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Part 5 of the 1979 Annual Report to the Department of Energy Assistant Secretary for the Environment presents Pacific Northwest Laboratory's progress on work performed for the Office of Technology Impacts, the Office of Environmental Compliance and Overview, and the Office of Health and Environmental Research. The report is in four sections, corresponding to the program elements: technology impacts, environmental control engineering, operational and environmental compliance, and human health studies. In each section, articles describe progress made during FY 1979 on individual projects

  8. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1992 to the DOE Office of Energy Research. Part 2, Environmental sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grove, L.K. [ed.; Wildung, R.E.

    1993-03-01

    The 1992 Annual Report from Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to the US Department of Energy (DOE) describes research in environment and health conducted during fiscal year 1992. This report consists of four volumes oriented to particular segments of the PNL program, describing research performed for the DOE Office of Health and Environmental Research in the Office of Energy Research. The parts of the 1992 Annual Report are: Biomedical Sciences; Environmental Sciences; Atmospheric Sciences; and Physical Sciences. This Report is Part 2: Environmental Sciences. Included in this report are developments in Subsurface Science, Terrestrial Science, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development, Interactions with Educational Institutions, Technology Transfer, Publications, and Presentations. The research is directed toward developing a fundamental understanding of subsurface and terrestrial systems as a basis for both managing these critical resources and addressing environmental problems such as environmental restoration and global change. The Technology Transfer section of this report describes a number of examples in which fundamental research is laying the groundwork for the technology needed to resolve important environmental problems. The Interactions with Educational Institutions section of the report illustrates the results of a long-term, proactive program to make PNL facilities available for university and preuniversity education and to involve educational institutions in research programs. The areas under investigation include the effect of geochemical and physical phenomena on the diversity and function of microorganisms in deep subsurface environments, ways to address subsurface heterogeneity, and ways to determine the key biochemical and physiological pathways (and DNA markers) that control nutrient, water, and energy dynamics in arid ecosystems and the response of these systems to disturbance and climatic change.

  9. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1992 to the DOE Office of Energy Research. Part 3, Atmospheric and climate research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schrempf, R.E. [ed.

    1993-04-01

    Within the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Office of Health and Environmental Research (OHER), the atmospheric sciences and carbon dioxide research programs are part of the Environmental Sciences Division (ESD). One of the central missions of the division is to provide the DOE with scientifically defensible information on the local, regional, and global distributions of energy-related pollutants and their effects on climate. This information is vital to the definition and implementation of a sound national energy strategy. This volume reports on the progress and status of all OHER atmospheric science and climate research projects at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). PNL has had a long history of technical leadership in the atmospheric sciences research programs within OHER. Within the ESD, the Atmospheric Chemistry Program (ACP) continues DOE`s long-term commitment to study the continental and oceanic fates of energy-related air pollutants. Research through direct measurement, numerical modeling, and laboratory studies in the ACP emphasizes the long-range transport, chemical transformation, and removal of emitted pollutants, oxidant species, nitrogen-reservoir species, and aerosols. The Atmospheric Studies in Complex Terrain (ASCOT) program continues to apply basic research on density-driven circulations and on turbulent mixing and dispersion in the atmospheric boundary layer to the micro- to mesoscale meteorological processes that affect air-surface exchange and to emergency preparedness at DOE and other facilities. Research at PNL provides basic scientific underpinnings to DOE`s program of global climate research. Research projects within the core carbon dioxide and ocean research programs are now integrated with those in the Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM), the Computer Hardware, Advanced Mathematics and Model Physics (CHAMMP), and Quantitative Links programs to form DOE`s contribution to the US Global Change Research Program.

  10. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1994 to the DOE Office of Energy Research. Part 2: Atmospheric and climate research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-04-01

    Atmospheric research at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) occurs in conjunction with the Atmospheric Chemistry Program (ACP) and with the Atmospheric Studies in Complex Terrain (ASCOT) Program. Solicitations for proposals and peer review were used to select research projects for funding in FY 1995. Nearly all ongoing projects were brought to a close in FY 1994. Therefore, the articles in this volume include a summary of the long-term accomplishments as well as the FY 1994 progress made on these projects. The following articles present summaries of the progress in FY 1994 under these research tasks: continental and oceanic fate of pollutants; research aircraft operations; ASCOT program management; coupling/decoupling of synoptic and valley circulations; interactions between surface exchange processes and atmospheric circulations; and direct simulations of atmospheric turbulence. Climate change research at PNL is aimed at reducing uncertainties in the fundamental processes that control climate systems that currently prevent accurate predictions of climate change and its effects. PNL is responsible for coordinating and integrating the field and laboratory measurement programs, modeling studies, and data analysis activities of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM) program. In FY 1994, PNL scientists conducted 3 research projects under the ARM program. In the first project, the sensitivity of GCM grid-ad meteorological properties to subgrid-scale variations in surface fluxes and subgrid-scale circulation patterns is being tested in a single column model. In the second project, a new and computationally efficient scheme has been developed for parameterizing stratus cloud microphysics in general circulation models. In the last project, a balloon-borne instrument package is being developed for making research-quality measurements of radiative flux divergence profiles in the lowest 1,500 meters of the Earth`s atmosphere.

  11. Economic Impact of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory on the State of Washington in Fiscal Year 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, Michael J.; Niemeyer, Jackie M.

    2015-11-09

    PNNL is a large economic entity with a total of 4,308 employees, $939 million (M) in total funding, and $1.02 billion (B) in total spending during FY 2014. The number of employees that live in Washington State is 4,026 or 93 percent of the Laboratory staff. he Laboratory directly and indirectly supported $1.45 billion in economic output, 6,832 jobs, and $517 million in Washington State wage income from current operations. The state also gained more than $1.19 billion in output, over 6,200 jobs, and $444 million in income through closely related economic activities such as visitors, health care spending, spending by resident retirees, and spinoff companies. PNNL affects Washington’s economy through commonly recognized economic channels, including spending on payrolls and other goods and services that support Laboratory operations. Less commonly recognized channels also have their own impacts and include company-supported spending on health care for its staff members and retirees, spending of its resident retirees, Laboratory visitor spending, and the economic activities in a growing constellation of “spinoff” companies founded on PNNL research, technology, and managerial expertise. PNNL also has a significant impact on science and technology education and community not-for-profit organizations. PNNL is an active participant in the future scientific enterprise in Washington with the state’s K-12 schools, colleges, and universities. The Laboratory sends staff members to the classroom and brings hundreds of students to the PNNL campus to help train the next generation of scientists, engineers, mathematicians, and technicians. This investment in human capital, though difficult to measure in terms of current dollars of economic output, is among the important lasting legacies of the Laboratory. Finally, PNNL contributes to the local community with millions of dollars’ worth of cash and in-kind corporate and staff contributions, all of which strengthen the

  12. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) spent fuel transportation and handling facility models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A spent fuel logistics study was conducted in support of the US DOE program to develop facilities for preparing spent unreprocessed fuel from commercial LWRs for geological storage. Two computerized logistics models were developed. The first one was the site evaluation model. Two studies of spent fuel handling facility and spent fuel disposal facility siting were completed; the first postulates a single spent fuel handling facility located at any of six DOE laboratory sites, while the second study examined siting strategies with the spent fuel repository relative to the spent fuel handling facility. A second model to conduct storage/handling facility simulations was developed

  13. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1990 to the DOE Office of Energy Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes progress on OHER human health, biological, and general life sciences research programs conducted at PNL in FY 1990. The research develops the knowledge and scientific principles necessary to identify understand, and anticipate the long-term health consequences of energy-related radiation and chemicals. Our continuing emphasis is to decrease the uncertainty of health risk estimates from existing and developing energy-related technologies through an increased of understanding of how radiation and chemicals cause biological damage. The sequence of this report of PNL research reflects the OHER programmatic structure. The first section, on human health research, concerns epidemiological and statistical studies for assessing health risks. The next section contains reports of biological research in laboratory animals and in vitro cell systems, including research with radionuclides and chemicals. The general life sciences research section reports research conducted for the OHER human genome research program

  14. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1990 to the DOE Office of Energy Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, J.F.

    1991-06-01

    This report summarizes progress on OHER human health, biological, and general life sciences research programs conducted at PNL in FY 1990. The research develops the knowledge and scientific principles necessary to identify understand, and anticipate the long-term health consequences of energy-related radiation and chemicals. Our continuing emphasis is to decrease the uncertainty of health risk estimates from existing and developing energy-related technologies through an increased of understanding of how radiation and chemicals cause biological damage. The sequence of this report of PNL research reflects the OHER programmatic structure. The first section, on human health research, concerns epidemiological and statistical studies for assessing health risks. The next section contains reports of biological research in laboratory animals and in vitro cell systems, including research with radionuclides and chemicals. The general life sciences research section reports research conducted for the OHER human genome research program.

  15. Pacific Northwest Laboratory report on controlled thermonuclear reactor technology, October 1975--December 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Survey calculations are being made on three blanket configurations for a conceptual hybrid design based on a Two Component Torus (TCT) in a cooperative effort between Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) and PNL. Other studies are underway to provide background data in the design of a minimum thickness shield and a convertor region for the TCT hybrid. The effect the plasma and associated radiation and emission will have upon the surfaces of the first wall are being studied. A variety of metal targets were prepared for neutron irradiation and were evaluated. Radioactive recoil sputtering ratios are summarized with complete results being prepared for separate publication. The development and testing of the ion blistering equipment is continuing with the design and installation of a special differential pumping stage. Analysis of the molybdenum specimens irradiated for the initial BCC ion correlation experiment is completed and data from the participants have been compared. Graphite cloth and fibers irradiated in EBR-II to approximately 3 x 1021 cm-2 at approximately 5000C are being evaluated for radiation damage effects. Helium effects are being studied on five alloys specified in CTR conceptual designs. Tests were designed to determine the effects of oxidation potential on low-level contaminant/metal interactions. Niobium and vanadium are being studied for mechanical property effects after injection of helium by the tritium trick method. An advanced state-of-the-art Acoustics Emission Event Energy Analyzer (AEEEA) has been developed and tested

  16. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1989 to the DOE Office of Energy Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes progress on OHER human health, biological, general life sciences, and medical applications research programs conducted at PNL in FY 1989. The research develops the knowledge and scientific principles necessary to identify, understand, and anticipate the long-term health consequences of energy-related radiation and chemicals. Our continuing emphasis is to decrease the uncertainty of health risk estimates from existing and developing energy-related technologies through an increased understanding of how radiation and chemicals cause biological damage. The sequence of this report of PNL research reflects the OHER programmatic structure. The first section, on human health research, concerns statistical and epidemiological studies for assessing health risks. The next section contains reports of biological research in laboratory animals and in vitro cell systems, including research with radionuclides and chemicals. The general life sciences research section reports research conducted for the OHER human genome research program, and the medical applications section summarizes commercial radioisotope production and distribution activities at DOE facilities. 6 refs., 50 figs., 35 tabs

  17. Pacific Northwest Resources Inventory Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, J. D.

    1976-01-01

    The Pacific Northwest Land Resource Inventory Demonstration project is designed to demonstrate to users from state and local agencies in Washington, Oregon, and Idaho the cost effective role that Landsat derived information can play in natural resource planning and management when properly supported by ground and aircraft data. The project has been organized into five main phases: (1) maps and overlays, (2) early digital image analysis, (3) demonstration of applications using interactive image analysis, (4) Landsat products and land resources information systems, and (5) documentation. The demonstration project has been applied to Washington forestry, water inventory in southern Idaho, and monitoring of tansy ragwort in western Oregon.

  18. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1987 to the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety, and Health: Part 5: Environment, safety, health, and quality assurance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faust, L.G.; Steelman, B.L.; Selby, J.M.

    1988-02-01

    Part 5 of the 1987 Annual Report to the US Department of Energy's Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety, and Health presents Pacific Northwest Laboratory's progress on work performed for the Office of Nuclear Safety, the Office of Environmental Guidance and Compliance, the Office of Environmental Audit, and the Office of National Environmental Policy Act Project Assistance. For each project, as identified by the Field Work Proposal, articles describe progress made during fiscal year 1987. Authors of these articles represent a broad spectrum of capabilities derived from five of the seven technical centers of the Laboratory, reflecting the interdisciplinary nature of the work.

  19. Pacific Northwest Laboratory: Annual report for 1986 to the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety and Health: Part 5, Nuclear and operational safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Part 5 of the 1986 Annual Report to the Department of Energy's Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety and Health presents Pacific Northwest Laboratory's progress on work performed for the Office of Nuclear Safety, the Office of Operational Safety, and for the Office of Environmental Analysis. For each project, as identified by the Field Task Proposal/Agreement, articles describe progress made during fiscal year 1986. Authors of these articles represent a broad spectrum of capabilities derived from three of the seven research departments of the Laboratory, reflecting the interdisciplinary nature of the work

  20. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1987 to the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety, and Health: Part 5: Environment, safety, health, and quality assurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Part 5 of the 1987 Annual Report to the US Department of Energy's Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety, and Health presents Pacific Northwest Laboratory's progress on work performed for the Office of Nuclear Safety, the Office of Environmental Guidance and Compliance, the Office of Environmental Audit, and the Office of National Environmental Policy Act Project Assistance. For each project, as identified by the Field Work Proposal, articles describe progress made during fiscal year 1987. Authors of these articles represent a broad spectrum of capabilities derived from five of the seven technical centers of the Laboratory, reflecting the interdisciplinary nature of the work

  1. Science to support DOE site cleanup: The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Environmental Management Science Program awards. Fiscal year 1998 mid-year progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-05-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory was awarded ten (10) Environmental Management Science Program (EMSP) research grants in Fiscal Year 1996 and six (6) in Fiscal Year 1997. This section summarizes how each grant addresses significant US Department of Energy (DOE) cleanup issues, including those at the Hanford Site. The technical progress made to date in each of these research projects is addressed in more detail in the individual progress reports contained in this document. This research is focused primarily in four areas: Tank Waste Remediation, Spent Nuclear Fuel and Nuclear Materials, Soil and Groundwater Cleanup, and Health Effects.

  2. Science to support DOE site cleanup: The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Environmental Management Science Program awards. Fiscal year 1997, mid-year progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory was awarded ten Environmental Management Science Program (EMSP) research grants in Fiscal Year 1996. This report gives a summary of how each grant is addressing significant DOE cleanup issues, including those at the Hanford Site. The technical progress made to date in each of these research projects is addressed in more detail in the individual progress reports contained in this document. This research is primarily focused in three areas--Tank Waste Remediation, Soil and Groundwater Cleanup, and Health Effects

  3. Science to Support DOE Site Cleanup: The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Environmental Management Science Program Awards-Fiscal Year 1999 Mid-Year Progress Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory was awarded ten Environmental Management Science Program (EMSP) research grants in fiscal year 1996, six in fiscal year 1997, and eight in fiscal year 1998. This section summarizes how each grant addresses significant U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) cleanup issues, including those at the Hanford Site. The technical progress made to date in each of these research projects is addressed in more detail in the individual progress reports contained in this document. This research is focused primarily in five areas: Tank Waste Remediation, Decontamination and Decommissioning, Spent Nuclear Fuel and Nuclear Materials, Soil and Groundwater Clean Up, and Health Effects

  4. Science to Support DOE Site Cleanup: The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Environmental Management Science Program Awards-Fiscal Year 1999 Mid-Year Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peurrung, L.M.

    1999-06-30

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory was awarded ten Environmental Management Science Program (EMSP) research grants in fiscal year 1996, six in fiscal year 1997, and eight in fiscal year 1998. This section summarizes how each grant addresses significant U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) cleanup issues, including those at the Hanford Site. The technical progress made to date in each of these research projects is addressed in more detail in the individual progress reports contained in this document. This research is focused primarily in five areas: Tank Waste Remediation, Decontamination and Decommissioning, Spent Nuclear Fuel and Nuclear Materials, Soil and Groundwater Clean Up, and Health Effects.

  5. Science to support DOE site cleanup: The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Environmental Management Science Program awards. Fiscal year 1998 mid-year progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory was awarded ten (10) Environmental Management Science Program (EMSP) research grants in Fiscal Year 1996 and six (6) in Fiscal Year 1997. This section summarizes how each grant addresses significant US Department of Energy (DOE) cleanup issues, including those at the Hanford Site. The technical progress made to date in each of these research projects is addressed in more detail in the individual progress reports contained in this document. This research is focused primarily in four areas: Tank Waste Remediation, Spent Nuclear Fuel and Nuclear Materials, Soil and Groundwater Cleanup, and Health Effects

  6. Science to support DOE site cleanup: The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Environmental Management Science Program awards. Fiscal year 1997 mid-year progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory was awarded ten Environmental Management Science Program (EMSP) research grants in Fiscal Year 1996. This report gives a summary of how each grant is addressing significant DOE cleanup issues, including those at the Hanford Site. The technical progress made to date in each of these research projects is addressed in more detail in the individual progress reports contained in this document. This research is primarily focused in three areas--Tank Waste Remediation, Soil and Groundwater Cleanup, and Health Effects.

  7. 1997 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1997-12-01

    The 1997 White Book is presented in two documents: (1) this summary of Federal system and Pacific Northwest region loads and resources; and (2) a technical appendix detailing the loads and resources for each major Pacific Northwest generating utility. Data detailing Pacific Northwest non-utility generating (NUG) resources is also available upon request. This analysis updates the 1996 pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study, published in December 1996. In this loads and resources study, resource availability is compared with a medium forecast of electricity consumption. This document analyzes the Pacific Northwest`s projected loads and available generating resources in two parts: (1) the loads and resources of the Federal system, for which BPA is the marketing agency; and (2) the larger Pacific Northwest regional power system which includes loads and resources in addition to the Federal system. This study presents the Federal system and regional analyses for the medium load forecast. This analysis projects the yearly average energy consumption and resource availability for Operating Years (OY) 1998--99 through 2007--08.

  8. Science to Support DOE Site Cleanup: The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Environmental Management Science Program Awards -- Fiscal Year 2002 Mid-Year Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bredt, Paul R.; Ainsworth, Calvin C.; Brockman, Fred J.; Camaioni, Donald M.; Egorov, Oleg B.; Felmy, Andrew R.; Gorby, Yuri A.; Grate, Jay W.; Greenwood, Margaret S.; Hay, Benjamin P.; Hess, Nancy J.; Hubler, Timothy L.; Icenhower, Jonathan P.; Mattigod, Shas V.; McGrail, B. Peter; Meyer, Philip D.; Murray, Christopher J.; Panetta, Paul D.; Pfund, David M.; Rai, Dhanpat; Su, Yali; Sundaram, S. K.; Weber, William J.; Zachara, John M.

    2002-06-11

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory has been awarded a total of 80 Environmental Management Science Program (EMSP) research grants since the inception of the program in 1996. The Laboratory has collaborated on an additional 14 EMSP awards with funding received through other institution. This report describes how each of the projects awarded in 1999, 2000, and 2001 addresses significant U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) cleanup issues, including those at the Hanford Site. The technical progress made to date in each of these research projects is addressed in the individual project reports included in this document. Projects are under way in three main areas: Tank Waste Remediation, Decontamination and Decommissioning, and Soil and Groundwater Cleanup.

  9. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1980 to the DOE Assistant Secretary for Environment. Part 5. Environmental assessment, control, health and safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baalman, R.W.; Hays, I.D. (eds.)

    1981-02-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory's (PNL) 1980 annual report to the DOE Assistant Secretary for Environment describes research in environment, health, and safety conducted during fiscal year 1980. Part 5 includes technology assessments for natural gas, enhanced oil recovery, oil shale, uranium mining, magnetic fusion energy, solar energy, uranium enrichment and industrial energy utilization; regional analysis studies of environmental transport and community impacts; environmental and safety engineering for LNG, oil spills, LPG, shale oil waste waters, geothermal liquid waste disposal, compressed air energy storage, and nuclear/fusion fuel cycles; operational and environmental safety studies of decommissioning, environmental monitoring, personnel dosimetry, and analysis of criticality safety; health physics studies; and epidemiological studies. Also included are an author index, organization of PNL charts and distribution lists of the annual report, along with lists of presentations and publications. (DLS)

  10. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1980 to the DOE Assistant Secretary for Environment. Part 5. Environmental assessment, control, health and safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory's (PNL) 1980 annual report to the DOE Assistant Secretary for Environment describes research in environment, health, and safety conducted during fiscal year 1980. Part 5 includes technology assessments for natural gas, enhanced oil recovery, oil shale, uranium mining, magnetic fusion energy, solar energy, uranium enrichment and industrial energy utilization; regional analysis studies of environmental transport and community impacts; environmental and safety engineering for LNG, oil spills, LPG, shale oil waste waters, geothermal liquid waste disposal, compressed air energy storage, and nuclear/fusion fuel cycles; operational and environmental safety studies of decommissioning, environmental monitoring, personnel dosimetry, and analysis of criticality safety; health physics studies; and epidemiological studies. Also included are an author index, organization of PNL charts and distribution lists of the annual report, along with lists of presentations and publications

  11. Science to Support DOE Site Cleanup: The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Environmental Management Science Program Awards - Fiscal Year 2000 Mid-Year Progress Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory was awarded ten Environmental Management Science Program (EMSP) research grants in fiscal year 1996, six in fiscal year 1997, eight in fiscal year 1998, and seven in fiscal year 1999. All of the fiscal year 1996 award projects have been completed and will publish final reports, so their annual updates will not be included in this document. This section summarizes how each of the currently funded grants addresses significant US Department of Energy (DOE) cleanup issues, including those at the Hanford Site. The technical progress made to date in each of these research projects is addressed in more detail in the individual progress reports contained in this document. This research performed at PNNL is focused primarily in four areas: Tank Waste Remediation; Decontamination and Decommissioning; Spent Nuclear Fuel and Nuclear Materials; and Soil and Groundwater Cleanup

  12. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1989 to the DOE (Department of Energy) Office of Energy Research - Part 2: Environmental Sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-03-01

    This report summarizes progress in environmental sciences research conducted by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PBL) for the Office of Health and Environmental Research in FY 1989. Research is directed toward developing a fundamental understanding of processes controlling the long-term fate and biological effects of fugitive chemicals and other stressors resulting from energy development. The report is organized by major research areas. Within this division, individual reports summarize the progress of projects in these areas. Additional sections summarize exploratory research, educational institutional interactions, technology transfer, and publications. The research, focused principally on subsurface contaminant transport and detection and management of human-induced changes in biological systems, forms the basis for defining and quantifying processes that affect humans and the environment at the local, regional, and global levels.

  13. Science to Support DOE Site Cleanup: The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Environmental Management Science Program Awards - Fiscal Year 2000 Mid-Year Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, Clark D.; Bennett, Sheila Q.

    2000-07-25

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory was awarded ten Environmental Management Science Program (EMSP) research grants in fiscal year 1996, six in fiscal year 1997, eight in fiscal year 1998 and seven in fiscal year 1999.(a) All of the fiscal year 1996 awards have been completed and the Principal Investigators are writing final reports, so their summaries will not be included in this document. This section summarizes how each of the currently funded grants addresses significant U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) cleanup issues, including those at the Hanford Site. The technical progress made to date in each of these research projects is addressed in more detail in the individual progress reports contained in this document. This research performed at PNNL is focused primarily in four areas: Tank Waste Remediation, Decontamination and Decommissioning, Spent Nuclear Fuel and Nuclear Materials, and Soil and Groundwater Cleanup.

  14. Science to Support DOE Site Cleanup: The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Environmental Management Science Program Awards - Fiscal Year 2000 Mid-Year Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CD Carlson; SQ Bennett

    2000-07-25

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory was awarded ten Environmental Management Science Program (EMSP) research grants in fiscal year 1996, six in fiscal year 1997, eight in fiscal year 1998, and seven in fiscal year 1999. All of the fiscal year 1996 award projects have been completed and will publish final reports, so their annual updates will not be included in this document. This section summarizes how each of the currently funded grants addresses significant US Department of Energy (DOE) cleanup issues, including those at the Hanford Site. The technical progress made to date in each of these research projects is addressed in more detail in the individual progress reports contained in this document. This research performed at PNNL is focused primarily in four areas: Tank Waste Remediation; Decontamination and Decommissioning; Spent Nuclear Fuel and Nuclear Materials; and Soil and Groundwater Cleanup.

  15. SCIENCE, POLITICS, AND PACIFIC NORTHWEST SALMON RECOVERY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Throughout the Pacific Northwest, since 1850, all wild salmon runs have declined and some have disappeared. Billions of dollars have been spent in a so-far failed attempt to reverse the long-term decline. Each year, hundreds of millions of dollars continue to be spent in variou...

  16. Surface radiological free release program for the Battelle Columbus Laboratory Decommissioning Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper was prepared for the Second Residual Radioactivity and Recycling Criteria Workshop and discusses decommissioning and decontamination activities at the Battelle Columbus Laboratories Decommissioning Project (BCLDP). The BCLDP is a joint effort between the Department of Energy (DOE) and Battelle Columbus Operations to decontaminate fifteen Battelle-owned buildings contaminated with DOE radioactive materials. The privately owned buildings located across the street from The Ohio State University campus became contaminated with natural uranium and thorium during nuclear research activities. BCLDP waste management is supported by an extensive radiological free-release program. Miscellaneous materials and building surfaces have been free-released from the BCLDP. The free-release program has substantially reduced radioactive waste volumes and supported waste minimization. Free release for unrestricted use has challenged regulators and NRC licensees since the development of early surface-release criteria. This paper discusses the surface radiological free-release program incorporated by the BCLDP and the historical development of the surface radiological free-release criteria. Concerns regarding radiological free-release criteria are also presented. (author)

  17. 1996 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1996-12-01

    The Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study (White Book) is published annually by BPA and establishes the planning basis for supplying electricity to customers. It serves a dual purpose. First, the White Book presents projections of regional and Federal system load and resource capabilities, along with relevant definitions and explanations. Second, the White Book serves as a benchmark for annual BPA determinations made pursuant to the 1981 regional power sales contracts. Specifically, BPA uses the information in the White Book for determining the notice required when customers request to increase or decrease the amount of power purchased from BPA. Aside from these purposes, the White Book is used for input to BPA`s resource planning process. The White Book compiles information obtained from several formalized resource planning reports and data submittals, including those from the Northwest Power Planning Council (Council) and the Pacific Northwest Utilities Conference Committee (PNUCC). 11 figs., 12 tabs.

  18. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1989 to the DOE (Department of Energy) Office of Energy Research - Part 3: Atmospheric Sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-06-01

    This 1989 Annual Report from Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to the US Department of Energy (DOE) describes research in environment, safety, and health conducted during fiscal year 1989. The report again consists of five parts, each in a separate volume. This volume contains research in the atmospheric sciences. Currently, the broad goals of atmospheric research at PNL are to describe and predict the nature and fate of atmospheric contaminants and to develop an understanding of the atmospheric processes contributing to their distribution on local, regional, continental, and global scales in the air, in clouds, and on the surface. The redistribution and long-range transport of transformed contaminants passing through clouds is recognized as a necessary extension of our research to even larger scales in the future. Eventually, large-scale experiments on cloud processing and redistribution of contaminants will be integrated into the national program on global change, investigating how energy pollutants affect aerosols and clouds and the transfer of radiant energy through them. As the significance of this effect becomes clear, its global impact on climate will be studied through experimental and modeling research. The description of ongoing atmospheric research at PNL is organized in terms of the following study areas: atmospheric studies in complex terrain, large-scale atmospheric transport and processing of emissions, and climate change. This report describes the progress in FY 1989 in each of these areas. A divider page summarizes the goals of each area and lists project titles that support research activities. 9 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Market Quality of Pacific Northwest Pears

    OpenAIRE

    Gallardo, Rosa Karina; Kupferman, Eugene M.; Beaudry, Randolph M.; Blankenship, Sylvia M.; Mitcham, Elizabeth J; Watkins, Christopher B

    2011-01-01

    This study uses data collected from retail grocery chains during marketing season 2003-2004 to examine the external quality and price variations of Pacific Northwest pears. Quality refers to overall fruit appearance and presence of external disorders. Results from a bivariate probit model show that fruit weight and firmness had a positive effect on overall appearance. Results from a hedonic price model show that the recurrence of external disorders is not necessarily negatively correlated wit...

  20. Heat flow in northwest Pacific marginal seas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Lili; LI Guanbao; LI Naisheng

    2004-01-01

    Heat flow studies in Northwest Pacific marginal seas has a more than 40 years history with more than 4000 heat flow values obtained. The regional average value is 80.4 mW/m2, which is lower than the world's 87 mW/m2, but higher than those of the Eurasia continent and the Pacific Ocean. This reflects the regional crust property in the area. The studies on distribution of the heat flow and contour pattern of heat flow in 1°×1°and 2°×2°scales in Northwest Pacific marginal seas revealed that the most high heat flow anomalies in the area were found along back-arc basins and island arc in an obviously northeasterly track. Exceptions are the Komandoskaya Basin (KMB), the Izu-Bonin Trough (IBT) and the Mariana Trough (MT), which extend in northwest. The contours of low heat flow marked the boundaries of the continent and the ocean. The present heat flow values reflect the imprint of the last thermal event and relate closely to tectonic activity. The high heat flow gradient areas have high frequency of earthquake. Therefore, the area of faulting controlled the pattern of the heat flow anomalies. Heat flow gradient in 135°direction indicated a major lithosphere transformation oceanward resulting from movement of the earth's material. In this paper, we described patterns of heat flow distribution in the Northwest Pacific, heat flow value changes in horizontal and vertical directions, combining the studies of Shi (1997) on the landforms of the island arcs in east Asia and plate movement, and the results of Shi and Zhang (1998) on heat simulation of subduction of active ocean mountain and the activity of islands arc. A preliminary model of geodynamics in the Northwest Pacific and its adjacent area was put forward. There is a great lateral heat flow gradient on the surface of the mantle between ocean and continent, which indicates that the materials in asthenosphere move from continent to ocean causing movement of the crust.

  1. Inert Electrodes Program: Characterization of the reaction layer or film on PNL (Pacific Northwest Laboratory) inert anodes: Progress Report for April-December 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Windisch, C.F. Jr.; Stice, N.D.

    1990-05-01

    This progress report addresses activities conducted at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) between April 1989 and December 1989 to characterize the reaction layer or film previously proposed by PNL to form on cermet anodes during the electrolytic production of aluminum in Hall-Heroult cells. Formation of this resistive film was thought to protect the cermet anode from corrosion reactions that would otherwise occur in the molten cryolite electrolyte. The results of potential-step studies, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and post-mortem microscopic analysis of polarized anodes suggest that the processes of corrosion of the metallic phase of the anode and the production of oxygen gas are separable and exhibit very different kinetic behavior. The corrosion reactions occur predominantly at low anode potentials, appear to show diffusion control, and may be related to the porosity of the anode. The oxygen production reaction is the predominant reaction above 2.2 V, exhibits activation control, occurs primarily on the surface of the anode, and is accompanied by an increase in surface roughness at higher current densities. Evidence presented in this report indicates that the production of oxygen shuts down the corrosion reactions, possibly through a pore-blocking mechanism. In addition, roughness effects may help explain some of the impedance relationships previously observed by PNL for these anodes. Although the present results do not rule out the formation of a protective layer or film, they strongly indicate mechanisms other than the formation of a macroscopic protective film for the apparent attenuation of corrosion reactions at typical operating current densities. 11 refs.

  2. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1989 to the DOE Office of Energy Research - Part 1: Biomedical Sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, J.F.

    1990-05-01

    This report summarizes progress on OHER human health, biological, general life sciences, and medical applications research programs conducted at PNL in FY 1989. The research develops the knowledge and scientific principles necessary to identify, understand, and anticipate the long-term health consequences of energy-related radiation and chemicals. Our continuing emphasis is to decrease the uncertainty of health risk estimates from existing and developing energy-related technologies through an increased understanding of how radiation and chemicals cause biological damage. The sequence of this report of PNL research reflects the OHER programmatic structure. The first section, on human health research, concerns statistical and epidemiological studies for assessing health risks. The next section contains reports of biological research in laboratory animals and in vitro cell systems, including research with radionuclides and chemicals. The general life sciences research section reports research conducted for the OHER human genome research program, and the medical applications section summarizes commercial radioisotope production and distribution activities at DOE facilities. 6 refs., 50 figs., 35 tabs.

  3. 1991 Pacific Northwest loads and resources study, Pacific Northwest economic and electricity use forecast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication provides detailed documentation of the load forecast scenarios and assumptions used in preparing BPA's 1991 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study (the Study). This is one of two technical appendices to the Study; the other appendix details the utility-specific loads and resources used in the Study. The load forecasts and assumption were developed jointly by Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and Northwest Power Planning Council (Council) staff. This forecast is also used in the Council's 1991 Northwest Conservation and Electric Power Plan (1991 Plan)

  4. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1983 to the DOE Office of Energy Research. Part 1. Biomedical sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes progress on Office of Health and Environmental Research (OHER) biomedical and health effects research conducted at PNL in FY 1983 to develop the information required for a comprehensive understanding of the interaction of energy-related pollutants with living organisms. The first section is devoted to an evaluation of possible health effects among nuclear workers. The next three sections, which contain reports of health effects research in biological systems, are grouped according to the major endpoint being studied: carcinogenesis, mutagenesis, and systems damage. Since some projects have multiple objectives, a section may contain data concerning other endpoints as well. The section on carcinogenesis presents results from laboratory animal dose-effect relationship studies from both nuclear and synfuels materials. These data, along with metabolism and modeling studies, provide a basis for predicting human risks in the absence of relevant human exposure. This year we include a report on our 22nd Hanford Life Sciences Symposium, which dealt with this problem of extrapolating the results of animal studies to man. Of particular importance in carcinogenesis has been the demonstration that the carcinogenic potencies of complex organic synfuel mixtures may be much lower (or, occasionally, higher) than the sum of the potencies of the individual components. The mutagenesis section is primarily concerned with the results of microbial mutagenesis studies with synfuel materials. These studies provide valuable information on the carcinogenic potential of these complex organic mixtures. With results from studies reported in the carcinogenesis section, they are also being used to establish an adequate data base for determining the correlation between mutagenic and carcinogenic processes. Separate abstracts have been prepared for each program for inclusion in the Energy Data Base

  5. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1983 to the DOE Office of Energy Research. Part 1. Biomedical sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, J.F.

    1984-02-01

    This report summarizes progress on Office of Health and Environmental Research (OHER) biomedical and health effects research conducted at PNL in FY 1983 to develop the information required for a comprehensive understanding of the interaction of energy-related pollutants with living organisms. The first section is devoted to an evaluation of possible health effects among nuclear workers. The next three sections, which contain reports of health effects research in biological systems, are grouped according to the major endpoint being studied: carcinogenesis, mutagenesis, and systems damage. Since some projects have multiple objectives, a section may contain data concerning other endpoints as well. The section on carcinogenesis presents results from laboratory animal dose-effect relationship studies from both nuclear and synfuels materials. These data, along with metabolism and modeling studies, provide a basis for predicting human risks in the absence of relevant human exposure. This year we include a report on our 22nd Hanford Life Sciences Symposium, which dealt with this problem of extrapolating the results of animal studies to man. Of particular importance in carcinogenesis has been the demonstration that the carcinogenic potencies of complex organic synfuel mixtures may be much lower (or, occasionally, higher) than the sum of the potencies of the individual components. The mutagenesis section is primarily concerned with the results of microbial mutagenesis studies with synfuel materials. These studies provide valuable information on the carcinogenic potential of these complex organic mixtures. With results from studies reported in the carcinogenesis section, they are also being used to establish an adequate data base for determining the correlation between mutagenic and carcinogenic processes. Separate abstracts have been prepared for each program for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.

  6. 1999 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1999-12-01

    The Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study (White Book) is published annually by BPA and establishes the planning basis for supplying electricity to customers. It serves a dual purpose. First, the White Book presents projections of regional and Federal system load and resource capabilities, along with relevant definitions and explanations. Second, the White Book serves as a benchmark for annual BPA determinations made pursuant to its regional power sales contracts. Specifically, BPA uses the information in the White Book for determining the notice required when customers request to increase or decrease the amount of power purchased from BPA. The White Book will not be used in calculations for the 2002 regional power sales contract subscription process. The White Book compiles information obtained from several formalized resource planning reports and data submittals, including those from the Northwest Power Planning Council (Council) and the Pacific Northwest Utilities Conference Committee (PNUCC). The White Book is not an operational planning guide, nor is it used for determining BPA revenues. Operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) is based on a set of criteria different from that used for resource planning decisions. Operational planning is dependent upon real-time or near-term knowledge of system conditions, including expectations of river flows and runoff, market opportunities, availability of reservoir storage, energy exchanges, and other factors affecting the dynamics of operating a power system. In this loads and resources study, resource availability is compared with a medium forecast of electricity consumption. The forecasted future electricity demands--firm loads--are subtracted from the projected capability of existing and ''contracted for'' resources to determine whether BPA and the region will be surplus or deficit. If Federal system resources are greater than loads in any particular year or month, there is

  7. Pacific Northwest Storms Situation Report # 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2006-12-17

    Significant progress has been made in restoring power to customers in the Pacific Northwest region. Currently, 468,200 customers, including Canada, remain without power. This is down from 1.8 million customers who lost power following severe wind and snow storms on December 14-15, 2006. The customers without power represent about 16 percent of customers in the affected utility service areas of Oregon and Washington. See table below. The Olympic pipeline reports that the pipeline is operational; however, pipeline throughput remains reduced since one substation along the line remains without power. Complete power restoration is expected later today. There are no reports of problems regarding fuel distribution and production.

  8. The public view of Pacific Northwest forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are diverse communities that make up the public in the Pacific Northwest, all with differing views on the forest. To the media, the public are those indirect stakeholders, or average citizens, who have become keenly aware of the importance of environmental issues, including the implications for global change. Linkages between the forests, deforestation, global climate change, and overall environmental sustainability have been widely publicized, though less frequently analyzed in depth. Consequently, the state of Northwest forests has become a vital public interest. The need for an overall margin of global environmental security, and a concern over unsuspected consequences of all economic activity (including forestry) have created a community of interest among the urban population. In part, this is a spillover effect from promoting individual environmental responsibility and the conserver ethic into issues beyond the city boundary. In the Northwest, this often translates as a deep concern over forest management issues and strong conviction that changes are needed. At the same time, and largely as a direct response, the socioeconomic interests of rural forest communities have become a high-profile issue, raising debate over local empowerment and local forest stewardship models. The consequences of this complex and rapidly evolving public view of the forests are critical to forest managers and policymakers. 12 refs

  9. 7 CFR 1124.2 - Pacific Northwest marketing area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Pacific Northwest marketing area. 1124.2 Section 1124.2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST MARKETING AREA...

  10. 2006 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    2006-03-01

    The Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study (White Book), which is published annually by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), establishes one of the planning bases for supplying electricity to customers. The White Book contains projections of regional and Federal system load and resource capabilities, along with relevant definitions and explanations. The White Book also contains information obtained from formalized resource planning reports and data submittals including those from individual utilities, the Northwest Power and Conservation Council (Council), and the Pacific Northwest Utilities Conference Committee (PNUCC). The White Book is not an operational planning guide, nor is it used for determining BPA revenues, although the database that generates the data for the White Book analysis contributes to the development of BPA's inventory and ratemaking processes. Operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) is based on a set of criteria different from that used for resource planning decisions. Operational planning is dependent upon real-time or near-term knowledge of system conditions that include expectations of river flows and runoff, market opportunities, availability of reservoir storage, energy exchanges, and other factors affecting the dynamics of operating a power system. The load resource balance of both the Federal system and the region is determined by comparing resource availability to an expected level of total retail electricity consumption. Resources include projected energy capability plus contract purchases. Loads include a forecast of retail obligations plus contract obligations. Surplus energy is available when resources are greater than loads. This surplus energy could be marketed to increase revenues. Energy deficits occur when resources are less than loads. These energy deficits will be met by any combination of the following: better-than-critical water conditions, demand-side management and conservation

  11. 2004 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    2004-12-01

    The Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study (White Book), which is published annually by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), establishes one of the planning bases for supplying electricity to customers. The White Book contains projections of regional and Federal system load and resource capabilities, along with relevant definitions and explanations. The White Book also contains information obtained from formalized resource planning reports and data submittals including those from individual utilities, the Northwest Power and Conservation Council (Council), and the Pacific Northwest Utilities Conference Committee (PNUCC). The White Book is not an operational planning guide, nor is it used for determining BPA revenues, although the database that generates the data for the White Book analysis contributes to the development of BPA's inventory and ratemaking processes. Operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) is based on a set of criteria different from that used for resource planning decisions. Operational planning is dependent upon real-time or near-term knowledge of system conditions that include expectations of river flows and runoff, market opportunities, availability of reservoir storage, energy exchanges, and other factors affecting the dynamics of operating a power system. The load resource balance of BPA and/or the region is determined by comparing resource availability to an expected level of total retail electricity consumption. Resources include projected energy capability plus contract purchases. Loads include a forecast of retail obligations plus contract obligations. Surplus energy is available when resources are greater than loads. This energy could be marketed to increase revenues. Energy deficits occur when resources are less than loads. These deficits could be met by any combination of the following: better-than-critical water conditions, demand-side management and conservation programs, permanent loss of loads due

  12. Anthropogenic Elevation Change in the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prush, V. B.; Lohman, R. B.

    2013-12-01

    Over the past few decades, interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) has emerged as a valuable tool for studying crustal deformation signals. Its applications to studies of tectonic and non-tectonic sources are varied, including earthquakes and fault-related processes, volcanic deformation, vegetation structure, and anthropogenic signals. In addition to studies of crustal deformation, the sensitivity of interferometric phase to topography makes InSAR a superb tool for the generation of digital elevation models (DEMs). While much of the focus of InSAR research in recent years has been on deformation, changes in the elevation of the ground surface can be of great scientific or societal interest as well. Examples include elevation and volume change due to anthropogenic processes such as landfill and open-pit mining operations, and natural processes such as glacier thinning or terrain alteration resulting from effusive volcanic eruptions. Our study describes two elevation change signals observed in the Pacific Northwest that are of anthropogenic origin. Using the baseline-dependent nature of the topographic component of interferometric phase, we have determined a proxy for canopy height using coherent interferometric phase differences between adjacent logged and forested regions, as well as a means for determining estimates of the amount and time history of material displaced during mining operations at the Centralia Coal Mine in Centralia, Washington. Quantifying the amount of surface change due to anthropogenic activities is not only critical for tracking the altering landscape of the Pacific Northwest and reducing the observed error in interferograms attributable to elevation change. Deforestation is one of the most significant contributors to global carbon emissions, and quantifying changes in vegetation structure can assist in efforts to monitor and mitigate the effects of deforestation on climate change. Similarly, mining operations can have a lasting

  13. Finding of no significant impact, decontamination and decommissioning of Battelle Columbus Laboratories in Columbus and West Jefferson, Ohio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Environmental Assessment has been developed by the Department of Energy in accordance with the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 for the proposed decommissioning of contaminated areas at the Battelle Memorial Institute, Columbus, Ohio. The discussions in Section 1.0 provide general background information on the proposed action. Section 2.0 describes the existing radiological and non-radiological condition of the Battelle Columbus Laboratories. Section 3.0 identifies the alternatives considered for the proposed action and describes in detail the proposed decommissioning project. Section 4.0 evaluates the potential risks the project poses to human health and the environment. Section 5.0 presents the Department of Energy's proposed action. As a result of nuclear research and development activities conducted over a period of approximately 43 years performed for the Department of Energy, its predecessor agencies, and under commercial contracts, the 15 buildings became contaminated with varying amounts of radioactive material. The Department of Energy no longer has a need to utilize the facilities and is contractually obligate to remove that contamination such that they can be used by their owners without radiological restrictions. This Environmental Assessment for the Battelle Columbus Laboratories Decommissioning Project is consistent with the direction from the Secretary of Energy that public awareness and participation be considered in sensitive projects and is an appropriate document to determine action necessary to satisfy the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act. 30 refs., 6 figs., 9 tabs

  14. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1982 to the DOE Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environmental Protection, Safety and Emergency Preparedness. Part 5. Environmental and occupational protection, assessment, and engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Part 5 of the 1982 Annual Report to the Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Protection, Safety and Emergency Preparedness presents Pacific Northwest Laboratory's progress on work performed for the Office of Environmental Programs, Office of Operational Safety, and the Office of Nuclear Safety. The report is in three sections, introduced by blue divider pages, corresponding to the program elements: Technology Impacts, Environmental and Safety Engineering, Operational and Environmental Safety. In each section, articles describe progress made during FY 1982 on individual projects, as identified by the Field Task Proposal/Agreement. Authors of these articles represent a broad spectrum of capabilities derived from various segments of the Laboratory, reflecting the interdisciplinary nature of the work

  15. Pacific Northwest residential energy survey. Volume 4. Pacific Northwest cross-tabulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-07-01

    Responses for the Pacific Northwest to fifty questions asked during the survey (plus four variables computed from responses to several other questions) cross-tabulated against responses to nine questions which represent key explanatory characteristics of residential energy use are presented. The nine key questions are: means of payment for housing; type of dwelling; year dwelling built; total square-footage of living space; type of fuel for main heating system; combined 1978 income; unit cost of electricity; annual electricity consumption; and annual natural gas consumption. The fifty questions and four computed variables which were cross-tabulated against the above fall into six categories: dwelling characteristics; heating and air-conditioning systems; water heating; appliances; demographic and dwelling characteristics; and insulation. The survey was conducted throughout the states of Washington, Oregon, Idaho, and Montana with a total of 4030 households sampled. Information on the 54 tables is explained. (MCW)

  16. Rock the Watt: An Energy Conservation Campaign at Pacific Northwest National Lab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-01-01

    Case study describes Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's (PNNL) three-month Rock the Watt campaign to reduce energy use at its main campus in Richland, Washington. The campaign objectives were to educate PNNL employees about energy conservation opportunities in their workplace and to motivate them to help PNNL save energy and costs and to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.

  17. Implications of climate change for Pacific Northwest forest management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Canada/USA symposium was held to identify potential consequences of global climate change to Pacific Northwest forests; to identify the future role and relative contribution of those forests in the balance of carbon, moisture, and energy exchange of the atmosphere; and to develop recommendations for Pacific Northwest forest management strategies and policy options for responding to global climate change. Papers were presented on such topics as regional climatic change, forest responses and processes, public policy on forests and climatic change, sequestration of atmospheric carbon, forest management, and forest adaptation to climatic change. Separate abstracts have been prepared for 14 papers from this symposium

  18. 1998 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study: The White Book

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study (White Book) is published annually by BPA and establishes the planning basis for supplying electricity to customers. It serves a dual purpose. First, the White Book presents projections of regional and Federal system load and resource capabilities, along with relevant definitions and explanations. Second, the White Book serves as a benchmark for annual BPA determinations made pursuant to the 1981 regional power sales contracts. Specifically, BPA uses the information in the White Book for determining the notice required when customers request to increase or decrease the amount of power purchased from BPA. The White Book compiles information obtained from several formalized resource planning reports and data submittals, including those from the Northwest Power Planning Council (Council) and the Pacific Northwest Utilities Conference Committee (PNUCC). The White Book is not an operational planning guide, nor is it used for inventory planning to determine BPA revenues. Operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) is based on a set of criteria different from that used for resource planning decisions. Operational planning is dependent upon real-time or near-term knowledge of system conditions, including expectations of river flows and runoff, market opportunities, availability of reservoir storage, energy exchanges, and other factors affecting the dynamics of operating a power system. The 1998 White Book is presented in two documents: (1) this summary of Federal system and Pacific Northwest region loads and resources; and (2) a technical appendix detailing the loads and resources for each major Pacific Northwest generating utility. This analysis updates the December 1997 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study

  19. 1998 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study: The White Book.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1998-12-01

    The Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study (White Book) is published annually by BPA and establishes the planning basis for supplying electricity to customers. It serves a dual purpose. First, the White Book presents projections of regional and Federal system load and resource capabilities, along with relevant definitions and explanations. Second, the White Book serves as a benchmark for annual BPA determinations made pursuant to the 1981 regional power sales contracts. Specifically, BPA uses the information in the White Book for determining the notice required when customers request to increase or decrease the amount of power purchased from BPA. The White Book compiles information obtained from several formalized resource planning reports and data submittals, including those from the Northwest Power Planning Council (Council) and the Pacific Northwest Utilities Conference Committee (PNUCC). The White Book is not an operational planning guide, nor is it used for inventory planning to determine BPA revenues. Operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) is based on a set of criteria different from that used for resource planning decisions. Operational planning is dependent upon real-time or near-term knowledge of system conditions, including expectations of river flows and runoff, market opportunities, availability of reservoir storage, energy exchanges, and other factors affecting the dynamics of operating a power system. The 1998 White Book is presented in two documents: (1) this summary of Federal system and Pacific Northwest region loads and resources; and (2) a technical appendix detailing the loads and resources for each major Pacific Northwest generating utility. This analysis updates the December 1997 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.

