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Sample records for battelle pacific northwest laboratories

  1. Computer graphics capabilities at Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dionne, P. J.; Erickson, M. D.; Hill, E. R.; Burnett, R. A.; Addison, L. E.

    1977-09-01

    Some of the computer graphics capabilities at Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratories are discussed. Computer graphics philosophy, hardware systems, and software utilized by the Computers and Information Systems Section staff are described in an overview. Subsequent sections detail specific applications of these capabilities to research areas in which Battelle is involved. Use of computer graphics in cartography, decision making, and resource assessment is documented.

  2. BOUND PERIODICAL HOLDINGS BATTELLE - NORTHWEST LIBRARY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1967-05-01

    This report lists the bound periodicals in the Technical Library at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory, operated by Battelle Memorial Institute. It was prepared from a computer program and is arranged in two parts. Part one is an alphabetical list of journals by title; part two is an arrangement of the journals by subject. The list headings are self-explanatory, with the exception of the title code, which is necessary in the machine processing. The listing is complete through June, 1966 and updates an earlier publication issued in March, 1965.

  3. PACIFIC NORTHWEST LABORATORY DIVISION OF ISOTOPE DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMS QUARTERLY REPORT: FEBRUARY - APRIL 1970

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, J. E. [ed.

    1970-05-01

    This report provides detailed and timely information on the results of the isotopic fuels program and related research being conducted at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory by Battelle-Northwest for the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission. This report covers the 3-month period, February through April 1970.

  4. Pacific Northwest Laboratory facilities radionuclide inventory assessment CY 1992-1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sula, M.J.; Jette, S.J.

    1994-09-01

    Assessments for evaluating compliance with airborne radionuclide emission monitoring requirements in the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs - U.S. Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40 Part 61, Subparts H and I) were performed for 33 buildings at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Pacific Northwest Laboratory on the Hanford Site, and for five buildings owned and operated by Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratories in Richland, Washington. The assessments were performed using building radionuclide inventory data obtained in 1992 and 1993. Results of the assessments are summarized in Table S.1 for DOE-PNL buildings and in Table S.2 for Battelle-owned buildings. Based on the radionuclide inventory assessments, four DOE-PNL buildings (one with two emission points) require continuous sampling for radionuclides per 40 CFR 61. None of the Battelle-owned buildings require continuous emission sampling

  5. Safeguards training at Pacific Northwest Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickman, D.A.

    1988-01-01

    In recent years considerable attention has been given to upgrading security education programs at facilities across the country. At Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), a Laboratory-wide Safeguard Awareness Training Program has been established in order to raise the cognizance of the entire staff with regard to safeguards issues and concerns. This aggressive safeguards program involves a strong interface of physical security measure and material control and accountability systems. Within PNL, four distinct audiences were defined and a needs assessment analysis performed for each to determine specific training requirements. The target audiences identified were: material balance area (MBA) custodians, managers of material balance areas, material handlers, and new employees. Five safeguards training courses were created to meet the needs of those audiences. This paper discusses the development of the Safeguards Awareness Program at PNL and its benefits to the Laboratory

  6. Pacific Northwest Laboratory's Solid Waste Initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holter, G.M.

    1993-09-01

    In fiscal year 1992 (FY-92), a Solid Waste Initiative was undertaken within the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). This action was partly in response to a perceived increase in the frequency and severity of impacts associated with solid waste issues at all levels. It also recognized the limited attention of previous efforts in addressing the broader impacts resulting from solid waste and, thus, dealing with solid waste issues in a holistic fashion. This paper provides a description of the Solid Waste Initiative at PNL, including a historical perspective on PNL's involvement in solid waste issues, the goals and objectives of the Solid Waste Initiative, and a discussion of selected activities being conducted under the Initiative

  7. Pacific Northwest Laboratory Maintenance Implementation plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bright, J.D.

    1992-06-01

    This Maintenance Implementation plan has been developed for Pacific Northwest Laboratory`s (PNL) Nuclear Facilities: 306W, 324, 325, 327 and 329NMF. It is based on a graded approach, self-assessment of the existing maintenance program(s) per the requirements specified by US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 4330.4A, Chapter II, Change {number_sign}3. The results of this assessment were evaluated to determine needed improvements in PNL Craft Services` current maintenance program. The objective of this implementation plan is to provide baseline information for compliance to the DOE 4330.4A, and for needed improvements. The prime consideration in applying a graded approach to the Order has been to maintain safe and reliable operations, environmental compliance, safeguards and security, programmatic mission, facility preservation, and/or other facility-specific requirements. Using the results of the self-assessment, PNL has selected nine of the 18 elements of the Maintenance Program defined by DOE Order 4330.4A for improvement. The elements selected for improvement are Training and Qualification of Maintenance Personnel; Maintenance Procedures; Planning, Scheduling, and Coordination of Maintenance; Control of Maintenance Activities; Post-Maintenance Testing; Facility Condition Inspection; Management Involvement; Maintenance History; and Additional Maintenance Requirements. Based upon graded approach and current funding, those elements considered most important have been selected as goals for earliest compliance. Commitment dates for these elements have been established for compliance. The remaining elements of noncompliance will be targeted for implementation during later budget periods.

  8. Pacific Northwest Laboratory Maintenance Implementation plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bright, J.D.

    1992-06-01

    This Maintenance Implementation plan has been developed for Pacific Northwest Laboratory's (PNL) Nuclear Facilities: 306W, 324, 325, 327 and 329NMF. It is based on a graded approach, self-assessment of the existing maintenance program(s) per the requirements specified by US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 4330.4A, Chapter II, Change number-sign 3. The results of this assessment were evaluated to determine needed improvements in PNL Craft Services' current maintenance program. The objective of this implementation plan is to provide baseline information for compliance to the DOE 4330.4A, and for needed improvements. The prime consideration in applying a graded approach to the Order has been to maintain safe and reliable operations, environmental compliance, safeguards and security, programmatic mission, facility preservation, and/or other facility-specific requirements. Using the results of the self-assessment, PNL has selected nine of the 18 elements of the Maintenance Program defined by DOE Order 4330.4A for improvement. The elements selected for improvement are Training and Qualification of Maintenance Personnel; Maintenance Procedures; Planning, Scheduling, and Coordination of Maintenance; Control of Maintenance Activities; Post-Maintenance Testing; Facility Condition Inspection; Management Involvement; Maintenance History; and Additional Maintenance Requirements. Based upon graded approach and current funding, those elements considered most important have been selected as goals for earliest compliance. Commitment dates for these elements have been established for compliance. The remaining elements of noncompliance will be targeted for implementation during later budget periods

  9. Pacific Northwest Laboratory Maintenance Implementation plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bright, J.D.

    1992-06-01

    This Maintenance Implementation plan has been developed for Pacific Northwest Laboratory's (PNL) Nuclear Facilities: 306W, 324, 325, 327 and 329NMF. It is based on a graded approach, self-assessment of the existing maintenance program(s) per the requirements specified by US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 4330.4A, Chapter II, Change {number sign}3. The results of this assessment were evaluated to determine needed improvements in PNL Craft Services' current maintenance program. The objective of this implementation plan is to provide baseline information for compliance to the DOE 4330.4A, and for needed improvements. The prime consideration in applying a graded approach to the Order has been to maintain safe and reliable operations, environmental compliance, safeguards and security, programmatic mission, facility preservation, and/or other facility-specific requirements. Using the results of the self-assessment, PNL has selected nine of the 18 elements of the Maintenance Program defined by DOE Order 4330.4A for improvement. The elements selected for improvement are Training and Qualification of Maintenance Personnel; Maintenance Procedures; Planning, Scheduling, and Coordination of Maintenance; Control of Maintenance Activities; Post-Maintenance Testing; Facility Condition Inspection; Management Involvement; Maintenance History; and Additional Maintenance Requirements. Based upon graded approach and current funding, those elements considered most important have been selected as goals for earliest compliance. Commitment dates for these elements have been established for compliance. The remaining elements of noncompliance will be targeted for implementation during later budget periods.

  10. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory institutional plan: FY 1996--2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-01

    This report contains the operation and direction plan for the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory of the US Department of Energy. The topics of the plan include the laboratory mission and core competencies, the laboratory strategic plan; the laboratory initiatives in molecular sciences, microbial biotechnology, global environmental change, complex modeling of physical systems, advanced processing technology, energy technology development, and medical technologies and systems; core business areas, critical success factors, and resource projections.

  11. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1988 to the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety, and Health: Part 5, Environment, safety, health, and quality assurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faust, L.G.; Pennell, W.T.; Selby, J.M.

    1989-02-01

    This document summarizes the research programs now underway at Battelle's Pacific Northwest Laboratory in the areas of environmental safety, health, and quality assurance. Topics include internal irradiation, emergency plans, dose equivalents, risk assessment, dose equivalents, surveys, neutron dosimetry, and radiation accidents

  12. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1988 to the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety, and Health: Part 5, Environment, safety, health, and quality assurance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faust, L.G.; Pennell, W.T.; Selby, J.M.

    1989-02-01

    This document summarizes the research programs now underway at Battelle's Pacific Northwest Laboratory in the areas of environmental safety, health, and quality assurance. Topics include internal irradiation, emergency plans, dose equivalents, risk assessment, dose equivalents, surveys, neutron dosimetry, and radiation accidents. (TEM)

  13. Pacific Northwest Laboratory monthly activities report, April 1965

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1965-05-14

    This report discusses research at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory on topics relating to hanford production reactors. The topic deal with: reactor and material technology; reactor physics and instruments; chemistry; biology and medicine; applied mathematics; radiation protection; and test reactor and engineering services.

  14. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Institutional Plan FY 2004-2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quadrel, Marilyn J.

    2004-04-15

    This Institutional Plan for FY 2004-2008 is the principal annual planning document submitted to the Department of Energy's Office of Science by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory in Richland, Washington. This plan describes the Laboratory's mission, roles, and technical capabilities in support of Department of Energy priorities, missions, and plans. It also describes the Laboratory strategic plan, key planning assumptions, major research initiatives, and program strategy for fundamental science, energy resources, environmental quality, and national security.

  15. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory institutional plan FY 1997--2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory`s core mission is to deliver environmental science and technology in the service of the nation and humanity. Through basic research fundamental knowledge is created of natural, engineered, and social systems that is the basis for both effective environmental technology and sound public policy. Legacy environmental problems are solved by delivering technologies that remedy existing environmental hazards, today`s environmental needs are addressed with technologies that prevent pollution and minimize waste, and the technical foundation is being laid for tomorrow`s inherently clean energy and industrial processes. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory also applies its capabilities to meet selected national security, energy, and human health needs; strengthen the US economy; and support the education of future scientists and engineers. Brief summaries are given of the various tasks being carried out under these broad categories.

  16. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Institutional Plan FY 2000-2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearson, Erik W.

    2000-03-01

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Institutional Plan for FY 2000-2004 sets forth the laboratory's mission, roles, technical capabilities, and laboratory strategic plan. In the plan, major initiatives also are proposed and the transitioning initiatives are discussed. The Programmatic Strategy section details our strategic intent, roles, and research thrusts in each of the U.S. Department of Energy's mission areas. The Operations/Infrastructure Strategic Plan section includes information on the laboratory's human resources; environment, safety, and health management; safeguards and security; site and facilities management; information resources management; management practices and standards; and communications and trust.

  17. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Institutional Plan FY 2001-2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, Darrell R.; Pearson, Erik W.

    2000-12-29

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Institutional Plan for FY 2001-2005 sets forth the laboratory's mission, roles, technical capabilities, and laboratory strategic plan. In the plan, major initiatives also are proposed and the transitioning initiatives are discussed. The Programmatic Strategy section details our strategic intent, roles, and research thrusts in each of the U.S. Department of Energy's mission areas. The Operations/Infrastructure Strategic Plan section includes information on the laboratory's human resources; environment, safety, and health management; safeguards and security; site and facilities management; information resources management; managaement procatices and standards; and communications and trust.

  18. 2010 Ecological Survey of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chamness, Michele A.; Perry, Christopher; Downs, Janelle L.; Powell, Sylvia D.

    2011-02-16

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Pacific Northwest Site Office (PNSO) oversees and manages the DOE contract for the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), a DOE Office of Science multi-program laboratory located in Richland, Washington. PNSO is responsible for ensuring that all activities conducted on the PNNL Site comply with applicable laws, policies, and DOE orders. The DOE Pacific Northwest Site Office Cultural and Biological Resources Management Plan (DOE/PNSO 2008) addresses the requirement for annual surveys and monitoring for species of concern and to identify and map invasive species. In addition to the requirement for an annual survey, proposed project activities must be reviewed to assess any potential environmental consequences of conducting the project. The assessment process requires a thorough understanding of the resources present, the potential impacts of a proposed action to those resources, and the ultimate consequences of those actions. The PNNL Site is situated on the southeastern corner of the DOE Hanford Site, located at the north end of the city of Richland in south-central Washington. The site is bordered on the east by the Columbia River, on the west by Stevens Drive, and on the north by the Hanford Site 300 Area (Figure 1). The environmental setting of the PNNL Site is described in Larson and Downs (2009). There are currently two facilities on the PNNL Site: the William R. Wiley Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL), and the recently completed Physical Sciences Facility (PSF). This report describes the results of the annual survey of the biological resources found on the undeveloped portions of the PNNL Site in 2010. A brief description of the methods PNNL ecologists used to conduct the surveys and the results of the surveys are presented. Actions taken to fully delineate noxious weed populations discovered in 2009 and efforts in 2010 to control those weeds also are described. Appendix A provides a list of plant and

  19. Package testing capabilities at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the package testing capabilities at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). In the past all of the package testing that was performed at PNL was done on prototype or mocked up radioactive material packaging. Presently, we are developing the capability to perform testing on non-radioactive material packaging. The testing on the non-radioactive material packaging will be done to satisfy the new performance oriented packaging requirements (DOT Docket HM-181, 1991). This paper describes the equipment used to perform the performance oriented packaging tests and also describes some testing capability for testing radioactive material packaging

  20. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory institutional plan FY 1998--2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory`s core mission is to deliver environmental science and technology in the service of the nation and humanity. Through basic research the lab creates fundamental knowledge of natural, engineered, and social systems that is the basis for both effective environmental technology and sound public policy. They solve legacy environmental problems by delivering technologies that remedy existing environmental hazards, they address today`s environmental needs with technologies that prevent pollution and minimize waste, and they are laying the technical foundation for tomorrow`s inherently clean energy and industrial processes. The lab also applies their capabilities to meet selected national security, energy, and human health needs; strengthen the US economy; and support the education of future scientists and engineers. The paper summarizes individual research activities under each of these areas.

  1. 2011 Annual Ecological Survey: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, James M.; Chamness, Michele A.

    2012-02-27

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Pacific Northwest Site Office (PNSO) oversees and manages the DOE contract for the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), a DOE Office of Science multi-program laboratory located in Richland, Washington. PNSO is responsible for ensuring that all activities conducted on the PNNL site comply with applicable laws, policies, and DOE Orders. The DOE Pacific Northwest Site Office Cultural and Biological Resources Management Plan (DOE/PNSO 2008) addresses the requirement for annual surveys and monitoring for species of concern and to identify and map invasive species. In addition to the requirement for an annual survey, proposed project activities must be reviewed to assess any potential environmental consequences of conducting the project. The assessment process requires a thorough understanding of the resources present, the potential impacts of a proposed action to those resources, and the ultimate consequences of those actions. The PNNL site is situated on the southeastern corner of the DOE Hanford Site, located at the north end of the city of Richland in south-central Washington. The site is bordered on the east by the Columbia River, on the west by Stevens Drive, and on the north by the Hanford Site 300 Area (Figure 1). The environmental setting of the PNNL site is described in Larson and Downs (2009). There are currently two facilities on the PNNL site: the William R. Wiley Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory and the Physical Sciences Facility. This report describes the annual survey of biological resources found on the undeveloped upland portions of the PNNL site. The annual survey is comprised of a series of individual field surveys conducted on various days in late May and throughout June 2011. A brief description of the methods PNNL ecologists used to conduct the baseline surveys and a summary of the results of the surveys are presented. Appendix A provides a list of plant and animal species identified in the

  2. Customer satisfaction assessment at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DN Anderson; ML Sours

    2000-03-23

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is developing and implementing a customer satisfaction assessment program (CSAP) to assess the quality of research and development provided by the laboratory. This report presents the customer survey component of the PNNL CSAP. The customer survey questionnaire is composed of two major sections: Strategic Value and Project Performance. Both sections contain a set of questions that can be answered with a 5-point Likert scale response. The strategic value section consists of five questions that are designed to determine if a project directly contributes to critical future national needs. The project Performance section consists of nine questions designed to determine PNNL performance in meeting customer expectations. A statistical model for customer survey data is developed and this report discusses how to analyze the data with this model. The properties of the statistical model can be used to establish a gold standard or performance expectation for the laboratory, and then to assess progress. The gold standard is defined using laboratory management input--answers to four questions, in terms of the information obtained from the customer survey: (1) What should the average Strategic Value be for the laboratory project portfolio? (2) What Strategic Value interval should include most of the projects in the laboratory portfolio? (3) What should average Project Performance be for projects with a Strategic Value of about 2? (4) What should average Project Performance be for projects with a Strategic Value of about 4? To be able to provide meaningful answers to these questions, the PNNL customer survey will need to be fully implemented for several years, thus providing a link between management perceptions of laboratory performance and customer survey data.

  3. Customer satisfaction assessment at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DN Anderson; ML Sours

    2000-01-01

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is developing and implementing a customer satisfaction assessment program (CSAP) to assess the quality of research and development provided by the laboratory. This report presents the customer survey component of the PNNL CSAP. The customer survey questionnaire is composed of two major sections: Strategic Value and Project Performance. Both sections contain a set of questions that can be answered with a 5-point Likert scale response. The strategic value section consists of five questions that are designed to determine if a project directly contributes to critical future national needs. The project Performance section consists of nine questions designed to determine PNNL performance in meeting customer expectations. A statistical model for customer survey data is developed and this report discusses how to analyze the data with this model. The properties of the statistical model can be used to establish a gold standard or performance expectation for the laboratory, and then to assess progress. The gold standard is defined using laboratory management input-answers to four questions, in terms of the information obtained from the customer survey: (1) What should the average Strategic Value be for the laboratory project portfolio? (2) What Strategic Value interval should include most of the projects in the laboratory portfolio? (3) What should average Project Performance be for projects with a Strategic Value of about 2? (4) What should average Project Performance be for projects with a Strategic Value of about 4? To be able to provide meaningful answers to these questions, the PNNL customer survey will need to be fully implemented for several years, thus providing a link between management perceptions of laboratory performance and customer survey data

  4. Meet the best Award-winning technologies from Pacific Northwest Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-09-01

    The Battelle Memorial Institute has managed the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy for 25 years. During this time, numerous new technologies have been discovered and developed at PNL as a result of our research programs. This document will introduce you to some of the more significant discoveries and newly commercialized technologies. Each of the technologies described has received an award from Research Development magazine or the Federal Laboratory Consortium--sometimes both Each technology is available to you through PNL's technology transfer program or one of our licensees. Similarly, our award-winning scientists and engineers are available to assist you as you search for innovative technologies to solve your technical problems. These researchers are familiar with current problems confronting industry, government agencies, and the academic community. They are happy to apply their skills and PNL's resources to your problems. PNL encourages its researchers to work with government agencies, universities, and US industries. PNL technology transfer programs address the nation's drive toward increased competitiveness by being flexible and aggressive, and are designed to tailor results to fit your needs and those of your clients. If you are in search of a new technology or increased competitiveness, consider collaborative efforts with our award-winning staff, whose accomplishments are synopsized in this booklet.

  5. Customer Satisfaction Assessment at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Dale N.; Sours, Mardell L.

    2000-03-20

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is developing and implementing a customer satisfaction assessment program (CSAP) to assess the quality of research and development provided by the laboratory. We present the customer survey component of the PNNL CSAP. The customer survey questionnaire is composed of 2 major sections, Strategic Value and Project Performance. The Strategic Value section of the questionnaire consists of 5 questions that can be answered with a 5 point Likert scale response. These questions are designed to determine if a project is directly contributing to critical future national needs. The Project Performance section of the questionnaire consists of 9 questions that can be answered with a 5 point Likert scale response. These questions determine PNNL performance in meeting customer expectations. Many approaches could be used to analyze customer survey data. We present a statistical model that can accurately capture the random behavior of customer survey data. The properties of this statistical model can be used to establish a "gold standard'' or performance expectation for the laboratory, and then assess progress. The gold standard is defined from input from laboratory management --- answers to 4 simple questions, in terms of the information obtained from the CSAP customer survey, define the standard: *What should the average Strategic Value be for the laboratory project portfolio? *What Strategic Value interval should include most of the projects in the laboratory portfolio? *What should average Project Performance be for projects with a Strategic Value of about 2? *What should average Project Performance be for projects with a Strategic Value of about 4? We discuss how to analyze CSAP customer survey data with this model. Our discussion will include "lessons learned" and issues that can invalidate this type of assessment.

  6. PACIFIC NORTHWEST CYBER SUMMIT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lesperance, Ann M.; Matlock, Gordon W.; Becker-Dippmann, Angela S.; Smith, Karen S.

    2013-08-07

    On March 26, 2013, the Snohomish County Public Utility District (PUD) and the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) jointly hosted the Pacific Northwest Cyber Summit with the DOE’s Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, the White House, Washington State congressional delegation, Washington State National Guard, and regional energy companies.

  7. Surface concrete decontamination equipment developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halter, J.M.; Sullivan, R.G.; Bevan, J.L.

    1982-08-01

    This report documents a project that the Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted to identify and develop techniques for removing contaminated concrete surfaces. A major problem associated with nuclear facility decontamination and decommissioning is how to economically demolish and dispose of contaminated concrete. Removing only the contaminated portion of the concrete can substantially reduce costs. Evaluation of various methods for removing concrete surfaces shows that several techniques presently used require excessive manpower, time, and energy. Many times more material is removed than necessary, increasing the quantity of waste that must be handled under controlled conditions. These evaluations generated the basic criteria for developing a suitable concrete removal technique: provide a convenient method for cleaning surfaces (such as those contaminated by a small spill); reduce the contaminated waste volume that has to be placed into controlled storage; remove surfaces quickly; and minimize personal exposure to potentially harmful radiation or toxic materials. Removal to 1/4 to 1/2 in. of contaminated surface layer is sufficient for cleanup of most facilities. Two unique decontamination methods have been developed: the concrete spaller and the water cannon. The concrete spaller is the most efficient technique: it removes the concrete surface faster than the water cannons and at a lower cost (as little as $3.00/ft 2 of concrete surface). However, the .458 magnum water cannon may be well suited for small or hard-to-reach locations

  8. Pacific Northwest Laboratory ALARA Report for Calendar Year 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, S.L.

    1994-07-01

    This report provides summary results of the Calendar Year (CY) 1993 As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) Program at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). This report includes information regarding whole-body exposures to radiation, and skin contaminations. The collective whole-body radiation dose to employees during 1993 was 0.58 person-sievert (58 person-rem). This dose was 11 percent lower than the projected dose of 0.65 person-sievert (65 person-rem). The Radiation Protection Section's Field Dosimetry Services group projected that no PNL employee's dose would exceed 0.02 sievert (2 rem) based on dosimeters processed during the year; no worker actually exceeded the limit by the end of CY 1993. There were 15 reported cases of skin contamination for PNL employees during 1993. This number of 60 percent of the projected total of 25 cases. There were an additional 21 cases of personal-effects contamination to PNL staff: Nine of these contamination events occurred at the 324 Building, nine occurred at the 325 Building, one occurred in the 327 Building, one occurred in the 3720 Building, and one occurred in the 326 Building. Line management set numerous challenging and production ALARA goals for their facilities. Appendix A describes the final status of the 1993 ALARA goals. Appendix B describes the radiological ALARA goals for 1994. The Radiation Protection Section of the Laboratory Safety Dept. routinely perform audits of radiological ALARA requirements for specific facilities with significant potential for exposure. These ALARA audits are part of a comprehensive safety audit of the facility, designed to evaluate and improve total safety performance

  9. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Annual Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duncan, Joanne P. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Sackschewsky, Michael R. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Tilden, Harold T. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Barnett, J. Matthew [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Su-Coker, Jennifer [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ballinger, Marcel Y. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Fritz, Brad G. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Stoetzel, Gregory A. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lowry, Kami L. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Moon, Thomas W. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Becker, James M. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Mendez, Keith M. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Raney, Elizabeth A. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Chamness, Michele A. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Larson, Kyle B. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-09-30

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), one of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science’s 10 national laboratories, provides innovative science and technology development in the areas of energy and the environment, fundamental and computational science, and national security. DOE’s Pacific Northwest Site Office (PNSO) is responsible for oversight of PNNL at its Campus in Richland, Washington, as well as its facilities in Sequim, Seattle, and North Bonneville, Washington, and Corvallis and Portland, Oregon.

  10. Pacific Northwest Laboratory ALARA report for Calendar Year 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, S.L.

    1995-08-01

    This report provides summary results of the Calendar Year (CY) 1994 As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) Program performance at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). This report includes data regarding performance in the area of personnel exposures to radiation, skin contaminations, control of contaminated areas, minimization of radioactive waste, and control of radioactive releases. In CY 1994: (1) The collective total effective dose equivalent to PNL employees during 1994 was 55 person-rem. The Field Dosimetry Services of the Radiological Control Department, Technical Support Section, projected that no PNL employee's dose would exceed 2 rem based on dosimeters processed during the year; no worker actually exceeded the projection-by the end of CY 1994. The maximum dose to any individual was 1.11 rem. (2) There were 34 instances of skin and personal-clothing contamination events for PNL employees during 1994. Eighteen of these contamination events occurred at the 324 Building; eleven occurred at the 325 Building; two occurred in the 327 Building; one occurred in the 326 Building; one occurred in the 3708 Building; and one occurred in the RTL Building. (3) PNL facilities contained 12 Airborne Radioactivity Areas, and 60 Contamination Areas and High Contamination Areas. The area of the Airborne Radioactivity Areas was 383 m 2 (4125 ft 2 ). The area of the Contamination Areas was 5290 m 2 (56,947 ft 2 ). The area of the High Contamination Areas was 266 m 2 (2863 ft 2 ). (4) PNL disposed of 10.5 m 3 (371 ft 3 ) of compacted low level waste. Also disposed was 423 m 3 (14,949 ft 3 ) of noncompacted low level and mixed waste that was not subject to volume reduction. The total radioactivity of the disposed waste was 1217 Ci. (5) PNL facilities released 165.2 Ci of noble gas, 3.0E-5 Ci of airborne particulate radioactive material, and 12.2 Ci of tritium to the environment

  11. Energy and Water Conservation Assessment of the Radiochemical Processing Laboratory (RPL) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Stephanie R.; Koehler, Theresa M.; Boyd, Brian K.

    2014-05-31

    This report summarizes the results of an energy and water conservation assessment of the Radiochemical Processing Laboratory (RPL) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The assessment was performed in October 2013 by engineers from the PNNL Building Performance Team with the support of the dedicated RPL staff and several Facilities and Operations (F&O) department engineers. The assessment was completed for the Facilities and Operations (F&O) department at PNNL in support of the requirements within Section 432 of the Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) of 2007.

  12. FY 1999 Annual Self-Evaluation Report of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randy R. LaBarge

    1999-11-05

    This is a report of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's (Pacific Northwest's) FY1999 Annual Self-Evaluation Report. This report summarizes our progress toward accomplishment of the critical outcomes, objectives, and performance indicators as delineated in the FY1999 Performance Evaluation & Fee Agreement. It also summarizes our analysis of the results of Pacific Northwest's Division and Directorate annual self-assessments, and the implementation of our key operational improvement initiatives. Together, these provide an indication of how well we have used our Integrated Assessment processes to identify and plan improvements for FY2000. As you review the report you will find areas of significantly positive progress; you will also note areas where I believe the Laboratory could make improvements. Overall, however, I believe you will be quite pleased to note that we have maintained, or exceeded, the high standards of performance we have set for the Laboratory.

  13. Pacific Northwest regional assessment program 1975 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-06-01

    The objective of the Pacific Northwest Regional Assessment Program is to establish and exercise an integrated analytical assessment program for evaluation of potential changes that may result from various energy development or conservation scenarios. Such scenarios may themselves result from Federal development policies and programs, from regionally specific actions by the states and energy industries, or from actions taken by international factors currently importing energy resources into the region. After consideration of a variety of approaches to integrated assessment at a regional level, Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratories (BNW) has concluded that dynamic simulation techniques provide the best available approach to evaluating the issues pertinent to the Northwest. As a result, the Pacific Northwest Regional Assessment Program has been structured in a framework involving ten sectors. Each of these sectors involve their own submodels that receive information either from outside the model as exogenous inputs or from other sector submodels.

  14. Pacific Northwest Laboratory plan to maintain radiation exposure as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higby, D.P.; Denovan, J.T.

    1982-12-01

    This document describes the radiation safety program at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). The practices and administrative policies of this program support the principles of ALARA (to maintain radiation exposure as low as reasonably achievable). This document also describes a program to establish safety goals at PNL to help ensure that operations are conducted according to ALARA principles

  15. TECHNICAL PUBLICATIONS OF BATTELLE-NORTHWEST DURING 1970

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, E. F.

    1971-03-01

    This report is one of an annual series and announces formal research and development reports and technical articles published during 1970 by Battelle-NorthwesL The reports and articles are grouped by broad subject categories and arranged alphabetically by author within each category, except Progress Reports, which are arranged chronologically, An author index and report number index are also included"

  16. Cursory radiological assessment: Battelle Columbus Laboratory Decommissioning and Decontamination Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, W.H.; Munyon, W.J.; Mosho, G.D.; Robinet, M.J.; Wynveen, R.A.

    1988-10-01

    This document reports on the results obtained from a cursory radiological assessment of various properties at the Battelle Columbus Laboratory, Columbia, Ohio. The cursory radiological assessment is part of a preliminary investigation for the Battelle Columbus Laboratory Decommissioning and Decontamination Project. The radiological assessment of Battelle Columbus Laboratory's two sites included conducting interior and exterior building surveys and collecting and analyzing air, sewer system, and soil samples. Direct radiological surveys were made of floor, wall, and overhead areas. Smear surveys were made on various interior building surfaces as well as the exterior building vents. Air samples were collected in select areas to determine concentrations of Rn-222, Rn-220, and Rn-219 daughters, in addition to any long-lived radioactive particulates. Radon-222 concentrations were continuously monitored over a 24-hr period at several building locations using a radon gas monitoring system. The sanitary sewer systems at King Avenue, West Jefferson-North, and West Jefferson-South were each sampled at select locations. All samples were submitted to the Argonne Analytical Chemistry Laboratory for various radiological and chemical analyses. Environmental soil corings were taken at both the King Avenue and West Jefferson sites to investigate the potential for soil contamination within the first 12-inches below grade. Further subsurface investigations at the West Jefferson-North and West Jefferson-South areas were conducted using soil boring techniques. 4 refs., 10 figs., 10 tabs

  17. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Facility Radionuclide Emission Points and Sampling Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barfuss, Brad C.; Barnett, J. Matthew; Ballinger, Marcel Y.

    2009-04-08

    Battelle—Pacific Northwest Division operates numerous research and development laboratories in Richland, Washington, including those associated with the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) on the Department of Energy’s Hanford Site that have the potential for radionuclide air emissions. The National Emission Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP 40 CFR 61, Subparts H and I) requires an assessment of all effluent release points that have the potential for radionuclide emissions. Potential emissions are assessed annually. Sampling, monitoring, and other regulatory compliance requirements are designated based upon the potential-to-emit dose criteria found in the regulations. The purpose of this document is to describe the facility radionuclide air emission sampling program and provide current and historical facility emission point system performance, operation, and design information. A description of the buildings, exhaust points, control technologies, and sample extraction details is provided for each registered or deregistered facility emission point. Additionally, applicable stack sampler configuration drawings, figures, and photographs are provided.

  18. Pacific Northwest Laboratory Institutional Plan FY 1995-2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-12-01

    This report serves as a document to describe the role PNL is positioned to take in the Department of Energy`s plans for its national centers in the period 1995-2000. It highlights the strengths of the facilities and personnel present at the laboratory, touches on the accomplishments and projects they have contributed to, and the direction being taken to prepare for the demands to be placed on DOE facilities in the near and far term. It consists of sections titled: director`s statement; laboratory mission and core competencies; laboratory strategic plan; laboratory initiatives; core business areas; critical success factors.

  19. PUREX environmental radiological surveillance - preoperational and operational support program conducted by Pacific Northwest Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sula, M.J.; Price, K.R.

    1983-10-01

    This report describes the radiological environmental sampling program that is being conducted at the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site in support of resumed operation of the PUREX fuel processing plant. The report also summarizes preoperational radiological environmental data collected to date. The activities described herein are part of the ongoing Hanford Environmental Surveillance Program, operated by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the DOE

  20. Safety evaluation for packaging (onsite) for the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory HEPA filter box

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCoy, J.C.

    1998-01-01

    This safety evaluation for packaging (SEP) evaluates and documents the safe onsite transport of eight high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters in the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory HEPA Filter Box from the 300 Area of the Hanford Site to the Central Waste Complex and on to burial in the 200 West Area. Use of this SEP is authorized for 1 year from the date of release

  1. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1993 to the DOE Office of Energy Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-04-01

    This 1993 Annual Report from Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to the US DOE describes research in environment and health conducted during fiscal year (FY) 1993. The report is divided into four parts, each in a separate volume. This part, Volume 2, covers Environmental Sciences. The research is directed toward developing a fundamental understanding of subsurface and terrestrial systems as a basis for both managing these critical resources and addressing environmental problems such as environmental restoration and global change. There are sections on Subsurface Science, Terrestrial Science, Technology Transfer, Interactions with Educational Institutions, and Laboratory Directed Research and Development

  2. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory FY96 Annual Self-Evaluation Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) research and development efforts are concentrated on DOE`s environmental quality mission and the scientific research required to support that mission. The Laboratory also supports the energy resources and national security missions in areas where an overlap between our core competencies and DOE`s goals exists. Fiscal year 1996 saw the Laboratory focus its efforts on the results necessary for us to meet DOE`s most important needs and expectations. Six Critical Outcomes were established in partnership with DOE. The Laboratory met or exceeded performance expectations in most areas, including these outcomes and the implementation of the Laboratory`s Integrated Assessment Program. We believe our overall performance for this evaluation period has been outstanding. A summary of results and key issues is provided.

  3. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Apatite Investigation at the 100-NR-2 Quality Assurance Project Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fix, N. J.

    2008-03-28

    This Quality Assurance Project Plan provides the quality assurance requirements and processes that will be followed by staff working on the 100-NR-2 Apatite Project. The U.S. Department of Energy, Fluor Hanford, Inc., Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, and the Washington Department of Ecology agreed that the long-term strategy for groundwater remediation at 100-N would include apatite sequestration as the primary treatment, followed by a secondary treatment. The scope of this project covers the technical support needed before, during, and after treatment of the targeted subsurface environment using a new high-concentration formulation.

  4. Testing and performance of the Pacific Northwest Laboratory 6-kg retort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, K.B.; Evans, J.C.; Girvin, D.C.; Sklarew, D.S.; Nelson, C.L.

    1984-02-01

    This report describes and discusses the design, construction, calibration and operations of the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) 6-kg retort. Use of this retort will help determine the distribution and speciation of Hg, As, Se, and Cd compounds as a function of retorting parameters in shale oil, retort water, and offgas. The first test consisted of heating the oil shale to 500/sup 0/C with a 100% nitrogen (N/sub 2/) sweep gas. Results of this test demonstrated that the system operates as designed; only two minor modifications were necessary to achieve satisfactory operation of the retort. 2 references, 3 figures, 1 table.

  5. FY2000 Annual Self-Evaluation Report for the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    RR Labarge

    2000-11-15

    This self-evaluation report offers a summary of results from FY2000 actions to achieve Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's strategy and provides an analysis of the state of their self-assessment process. The result of their integrated planning and assessment process identifies Laboratory strengths and opportunities for improvement. Critical elements of that process are included in this report; namely, a high-level summary of external oversight activities, progress against Operations Improvement Initiatives, and a summary of Laboratory strengths and areas for improvement developed by management from across the laboratory. Some key areas targeted for improvement in FY2001 are: systems approach to resource management; information protection; integrated safety management flow-down to the benchtop; cost management; integrated assessment; Price Anderson Amendments Act (PAAA) Program; and travel risk mitigation.

  6. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Facility Radionuclide Emissions Units and Sampling Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnett, J. Matthew; Brown, Jason H.; Walker, Brian A.

    2012-04-01

    Battelle–Pacific Northwest Division operates numerous research and development (R&D) laboratories in Richland, WA, including those associated with Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) on the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)’s Hanford Site and PNNL Site that have the potential for radionuclide air emissions. The National Emission Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP 40 CFR 61, Subparts H and I) requires an assessment of all emission units that have the potential for radionuclide air emissions. Potential emissions are assessed annually by PNNL staff members. Sampling, monitoring, and other regulatory compliance requirements are designated based upon the potential-to-emit dose criteria found in the regulations. The purpose of this document is to describe the facility radionuclide air emission sampling program and provide current and historical facility emission unit system performance, operation, and design information. For sampled systems, a description of the buildings, exhaust units, control technologies, and sample extraction details is provided for each registered emission unit. Additionally, applicable stack sampler configuration drawings, figures, and photographs are provided. Deregistered emission unit details are provided as necessary for up to 5 years post closure.

  7. Area Monitoring Dosimeter Program for the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory: Results for CY 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bivens, Steven A.; Stoetzel, Gregory A.

    2005-01-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) established an area monitoring dosimeter program in accordance with Article 514 of the Department of Energy (DOE) Radiological Control Manual (RCM) in January 1993. This program is to minimize the number of areas requiring issuance of personnel dosimeters and to demonstrate that doses outside Radiological Buffer Areas are negligible. In accordance with 10 CFR Part 835.402 (a)(1)-(4) and Article 511.1 of the PNNL Radiological Control Program Description, personnel dosimetry shall be provided to (1) radiological workers who are likely to receive at least 100 mrem annually, and (2) declared pregnant workers, minors, and members of the public who are likely to receive at least 50 mrem annually. Program results for calendar years 1993-2004 confirm that personnel dosimetry is not needed for individuals located in areas monitored by the program

  8. Area Monitoring Dosimeter Program for the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory: Results for CY 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bivins, Steven R.; Stoetzel, Gregory A.