  20. REALITY, DELUSIONS, AND OTHER ASSORTED TRUTHS: THE FUTURE OF SALMON IN THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Are professional fisheries scientists collectively guilty of encouraging delusions about the possibilities for restoring wild salmon to the Pacific Northwest? Do they perpetuate the fantasy that the Pacific Northwest will (or could, absent pervasive life-style changes) support w...

  1. BATTELLE ENERGY ALLIANCE, LLC (BEA) 2014 Annual Report for Idaho National Laboratory (INL)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juan Alvarez; Todd Allen

    2014-10-01

    This Fiscal Year (FY) 2014 annual report provides the Department of Energy (DOE) with BEA’s self-assessment of performance managing and operating the INL for the period ending September 30, 2014. After considering all of the information related to INL performance during the rating period against the Goals, Objectives and Notable Outcomes in the FY 2014 Performance Evaluation and Measurement Plan (PEMP), BEA believes it earned an overall grade closest to an A. The paragraphs below highlight how INL excelled in delivering innovative and impactful research across the three mission areas; how INL has successfully positioned itself for future growth and sustainment; and how, through strong leadership, INL has set and implemented a strategic direction to ensure we meet and exceed the expectations of DOE and other customers. Attachments 1 through 5 provide additional detail on FY 2014 mission accomplishments, outline corporate contributions for success, highlight national and international awards and recognitions at the organization and individual levels, and describe the performance issues and challenges faced in FY 2014. • Attachment 1, “Self-Assessed PEMP Ratings” • Attachment 2, “INL Mission Accomplishments” • Attachment 3, “Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC Contributions to INL Success” • Attachment 4, “FY 2014 Awards, Recognition, Professional Roles and Certifications” • Attachment 5, “Performance Issues and Challenges.”

  2. PACIFIC NORTHWEST GRAIN GROWNERS' INCOME RISK MANAGEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Ke, Bingfan; Wang, H. Holly

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, we identified the most desirable farm income risk management strategies for two rotation systems in the Pacific Nowthwest(PNW)area under a framework of expected utility maximization. Insurance programs available to PNW farmers and wheat futures market instruments are included in this study. The risk management effectiveness of each instrument and the substitute effect of revenue insurance programs on the combination of yield insurance and futures market are also evaluated.

  3. 2013 White Book, Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study (summary)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-10-01

    The 2013 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study (2013 White Book) is BPA's latest projection of the Pacific Northwest regional retail loads, contract obligations, contract purchases, and resource capabilities. The 2013 White Book is a snapshot of conditions as of October 1, 2013, documenting the loads and resources for the Federal system and region for the 10-year study period OY 2014 through 2023. The White Book contains projections of regional and Federal system load and resource capabilities, along with relevant definitions and explanations. The White Book also contains information obtained from formalized resource planning reports and data submittals including those from individual utilities, the Northwest Power and Conservation Council (Council), and the Pacific Northwest Utilities Conference Committee (PNUCC). Starting with the 2012 White Book, BPA changed the annual production schedule for future White Books. BPA is scheduled to publish a complete White Book, which includes a Federal System Needs Assessment analysis, every other year (even years). In the odd-numbered years, BPA will publish a biennial summary update (Supplement) that only contains major changes to the Federal System and Regional System analyses that have occurred since the last White Book. http://www.bpa.gov/power/pgp/whitebook/2013/index.shtml.

  4. Evaluation of electrical power alternatives for the Pacific Northwest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-09-01

    This study evaluates the concept of implementation of large-scale energy conservation to reduce end-use demand for electrical energy as an alternative to the need for continued construction of new power plants to meet projected energy requirements for the Pacific Northwest. In particular, the numerical accuracy, economic feasibility, and institutional impact of a conservation-oriented scenario developed by the Natural Resources Defense Council, Inc., is assessed, relative to the energy forecast prepared by the Pacific Northwest Utilities Conference Commission. The results of this study are presented in four detailed sections following an introductory and summary section: Reconstruction and Numerical Evaluation of Alternative Scenario; Economic Analysis; Institutional Impact; and Impact of New National Energy Policy.

  5. Will climate change affect biodiversity in pacific northwest forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Global climate change could have significant consequences for biological diversity in Pacific Northwest (PNW) forested ecosystems, particularly in areas already threatened by anthropogenic activities and the resultant habitat modification and fragmentation. The forests of the Pacific Northwest have a high biological diversity, not only in terms of tree species, but also in terms of herbs, bryophytes and hepatophytes, algae, fungi, protist, bacteria, and many groups of vertebrates and invertebrates. Global circulation and vegetation model projections of global climate change effects on PNW forests include reductions in species diversity in low elevation forests as well as elevational and latitudinal shifts in species ranges. As species are most likely to be stressed at the edges of their ranges, plant and animal species with low mobility, or those that are prevented from migrating by lack of habitat corridors, may become regionally extinct. Endangered species with limited distribution may be especially vulnerable to shifts in habitat conditions

  6. Residential fuel choice in the Pacific Northwest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, A.D.; Englin, J.E.; Harkreader, S.A.

    1989-02-01

    In 1983, the Northwest Power Planning Council (Council) issued Model Conservation Standards (MCS) designed to improve the efficiency of electrically heated buildings. Since then, the standards have been adopted by numerous local governments and utilities. The Bonneville Power Administration (Bonneville) has played an active role in marketing residential energy efficiency improvements through the Super Good Cents Program (SGCP) and encouraging the adoption and implementation of the MCS as local codes through the Early Adopter Program (EAP). Since the inception of the MCS, however, questions have arisen about the effect of the code and programs on the selection of heating fuels for new homes. Recently, Bonneville has proposed a gradual reduction in the incentive levels under these two programs prior to 1995 based on several assumptions about the market for MCS homes: builder costs will decline as builders gain experience building them; buyers will seek out MCS homes as their appreciation for their lower energy costs and greater comfort increases; and the resale market will increasingly reflect the greater quality of MCS homes. The growing availability of data from several jurisdictions where the MCS have been implemented has recently made it possible to begin assessing the effect of the MCS programs on residential fuel choice and evaluating assumptions underlying the programs and Bonneville's plans to revise them. This study is the first such assessment conducted for Bonneville.

  7. Resilience in Pre-contact Pacific Northwest Social Ecological Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Ronald L. Trosper

    2003-01-01

    If, like other ecosystems, the variable and dynamic ecosystems of the Pacific Northwest exhibited cycles and unpredictable behavior, particularly when humans were present, the indigenous societies of that region had to have been resilient in order to persist for such a long time. They persisted for two millennia prior to contact with people from the “old world.” The Resilience Alliance (2002) proposes that social and ecological resilience requires three abilities: the ability to b...

  8. Central Northwest Pacific biota and their radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ecological and radiological surveys of biota around a proposed dumping site have been carried out by the Japanese Fisheries Agency. Micronekton were collected with a KOC net towed at prescribed depths. Fish nekton were collected with a KMT net towed from 1 to 2 hours either obliquely or horizontally at prescribed depths. This large net enabled the collection of larger organisms not collectable with KOC nets. Benthos were collected via benthos nets. Deep sea rattails and gammarids were collected with trapnets. In 1985, larger gear with mouth diameters of 1.8m were used with older gear having mouth diameters of 0.9m and used previously. New large gear allowed better collecting efficiency. Radioactivity measurements were carried out by gammaspectrometry with GeLi detectors on ashed samples. In almost all samples, Cs-137 was detected. In addition Co-60 was detected in some samples. Data obtained by the Tokai Regional Fisheries Research Laboratory were examined and summarized by the Ecology Working Group under the Executive Committee on Environmental Safety Assessment of Sea Dumping of Low level Radioactive Wastes in the Radioactive Waste Management Center

  9. Resilience in Pre-contact Pacific Northwest Social Ecological Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald L. Trosper

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available If, like other ecosystems, the variable and dynamic ecosystems of the Pacific Northwest exhibited cycles and unpredictable behavior, particularly when humans were present, the indigenous societies of that region had to have been resilient in order to persist for such a long time. They persisted for two millennia prior to contact with people from the “old world.” The Resilience Alliance (2002 proposes that social and ecological resilience requires three abilities: the ability to buffer, the ability to self-organize, and the ability to learn. This paper suggests that the characteristics of the potlatch system among Indians on the Northwest Coast, namely property rights, environmental ethics, rules of earning and holding titles, public accountability, and the reciprocal exchange system, provided all three required abilities. The resulting resilience of these societies confirms the validity of many of the ideas now being discussed as important components in providing successful and sustainable relationships between humans and their ecosystems. That so many separate ideas seem to have been linked together into resilient systems in the Pacific Northwest suggests that social ecological resilience is complicated.

  10. CRADA with Teledyne Electronic Technologies and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNL-096): The Exposure-to-Risk monitoring system. Final letter report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thrall, K.D.

    1996-10-01

    The purpose of this project was to demonstrate the ``Exposure-to- Risk`` monitoring system in an actual occupational environment. The system is a unique combination of existing hardware with proprietary software to create an integrated means of assessing occupational exposures to volatile organic compounds. One component of this system utilizes a portable mass spectrometer developed by Teledyne Electronic Technologies. Integration of the system was accomplished under Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) funding. Commercialization of the system will take place following demonstration in an actual occupational environment, and will include, in part, Teledyne Electronic Technologies. The Exposure-to-Risk monitoring system will benefit DOE by overcoming present-day limitations in worker health protection monitoring. There are numerous sites within the` DOE complex where many different hazardous chemicals are used on a routine basis. These chemicals range from paint stripers and cleaning solvents to chemical warfare agents, each having its own degree of potential adverse health risk to a worker. Thus, a real concern for DOE is to ensure that a worker is properly monitored to assess any adverse health risk from exposure to potentially hazardous chemicals. With current industrial hygiene technologies, this is an arduous task. The Exposure-to-Risk monitoring system integrates a patented breath-inlet device connecting a subject`s exhaled breath directly with a field-portable mass spectrometer with physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling to estimate the target tissue dose following a chemical exposure. Estimation of the adverse health risk prediction follows from the exposure/dose calculation based on currently accepted methodologies. This new system can determine, in the field, the possible adverse health risks on a daily basis to an individual worker.

  11. Seismic survey probes urban earthquake hazards in Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, M.A.; Brocher, T.M.; Hyndman, R.D.; Trehu, A.M.; Weaver, C.S.; Creager, K.C.; Crosson, R.S.; Parsons, T.; Cooper, A. K.; Mosher, D.; Spence, G.; Zelt, B.C.; Hammer, P.T.; Childs, J. R.; Cochrane, G.R.; Chopra, S.; Walia, R.

    1999-01-01

    A multidisciplinary seismic survey earlier this year in the Pacific Northwest is expected to reveal much new information about the earthquake threat to U.S. and Canadian urban areas there. A disastrous earthquake is a very real possibility in the region. The survey, known as the Seismic Hazards Investigation in Puget Sound (SHIPS), engendered close cooperation among geologists, biologists, environmental groups, and government agencies. It also succeeded in striking a fine balance between the need to prepare for a great earthquake and the requirement to protect a coveted marine environment while operating a large airgun array.

  12. 1998 White Book, Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study (summary)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1998-12-01

    The Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study (White Book) is published annually by BPA and establishes the planning basis for supplying electricity to customers. It serves a dual purpose. First, the White Book presents projections of regional and Federal system load and resource capabilities, along with relevant definitions and explanations. Second, the White Book serves as a benchmark for annual BPA determinations made pursuant to the 1981 regional power sales contracts.1 Specifically, BPA uses the information in the White Book for determining the notice required when customers request to increase or decrease the amount of power purchased from BPA. The White Book compiles information obtained from several formalized resource planning reports and data submittals, including those from the Northwest Power Planning Council (Council) and the Pacific Northwest Utilities Conference Committee (PNUCC). The White Book is not an operational planning guide, nor is it used for inventory planning to determine BPA revenues. Operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) is based on a set of criteria different from that used for resource planning decisions. Operational planning is dependent upon real-time or near-term knowledge of system conditions, including expectations of river flows and runoff, market opportunities, availability of reservoir storage, energy exchanges, and other factors affecting the dynamics of operating a power system. The 1998 White Book is presented in two documents: 1) this summary of Federal system and Pacific Northwest region loads and resources; and 2) a technical appendix detailing the loads and resources for each major Pacific Northwest generating utility. This analysis updates the December 1997 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study. The load forecast is derived by using economic planning models to predict the loads that will be placed on electric utilities in the region. This study incorporates information on contract

  13. Pacific Northwest Laboratory Alaska (ARCTIC) research program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current program continues studies of arctic ecosystems begun in 1959 as part of the Cape Thompson Program. Specific ecosystem aspects include studies of the ecology of arctic and red foxes, small mammel and bird population studies, lichen studies, and radiation ecology studies

  14. 1999 White Book, Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1999-12-01

    The Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study (White Book) is published annually by BPA and establishes the planning basis for supplying electricity to customers. It serves a dual purpose. First, the White Book presents projections of regional and Federal system load and resource capabilities, along with relevant definitions and explanations. Second, the White Book serves as a benchmark for annual BPA determinations made pursuant to its regional power sales contracts.1 Specifically, BPA uses the information in the White Book for determining the notice required when customers request to increase or decrease the amount of power purchased from BPA. The White Book will not be used in calculations for the 2002 regional power sales contract subscription process. The White Book compiles information obtained from several formalized resource planning reports and data submittals, including those from the Northwest Power Planning Council (Council) and the Pacific Northwest Utilities Conference Committee (PNUCC). The White Book is not an operational planning guide, nor is it used for determining BPA revenues. Operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) is based on a set of criteria different from that used for resource planning decisions. Operational planning is dependent upon real-time or near-term knowledge of system conditions, including expectations of river flows and runoff, market opportunities, availability of reservoir storage, energy exchanges, and other factors affecting the dynamics of operating a power system. In this loads and resources study, resource availability is compared with a medium forecast of electricity consumption. The forecasted future electricity demands—firm loads—are subtracted from the projected capability of existing and “contracted for” resources to determine whether BPA and the region will be surplus or deficit. If Federal system resources are greater than loads in any particular year or month, there is a surplus of

  15. Dynamic Agroecological Zones for the Inland Pacific Northwest, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huggins, D. R.; Rupp, R.; Gessler, P.; Pan, W.; Brown, D. J.; Machado, S.; Walden, V. P.; Eigenbrode, S.; Abatzoglou, J. T.

    2011-12-01

    Agroecological zones (AEZ's) have traditionally been defined by integrating multiple layers of biophysical (e.g. climate, soil, terrain) and occasionally socioeconomic data to create unique zones with specific ranges of land use constraints and potentials. Our approach to defining AEZ's assumes that current agricultural land uses have emerged as a consequence of biophysical and socioeconomic drivers. Therefore, we explore the concept that AEZ's can be derived from classifying the geographic distribution of current agricultural systems (e.g. the wheat-fallow cropping system zone) based on spatially geo-referenced annual cropland use data that is currently available through the National Agricultural Statistical Service (NASS). By defining AEZ's in this way, we expect to: (1) provide baseline information that geographically delineates the boundaries of current AEZ's and subzones and therefore the capacity to evaluate shifts in AEZ boundaries over time; (2) assess the biophysical (e.g. climate, soils, terrain) and socioeconomic factors (e.g. commodity prices) that are most useful for predicting and correctly classifying current AEZ's, subzones or future shifts in AEZ boundaries; (3) identify and develop AEZ-relevant climate mitigation and adaptation strategies; and (4) integrate biophysical and socioeconomic data sources to pursue a transdisciplinary examination of climate-driven AEZ futures. Achieving these goals will aid in realizing major objectives for a USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture, Agriculture and Food Research Initiative, Cooperative Agricultural Project entitled "Regional Approaches to Climate Change (REACCH) for Pacific Northwest Agriculture". REACCH is a research, education and extension project under the leadership of the University of Idaho with significant collaboration from Washington State University, Oregon State University and the USDA Agricultural Research Service that is working towards increasing the capacity of Inland Pacific

  16. Application of Argo Data in the Analysis of Water Masses in the Northwest Pacific Ocean.

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Chaohui; Xu, Jianping; Liu, Zenghong; Tong, Mingrong; Zhu, Bokang

    2008-01-01

    The temperature and salinity distributions, and the water mass structures in Northwest Pacific Ocean are studied using the temperature and salinity data obtained by Argo profiling floats. The T-S relation in this region indicates there exist 8 water masses,they are the North Pacific Tropical Surface Water (NPTSW), North P, acific Subsurface Water (NPSSW),North Pacific Intermediate Water (NPIW),North Pacific Subtropical Water (NPSTW), North Pacific Deep Water (NPDW) and Equatorial Surface Wate...

  17. The lightning activities in super typhoons over the Northwest Pacific

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The spatial and temporal characteristics of lightning activities have been studied in seven super typhoons from 2005 to 2008 over the Northwest Pacific, using data from the World Wide Lightning Location Network (WWLLN). The results indicated that there were three distinct lightning flash regions in mature typhoon, a significant maximum in the eyewall regions (20-80 km from the center), a minimum from 80-200 km, and a strong maximum in the outer rainbands (out of 200 km from the center). The lightning flashes in the outer rainbands were much more than those in the inner rainbands, and less than 1% of flashes occurred within 100 km of the center. Each typhoon produced eyewall lightning outbreak during the periods of its intensification, usually several hours prior to its maximum intensity, indicating that lightning activity might be used as a proxy of intensification of super typhoon. Little lightning occurred near the center after landing of the typhoon.

  18. PACIFIC NORTHWEST REGIONAL COLLABORATORY ANNUAL REPORT FOR SYNERGY VII (2007)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tagestad, Jerry D.; Bolte, John; Guzy, Michael; Woodruff, Dana L.; Humes, Karen; Walden, Von; Wigmosta, Mark S.; Glenn, Nancy; Ames, Dan; Rope, Ronald; Martin, David; Sandgathe, Scott

    2008-04-01

    During this final year of the Pacific Northwest Regional Collaboratory we focused significantly on continuing the relationship between technical teams and government end-users. The main theme of the year was integration. This took the form of data integration via our web portal and integration of our technologies with the end users. The PNWRC's technical portfolio is based on EOS strategies, and focuses on 'applications of national priority: water management, invasive species, coastal management and ecological forecasting.' The products of our technical approaches have been well received by the community of focused end-users. The objective this year was to broaden that community and develop external support to continue and operationalize product development.

  19. Pyrethroid insecticides in urban salmon streams of the Pacific Northwest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urban streams of the Pacific Northwest provide spawning and rearing habitat for a variety of salmon species, and food availability for developing salmon could be adversely affected by pesticide residues in these waterbodies. Sediments from Oregon and Washington streams were sampled to determine if current-use pyrethroid insecticides from residential neighborhoods were reaching aquatic habitats, and if they were at concentrations acutely toxic to sensitive invertebrates. Approximately one-third of the 35 sediment samples contained measurable pyrethroids. Bifenthrin was the pyrethroid of greatest concern with regards to aquatic life toxicity, consistent with prior studies elsewhere. Toxicity to Hyalella azteca and/or Chironomus dilutus was found in two sediment samples at standard testing temperature (23 deg. C), and in one additional sample at a more environmentally realistic temperature (13 deg. C). Given the temperature dependency of pyrethroid toxicity, low temperatures typical of northwest streams can increase the potential for toxicity above that indicated by standard testing protocols. - Highlights: → Salmon-bearing creeks can be adversely impacted by insecticides from urban runoff. → Pyrethroid insecticides were found in one-third of the creeks in Washington and Oregon. → Two creeks contained concentrations acutely lethal to sensitive invertebrates. → Bifenthrin was of greatest concern, though less than in prior studies. → Standard toxicity testing underestimates the ecological risk of pyrethroids. - Pyrethroid insecticides are present in sediments of urban creeks of Oregon and Washington, though less commonly than in studies elsewhere in the U.S.

  20. Pyrethroid insecticides in urban salmon streams of the Pacific Northwest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weston, D.P., E-mail: dweston@berkeley.edu [Department of Integrative Biology, University of California, 3060 Valley Life Sciences Bldg., Berkeley, CA 94720-3140 (United States); Asbell, A.M., E-mail: aasbell@berkeley.edu [Department of Integrative Biology, University of California, 3060 Valley Life Sciences Bldg., Berkeley, CA 94720-3140 (United States); Hecht, S.A., E-mail: scott.hecht@noaa.gov [NOAA Fisheries, Office of Protected Resources, 510 Desmond Drive S.E., Lacey, WA 98503 (United States); Scholz, N.L., E-mail: nathaniel.scholz@noaa.gov [NOAA Fisheries, Northwest Fisheries Science Center, 2725 Montlake Blvd. E., Seattle, WA 98112 (United States); Lydy, M.J., E-mail: mlydy@siu.edu [Fisheries and Illinois Aquaculture Center and Department of Zoology, Southern Illinois University, 171 Life Sciences II, Carbondale, IL 62901 (United States)

    2011-10-15

    Urban streams of the Pacific Northwest provide spawning and rearing habitat for a variety of salmon species, and food availability for developing salmon could be adversely affected by pesticide residues in these waterbodies. Sediments from Oregon and Washington streams were sampled to determine if current-use pyrethroid insecticides from residential neighborhoods were reaching aquatic habitats, and if they were at concentrations acutely toxic to sensitive invertebrates. Approximately one-third of the 35 sediment samples contained measurable pyrethroids. Bifenthrin was the pyrethroid of greatest concern with regards to aquatic life toxicity, consistent with prior studies elsewhere. Toxicity to Hyalella azteca and/or Chironomus dilutus was found in two sediment samples at standard testing temperature (23 deg. C), and in one additional sample at a more environmentally realistic temperature (13 deg. C). Given the temperature dependency of pyrethroid toxicity, low temperatures typical of northwest streams can increase the potential for toxicity above that indicated by standard testing protocols. - Highlights: > Salmon-bearing creeks can be adversely impacted by insecticides from urban runoff. > Pyrethroid insecticides were found in one-third of the creeks in Washington and Oregon. > Two creeks contained concentrations acutely lethal to sensitive invertebrates. > Bifenthrin was of greatest concern, though less than in prior studies. > Standard toxicity testing underestimates the ecological risk of pyrethroids. - Pyrethroid insecticides are present in sediments of urban creeks of Oregon and Washington, though less commonly than in studies elsewhere in the U.S.

  1. Deep electrical conductivity structure beneath the North-West Pacific

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. Since August, 2001, we have been conducting seafloor electromagnetic (EM) observation at a site called NWP on the North-West Pacific basin (Toh et al., 2004; Toh et al., 2006). We applied the magnetotelluric (MT) and geomagnetic depth sounding methods to the observed 5-component EM field of approximately 1200-day long to yield electrical conductivity in the deep mantle. The one-dimensional (1D) electrical conductivity structure was then estimated using both the static shift corrected MT response and the scalar MT response converted from the so-called Schmucker's C-response. The characteristics of the derived 1D model that penetrates to depths well below the 660-km seismic discontinuity are summarized as follows: 1) The resistivity-thickness product of the uppermost lithosphere is of the order of 1010 Ωm, which is one order of magnitude larger than those reported in the northeast Pacific (e.g., Cox et al., 1986). This means a very cold lithosphere beneath NWP depleted in volatile elements including water. 2) A conductive asthenosphere centred at a depth of 200km has been detected, which is, in turn, consistent with the result beneath the northeast Pacific (Lizarralde et al., 1995). The cause of the conductive asthenosphere can be explained by the presence of small amount of water (∼0.06 wt %), which is less than what is necessary for the onset of hydrous melting. 3) Discontinuous jumps of electrical conductivity at depths of 410 km and 660 km are within factors of approximately 10 and 2, respectively, where latter of the two is a more reliable estimate.

  2. Evolving Shoreline Change Rates Along the US Pacific Northwest Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, D. L.; Ruggiero, P.; Allan, J. C.

    2013-12-01

    Coastal change hazards are increasingly affecting economically important areas, including those used for infrastructure, commerce, and public recreation. Quantifying shoreline change rates and understanding the contributing factors is crucial to protect these areas and to assist federal, state, and local agencies in developing long-term management plans. A recent study by the USGS National Assessment of Shoreline Change project analyzed the historical shoreline record along the U.S. Pacific Northwest with emphasis on both century-scale (1800s--2002) and decadal-scale (1960-80s--2002) change rates (Ruggiero, P., Kratzmann, M.A., Himmelstoss, E.G., Reid, D., Allan, J., and Kaminsky, G., 2013: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2012-1007, 55 p.). The study was the first consistent state-wide coastal change assessment for Oregon and revealed a significant increase in erosion hazards in the near-term. The coastal landscape in Oregon is particularly dynamic and includes beaches that are backed by both cliffs and dunes, and range in texture from sand to cobble. The high wave energy in the Pacific Northwest results in a morphology with primarily intermediate to dissipative beaches. Resistant rocky headlands separate the Oregon coast into 18 distinct littoral cells, greatly influencing how the shoreline changes with time. While the century-scale average of all 560 km of Oregon coastline suggests the shore is prograding at 0.4 m/yr, the decadal-scale record indicates that 13 of the 18 littoral cells either are accreting at a slower rate, have changed from accretional to erosional, or are eroding at a faster rate. This apparent increase in erosion-affected coasts may be caused by several factors including sea-level rise, increasing storm wave heights, tectonic uplift, and climatic events (eg., El Niño), but overall it indicates a shifting trend in shoreline change rates. In the present study, we quantify shoreline change rates on a third timescale, seasonal to

  3. Effect of Temperature and Nutrient Manipulations on eelgrass Zostera marina L. from the Pacific Northwest, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Global climate change will have a large impact on the three predominate drivers of estuarine seagrass productivity, temperature, light and nutrients. I experimentally evaluate the response of Pacific Northwest Z. marina to interactive effects of temperature and nutrient conditio...

  4. Pacific Northwest Association for College Physics, a Many-Body Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Wilbur V.

    1970-01-01

    Discusses the structure and role of the Pacific Northwest Association for College Physics, which is a regional association of physics faculties in Alaska, Idaho, Montana, Oregon, and Washington. Bibliography. (LC)

  5. Areas with access to municipal sewer service in the United States Pacific Northwest for 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This spatial data set was created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to represent areas that had access to municipal sewer service in the Pacific Northwest region...

  6. Mean annual solar radiation in the United States Pacific Northwest (1991-2005)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This spatial data set was created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to represent mean annual solar radiation in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States...

  7. Dry deposition of reduced nitrogen in the United States Pacific Northwest for 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This spatial data set was created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to represent the amount of dry deposition of reduced nitrogen in the Pacific Northwest region...

  8. Wet deposition of oxidized nitrogen in the United States Pacific Northwest for 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This spatial data set was created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to represent the amount of wet deposition of oxidized nitrogen in the Pacific Northwest...

  9. Effects of organochlorine pollutants on black-crowned night herons in the Pacific Northwest

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A plan to determine the effects of organochlorine pollutants on blackcrowned night herons nesting in the Pacific Northwest, and to determine the wintering...

  10. Dry deposition of oxidized nitrogen in the United States Pacific Northwest for 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This spatial data set was created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to represent the amount of dry deposition of oxidized nitrogen in the Pacific Northwest...

  11. Arid land irrigation in the United States Pacific Northwest for 2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This spatial data set was created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to represent the extent of arid land irrigation in the Pacific Northwest region of the United...

  12. Potential range land for grazing cattle in the United States Pacific Northwest

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This spatial data set was created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to represent the extent of land in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States (Hydro...

  13. Integrated passive solar and wood design for the Pacific Northwest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duffield, J.

    1981-01-01

    The design, construction and performance of a 240 m/sup 2/ (2600 ft/sup 2/) passive solar home in Missoula, Montana are described. The design is of particular interest for Pacific Northwest sites characterized by poor to moderate levels of sun and environmental constraints on the type of supplemental fuel. While wood is an abundant and relatively cheap fuel in western Montana, winter inversion conditions and a massive shift to wood heat has led (in Missoula) to violation of all federal and state ambient air standards for particulates. The key feature of the design employed here is to integrate a wood burning furnace into a massive Trombe wall. The passive solar and conservation aspects of the design minimize the total demand for the supplementary fuel. In addition, by using the passive storage, very hot cleanburning (and infrequent) fires can be built. The storage also allows cycling through periods of high inversion/pollution conditions. The design is also innovative in the use of thermal zones and incorporates an attached greenhouse for winter food production. Choice of construction materials (including recycled beams and local stone) and design were closely influenced by the relatively secluded nature of the site. The building shell is essentially a sculptural statement derived from the five year long interaction of the owner/builder and the site's other (wild) inhabitants.

  14. Indoor air quality measurements in 38 Pacific Northwest commercial buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Bonneville Power Administration-funded study monitored ventilation rates and a variety of indoor air pollutants in 38 Pacific Northwest commercial buildings. The buildings ranged in age from 6 months to 90 years, in size from 864 to 34,280 m2, and occupancy from 25 to 2500 people. Building average formaldehyde (HCHO) concentrations were below the 20 ppB detection limit in 48% of the buildings. Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) concentration averages ranged from 5 ppB to 43 ppB and were lower than outdoor concentrations in 8 of 13 buildings. At only one site, an elementary school classroom, did carbon dioxide (CO2) exceed 1000 ppM. Radon (Rn) levels were elevated in one building with an average concentration of 7.4 pCiL-1. Respirable particles (RSP) concentrations in smoking areas in 32 buildings had a geometric mean of 44 μg m-3 and ranged up to 308 μg m-3 at one site. In non-smoking areas the geometric mean RSP was 15 μg m-3. Outside air ventilation rates did not appear to be the single dominant parameter in determining indoor pollutant concentrations. Measured pollutant concentrations in 2 ''complaint'' buildings were below accepted guidelines. The cause of the complaints was not identified

  15. Multicomponent case weights for the 1985 resample of the 1983 Pacific Northwest residential energy survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klan, M.S.; Shankle, S.A.; Kellogg, M.A.

    1990-06-01

    In this study a set of multicomponent case weights applicable to residential survey information were prepared for the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). These case weights were prepared for the 1985 resample of respondents of an earlier BPA residential energy survey -- the original 1983 survey and subsequent surveys administered to the 1985 PNWRES resample were designed to gather information from households concerning their use of energy and related data. The PNWRES samples were drawn based on stratified random sampling techniques, that allow the survey results to represent the characteristics of the overall Pacific Northwest population of residential utility accounts. In order to determine the characteristics of the population, however, the survey results must be appropriately weighted. Case weights were developed for 1983 PNWRES by Lou Harris and Associates, Inc. This report briefly documents PNL's extension of the weighting methodology to the subsequent 1985 PNWRES resample, and describes the resulting caseweights generated by PNL. 9 refs., 5 tabs.

  16. Classification of Regional Patterns of Environmental Drivers and Benthic Habitats in Pacific Northwest Estuaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    While increased anthropogenic nutrient loading of coastal ecosystems is a growing ecological and economic problem both in the U.S. and globally, the extent of such excess nutrient loading in Pacific Northwest estuaries is poorly known. To help determine the vulnerability of Pacif...

  17. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory’s Climate Resiliency Planning Process and Lessons Learned

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fowler, Kimberly M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Judd, Kathleen S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Brandenberger, Jill M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-22

    In 2015, the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) developed its first Climate Resilience Plan for its Richland Campus. PNNL has performed Climate Resilience Planning for the Department of Defense, Nuclear Regulatory Commission, and Department of Energy (DOE) over the past 5 years. The assessment team included climate scientists, social scientists, engineers, and operations managers. A multi-disciplinary team was needed to understand the potential exposures to future changes at the site, the state of the science on future impacts, and the best process for “mainstreaming” new actions into existing activities. The team uncovered that the site’s greatest vulnerabilities, and therefore priorities for climate resilience planning, are high temperature due to degraded infrastructure, increased wildfire frequency, and intense precipitation impacts on stormwater conveyance systems.

  18. Idaho National Laboratory Materials and Fuels Complex Natural Phenomena Hazards Flood Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerald Sehlke; Paul Wichlacz

    2010-12-01

    This report presents the results of flood hazards analyses performed for the Materials and Fuels Complex (MFC) and the adjacent Transient Reactor Experiment and Test Facility (TREAT) located at Idaho National Laboratory. The requirements of these analyses are provided in the U.S. Department of Energy Order 420.1B and supporting Department of Energy (DOE) Natural Phenomenon Hazard standards. The flood hazards analyses were performed by Battelle Energy Alliance and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The analyses addressed the following: • Determination of the design basis flood (DBFL) • Evaluation of the DBFL versus the Critical Flood Elevations (CFEs) for critical existing structures, systems, and components (SSCs).

  19. Siberian Biomass Burning Plumes Across the Pacific: Impact on Surface Air Quality in the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, D.; Weiss-Penzias, P.; Dennison, J.; Bertschi, I.; Westphal, D.

    2003-12-01

    During the summer of 2003, we conducted ground and airborne observations of CO, O3 and aerosols in the Pacific Northwest. The airborne data is discussed by Bertschi and Jaffe. In this paper we discuss the surface data. Observations were made at the Cheeka Peak Observatory on the remote northwest tip of Washington state and we have supplemented this with data from the regional Puget Sound air quality network. In two cases we observed significant enhancements in surface CO, O3 and aerosols associated with the large Siberian biomass fires which occurred during the summer of 2003. The first episode occurred on June 2-3, 2003. During this period our aircraft observations and the NAAPS global model identified significant enhancements due to long range transport of emissions from Siberian fires and this was also seen at surface sites around the Puget Sound. In some locations the ozone enhancements were significant and may have contributed to a local air pollution episode two days later. In the second case, on August 4-5, our aircraft observations and the NAAPS global model again confirmed the presence of Siberian biomass burning emissions. This was seen at our Cheeka Peak site as a substantial elevation in CO and aerosols, but with a more modest enhancement in O3. During this period, aerosol concentrations were elevated to 10-15 ug/m3 (PM 2.5) around the Puget Sound. Our observations demonstrate that long range transport can occur during summer and that it can have a significant influence on surface air quality in the western U.S.

  20. 1994 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study, Technical Appendix: Volume 1.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1994-12-01

    The 1994 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study establishes the Bonneville Power Administration`s (BPA) planning basis for supplying electricity t6 BPA customers. The Loads and Resources Study is presented in two documents: (1) this technical appendix detailing loads and resources for each major Pacific Northwest generating utility; and (2) a summary of Federal system and Pacific Northwest region loads and resources. This analysis updates the 1993 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study Technical Appendix published in December 1993. This technical appendix provides utility specific information that BPA uses in its long-range planning. It incorporates the following for each utility: (1) electrical demand-firm loads; (2) generating resources; and (3) contracts both inside and outside the region. This document should be used in combination with the 1994 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study, published in December 1994, because much of the information in that document is not duplicated here. This BPA planning document incorporates Pacific Northwest generating resources and the 1994 medium load forecast prepared by BPA. Each utility`s forecasted future firm loads are subtracted from its existing resources to determine whether it will be surplus or deficit. If a utility`s resources are greater than loads in any particular year or month, there is a surplus of energy and/or capacity, which the utility can sell to increase revenues. Conversely, if its firm loads exceed available resources, there is a deficit of energy and/or capacity, and additional conservation, contract purchases, or generating resources will be needed to meet the utility`s load.

  1. Pacific Northwest and Alaska Bioenergy Program Year Book; 1992-1993 Yearbook with 1994 Activities.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pacific Northwest and Alaska Bioenergy Program (U.S.); United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1994-04-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy administers five Regional Bioenergy Programs to encourage regionally specific application of biomass and municipal waste-to-energy technologies to local needs, opportunities and potentials. The Pacific Northwest and Alaska region has taken up a number of applied research and technology projects, and supported and guided its five participating state energy programs. This report describes the Pacific Northwest and Alaska Regional Bioenergy Program, and related projects of the state energy agencies, and summarizes the results of technical studies. It also considers future efforts of this regional program to meet its challenging assignment.

  2. Pacific Northwest ampersand Alaska Regional Bioenergy Program. 1992--1993 yearbook with 1994 activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. Department of Energy administers five Regional Bioenergy Programs to encourage regionally specific application of biomass and municipal waste-to-energy technologies to local needs, opportunities and potentials. The Pacific Northwest and Alaska region has taken up a number of applied research and technology projects, and supported and guided its five participating state energy programs. This report describes the Pacific Northwest and Alaska Regional Bioenergy Program, and related projects of the state energy agencies, and summarizes the results of technical studies. It also considers future efforts of this regional program to meet its challenging assignment

  3. 1991 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study, Technical Appendix: Volume 1.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1992-03-01

    This publication provides detailed documentation of the load forecast scenarios and assumptions used in preparing BPA's 1991 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study (the Study). This is one of two technical appendices to the Study; the other appendix details the utility-specific loads and resources used in the Study. The load forecasts and assumption were developed jointly by Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and Northwest Power Planning Council (Council) staff. This forecast is also used in the Council's 1991 Northwest Conservation and Electric Power Plan (1991 Plan).

  4. Yellowstone Cutthroat Trout Distribution, Pacific Northwest (updated March, 2006)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission — This dataset is a record of fish distribution and activity for YELLOWSTONE CUTTHROAT TROUT contained in the StreamNet database. This feature class was created based...

  5. Rainbow Trout Distribution, Pacific Northwest (updated March, 2006)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission — This dataset is a record of fish distribution and activity for RAINBOW TROUT contained in the StreamNet database. This feature class was created based on linear...

  6. Redband Trout Distribution, Pacific Northwest (updated March, 2006)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission — This dataset is a record of fish distribution and activity for REDBAND TROUT contained in the StreamNet database. This feature class was created based on linear...

  7. Summer Steelhead Distribution, Pacific Northwest (updated March, 2006)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission — This dataset is a record of fish distribution and activity for SUMMER STEELHEAD contained in the StreamNet database. This feature class was created based on linear...

  8. Sockeye Salmon Distribution, Pacific Northwest (updated March, 2006)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission — This dataset is a record of fish distribution and activity for SOCKEYE SALMON contained in the StreamNet database. This feature class was created based on linear...

  9. Summer Chinook Distribution, Pacific Northwest (updated March, 2006)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission — This dataset is a record of fish distribution and activity for SUMMER CHINOOK contained in the StreamNet database. This feature class was created based on linear...

  10. Fall Chinook Distribution, Pacific Northwest (updated March, 2006)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission — This dataset is a record of fish distribution and activity for FALL CHINOOK contained in the StreamNet database. This feature class was created based on linear...

  11. Winter Steelhead Distribution, Pacific Northwest (updated March, 2006)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission — This dataset is a record of fish distribution and activity for WINTER STEELHEAD contained in the StreamNet database. This feature class was created based on linear...

  12. Pink Salmon Distribution, Pacific Northwest (updated March, 2006)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission — This dataset is a record of fish distribution and activity for PINK SALMON contained in the StreamNet database. This feature class was created based on linear event...

  13. Lahontan Cutthroat Trout Distribution, Pacific Northwest (updated March, 2006)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission — This dataset is a record of fish distribution and activity for LAHONTAN CUTTHROAT TROUT contained in the StreamNet database. This feature class was created based on...

  14. Brown Trout Distribution, Pacific Northwest (updated March, 2006)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission — This dataset is a record of fish distribution and activity for BROWN TROUT contained in the StreamNet database. This feature class was created based on linear event...

  15. Westslope Cutthroat Trout Distribution, Pacific Northwest (updated March, 2006)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission — This dataset is a record of fish distribution and activity for WESTSLOPE CUTTHROAT TROUT contained in the StreamNet database. This feature class was created based...

  16. Nonsewered population in the United States Pacific Northwest for 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This spatial data set was created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to represent populations that did not have access to municipal sewer service in the Pacific...

  17. Bull Trout Distribution, Pacific Northwest (updated March, 2006)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission — This dataset is a record of fish distribution and activity for BULL TROUT contained in the StreamNet database. This feature class was created based on linear event...

  18. White Sturgeon Distribution, Pacific Northwest (updated March, 2006)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission — This dataset is a record of fish distribution and activity for WHITE STURGEON contained in the StreamNet database. This feature class was created based on linear...

  19. Brook Trout Distribution, Pacific Northwest (updated March, 2006)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission — This dataset is a record of fish distribution and activity for BROOK TROUT contained in the StreamNet database. This feature class was created based on linear event...

  20. Chum Salmon Distribution, Pacific Northwest (updated March, 2006)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission — This dataset is a record of fish distribution and activity for CHUM SALMON contained in the StreamNet database. This feature class was created based on linear event...

  1. Spring Chinook Distribution, Pacific Northwest (updated March, 2006)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission — This dataset is a record of fish distribution and activity for SPRING CHINOOK contained in the StreamNet database. This feature class was created based on linear...

  2. Coho Salmon Distribution, Pacific Northwest (updated March, 2006)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission — This dataset is a record of fish distribution and activity for COHO SALMON contained in the StreamNet database. This feature class was created based on linear event...

  3. Marine Sciences Laboratory Radionuclide Air Emissions Report for Calendar Year 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snyder, Sandra F.; Barnett, J. Matthew; Ballinger, Marcel Y.

    2014-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science (DOE-SC) Pacific Northwest Site Office (PNSO) has oversight and stewardship duties associated with the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) located on Battelle Land – Sequim (Sequim). This report is prepared to document compliance with the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Title 40, Protection of the Environment, Part 61, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP), Subpart H, “National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities” and Washington Administrative Code (WAC) Chapter 246-247, “Radiation Protection–Air Emissions.” The EDE to the Sequim MEI due to routine operations in 2013 was 5E-05 mrem (5E-07 mSv). No non-routine emissions occurred in 2013. The MSL is in compliance with the federal and state 10 mrem/yr standard.

  4. Marine Sciences Laboratory Radionuclide Air Emissions Report for Calendar Year 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snyder, Sandra F.; Barnett, J. Matthew

    2015-05-04

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science (DOE-SC) Pacific Northwest Site Office (PNSO) has oversight and stewardship duties associated with the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) located on Battelle Land – Sequim.This report is prepared to document compliance with the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Title 40, Protection of the Environment, Part 61, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP), Subpart H, ''National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities” and Washington Administrative Code (WAC) Chapter 246-247, “Radiation Protection–Air Emissions.'' The EDE to the MSL MEI due to routine operations in 2014 was 9E-05 mrem (9E-07 mSv). No non-routine emissions occurred in 2014. The MSL is in compliance with the federal and state 10 mrem/yr standard.

  5. The Pacific Northwest residential consumer: Perceptions and preferences of home heating fuels, major appliances, and appliance fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harkreader, S.A.; Hattrup, M.P.

    1988-09-01

    In 1983 the Bonneville Power Administration contracted with the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to conduct an analysis of the marketing environment for Bonneville's conservation activities. Since this baseline residential study, PNL has conducted two follow up market research projects: Phase 2 in 1985, and Phase 3, in 1988. In this report the respondents' perceptions, preferences, and fuel switching possibilities of fuels for home heating and major appliances are examined. To aid in effective target marketing, the report identifies market segments according to consumers' demographics, life-cycle, attitudes, and opinions.

  6. Anatomy of a field trial: Wood-based biochar and compost influences a Pacific Northwest soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biochar land application research in elevated rainfall areas (980 millimeters of annual rainfall) of the U.S. Pacific Northwest is lacking. A proof-of-concept field study examined the effects of spruce-pine-fir wood chip biochar (slow pyrolysis; 450-500 degrees Celsius; 35 megagrams per hectare), d...

  7. Application of a Eutrophic Condition Index to Benthic Macroalgal Accumulation in Pacific Northwest Estuaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies of benthic macroalgal accumulation in coastal estuaries of the Pacific Northwest, USA, were conducted over a 12-year period, including aerial mapping and ground surveys. The results were applied to an assessment framework for eutrophication developed by the European Unio...

  8. Phylogeography of the seaweed Ishige okamurae (Phaeophyceae) : evidence for glacial refugia in the northwest Pacific region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, Kyung Min; Yang, Eun Chan; Coyer, James A.; Zuccarello, Giuseppe C.; Wang, Wei-Lui; Choi, Chang Geun; Boo, Sung Min

    2012-01-01

    Although benthic marine algae are essential components of marine coastal systems that have been influenced profoundly by past and present climate change, our knowledge of seaweed phylogeography is limited. The brown alga Ishige okamurae Yendo occurs in the northwest Pacific, where it occupies a char

  9. Inferred origin of several Native American potatoes from the Pacific Northwest using SSR markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Certain Native Americans from the Pacific Northwest and Alaska of the USA have grown potatoes in their gardens for many generations. However, the origin of these potatoes was unclear. In this study, the origin of several potatoes collected from Native gardens, including two potatoes, “Ozette” (fro...

  10. Patterns of dissolved oxygen dynamics in a Pacific Northwest slough and tide channel - CERF 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacific Northwest (PNW) estuaries and tide channels are habitats or migratory corridors for societally prized salmonids. These fish have high oxygen requirements, and an adequate level of dissolved oxygen is considered an important gauge of a PNW water body’s condition. W...

  11. DESIGN AND PERFORMANCE OF SLOW SAND FILTERS IN THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper was prepared as a review of slow sand filtration design and operating practices at 13 filtration plants constructed between 1958 and 1988 in the Pacific Northwest. t represents an attempt to learn from the past in order to do a better job in the future. mong the topics...

  12. Nonroad developed land in the United States Pacific Northwest for 2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This spatial data set was created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to represent the extent of non-road developed land in the Pacific Northwest region of the...

  13. Comparisons of annual no-till spring cereal cropping systems in the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) – summer fallow (WWF) has been the prevalent rotation in the low rainfall zone of the Pacific Northwest (PNW) for more than 130 years; however this rotation is characterized by poor soil health, poor environmental sustainability, and high pest incidence. A 6-year ...

  14. DOCUMENTING THE INTERTIDAL COMPONENT OF EELGRASS DISTRIBUTIONS IN PACIFIC NORTHWEST ESTUARIES USING COLOR INFRARED AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to develop and test a rapid, cost-effective method of mapping the intertidal (and surface-visible subtidal) distribution of eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) meadows and patches in the turbid coastal estuaries of the Pacific Northwest (PNW). Initial co...

  15. Faculty Perceptions of Organizational Culture and Collegiality at Protestant Christian Universities in the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jamie R.

    2013-01-01

    This study focused on faculty perceptions of organizational culture and collegiality at denominationally affiliated Christian colleges and universities in the Pacific Northwest. It was found that while faculty members perceive tension around their experience of organizational culture, the extent of their relationships as cultivated through formal…

  16. A Comprehensive Approach to Bi-National Regional Energy Planning in the Pacific Northwest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matt Morrison

    2007-12-31

    The Pacific NorthWest Economic Region, a statutory organization chartered by the Northwest states of Alaska, Washington, Idaho, Montana, and Oregon, and the western Canadian provinces of British Columbia, Alberta, and the Yukon through its Energy Working Group launched a bi-national energy planning initiative designed to create a Pacific Northwest energy planning council of regional public/private stakeholders from both Canada and the US. There is an urgent need to deal with the comprehensive energy picture now before our hoped for economic recovery results in energy price spikes which are likely to happen because the current supply will not meet predicted demand. Also recent events of August 14th have shown that our bi-national energy grid system is intricately interdependent, and additional planning for future capacity is desperately needed.

  17. 1995 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study, Technical Appendix: Volume 1.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1995-12-01

    The Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study (WhiteBook), is published annually by BPA, and establishes the planning basis for supplying electricity to customers. It serves a dual purpose. First, the White Book presents projections of regional and Federal system load and resource capabilities, along with relevant definitions and explanations. Second, the White Book serves as a benchmark for annual BPA determinations made pursuant to the 1981 regional power sales contracts. Specifically, BPA uses the, information in the White Book for determining the notice required when customers request to increase or decrease the amount of power purchased from BPA. Aside from these purposes, the White Book is used for input to BPA`s resource planning process. The White Book compiles information obtained from several formalized resource planning reports and data submittals, including those from the Northwest Power Planning Council (Council) and the Pacific Northwest Utilities Conference Committee (PNUCC).

  18. Compendium of Low-Cost Pacific Salmon and Steelhead Trout Production Facilities and Practices in the Pacific Northwest.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senn, Harry G.

    1984-09-01

    The purpose was to research low capital cost salmon and steelhead trout production facilities and identify those that conform with management goals for the Columbia Basin. The species considered were chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), coho salmon (O. kisutch), sockeye salmon (O. nerka), and steelhead trout (Salmo gairdneri). This report provides a comprehensive listing of the facilities, techniques, and equipment used in artificial production in the Pacific Northwest. (ACR)

  19. Learning from urban growth management in the Pacific Northwest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fertner, Christian

    2010-01-01

    The development of contemporary urban growth management in the Northwest United States began in the 1970s. The major tool is the implementation of urban containment boundaries, fostering growth within and limiting it outside the boundary. Additionally a set of policies reaching from densification...... Washington and Oregon as e.g. the municipalities in Denmark have strong control options in planning. However, especially the metropolitan co-operation and co-ordination instruments can certainly contribute to the discussion on urban growth management in Denmark and elsewhere....

  20. Seismic tomography of the northwest Pacific and its geodynamic implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    High-resolution tomographic images across Japan Trenh-Changhai Mountains-lDong Ujimqinqi are displayed, showing the morphological feature of the subducted slab in the norhwestem Pacific margin and the eharaeter istics of lithosphere stmctures under the Changhai Mountains and the Da Hinggan Mnuntains. The Pacific plate began to penetrate into the deeper mantle after it subducted to the 660 km discontinuity with an underthmsting angle of 26°, but did not continue to mnve furrther westward. In contrast, there appeared a remarkable thermal upwelling zone to the west of the downward plate. In addition, the evidence frnm the subduction time and time lag between the subduetion and eon sequent magmatism indicates that there is no direct genetic correlatiom between the Mesoznic magmatism in eastern China ami subduction of the Pacific plate. In this work. we also emphasize that what the tomographic images reflect is the pre sent structure in the deep earth interior, which should preserve some Mesozoic lithospheric structure characteristics. In summary, we attribute the Mesozoic intense magmatic evolution in north China to the intraplate asthenosphere upwelling zone.

  1. Low thermal tolerances of stream amphibians in the Pacific Northwest: Implications for riparian and forest management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bury, R.B.

    2008-01-01

    Temperature has a profound effect on survival and ecology of amphibians. In the Pacific Northwest, timber harvest is known to increase peak stream temperatures to 24??C or higher, which has potential to negatively impact cold-water stream amphibians. I determined the Critical Thermal Maxima (CT max) for two salamanders that are endemic to the Pacific Northwest. Rhyacotriton variegatus larvae acclimated at 10??C had mean CTmax of 26.7 ?? 0.7 SD??C and adults acclimated at 11??C had mean CT max of 27.9 ?? 1.1??C. These were among the lowest known values for any amphibian. Values were significantly higher for larval Dicamptodon tenebrosus acclimated at 14??C (x = 29.1 ?? 0.2??C). Although the smallest R. variegatus had some of the lowest values, size of larvae and adults did not influence CTmax in this species. Current forest practices retain riparian buffers along larger fish-bearing streams; however, such buffers along smaller headwaters and non-fish bearing streams may provide favorable habitat conditions for coldwater-associated species in the Pacific Northwest. The current study lends further evidence to the need for protection of Northwest stream amphibians from environmental perturbations. Forest guidelines that include riparian buffer zones and configurations of upland stands should be developed, while monitoring amphibian responses to determine their success. ?? 2008 Brill Academic Publishers.

  2. Nuclear materials transportation at Battelle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battelle-Columbus has been a pioneer in designing and developing shipping containers for its own needs and to meet the requirements of the nuclear industry. It has participated in the design and testing of approximately 80 licensed shipping casks. Its involvement has included cask design and testing and the preparation and updating of safety analysis reports. Battelle's capabilities also include all the computer codes needed for thermal, shielding, criticality, and structural analyses as well as a drop test facility for validating codes and obtaining data to supplement structural analyses. These facilities have also been used in the design and licensing of Battelle's four shipping containers, all of which are currently in service. These casks are used principally to transport radioactive sources, surveillance capsules, and spent research reactor fuel. Battelle-Columbus designed, licensed, built, and maintains four shipping casks, primarily to support our Hot Laboratory postirradiation programs on highly irradiated structural and spent fuel materials. These casks vary in size and shipping capacities. Weights range from 1200 to 23,000 pounds. Internal cavities range from 4-1/2 in. I.D. x 5 in. deep to 15-1/2 in. I.D. x 54 in. deep. Each is licensed by the U.S. NRC for Type fissile quantities and each has an IAEA Competent Authority Permit. Although they are used primarily for own purposes, the casks are available for lease to industry and the government. Battelle-Columbus averages about 150 outgoing and incoming shipments of radioactive material a year in packages that range from 50 000 pound spent fuel casks to small 5-gallon cans. The regulatory requirements for each shipment are becoming more detailed and restrictive every day, thus each shipment can almost be considered a major project in itself. Three years ago, a truckload of radioactive waste leaving our site required the generation of only two document; now 13 internal and external documents are required. We

  3. Data Quality Objectives Supporting Radiological Air Emissions Monitoring for the Marine Sciences Laboratory, Sequim Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnett, J. Matthew; Meier, Kirsten M.; Snyder, Sandra F.; Antonio, Ernest J.; Fritz, Brad G.; Poston, Theodore M.

    2012-12-27

    This document of Data Quality Objectives (DQOs) was prepared based on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Guidance on Systematic Planning Using the Data Quality Objectives Process, EPA, QA/G4, 2/2006 (EPA 2006), as well as several other published DQOs. The intent of this report is to determine the necessary steps required to ensure that radioactive emissions to the air from the Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) headquartered at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory’s Sequim Marine Research Operations (Sequim Site) on Washington State’s Olympic Peninsula are managed in accordance with regulatory requirements and best practices. The Sequim Site was transitioned in October 2012 from private operation under Battelle Memorial Institute to an exclusive use contract with the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Pacific Northwest Site Office.

  4. Relative Influence of Trans-Pacific and Regional Atmospheric Transport of PAHs in the Pacific Northwest, U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafontaine, Scott; Schrlau, Jill; Butler, Jack; Jia, Yuling; Harper, Barbara; Harris, Stuart; Bramer, Lisa M; Waters, Katrina M; Harding, Anna; Simonich, Staci L Massey

    2015-12-01

    The relative influences of trans-Pacific and regional atmospheric transport on measured concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), PAH derivatives (nitro- (NPAH) and oxy-(OPAH)), organic carbon (OC), and particulate matter (PM) less than 2.5 μm in diameter (PM2.5) were investigated in the Pacific Northwest, U.S. in 2010-2011. Ambient high volume PM2.5 air samples were collected at two sites in the Pacific Northwest: (1.) Mount Bachelor Observatory (MBO) in the Oregon Cascade Range (2763 m above sea level (asl)) and 2.) Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) in the Columbia River Gorge (CRG) (954 m asl). At MBO, the 1,8-dinitropyrene concentration was significantly positively correlated with the time a sampled air mass spent over Asia, suggesting that this NPAH may be a good marker for trans-Pacific atmospheric transport. At CTUIR, NOx, CO2, and SO2 emissions from a 585 MW coal fired power plant, in Boardman OR, were found to be significantly positively correlated with PAH, OPAH, NPAH, OC, and PM2.5 concentrations. By comparing the Boardman Plant operational time frames when the plant was operating to when it was shut down, the plant was found to contribute a large percentage of the measured PAH (67%), NPAH (91%), OPAH (54%), PM2.5 (39%), and OC (38%) concentrations at CTUIR and the CRG prior to Spring 2011 and likely masked trans-Pacific atmospheric transport events to the CRG. Upgrades installed to the Boardman Plant in the spring of 2011 dramatically reduced the plant's contribution to PAH and OPAH concentrations (by ∼72% and ∼40%, respectively) at CTUIR and the CRG, but not NPAH, PM2.5 or OC concentrations. PMID:26151337

  5. Economic Analysis in the Pacific Northwest Land Resources Project: Theoretical Considerations and Preliminary Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, D. R. A.; Sahlberg, J. T.

    1977-01-01

    The Pacific Northwest Land Resources Inventory Demonstration Project i s an a ttempt to combine a whole spectrum of heterogeneous geographic, institutional and applications elements in a synergistic approach to the evaluation of remote sensing techniques. This diversity is the prime motivating factor behind a theoretical investigation of alternative economic analysis procedures. For a multitude of reasons--simplicity, ease of understanding, financial constraints and credibility, among others--cost-effectiveness emerges as the most practical tool for conducting such evaluation determinatIons in the Pacific Northwest. Preliminary findings in two water resource application areas suggest, in conformity with most published studies, that Lands at-aided data collection methods enjoy substantial cost advantages over alternative techniques. The pntential for sensitivity analysis based on cost/accuracy tradeoffs is considered on a theoretical plane in the absence of current accuracy figures concerning the Landsat-aided approach.

  6. Addendum to study plan: Effects of organochlorine pollutants on black-crowned night herons in Pacific Northwest

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A revised version of the study designed to determine the effects of organochlorine pollutants on back-crowned night herons nesting in the Pacific Northwest and to...

  7. Mean annual solar radiation in the United States Pacific Northwest (1991-2005) summarized for NHDPlus v2 catchments

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This spatial data set was created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to represent mean annual solar radiation in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States...

  8. Atmospheric deposition of nitrogen in the United States Pacific Northwest for 2002 summarized for NHDPlus v2 catchments

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This spatial data set was created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to represent the amount of atmospheric nitrogen deposition in the Pacific Northwest region of...

  9. Arid land irrigation in the United States Pacific Northwest for 2001 summarized for NHDPlus v2 catchments

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This spatial data set was created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to represent the area of arid land irrigation in the Pacific Northwest region of the United...

  10. Wind speed variability and adaptation strategies in coastal areas of the Pacific Northwest

    OpenAIRE

    Griffin, Bradford

    2010-01-01

    Overall, previous wind speed studies in the Pacific Northwest (PNW) present conflicting results for wind speed trends (both increasing and decreasing) in relation to climate drivers. This study fills a gap in the understanding of PNW wind behaviour by: determining if relationships exist between wind speed distributions, ocean/atmospheric climate indices, and monitoring station-specific attributes; assessing the robustness of relationships for forecasting wind speeds within the study area; and...

  11. Choosing an electrical energy future for the Pacific Northwest: an alternative scenario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beers, J.R.; Cavanagh, R.C.; Lash, T.R.; Mott, L.

    1980-05-19

    A strategy is presented for averting the short-term energy supply uncertainties that undermine prospects for stable economic development in the Pacific Northwest. This strategy is based on: an analysis of the present electric power consumption by various end-use sectors; comparison of incentives to promote energy conservation and lower demand growth; analysis of alternatives to current dependency on hydro power; and a study of the cost of planning and implementing future power supply programs. (LCL)

  12. Proceedings: Second Annual Pacific Northwest Alternative and Renewable Energy Resources Conference.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-01-01

    Papers presented at the conference are published in this volume. The purpose of the conference was to solicit regional cooperation in the promoting of near-term development of such alternative and renewable energy resources in the Pacific Northwest as: cogeneration; biomass; wind; small hydro; solar end-use applications; and geothermal direct heat utilization. Separate abstracts of selected papers were prepared for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.

  13. Biological screening of selected Pacific Northwest forest plants using the brine shrimp (Artemia salina) toxicity bioassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karchesy, Yvette M; Kelsey, Rick G; Constantine, George; Karchesy, Joseph J

    2016-01-01

    The brine shrimp (Artemia salina) bioassay was used to screen 211 methanol extracts from 128 species of Pacific Northwest plants in search of general cytotoxic activity. Strong toxicity (LC50  1000 µg/ml). Our subsequent studies of conifer heartwoods with strong activity confirm the assay's value for identifying new investigational leads for materials with insecticidal and fungicidal activity. PMID:27186474

  14. Adaptive Ecosystem Management in the Pacific Northwest: a Case Study from Coastal Oregon

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew N Gray

    2000-01-01

    Adaptive ecosystem management has been adopted as a goal for decision making by several of the land management and regulatory agencies of the U.S. government. One of the first attempts to implement ecosystem management was undertaken on the federally managed forests of the Pacific Northwest in 1994. In addition to a network of reserve areas intended to restore habitat for late-successional terrestrial and aquatic species, "adaptive management areas" (AMAs) were established. These AM...

  15. Characteristics of low-frequency oscillation intensity of airsea turbulent heat fluxes over the northwest Pacific

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Based on the daily turbulent heat fluxes and related meteorological variables datasets (1985-2006) from Objectively Analyzed air-sea Fluxes (OAFlux) Project of Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI), characteristics of low-frequency oscillation intensity of air-sea turbulent heat fluxes over the northwest Pacific are analyzed by linear perturbation method and correlation analysis. It can be concluded that: 1) the distribution of low-frequency oscillation intensity of latent heat flux (LHF) over the northwest Pacific is mainly affected by that of low-frequency oscillation intensity of anomalous air-sea humidity gradient (Δq′) as well as mean air-sea humidity gradient ( Δ q), while the distribution of low-frequency oscillation intensity of sensible heat flux (SHF) is mainly affected by that of low-frequency oscillation intensity of anomalous air-sea temperature gradient (ΔT′). 2) The low-frequency oscillation of turbulent heat fluxes over the northwest Pacific is the strongest in winter and the weakest in summer. And the seasonal transition of low-frequency oscillation intensity of LHF is jointly influenced by those of low-frequency oscillation intensity of Δq′, low-frequency oscillation intensity of anomalous wind speed (U′), Δ q and mean wind speed (U ), while the seasonal transition of low-frequency oscillation intensity of SHF is mainly influenced by those of low-frequency oscillation intensity of ΔT′ and U . 3) Over the tropical west Pacific and sea areas north of 20°N, the low-frequency oscillation of LHF (SHF) is mainly influenced by atmospheric variables qa′ (Ta′) and U′, indicating an oceanic response to overlying atmospheric forcing. In contrast, over the tropical eastern and central Pacific south of 20°N, qs′ (Ts′) also greatly influences the low-frequency oscillation of LHF (SHF).

  16. Final Report of a CRADA Between Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and the General Motors Company (CRADA No. PNNL/271): “Degradation Mechanisms of Urea Selective Catalytic Reduction Technology”

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Do Heui; Lee, Jong H.; Peden, Charles HF; Howden, Ken; Kim, Chang H.; Oh, Se H.; Schmieg, Steven J.; Wiebenga, Michelle H.

    2011-12-13

    Diesel engines can offer substantially higher fuel efficiency, good driving performance characteristics, and reduced carbon dioxide (CO2) emission compared to stoichiometric gasoline engines. Despite the increasing public demand for higher fuel economy and reduced dependency on imported oil, however, meeting the stringent emission standards with affordable methods has been a major challenge for the wide application of these fuel-efficient engines in the US market. The selective catalytic reduction of NOx by urea (urea-SCR) is one of the most promising technologies for NOx emission control for diesel engine exhausts. To ensure successful NOx emission control in the urea-SCR technology, both a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and a urea-SCR catalyst with high activity and durability are critical for the emission control system. Because the use of this technology for light-duty diesel vehicle applications is new, the relative lack of experience makes it especially challenging to satisfy the durability requirements. Of particular concern is being able to realistically simulate actual field aging of the catalyst systems under laboratory conditions, which is necessary both as a rapid assessment tool for verifying improved performance and certifiability of new catalyst formulations. In addition, it is imperative to develop a good understanding of deactivation mechanisms to help develop improved catalyst materials. In this CRADA program, General Motors Company and PNNL have investigated fresh, laboratory- and vehicle-aged DOC and SCR catalysts. The studies have led to a better understanding of various aging factors that impact the long-term performance of catalysts used in the urea-SCR technology, and have improved the correlation between laboratory and vehicle aging for reduced development time and cost. This Final Report briefly highlights many of the technical accomplishments and documents the productivity of the program in terms of peer-reviewed scientific publications

  17. Application of the graded management approach to Battelle's nuclear project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battelle's graded management approach provides an effective and efficient method to perform the Battelle Columbus Laboratories Decommissioning Project (BCLDP). The project is managed by Battelle under their US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) license but is partially funded by the US Department of Energy (DOE) on a cost-shared basis. Battelle's graded management approach adheres to the regulations and orders governing the BCLDP by the interaction of various plans, procedures, permits, and work instructions. By independent assessment, quality control, and worker training, Battelle has been able to establish a cost-effective approach to performing work and, at the same time, have a controlled checks and balance system to assure the proper safety considerations and project particulars are taken into account

  18. Actual and Estimated Energy Savings Comparison for Deep Energy Retrofits in the Pacific Northwest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanchard, Jeremy; Widder, Sarah H.; Giever, Elisabeth L.; Baechler, Michael C.

    2012-10-01

    Seven homes from the Pacific Northwest were selected to evaluate the differences between estimated and actual energy savings achieved from deep energy retrofits. The energy savings resulting from these retrofits were estimated, using energy modeling software, to save at least 30% on a whole-house basis. The modeled pre-retrofit energy use was trued against monthly utility bills. After the retrofits were completed, each of the homes was extensively monitored, with the exception of one home which was monitored pre-retrofit. This work is being conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the U.S. Department of Energy Building Technologies Program as part of the Building America Program. This work found many discrepancies between actual and estimated energy savings and identified the potential causes for the discrepancies. The differences between actual energy use and modeled energy use also suggest improvements to improve model accuracy. The difference between monthly whole-house actual and estimated energy savings ranged from 75% more energy saved than predicted by the model to 16% less energy saved for all the monitored homes. Similarly, the annual energy savings difference was between 36% and -14%, which was estimated based on existing monitored savings because an entire year of data is not available. Thus, on average, for all six monitored homes the actual energy use is consistently less than estimates, indicating home owners are saving more energy than estimated. The average estimated savings for the eight month monitoring period is 43%, compared to an estimated savings average of 31%. Though this average difference is only 12%, the range of inaccuracies found for specific end-uses is far greater and are the values used to directly estimate energy savings from specific retrofits. Specifically, the monthly post-retrofit energy use differences for specific end-uses (i.e., heating, cooling, hot water, appliances, etc.) ranged from 131% under

  19. Representative Agricultural Pathways and Climate Impact Assessment for Pacific Northwest Agricultural Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    MU, J.; Antle, J. M.; Zhang, H.; Capalbo, S. M.; Eigenbrode, S.; Kruger, C.; Stockle, C.; Wolfhorst, J. D.

    2013-12-01

    Representative Agricultural Pathways (RAPs) are projections of plausible future biophysical and socio-economic conditions used to carry out climate impact assessments for agriculture. The development of RAPs iss motivated by the fact that the various global and regional models used for agricultural climate change impact assessment have been implemented with individualized scenarios using various data and model structures, often without transparent documentation or public availability. These practices have hampered attempts at model inter-comparison, improvement, and synthesis of model results across studies. This paper aims to (1) present RAPs developed for the principal wheat-producing region of the Pacific Northwest, and to (2) combine these RAPs with downscaled climate data, crop model simulations and economic model simulations to assess climate change impacts on winter wheat production and farm income. This research was carried out as part of a project funded by the USDA known as the Regional Approaches to Climate Change in the Pacific Northwest (REACCH). The REACCH study region encompasses the major winter wheat production area in Pacific Northwest and preliminary research shows that farmers producing winter wheat could benefit from future climate change. However, the future world is uncertain in many dimensions, including commodity and input prices, production technology, and policies, as well as increased probability of disturbances (pests and diseases) associated with a changing climate. Many of these factors cannot be modeled, so they are represented in the regional RAPS. The regional RAPS are linked to global agricultural and shared social-economic pathways, and used along with climate change projections to simulate future outcomes for the wheat-based farms in the REACCH region.

  20. Regional Approaches to Climate Change for Inland Pacific Northwest Cereal Production Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eigenbrode, S. D.; Abatzoglou, J. T.; Burke, I. C.; Capalbo, S.; Gessler, P.; Huggins, D. R.; Johnson-Maynard, J.; Kruger, C.; Lamb, B. K.; Machado, S.; Mote, P.; Painter, K.; Pan, W.; Petrie, S.; Paulitz, T. C.; Stockle, C.; Walden, V. P.; Wulfhorst, J. D.; Wolf, K. J.

    2011-12-01

    The long-term environmental and economic sustainability of agriculture in the Inland Pacific Northwest (northern Idaho, north central Oregon, and eastern Washington) depends upon improving agricultural management, technology, and policy to enable adaptation to climate change and to help realize agriculture's potential to contribute to climate change mitigation. To address this challenge, three land-grant institutions (Oregon State University, the University of Idaho and Washington State University) (OSU, UI, WSU) and USDA Agricultural Research Service (ARS) units are partners in a collaborative project - Regional Approaches to Climate Change for Pacific Northwest Agriculture (REACCH-PNA). The overarching goal of REACCH is to enhance the sustainability of Inland Pacific Northwest (IPNW) cereal production systems under ongoing and projected climate change while contributing to climate change mitigation. Supporting goals include: - Develop and implement sustainable agricultural practices for cereal production within existing and projected agroecological zones throughout the region as climate changes, - Contribute to climate change mitigation through improved fertilizer, fuel, and pesticide use efficiency, increased sequestration of soil carbon, and reduced greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions consistent with the 2030 targets set by the USDA National Institute for Food and Agriculture (NIFA), - Work closely with stakeholders and policymakers to promote science-based agricultural approaches to climate change adaptation and mitigation, - Increase the number of scientists, educators, and extension professionals with the skills and knowledge to address climate change and its interactions with agriculture. In this poster, we provide an overview of the specific goals of this project and activities that are underway since its inception in spring of 2011.

  1. Methyl halides in surface seawater and marine boundary layer of the northwest Pacific

    OpenAIRE

    Ooki, Atsushi; Tsuda, Atsushi; Kameyama, Sohiko; Takeda, Shigenobu; Itoh, Sachihiko; SUGA, Toshio; Tazoe, Hirofumi; Okubo, Ayako; Yokouchi, Yoko

    2010-01-01

    The partial pressures of methyl halides (CH3X; X = Cl, Br, or I) and of CHClF2 (HCFC‐22), which are all volatile organic compounds (VOCs), were measured in the air of the marine boundary layer (pVOCair) and in surface seawater (pVOCwater) during a cruise from the subarctic to subtropical regions of the northwest Pacific in summer of 2008. In the northern transition water (TWN) with high biological activity, high levels of the three CH3Xs in surface seawater were frequently obse...

  2. A plant health care program for brambles in the pacific northwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElroy, F D

    1992-09-01

    Pratylenchus and Xiphinema species have been associated with decline and mortality of brambles (Rubus species) in the Pacific Northwest of the United States. These nematodes cause direct feeding damage and (or) transmit viruses that result in poor fruit quality and plant decline. A nematode management program has been developed by the author to minimize chemical use and nematode-induced damage while optimizing fruit production. Nematode management is an integral part of a total plant health care program in which foliar and soil pests, plant stresses, and fertility are managed. PMID:19283023

  3. Pacific Northwest Laboratory environmental technologies available for deployment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Energy created the Office of Environmental Management (EM) to conduct a 30-year plus, multi-billion dollar program to manage the wastes and cleanup the legacy from over fifty years of nuclear material production. Across the DOE System there are thousands of sites containing millions of metric tons of buried wastes and contaminated soils and groundwater. Additionally, there are nearly 400,000 m3 of highly radioactive wastes in underground storage tanks, over 1,400 different mixed-waste streams, and thousands of contaminated surplus facilities, some exceeding 200,000 m2 in size. Costs to remediate all these problems have been estimated to be as much as several hundred billion dollars. The tremendous technical challenges with some of the problems and the high costs of using existing technologies has led the Department to create the Office of Technology Development (TD) to lead an aggressive, integrated national program to develop and deploy the needed advanced, cost-effective technologies. This program is developing technologies for all major cleanup steps: assessment, characterization, retrieval, treatment, final stabilization, and disposal. Work is focused on the Department's five major problem areas: High-Level Waste Tank Remediation; Contaminant Plume Containment and Remediation; Mixed Waste Characterization, Treatment, and Disposal; Contaminated Soils and Buried Wastes Facility Transitioning, Decommissioning, and Final Disposal

  4. [Interview]: Alexandre Shvartsburg, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shvartsburg, Alexandre A.

    2012-12-01

    Q1. What are your main research activities in ion mobility mass spectrometry (past or present)? My early efforts focused on the structural characterization of atomic (carbon and semiconductor) clusters. After the production of bulk fullerenes, many hoped that other nanoclusters discovered in the gas phase could also coalesce into new materials. As these studies required accurate and robust mobility calculations for any ion geometry, I strived to build the needed theory and implement it in the Mobcal software widely employed today. Since 2004, I have been developing methods and novel applications of differential IMS (FAIMS) at PNNL. The principal achievement has been raising the resolving power by over tenfold (up to ~400 for multiply-charged peptides) using elevated fields, helium and hydrogen-rich buffers, and extended filtering times. This performance broadly allows previously unthinkable separations of very similar species, for example sequence inversions and post-translational modification localization isomers of peptides (including “middle-down” peptides such as histone tails), lipid regioisomers, and even isotopomers. Another major direction is investigating the dipole alignment of larger proteins, which creates an exceptionally strong FAIMS effect that is a potential tool for structural biology. Q2: What have been the most significant instrumentation or applications developments in the history of ion mobility - mass spectrometry? In 1995 when I started graduate research at Northwestern, only two groups worldwide worked with IMS/MS and “the literature” meant papers by Bowers (UCSB). Well-wishers counseled me to “learn something useful like HPLC, as IMS would never have real utility”. This booklet showcases the scale of change since. First, the practical IMS/ToF platforms for complex biological analyses demonstrated by Clemmer have turned IMS/MS from an esoteric physical chemistry technique into a powerful analytical tool. By commercializing the IMS/ToF technology in Synapt instruments, Waters has greatly increased its impact via expanded number and diversity of applications. Concurrently, Guevremont at Canadian NRC has perfected FAIMS coupled to MS, deployed it for real-world bio and environmental analyses, and widely distributed it in the Ionalytics Selectra system (subsequently installed on Thermo MS platforms). The latest breakthrough is ultra-FAIMS by Owlstone, where extreme fields allow numerous qualitatively new separations and operational modes that we just begin to explore. Q3: Where do you see ion mobility - mass spectrometry making the most impact in the next 5 years? Any predictions for where the field will go? Sciences dealing with perturbations in media (such as optics or acoustics) at some point shift from the linear to nonlinear paradigm, where propagation depends on the magnitude of perturbation or its driving force. While the linear part remains industrially important (e.g., eyewear and architectural glass for optics), frontline research moves to nonlinear phenomena. IMS is undergoing that transition now with the rise of FAIMS, which should continue as the fundamental understanding improves, new modalities and applications emerge, and more instrumentation is introduced by vendors. Modifying and augmenting FAIMS separations through vapor dopants that render ion mobilities less linear is becoming routine. I expect this area to advance, extending to more specific interactions and to complexation with solution additives. Another route to higher separation power is integrating FAIMS with conventional IMS; proliferation of both technologies would make such 2-D platforms common. Along with mass spectrometry and conventional IMS, FAIMS will address increasingly large macromolecules, including proteins and their complexes.

  5. Pacific Northwest Laboratory monthly activities report, February 1968

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albaugh, F.W.

    1968-03-01

    Measurements of radioactivity in 277 children were completed at the fourth Pasco Elementary School on February 16. Whole-body counting of children at the fifth elementary school began on February 21, following lectures to 12 classrooms in grades one through six. Analysis of pheasants, quail and chukar shot locally revealed that only birds collected in the vicinity of the Columbia River contained detectable P{sup 32} and Zn{sup 65}. In decreasing order of concentrations the three species ranked chukar > pheasant > quail. Heads of the birds consistently contained more of these two radionuclides than the edible flesh by factors varying up to 20. A ca5% sample of local hunters was drawn from Washington State Game Department records in February. A questionnaire designed to gather data on hunting and consumption of game birds by local residents will be mailed to these 657 people in March. The results will aid in defining the importance of game-bird consumption to local environmental radiation doses. Diet distributions of Richland and Benton City elementary school pupils were computed this month. Consumptions of various foods were determined for various age groups of boys and of girls.

  6. Pacific Northwest Laboratory monthly activities report, October 1968

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1968-11-01

    Spot-radiographs, per Combustion Engineering instructions, on the head-to-shell weld, No. 160-4, on steam generator No. 4B have been completed. No weld discontinuities in excess of specification limitations were detected. Radiography on the 10-foot diameter head-to-shell weld, No. 160-4, on steam generator No. 4B, cell 4, 109-N Building, 100-N Area has been completed after stress relief. The weld complied with the requirements of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section III (Nuclear Vessels), 1968 Edition. Whole-body counts were obtained on 506 children of the Fruitland School in Kennewick. These measurements will be related to foods the students ate as indicated by diet records. It now appears that the relative merits of monitoring river temperatures at 100-F vs. Richland in relation to State standards will be more dependent upon the extent to which power levels may have to be reduced than upon the number of days out of the year when such reductions are necessary.

  7. Pacific Northwest Laboratory monthly activities report, January 1968

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albaugh, F.W.

    1968-02-01

    Analysis of Columbia River temperature trends indicates conformity with those previously reported. Despite unusually high average temperatures, the temperatures of the upper and lower extremes continued to converge on the mean. The construction of the John Day Dam is expected to have little temperature effect other than a delay of ten days in the timing of the annual temperature peak. Measurements of radioactivity in 465 children were completed at the third Pasco elementary school on January 12. Whole-body counting at the fourth school began on January 24, following lectures to the staff and 17 classrooms. The whole-body counter was recalibrated for K{sup 40} and Zn{sup 65} in late January. Only small modifications in the calibration factors over those currently employed are expected. Washington State Game Department personnel have supplied sufficient pheasant and quail samples shot near the Columbia River for comparison of radionuclide content between species and collection of these samples has been discontinued. The Department of Game continues to supply ``road-kills`` for radiochemical analysis in exchange for x-ray data on the number of birds which contain shot. A game-bird questionnaire for mailing to a statistical sample of Tri-City hunting license holders was drafted in January.

  8. Pacific Northwest Laboratory monthly activities report, November 1967

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albaugh, F.W.

    1967-12-01

    Calculated temperatures permitted in the Columbia River under various suggested regulations were plotted and reported in support of AEC studies. Mechanisms of Environmental Exposure. Measurements of radioactivity were completed in 362 pupils and 5 teachers at Emerson School on November 17. Measurements will begin at the third Pasco elementary school on December 5. Lectures were given at Mark Twain School to the teaching staff on November 20, and to 23 classroom son November 27 through December 1. A lecture was also given to the PTA meeting the evening of November 20 at Robert Frost elementary school in Pasco. Modifications were made to the electronic equipment and to the mobile whole-body counter van to improve the performance of the facility to further protect the NaI crystal from potential cold weather damage. Errors found inn the computer-calculated environmental doses were being corrected at month`s end, and the doses will be recalculated in December.

  9. Pacific Northwest Laboratory monthly activities report, June 1968

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albaugh, F.W.

    1968-07-01

    This document reports on direct AEC sponsored programs (Columbia River studies); assistance to Douglas United Nuclear (N-Reactor); assistance to Atlantic Richfield Hanford Company (Purex Process, B-Plant, Z-Plant); and technical assistance to the Hanford Plant (environment, dosimetry).

  10. PACIFIC NORTHWEST LABORATORY MONTHLY ACTIVITIES REPORT FOR FEBRUARY 1967

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fawcett, S. L.

    1967-03-01

    Areas of work reported include: general radiation effects; toxicity of radioelements; combating detrimental effects of radiation; studies at the molecular and cellular level; environmental radiation studies; atmospheric radioactivity and fallout; marine sciences; radiological and health physics; and radiation instruments.

  11. PACIFIC NORTHWEST LABORATORY MONTHLY ACTIVITIES REPORT APRIL 1967

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fawcett, S. L.

    1967-05-01

    Work is reported in these areas: general radiation effects; toxicity of radioelements; studies at the molecular and cellular levels; environmental radiation studies; atmospheric radioactivity and fallout; marine sciences; radiological and health physics; and radiation instruments.

  12. Pacific Northwest Laboratory monthly activities report, July 1966

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fawcett, S.L.; Albaugh, F.W.; Paul, R.S.

    1966-08-01

    Direct AEC sponsored programs report that: a new mathematical simulation model to handle reactor effluent dispersion was started, final arrangements were concluded for the proposed test of the effectiveness of activated carbon for inorganic ion removal at the Richland Water Plant, the whole body counter used to measure the burdens of radionuclides in Richland school children is being calibrated for persons of small size and with different weight to height ratios; controlled intake of oysters that have accumulated zinc-65 is being used as one phase of this calibration. Assistance to Douglas United Nuclear is reported for missions 1, 10, 11, 13, and 14. Topics discussed here include: diffusion bonding of nickel-aluminium, PCTR experiments, code development, aluminium jacketed uranium fuel elements, and radiochemical analysis of radioarsenic in effluents. The General Electric N-Reactor department reports on:analysis and theoretical interpretation for ice and water, radiometallurgical examination on Al canned targets containing ceramic cores, inspection of irradiated zircaloy-2 clad fuel rods,resonance absorption cross section calculations, and visual inspection of Inconel steam generator tubes. Isochem reports on: dissolution of zircaloy studies, subcritical neutron interaction experiments, carbon monoxide disproportionation on exposure to bismuth oxide, dissolution rates of British alloys in nitric acid, Sr and rare earth presence in Purex acid wastes, and recovery of Pu form sump wastes. Vitro Engineering reports that consultation services were provided on hydrodynamical theory pertaining to design of hydraulic line elbows. The Hanford Occupational Health Foundation prepares to interpret batteries of personnel tests. Technical assistance from the atmospheric sciences section, environmental studies section, dosimetry technology section, personnel dosimetry section and biology department are given. (GHH)

  13. Comparative Study on the Electrical Properties of the Oceanic Mantle Beneath the Northwest Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toh, H.

    2013-12-01

    We have been conducting long-term seafloor electromagnetic (EM) observations at two sites in the northwest Pacific since 2001. The older site was established at the deep seafloor (~5600m) on the northwest Pacific basin (Site NWP), while the new one was installed on the west Philippine basin (Site WPB) in 2006 at the slightly deeper (~5700m) seafloor. The ages of the oceanic basins at those sites are approximately 129 Ma for Site NWP (Shipboard Scientific Party of ODP Leg 191, 2000) and 49 Ma for Site WPB (Salisbury et al., 2006), respectively. The EM instruments deployed at those sites are seafloor EM stations (SFEMS; Toh et al., 2004 and 2006) and capable of measuring vector EM fields at the seafloor for as long as one year or more with other physical quantities such as the instruments' attitude, orientation and temperature. One of the objectives of the seafloor long-term EM observations by SFEMSs is to make a comparative study of the oceanic mantle with and without influence of the so-called 'stagnant slabs' in terms of their electrical conductivity. It is anticipated that the mantle transition zone under the influence of the stagnant slab has a higher electrical conductivity because the transition zone there could be wetter than that in the absence of the stagnant slab. In this context, the mantle transition zone beneath Site WPB can be said to have influence by the stagnant slab, while that beneath Site NWP does not. It, therefore, is basically possible to estimate how much water is present in each transition zone by comparison of the electrical conductivity profiles of the two. The one-dimensional electrical profile beneath Site NWP has been derived so far using the magnetotelluric (MT) and geomagnetic depth sounding (GDS) methods with significant jumps in the electrical property at 410 and 660km discontinuities. The jumps are approximately factors of 10 and 2, respectively (Ichiki et al., 2009). Here we show a profile beneath Site WPB using both MT and GDS

  14. Radionuclides in plankton from the South Pacific Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have initiated an investigation of the utility of marine plankton as bioconcentrating samplers of low-level marine radioactivity in the southern hemisphere. A literature review has shown that both freshwater and marine plankton have trace element and radionuclide concentration factors (relative to water) of up to 104. We participated in Operations Deepfreeze 1981 and 1982, collecting a total of 48 plankton samples from the USCGC Glacier on its Antarctic cruises. Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratories sampled air, water, rain, and fallout. We were able to measure concentrations in plankton of the naturally-occurring radionuclides 7Be, 40K, and the U and Th series, and we believe that we have detected low levels of 144Ce and 95Nb in seven samples ranging as far south as 680. Biological identification of the plankton suggests a possible correlation between radionuclide concentration and the protozoa content of the samples. 7 references, 5 figures

  15. Regional Issue Identification and Assessment (RIIA). Volume III. Institutional barriers to developing power generation facilities in the Pacific Northwest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, F. A.; Sawyer, C. H.; Maxwell, J. H.

    1979-10-01

    The Regional Assessments Division in the US Department of Energy (DOE) has undertaken a program to assess the probable consequences of various national energy policies in regions of the United States and to evaluate the constraints on national energy policy imposed by conditions in these regions. The program is referred to as the Regional Issues Identification and Assessment (RIIA) Program. Currently the RIIA Program is evaluating the Trendlong Mid-Mid scenario, a pattern of energy development for 1985 and 1990 derived from the Project Independence Evaluation System (PIES) model. This scenario assumes a medium annual growth rate in both the national demand for and national supply of energy. It has been disaggregated to specify the generating capacity to be supplied by each energy source in each state. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has the responsibility for evaluating the scenario for the Federal Region 10, consisting of Alaska, Idaho, Oregon, and Washington. PNL is identifying impacts and constraints associated with realizing the scenario in a variety of categories, including air and water quality impacts, health and safety effects, and socioeconomic impacts. This report summarizes the analysis of one such category: institutional constraints - defined to include legal, organizational, and political barriers to the achievement of the scenario in the Northwest.

  16. Observation of Directional Ocean Wave Spectra in China Seas and Northwest Pacific Ocean Using SAR Retrieval Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoyan; Zeng, Kan; He, Mingxia

    2014-11-01

    A software to retrieve directional ocean wave spectra from SAR images has been developed for China seas and northwest Pacific. The software, written with C programming language, is based on the MPI method proposed by Hasselmann. It is designed to support the wave mode SAR data of ERS, Envisat, Sentinel and so on. The directional ocean wave spectra produced by this software are validated with buoy data in global ocean area, northwest Pacific and China seas and the retrieved significant wave height (SWH) errors are 5.2%, 4.9% and 9.3% respectively. About 15,000 directional ocean wave spectra are obtained with the software from the wave mode data of Envisat/ASAR over the China seas and northwest Pacific during the period between Jan 2003 and Jan 2012. The preliminary analysis is presented.

  17. Choosing an electrical energy future for the Pacific Northwest: an Alternative Scenario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavanagh, R.C.; Mott, L.; Beers, J.R.; Lash, T.L.

    1980-08-01

    An Alternative Scenario for the electric energy future of the Pacific Northwest is presented. The Scenario includes an analysis of each major end use of electricity in the residential, commercial, manufacturing, and agricultural sectors. This approach affords the most direct means of projecting the likely long-term growth in consumption and the opportunities for increasing the efficiency with which electricity is used in each instance. The total demand for electricity by these end uses then provides a basis for determining whether additional central station generation is required to 1995. A projection of total demand for electricity depends on the combination of many independent variables and assumptions. Thus, the approach is a resilient one; no single assumption or set of linked assumptions dominates the analysis. End-use analysis allows policymakers to visualize the benefits of alternative programs, and to make comparison with the findings of other studies. It differs from the traditional load forecasts for the Pacific Northwest, which until recently were based largely on straightforward extrapolations of historical trends in the growth of electrical demand. The Scenario addresses the supply potential of alternative energy sources. Data are compiled for 1975, 1985, and 1995 in each end-use sector.

  18. Pacific Northwest and Alaska Regional Bioenergy Program : Five Year Report, 1985-1990.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pacific Northwest and Alaska Bioenergy Program (U.S.)

    1991-02-01

    This five-year report describes activities of the Pacific Northwest and Alaska Regional Bioenergy Program between 1985 and 1990. Begun in 1979, this Regional Bioenergy Program became the model for the nation's four other regional bioenergy programs in 1983. Within the time span of this report, the Pacific Northwest and Alaska Regional Bioenergy Program has undertaken a number of applied research and technology projects, and supported and guided the work of its five participating state energy programs. During this period, the Regional Bioenergy Program has brought together public- and private-sector organizations to promote the use of local biomass and municipal-waste energy resources and technologies. This report claims information on the mission, goals and accomplishments of the Regional Bioenergy Program. It describes the biomass projects conducted by the individual states of the region, and summarizes the results of the programs technical studies. Publications from both the state and regional projects are listed. The report goes on to consider future efforts of the Regional Bioenergy Program under its challenging assignment. Research activities include: forest residue estimates; Landsat biomass mapping; woody biomass plantations; industrial wood-fuel market; residential space heating with wood; materials recovery of residues; co-firing wood chips with coal; biomass fuel characterization; wood-boosted geothermal power plants; wood gasification; municipal solid wastes to energy; woodstove study; slash burning; forest depletion; and technology transfer. 9 figs., 6 tabs.

  19. The last frontier: catch records of white sharks (Carcharodon carcharias in the Northwest Pacific Ocean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather M Christiansen

    Full Text Available White sharks are highly migratory apex predators, globally distributed in temperate, sub-tropical, and tropical waters. Knowledge of white shark biology and ecology has increased recently based on research at known aggregation sites in the Indian, Atlantic, and Northeast Pacific Oceans; however, few data are available for the Northwest Pacific Ocean. This study provides a meta-analysis of 240 observations of white sharks from the Northwest Pacific Ocean between 1951 and 2012. Records comprise reports of bycatch in commercial fisheries, media accounts, personal communications, and documentation of shark-human interactions from Russia (n = 8, Republic of Korea (22, Japan (129, China (32, Taiwan (45, Philippines (1 and Vietnam (3. Observations occurred in all months, excluding October-January in the north (Russia and Republic of Korea and July-August in the south (China, Taiwan, Philippines, and Vietnam. Population trend analysis indicated that the relative abundance of white sharks in the region has remained relatively stable, but parameterization of a 75% increase in observer effort found evidence of a minor decline since 2002. Reliably measured sharks ranged from 126-602 cm total length (TL and 16-2530 kg total weight. The largest shark in this study (602 cm TL represents the largest measured shark on record worldwide. For all countries combined the sex ratio was non-significantly biased towards females (1∶1.1; n = 113. Of 60 females examined, 11 were confirmed pregnant ranging from the beginning stages of pregnancy (egg cases to near term (140 cm TL embryos. On average, 6.0±2.2 embryos were found per litter (maximum of 10 and gestation period was estimated to be 20 months. These observations confirm that white sharks are present in the Northwest Pacific Ocean year-round. While acknowledging the difficulties of studying little known populations of a naturally low abundance species, these results highlight the need for dedicated

  20. Columbia River system operation review: Final environmental impact statement. Appendix R, Pacific Northwest Coordination agreement (PNCA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Currently, the Federal government coordinates the planning and operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) with projects owned and operated by the region's non-Federal hydrogenerating utilities pursuant to the Pacific North-west Coordination Agreement (PNCA). The Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation), the Corps of Engineers (Corps), and the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) are parties to the PNCA on behalf of the government of the United States. The PNCA is a complex agreement that provides an opportunity for the region's power producers to maximize the power system's reliability and economy while meeting their multiple-use objectives. The PNCA does not dictate the operation of the resources it coordinates. It is essentially an accounting mechanism that exchanges the power produced among the parties in order to improve the reliability of the system and reduce regional power costs. Project owners retain complete autonomy to operate as needed to meet their multiple-use requirements. The PNCA was executed in 1964 as an important component of regional plans to maximize the Northwest's hydro resource capability. Maximization also included the development of storage projects on the Columbia River in Canada pursuant to the terms of the 1964 Columbia River Treaty. Because of the link between power coordination and Treaty issues, the current parties to the PNCA, currently are contemplating entering into a replacement or renewed power coordination agreement. Because the power coordination agreement is a consensual arrangement, its ultimate provisions must be acceptable to all of its signatories. This Appendix R to the Final Environmental Impact Statement of the Columbia River System is a presentation of the Pacific North-west Coordination Agreement

  1. Final Report of a CRADA Between Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and the Ford Motor Company (CRADA No. PNNL/265): “Deactivation Mechanisms of Base Metal/Zeolite Urea Selective Catalytic Reduction Materials, and Development of Zeolite-Based Hydrocarbon Adsorber Materials”

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Feng; Kwak, Ja Hun; Lee, Jong H.; Tran, Diana N.; Peden, Charles HF; Howden, Ken; Cheng, Yisun; Lupescu, Jason; Cavattaio, Giovanni; Lambert, Christine; McCabe, Robert W.

    2013-02-14

    the engine exhaust. For these reasons, automakers and engine manufacturers have difficulty improving their catalytic converters for meeting the stringent HC emission standards. In this collaborative program, scientists and engineers in the Institute for Integrated Catalysis at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and at Ford Motor Company have investigated laboratory- and engine-aged SCR catalysts, containing mainly base metal zeolites. These studies are leading to a better understanding of various aging factors that impact the long-term performance of SCR catalysts and improve the correlation between laboratory and engine aging, saving experimental time and cost. We have also studied materials effective for the temporary storage of HC species during the cold-start period. In particular, we have examined the adsorption and desorption of various HC species produced during the combustion with different fuels (e.g., gasoline, E85, diesel) over potential HC adsorber materials, and measured the kinetic parameters to update Ford’s HC adsorption model. Since this CRADA has now been completed, in this final report we will provide brief summaries of most of the work carried out on this CRADA over the last several years.

  2. Positive feedback of winter ocean-atmosphere interaction in Northwest Pacific

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Xiaojie; SUN Jilin

    2006-01-01

    Using monthly mean atmospheric reanalysis data and oceanic assimilation data product, the winter ocean-atmosphere interaction in middle and high latitude in Northwest Pacific was studied. Key regions were chosen to study the variations of Aleutian Low, the 500hPa westerly, the meriodional sea surface temperature (SST) gradient with three indices defined as Aleutian Low index, zonal index and meridional SST gradient between Kuroshio- influenced region and Oyashio-influenced region. The results show that when there is a deeper Aleutian Low accompanied by a stronger northerly wind in the western part of the Aleutian Low, the subpolar gyre of North Pacific is strengthened, the SST in the Oyashio-influenced region is decreased and the meridional SST gradient between Kuroshio-influ- enced region and Oyashio-influenced region is increased, which, in turn, will enhance the westerly jet in the upper troposphere due to thermal-wind relation. The strengthened westerly jet makes a favorable condition for the deeper Aleutian Low over North Pacific beneath the left part of the jet exit region. Consequently, a positive feedback forms there.

  3. The effect of sea surface temperature increase on the potential habitat ofOmmastrephes bartramii in the Northwest Pacific Ocean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Jie; CHEN Xinjun; CHEN Yong; DING Qi; TIAN Siquan

    2016-01-01

    In the Northwest Pacific Ocean, the squid jigging fisheries from China, Japan and other countries and regions have targeted the west winter-spring cohort of neon flying squid (Ommastrephes bartramii) from August to November since the 1970s. This squid is a short-lived ecological opportunist with a life-span of about one year, and its population is labile and recruitment variability is driven by the environment or climate change. This variability provides a challenge for ones to forecast the key habitats affected by climate change. The catch data of O. bartramii from Chinese squid jigging fishery and the satellite-derived sea surface temperature (SST) data are used in the Northwest Pacific Ocean from August to November of 1998 to 2004, the SST preferences ofO. bartramiicorresponding to high values of catch per fishing day (CPUE) are determined and monthly potential habitats are predicted using a histogram analysis of the SST data. The possible changes in the potential habitats of O. bartramii in the Northwest Pacific Ocean are estimated under four climate change scenarios based on the Fourth Assessment Report (AR4) of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, i.e., 0.5, 1, 2 and 4°C increases in the SST because of the climate change. The results reveal an obvious poleward shift of the potential habitats ofO. bartramii in the Northwest Pacific Ocean.

  4. White rot of garlic and onion (Causal agent, Sclerotium cepivorum): A status report from the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is evidence from literature, state department of agriculture documents, and recent diagnoses that Sclerotium cepivorum, causal agent of white rot of garlic and onion, is spreading and/or becoming more established in the Pacific Northwest. Previously documented distributions are summarized, an...

  5. ECOLOGICAL AND WATER QUALITY CONSEQUENCES OF NUTRIENT ADDITION FOR SALMON RESTORATION IN THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST OF NORTH AMERICA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon runs have declined over the past two centuries in the Pacific Northwest region of North America. Reduced inputs of salmon-derived organic matter and nutrients (SDN) may limit freshwater production and thus establish a negative feedback loop affecting future generations of...