    2006-01-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) established an area monitoring dosimeter program in accordance with Article 514 of the Department of Energy (DOE) Radiological Control Manual (RCM) in January 1993. This program is to minimize the number of areas requiring issuance of personnel dosimeters and to demonstrate that doses outside Radiological Buffer Areas are negligible. In accordance with 10 CFR Part 835.402 (a)(1)-(4) and Article 511.1 of the PNNL Radiological Control Program Description, personnel dosimetry shall be provided to (1) radiological workers who are likely to receive at least 100 mrem annually, and (2) declared pregnant workers, minors, and members of the public who are likely to receive at least 50 mrem annually. Program results for calendar years 1993-2005 confirm that personnel dosimetry is not needed for individuals located in areas monitored by the program

  9. Area Monitoring Dosimeter Program for the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory: Results for CY 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bivins, Steven R.; Stoetzel, Gregory A.

    2003-01-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) established an area monitoring dosimeter program in accordance with Article 514 of the Department of Energy (DOE) Radiological Control Manual (RCM) in January 1993. This program is to minimize the number of areas requiring issuance of personnel dosimeters and to demonstrate that doses outside Radiological Buffer Areas are negligible. In accordance with 10 CFR Part 835.402 (a)(1)-(4) and Article 511.1 of the PNNL Radiological Control Program Description, personnel dosimetry shall be provided to (1) radiological workers who are likely to receive at least 100 mrem annually, and (2) declared pregnant workers, minors, and members of the public who are likely to receive at least 50 mrem annually. Program results for calendar years 1993-2002 confirm that personnel dosimetry is not needed for individuals located in areas monitored by the program

  10. Area Monitoring Dosimeter Program for the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory: Results for CY 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bivins, Steven R.; Stoetzel, Gregory A.

    2004-01-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) established an area monitoring dosimeter program in accordance with Article 514 of the Department of Energy (DOE) Radiological Control Manual (RCM) in January 1993. This program is to minimize the number of areas requiring issuance of personnel dosimeters and to demonstrate that doses outside Radiological Buffer Areas are negligible. In accordance with 10 CFR Part 835.402 (a)(1)-(4) and Article 511.1 of the PNNL Radiological Control Program Description, personnel dosimetry shall be provided to (1) radiological workers who are likely to receive at least 100 mrem annually, and (2) declared pregnant workers, minors, and members of the public who are likely to receive at least 50 mrem annually. Program results for calendar years 1993-2003 confirm that personnel dosimetry is not needed for individuals located in areas monitored by the program

  11. Area Monitoring Dosimeter Program for the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory: Results for CY 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bivins, Steven R.; Stoetzel, Gregory A.

    2007-01-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) established an area monitoring dosimeter program in accordance with Article 514 of the Department of Energy (DOE) Radiological Control Manual (RCM) in January 1993. This program is to minimize the number of areas requiring issuance of personnel dosimeters and to demonstrate that doses outside Radiological Buffer Areas are negligible. In accordance with 10 CFR Part 835.402 (a)(1)-(4) and Article 511.1 of the PNNL Radiological Control Program Description, personnel dosimetry shall be provided to (1) radiological workers who are likely to receive at least 100 mrem annually, and (2) declared pregnant workers, minors, and members of the public who are likely to receive at least 50 mrem annually. Program results for calendar years 1993-2005 confirm that personnel dosimetry is not needed for individuals located in areas monitored by the program.

  12. Area Monitoring Dosimeter Program for the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory: Results for CY 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bivins, Steven R.; Stoetzel, Gregory A.

    2002-01-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) established an area monitoring dosimeter program in accordance with Article 514 of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Radiological Control Manual (RCM) in January 1993. This program is to minimize the number of areas requiring issuance of personnel dosimeters and to demonstrate that doses outside Radiological Buffer Areas are negligible. In accordance with 10 CFR Part 835.402 (a) (1)-(4) and Article 511.1 of the PNNL Radiological Control Program Description, personnel dosimetry shall be provided to (1) radiological workers who are likely to receive at least 100 mrem annually, and (2) declared pregnant workers, minors, and members of the public who are likely to receive at least 50 mrem annually. Program results for calendar years 1993-2001 confirm that personnel dosimetry is not needed for individuals located in areas monitored by the program.

  13. ALARA dosimetry study for non productive radiation exposures in Pacific Northwest Laboratory facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadlock, D.E.

    1981-04-01

    A special ALARA study was conducted during 1980 in selected Pacific Northwest Laboratory facilities. The study utilized thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) which were designed to detect gamma, beta, and neutron exposures; however, only gamma exposures are evaluated in this report. The processing of ALARA (As Low As Reasonably Achievable) dosimeters was performed by the Dosimetry Technology Section of the Radiological Sciences Department. Evaluation of dosimetry data and locations was performed in conjunction with the Radiation Monitoring Section and the Radiological Safety and Engineering Section of the Occupational and Environmental Protection Department. This study was prompted by a DOE-RL directive to reduce radiation exposure to As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) with a goal of no personnel whole-body penetrating exposures exceeding 3 rem for calendar year 1980. The purpose of this study was to characterize the background radiation environment at selected locations within PNL facilities. Attention was focused on non productive radiation exposure received from the work environment

  14. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1980 to the DOE Assistant Secretary for Environment. Part 2 supplement, ecological sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaughan, B.E.

    1981-06-01

    This supplement replaces the list of Publications and Presentations in the Pacific Northwest Laboratory Annual Report for 1980 to the Assistant Secretary for Environment, PNL-3700 PT2, Ecological Sciences. The listings in the report as previously distributed were incomplete owing to changeovers in the bibliographic-tracking system.

  15. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1993 to the DOE Office of Energy Research. Part 4: Physical sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braby, L.A.

    1994-08-01

    Part 4 of the Pacific Northwest Laboratory Annual Report for 1993 to the DOE Office of Energy Research includes those programs funded under the title ``Physical and Technological Research.`` The Field Task Program Studies reported in this document are grouped by budget category. Attention is focused on the following subject areas: dosimetry research; and radiological and chemical physics.

  16. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1991 to the DOE Office of Energy Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, D.A.

    1992-02-01

    This report summarizes progress in environmental sciences research conducted by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Health and Environmental Research in FY 1991. Each project in the PNL research program is a component in an integrated laboratory, intermediate-scale, and field approach designed to examine multiple phenomena at increasing levels of complexity. Examples include definition of the role of fundamental geochemical and physical phenomena on the diversity and function of microorganisms in the deep subsurface, and determination of the controls on nutrient, water, and energy dynamics in arid ecosystems and their response to stress at the landscape scale. The Environmental Science Research Center has enable PNL to extend fundamental knowledge of subsurface science to develop emerging new concepts for use in natural systems and in environmental restoration of DOE sites. New PNL investments have been made in developing advanced concepts for addressing chemical desorption kinetics, enzyme transformations and redesign, the role of heterogeneity in contaminant transport, and modeling of fundamental ecological processes

  17. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1991 to the DOE Office of Energy Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, D.A. (ed.)

    1992-02-01

    This report summarizes progress in environmental sciences research conducted by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Health and Environmental Research in FY 1991. Each project in the PNL research program is a component in an integrated laboratory, intermediate-scale, and field approach designed to examine multiple phenomena at increasing levels of complexity. Examples include definition of the role of fundamental geochemical and physical phenomena on the diversity and function of microorganisms in the deep subsurface, and determination of the controls on nutrient, water, and energy dynamics in arid ecosystems and their response to stress at the landscape scale. The Environmental Science Research Center has enable PNL to extend fundamental knowledge of subsurface science to develop emerging new concepts for use in natural systems and in environmental restoration of DOE sites. New PNL investments have been made in developing advanced concepts for addressing chemical desorption kinetics, enzyme transformations and redesign, the role of heterogeneity in contaminant transport, and modeling of fundamental ecological processes.

  18. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1990 to the DOE Office of Energy Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, J. F.; Kreml, S. A.; Wildung, R. E.; Hefty, M. G.; Perez, D. A.; Chase, K. K.; Elderkin, C. E.; Owczarski, E. L.; Toburen, L. H.; Parnell, K. A.; Faust, L. G.; Moraski, R. V.; Selby, J. M.; Hilliard, D. K.; Tenforde, T. S.

    1991-02-01

    This report summarizes progress in the environmental sciences research conducted by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the Office of Health and Environment Research in FY 1990. Research is directed toward developing the knowledge needed to guide government policy and technology development for two important environmental problems: environmental restoration and global change. The report is organized by major research areas contributing to resolution of these problems. Additional sections summarize exploratory research, educational institutional interactions, technology transfer, and publications. The PNL research program continues make contributions toward defining and quantifying processes that effect the environment at the local, regional, and global levels. Each research project forms a component in an integrated laboratory, intermediate-scale, and field approach designed to examine multiple phenomena at increasing levels of complexity. This approach is providing system-level insights into critical environmental processes. University liaisons continue to be expanded to strengthen the research and to use PNL resources to train the scientists needed to address long-term environmental problems.

  19. Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan for Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Balance-of-Plant Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballinger, M.Y.; Shields, K.D.

    1999-01-01

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) operates a number of research and development (R and D) facilities for the Department of Energy on the Hanford Site. According to DOE Order 5400.1, a Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan is required for each site, facility, or process that uses, generates, releases, or manages significant pollutants or hazardous materials. Three of the R and D facilities: the 325, 331, and 3720 Buildings, are considered major emission points for radionuclide air sampling and thus individual Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans (FEMPs) have been developed for them. Because no definition of ''significant'' is provided in DOE Order 5400.1 or the accompanying regulatory guide DOE/EH-0173T, this FEMP was developed to describe monitoring requirements in the DOE-owned, PNNL-operated facilities that do not have individual FEMPs. The remainder of the DOE-owned, PNNL-operated facilities are referred to as Balance-of-Plant (BOP) facilities. Activities in the BOP facilities range from administrative to laboratory and pilot-scale R and D. R and D activities include both radioactive and chemical waste characterization, fluid dynamics research, mechanical property testing, dosimetry research, and molecular sciences. The mission and activities for individual buildings are described in the FEMP

  20. Annotated bibliography of radioactive waste management publications at Pacific Northwest Laboratory, January 1978 through July 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-09-01

    This bibliography lists publications (831 abstracts) from the Pacific Northwest Laboratory's Department of Energy sponsored research and development programs from January 1978 through July of 1982. The abstracts are grouped in subject categories, as shown in the table of contents. Entries in the subject index also facilitate access by subject, e.g., High-Level Radioactive Wastes. Three indexes, each preceded by a brief description, are provided: personal author, subject, and report number. Cited are research reports, journal articles, books, patents, theses, and conference papers. Excluded are technical progress reports. Since 1978 the Nuclear Waste Management Quarterly Progress Report has been published under the series number PNL-3000. Beginning in 1982, this publication has been issued semiannually, under the series number PNL-4250. This bibliography is the successor to two others, BNWL-2201 (covering the years 1965-1976) and PNL-4050 (1975-1978). It is intended to provide a useful reference to literature in waste management written or compiled by PNL staff

  1. 1992 Yearly calibration of Pacific Northwest Laboratory's gross gamma-ray borehole geophysical logging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arthur, R.J.

    1992-07-01

    This report describes the 1992 yearly calibration of a gross gamma-ray geophysical pulse logging system owned by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and operated by Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The calibration was conducted to permit the continued use of this system for geologic and hydrologic studies associated with remedial investigation at the Hanford Site. The calibration is limited to the probe identified as CG27A-97. Primary calibrations to equivalent-uranium units were conducted in DOE borehole model standards that reside on the Hanford Site. The calibrations were performed in borehole models SBL/SBH and SBA/SBB, which contain low equivalent-uranium concentrations. A previous correlation for relating observed count rate in before- and after-logging field calibrations to equivalent-uranium concentrations was confirmed for field source Ra-20S-82. A computer-based digital collection/recording system was used simultaneously on many of the procedures with the original analog system so that the performance of the two collection systems could be correlated and compared at some future date

  2. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1991 to the DOE Office of Energy Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-05-01

    Within the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of Health and Environmental Research (OHER), the atmospheric sciences and carbon dioxide research programs are part of the Environmental Sciences Division (ESD). One of the central missions of the division Is to provide the DOE with scientifically defensible information on the local, regional, and global distributions of energy-related pollutants and their effects on climate. This information is vital to the definition and Implementation of a sound national energy strategy. This volume reports on the progress and status of all OHER atmospheric science and climate research projects at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). Research at PNL provides basic scientific underpinnings to DOE's program of global climate research. Research projects within the core carbon dioxide and ocean research programs are now integrated with those in the Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM), the Computer Hardware, Advanced Mathematics and Model Physics (CHAMMP), and quantitative links programs to form DOEs contribution to the US Global Change Research Program. Climate research in the ESD has the common goal of improving our understanding of the physical, chemical, biological, and social processes that influence the Earth system so that national and international policymaking relating to natural and human-induced changes in the Earth system can be given a firm scientific basis. This report describes the progress In FY 1991 in each of these areas

  3. Customer Satisfaction Survey of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's Technical Assistance Partners -- FY 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conger, Robin L.; Spanner, Gary E.

    2011-11-02

    The businesses that have utilized PNNL's Technology Assistance Program were sent a survey to solicit feedback about the program and to determine what, if any, outcomes resulted from the assistance provided. As part of its small business outreach, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) offers technology assistance to businesses with fewer than 500 employees throughout the nation and to businesses of any size in the 2 counties that contain the Hanford site. Upon request, up to 40 staff-hours of a researcher's time can be provided to address technology issues at no charge to the requesting firm. During FY 2011, PNNL completed assistance for 54 firms. Topics of the technology assistance covered a broad range, including environment, energy, industrial processes, medical, materials, computers and software, and sensors. In FY 2011, PNNL's Technology Assistance Program (TAP) was funded by PNNL Overheads. Over the past 16 years, the Technology Assistance Program has received total funding of nearly $2.8 million from several federal and private sources.

  4. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1991 to the DOE Office of Energy Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-05-01

    Within the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of Health and Environmental Research (OHER), the atmospheric sciences and carbon dioxide research programs are part of the Environmental Sciences Division (ESD). One of the central missions of the division Is to provide the DOE with scientifically defensible information on the local, regional, and global distributions of energy-related pollutants and their effects on climate. This information is vital to the definition and Implementation of a sound national energy strategy. This volume reports on the progress and status of all OHER atmospheric science and climate research projects at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). Research at PNL provides basic scientific underpinnings to DOE's program of global climate research. Research projects within the core carbon dioxide and ocean research programs are now integrated with those in the Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM), the Computer Hardware, Advanced Mathematics and Model Physics (CHAMMP), and quantitative links programs to form DOEs contribution to the US Global Change Research Program. Climate research in the ESD has the common goal of improving our understanding of the physical, chemical, biological, and social processes that influence the Earth system so that national and international policymaking relating to natural and human-induced changes in the Earth system can be given a firm scientific basis. This report describes the progress In FY 1991 in each of these areas.

  5. DOE life-span radiation effects studies at Pacific Northwest Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, R.C.; Cross, F.T.; Dagle, G.E.; Park, J.F.; Sanders, C.L.

    1986-01-01

    Major life-span radiation effects studies at Pacific Northwest Laboratory fall into three categories: (1) studies with beagle dogs exposed to plutonium compounds via a single inhalation; (2) studies with dogs and rats exposed chronically via inhalation to various combinations and concentrations of radon, radon daughters, and other components of uranium mine atmospheres; and (3) a study in which rats are exposed via single inhalation, in very large numbers, to very low concentrations of 239 PuO 2 . Exposure of beagles currently on study was initiated in 1970 with 239 PuO 2 , in 1973 with 238 PuO 2 , and in 1976 with 239 Pu(NO 3 ) 4 . These experiments involve more than 500 animals, many of them still alive. Experiments seeking to explain the increased incidence of lung cancer in uranium miners have been in progress since 1966. Present emphasis is on studies with rats, in an attempt to define dose-effect relationships at the lowest feasible radon-daughter exposure levels. Our very-low-level experiment with inhaled 239 PuO 2 in rats, with exposures still under way, includes 1000 rats in the control group and 1000 rats in the lowest-exposure group, where life-span lung doses of <5 rads are anticipated

  6. Radiological risk guidelines for nonreactor nuclear facilities at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucas, D.E.; Ikenberry, T.A.

    1993-09-01

    Radiological risk evaluation guidelines for the public and workers have been developed at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) based upon the Nuclear Safety Policy of the US Department of Energy (DOE) established in Secretary of Energy Notice SEN-35-91. The DOE nuclear safety policy states that the general public shall be protected such that no individual bears significant additional risk to health and safety from the operation of a DOE nuclear facility above the risks to which members of the general population are normally exposed. The radiological risk evaluation guidelines developed at PNL are unique in that they are (1) based upon quantitative risk goals and (2) provide a consistent level of risk management. These guidelines are used to evaluate the risk from radiological accidents that may occur during research and development activities at PNL, and are not intended for evaluation of routine exposures. A safety analyst uses the,frequency of the potential accident and the radiological dose to a given receptor to determine if the accident consequences meet the objectives of the Nuclear Safety Policy. The radiological risk evaluation guidelines are an effective tool for assisting in the management of risk at DOE nonreactor nuclear facilities. These guidelines (1) meet the nuclear safety policy of DOE, (2) establish a tool for managing risk at a consistent level within the defined constraints, and (3) set risk at an appropriate level, as compared with other risks encountered by the public and worker. Table S.1 summarizes the guidelines developed in this report.

  7. Radiological risk guidelines for nonreactor nuclear facilities at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucas, D.E.; Ikenberry, T.A.

    1993-09-01

    Radiological risk evaluation guidelines for the public and workers have been developed at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) based upon the Nuclear Safety Policy of the US Department of Energy (DOE) established in Secretary of Energy Notice SEN-35-91. The DOE nuclear safety policy states that the general public shall be protected such that no individual bears significant additional risk to health and safety from the operation of a DOE nuclear facility above the risks to which members of the general population are normally exposed. The radiological risk evaluation guidelines developed at PNL are unique in that they are (1) based upon quantitative risk goals and (2) provide a consistent level of risk management. These guidelines are used to evaluate the risk from radiological accidents that may occur during research and development activities at PNL, and are not intended for evaluation of routine exposures. A safety analyst uses the,frequency of the potential accident and the radiological dose to a given receptor to determine if the accident consequences meet the objectives of the Nuclear Safety Policy. The radiological risk evaluation guidelines are an effective tool for assisting in the management of risk at DOE nonreactor nuclear facilities. These guidelines (1) meet the nuclear safety policy of DOE, (2) establish a tool for managing risk at a consistent level within the defined constraints, and (3) set risk at an appropriate level, as compared with other risks encountered by the public and worker. Table S.1 summarizes the guidelines developed in this report

  8. Radiological risk guidelines for nonreactor nuclear facilities at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucas, D.E.; Ikenberry, T.A.

    1994-03-01

    Radiological risk evaluation guidelines for the public and workers have been developed at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) based upon the Nuclear Safety Policy of the US Department of Energy (DOE) established in Secretary of Energy Notice SEN-35-91 (DOE 1991). The DOE nuclear safety policy states that the general public be protected-such that no individual bears significant additional risk to health and safety from the operation of a DOE nuclear facility above the risks to which members of the general population are normally exposed. The radiological risk evaluation guidelines developed at PNL are unique in that they are (1) based upon quantitative risk goals and (2) provide a consistent level of risk management. These guidelines are used to evaluate the risk from radiological accidents that may occur during research and development activities at PNL. A safety analyst uses the frequency of the potential accident and the radiological dose to a given receptor to determine if the accident consequences meet the objectives of the Nuclear Safety Policy

  9. Economic Impact of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory on the State of Washington in Fiscal Year 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, Michael J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Niemeyer, Jackie M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is a large economic entity, with $1.06 billion in annual funding, $936 million in total spending, and 4,344 employees in fiscal year (FY) 2013. Four thousand, one hundred and one (4,101) employees live in Washington State. The Laboratory directly and indirectly supports almost $1.31 billion in economic output, 6,802 jobs, and $514 million in Washington State wage income from current operations. The state also gains more than $1.21 billion in output, more than 6,400 jobs, and $459 million in income through closely related economic activities, such as visitors, health care spending, spending by resident retirees, and spinoff companies. PNNL affects Washington’s economy through commonly recognized economic channels, including spending on payrolls and other goods and services that support Laboratory operations. Less-commonly recognized channels also have their own impacts and include company-supported spending on health care for its staff members and retirees, spending of its resident retirees, Laboratory visitor spending, and the economic activities in a growing constellation of “spinoff” companies founded on PNNL research, technology, and managerial expertise. PNNL also has a significant impact on science and technology education and community nonprofit organizations. PNNL is an active participant in the future scientific enterprise in Washington with the state’s K-12 schools, colleges, and universities. The Laboratory sends staff members to the classroom and brings hundreds of students to the PNNL campus to help train the next generation of scientists, engineers, mathematicians, and technicians. This investment in human capital, though difficult to measure in terms of current dollars of economic output, is among the important lasting legacies of the Laboratory. Finally, PNNL contributes to the local community with millions of dollars’ worth of cash and in-kind corporate and staff contributions, all of which

  10. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1992 to the DOE Office of Energy Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schrempf, R.E. (ed.)

    1993-04-01

    Within the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of Health and Environmental Research (OHER), the atmospheric sciences and carbon dioxide research programs are part of the Environmental Sciences Division (ESD). One of the central missions of the division is to provide the DOE with scientifically defensible information on the local, regional, and global distributions of energy-related pollutants and their effects on climate. This information is vital to the definition and implementation of a sound national energy strategy. This volume reports on the progress and status of all OHER atmospheric science and climate research projects at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). PNL has had a long history of technical leadership in the atmospheric sciences research programs within OHER. Within the ESD, the Atmospheric Chemistry Program (ACP) continues DOE's long-term commitment to study the continental and oceanic fates of energy-related air pollutants. Research through direct measurement, numerical modeling, and laboratory studies in the ACP emphasizes the long-range transport, chemical transformation, and removal of emitted pollutants, oxidant species, nitrogen-reservoir species, and aerosols. The Atmospheric Studies in Complex Terrain (ASCOT) program continues to apply basic research on density-driven circulations and on turbulent mixing and dispersion in the atmospheric boundary layer to the micro- to mesoscale meteorological processes that affect air-surface exchange and to emergency preparedness at DOE and other facilities. Research at PNL provides basic scientific underpinnings to DOE's program of global climate research. Research projects within the core carbon dioxide and ocean research programs are now integrated with those in the Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM), the Computer Hardware, Advanced Mathematics and Model Physics (CHAMMP), and Quantitative Links programs to form DOE's contribution to the US Global Change Research

  11. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1992 to the DOE Office of Energy Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grove, L.K.; Wildung, R.E.

    1993-03-01

    The 1992 Annual Report from Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to the US Department of Energy (DOE) describes research in environment and health conducted during fiscal year 1992. This report consists of four volumes oriented to particular segments of the PNL program, describing research performed for the DOE Office of Health and Environmental Research in the Office of Energy Research. The parts of the 1992 Annual Report are: Biomedical Sciences; Environmental Sciences; Atmospheric Sciences; and Physical Sciences. This Report is Part 2: Environmental Sciences. Included in this report are developments in Subsurface Science, Terrestrial Science, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development, Interactions with Educational Institutions, Technology Transfer, Publications, and Presentations. The research is directed toward developing a fundamental understanding of subsurface and terrestrial systems as a basis for both managing these critical resources and addressing environmental problems such as environmental restoration and global change. The Technology Transfer section of this report describes a number of examples in which fundamental research is laying the groundwork for the technology needed to resolve important environmental problems. The Interactions with Educational Institutions section of the report illustrates the results of a long-term, proactive program to make PNL facilities available for university and preuniversity education and to involve educational institutions in research programs. The areas under investigation include the effect of geochemical and physical phenomena on the diversity and function of microorganisms in deep subsurface environments, ways to address subsurface heterogeneity, and ways to determine the key biochemical and physiological pathways (and DNA markers) that control nutrient, water, and energy dynamics in arid ecosystems and the response of these systems to disturbance and climatic change

  12. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1992 to the DOE Office of Energy Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grove, L.K. (ed.)

    1993-03-01

    The 1992 Annual Report from Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to the US Department of Energy (DOE) describes research in environment and health conducted during fiscal year 1992. This report consists of four volumes oriented to particular segments of the PNL program, describing research performed for the DOE Office of Health and Environmental Research in the Office of Energy Research. The parts of the 1992 Annual Report are: Biomedical Sciences; Environmental Sciences; Atmospheric Sciences; and Physical Sciences. This Report is Part II: Environmental Sciences. Included in this report are developments in Subsurface Science, Terrestrial Science, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development, Interactions with Educational Institutions, Technology Transfer, Publications, and Presentations. The research is directed toward developing a fundamental understanding of subsurface and terrestrial systems as a basis for both managing these critical resources and addressing environmental problems such as environmental restoration and global change. The Technology Transfer section of this report describes a number of examples in which fundamental research is laying the groundwork for the technology needed to resolve important environmental problems. The Interactions with Educational Institutions section of the report illustrates the results of a long-term, proactive program to make PNL facilities available for university and preuniversity education and to involve educational institutions in research programs. The areas under investigation include the effect of geochemical and physical phenomena on the diversity and function of microorganisms in deep subsurface environments, ways to address subsurface heterogeneity, and ways to determine the key biochemical and physiological pathways (and DNA markers) that control nutrient, water, and energy dynamics in arid ecosystems and the response of these systems to disturbance and climatic change.

  13. STP K Basin Sludge Sample Archive at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory FY2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiskum, Sandra K.; Smoot, Margaret R.; Schmidt, Andrew J.

    2014-06-01

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) currently houses 88 samples (~10.5 kg) of K Basin sludge (81 wet and seven dry samples) on behalf of the Sludge Treatment Project (STP), which is managed for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) by the CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC). Selected samples are intended to serve, in part, as sentinels to enhance understanding of sludge properties after long-term storage, and thus enhance understanding of sludge behavior following transfer to sludge transfer and storage containers (STSCs) and storage at the Hanford 200 Area central plateau. In addition, remaining samples serve in contingency for future testing requirements. At PNNL, the samples are tracked and maintained under a prescriptive and disciplined monthly sample-monitoring program implemented by PNNL staff. This report updates the status of the K Basin archive sludge sample inventory to April 2014. The previous inventory status report, PNNL 22245 (Fiskum et al. 2013, limited distribution report), was issued in February of 2013. This update incorporates changes in the inventory related to repackaging of 17 samples under test instructions 52578 TI052, K Basin Sludge Sample Repackaging for Continued Long Term Storage, and 52578 TI053, K Basin Sludge Sample Repackaging Post-2014 Shear Strength Measurements. Note that shear strength measurement results acquired in 2014 are provided separately. Specifically, this report provides the following: • a description of the K Basin sludge sample archive program and the sample inventory • a summary and images of the samples that were repackaged in April 2014 • up-to-date images and plots of the settled density and water loss from all applicable samples in the inventory • updated sample pedigree charts, which provide a roadmap of the genesis and processing history of each sample in the inventory • occurrence and deficiency reports associated with sample storage and repackaging

  14. Pacific Northwest regional assessment program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    The Pacific Northwest (comprised of the states of Alaska, Idaho, Montana, Oregon, Washington and Wyoming) can by several measures be regarded as a national warehouse of fossil energy resources. This condition coupled with an evolving national policy stressing utilization of fossil fuels in the near term prior to development of more advanced technologies for energy supply, could result in the imposition of major changes in the region's environmental, socioeconomic and possibly health status. The objective of the Pacific Northwest Regional Assessment Program is to establish and exercise an integrated analytical assessment program for evaluation of these potential changes that may result from various energy development or conservation scenarios. After consideration of a variety of approaches to integrated assessment at a regional level, Pacific Northwest Laboratories (PNL) has concluded that dynamic simulation techniques provide the best available approach to evaluating the issues pertinent to the Northwest. As a result, the PNW Regional Assessment Program has been structured in a framework involving ten sectors. Each of these sectors involve their own submodels that receive information either from outside the model as exogenous inputs or from other sector submodels

  15. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1993 to the DOE Office of Energy Research. Part 2: Environmental sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-01

    This 1993 Annual Report from Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to the US DOE describes research in environment and health conducted during fiscal year (FY) 1993. The report is divided into four parts, each in a separate volume. This part, Volume 2, covers Environmental Sciences. The research is directed toward developing a fundamental understanding of subsurface and terrestrial systems as a basis for both managing these critical resources and addressing environmental problems such as environmental restoration and global change. There are sections on Subsurface Science, Terrestrial Science, Technology Transfer, Interactions with Educational Institutions, and Laboratory Directed Research and Development.

  16. Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan for Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Balance-of-Plant Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballinger, Marcel Y.; Gervais, Todd L.

    2004-11-15

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) operates a number of Research & Development (R&D) facilities for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) on the Hanford Site. Facility effluent monitoring plans (FEMPs) have been developed to document the facility effluent monitoring portion of the Environmental Monitoring Plan (DOE 2000) for the Hanford Site. Three of PNNL’s R&D facilities, the 325, 331, and 3720 Buildings, are considered major emission points for radionuclide air sampling, and individual FEMPs were developed for these facilities in the past. In addition, a balance-of-plant (BOP) FEMP was developed for all other DOE-owned, PNNL-operated facilities at the Hanford Site. Recent changes, including shutdown of buildings and transition of PNNL facilities to the Office of Science, have resulted in retiring the 3720 FEMP and combining the 331 FEMP into the BOP FEMP. This version of the BOP FEMP addresses all DOE-owned, PNNL-operated facilities at the Hanford Site, excepting the Radiochemical Processing Laboratory, which has its own FEMP because of the unique nature of the building and operations. Activities in the BOP facilities range from administrative to laboratory and pilot-scale R&D. R&D activities include both radioactive and chemical waste characterization, fluid dynamics research, mechanical property testing, dosimetry research, and molecular sciences. The mission and activities for individual buildings are described in Appendix A. Potential radioactive airborne emissions in the BOP facilities are estimated annually using a building inventory-based approach provided in federal regulations. Sampling at individual BOP facilities is based on a potential-to-emit assessment. Some of these facilities are considered minor emission points and thus are sampled routinely, but not continuously, to confirm the low emission potential. One facility, the 331 Life Sciences Laboratory, has a major emission point and is sampled continuously. Sampling systems are

  17. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1984 to the DOE Office of Energy Research. Part 3. Atmospheric sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elderkin, C.E.

    1985-02-01

    The goals of atmospheric research at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) are to assess, describe, and predict the nature and fate of atmospheric contaminants and to study the impacts of contaminants on local, regional, and global climates. The contaminants being investigated are those resulting from the development and use of conventional resources (coal, gas, oil, and nuclear power) as well as alternative energy sources. The description of the research is organized into 3 sections: (1) Atmospheric Studies in Complex Terrain (ASCOT); (2) Boundary Layer Meteorology; and (3) Dispersion, Deposition, and Resuspension of Atmospheric Contaminants. Separate analytics have been done for each of the sections and are indexed and contained in the EDB

  18. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1984 to the DOE Office of Energy Research. Part 3. Atmospheric sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elderkin, C.E.

    1985-02-01

    The goals of atmospheric research at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) are to assess, describe, and predict the nature and fate of atmospheric contaminants and to study the impacts of contaminants on local, regional, and global climates. The contaminants being investigated are those resulting from the development and use of conventional resources (coal, gas, oil, and nuclear power) as well as alternative energy sources. The description of the research is organized into 3 sections: (1) Atmospheric Studies in Complex Terrain (ASCOT); (2) Boundary Layer Meteorology; and (3) Dispersion, Deposition, and Resuspension of Atmospheric Contaminants. Separate analytics have been done for each of the sections and are indexed and contained in the EDB. (MDF)

  19. Pacific Northwest Laboratory: Annual report for 1986 to the DOE Office of Energy Research: Part 4, Physical sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toburen, L.H.

    1987-02-01

    This 1986 annual report from Pacific Northwest Laboratory describes research in environment, health, and safety conducted during fiscal year 1986. The report again consists of five parts, each in a separate volume. Part 4 includes those programs funded under the title ''Physical and Technological Research.'' The Field Task Program Studies reports in this document are grouped by budget category and each section is introduced by an abstract that indicates the Field Task Proposal/Agreement reported in that section. These reports only briefly indicate progress made during 1985.

  20. Pacific Northwest Laboratory: Annual report for 1986 to the DOE Office of Energy Research: Part 2, Environmental sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-09-01

    This report summarizes progress in environmental sciences research conducted by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the Office of Health and Environmental Research in FY 1986. The program is focused on terrestrial, subsurface, and coastal marine systems, and this research forms the basis, in conjunction with remote sensing, for definition and quantification of processes leading to impacts at the global level. This report is organized into sections devoted to Detection and Management of Change in Terrestrial Systems, Biogeochemical Phenomena, Subsurface Microbiology and Transport, Marine Sciences, and Theoretical (Quantitative) Ecology. Separate abstracts have been prepared for individual projects.

  1. Pacific Northwest Laboratory: Annual report for 1986 to the DOE Office of Energy Research: Part 4, Physical sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toburen, L.H.

    1987-02-01

    This 1986 annual report from Pacific Northwest Laboratory describes research in environment, health, and safety conducted during fiscal year 1986. The report again consists of five parts, each in a separate volume. Part 4 includes those programs funded under the title ''Physical and Technological Research.'' The Field Task Program Studies reports in this document are grouped by budget category and each section is introduced by an abstract that indicates the Field Task Proposal/Agreement reported in that section. These reports only briefly indicate progress made during 1985

  2. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1985 to the DOE Office of Energy Research. Part 4. Physical sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toburen, L.H.

    1986-02-01

    Part 4 of the Pacific Northwest Laboratory Annual Report for 1985 to the DOE Office of Energy Research includes those programs funded under the title ''Physical and Technological Research.'' The Field Task Program Studies reports in this document are grouped by budget category and each section is introduced by an abstract that indicates the Field Task Proposal/Agreement reported in that section. These reports only briefly indicate progress made during 1985. The reader should contact the principal investigators named or examine the publications cited for more details.

  3. Pacific Northwest Laboratory, annual report for 1983 to the DOE Office of Energy Research. Part 4. Physical sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-02-01

    Part 4 of the Pacific Northwest Laboratory Annual Report for 1983 to the Office of Energy Research, includes those programs funded under the title Physical and Technological Research. The Field Task Program Studies reports in this document are grouped under the subheadings and each section is introduced by a divider page that indicates the Field Task Agreement reported in that section. These reports only briefly indicate progress made during 1983. The reader should contact the principal investigators named or examine the publications cited for more details

  4. Assessment of Unabated Facility Emission Potentials for Evaluating Airborne Radionuclide Monitoring Requirements at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory - 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballinger, Marcel Y.; Sula, Monte J.; Gervais, Todd L.; Shields, Keith D.; Edwards, Daniel R.

    2001-09-28

    Assessments were performed to evaluate compliance with the airborne radionuclide emission monitoring requirements in the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP - U.S. Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40 Part 61, Subpart H) and Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 246-247: Radiation Protection - Air Emissions. In these assessments, potential unabated offsite doses were evaluated for emission locations at facilities owned by the U.S. Department of Energy and operated by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) on the Hanford Site. This report describes the inventory-based methods, and provides the results, for the assessment performed in 2001.

  5. Pacific Northwest Laboratory Annual Report for 1987 to the DOE Office of Energy Research: Part 4, Physical Sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toburen, L.H.

    1988-06-01

    This 1987 annual report from Pacific Northwest Laboratory describes research in environment, health, and safety conducted during fiscal year 1987. The report again consists of five parts, each in a separate volume. Part 4 includes those programs funded under the title ''Physical and Technological Research.'' The Field Task Program Studies reports in this document are grouped by budget category and each section is introduced by an abstract that indicates the Field Task Proposal/Agreement reported in that section.

  6. Pacific Northwest Laboratory, annual report for 1983 to the DOE Office of Energy Research. Part 4. Physical sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-02-01

    Part 4 of the Pacific Northwest Laboratory Annual Report for 1983 to the Office of Energy Research, includes those programs funded under the title Physical and Technological Research. The Field Task Program Studies reports in this document are grouped under the subheadings and each section is introduced by a divider page that indicates the Field Task Agreement reported in that section. These reports only briefly indicate progress made during 1983. The reader should contact the principal investigators named or examine the publications cited for more details.

  7. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1985 to the DOE Office of Energy Research. Part 4. Physical sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toburen, L.H.

    1986-02-01

    Part 4 of the Pacific Northwest Laboratory Annual Report for 1985 to the DOE Office of Energy Research includes those programs funded under the title ''Physical and Technological Research.'' The Field Task Program Studies reports in this document are grouped by budget category and each section is introduced by an abstract that indicates the Field Task Proposal/Agreement reported in that section. These reports only briefly indicate progress made during 1985. The reader should contact the principal investigators named or examine the publications cited for more details

  8. Pacific Northwest Laboratory Gulfstream I measurements of the Kuwait oil-fire plume, July--August 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busness, K M; Hales, J M; Hannigan, R V; Thorp, J M; Tomich, S D; Warren, M J [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Al-Sunaid, A A [Saudi ARAMCO, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia); Daum, P H; Mazurek, M [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1992-11-01

    In 1991, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted a series of aircraft measurements to determine pollutant and radiative properties of the smoke plume from oil fires in Kuwait. This work was sponsored by the US Department emanating of Energy, in cooperation with several other agencies as part of an extensive effort coordinated by the World Meteorological Organization, to obtain a comprehensive data set to assess the characteristics of the plume and its environmental impact. This report describes field measurement activities and introduces the various data collected, but provides only limited analyses of these data. Results of further data analyses will be presented in subsequent open-literature publications.

  9. Waste Certification Program Plan for UT-Battelle, LLC at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beierschmitt, K.J.; Downer, K.M.; Hoke, P.B.

    2000-01-01

    This document defines the waste certification program (WCP) developed and implemented by UT-Battelle, LLC (UT-Battelle) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The WCP applies to all UT-Battelle personnel, it's subcontractors, guests, and visitors that do work at ORNL. This program does not include wastes generated by other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) prime contractors, their employees, or their subcontractors working on this site except by special arrangement. The document describes the program structure, logic, and methodology for certification of UT-Battelle wastes. The purpose of the WCP is to provide assurance that wastes are properly characterized, that adequate information is provided to enable correct U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) classification, and that the programmatic certification requirements and the Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) for receiving organizations/facilities are met. The program meets the waste certification requirements outlined in DO E Order 435.1, ''Radioactive Waste Management,'' in the DOE Performance Objective for Certification of Non-Radioactive Hazardous Waste (DOE, February 1995), and ensures that 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) documentation requirements for waste characterization are met for mixed (both radioactive and hazardous) and hazardous (including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)) waste. Program activities are conducted according to ORNL directives and guidance.

  10. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1993 to the DOE Office of Energy Research. Part 1: Biomedical Sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lumetta, C.C. [ed.; Park, J.F.