  6. Identifying Shared Genetic Structure Patterns among Pacific Northwest Forest Taxa: Insights from Use of Visualization Tools and Computer Simulations

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Mark P.; Haig, Susan M.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Identifying causal relationships in phylogeographic and landscape genetic investigations is notoriously difficult, but can be facilitated by use of multispecies comparisons. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used data visualizations to identify common spatial patterns within single lineages of four taxa inhabiting Pacific Northwest forests (northern spotted owl: Strix occidentalis caurina; red tree vole: Arborimus longicaudus; southern torrent salamander: Rhyacotriton variegatus;...

  7. 75 FR 70026 - Notice of Inventory Completion: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-16

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Region, Gifford Pinchot National Forest, Vancouver, WA AGENCY: National Park Service... Repatriation Act (NAGPRA), 25 U.S.C. 3003, of the completion of an inventory of human remains and...

  8. Supplemental report to energy and water consumption of Pacific Northwest irrigation systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, L.D.; Hellickson, M.L.; Shearer, M.N.

    1978-06-01

    This supplement provides a revised estimate of the design energy and water requirements of various irrigation systems utilized in the Pacific Northwest states of Idaho, Oregon, and Washington. It is intended to provide interested readers information concerning sources of irrigation water, along with the water and energy requirements of the major types of irrigation systems used throughout the region. Revisions were made to update portions of the primary data deck and to correct errors discovered in the original data deck. These revisions have resulted in a reduction in the total regional energy requirements for irrigated agriculture by approximately 7%. Decreases occurred in the states of Idaho and Washington, while Oregon demonstrated an increase. Water requirements for regional irrigated agriculture were increased by 3%; all of this increase occurred in the state of Washington. Slight changes in the acreages irrigated by each type of irrigation system were noted, but are insignificant.

  9. Assimilation analysis of Rammasun typhoon structure over Northwest Pacific using satellite data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Hua; CHOU Jifan; QIU Chongjian

    2004-01-01

    The kinetic and thermodynamic structure of typhoon Rammasun (No. 0205) over the Northwest Pacific has been analyzed, using NOAA-16 polar orbiting Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU) data collected on 2 July, 2002. The three-dimensional variational (3DVAR) assimilation technology is used to assimilate the satellite observation. The results show that the characteristics of the 3D typhoon structure can be more reasonably described from the assimilated data. The warm-cored structure of the typhoon is enhanced in the analyzed field, which corresponds to strong typhoon. The typhoon cyclonic circulation in the middle and lower layers is apparently strengthened, and the strong anticyclonic circulation appears at the top of the typhoon. The water vapor and its supply in the typhoon are enhanced. The microwave assimilation data may be used to supply the lack of the conventional observation data over the tropical ocean.

  10. Small-scale hydroelectric power in the Pacific Northwest: new impetus for an old energy source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-07-01

    Energy supply is one of the most important issues facing Northwestern legislators today. To meet the challenge, state legislatures must address the development of alternative energy sources. The Small-Scale Hydroelectric Power Policy Project of the National Conference of State Legislators (NCSL) was designed to assist state legislators in looking at the benefits of one alternative, small-scale hydro. Because of the need for state legislative support in the development of small-scale hydroelectric, NCSL, as part of its contract with the Department of Energy, conducted the following conference on small-scale hydro in the Pacific Northwest. The conference was designed to identify state obstacles to development and to explore options for change available to policymakers. A summary of the conference proceedings is presented.

  11. Autoimmune liver disease and the Canadian First Nations Aboriginal Communities of British Columbia's Pacific Northwest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eric M Yoshida; Mark Riley; Laura T Arbour

    2006-01-01

    Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is a well-known but uncommon chronic liver disease that is presumed to be of autoimmune etiology. Recently, investigations in British Columbia (BC), a province of Canada situated along the Pacific North-West of North America, have suggested that PBC is not a rare disease amongst BC's Aboriginal (i.e. First Nations) communities. Geographically, BC is adjacent to South East Alaska, an American state that has also reported an increased prevalence of PBC amongst its Aboriginal communities. In this article, the medical evidence supporting a hypothesis of increased risk of PBC amongst BC's First Nations communities is reviewed. Evidence suggesting that autoimmune hepatitis is also more likely amongst BC's First Nations communities is also presented.(C)2006 The WJG Press. All rights reserved.

  12. Generating Electric Power in the Pacific Northwest. Implications of Alternative Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pernin, Christopher G.; Bernstein, Mark A.; Mejia, Andrea; Shih, Howard; Rueter, Fred

    2002-01-01

    The Pacific Northwest faces some critical energy issues over the next 20 years. There is significant uncertainty about energy supplies, energy prices, and the implications of competitive energy markets. Therefore, as energy demands continue to rise, it is important for the states in the region to understand the risks and opportunities of different energy supply and demand options. This report addresses issues in electricity supply and demand for four states in the Pacific Northwest: Idaho, Montana, Oregon, and Washington. For much of the past 50 years, these states have relied heavily on hydroelectric power to meet their energy needs, and this inexpensive electricity has helped keep electricity rates low in the region, compared with the rest of the United States. However, the region cannot add much new hydroelectric capacity, so increasing demands for electricity in the future will have to be met by other sources. It is expected that the bulk of new electricity-generating capacity will come from natural-gas-fired power plants. While the combined share of electricity generated by hydroelectric and natural-gas-fired plants is expected to remain the same through 2010 (together, they provide 86 percent of the capacity in the region, the remainder being provided primarily by coal and nuclear plants), the proportion generated by natural gas will rise dramatically. Table S.1 summarizes the shares of current and future expected generating capacity in the region. The changes in the shares provided by the two major sources will have a number of consequences for the states in the region.

  13. Comparing OMI and AIRS Retrievals Against AIRPACT-3 Forecasts for the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herron-Thorpe, F. L.; Vaughan, J.; Lamb, B.; Mount, G.

    2008-12-01

    The AIRPACT-3 regional air quality forecast system, which utilizes the MM5/SMOKE/CMAQ modeling suite, runs nightly predicting air quality for the Pacific Northwest. AIRPACT has been evaluated periodically against surface monitor data for ozone and PM2.5. In a NASA-funded project, satellite measurements of air quality in the Pacific Northwest are being compared to AIRPACT results to: 1) provide feedback on the accuracy of the emissions inventory used by AIRPACT and 2) explore how satellite retrievals may be used operationally for initialization and validation. Measurements of tropospheric NO2 from OMI (Ozone Monitoring Instrument) as well as CO from AIRS (Atmospheric InfraRed Sounder on Aqua) are compared to forecast results. Monthly average comparisons over a 20 month period are examined for NO2 over the entire domain to identify spatial anomalies in the emissions inventory. Day-to-day and month-to-month trend comparisons around urban areas are analyzed to evaluate relative model response. AIRPACT profiles are compared to satellite profiles at individual urban points and the OMI NO2 averaging kernels are also used to calculate columns independent of the assumed tropospheric profiles used in the retrieval algorithms. AIRPACT also gets wildfire emissions from the Forest Service BlueSky project; satellite column abundances of NO2 and CO are used to evaluate these wildfire emissions over the past two summers. Finally, a design model for planned assimilation is presented for specific satellite products, indicating their expected temporal frequency of utility (i.e. daily, monthly, etc.) and the model stage (i.e. initial conditions, boundary conditions or model emissions) of their assimilation into the AIRPACT-3 forecast system.

  14. Modeling poplar growth as a short rotation woody crop for biofuels in the Pacific Northwest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Predicting the economic viability and environmental sustainability of a biofuels industry based on intensively cultivated short rotation woody crops (SRWC) requires spatial predictions of growth and yield under various environmental conditions and across large regions. The Physiological Principles in Predicting Growth (3PG) model was modified to evaluate the growth and yield of coppiced poplar (Populus spp). This included an additional biomass partitioning method and developing a sub-model which takes into account the impact of coppicing on post harvest regeneration, extending the applicability of the 3PG model to coppice management regimes. The parameterized model was applied to the entire Pacific Northwest of the United States, using appropriate climate and soil input data. Results predict the yield of poplar cultivation at a spatial resolution of ≈64 km2 throughout the ≈8,000,000 km2 of the study region. Existing agricultural cultivation patterns were used to estimate regional water availability for irrigation, and for non-irrigated regions, land cover features including ownership, slope, soil salinity and water table depth where used to select areas with a real potential to support a SRWC plantation. Results can be integrated with other models that allow for optimizing crop selection and biorefinery site selection. Important results include; an updated 3PG model for coppiced SRWC plantings, estimates of biomass feedstock yields under different irrigation patterns and weather conditions, and estimates for feedstock availability when combined with crop adoption scenarios. - Highlights: • A poplar growth model was applied to the Pacific Northwest of the US. • We included a coppicing module to the exsiting 3PG growth model. • We investigated growth under irrigated and non-irrigated conditions. • We developed Geospatial yield estimates. • We discuss changes in yield from climate change

  15. Forest Carbon Dynamics in the Pacific Northwest (USA) and the St. Petersburg Region of Russia. Comparisons and Policy Implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forests of the United States and Russia can play a positive role in reducing the extent of global warming caused by greenhouse gases, especially carbon dioxide. To determine the extent of carbon sequestration, physical, ecological, economic, and social issues need to be considered, including different forest management objectives across major forest ownership groups. Private timberlands in the U.S. Pacific Northwest are relatively young, well stocked, and sequestering carbon at relatively high rates. Forests in northwestern Russia are generally less productive than those in the Northwestern U.S. but cover extensive areas. A large increase in carbon storage per hectare in live tree biomass is projected on National Forest timberlands in the U.S. Pacific Northwest for all selected scenarios, with an increase of between 157-175 Mg by 2050 and a near doubling of 1970s levels. On private timberlands in the Pacific Northwest, average carbon in live tree biomass per hectare has been declining historically but began to level off near 65 Mg in 2000; projected levels by 2050 are roughly what they were in 1970 at approximately 80 Mg. In the St. Petersburg region, average carbon stores were similar to those on private lands in the Pacific Northwest: 57 Mg per hectare in 2000 and ranging from 40 to 64 Mg by 2050. Although the projected futures reflect a broad range of policy options, larger differences in projected carbon stores result from the starting conditions determined by ownership, regional environmental conditions, and past changes in forest management. However, an important change of forest management objective, such as the end of all timber harvest on National Forests in the Pacific Northwest or complete elimination of mature timber in the St. Petersburg region, can lead to substantial change in carbon stores over the next 50 years

  16. The Specific Features of Pollution Transport in the Northwest Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diansky, Nikolay; Fomin, Vladimir; Gusev, Anatoly

    2013-04-01

    Two calculations of pollutant dispersal in the Northwest Pacific Ocean are presented: (1) during possible shipwrecks in the process of spent nuclear fuel transportation from Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky and (2) pollutant spread from the Japanese coast after the Fukushima 1 nuclear disaster on March 11, 2011. The circulation was simulated using a σ - coordinate ocean model INMOM (Institute of Numerical Mathematics Ocean Model) developed at the INM RAS. The INMOM is based on the primitive equations using the spherical σ - coordinate system with a free ocean surface. The INMOM was realized for the Pacific Ocean basin from the equator to the Bering Strait with a high 1/8° spatial resolution for reproducing the mesoscale ocean variability. The pollutant dispersal in the case of possible shipwrecks was estimated for currents for a statistically average year with atmospheric forcing from Common Ocean-ice Reference Experiments (CORE) for normal year data. The pollution spread from the Fukushima 1 nuclear power plant (NPP) was estimated for currents calculated with the real atmospheric forcing in accordance with the NCEP GFS (0.5 degree grid). The simulation period of pollutant dispersal from Fukushima 1 was 17 days: from March 11 to 28, 2011. The results of numerical simulation show that pollutant dispersal from the Fukushima 1 spread eastward according to the Kuroshio. Moreover, exceeding of natural background radiation level was simulated in the narrow region of the Japanese coast with width of less than 50 km.

  17. Northwest Pacific Ocean during the last 20,000 years: Initial results of the Sino-German Pacific Ocean Experiment (SiGePax)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohmann, Gerrit; Lembke-Jene, Lester; Scholz, Patrick; Gong, Xun; Max, Lars; Tiedemann, Ralf; Shi, Xuefa; Zou, Jianjun; Liu, Yanguang; Wu, Yonghua; Ge, Shulan

    2016-04-01

    Arctic and Subarctic Regions are most sensitive to climate change, and reversely provide dramatic feedbacks to the global climate. Paleoclimate studies in these regions are of vital importance for a better understanding of the natural processes in the climate system prior to the influences of human activities. With a focus on discovering paleoceanographic evolutions in the Northwest Pacific Ocean during the last 20,000 years, we show first results of the German-Sino cooperation programme SiGePax. We present a collection of sediment cores covering climatical key regions in the Northwest Pacific Ocean. Our climate simulations provide the first step towards 'Data-Model Syntheses', which are crucial for exploring the underlying mechanisms of observed changes in proxy records. Analyses of Holocene sea surface temperature records on a basin-wide scale show a spatially heterogenous, but no simple warming or cooling pattern, indicating that extratropical atmospheric dynamics is involved. The temperature data are compared to model scenarios. We use the Finite-Element Sea-Ice Ocean Model (FESOM) in a global configuration, with a regional focus on the marginal seas of the Northwest Pacific Ocean to provide the underlying dynamics. We find that the Okhotsk Sea is characterized by a highly dynamical sea-ice cover, where due to brine release, the Okhotsk Sea Intermediate Water is formed, contributing to North Pacific Intermediate Water.

  18. Climatic Data Integration and Analysis - Regional Approaches to Climate Change for Pacific Northwest Agriculture (REACCH PNA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seamon, E.; Gessler, P. E.; Flathers, E.; Sheneman, L.; Gollberg, G.

    2013-12-01

    The Regional Approaches to Climate Change for Pacific Northwest Agriculture (REACCH PNA) is a five-year USDA/NIFA-funded coordinated agriculture project to examine the sustainability of cereal crop production systems in the Pacific Northwest, in relationship to ongoing climate change. As part of this effort, an extensive data management system has been developed to enable researchers, students, and the public, to upload, manage, and analyze various data. The REACCH PNA data management team has developed three core systems to encompass cyberinfrastructure and data management needs: 1) the reacchpna.org portal (https://www.reacchpna.org) is the entry point for all public and secure information, with secure access by REACCH PNA members for data analysis, uploading, and informational review; 2) the REACCH PNA Data Repository is a replicated, redundant database server environment that allows for file and database storage and access to all core data; and 3) the REACCH PNA Libraries which are functional groupings of data for REACCH PNA members and the public, based on their access level. These libraries are accessible thru our https://www.reacchpna.org portal. The developed system is structured in a virtual server environment (data, applications, web) that includes a geospatial database/geospatial web server for web mapping services (ArcGIS Server), use of ESRI's Geoportal Server for data discovery and metadata management (under the ISO 19115-2 standard), Thematic Realtime Environmental Distributed Data Services (THREDDS) for data cataloging, and Interactive Python notebook server (IPython) technology for data analysis. REACCH systems are housed and maintained by the Northwest Knowledge Network project (www.northwestknowledge.net), which provides data management services to support research. Initial project data harvesting and meta-tagging efforts have resulted in the interrogation and loading of over 10 terabytes of climate model output, regional entomological data

  19. Ecosystem Consequences of Forest Fragmentation in the Pacific Northwest: Biogeochemical Edge Effects within Old-Growth Forest Remnants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, T. D.; Swanson, A.; D'Antonio, C. M.; Griffiths, R. P.

    2005-12-01

    Our research includes quantifying the long term impact of clear-cut edges on biogeochemical processes affecting carbon and nitrogen retention within fragmented old-growth Douglas-fir/western hemlock forests in the Pacific Northwest. In addition to quantifying the magnitude and depth of influence of edge effects on soil processes, this research seeks broader application to conservation biology, using a mechanistic approach. Along 360-m gradients spanning clear-cut to forest at nine sites, long-term monitoring of edge effects integrates microclimate, above-ground structure, litter fall, decomposition, and soil nitrogen dynamics. Abrupt changes in height and structure at edges induce increased microclimatic variability in adjacent forest, which, in turn, alters rates of nitrogen and carbon cycling in soils. Field and laboratory assays reveal increases in litter decomposition and nitrogen availability in near edge (0-30 m from edge) forest, and higher rates of litter fall and soil organic matter storage within far edge (30-120 m from edge) forest, relative to interior forest (more than 120 m from edge). Abiotic structural effects, by modulating microclimatic variability, change the complex biotic interactions involved in biogeochemical cycling in forest soils within 120 m of edges. Due to such interactions, organic-matter and nitrogen pool sizes in soil and vegetation, and net ecosystem production, vary in a nonlinear, but predictable, manner with distance into forest from edge. Mixed-effects statistical models most precisely quantify depth of influence for over 100 microclimatic, structural, and biogeochemical variables.

  20. Seismic Monitoring with NetQuakes: The First 75 in the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodin, P.; Vidale, J. E.; Luetgert, J. H.; Malone, S. D.; Delorey, A. A.; Steele, W. P.; Gibbons, D. A.; Walsh, L. K.

    2011-12-01

    NetQuakes accelerographs are relatively inexpensive Internet-aware appliances that we are using as part of our regional seismic monitoring program in the Pacific Northwest Seismic Network (PNSN). To date we have deployed approximately 65 units. By the end of 2011, we will have at least 75 systems sited and operating. The instruments are made by Swiss manufacturer GeoSig, Ltd., and have been obtained by PNSN through several cooperative programs with the US Geological Survey (USGS). The NetQuakes systems have increased the number of strong-motion stations in the Pacific Northwest by ~50%. NetQuakes instruments connect to the Internet via wired or wireless telemetry, obtain accurate timing vie Network Time Protocol, and are designed to be located in the ground floor of houses or small buildings. At PNSN we have concentrated on finding NetQuakes hosts by having technologically savvy homeowners self-identify as a response to news reports about the NetQuakes project. Potential hosts are prioritized by their proximity to target sites provided by a regional panel of experts who studied the region's strong-ground-motion monitoring needs. Recorded waveforms, triggered by strong motion or retrieved from a buffer of continuous data, are transmitted to Menlo Park, and then on to PNSN in Seattle. Data are available with latency of a few minutes to a little over an hour, and are automatically incorporated with the rest of PNSN network data for analysis and the generation of earthquake products. Triggered data may also be viewed by the public via the USGS website, [http://earthquake.usgs.gov/monitoring/netquakes/map/pacnw]. We present examples of ground motion recordings returned to date. Local earthquakes up to M4 (at a distance of ~60 km) reveal interesting patterns of local site effects. The 11 March M9 Tohoku, Japan earthquake produced ground motions recorded on the PNSN accelerographs, including many NetQuakes systems, that reveal the extent and severity of basin

  1. Source regions and reflection of infragravity waves offshore of the U.S.s Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neale, Jennifer; Harmon, Nicholas; Srokosz, Meric

    2015-09-01

    Infragravity waves are oceanic surface gravity waves but with wavelengths (tens of km) and periods (>30 s) much longer than wind waves and swell. Mostly studied in shallow water, knowledge of infragravity waves in deep water has remained limited. Recent interest in deep water infragravity waves has been motivated by the error they may contribute to future high-resolution satellite radar altimetry measurements of sea level. Here deep water infragravity waves offshore of the Pacific Northwest of the U.S. were studied using differential pressure gauges which were deployed as part of the Cascadia Initiative array from September 2012 to May 2013. Cross correlation of the records revealed direction of infragravity wave propagation across the array, from which source regions were inferred. The dominant source was found to be the coastline to the east, associated with large wind waves and swell incident on the eastern side of the basin. The source shifted southward during northern-hemisphere summer, and on several days in the record infragravity waves arrived from the western side of the Pacific. Asymmetry of cross-correlation functions for five of these westerly arrivals was used to calculate the ratio of seaward to shoreward propagating energy, and hence estimate the strength of infragravity wave reflection at periods of 100-200 s. Reflection of these remote arrivals from the west appeared to be strong, with a lower bound estimate of r = 0.49 ± 0.29 (reflection coefficient ± standard error) and an upper bound estimate of r = 0.74 ± 0.06. These results suggest that reflection at ocean boundaries may be an important consideration for infragravity waves in the deep ocean.

  2. Real-time GPS positioning of the Pacific Northwest Geodetic Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabak, I.; Santillan, V. M.; Scrivner, C. W.; Melbourne, T. I.

    2009-12-01

    The Pacific Northwest Geodetic Array (PANGA) is now comprised of nearly 130 continuously operating GPS receivers located throughout the Cascadia subduction zone. The stations straddle active crustal faults, volcanoes and landslides, they span the megathrust forearc and tsunamigenic regions along the Pacific coast, and they monitor ageing man-made structures such as dams, levees and elevated freeways. All data are streamed in real-time into CWU where they are processed in real-time into station position and tropospheric water content within a reference frame defined in central Washington. To disseminate these streams, we currently provide 16 station position streams via an interface to Google Maps to present geographically the three component real-time plots in 5 min, 1 hour, and 24 hour time periods. The user's web browser makes repeated requests at a refresh rate of 5 seconds and after the initial request it only requests new data points from the web server. The 5 min real-time plot is updated every second. The web server provides the data streams in a compact JSON (JavaScript Object Notation) form and data plotting is handled by the user's web browser. The data streams are parsed into JavaScript arrays and plotted using the new HTML5 "canvas" element. This approach produces faster response times for the data streams, and by reducing the load on the web server, allows distribution to large numbers of users. Data are also available via a dedicated Ntrip/TCP-IP socket interface. These real-time data are now being used to monitor geodetic displacements caused by earthquakes, volcanic eruptions and landslides; current efforts to develop real-time finite fault inversions and automated alarm systems will be discussed.

  3. Assessment of a model of forest dynamics under contrasting climate and disturbance regimes in the Pacific Northwest [FORCLIM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busing, Richard T.; Solomon, Allen M.

    2005-01-01

    An individual-based model of forest dynamics (FORCLIM) was tested for its ability to simulate forest composition and structure in the Pacific Northwest region of North America. Simulation results across gradients of climate and disturbance were compared to forest survey data from several vegetation zones in western Oregon. Modelled patterns of tree species composition, total basal area and stand height across climate gradients matched those in the forest survey data. However, the density of small stems (model. Thus actual size-class structure and other density-based parameters of stand structure were not simulated with high accuracy. The addition of partial-stand disturbances at moderate frequencies (model in simulating forest dynamics and structure in the Pacific Northwest are discussed.

  4. Using dendrometer and dendroclimatology data to predict the growth response of Douglas-fir to climate change in the Pacific Northwest, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altered seasonal climate patterns towards hotter, drier summers through the 21st century resulting from global climate change could affect the growth of coniferous forests in the Pacific Northwest (PNW) region of North America. The seasonal effects of temperature, precipitation,...

  5. Signatures of Pacific-type orogeny in Lleyn and Anglesey areas, northwest Wales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asanuma, H.; Okada, Y.; Sawaki, Y.; Yamamoto, S.; Hirata, T.; Maruyama, S.

    2014-12-01

    The orogeny is a fundamental process of plate tectonics, and its record is useful for understanding of ancient plate motion. Geotectonic history of British isles has been explained by collision-type orogeny accompanied by closure of Iapetus ocean. High pressure metamorphic rocks such as blueschist and eclogite characterizing Pacific-type orogeny occur in some places, but have not attracted much interests because of their smallness. The subduction-related (Pacific-type) orogeny is characterized by contemporaneous formation of a batholith belt, a regional metamorphic belt (high P/T type) and an accretionary complex. Late Proterozoic-Cambrian (677-498 Ma) calc-alkaline volcano-plutonic complexes crop out in Lleyn and Anglesey areas, northwest Wales. The metamorphic age of high-P/T metamorphic belt in eastern Anglesey was constrained by Ar-Ar isochron age of 560-550 Ma. However, depositional age of the rocks composing accretionary complex wasn't fully constrained due to the limited zircon U-Pb age data and vague microfossil records. Monian Supergroup at Lleyn and Anglesey areas includes three groups; South Stack Group (Gp), New Harbour Gp and Gwna Gp. The Gwna Gp is located at the structural top and includes typical rocks of an ocean plate stratigraphy (OPS), a fundamental unit composing of an accretionary complex. We described detailed geological map and reconstructed the OPSs at some localities with careful attention to layer-parallel thrust. In order to constrain the sedimentary ages of each OPS, we collected sandstones from individual OPSs. We determined U-Pb ages of detrital zircons from the sandstones with LA-ICP-MS at Kyoto University. We adopted the youngest age of the detrital zircons as a constraint of sedimentary age. The results indicate that sediments in Gwna Gp deposited from 623 ± 17 Ma to 535 ± 14 Ma. These are contemporary with the ages of both batholith belt and regional metamorphic belt. In addition, it became evident that structurally upper level

  6. Visualizing the wave: how Pacific Northwest communities use tsunami hazard assessment information to design evacuation maps for public education

    OpenAIRE

    Kurowski, Maciej (Matt) Jerzy

    2011-01-01

    Local officials in the Pacific Northwest of Canada and the United States influence how tsunami hazard assessments guide production of community evacuation map brochures. In both countries, cartographic decisions about brochures' tsunami hazard representation have been inconsistent and not based on user evaluations. This thesis uses cartographic abstraction principles to interrogate the similarities, differences, and limitations of tsunami hazard representations in 38 tsunami brochures for Was...

  7. Assessing water resources adaptive capacity to climate change impacts in the Pacific Northwest Region of North America

    OpenAIRE

    Hamlet, A F

    2010-01-01

    Climate change impacts in Pacific Northwest Region of North America (PNW) are projected to include increasing temperatures and changes in the seasonality of precipitation (increasing precipitation in winter, decreasing precipitation in summer). Changes in precipitation are also spatially varying, with the northwestern parts of the region generally experiencing greater increases in cool season precipitation than the southeastern parts. These changes in climate are projected to cause loss of sn...

  8. Assessing water resources adaptive capacity to climate change impacts in the Pacific Northwest Region of North America

    OpenAIRE

    Hamlet, A F

    2011-01-01

    Climate change impacts in Pacific Northwest Region of North America (PNW) are projected to include increasing temperatures and changes in the seasonality of precipitation (increasing precipitation in winter, decreasing precipitation in summer). Changes in precipitation are also spatially varying, with the northwestern parts of the region generally experiencing greater increases in cool season precipitation than the southeastern parts. These changes in climate are projected to cause loss of sn...

  9. Long-Term Seafloor Electromagnetic Observation in the Northwest Pacific May Detect the Vector Geomagnetic Secular Variation

    OpenAIRE

    Toh, H; Hamano, Y.; Goto, T.; Utada, H

    2010-01-01

    Sea Floor ElectroMagnetic Stations (SFEMSs) are now operating at two deep seafloor sites called the 'WPB' and the 'NWP' in the West Philippine Basin and the Northwest Pacific Basin, respectively. One of the main objectives of the SFEMSs is to detect the geomagnetic secular variations on the deep seafloor where long-term geomagnetic observations have not so far been achieved. SFEMSs can measure the absolute geomagnetic total force as well as the geomagnetic vector field with precise attitude m...

  10. Archaeological Evidence for Resilience of Pacific Northwest Salmon Populations and the Socioecological System over the last ~7,500 years

    OpenAIRE

    Sarah K. Campbell; Butler, Virginia L.

    2010-01-01

    Archaeological data on the long history of interaction between indigenous people and salmon have rarely been applied to conservation management. When joined with ethnohistoric records, archaeology provides an alternative conceptual view of the potential for sustainable harvests and can suggest possible social mechanisms for managing human behavior. Review of the ~7,500-year-long fish bone record from two subregions of the Pacific Northwest shows remarkable stability in salmon use. As maj...

  11. A geohydrologic framework for characterizing summer streamflow sensitivity to climate warming in the Pacific Northwest, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Safeeq

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Summer streamflows in the Pacific Northwest are largely derived from melting snow and groundwater discharge. As the climate warms, diminishing snowpack and earlier snowmelt will cause reductions in summer streamflow. Most assessments of the impacts of a changing climate to streamflow make use of downscaled temperature and precipitation projections from General Circulation Models (GCMs. Projected climate simulations from these GCMs are often too coarse for planning purposes, as they do not capture smaller scale topographic controls and other important watershed processes. This uncertainty is further amplified when downscaled climate predictions are coupled to macroscale hydrologic models that fail to capture streamflow contributions from deep groundwater. Deep aquifers play an important role in mediating streamflow response to climate change, and groundwater needs to be explicitly incorporated into sensitivity assessments. Here we develop and apply an analytical framework for characterizing summer streamflow sensitivity to a change in the timing and magnitude of recharge in a spatially-explicit fashion. Two patterns emerge from this analysis: first, areas with high streamflow sensitivity also have higher summer streamflows as compared to low sensitivity areas. Second, the level of sensitivity and spatial extent of highly sensitive areas diminishes over time as the summer progresses. Results of this analysis point to a robust, practical, and scalable approach that can help assess risk at the landscape scale, complement the downscaling approach, be applied to any climate scenario of interest, and provide a framework to assist land and water managers adapt to an uncertain and potentially challenging future.

  12. High winds induce nitrogen loss from US Pacific Northwest agricultural lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharratt, B. S.; Graves, L.; Pressley, S. N.

    2012-12-01

    High winds common to the Pacific Northwest region of the USA have resulted in massive loss of topsoil from agricultural fields that are primarily managed in a winter wheat / summer fallow rotation. This topsoil contains nitrogen (N), an essential nutrient required for growth and development of plants. Loss of N from soils can cause degradation of air and water quality and also is an economic concern to farmers because depletion of nutrients from soils results in lower crop yield. Flux of windblown sediment moving across eroding fields was measured during high wind events between 1999 and 2006 in eastern Washington. Samplers were deployed to trap sediment that was creeping along or in saltation/suspension at various heights above fields that were in the summer fallow phase of the rotation. Windblown sediment was weighed and analyzed for N content by combustion and a thermal conductivity analyzer. Enrichment, or the ratio of N in the windblown sediment to soil of greater than one, was observed in about half of the years. For nearly all high wind events, N content of sediment transported by creep was greater than sediment transported by saltation or suspension. This study suggests that wind erosion can result in loss of N from agricultural soils.

  13. The 1992 Pacific Northwest Residential Energy Survey : Phase 1 (PNWRES92-I) : Executive Summary, Concordance, Glossary.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration. End-Use Research Section; Applied Management & Planning Group (Firm)

    1993-08-01

    The general processes employed in and the major findings from the conduct of Phase I of the Pacific Northwest Residential Energy Survey (PNWRES92-I) during the last quarter of 1992 are outlined. This was Bonneville's third comprehensive residential survey of the region, conducted to provide data on energy usage, conservation awareness and behaviors, and associated consumer characteristics for use in forecasting and planning. The summary is divided into four sections: Background sets the stage with respect to the need for the survey, relates it to previous work, outlines the implementation processes, and summarizes the data products. Profiling the respondents summarizes the survey results under these six categories: Demographics, Housing Units, Room Inventory, Appliance Inventory, Air-Conditioning/Heating/Water-Heating, and Opinion. Reports and Cross-tabulations describes the various individual documents. Bonneville Power Pulse provides a short description of an Excel-spreadsheet-based software program that contains all of the tabulated material in a format that encourages browsing among the tables and charts, with special feature that they can be copied directly into other Windows-based documents.

  14. Occurrence and diversity of mesophilic Shewanella strains isolated from the North-West Pacific Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, Elena P; Sawabe, Tomoo; Zhukova, Natalia V; Gorshkova, Nataliya M; Nedashkovskaya, Olga I; Hayashi, Karin; Frolova, Galina M; Sergeev, Alexander F; Pavel, Konstantin G; Mikhailov, Valery V; Nicolau, Dan V

    2003-06-01

    Although bacteria of the genus Shewanella belong to one of the readily cultivable groups of "Gammaproteobacteria", little is known about the occurrence and abundance of these microorganisms in the marine ecosystem. Studies revealed that of 654 isolates obtained from marine invertebrates (ophiuroid Amphiopholis kochii, sipuncula Phascolosoma japonicum, and holothurian Apostichopus japonicus, Cucumaria japonica), seawater and sediments of the North-West Pacific Ocean (i.e. the Sea of Japan and Iturup Is, Kurile Islands), 10.7% belonged to the genus Shewanella. The proportion of viable Shewanella species varied from 4% to 20% depending on the source of isolation. From the isolation study, representative strains of different phenotypes (from seventy presumptive Shewanella strains) were selected for detailed characterization using phenotypic, chemotaxonomic, and phylogenetic testing. 16S rDNA sequence-based phylogenetic analysis confirmed the results of tentative identification and placed the majority of these strains within only a few species of the genus Shewanella with 98-99% of 16S rDNA sequences identity mainly with S. japonica and S. colwelliana, suggesting that the strains studied might belong to these species. Numerically dominant strains of S. japonica were metabolically active and produced proteinases (gelatinases, caseinases), lipases, amylases, agarases, and alginases. Shewanella strains studied demonstrated weak antimicrobial and antifungal activities that might be an indication of their passive role in the colonization on living and non-living surfaces. PMID:12866857

  15. Evaluation of utility residential energy conservation programs: A Pacific Northwest example

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirst, E.; Bronfman, B.; Goeltz, R.; Keating, K.; Lerman, D.; Timble, J.

    1984-03-01

    This paper describes a detailed quantitative evaluation of the Residential Weatherization Pilot Program, operated by the Bonneville Power Administration from 1980 through 1982. The program provided free energy audits to more than 6000 electrically-heated homes and gave zero-interest loans to weatherize almost 4000 of these audited homes. The total cost of the program was almost $8 million. Using actual electricity consumption records for program participants and nonparticipants, we calculated the energy-saving effect of the pilot program in several ways and always reached the same conclusion. Households that received an audit and weatherization loan reduced their annual electricity consumption by about 3500 kWh relative to what they would have done without the program; this 3500 kWh is the saving that can be directly attributed to the program. Using a simple net present worth approach, the authors computed program benefits and costs for participating households, the BPA power system, and the Pacific Northwest region as a whole. Under a wide range of assumptions concerning discount rate, years until the weatherization loan is repaid, program energy saving, and BPA's marginal cost of power, the program is economically attractive from all three perspectives.

  16. Ventilation Measurements in Energy-Efficient Multifamily Dwelling Units in the Pacific Northwest Region.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, Graham Bradley

    1990-03-01

    A ventilation field measurement study was conducted during the 1986/1987 and 1987/1988 heating seasons in 39 energy-efficient multifamily dwelling units. Four buildings, two in eastern Washington and two in western Washington, were involved in the study. The purpose of the study was to determine the total and baseline (natural) air exchange rates in units representing energy-efficient construction in the multifamily sector of the Pacific Northwest. This information will be used to aid in the development of future construction codes and standards. The air exchange rate was measured a multiple perfluorocarbon tracer (PFT) technique. Most measurements were taken over a 2- to 4-week period, with a few measurements taken over a period of one to three consecutive months. The PFT technique allows one to determine the fresh air flow into any unit within a building as well as the air flow between adjacent units. In addition, the volumetric air flow and usage of the mechanical ventilation system installed in the units were measured. Temperature, weather, structure, and occupancy data were also collected. 12 refs., 19 figs., 14 tabs.

  17. Geostrophic current estimation using altimetric cross-track method in northwest Pacific

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geostrophic current contributes a large part of ocean current, which plays an important role in global climate change. Based on classic oceanography, geostrophic current can be derived from pressure gradient. Assuming water density to be constant, we can estimate geostrophic current from Absolute Dynamic Topography (ADT). In this paper, we use ADT data obtained from multi-satellite altimeter to extract sea surface tilt along track at ground track crossover points. The calculated tilt along these two tracks can be converted into orthogonal directions and are used to estimate geostrophic current. In northwest Pacific, geostrophic current velocities computed above are evaluated using Argos data, a global Langrangian drifter program. 771 precisely temporal and spatial coherent Argos data with estimated geostrophic velocity data are used for evaluating. Effect of different threshold length of the low pass filter applied to ADT is discussed. A threshold length of 75 km is most suitable for the study area. The estimated geostrophic velocity and the Argos measurement agree well with each other, with correlation coefficient R equals 0.867 for zonal component, and 0.734 for meridional component. A relationship between the estimated geostrophic velocity and Argos measurement is drawn

  18. The 1992 Pacific Northwest Residential Energy Survey: Phase 1 : Book 1 : Getting Started.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Applied Management & Planning Group (firm); United States. Bonneville Power Administration. End-Use Research Section.

    1993-08-01

    This Executive Summary outlines the general processes employed in and the major findings from the conduct of Phase I of the Pacific Northwest Residential Energy Survey (PNWRES92-I) during the last quarter of 1992. This study was Bonneville`s third comprehensive residential survey of the region, conducted to provide data on energy usage, conservation awareness and behaviors, and associated consumer characteristics for use in forecasting and planning. The summary is divided into four sections: Background sets the stage with respect to the need for the survey, relates it to previous work, outlines the implementation processes, and summarizes the data products. Profiling the respondents summarizes the survey results under these six categories: Demographics; Housing Units; Room Inventory; Appliance Inventory; Air-Conditioning/Heating; Water-Heating; and Opinion. Reports and cross-tabulations describes the various individual documents. Bonneville Power Plus provides a short description of an Excel-spreadsheet-based software program that contains all of the tabulated material in a format that encourages browsing among the tables and charts, with special feature that they can be copied directly into other Windows-based documents.

  19. Iodine-129 in forage and deer on the Hanford site and other Pacific Northwest locations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samples of surface soil, litter, forage, and deer (rumen content, muscle, liver, and thyroid gland) were collected from Bend, Oregon; Centralia, Washington; Wenatchee, Washington; the Wooten Game Range near Dayton, Washington; and on or near the Hanford Site, Richland, Washington. The concentrations of 129I and 127I were determined using neturon activation techniques. The purpose of the study was to establish the current levels of 129I in the environs of the Hanford Site prior to the proposed restart of fuel reprocessing at the PUREX plant. The results of this study clearly demonstrated the longevity of 129I in the biosphere following gaseous release from a nuclear facility. Analyses of thyroid glands showed that deer living within 160 km (Wooten Game Range) of Hanford had elevated levels of 129I when compared to the more distant Pacific Northwest locations (Centralia, or Bend). Levels of 129I in deer thyroid from Bend, or Centralia, (15 fCi/g wet weight), were about five times higher than values reported for the central United States, while, Hanford samples were about 2,700 times higher. The average concentration of 129I in deer thyroids collected at Hanford in 1978 was similar to samples collected 14 years earlier. The concentrations of 129I in soil, litter, forage, and other deer samples generally decrease in the order: Hanford > Wooten > Wenatchee > Centralia approx. = Bend. This corresponds to an increase in distance from the Hanford Site

  20. Perspectives on Temperature in the Pacific Northwest's Fresh Waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coutant, C.C.

    1999-06-01

    This report provides a perspective on environmental water temperatures in the Pacific Northwest as they relate to the establishment of water temperature standards by the state and their review by the US Environmental Protection Agency. It is a companion to other detailed reviews of the literature on thermal effects on organisms important to the region. Many factors, both natural and anthropogenic, affect water temperatures in the region. Different environmental zones have characteristic temperatures and mechanisms that affect them. There are specific biotic adaptations to environmental temperatures. Life-cycle strategies of salmonids, in particular, are attuned to annual temperature patterns. Physiological and behavioral requirements on key species form the basis of present water temperature criteria, but may need to be augmented with more concern for environmental settings. There are many issues in the setting of standards, and these are discussed. There are also issues in compliance. Alternative temperature-regulating mechanisms are discussed, as are examples of actions to control water temperatures in the environment. Standards-setting is a social process for which this report should provide background and outline options, alternatives, limitations, and other points for discussion by those in the region.

  1. Forest management considerations and climatic change in the Pacific Northwest: A framework for devising adaptation/mitigation strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potential for global climate change, especially in its regional and local manifestations, requires decision making in the face of uncertainty. It is demonstrated that in the Pacific Northwest region, the present climate forecasts are uncertain and probabilistic, and the ecological responses are equally uncertain, but a framework for analyzing and devising response strategies for future conditions is feasible in this context. A risk-based approach derived from classical decision analysis is suggested as the most rational response currently practicable to protect the forest resources of the Pacific Northwest. Lists of possible events are needed for two areas: the anticipated outcome of climate change and the possible responses of Pacific Northwest forests to these changes. Meaningful analysis requires estimates of the outcomes and responses, even if they remain subjective for some time, or at least until better and more reliable information becomes available. Once possible responses have been identified, an analysis of the valuation of the tradeoffs for various strategies needs to be made. This approach permits updating, revision, and even negation, but also provides a process that puts focus on information needs and priorities for action. It is concluded that it is highly unlikely that mitigation may be easier to implement than adaptation. 39 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  2. Department of Energy – Office of Science Pacific Northwest Site Office Environmental Monitoring Plan for the DOE-SC PNNL Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snyder, Sandra F.; Meier, Kirsten M.; Barnett, J. M.; Bisping, Lynn E.; Poston, Ted M.; Rhoads, Kathleen

    2011-12-21

    The Pacific Northwest Site Office (PNSO) manages the contract for operations at the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science (DOE-SC) Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Site in Richland, Washington. Radiological operations at the DOE-SC PNNL Site expanded in 2010 with the completion of facilities at the Physical Sciences Facility. As a result of the expanded radiological work at the site, the Washington State Department of Health (WDOH) has required that offsite environmental surveillance be conducted as part of the PNNL Site Radioactive Air Emissions License. The environmental monitoring and surveillance requirements of various orders, regulations, and guidance documents consider emission levels and subsequent risk of negative human and environmental impacts. This Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) describes air surveillance activities at the DOE-SC PNNL Site. The determination of offsite environmental surveillance needs evolved out of a Data Quality Objectives process (Barnett et al. 2010) and Implementation Plan (Snyder et al. 2010). The entire EMP is a compilation of several documents, which include the Main Document (this text), Attachment 1: Sampling and Analysis Plan, Attachment 2: Data Management Plan, and Attachment 3: Dose Assessment Guidance.

  3. Oxygen isotope records of Holocene climate variability in the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinman, Byron A.; Pompeani, David P.; Abbott, Mark B.; Ortiz, Joseph D.; Stansell, Nathan D.; Finkenbinder, Matthew S.; Mihindukulasooriya, Lorita N.; Hillman, Aubrey L.

    2016-06-01

    Oxygen isotope (δ18O) measurements of authigenic carbonate from Cleland Lake (southeastern British Columbia), Paradise Lake (central British Columbia), and Lime Lake (eastern Washington) provide a ∼9000 year Holocene record of precipitation-evaporation balance variations in the Pacific Northwest. Both Cleland Lake and Paradise Lake are small, surficially closed-basin systems with no active inflows or outflows. Lime Lake is surficially open with a seasonally active overflow. Water isotope values from Cleland and Paradise plot along the local evaporation line, indicating that precipitation-evaporation balance is a strong influence on lake hydrology. In contrast, Lime Lake water isotope values plot on the local meteoric water line, signifying minimal influence by evaporation. To infer past hydrologic balance variations at a high temporal resolution, we sampled the Cleland, Paradise, and Lime Lake sediment cores at 1-60 mm intervals (∼3-33 years per sample on average) and measured the isotopic composition of fine-grained (basin lakes, occur in Cleland Lake sediment from 7600 to 2200 years before present (yr BP), and are followed by more positive δ18O values, which suggest drier conditions, after 2200 yr BP. Highly negative δ18O values in the Cleland Lake record centered on ∼2400 yr BP suggest that lake levels were high (and that the lake may have been overflowing) at this time as a result of a substantially wetter climate. Similarly, Paradise Lake sediment δ18O values are relatively low from 7600 to 4000 yr BP and increase from ∼4000 to 3000 yr BP and from ∼2000 yr BP to present, indicating that climate became drier from the middle through the late Holocene. The δ18O record from Lime Lake, which principally reflects changes in the isotopic composition of precipitation, exhibits less variability than the closed-basin lake records and follows a generally increasing trend from the mid-Holocene to present. These results are consistent with several proximal

  4. Characteristics of low-frequency oscillation intensity of air-sea turbulent heat fluxes over the northwest Pacific

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Gen; REN BaoHua; ZHENG JianOiu; WANG Jun

    2009-01-01

    Based on the daily turbulent heat fluxes and related meteorological variables dataeets (1985-2006) from Objectively Analyzed air-sea Fluxes (OAFlux) Project of Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI), characteristics of low-frequency oscillation intensity of air-sea turbulent heat fluxes over the northwest Pacific are analyzed by linear perturbation method and correlation analysis. It can be concluded that: 1) the distribution of low-frequency oscillation intensity of latent heat flux (LHF) over the northwest Pacific is mainly affected by that of low-frequency oscillation intensity of anomalous air-eea humidity gradient (△q') as well as mean air-eea humidity gradient (△q), while the distribution of low-frequency oscillation Intensity of sensible heat flux (SHF) is mainly affected by that of low-frequency oscillation intensity of anomalous air-sea temperature gradient (△T'). 2) The low-frequency oscillation of turbulent heat fluxes over the northwest Pacific is the strongest in winter and the weakest in summer. And the seasonal transition of low-frequency oscillation intensity of LHF is jointly influenced by those of low-frequency oscillation intensity of △q', low-frequency oscillation intensity of anomalous wind speed (U'), △q and mean wind speed (U), while the seasonal transition of low-frequency oscillation intensity of SHF is mainly influenced by those of low-frequency oscillation Intensity of △T' and U. 3) Over the tropical west Pacific and sea areas north of 20ON, the low-frequency oscillation of LHF (SHF) is mainly influenced by atmospheric variables qa' (Ta') and U', indicating an oceanic response to overlying atmospheric forcing. In contrast, over the tropical eastern and central Pacific south of 20°N, qs' (Ts') also greatly influences the low-frequency oscillation of LHF (SHF).

  5. PROCESS IMPROVEMENT STUDIES ON THE BATTELLE HYDROTHERMAL COAL PROCESS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of a study to improve the economic viability of the Battelle Hydrothermal (HT) Coal Process by reducing the costs associated with liquid/solid separation and leachant regeneration. Laboratory experiments were conducted to evaluate process improvements for...

  6. Outflow of Anthropogenic Semivolatile Organic Compounds From Asia and Trans-Pacific Transport to the Pacific Northwest of the U.S.A. in Spring 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primbs, T.; Wilson, G.; Schmedding, D.; Higginbotham, C.; Simonich, S.

    2005-12-01

    Air pollutants, including semivolatile organic compounds (SOCs), may undergo long-range atmospheric transport from Eurasian sources to the Pacific Coast of North America. SOCs can serve as molecular markers to indicate pollutant source type and geographical origin because they represent emissions from combustion (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)), agricultural (pesticides), and industrial (polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)) sources. Additionally, SOCs exist in the gas and/or particle phases and have a wide range of atmospheric lifetimes (hours-months). Atmospheric measurements of anthropogenic SOCs were made at a high elevation site in the Pacific Northwest of the U.S. and at a site close to Eurasian sources (Okinawa, Japan) to further understand the trans-Pacific transport of SOCs. High volume air sampling (~25 m3/hr for 24 hour periods) of both the gas and particulate phases was conducted on top of the summit building of Mt Bachelor, Oregon, U.S.A., located in Oregon's Cascade Mountain Range, beginning the 20th of April 2004 and is ongoing. Additionally, high volume air sampling was conducted at Hedo Point, Okinawa, Japan during a six week campaign from the 19th of March to the 1st of May 2004. The gas phase was collected using a combination of polyurethane foam (PUF) and XAD-2 resin, while the particle phase was collected using quartz fiber filters. The samples were extracted using accelerated solvent extraction and the extracts analyzed by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (electron impact and electron capture negative ionization). Air trajectories were calculated using data from NOAA`s HYSPLIT model and imported into the ARC/GIS program for spatial representation. The presence of 80 anthropogenic SOCs was investigated. Initial results from the measurements in Okinawa showed elevated levels of particulate phase PAHs, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and hexachlorcyclohexanes (HCHs) in samples corresponding to trajectories from the direction of

  7. Changing Forest Land Use in the Pacific Northwest and Implications for Ecosystem Processes (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, B. E.; Hudiburg, T. W.; Yang, Z.