    1994-03-01

    This report summarizes FY 1993 progress in biological and general life sciences research programs conducted for the Department of Energy`s Office of Health and Environmental REsearch (OHER) at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). This research provides knowledge of fundamental principles necessary to identify, understand, and anticipate the long-term health consequences of exposure to energy-related radiation and chemicals. The Biological Research section contains reports of studies using laboratory animals, in vitro cell systems, and molecular biological systems. This research includes studies of the impact of radiation, radionuclides, and chemicals on biological responses at all levels of biological organization. The General Life Sciences Research section reports research conducted for the OHER human genome program.

  11. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1987 to the DOE Office of Energy Research: Part 1, Biomedical Sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, J.F.

    1988-02-01

    This report summarizes progress on OHER biomedical and health-effects research conducted at Pacific Northwest Laboratory in FY 1987. The research develops the knowledge and scientific principles necessary to identify, understand, and anticipate the long-term health consequences of energy-related radiation and chemicals. Our continuing emphasis is to decrease the uncertainty of health-effects risk estimates from existing and/or developing energy-related technologies through an increased understanding of how radiation and chemicals cause health effects. The report is arranged to reflect PNL research relative to OHER programmatic structure. The first section, on human health effects, concerns statistical and epidemiological studies for assessing health risks. The next section, which contains reports of health-effects research in biological systems, includes research with radiation and chemicals. The last section is related to medical applications of nuclear technology.

  12. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1985 to the DOE Office of Energy Research. Part 3. Atmospheric sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elderkin, C.E.

    1986-02-01

    The goals of atmospheric research at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) are to describe and predict the nature and fate of atmospheric contaminants and to develop an understanding of the atmospheric processes contributing to their distribution on local, regional, and continental scales. In 1985, this research has examined the transport and diffusion of atmospheric contaminants in areas of complex terrain, summarized the field studies and analyses of dry deposition and resuspension conducted in past years, and begun participation in a large, multilaboratory program to assess the precipitation scavenging processes important to the transformation and wet deposition of chemicals composing ''acid rain.'' The description of atmospheric research at PNL is organized in terms of the following study areas: Atmospheric Studies in Complex Terrain; Dispersion, Deposition, and Resuspension of Atmospheric Contaminants; and Processing of Emissions by Clouds and Precipitation (PRECP).

  13. Hanford High-Level Waste Vitrification Program at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory: technology development - annotated bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larson, D.E.

    1996-09-01

    This report provides a collection of annotated bibliographies for documents prepared under the Hanford High-Level Waste Vitrification (Plant) Program. The bibliographies are for documents from Fiscal Year 1983 through Fiscal Year 1995, and include work conducted at or under the direction of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The bibliographies included focus on the technology developed over the specified time period for vitrifying Hanford pretreated high-level waste. The following subject areas are included: General Documentation; Program Documentation; High-Level Waste Characterization; Glass Formulation and Characterization; Feed Preparation; Radioactive Feed Preparation and Glass Properties Testing; Full-Scale Feed Preparation Testing; Equipment Materials Testing; Melter Performance Assessment and Evaluations; Liquid-Fed Ceramic Melter; Cold Crucible Melter; Stirred Melter; High-Temperature Melter; Melter Off-Gas Treatment; Vitrification Waste Treatment; Process, Product Control and Modeling; Analytical; and Canister Closure, Decontamination, and Handling

  14. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1987 to the DOE Office of Energy Research: Part 1, Biomedical Sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J.F.

    1988-02-01

    This report summarizes progress on OHER biomedical and health-effects research conducted at Pacific Northwest Laboratory in FY 1987. The research develops the knowledge and scientific principles necessary to identify, understand, and anticipate the long-term health consequences of energy-related radiation and chemicals. Our continuing emphasis is to decrease the uncertainty of health-effects risk estimates from existing and/or developing energy-related technologies through an increased understanding of how radiation and chemicals cause health effects. The report is arranged to reflect PNL research relative to OHER programmatic structure. The first section, on human health effects, concerns statistical and epidemiological studies for assessing health risks. The next section, which contains reports of health-effects research in biological systems, includes research with radiation and chemicals. The last section is related to medical applications of nuclear technology

  15. Pacific Northwest Laboratory: Annual report for 1986 to the DOE Office of Energy Research: Part 3, Atmospheric sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elderkin, C.E.

    1987-06-01

    The goals of atmospheric research at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) are to describe and predict the nature and fate of atmospheric contaminants and to develop an understanding of the atmospheric processes contributing to their distribution on local, regional, and continental scales. In 1986, atmospheric research examined the transport and diffusion of atmospheric contaminants in areas of complex terrain and participated in a large, multilaboratory program to assess the precipitation scavenging processes important to the transformation and wet deposition of chemicals composing ''acid rain.'' In addition, during 1986, a special opportunity for measuring the transport and removal of radioactivity occurred after the Chernobyl reactor accident in April 1986. Separate abstracts were prepared for individual projects.

  16. Pacific Northwest Laboratory: Annual report for 1986 to the DOE Office of Energy Research: Part 3, Atmospheric sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elderkin, C.E.

    1987-06-01

    The goals of atmospheric research at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) are to describe and predict the nature and fate of atmospheric contaminants and to develop an understanding of the atmospheric processes contributing to their distribution on local, regional, and continental scales. In 1986, atmospheric research examined the transport and diffusion of atmospheric contaminants in areas of complex terrain and participated in a large, multilaboratory program to assess the precipitation scavenging processes important to the transformation and wet deposition of chemicals composing ''acid rain.'' In addition, during 1986, a special opportunity for measuring the transport and removal of radioactivity occurred after the Chernobyl reactor accident in April 1986. Separate abstracts were prepared for individual projects

  17. Research Advances: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Finds New Way to Detect Destructive Enzyme Activity--Hair Dye Relies on Nanotechnology--Ways to Increase Shelf Life of Milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Angela G.

    2007-01-01

    Recent advances in various research fields are described. Scientists at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory have found a new way to detect destructive enzyme activity, scientists in France have found that an ancient hair dye used by ancient people in Greece and Rome relied on nanotechnology and in the U.S. scientists are developing new…

  18. Pacific Northwest Laboratory: Director`s overview of research performed for DOE Office of Health And Environmental Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    A significant portion of the research undertaken at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is focused on the strategic programs of the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Office of Health and Environmental Research (OHER). These programs, which include Environmental Processes (Subsurface Science, Ecosystem Function and Response, and Atmospheric Chemistry), Global Change (Climate Change, Environmental Vulnerability, and Integrated Assessments), Biotechnology (Human Genome and Structural Biology), and Health (Health Effects and Medical Applications), have been established by OHER to support DOE business areas in science and technology and environmental quality. PNL uses a set of critical capabilities based on the Laboratory`s research facilities and the scientific and technological expertise of its staff to help OHER achieve its programmatic research goals. Integration of these capabilities across the Laboratory enables PNL to assemble multidisciplinary research teams that are highly effective in addressing the complex scientific and technical issues associated with OHER-sponsored research. PNL research efforts increasingly are focused on complex environmental and health problems that require multidisciplinary teams to address the multitude of time and spatial scales found in health and environmental research. PNL is currently engaged in research in the following areas for these OHER Divisions: Environmental Sciences -- atmospheric radiation monitoring, climate modeling, carbon cycle, atmospheric chemistry, ecological research, subsurface sciences, bioremediation, and environmental molecular sciences; Health Effects and Life Sciences -- cell/molecular biology, and biotechnology; Medical Applications and Biophysical Research -- analytical technology, and radiological and chemical physics. PNL`s contributions to OHER strategic research programs are described in this report.

  19. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1987 to the DOE office of energy research: Part 2, Environmental sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-07-01

    This report summarizes progress in environmental sciences research conducted by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the Office of Health and Environmental Research in FY 1987. Research is directed toward developing a fundamental understanding of processes controlling the long-term fate and biological effects of fugitive chemicals and other stressors resulting from energy development. The research, focused on terrestrial, subsurface, and coastal marine systems, forms the basis for defining and quantifying processes that affect humans and the environment at the regional and global levels. Research is multidisciplinary and multitiered, providing integrated system-level insights into critical environmental processes. Research initiatives in subsurface microbiology and transport, global change, radon, and molecular sciences are building on PNL technical strengths in biogeochemistry, hydrodynamics, molecular biology, and theoretical ecology. Unique PNL facilities are used to probe multiple phenomena complex relationships at increasing levels of complexity. Intermediate-scale experimental systems are used to examine arid land watershed dynamics, aerosol behavior and effects, and multidimensional subsurface transport. In addition, field laboratories (the National Environmental Research Park and Marine Research Laboratory) are used in conjunction with advanced measurement techniques to validate concepts and models, and to extrapolate the results to the system and global levels. Strong university liaisons now in existence are being markedly expanded so that PNL resources and the specialized technical capabilities in the university community can be more efficiently integrated.

  20. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1991 to the DOE Office of Energy Research. Part 2, Environmental sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, D.A. [ed.

    1992-02-01

    This report summarizes progress in environmental sciences research conducted by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Office of Health and Environmental Research in FY 1991. Each project in the PNL research program is a component in an integrated laboratory, intermediate-scale, and field approach designed to examine multiple phenomena at increasing levels of complexity. Examples include definition of the role of fundamental geochemical and physical phenomena on the diversity and function of microorganisms in the deep subsurface, and determination of the controls on nutrient, water, and energy dynamics in arid ecosystems and their response to stress at the landscape scale. The Environmental Science Research Center has enable PNL to extend fundamental knowledge of subsurface science to develop emerging new concepts for use in natural systems and in environmental restoration of DOE sites. New PNL investments have been made in developing advanced concepts for addressing chemical desorption kinetics, enzyme transformations and redesign, the role of heterogeneity in contaminant transport, and modeling of fundamental ecological processes.

  1. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1988 to the DOE Office of Energy Research: Part 2, Environmental Sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-04-01

    This report summarizes progress in environmental sciences research conducted by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the Office of Health and Environmental Research in FY 1988. Research is directed toward developing a fundamental understanding of processes controlling the long-term fate and biological effects of fugitive chemicals and other stressors resulting from energy development. The PNL research program continues to make important contributions to the resolution of important national environmental problems. The research, focused principally on subsurface contaminant transport and detection and management of human-induced changes in biological systems, forms the basis for defining and quantifying processes that affect humans and the environment at the regional and global levels. Each research project forms a component in an integrated laboratory- intermediated scale field approach designed to examine multiple phenomena at increasing levels of complexity. This approach is providing system-level insights into critical environmental processes. Strong university liaisons now in existence are being markedly expanded so that PNL resources and the specialized technical capabilities in the university community can be more efficiently integrated. Building on PNL technical strengths in geochemistry, environment microbiology, hydrodynamics, and statistical ecology, research in the environmental sciences is in an exciting phase, and new investments have been made in molecular sciences, chemistry, biotechnology, use of remote imagery, and theoretical ecology. The section on exploratory research provides unique insight into the value of these investments and into the future of PNL environmental sciences programs.

  2. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1983 to the DOE Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environmental Protection, Safety and Emergency Preparedness. Part 5. Overview and assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bair, W.J.

    1984-02-01

    The 1983 annual report from Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to the Department of Energy (DOE) describes research in environment, health, and safety conducted during fiscal year 1983. The report again consists of five parts, each in a separate volume. Part 5 of the 1983 Annual Report to the Department of Energy's Assistant Secretary for Environmental Protection, Safety and Emergency Preparedness presents Pacific Northwest Laboratory's progress on work performed for the Office of Nuclear Safety and the Office of Operational Safety. For each project, as identified by the Field Task Proposal/Agreement, articles describe progress made during FY 1983. Authors of these articles represent a broad spectrum of capabilities derived from various segments of the Laboratory, reflecting the interdisciplinary nature of the work

  3. Pacific Northwest Salmon Habitat Project Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In the Pacific Northwest Salmon Habitat Project Database Across the Pacific Northwest, both public and private agents are working to improve riverine habitat for a...

  4. Uranium recovery research sponsored by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission at Pacific Northwest Laboratory. Annual progress report, May 1982-May 1983

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foley, M.G.; Opitz, B.E.; Deutsch, W.J.; Peterson, S.R.; Gee, G.W.; Serne, R.J.; Hartley, J.N.; Thomas, V.W.; Kalkwarf, D.R.; Walters, W.H.

    1983-06-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is currently conducting research for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) on uranium recovery process wastes for both active and inactive operations. NRC-sponsored uranium recovery research at PNL is focused on NRC regulatory responsibilities for uranium-recovery operations: license active milling and in situ extraction operations; concur on the acceptability of DOE remedial-action plans for inactive sites; and license DOE to maintain inactive sites following remedial actions. PNL's program consists of four coordinated projects comprised of a program management task and nine research tasks that address the critical technical and safety issues for uranium recovery. Specifically, the projects endeavor to find and evaluate methods to: prevent erosion of tailings piles and prevent radon release from tailings piles; evaluate the effectiveness of interim stabilization techniques to prevent wind erosion and transport of dry tailings from active piles; estimate the dewatering and consolidation behavior of slurried tailings to promote early cover placement; design a cover-protection system to prevent erosion of the cover by expected environmental stresses; reduce seepage into ground water and prevent ground-water degradation; control solution movement and reaction with ground water in in-situ extraction operations; evaluate natural and induced restoration of ground water in in-situ extraction operations; and monitor releases to the environment from uranium recovery facilities.

  5. Uranium recovery research sponsored by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission at Pacific Northwest Laboratory. Annual progress report, May 1982-May 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foley, M.G.; Opitz, B.E.; Deutsch, W.J.

    1983-06-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is currently conducting research for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) on uranium recovery process wastes for both active and inactive operations. NRC-sponsored uranium recovery research at PNL is focused on NRC regulatory responsibilities for uranium-recovery operations: license active milling and in situ extraction operations; concur on the acceptability of DOE remedial-action plans for inactive sites; and license DOE to maintain inactive sites following remedial actions. PNL's program consists of four coordinated projects comprised of a program management task and nine research tasks that address the critical technical and safety issues for uranium recovery. Specifically, the projects endeavor to find and evaluate methods to: prevent erosion of tailings piles and prevent radon release from tailings piles; evaluate the effectiveness of interim stabilization techniques to prevent wind erosion and transport of dry tailings from active piles; estimate the dewatering and consolidation behavior of slurried tailings to promote early cover placement; design a cover-protection system to prevent erosion of the cover by expected environmental stresses; reduce seepage into ground water and prevent ground-water degradation; control solution movement and reaction with ground water in in-situ extraction operations; evaluate natural and induced restoration of ground water in in-situ extraction operations; and monitor releases to the environment from uranium recovery facilities

  6. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1991 to the DOE Office of Energy Research. Part 3, Atmospheric and climate research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-05-01

    Within the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Office of Health and Environmental Research (OHER), the atmospheric sciences and carbon dioxide research programs are part of the Environmental Sciences Division (ESD). One of the central missions of the division Is to provide the DOE with scientifically defensible information on the local, regional, and global distributions of energy-related pollutants and their effects on climate. This information is vital to the definition and Implementation of a sound national energy strategy. This volume reports on the progress and status of all OHER atmospheric science and climate research projects at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). Research at PNL provides basic scientific underpinnings to DOE`s program of global climate research. Research projects within the core carbon dioxide and ocean research programs are now integrated with those in the Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM), the Computer Hardware, Advanced Mathematics and Model Physics (CHAMMP), and quantitative links programs to form DOEs contribution to the US Global Change Research Program. Climate research in the ESD has the common goal of improving our understanding of the physical, chemical, biological, and social processes that influence the Earth system so that national and international policymaking relating to natural and human-induced changes in the Earth system can be given a firm scientific basis. This report describes the progress In FY 1991 in each of these areas.

  7. Annotated bibliography of radioactive waste management publications at Pacific Northwest Laboratory, January 1978 through July 1982. [831 abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-09-01

    This bibliography lists publications (831 abstracts) from the Pacific Northwest Laboratory's Department of Energy sponsored research and development programs from January 1978 through July of 1982. The abstracts are grouped in subject categories, as shown in the table of contents. Entries in the subject index also facilitate access by subject, e.g., High-Level Radioactive Wastes. Three indexes, each preceded by a brief description, are provided: personal author, subject, and report number. Cited are research reports, journal articles, books, patents, theses, and conference papers. Excluded are technical progress reports. Since 1978 the Nuclear Waste Management Quarterly Progress Report has been published under the series number PNL-3000. Beginning in 1982, this publication has been issued semiannually, under the series number PNL-4250. This bibliography is the successor to two others, BNWL-2201 (covering the years 1965-1976) and PNL-4050 (1975-1978). It is intended to provide a useful reference to literature in waste management written or compiled by PNL staff.

  8. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1987 to the DOE Office of Energy Research: Part 3, Atmospheric sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elderkin, C.E.

    1988-08-01

    Currently, the broad goals of atmospheric research at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) are to describe and predict the nature and fate of atmospheric contaminants and to develop an understanding of the atmospheric processes contributing to their distribution on local, regional, and continental scales in the air, in clouds, and on the surface. For several years, studies of transport and diffusion have been extended to mesoscale areas of complex terrain. Atmospheric cleansing research has expanded to a regional scale, multilaboratory investigation of precipitation scavenging processes involving the transformation and wet deposition of chemicals composing ''acid rain.'' In addition, the redistribution and long-range transport of transformed contaminants passing through clouds is recognized as a necessary extension of our research to even larger scales in the future. A few long-range tracer experiments conducted in recent years and the special opportunity for measuring the transport and removal of radioactivity following the Chernobyl reactor accident of April 1986 offer important initial data bases for studying atmospheric processes at these super-regional scales.

  9. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1989 to the DOE (Department of Energy) Office of Energy Research - Part 4: Physical Sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toburen, L.H.; Stults, B.R.; Mahaffey, J.A.

    1990-04-01

    This 1989 Annual Report from Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to the US Department of Energy (DOE) describes research in environment, safety, and health conducted during fiscal year 1989. The report again consists of five parts, each in a separate volume. This volume contains 20 papers. Part 4 of the Pacific Northwest Laboratory Annual Report of 1989 to the DOE Office of Energy Research includes those programs funded under the title Physical and Technological Research.'' The Field Task Program Studies reported in this document are grouped by budget category and each Field Task proposal/agreement is introduced by an abstract that describes the projects reported in that section. These reports only briefly indicate progress made during 1989. 74 refs., 29 figs., 6 tabs.

  10. Inventory of data bases, models, and graphics packages at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dionne, P.J.; Mathisen, D.I.

    1978-10-01

    The Information Coordination Focal Point (ICFP) was initiated in FY77 because DOE had a need for improved access to information at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, the Savannah River Laboratory, and the six DOE national laboratories. The task for FY77 was to establish guidelines and procedures for this activity with plans of implementing the procedures in FY78 and FY79. The purpose of this report is to document the progress that has been made during FY78 for this project

  11. Inventory of data bases, models, and graphics packages at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dionne, P.J.; Mathisen, D.I.

    1978-10-01

    The Information Coordination Focal Point (ICFP) was initiated in FY77 because DOE had a need for improved access to information at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, the Savannah River Laboratory, and the six DOE national laboratories. The task for FY77 was to establish guidelines and procedures for this activity with plans of implementing the procedures in FY78 and FY79. The purpose of this report is to document the progress that has been made during FY78 for this project.

  12. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1979 to the DOE Assistant Secretary for Environment. Part 5. Environmental assessment, control, health, and safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baalman, R.W.; Dotson, C.W.

    1980-02-01

    Part 5 of the 1979 Annual Report to the Department of Energy Assistant Secretary for the Environment presents Pacific Northwest Laboratory's progress on work performed for the Office of Technology Impacts, the Office of Environmental Compliance and Overview, and the Office of Health and Environmental Research. The report is in four sections, corresponding to the program elements: technology impacts, environmental control engineering, operational and environmental compliance, and human health studies. In each section, articles describe progress made during FY 1979 on individual projects

  13. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1994 to the DOE Office of Energy Research. Part 2: Atmospheric and climate research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-04-01

    Atmospheric research at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) occurs in conjunction with the Atmospheric Chemistry Program (ACP) and with the Atmospheric Studies in Complex Terrain (ASCOT) Program. Solicitations for proposals and peer review were used to select research projects for funding in FY 1995. Nearly all ongoing projects were brought to a close in FY 1994. Therefore, the articles in this volume include a summary of the long-term accomplishments as well as the FY 1994 progress made on these projects. The following articles present summaries of the progress in FY 1994 under these research tasks: continental and oceanic fate of pollutants; research aircraft operations; ASCOT program management; coupling/decoupling of synoptic and valley circulations; interactions between surface exchange processes and atmospheric circulations; and direct simulations of atmospheric turbulence. Climate change research at PNL is aimed at reducing uncertainties in the fundamental processes that control climate systems that currently prevent accurate predictions of climate change and its effects. PNL is responsible for coordinating and integrating the field and laboratory measurement programs, modeling studies, and data analysis activities of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM) program. In FY 1994, PNL scientists conducted 3 research projects under the ARM program. In the first project, the sensitivity of GCM grid-ad meteorological properties to subgrid-scale variations in surface fluxes and subgrid-scale circulation patterns is being tested in a single column model. In the second project, a new and computationally efficient scheme has been developed for parameterizing stratus cloud microphysics in general circulation models. In the last project, a balloon-borne instrument package is being developed for making research-quality measurements of radiative flux divergence profiles in the lowest 1,500 meters of the Earth`s atmosphere.

  14. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1992 to the DOE Office of Energy Research. Part 3, Atmospheric and climate research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schrempf, R.E. [ed.

    1993-04-01

    Within the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Office of Health and Environmental Research (OHER), the atmospheric sciences and carbon dioxide research programs are part of the Environmental Sciences Division (ESD). One of the central missions of the division is to provide the DOE with scientifically defensible information on the local, regional, and global distributions of energy-related pollutants and their effects on climate. This information is vital to the definition and implementation of a sound national energy strategy. This volume reports on the progress and status of all OHER atmospheric science and climate research projects at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). PNL has had a long history of technical leadership in the atmospheric sciences research programs within OHER. Within the ESD, the Atmospheric Chemistry Program (ACP) continues DOE`s long-term commitment to study the continental and oceanic fates of energy-related air pollutants. Research through direct measurement, numerical modeling, and laboratory studies in the ACP emphasizes the long-range transport, chemical transformation, and removal of emitted pollutants, oxidant species, nitrogen-reservoir species, and aerosols. The Atmospheric Studies in Complex Terrain (ASCOT) program continues to apply basic research on density-driven circulations and on turbulent mixing and dispersion in the atmospheric boundary layer to the micro- to mesoscale meteorological processes that affect air-surface exchange and to emergency preparedness at DOE and other facilities. Research at PNL provides basic scientific underpinnings to DOE`s program of global climate research. Research projects within the core carbon dioxide and ocean research programs are now integrated with those in the Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM), the Computer Hardware, Advanced Mathematics and Model Physics (CHAMMP), and Quantitative Links programs to form DOE`s contribution to the US Global Change Research Program.

  15. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1992 to the DOE Office of Energy Research. Part 2, Environmental sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grove, L.K. [ed.; Wildung, R.E.

    1993-03-01

    The 1992 Annual Report from Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to the US Department of Energy (DOE) describes research in environment and health conducted during fiscal year 1992. This report consists of four volumes oriented to particular segments of the PNL program, describing research performed for the DOE Office of Health and Environmental Research in the Office of Energy Research. The parts of the 1992 Annual Report are: Biomedical Sciences; Environmental Sciences; Atmospheric Sciences; and Physical Sciences. This Report is Part 2: Environmental Sciences. Included in this report are developments in Subsurface Science, Terrestrial Science, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development, Interactions with Educational Institutions, Technology Transfer, Publications, and Presentations. The research is directed toward developing a fundamental understanding of subsurface and terrestrial systems as a basis for both managing these critical resources and addressing environmental problems such as environmental restoration and global change. The Technology Transfer section of this report describes a number of examples in which fundamental research is laying the groundwork for the technology needed to resolve important environmental problems. The Interactions with Educational Institutions section of the report illustrates the results of a long-term, proactive program to make PNL facilities available for university and preuniversity education and to involve educational institutions in research programs. The areas under investigation include the effect of geochemical and physical phenomena on the diversity and function of microorganisms in deep subsurface environments, ways to address subsurface heterogeneity, and ways to determine the key biochemical and physiological pathways (and DNA markers) that control nutrient, water, and energy dynamics in arid ecosystems and the response of these systems to disturbance and climatic change.

  16. Economic Impact of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory on the State of Washington in Fiscal Year 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, Michael J.; Niemeyer, Jackie M.

    2015-11-09

    PNNL is a large economic entity with a total of 4,308 employees, $939 million (M) in total funding, and $1.02 billion (B) in total spending during FY 2014. The number of employees that live in Washington State is 4,026 or 93 percent of the Laboratory staff. he Laboratory directly and indirectly supported $1.45 billion in economic output, 6,832 jobs, and $517 million in Washington State wage income from current operations. The state also gained more than $1.19 billion in output, over 6,200 jobs, and $444 million in income through closely related economic activities such as visitors, health care spending, spending by resident retirees, and spinoff companies. PNNL affects Washington’s economy through commonly recognized economic channels, including spending on payrolls and other goods and services that support Laboratory operations. Less commonly recognized channels also have their own impacts and include company-supported spending on health care for its staff members and retirees, spending of its resident retirees, Laboratory visitor spending, and the economic activities in a growing constellation of “spinoff” companies founded on PNNL research, technology, and managerial expertise. PNNL also has a significant impact on science and technology education and community not-for-profit organizations. PNNL is an active participant in the future scientific enterprise in Washington with the state’s K-12 schools, colleges, and universities. The Laboratory sends staff members to the classroom and brings hundreds of students to the PNNL campus to help train the next generation of scientists, engineers, mathematicians, and technicians. This investment in human capital, though difficult to measure in terms of current dollars of economic output, is among the important lasting legacies of the Laboratory. Finally, PNNL contributes to the local community with millions of dollars’ worth of cash and in-kind corporate and staff contributions, all of which strengthen the

  17. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) spent fuel transportation and handling facility models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrews, W.B.; Bower, J.C.; Burnett, R.A.; Engel, R.L.; Rolland, C.W.

    1979-09-01

    A spent fuel logistics study was conducted in support of the US DOE program to develop facilities for preparing spent unreprocessed fuel from commercial LWRs for geological storage. Two computerized logistics models were developed. The first one was the site evaluation model. Two studies of spent fuel handling facility and spent fuel disposal facility siting were completed; the first postulates a single spent fuel handling facility located at any of six DOE laboratory sites, while the second study examined siting strategies with the spent fuel repository relative to the spent fuel handling facility. A second model to conduct storage/handling facility simulations was developed

  18. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1990 to the DOE Office of Energy Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J.F.

    1991-06-01

    This report summarizes progress on OHER human health, biological, and general life sciences research programs conducted at PNL in FY 1990. The research develops the knowledge and scientific principles necessary to identify understand, and anticipate the long-term health consequences of energy-related radiation and chemicals. Our continuing emphasis is to decrease the uncertainty of health risk estimates from existing and developing energy-related technologies through an increased of understanding of how radiation and chemicals cause biological damage. The sequence of this report of PNL research reflects the OHER programmatic structure. The first section, on human health research, concerns epidemiological and statistical studies for assessing health risks. The next section contains reports of biological research in laboratory animals and in vitro cell systems, including research with radionuclides and chemicals. The general life sciences research section reports research conducted for the OHER human genome research program

  19. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1990 to the DOE Office of Energy Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, J.F.

    1991-06-01

    This report summarizes progress on OHER human health, biological, and general life sciences research programs conducted at PNL in FY 1990. The research develops the knowledge and scientific principles necessary to identify understand, and anticipate the long-term health consequences of energy-related radiation and chemicals. Our continuing emphasis is to decrease the uncertainty of health risk estimates from existing and developing energy-related technologies through an increased of understanding of how radiation and chemicals cause biological damage. The sequence of this report of PNL research reflects the OHER programmatic structure. The first section, on human health research, concerns epidemiological and statistical studies for assessing health risks. The next section contains reports of biological research in laboratory animals and in vitro cell systems, including research with radionuclides and chemicals. The general life sciences research section reports research conducted for the OHER human genome research program.

  20. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1989 to the DOE Office of Energy Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J.F.

    1990-05-01

    This report summarizes progress on OHER human health, biological, general life sciences, and medical applications research programs conducted at PNL in FY 1989. The research develops the knowledge and scientific principles necessary to identify, understand, and anticipate the long-term health consequences of energy-related radiation and chemicals. Our continuing emphasis is to decrease the uncertainty of health risk estimates from existing and developing energy-related technologies through an increased understanding of how radiation and chemicals cause biological damage. The sequence of this report of PNL research reflects the OHER programmatic structure. The first section, on human health research, concerns statistical and epidemiological studies for assessing health risks. The next section contains reports of biological research in laboratory animals and in vitro cell systems, including research with radionuclides and chemicals. The general life sciences research section reports research conducted for the OHER human genome research program, and the medical applications section summarizes commercial radioisotope production and distribution activities at DOE facilities. 6 refs., 50 figs., 35 tabs

  1. Pacific Northwest Laboratory report on controlled thermonuclear reactor technology, January 1975--September 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-10-01

    The PNL staff has been studying fusion technology in areas such as economics, fusion-fission hybrid concepts, materials, neutronics, environment and safety. These studies have been scoped to make efficient use of ERDA resources, and to complement and support efforts at other laboratories. The effect the plasma and associated radiation and emission will have upon the surfaces of the first wall are being studied. Neutron sputtering experiments were made on niobium and gold and the results were evaluated for absolute neutron yields. Molybdenum and vanadium were studied for effects of ion bombardment under various conditions of helium injection. Graphite cloth is being irradiated for examination of radiation effects because it is suggested for use in several CTR concepts as a shield between the plasma and the first wall. Helium effects are being studied to characterize degradation of structural metal properties. Work is progressing on absolute measurement of the electrical resistivity of insulators and the demonstration of the feasibility of producing insulating coatings by sputter deposition

  2. Pacific Northwest Laboratory: Annual report for 1986 to the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety and Health: Part 5, Nuclear and operational safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faust, L.G.; Kennedy, W.E.; Steelman, B.L.; Selby, J.M.

    1987-02-01

    Part 5 of the 1986 Annual Report to the Department of Energy's Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety and Health presents Pacific Northwest Laboratory's progress on work performed for the Office of Nuclear Safety, the Office of Operational Safety, and for the Office of Environmental Analysis. For each project, as identified by the Field Task Proposal/Agreement, articles describe progress made during fiscal year 1986. Authors of these articles represent a broad spectrum of capabilities derived from three of the seven research departments of the Laboratory, reflecting the interdisciplinary nature of the work.

  3. Pacific Northwest Laboratory: Annual report for 1986 to the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety and Health: Part 5, Nuclear and operational safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faust, L.G.; Kennedy, W.E.; Steelman, B.L.; Selby, J.M.

    1987-02-01

    Part 5 of the 1986 Annual Report to the Department of Energy's Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety and Health presents Pacific Northwest Laboratory's progress on work performed for the Office of Nuclear Safety, the Office of Operational Safety, and for the Office of Environmental Analysis. For each project, as identified by the Field Task Proposal/Agreement, articles describe progress made during fiscal year 1986. Authors of these articles represent a broad spectrum of capabilities derived from three of the seven research departments of the Laboratory, reflecting the interdisciplinary nature of the work

  4. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1987 to the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety, and Health: Part 5: Environment, safety, health, and quality assurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faust, L.G.; Steelman, B.L.; Selby, J.M.

    1988-02-01

    Part 5 of the 1987 Annual Report to the US Department of Energy's Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety, and Health presents Pacific Northwest Laboratory's progress on work performed for the Office of Nuclear Safety, the Office of Environmental Guidance and Compliance, the Office of Environmental Audit, and the Office of National Environmental Policy Act Project Assistance. For each project, as identified by the Field Work Proposal, articles describe progress made during fiscal year 1987. Authors of these articles represent a broad spectrum of capabilities derived from five of the seven technical centers of the Laboratory, reflecting the interdisciplinary nature of the work

  5. Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC (BEA) 2016 Self-Assessment Report for Idaho National Laboratory (INL)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez, Juan [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-10-01

    This report provides Battelle Energy Alliance’s (BEA) self-assessment of performance for the period of October 1, 2015, through September 30, 2016, as evaluated against the goals, performance objectives, and notable outcomes defined in the Fiscal Year (FY) 2016 Performance Evaluation and Measurement Plan (PEMP). BEA took into consideration and consolidated all input provided from internal and external sources (e.g., Contractor Assurance System [CAS], program and customer feedback, external and independent reviews, and Department of Energy [DOE] Idaho Operations Office [ID] quarterly PEMP reports and Quarterly Evaluation Reports). The overall performance of BEA during this rating period was self-assessed as “Excellent,” exceeding expectations of performance in Goal 1.0, “Efficient and Effective Mission Accomplishment”; Goal 2.0, “Efficient and Effective Stewardship and Operation of Research Facilities”; and Goal 3.0, “Sound and Competent Leadership and Stewardship of the Laboratory.” BEA met or exceeded expectations for Mission Support Goals 4.0 through 7.0 assessing a final multiplier of 1.0. Table 1 documents BEA’s assessment of performance to the goals and individual performance objectives. Table 2 documents completion of the notable outcomes. A more-detailed assessment of performance for each individual performance objective is documented in the closeout reports (see the PEMP reporting system). Table 3 includes an update to “Performance Challenges” as reported in the FY 2015 Self-Assessment Report.

  6. An exploratory investigation of the translation of Pacific Northwest Laboratory`s print manuals system to an on-line manuals system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heubach, J.G.; Hunt, S.T.; Pond, L.R.

    1992-06-01

    Information management technology has proliferated in the past decade in response to the information explosion. As documentation accumulates, the need to access information residing in manuals, handbooks and regulations conveniently, accurately, and quickly has increased. However, studies show that only fractions of the available information is read (Martin, 1978). Consequently, one of the biggest challenges in linking information and electronic management of information is to use the power of communication technology to meet the information needs of the audience. Pacific Northwest Laboratories` (PNL) investigation of translating its print manual system to an on-line system fits this challenge precisely. PNL`s manuals contain a tremendous amount of information for which manual holders are responsible. To perform their tasks in compliance with policy and procedure guidelines, users need to access information accurately, conveniently, and quickly. In order to select and use information management tools wisely, answers must be sought to a few basic questions. Communication experts cite four key questions: What do users want? What do users need? What characteristics of an on-line information system affect its usefulness? Who are the users whose wants and needs are to be met? Once these questions are answered, attention can be focused on finding the best match between user requirements and technology characteristics and weighing the costs and benefits of proposed options.

  7. Science to support DOE site cleanup: The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Environmental Management Science Program awards. Fiscal year 1998 mid-year progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-05-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory was awarded ten (10) Environmental Management Science Program (EMSP) research grants in Fiscal Year 1996 and six (6) in Fiscal Year 1997. This section summarizes how each grant addresses significant US Department of Energy (DOE) cleanup issues, including those at the Hanford Site. The technical progress made to date in each of these research projects is addressed in more detail in the individual progress reports contained in this document. This research is focused primarily in four areas: Tank Waste Remediation, Spent Nuclear Fuel and Nuclear Materials, Soil and Groundwater Cleanup, and Health Effects

  8. Science to support DOE site cleanup: The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Environmental Management Science Program awards. Fiscal year 1997, mid-year progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-06-01

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory was awarded ten Environmental Management Science Program (EMSP) research grants in Fiscal Year 1996. This report gives a summary of how each grant is addressing significant DOE cleanup issues, including those at the Hanford Site. The technical progress made to date in each of these research projects is addressed in more detail in the individual progress reports contained in this document. This research is primarily focused in three areas--Tank Waste Remediation, Soil and Groundwater Cleanup, and Health Effects

  9. Science to support DOE site cleanup: The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Environmental Management Science Program awards. Fiscal year 1998 mid-year progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-05-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory was awarded ten (10) Environmental Management Science Program (EMSP) research grants in Fiscal Year 1996 and six (6) in Fiscal Year 1997. This section summarizes how each grant addresses significant US Department of Energy (DOE) cleanup issues, including those at the Hanford Site. The technical progress made to date in each of these research projects is addressed in more detail in the individual progress reports contained in this document. This research is focused primarily in four areas: Tank Waste Remediation, Spent Nuclear Fuel and Nuclear Materials, Soil and Groundwater Cleanup, and Health Effects.

  10. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1979 to the DOE Assistant Secretary for Environment. Part 5. Environmental assessment, control, health, and safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baalman, R.W.; Dotson, C.W. (eds.)

    1980-02-01

    Part 5 of the 1979 Annual Report to the Department of Energy Assistant Secretary for the Environment presents Pacific Northwest Laboratory's progress on work performed for the Office of Technology Impacts, the Office of Environmental Compliance and Overview, and the Office of Health and Environmental Research. The report is in four sections, corresponding to the program elements: technology impacts, environmental control engineering, operational and environmental compliance, and human health studies. In each section, articles describe progress made during FY 1979 on individual projects.

  11. Science to support DOE site cleanup: The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Environmental Management Science Program awards. Fiscal year 1997 mid-year progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory was awarded ten Environmental Management Science Program (EMSP) research grants in Fiscal Year 1996. This report gives a summary of how each grant is addressing significant DOE cleanup issues, including those at the Hanford Site. The technical progress made to date in each of these research projects is addressed in more detail in the individual progress reports contained in this document. This research is primarily focused in three areas--Tank Waste Remediation, Soil and Groundwater Cleanup, and Health Effects.

  12. Science to Support DOE Site Cleanup: The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Environmental Management Science Program Awards-Fiscal Year 1999 Mid-Year Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peurrung, L.M.

    1999-06-30

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory was awarded ten Environmental Management Science Program (EMSP) research grants in fiscal year 1996, six in fiscal year 1997, and eight in fiscal year 1998. This section summarizes how each grant addresses significant U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) cleanup issues, including those at the Hanford Site. The technical progress made to date in each of these research projects is addressed in more detail in the individual progress reports contained in this document. This research is focused primarily in five areas: Tank Waste Remediation, Decontamination and Decommissioning, Spent Nuclear Fuel and Nuclear Materials, Soil and Groundwater Clean Up, and Health Effects.

  13. Science to Support DOE Site Cleanup: The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Environmental Management Science Program Awards-Fiscal Year 1999 Mid-Year Progress Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peurrung, L.M.

    1999-05-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory was awarded ten Environmental Management Science Program (EMSP) research grants in fiscal year 1996, six in fiscal year 1997, and eight in fiscal year 1998. This section summarizes how each grant addresses significant U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) cleanup issues, including those at the Hanford Site. The technical progress made to date in each of these research projects is addressed in more detail in the individual progress reports contained in this document. This research is focused primarily in five areas: Tank Waste Remediation, Decontamination and Decommissioning, Spent Nuclear Fuel and Nuclear Materials, Soil and Groundwater Clean Up, and Health Effects

  14. Pacific Northwest regional AGU meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, R.; Hinthome, J.

    The 28th Annual Pacific Northwest Regional American Geophysical Union Meeting, September 13-20, 1981, was hosted by the Department of Geology at Central Washington University, Ellensburg, Washington. A total of 31 papers was presented to the 91 registrants in two general sessions. Topics included seismology, general geophysics, volcanology, hydrology, oceanography, and two special symposia: Tectonics of the Columbia Plateau and Neogene —Quaternary Faults of the Pacific Northwest' and ‘Studies of the Eruption of Mount Saint Helens.’ Before and after the formal meetings, several field conferences were conducted to examine the Neogene tectonics of the Coast Range (Bob Bentley, Al Niem, and Ray Wells, leaders); the Columbia River Gorge (Bob Bentley, Marv Beeson, and Terry Tolan, leaders); the western Columbia Plateau northsouth transect (Bob Bentley and Jim Anderson, leaders); Quaternary structures of the Toppenish Ridge anticline (Don Tahkeal, Newell Campbell, and Bob Bentley, leaders); the Umtanum imbricate fault zone and pre-Saddle Mountains unconformity near Priest Rapids Dam (Ed Price and Bob Bentley, leaders); and the Yakima anticlines in the Cle Elum-Wallula deformed zone between Ellensburg and Yakima (Bob Bentley, leader).

  15. Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC (BEA) 2016 Self-Assessment Report for Idaho National Laboratory (INL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, Juan

    2016-01-01

    This report provides Battelle Energy Alliance's (BEA) self-assessment of performance for the period of October 1, 2015, through September 30, 2016, as evaluated against the goals, performance objectives, and notable outcomes defined in the Fiscal Year (FY) 2016 Performance Evaluation and Measurement Plan (PEMP). BEA took into consideration and consolidated all input provided from internal and external sources (e.g., Contractor Assurance System [CAS], program and customer feedback, external and independent reviews, and Department of Energy [DOE] Idaho Operations Office [ID] quarterly PEMP reports and Quarterly Evaluation Reports). The overall performance of BEA during this rating period was self-assessed as 'Excellent,' exceeding expectations of performance in Goal 1.0, 'Efficient and Effective Mission Accomplishment'; Goal 2.0, 'Efficient and Effective Stewardship and Operation of Research Facilities'; and Goal 3.0, 'Sound and Competent Leadership and Stewardship of the Laboratory.' BEA met or exceeded expectations for Mission Support Goals 4.0 through 7.0 assessing a final multiplier of 1.0. Table 1 documents BEA's assessment of performance to the goals and individual performance objectives. Table 2 documents completion of the notable outcomes. A more-detailed assessment of performance for each individual performance objective is documented in the closeout reports (see the PEMP reporting system). Table 3 includes an update to 'Performance Challenges' as reported in the FY 2015 Self-Assessment Report.

  16. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1989 to the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety, and Health - Part 5: Environment, Safety, Health, and Quality Assurance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faust, L.G.; Doctor, P.G.; Selby, J.M.

    1990-04-01

    Part 5 of the 1989 Annual Report to the US Department of Energy's Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety, and Health presents Pacific Northwest Laboratory's progress on work performed for the Office of Environmental Guidance and Compliance, the Office of Environmental Audit, the Office of National Environmental Policy Act Project Assistance, the Office of Nuclear Safety, the Office of Safety Compliance, and the Office of Policy and Standards. For each project, as identified by the Field Work Proposal, there is an article describing progress made during fiscal year 1989. Authors of these articles represent a broad spectrum of capabilities derived from five of the seven technical centers of the Laboratory, reflecting the interdisciplinary nature of the work. 35 refs., 1 fig.

  17. Science to Support DOE Site Cleanup: The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Environmental Management Science Program Awards -- Fiscal Year 2002 Mid-Year Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bredt, Paul R.; Ainsworth, Calvin C.; Brockman, Fred J.; Camaioni, Donald M.; Egorov, Oleg B.; Felmy, Andrew R.; Gorby, Yuri A.; Grate, Jay W.; Greenwood, Margaret S.; Hay, Benjamin P.; Hess, Nancy J.; Hubler, Timothy L.; Icenhower, Jonathan P.; Mattigod, Shas V.; McGrail, B. Peter; Meyer, Philip D.; Murray, Christopher J.; Panetta, Paul D.; Pfund, David M.; Rai, Dhanpat; Su, Yali; Sundaram, S. K.; Weber, William J.; Zachara, John M.

    2002-06-11

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory has been awarded a total of 80 Environmental Management Science Program (EMSP) research grants since the inception of the program in 1996. The Laboratory has collaborated on an additional 14 EMSP awards with funding received through other institution. This report describes how each of the projects awarded in 1999, 2000, and 2001 addresses significant U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) cleanup issues, including those at the Hanford Site. The technical progress made to date in each of these research projects is addressed in the individual project reports included in this document. Projects are under way in three main areas: Tank Waste Remediation, Decontamination and Decommissioning, and Soil and Groundwater Cleanup.

  18. 1993 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1993-12-01

    The Loads and Resources Study is presented in three documents: (1) this summary of Federal system and Pacific Northwest region loads and resources; (2) a technical appendix detailing forecasted Pacific Northwest economic trends and loads, and (3) a technical appendix detailing the loads and resources for each major Pacific Northwest generating utility. In this loads and resources study, resource availability is compared with a range of forecasted electricity consumption. The forecasted future electricity demands -- firm loads -- are subtracted from the projected capability of existing and {open_quotes}contracted for{close_quotes} resources to determine whether Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and the region will be surplus or deficit. If resources are greater than loads in any particular year or month, there is a surplus of energy and/or capacity, which BPA can sell to increase revenues. Conversely, if firm loads exceed available resources, there is a deficit of energy and/or capacity, and additional conservation, contract purchases, or generating resources will be needed to meet load growth. The Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study analyzes the Pacific Northwest`s projected loads and available generating resources in two parts: (1) the loads and resources of the Federal system, for which BPA is the marketing agency; and (2) the larger Pacific Northwest regional power system, which includes loads and resource in addition to the Federal system. The loads and resources analysis in this study simulates the operation of the power system under the Pacific Northwest Coordination Agreement (PNCA) produced by the Pacific Northwest Coordinating Group. This study presents the Federal system and regional analyses for five load forecasts: high, medium-high, medium, medium-low, and low. This analysis projects the yearly average energy consumption and resource availability for Operating Years (OY) 1994--95 through 2003--04.

  19. 1994 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1994-12-01

    The 1994 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study presented herein establishes a picture of how the agency is positioned today in its loads and resources balance. It is a snapshot of expected resource operation, contractual obligations, and rights. This study does not attempt to present or analyze future conservation or generation resource scenarios. What it does provide are base case assumptions from which scenarios encompassing a wide range of uncertainties about BPA`s future may be evaluated. The Loads and Resources Study is presented in two documents: (1) this summary of Federal system and Pacific Northwest region loads and resources and (2) a technical appendix detailing the loads and resources for each major Pacific Northwest generating utility. This analysis updates the 1993 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study, published in December 1993. In this loads and resources study, resource availability is compared with a range of forecasted electricity consumption. The Federal system and regional analyses for medium load forecast are presented.

  20. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1980 to the DOE Assistant Secretary for Environment. Part 5. Environmental assessment, control, health and safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baalman, R.W.; Hays, I.D.

    1981-02-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory's (PNL) 1980 annual report to the DOE Assistant Secretary for Environment describes research in environment, health, and safety conducted during fiscal year 1980. Part 5 includes technology assessments for natural gas, enhanced oil recovery, oil shale, uranium mining, magnetic fusion energy, solar energy, uranium enrichment and industrial energy utilization; regional analysis studies of environmental transport and community impacts; environmental and safety engineering for LNG, oil spills, LPG, shale oil waste waters, geothermal liquid waste disposal, compressed air energy storage, and nuclear/fusion fuel cycles; operational and environmental safety studies of decommissioning, environmental monitoring, personnel dosimetry, and analysis of criticality safety; health physics studies; and epidemiological studies. Also included are an author index, organization of PNL charts and distribution lists of the annual report, along with lists of presentations and publications

  1. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1989 to the DOE (Department of Energy) Office of Energy Research - Part 2: Environmental Sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-03-01

    This report summarizes progress in environmental sciences research conducted by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PBL) for the Office of Health and Environmental Research in FY 1989. Research is directed toward developing a fundamental understanding of processes controlling the long-term fate and biological effects of fugitive chemicals and other stressors resulting from energy development. The report is organized by major research areas. Within this division, individual reports summarize the progress of projects in these areas. Additional sections summarize exploratory research, educational institutional interactions, technology transfer, and publications. The research, focused principally on subsurface contaminant transport and detection and management of human-induced changes in biological systems, forms the basis for defining and quantifying processes that affect humans and the environment at the local, regional, and global levels.

  2. Science to Support DOE Site Cleanup: The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Environmental Management Science Program Awards - Fiscal Year 2000 Mid-Year Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CD Carlson; SQ Bennett

    2000-07-25

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory was awarded ten Environmental Management Science Program (EMSP) research grants in fiscal year 1996, six in fiscal year 1997, eight in fiscal year 1998, and seven in fiscal year 1999. All of the fiscal year 1996 award projects have been completed and will publish final reports, so their annual updates will not be included in this document. This section summarizes how each of the currently funded grants addresses significant US Department of Energy (DOE) cleanup issues, including those at the Hanford Site. The technical progress made to date in each of these research projects is addressed in more detail in the individual progress reports contained in this document. This research performed at PNNL is focused primarily in four areas: Tank Waste Remediation; Decontamination and Decommissioning; Spent Nuclear Fuel and Nuclear Materials; and Soil and Groundwater Cleanup.

  3. Science to Support DOE Site Cleanup: The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Environmental Management Science Program Awards - Fiscal Year 2000 Mid-Year Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, Clark D.; Bennett, Sheila Q.

    2000-07-25

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory was awarded ten Environmental Management Science Program (EMSP) research grants in fiscal year 1996, six in fiscal year 1997, eight in fiscal year 1998 and seven in fiscal year 1999.(a) All of the fiscal year 1996 awards have been completed and the Principal Investigators are writing final reports, so their summaries will not be included in this document. This section summarizes how each of the currently funded grants addresses significant U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) cleanup issues, including those at the Hanford Site. The technical progress made to date in each of these research projects is addressed in more detail in the individual progress reports contained in this document. This research performed at PNNL is focused primarily in four areas: Tank Waste Remediation, Decontamination and Decommissioning, Spent Nuclear Fuel and Nuclear Materials, and Soil and Groundwater Cleanup.

  4. Science to Support DOE Site Cleanup: The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Environmental Management Science Program Awards - Fiscal Year 2000 Mid-Year Progress Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CD Carlson; SQ Bennett

    2000-01-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory was awarded ten Environmental Management Science Program (EMSP) research grants in fiscal year 1996, six in fiscal year 1997, eight in fiscal year 1998, and seven in fiscal year 1999. All of the fiscal year 1996 award projects have been completed and will publish final reports, so their annual updates will not be included in this document. This section summarizes how each of the currently funded grants addresses significant US Department of Energy (DOE) cleanup issues, including those at the Hanford Site. The technical progress made to date in each of these research projects is addressed in more detail in the individual progress reports contained in this document. This research performed at PNNL is focused primarily in four areas: Tank Waste Remediation; Decontamination and Decommissioning; Spent Nuclear Fuel and Nuclear Materials; and Soil and Groundwater Cleanup

  5. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1980 to the DOE Assistant Secretary for Environment. Part 5. Environmental assessment, control, health and safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baalman, R.W.; Hays, I.D. (eds.)

    1981-02-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory's (PNL) 1980 annual report to the DOE Assistant Secretary for Environment describes research in environment, health, and safety conducted during fiscal year 1980. Part 5 includes technology assessments for natural gas, enhanced oil recovery, oil shale, uranium mining, magnetic fusion energy, solar energy, uranium enrichment and industrial energy utilization; regional analysis studies of environmental transport and community impacts; environmental and safety engineering for LNG, oil spills, LPG, shale oil waste waters, geothermal liquid waste disposal, compressed air energy storage, and nuclear/fusion fuel cycles; operational and environmental safety studies of decommissioning, environmental monitoring, personnel dosimetry, and analysis of criticality safety; health physics studies; and epidemiological studies. Also included are an author index, organization of PNL charts and distribution lists of the annual report, along with lists of presentations and publications. (DLS)

  6. The Pacific northwest stream quality assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Metre, Peter C.; Morace, Jennifer L.; Sheibley, Rich W.

    2015-01-01

    In 2015, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) program is assessing stream quality in the Pacific Northwest. The goals of the Pacific Northwest Stream Quality Assessment (Pacific Northwest study) are to assess the quality of streams in the region by characterizing multiple water-quality factors that are stressors to aquatic life and to evaluate the relation between these stressors and biological communities. The effects of urbanization and agriculture on stream quality for the Puget Lowlands and Willamette Valley are the focus of this regional study. Findings will provide the public and policymakers with information regarding which human and environmental factors are the most critical in affecting stream quality and, thus, provide insights about possible approaches to protect or improve the health of streams in the region.

  7. Solar Energy for Pacific Northwest Buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, John S.

    Data presented in this report indicate that solar space and water heating are possible in the Pacific Northwest. The first section of the report contains solar records from several stations in the region illustrating space heating needs that could be met, on an average daily basis, by solar energy. The data are summarized, and some preliminary…

  8. SCIENCE, POLITICS, AND PACIFIC NORTHWEST SALMON RECOVERY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Throughout the Pacific Northwest, since 1850, all wild salmon runs have declined and some have disappeared. Billions of dollars have been spent in a so-far failed attempt to reverse the long-term decline. Each year, hundreds of millions of dollars continue to be spent in variou...

  9. 1996 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1996-12-01

    The Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study (White Book) is published annually by BPA and establishes the planning basis for supplying electricity to customers. It serves a dual purpose. First, the White Book presents projections of regional and Federal system load and resource capabilities, along with relevant definitions and explanations. Second, the White Book serves as a benchmark for annual BPA determinations made pursuant to the 1981 regional power sales contracts. Specifically, BPA uses the information in the White Book for determining the notice required when customers request to increase or decrease the amount of power purchased from BPA. Aside from these purposes, the White Book is used for input to BPA`s resource planning process. The White Book compiles information obtained from several formalized resource planning reports and data submittals, including those from the Northwest Power Planning Council (Council) and the Pacific Northwest Utilities Conference Committee (PNUCC). 11 figs., 12 tabs.

  10. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1989 to the DOE (Department of Energy) Office of Energy Research - Part 3: Atmospheric Sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-06-01

    This 1989 Annual Report from Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to the US Department of Energy (DOE) describes research in environment, safety, and health conducted during fiscal year 1989. The report again consists of five parts, each in a separate volume. This volume contains research in the atmospheric sciences. Currently, the broad goals of atmospheric research at PNL are to describe and predict the nature and fate of atmospheric contaminants and to develop an understanding of the atmospheric processes contributing to their distribution on local, regional, continental, and global scales in the air, in clouds, and on the surface. The redistribution and long-range transport of transformed contaminants passing through clouds is recognized as a necessary extension of our research to even larger scales in the future. Eventually, large-scale experiments on cloud processing and redistribution of contaminants will be integrated into the national program on global change, investigating how energy pollutants affect aerosols and clouds and the transfer of radiant energy through them. As the significance of this effect becomes clear, its global impact on climate will be studied through experimental and modeling research. The description of ongoing atmospheric research at PNL is organized in terms of the following study areas: atmospheric studies in complex terrain, large-scale atmospheric transport and processing of emissions, and climate change. This report describes the progress in FY 1989 in each of these areas. A divider page summarizes the goals of each area and lists project titles that support research activities. 9 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. An exploratory investigation of the translation of Pacific Northwest Laboratory's print manuals system to an on-line manuals system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heubach, J.G.; Hunt, S.T.; Pond, L.R.

    1992-06-01

    Information management technology has proliferated in the past decade in response to the information explosion. As documentation accumulates, the need to access information residing in manuals, handbooks and regulations conveniently, accurately, and quickly has increased. However, studies show that only fractions of the available information is read (Martin, 1978). Consequently, one of the biggest challenges in linking information and electronic management of information is to use the power of communication technology to meet the information needs of the audience. Pacific Northwest Laboratories' (PNL) investigation of translating its print manual system to an on-line system fits this challenge precisely. PNL's manuals contain a tremendous amount of information for which manual holders are responsible. To perform their tasks in compliance with policy and procedure guidelines, users need to access information accurately, conveniently, and quickly. In order to select and use information management tools wisely, answers must be sought to a few basic questions. Communication experts cite four key questions: What do users want What do users need What characteristics of an on-line information system affect its usefulness Who are the users whose wants and needs are to be met Once these questions are answered, attention can be focused on finding the best match between user requirements and technology characteristics and weighing the costs and benefits of proposed options.

  12. CRADA with Beckman Instruments and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNL-013): Development and commercialization of the Unsaturated Flow Apparatus (UFA) using characterization of aridisols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, J.; Conca, J.

    1996-10-01

    The objective of this Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) was to develop and commercialize a technology conceived by scientists at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and manufactured by Beckman Instruments, Inc. (Beckman), and to apply this technology to the characterization of and soils. The technology is the Unsaturated Flow Apparatus (UFA). The UFA provides a highly efficient method of direct, rapid measurement of hydraulic conductivity and other flow properties according to Darcy-Buckingham principles because the operator controls both the fluid driving force, using an ultracentrifuge, and the flow into the sample while it is spinning, with a rotating seal assembly. The concept of using centrifugation to significantly decrease the time needed, from years or months to days, for study of subsurface transport, particularly under unsaturated conditions, was conceived by James Conca, Ph.D., and Judith Wright, Ph.D., in 1986. The prototype UFA was developed in 1988 because there was a need to rapidly and accurately determine transport parameters in soils, sediments, and rocks for the Grout Waste Disposal Program. Transport parameters are critical to modeling outcomes for site-specific solutions to environmental remediation and waste disposal problems.

  13. 1991 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1991-12-01

    This study establishes the Bonneville Power Administration's (BPA) planning basis for supplying electricity to BPA customers. The Loads and Resources Study is presented in three documents: (1) this summary of federal system and Pacific Northwest region loads and resources; (2) a technical appendix detailing forecasted Pacific Northwest economic trends and loads, and (3) a technical appendix detailing the loads and resources for each major Pacific Northwest generating utility. This analysis updates our 1990 study. BPS's long-range planning incorporates resource availability with a range of forecasted electrical consumption. The forecasted future electrical demands-firm loads--are subtracted from the projected capability of existing resources to determine whether BPA and the region will be surplus or deficit. If resources are greater than loads in any particular year or month, there is a surplus of energy and/or capacity, which BPA can sell to increase revenues. Conversely, if firm loads exceed available resources, there is a deficit of energy and/or capacity, then additional conservation, contract purchases, or generating resources will be needed to meet load growth. This study analyzes the Pacific Northwest's projected loads and available generating resources in two parts: (1) the loads and resources of the federal system, for which BPA is the marketing agency; and (2) the larger Pacific Northwest regional profile, which includes loads and resources in addition to the federal system. This study presents the federal system and regional analyses for five load forecasts: high, medium-high, medium, medium-low, and low. This analysis projects the yearly average energy consumption and resource availability for 1992- 2012.

  14. Regional climate change for the Pacific Northwest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McBean, G.A.; Thomas, G.

    1991-01-01

    The Pacific Northwest climate is dominated by topography and the Pacific Ocean; the forests have become adapted to the present climate. Within short distances there are large changes in precipitation and temperature, with resultant changes in ecosystems. As the atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases increase, global climate is expected to warm and precipitation to increase. Global climate model simulations show enhanced warming at high northern latitudes. For the Pacific Northwest, models show 2-6 degree C warming and increased precipitation in the winter for doubled atmospheric CO 2 concentration. However, the regional details of these models are presently not very reliable. The results and limitations of present global climate models are reviewed. The roles of the oceans, clouds, and other feedback mechanisms are described along with some of the possible impacts of climate change on forest resources. 24 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  15. Environmental Assessment for moving the Pacific Northwest Laboratory radon generators from Life Sciences Laboratory II, Richland North Area, to Life Sciences Laboratory I, 300 Area, and their continued use in physical and biological research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, I.C.

    1993-01-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) radon generators are a core resource of the overall U. S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Radon Research Program and are administratively controlled within the ''Radon Hazards in Homes'' project. This project primarily focuses on radon exposures of animals and addresses the major biologic effects and factors influencing risks of indoor radon exposures. For example, the ''Mechanisms of Radon Injury'' and ''In vivo/In vitro Radon-Induced Cellular Damage'' projects specifically address the cytogenetic and DNA damage produced by radon exposure as part of a larger effort to understand radon carcinogenesis. Several other ongoing PNL projects, namely: ''Biological Effectiveness of Radon Alpha Particles: A Microbeam Study of Dose Rate Effects,'' ''Laser Measurements of Pb-210,'' ''Radon Transport Modeling in Soils,'' ''Oncogenes in Radiation Carcinogenesis,'' ''Mutation of DNA Targets,'' ''Dosimetry of Radon Progeny,'' and ''Aerosol Technology Development'' also use the radon exposure facilities in the conduct of their work. While most, but not all, studies in the PNL Radon Research Program are funded through DOE's Office of Health and Environmental Research, PNL also has ongoing collaborative radon studies with investigators worldwide; many of these use the radon exposure facilities. The purpose of the proposed action is to provide for relocation of the radon generators to a DOE-owned facility and to continue to provide a controlled source of radon-222 for continued use in physical and biological research

  16. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1989 to the DOE Office of Energy Research - Part 1: Biomedical Sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, J.F.

    1990-05-01

    This report summarizes progress on OHER human health, biological, general life sciences, and medical applications research programs conducted at PNL in FY 1989. The research develops the knowledge and scientific principles necessary to identify, understand, and anticipate the long-term health consequences of energy-related radiation and chemicals. Our continuing emphasis is to decrease the uncertainty of health risk estimates from existing and developing energy-related technologies through an increased understanding of how radiation and chemicals cause biological damage. The sequence of this report of PNL research reflects the OHER programmatic structure. The first section, on human health research, concerns statistical and epidemiological studies for assessing health risks. The next section contains reports of biological research in laboratory animals and in vitro cell systems, including research with radionuclides and chemicals. The general life sciences research section reports research conducted for the OHER human genome research program, and the medical applications section summarizes commercial radioisotope production and distribution activities at DOE facilities. 6 refs., 50 figs., 35 tabs.

  17. Pacific Northwest Laboratory report on controlled thermonuclear reactor technology, October 1975 - December 1975. [Fusion-fission hybrid systems research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1976-01-01

    Survey calculations are being made on three blanket configurations for a conceptual hybrid design based on a Two Component Torus (TCT) in a cooperative effort between Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) and PNL. Other studies are underway to provide background data in the design of a minimum thickness shield and a convertor region for the TCT hybrid. The effect the plasma and associated radiation and emission will have upon the surfaces of the first wall are being studied. A variety of metal targets were prepared for neutron irradiation and were evaluated. Radioactive recoil sputtering ratios are summarized with complete results being prepared for separate publication. The development and testing of the ion blistering equipment is continuing with the design and installation of a special differential pumping stage. Analysis of the molybdenum specimens irradiated for the initial BCC ion correlation experiment is completed and data from the participants have been compared. Graphite cloth and fibers irradiated in EBR-II to approximately 3 x 10/sup 21/ cm/sup -2/ at approximately 500/sup 0/C are being evaluated for radiation damage effects. Helium effects are being studied on five alloys specified in CTR conceptual designs. Tests were designed to determine the effects of oxidation potential on low-level contaminant/metal interactions. Niobium and vanadium are being studied for mechanical property effects after injection of helium by the tritium trick method. An advanced state-of-the-art Acoustics Emission Event Energy Analyzer (AEEEA) has been developed and tested.

  18. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1983 to the DOE Office of Energy Research. Part 1. Biomedical sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J.F.

    1984-02-01

    This report summarizes progress on Office of Health and Environmental Research (OHER) biomedical and health effects research conducted at PNL in FY 1983 to develop the information required for a comprehensive understanding of the interaction of energy-related pollutants with living organisms. The first section is devoted to an evaluation of possible health effects among nuclear workers. The next three sections, which contain reports of health effects research in biological systems, are grouped according to the major endpoint being studied: carcinogenesis, mutagenesis, and systems damage. Since some projects have multiple objectives, a section may contain data concerning other endpoints as well. The section on carcinogenesis presents results from laboratory animal dose-effect relationship studies from both nuclear and synfuels materials. These data, along with metabolism and modeling studies, provide a basis for predicting human risks in the absence of relevant human exposure. This year we include a report on our 22nd Hanford Life Sciences Symposium, which dealt with this problem of extrapolating the results of animal studies to man. Of particular importance in carcinogenesis has been the demonstration that the carcinogenic potencies of complex organic synfuel mixtures may be much lower (or, occasionally, higher) than the sum of the potencies of the individual components. The mutagenesis section is primarily concerned with the results of microbial mutagenesis studies with synfuel materials. These studies provide valuable information on the carcinogenic potential of these complex organic mixtures. With results from studies reported in the carcinogenesis section, they are also being used to establish an adequate data base for determining the correlation between mutagenic and carcinogenic processes. Separate abstracts have been prepared for each program for inclusion in the Energy Data Base

  19. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1983 to the DOE Office of Energy Research. Part 1. Biomedical sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, J.F.

    1984-02-01

    This report summarizes progress on Office of Health and Environmental Research (OHER) biomedical and health effects research conducted at PNL in FY 1983 to develop the information required for a comprehensive understanding of the interaction of energy-related pollutants with living organisms. The first section is devoted to an evaluation of possible health effects among nuclear workers. The next three sections, which contain reports of health effects research in biological systems, are grouped according to the major endpoint being studied: carcinogenesis, mutagenesis, and systems damage. Since some projects have multiple objectives, a section may contain data concerning other endpoints as well. The section on carcinogenesis presents results from laboratory animal dose-effect relationship studies from both nuclear and synfuels materials. These data, along with metabolism and modeling studies, provide a basis for predicting human risks in the absence of relevant human exposure. This year we include a report on our 22nd Hanford Life Sciences Symposium, which dealt with this problem of extrapolating the results of animal studies to man. Of particular importance in carcinogenesis has been the demonstration that the carcinogenic potencies of complex organic synfuel mixtures may be much lower (or, occasionally, higher) than the sum of the potencies of the individual components. The mutagenesis section is primarily concerned with the results of microbial mutagenesis studies with synfuel materials. These studies provide valuable information on the carcinogenic potential of these complex organic mixtures. With results from studies reported in the carcinogenesis section, they are also being used to establish an adequate data base for determining the correlation between mutagenic and carcinogenic processes. Separate abstracts have been prepared for each program for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.

  20. 1991 Pacific Northwest loads and resources study, Pacific Northwest economic and electricity use forecast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This publication provides detailed documentation of the load forecast scenarios and assumptions used in preparing BPA's 1991 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study (the Study). This is one of two technical appendices to the Study; the other appendix details the utility-specific loads and resources used in the Study. The load forecasts and assumption were developed jointly by Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and Northwest Power Planning Council (Council) staff. This forecast is also used in the Council's 1991 Northwest Conservation and Electric Power Plan (1991 Plan)

  1. 1999 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1999-12-01

    The Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study (White Book) is published annually by BPA and establishes the planning basis for supplying electricity to customers. It serves a dual purpose. First, the White Book presents projections of regional and Federal system load and resource capabilities, along with relevant definitions and explanations. Second, the White Book serves as a benchmark for annual BPA determinations made pursuant to its regional power sales contracts. Specifically, BPA uses the information in the White Book for determining the notice required when customers request to increase or decrease the amount of power purchased from BPA. The White Book will not be used in calculations for the 2002 regional power sales contract subscription process. The White Book compiles information obtained from several formalized resource planning reports and data submittals, including those from the Northwest Power Planning Council (Council) and the Pacific Northwest Utilities Conference Committee (PNUCC). The White Book is not an operational planning guide, nor is it used for determining BPA revenues. Operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) is based on a set of criteria different from that used for resource planning decisions. Operational planning is dependent upon real-time or near-term knowledge of system conditions, including expectations of river flows and runoff, market opportunities, availability of reservoir storage, energy exchanges, and other factors affecting the dynamics of operating a power system. In this loads and resources study, resource availability is compared with a medium forecast of electricity consumption. The forecasted future electricity demands--firm loads--are subtracted from the projected capability of existing and ''contracted for'' resources to determine whether BPA and the region will be surplus or deficit. If Federal system resources are greater than loads in any particular year or month, there is

  2. Summary of Adsorption Capacity and Adsorption Kinetics of Uranium and Other Elements on Amidoxime-based Adsorbents from Time Series Marine Testing at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gill, Gary A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Sequim, WA (United States). Marine Sciences Lab.; Kuo, Li-Jung [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Sequim, WA (United States). Marine Sciences Lab.; Strivens, Jonathan E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Sequim, WA (United States). Marine Sciences Lab.; Wood, Jordana R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Sequim, WA (United States). Marine Sciences Lab.; Schlafer, Nicholas J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Sequim, WA (United States). Marine Sciences Lab.; Janke, Christopher J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Das, Sadananda [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Mayes, Richard [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Saito, Tomonori [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Brown, Suree S. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Tsouris, Constantinos [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Tsouris, Costas [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wai, Chien M. [Univ. of Idaho, Moscow, ID (United States); LCW Supercritical Technologies, Seattle, WA (United States); Pan, Horng-Bin [Univ. of Idaho, Moscow, ID (United States)

    2016-09-29

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been conducting marine testing of uranium adsorbent materials for the Fuel Resources Program, Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE) beginning in FY 2012. The marine testing program is being conducted at PNNL’s Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL), located at Sequim Bay, along the coast of Washington. One of the main efforts of the marine testing program is the determination of adsorption capacity and adsorption kinetics for uranium and selected other elements (e.g. vanadium, iron, copper, nickel, and zinc) for adsorbent materials provided primarily by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), but also includes other Fuel Resources Program participants. This report summarizes the major marine testing results that have been obtained to date using time series sampling for 42 to 56 days using either flow-through column or recirculating flume exposures. The major results are highlighted in this report, and the full data sets are appended as a series of Excel spreadsheet files. Over the four year period (2012-2016) that marine testing of amidoxime-based polymeric adsorbents was conducted at PNNL’s Marine Science Laboratory, there has been a steady progression of improvement in the 56-day adsorbent capacity from 3.30 g U/kg adsorbent for the ORNL 38H adsorbent to the current best performing adsorbent prepared by a collaboration between the University of Tennessee and ORNL to produce the adsorbent SB12-8, which has an adsorption capacity of 6.56 g U/kg adsorbent. This nearly doubling of the adsorption capacity in four years is a significant advancement in amidoxime-based adsorbent technology and a significant achievement for the Uranium from Seawater program. The achievements are evident when compared to the several decades of work conducted by the Japanese scientists beginning in the 1980’s (Kim et al., 2013). The best adsorbent capacity reported by the Japanese scientists was 3.2 g U/kg adsorbent for a

  3. The public view of Pacific Northwest forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    West, P.R.

    1991-01-01

    There are diverse communities that make up the public in the Pacific Northwest, all with differing views on the forest. To the media, the public are those indirect stakeholders, or average citizens, who have become keenly aware of the importance of environmental issues, including the implications for global change. Linkages between the forests, deforestation, global climate change, and overall environmental sustainability have been widely publicized, though less frequently analyzed in depth. Consequently, the state of Northwest forests has become a vital public interest. The need for an overall margin of global environmental security, and a concern over unsuspected consequences of all economic activity (including forestry) have created a community of interest among the urban population. In part, this is a spillover effect from promoting individual environmental responsibility and the conserver ethic into issues beyond the city boundary. In the Northwest, this often translates as a deep concern over forest management issues and strong conviction that changes are needed. At the same time, and largely as a direct response, the socioeconomic interests of rural forest communities have become a high-profile issue, raising debate over local empowerment and local forest stewardship models. The consequences of this complex and rapidly evolving public view of the forests are critical to forest managers and policymakers. 12 refs

  4. 7 CFR 1124.2 - Pacific Northwest marketing area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Pacific Northwest marketing area. 1124.2 Section 1124.2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST MARKETING AREA Order...

  5. 2006 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    2006-03-01

    The Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study (White Book), which is published annually by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), establishes one of the planning bases for supplying electricity to customers. The White Book contains projections of regional and Federal system load and resource capabilities, along with relevant definitions and explanations. The White Book also contains information obtained from formalized resource planning reports and data submittals including those from individual utilities, the Northwest Power and Conservation Council (Council), and the Pacific Northwest Utilities Conference Committee (PNUCC). The White Book is not an operational planning guide, nor is it used for determining BPA revenues, although the database that generates the data for the White Book analysis contributes to the development of BPA's inventory and ratemaking processes. Operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) is based on a set of criteria different from that used for resource planning decisions. Operational planning is dependent upon real-time or near-term knowledge of system conditions that include expectations of river flows and runoff, market opportunities, availability of reservoir storage, energy exchanges, and other factors affecting the dynamics of operating a power system. The load resource balance of both the Federal system and the region is determined by comparing resource availability to an expected level of total retail electricity consumption. Resources include projected energy capability plus contract purchases. Loads include a forecast of retail obligations plus contract obligations. Surplus energy is available when resources are greater than loads. This surplus energy could be marketed to increase revenues. Energy deficits occur when resources are less than loads. These energy deficits will be met by any combination of the following: better-than-critical water conditions, demand-side management and conservation

  6. R. Lynette & Associates and Pacific Northwest Laboratory staff exchange: Analysis and evaluation of the application of the Pulse Amplitude Synthesis and Control (PASC) converter in a wind power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    The main objective of staff exchanges is to facilitate cooperative activities between PNL staff and U.S. private industry. Funding for the projects is provided by the DOE Office of Energy Research Laboratory Technology Transfer Program. Dr. Matthew Donnelly, a Research Engineer in the Applied Physics Center, Initiated a PNL disclosure for Pulse Amplitude Synthesis and Control (PASC) converter intellectual property protection in 1993. PASC converter research at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has been funded through the ETDI LDRD program. Recent work has centered on building the three-phase 20kW laboratory unit, the development of control algorithms and the study of the application of PASC converters in a 25MW wind power plant (through the staff exchange with RLA reported on here). An overview and description of the PASC converter is included as Appendix A.

  7. Gravimetric geoid in the Northwest Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, A. B.; Leeds, A. R.

    1977-01-01

    A total of 3708 1 x 1 deg free-air gravity anomaly averages have been used to construct a new 1 x 1 deg gravimetric geoid of the Northwest Pacific Ocean. The 1 x 1 deg averages are based on a compilation of 147,000 surface ship and pendulum gravity measurements. Difference geoid undulations range from a maximum of +19 m over the Hawaiian ridge to a minimum of -31 m over the junction of the Kuril and Aleutian trenches. The Hawaiian swell is associated with a geoidal high of up to +15 m with wavelengths of about 2200 km and the topographic rises seaward of deep-sea trenches are associated with geoidal highs of up to 4 m with wavelengths of about 220-900 km. The agreement between the gravimetric geoid and Skylab-4 and Geos-3 altimeter data is close for wavelengths greater than about 300 km but poor for shorter wavelengths.

  8. Pacific Northwest Storms Situation Report # 7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2006-12-21

    Despite a small storm that came through the area last night with wind gusts peaking at 45 MPH, progress continues to be made in restoring power to customers who lost power during the December 14-15 storms which hit the Pacific Northwest region. Currently, 95,971 customers remain without power, down from 1.8 million customers. The wind storm which affected the area yesterday was not as bad as previously expected, with the majority of the customer outages in the BC Hydro region, and 3,000 additional customer outages in the Puget Sound Energy service area. The customers without power represent 5 percent of customers in the affected utility service areas of Washington. The majority of customers without power are served by Puget Sound Energy, BC Hydro, and Seattle City Light.

  9. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1982 to the DOE Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environmental Protection, Safety and Emergency Preparedness. Part 5. Environmental and occupational protection, assessment, and engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bair, W.J.

    1983-02-01

    Part 5 of the 1982 Annual Report to the Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Protection, Safety and Emergency Preparedness presents Pacific Northwest Laboratory's progress on work performed for the Office of Environmental Programs, Office of Operational Safety, and the Office of Nuclear Safety. The report is in three sections, introduced by blue divider pages, corresponding to the program elements: Technology Impacts, Environmental and Safety Engineering, Operational and Environmental Safety. In each section, articles describe progress made during FY 1982 on individual projects, as identified by the Field Task Proposal/Agreement. Authors of these articles represent a broad spectrum of capabilities derived from various segments of the Laboratory, reflecting the interdisciplinary nature of the work

  10. 2004 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    2004-12-01

    The Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study (White Book), which is published annually by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), establishes one of the planning bases for supplying electricity to customers. The White Book contains projections of regional and Federal system load and resource capabilities, along with relevant definitions and explanations. The White Book also contains information obtained from formalized resource planning reports and data submittals including those from individual utilities, the Northwest Power and Conservation Council (Council), and the Pacific Northwest Utilities Conference Committee (PNUCC). The White Book is not an operational planning guide, nor is it used for determining BPA revenues, although the database that generates the data for the White Book analysis contributes to the development of BPA's inventory and ratemaking processes. Operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) is based on a set of criteria different from that used for resource planning decisions. Operational planning is dependent upon real-time or near-term knowledge of system conditions that include expectations of river flows and runoff, market opportunities, availability of reservoir storage, energy exchanges, and other factors affecting the dynamics of operating a power system. The load resource balance of BPA and/or the region is determined by comparing resource availability to an expected level of total retail electricity consumption. Resources include projected energy capability plus contract purchases. Loads include a forecast of retail obligations plus contract obligations. Surplus energy is available when resources are greater than loads. This energy could be marketed to increase revenues. Energy deficits occur when resources are less than loads. These deficits could be met by any combination of the following: better-than-critical water conditions, demand-side management and conservation programs, permanent loss of loads due

  11. Invasive crayfish in the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearl, Christopher A.; McCreary, Brome; Adams, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Invasive species directly threaten freshwater biodiversity, particularly in regions of high aquatic richness like the Pacific Northwest (PNW). Crayfish are among the most impactful of aquatic invasive species. Invasive crayfish are considered ecosystem engineers due to their ability to alter basic wetland properties, such as reducing vegetation and bank integrity and increasing turbidity. In areas where invasion is advanced, crayfish pose major economic and ecological problems. Crayfish have been widely introduced for aquaculture and can become established in a wide range of habitat conditions. They also may be spread by anglers who use them as bait. Several non-native crayfish are established in the PNW, but the extent of their invasion is not well known. At least two groups are known from scattered sites in the PNW, and both have proven problematic for native species in other parts of the world: Red swamp crayfish (Procambarus clarkii) and several members of the genus Orconectes. Both groups are native to areas of the eastern United States. Both are identified globally as invasives of high concern and appear on the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife's "10 Most Unwanted" and the U.S. Forest Service's "Primary Species of Concern" lists for stream systems in the PNW. Despite the presence of introduced crayfish in the PNW and their high potential for negative effects, the scope of their invasion and effects on aquatic systems are not well known. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), along with local groups and state agencies, is working to clarify crayfish distribution and to outline which basins may not yet be invaded. Other goals are to improve understanding of habitat associations of invasive crayfish and their potential effects on native crayfish.