    2013-12-01

    Human use of forests in the Pacific Northwest US has evolved from underburning for wildlife habitat, to clearing for subsistence living, and an emphasis on timber production. In Oregon, forests older than 200 years now occupy less than 1 percent of private land that accounts for half the forest area, and ranges from 15 to almost 60 percent of public lands depending on the ecoregion. The Northwest Forest Plan (NWFP) was implemented on public lands in 1993 as a region-wide forest management regime intended to conserve species at risk from extensive harvest of older forests. The result was an 82 percent reduction in harvest removals on public forest lands, and subsequently, public forestland became a carbon sink while private forest remained near carbon neutral. Currently, forest management on public lands in the PNW emphasizes widespread thinning of forests to reduce wildfire risk, and thinning and slash removal for bioenergy production. In addition, several states have set ambitious GHG reduction targets. These policies are being implemented even though many aspects have not been adequately assessed for the effects on forests. CLM4 simulations over Oregon show that by the year 2100, net carbon uptake increases by 32-68% depending on the climate and CO2 scenario, suggesting that enhanced productivity from a warmer climate and CO2 fertilization compensates for disturbance losses if business-as-usual management continues. Water cycle implications are also considered. Simulated repeat thinnings were applied in areas susceptible to fire to reduce mortality and fire emissions, and clearcut rotations were applied in productive forests to provide biomass for both wood products and bioenergy. CLM input to a Life Cycle Assessment, which tracks emissions off-site, shows that none of the scenarios reduce regional net CO2 emissions to the atmosphere by the end of the 21st century. Thinning dry forests to reduce potential fire emissions led to no net change in emissions from BAU

  8. The plant ecology of Amchita Island, Alaska: Report on a research contract between the Department of Botany, the University of Tennessee and Battelle Memorial Institute, Columbus Laboratories for the period 1 August 1967 through 30 June 1968

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Department of Botany of The University of Tennessee is conducting a study of the plant ecology of Amchitka Island, Alaska, as a subcontractor for Battelle...

  9. Cyclic magnetite dissolution in Pleistocene sediments of the abyssal northwest Pacific Ocean: Evidence for glacial oxygen depletion and carbon trapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korff, Lucia; Dobeneck, Tilo; Frederichs, Thomas; Kasten, Sabine; Kuhn, Gerhard; Gersonde, Rainer; Diekmann, Bernhard

    2016-05-01

    The carbonate-free abyss of the North Pacific defies most paleoceanographic proxy methods and hence remains a "blank spot" in ocean and climate history. Paleomagnetic and rock magnetic, geochemical, and sedimentological methods were combined to date and analyze seven middle to late Pleistocene northwest Pacific sediment cores from water depths of 5100 to 5700 m. Besides largely coherent tephra layers, the most striking features of these records are nearly magnetite-free zones corresponding to glacial marine isotope stages (MISs) 22, 12, 10, 8, 6, and 2. Magnetite depletion is correlated with organic carbon and quartz content and anticorrelated with biogenic barite and opal content. Within interglacial sections and mid-Pleistocene transition glacial stages MIS 20, 18, 16, and 14, magnetite fractions of detrital, volcanic, and bacterial origin are all well preserved. Such alternating successions of magnetic iron mineral preservation and depletion are known from sapropel-marl cycles, which accumulated under periodically changing bottom water oxygen and redox conditions. In the open central northwest Pacific Ocean, the only conceivable mechanism to cause such abrupt change is a modified glacial bottom water circulation. During all major glaciations since MIS 12, oxygen-depleted Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW)-sourced bottom water seems to have crept into the abyssal northwest Pacific below ~5000 m depth, thereby changing redox conditions in the sediment, trapping and preserving dissolved and particulate organic matter and, in consequence, reducing and dissolving both, biogenic and detrital magnetite. At deglaciation, a downward progressing oxidation front apparently remineralized and released these sedimentary carbon reservoirs without replenishing the magnetite losses.

  10. Mercury Speciation and Trophic Magnification Slopes in Giant Salamander Larvae from the Pacific Northwest, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bank, M. S.; Crocker, J.; Wachtl, J.; Kleeman, P.; Fellers, G.; Currens, C.; Hothem, R.; Madej, M. A.

    2014-12-01

    Mercury (Hg) contamination of stream salamanders in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States has received little attention. Here we report total Hg (HgT) and methyl mercury (MeHg) concentrations in larval giant salamanders (Dicamptodon spp.) and surface water from forested and chaparral lotic ecosystems distributed along a latitudinal gradient throughout Northern California and Washington. To test hypotheses related to potential effects from mining land-use activities, salamander larvae were also sampled from a reference site at Whiskeytown National Recreation Area, California, and at a nearby, upstream site (Shasta county) on Bureau of Land Management land where Hg contamination from gold mining activities has been documented. HgT concentrations in whole body larvae ranged from 4.6 to 74.5 ng/g wet wt. and percent MeHg ranged from 67% to 86%. Both HgT and MeHg larval tissue concentrations were significantly higher at the mining site in comparison to measured background levels (P low in HgT and MeHg and, in comparison, watersheds with a legacy of land-use practices (i.e., mining operations) had approximately 4.5 - 5.5 times the level of HgT bioaccumulation. Moreover, trophic magnification slopes were highest in the Shasta county region where mining was present. These findings suggest that mining activities increase HgT and MeHg exposure to salamander larvae in the region and may present a threat to other higher trophically positioned organisms, and their associated food webs.

  11. Satellite telemetry and prey sampling reveal contaminant sources to pacific northwest ospreys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, J.E.; Morrissey, C.A.; Henny, C.J.; Inzunza, E.R.; Shaw, P.

    2007-01-01

    Migratory behavior can be an important factor in determining contaminant exposure in avian populations. Accumulation of organochlorine (OC) pesticides while birds are wintering in tropical regions has been cited often as the reason for high concentrations in migrant populations. To explore this issue, we satellite tracked 16 Ospreys (Pandion haliaetus) over the period 1996-2003 from breeding sites in British Columbia, Canada, and integrated the results into a database on 15 Ospreys that were satellite tracked over the period 1995-1999, from breeding locations in Washington and Oregon, USA. Data on wintering sites of 31 Ospreys in Mexico and Central America were used for spatially targeted sampling of prey fish. Concentrations of the main organochlorine contaminant, p,p???-dichloro-diphenyl-dichloroethylene (DDE), in fish composites from Mexico ranged from 0.005 to 0.115 ??g/g wet mass. Significant differences existed among fish families in p,p???-DDE, total dichloro- diphenyltrichloroethane (??DDT), ??chlordanes, and total polychlorinated biphenyls (??PCBs). Catfish (family Ariidae) generally had significantly higher levels of DDT metabolites and other organochlorine contaminants compared to other fish families collected. Differences in prey contaminant levels were detected among the collection sites around coastal Mexico, with fish from Veracruz State generally having higher levels of DDT metabolites, ??chlordanes, ??PCBs, and hexachlorobenzene. Eggs collected from 16 nests throughout the Pacific Northwest (nine from British Columbia, seven from Oregon and Washington) where Ospreys had been satellite tagged, showed marked variation in levels of DDT metabolites (p,p???-DDE; range 0.02-10.14 ??g/g). Wintering site had no significant effect on contaminant concentrations in sample eggs from those specific Ospreys; rather concentrations of p,p???-DDE, were predicted by breeding sites with highest levels in eggs of Ospreys breeding in the lower Columbia River

  12. The seismic Moho structure of Shatsky Rise oceanic plateau, northwest Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jinchang; Sager, William W.; Korenaga, Jun

    2016-05-01

    Oceanic plateaus are large igneous provinces formed by extraordinary eruptions that create thick oceanic crust, whose structure is poorly known owing to the lack of deep-penetration seismic data. Multichannel seismic (MCS) reflection and wide-angle refraction data allow us to show Moho structure beneath a large part of the Shatsky Rise oceanic plateau in the northwest Pacific Ocean. Moho reflectors in the two data sets can be connected to trace the interface from the adjacent abyssal plain across much of the interior. The reflectors display varied character in continuity, shape, and amplitude, similar to characteristics reported in other locations. Beneath normal crust, the Moho is observed at ∼13 km depth (∼7 km below the seafloor) in MCS data and disappears at ∼20 km depth (∼17 km below the seafloor) beneath the high plateau. Moho at the distal flanks dips downward towards the center with slopes of ∼0.5°-1°, increasing to 3°-5° at the middle flanks. Seismic Moho topography is consistent with Airy isostasy, confirming this widely-applied assumption. Data from this study show that crustal thickness between the massifs in the interior of the plateau is nearly twice normal crustal thickness, despite the fact that this crust records apparently normal seafloor spreading magnetic lineations. The Moho model allows improved estimates of plateau area (5.33 ×105 km2) and volume (6.90 ×106 km3), the latter assuming that the entire crust was formed by Shatsky Rise volcanism because the massifs formed at spreading ridges. This study is unique in showing Moho depth and structure over an extraordinarily large area beneath an oceanic plateau, giving insight to plateau structure and formation.

  13. Mechanisms of low-flux intraplate volcanic fields - Basin and Range and Northwest Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, G.; Hirano, N.

    2009-05-01

    Many fields of small-volume, scattered volcanoes that typically have alkaline affinities occur in intraplate settings. The underlying mechanisms of these intraplate volcanoes are enigmatic; they often do not correlate with anomalous heat sources or upwelling mantle (as in hot spots, mid-ocean ridges, and active continental rifts), or with fluids introduced by actively-subducting lithosphere. We compare the characteristics of two low volume-flux intraplate volcanic fields, one in a continental setting that is characterized by slow extension (western U.S.A.), and the other on the floor of the northwest Pacific Ocean in a region of plate flexure. The comparison supports an interpretation that the fundamental driving mechanism for low magma-flux volcanic fields, which episodically erupt scattered, small-volume volcanoes over millions of years, is regional-scale deformation of compositionally-heterogeneous upper mantle. Deformation serves to mechanically focus partial melts that might be present due to locally-depressed solidus temperatures caused by slightly higher volatile contents, creating sufficient melt buoyancy to trigger magma ascent via magma-driven fractures (dikes). The key role of deformation in collecting magmas and triggering dike ascent and eruption, without influx of new material or heat into the source region, supports the definition of such systems as tectonically-controlled, and is likely applicable at other low-flux, diffuse volcanic fields. Differences in the degree of fractionation and wall-rock contamination in the two fields is related to vertical variations in principal-stress orientation that may cause stalling of ascending dikes.

  14. Climate Change Impacts on the Hydrology and Temperature of Pacific Northwest Streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanford, J. A.; Wu, H.; Su, F.; Lucotch, J.; Kimball, J. S.; Mantua, N. J.

    2010-12-01

    A regional scale hydrologic simulation scheme was developed to predict stream flow and stream temperature changes under historical (1979 to 1999) and future (to 2098) climate change scenarios (IPCC AR4) as they affect current and future patterns of freshwater salmon habitat and associated productivity of Pacific Northwest (PNW) river basins. An efficient simulation scheme was developed, including: a hierarchical Dominant River Tracing (DRT) algorithm for automated extraction and spatial upscaling of flow directions and river networks from fine scale hydrography; a Shuffled Complex Evolution method (SCE-UA) for automatic calibration of Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) hydrologic model simulations, and a DRT-based routing scheme and coupled stream temperature model. An observation-based meteorological forcing data set was applied to simulate historical daily flow and temperature conditions for PNW basins. The gridded daily meteorology intputs included daily precipitation, maximum and minimum daily air temperature and wind speed gridded to 1/8 degree spatial resolution. Five (of 15 candidate) GCMs (i.e. MPI ECHAM5, GFDL CM2.1, MIROC3.2, UKMO HADCM3, CCCma CGCM3.1) were selected to provide surface meteorological forcings under projected (IPCC A1B and B1) climate scenarios on the basis of favorable model performance relative to historical weather station records. The GCM simulations were statistically bias corrected and spatially and temporally downscaled. The resulting model simulations show favorable agreement for daily flow (with mean Nash coefficient of 52% and annual relative error of 18% from validations at 12 gauges) and temperature (with mean Nash coefficient of 74%, absolute relative error of 1.30 °C and RMSE of 2.21 °C, psalmon will decrease in the PNW, with viable habitats shifting to northern, coastal and higher elevation portions of the domain.

  15. Spatial and temporal variations of the seasonal sea level cycle in the northwest Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xiangbo; Tsimplis, Michael N.; Marcos, Marta; Calafat, Francisco M.; Zheng, Jinhai; JordÃ, Gabriel; Cipollini, Paolo

    2015-10-01

    The seasonal sea level variations observed from tide gauges over 1900-2013 and gridded satellite altimeter product AVISO over 1993-2013 in the northwest Pacific have been explored. The seasonal cycle is able to explain 60-90% of monthly sea level variance in the marginal seas, while it explains less than 20% of variance in the eddy-rich regions. The maximum annual and semiannual sea level cycles (30 and 6 cm) are observed in the north of the East China Sea and the west of the South China Sea, respectively. AVISO was found to underestimate the annual amplitude by 25% compared to tide gauge estimates along the coasts of China and Russia. The forcing for the seasonal sea level cycle was identified. The atmospheric pressure and the steric height produce 8-12 cm of the annual cycle in the middle continental shelf and in the Kuroshio Current regions separately. The removal of the two attributors from total sea level permits to identify the sea level residuals that still show significant seasonality in the marginal seas. Both nearby wind stress and surface currents can explain well the long-term variability of the seasonal sea level cycle in the marginal seas and the tropics because of their influence on the sea level residuals. Interestingly, the surface currents are a better descriptor in the areas where the ocean currents are known to be strong. Here, they explain 50-90% of interannual variability due to the strong links between the steric height and the large-scale ocean currents.

  16. Evolving patterns of coupled glacio-hydrology across the Pacific Northwest Region, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frans, C. D.; Istanbulluoglu, E.; Lettenmaier, D. P.; Fountain, A. G.; Bachmann, M.; Clarke, G. K. C.

    2014-12-01

    Recession of mountain glaciers in partially glacierized headwater catchments has the potential to impact watershed dynamics in a range of ways, including reduced low flows, erosion of exposed steep soils, increased sediment transport, and ecosystem succession. The response of glaciers and glacierized watershed processes to progressive climatic warming will vary greatly with local environmental attributes (aspect, hypsometry, slope, debris cover) and climatic forcing (topography driven climatic gradients, prevailing wind direction, precipitation variability and perturbation). To identify the relative influence of these controlling factors and to identify locations where these changes will have significant influence on stream discharge in the U.S. Pacific Northwest (PNW), we gather a rich data set of glacio-hydrological variables and use a recently developed glacio-hydrology model in conjunction with data to evaluate the hydrologic response of partially glacierized river basins at a range of spatial and temporal scales. The distributed hydrologic modeling framework, which incorporates a physical representation of changes in glacier area through glacier dynamics, allows the analysis of hydrologic and glaciological change at extended temporal and fine spatial scales. Among the river basins we examine are the Hoh River on the Olympic Peninsula of Western Washington, the Hood River in Northern Oregon, the Nisqually River in the Puget Sound drainage basin, and multiple watersheds in the North Cascades Region. For each of these basins, tipping points of hydrologic response to glacier recession are identified and projected. We 1) describe varied patterns of coupled glacio-hydrologic response 2) identify influential environmental controls and 3) identify vulnerable areas in space and time. We close with a discussion of the implications of ongoing and projected glacio-hydrologic changes for the management of water and natural resources in the PNW.

  17. Standardizing CPUE of Ommastrephes bartramii for Chinese squid-jigging fishery in Northwest Pacific Ocean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Siquan; CHEN Xinjun; CHEN Yong; XU Liuxiong; DAI Xiaojie

    2009-01-01

    Generalized linear models (GLM) and generalized additive models (GAM) were used to standardize catch per unit fishing effort (CPUE) of Ommastrephes bartramii for Chinese squid-jigging fishery in Northwest Pacific Ocean. Three groups of variables were considered in the standardization: spatial variables (longitude and latitude), temporal variables (year and month) and environmental variables, including sea surface temperature (SST), sea surface salinity (SSS) and sea level height (SLH). CPUE was treated as the dependent variable and its error distribution was assumed to be log-normal in each model. The model selections of GLM and GAM were based on the finite sample-corrected Akaike information criterion (AICC) and pseudo-coefficient (Pcf) combined P-value, respectively. Both GAM and GLM analysis showed that the month was the most important variable affecting CPUE and could explain 21.3% of variability in CPUE while other variables only explained 8.66%. The interaction of spatial and temporal variables weakly influenced the CPUE. Moreover, spatio-temporal factors may be more important in influencing the CPUE of this squid than environmental variables. The standardized and nominal CPUEs were similar and had the same trends in spatio-temporal distribution, but the standardized CPUE values tended to be smaller than the nominal CPUE. The CPUE tended to have much higher monthly variation than annual variations and their values increased with month. The CPUE became higher with increasing latitude-high CPUE usually occurred in 145°E-148°E and 149°E-162°E. The CPUE was higher when SST was 14-21°C and the SLH from -22 cm to -18 cm. In this study, GAM tended to be more suitable than GLM in analysis of CPUE.

  18. The problem of conifer species migration lag in the Pacific Northwest region since the last glaciation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, Scott A.

    2013-10-01

    Multiproxy evidence indicates that warmer-than-present summers became established in Eastern Beringia as early as 14,000-13,000 years ago, but the dispersal of spruces, pines, cedars and hemlocks across the Pacific Northwest (PNW) region of southern Alaska did not begin until at least 1500 years afterwards, and took many thousands of years to be completed. There are many potential reasons for this slow spread of PNW conifers towards their modern range limits. The absence of mycorrhizae in the soils of southern Alaska may have slowed conifer establishment. The availability of soil moisture was another limiting factor. With the exception of Pinus contorta, the other PNW conifers become established most readily from seeds that fall on moist, shaded substrates, thus they are not good pioneering species. Competition with alder and birch played an important role, especially along Prince William Sound and the Kenai Peninsula. Alder or alder and birch dominated these regions until the mid- to late Holocene. The other key element for most PNW conifer species is the precipitation regime. The hemlocks, cedars and Sitka spruce are not drought-hardy. So although the PNW temperature regime may have been warm enough in early postglacial times to support the growth of PNW conifers, it was probably too dry for them to successfully become established in new regions. The conflation of these environmental factors limits our present understanding of the problem, but the recent trend of multi-proxy analysis in Quaternary paleoecology will certainly sharpen our reconstructions. Such proxies as conifer needle stomata and insect fossil remains hold significant promise.

  19. Adaptive Ecosystem Management in the Pacific Northwest: a Case Study from Coastal Oregon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew N. Gray

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive ecosystem management has been adopted as a goal for decision making by several of the land management and regulatory agencies of the U.S. government. One of the first attempts to implement ecosystem management was undertaken on the federally managed forests of the Pacific Northwest in 1994. In addition to a network of reserve areas intended to restore habitat for late-successional terrestrial and aquatic species, "adaptive management areas" (AMAs were established. These AMAs were intended to be focal areas for implementing innovative methods of ecological conservation and restoration and meeting economic and social goals. This paper analyzes the primary ecological, social, and institutional issues of concern to one AMA in the Coast Range in northern Oregon. Based on existing knowledge, several divergent approaches are available that could meet ecological goals, but these approaches differ greatly in their social and economic implications. In particular, approaches that rely on the natural succession of the existing landscape or attempt to recreate historical patterns may not meet ecosystem goals for restoration as readily as an approach based on the active manipulation of existing structure and composition. In addition, institutions are still adjusting to recent changes in management priorities. Although some innovative projects have been developed, adaptive management in its most rigorous sense is still in its infancy. Indeed, functional social networks that support adaptive management may be required before policy and scientific innovations can be realized. The obstacles to adaptive management in this case are similar to those encountered by other efforts of this type, but the solutions will probably have to be local and idiosyncratic to be effective.

  20. Relationship between tropical cyclone activities in the Northwest Pacific area and the summer monsoon rainfall in the Northeast Asian region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ki-Seon; Cha, Yu-Mi; Kang, Sung-Dae; Kim, Hae-Dong

    2015-07-01

    The study surveys the tropical cyclone (TC) activities in the Northwestern Pacific region during the summer monsoon season (SMS) (June-July) in the Northeast Asian region (North China, Korea, and Japan). The positive (negative) SMS rainfall years in the region show that not only the TC genesis frequency, but also the TC frequency which affects the Northeast Asian countries, are low (high) in the tropical and subtropical northwest Pacific. That is, the TCs mainly move to the southern part of China or up to the east sea far from Japan in the positive SMS rainfall years. The study analyzes the difference between the two groups in the 500 hPa streamline to investigate TC activities for the groups. The large-scale anomalous anticyclone and the anomalous cyclone were enlarged in the tropical and subtropical Northwestern Pacific and from Manchuria to the eastern Japan, respectively. Due to such anomalous pressure system patterns being strengthened during the positive SMS rainfall years, the tropical Northwestern Pacific below 20°N fortified anomalous easterlies, causing a lot of TCs during those years to move to the southern part of China along with these anomalous steering flows (anomalous easterlies). In addition, the anomalous anticyclone that is located in the tropical and subtropical Northwestern Pacific caused a low TC genesis frequency during the positive SMS rainfall years.

  1. Population genetic structure of the messmate pipefish Corythoichthys haematopterus in the northwest pacific: evidence for a cryptic species

    OpenAIRE

    Sogabe, Atsushi; Takagi, Motohiro

    2013-01-01

    The population genetic structure of the messmate pipefish, Corythoichthys haematopterus, in the northwest Pacific was investigated based on the partial mitochondrial DNA cytochrome b (589 bp) and 16S rRNA (528 bp) region sequences of 108 individuals collected from six sites along the coast of the Japanese archipelago and one site on Mactan Island, the Philippines. A total of 60 and 28 haplotypes were obtained from the cytochrome b and 16S rRNA regions, respectively. Two genetically distinct l...

  2. Changes in the Carbon and Energy Balance of the Sagebrush Steppe Ecosystem of the Pacific Northwest - White Paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chambers, Minnie Lala Stansbury; Clawson, K. L.; Inouye, R. S.

    2002-11-01

    We propose a multi-agency study to understand the impacts of land-use change on the carbon and energy balance of the Pacific Northwest. By integrating data for the carbon and energy fluxes across different scales within each land-use type, we will develop more accurate input parameters for the regional climate models. The product of this study will address two priorities recommended by the National Academy of Sciences; 1) reduce uncertainties in climate change projections and 2) provide a more definitive evaluation of long-term changes.

  3. Rainforest birds: A land manager's guide to breeding bird habitat in young conifer forests in the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altman, Bob; Hagar, Joan

    2007-01-01

    This document (hereafter Guide) has been prepared to assist land managers interested in conducting conservation and management activities to benefit breeding birds associated with young conifer forests in the Pacific Northwest. Audiences targeted for use of the Guide include land trusts, watershed councils, non-commercial private land owners, forest products companies, land-managing conservation organizations, government agencies, tribes, and First Nations. We hope the Guide will be a useful and valuable tool to support any of the variety of reasons to manage for bird habitat in young conifer forests (for example, regulatory, biodiversity, bird conservation, and forest certification standards).

  4. Coping with drought: A High Resolution Drought Monitoring and Prediction System for the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, M.; Nijssen, B.; Shukla, S.; Lettenmaier, D. P.

    2013-12-01

    The Pacific Northwest (PNW) region in North America (defined here as the Columbia and Klamath River basins plus the coastal drainages) is a diverse geographic region with complex topography and a variety of climates. Agriculture (dryland and irrigated), forestry, fisheries, and hydropower provide significant economic benefit to the region and are directly dependent on the availability of sufficient water at the right time. Additional demands are made on water supplies by recreation, ecosystem services and emerging needs such as hydropower generation in support of wind energy integration. Several major droughts have occurred over the region in recent decades (notably 1977, 2001, and 2004), which have had significant consequences for the region's agricultural, hydropower production, and environment. An emerging need for the region is the coordination of existing regional climate activities, including a better awareness of the current water availability conditions across the region. The University of Washington has operated a surface water monitor for the continental United States since 2005, which provides near real-time estimates of surface water conditions at a spatial resolution of 1/2 degree in terms of soil moisture, snow water equivalent, and total moisture based on a suite of land surface models. A higher resolution Drought Monitoring and Prediction System (DMPS) for Washington State was originally implemented at 1/8 degree and later increased to 1/16 degree. This presentation describes the extension of this system to the entire PNW region at 1/16 degree. The expanded system provides daily updates of three primary drought-related indices based on near real-time station observations in the region: Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI), Standardized Runoff Index (SRI), and Soil Moisture Percentiles (SMP). To make the drought measures relevant to water managers, surface water conditions are not only reported on a gridded map, but watershed-level drought summary

  5. The potential for great earthquakes in the Cascadia subduction zone, coastal Pacific Northwest - Evaluation of geologic methods of assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A fundamental question in earthquake hazards research in the Pacific Northwest is the potential for future great earthquakes on the Cascadia subduction zone in Oregon and Washington. If plate-interface earthquakes have recurred in the late Holocene, determination of their magnitude, extent, and age is critical for resolution of safety issues in the region. A number of different geologic field studies aimed at resolving these issues are in progress in the coastal areas of the Pacific Northwest. Because the record of paleoseismic events is fragmentary, a variety of different methods are being used to piece together the late Quaternary tectonic and paleoseismic history of the region. Work in progress falls into two groups - paleoseismology studies of the middle and late Holocene (<5 ka) coastal record, and studies of cumulative late Quaternary tectonic deformation as expressed by marine and fluvial terraces and river valley morphology. Although most studies have focused on the Holocene, regional neotectonic studies provide the critical tectonic framework needed for interpreting the fragmentary record of Holocene seismic events. Thus, when combined with seismological and geophysical studies and comparisons with other subduction zones, these regional studies may provide the most convincing evidence for segmentation of the Cascadia subduction zone. A credible segmentation scenario using both Holocene and Pleistocene data will be the basis for future estimates of magnitude and extent of probable plate-interface earthquakes in the region - critical information for the assessment of the safety of nuclear facilities

  6. Ubiquitous dissolved inorganic carbon assimilation by marine bacteria in the Pacific Northwest coastal ocean as determined by stable isotope probing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne DeLorenzo

    Full Text Available In order to identify bacteria that assimilate dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC in the northeast Pacific Ocean, stable isotope probing (SIP experiments were conducted on water collected from 3 different sites off the Oregon and Washington coasts in May 2010, and one site off the Oregon Coast in September 2008 and March 2009. Samples were incubated in the dark with 2 mM (13C-NaHCO(3, doubling the average concentration of DIC typically found in the ocean. Our results revealed a surprising diversity of marine bacteria actively assimilating DIC in the dark within the Pacific Northwest coastal waters, indicating that DIC fixation is relevant for the metabolism of different marine bacterial lineages, including putatively heterotrophic taxa. Furthermore, dark DIC-assimilating assemblages were widespread among diverse bacterial classes. Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, and Bacteroidetes dominated the active DIC-assimilating communities across the samples. Actinobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, Deltaproteobacteria, Planctomycetes, and Verrucomicrobia were also implicated in DIC assimilation. Alteromonadales and Oceanospirillales contributed significantly to the DIC-assimilating Gammaproteobacteria within May 2010 clone libraries. 16S rRNA gene sequences related to the sulfur-oxidizing symbionts Arctic96BD-19 were observed in all active DIC assimilating clone libraries. Among the Alphaproteobacteria, clones related to the ubiquitous SAR11 clade were found actively assimilating DIC in all samples. Although not a dominant contributor to our active clone libraries, Betaproteobacteria, when identified, were predominantly comprised of Burkholderia. DIC-assimilating bacteria among Deltaproteobacteria included members of the SAR324 cluster. Our research suggests that DIC assimilation is ubiquitous among many bacterial groups in the coastal waters of the Pacific Northwest marine environment and may represent a significant metabolic process.

  7. Effect of different surface forcings on the circulation and stratification in a global model with focus on the Northwest Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, Patrick; Lohmann, Gerrit

    2016-04-01

    The subarctic oceans like the Sea of Okhotsk, the Bering Sea, the Labrador Sea or the Greenland-Irminger-Norwegian (GIN) Sea react particularly sensitive to global climate changes and have the potential to reversely regulate climate change by CO2 uptake in the other areas of the world. So far, the natural processes in the Arctic and Subarctic system, especially of the Pacific realm, remains barely studied in terms of sedimentary records, but especially in terms of numerical modeling. In this study we focus on the marginal seas of the Northwest Pacific (e.g. the Sea of Okhotsk, the Bering Sea and the Sea of Japan), which have nowadays a significant role in the climate system of the Northwest Pacific by influencing the atmospheric and oceanic circulation as well as the hydrology of the Pacific water masses. Especially the Sea of Okhotsk is characterized by a highly dynamical sea-ice coverage, where in autumn and winter due to massive sea ice formation and brine rejection, the Sea of Okhotsk Intermediate Water (SOIW) is formed contributing to the mid-depth (500-1000m) water layer of the North Pacific known as newly formed North Pacific Intermediate Water (NPIW). We use the Finite-Element Sea-Ice Ocean Model (FESOM) in a global configuration with a regional focus on the marginal sea of the Northwest Pacific Ocean with a resolution of up to 8 km. As a preliminary study we compare the influence of the Comprehensive Ocean Ice Reference Experiment version 2 (COREv2) and ECMWF Era 40/interim forcing data set on the general circulation and stratification of the Northwest Pacific Ocean. We evaluate the reliability of both forcing data sets based on a comparison with observational derived data from the World Ocean Atlas 2013.

  8. Population panmixia and the Pleistocene demographic expansion of spotty belly greenling Hexagrammos agrammus in the East Sea and Northwest Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Kazi Ahsan; Jeong, Dageum; Myoung, Jung-Goo; Lee, Youn-Ho

    2015-06-01

    The population genetic structure and historical demography of spotty belly greenling, Hexagrammos agrammus, which has limited distribution in the Northwest Pacific, was assessed with partial sequences of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) cytochrome b and the control region (D-loop). A total of 103 individuals were collected from four sites located at the Korea Strait (Southern coast of Korea) and the East coast of Korea and two places in the Pacific coast of Japan. For all the populations, nucleotide diversities were low (0.006-0.009) while the haplotype diversities were as high as 0.92 to 0.97, indicating that the fish has undergone a recent population expansion after experiencing bottleneck. Star-shaped patterns of haplotype networks as well as the significant negative values of Tajima's D and Fu's F S corroborate the recent population expansion. Mismatch distribution analysis reveals that the demographic expansion of the species started during the 2nd half of the Middle Pleistocene Series approximately 141,000-406,000 years ago. Hierarchical analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA), the pairwise population statistics ( F ST), and the exact test of haplotype differentiation demonstrate no significant genetic differentiation among populations investigated, suggesting that spotty belly greenling is panmictic in the East Sea and the Pacific coast of Japan.

  9. Extent of soil with low phosphorus retention potential in the United States Pacific Northwest

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This spatial data set was created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to represent the extent of soils with low phosphorus retention potential in the Pacific...

  10. Total atmospheric deposition of reduced nitrogen in the United States Pacific Northwest for 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This spatial data set was created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to represent the amount of wet and dry deposition of reduced nitrogen in the Pacific...

  11. Application of fertilizer nitrogen to farm land in the United States Pacific Northwest for 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This spatial data set was created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to represent the amount of fertilizer nitrogen that was applied to farm land in the Pacific...

  12. Total atmospheric deposition of oxidized nitrogen in the United States Pacific Northwest for 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This spatial data set was created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to represent the amount of wet and dry deposition of oxidized nitrogen in the Pacific...

  13. Extent of soil with high phosphorus retention potential in the United States Pacific Northwest

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This spatial data set was created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to represent the extent of soils with high phosphorus retention potential in the Pacific...

  14. Extent of soil with moderate phosphorus retention potential in the United States Pacific Northwest

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This spatial data set was created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to represent the extent of soils with moderate phosphorus retention potential in the Pacific...

  15. Providing Hands on Experiences to Museum Visitors to Explore and Learn about Earthquakes and their Impacts in the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olds, S. E.; Schiffman, C. R.; Butler, R. F.; Farley, M.; Frankel, S.; Hunter, N.; Lillie, R. J.

    2013-12-01

    Over the past ten years, UNAVCO has developed a suite of learning materials for formal undergraduate and grades 6-12 classroom environments, integrating GPS data from the EarthScope Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) to explore Earth science processes. To make complex Earth processes accessible to general audiences, UNAVCO has designed a multi-component visiting museum exhibit that explores the tectonic setting of the United States Pacific Northwest, hazards of living on a plate boundary, and the technologies being used to study the plate motion and in the future, help communities become more resilient to the impacts of earthquakes. This exhibit was installed in Fall 2013 at the Oregon State University (OSU) Hatfield Marine Science Center (HMSC) in Newport, Oregon. Through multiple hands-on elements, visitors to the HMSC exhibit explore and experience the build up and release of strain in the region, along with some of the technologies used to measure these changes. In one component, visitors compress a model of the Pacific Northwest to feel the build up of strain in the landscape and observe the movement of land over time. Supporting panels connect this movement to the measurements currently being observed by the network of PBO and other GPS stations in the Pacific Northwest. In another component, visitors learn about the recurrence interval for earthquakes at the Juan De Fuca - North America plate boundary by turning a handle to slowly move and compress plates until a simulated earthquake occurs. A related component explores how an earthquake early warning system (EEWS) of the future might combine seismic data collected by both seismometers and real time GPS to allow people and communities time to prepare for oncoming ground shaking and tsunami after an earthquake. Several technologies are also highlighted throughout the exhibit, including information panels that compare the accuracy of high precision GPS with smartphone technologies. Additionally, models of a full

  16. Structure and Vulnerability of Pacific Northwest Tidal Wetlands –A Summary of Wetland Climate Change Researchby the Western Ecology Division, U.S. EPA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Climate change poses a serious threat to the tidal wetlands of the Pacific Northwest (PNW) region of the U.S. In response to this threat, scientists at the Western Ecology Division of the U.S. EPA at and the Western Fisheries Research Center of the U.S. Geological Survey, along w...

  17. Conducting a Feasibility Study in Women's Health Screening Among Women in a Pacific Northwest American Indian Tribe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, C June; Hillaire, Elaine

    2016-01-01

    Breast and cervical cancers continue to contribute to high cancer mortality rates in American Indian/Alaska Native women; culturally appropriate interventions are needed to influence screening behaviors and to reduce delays in obtaining care. In a pilot feasibility study designed to influence Pacific Northwest American Indian/Alaska Native women's health screening knowledge and behaviors (breast and cervical), we employed a community-based participatory research approach. Data from interviews with study participants, those involved in implementation of the study and observations were included in the analysis. Study questions focused on training of staff, recruitment of participants, and implementation of the protocol and data management. The complexities of translational, transcultural research and the importance of reporting pilot feasibility studies to the advancement of transcultural research are highlighted in the findings of this research effort. PMID:24848352

  18. Tidal harmonic analysis of TOPEX/POSEIDON data in the Northwest Pacific by introducing difference-ratio relations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘克修; 马继瑞; 韩桂军; 范振华; 许崇金

    2002-01-01

    The difference-ratio relations are introduced to separate tidal constituents that are aliased due to the sampling interval and sampling span of the TOPEX/POSEIDON altimeter. It is found that some tidal constituents such as K1 and SSA, though aliased at along track points, are not aliased at crossover points because the data at crossover points are double those at along track points. So the harmonic analysis method can be employed directly for the analysis of time series at crossover points. Then the difference-ratio relations from crossover points are introduced to analyze the time series at along track points. The TOPEX/POSEIDON data in the Northwest Pacific are analyzed with this method. The results from this method agree well with tidal constants from tidal gauges.

  19. A new species of Dasineura Rondani (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) in flower galls of Camassia (Asparagaceae: Agavoideae) in the Pacific Northwest, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagné, Raymond J; Barosh, Theresa; Kephart, Susan

    2014-01-01

    A new species, Dasineura camassiae Gagné (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), is described, illustrated and compared to some of its congeners from related hosts and western North America. The new species causes flower galls on Camassia (Agavoideae; Asparagaceae) in the Pacific Northwest. Its current known distribution is Oregon and Washington, USA. Larvae develop in spring in flowers of Camassia spp., causing the young ovaries to enlarge prematurely and eventually abort, without forming seeds or mature fruit. Full-grown larvae crawl out of the gall in rapid succession and drop to the soil where they pupate; they remain there until spring of the following year when the adults emerge and lay eggs. The galls they induce in camas lily buds represent the first known association of the cosmopolitan genus Dasineura with the group of plants that includes Agave and its relatives. PMID:25543738

  20. Field Demonstration of Automated Demand Response for Both Winter and Summer Events in Large Buildings in the Pacific Northwest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piette, Mary Ann; Kiliccote, Sila; Dudley, Junqiao H.

    2011-11-11

    There are growing strains on the electric grid as cooling peaks grow and equipment ages. Increased penetration of renewables on the grid is also straining electricity supply systems and the need for flexible demand is growing. This paper summarizes results of a series of field test of automated demand response systems in large buildings in the Pacific Northwest. The objective of the research was two fold. One objective was to evaluate the use demand response automation technologies. A second objective was to evaluate control strategies that could change the electric load shape in both winter and summer conditions. Winter conditions focused on cold winter mornings, a time when the electric grid is often stressed. The summer test evaluated DR strategies in the afternoon. We found that we could automate both winter and summer control strategies with the open automated demand response communication standard. The buildings were able to provide significant demand response in both winter and summer events.

  1. Learning from urban growth management in the Pacific Northwest:a Danish perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Fertner, Christian

    2010-01-01

    The development of contemporary urban growth management in the Northwest United States began in the 1970s. The major tool is the implementation of urban containment boundaries, fostering growth within and limiting it outside the boundary. Additionally a set of policies reaching from densification strategies to the trade of development rights is used to support the growth managements’ goals. The paper reviews the most important elements of the urban growth management in Washington and Oregon S...

  2. Inter-specific variation in salinity effects on germination in Pacific Northwest tidal wetland plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental stressors such as salinity may affect plant germination and early growth, eventually impacting the distribution and abundance of more mature individuals. In a lab study we evaluated germination sensitivity to salinity in 13 tidal wetland species found in the Pacific...

  3. Aerosol direct radiative effects over the northwest Atlantic, northwest Pacific, and North Indian Oceans: estimates based on in-situ chemical and optical measurements and chemical transport modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. S. Bates

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The largest uncertainty in the radiative forcing of climate change over the industrial era is that due to aerosols, a substantial fraction of which is the uncertainty associated with scattering and absorption of shortwave (solar radiation by anthropogenic aerosols in cloud-free conditions (IPCC, 2001. Quantifying and reducing the uncertainty in aerosol influences on climate is critical to understanding climate change over the industrial period and to improving predictions of future climate change for assumed emission scenarios. Measurements of aerosol properties during major field campaigns in several regions of the globe during the past decade are contributing to an enhanced understanding of atmospheric aerosols and their effects on light scattering and climate. The present study, which focuses on three regions downwind of major urban/population centers (North Indian Ocean (NIO during INDOEX, the Northwest Pacific Ocean (NWP during ACE-Asia, and the Northwest Atlantic Ocean (NWA during ICARTT, incorporates understanding gained from field observations of aerosol distributions and properties into calculations of perturbations in radiative fluxes due to these aerosols. This study evaluates the current state of observations and of two chemical transport models (STEM and MOZART. Measurements of burdens, extinction optical depth (AOD, and direct radiative effect of aerosols (DRE – change in radiative flux due to total aerosols are used as measurement-model check points to assess uncertainties. In-situ measured and remotely sensed aerosol properties for each region (mixing state, mass scattering efficiency, single scattering albedo, and angular scattering properties and their dependences on relative humidity are used as input parameters to two radiative transfer models (GFDL and University of Michigan to constrain estimates of aerosol radiative effects, with uncertainties in each step propagated through the analysis. Constraining the radiative

  4. Aerosol direct radiative effects over the northwest Atlantic, northwest Pacific, and North Indian Oceans: estimates based on in-situ chemical and optical measurements and chemical transport modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. S. Bates

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The largest uncertainty in the radiative forcing of climate change over the industrial era is that due to aerosols, a substantial fraction of which is the uncertainty associated with scattering and absorption of shortwave (solar radiation by anthropogenic aerosols in cloud-free conditions (IPCC, 2001. Quantifying and reducing the uncertainty in aerosol influences on climate is critical to understanding climate change over the industrial period and to improving predictions of future climate change for assumed emission scenarios. Measurements of aerosol properties during major field campaigns in several regions of the globe during the past decade are contributing to an enhanced understanding of atmospheric aerosols and their effects on light scattering and climate. The present study, which focuses on three regions downwind of major urban/population centers (North Indian Ocean (NIO during INDOEX, the Northwest Pacific Ocean (NWP during ACE-Asia, and the Northwest Atlantic Ocean (NWA during ICARTT, incorporates understanding gained from field observations of aerosol distributions and properties into calculations of perturbations in radiative fluxes due to these aerosols. This study evaluates the current state of observations and of two chemical transport models (STEM and MOZART. Measurements of burdens, extinction optical depth (AOD, and direct radiative effect of aerosols (DRE – change in radiative flux due to total aerosols are used as measurement-model check points to assess uncertainties. In-situ measured and remotely sensed aerosol properties for each region (mixing state, mass scattering efficiency, single scattering albedo, and angular scattering properties and their dependences on relative humidity are used as input parameters to two radiative transfer models (GFDL and University of Michigan to constrain estimates of aerosol radiative effects, with uncertainties in each step propagated through the analysis. Constraining the radiative

  5. Battelle-Northwest monthly activities report, February 1965

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1964-03-15

    Activities for each of the following departments are discussed in this report: Reactor and Materials Technology Dept.; Physics and Instruments Dept.; Chemistry Dept.; Biology Dept.; Applied Mathematics Dept.; Radiation Protection Dept.; and the Test Reactor and Engineering Services Dept.. Activities are in support of Hanford reactors (production reactors, N-reactor, PRTR reactor, etc) and reprocessing and radioactive waste management efforts at Hanford.

  6. Battelle-Northwest monthly activities report, March 1965

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1965-04-15

    This report covers progress in the following areas: production reactor support; plutonium recycle program; PRTR HPD core; corrosion and water quality; PRTR pressure tubes; reactor components development; plutonium ceramics research; ceramics (uranium) fuel research; swelling studies; irradiation damage to reactor materials; ATR gas loop studies; graphite studies; metallic fuel development; plutonium and U-233 fueling of a fast compact reactor; FFTF studies; radiation effects on metals; customer work (support of HTLTR and EBWR); physics and instruments; chemistry; biology; radiation protection; and technical and other services.

  7. Archive of Geosample Data and Information from the NOAA Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory (PMEL).

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The U.S. Department of Commerce, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory (PMEL) contributed information...

  8. PURPA Resource Development in the Pacific Northwest : Case Studies of Ten Electricity Generating Powerplants.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington State Energy Office.

    1990-07-01

    The case studies in this document describe the Public Utilities, Regulatory Policies Act (PURPA) development process for a variety of generating technologies. Developer interactions with regulatory agencies and power purchasers are described in some detail. Equipment, installation, and maintenance costs are identified; power marketing considerations are taken into account; and potential environmental impacts, with corresponding mitigation approaches and practices are summarized. The project development case studies were prepared by the energy agencies of the four Northwest states, under contract to the Bonneville Power Administration.

  9. The National Teacher Enhancement Program (K-8) coordinated by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richmond, C.R.

    1991-01-01

    Teachers need help, not harassment. So do the establishments in which teachers practice their profession. Community resources must be marshalled to provide help to local schools and teachers. In 1990 the National Science Foundation (NSF) established a unique educational activity named the National Teacher Enhancement Program (NTEP). NSF took advantage of the Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored educational programs and resources at several large DOE contractor labs that had had prior experience with DOE supported teacher enhancement programs. While DOE concentrated on teacher enhancement activities for secondary teachers, the NSF concentrated on teachers from grades K-8. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is the lead organization for both administering and coordinating the grant. Other participating laboratories are Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FERMI), Battelle-Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLNL) with some support functions provided by Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and the Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU). The program calls for a three week duration workshop to be conducted at each lab followed by in-service training and other activities during the year. The NSF/NTEP protocol calls for networking among the participating organizations and some of the teachers. An assessment effort is also an integral part of the program. 2 refs.

  10. Decontamination of Battelle-Columbus' Plutonium Facility. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Plutonium Laboratory, owned and operated by Battelle Memorial Institute's Columbus Division, was located in Battelle's Nuclear Sciences area near West Jefferson, Ohio, approximately 17 miles west of Columbus, Ohio. Originally built in 1960 for plutonium research and processing, the Plutonium Laboratory was enlarged in 1964 and again in 1967. With the termination of the Advanced Fuel Program in March, 1977, the decision was made to decommission the Plutonium Laboratory and to decontaminate the building for unrestricted use. Decontamination procedures began in January, 1978. All items which had come into contact with radioactivity from the plutonium operations were cleaned or disposed of through prescribed channels, maintaining procedures to ensure that D and D operations would pose no risk to the public, the environment, or the workers. The entire program was conducted under the cognizance of DOE's Chicago Operations Office. The building which housed the Plutonium Laboratory has now been decontaminated to levels allowing it to house ordinary laboratory and office operations. A ''Finding of No Significant Impact'' (FNSI) was issued in May, 1980

  11. Latitudinal distribution and sedimentation of 90Sr, 137Cs, 241Am and 239,240Pu in bottom sediment of the Northwest Pacific Ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a part of the Worldwide Marine Radioactivity Studies (WOMARS) of the International Atomic Energy Agency's Marine Environment Laboratory (IAEA-MEL) in Monaco, bottom sediment samples were collected along with water column samples in 1997 from the Northwest Pacific Ocean, and were analysed for 90Sr, 137Cs, 239,240Pu and 241Am contents in order to identify current distribution patterns and inventories, and to elucidate sources of these radionuclides in the region where the past US nuclear weapons tests were carried out. This study complements a previous reports on bottom sediments and water column. All the reported sediment data including data from 1997 cruise revealed that sedimentary 239+240Pu and 241Am concentrations peaked both in the latitudinal bands between 10-20 deg. N and 30-40 deg. N, and 137Cs and 90Sr in the latitudinal band between 30-40 deg. N. The latitudinal bands between 10-20 deg. N and 30-40 deg. N correspond to the major areas affected by close-in fallout and global fallout, respectively. Sediment inventories of 239,240Pu and 241Am exceeded or nearly equalled their overlying water inventories near the Bikini Atoll, however, in mid latitudes, more than 70% of 239,240Pu still remains in the water column. Sediment inventories of 137Cs and 90Sr account for about ten and less than five percent of the water column inventories, respectively. 241Am inventories in sediments exceeded those of the water column. The activity ratios of 137Cs/90Sr and 241Am/239,240Pu in sediments were higher than of the global fallout ratios. 90Sr content in the bottom sediments also appears to be controlled by the carbonate contents of the sea floor. The relative contribution of global and close-in fallouts to the total 239,240Pu was estimated using a two end-member mixing model based on the atom ratios of 240Pu/239Pu. The contribution of close-in fallout in sediment appears to be about 56 % for the latitudinal belt 10-20 deg. N. It is not unexpected that close-in fallout Pu

  12. Latitudinal distribution and sedimentation of 90Sr, 137Cs, 241Am and 239,240Pu in bottom sediment of the Northwest Pacific Ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a part of the Worldwide Marine Radioactivity Studies (WOMARS) of the International Atomic Energy Agency's Marine Environment Laboratory (IAEA-MEL) in Monaco, bottom sediment samples were collected along with water column samples in 1997 from the Northwest Pacific Ocean, and were analysed for 90Sr, 137Cs, 239,240Pu and 241Am contents in order to identify current distribution patterns and inventories, and to elucidate sources of these radionuclides in the region where the past US nuclear weapons tests were carried out. This study complements a previous reports on bottom sediments and water column. All the reported sediment data including data from 1997 cruise revealed that sedimentary 239+240Pu and 241Am concentrations peaked both in the latitudinal bands between 10-20 deg. N and 30-40 deg. N, and 137Cs and 90Sr in the latitudinal band between 30-40 deg. N. The latitudinal bands between 10-20 deg N and 30-40 deg. N correspond to the major areas affected by close-in fallout and global fallout, respectively. Sediment inventories of 239+240Pu and 241Am exceeded or nearly equalled their overlying water inventories near the Bikini Atoll, however, in mid latitudes, more than 70% of 239+240Pu still remains in the water column. Sediment inventories of 137Cs and 90Sr account for about ten and less than five percent of the water column inventories, respectively. 241Am inventories in sediments exceeded those of the water column. The activity ratios of 137Cs/90Sr and 241Am/239,240Pu in sediments were higher than of the global fallout ratios. 90Sr content in the bottom sediments also appears to be controlled by the carbonate contents of the sea floor. The relative contribution of global and close-in fallouts to the total 239,240Pu was estimated using a two end-member mixing model based on the atom ratios of 240Pu/239Pu. The contribution of close-in fallout in sediment appears to be about 56 % for the latitudinal belt 10-20 deg. N. It is not unexpected that close-in fallout Pu

  13. Pacific Northwest GridWise™ Testbed Demonstration Projects; Part I. Olympic Peninsula Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammerstrom, Donald J.; Ambrosio, Ron; Carlon, Teresa A.; DeSteese, John G.; Horst, Gale R.; Kajfasz, Robert; Kiesling, Laura L.; Michie, Preston; Pratt, Robert G.; Yao, Mark; Brous, Jerry; Chassin, David P.; Guttromson, Ross T.; Jarvegren, Olof M.; Katipamula, Srinivas; Le, N. T.; Oliver, Terry V.; Thompson, Sandra E.