  12. Statistical evaluation of Pacific Northwest Residential Energy Consumption Survey weather data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tawil, J.J.

    1986-02-01

    This report addresses an issue relating to energy consumption and conservation in the residential sector. BPA has obtained two meteorological data bases for use with its 1983 Pacific Northwest Residential Energy Survey (PNWRES). One data base consists of temperature data from weather stations; these have been aggregated to form a second data base that covers the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) climatic divisions. At BPA's request, Pacific Northwest Laboratory has produced a household energy use model for both electricity and natural gas in order to determine whether the statistically estimated parameters of the model significantly differ when the two different meteorological data bases are used.

  13. Rock the Watt: An Energy Conservation Campaign at Pacific Northwest National Lab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-01-01

    Case study describes Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's (PNNL) three-month Rock the Watt campaign to reduce energy use at its main campus in Richland, Washington. The campaign objectives were to educate PNNL employees about energy conservation opportunities in their workplace and to motivate them to help PNNL save energy and costs and to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.

  14. Maturation and reproduction of northern flying squirrels in Pacific Northwest forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisa J. Villa; Andrew B. Carey; Todd M. Wilson; Karma E. Glos

    1999-01-01

    Northern flying squirrels are the primary prey of northern spotted owls and are important dispersers of fungal spores in Pacific Northwest forests. Despite the importance of these squirrels in forest ecosystems, information is lacking on life history and methods for determining age and reproductive condition. In the laboratory, we measured epiphyseal notch, femur...

  15. Pacific Northwest residential energy survey. Volume 4. Pacific Northwest cross-tabulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-07-01

    Responses for the Pacific Northwest to fifty questions asked during the survey (plus four variables computed from responses to several other questions) cross-tabulated against responses to nine questions which represent key explanatory characteristics of residential energy use are presented. The nine key questions are: means of payment for housing; type of dwelling; year dwelling built; total square-footage of living space; type of fuel for main heating system; combined 1978 income; unit cost of electricity; annual electricity consumption; and annual natural gas consumption. The fifty questions and four computed variables which were cross-tabulated against the above fall into six categories: dwelling characteristics; heating and air-conditioning systems; water heating; appliances; demographic and dwelling characteristics; and insulation. The survey was conducted throughout the states of Washington, Oregon, Idaho, and Montana with a total of 4030 households sampled. Information on the 54 tables is explained. (MCW)

  16. Implications of climate change for Pacific Northwest forest management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wall, G.

    1991-01-01

    A Canada/USA symposium was held to identify potential consequences of global climate change to Pacific Northwest forests; to identify the future role and relative contribution of those forests in the balance of carbon, moisture, and energy exchange of the atmosphere; and to develop recommendations for Pacific Northwest forest management strategies and policy options for responding to global climate change. Papers were presented on such topics as regional climatic change, forest responses and processes, public policy on forests and climatic change, sequestration of atmospheric carbon, forest management, and forest adaptation to climatic change. Separate abstracts have been prepared for 14 papers from this symposium

  17. 1998 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study: The White Book.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1998-12-01

    The Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study (White Book) is published annually by BPA and establishes the planning basis for supplying electricity to customers. It serves a dual purpose. First, the White Book presents projections of regional and Federal system load and resource capabilities, along with relevant definitions and explanations. Second, the White Book serves as a benchmark for annual BPA determinations made pursuant to the 1981 regional power sales contracts. Specifically, BPA uses the information in the White Book for determining the notice required when customers request to increase or decrease the amount of power purchased from BPA. The White Book compiles information obtained from several formalized resource planning reports and data submittals, including those from the Northwest Power Planning Council (Council) and the Pacific Northwest Utilities Conference Committee (PNUCC). The White Book is not an operational planning guide, nor is it used for inventory planning to determine BPA revenues. Operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) is based on a set of criteria different from that used for resource planning decisions. Operational planning is dependent upon real-time or near-term knowledge of system conditions, including expectations of river flows and runoff, market opportunities, availability of reservoir storage, energy exchanges, and other factors affecting the dynamics of operating a power system. The 1998 White Book is presented in two documents: (1) this summary of Federal system and Pacific Northwest region loads and resources; and (2) a technical appendix detailing the loads and resources for each major Pacific Northwest generating utility. This analysis updates the December 1997 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.

  18. 1998 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study: The White Book

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study (White Book) is published annually by BPA and establishes the planning basis for supplying electricity to customers. It serves a dual purpose. First, the White Book presents projections of regional and Federal system load and resource capabilities, along with relevant definitions and explanations. Second, the White Book serves as a benchmark for annual BPA determinations made pursuant to the 1981 regional power sales contracts. Specifically, BPA uses the information in the White Book for determining the notice required when customers request to increase or decrease the amount of power purchased from BPA. The White Book compiles information obtained from several formalized resource planning reports and data submittals, including those from the Northwest Power Planning Council (Council) and the Pacific Northwest Utilities Conference Committee (PNUCC). The White Book is not an operational planning guide, nor is it used for inventory planning to determine BPA revenues. Operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) is based on a set of criteria different from that used for resource planning decisions. Operational planning is dependent upon real-time or near-term knowledge of system conditions, including expectations of river flows and runoff, market opportunities, availability of reservoir storage, energy exchanges, and other factors affecting the dynamics of operating a power system. The 1998 White Book is presented in two documents: (1) this summary of Federal system and Pacific Northwest region loads and resources; and (2) a technical appendix detailing the loads and resources for each major Pacific Northwest generating utility. This analysis updates the December 1997 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study

  19. 2008 Science Accomplishments Report of the Pacific Northwest Research Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhonda Mazza

    2009-01-01

    This report highlights significant research findings and accomplishments by scientists at the Pacific Northwest (PNW) Research Station during fiscal year 2008. The mission of the PNW Research Station is to generate and communicate scientific knowledge that helps people understand and make informed choices about people, natural resources, and the environment. The work...

  20. 2013 Science Accomplishments Report of the Pacific Northwest Research Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhonda Mazza

    2014-01-01

    Communicating the scientific knowledge generated by the Pacific Northwest Research Station is integral to our mission. The 2013 Science Accomplishments reports highlights the breadth of the station’s research, the relevance of our science findings, and the application of these findings. The photographs throughout the report showcase the region where we work and how...

  1. Special forest products: species information guide for the Pacific Northwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nan C. Vance; Melissa Borsting; David Pilz; Jim. Freed

    2001-01-01

    This guide is a collection of information about economically important vascular and nonvascular plants and fungi found in the Pacific Northwest that furnish special forest products. Many of these plants and fungi are also found in Alaska, northern Idaho, and western Montana. They contribute to many botanical, floral, woodcraft, and decorative industries and to the...

  2. Silvicultural approaches to animal damage management in Pacific Northwest forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugh C. Black

    1992-01-01

    This book examines the potential of Silvicultural approaches for managing animal damage in forests at two levels: management of free-to-grow stands and sitespecific practices that foster prompt and successful regeneration. Introductory chapters provide a historical perspective of animal damage management in the Pacific Northwest, describe the elements of an integrated...

  3. Risk assessment for biodiversity conservation planning in Pacific Northwest forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becky K. Kerns; Alan Ager

    2007-01-01

    Risk assessment can provide a robust strategy for landscape-scale planning challenges associated with species conservation and habitat protection in Pacific Northwest forests. We provide an overview of quantitative and probabilistic ecological risk assessment with focus on the application of approaches and influences from the actuarial, financial, and technical...

  4. Interagency strategy for the Pacific Northwest Natural Areas Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd M. Wilson; Reid Schuller; Russ Holmes; Curt Pavola; Robert A. Fimbel; Cynthia N. McCain; John G. Gamon; Pene Speaks; Joan I. Seevers; Thomas E. DeMeo; Steve. Gibbons

    2009-01-01

    Over the past 30 years, the Pacific Northwest Interagency Natural Areas Committee has promoted the establishment and management of natural areas in Oregon and Washington—protected areas devoted to research, education, and conservation of biodiversity. This growing collection of sites is now unmatched in its diversity and representation of both common and unique natural...

  5. 2014 Science Accomplishments Report of the Pacific Northwest Research Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhonda Mazza

    2015-01-01

    Communicating the scientific knowledge generated by the Pacific Northwest Research Station is integral to our mission. The 2014 Science Accomplishments reports highlights the breadth of the station’s research, the relevance of our science findings, and the application of these findings. The photographs throughout the report showcase the region where we work and how...

  6. Estimating postfire water production in the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald F. Potts; David L. Peterson; Hans R. Zuuring

    1989-01-01

    Two hydrologic models were adapted to estimate postfire changer in water yield in Pacific Northwest watersheds. The WRENSS version of the simulation model PROSPER is used for hydrologic regimes dominated by rainfall: it calculates water available for streamflow onthe basis of seasonal precipitation and leaf area index. The WRENSS version of the simulation model WATBAL...

  7. The Pacific Northwest region vegetation and monitoring system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timothy A. Max; Hans T. Schreuder; John W. Hazard; Daniel D. Oswald; John Teply; Jim. Alegria

    1996-01-01

    A grid sampling strategy was adopted for broad-scale inventory and monitoring of forest and range vegetation on National Forest System lands in the Pacific North-west Region, USDA Forest Service. This paper documents the technical details of the adopted design and discusses alternative sampling designs that were considered. A less technical description of the selected...

  8. 78 FR 66695 - Loveland Area Projects, Colorado River Storage Project, Pacific Northwest-Pacific Southwest...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Western Area Power Administration Loveland Area Projects, Colorado River Storage Project, Pacific Northwest-Pacific Southwest Intertie Project, Central Arizona Project, and Parker-Davis Project--Rate Order No. WAPA-163 AGENCY: Western Area Power Administration, DOE. ACTION: Notice of...

  9. Will climate change affect biodiversity in pacific northwest forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henderson, S.; Rosenbaum, B.J.

    1992-01-01

    Global climate change could have significant consequences for biological diversity in Pacific Northwest (PNW) forested ecosystems, particularly in areas already threatened by anthropogenic activities and the resultant habitat modification and fragmentation. The forests of the Pacific Northwest have a high biological diversity, not only in terms of tree species, but also in terms of herbs, bryophytes and hepatophytes, algae, fungi, protist, bacteria, and many groups of vertebrates and invertebrates. Global circulation and vegetation model projections of global climate change effects on PNW forests include reductions in species diversity in low elevation forests as well as elevational and latitudinal shifts in species ranges. As species are most likely to be stressed at the edges of their ranges, plant and animal species with low mobility, or those that are prevented from migrating by lack of habitat corridors, may become regionally extinct. Endangered species with limited distribution may be especially vulnerable to shifts in habitat conditions

  10. Evaluation of electrical power alternatives for the Pacific Northwest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-09-01

    This study evaluates the concept of implementation of large-scale energy conservation to reduce end-use demand for electrical energy as an alternative to the need for continued construction of new power plants to meet projected energy requirements for the Pacific Northwest. In particular, the numerical accuracy, economic feasibility, and institutional impact of a conservation-oriented scenario developed by the Natural Resources Defense Council, Inc., is assessed, relative to the energy forecast prepared by the Pacific Northwest Utilities Conference Commission. The results of this study are presented in four detailed sections following an introductory and summary section: Reconstruction and Numerical Evaluation of Alternative Scenario; Economic Analysis; Institutional Impact; and Impact of New National Energy Policy.

  11. Residential fuel choice in the Pacific Northwest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, A.D.; Englin, J.E.; Harkreader, S.A.

    1989-02-01

    In 1983, the Northwest Power Planning Council (Council) issued Model Conservation Standards (MCS) designed to improve the efficiency of electrically heated buildings. Since then, the standards have been adopted by numerous local governments and utilities. The Bonneville Power Administration (Bonneville) has played an active role in marketing residential energy efficiency improvements through the Super Good Cents Program (SGCP) and encouraging the adoption and implementation of the MCS as local codes through the Early Adopter Program (EAP). Since the inception of the MCS, however, questions have arisen about the effect of the code and programs on the selection of heating fuels for new homes. Recently, Bonneville has proposed a gradual reduction in the incentive levels under these two programs prior to 1995 based on several assumptions about the market for MCS homes: builder costs will decline as builders gain experience building them; buyers will seek out MCS homes as their appreciation for their lower energy costs and greater comfort increases; and the resale market will increasingly reflect the greater quality of MCS homes. The growing availability of data from several jurisdictions where the MCS have been implemented has recently made it possible to begin assessing the effect of the MCS programs on residential fuel choice and evaluating assumptions underlying the programs and Bonneville's plans to revise them. This study is the first such assessment conducted for Bonneville.

  12. CRADA with Teledyne Electronic Technologies and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNL-096): The Exposure-to-Risk monitoring system. Final letter report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thrall, K.D.

    1996-10-01

    The purpose of this project was to demonstrate the ``Exposure-to- Risk`` monitoring system in an actual occupational environment. The system is a unique combination of existing hardware with proprietary software to create an integrated means of assessing occupational exposures to volatile organic compounds. One component of this system utilizes a portable mass spectrometer developed by Teledyne Electronic Technologies. Integration of the system was accomplished under Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) funding. Commercialization of the system will take place following demonstration in an actual occupational environment, and will include, in part, Teledyne Electronic Technologies. The Exposure-to-Risk monitoring system will benefit DOE by overcoming present-day limitations in worker health protection monitoring. There are numerous sites within the` DOE complex where many different hazardous chemicals are used on a routine basis. These chemicals range from paint stripers and cleaning solvents to chemical warfare agents, each having its own degree of potential adverse health risk to a worker. Thus, a real concern for DOE is to ensure that a worker is properly monitored to assess any adverse health risk from exposure to potentially hazardous chemicals. With current industrial hygiene technologies, this is an arduous task. The Exposure-to-Risk monitoring system integrates a patented breath-inlet device connecting a subject`s exhaled breath directly with a field-portable mass spectrometer with physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling to estimate the target tissue dose following a chemical exposure. Estimation of the adverse health risk prediction follows from the exposure/dose calculation based on currently accepted methodologies. This new system can determine, in the field, the possible adverse health risks on a daily basis to an individual worker.

  13. Pacific Northwest Laboratory Alaska (ARCTIC) research program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson, W.C.; Eberhardt, L.E.

    1980-03-01

    The current program continues studies of arctic ecosystems begun in 1959 as part of the Cape Thompson Program. Specific ecosystem aspects include studies of the ecology of arctic and red foxes, small mammel and bird population studies, lichen studies, and radiation ecology studies. (ACR)

  14. Comparative analysis of hospital energy use: pacific northwest and scandinavia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burpee, Heather; McDade, Erin

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to establish the potential for significant energy reduction in hospitals in the United States by providing evidence of Scandinavian operational precedents with high Interior Environmental Quality (IEQ) and substantially lower energy profiles than comparable U.S. facilities. These facilities set important precedents for design teams seeking operational examples for achieving aggressive energy and interior environmental quality goals. This examination of operational hospitals is intended to offer hospital owners, designers, and building managers a strong case and concrete framework for strategies to achieve exceptionally high performing buildings. Energy efficient hospitals have the potential to significantly impact the U.S.'s overall energy profile, and key stakeholders in the hospital industry need specific, operationally grounded precedents in order to successfully implement informed energy reduction strategies. This study is an outgrowth of previous research evaluating high quality, low energy hospitals that serve as examples for new high performance hospital design, construction, and operation. Through extensive interviews, numerous site visits, the development of case studies, and data collection, this team has established thorough qualitative and quantitative analyses of several contemporary hospitals in Scandinavia and the Pacific Northwest. Many Scandinavian hospitals demonstrate a low energy profile, and when analyzed in comparison with U.S. hospitals, such Scandinavian precedents help define the framework required to make significant changes in the U.S. hospital building industry. Eight hospitals, four Scandinavian and four Pacific Northwest, were quantitatively compared using the Environmental Protection Agency's Portfolio Manager, allowing researchers to answer specific questions about the impact of energy source and architectural and mechanical strategies on energy efficiency in operational hospitals. Specific architectural, mechanical

  15. Application of the graded management approach to Battelle's nuclear project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voth, C.B.

    1996-01-01

    Battelle's graded management approach provides an effective and efficient method to perform the Battelle Columbus Laboratories Decommissioning Project (BCLDP). The project is managed by Battelle under their US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) license but is partially funded by the US Department of Energy (DOE) on a cost-shared basis. Battelle's graded management approach adheres to the regulations and orders governing the BCLDP by the interaction of various plans, procedures, permits, and work instructions. By independent assessment, quality control, and worker training, Battelle has been able to establish a cost-effective approach to performing work and, at the same time, have a controlled checks and balance system to assure the proper safety considerations and project particulars are taken into account

  16. 1998 White Book, Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study (summary)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1998-12-01

    The Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study (White Book) is published annually by BPA and establishes the planning basis for supplying electricity to customers. It serves a dual purpose. First, the White Book presents projections of regional and Federal system load and resource capabilities, along with relevant definitions and explanations. Second, the White Book serves as a benchmark for annual BPA determinations made pursuant to the 1981 regional power sales contracts.1 Specifically, BPA uses the information in the White Book for determining the notice required when customers request to increase or decrease the amount of power purchased from BPA. The White Book compiles information obtained from several formalized resource planning reports and data submittals, including those from the Northwest Power Planning Council (Council) and the Pacific Northwest Utilities Conference Committee (PNUCC). The White Book is not an operational planning guide, nor is it used for inventory planning to determine BPA revenues. Operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) is based on a set of criteria different from that used for resource planning decisions. Operational planning is dependent upon real-time or near-term knowledge of system conditions, including expectations of river flows and runoff, market opportunities, availability of reservoir storage, energy exchanges, and other factors affecting the dynamics of operating a power system. The 1998 White Book is presented in two documents: 1) this summary of Federal system and Pacific Northwest region loads and resources; and 2) a technical appendix detailing the loads and resources for each major Pacific Northwest generating utility. This analysis updates the December 1997 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study. The load forecast is derived by using economic planning models to predict the loads that will be placed on electric utilities in the region. This study incorporates information on contract

  17. Cognitive styles of Forest Service scientists and managers in the Pacific Northwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew B. Carey

    1997-01-01

    Preferences of executives, foresters, and biologists of the Pacific Northwest Research Station and executives, District Rangers, foresters, engineers, and biologists of the Pacific Northwest Region, National Forest System (USDA Forest Service), were compared for various thinking styles. Herrmann brain dominance profiles from 230 scientists and managers were drawn from...

  18. Idaho National Laboratory Materials and Fuels Complex Natural Phenomena Hazards Flood Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerald Sehlke; Paul Wichlacz

    2010-12-01

    This report presents the results of flood hazards analyses performed for the Materials and Fuels Complex (MFC) and the adjacent Transient Reactor Experiment and Test Facility (TREAT) located at Idaho National Laboratory. The requirements of these analyses are provided in the U.S. Department of Energy Order 420.1B and supporting Department of Energy (DOE) Natural Phenomenon Hazard standards. The flood hazards analyses were performed by Battelle Energy Alliance and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The analyses addressed the following: • Determination of the design basis flood (DBFL) • Evaluation of the DBFL versus the Critical Flood Elevations (CFEs) for critical existing structures, systems, and components (SSCs).

  19. Inelastic analysis of Battelle-Columbus piping elbow creep test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhalla, A.K.; Newman, S.Z.

    1979-01-01

    Analytical results are presented for room temperature and 593 deg. C creep bending deformation of a piping elbow structure tested at the Battelle-Columbus Laboratory. This analysis was performed in support of the International Piping Benchmark Problem Program being coordinated by ORNL. Results are presented for both simplified and refined structural models, and compared with test measurements reported by the Battelle-Columbus Laboratory. (author)

  20. 1999 White Book, Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1999-12-01

    The Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study (White Book) is published annually by BPA and establishes the planning basis for supplying electricity to customers. It serves a dual purpose. First, the White Book presents projections of regional and Federal system load and resource capabilities, along with relevant definitions and explanations. Second, the White Book serves as a benchmark for annual BPA determinations made pursuant to its regional power sales contracts.1 Specifically, BPA uses the information in the White Book for determining the notice required when customers request to increase or decrease the amount of power purchased from BPA. The White Book will not be used in calculations for the 2002 regional power sales contract subscription process. The White Book compiles information obtained from several formalized resource planning reports and data submittals, including those from the Northwest Power Planning Council (Council) and the Pacific Northwest Utilities Conference Committee (PNUCC). The White Book is not an operational planning guide, nor is it used for determining BPA revenues. Operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) is based on a set of criteria different from that used for resource planning decisions. Operational planning is dependent upon real-time or near-term knowledge of system conditions, including expectations of river flows and runoff, market opportunities, availability of reservoir storage, energy exchanges, and other factors affecting the dynamics of operating a power system. In this loads and resources study, resource availability is compared with a medium forecast of electricity consumption. The forecasted future electricity demands—firm loads—are subtracted from the projected capability of existing and “contracted for” resources to determine whether BPA and the region will be surplus or deficit. If Federal system resources are greater than loads in any particular year or month, there is a surplus of

  1. Dynamic Agroecological Zones for the Inland Pacific Northwest, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huggins, D. R.; Rupp, R.; Gessler, P.; Pan, W.; Brown, D. J.; Machado, S.; Walden, V. P.; Eigenbrode, S.; Abatzoglou, J. T.

    2011-12-01

    Agroecological zones (AEZ's) have traditionally been defined by integrating multiple layers of biophysical (e.g. climate, soil, terrain) and occasionally socioeconomic data to create unique zones with specific ranges of land use constraints and potentials. Our approach to defining AEZ's assumes that current agricultural land uses have emerged as a consequence of biophysical and socioeconomic drivers. Therefore, we explore the concept that AEZ's can be derived from classifying the geographic distribution of current agricultural systems (e.g. the wheat-fallow cropping system zone) based on spatially geo-referenced annual cropland use data that is currently available through the National Agricultural Statistical Service (NASS). By defining AEZ's in this way, we expect to: (1) provide baseline information that geographically delineates the boundaries of current AEZ's and subzones and therefore the capacity to evaluate shifts in AEZ boundaries over time; (2) assess the biophysical (e.g. climate, soils, terrain) and socioeconomic factors (e.g. commodity prices) that are most useful for predicting and correctly classifying current AEZ's, subzones or future shifts in AEZ boundaries; (3) identify and develop AEZ-relevant climate mitigation and adaptation strategies; and (4) integrate biophysical and socioeconomic data sources to pursue a transdisciplinary examination of climate-driven AEZ futures. Achieving these goals will aid in realizing major objectives for a USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture, Agriculture and Food Research Initiative, Cooperative Agricultural Project entitled "Regional Approaches to Climate Change (REACCH) for Pacific Northwest Agriculture". REACCH is a research, education and extension project under the leadership of the University of Idaho with significant collaboration from Washington State University, Oregon State University and the USDA Agricultural Research Service that is working towards increasing the capacity of Inland Pacific

  2. PACIFIC NORTHWEST REGIONAL COLLABORATORY ANNUAL REPORT FOR SYNERGY VII (2007)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tagestad, Jerry D.; Bolte, John; Guzy, Michael; Woodruff, Dana L.; Humes, Karen; Walden, Von; Wigmosta, Mark S.; Glenn, Nancy; Ames, Dan; Rope, Ronald; Martin, David; Sandgathe, Scott

    2008-04-01

    During this final year of the Pacific Northwest Regional Collaboratory we focused significantly on continuing the relationship between technical teams and government end-users. The main theme of the year was integration. This took the form of data integration via our web portal and integration of our technologies with the end users. The PNWRC's technical portfolio is based on EOS strategies, and focuses on 'applications of national priority: water management, invasive species, coastal management and ecological forecasting.' The products of our technical approaches have been well received by the community of focused end-users. The objective this year was to broaden that community and develop external support to continue and operationalize product development.

  3. Pyrethroid insecticides in urban salmon streams of the Pacific Northwest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weston, D.P., E-mail: dweston@berkeley.edu [Department of Integrative Biology, University of California, 3060 Valley Life Sciences Bldg., Berkeley, CA 94720-3140 (United States); Asbell, A.M., E-mail: aasbell@berkeley.edu [Department of Integrative Biology, University of California, 3060 Valley Life Sciences Bldg., Berkeley, CA 94720-3140 (United States); Hecht, S.A., E-mail: scott.hecht@noaa.gov [NOAA Fisheries, Office of Protected Resources, 510 Desmond Drive S.E., Lacey, WA 98503 (United States); Scholz, N.L., E-mail: nathaniel.scholz@noaa.gov [NOAA Fisheries, Northwest Fisheries Science Center, 2725 Montlake Blvd. E., Seattle, WA 98112 (United States); Lydy, M.J., E-mail: mlydy@siu.edu [Fisheries and Illinois Aquaculture Center and Department of Zoology, Southern Illinois University, 171 Life Sciences II, Carbondale, IL 62901 (United States)

    2011-10-15

    Urban streams of the Pacific Northwest provide spawning and rearing habitat for a variety of salmon species, and food availability for developing salmon could be adversely affected by pesticide residues in these waterbodies. Sediments from Oregon and Washington streams were sampled to determine if current-use pyrethroid insecticides from residential neighborhoods were reaching aquatic habitats, and if they were at concentrations acutely toxic to sensitive invertebrates. Approximately one-third of the 35 sediment samples contained measurable pyrethroids. Bifenthrin was the pyrethroid of greatest concern with regards to aquatic life toxicity, consistent with prior studies elsewhere. Toxicity to Hyalella azteca and/or Chironomus dilutus was found in two sediment samples at standard testing temperature (23 deg. C), and in one additional sample at a more environmentally realistic temperature (13 deg. C). Given the temperature dependency of pyrethroid toxicity, low temperatures typical of northwest streams can increase the potential for toxicity above that indicated by standard testing protocols. - Highlights: > Salmon-bearing creeks can be adversely impacted by insecticides from urban runoff. > Pyrethroid insecticides were found in one-third of the creeks in Washington and Oregon. > Two creeks contained concentrations acutely lethal to sensitive invertebrates. > Bifenthrin was of greatest concern, though less than in prior studies. > Standard toxicity testing underestimates the ecological risk of pyrethroids. - Pyrethroid insecticides are present in sediments of urban creeks of Oregon and Washington, though less commonly than in studies elsewhere in the U.S.

  4. Marine Sciences Laboratory Radionuclide Air Emissions Report for Calendar Year 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snyder, Sandra F.; Barnett, J. Matthew; Ballinger, Marcel Y.

    2014-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science (DOE-SC) Pacific Northwest Site Office (PNSO) has oversight and stewardship duties associated with the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) located on Battelle Land – Sequim (Sequim). This report is prepared to document compliance with the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Title 40, Protection of the Environment, Part 61, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP), Subpart H, “National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities” and Washington Administrative Code (WAC) Chapter 246-247, “Radiation Protection–Air Emissions.” The EDE to the Sequim MEI due to routine operations in 2013 was 5E-05 mrem (5E-07 mSv). No non-routine emissions occurred in 2013. The MSL is in compliance with the federal and state 10 mrem/yr standard.

  5. Marine Sciences Laboratory Radionuclide Air Emissions Report for Calendar Year 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snyder, Sandra F.; Barnett, J. Matthew

    2015-05-04

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science (DOE-SC) Pacific Northwest Site Office (PNSO) has oversight and stewardship duties associated with the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) located on Battelle Land – Sequim.This report is prepared to document compliance with the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Title 40, Protection of the Environment, Part 61, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP), Subpart H, ''National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities” and Washington Administrative Code (WAC) Chapter 246-247, “Radiation Protection–Air Emissions.'' The EDE to the MSL MEI due to routine operations in 2014 was 9E-05 mrem (9E-07 mSv). No non-routine emissions occurred in 2014. The MSL is in compliance with the federal and state 10 mrem/yr standard.

  6. Marine Sciences Laboratory Radionuclide Air Emissions Report for Calendar Year 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snyder, Sandra F. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Barnett, J. Matthew [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-05-05

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science (DOE-SC) Pacific Northwest Site Office has oversight and stewardship duties associated with the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Marine Sciences Laboratory located on Battelle Land – Sequim. This report is prepared to document compliance with the 40 CFR Part 61, Subpart H, “National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities” and Washington Administrative Code . The EDE to the MSL MEI due to routine operations in 2015 was 1.1E-04 mrem (1.1E-06 mSv). No non-routine emissions occurred in 2015. The MSL is in compliance with the federal and state 10 mrem/yr standard.

  7. Climate Change Impact Assessment for Surface Transportation in the Pacific Northwest and Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    The states in the Pacific Northwest and Alaska region share interconnected transportation networks for people, goods, and services that support the : regional economy, mobility, and human safety. Regional weather has and will continue to affect the p...

  8. Assessing the capacity of the Pacific Northwest as an intermodal freight transportation hub.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    This project synthesizes information from multiple sources about the capacity of the Pacific Northwest region to handle intermodal : freight transportation demand. The findings from this research are intended to be used as a framework to start a rese...

  9. Oceanographic and marine meteorological observations in the Northwest Pacific ocean during 1998 (NODC Accession 0000070)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile, plankton, and nutrients data were collected using buoy and CTD casts in the Northwest Pacific Ocean. Data were collected from 22 January 1998 to...

  10. Educating teenage drivers in the Pacific Northwest regarding the dangers of distracted driving (phase I).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    The goal of this outreach project was to examine driver distraction among teenagers in the Pacific Northwest. Specifically, to identify secondary tasks they consider distracting and determine their self-reported engagement in those same secondary tas...

  11. NACP Biome-BGC Modeled Ecosystem Carbon Balance, Pacific Northwest, USA, 1986-2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides Biome-BGC modeled estimates of carbon stocks and fluxes in the U.S. Pacific Northwest for the years 1986-2010. Fluxes include net ecosystem...

  12. Tropical Cyclone Footprint in the Ocean Mixed Layer Observed by Argo in the Northwest Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-25

    RESEARCH ARTICLE 10.1002/2014JC010316 Tropical cyclone footprint in the ocean mixed layer observed by Argo in the Northwest Pacific HongLi Fu1...using available Argo profiles during the period of 1998–2011 in the northwest Pacific. Results reveal that iso- thermal layer (IL) deepening and...and TC, subsurface measurements following TC are impor- tant. The Array for Real-time Geostrophic Oceanography ( Argo ) floats measure the global ocean

  13. Dynamics of the Pacific Northwest Lithosphere and Asthenosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphreys, E.

    2013-12-01

    Seismic imaging resolves a complex structure beneath the Pacific Northwest (PNW) that is interpreted as: an high-velocity piece of accreted (~50 Ma) Farallon lithosphere that deepens from being exposed (at coast, where it is called Siletzia) to lower crust in SE Washington and then descending vertically to ~600 km as a 'curtain' beneath central Idaho; a stubby Juan de Fuca slab (to Sierra Nevada driving the PNW into British Columbia; this push, and oblique subduction, are responsible for PNW clockwise rotation. Modeled (in 2D, map view) north-directed tractions on the Cascadia mega-thrust average ~4 TN per meter of along-strike fault length, or probably a shear stress of ~40 MPa over much of the locked mega-thrust (i.e., much more shear stress than the typical earthquake stress drop of 1-10 MPa). Normal to the coast, southern Cascadia is relatively tensional (where margin-normal compression is less than typical ridge push by ~4 TN/m of along-strike fault length) whereas northern Cascadia is compressional. This indicates that the southern Cascadia mega-thrust is more weakly coupled than the northern mega-thrust. Southern Cascadia slab rollback and extension of the Cascade graben and Basin-and-Range are enabled by the weak coupling, in conjunction with high gravitational potential energy of the southern Oregon arc and back-arc. Juan de Fuca-Gorda lithosphere experiences the same stress on its eastern margin as North America does on the PNW Cascadia margin (by stress continuity), although current models of the individual plates do not show this continuity. Gorda plate is strongly compressed across the Mendocino transform by the north-moving Pacific Plate. Development of the NW-trending Blanco transform has created a fault that avoids this strong compression.

  14. Pacific northwest vowels: A Seattle neighborhood dialect study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingle, Jennifer K.; Wright, Richard; Wassink, Alicia

    2005-04-01

    According to current literature a large region encompassing nearly the entire west half of the U.S. belongs to one dialect region referred to as Western, which furthermore, according to Labov et al., ``... has developed a characteristic but not unique phonology.'' [http://www.ling.upenn.edu/phono-atlas/NationalMap/NationalMap.html] This paper will describe the vowel space of a set of Pacific Northwest American English speakers native to the Ballard neighborhood of Seattle, Wash. based on the acoustical analysis of high-quality Marantz CDR 300 recordings. Characteristics, such as low back merger and [u] fronting will be compared to findings by other studies. It is hoped that these recordings will contribute to a growing number of corpora of North American English dialects. All participants were born in Seattle and began their residence in Ballard between ages 0-8. They were recorded in two styles of speech: individually reading repetitions of a word list containing one token each of 10 vowels within carrier phrases, and in casual conversation for 40 min with a partner matched in age, gender, and social mobility. The goal was to create a compatible data set for comparison with current acoustic studies. F1 and F2 and vowel duration from LPC spectral analysis will be presented.

  15. 75 FR 20812 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Northwest Region Pacific Whiting Shoreside...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-21

    ... Collection; Comment Request; Northwest Region Pacific Whiting Shoreside Fishery Monitoring and Catch... shoreside vessels to have and use electronic monitoring to verify full retention of catch and for Pacific... minutes in Oregon; electronic monitoring systems (EMS): installation, 6 hours; data downloads, 4 hours and...

  16. Classification of Regional Patterns of Environmental Drivers and Benthic Habitats in Pacific Northwest Estuaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    While increased anthropogenic nutrient loading of coastal ecosystems is a growing ecological and economic problem both in the U.S. and globally, the extent of such excess nutrient loading in Pacific Northwest estuaries is poorly known. To help determine the vulnerability of Pacif...

  17. Balancing conflicting values: ecosystem solutions in the Pacific Northwest of the United States and Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard W. Haynes; Robert C. Szaro; Dennis P. Dykstra

    2005-01-01

    Ecosystem approaches to sustainable forest management in the Pacific Northwest of the United States and Canada have arisen in response to significant changes that have occurred in these societies over the past century or so (Interagency Ecosystem Management Task Force, 1995). One such change as been rapid population growth along the Pacific Coast, where the mild...

  18. Data Quality Objectives Supporting Radiological Air Emissions Monitoring for the Marine Sciences Laboratory, Sequim Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnett, J. Matthew; Meier, Kirsten M.; Snyder, Sandra F.; Antonio, Ernest J.; Fritz, Brad G.; Poston, Theodore M.

    2012-12-27

    This document of Data Quality Objectives (DQOs) was prepared based on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Guidance on Systematic Planning Using the Data Quality Objectives Process, EPA, QA/G4, 2/2006 (EPA 2006), as well as several other published DQOs. The intent of this report is to determine the necessary steps required to ensure that radioactive emissions to the air from the Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) headquartered at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory’s Sequim Marine Research Operations (Sequim Site) on Washington State’s Olympic Peninsula are managed in accordance with regulatory requirements and best practices. The Sequim Site was transitioned in October 2012 from private operation under Battelle Memorial Institute to an exclusive use contract with the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Pacific Northwest Site Office.

  19. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory’s Climate Resiliency Planning Process and Lessons Learned

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fowler, Kimberly M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Judd, Kathleen S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Brandenberger, Jill M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-22

    In 2015, the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) developed its first Climate Resilience Plan for its Richland Campus. PNNL has performed Climate Resilience Planning for the Department of Defense, Nuclear Regulatory Commission, and Department of Energy (DOE) over the past 5 years. The assessment team included climate scientists, social scientists, engineers, and operations managers. A multi-disciplinary team was needed to understand the potential exposures to future changes at the site, the state of the science on future impacts, and the best process for “mainstreaming” new actions into existing activities. The team uncovered that the site’s greatest vulnerabilities, and therefore priorities for climate resilience planning, are high temperature due to degraded infrastructure, increased wildfire frequency, and intense precipitation impacts on stormwater conveyance systems.

  20. Monsoon rainfall over India in June and link with northwest tropical pacific - June ISMR and link with northwest tropical pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surendran, Sajani; Gadgil, Sulochana; Rajendran, Kavirajan; Varghese, Stella Jes; Kitoh, Akio

    2018-03-01

    Recent years have witnessed large interannual variation of all-India rainfall (AIR) in June, with intermittent large deficits and excesses. Variability of June AIR is found to have the strongest link with variation of rainfall over northwest tropical Pacific (NWTP), with AIR deficit (excess) associated with enhancement (suppression) of NWTP rainfall. This association is investigated using high-resolution Meteorological Research Institute model which shows high skill in simulating important features of Asian summer monsoon, its variability and the inverse relationship between NWTP rainfall and AIR. Analysis of the variation of NWTP rainfall shows that it is associated with a change in the latitudinal position of subtropical westerly jet over the region stretching from West of Tibetan Plateau (WTP) to NWTP and the phase of Rossby wave steered in it with centres over NWTP and WTP. In years with large rainfall excess/deficit, the strong link between AIR and NWTP rainfall exists through differences in Rossby wave phase steered in the jet. The positive phase of the WTP-NWTP pattern, with troughs over WTP and west of NWTP, tends to be associated with increased rainfall over NWTP and decreased AIR. This scenario is reversed in the opposite phase. Thus, the teleconnection between NWTP rainfall and AIR is a manifestation of the difference in the phase of Rossby wave between excess and deficit years, with centres over WTP and NWTP. This brings out the importance of prediction of phase of Rossby waves over WTP and NWTP in advance, for prediction of June rainfall over India.

  1. Pacific Northwest and Alaska Bioenergy Program Year Book; 1992-1993 Yearbook with 1994 Activities.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pacific Northwest and Alaska Bioenergy Program (U.S.); United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1994-04-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy administers five Regional Bioenergy Programs to encourage regionally specific application of biomass and municipal waste-to-energy technologies to local needs, opportunities and potentials. The Pacific Northwest and Alaska region has taken up a number of applied research and technology projects, and supported and guided its five participating state energy programs. This report describes the Pacific Northwest and Alaska Regional Bioenergy Program, and related projects of the state energy agencies, and summarizes the results of technical studies. It also considers future efforts of this regional program to meet its challenging assignment.

  2. Pacific Northwest ampersand Alaska Regional Bioenergy Program. 1992--1993 yearbook with 1994 activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-04-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy administers five Regional Bioenergy Programs to encourage regionally specific application of biomass and municipal waste-to-energy technologies to local needs, opportunities and potentials. The Pacific Northwest and Alaska region has taken up a number of applied research and technology projects, and supported and guided its five participating state energy programs. This report describes the Pacific Northwest and Alaska Regional Bioenergy Program, and related projects of the state energy agencies, and summarizes the results of technical studies. It also considers future efforts of this regional program to meet its challenging assignment

  3. Economic impacts of interregional competition in the forest products industry during the 1970's: the South and the Pacific Northwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Con H. Schallau; Wilbur R. Maki

    1986-01-01

    Until the 1970's, the Pacific Northwest dominated national markets for softwood lumber and plywood. During the 1970's, however, the region's share declined while production increased in the South. Meanwhile, the South's and the Pacific Northwest's shares of the Nation's employment in lumber and wood products declined. This resulted mainly...

  4. 1991 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study, Technical Appendix: Volume 1.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1992-03-01

    This publication provides detailed documentation of the load forecast scenarios and assumptions used in preparing BPA's 1991 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study (the Study). This is one of two technical appendices to the Study; the other appendix details the utility-specific loads and resources used in the Study. The load forecasts and assumption were developed jointly by Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and Northwest Power Planning Council (Council) staff. This forecast is also used in the Council's 1991 Northwest Conservation and Electric Power Plan (1991 Plan).

  5. The rise and fall of the Pacific Northwest log export market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean M. Daniels

    2005-01-01

    For decades, softwood log exports were an important component of international wood products trade from the Pacific Northwest (PNW) region of the United States. Log exports to the Pacific Rim began in earnest after the Columbus Day Storm of 1962 generated billions of board feet of salvaged timber. This market was maintained and expanded owing to Japan’s demand for high...

  6. Environmental consequences of postulated radionuclide releases from the Battelle Memorial Institute Columbus Laboratories JN-1b Building at the West Jefferson site as a result of severe natural phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamison, J.D.; Watson, E.C.

    1982-02-01

    Potential environmental consequences in terms of radiation dose to people are presented for postulated radionuclide releases caused by severe natural phenomena at the Battelle Memorial Institute Columbus Laboratories JN-1b Building at the West Jefferson site. The severe natural phenomena considered are earthquakes, tornadoes, and high straight-line winds. Maximum radioactive material deposition values are given for significant locations around the site. All important potential exposure pathways are examined. The most likely 50-year committed dose equivalents are given for the maximum-exposed individual and the population within a 50-mile radius of the plant. The maximum radioactive material deposition values likely to occur offsite are also given. The most likely calculated 50-year collective committed dose equivalents are all much lower than the collective dose equivalent expected from 50 years of exposure to natural background radiation and medical x-rays. The most likely maximum residual plutonium contamination estimated to be deposited offsite following the events are well below the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) proposed guideline for plutonium in the general environment of 0.2 μCi/m 2 . The likely maximum residual contamination from beta and gamma emitters are far below the background produced by fallout from nuclear weapons tests in the atmosphere

  7. Analysis of potential impacts of climate change on forests of the United States Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory Latta; Hailemariam Temesgen; Darius Adams; Tara Barrett

    2010-01-01

    As global climate changes over the next century, forest productivity is expected to change as well. Using PRISM climate and productivity data measured on a grid of 3356 plots, we developed a simultaneous autoregressive model to estimate the impacts of climate change on potential productivity of Pacific Northwest forests of the United States. The model, coupled with...

  8. DOCUMENTING THE INTERTIDAL COMPONENT OF EELGRASS DISTRIBUTIONS IN PACIFIC NORTHWEST ESTUARIES USING COLOR INFRARED AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to develop and test a rapid, cost-effective method of mapping the intertidal (and surface-visible subtidal) distribution of eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) meadows and patches in the turbid coastal estuaries of the Pacific Northwest (PNW). Initial co...

  9. Diversity, ecology, and conservation of truffle fungi in forests of the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    James M. Trappe; Randy Molina; Daniel L. Luoma; Efren Cázares; David Pilz; Jane E. Smith; Michael A. Castellano; Steven L. Miller; Matthew J. Trappe

    2009-01-01

    Forests of the Pacific Northwest have been an epicenter for the evolution of truffle fungi with over 350 truffle species and 55 genera currently identified. Truffle fungi develop their reproductive fruit-bodies typically belowground, so they are harder to find and study than mushrooms that fruit aboveground. Nevertheless, over the last five decades, the Corvallis...

  10. Riparian communities associated with pacific northwest headwater streams: assemblages, processes, and uniqueness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John S. Richardson; Robert J. Naiman; Frederick J. Swanson; David E. Hibbs

    2005-01-01

    Riparian areas of large streams provide important habitat to many species and control many instream processes - but is the same true for the margins of small streams? This review considers riparian areas alongside small streams in forested, mountainous areas of the Pacific Northwest and asks if there are fundamental ecological differences from larger streams and from...

  11. Geographies of Indigenous Leaders: Landscapes and Mindscapes in the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marker, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This essay features three stories of "place-based" leadership in two Indigenous communities in the Pacific Northwest. Author Michael Marker weaves together stories from Nisga'a Elders in the Nass Valley of British Columbia, Coast Salish Elders in Washington State, and his own experiences as a researcher, teacher educator, and community…

  12. Sediment and PM10 flux from no-tillage cropping systems in the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wind erosion is a concern in the Inland Pacific Northwest (PNW) United States where the emission of fine particulates from winter wheat – summer fallow (WW/SF) dryland cropping systems during high winds degrade air quality. Although no-tillage cropping systems are not yet economically viable, these ...

  13. Progress on the development of seismic resilient Tall CLT Buildings in the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiling Pei; Jeffrey Berman; Daniel Dolan; John van de Lindt; James Ricles; Richard Sause; Hans-Erik Blomgren; Marjan Popovski; Douglas Rammer

    2014-01-01

    As urban densification occurs in U.S. regions of high seismicity, there is a natural demand for seismically resilient tall buildings that are reliable, economically viable, and can be rapidly constructed. In urban regions on the west coast of the U.S., specifically the Pacific Northwest, there is significant interest in utilizing CLT in 8-20 story residential and...

  14. A hydrogeologic framework for characterizing summer streamflow sensitivity to climate warming in the Pacific Northwest, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. Safeeq; G.E. Grant; S.L. Lewis; M.G. Kramer; B. Staab

    2014-01-01

    Summer streamflows in the Pacific Northwest are largely derived from melting snow and groundwater discharge. As the climate warms, diminishing snowpack and earlier snowmelt will cause reductions in summer streamflow. Most regional-scale assessments of climate change impacts on streamflow use downscaled temperature and precipitation projections from general circulation...

  15. Tradeoffs between chilling and forcing in satisfying dormancy requirements for Pacific Northwest tree species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constance A. Harrington; Peter J. Gould

    2015-01-01

    Many temperate and boreal tree species have a chilling requirement, that is, they need to experience cold temperatures during fall and winter to burst bud normally in the spring. Results from trials with 11 Pacific Northwest tree species are consistent with the concept that plants can accumulate both chilling and forcing units simultaneously during the dormant season...

  16. DIALECT CHECKLIST - PACIFIC NORTHWEST. SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL FOR ELEVENTH GRADE UNIT ON "LINGUISTIC GEOGRAPHY AND DIALECT."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portland Public Schools, OR.

    THE CHECKLIST WAS DESIGNED TO STUDY CHARACTERISTIC WORD USAGE IN THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST. THE STUDENT IS ASKED TO CIRCLE THE WORD IN A GROUP OF WORDS WHICH HE ORDINARILY USES TO DESIGNATE A SPECIFIC THING. FOR INSTANCE--SELF OVER FIREPLACE - MANTEL, MANTEL BOARD, MANTEL PIECE, SHELF, CHILDHOOD WORD FOR MOTHER - MA, MAMA, MOM, MOTHER, MOMMY. ONE…

  17. Animal damage to conifers on national forests in the Pacific Northwest region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn L. Crouch

    1969-01-01

    Animal damage to conifers is a timely topic in the Pacific Northwest. Foresters in this Region are increasingly concerned and perplexed by damage caused by animals to natural and planted seedlings and larger growing stock. Nearly every animal inhabiting for st land is believed to injure seedlings and small trees to some degree. Mice girdle small trees, and bears girdle...

  18. Ties that bind: Pacific Northwest truffles, trees, and animals in symbiosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marie Oliver; Randy Molina; Jane E.  Smith

    2009-01-01

    Soil organisms play essential roles in forest health, and truffle fungi are one of the more fascinating groups of these important organisms. After 40 years of specimen collection and study, scientists with Pacific Northwest Research Station have published a report documenting how truffle fungi affect tree survival and growth, perform valuable functions in nutrient...

  19. Assessment and management of animal damage in Pacific Northwest forests: an annotated bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D.M. Loucks; H.C. Black; M.L. Roush; S.R. Radosevich

    1990-01-01

    This annotated bibliography of published literature provides a comprehensive source of information on animal damage assessment and management for forest land managers and others in the Pacific Northwest. Citations and abstracts from more than 900 papers are indexed by subject and author. The publication complements and supplements A Silvicultural Approach to...

  20. Prediction of growth and mortality of Oregon White Oak in the Pacific Northwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter J. Gould; David D. Marshall; Constance A. Harrington

    2008-01-01

    We developed new equations to predict Oregon white oak (Quercus garryana Dougl. ex Hook.) development with ORGANON, a stand-development model that is widely used in the Pacific Northwest. Tree size, competitive status, crown ratio, and site productivity were statistically significant predictors of growth and mortality. Three scenarios were...

  1. Anatomy of a field trial: Wood-based biochar and compost influences a Pacific Northwest soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biochar land application research in elevated rainfall areas (980 millimeters of annual rainfall) of the U.S. Pacific Northwest is lacking. A proof-of-concept field study examined the effects of spruce-pine-fir wood chip biochar (slow pyrolysis; 450-500 degrees Celsius; 35 megagrams per hectare), d...

  2. Understanding key issues of sustainable wood production in the Pacific Northwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert L. Deal; Seth M. White

    2005-01-01

    Researchers involved with the Pacific Northwest (PNW) Research Station Sustainable Wood Production Initiative have outlined some of the barriers and opportunities for sustainable wood production in the region. Sustainable wood production is defined as the capacity of forests to produce wood, products, and services on a long-term basis and in the context of human...

  3. Knock on wood: Is wood production sustainable in the Pacific Northwest?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonathan. Thompson

    2006-01-01

    The Pacific Northwest is one of the world’s major timber-producing regions, and its capacity to produce wood on a sustained-yield basis is widely recognized. Nonetheless, there has been increasing public interest in assuring that forests are being sustainably managed, as well as a desire by landowners to demonstrate their commitment to responsible stewardship.

  4. Potential Climate-Induced Runoff Changes and Associated Uncertainty in Four Pacific Northwest Estuaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    As part of a larger investigation into potential impacts of climate change on estuarine habitats in the Pacific Northwest (PNW), we estimated changes in freshwater inputs into four estuaries. These were the Coquille River estuary, the South Slough of Coos Bay, and the Yaquina Bay...

  5. Dwarf mistletoe and host tree interactions in managed forests of the Pacific Northwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald M. Knutson; Robert. Tinnin

    1980-01-01

    Dwarf mistletoes in the Pacific Northwest infect true firs, larch, pine, Douglas-fir, and hemlock. Forty-one percent of all stands east of the crest of the Cascade Range and 10 percent of west-side stands are infected. General characteristics of dwarf mistletoe are discussed including mortality and growth losses rate of spread within a tree and within stands. Relation...

  6. Faculty Perceptions of Organizational Culture and Collegiality at Protestant Christian Universities in the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jamie R.

    2013-01-01

    This study focused on faculty perceptions of organizational culture and collegiality at denominationally affiliated Christian colleges and universities in the Pacific Northwest. It was found that while faculty members perceive tension around their experience of organizational culture, the extent of their relationships as cultivated through formal…

  7. Conserving and managing the trees of the future: genetic resources for Pacific Northwest forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sally. Duncan

    2003-01-01

    Genetic resource management has historically called for altering the genetic structure of plant populations through selection for traits of interest such as rapid growth. Although this is still a principal component of tree breeding programs in the Pacific Northwest, managing genetic resources now also brings a clear focus on retaining a broad diversity within and...

  8. RESTORING WILD SALMON TO THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST: FRAMING THE RISK QUESTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the Pacific Northwest of the United States, it is urgent to assess accurately the various options proposed to restore wild salmon. For the past 125 years, a variety of analytic approaches have been employed to assess the ecological consequences of salmon management options. ...

  9. Forest research notes, Pacific Northwest Forest Experiment Station, No. 23, November 27, 1937.

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Elton Lodewick; P.A. Briegleb; F.L. Moravets; Leo A. Isaac; William G. Morris; Wade. DeVries

    1937-01-01

    Douglas fir, the most abundant and most used lumber species in the forests of the Pacific Northwest, is being pulped on a commercial scale by the sulfate and soda processes. The markets for unbleached pulps are limited, and there has been much speculation as to the possibilities of developing pulping processes whereby the enormous quantities of otherwise unutilized...

  10. Foliar moisture content of Pacific Northwest vegetation and its relation to wildland fire behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James K. Agee; Clinton S. Wright; Nathan Williamson; Mark H. Huff

    2002-01-01

    Fotiar moisture was monitored for five conifers and associated understory vegetation in Pacific Northwest forests. Decline in foliar moisture of new foliage occurred over the dry season, while less variation was evident in older foliage. Late season foliar moisture ranged from 130 to 170%. In riparian-upland comparisons, largest differences were found for understory...

  11. A first look at measurement error on FIA plots using blind plots in the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susanna Melson; David Azuma; Jeremy S. Fried

    2002-01-01

    Measurement error in the Forest Inventory and Analysis work of the Pacific Northwest Station was estimated with a recently implemented blind plot measurement protocol. A small subset of plots was revisited by a crew having limited knowledge of the first crew's measurements. This preliminary analysis of the first 18 months' blind plot data indicates that...

  12. Traditional and local ecological knowledge about forest biodiversity in the Pacific Northwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan Charnley; A. Paige Fischer; Eric T. Jones

    2008-01-01

    This paper synthesizes the existing literature about traditional and local ecological knowledge relating to biodiversity in Pacific Northwest forests in order to assess what is needed to apply this knowledge to forest biodiversity conservation efforts. We address four topics: (1) views and values people have relating to biodiversity, (2) the resource use and management...

  13. Predicting landscape sensitivity to present and future floods in the Pacific Northwest, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad Safeeq; Gordon E. Grant; Sarah L. Lewis; Brian Staab

    2015-01-01

    Floods are the most frequent natural disaster, causing more loss of life and property than any other in the USA. Floods also strongly influence the structure and function of watersheds, stream channels, and aquatic ecosystems. The Pacific Northwest is particularly vulnerable to climatically driven changes in flood frequency and magnitude, because snowpacks that...

  14. Knowledge-Based Information Management for Watershed Analysis in the Pacific Northwest U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith Reynolds; Richard Olson; Michael Saunders; Donald Latham; Michael Foster; Bruce Miller; Lawrence Bednar; Daniel Schmoldt; Patrick Cunningham; John Steffenson

    1996-01-01

    We are developing a knowledge-based information management system to provide decision support for watershed analysis in the Pacific Northwest region of the U.S. The system includes: (1) a GIS interface that allows users to graphically navigate to specific provinces and watersheds and display a variety of themes and other area-specific information, (2) an analysis...

  15. Comparing algorithms for estimating foliar biomass of conifers in the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crystal L. Raymond; Donald. McKenzie

    2013-01-01

    Accurate estimates of foliar biomass (FB) are important for quantifying carbon storage in forest ecosystems, but FB is not always reported in regional or national inventories. Foliar biomass also drives key ecological processes in ecosystem models. Published algorithms for estimating FB in conifer species of the Pacific Northwest can yield signifi cantly different...

  16. Forest economics research at the Pacific Northwest Research Station, to 2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald F. Flora

    2003-01-01

    The contributions for over 80 years by scientists at the Pacific Northwest Research Station to developments in economic theory, economic tools, policies, and economic issues are summarized. This is a story of progressive accomplishments set against a constantly changing background of economic and social events.

  17. Forest cover dynamics in the Pacific Northwest west side: regional trends and predictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralph J. Alig; Daolan Zheng; Thomas A. Spies; Brett J. Butler

    2000-01-01

    The objectives of this paper were to (1) analyze recent rates of transitions among forest cover types on private timberland, (2) identify differences by ownership class, and (3) project future changes under different scenarios related to current policy issues in the Pacific Northwest. Timber harvests are the dominant class of disturbance on private timberland in...

  18. Early-season wind erosion influenced by soil-incorporated green manure in the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Management strategies are sought to minimize wind erosion of irrigated agricultural soils along the Columbia River of the Inland Pacific Northwest, particularly during the early season (March-April) when high winds coincide with sowing of vegetable crops. Early-season wind erosion potential from soi...

  19. Phylogeography of the seaweed Ishige okamurae (Phaeophyceae) : Evidence for glacial refugia in the northwest Pacific region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, Kyung Min; Yang, Eun Chan; Coyer, James A.; Zuccarello, Giuseppe C.; Wang, Wei-Lui; Choi, Chang Geun; Boo, Sung Min

    Although benthic marine algae are essential components of marine coastal systems that have been influenced profoundly by past and present climate change, our knowledge of seaweed phylogeography is limited. The brown alga Ishige okamurae Yendo occurs in the northwest Pacific, where it occupies a

  20. Bull Trout Distribution, Pacific Northwest (updated March, 2006)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission — This dataset is a record of fish distribution and activity for BULL TROUT contained in the StreamNet database. This feature class was created based on linear event...

  1. Spring Chinook Distribution, Pacific Northwest (updated March, 2006)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission — This dataset is a record of fish distribution and activity for SPRING CHINOOK contained in the StreamNet database. This feature class was created based on linear...

  2. Brook Trout Distribution, Pacific Northwest (updated March, 2006)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission — This dataset is a record of fish distribution and activity for BROOK TROUT contained in the StreamNet database. This feature class was created based on linear event...

  3. Pink Salmon Distribution, Pacific Northwest (updated March, 2006)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission — This dataset is a record of fish distribution and activity for PINK SALMON contained in the StreamNet database. This feature class was created based on linear event...

  4. Westslope Cutthroat Trout Distribution, Pacific Northwest (updated March, 2006)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission — This dataset is a record of fish distribution and activity for WESTSLOPE CUTTHROAT TROUT contained in the StreamNet database. This feature class was created based on...

  5. Chum Salmon Distribution, Pacific Northwest (updated March, 2006)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission — This dataset is a record of fish distribution and activity for CHUM SALMON contained in the StreamNet database. This feature class was created based on linear event...

  6. Brown Trout Distribution, Pacific Northwest (updated March, 2006)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission — This dataset is a record of fish distribution and activity for BROWN TROUT contained in the StreamNet database. This feature class was created based on linear event...

  7. Yellowstone Cutthroat Trout Distribution, Pacific Northwest (updated March, 2006)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission — This dataset is a record of fish distribution and activity for YELLOWSTONE CUTTHROAT TROUT contained in the StreamNet database. This feature class was created based...

  8. Sockeye Salmon Distribution, Pacific Northwest (updated March, 2006)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission — This dataset is a record of fish distribution and activity for SOCKEYE SALMON contained in the StreamNet database. This feature class was created based on linear...

  9. White Sturgeon Distribution, Pacific Northwest (updated March, 2006)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission — This dataset is a record of fish distribution and activity for WHITE STURGEON contained in the StreamNet database. This feature class was created based on linear...

  10. Coho Salmon Distribution, Pacific Northwest (updated March, 2006)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission — This dataset is a record of fish distribution and activity for COHO SALMON contained in the StreamNet database. This feature class was created based on linear event...

  11. Rainbow Trout Distribution, Pacific Northwest (updated March, 2006)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission — This dataset is a record of fish distribution and activity for RAINBOW TROUT contained in the StreamNet database. This feature class was created based on linear...

  12. Redband Trout Distribution, Pacific Northwest (updated March, 2006)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission — This dataset is a record of fish distribution and activity for REDBAND TROUT contained in the StreamNet database. This feature class was created based on linear...

  13. Fall Chinook Distribution, Pacific Northwest (updated March, 2006)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission — This dataset is a record of fish distribution and activity for FALL CHINOOK contained in the StreamNet database. This feature class was created based on linear event...

  14. 1995 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study, Technical Appendix: Volume 1.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1995-12-01

    The Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study (WhiteBook), is published annually by BPA, and establishes the planning basis for supplying electricity to customers. It serves a dual purpose. First, the White Book presents projections of regional and Federal system load and resource capabilities, along with relevant definitions and explanations. Second, the White Book serves as a benchmark for annual BPA determinations made pursuant to the 1981 regional power sales contracts. Specifically, BPA uses the, information in the White Book for determining the notice required when customers request to increase or decrease the amount of power purchased from BPA. Aside from these purposes, the White Book is used for input to BPA`s resource planning process. The White Book compiles information obtained from several formalized resource planning reports and data submittals, including those from the Northwest Power Planning Council (Council) and the Pacific Northwest Utilities Conference Committee (PNUCC).

  15. A Comprehensive Approach to Bi-National Regional Energy Planning in the Pacific Northwest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matt Morrison

    2007-12-31

    The Pacific NorthWest Economic Region, a statutory organization chartered by the Northwest states of Alaska, Washington, Idaho, Montana, and Oregon, and the western Canadian provinces of British Columbia, Alberta, and the Yukon through its Energy Working Group launched a bi-national energy planning initiative designed to create a Pacific Northwest energy planning council of regional public/private stakeholders from both Canada and the US. There is an urgent need to deal with the comprehensive energy picture now before our hoped for economic recovery results in energy price spikes which are likely to happen because the current supply will not meet predicted demand. Also recent events of August 14th have shown that our bi-national energy grid system is intricately interdependent, and additional planning for future capacity is desperately needed.

  16. Compendium of Low-Cost Pacific Salmon and Steelhead Trout Production Facilities and Practices in the Pacific Northwest.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senn, Harry G.

    1984-09-01

    The purpose was to research low capital cost salmon and steelhead trout production facilities and identify those that conform with management goals for the Columbia Basin. The species considered were chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), coho salmon (O. kisutch), sockeye salmon (O. nerka), and steelhead trout (Salmo gairdneri). This report provides a comprehensive listing of the facilities, techniques, and equipment used in artificial production in the Pacific Northwest. (ACR)

  17. BIODIVERSITY MANAGEMENT APPROACHES FOR STREAM-RIPARIAN AREAS: PERSPECTIVES FOR PACIFIC NORTHWEST HEADWATER FORESTS, MICROCLIMATES, AND AMPHIBIANS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stream-riparian areas represent a nexus of biodiversity, with disproportionate numbers of species tied to and interacting within this key habitat. New research in Pacific Northwest headwater forests, especially the characterization of microclimates and amphibian distributions, is...

  18. Effects of climate change on Pacific Northwest water-related resources: Summary of preliminary findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, M.J.; Sands, R.D.; Vail, L.W.; Chatters, J.C.; Neitzel, D.A.; Shankle, S.A.

    1993-12-01

    The Pacific Northwest Case Study is a multi-agency analysis of atmospheric/climatic change impacts on the Pacific Northwest (which includes Washington, Oregon, Idaho, and portions of the Columbia River Basin in Western Montana). The purpose of the case study, which began in fiscal year 1991, was to develop and test analytical tools, as well as to develop an assessment of the effects of climate change on climate-sensitive natural resources of the Pacific Northwest and economic sectors dependent on them. The overall study, jointly funded by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the US Environmental Protection Agency, was a broad-based, reconnaissance-level study to identify potential climate impacts on agriculture, coastal resources, forest resources, and irrigation in the Pacific Northwest. DOE participated in the reconnaissance study, with responsibility for hydroelectric and water supply issues. While this report briefly discusses a broader array of water issues, attention is mainly focused on three aspects of the water study: (1) the effects of the region`s higher temperatures on the demand for electric power (which in turn puts additional demand on hydroelectric resources of the region); (2) the effects of higher temperatures and changes, both in precipitation amounts and seasonality, on river flows and hydroelectric supply; and (3) the effect of higher temperatures and changed precipitation amounts and seasonality on salmonid resources -- particularly the rearing conditions in tributaries of the Columbia River Basin. Because the meaning of regional climate forecasts is still quite uncertain, most of the preliminary findings are based on sensitivity analyses and historical analog climate scenarios.

  19. Journey of the Oncorhynchus: A Story of the Pacific Northwest Salmon.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1994-06-01

    This report tells the story of the Pacific Northwest salmon in words that children can understand. The life cycle of chinook salmon is depicted through pictures and elementary language from the egg to juvenile fish in fresh water, to maturing fish in the ocean, and the adults migrating back up to spawning grounds in the Columbia River. This can be very useful in the education of children.

  20. Proceedings: Second Annual Pacific Northwest Alternative and Renewable Energy Resources Conference.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-01-01

    Papers presented at the conference are published in this volume. The purpose of the conference was to solicit regional cooperation in the promoting of near-term development of such alternative and renewable energy resources in the Pacific Northwest as: cogeneration; biomass; wind; small hydro; solar end-use applications; and geothermal direct heat utilization. Separate abstracts of selected papers were prepared for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.

  1. Choosing an electrical energy future for the Pacific Northwest: an alternative scenario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beers, J.R.; Cavanagh, R.C.; Lash, T.R.; Mott, L.

    1980-05-19

    A strategy is presented for averting the short-term energy supply uncertainties that undermine prospects for stable economic development in the Pacific Northwest. This strategy is based on: an analysis of the present electric power consumption by various end-use sectors; comparison of incentives to promote energy conservation and lower demand growth; analysis of alternatives to current dependency on hydro power; and a study of the cost of planning and implementing future power supply programs. (LCL)

  2. Climate change and forest trees in the Pacific Northwest: guide to vulnerability assessment methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. Devine; C. Aubry; J. Miller; K. Potter; A. Bower

    2012-01-01

    This guide provides a step-by-step description of the methodology used to apply the Forest Tree Genetic Risk Assessment System (ForGRAS; Potter and Crane 2010) to the tree species of the Pacific Northwest in a recent climate change vulnerability assessment (Devine et al. 2012). We describe our modified version of the ForGRAS model, and we review the model’s basic...

  3. The last frontier: catch records of white sharks (Carcharodon carcharias) in the Northwest Pacific Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, Heather M; Lin, Victor; Tanaka, Sho; Velikanov, Anatoly; Mollet, Henry F; Wintner, Sabine P; Fordham, Sonja V; Fisk, Aaron T; Hussey, Nigel E

    2014-01-01

    White sharks are highly migratory apex predators, globally distributed in temperate, sub-tropical, and tropical waters. Knowledge of white shark biology and ecology has increased recently based on research at known aggregation sites in the Indian, Atlantic, and Northeast Pacific Oceans; however, few data are available for the Northwest Pacific Ocean. This study provides a meta-analysis of 240 observations of white sharks from the Northwest Pacific Ocean between 1951 and 2012. Records comprise reports of bycatch in commercial fisheries, media accounts, personal communications, and documentation of shark-human interactions from Russia (n = 8), Republic of Korea (22), Japan (129), China (32), Taiwan (45), Philippines (1) and Vietnam (3). Observations occurred in all months, excluding October-January in the north (Russia and Republic of Korea) and July-August in the south (China, Taiwan, Philippines, and Vietnam). Population trend analysis indicated that the relative abundance of white sharks in the region has remained relatively stable, but parameterization of a 75% increase in observer effort found evidence of a minor decline since 2002. Reliably measured sharks ranged from 126-602 cm total length (TL) and 16-2530 kg total weight. The largest shark in this study (602 cm TL) represents the largest measured shark on record worldwide. For all countries combined the sex ratio was non-significantly biased towards females (1∶1.1; n = 113). Of 60 females examined, 11 were confirmed pregnant ranging from the beginning stages of pregnancy (egg cases) to near term (140 cm TL embryos). On average, 6.0±2.2 embryos were found per litter (maximum of 10) and gestation period was estimated to be 20 months. These observations confirm that white sharks are present in the Northwest Pacific Ocean year-round. While acknowledging the difficulties of studying little known populations of a naturally low abundance species, these results highlight the need for dedicated research to

  4. Global climate change and effects on Pacific Northwest salmonids: An exploratory case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shankle, S.A.

    1990-09-01

    Recently, a number of papers have addressed global warming and freshwater fisheries. The recent report to Congress by the US Environmental Protection Agency included an analysis of potential effects of global warming on fisheries of the Great Lakes, California, and the Southeast. In California, the report stated that salinity increases in the San Francisco Bay could enhance the abundance of marine fish species, while anadromous species could be adversely affected. This paper discusses global climate changes and the effects on Pacific Northwest Salmonids. The impacts of climate change or Spring Chinook production in the Yakima Sub-basin was simulated using a computer modeling system developed for the Northwest Power planning council. 35 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  5. Pacific Northwest Laboratory monthly activities report, November 1967

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albaugh, F.W.

    1967-12-01

    Calculated temperatures permitted in the Columbia River under various suggested regulations were plotted and reported in support of AEC studies. Mechanisms of Environmental Exposure. Measurements of radioactivity were completed in 362 pupils and 5 teachers at Emerson School on November 17. Measurements will begin at the third Pasco elementary school on December 5. Lectures were given at Mark Twain School to the teaching staff on November 20, and to 23 classroom son November 27 through December 1. A lecture was also given to the PTA meeting the evening of November 20 at Robert Frost elementary school in Pasco. Modifications were made to the electronic equipment and to the mobile whole-body counter van to improve the performance of the facility to further protect the NaI crystal from potential cold weather damage. Errors found inn the computer-calculated environmental doses were being corrected at month`s end, and the doses will be recalculated in December.

  6. Pacific Northwest Laboratory monthly activities report, August 1966

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul, R.S.

    1966-09-01

    This document reports on: direct AEC sponsored programs (mainly Columbia River studies and exposure mechanisms), assistance to Douglas United Nuclear (production reactors), assistance to General Electric N-Reactor department, assistance to Isochem (processing), assistance to Hanford occupational health foundation, and technical assistance to Hanford Plant (environment, dosimetry).

  7. Pacific Northwest Laboratory environmental technologies available for deployment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slate, S.C.

    1994-07-01

    The Department of Energy created the Office of Environmental Management (EM) to conduct a 30-year plus, multi-billion dollar program to manage the wastes and cleanup the legacy from over fifty years of nuclear material production. Across the DOE System there are thousands of sites containing millions of metric tons of buried wastes and contaminated soils and groundwater. Additionally, there are nearly 400,000 m 3 of highly radioactive wastes in underground storage tanks, over 1,400 different mixed-waste streams, and thousands of contaminated surplus facilities, some exceeding 200,000 m 2 in size. Costs to remediate all these problems have been estimated to be as much as several hundred billion dollars. The tremendous technical challenges with some of the problems and the high costs of using existing technologies has led the Department to create the Office of Technology Development (TD) to lead an aggressive, integrated national program to develop and deploy the needed advanced, cost-effective technologies. This program is developing technologies for all major cleanup steps: assessment, characterization, retrieval, treatment, final stabilization, and disposal. Work is focused on the Department's five major problem areas: High-Level Waste Tank Remediation; Contaminant Plume Containment and Remediation; Mixed Waste Characterization, Treatment, and Disposal; Contaminated Soils and Buried Wastes Facility Transitioning, Decommissioning, and Final Disposal

  8. PACIFIC NORTHWEST LABORATORY MONTHLY ACTIVITIES REPORT FOR FEBRUARY 1967

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fawcett, S. L.

    1967-03-01

    Areas of work reported include: general radiation effects; toxicity of radioelements; combating detrimental effects of radiation; studies at the molecular and cellular level; environmental radiation studies; atmospheric radioactivity and fallout; marine sciences; radiological and health physics; and radiation instruments.

  9. Domestic cultivation of salmon in the Pacific Northwest and aquaculture of Malaysian prawns in controlled environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedman, B.A.; Sandifer, P.A.; Smith, T.I.J.

    1978-07-01

    Aquaculture of salmon and shrimp is discussed. Domsea Farms in the Pacific Northwest has facilities for spawning, hatching, and rearing of coho salmon for U.S. markets. Health management programs operate to keep salmon free from bacterial or viral diseases. Recent developments in technology for the intensive culture of a tropical prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) are considered. Commercial facilities in South Carolina consisting of hatchery, nursery, production, and brood stock phases are described. Designs for very intensive grow-out systems include small earthen pond units, modified Shigueno-type tanks, and aquacells. Major problem areas of commercial shrimp production are identified. (10 diagrams, 1 graph, 11 photos, numerous references)

  10. Comparative Study on the Electrical Properties of the Oceanic Mantle Beneath the Northwest Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toh, H.

    2013-12-01

    We have been conducting long-term seafloor electromagnetic (EM) observations at two sites in the northwest Pacific since 2001. The older site was established at the deep seafloor (~5600m) on the northwest Pacific basin (Site NWP), while the new one was installed on the west Philippine basin (Site WPB) in 2006 at the slightly deeper (~5700m) seafloor. The ages of the oceanic basins at those sites are approximately 129 Ma for Site NWP (Shipboard Scientific Party of ODP Leg 191, 2000) and 49 Ma for Site WPB (Salisbury et al., 2006), respectively. The EM instruments deployed at those sites are seafloor EM stations (SFEMS; Toh et al., 2004 and 2006) and capable of measuring vector EM fields at the seafloor for as long as one year or more with other physical quantities such as the instruments' attitude, orientation and temperature. One of the objectives of the seafloor long-term EM observations by SFEMSs is to make a comparative study of the oceanic mantle with and without influence of the so-called 'stagnant slabs' in terms of their electrical conductivity. It is anticipated that the mantle transition zone under the influence of the stagnant slab has a higher electrical conductivity because the transition zone there could be wetter than that in the absence of the stagnant slab. In this context, the mantle transition zone beneath Site WPB can be said to have influence by the stagnant slab, while that beneath Site NWP does not. It, therefore, is basically possible to estimate how much water is present in each transition zone by comparison of the electrical conductivity profiles of the two. The one-dimensional electrical profile beneath Site NWP has been derived so far using the magnetotelluric (MT) and geomagnetic depth sounding (GDS) methods with significant jumps in the electrical property at 410 and 660km discontinuities. The jumps are approximately factors of 10 and 2, respectively (Ichiki et al., 2009). Here we show a profile beneath Site WPB using both MT and GDS

  11. Fiscal year 1999 Battelle performance evaluation and fee agreement; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DAVIS, T.L.

    1998-01-01

    Fiscal Year 1999 represents the third fill year utilizing a results-oriented, performance-based evaluation for the Contractor's operations and management of the DOE Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (here after referred to as the Laboratory). However, this is the first year that the Contractor's fee is totally performance-based utilizing the same Critical Outcomes. This document describes the critical outcomes, objectives, performance indicators, expected levels of performance, and the basis for the evaluation of the Contractor's performance for the period October 1, 1998 through September 30, 1999, as required by Clauses entitled ''Use of Objective Standards of Performance, Self Assessment and Performance Evaluation'' and ''Performance Measures Review'' of the Contract DE-ACO6-76RL01830. Furthermore, it documents the distribution of the total available performance-based fee and the methodology set for determining the amount of fee earned by the Contractor as stipulated within the causes entitled ''Estimated Cost and Annual Fee,'' ''Total Available Fee'' and ''Allowable Costs and Fee.'' In partnership with the Contractor and other key customers, the Department of Energy (DOE) Headquarters (HQ) and Richland Operations Office (RL) has defined four critical outcomes that serve as the core for the Contractor's performance-based evaluation and fee determination. The Contractor also utilizes these outcomes as a basis for overall management of the Laboratory

  12. Intestinal helminths of river otters (Lutra canadensis) from the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoberg, Eric P.; Henny, Charles J.; Hedstrom, O.R.; Grove, Robert A.

    1997-01-01

    The intestinal helminth fauna of river otters, Lutra canadensis, from the Pacific Northwest was characterized by low species richness and intensity of infection. River otters from the lower Columbia River (n = 23) were infected with 9 species of helminths (83% prevalence); those from a relatively undisturbed reference area near the headwaters of the Trask and Wilson rivers on the Oregon coast (n = 6) were infected by 5 species of helminths (100% prevalence). Single species of Eucestoda (Schistocephalus solidus), Digenea (Euparyphium inerme), Acanthocephala (Corynosoma strumosum), and 8 species of Nematoda (Strongyloides lutrae; larvae of Eustrongylides sp., Anisakis sp., and Contracaecum sp.; 3 of Cystidicolidae, and Hedruris sp.) were collected. Most species are typical of piscine definitive hosts and were present as incidental parasites of river otters. Notably, specimens of Euparyphium inerme are reported for the first time in river otters from North America; occurrence of other helminths constitutes new host or geographic records for parasites in river otters in Oregon and Washington. Parasites with marine life cycles were acquired by river otters in freshwater habitats at a great distance from the ocean. The helminth fauna of river otters in the Pacific Northwest was influenced primarily by ecological factors and was indicative of eclectic food habits and the relatively extensive home ranges occupied by these mustelids.

  13. Pacific Northwest and Alaska Regional Bioenergy Program : Five Year Report, 1985-1990.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pacific Northwest and Alaska Bioenergy Program (U.S.)

    1991-02-01

    This five-year report describes activities of the Pacific Northwest and Alaska Regional Bioenergy Program between 1985 and 1990. Begun in 1979, this Regional Bioenergy Program became the model for the nation's four other regional bioenergy programs in 1983. Within the time span of this report, the Pacific Northwest and Alaska Regional Bioenergy Program has undertaken a number of applied research and technology projects, and supported and guided the work of its five participating state energy programs. During this period, the Regional Bioenergy Program has brought together public- and private-sector organizations to promote the use of local biomass and municipal-waste energy resources and technologies. This report claims information on the mission, goals and accomplishments of the Regional Bioenergy Program. It describes the biomass projects conducted by the individual states of the region, and summarizes the results of the programs technical studies. Publications from both the state and regional projects are listed. The report goes on to consider future efforts of the Regional Bioenergy Program under its challenging assignment. Research activities include: forest residue estimates; Landsat biomass mapping; woody biomass plantations; industrial wood-fuel market; residential space heating with wood; materials recovery of residues; co-firing wood chips with coal; biomass fuel characterization; wood-boosted geothermal power plants; wood gasification; municipal solid wastes to energy; woodstove study; slash burning; forest depletion; and technology transfer. 9 figs., 6 tabs.