    2008-01-09

    This report describes the implementation and results of a field demonstration wherein residential electric water heaters and thermostats, commercial building space conditioning, municipal water pump loads, and several distributed generators were coordinated to manage constrained feeder electrical distribution through the two-way communication of load status and electric price signals. The field demonstration took place in Washington and Oregon and was paid for by the U.S. Department of Energy and several northwest utilities. Price is found to be an effective control signal for managing transmission or distribution congestion. Real-time signals at 5-minute intervals are shown to shift controlled load in time. The behaviors of customers and their responses under fixed, time-of-use, and real-time price contracts are compared. Peak loads are effectively reduced on the experimental feeder. A novel application of portfolio theory is applied to the selection of an optimal mix of customer contract types.

  14. Glacier mass-balance fluctuations in the Pacific Northwest and Alaska, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josberger, Edward G.; Bidlake, William R.; March, Rod S.; Kennedy, Ben W.

    2007-10-01

    The more than 40 year record of net and seasonal mass-balance records from measurements made by the United States Geological Survey on South Cascade Glacier, Washington, and Wolverine and Gulkana Glaciers, Alaska, shows annual and interannual fluctuations that reflect changes in the controlling climatic conditions at regional and global scales. As the mass-balance record grows in length, it is revealing significant changes in previously described glacier mass-balance behavior, and both inter-glacier and glacier-climate relationships. South Cascade and Wolverine Glaciers are strongly affected by the warm and wet maritime climate of the northeast Pacific Ocean. Their net balances have generally been controlled by winter accumulation, with fluctuations that are strongly related to the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO). Recently, warm dry summers have begun to dominate the net balance of the two maritime glaciers, with a weakening of the correlation between the winter balance fluctuations and the PDO. Non-synchronous periods of positive and negative net balance for each glacier prior to 1989 were followed by a 1989-2004 period of synchronous and almost exclusively negative net balances that averaged -0.8 m for the three glaciers.

  15. Glacier mass-balance fluctuations in the Pacific Northwest and Alaska, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josberger, E.G.; Bidlake, W.R.; March, R.S.; Kennedy, B.W.

    2007-01-01

    The more than 40 year record of net and seasonal mass-balance records from measurements made by the United States Geological Survey on South Cascade Glacier, Washington, and Wolverine and Gulkana Glaciers, Alaska, shows annual and interannual fluctuations that reflect changes in the controlling climatic conditions at regional and global scales. As the mass-balance record grows in length, it is revealing significant changes in previously described glacier mass-balance behavior, and both inter-glacier and glacier-climate relationships. South Cascade and Wolverine Glaciers are strongly affected by the warm and wet maritime climate of the northeast Pacific Ocean. Their net balances have generally been controlled by winter accumulation, with fluctuations that are strongly related to the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO). Recently, warm dry summers have begun to dominate the net balance of the two maritime glaciers, with a weakening of the correlation between the winter balance fluctuations and the PDO. Non-synchronous periods of positive and negative net balance for each glacier prior to 1989 were followed by a 1989-2004 period of synchronous and almost exclusively negative net balances that averaged -0.8 m for the three glaciers.

  16. Tree Trunks from MIS3 Revealed in Pacific Northwest Landslide Deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Water, P. K.; Leavitt, S. W.; Panyushkina, I. P.; Jull, A. T.; Testa, N. R.; Squire, J.

    2010-12-01

    Multiple large tree trunks have been discovered in landslide deposits dating to before the last full-glacial provide a new source for paleo-climatic reconstructions from the northwest coast of North America. Excavation during US Highway 20 realignment through the Oregon Coast Range uncovered organic deposits at depth that included the boles of twelve large trees. Radiocarbon dates on subsurface organic material from multiple landslide deposits range from 17,850 ± 100 to >46,400 (radiocarbon dates B.P.). A single cohort of twelve tree trunks, found emplaced nearly upright, date to >53,000 radiocarbon years B.P. The sedimentary deposits are interpreted as paleo-translational landslides involving the Tyee Formation. The trees are tentatively identified as Thuja plicata, Pseudotsuga menziesii, and Abies spp. Preservation of the wood material and associated macrofossils is excellent because of clay sediments that encased the material, halting decomposition. Preliminary analysis shows excellent preservation of late-wood rings but the early wood is composed primarily of ghost tracheids. Ring counts from a portion of the Thuja plicata bole, a four inch block of outer rings, contained between 120 to 130 rings of annual growth with good sensitivity for climate reconstruction. This makes the find particularly important for inferring high-resolution environmental variability, because it is one of only very few deposits of wood of this age worldwide. In addition to paleobotanical and paleoclimatic information, the large amount of wood will be used for radioisotope and stable isotope studies.

  17. Temperature profile and water depth data collected from USS MAHLON S. TISDALE using BT and XBT casts in the Northwest Pacific Ocean and Caribbean Sea from 06 January 1992 to 31 January 1992 (NODC Accession 9300042)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and water depth data were collected using BT and XBT casts from the USS MAHLON S. TISDALE in the Northwest Pacific Ocean and Caribbean Sea. Data...

  18. Current meter data from moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Northwest and Southwest Pacific Ocean from 01 October 1992 to 15 March 1993 (NODC Accession 9400088)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter data were collected using moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Northwest and Southwest Pacific Ocean from October 1, 1992 to March...

  19. Temperature, salinity, species identification, nutrient profiles and meteorological data collected by bottle and net in the Northwest Pacific Ocean from 6/10/1975 - 8/5/1975 (NODC Accession 0000194)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile, nutrients, species identification, and other data were collected using net and bottle casts from the RYOFU MARU in the Northwest Pacific Ocean....

  20. Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory Annual Report: Fiscal Year 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foster, Nancy S.; Showalter, Mary Ann

    2007-03-23

    This report describes the activities and research performed at the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, a Department of Energy national scientific user facility at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, during Fiscal Year 2006.

  1. The naked and the differently clothed : Spanish encounters with native Americans in 18th century explorations of the Pacific Northwest and Southwest

    OpenAIRE

    Herrera Sobek, María

    2010-01-01

    My analysis focuses on the journals of Alejandro Malaspina titled, Alejandro Malaspina: En busca del paso del Pacífico (1990 edition), written during his expeditions to the Pacific Coast of California and the Northwest (Alaska) in 1791, and the diary of Fray Pedro Font edited and translated by Herbert Eugene Bolton as Font’s Complete Diary of the Second Anza Expedition. The edited and translated volume was first published in 1930 and reissued in 1966. The Font diaries record th...

  2. The Impacts of Wind Speed Trends and Long-term Variability in Relation to Hydroelectric Reservoir Inflows on Wind Power in the Pacific Northwest

    OpenAIRE

    Cross, Benjamin David

    2013-01-01

    The use of wind power is growing rapidly in the Pacific Northwest (PNW) due to environmental concerns, decreasing costs, strong wind speeds, and the desire to minimize the impacts of streamflow variability on electricity prices and system flexibility through diversification. In hydroelectric dominated systems, like the PNW, the benefits of wind power can be maximized by accounting for the relationship between long term variability in wind speeds and reservoir inflows. Clean energy policies in...

  3. Identifying shared genetic structure patterns among Pacific Northwest forest taxa: insights from use of visualization tools and computer simulations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark P Miller

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Identifying causal relationships in phylogeographic and landscape genetic investigations is notoriously difficult, but can be facilitated by use of multispecies comparisons. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used data visualizations to identify common spatial patterns within single lineages of four taxa inhabiting Pacific Northwest forests (northern spotted owl: Strix occidentalis caurina; red tree vole: Arborimus longicaudus; southern torrent salamander: Rhyacotriton variegatus; and western white pine: Pinus monticola. Visualizations suggested that, despite occupying the same geographical region and habitats, species responded differently to prevailing historical processes. S. o. caurina and P. monticola demonstrated directional patterns of spatial genetic structure where genetic distances and diversity were greater in southern versus northern locales. A. longicaudus and R. variegatus displayed opposite patterns where genetic distances were greater in northern versus southern regions. Statistical analyses of directional patterns subsequently confirmed observations from visualizations. Based upon regional climatological history, we hypothesized that observed latitudinal patterns may have been produced by range expansions. Subsequent computer simulations confirmed that directional patterns can be produced by expansion events. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We discuss phylogeographic hypotheses regarding historical processes that may have produced observed patterns. Inferential methods used here may become increasingly powerful as detailed simulations of organisms and historical scenarios become plausible. We further suggest that inter-specific comparisons of historical patterns take place prior to drawing conclusions regarding effects of current anthropogenic change within landscapes.

  4. Study on wave energy resource assessing method based on altimeter data—A case study in Northwest Pacific

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WAN Yong; ZHANG Jie; MENG Junmin; WANG Jing; DAI Yongshou

    2016-01-01

    Wave energy resource is a very important ocean renewable energy. A reliable assessment of wave energy resources must be performed before they can be exploited. Compared with wave model, altimeter can provide more accuratein situ observations for ocean wave which can be as a novel method for wave energy assessment. The advantage of altimeter data is to provide accurate significant wave height observations for wave. In order to develop characteristic and advantage of altimeter data and apply altimeter data to wave energy assessment, in this study, we established an assessing method for wave energy in local sea area which is dedicated to altimeter data. This method includes three parts including data selection and processing, establishment of evaluation indexes system and criterion of regional division. Then a case study of Northwest Pacific was performed to discuss specific application for this method. The results show that assessing method in this paper can assess reserves and temporal and spatial distribution effectively and provide scientific references for the siting of wave power plants and the design of wave energy convertors.

  5. Effects of mycorrhizas and pH on nitrogen and potassium fluxes in Pacific Northwest coniferous roots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rygiewicz, P.T.

    1983-01-01

    This dissertation research studied mechanisms by which mycorrhizal tree roots take up ammonium and nitrate over a range of solution pH. Using mycorrhizal and nonmycorrhizal Douglas-fir, Sitka spruce and western hemlock seedlings, fluxes of N, H/sup +/, OH/sup -/, K/sup +/ and Ca/sup + +/ were measured. As pH increased, ammonium uptake rates increased and mycorrhizas significantly increased uptake for all three tree species. Surprisingly, nitrate uptake rates also increased with increasing pH, although not as dramatically as for ammonium. Even though mycorrhizas increased nitrate uptake rates, the effect was observed only to a small extent for Douglas-fir. Ammonium rates were substantially greater than nitrate rates for all coniferous seedlings. Calcium fluxes increased with increasing pH and ranged from efflux at low pH to uptake at high pH. Potassium was consistently released and these dynamic fluxes were the largest measured. Bicarbonate was also released during ammonium uptake and in significantly greater amounts by mycorrhizal roots. Total cation fluxes were much faster than anion fluxes and may have resulted in increased organic acid synthesis. This relative importance of cation flux was particularly significant for these coniferous seedlings, because cation fluxes were tenfold greater than comparable fluxes reported for agricultural species. In conclusion, this research suggests that ectomycorrhizas can significantly improve nutrient acquisition and have particular importance for nitrogen, the major nutrient limitation in Pacific Northwest forests.

  6. Forest Canopy Heights in the Pacific Northwest Based on InSAR Phase Discontinuities across Short Spatial Scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Prush

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Rapid land use changes are substantially altering the global carbon budget, yet quantifying the impact of these changes, or assessing efforts to mitigate them, remains challenging. Methods for assessing forest carbon range from precise ground surveys to remote-sensing approaches that provide proxies for canopy height and structure. We introduce a method for extracting a proxy for canopy heights from Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR data. Our method focuses on short-spatial scale differences between forested and cleared regions, reducing the impact of errors from variations in atmospheric water vapor or satellite orbital positions. We generate time-varying, Landsat-based maps of land use and perform our analysis on the original wrapped (modulo-2π data to avoid errors introduce by phase unwrapping and to allow assessment of the confidence of our results (within 3–4 m in many cases. We apply our approach to the Pacific Northwest, which contains some of the world’s tallest trees and has experienced extensive clearcutting. We use SAR imagery acquired at L-band by the PALSAR instrument on the Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency’s (JAXA Advanced Land Observation Satellite (ALOS. As SAR data archives expand, our approach can complement other remote-sensing methods and allow time-variable assessment of forest carbon budgets worldwide.

  7. Application of the SPARROW model to assess surface-water nutrient conditions and sources in the United States Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Daniel R.; Johnson, Henry M.

    2013-01-01

    The watershed model SPARROW (Spatially Referenced Regressions on Watershed attributes) was used to estimate mean annual surface-water nutrient conditions (total nitrogen and total phosphorus) and to identify important nutrient sources in catchments of the Pacific Northwest region of the United States for 2002. Model-estimated nutrient yields were generally higher in catchments on the wetter, western side of the Cascade Range than in catchments on the drier, eastern side. The largest source of locally generated total nitrogen stream load in most catchments was runoff from forestland, whereas the largest source of locally generated total phosphorus stream load in most catchments was either geologic material or livestock manure (primarily from grazing livestock). However, the highest total nitrogen and total phosphorus yields were predicted in the relatively small number of catchments where urban sources were the largest contributor to local stream load. Two examples are presented that show how SPARROW results can be applied to large rivers—the relative contribution of different nutrient sources to the total nitrogen load in the Willamette River and the total phosphorus load in the Snake River. The results from this study provided an understanding of the regional patterns in surface-water nutrient conditions and should be useful to researchers and water-quality managers performing local nutrient assessments.

  8. Radioactive status of seawater in the northwest Pacific more than one year after the Fukushima nuclear accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Men, Wu; He, Jianhua; Wang, Fenfen; Wen, Yu; Li, Yiliang; Huang, Jiang; Yu, Xingguang

    2015-01-01

    To understand the impact of Fukushima Nuclear Accident(FNA), eight cruises were performed from 2011-2014. This paper reports the seawater monitoring results of the third cruise, which was conducted in May-June 2012.The northwest Pacific was clearly influenced even more than one year after FNA. However, compared to the monitoring results of the first and second cruises, which were performed in 2011, the seawater radioactivity of the third cruise decreased greatly. The highest value and the highest average of 137Cs and 134Cs were found in the 200 m layer, which suggested that 137Cs and 134Cs were most likely transported to a depth of 200 m or deeper. At 21.50°N, 125.00°E, 134Cs was found at a depth of 200 m, which is 430 km away from the southernmost point of Taiwan Island. The formation and subduction of Subtropical Mode Water is the most reasonable explanation for this process. The coastal water of China was not impacted by the radioactive pollutants released from the FNA. The radiation increments from 137Cs, 134Cs and 90Sr are only one-thousandth to one-millionth of the screening rate (10 μGy/h) according to the estimation using ERICA tools.

  9. The specific features of pollution spread in the northwest Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dianskii, N. A.; Gusev, A. V.; Fomin, V. V.

    2012-04-01

    We present two calculations of pollutant dispersal in the Pacific Ocean: (1) during possible ship-wrecks in the process of spent nuclear fuel transportation from Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky and (2) pollutant spread from the Japanese coast after the Fukushima-1 nuclear disaster on March 11, 2011. The circulation was calculated using a σ model of ocean hydrothermodynamics developed at the Institute of Numerical Mathematics (INM), Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS); it is adapted to cover the Pacific Ocean basin from the equator to the Bering Strait with a high (1/8)° spatial resolution and it is capable of reproducing the mesoscale ocean variations. The pollutant dispersal in the case of possible shipwrecks was estimated for currents characteristic for a statistically average year with atmospheric forcing in accordance with the so-called normal CORE year data. The pollution spread from the Fukushima-1 nuclear power plant (NPP) was estimated by calculating the circulation with the real atmospheric forcing in accordance with the NCEP analysis data obtained from the Hydrometeorological Centre of Russia. It is noteworthy that a simplified assimilation of the observed sea surface temperature (SST) was performed. In both cases the currents were calculated simultaneously with the transport calculation of the pollutant as a passive admixture, which corresponds to a real-time calculation of pollutant transport. A map analysis of pollution dispersal shows that the horizontal transport is substantially more intense in the upper ocean layers than in deep ones. Therefore, like in the North branch of Kuroshio, pollutants can be delivered to the deep layers not through deep-water horizontal transport, but rather as a result of vertical downwelling from the already contaminated upper layers. However, the complex three-dimensional structure of the horizontal and vertical transport may lead to reverse situations. A calculation of pollution transport from the Fukushima-1 NPP showed that

  10. Photic zone changes in the north-west Pacific Ocean from MIS 4–5e

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. E. A. Swann

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In comparison to other sectors of the marine system, the palaeoceanography of the subarctic North Pacific Ocean is poorly constrained. New diatom isotope records of δ13C, δ18O, δ30Si (δ13Cdiatom, δ18Odiatom, and δ30Sidiatom are presented alongside existing geochemical and isotope records to document changes in photic zone conditions, including nutrient supply and the efficiency of the soft-tissue biological pump, between Marine Isotope Stage (MIS 4 and MIS 5e. Peaks in opal productivity in MIS 5b/c and MIS 5e are both associated with the breakdown of the regional halocline stratification and increased nutrient supply to the photic zone. Whereas the MIS 5e peak is associated with low rates of nutrient utilisation, the MIS 5b/c peak is associated with significantly higher rates of nutrient utilisation. Both peaks, together with other smaller increases in productivity in MIS 4 and 5a, culminate with a significant increase in freshwater input which strengthens/re-establishes the halocline and limits further upwelling of sub-surface waters to the photic zone. Whilst δ30Sidiatom and previously published records of diatom δ15N (δ15Ndiatom (Brunelle et al., 2007, 2010 show similar trends until the latter half of MIS 5a, the records become anti-correlated after this juncture and into MIS 4, suggesting a possible change in photic zone state such as may occur with a shift to iron or silicon limitation.

  11. Occurrence of the amphibian pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearl, C.A.; Bull, E.L.; Green, D.E.; Bowerman, J.; Adams, M.J.; Hyatt, A.; Wente, W.H.

    2007-01-01

    Chytridiomycosis (infection by the fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis) has been associated with amphibian declines in at least four continents. We report results of disease screens from 210 pond-breeding amphibians from 37 field sites in Oregon and Washington. We detected B. dendrobatidis on 28% of sampled amphibians, and we found ??? 1 detection of B. dendrobatidis from 43% of sites. Four of seven species tested positive for B. dendrobatidis, including the Northern Red-Legged Frog (Rana aurora), Columbia Spotted Frog (Rana luteiventris), and Oregon Spotted Frog (Rana pretiosa). We also detected B. dendrobatidis in nonnative American Bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana) from six sites in western and central Oregon. Our study and other recently published findings suggest that B. dendrobatidis has few geographic and host taxa limitations among North American anurans. Further research on virulence, transmissibility, persistence, and interactions with other stressors is needed to assess the potential impact of B. dendrobatidis on Pacific Northwestern amphibians. Copyright 2007 Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles.

  12. Assessing societal vulnerability of U.S. Pacific Northwest communities to storm-induced coastal change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Heather M.; Wood, Nathan J.; Ruggerio, Peter; Allan, Jonathan; Corcoran, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    Progressive increases in storm intensities and extreme wave heights have been documented along the U.S. West Coast. Paired with global sea level rise and the potential for an increase in El Niño occurrences, these trends have substantial implications for the vulnerability of coastal communities to natural coastal hazards. Community vulnerability to hazards is characterized by the exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity of human-environmental systems that influence potential impacts. To demonstrate how societal vulnerability to coastal hazards varies with both physical and social factors, we compared community exposure and sensitivity to storm-induced coastal change scenarios in Tillamook (Oregon) and Pacific (Washington) Counties. While both are backed by low-lying coastal dunes, communities in these two counties have experienced different shoreline change histories and have chosen to use the adjacent land in different ways. Therefore, community vulnerability varies significantly between the two counties. Identifying the reasons for this variability can help land-use managers make decisions to increase community resilience and reduce vulnerability in spite of a changing climate.

  13. Spent fuel storage cask testing and operational experience at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spent-fuel storage cask research, development, and demonstration activities are being performed for the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) as a part of the storage cask testing program. The cask testing program at federal sites and other locations supports the Nuclear Waste Policy Act (NWPA) and DOE objectives for cooperative demonstrations with the cask vendors and utilities for development of at-reactor dry cask storage capabilities for spent nuclear fuel assemblies. One research and development program for the storage cask performance testing of metal storage cask was initiated through a cooperative agreement between Virginia Power and DOE in 1984. The performance testing was conducted for the DOE and the Electric Power Research Institute by the Pacific Northwest laboratory, operated for DOE by Battelle Memorial Institute, and the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), operated for DOE by EG ampersand G Idaho, Inc. In 1988 a cooperative agreement was entered into by DOE with Pacific Sierra Nuclear Associates (PSN) for performance testing of the PSN concrete Ventilated Storage Cask. Another closely related activity involving INEL is a transportable storage cask project identified as the Nuclear Fuel Services Spent-Fuel Shipping/Storage Cask Demonstration Project. The purpose of this project is to demonstrate the feasibility of packing, transporting, and storing commercial spent fuel in dual-purpose transport/storage casks

  14. Detecting Forest Disturbance in the Pacific Northwest From MODIS Time Series Using Temporal Segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulla-Menashe, D. J.; Yang, Z.; Braaten, J.; Krankina, O. N.; Kennedy, R. E.; Friedl, M. A.

    2011-12-01

    Changes to the land surface of the Earth are occurring at unprecedented rates with significant implications for surface energy balance and regional to global scale cycles of carbon and water. Data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aboard the Aqua and Terra satellite platforms provide over 11 years of consistent, synoptic observations of the biosphere. New methods have recently emerged to analyze time series of remote sensing images, thereby providing ecologically important information about disturbance and succession over large regions. In particular, the Landtrendr algorithm was developed to characterize long-term trends, including punctual and gradual disturbance events and subsequent vegetation regrowth, in dense time series of Landsat imagery. While this approach has shown to be useful and robust in a wide range of ecosystems, its application is limited to areas with sufficient Landsat archive depth and relatively cloud-free periods. Additionally, the approach requires significant effort in atmospheric correction and normalization steps, increasing the cost for large-area application. Here we present an adaptation of the Landtrendr algorithm to an 11-year time series of MODIS Normalized BRDF-Adjusted Reflectance (NBAR) data to detect forest disturbance in the Northwest Forest Plan (NWFP) area of Washington, Oregon, and California. The NWFP area represents a dynamic zone of forest management with an active disturbance regime that includes insect defoliation, wildfires, and logging. This work aims to explore how the size and severity of disturbance events influence detection and characterization of such events using MODIS data. We sampled disturbance events across gradients of size and severity that occurred during the MODIS era (2000-present) using a high-quality database of forest disturbance information derived from Landsat. One-third of these disturbance records were used to calibrate the model using MODIS NBAR time series, and

  15. Fiscal year 1999 Battelle performance evaluation and fee agreement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DAVIS, T.L.

    1998-10-22

    Fiscal Year 1999 represents the third fill year utilizing a results-oriented, performance-based evaluation for the Contractor's operations and management of the DOE Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (here after referred to as the Laboratory). However, this is the first year that the Contractor's fee is totally performance-based utilizing the same Critical Outcomes. This document describes the critical outcomes, objectives, performance indicators, expected levels of performance, and the basis for the evaluation of the Contractor's performance for the period October 1, 1998 through September 30, 1999, as required by Clauses entitled ''Use of Objective Standards of Performance, Self Assessment and Performance Evaluation'' and ''Performance Measures Review'' of the Contract DE-ACO6-76RL01830. Furthermore, it documents the distribution of the total available performance-based fee and the methodology set for determining the amount of fee earned by the Contractor as stipulated within the causes entitled ''Estimated Cost and Annual Fee,'' ''Total Available Fee'' and ''Allowable Costs and Fee.'' In partnership with the Contractor and other key customers, the Department of Energy (DOE) Headquarters (HQ) and Richland Operations Office (RL) has defined four critical outcomes that serve as the core for the Contractor's performance-based evaluation and fee determination. The Contractor also utilizes these outcomes as a basis for overall management of the Laboratory.

  16. Unraveling The Complex Interaction Between The Southern Caribbean, Northwest South America And The Pacific Plates During The Cenozoic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villagomez, D.; Spikings, R.

    2013-05-01

    We have studied the prominent Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta Massif (the highest peak in the world whose local base is at sea level, ~5.75km) in Northern Colombia and we are interested in quantifying the thermal and tectonic history of the Northernmost Andes during the Cenozoic in order to understand the complex interaction between the Caribbean, the South American and the Pacific plates. In order to do so, apatite fission track data (by the LA-ICP-MS method) has been used, collected along several traverses and a single vertical profile within the massif. Our results show that the easternmost part of Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta exhumed at elevated rates (≥0.2 Km/My) during 65-58 Ma in response to the collision of the Caribbean Plateau with north-western South America. A second pulse of exhumation (≥0.32 Km/My) during 50-40 Ma was probably driven by the underthrusting of the Caribbean Plate beneath northern South America. More southern portions of the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta (the Sierra Nevada Province) exhumed rapidly during 26-29 Ma (~0.7 Km/My), whereas farther north, the northwestermost corner of the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta (the Santa Marta Province) exhumed at elevated rates during 30-25 Ma and 25-16 Ma. Our thermochronological data show that the highest exhumation rates within the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta progressed towards the northwest via the propagation of NW-verging thrusts. The late Oligocene-Miocene exhumation was mainly a consequence of compression originating at the Pacific margin of South America that also gave rise to uplift and exhumation in other regions of Eastern Colombia (e.g. in the Santander Massif). Major continental faults such as the left-lateral Santa Marta-Bucaramanga Fault have played an important role transferring the deformation, Exhumation of the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta Massif is not recorded after ~16 Ma, which is unexpected, given the high elevation and high erosive power of the climate, implying that rock and

  17. Variations of oceanic fronts and their influence on the fishing grounds of Ommastrephes bartramii in the Northwest Pacific

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Xinjun; TIAN Siquan; GUAN Wenjian

    2014-01-01

    Two predominant currents, the warm Kuroshio Current and the cold Oyashio Current, meet in the North-west Pacific Ocean. The dynamics of physical oceanographic structures in this region, including frontal zones and meandering eddies, result in a highly productive habitat that serves as a favorable feeding ground for various commercially important species. Neon flying squid, Ommastrephes bartramii, is an im-portant oceanic squid, which is widely distributed in the North Pacific Ocean. Based on the catch data col-lected by Chinese squid jigging fleets and relevant environmental data, including sea surface temperature (SST) and fronts (represented by gradients of SST and thermocline) during 1998-2009, the variations of oceanic fronts and their influence on the fishing grounds of O. bartramii were evaluated, and the differ-ences in distribution of fishing grounds of O. bartramii in 2000 and 2002 were compared by describing the differences in vertical temperature between 0-300 m. It was found that the preferred horizontal tem-perature gradient of SST for O. bartramii tended to be centered at 0.01-0.02°C/nm, which attracted nearly 80% of the total fishing effort, and the preferred horizontal temperature gradients at the 50 m and 105 m layers were mainly located at 0.01-0.03°C/nm, which accounted for more than 70%of the total fishing effort during August-October. The preferred vertical temperature gradient within the 0-50 m layer for O. bartramii tended to be centered at 0.15-0.25°C/m during August and September and at 0.10-0.15°C/m in October, implying that the mixed surface layer was distributed at depths of 0-50 m. It was concluded that the vertical temperature gradient was more important than the horizontal temperature gradient in playing a role in forming the fishing ground. The results improved our understanding of the spatial dynamics of the O. bartramii fishery.

  18. Archaeological Evidence for Resilience of Pacific Northwest Salmon Populations and the Socioecological System over the last ~7,500 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah K. Campbell

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Archaeological data on the long history of interaction between indigenous people and salmon have rarely been applied to conservation management. When joined with ethnohistoric records, archaeology provides an alternative conceptual view of the potential for sustainable harvests and can suggest possible social mechanisms for managing human behavior. Review of the ~7,500-year-long fish bone record from two subregions of the Pacific Northwest shows remarkable stability in salmon use. As major changes in the ecological and social system occurred over this lengthy period, persistence in the fishery is not due simply to a lack of perturbation, but rather indicates resilience in the ecological–human system. Of several factors possibly contributing to resilience, low human population size and harvesting pressure, habitat enhancement, and suppression of competing predators do not appear to be of major importance. Flexible resource use, including human use of a range of local resources, many of which are linked in a food web with salmon, likely contributed to resilience. Most important were the beliefs and social institutions (including ownership, regulation, rituals, and monitoring that placed restraints on salmon use as a common pool resource. In contrast, only a small fraction of our modern society relies economically on or has direct interaction with the fish, which limits our concern and willingness to fundamentally change behaviors that contribute to habitat degradation and loss, the main challenges facing salmon populations today. Salmon recovery efforts may benefit substantially from investing more resources into establishing links between community groups and actual fish populations, which would create a sense of proprietorship, one of the keys to resilience in the indigenous salmon fishery.

  19. Soil respiration response to climate change in Pacific Northwest prairies is mediated by a regional Mediterranean climate gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Lorien L; Johnson, Bart R; Pfeifer-Meister, Laurel; Bridgham, Scott D

    2015-01-01

    Soil respiration is expected to increase with rising global temperatures but the degree of response may depend on soil moisture and other local factors. Experimental climate change studies from single sites cannot discern whether an observed response is site-dependent or generalizable. To deconvolve site-specific vs. regional climatic controls, we examined soil respiration for 18 months along a 520 km climate gradient in three Pacific Northwest, USA prairies that represents increasingly severe Mediterranean conditions from north to south. At each site we implemented a fully factorial combination of 2.5-3 °C warming and 20% added precipitation intensity. The response of soil respiration to warming was driven primarily by the latitudinal climate gradient and not site-specific factors. Warming increased respiration at all sites during months when soil moisture was not limiting. However, these gains were offset by reductions in respiration during seasonal transitions and summer drought due to lengthened periods of soil moisture limitation. The degree of this offset varied along the north-south climate gradient such that in 2011 warming increased cumulative annual soil respiration 28.6% in the northern site, 13.5% in the central site, and not at all in the southern site. Precipitation also stimulated soil respiration more frequently in the south, consistent with an increased duration of moisture limitation. The best predictors of soil respiration in nonlinear models were the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), antecedent soil moisture, and temperature but these models provided biased results at high and low soil respiration. NDVI was an effective integrator of climate and site differences in plant productivity in terms of their combined effects on soil respiration. Our results suggest that soil moisture limitation can offset the effect of warming on soil respiration, and that greater growing-season moisture limitation would constrain cumulative annual

  20. Sediment core record of global fallout and Bikini close-in fallout Pu in Sagami Bay, Western Northwest Pacific margin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jian; Yamada, Masatoshi

    2004-07-01

    The total 239-240Pu activity and 240Pu/239Pu atom ratio in the sediments in Sagami Bay of the western Northwest Pacific margin were investigated using ICP-MS with a shield torch system. 239+240Pu inventories in the examined sediment cores were found to be much higher than those predicted from atmospheric global fallout (42 MBq/km2) at the same latitude. In addition, elevated 240Pu/239Pu atom ratios ranging from 0.22 to 0.28 were observed in the sediment samples. On the basis of the vertical profiles of 239+240Pu and characterized 240Pu/239Pu atom ratios in a sediment core collected in the center of Sagami Bay, we identified two distinct sources of fallout Pu in the bay: the global stratospheric fallout with characteristic 240Pu/239Pu ratio of 0.18 and the transported close-in fallout derived from Bikini and Enewetak surface nuclear weapon test series in the 1950s. We propose that the Pu transportation was mainly due to oceanic processes (for example, through the North Equatorial Current and the Kuroshio Current). Using a two fallout end-member model, we find that the contribution of Bikini close-in fallout Pu ranged from 44 to 59% in Sagami Bay sediments. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report that Pu contamination, which originated from Bikini and Enewetak nuclear weapon test series in the 1950s, has extended westwards as far as the Japanese coast. PMID:15296298

  1. Direct and indirect drivers of instream wood in the interior Pacific Northwest, USA: decoupling climate, vegetation, disturbance, and geomorphic setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hough-Snee Nate

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Instream wood is a driver of geomorphic change in low-order streams, frequently altering morphodynamic processes. Instream wood is a frequently measured component of streams, yet it is a complex metric, responding to ecological and geomorphic forcings at a variety of scales. Here we seek to disentangle the relative importance of physical and biological processes that drive wood growth and delivery to streams across broad spatial extents. In so doing, we ask two primary questions: (1 is riparian vegetation a composite variable that captures the indirect effects of climate and disturbance on instream wood dynamics? (2 What are the direct and indirect relationships between geomorphic setting, vegetation, climate, disturbance, and instream wood dynamics? We measured riparian vegetation composition and wood frequency and volume at 720 headwater reaches within the American interior Pacific Northwest. We used ordination to identify relationships between vegetation and environmental attributes, and subsequently built a structural equation model to identify how climate and disturbance directly affect vegetation composition and how vegetation and geomorphic setting directly affect instream wood volume and frequency. We found that large wood volume and frequency are directly driven by vegetation composition and positively correlated to wildfire, elevation, stream gradient, and channel bankfull width. Indicator species at reaches with high volumes of wood were generally long-lived, conifer trees that persist for extended durations once delivered to stream habitats. Wood dynamics were also indirectly mediated by factors that shape vegetation: wildfire, precipitation, elevation, and temperature. We conclude that wood volume and frequency are driven by multiple interrelated climatic, geomorphic, and ecological variables. Vegetation composition and geomorphic setting directly mediate indirect relationships between landscape environmental processes and instream

  2. Prevalence of blastocystis in shelter-resident and client-owned companion animals in the US Pacific Northwest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig G Ruaux

    Full Text Available Domestic dogs and cats are commonly infected with a variety of protozoan enteric parasites, including Blastocystis spp. In addition, there is growing interest in Blastocystis as a potential enteric pathogen, and the possible role of domestic and in-contact animals as reservoirs for human infection. Domestic animals in shelter environments are commonly recognized to be at higher risk for carriage of enteropathogens. The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency of infection of shelter-resident and client-owned domestic dogs and cats with Blastocystis spp in the Pacific Northwest region of the USA. Fecal samples were collected from 103 shelter-resident dogs, 105 shelter-resident cats, 51 client-owned dogs and 52 client-owned cats. Blastocystis were detected and subtypes assigned using a nested PCR based on small subunit ribosomal DNA sequences. Shelter-resident animals were significantly more likely to test positive for Blastocystis (P<0.05 for dogs, P = 0.009 for cats. Sequence analysis indicated that shelter-resident animals were carrying a variety of Blastocystis subtypes. No relationship was seen between Blastocystis carriage and the presence of gastrointestinal disease signs in either dogs or cats. These data suggest that, as previously reported for other enteric pathogens, shelter-resident companion animals are a higher risk for carriage of Blastocystis spp. The lack of relationship between Blastocystis carriage and intestinal disease in shelter-resident animals suggests that this organism is unlikely to be a major enteric pathogen in these species.

  3. Evidence for at Least Two Different Sources of Asian Dust to the Northwest Pacific Ocean Since the Eocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scudder, R.; Murray, R. W.; Zheng, H.; Tada, R.

    2014-12-01

    Atmospheric dust records in ice cores and marine sediment provide important information regarding global climate, tectonics, and ocean-atmospheric interactions over many different timescales. In particular, marine records from the northwest Pacific are of critical importance to our understanding of the development of the Asian Monsoon, the onset of Northern Hemisphere Glaciation, and other important climatic features. Changes in dust sources have been documented over short timescales related to monsoonal dynamics; however, studies over much longer timescales commonly consider canonical "Chinese Loess" as the sole source of Asian dust. Here we present a new marine record from Ocean Drilling Program Site 1149 that indicates the clear presence of at least two different sources of Asian dust over the past 60 Ma. Using a multi-elemental geochemical and statistical approach we have resolved two disparate eolian dust inputs to Site 1149, in addition to two different ash sources. The first dust source appears to be Chinese Loess (CL); whereas, the second dust source is compositionally distinct from CL and is similar in composition to general Upper Continental Crust. These two sources show contrasting accumulation patterns through the Cenozoic. Our results confirm previous studies that show the CL source increasing in importance over the past 8 Ma. Further, our data show that the second eolian input from Asia decreases in importance from 60 Ma to ~22 Ma. This second dust source shows variability throughout the Cenozoic that can be related to major climatic events and terrestrial climate records from China, yet ceases to be important younger than ~22 Ma. The time period from ~25-20 Ma, therefore, appears to represent a fundamental transition in the hydrologic behavior of the Asian interior. That there are two important dust sources through the Cenozoic, rather than just the single "Chinese Loess", offers new opportunities for inferring the climate and tectonic evolution of

  4. A common new species of Inocybe in the Pacific Northwest with a diagnostic PDAB reaction

    KAUST Repository

    Matheny, P. B.

    2012-09-06

    A species of Inocybe common in Washington, Oregon and British Columbia is documented and described as new. The species, I. chondroderma, is characterized by these features: pileus with a fulvous disk and ochraceous to chamois margin, presence of a cortina, densely mycelioid stipe base, smooth spores and fall phenology. The most reliable and distinctive feature of the species is a blue-green or turquoise reaction in response to application of a solution of p-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde (PDAB), indicating the presence of what is most likely an indole alkaloid. PDAB use provides a quick and diagnostic character easily implemented in a laboratory setting. ITS sequences from recent collections of I. chondroderma and from materials collected in the 1940s in Washington and Oregon fully match numerous mislabeled sequences from specimens in British Columbia and Oregon. The species is most closely related to an unclarified taxon from Colorado and Japan (I. cf. chondroderma) and a rare European species, I. subnudipes. Nine different species names in Inocybe and one in Hebeloma attributed to I. chondroderma based on GenBank BLASTN searches of the ITS locus match with 99–100% similarity, reinforcing concerns about taxonomic inaccuracies in public DNA sequence databases. A complete morphological description, illustrations and phylogenetic assessment are provided.

  5. 3D crustal structure and long-period ground motions from a M9.0 megathrust earthquake in the Pacific Northwest region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Kim B.; Stephenson, William J.; Geisselmeyer, Andreas

    2008-04-01

    We have developed a community velocity model for the Pacific Northwest region from northern California to southern Canada and carried out the first 3D simulation of a Mw 9.0 megathrust earthquake rupturing along the Cascadia subduction zone using a parallel supercomputer. A long-period (Olympia, Vancouver, and Portland areas. Combined with an extended duration of the shaking up to 5 min, these long-period ground motions may inflict significant damage on the built environment, in particular on the highrises in downtown Seattle.

  6. Abyssal macrofauna of the Kuril-Kamchatka Trench area (Northwest Pacific) collected by means of a camera-epibenthic sledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, A.; Elsner, N. O.; Malyutina, M. V.; Brenke, N.; Golovan, O. A.; Lavrenteva, A. V.; Riehl, T.

    2015-01-01

    Abyssal macrofaunal composition of 21 epibenthic sledge hauls from twelve stations taken in the Kuril-Kamchatka Trench (KKT) and at the adjacent abyssal plain, Northwest Pacific, is presented. Sampling with the fine meshed epibenthic sledge yielded higher abundances and species richness than was reported from previous expeditions from board of RV Vityaz. In total 84,651 invertebrates were sampled with RV Sonne between July and September of 2012 (31,854 invertebrates if standardised for 1000 m2 trawled distances) from 41 taxa of different taxonomic ranks (15 phyla, 28 classes, 7 orders) were sampled from a trawled area of 53,708 m² and have been analyzed. Few taxa were frequent and most taxa were rare in the samples, twelve taxa occurred with more than 1% frequency. Of these, the Polychaeta were most abundant followed by the benthic Copepoda and Isopoda. Total numbers of individuals varied between stations and were highest with 4238 individuals at station 2-10 close to the KKT in 4865 m depth and lowest with 374 individuals at station 6-11 in 5305 m depth. At this station also the lowest number of taxa occurred (18 taxa) while the highest number occurred with 31 taxa at station 3-9 in 4991 m depth. Numbers of individuals decreased with increasing depth between 4830 and 5780 m. Crustaceans of the superorder Peracarida were one of the dominating taxa with four orders occurring frequently in most samples. In total, Isopoda were most important and occurred with 59% of all peracarid orders sampled, followed by Amphipoda with 21%, Tanaidacea with 11%, Cumacea with 9%, and Mysidacea with abyssal area differ in terms of taxon composition from each other. A cluster analysis (nMDS) performed for all sampled stations revealed no clear pattern of community similarity between stations or hauls. All hauls close to the trench (2-9 and 2-10 close to the eastern slope of the KKT; and 3-9 and 4-3 at the western slope) were most different to the other hauls. Hauls 8-9 and 8-12 as

  7. Simulating Pacific Northwest Forest Response to Climate Change: How We Made Model Results Useful for Vulnerability Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J. B.; Kerns, B. K.; Halofsky, J.

    2014-12-01

    point demonstrates the importance of using model out as a forum for discussion along with other information, rather than using model output in an inappropriately predictive sense. These lessons are being applied currently to other national forests in the Pacific Northwest to contribute in vulnerability assessments.

  8. Strawberry Rhyolites, Oregon: Northwestern extent of mid-Miocene flood basalt related rhyolites of the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, A. R.; Streck, M. J.

    2011-12-01

    Rhyolitic volcanism associated with the Columbia River-Steens flood basalts of the Pacific Northwest has traditionally been viewed to be centered at McDermitt caldera near the Oregon-Nevada border starting at ~16.5 Ma. In recent years, more rhyolitic centers along this latitude with ages between 16.5-15.5 Ma have been identified and associated with the inception of the Yellowstone hotspot. However the footprint of plume-head related rhyolites becomes much larger when silicic centers of mid-Miocene age in eastern Oregon are included extending the distribution of such rhyolites to areas near the towns of Baker City and John Day ~250 km north of McDermitt. This study addresses one of these rhyolitic centers that was virtually unknown and that constitutes the northwestern extent of mid-Miocene rhyolites. Rhyolites are centered ~40 km SSW of John Day and are considered part of the Strawberry Volcanic Field (SVF), which consists of a diverse group of volcanic rocks ranging from basalt to rhyolite with abundant intermediate compositions. One existing age date of 17.3 Ma ± 0.36 (Robyn, 1977) - if confirmed by our ongoing study - places these rhyolites at the very onset of plume-head related rhyolites. Strawberry rhyolitic lavas are most voluminous in the southwestern portion of the SVF covering approximately 500 km2 between Bear and Logan Valley. The rhyolitic lavas tend to be phenocryst-poor (Strawberry Rhyolites show minor variability except in, Sr (10 - 200 ppm), Zr (65 - 450 ppm), Ti (300 - 3500 ppm), and Ba (350 - 1600 ppm). When normalized to upper crustal values, Strawberry Rhyolites plot around 1 with significant troughs at Sr, P, Ti, and minor troughs in Ba, Nb, and Zr. REE patterns indicate slight LREE enrichment with LaN/YbN values ranging from 2.5 to 8.3 and higher values correlate positively with other differentiation indices (e.g. Ba, Sr, Eu/Eu*). Furthermore, major elements (e.g. SiO2 and FeO*) and trace elements (e.g. Ba, Sr, La, Zr/Hf) display common

  9. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Annual Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duncan, Joanne P.; Ballinger, Marcel Y.; Fritz, Brad G.; Tilden, Harold T.; Stoetzel, Gregory A.; Barnett, J. Matthew; Su-Coker, Jennifer; Stegen, Amanda; Moon, Thomas W.; Becker, James M.; Raney, Elizabeth A.; Chamness, Michele A.; Mendez, Keith M.

    2013-09-01

    The PNNL Annual Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year 2012 was prepared pursuant to the requirements of Department of Energy (DOE) Order 231.1B, "Environment, Safety and Health Reporting" to provide a synopsis of calendar year 2012 information related to environmental management performance and compliance efforts. It summarizes site compliance with federal, state, and local environmental laws, regulations, policies, directives, permits, and orders and environmental management performance.

  10. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Annual Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duncan, Joanne P.; Sackschewsky, Michael R.; Tilden, Harold T.; Su-Coker, Jennifer; Mendez, Jennifer L.; Ballinger, Marcel Y.; Fritz, Brad G.; Stoetzel, Gregory A.; Barnett, J. Matthew; Lowry, Kami L.; Moon, Thomas W.; Becker, James M.; Chamness, Michele A.

    2015-09-28

    This report provides a synopsis of ongoing environmental management performance and compliance activities conducted during 2014, meeting the requirements of DOE Order 231.1B, Environmental, safety and health reporting.

  11. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1990 to the DOE Office of Energy Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Part four of the PNL Annual Report for 1990 includes research in physical sciences. Individual reports are processed separately for the data bases in the following areas: Dosimetry Research; Measurement Science; Radiological and Chemical Physics; Radiation Dosimetry; Radiation Biophysics; and Modelling Cellular Response to Genetic Damage. (FL)

  12. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1991 to the DOE Office of Energy Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes progress in OHER biological research and general life sciences research programs conducted conducted at PNL in FLY 1991. The research develops the knowledge and scientific principles necessary to identify, understand, and anticipate the long- term health consequences of energy-related radiation and chemicals. Our continuing emphasis is to decrease the uncertainty of health risk estimates from existing and newly developed energy-related technologies through an increased understanding of the ways in which radiation and chemicals cause biological damage

  13. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1992 to the DOE Office of Energy Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toburen, L.H.

    1993-04-01

    This report is divided into the following sections, with technical sections in parentheses: dosimetry research (Chernobyl database, radon alpha irradiation of mammalian cells, cell growth rates in individual colonies), measurement science (ultrahigh resolution studies of molecular structure and dynamics, circular dichroism in hyperfine state resolved photoelectron angular distributions, Sr isotope shifts, capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry for DNA adduct research, rapid DNA sequencing techniques), and radiological and chemical physics (hit size effectiveness in radiation protection, track ends, cross sections for partially stripped ion impact, scaling of differential ionization cross sections, ionization by neutral projectiles, secondary electron emission from thin foils, stochastic model of ion track structure, stochastics of positive ion penumbra, plasmid structure and spontaneous strand separation, isolation and radiation sensitivity of DNA-synthesis-deficient CHO double mutants, semiempirical model of differential ionization cross sections for multishell atoms and molecules, ionization of DNA in solution, perturbations of DNA conformation by thymine glycol and dihydrothymine). 32 figs, 3 tabs.

  14. Pacific Northwest Laboratory monthly report to space nuclear systems division for May 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At Hanford, strontium will be separated from the high-level waste, then converted to the fluoride, and doubly encapsulated in small, high-integrity containers for subsequent long-term storage. The fluoride conversion, encapsulation and storage will take place in the Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facilities (WESF). This encapsulated strontium fluoride represents an economical source of 90Sr if the WESF capsule can be licensed for heat source applications under anticipated use conditions. The objectives of this program are to obtain the data needed to license 90SrF2 heat sources and specifically the WESF 90SrF2 capsules. The information needed for licensing can be divided into three general areas: long-term SrF2 compatibility data; chemical and physical property data on 90SrF2; and capsule property data such as external corrosion resistance, crush strength, etc. The current program is designed to provide the required information. (U.S.)

  15. Current status of life-span studies with inhaled plutonium in beagles at Pacific Northwest Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beagles that inhaled 239PuO2, 238PuO2, or 239Pu(NO3)4, in dose-level groups of 20 dogs, with initial lung burdens of ∼2, 15, 70, 300, 1100, or 5500 nCi, are now 11, 9, or 5 years postexposure. Lung tumors, bone tumors, and radiation pneumonitis, the plutonium-exposure-related causes of death observed to date, have occurred in the two, three, and four highest dose-level groups exposed to 238PuO2, 239Pu(NO3)4, and 239PuO2, respectively. No plutonium-exposure-related deaths have thus far been observed in dose-level groups exposed to less than ∼40 times the current maximum permissible lung dose for a plutonium worker. Plutonium-exposure-related effects not directly related to the cause of death include chronic lymphopenia, chronic neutropenia, sclerosis of the tracheobronchial lymph nodes, focal radiation pneumonitis, adenomatous hyperplasia in the liver, and dystrophic osteolytic lesions in the skeleton. No plutonium-exposure-related effects have thus far been observed in dose-level groups that received less than ∼15 times the current maximum permissible lung dose for a plutonium worker. 10 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs

  16. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Campus Radionuclide Air Emissions Report for Calendar Year 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snyder, Sandra F.; Barnett, J. Matthew; Bisping, Lynn E.