  14. Choosing an electrical energy future for the Pacific Northwest: an Alternative Scenario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavanagh, R.C.; Mott, L.; Beers, J.R.; Lash, T.L.

    1980-08-01

    An Alternative Scenario for the electric energy future of the Pacific Northwest is presented. The Scenario includes an analysis of each major end use of electricity in the residential, commercial, manufacturing, and agricultural sectors. This approach affords the most direct means of projecting the likely long-term growth in consumption and the opportunities for increasing the efficiency with which electricity is used in each instance. The total demand for electricity by these end uses then provides a basis for determining whether additional central station generation is required to 1995. A projection of total demand for electricity depends on the combination of many independent variables and assumptions. Thus, the approach is a resilient one; no single assumption or set of linked assumptions dominates the analysis. End-use analysis allows policymakers to visualize the benefits of alternative programs, and to make comparison with the findings of other studies. It differs from the traditional load forecasts for the Pacific Northwest, which until recently were based largely on straightforward extrapolations of historical trends in the growth of electrical demand. The Scenario addresses the supply potential of alternative energy sources. Data are compiled for 1975, 1985, and 1995 in each end-use sector.

  15. Mushrooms, trees, and money: value estimates of commercial mushrooms and timber in the pacific northwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Susan J; Pilz, David; Weber, Nancy S; Brown, Ed; Rockwell, Victoria A

    2002-07-01

    Wild edible mushrooms are harvested in the forests of the Pacific Northwest, where both trees and mushrooms grow in the same landscape. Although there has been some discussion about the value of trees and mushrooms individually, little information exists about the joint production of, and value for, these two forest products. Through four case studies, the information needed to determine production and value for three wild mushroom species in different forests of the Pacific Northwest is described, and present values for several different forest management scenarios are presented. The values for timber and for mushrooms are site- and species-specific. On the Olympic Peninsula in Washington, timber is highly valued and chanterelles are a low-value product by weight; timber has a soil expectation value (SEV) 12 to 200 times higher than chanterelles. In south-central Oregon, timber and American matsutake mushrooms have the potential to have about the same SEV. In eastern Oregon, timber is worth 20 to 110 times as much as the morels that grow in the forest. Production economics is concerned with choices about how much and what to produce with what resources. The choices are influenced by changes in technical and economic circumstances. Through our description and analysis of the necessary definitions and assumptions to assess value in joint production of timber and wild mushrooms, we found that values are sensitive to assumptions about changes in forest management, yields for mushrooms and trees, and costs.

  16. Biomass energy utilization in the Pacific Northwest: impacts associated with residential use of solid fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petty, P.; Hopp, W.; Chockie, A.

    1981-05-01

    The Pacific Northwest Region, including Washington, Oregon, and Idaho, is the geographic area for which an impact assessment of the residential use of solid fuels is performed. Increased use of solid fuels in the residential sector has led to a marked decline in per household use of other forms of energy. An estimate of the potential energy contained in the fuelwood burned annually and an estimate of the mean conversion efficiency of the regional capital stock of woodburning appliances leads to a reasoned assessment of the contribution of wood energy to the residential energy use in the region. The use of solid fuels has been associated with an increase in the incidence of residential fires nationally. This is also true of the Pacific Northwest Region. An estimate is made of the economic costs attributable to this source of fire incidence. An additional area of concern relates to the harvesting practices of hundreds of individuals, cutting fuelwood for their own use. Statistics describing injuries and deaths per Btu in the commercial logging industry are used as a basis for an estimate of injuries and deaths resulting from the increased collection of forest residues and fuelwood by private woodcutters. This analysis indicates that the private harvest of fuelwood may be extremely costly in terms of injuries and deaths suffered by private woodcutters in the region.

  17. The last frontier: catch records of white sharks (Carcharodon carcharias in the Northwest Pacific Ocean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather M Christiansen

    Full Text Available White sharks are highly migratory apex predators, globally distributed in temperate, sub-tropical, and tropical waters. Knowledge of white shark biology and ecology has increased recently based on research at known aggregation sites in the Indian, Atlantic, and Northeast Pacific Oceans; however, few data are available for the Northwest Pacific Ocean. This study provides a meta-analysis of 240 observations of white sharks from the Northwest Pacific Ocean between 1951 and 2012. Records comprise reports of bycatch in commercial fisheries, media accounts, personal communications, and documentation of shark-human interactions from Russia (n = 8, Republic of Korea (22, Japan (129, China (32, Taiwan (45, Philippines (1 and Vietnam (3. Observations occurred in all months, excluding October-January in the north (Russia and Republic of Korea and July-August in the south (China, Taiwan, Philippines, and Vietnam. Population trend analysis indicated that the relative abundance of white sharks in the region has remained relatively stable, but parameterization of a 75% increase in observer effort found evidence of a minor decline since 2002. Reliably measured sharks ranged from 126-602 cm total length (TL and 16-2530 kg total weight. The largest shark in this study (602 cm TL represents the largest measured shark on record worldwide. For all countries combined the sex ratio was non-significantly biased towards females (1∶1.1; n = 113. Of 60 females examined, 11 were confirmed pregnant ranging from the beginning stages of pregnancy (egg cases to near term (140 cm TL embryos. On average, 6.0±2.2 embryos were found per litter (maximum of 10 and gestation period was estimated to be 20 months. These observations confirm that white sharks are present in the Northwest Pacific Ocean year-round. While acknowledging the difficulties of studying little known populations of a naturally low abundance species, these results highlight the need for dedicated

  18. Columbia River system operation review: Final environmental impact statement. Appendix R, Pacific Northwest Coordination agreement (PNCA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    Currently, the Federal government coordinates the planning and operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) with projects owned and operated by the region's non-Federal hydrogenerating utilities pursuant to the Pacific North-west Coordination Agreement (PNCA). The Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation), the Corps of Engineers (Corps), and the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) are parties to the PNCA on behalf of the government of the United States. The PNCA is a complex agreement that provides an opportunity for the region's power producers to maximize the power system's reliability and economy while meeting their multiple-use objectives. The PNCA does not dictate the operation of the resources it coordinates. It is essentially an accounting mechanism that exchanges the power produced among the parties in order to improve the reliability of the system and reduce regional power costs. Project owners retain complete autonomy to operate as needed to meet their multiple-use requirements. The PNCA was executed in 1964 as an important component of regional plans to maximize the Northwest's hydro resource capability. Maximization also included the development of storage projects on the Columbia River in Canada pursuant to the terms of the 1964 Columbia River Treaty. Because of the link between power coordination and Treaty issues, the current parties to the PNCA, currently are contemplating entering into a replacement or renewed power coordination agreement. Because the power coordination agreement is a consensual arrangement, its ultimate provisions must be acceptable to all of its signatories. This Appendix R to the Final Environmental Impact Statement of the Columbia River System is a presentation of the Pacific North-west Coordination Agreement

  19. The Tropical East Pacific as a Laboratory for Tropical Cyclones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, D. J.

    2007-05-01

    The summertime tropical cyclogenesis rate per unit area in the eastern Pacific ocean is arguably higher than in any other location in the world. Many if not most of these cyclones form from African easterly waves which cross Central America into the Pacific. Of order 25% of these waves intensify into cyclones. A significant fraction of east Pacific tropical cyclones undergoes landfall on the Mexican coast. Those which do not, generally dissipate over cold ocean waters north of the east Pacific intertropical convergence zone, often not far from land. The layer of warm ocean water which supports the development of east Pacific cyclones is unusually shallow and is structured by anticyclonic vortices which form by various processes and propagate slowly to the west. These vortices locally deepen the oceanic mixed layer and support stronger convection than their surroundings, possibly promoting cyclogenesis and cyclone intensification. Cyclones in turn have an unusually large effect on the ocean mixed layer due to its shallowness. The east Pacific is thus a region of strong coupling between the atmosphere and the ocean, mediated in large part by the action of tropical cyclones. In most cases cyclogenesis, intensification, landfall, and decay over cold water occur within easy range of research aircraft launched from a number of Central American and Mexican bases such as San Jose, Huatulco, Acapulco, Puerto Vallarta, and Cabo San Lucas. The U. S. National Center for Atmospheric Research, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration have all successfully operated aircraft-based research projects from one or more of these locations. The frequency with which cyclones form, develop, and decay in the east Pacific and their proximity to land bases with excellent facilities make the tropical east Pacific an ideal international laboratory for the study of tropical cyclones. Given the importance of these cyclones to

  20. Molecular systematics of the anchovy genus Encrasicholina in the Northwest Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavoué, Sébastien; Bertrand, Joris A M; Wang, Hui-Yu; Chen, Wei-Jen; Ho, Hsuan-Ching; Motomura, Hiroyuki; Hata, Harutaka; Sado, Tetsuya; Miya, Masaki

    2017-01-01

    The anchovy genus Encrasicholina is an important coastal marine resource of the tropical Indo-West Pacific (IWP) region for which insufficient comparative data are available to evaluate the effects of current exploitation levels on the sustainability of its species and populations. Encrasicholina currently comprises nine valid species that are morphologically very similar. Only three, Encrasicholina punctifer, E. heteroloba, and E. pseudoheteroloba, occur in the Northwest Pacific subregion of the northeastern part of the IWP region. These species are otherwise broadly distributed and abundant in the IWP region, making them the most important anchovy species for local fisheries. In this study, we reconstructed the phylogeny of these three species of Encrasicholina within the Engraulidae. We sequenced 10 complete mitochondrial genomes (using high-throughput and Sanger DNA sequencing technologies) and compared those sequences to 21 previously published mitochondrial genomes from various engraulid taxa. The phylogenetic results showed that the genus Encrasicholina is monophyletic, and it is the sister group to the more-diverse "New World anchovy" clade. The mitogenome-based dating results indicated that the crown group Encrasicholina originated about 33.7 million years ago (nearby the limit Eocene/Oligocene), and each species of Encrasicholina has been reproductively isolated from the others for more than 20 million years, despite their morphological similarities. In contrast, preliminary population genetic analyses across the Northwest Pacific region using four mitogenomic sequences revealed very low levels of genetic differentiation within Encrasicholina punctifer. These molecular results combined with recent taxonomic revisions are important for designing further studies on the population structure and phylogeography of these anchovies.

  1. Battelle-Northwest monthly activities report, February 1965

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1964-03-15

    Activities for each of the following departments are discussed in this report: Reactor and Materials Technology Dept.; Physics and Instruments Dept.; Chemistry Dept.; Biology Dept.; Applied Mathematics Dept.; Radiation Protection Dept.; and the Test Reactor and Engineering Services Dept.. Activities are in support of Hanford reactors (production reactors, N-reactor, PRTR reactor, etc) and reprocessing and radioactive waste management efforts at Hanford.

  2. Battelle-Northwest monthly activities report, March 1965

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1965-04-15

    This report covers progress in the following areas: production reactor support; plutonium recycle program; PRTR HPD core; corrosion and water quality; PRTR pressure tubes; reactor components development; plutonium ceramics research; ceramics (uranium) fuel research; swelling studies; irradiation damage to reactor materials; ATR gas loop studies; graphite studies; metallic fuel development; plutonium and U-233 fueling of a fast compact reactor; FFTF studies; radiation effects on metals; customer work (support of HTLTR and EBWR); physics and instruments; chemistry; biology; radiation protection; and technical and other services.

  3. Using GPS Imaging to Unravel Vertical Land Motions in the Interior Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overacker, J.; Hammond, W. C.; Kraner, M.; Blewitt, G.

    2017-12-01

    GPS Imaging uses robust trends in time series of GPS positions to create a velocity field that can reveal rates and patterns of vertical motions that would be otherwise difficult to detect. We have constructed an image of vertical land velocities within the interior Pacific Northwest region of the United States using GPS Imaging. The image shows a 50-250 km wide swath of approximately 2 mm/yr of subsidence seemingly unrelated to topographic features of the region. The extent of the signal roughly corresponds to the Juan de Fuca plate subduction latitudes and longitude of the Cascade arc. This suggests that the signal could be associated with ongoing crustal deformation possibly related to plate-scale geodynamic forces arising from interseismic coupling, long term plate boundary tractions, volcanic loading, and/or mantle flow. However, hydrological loading from accumulating precipitation in the Cascades and in the region's groundwater basins, and possible effects from Glacial Isostatic Adjustment (GIA) near its hinge line cannot be discounted as potential contributors to the observed subsidence signal. Here we attempt to unravel the contributions of hydrological loading and GIA to the vertical GPS signal observed within the interior Pacific Northwest. In order to determine the non-tectonic contributions to the observed vertical GPS Image, we will examine how the subsidence rate changes over time using early and late period comparisons. GPS, GRACE, and climatic data will be used in conjunction to disentangle the hydrological effect from the GPS Image. GIA models of the Western Cordillera will be compared with the patterns in the GPS Image to assess whether the signal can be explained with current models of GIA. Our presentation will document the signals, uncertainties, and hypotheses for the possible mechanisms behind this subsidence and attempt to quantify their relation and contribution to the observed deformation signal. Figure 1: Pacific Northwest GPS Imaging

  4. Synthesis of wind energy development and potential impacts on wildlife in the Pacific Northwest, Oregon and Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda H. Mockrin; Rebecca A. Gravenmier

    2012-01-01

    Nationally, there is growing public interest in and policy pressure for developing alternative and renewable sources of energy. Wind energy facilities in the Pacific Northwest expanded rapidly over the past decade, as a result of state policies that encourage wind energy development. While much of the development thus far has occurred on private lands, there is...

  5. White rot of garlic and onion (Causal agent, Sclerotium cepivorum): A status report from the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is evidence from literature, state department of agriculture documents, and recent diagnoses that Sclerotium cepivorum, causal agent of white rot of garlic and onion, is spreading and/or becoming more established in the Pacific Northwest. Previously documented distributions are summarized, an...

  6. Tree growth and climate in the Pacific Northwest, North America: a broad-scale analysis of changing growth environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney L. Albright; David L. Peterson

    2013-01-01

    Climate change in the 21st century will affect tree growth in the Pacific Northwest region of North America, although complex climate–growth relationships make it difficult to identify how radial growth will respond across different species distributions. We used a novel method to examine potential growth responses to climate change at a broad geographical scale with a...

  7. A review of apple anthracnose canker biology and management in cider apple orchards in the Maritime Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cider apple (Malus ×domestica Borkh.) is an emerging crop in western Washington and the Pacific Northwest (PNW) region, but a major obstacle to planting new orchards and orchard productivity is the widespread occurrence of apple anthracnose canker, caused by the fungal pathogen Neofabraea malicortic...

  8. Identifying blueberry germplasm that is slow to get Blueberry shock virus in the Pacific Northwest United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blueberry shock virus (BlShV) is a serious problem in blueberry production in the Pacific Northwest (PNW) region of North America. Infection occurs during bloom and the virus moves into other parts of the plant in an uneven but steady manner and may take several years to become fully systemic in mat...

  9. Taxonomy and distribution of phenazine-producing Pseudomonas spp. in the dryland agroecosystem of the Inland Pacific Northwest, United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parejko, James A; Mavrodi, Dmitri V; Mavrodi, Olga V; Weller, David M; Thomashow, Linda S

    2013-06-01

    We investigated the taxonomic placement of phenazine-producing fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. in the Inland Pacific Northwest region of the United States. Five distinct species were identified, two of which were provisionally considered to be new. Agroclimatic zone and soil silt content affected the species diversity across the region.

  10. Amphibians as metrics of critical biological thresholds in forested headwater streams of the Pacific Northwest, U.S.A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartwell H. Welsh; Garth Hodgson

    2008-01-01

    1. Amphibians are recognized both for their sensitivity to environmental perturbations and for their usefulness as cost-effective biometrics of ecosystem integrity (=system health). 2. Twenty-three years of research in headwater streams in the Klamath-Siskiyou and North Coast Bioregions of the Pacific Northwest, U.S.A., showed distinct patterns in the...

  11. Fire-mediated pathways of stand development in Douglas-fir/western hemlock forests of the Pacific Northwest, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    A.J. Tepley; F.J. Swanson; T.A. Spies

    2013-01-01

    Forests dominated by Douglas-fir and western hemlock in the Pacific Northwest of the United States have strongly influenced concepts and policy concerning old-growth forest conservation. Despite the attention to their old-growth characteristics, a tendency remains to view their disturbance ecology in relatively simple terms, emphasizing infrequent, stand-replacing (SR...

  12. Climate change adaptation strategies for federal forests of the Pacific Northwest, USA: ecological, policy, and socio-economic perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas A. Spies; Thomas W. Giesen; Frederick J. Swanson; Jerry F. Franklin; Denise Lach; K. Norman. Johnson

    2010-01-01

    Conserving biological diversity in a changing climate poses major challenges for land managers and society. Effective adaptive strategies for dealing with climate change require a socioecological systems perspective. We highlight some of the projected ecological responses to climate change in the Pacific Northwest, U.S.A and identify possible adaptive actions that...

  13. Exclusionary Discipline Practices across Students' Racial/Ethnic Backgrounds and Disability Status: Findings from the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Claudia G.; Sprague, Jeffrey R.; Tobin, Tary J.

    2012-01-01

    We examined 2009-2010 data on exclusionary discipline practices from one state in the Pacific Northwest of the United States across students' racial/ethnic backgrounds and disability status. Our focus was on proportionate representation in exclusionary discipline actions and in the duration of those disciplinary actions. Descriptive outcomes…

  14. A Knowledge-Based Information Management System for Watershed Analysis in the Pacific Northwest U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith Reynolds; Patrick Cunningham; Larry Bednar; Michael Saunders; Michael Foster; Richard Olson; Daniel Schmoldt; Donald Latham; Bruce Miller; John Steffenson

    1996-01-01

    The Pacific Northwest Research Station (USDA Forest Service) is developing a knowledge-based information management system to provide decision support for watershed analysis. The system includes: (1) a GIS interface that allows users to navigate graphically to specific provinces and watersheds and display a variety of themes (vegetation, streams, roads, topography, etc...

  15. Saprolegniaceae identified on amphibian eggs throughout the Pacific Northwest, USA, by internal transcribed spacer sequences and phylogenetic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jill E. Petrisko; Christopher A. Pearl; David S. Pilliod; Peter P. Sheridan; Charles F. Williams; Charles R. Peterson; R. Bruce Bury

    2008-01-01

    We assessed the diversity and phylogeny of Saprolegniaceae on amphibian eggs from the Pacific Northwest, with particular focus on Saprolegnia ferax, a species implicated in high egg mortality. We identified isolates from eggs of six amphibians with the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and 5.8S gene regions and BLAST of the GenBank database. We...

  16. Climate change predicted to negatively influence surface soil organic matter of dryland cropping systems in the Inland Pacific Northwest, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil organic matter (SOM) is a key indicator of agricultural productivity and overall soil health. Currently, dryland cropping systems of the inland Pacific Northwest (iPNW) span a large gradient in mean annual temperature (MAT) and precipitation (MAP).These climatic drivers are major determinants o...

  17. Enhanced POC export in the oligotrophic northwest Pacific Ocean after extreme weather events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kuo-Shu; Hung, Chin-Chang; Gong, Gwo-Ching; Chou, Wen-Chen; Chung, Chih-Ching; Shih, Yung-Yen; Wang, Chau-Chang

    2013-11-01

    study effects of extreme weather events (EWEs, e.g., dust storm and typhoon) on the export of particulate organic carbon (POC) measured by a floating sediment trap in the oligotrophic ocean, eight sea-going expeditions were conducted in the oligotrophic northwest Pacific (NWP) in 2007 and 2008, covering all four seasons and the passage of several EWEs. Results of year-round field observations demonstrate that the POC export fluxes in the oligotrophic NWP did not exhibit apparent seasonal variations yielding an average flux of 36.9 ± 5.8 mg-C m-2 d-1 without EWE effects. With EWE effects, however, the POC export flux (51.7 ± 13.2 mg-C m-2 d-1) showed an approximately 40% increase compared to the average flux measured without EWE effects. These results suggest that EWEs can trigger elevated POC export from the euphotic zone in the oligotrophic ocean.

  18. Small-scale hydroelectric power in the Pacific Northwest: new impetus for an old energy source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-07-01

    Energy supply is one of the most important issues facing Northwestern legislators today. To meet the challenge, state legislatures must address the development of alternative energy sources. The Small-Scale Hydroelectric Power Policy Project of the National Conference of State Legislators (NCSL) was designed to assist state legislators in looking at the benefits of one alternative, small-scale hydro. Because of the need for state legislative support in the development of small-scale hydroelectric, NCSL, as part of its contract with the Department of Energy, conducted the following conference on small-scale hydro in the Pacific Northwest. The conference was designed to identify state obstacles to development and to explore options for change available to policymakers. A summary of the conference proceedings is presented.

  19. Landslide Susceptibility Across the Pacific Northwest: The Heavy Influence of Transportation Inventories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Thomas; Kirschbaum, Dalia

    2017-04-01

    Some of the largest and best landslide databases in the United States of America describe the Pacific Northwest region. Nevertheless, these inventories are not a comprehensive listing of historic landslides. In particular, landslide dates tend to be recorded by state transportation agencies, which imposes a spatial bias upon any subsequent analysis. This reporting bias complicates not only the identification of landslide triggering conditions, but also hinders empirical calculations of landslide susceptibility. Although many strategies for bias mitigation could be employed, the simplest approach delivers generally plausible results that are most reliable in the most critical locations: along major highways and rail lines. This work tests logistic regression models that were fitted in zones with landslide reports, then applied regionally. Due to the destabilizing effects of excavation and other anthropogenic disturbances, the models may overestimate susceptibility in undeveloped areas. However, the susceptibility of developed sites should be as accurate as the modeling technique and input data allow.

  20. 2014 Update of the Pacific Northwest portion of the U.S. National Seismic Hazard Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankel, Arthur; Chen, Rui; Petersen, Mark; Moschetti, Morgan P.; Sherrod, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Several aspects of the earthquake characterization were changed for the Pacific Northwest portion of the 2014 update of the national seismic hazard maps, reflecting recent scientific findings. New logic trees were developed for the recurrence parameters of M8-9 earthquakes on the Cascadia subduction zone (CSZ) and for the eastern edge of their rupture zones. These logic trees reflect recent findings of additional M8 CSZ earthquakes using offshore deposits of turbidity flows and onshore tsunami deposits and subsidence. These M8 earthquakes each rupture a portion of the CSZ and occur in the time periods between M9 earthquakes that have an average recurrence interval of about 500 years. The maximum magnitude was increased for deep intraslab earthquakes. An areal source zone to account for the possibility of deep earthquakes under western Oregon was expanded. The western portion of the Tacoma fault was added to the hazard maps.

  1. Collapse risk of buildings in the Pacific Northwest region due to subduction earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghunandan, Meera; Liel, Abbie B.; Luco, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Subduction earthquakes similar to the 2011 Japan and 2010 Chile events will occur in the future in the Cascadia subduction zone in the Pacific Northwest. In this paper, nonlinear dynamic analyses are carried out on 24 buildings designed according to outdated and modern building codes for the cities of Seattle, Washington, and Portland, Oregon. The results indicate that the median collapse capacity of the ductile (post-1970) buildings is approximately 40% less when subjected to ground motions from subduction, as compared to crustal earthquakes. Buildings are more susceptible to earthquake-induced collapse when shaken by subduction records (as compared to crustal records of the same intensity) because the subduction motions tend to be longer in duration due to their larger magnitude and the greater source-to-site distance. As a result, subduction earthquakes are shown to contribute to the majority of the collapse risk of the buildings analyzed.

  2. ENSO and East Asian winter monsoon relationship modulation associated with the anomalous northwest Pacific anticyclone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji-Won; An, Soon-Il; Jun, Sang-Yoon; Park, Hey-Jin; Yeh, Sang-Wook

    2017-08-01

    Using observational datasets and numerical model experiments, the mechanism on the slowly varying change in the relationship between the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM) is investigated. The decadal-window (11-, 15-, and 21-year) moving correlations show a significant change in the boreal wintertime ENSO-EAWM relationship between two sub-periods of 1976‒1992 and 1997‒2013. Such recent change in ENSO-EAWM relationship is mainly attributed to the changes in the intensity and zonal location of the anomalous lower-tropospheric northwest Pacific anticyclone (NWP-AC). NWP-AC commonly develops near the region of the Philippine Sea during the ENSO's peak phase and plays an important role of bridging the tropical convection and mid-latitude teleconnection. On one hand, the intensity of the NWP-AC is influenced by the interdecadal variation in a linkage between ENSO and the Indian Ocean sea surface temperature (SST) variability, referring that a strong connection between the Pacific and Indian Oceans results in the strengthening of NWP-AC response to ENSO. On the other hand, the zonal displacement of the NWP-AC is associated with the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) and the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO). That is, the tropical Pacific mean state (i.e., zonal SST gradient between climatologically warm western Pacific and cold eastern Pacific)—strengthened by either the negative PDO phase or the positive AMO phase—drives the anomalous ENSO-induced convection to be shifted to the west. With this westward shift, the zonal center of the NWP-AC also migrates westward over the Philippine Islands and exerts stronger connection between ENSO and EAWM. In contrast, the relaxed zonal SST contrast associated with either the positive PDO phase or the negative AMO phase tends to exhibit weaker ENSO-EAWM relationship via both of eastward shifted zonal centers of the anomalous ENSO-induced convection and the NWP-AC. Finally, a

  3. Modeling poplar growth as a short rotation woody crop for biofuels in the Pacific Northwest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, Q.J.; Tittmann, P.W.; Bandaru, V.; Jenkins, B.M.

    2015-01-01

    Predicting the economic viability and environmental sustainability of a biofuels industry based on intensively cultivated short rotation woody crops (SRWC) requires spatial predictions of growth and yield under various environmental conditions and across large regions. The Physiological Principles in Predicting Growth (3PG) model was modified to evaluate the growth and yield of coppiced poplar (Populus spp). This included an additional biomass partitioning method and developing a sub-model which takes into account the impact of coppicing on post harvest regeneration, extending the applicability of the 3PG model to coppice management regimes. The parameterized model was applied to the entire Pacific Northwest of the United States, using appropriate climate and soil input data. Results predict the yield of poplar cultivation at a spatial resolution of ≈64 km 2 throughout the ≈8,000,000 km 2 of the study region. Existing agricultural cultivation patterns were used to estimate regional water availability for irrigation, and for non-irrigated regions, land cover features including ownership, slope, soil salinity and water table depth where used to select areas with a real potential to support a SRWC plantation. Results can be integrated with other models that allow for optimizing crop selection and biorefinery site selection. Important results include; an updated 3PG model for coppiced SRWC plantings, estimates of biomass feedstock yields under different irrigation patterns and weather conditions, and estimates for feedstock availability when combined with crop adoption scenarios. - Highlights: • A poplar growth model was applied to the Pacific Northwest of the US. • We included a coppicing module to the exsiting 3PG growth model. • We investigated growth under irrigated and non-irrigated conditions. • We developed Geospatial yield estimates. • We discuss changes in yield from climate change

  4. Paleomagnetism of Early and Middle Pleistocene Cataclysmic Flood Deposits in the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pluhar, C. J.; Burns, S. F.; Carpenter, B.; Yazzie, K.; Melton, D.

    2014-12-01

    Evidence is growing that cataclysmic floods, such as jokulhlaups, have scoured parts of the Pacific Northwest not only during the last glacial maximum (such as the Missoula Floods), but also during earlier parts of the Quaternary. These floods left large erosional features in the "Channeled Scablands" such as colossal flood gravel bars, as well as sediments deposited in backflooded tributary valleys. Evidence for pre-last-glacial cataclysmic floods in the region includes very-well-developed paleosols capping flood deposits, middle Pleistocene U-series disequilibrium dates on some flood sediments, and reversed-paleomagnetic-polarity flood sediments, indicating early Pleistocene age. We document additional evidence for ancient cataclysmic floods at two site, near The Dalles, OR and Othello, WA. The Dalles site consists of 8 flood sediment - capping Stage I to III calcic paleosol couplets, with the third unit from the top containing tephra of the Dibekulewe volcanic ash (0.5 Ma). The sandy nature of the proposed flood sediments is too coarse-grained to attribute to aeolian transport. The Othello site consists of 2 meters of caliche over 40 cm of ancient flood sands and fine gravels We collected paleomagnetic samples from both sites, conducting low temperature cycling (LT), alternating field (AF), and thermal demagnetization experiments on them. These experiments indicate that most samples contain: 1) a large magnetization component in multi-domain magnetite (demagnetized by LT), 2) a large component in goethite (demagnetized by 150°C), and 3) a primary magnetization in pseudo-single and single domain magnetite. The Dalles site spans the Matuyama-Brunhes reversal (0.78 Ma). These and previously published data indicate that one or more mechanisms for generating cataclysmic floods have existed in the Pacific Northwest for much of the Quaternary.

  5. Integrated assessment of conservation opportunities in the irrigated agriculture sector of the Pacific Northwest Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrer, B.J.; Lezberg, A.J.; Wilfert, G.L.

    1985-02-01

    This report documents research to identify the potential energy savings and cost per kWh saved for implementing currently available energy conservation measures in the irrigated agriculture sector of the Pacific Northwest. A computer model that simulates the energy consumption process of irrigation systems and estimates the levelized costs of undertaking conservation investments is the primary analytical tool used in this research. Using engineering and economic input parameters for the various conservation measures that could potentially be implemented in irrigated agriculture, the Irrigation Sector Energy Planning (ISEP) model generates estimates of energy savings and cost per kWh saved for the measures. All parameters input to the ISEP model are based upon empirical field data. Results provided by the ISEP model indicate tht by the year 2003 a total of approximately 158.6 average MW of energy could potentially be saved in the Pacific Northwest irrigation sector on all sprinkler-irrigated acres. Approximately 130.4 average MW can be saved on acres currently by sprinkler, while an additional 28.2 average MW could be saved on new acres that are forecast to come under irrigation in the next 20 years. The largest share of the total savings (47%) is estimated to come from the use of low-pressure irrigation. Over 60% of the total potential savings 158.6 average MW is estimated to be available for a cost per kWh saved of 20 mills or less and over 75% could be achieved for a cost of 30 mills or less. Savings from low-pressure irrigation and the redesign of fittings and mainlines will normally cost less than 20 mills per kWh saved. Almost all of the savings that are estimated to cost more than 30 mills per kWh saved to obtain are savings from improved irrigation scheduling on irrigated acres that use surface water and have low average pumping lifts.

  6. Effects of Climate Change on Flood Frequency in the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gergel, D. R.; Stumbaugh, M. R.; Lee, S. Y.; Nijssen, B.; Lettenmaier, D. P.

    2014-12-01

    A key concern about climate change as related to water resources is the potential for changes in hydrologic extremes, including flooding. We explore changes in flood frequency in the Pacific Northwest using downscaled output from ten Global Climate Models (GCMs) from the Coupled Model Inter-Comparison Project 5 (CMIP5) for historical forcings (1950-2005) and future Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) 4.5 and 8.5 (2006-2100). We use archived output from the Integrated Scenarios Project (ISP) (http://maca.northwestknowledge.net/), which uses the Multivariate Adaptive Constructed Analogs (MACA) method for statistical downscaling. The MACA-downscaled GCM output was then used to force the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) hydrology model with a 1/16th degree spatial resolution and a daily time step. For each of the 238 HUC-08 areas within the Pacific Northwest (USGS Hydrologic Region 15), we computed, from the ISP archive, the series of maximum daily runoff values (surrogate for the annual maximum flood), and then the mean annual flood. Finally, we computed the ratios of the RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 mean annual floods to their corresponding values for the historical period. We evaluate spatial patterns in the results. For snow-dominated watersheds, the changes are dominated by reductions in flood frequency in basins that currently have spring-dominant floods, and increases in snow affected basins with fall-dominant floods. In low elevation basins west of the Cascades, changes in flooding are more directly related to changes in precipitation extremes. We further explore the nature of these effects by evaluating the mean Julian day of the annual maximum flood for each HUC-08 and how this changes between the historical and RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 scenarios.

  7. Wildlife species associated with non-coniferous vegetation in Pacific Northwest conifer forests: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagar, J.C.

    2007-01-01

    Non-coniferous vegetation, including herbs, shrubs, and broad-leaved trees, makes a vital contribution to ecosystem function and diversity in Pacific Northwest conifer forests. However, forest management has largely been indifferent or detrimental to shrubs and trees that have low commercial value, in spite of a paradigm shift towards more holistic management in recent decades. Forest management practices that are detrimental to broad-leaved trees and shrubs are likely to decrease habitat diversity for wildlife, but the number of species that may be affected has not previously been enumerated. I reviewed life history accounts for forest-dwelling vertebrate wildlife species and derived a list of 78 species in Oregon and Washington that are associated with non-coniferous vegetation. The diversity of direct and indirect food resources provided was the primary functional basis for associations of most species with non-coniferous vegetation. Thus, a diversity of herbs and broad-leaved trees and shrubs provides the foundation for food webs that contribute to diversity at multiple trophic levels in Pacific Northwest conifer forests. Given the number of species associated with non-coniferous vegetation in conifer-dominated forests, maintaining habitats that support diverse plant communities, particularly broad-leaved trees and shrubs, will be an important component of management strategies intended to foster biodiversity. Silvicultural practices such as modified planting densities, and pre-commercial and commercial thinning, can be used to control stand density in order to favor the development of understory herbs, shrubs, and a diversity of tree species within managed stands. Allowing shrubs and hardwood trees to develop and persist in early seral stands by curtailing vegetation control also would benefit many species associated with non-coniferous vegetation.

  8. Investigation of Prescribed Fires Impacts on Air Quality in the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravi, V.; Chung, S. H.; Vaughan, J. K.; Lamb, B. K.

    2014-12-01

    Emissions from wildland and prescribed fires cause significant aerosol loading in the atmospheric environment. Using 2011 NEI-Fire emission inventory, we investigate the impacts of prescribed fire emissions on the air quality of the Pacific Northwest (PNW) for a month long period in October-November 2011. This study utilizes the AIRAPCT-4 regional air quality forecasting system, which is based on the WRF-SMOKE-CMAQ framework. We simulate three different emission scenarios - 1) emissions with prescribed fires, 2) emissions without prescribed fires and 3) a scenario where prescribed fire emissions are reduced by 60%. AIRPACT-4 results are examined for impacts of prescribed fire emissions on ambient levels of PM2.5 and Ozone for entire PNW. We also look at the contribution of prescribed fire emissions to ambient PM2.5 concentrations for selected non-attainment areas in the PNW. This work supports the analysis of using woody residue as a feedstock for an aviation biofuel supply chain through the Northwest Advanced Renewables Alliance (NARA).

  9. Forecast simulation of rapidly-intensified typhoon in the Eddy-Rich Northwest Pacific region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyeong Ok; Yuk, Jin-Hee; Jung, Kyung Tae; Kuh Kang, Suk

    2017-04-01

    The real-time typhoon predictions in the Northwest Pacific (NWP) are being distributed by various agencies (for example, KMA, JMA, JTWC, NMC, CWB, HKO and PAGASA). Currently the movement of the typhoon can be predicted with an error of less than 100 km in 48 hours, however it is difficult to the predict of the intensity of the typhoon especially the Rapidly Intensified (RI) Typhoons. The mean occurrence of RI typhoon amounts to 5.4 times a year during 39 years (1977-2015), occupying 21% of typhoons in NWP. Especially the RI typhoon in the Eddy-Rich Northwest Pacific (ER-NWP) occurred 1.8 times a year, covering 29% of typhoons in ER-NWP. A RI typhoon, NEPARTAK (T201601), occurred in July 2016. It was formed in Caroline Islands and moved northwest, straightly heading for Taiwan. However, at the beginning stage many forecasting agencies predicts as move to the Yellow Sea. The accuracy of prediction data of the Typhoon NEPARTAK (T201601) from KMA, JMA and JTWC was compared with the adjusted best-track data from Digital-Typhoon (JMA-RSMC). The sequential prediction data are summarized with 6-hour interval from 3th to 10th July 2016.The JMA prediction of the typhoon track and the JTWC predictions of the maximum wind speed were found to be best. The numerical simulations using WRF model forced with NCEP GFS prediction data and microwave SST is compared. The simulations using one domain (D1), two domains (D2) using a moving nest scheme, and with or without the spectral nudging (-SN) are compared. Comparison of the errors on the track shows the differences of 100 km in 48-hour prediction and200 km in 72-hour prediction on average. The best results on the track prediction are shown in the D2 case of WRF model. However, underestimation of the maximum wind speed of WRF prediction still exists, obviously requiring better understanding of RI-related processes to improve the model prediction.

  10. Climatic Data Integration and Analysis - Regional Approaches to Climate Change for Pacific Northwest Agriculture (REACCH PNA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seamon, E.; Gessler, P. E.; Flathers, E.; Sheneman, L.; Gollberg, G.

    2013-12-01

    The Regional Approaches to Climate Change for Pacific Northwest Agriculture (REACCH PNA) is a five-year USDA/NIFA-funded coordinated agriculture project to examine the sustainability of cereal crop production systems in the Pacific Northwest, in relationship to ongoing climate change. As part of this effort, an extensive data management system has been developed to enable researchers, students, and the public, to upload, manage, and analyze various data. The REACCH PNA data management team has developed three core systems to encompass cyberinfrastructure and data management needs: 1) the reacchpna.org portal (https://www.reacchpna.org) is the entry point for all public and secure information, with secure access by REACCH PNA members for data analysis, uploading, and informational review; 2) the REACCH PNA Data Repository is a replicated, redundant database server environment that allows for file and database storage and access to all core data; and 3) the REACCH PNA Libraries which are functional groupings of data for REACCH PNA members and the public, based on their access level. These libraries are accessible thru our https://www.reacchpna.org portal. The developed system is structured in a virtual server environment (data, applications, web) that includes a geospatial database/geospatial web server for web mapping services (ArcGIS Server), use of ESRI's Geoportal Server for data discovery and metadata management (under the ISO 19115-2 standard), Thematic Realtime Environmental Distributed Data Services (THREDDS) for data cataloging, and Interactive Python notebook server (IPython) technology for data analysis. REACCH systems are housed and maintained by the Northwest Knowledge Network project (www.northwestknowledge.net), which provides data management services to support research. Initial project data harvesting and meta-tagging efforts have resulted in the interrogation and loading of over 10 terabytes of climate model output, regional entomological data

  11. Field-trip guide to a volcanic transect of the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geist, Dennis; Wolff, John; Harpp, Karen

    2017-08-01

    The Pacific Northwest region of the United States provides world-class and historically important examples of a wide variety of volcanic features. This guide is designed to give a broad overview of the region’s diverse volcanism rather than focusing on the results of detailed studies; the reader should consult the reference list for more detailed information on each of the sites, and we have done our best to recognize previous field trip leaders who have written the pioneering guides. This trip derives from one offered as a component of the joint University of Idaho- Washington State University volcanology class taught from 1995 through 2014, and it borrows in theme from the classic field guide of Johnston and Donnelly-Nolan (1981). For readers interested in using this field guide as an educational tool, we have included an appendix with supplemental references to resources that provide useful background information on relevant topics, as well as a few suggestions for field-based exercises that could be useful when bringing students to these locations in the future. The 4-day trip begins with an examination of lava flow structures of the Columbia River Basalt, enormous lava fields that were emplaced during one of the largest eruptive episodes in Earth’s recent history. On the second day, the trip turns to the High Lava Plains, a bimodal volcanic province that transgressed from southeast to northwest from the Miocene through the Holocene, at the northern margin of the Basin and Range Province. This volcanic field provides excellent examples of welded ignimbrite, silicic lavas and domes, monogenetic basaltic lava fields, and hydrovolcanic features. The third day is devoted to a circumnavigation of Crater Lake, the result of one of the world’s best-documented caldera-forming eruptions. The caldera walls also expose the anatomy of Mount Mazama, a stratovolcano of the Cascade Range. The last day is spent at Newberry Volcano, a back-arc shield volcano topped by a

  12. Ocean-atmosphere forcing of centennial hydroclimatic variability in the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinman, Byron A.; Abbott, Mark B.; Mann, Michael E.; Ortiz, Joseph D.; Feng, Song; Pompeani, David P.; Stansell, Nathan D.; Anderson, Lesleigh; Finney, Bruce P.; Bird, Broxton W.