    2014-06-01

    This report documents radionuclide air emissions that result in the highest effective dose equivalent (EDE) to a member of the public, referred to as the maximally exposed individual (MEI). The report has been prepared in compliance with the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Title 40, Protection of the Environment, Part 61, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP), Subpart H, National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities and Washington Administrative Code (WAC) Chapter 246-247, Radiation Protection Air Emissions. The dose to the PNNL Site MEI due to routine major and minor point source emissions in 2013 from PNNL Site sources is 2E-05 mrem (2E-07 mSv) EDE. The dose from fugitive emissions (i.e., unmonitored sources) is 2E-6 mrem (2E-8 mSv) EDE. The dose from radon emissions is 1E-11 mrem (1E-13 mSv) EDE. No nonroutine emissions occurred in 2013. The total radiological dose for 2013 to the MEI from all PNNL Site radionuclide emissions, including fugitive emissions and radon, is 2E-5 mrem (2E-7 mSv) EDE, or 100,000 times smaller than the federal and state standard of 10 mrem/yr, to which the PNNL Site is in compliance

  17. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Site Radionuclide Air Emissions Report for Calendar Year 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snyder, Sandra F.; Barnett, J. Matthew; Bisping, Lynn E.

    2013-06-06

    This report documents radionuclide air emissions that result in the highest effective dose equivalent (EDE) to a member of the public, referred to as the maximally exposed individual (MEI). The report has been prepared in compliance with the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Title 40, Protection of the Environment, Part 61, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP), Subpart H, National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities and Washington Administrative Code (WAC) Chapter 246-247, Radiation Protection Air Emissions. The dose to the PNNL Site MEI due to routine major and minor point source emissions in 2012 from PNNL Site sources is 9E-06 mrem (9E-08 mSv) EDE. The dose from fugitive emissions (i.e., unmonitored sources) is 1E-7 mrem (1E-9 mSv) EDE. The dose from radon emissions is 2E-6 mrem (2E-08 mSv) EDE. No nonroutine emissions occurred in 2012. The total radiological dose for 2012 to the MEI from all PNNL Site radionuclide emissions, including fugitive emissions and radon, is 1E-5 mrem (1E-7 mSv) EDE, or 100,000 times smaller than the federal and state standard of 10 mrem/yr, to which the PNNL Site is in compliance.

  18. Pacific Northwest Laboratory Monthly Activities Report APRIL 1966 on AEC Division of Reactor Development and Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. L. Fawcett

    1966-05-01

    This report has the following sections: Summary of Activities; Civilian Power Reactors; Applied and Reactor Physics; Reactor Fuels and Materials; Engineering Development; Plutonium Recycle Program; Advanced Systems; and Nuclear Safety.

  19. Pacific Northwest Laboratory Annual Report for 1992 to the DOE Office of Energy Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreml, S.A. (ed.); Park, J.F.

    1993-06-01

    This report summarizes progress in OHER biological research and general life sciences research programs conducted at PNL in FY 1992. The research develops the knowledge and fundamental principles necessary to identify, understand, and anticipate the long-term health consequences of energy-related radiation and chemicals. Our continuing emphasis is to decrease the uncertainty of health risk estimates from energy-related technologies through an increase understanding of the ways in which radiation and chemicals cause biological damage. Descriptors of individual research projects as detailed in this report one separately abstracted and indexed for the database.

  20. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1990 to the DOE Office of Energy Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owczarski, E.L. (ed.)

    1991-04-01

    At the start of FY 1990, the atmospheric sciences and carbon dioxide research programs within the Office of Health and Environmental Research (OHER) were gathered into the new Atmospheric and Climate Research Division (ACRD). One of the central missions of this new division is to provide the Department of Energy with scientifically defensible information on the local, regional, and global distributions of energy-related pollutants and their effects on climate. This information is vital to the definition and implementation of a sound national energy strategy. Because much of the work done at PNL during FY 1990 falls under the umbrella of the new ACRD, we are including in this volume the progress and status reports for all OHER atmospheric and climate research projects at PNL. The description of ongoing atmospheric and climate research at PNL is organized along two broad research areas; atmospheric research and climate research. This report describes the progress in FY 1990 in each of these areas. A divider page summarizes the goals of each area and lists projects that support research activities.

  1. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1992 to the DOE Office of Energy Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is divided into the following sections, with technical sections in parentheses: dosimetry research (Chernobyl database, radon alpha irradiation of mammalian cells, cell growth rates in individual colonies), measurement science (ultrahigh resolution studies of molecular structure and dynamics, circular dichroism in hyperfine state resolved photoelectron angular distributions, Sr isotope shifts, capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry for DNA adduct research, rapid DNA sequencing techniques), and radiological and chemical physics (hit size effectiveness in radiation protection, track ends, cross sections for partially stripped ion impact, scaling of differential ionization cross sections, ionization by neutral projectiles, secondary electron emission from thin foils, stochastic model of ion track structure, stochastics of positive ion penumbra, plasmid structure and spontaneous strand separation, isolation and radiation sensitivity of DNA-synthesis-deficient CHO double mutants, semiempirical model of differential ionization cross sections for multishell atoms and molecules, ionization of DNA in solution, perturbations of DNA conformation by thymine glycol and dihydrothymine). 32 figs, 3 tabs

  2. Real-time Data Center Energy Efficiency At Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sisk, Daniel R.; Khaleel, Mohammad A.; Marquez, Andres; Hatley, Darrel D.; Cader, Tahir; Schmidt, Roger R.

    2009-05-26

    The escalating consumption of power in data centers worldwide has brought the issue of data center energy efficiency to the forefront. Data center owners and operators now regard detailed knowledge of the energy efficiencies of their data centers as a competitive advantage. With funding from the Department of Energy (NNSA), PNNL has undertaken an in-depth analysis of the real-time energy efficiency for its Energy Smart Data Center Test Bed(ESDC-TB), which is housed in the mixed-use EMSL. The analysis is centered around the real-time display of The Green Grid’s proposed DCiE metric. To calculate this metric, PNNL relies on a variety of sources of data. At the ESDC-TB level, the data center is instrumented to the 100% level (all power consumption, and water temperatures and flow rates are measured). Most of this data is monitored in real-time, but the exception to this is with the CRAHs, which rely on a one-time power consumption measurement for the blowers (these are single speed blowers, so a one-time measurement suffices.). Outside of the data center (EMSL facility level), PNNL relies on the following: • Real-time data from the entire chiller plant (five chillers), six chilled water pumps, and one of four cooling towers (blowers only). • One-time power measurements for a single fixed speed pump that is representative of each grouping of pumps (the other pumps are assumed to possess the same power consumption levels). • One-time power measurements for a single two-speed cooling tower blower. This same blower model is deployed in three of the four cooling towers, so is assumed to be representative for all these blowers. • One-time power measurements for a single fixed speed cooling tower pump. This same pump model is deployed in all four cooling towers, so is assumed to be representative for all these pumps. A software tool named FRED was developed by PNNL to acquire, reduce, display, and archive all the data acquired from the ESDC-TB and EMSL. FRED provides the ability to display various levels of real-time data starting at the ESDC-TB and EMSL levels, then to lower levels as desired. For example, for the ESDC-TB, graphical screens are provided at the data center level, the rack level, the server level, and even the component level. In the near-term, FRED will also display the real-time DCiE. One of the major challenges to doing this in a mixed-use facility has been to quantify the power consumption of each major mechanical or electrical subsystem that is attributable to the IT equipment housed within the ESDC-TB (i.e., NW-ICE). PNNL has tackled this issue for its five chiller plant, and the analysis is presented in the paper. The analysis for all the remaining mechanical and electrical subsystems is now underway and will be presented in future publications.

  3. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1991 to the DOE Office of Energy Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, J.F.

    1992-09-01

    This report summarizes progress in OHER biological research and general life sciences research programs conducted conducted at PNL in FLY 1991. The research develops the knowledge and scientific principles necessary to identify, understand, and anticipate the long- term health consequences of energy-related radiation and chemicals. Our continuing emphasis is to decrease the uncertainty of health risk estimates from existing and newly developed energy-related technologies through an increased understanding of the ways in which radiation and chemicals cause biological damage.

  4. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Site Radionuclide Air Emissions Report for Calendar Year 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snyder, Sandra F.; Barnett, J. M.; Bisping, Lynn E.

    2012-06-12

    This report documents radionuclide air emissions that result in the highest effective dose equivalent (EDE) to a member of the public, referred to as the maximally exposed individual (MEI). The report has been prepared in compliance with the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Title 40, Protection of the Environment, Part 61, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP), Subpart H, National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities and Washington Administrative Code (WAC) Chapter 246-247, Radiation Protection Air Emissions. The EDE to the PNNL Site MEI due to routine emissions in 2011 from PNNL Site sources was 1.7E 05 mrem (1.7E-7 mSv) EDE. No nonroutine emissions occurred in 2011. The total radiological dose for 2011 to the MEI from all PNNL Site radionuclide emissions was more than 10,000 times smaller than the federal and state standard of 10 mrem/yr, to which the PNNL Site is in compliance.

  5. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duncan, Joanne P.; Fritz, Brad G.; Tilden, Harold T.; Stoetzel, Gregory A.; Stegen, Amanda; Barnett, J. Matthew; Su-Coker, Jennifer; Moon, Thomas W.; Ballinger, Marcel Y.; Dirkes, Roger L.; Opitz, Brian E.

    2012-09-01

    The PNNL Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year 2011 was prepared pursuant to the requirements of Department of Energy (DOE) Order 231.1B, "Environment, Safety and Health Reporting" to provide a synopsis of calendar year 2011 information related to environmental management performance and compliance efforts. It summarizes site compliance with federal, state, and local environmental laws, regulations, policies, directives, permits, and orders and environmental management performance.

  6. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1990 to the DOE Office of Energy Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toburen, L.H.; Stults, B.R.; Mahaffey, J.A.

    1991-02-01

    Part four of the PNL Annual Report for 1990 includes research in physical sciences. Individual reports are processed separately for the data bases in the following areas: Dosimetry Research; Measurement Science; Radiological and Chemical Physics; Radiation Dosimetry; Radiation Biophysics; and Modelling Cellular Response to Genetic Damage. (FL)

  7. Final Report for DOE Project: Climate Effects on Plant Range Distributions and Community Structure of Pacific Northwest Prairies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bridgham, Scott D. [Univ. of Oregon, Eugene, OR (United States); Johnson, Bart [Univ. of Oregon, Eugene, OR (United States)

    2013-09-26

    Pacific Northwest (PNW) prairies are an imperiled ecosystem that contain a large number of plant species with high fidelity to this habitat. The few remaining high-quality PNW prairies harbor a number of sensitive, rare, and endangered plant species that may be further at-risk with climate change. Thus, PNW prairies are an excellent model system to examine how climate change will affect the distribution of native plant species in grassland sites. Our experimental objectives were to determine: (i) how climate change will affect the range distribution of native plant species; (ii) what life history stages are most sensitive to climate change in a group of key indicator native species; (iii) the robustness of current restoration techniques and suites of species to changing climate, and in particular, the relative competitiveness of native species versus exotic invasive species; and (iv) the effects of climate change on carbon and nutrient cycling and soil-microbial-plant feedbacks. We addressed these objectives by experimentally increasing temperature 2.5 to 3.0 ºC above ambient with overhead infrared lamps and increasing wet-season precipitation by 20% above ambient in three upland prairie sites in central-western Washington, central-western Oregon, and southwestern Oregon from fall 2010 through 2012. Additional precipitation was applied within 2 weeks of when it fell so precipitation intensity was increased, particularly during the winter rainy season but with minimal additions during the summer dry season. These three sites also represent a 520-km natural climate gradient of increasing degree of severity of Mediterranean climate from north to south. After removing the extant vegetation, we planted a diverse suite of 12 native species that have their northern range limit someplace within the PNW in each experimental plot. An additional 20 more wide-spread native species were also planted into each plot. We found that recruitment of plant species within their ranges

  8. Effects of Silviculture and Genetics on Branch/Knot Attributes of Coastal Pacific Northwest Douglas-Fir and Implications for Wood Quality—A Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eini C. Lowell

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Douglas-fir is the most commercially important timber species in the US Pacific Northwest due to its ecological prevalence and its superior wood attributes, especially strength and stiffness properties that make it highly prized for structural applications. Its economic significance has led to extensive establishment and management of plantations over the last few decades. Cultural treatments and genetic improvement designed to increase production of utilizable wood volume also impact tree morphology and wood properties. Many of these impacts are mediated by crown development, particularly the amount and distribution of foliage and size and geometry of branches. Natural selection for branch architecture that optimizes reproductive fitness may not necessarily be optimal for stem volume growth rate or for wood properties controlling the quality of manufactured solid wood products. Furthermore, Douglas-fir does not self-prune within the rotation lengths currently practiced. This paper synthesizes extensive Douglas-fir research in the Pacific Northwest addressing: (1 the effects of silviculture and genetics on branch structure and associated consequences for wood quality and the product value chain; and (2 methods to measure, monitor, modify, and model branch attributes to assist managers in selecting appropriate silvicultural techniques to achieve wood quality objectives and improve the value of their Douglas-fir resource.

  9. Assessing water resources adaptive capacity to climate change impacts in the Pacific Northwest Region of North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlet, A. F.

    2011-05-01

    Climate change impacts in Pacific Northwest Region of North America (PNW) are projected to include increasing temperatures and changes in the seasonality of precipitation (increasing precipitation in winter, decreasing precipitation in summer). Changes in precipitation are also spatially varying, with the northwestern parts of the region generally experiencing greater increases in cool season precipitation than the southeastern parts. These changes in climate are projected to cause loss of snowpack and associated streamflow timing shifts which will increase cool season (October-March) flows and decrease warm season (April-September) flows and water availability. Hydrologic extremes such as the 100 yr flood and extreme low flows are also expected to change, although these impacts are not spatially homogeneous and vary with mid-winter temperatures and other factors. These changes have important implications for natural ecosystems affected by water, and for human systems. The PNW is endowed with extensive water resources infrastructure and well-established and well-funded management agencies responsible for ensuring that water resources objectives (such as water supply, water quality, flood control, hydropower production, environmental services, etc.) are met. Likewise, access to observed hydrological, meteorological, and climatic data and forecasts is in general exceptionally good in the United States and Canada, and is often supported by federally funded programs that ensure that these resources are freely available to water resources practitioners, policy makers, and the general public. Access to these extensive resources support the argument that at a technical level the PNW has high capacity to deal with the potential impacts of natural climate variability on water resources. To the extent that climate change will manifest itself as moderate changes in variability or extremes, we argue that existing water resources infrastructure and institutional arrangements

  10. Assessing water resources adaptive capacity to climate change impacts in the Pacific Northwest Region of North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. F. Hamlet

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Climate change impacts in Pacific Northwest Region of North America (PNW are projected to include increasing temperatures and changes in the seasonality of precipitation (increasing precipitation in winter, decreasing precipitation in summer. Changes in precipitation are also spatially varying, with the northwestern parts of the region generally experiencing greater increases in cool season precipitation than the southeastern parts. These changes in climate are projected to cause loss of snowpack and associated streamflow timing shifts which will increase cool season (October–March flows and decrease warm season (April–September flows and water availability. Hydrologic extremes such as the 100 yr flood and extreme low flows are also expected to change, although these impacts are not spatially homogeneous and vary with mid-winter temperatures and other factors. These changes have important implications for natural ecosystems affected by water, and for human systems.

    The PNW is endowed with extensive water resources infrastructure and well-established and well-funded management agencies responsible for ensuring that water resources objectives (such as water supply, water quality, flood control, hydropower production, environmental services, etc. are met. Likewise, access to observed hydrological, meteorological, and climatic data and forecasts is in general exceptionally good in the United States and Canada, and is often supported by federally funded programs that ensure that these resources are freely available to water resources practitioners, policy makers, and the general public.

    Access to these extensive resources support the argument that at a technical level the PNW has high capacity to deal with the potential impacts of natural climate variability on water resources. To the extent that climate change will manifest itself as moderate changes in variability or extremes, we argue that existing water resources

  11. Assessing water resources adaptive capacity to climate change impacts in the Pacific Northwest Region of North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. F. Hamlet

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Climate change impacts in Pacific Northwest Region of North America (PNW are projected to include increasing temperatures and changes in the seasonality of precipitation (increasing precipitation in winter, decreasing precipitation in summer. Changes in precipitation are also spatially varying, with the northwestern parts of the region generally experiencing greater increases in cool season precipitation than the southeastern parts. These changes in climate are projected to cause loss of snowpack and associated streamflow timing shifts which will increase cool season (October–March flows and decrease warm season (April–September flows and water availability. Hydrologic extremes such as the 100 year flood and extreme low flows are also expected to change, although these impacts are not spatially homogeneous and vary with mid-winter temperatures and other factors. These changes have important implications for natural ecosystems affected by water, and for human systems.

    The PNW is endowed with extensive water resources infrastructure and well-established and well-funded management agencies responsible for ensuring that water resources objectives (such as water supply, water quality, flood control, hydropower production, environmental services, etc. are met. Likewise, access to observed hydrological, meteorological, and climatic data and forecasts is in general exceptionally good in the United States and Canada, and access to these products and services is often supported by federally funded programs that ensure that these resources are available to water resources practitioners, policy makers, and the general public.

    Access to these extensive resources support the argument that at a technical level the PNW has high capacity to deal with the potential impacts of natural climate variability on water resources. To the extent that climate change will manifest itself as moderate changes in variability or extremes, we argue that

  12. Analysis of the impacts of Wave Energy Converter arrays on the nearshore wave climate in the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dea, A.; Haller, M. C.

    2013-12-01

    As concerns over the use of fossil fuels increase, more and more effort is being put into the search for renewable and reliable sources of energy. Developments in ocean technologies have made the extraction of wave energy a promising alternative. Commercial exploitation of wave energy would require the deployment of arrays of Wave Energy Converters (WECs) that include several to hundreds of individual devices. Interactions between WECs and ocean waves result in both near-field and far-field changes in the incident wave field, including a significant decrease in wave height and a redirection of waves in the lee of the array, referred to as the wave shadow. Nearshore wave height and direction are directly related to the wave radiation stresses that drive longshore currents, rip currents and nearshore sediment transport, which suggests that significant far-field changes in the wave field due to WEC arrays could have an impact on littoral processes. The goal of this study is to investigate the changes in nearshore wave conditions and radiation stress forcing as a result of an offshore array of point-absorber type WECs using a nested SWAN model, and to determine how array size, configuration, spacing and distance from shore influence these changes. The two sites of interest are the Northwest National Marine Renewable Energy Center (NNMREC) test sites off the coast of Newport Oregon, the North Energy Test Site (NETS) and the South Energy Test Site (SETS). NETS and SETS are permitted wave energy test sites located approximately 4 km and 10 km offshore, respectively. Twenty array configurations are simulated, including 5, 10, 25, 50 and 100 devices in two and three staggered rows in both closely spaced (three times the WEC diameter) and widely spaced (ten times the WEC diameter) arrays. Daily offshore wave spectra are obtained from a regional WAVEWATCH III hindcast for 2011, which are then propagated across the continental shelf using SWAN. Arrays are represented in SWAN

  13. Relationship Between the Number of Summer Typhoons Engendered over the Northwest Pacific and South China Sea and Main Climatic Conditions in the Preceding Winter and Spring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Ziniu; LIANG Hongli; LI Chongyin

    2010-01-01

    Based on the monthly NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data, OLR (outgoing longwave radiation) data, and tropical cyclone data from the Typhoon Annual and Tropical Cyclone Annual edited by China Meteorological Administration, the relationship between the number of tropical cyclones (with the strongest wind ≥ 17 m s-1, including tropical storm, strong tropical storm, and typhoon, simply called typhoon in this paper) engendered over the Northwest Pacific and South China Sea in summer and the associated climate conditions is studied. First, the characteristics and differences of the climatic conditions between the years with more typhoons and those with fewer typhoons are compared. The results show that the summer typhoon has a close relationship with SST (sea surface temperature) and ITCZ (intertropical convergence zone) anomalies in the preceding winter and spring. With a La Nina like SST anomaly (SSTA) pattern in the preceding winter and spring, the ITCZ will move northwestward and be enhanced around 160°E in the equatorial central Pacific from the preceding winter to spring. The activity of the Pacific ITCZ is in general stronger and its location is more northward than usual, especially in the typhoon genesis region in West Pacific. This background is propitious to have more typhoons in summer. On the other hand, an El Nino like SSTA pattern in the preceding winter will be companied with weaker ITCZ activities, and its location is more southward over the equatorial western Pacific from the preceding winter to spring; this background is propitious to have fewer typhoons in summer. In the year with more typhoons, the warm SST over West Pacific in the preceding winter provides a favorable condition for typhoon fromation in the following summer. It enhances the convergence in the troposphere and increases the water vapor supply to the warm SST region. In the following spring, the perturbation of the tropical ITCZ plays a more important role. When the ITCZ moves northward in

  14. Pacific Northwest (U.S.) In: Conversion to Sustainable Agriculture: Principles, Processes, and Practices. Stephen R. Gliessman, Martha Rosemeyer, and Sean Swezey (Editors). CRC Press Advances in Agroecology Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agriculture represents a critical land use throughout the Pacific Northwest (PNW). It makes important contributions to the region’s economy, the nation’s food supply and to regional ecosystem services including air, water, and soil quality. As in many other regions of the U.S., adverse environmental...

  15. Strong Links Between Teleconnections and Ecosystem Exchange Found at a Pacific Northwest Old-Growth Forest from Flux Tower and MODIS EVI Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wharton, S; Chasmer, L; Falk, M; Paw U, K T

    2009-03-12

    CO{sub 2} uptake variability in Pacific Northwest conifer forests.

  16. A new species of eagle ray Aetobatus narutobiei from the Northwest Pacific: an example of the critical role taxonomy plays in fisheries and ecological sciences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William T White

    Full Text Available Recent taxonomic and molecular work on the eagle rays (Family Myliobatidae revealed a cryptic species in the northwest Pacific. This species is formally described as Aetobatus narutobiei sp. nov. and compared to its congeners. Aetobatus narutobiei is found in eastern Vietnam, Hong Kong, China, Korea and southern Japan. It was previously considered to be conspecific with Aetobatus flagellum, but these species differ in size, structure of the NADH2 and CO1 genes, some morphological and meristic characters and colouration. Aetobatus narutobiei is particularly abundant in Ariake Bay in southern Japan where it is considered a pest species that predates heavily on farmed bivalve stocks and is culled annually as part of a 'predator control' program. The discovery of A. narutobiei highlights the paucity of detailed taxonomic research on this group of rays. This discovery impacts on current conservation assessments of A. flagellum and these need to be revised based on the findings of this study.

  17. 3D crustal structure and long-period ground motions from a M9.0 megathrust earthquake in the Pacific Northwest region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, K.B.; Stephenson, W.J.; Geisselmeyer, A.

    2008-01-01

    We have developed a community velocity model for the Pacific Northwest region from northern California to southern Canada and carried out the first 3D simulation of a Mw 9.0 megathrust earthquake rupturing along the Cascadia subduction zone using a parallel supercomputer. A long-period (<0.5 Hz) source model was designed by mapping the inversion results for the December 26, 2004 Sumatra–Andaman earthquake (Han et al., Science 313(5787):658–662, 2006) onto the Cascadia subduction zone. Representative peak ground velocities for the metropolitan centers of the region include 42 cm/s in the Seattle area and 8–20 cm/s in the Tacoma, Olympia, Vancouver, and Portland areas. Combined with an extended duration of the shaking up to 5 min, these long-period ground motions may inflict significant damage on the built environment, in particular on the highrises in downtown Seattle.

  18. Climatic response variability and machine learning: development of a modular technology framework for predicting bio-climatic change in pacific northwest ecosystems"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seamon, E.; Gessler, P. E.; Flathers, E.

    2015-12-01

    The creation and use of large amounts of data in scientific investigations has become common practice. Data collection and analysis for large scientific computing efforts are not only increasing in volume as well as number, the methods and analysis procedures are evolving toward greater complexity (Bell, 2009, Clarke, 2009, Maimon, 2010). In addition, the growth of diverse data-intensive scientific computing efforts (Soni, 2011, Turner, 2014, Wu, 2008) has demonstrated the value of supporting scientific data integration. Efforts to bridge this gap between the above perspectives have been attempted, in varying degrees, with modular scientific computing analysis regimes implemented with a modest amount of success (Perez, 2009). This constellation of effects - 1) an increasing growth in the volume and amount of data, 2) a growing data-intensive science base that has challenging needs, and 3) disparate data organization and integration efforts - has created a critical gap. Namely, systems of scientific data organization and management typically do not effectively enable integrated data collaboration or data-intensive science-based communications. Our research efforts attempt to address this gap by developing a modular technology framework for data science integration efforts - with climate variation as the focus. The intention is that this model, if successful, could be generalized to other application areas. Our research aim focused on the design and implementation of a modular, deployable technology architecture for data integration. Developed using aspects of R, interactive python, SciDB, THREDDS, Javascript, and varied data mining and machine learning techniques, the Modular Data Response Framework (MDRF) was implemented to explore case scenarios for bio-climatic variation as they relate to pacific northwest ecosystem regions. Our preliminary results, using historical NETCDF climate data for calibration purposes across the inland pacific northwest region

  19. Interannual and seasonal variability of winter-spring cohort of neon flying squid abundance in the Northwest Pacific Ocean during 1995-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wei; Chen, Xinjun; Yi, Qian

    2016-06-01

    The neon flying squid, Ommastrephes bartramii, is a species of economically important cephalopod in the Northwest Pacific Ocean. Its short lifespan increases the susceptibility of the distribution and abundance to the direct impact of the environmental conditions. Based on the generalized linear model (GLM) and generalized additive model (GAM), the commercial fishery data from the Chinese squid-jigging fleets during 1995 to 2011 were used to examine the interannual and seasonal variability in the abundance of O. bartramii, and to evaluate the influences of variables on the abundance (catch per unit effort, CPUE). The results from GLM suggested that year, month, latitude, sea surface temperature (SST), mixed layer depth (MLD), and the interaction term ( SST×MLD) were significant factors. The optimal model based on GAM included all the six significant variables and could explain 42.43% of the variance in nominal CPUE. The importance of the six variables was ranked by decreasing magnitude: year, month, latitude, SST, MLD and SST×MLD. The squid was mainly distributed in the waters between 40°N and 44°N in the Northwest Pacific Ocean. The optimal ranges of SST and MLD were from 14 to 20°C and from 10 to 30 m, respectively. The squid abundance greatly fluctuated from 1995 to 2011. The CPUE was low during 1995-2002 and high during 2003-2008. Furthermore, the squid abundance was typically high in August. The interannual and seasonal variabilities in the squid abundance were associated with the variations of marine environmental conditions and the life history characteristics of squid.

  20. Effect of spatial and temporal scales on habitat suitability modeling: A case study of Ommastrephes bartramii in the northwest pacific ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Caixia; Chen, Xinjun; Gao, Feng; Tian, Siquan

    2014-12-01

    Temporal and spatial scales play important roles in fishery ecology, and an inappropriate spatio-temporal scale may result in large errors in modeling fish distribution. The objective of this study is to evaluate the roles of spatio-temporal scales in habitat suitability modeling, with the western stock of winter-spring cohort of neon flying squid ( Ommastrephes bartramii) in the northwest Pacific Ocean as an example. In this study, the fishery-dependent data from the Chinese Mainland Squid Jigging Technical Group and sea surface temperature (SST) from remote sensing during August to October of 2003-2008 were used. We evaluated the differences in a habitat suitability index model resulting from aggregating data with 36 different spatial scales with a combination of three latitude scales (0.5°, 1° and 2°), four longitude scales (0.5°, 1°, 2° and 4°), and three temporal scales (week, fortnight, and month). The coefficients of variation (CV) of the weekly, biweekly and monthly suitability index (SI) were compared to determine which temporal and spatial scales of SI model are more precise. This study shows that the optimal temporal and spatial scales with the lowest CV are month, and 0.5° latitude and 0.5° longitude for O. bartramii in the northwest Pacific Ocean. This suitability index model developed with an optimal scale can be cost-effective in improving forecasting fishing ground and requires no excessive sampling efforts. We suggest that the uncertainty associated with spatial and temporal scales used in data aggregations needs to be considered in habitat suitability modeling.

  1. Use of media technologies by Native American teens and young adults in the Pacific Northwest: exploring their utility for designing culturally appropriate technology-based health interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushing, Stephanie Craig; Stephens, David

    2011-08-01

    American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) youth are disproportionally burdened by many common adolescent health issues, including drug and alcohol use, injury and violence, sexually transmitted infections, and teen pregnancy. Media technologies, including the Internet, cell phones, and video games, offer new avenues for reaching adolescents on a wide range of sensitive health topics. While several studies have informed the development of technology-based interventions targeting mainstream youth, no such data have been reported for AI/AN youth. To fill this gap, this study quantified media technology use among 405 AI/AN youth (13-21 years old) living in tribes and urban communities in the Pacific Northwest, and identified patterns in their health information-seeking practices and preferences. Overall, technology use was exceptionally common among survey respondents, mirroring or exceeding national rates. High rates of online health information seeking were also reported: Over 75% of AI/AN youth reported searching online for health information. These data are now being used by the Northwest Portland Area Indian Health Board and NW tribes to design culturally-appropriate, technology-based health interventions targeting AI/AN youth. PMID:21805055

  2. Out-of-phase relationship between tropical cyclones generated locally in the South China Sea and non-locally from the Northwest Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Zheng; Wang, Guihua; Wang, Chunzai

    2015-08-01

    Tropical cyclones (TCs) in the South China Sea (SCS) are either generated locally or formed non-locally in the Northwest Pacific Ocean (NWP) and entered into the SCS. Here, it is found that local TCs vary out-of-phase with non-local TCs in summer. That is, if fewer (more) TCs enter into the SCS from the NWP, more (fewer) TCs are generated over the SCS. Further analyses show that variability of the western Pacific subtropical high (WPSH) is responsible for the out-of-phase relationship. As the WPSH shifts eastward (westward), fewer (more) non-local TCs formed in the NWP can enter into the SCS because TCs are recurved northward (moved westward). Due to the eastward (westward) movement of the WPSH, positive (negative) low-level vorticity anomalies, weak (strong) vertical wind shear between the upper and lower troposphere, and anomalous upward (downward) motion in the middle troposphere are induced in the northern SCS. The changes in the relative vorticity, vertical wind shear and vertical velocity are favorable (unfavorable) for the local TC genesis in the SCS. These variations of non-local and local TCs result in an out-of-phase relationship between TCs formed locally in the SCS and non-locally in the NWP.

  3. Impacts of climatic and marine environmental variations on the spatial distribution of Ommastrephes bartramii in the Northwest Pacific Ocean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Wei; CHEN Xinjun; YI Qian; GAO Guoping; CHEN Yong

    2016-01-01

    Ommastrephes bartramii is an ecologically dependent species and has great commercial values among the Asia-Pacific countries. This squid widely inhabits the North Pacific, one of the most dynamic marine environments in the world, subjecting to multi-scale climatic events such as the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO). Commercial fishery data from the Chinese squid-jigging fleets during 1995-2011 are used to evaluate the influences of climatic and oceanic environmental variations on the spatial distribution of O. bartramii. Significant interannual and seasonal variability are observed in the longitudinal and latitudinal gravity centers (LONG and LATG) of fishing ground of O. bartramii. The LATG mainly occurred in the waters with the suitable ranges of environmental variables estimated by the generalized additive model. The apparent north-south spatial shift in the annual LATG appeares to be associated with the PDO phenomenon and is closely related to the sea surface temperature (SST) and sea surface height (SSH) on the fishing ground, whereas the mixed layer depth (MLD) might contribute limited impacts to the distribution pattern of O. bartramii. The warm PDO regimes tend to yield cold SST and low SSH, resulting in a southward shift of LATG, while the cold PDO phases provid warm SST and elevated SSH, resulting in a northward shift of LATG. A regression model is developed to help understand and predict the fishing ground distributions of O. bartramii and improve the fishery management.

  4. Evaluating an Automated Approach for Monitoring Forest Disturbances in the Pacific Northwest from Logging, Fire and Insect Outbreaks with Landsat Time Series Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.Neigh, Christopher S.; Bolton, Douglas K.; Williams, Jennifer J.; Diabate, Mouhamad

    2014-01-01

    Forests are the largest aboveground sink for atmospheric carbon (C), and understanding how they change through time is critical to reduce our C-cycle uncertainties. We investigated a strong decline in Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) from 1982 to 1991 in Pacific Northwest forests, observed with the National Ocean and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) series of Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometers (AVHRRs). To understand the causal factors of this decline, we evaluated an automated classification method developed for Landsat time series stacks (LTSS) to map forest change. This method included: (1) multiple disturbance index thresholds; and (2) a spectral trajectory-based image analysis with multiple confidence thresholds. We produced 48 maps and verified their accuracy with air photos, monitoring trends in burn severity data and insect aerial detection survey data. Area-based accuracy estimates for change in forest cover resulted in producer's and user's accuracies of 0.21 +/- 0.06 to 0.38 +/- 0.05 for insect disturbance, 0.23 +/- 0.07 to 1 +/- 0 for burned area and 0.74 +/- 0.03 to 0.76 +/- 0.03 for logging. We believe that accuracy was low for insect disturbance because air photo reference data were temporally sparse, hence missing some outbreaks, and the annual anniversary time step is not dense enough to track defoliation and progressive stand mortality. Producer's and user's accuracy for burned area was low due to the temporally abrupt nature of fire and harvest with a similar response of spectral indices between the disturbance index and normalized burn ratio. We conclude that the spectral trajectory approach also captures multi-year stress that could be caused by climate, acid deposition, pathogens, partial harvest, thinning, etc. Our study focused on understanding the transferability of previously successful methods to new ecosystems and found that this automated method does not perform with the same accuracy in Pacific Northwest forests

  5. How WRF and HadRM Limited-area Climate Models Perform in Simulating Local Weather and Climate Over the United States Pacific Northwest for 2003-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duliere, V.; Zhang, Y.; Salathé, E. P.; Mote, P.

    2008-12-01

    Recently, there have been increasing efforts over the United States Pacific Northwest in using limited-area climate models for downscaling reanalysis data and global climate model simulations for studies of regional climate and climate change. A minimum condition for the usefulness of such limited-area climate modeling is that these climate models are doing a reasonably good job in simulating the local weather and climate. In this study, we apply the WRF (Weather Research and Forecasting) and HadRM (Hadley Center Regional Model) modeling systems over the Pacific Northwest in downscaling reanalysis data for the period of 2003 through 2007. WRF was developed at NCAR (National Center for Atmospheric Research). HadRM was released as part of the PRECIS (Providing REgional Climates for Impacts Studies) system, which was developed at the Hadley Center of the UK Met Office. The PRECIS system can be easily applied to any area of the globe to generate detailed climate change projections. The WRF domains were set up by using multiple nests at 108 km, 36 km, and 12 km horizontal grid spacing. The domain of HadRM was chosen with the highest available horizontal resolution of 25 km at the equator of the rotated grid. The WRF runs were driven by the NCEP/NCAR (National Centers for Environmental Prediction) reanalysis data (R1) and the HadRM runs were driven by the NCEP-DOE (Department of Energy) reanalysis data (R2). In this study, we validate the model simulations in terms of Tmax, Tmin, precipitation and extreme weather events (extreme precipitation event, drought, and heat wave) at various time scales using the observations from the Historical Climatology Network (HCN). Specific issues we will address in this work include: (a) the skill of WRF and HadRM in simulating the observed Tmin, Tmax and precipitation; (b) the performance of WRF and HadRM in representing the observed extreme weather events; and (c) the effect of differences in driving data and grid spacing on the model

  6. Evaluating an Automated Approach for Monitoring Forest Disturbances in the Pacific Northwest from Logging, Fire and Insect Outbreaks with Landsat Time Series Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher S. R. Neigh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Forests are the largest aboveground sink for atmospheric carbon (C, and understanding how they change through time is critical to reduce our C-cycle uncertainties. We investigated a strong decline in Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI from 1982 to 1991 in Pacific Northwest forests, observed with the National Ocean and Atmospheric Administration’s (NOAA series of Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometers (AVHRRs. To understand the causal factors of this decline, we evaluated an automated classification method developed for Landsat time series stacks (LTSS to map forest change. This method included: (1 multiple disturbance index thresholds; and (2 a spectral trajectory-based image analysis with multiple confidence thresholds. We produced 48 maps and verified their accuracy with air photos, monitoring trends in burn severity data and insect aerial detection survey data. Area-based accuracy estimates for change in forest cover resulted in producer’s and user’s accuracies of 0.21 ± 0.06 to 0.38 ± 0.05 for insect disturbance, 0.23 ± 0.07 to 1 ± 0 for burned area and 0.74 ± 0.03 to 0.76 ± 0.03 for logging. We believe that accuracy was low for insect disturbance because air photo reference data were temporally sparse, hence missing some outbreaks, and the annual anniversary time step is not dense enough to track defoliation and progressive stand mortality. Producer’s and user’s accuracy for burned area was low due to the temporally abrupt nature of fire and harvest with a similar response of spectral indices between the disturbance index and normalized burn ratio. We conclude that the spectral trajectory approach also captures multi-year stress that could be caused by climate, acid deposition, pathogens, partial harvest, thinning, etc. Our study focused on understanding the transferability of previously successful methods to new ecosystems and found that this automated method does not perform with the same accuracy in Pacific

  7. Variability of Suitable Habitat of Western Winter-Spring Cohort for Neon Flying Squid in the Northwest Pacific under Anomalous Environments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Yu

    Full Text Available We developed a habitat suitability index (HSI model to evaluate the variability of suitable habitat for neon flying squid (Ommastrephes bartramii under anomalous environments in the Northwest Pacific Ocean. Commercial fisheries data from the Chinese squid-jigging vessels on the traditional fishing ground bounded by 35°-45°N and 150°-175°E from July to November during 1998-2009 were used for analyses, as well as the environmental variables including sea surface temperature (SST, chlorophyll-a (Chl-a concentration, sea surface height anomaly (SSHA and sea surface salinity (SSS. Two empirical HSI models (arithmetic mean model, AMM; geometric mean model, GMM were established according to the frequency distribution of fishing efforts. The AMM model was found to perform better than the GMM model. The AMM-based HSI model was further validated by the fishery and environmental data in 2010. The predicted HSI values in 1998 (high catch, 2008 (average catch and 2009 (low catch indicated that the squid habitat quality was strongly associated with the ENSO-induced variability in the oceanic conditions on the fishing ground. The La Niña events in 1998 tended to yield warm SST and favorable range of Chl-a concentration and SSHA, resulting in high-quality habitats for O. bartramii. While the fishing ground in the El Niño year of 2009 experienced anomalous cool waters and unfavorable range of Chl-a concentration and SSHA, leading to relatively low-quality squid habitats. Our findings suggest that the La Niña event in 1998 tended to result in more favorable habitats for O. bartramii in the Northwest Pacific with the gravity centers of fishing efforts falling within the defined suitable habitat and yielding high squid catch; whereas the El Niño event in 2009 yielded less favorable habitat areas with the fishing effort distribution mismatching the suitable habitat and a dramatic decline of the catch of O. bartramii. This study might provide some potentially

  8. New insights into the abyssal sponge fauna of the Kurile-Kamchatka plain and Trench region (Northwest Pacific)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downey, Rachel V.; Janussen, Dorte

    2015-01-01

    The under-explored abyssal depths of the Kurile-Kamchatka region have been re-examined during the KuramBio (Kurile-Kamchatka Biodiversity Study) expedition. Combining new KuramBio data with previous expedition data in this region has enhanced our understanding abyssal sponge fauna, in particular, the patchiness, rarity, and exceptional richness of the Cladorhizidae family. In total, 14 sponge species, from 7 genera, in 5 families, within two classes (Demospongiae and Hexactinellida) were collected. Of the 14 species, 29% (4 spp.) have been found previously in this region, 36% (5 spp.) were new to the regional abyssal fauna, and 21% (3 spp.) were new to science. The number of abyssal species in this region has now been increased by 26% (8 spp.) and genera by nearly 15% (2 genera). Rarity is a prominent feature of this abyssal fauna, with more than half of species only found at one station, and 83% (19 spp.) of species found previously in this region were not re-found during KuramBio. Cladorhizid sponges dominate demosponge species and genera richness in the abyssal Kurile-Kamchatka region; accounting for 87% (20 spp.) of all demosponge species, and accounting for over 60% (5 genera) of all demosponge genera. Sponge richness in this region is potentially aided by the productivity of the ocean waters, the geological age of the Pacific Ocean, low population densities, and the varied topographic features (ridges, trenches, and seamounts) found in this region. Unusually, the dominance of demosponges in the Kurile-Kamchatka sponge faunal composition is not replicated in other well-sampled abyssal regions, which tend to be richer in deep-sea hexactinellid fauna. Broad depth, latitudinal and longitudinal ranges in Kurile-Kamchatka abyssal fauna are a key characteristic of this faunal assemblage. Strong abyssal faunal connectivity is found between the Kurile-Kamchatka region and North Pacific abyssal fauna, with weaker faunal connections found with the adjacent semi

  9. Reconstruction of pre-instrumental storm track trajectories across the U.S. Pacific Northwest using circulation-based field sampling of Pinus Ponderosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, E.; Dannenberg, M. P.

    2015-12-01

    The trajectory of incoming storms from the Pacific Ocean is a key influence on drought and flood regimes in western North America. Flow is typically from the west in a zonal pattern, but decadal shifts between zonal and meridional flow have been identified as key features in hydroclimatic variability over the instrumental period. In Washington and most of the Pacific Northwest, there tend to be lower-latitude storm systems that result in decreased precipitation in El Niño years. However, the Columbia Basin in central Washington behaves in opposition to the surrounding region and typically has average to above-average precipitation in El Niño years due to changing storm-track trajectories and a decreasing rain shadow effect on the leeward side of the Cascades. This direct connection between storm-track position and precipitation patterns in Washington provided an exceptional opportunity for circulation-based field sampling and chronology development. New Pinus ponderosa (Ponderosa pine) tree-ring chronologies were developed from eight sites around the Columbia Basin in Washington and used to examine year-to-year changes in moisture regimes. Results show that these sites are representative of the two distinct climate response areas. The divergence points between these two site responses allowed us to reconstruct changing precipitation patterns since the late-17th century, and to link these patterns to previously reconstructed atmospheric pressure and El Niño indices. This study highlights the potential for using synoptic climatology to inform field-based proxy collection.

  10. The Impacts of Wind Speed Trends and 30-Year Variability in Relation to Hydroelectric Reservoir Inflows on Wind Power in the Pacific Northwest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin D Cross

    Full Text Available In hydroelectric dominated systems, the value and benefits of energy are higher during extended dry periods and lower during extended or extreme wet periods. By accounting for regional and temporal differences in the relationship between wind speed and reservoir inflow behavior during wind farm site selection, the benefits of energy diversification can be maximized. The goal of this work was to help maximize the value of wind power by quantifying the long-term (30-year relationships between wind speed and streamflow behavior, using British Columbia (BC and the Pacific Northwest (PNW as a case study. Clean energy and self-sufficiency policies in British BC make the benefits of increased generation during low streamflow periods particularly large. Wind density (WD estimates from a height of 10m (North American Regional Reanalysis, NARR were correlated with cumulative usable inflows (CUI for BC (collected from BC Hydro for 1979-2010. The strongest WD-CUI correlations were found along the US coast (r ~0.55, whereas generally weaker correlations were found in northern regions, with negative correlations (r ~ -0.25 along BC's North Coast. Furthermore, during the lowest inflow years, WD anomalies increased by up to 40% above average values for the North Coast. Seasonally, high flows during the spring freshet were coincident with widespread negative WD anomalies, with a similar but opposite pattern for low inflow winter months. These poorly or negatively correlated sites could have a moderating influence on climate related variability in provincial electricity supply, by producing greater than average generation in low inflow years and reduced generation in wet years. Wind speed and WD trends were also analyzed for all NARR grid locations, which showed statistically significant positive trends for most of the PNW and the largest increases along the Pacific Coast.

  11. The Impacts of Wind Speed Trends and 30-Year Variability in Relation to Hydroelectric Reservoir Inflows on Wind Power in the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Benjamin D.; Kohfeld, Karen E.; Bailey, Joseph; Cooper, Andrew B.

    2015-01-01

    In hydroelectric dominated systems, the value and benefits of energy are higher during extended dry periods and lower during extended or extreme wet periods. By accounting for regional and temporal differences in the relationship between wind speed and reservoir inflow behavior during wind farm site selection, the benefits of energy diversification can be maximized. The goal of this work was to help maximize the value of wind power by quantifying the long-term (30-year) relationships between wind speed and streamflow behavior, using British Columbia (BC) and the Pacific Northwest (PNW) as a case study. Clean energy and self-sufficiency policies in British BC make the benefits of increased generation during low streamflow periods particularly large. Wind density (WD) estimates from a height of 10m (North American Regional Reanalysis, NARR) were correlated with cumulative usable inflows (CUI) for BC (collected from BC Hydro) for 1979–2010. The strongest WD-CUI correlations were found along the US coast (r ~0.55), whereas generally weaker correlations were found in northern regions, with negative correlations (r ~ -0.25) along BC’s North Coast. Furthermore, during the lowest inflow years, WD anomalies increased by up to 40% above average values for the North Coast. Seasonally, high flows during the spring freshet were coincident with widespread negative WD anomalies, with a similar but opposite pattern for low inflow winter months. These poorly or negatively correlated sites could have a moderating influence on climate related variability in provincial electricity supply, by producing greater than average generation in low inflow years and reduced generation in wet years. Wind speed and WD trends were also analyzed for all NARR grid locations, which showed statistically significant positive trends for most of the PNW and the largest increases along the Pacific Coast. PMID:26271035

  12. Temperature and salinity profiles from CTD casts in Coos Bay, Oregon and Grays Harbor, Washington, taken from charter/fishing boats as part of the Pacific Northwest Coastal Ecosystem Regional Study (PNCERS) from 1998-03-24 to 1998-12-06 (NODC Accession 0117837)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set was designed to address the physical variability in Pacific Northwest estuaries, the relationship between estuarine processes and the variability in...

  13. Regional Approaches to Climate Change (REACCH) in the Inland Pacific Northwest: Micrometeorological Measurements of Nitrous Oxide Fluxes over a Wheat Cropping System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, B. K.; Waldo, S.; Chi, J.; Pressley, S. N.; Allwine, G.; O'Keeffe, P.; Huggins, D. R.; Pan, W.; Stockle, C.; Uberuaga, D.

    2012-12-01

    It is becoming increasingly important to investigate the relationship between global climate and agriculture in the face of ongoing climate change and the need to feed a growing global population. The REgional Approaches to Climate CHange (REACCH) USDA project is focused on Inland Pacific Northwest cereal cropping systems with an overarching goal to develop strategies for regional agriculture to mitigate and adapt to climate change. An important component of REACCH is to establish a baseline of greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes for current and alternate management practices. While cropping systems have the potential to sequester carbon in the soils, they are a net source of nitrous oxide (N2O), a greenhouse gas with three hundred times the warming potential of CO2. We report here initial micrometeorological flux measurements of N2O over a high rainfall, annual cropping system under no-tillage management. The measurements were collected from three-meter eddy covariance towers. Each tower is equipped with a sonic anemometer and peripheral meteorological instruments. Closed-path cavity ring down spectroscopy instruments were used to measure N2O fluxes via two techniques: eddy covariance and the modified Bowen ratio gradient method. The flux data from the two techniques are compared to each other and also to enclosure chamber measurements to determine viability and the range of uncertainty in the measurements. They are also analyzed for patterns associated with management events and meteorological conditions.

  14. An account of the Ischnomesidae (Peracarida, Isopoda) from the Kuril-Kamchatka Trench and abyssal plain (Northwest Pacific) with the description of two new species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Angelika; Kristin Stüven, Jana; Caurant, Cyril; Oskar Elsner, Nikolaus

    2015-01-01

    During the German-Russian expedition KuramBio (Kuril-Kamchatka Biodiversity Studies) from board of the RV Sonne to the Kuril-Kamchatka Trench and adjacent abyssal plain, benthic samples were taken by means of a camera-epibenthic sledge. Amongst one of the most diverse macrobenthic taxa, the Isopoda (Crustacea, Malacostraca), Ischnomesidae were the fifth most abundant isopod family in the Kuril-Kamchatka area and were sampled with 24 species from 5 genera in 21 hauls at 12 stations. Fortimesus occurs most frequently in the samples (36% of all Ischnomesidae sampled), followed by Stylomesus (26%), Heteromesus (23%), Ischnomesus (10%) and Gracilimesus (4%). Number of ischnomesid individuals is highest at station 10-12 with 35 specimens, followed by station 12-4 (30 ind.), station 6-12 (29 ind.), station 9-9 (28), and station 1-11 (24). At station 4-3 only 1 specimen was found. A key to all genera of Ischnomesidae is provided. Two new species from two genera: StylomesusWolff, 1956 and FortimesusKavanagh and Wilson, 2007 are described from the KuramBio material. Stylomesus malyutinae sp. nov. is distinguished by the smooth body surface, the shape of pleotelson and the length of uropods from other species of the genus from the Northwest Pacific Ocean. Fortimesus trispiculum sp. nov. is characterised by anterolateral projections of pereonites 1-3 which are forming an angle of about 45° with the longitudinal body axis decreasing in length from anterior to posterior.

  15. Wheat Cultivar Performance and Stability between No-Till and Conventional Tillage Systems in the Pacific Northwest of the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arron H. Carter

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In Washington, over fifty percent of the wheat produced under rainfed conditions receives less than 300 mm of annual precipitation. Hence, a winter wheat-summer fallow cropping system has been established to obtain adequate moisture for winter wheat production. Current tilled fallow systems receive significant soil erosion through both wind and water. As a result, no-till chemical fallow systems are being adopted to mitigate erosion concerns. The objective of this study was to evaluate current Pacific Northwest cultivars under no-till chemical fallow and tilled fallow systems to identify cultivars adapted to a late-planted no-till system. Twenty-one cultivars were planted in a split-plot design with fallow type as the main plot and genotype as the sub-plot. Four replications were planted at two locations over three years. Data was collected on heading date, grain yield and grain volume weight. Analysis of variance was conducted on data from each year and location. Results were significant for all traits. Cultivars in the late-planted no-till system yielded an average of 39% less than the tilled fallow system. It is evident that cultivars vary in their adaptability and yield stability across production systems. Chukar and Eltan displayed the highest levels of yield stability, and growers who wish to plant winter wheat in a late-planted no-till system may benefit from choosing these cultivars.

  16. Increasing the productivity of biomass plantations of Populus species and hybrids in the Pacific Northwest. Final report, September 14, 1981--December 31, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeBell, D.S.; Harrington, C.A.; Clendenen, G.W. [USDA Forest Service, Olympia, WA (United States)] [and others

    1997-08-01

    This final report represents the culmination of eight years of biological research devoted to increasing the productivity of short rotation plantations of Populus trichocarpa and Populus hybrids in the Pacific Northwest. Studies described herein provide an understanding of tree growth, stand development and biomass yield at various spacings, and how patterns thereof differ by Populus clone in monoclonal and polyclonal plantings. Also included is some information about factors related to wind damage in Populus plantings, use of leaf size as a predictor of growth potential, and approaches for estimating tree and stand biomass and biomass growth. The work was accomplished in three research plantations, all established cooperatively with the Washington State Department of Natural Resources (DNR) and located at the DNR Tree Improvement Center near Olympia. The first plantation was established in Spring 1986 to evaluate the highly touted {open_quotes}woodgrass{close_quotes} concept and compare it with more conventional short-rotation management regimes, using two Populus hybrid clones planted at five spacings. Besides providing scientific data to resolve the politicized {open_quotes}wood-grass{close_quotes} dispute, this plantation has furnished excellent data on stand dynamics and woody biomass yield. A second plantation was established at the same time; groups of trees therein received two levels of irrigation and different amounts of four fertilizer amendments, resulting in microsites with diverse moisture and nutrient conditions.

  17. Impact of Nitrogen Fertilization on Forest Carbon Sequestration and Water Loss in a Chronosequence of Three Douglas-Fir Stands in the Pacific Northwest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianming Dou

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available To examine the effect of nitrogen (N fertilization on forest carbon (C sequestration and water loss, we used an artificial neural network model to estimate C fluxes and evapotranspiration (ET in response to N fertilization during four post-fertilization years in a Pacific Northwest chronosequence of three Douglas-fir stands aged 61, 22 and 10 years old in 2010 (DF49, HDF88 and HDF00, respectively. Results showed that N fertilization increased gross primary productivity (GPP for all three sites in all four years with the largest absolute increase at HDF00 followed by HDF88. Ecosystem respiration increased in all four years at HDF00, but decreased over the last three years at HDF88 and over all four years at DF49. As a result, fertilization increased the net ecosystem productivity of all three stands with the largest increase at HDF88, followed by DF49. Fertilization had no discernible effect on ET in any of the stands. Consequently, fertilization increased water use efficiency (WUE in all four post-fertilization years at all three sites and also increased light use efficiency (LUE of all the stands, especially HDF00. Our results suggest that the effects of fertilization on forest C sequestration and water loss may be associated with stand age and fertilization; the two younger stands appeared to be more efficient than the older stand with respect to GPP, WUE and LUE.

  18. Variations in the magnitude and composition of particulate organic matter export across a small, mountainous river estuary along Pacific Northwest margin of North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goni, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    The Pacific Northwest margin of North America is characterized by numerous small mountainous rivers that mobilize the bulk of particulate materials (i.e., inorganic sediment, organic matter) from surrounding watersheds during short-lived, winter-time floods. However, it is unclear how estuarine processes alter the magnitude and composition of the particulate load prior to transport to the ocean. In this presentation, we present results from in-situ observations and rapid-response sampling along a typical river-estuary system (Alsea River/Bay, Oregon) designed to address this issue. We found marked contrasts in the concentrations of sediment and particulate organic matter in the estuary during different river discharge conditions (flood vs. non-flood), with distinct trends associated with contrasting tidal stage (spring/neap). Elemental, isotopic and biomarker analyses of individual samples revealed large differences in the provenance and composition of organic materials mobilized under different discharge/tidal conditions. Continuous, in-situ measurements of current, salinity, temperature and turbidity, combined with the compositions from individual samples allow us to determine instantaneous material fluxes into and out of Alsea Bay. We use these data to derive net fluxes during wintertime conditions and assess the role of floods in the retention and transport of particulate organic matter across the estuarine interface.

  19. Suppression of Seedling Damping-Off Caused by Pythium ultimum, P. irregulare, and Rhizoctonia solani in Container Media Amended with a Diverse Range of Pacific Northwest Compost Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheuerell, Steven J; Sullivan, Dan M; Mahaffee, Walter F

    2005-03-01

    ABSTRACT Suppression of seedling damping-off disease caused by Pythium spp. and Rhizoctonia solani is a potential benefit of formulating soilless container media with compost. Thirty-six compost samples from Pacific Northwest commercial composting facilities were analyzed for a number of physical, chemical, and biological properties, including suppression of damping-off caused by Pythium ultimum, P. irregulare, and R. solani. The samples were produced from diverse feedstocks and composting technol ogies; this was reflected in a large degree of variability in the measured properties. When mixed with sphagnum peat moss and inorganic aggregates, 67% of the compost samples significantly suppressed P. irregulare damping-off of cucumber, 64% suppressed P. ultimum damping-off of cucumber, and 17% suppressed damping-off of cabbage caused by R. solani. Suppression of Pythium damping-off was related to the potential of compost to support microbial activity and a qualitative index of ammonia volatilization. Suppression of Rhizoctonia damping-off was not related to any one compost factor. Currently available compost products potentially could provide commercially acceptable control of damping-off caused by Pythium spp., but it is necessary to fortify composts with microbial antagonists for the control of R. solani. PMID:18943125

  20. Soils of the Pacific Northwest shrub-steppe. Occurrence and properties of soils on the Arid Land Ecology Reserve, Hanford Reservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The soils of the Arid Land Ecology Reserve, encompassing the IBP Grassland Biome intensive study site on the ERDA Hanford Reservation, are representative of a larger geographical region including much of the Columbia Plateau and Pacific Northwest shrub-steppe. This results from a unique diversity in parent materials of mixed origin derived from the loess eolian, lacustrine and stream-laid material including glacial outwashes, river terraces, flood plains and alluvial fans and meteorological factors accompanying a marked change in altitude within the Reserve resulting in development of soils over a range in temperature, moisture and vegetative regimes. The Reserve and the IBP Grassland Biome intensive study site serve as valuable, representative areas for the study of soil genesis and morphology in the shrub-steppe. The role of soils can be determined in basic environmental processes involving the flow of energy, cyclization of nutrients or the fate and behavior of pollutants. These processes may be examined to provide baseline information for comparison to other, more disturbed areas. Or, for investigative purposes, processes may be systematically altered to determine the influence of soil-perturbing activities such as agriculture, mining and industry on the terrestrial ecosystem

  1. Structural Impacts on Thallus and Algal Cell Components of Two Lichen Species in Response to Low-Level Air Pollution in Pacific Northwest Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ra, Hyung-Shim Y.; Rubin, Laura; Crang, Richard F. E.

    2004-04-01

    Lichens have long been regarded as bioindicators of air pollution, and structural studies typically have indicated negative impacts in highly polluted areas. In this research, Parmelia sulcata and Platismatia glauca were collected from one clean and two polluted sites in the Pacific Northwest forests of the United States to investigate the anatomical and ultrastructural responses of relatively resistant lichens to moderate air pollution. Light microscopy of polluted materials revealed only slight increases in the algal cell proportions of the thallus, and a decrease in the fungal cells of the medulla. Using transmission electron microscopy, increased lipid droplets in the cytoplasm and an increase in the cell wall thickness of the photobionts were found in the polluted lichens. These results were compared with physiological data in which the net carbon uptake did not show any significant differences; however, the total chlorophyll content was heightened in the polluted samples. The increased total chlorophyll content and the absence of any changes in the algal cell proportions of the polluted samples suggest that the photobionts possessed a higher chlorophyll content per unit volume of the photobiont at polluted sites. The results also indicate that lichens have altered their storage allocation in different cellular compartments. This may be a result of symbiotic readjustment(s) between the photobiont and the mycobiont. In comparison with the physiological results from these two species, these changes do not represent damaging effects by low-level air pollution.

  2. Use of laboratory assays to predict subsequent growth and survival of Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) families planted in coastal waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selective breeding programs for improving Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) stocks are expensive, labor-intensive, and rely on lengthy field trials that are subject to stochastic outbreaks of Summer Mortality Syndrome. Laboratory assays that identify and eliminate poor-performing families prior to...

  3. Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act : Legislative History of the Act to Assist the Electrical Consumers of the Pacific Northwest through use of the Federal Columbia River Power System to Achieve Cost-Effective Energy Conservation : P.L. 96-501, 94 Stat. 2697.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1981-01-01

    The Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act became effective when it was signed into law by President Carter on December 5, 1980. This ended a four-year debate over legislation designed to plan and coordinate the region's energy future. This legislative history is an abbreviated version taken from the larger historical file maintained by the BPA Law Library. It is intended to assist BPA personnel and others who are studying the Northwest Power Act and working on its implementation. The documents included were selected for their value in determining what Congress meant in enacting the statute and to provide the researcher with a starting point for further investigation. These documents include: a history of the Act, a chronology of the legislative action leading to passage of the law; a section-by-section analysis of the Act; the Congressional Records of Senate and House debates on the bill and its amendments, and a list of Congressional committee hearings.

  4. IAEA Technical Co-operation activities: Asia and the Pacific. Workshop on training nuclear laboratory technicians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The workshop was held to exchange information on existing facilities and programmes in Asia and the Pacific for training nuclear laboratory technicians, to identify future training needs and to assess the need for IAEA's involvement in this field. As the participants outlined the requirements for nuclear laboratory technician training and the facilities available in their respective countries, it became evident that, in addition to the training of radioisotope laboratory technicians, they also wished to review the need for technician training for the operation of nuclear power plants and industrial application of atomic energy. The terms of reference of the workshop were extended accordingly. The opening address by Chang Suk Lee, the Korean Vice Minister of Science and Technology, noted the valuable contribution to quality control and other industrial uses that nuclear techniques have made in his country. He also reviewed the application of nuclear techniques in Korean agriculture and medicine. The participants explored various forms of co-operation that could be established between countries of the region. Exchange programmes, not only for students but also for expert teachers, and the exchange or loan of equipment were suggested. It was felt that some generalized training courses could be organized on a regional basis, and two countries advocated the setting up of a regional training centre. One suggestion was to arrange regional training courses in special fields that would move from one country to another. The need was felt for periodic regional meetings on training methods, course content and other questions relating to training of laboratory technicians. The IAEA was requested to act as a clearinghouse for information on available training facilities in the region and to advise on the curricula for technician training courses. The Agency was also asked to organize short courses for the training of instructors of technicians in the various fields of atomic

  5. Metal and metalloid bioaccumulation in the Pacific blue shrimp Litopenaeus stylirostris (Stimpson) from New Caledonia: laboratory and field studies

    OpenAIRE

    Metian, Marc; Eltayeb, Mohamed M.; Hédouin, Laëtitia; Lacoue-Labarthe, Thomas; Teyssié, Jean-Louis; Mugnier, Chantal; Bustamante, Paco; Warnau, Michel

    2010-01-01

    The present work aimed at better understanding metal and metalloid bioaccumulation in the edible Pacific blue shrimp Litopenaeus stylirostris, using both laboratory and field approaches. In the laboratory, the bioaccumulation kinetics of Ag, Cd, Co, Cr, and Zn have been investigated in shrimp exposed via seawater and food, using the corresponding gamma-emitting radiotracers (Ag-110m, Cd-109, Co-57, Cr-51, and Zn-65) and highly sensitive nuclear detection techniques. Results showed that hepato...

  6. Decommissioning and Decontamination Program: Battelle Plutonium Facility, Environmental assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This assessment describes the decontamination of Battelle-Columbus Plutonium Facility and removal from the site of all material contamination which was associated with or produced by the Plutonium Facility. Useable uncontaminated material will be disposed of by procedures normally employed in scrap declaration and transfer. Contaminated waste will be transported to approved radioactive waste storage sites. 5 refs., 1 fig

  7. Peak Flow Responses to Forest Harvesting and Roads in the Maritime Regions of the Pacific Northwest: A Preferential Hillslope Runoff Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alila, Y.; Schnorbus, M.

    2005-12-01

    The debate regarding peak flow responses to forest clearcutting and road building in the maritime regions of the Pacific Northwest has attracted much attention over the past several decades and its outcome is an important scientific and operational concern. Although there appears to be general consensus that small peak discharge events are increased following forest management activities, little conclusive evidence exists regarding the impact of forest management activities on large events. Statistical tests in traditional paired watershed studies have been used to accept or reject hypotheses regarding peak flow responses to clearcutting and roads but provided no insight into watershed processes and other factors leading to their outcome. Furthermore, statistical analyses of peak flow responses to forestry activities in traditional paired watershed studies are confounded by the many factors that may contribute to management effects on watershed hydrology as well as by issues such as shortness of streamflow records and climate variability. To this end, a new perspective is offered in the debate regarding peak flow responses to clearcutting and road building in the maritime regions of the Pacific Northwest by combining numerical modeling with high-quality hydro-meteorological data collected at the 10-km2 Carnation Creek on the west coast of Vancouver Island, British Columbia (BC). In this approach we explicitly account for changes in evapotranspiration loss, forest road construction and, in particular, introduce the concept of the competing influences of matrix versus preferential hillslope runoff. For scenarios involving road construction, forest clearcutting (52% cut rate) and roads and clearcutting combined, peak discharge increases decrease with decreasing event frequency and statistically significant ( = 0.05) increases in peak flow are confined to events with a 1 year or lower return period. For a range of return periods from 0.17 to 20 years, the effect (i

  8. Assessments of carbon and water cycling in multiple agricultural ecosystems in the Inland Pacific Northwest using eddy covariance flux measurements and integrated basin-crop model simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, J.; Maureira, F.; Waldo, S.; O'Keeffe, P.; Pressley, S. N.; Stockle, C. O.; Lamb, B. K.

    2014-12-01

    Local meteorology, crop management practices and site characteristics have important impacts on carbon and water cycling in agricultural ecosystems. This study focuses on carbon and water fluxes measured using eddy covariance (EC) methods and crop simulation models in the Inland Pacific Northwest (IPNW), in association with the Regional Approaches to Climate Change (REACCH) program. The agricultural ecosystem is currently challenged by higher pressure on water resources as a consequence of population growth and increasing exposure to impacts associated with different types of crop managements. In addition, future climate projections for this region show a likely increase in temperature and significant reductions in precipitation that will affect carbon and water dynamics. This new scenario requires an understanding of crop management by assessing efficient ways to face the impacts of climate change at the micrometeorological level, especially in regards to carbon and water flow. We focus on three different crop management sites. One site (LIND) under crop-fallow is situated in a low-rainfall area. The other two sites, one no-till site (CAF-NT) and one conventional tillage site (CAF-CT), are located in an area of high-rainfall with continuous cropping. In this study, we used CropSyst micro-basin model to simulate the responses in carbon and water budgets at each site. Based on the EC processed results for net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of CO2, the CAF-NT site was a carbon sink during 2013 when spring garbanzo was planted; while the paired CAF-CT site, under similar crop rotation and meteorological conditions, was a carbon source during the same period. The LIND site was also a carbon sink where winter wheat was growing during 2013. Model results for CAF-NT showed good agreement with the EC carbon and water flux measurements during 2013. Through comparisons between measurements and modeling results, both short and long term processes that influence carbon and water

  9. ENSO signals and their spatial-temporal variation characteristics recorded by the sea-level changes in the northwest Pacific margin during 1965-2005

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Sea-level is closely linked to the Earth’s climate and its change is important as a metric for global and regional climate change. Identifying, extracting, and revealing such information through detailed analysis is the prerequisite for understanding the mechanisms of sea-level change. The monthlyaverage tide-change records reported and examined in this paper are from 10 tide gauge stations distributed in the northwest margin of the Pacific Ocean, registered during the period 1965-2005. In particular, we have utilized the Second Order Blind Identification (SOBI) method to identify and the Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) method to extract the El Nio-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) signals imprinted in those tide gauge records; and subsequently, we have investigated the spa-tial-temporal characteristics of the extracted ENSO signals using wavelet analysis methods. The following results are obtained: (1) the ENSO events recorded by each tide gauge series are of different types and intensity, which show considerable temporal-spatial variation characteristics, with sea-level responses to ENSO signals remarkably stronger in low latitude areas than in medium-high latitude areas; (2) due to the influences of ocean currents, topographical conditions, and other factors, there exist variations in the type of relationship between the sea-level changes and the recorded ENSO events at different latitudes; (3) sea-level changes can also denote scale-variation characteristics of ENSO events, and particularly, since 1980s, all the tide gauges located south of Kanmen show intense responses to ENSO and the timescale of ENSO events extended gradually from around 4 years to 2-8 years, reflecting variations in the intensity and frequency of ENSO events; and (4) reverse changes of certain scale were noted before and after strong ENSO events recorded by sea-level changes, supporting the research findings about the interaction (mutual coupling and superimposition) between the

  10. Why has streamflow in a northern Idaho creek increased while flows from many other watersheds in the US Pacific Northwest have decreased over the past sixty years?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, L.; Hudak, A. T.; Link, T. E.; Marshall, J. D.; Kavanagh, K.; Zhou, H.; Abatzoglou, J. T.; Pangle, R. E.; Flerchinger, G. N.; Denner, R. J.

    2014-12-01

    As global warming proceeds, evapotranspiration demand will increase, the precipitation regime may change, and water cycling in many ecosystems may be affected. Streamflow in the Pacific Northwest (PNW) region of the USA decreased in the last ~60 year possibly due to decreasing precipitation at high elevations and/or increasing evapotranspiration. However, an increasing trend of streamflow was observed at a 4km2 watershed in the Priest River Experimental Forest (PREF) in northern Idaho. We used the process-based soil-vegetation-atmosphere Simultaneous Heat and Water (SHAW) model, to simulate the changes in the water cycle at PREF. Independent measurements were used to parameterize the model, including forest transpiration, stomatal responses to vapor pressure, forest properties (height, leaf area index, and biomass), soil properties, soil moisture, snow depth, and snow water equivalent. The model reasonably simulated the streamflow dynamics during the evaluation period from 2003 to 2010, which verified the ability of SHAW to simulate the water cycle at PREF. We then ran the model using historical vegetation cover and climate data to reveal the drivers of the changes in water budget of PREF over the past 60 years. Historical vegetation cover was obtained from a 1939 digitized historical vegetation map. The biggest change was the decline of western white pine (Pinus monticola Dougl. ex D. Don), a fast growing and deep rooted species with high transpiration rates, which was once a predominant species in PREF in the early 20th century. This was followed by a subsequent increase and decrease in fir species, followed by the emergence of western red cedar (Thuja plicata) as the current dominant tree species. The tree species shifts under this successional trajectory would have produced continually decreasing transpiration rates, which may explain the steady increase in observed runoff over the last ~60 years, which was likewise simulated with the SHAW model.

  11. Early Syphilis Among Men Who Have Sex with Men in the US Pacific Northwest, 2008-2013: Clinical Management and Implications for Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrosky, Emiko; Neblett Fanfair, Robyn; Toevs, Kim; DeSilva, Malini; Schafer, Sean; Hedberg, Katrina; Braxton, Jim; Walters, Jaime; Markowitz, Lauri; Hariri, Susan

    2016-03-01

    Substantial increases in syphilis during 2008-2013 were reported in the US Pacific Northwest state of Oregon, especially among men who have sex with men (MSM). The authors aimed to characterize the ongoing epidemic and identify possible gaps in clinical management of early syphilis (primary, secondary, and latent syphilis ≤1 year) among MSM in Multnomah County, Oregon to inform public health efforts. Administrative databases were used to examine trends in case characteristics during 2008-2013. Medical records were abstracted for cases occurring in 2013 to assess diagnosis, treatment, and screening practices. Early syphilis among MSM increased from 21 cases in 2008 to 229 in 2013. The majority of cases occurred in HIV-infected patients (range: 55.6%-69.2%) diagnosed with secondary syphilis (range: 36.2%-52.4%). In 2013, 119 (51.9%) cases were diagnosed in public sector medical settings and 110 (48.0%) in private sector settings. Over 80% of HIV-infected patients with syphilis were in HIV care. Although treatment was adequate and timely among all providers, management differed by provider type. Among HIV-infected patients, a larger proportion diagnosed by public HIV providers than private providers were tested for syphilis at least once in the previous 12 months (89.6% vs. 40.0%; p syphilis in Multnomah County remained largely unchanged during 2008-2013. Syphilis control measures were well established, but early syphilis among MSM continued to increase. The results suggest a need to improve syphilis screening among private clinics, but few gaps in clinical management were identified. PMID:27308806

  12. Coastal ocean variability in the US Pacific Northwest region: seasonal patterns, winter circulation, and the influence of the 2009-2010 El Niño

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durski, Scott M.; Kurapov, Alexander L.; Allen, John S.; Kosro, P. Michael; Egbert, Gary D.; Shearman, R. Kipp; Barth, John A.

    2015-12-01

    A 2-km horizontal resolution ocean circulation model is developed for a large coastal region along the US Pacific Northwest (34-50N) to study how continental shelf, slope, and interior ocean variability influence each other. The model has been run for the time period September 2008-May 2011, driven by realistic surface momentum and heat fluxes obtained from an atmospheric model and lateral boundary conditions obtained from nesting in a global ocean model. The solution compares favorably to satellite measurements of sea surface temperature and sea surface height, observations of surface currents by high-frequency radars, mooring temperature time series, and glider temperature and salinity sections. The analysis is focused on the seasonal response of the coastal ocean with particular emphasis on the winter circulation patterns which have previously garnered relatively little attention. Interannual variability is examined through a comparison of the 2009-2010 winter influenced by El Niño and the winters in the preceding and following years. Strong northward winds combined with reduced surface cooling along the coast north of Cape Mendocino (40.4N) in winter 2009-2010, resulting in a vigorous downwelling season, characterized by relatively energetic northward currents and warmer ocean temperatures over the continental shelf and upper slope. An analysis of the time variability of the volume-averaged temperature and salinity in a coastal control volume (CV), that extends from 41 to 47N and offshore from the coast to the 200-m isobath, clearly shows relevant integrated characteristics of the annual cycle and the transitions between winter shelf circulation forced by northward winds and the summer circulation driven primarily by southward, upwelling-favorable winds. The analysis also reveals interesting interannual differences in these characteristics. In particular, the CV volume-average temperature remains notably warmer during January-March 2010 of the El Niño winter.

  13. A new species of Protodrilus (Annelida, Protodrilidae), covering bone surfaces bright red, in whale-fall ecosystems in the northwest Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato-Okoshi, Waka; Okoshi, Kenji; Fujiwara, Yoshihiro

    2015-10-01

    There are unique ecosystems in the ocean that are driven by chemosynthesis. Whale-fall communities are one of these reducing habitats, and many unknowns are left to be resolved to understand their uniqueness. A new species of the genus Protodrilus was discovered on the exposed bones of sperm whale carcasses found in the waters off Cape Nomamisaki in the northwest Pacific. Protodrilus puniceus sp. nov. was the most abundant annelid to be found on the 2.5-y-old carcasses; the exposed bone surfaces appeared bright red due to the coloration of the innumerable worms covering them. Closer inspection revealed that this species was found in the small pores of both the internal and external surfaces of the bones. P. puniceus shows simple morphology; it has paired palps and pygidial lobes, but no eyespots, nuchal organs, statocysts, or ciliary rings dorso-anteriorly-an exceptional finding in this group. A ventral ciliary band was conspicuous, extending over each segment of the animal. The male of the species possessed paired, separated lateral organs on segments 6-11; salivary glands were inconspicuous. From morphological, biological, and ecological characteristics, P. puniceus showed differences from the already known Protodrilus group of shallow interstitial inhabitants. P. puniceus is thought to be a unique deposit feeder, acquiring nutrients by adhering to organic substances from whale carcasses. This is the first description of this group to be found in the organically enriched whale-fall environments of the deep sea below 200 m and from Japanese waters. Information on a nuclear, 18S ribosomal RNA gene sequence is included. PMID:26504161

  14. Global warming: A Northwest perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, M.J.; Counts, C.A. (eds.)

    1990-02-01

    The Northwest Power Planning Council convened a symposium in Olympia, Washington, on the subject of global climate change ( the greenhouse effect'') and its potential for affecting the Pacific Northwest. The symposium was organized in response to a need by the Power Council to understand global climate change and its potential impacts on resource planning and fish and wildlife planning for the region, as well as a need to understand national policy developing toward climate change and the Pacific Northwest's role in it. 40 figs., 15 tabs.

  15. Modeling Forest Aboveground Biomass and Volume Using Airborne LiDAR Metrics and Forest Inventory and Analysis Data in the Pacific Northwest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan D. Sheridan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The United States Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA Program provides a diverse selection of data used to assess the status of the nation’s forests using sample locations dispersed throughout the country. Airborne laser scanning (ALS systems are capable of producing accurate measurements of individual tree dimensions and also possess the ability to characterize forest structure in three dimensions. This study investigates the potential of discrete return ALS data for modeling forest aboveground biomass (AGBM and gross volume (gV at FIA plot locations in the Malheur National Forest, eastern Oregon utilizing three analysis levels: (1 individual subplot (r = 7.32 m; (2 plot, comprising four clustered subplots; and (3 hectare plot (r = 56.42 m. A methodology for the creation of three point cloud-based airborne LiDAR metric sets is presented. Models for estimating AGBM and gV based on LiDAR-derived height metrics were built and validated utilizing FIA estimates of AGBM and gV derived using regional allometric equations. Simple linear regression models based on the plot-level analysis out performed subplot-level and hectare-level models, producing R2 values of 0.83 and 0.81 for AGBM and gV, utilizing mean height and the 90th height percentile as predictors, respectively. Similar results were found for multiple regression models, where plot-level analysis produced models with R2 values of 0.87 and 0.88 for AGBM and gV, utilizing multiple height percentile metrics as predictor variables. Results suggest that the current FIA plot design can be used with dense airborne LiDAR data to produce area-based estimates of AGBM and gV, and that the increased spatial scale of hectare plots may be inappropriate for modeling AGBM of gV unless exhaustive tree tallies are available. Overall, this study demonstrates that ALS data can be used to create models that describe the AGBM and gV of Pacific Northwest FIA plots and highlights the potential of

  16. Changing Water and Nitrogen Use Efficiency over Agricultural Lands of the Inland Pacific Northwest During the 21th Century: Implications for Adaptation and Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, M.; Malek, K.; Adam, J. C.; Stockle, C. O.; Rajagopalan, K.; Nelson, R.

    2014-12-01

    As water is the primary resource limitation for cropping systems over the inland Pacific Northwest (PNW), water use efficiency impacts regional water availability, crop yields, and net carbon sequestration. Furthermore, nitrogen (N) use efficiency affects the cost of farming and the total N flux to the environment (including leaching to aquatic ecosystems and greenhouse gas emissions to the atmosphere). Climate change affects water and nitrogen use efficiencies due to the combined effects of warming (reducing snowpack water storage, increasing ET, earlier leaf-on, shortening or lengthening plant growth season, etc.), the CO2 fertilization effects (increasing net primary productivity and leaf-level water and energy use efficiencies for C3 crops), and extreme climate events (drought and flood). Cropland conservation management (rotation, tillage, irrigation, and fertilization) is widely practiced in this region for maintaining high productivity of agricultural lands. To reduce vulnerability to weather extremes and long-term climate change, management regimes will likely need to be adapted for a changing environment. Here, we applied the coupled macro-scale hydrologic and crop growth model (VIC-CropSyst) to study how climate change in the 21st century will change water and nitrogen use efficiencies over the PNW. Simulation experiments with different combinations of management options and climate scenarios are used for attributing effects of climate factors and management options on long-term trends and fluctuations on water and nitrogen use efficiency. Preliminary simulation results indicate that there is a trend of decreasing water and nitrogen use efficiency over the inner PNW domain during the 21th century because of increasing ET, a seasonal shift in water availability, and the intensification of extreme climate events. Effective managements, including no-tillage and conservational tillage and optimized irrigation can eliminate the decrease or even increase water

  17. ENSO signals and their spatial-temporal variation characteristics recorded by the sea-level changes in the northwest Pacific margin during 1965-2005

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN LinWang; YU ZhaoYuan; XIE ZhiRen; SONG ZhiYao; L(U) GuoNian

    2009-01-01

    Sea-level is closely linked to the Earth's climate and its change is important as a metric for global and regional climate change.Identifying,extracting,and revealing such information through detailed analysis is the prerequisite for understanding the mechanisms of sea-level change.The monthly- av-erage tide-change records reported and examined in this paper are from 10 tide gauge stations dis-tributed in the northwest margin of the Pacific Ocean,registered during the period 1965-2005.In particular,we have utilized the Second Order Blind Identification (SOBI) method to identify and the Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) method to extract the El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) sig-nals imprinted in those tide gauge records; and subsequently,we have investigated the spa-tial-temporal characteristics of the extracted ENSO signals using wavelet analysis methods.The fol-lowing results are obtained:(1) the ENSO events recorded by each tide gauge series are of different types and intensity,which show considerable temporal-spatial variation characteristics,with sea-level responses to ENSO signals remarkably stronger in low latitude areas than in medium-high latitude areas; (2) due to the influences of ocean currents,topographical conditions,and other factors,there exist variations in the type of relationship between the sea-level changes and the recorded ENSO events at different latitudes; (3) sea-level changes can also denote scale-variation characteristics of ENSO events,and particularly,since 1980s,all the tide gauges located south of Kanmen show intense responses to ENSO and the timescale of ENSO events extended gradually from around 4 years to 2-8 years,reflecting variations in the intensity and frequency of ENSO events; and (4) reverse changes of certain scale were noted before and after strong ENSO events recorded by sea-level changes,sup-porting the research findings about the interaction (mutual coupling and superimposition) between the probability of occurrence

  18. An Assessment Model for Energy Efficiency Program Planning in Electric Utilities: Case of the Pacific of Northwest U.S.A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iskin, Ibrahim

    Energy efficiency stands out with its potential to address a number of challenges that today's electric utilities face, including increasing and changing electricity demand, shrinking operating capacity, and decreasing system reliability and flexibility. Being the least cost and least risky alternative, the share of energy efficiency programs in utilities' energy portfolios has been on the rise since the 1980s, and their increasing importance is expected to continue in the future. Despite holding great promise, the ability to determine and invest in only the most promising program alternatives plays a key role in the successful use of energy efficiency as a utility-wide resource. This issue becomes even more significant considering the availability of a vast number of potential energy efficiency programs, the rapidly changing business environment, and the existence of multiple stakeholders. This dissertation introduces hierarchical decision modeling as the framework for energy efficiency program planning in electric utilities. The model focuses on the assessment of emerging energy efficiency programs and proposes to bridge the gap between technology screening and cost/benefit evaluation practices. This approach is expected to identify emerging technology alternatives which have the highest potential to pass cost/benefit ratio testing procedures and contribute to the effectiveness of decision practices in energy efficiency program planning. The model also incorporates rank order analysis and sensitivity analysis for testing the robustness of results from different stakeholder perspectives and future uncertainties in an attempt to enable more informed decision-making practices. The model was applied to the case of 13 high priority emerging energy efficiency program alternatives identified in the Pacific Northwest, U.S.A. The results of this study reveal that energy savings potential is the most important program management consideration in selecting emerging energy

  19. Compositional diversity in peridotites as result of a multi-process history: The Pacific-derived Santa Elena ophiolite, northwest Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escuder-Viruete, Javier; Baumgartner, Peter O.; Castillo-Carrión, Mercedes

    2015-08-01

    The Santa Elena ophiolite (SEO) is an ultramafic nappe of more than 270 km2 overlying a tectonic serpentinite-matrix mélange in northwest Costa Rica. It is mainly composed of Cpx-rich and Cpx-poor harzburgites (~ 2.5 km-thick), with minor lherzolite, dunite and chromitite, as well as intrusive mafic sills and subvertical dikes, which coalesce into an upper Isla Negritos gabbroic sill complex. Minerals and whole-rock features of the Cpx-rich and Cpx-poor harzburgites share features of the abyssal and supra-subduction zone (SSZ) peridotites, respectively. To explain these characteristics two-stages of melting and refertilization processes are required. By means of trace element modeling, the composition of Cpx-rich harzburgites may be reproduced by up to ~ 5-10% melting of a primitive mantle source, and the composition of Cpx-poor harzburgites and dunites by ~ 15-18% melting of an already depleted mantle. Therefore, the Cpx-rich harzburgites can be interpreted as product of first-stage melting and low-degrees of melt-rock interaction in a mid-ocean ridge environment, and the Cpx-poor harzburgites and dunites as the product of second-stage melting and refertilization in a SSZ setting. The mafic sills and the Isla Negrito gabbros are genetically related and can be explained as crystallization from the liquids that were extracted from the lower SSZ mantle levels and emplaced at shallow conditions. The Murciélagos Island basalts are not directly related to the ultramafic and mafic rocks of the SEO. Their E-MORB-like composition is similar to most of the CLIP mafic lavas and suggests a common Caribbean plume-related source. The SEO represents a fragment of Pacific-derived, SSZ oceanic lithosphere emplaced onto the southern North America margin during the late Cretaceous. Because of the predominance of rollback-induced extension during its history, only a limited amount of crustal rocks were formed and preserved in the SEO.

  20. Contributions of evaporation, isotopic non-steady state transpiration and atmospheric mixing on the delta18O of water vapour in Pacific Northwest coniferous forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Chun-Ta; Ehleringer, James R; Bond, Barbara J; Paw U, Kyaw Tha

    2006-01-01

    Changes in the 2H and 18O of atmospheric water vapour provide information for integrating aspects of gas exchange within forest canopies. In this study, we show that diurnal fluctuations in the oxygen isotope ratio (delta 18O) as high as 4% per hundred were observed for water vapour (delta (18)Ovp) above and within an old-growth coniferous forest in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States. Values of delta 18Ovp decreased in the morning, reached a minimum at midday, and recovered to early-morning values in the late afternoon, creating a nearly symmetrical diurnal pattern for two consecutive summer days. A mass balance budget was derived and assessed for the 18O of canopy water vapour over a 2-d period by considering the 18O-isoflux of canopy transpiration, soil evaporation and the air entering the canopy column. The budget was used to address two questions: (1) do delta 18O values of canopy water vapour reflect the biospheric influence, or are such signals swamped by atmospheric mixing? and (2) what mechanisms drive temporal variations of delta 18Ovp? Model calculations show that the entry of air into the canopy column resulted in an isotopically depleted 18O-isoflux in the morning of day 1, causing values of delta 18Ovp, to decrease. An isotopically enriched 18O-isoflux resulting from transpiration then offset this decreased delta 18Ovp later during the day. Contributions of 18O-isoflux from soil evaporation were relatively small on day 1 but were more significant on day 2, despite the small H2(16)O fluxes. From measurements of leaf water volume and sapflux, we determined the turnover time of leaf water in the needles of Douglas-fir trees as approximately 11 h at midday. Such an extended turnover time suggests that transpiration may not have occurred at the commonly assumed isotopic steady state. We tested a non-steady state model for predicting delta 18O of leaf water. Our model calculations show that assuming isotopic steady state increased isoflux of

  1. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1994 to the DOE Office of Energy Research Part 1: Biomedical sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, J.F.

    1995-04-01

    Research in the biomedical sciences at PNL is described. Activities reported include: inhaled plutonium in dogs; national radiobiology archives; statistical analysis of data from animal studies; genotoxicity of inhaled energy effluents; molecular events during tumor initiation; biochemistry of free radical induced DNA damage; radon hazards in homes; mechanisms of radon injury; genetics of radon induced lung cancer; and in vivo/in vitro radon induced cellular damage.

  2. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1980 to the DOE Assistant Secretary for Environment. Part 4. Physical sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Separate abstracts were prepared for the 16 sections of this progress report which deals with the physics and chemistry of various energy technologies including coal, fission, geothermal and oil shale

  3. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1984 to the DOE Office of Energy Research. Part 1. Biomedical sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felton, D.L. (ed.)

    1985-02-01

    Research progress is reported in the following areas: (1) evaluation of possible health effects among nuclear workers; (2) dose-effect relationship studies of carcinogenesis from both nuclear materials and complex mixtures; (3) microbial mutagenesis studies with 6-aminochrysene and benzo(a)pyrene in coal-derived complex mixtures; and (4) a variety of studies relating to noncarcinogenic and nonmutagenic endpoints, including teratology, perinatal studies and studies to determine absorption, metabolism, and doses to critical tissues and organs of coal-derived mixtures and radionuclides. Items have been individually abstracted for the data base. (ACR)

  4. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1988 to the DOE Office of Energy Research: Part 4, Physical sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document contains brief descriptions of various research programs in the physical science. Topics include Chernobyl Information Management, Supercritical Fluids, Laser Spectroscopy, DNA Adducts, Dosimetry, Biophysics, and Genetic Damage

  5. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1992 to the DOE Office of Energy Research. Part 4, Physical sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toburen, L.H.

    1993-04-01

    This report is divided into the following sections, with technical sections in parentheses: dosimetry research (Chernobyl database, radon alpha irradiation of mammalian cells, cell growth rates in individual colonies), measurement science (ultrahigh resolution studies of molecular structure and dynamics, circular dichroism in hyperfine state resolved photoelectron angular distributions, Sr isotope shifts, capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry for DNA adduct research, rapid DNA sequencing techniques), and radiological and chemical physics (hit size effectiveness in radiation protection, track ends, cross sections for partially stripped ion impact, scaling of differential ionization cross sections, ionization by neutral projectiles, secondary electron emission from thin foils, stochastic model of ion track structure, stochastics of positive ion penumbra, plasmid structure and spontaneous strand separation, isolation and radiation sensitivity of DNA-synthesis-deficient CHO double mutants, semiempirical model of differential ionization cross sections for multishell atoms and molecules, ionization of DNA in solution, perturbations of DNA conformation by thymine glycol and dihydrothymine). 32 figs, 3 tabs.

  6. Stable Auroral Red arc occurrences detected by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory photometer network: A decade of observations, 1978--1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slater, D.W.; Kleckner, E.W.

    1989-11-01

    Using data obtained from a network of all-sky scanning photometers designed to operate routinely for long periods of time, a comprehensive inspection of observations covering the time period 1978--1988 has revealed features that we interpret to be Stable Auroral Red (SAR) arcs during 250 nighttime observing periods. These arcs result from high temperature within the ionospheric electron gas that is maintained by slow leakage of energy from the earth's magnetosphere. A listing of these events, the most complete available for this time interval, is presented for the purpose of complementing observations reported for earlier dates. This listing is composed of location of the observing photometer, date, time, photometric intensity, and location (as defined by the earth's magnetic coordinate system). The intent is to make these observations available to a broad range of researchers and thereby initiate further investigations of these features. 22 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1983 to the DOE Office of Energy Research. Part 2. Ecological sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 1983 annual report highlights research in five areas funded by the Ecological Sciences Division of the Office of Energy Research. The five areas include: western semi-arid ecosystems; marine sciences; mobilization fate and effects of chemical wastes; radionuclide fate and effects; and statistical and quantitative research. The work was accomplished under 19 individual projects. Individual projects are indexed separately

  8. Pacific Northwest Laboratory Annual Report for 1979 to the DOE Assistant Secretary for Environment Part 4 Physical Sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, J. M.

    1980-02-01

    This volume contains 63 articles on physical science activities in diverse areas, including coal, fission, radiation physics, geothermal resource development, oil shale and tar sand research, and multitechnology development.

  9. Pacific Northwest Laboratory: Annual report for 1986 to the DOE Office of Energy Research: Part 1, Biomedical sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes progress on OHER biomedical and health-effects research conducted at PNL in FY 1986. The research develops the knowledge and scientific principles necessary to identify, understand and anticipate the long-term health consequences of energy-related radiation and chemicals. Our continuing emphasis is to decrease the uncertainty of health-effects risk estimates from existing and/or developing energy-related technologies through an increased understanding of how radiation and chemicals cause health effects. The report is arranged to reflect the PNL research relative to OHER programmatic structure. The first section, on human health effects, concerns statistical and epidemiological methods for assessing health risks among nuclear workers. The next two sections, which contain reports of health-effects research in biological systems, include effects of radiation and of energy-related chemicals. The last section is related to medical applications of nuclear technology

  10. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1988 to the DOE Office of Energy Research: Part 4, Physical sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Touburen, L.H.

    1989-03-01

    This document contains brief descriptions of various research programs in the physical science. Topics include Chernobyl Information Management, Supercritical Fluids, Laser Spectroscopy, DNA Adducts, Dosimetry, Biophysics, and Genetic Damage. (TEM)

  11. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1976 to the ERDA Assistant Administrator for Environment and Safety. Part 1. Biomedical Sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, R.C.

    1977-05-01

    Separate abstracts were prepared for individual sections of this publication. In addition to research reports the publication also contains organization charts, author index, and appendixes showing data on selected parameters relative to life-span dose-effect studies with inhaled /sup 239/PuO/sub 2/, /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/, and /sup 239/Pu in beagles. (HLW)

  12. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1988 to the DOE Office of Energy Research: Part 3, Atmospheric sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-04-01

    Disposal of spent fuel or high level nuclear waste into marine sediments would create high temperature-high gamma radiation environments adjacent to waste canisters. Under these conditions sediments will react producing pore waters that differ significantly from those occurring naturally. These changes may enhance canister corrosion or facilitate transport of radionuclides through unreacted sediments beyond the heated zone. In addition, the term ''near field'' needs clarification, as it is used widely without having a precise meaning. Research in three areas was undertaken to improve our understanding of near field chemical processes. Initially, isothermal experiments were carried out in ''Dickson'' hydrothermal systems. These were followed by an experimental program directed at understanding the chemical effects of temperature-gradient induced transport. Finally, additional experimentation was done to study the combined effects of hydrothermal conditions and intense gamma radiation. Having completed this body of experimental work, it was concluded that near field conditions are not an obstacle to the safe use of abyssal marine sediments for the disposal of spent fuel or high level nuclear wastes. 41 refs., 6 figs., 17 tabs.

  13. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1980 to the DOE Assistant Secretary for Environment. Part 1. Biomedical sciences. [Lead abstract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drucker, H.

    1981-02-01

    Separate abstracts were prepared for 31 sections in this progress report. The appendix which deals with dose-effect studies with inhaled plutonium in beagles is not represented by a separate abstract. (KRM)

  14. Pacific Northwest Laboratory: Annual report for 1986 to the DOE Office of Energy Research: Part 1, Biomedical sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, J.F.

    1987-02-01

    This report summarizes progress on OHER biomedical and health-effects research conducted at PNL in FY 1986. The research develops the knowledge and scientific principles necessary to identify, understand and anticipate the long-term health consequences of energy-related radiation and chemicals. Our continuing emphasis is to decrease the uncertainty of health-effects risk estimates from existing and/or developing energy-related technologies through an increased understanding of how radiation and chemicals cause health effects. The report is arranged to reflect the PNL research relative to OHER programmatic structure. The first section, on human health effects, concerns statistical and epidemiological methods for assessing health risks among nuclear workers. The next two sections, which contain reports of health-effects research in biological systems, include effects of radiation and of energy-related chemicals. The last section is related to medical applications of nuclear technology.

  15. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1988 to the DOE Office of Energy Research: Part 1, Biomedical Sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, J.F.

    1989-06-01

    This report summarizes progress on OHER biomedical and health-effects research conducted at PNL in FY 1988. The research develops the knowledge and scientific principles necessary to identify, understand, and anticipate the long-term health consequences of energy-related radiation and chemicals. Our continuing emphasis is to decrease the uncertainty of health-effects risk estimates from existing and/or developing energy-related technologies through an increased understanding of how radiation and chemicals cause health effects. The report is arranged to reflect PNL research relative to OHER programmatic structure. The first section, on human health effects, concerns statistical and epidemiological studies for assessing health risks. The next section, which contains reports of health-effects research in biological systems, includes research with radiation and chemicals.

  16. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1985 to the DOE Office of Energy Research. Part 1. Biomedical sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, J.F.

    1986-02-01

    This report summarizes progress on OHER biomedical and health-effects research conducted at PNL in FY 1985 to develop information for a comprehensive understanding of the interaction of energy-related radiation and chemicals with man. Our continuing emphasis on decreasing the uncertainty of health-effects risk estimates to man from existing and/or developing energy-related technologies supports the DOE goal of increasing and diversifying national energy resources and decreasing risks to human health. The report is arranged to reflect the PNL research relative to OHER programmatic needs. The first section concerns evaluation of possible health effects among nuclear workers. The next two sections, which contain reports of health-effects research in biological systems, include health effects of radiation and health effects of chemical mixtures. The last section is related to medical applications of nuclear technology.

  17. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1981 to the DOE Office of Energy Research. Part 3. Atmospheric sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Each of three main sections - coal, gas and oil, fission and fusion, and oil shale - was abstracted individually for EDB/ERA. The section on fission and fusion was also designated for INIS announcement. Additional sections include information on publications, presentations, and distribution, an author index and organizational charts

  18. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1980 to the DOE Assistant Secretary for Environment. Part 3. Atmospheric sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Separate absracts were prepared for the 15 sections of this progress report which is a description of atmospheric research at PNL organized in terms of the following energy technologies: coal, gas and oil; fission and fusion; and oil shale

  19. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1978 to the DOE Assistant Secretary for Environment. Part 4. Physical sciences.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, J.M.

    1979-02-01

    Separate abstracts were prepared for each of the five sections of this report as follows: coal; fission; geothermal; oil shale; and multitechnology. In addition, abstracts were prepared for six of the nine individual subsections of the section on fission, that relate to dosimetric studies. (ERB)

  20. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1984 to the DOE Office of Energy Research. Part 1. Biomedical sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research progress is reported in the following areas: (1) evaluation of possible health effects among nuclear workers; (2) dose-effect relationship studies of carcinogenesis from both nuclear materials and complex mixtures; (3) microbial mutagenesis studies with 6-aminochrysene and benzo[a]pyrene in coal-derived complex mixtures; and (4) a variety of studies relating to noncarcinogenic and nonmutagenic endpoints, including teratology, perinatal studies and studies to determine absorption, metabolism, and doses to critical tissues and organs of coal-derived mixtures and radionuclides. Items have been individually abstracted for the data base