    2014-01-01

    Reconstructing centennial timescale hydroclimate variability during the late Holocene is critically important for understanding large-scale patterns of drought and their relationship with climate dynamics. We present sediment oxygen isotope records spanning the last two millennia from 10 lakes, as well as climate model simulations, indicating that the Little Ice Age was dry relative to the Medieval Climate Anomaly in much of the Pacific Northwest of North America. This pattern is consistent with observed associations between the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO), the Northern Annular Mode and drought as well as with proxy-based reconstructions of Pacific ocean-atmosphere variations over the past 1000 years. The large amplitude of centennial variability indicated by the lake data suggests that regional hydroclimate is characterized by longer-term shifts in ENSO-like dynamics, and that an improved understanding of the centennial timescale relationship between external forcing and drought conditions is necessary for projecting future hydroclimatic conditions in western North America.

  13. Growth responses of subalpine fir to climatic variability in the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, D.W.; Peterson, D.L.; Ettl, Gregory J.

    2002-01-01

    We studied regional variation in growth-limiting factors and responses to climatic variability in subalpine forests by analyzing growth patterns for 28 tree-ring growth chronologies from subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa (Hook.) Nutt.) stands in the Cascade and Olympic Mountains (Washington and Oregon, U.S.A.). Factor analysis identified four distinct time series of common growth patterns; the dominant growth pattern at any site varied with annual precipitation and temperature (elevation). Throughout much of the region, growth is negatively correlated with winter precipitation and spring snowpack depth, indicating that growth is limited primarily by short growing seasons. On the driest and warmest sites, growth is negatively correlated with previous summer temperature, suggesting that low summer soil moisture limits growth. Growth patterns in two regions were sensitive to climatic variability associated with the Pacific Decadal Oscillation, apparently responding to low-frequency variation in spring snowpack and summer soil moisture (one negatively, one positively). This regional-scale analysis shows that subalpine fir growth in the Cascades and Olympics is limited by different climatic factors in different subregional climates. Climatea??growth relationships are similar to those for a co-occurring species, mountain hemlock (Tsuga mertensiana (Bong.) Carri??re), suggesting broad biogeographic patterns of response to climatic variability and change by subalpine forest ecosystems in the Pacific Northwest.

  14. Spatial and temporal heterogeneity of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus in Pacific Northwest salmonids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breyta, Rachel; Black, Allison; Kaufman, John; Kurath, Gael

    2016-01-01

    The aquatic rhaboviral pathogen infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) causes acute disease in juvenile fish of a number of populations of Pacific salmonid species. Heavily managed in both marine and freshwater environments, these fish species are cultured during the juvenile stage in freshwater conservation hatcheries, where IHNV is one of the top three infectious diseases that cause serious morbidity and mortality. Therefore, a comprehensive study of viral genetic surveillance data representing 2590 field isolates collected between 1958 and 2014 was conducted to determine the spatial and temporal patterns of IHNV in the Pacific Northwest of the contiguous United States. Prevalence of infection varied over time, fluctuating over a rough 5–7 year cycle. The genetic analysis revealed numerous subgroups of IHNV, each of which exhibited spatial heterogeneity. Within all subgroups, dominant genetic types were apparent, though the temporal patterns of emergence of these types varied among subgroups. Finally, the affinity or fidelity of subgroups to specific host species also varied, where UC subgroup viruses exhibited a more generalist profile and all other subgroups exhibited a specialist profile. These complex patterns are likely synergistically driven by numerous ecological, pathobiological, and anthropogenic factors. Since only a few anthropogenic factors are candidates for managed intervention aimed at improving the health of threatened or endangered salmonid fish populations, determining the relative impact of these factors is a high priority for future studies.

  15. Fiscal year 1999 Battelle performance evaluation and fee agreement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DAVIS, T.L.

    1998-10-22

    Fiscal Year 1999 represents the third fill year utilizing a results-oriented, performance-based evaluation for the Contractor's operations and management of the DOE Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (here after referred to as the Laboratory). However, this is the first year that the Contractor's fee is totally performance-based utilizing the same Critical Outcomes. This document describes the critical outcomes, objectives, performance indicators, expected levels of performance, and the basis for the evaluation of the Contractor's performance for the period October 1, 1998 through September 30, 1999, as required by Clauses entitled ''Use of Objective Standards of Performance, Self Assessment and Performance Evaluation'' and ''Performance Measures Review'' of the Contract DE-ACO6-76RL01830. Furthermore, it documents the distribution of the total available performance-based fee and the methodology set for determining the amount of fee earned by the Contractor as stipulated within the causes entitled ''Estimated Cost and Annual Fee,'' ''Total Available Fee'' and ''Allowable Costs and Fee.'' In partnership with the Contractor and other key customers, the Department of Energy (DOE) Headquarters (HQ) and Richland Operations Office (RL) has defined four critical outcomes that serve as the core for the Contractor's performance-based evaluation and fee determination. The Contractor also utilizes these outcomes as a basis for overall management of the Laboratory.

  16. North Pacific Acoustic Laboratory and Deep Water Acoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-27

    During FY16 the primary effort has been working on manuscripts as summarized below: 1) A test of deep water Rytov theory at 284 Hz and 107 km in... signal , while the ambient noise field is in direct competition with the received signal . Research conducted in the North Pacific Acoustic Laboratory...low-frequency, long-range, deep water, broadband acoustic propagation, the effects of ocean variability on signal coherence, and the fundamental

  17. Precipitation extremes and their relation to climatic indices in the Pacific Northwest USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarekarizi, Mahkameh; Rana, Arun; Moradkhani, Hamid

    2017-09-01

    There has been focus on the influence of climate indices on precipitation extremes in the literature. Current study presents the evaluation of the precipitation-based extremes in Columbia River Basin (CRB) in the Pacific Northwest USA. We first analyzed the precipitation-based extremes using statistically (ten GCMs) and dynamically downscaled (three GCMs) past and future climate projections. Seven precipitation-based indices that help inform about the flood duration/intensity are used. These indices help in attaining first-hand information on spatial and temporal scales for different service sectors including energy, agriculture, forestry etc. Evaluation of these indices is first performed in historical period (1971-2000) followed by analysis of their relation to large scale tele-connections. Further we mapped these indices over the area to evaluate the spatial variation of past and future extremes in downscaled and observational data. The analysis shows that high values of extreme indices are clustered in either western or northern parts of the basin for historical period whereas the northern part is experiencing higher degree of change in the indices for future scenario. The focus is also on evaluating the relation of these extreme indices to climate tele-connections in historical period to understand their relationship with extremes over CRB. Various climate indices are evaluated for their relationship using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Singular Value Decomposition (SVD). Results indicated that, out of 13 climate tele-connections used in the study, CRB is being most affected inversely by East Pacific (EP), Western Pacific (WP), East Atlantic (EA) and North Atlaentic Oscillation (NAO).

  18. Black carbon and particulate matter optical properties from agricultural residue burning in the Pacific Northwest United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holder, A. L.; Aurell, J.; Urbanski, S. P.; Hays, M. D.; Gullett, B.

    2014-12-01

    Burning of agricultural residues in field is a common management practice that is used to quickly clear fields of post-harvest vegetation and to stimulate seed production in some grass species. Although cropland burning contributes only a minor fraction to the United States particulate matter and black carbon emissions, it can have substantial impacts on local and regional air quality and visibility. During the 2013 burning season in the Pacific Northwest United States emissions were measured from a series of burns carried out on cropland. Kentucky bluegrass residues (Poa pratensis), winter wheat stubble (Triticum aestivum), and chemically fallowed winter wheat stubble were burned in field. Particulate matter, light absorption and scattering, and black carbon concentrations were measured at ground level downwind of the field. Although particulate emissions varied substantially by fuel type and even among fields of the same fuel with different treatments (i.e., light versus heavy residues) the black carbon fraction of particulate matter was consistently less than 5% and accordingly single scattering albedos were above 0.9. The emissions exhibited strong spectral variation, with absorption angstrom exponents in the range of 3 - 5 in the wavelength range of 405 to 532 nm. Laboratory burns with residues collected from the fields produced emissions that were considerably more absorbing with single scattering albedos near 0.65 and lower absorption angstrom exponents of 1 - 2.

  19. Exploring Pacific Northwest ecosystem resilience: packaging climate change science for federal managers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachelet, D. M.

    2014-12-01

    Climate change is projected to jeopardize ecosystems in the Pacific Northwest. Managing ecosystems for future resilience requires collaboration, innovation and communication. The abundance of data and documents describing the uncertainty around both climate change projections and impacts has become challenging to managers who have little funding and limited time to digest and incorporate these materials into planning and implementation documents. We worked with US Forest Service and BLM managers to help them develop vulnerability assessments and identify on-the-ground strategies to address climate change challenges on the federal lands in northwest Oregon (Siuslaw, Willamette and Mt. Hood National Forests; Eugene and Salem BLM Districts). We held workshops to promote dialogue about climate change, which were particularly effective in fostering discussions between the managers who often do not have the time to share their knowledge and compare experiences across administrative boundaries. We used the Adaptation for Conservation Targets (ACT) framework to identify measurable management objectives and rapidly assess local vulnerabilities. We used databasin.org to centralize usable information, including state-of-the-art CMIP5 climate projections, for the mandated assessments of vulnerability and resilience. We introduced participants to a decision support framework providing opportunities to develop more effective adaptation strategies. We built a special web page to hold the information gathered at the workshops and provide easy access to climate change information. We are now working with several Landscape Conservation Cooperatives (LCCs) to design gateways - conservation atlases - to their relevant data repositories on databasin.org and working with them to develop web tools that can provide usable information for their own vulnerability assessments.

  20. Design and methods of the Pacific Northwest Stream Quality Assessment (PNSQA), 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheibley, Rich W.; Morace, Jennifer L.; Journey, Celeste A.; Van Metre, Peter C.; Bell, Amanda H.; Nakagaki, Naomi; Button, Daniel T.; Qi, Sharon L.

    2017-08-25

    In 2015, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) project conducted the Pacific Northwest Stream Quality Assessment (PNSQA) to investigate stream quality across the western part of the Pacific Northwest. The goal of the PNSQA was to assess the health of streams in the region by characterizing multiple water-quality factors that are stressors to in-stream aquatic life and by evaluating the relation between these stressors and the condition of biological communities. The effects of urbanization and agriculture on stream quality for the Puget Lowland and Willamette Valley Level III Ecoregions were the focus of this regional study. Findings will help inform the public and policymakers about human and environmental factors that are the most critical in affecting stream quality and, thus, provide insights into possible strategies to protect or improve the health of streams in the region.Land-use data were used in the study to identify and select sites within the region that ranged in levels of urban and agricultural development. A total of 88 sites were selected across the region—69 were on streams that explicitly spanned a range of urban land use in their watersheds, 8 were on streams in agricultural watersheds, and 11 were reference sites with little or no development in their watersheds. Depending on the type of land use, sites were sampled for contaminants, nutrients, and sediment for either a 4- or 10-week period during April, May, and June 2015. This water-quality “index period” was immediately followed with an ecological survey of all sites that included stream habitat, benthic algae, benthic macroinvertebrates, and fish. Additionally, streambed sediment was collected during the ecological survey for analysis of sediment chemistry and toxicity testing.This report provides a detailed description of the specific study components and methods of the PNSQA, including (1) surveys of stream habitat and aquatic biota, (2) discrete

  1. Department of Energy – Office of Science Pacific Northwest Site Office Environmental Monitoring Plan for the DOE-SC PNNL Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snyder, Sandra F.; Meier, Kirsten M.; Barnett, J. Matthew; Bisping, Lynn E.; Poston, Ted M.; Rhoads, Kathleen

    2011-12-21

    The Pacific Northwest Site Office (PNSO) manages the contract for operations at the U.S. Depart¬ment of Energy Office of Science (DOE-SC) Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Site in Richland, Washington. Radiological operations at the DOE-SC PNNL Site expanded in 2010 with the completion of facilities at the Physical Sciences Facility. As a result of the expanded radiological work at the site, the Washington State Department of Health (WDOH) has required that offsite environmental surveillance be conducted as part of the PNNL Site Radioactive Air Emissions License. The environ¬mental monitoring and surveillance requirements of various orders, regulations, and guidance documents consider emission levels and subsequent risk of negative human and environmental impacts. This Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) describes air surveillance activities at the DOE-SC PNNL Site. The determination of offsite environmental surveillance needs evolved out of a Data Quality Objectives process (Barnett et al. 2010) and Implementation Plan (Snyder et al. 2010). The entire EMP is a compilation of several documents, which include the Main Document (this text), Attachment 1: Sampling and Analysis Plan, Attachment 2: Data Management Plan, and Attachment 3: Dose Assessment Guidance.

  2. GPS Vertical Land Motion Corrections to Sea-Level Rise Estimates in the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montillet, J.-P.; Melbourne, T. I.; Szeliga, W. M.

    2018-02-01

    We construct coastal Pacific Northwest profiles of vertical land motion (VLM) known to bias long-term tide-gauge measurements of sea-level rise (SLR) and use them to estimate absolute sea-level rise with respect to Earth's center of mass. Multidecade GPS measurements at 47 coastal stations along the Cascadia subduction zone show VLM varies regionally but smoothly along the Pacific coast and inland Puget Sound with rates ranging from + 4.9 to -1.2 mm/yr. Puget Sound VLM is characterized by uniform subsidence at relatively slow rates of -0.1 to -0.3 mm/yr. Uplift rates of 4.5 mm/yr persist along the western Olympic Peninsula of northwestern Washington State and decrease southward becoming nearly 0 mm/yr south of central coastal Washington through Cape Blanco, Oregon. South of Cape Blanco, uplift increases to 1-2 mm/yr, peaks at 4 mm/yr near Crescent City, California, and returns to zero at Cape Mendocino, California. Using various stochastic noise models, we estimate long-term (˜50 -100 yr) relative sea-level rise rates at 18 coastal Cascadia tide gauges and correct them for VLM. Uncorrected SLR rates are scattered, ranging between -2 mm/yr and + 5 mm/yr with mean 0.52 ± 1.59 mm/yr, whereas correcting for VLM increases the mean value to 1.99 mm/yr and reduces the uncertainty to ± 1.18 mm/yr, commensurate with, but approximately 17% higher than, twentieth century global mean.

  3. Isotope hydrology and baseflow geochemistry in natural and human-altered watersheds in the Inland Pacific Northwest, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricardo Sanchez-Murillo; Erin S. Brooks; William J. Elliot; Jan Boll

    2015-01-01

    This study presents a stable isotope hydrology and geochemical analysis in the inland Pacific Northwest (PNW) of the USA. Isotope ratios were used to estimate mean transit times (MTTs) in natural and human-altered watersheds using the FLOWPC program. Isotope ratios in precipitation resulted in a regional meteoric water line of ä2H = 7.42·ä18O + 0.88 (n = 316; r2 = 0.97...

  4. Forest management considerations and climatic change in the Pacific Northwest: A framework for devising adaptation/mitigation strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gucinski, H.; McKelvey, R.

    1991-01-01

    The potential for global climate change, especially in its regional and local manifestations, requires decision making in the face of uncertainty. It is demonstrated that in the Pacific Northwest region, the present climate forecasts are uncertain and probabilistic, and the ecological responses are equally uncertain, but a framework for analyzing and devising response strategies for future conditions is feasible in this context. A risk-based approach derived from classical decision analysis is suggested as the most rational response currently practicable to protect the forest resources of the Pacific Northwest. Lists of possible events are needed for two areas: the anticipated outcome of climate change and the possible responses of Pacific Northwest forests to these changes. Meaningful analysis requires estimates of the outcomes and responses, even if they remain subjective for some time, or at least until better and more reliable information becomes available. Once possible responses have been identified, an analysis of the valuation of the tradeoffs for various strategies needs to be made. This approach permits updating, revision, and even negation, but also provides a process that puts focus on information needs and priorities for action. It is concluded that it is highly unlikely that mitigation may be easier to implement than adaptation. 39 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  5. Coastal foredune evolution: the relative influence of vegetation and sand supply in the US Pacific Northwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarnetske, Phoebe L; Ruggiero, Peter; Seabloom, Eric W; Hacker, Sally D

    2015-05-06

    Biophysical feedbacks between vegetation and sediment are important for forming and modifying landscape features and their ecosystem services. These feedbacks are especially important where landscape features differ in their provision of ecosystem services. For example, the shape of coastal foredunes, a product of both physical and biological forces, determines their ability to protect communities from rising seas and changing patterns of storminess. Here we assessed how sand supply and changes in vegetation over interannual (3 year) and decadal (21 year) scales influenced foredune shape along 100 km of coastline in the US Pacific Northwest. Across 21 years, vegetation switched from one congeneric non-native beachgrass to another (Ammophila arenaria to A. breviligulata) while sand supply rates were positive. At interannual timescales, sand supply rates explained the majority of change in foredune height (64-69%) and width (56-80%). However, at decadal scales, change in vegetation explained the majority of the change in foredune width (62-68%), whereas sand supply rates explained most of the change in foredune height (88-90%). In areas with lower shoreline change rates (±2 m yr(-1)), the change in vegetation explained the majority of decadal changes in foredune width (56-57%) and height (59-76%). Foredune shape directly impacts coastal protection, thus our findings are pertinent to coastal management given pressures of development and climate change. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  6. Climate-related variation in plant peak biomass and growth phenology across Pacific Northwest tidal marshes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffington, Kevin J.; Dugger, Bruce D.; Thorne, Karen M.

    2018-03-01

    The interannual variability of tidal marsh plant phenology is largely unknown and may have important ecological consequences. Marsh plants are critical to the biogeomorphic feedback processes that build estuarine soils, maintain marsh elevation relative to sea level, and sequester carbon. We calculated Tasseled Cap Greenness, a metric of plant biomass, using remotely sensed data available in the Landsat archive to assess how recent climate variation has affected biomass production and plant phenology across three maritime tidal marshes in the Pacific Northwest of the United States. First, we used clipped vegetation plots at one of our sites to confirm that tasseled cap greenness provided a useful measure of aboveground biomass (r2 = 0.72). We then used multiple measures of biomass each growing season over 20-25 years per study site and developed models to test how peak biomass and the date of peak biomass varied with 94 climate and sea-level metrics using generalized linear models and Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) model selection. Peak biomass was positively related to total annual precipitation, while the best predictor for date of peak biomass was average growing season temperature, with the peak 7.2 days earlier per degree C. Our study provides insight into how plants in maritime tidal marshes respond to interannual climate variation and demonstrates the utility of time-series remote sensing data to assess ecological responses to climate stressors.

  7. [Trace elements in the statoliths of neon flying squid, Ommastrephes bartramii in the Northwest Pacific Ocean].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hua-Jie; Chen, Xin-Jun; Ma, Jin

    2014-08-01

    Statolith is one of the most important hard tissues of cephalopods which is widely used in the research of fisheries ecology including population structure, life history reconstruction and so on. Trace elements of 18 statoliths of neon flying squid Ommastrephes bartramii collected in the Northwest Pacific Ocean in 2007 by Chinese jigging fishing fleets were analyzed by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). The results indicated that the statoliths of O. bartramii mainly contained 55 elements, and calcium (Ca), strontium (Sr), sodium (Na), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), silicon (Si), magnesium (Mg), boron (B), iron (Fe), barium (Ba) were the 10 most abundant elements. The analysis of variance showed that there was no significant difference in each element distribution between different sexual squid except for P, Si and B. Significant differences existed in the contents of Sr and Na but no significant difference was found in the contents of Ca, P, K, Si, Mg, B, Fe and Ba between different hatching populations. There were significant differences in the contents of Ca, Sr, Na, P, Mg and Ba, but no significant difference was found in the contents of K, Fe, B and Si in the statoliths among different growth zones. This study presented Sr and Na could be the best two trace elements used in the research on the population structure and life history reconstruction for O. bartramii.

  8. Untangling cultural inheritance: language diversity and long-house architecture on the Pacific northwest coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Peter; O'Neill, Sean

    2010-01-01

    Many recent studies of cultural inheritance have focused on small-scale craft traditions practised by single individuals, which do not require coordinated participation by larger social collectives. In this paper, we address this gap in the cultural transmission literature by investigating diversity in the vernacular architecture of the Pacific northwest coast, where communities of hunter–fisher–gatherers constructed immense wooden long-houses at their main winter villages. Quantitative analyses of long-house styles along the coastline draw on a range of models and methods from the biological sciences and are employed to test hypotheses relating to basic patterns of macro-scale cultural diversification, and the degree to which the transmission of housing traits has been constrained by the region's numerous linguistic boundaries. The results indicate relatively strong branching patterns of cultural inheritance and also close associations between regional language history and housing styles, pointing to the potentially crucial role played by language boundaries in structuring large-scale patterns of cultural diversification, especially in relation to ‘collective’ cultural traditions like housing that require substantial inputs of coordinated labour. PMID:21041212

  9. Modeling Pacific Northwest carbon and water cycling using CARAIB Dynamic Vegetation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dury, M.; Kim, J. B.; Still, C. J.; Francois, L. M.; Jiang, Y.

    2015-12-01

    While uncertainties remain regarding projected temperature and precipitation changes, climate warming is already affecting ecosystems in the Pacific Northwest (PNW). Decrease in ecosystem productivity as well as increase in mortality of some plant species induced by drought and disturbance have been reported. Here, we applied the process-based dynamic vegetation model CARAIB to PNW to simulate the response of water and carbon cycling to current and future climate change projections. The vegetation model has already been successfully applied to Europe to simulate plant physiological response to climate change. We calibrated CARAIB to PNW using global Plant Functional Types. For calibration, the model is driven with the gridded surface meteorological dataset UIdaho MACA METDATA with 1/24-degree (~4-km) resolution at a daily time step for the period 1979-2014. The model ability to reproduce the current spatial and temporal variations of carbon stocks and fluxes was evaluated using a variety of available datasets, including eddy covariance and satellite observations. We focused particularly on past severe drought and fire episodes. Then, we simulated future conditions using the UIdaho MACAv2-METDATA dataset, which includes downscaled CMIP5 projections from 28 GCMs for RCP4.5 and RCP8.5. We evaluated the future ecosystem carbon balance resulting from changes in drought frequency as well as in fire risk. We also simulated future productivity and drought-induced mortality of several key PNW tree species.

  10. Connecting Digital Repeat Photography to Ecosystem Fluxes in Inland Pacific Northwest, US Cropping Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, E.; Chi, J.; Waldo, S.; Pressley, S. N.; Lamb, B. K.; Pan, W.

    2017-12-01

    Diurnal and seasonal gas fluxes vary by crop growth stage. Digital cameras are increasingly being used to monitor inter-annual changes in vegetation phenology in a variety of ecosystems. These cameras are not designed as scientific instruments but the information they gather can add value to established measurement techniques (i.e. eddy covariance). This work combined deconstructed digital images with eddy covariance data from five agricultural sites (1 fallow, 4 cropped) in the inland Pacific Northwest, USA. The data were broken down with respect to crop stage and management activities. The fallow field highlighted the camera response to changing net radiation, illumination, and rainfall. At the cropped sites, the net ecosystem exchange, gross primary production, and evapotranspiration were correlated with the greenness and redness values derived from the images over the growing season. However, the color values do not change quickly enough to respond to day-to-day variability in the flux exchange as the two measurement types are based on different processes. The management practices and changes in phenology through the growing season were not visible within the camera data though the camera did capture the general evolution of the ecosystem fluxes.

  11. The 1992 Pacific Northwest Residential Energy Survey: Phase 1 : Book 1 : Getting Started.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Applied Management & Planning Group (firm); United States. Bonneville Power Administration. End-Use Research Section.

    1993-08-01

    This Executive Summary outlines the general processes employed in and the major findings from the conduct of Phase I of the Pacific Northwest Residential Energy Survey (PNWRES92-I) during the last quarter of 1992. This study was Bonneville`s third comprehensive residential survey of the region, conducted to provide data on energy usage, conservation awareness and behaviors, and associated consumer characteristics for use in forecasting and planning. The summary is divided into four sections: Background sets the stage with respect to the need for the survey, relates it to previous work, outlines the implementation processes, and summarizes the data products. Profiling the respondents summarizes the survey results under these six categories: Demographics; Housing Units; Room Inventory; Appliance Inventory; Air-Conditioning/Heating; Water-Heating; and Opinion. Reports and cross-tabulations describes the various individual documents. Bonneville Power Plus provides a short description of an Excel-spreadsheet-based software program that contains all of the tabulated material in a format that encourages browsing among the tables and charts, with special feature that they can be copied directly into other Windows-based documents.

  12. Habitat and co-occurrence of native and invasive crayfish in the Pacific Northwest, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearl, Christopher A.; Adams, Michael J.; McCreary, Brome

    2013-01-01

    Biological invasions can have dramatic effects on freshwater ecosystems and introduced crayfish can be particularly impacting. We document crayfish distribution in three large hydrographic basins (Rogue, Umpqua, Willamette/Columbia) in the Pacific Northwest USA. We used occupancy analyses to investigate habitat relationships and evidence for displacement of native Pacifastacus leniusculus (Dana, 1852) by two invaders. We found invasive Procambarus clarkii (Girard, 1852), in 51 of 283 sites and in all three hydrographic basins. We found invasive Orconectes n. neglectus (Faxon, 1885) at 68% of sites in the Rogue basin and provide first documentation of their broad distribution in the Umpqua basin. We found P. clarkii in both lentic and lotic habitats, and it was positively associated with manmade sites. P. leniusculus was positively associated with lotic habitats and negatively related to manmade sites. In the Rogue and Umpqua basins, O. n. neglectus and P. leniusculus were similar in their habitat associations. We did not find a negative relationship in site occupancy between O. n. neglectus and P. leniusculus. Our data suggest that P. clarkii has potential to locally displace P. leniusculus. There is still time for preventive measures to limit the spread of the invasive crayfish in this region.

  13. Population genetic structure of diploid sexual and polyploid apomictic hawthorns (Crataegus; Rosaceae) in the Pacific Northwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Eugenia Y Y; Stefanović, Sasa; Dickinson, Timothy A

    2009-03-01

    Polyploidy and gametophytic apomixis are two important and associated processes in plants. Many hawthorn species are polyploids and can reproduce both sexually and apomictically. However, the population genetic structure of these species is poorly understood. Crataegus douglasii is represented exclusively by self-compatible tetraploid pseudogamous apomicts across North America, whereas Crataegus suksdorfii found in the Pacific Northwest is known to include self-incompatible diploid sexuals as well as polyploid apomicts. We compare population structure and genetic variability in these two closely related taxa using microsatellite and chloroplast sequence markers. Using 13 microsatellite loci located on four linkage groups, 251 alleles were detected in 239 individuals sampled from 15 localities. Within-population multilocus genotypic variation and molecular diversity are greatest in diploid sexuals and lowest in triploid apomicts. Apart from the isolation of eastern North American populations of C. douglasii, there is little evidence of isolation by distance in this taxon. Genetic diversity in western populations of C. douglasii suggests that gene flow is frequent, and that colonization and establishment are often successful. In contrast, local populations of C. suksdorfii are more markedly differentiated. Gene flow appears to be limited primarily by distance in diploids and by apomixis and self-compatibility in polyploids. We infer that apomixis and reproductive barriers between cytotypes are factors that reduce the frequency of gene flow among populations, and may ultimately lead to allopatric speciation in C. suksdorfii. Our findings shed light on evolution in woody plants that show heterogeneous ploidy levels and reproductive systems.

  14. Perspectives on Temperature in the Pacific Northwest's Fresh Waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coutant, C.C.

    1999-06-01

    This report provides a perspective on environmental water temperatures in the Pacific Northwest as they relate to the establishment of water temperature standards by the state and their review by the US Environmental Protection Agency. It is a companion to other detailed reviews of the literature on thermal effects on organisms important to the region. Many factors, both natural and anthropogenic, affect water temperatures in the region. Different environmental zones have characteristic temperatures and mechanisms that affect them. There are specific biotic adaptations to environmental temperatures. Life-cycle strategies of salmonids, in particular, are attuned to annual temperature patterns. Physiological and behavioral requirements on key species form the basis of present water temperature criteria, but may need to be augmented with more concern for environmental settings. There are many issues in the setting of standards, and these are discussed. There are also issues in compliance. Alternative temperature-regulating mechanisms are discussed, as are examples of actions to control water temperatures in the environment. Standards-setting is a social process for which this report should provide background and outline options, alternatives, limitations, and other points for discussion by those in the region.

  15. Factors influencing consumption of farmed seafood products in the Pacific northwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Troy E; Amberg, Shannon M

    2013-07-01

    This study used a mail survey (n=1159 usable surveys) of Pacific northwest (US) residents to understand general seafood preferences (familiarity, price, freshness, health and environmental concerns), beliefs and attitudes specific to aquaculture versus wild products, and how those cognitive factors affect decisions to consume types of farmed seafood products. Respondents strongly agreed that seafood is healthy, and they preferred wild over farmed products. Many respondents were uncertain about human health and environmental benefits and problems associated with aquaculture. While there was agreement that aquaculture reduces pressure on wild fish, there was equally strong agreement that it has the same problems as other agricultural practices. Belief in the superiority of wild seafood was a strong predictor of consumption choices. Belief in the benefits of aquaculture was positively related to higher consumption of farmed products, but--unexpectedly--beliefs related to environmental and health problems associated with aquaculture did not predict specific consumption choices. Nearly half of respondents recalled hearing or reading about aquaculture in the mass media, and recall of negative stories contributed to a general preference for wild products, but not consumption of specific types of farmed products. Consumption of the different classes of products had some different predictors, and communication efforts directed at different beliefs may have different impacts on consumer behavior. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Impact of conservation measures on Pacific Northwest residential energy consumption. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moe, R.J.; Owzarski, S.L.; Streit, L.P.

    1983-04-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the relationship between residential space conditioning energy use and building conservation programs in the Pacific Northwest. The study was divided into two primary tasks. In the first, the thermal relationship between space conditioning energy consumption under controlled conditions and the physical characteristics of the residence was estimated. In this task, behavioral characteristics such as occupant schedules and thermostat settings were controlled in order to isolate the physical relationships. In the second task, work from the first task was used to calculate the thermal efficiency of a residence's shell. Thermal efficiency was defined as the ability of a shell to prevent escapement of heat generated within a building. The relationship between actual space conditioning energy consumption and the shell thermal efficiency was then estimated. Separate thermal equations for mobile homes, single-family residences, and multi-family residences are presented. Estimates of the relationship between winter electricity consumption for heating and the building's thermal shell efficiency are presented for each of the three building categories.

  17. Outflow of Anthropogenic Semivolatile Organic Compounds From Asia and Trans-Pacific Transport to the Pacific Northwest of the U.S.A. in Spring 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primbs, T.; Wilson, G.; Schmedding, D.; Higginbotham, C.; Simonich, S.

    2005-12-01

    Air pollutants, including semivolatile organic compounds (SOCs), may undergo long-range atmospheric transport from Eurasian sources to the Pacific Coast of North America. SOCs can serve as molecular markers to indicate pollutant source type and geographical origin because they represent emissions from combustion (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)), agricultural (pesticides), and industrial (polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)) sources. Additionally, SOCs exist in the gas and/or particle phases and have a wide range of atmospheric lifetimes (hours-months). Atmospheric measurements of anthropogenic SOCs were made at a high elevation site in the Pacific Northwest of the U.S. and at a site close to Eurasian sources (Okinawa, Japan) to further understand the trans-Pacific transport of SOCs. High volume air sampling (~25 m3/hr for 24 hour periods) of both the gas and particulate phases was conducted on top of the summit building of Mt Bachelor, Oregon, U.S.A., located in Oregon's Cascade Mountain Range, beginning the 20th of April 2004 and is ongoing. Additionally, high volume air sampling was conducted at Hedo Point, Okinawa, Japan during a six week campaign from the 19th of March to the 1st of May 2004. The gas phase was collected using a combination of polyurethane foam (PUF) and XAD-2 resin, while the particle phase was collected using quartz fiber filters. The samples were extracted using accelerated solvent extraction and the extracts analyzed by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (electron impact and electron capture negative ionization). Air trajectories were calculated using data from NOAA`s HYSPLIT model and imported into the ARC/GIS program for spatial representation. The presence of 80 anthropogenic SOCs was investigated. Initial results from the measurements in Okinawa showed elevated levels of particulate phase PAHs, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and hexachlorcyclohexanes (HCHs) in samples corresponding to trajectories from the direction of

  18. Postglacial diatom-climate responses in a small lake in the Pacific Northwest of North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egan, J.; Allott, T. E.; Fletcher, W.

    2017-12-01

    Understanding the variability of ocean-atmosphere interactions in the Pacific Northwest (PNW) of North America is essential for climate forecasting, particularly variations in the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO). Research suggests that global warming is increasing the frequency of extreme El Niño events, which can have global climatic impacts (e.g. disrupting global weather patterns, affecting ecosystems and agriculture and extreme weather events (flood, drought, bushfires)). A diatom record spanning 14,500 Cal yr BP from Moss Lake, Washington is used to assess Holocene climate change in the PNW including evidence for periodicities related to ocean-atmosphere interactions and/or variations in solar output, and is directly compared to the Moss Lake pollen record. Three climate phases were identified: 1) the Late Pleistocene (until 11,800 Cal yr BP), with a cold climate evidenced by the low abundance of diatoms; 2) the early to mid-Holocene (11,800 - 7500 Cal yr BP), with warm climate, longer growing seasons and shorter periods of ice cover, indicated by the increase of Cyclotella pseudostelligera and decrease of Fragilaria taxa; and 3) the mid-to-late Holocene from 7500 Cal yr BP onwards, with a cooler climate reflected by a decrease in Cyclotella pseudostelligera and an increase in Fragilaria taxa. These climate shifts correlate with the regional and local pollen record. Fluctuations in Cyclotella pseudostelligera and Aulacoseira taxa suggest climatic cycles of varying amplitude throughout. RedFit and Wavelet analyses revealed periodicities of approximately 2000, 1300, and 450 yrs. The 2000 yr cycle is attributed to solar variation; the Hallstatt Oscillation. The 1300 yr and 450 yr cycles are attributed to ENSO and PDO like cycles. The 1300 periodicity is evident throughout the Late Pleistocene and Holocene and reflects shifts from El Niño/positive PDO (weak wind intensity, warm temperature) to La Niña/Negative PDO

  19. Mitospore stages of Disciotis, Gyromitra and Morchella in the inland Pacific Northwest USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carris, Lori M; Peever, Tobin L; McCotter, Sean W

    2015-01-01

    Colonies of Costantinella species growing on soil, moss and woody debris in the autumn in the inland Pacific Northwest USA were established in culture. Five different mitospore taxa were distinguished based on colony color, presence or absence of setae and internal transcribed spacer region (ITS) rDNA amplicon size. Sequence data from the largest and second largest subunits of RNA polymerase II, translation elongation factor 1-α, D1 and D2 domains of nuclear large subunit rDNA and ITS were used to connect each of the distinct mitospore taxa to corresponding vernal-fruiting Pezizales, including Disciotis cf. venosa, Gyromitra cf. esculenta and three species of Morchella. Both meiospore and mitospore stages of Morchella brunnea and M. populiphila collected in spring and autumn within a meter of each other at two urban sites had identical multilocus haplotypes, providing evidence connecting the two stages of the life cycle. Among other Morchella mitospore stages collected, some had identical haplotypes to previously sampled meiospore stages, while others were distinct, possibly representing undescribed species. Mitospore isolates with sequences assigning them to Disciotis or Gyromitra had different haplotypes from meiospore stages occurring in the same area. Meiospore stages of Disciotis and Gyromitra sampled as part of the study were also genetically distinct from European collections of D. venosa and G. esculenta, indicating more diversity is present in these taxa than is reflected in the current taxonomy. The widespread occurrence of mitospore stages of these fungi suggests that the life cycles of morels, false morels and allied taxa are more complex than previously recognized. © 2015 by The Mycological Society of America.

  20. A 300-year history of Pacific Northwest windstorms inferred from tree rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Paul A.; Hadley, Keith S.

    2012-07-01

    Hurricane-force winds are frequently allied with mid-latitude cyclones yet little is known about their historical timing and geographic extent over multiple centuries. This research addresses these issues by extending the historical record of major mid-latitude windstorms along North America's Pacific Northwest (PNW) coast using tree-ring data collected from old-growth (> 350 years), wind-snapped trees sampled at seven coastal sites in Oregon, USA. Our objectives were to: 1) characterize historical windstorm regimes; 2) determine the relationship between high-wind events (HWEs) and phases of the PDO, ENSO and NPI; and 3) test the hypothesis that PNW HWEs have migrated northward. We based our study on the identification of tree-growth anomalies resulting from windstorm-induced canopy changes corresponding to documented (1880-2003) and projected HWEs (1701-1880). Our methods identified all major windstorm events recorded since the late 1800s and confirmed that variations in coastal tree-growth are weakly related to temperature, precipitation, and drought, but are significantly related to peak wind speeds. These results suggest wind-induced changes in canopy conditions control tree growth at all sites. Comparisons between the tree-ring record and the PDO, NPI, and ENSO revealed a significant positive correlation between HWEs and neutral to warm PDO conditions and a slightly weaker correlation with the NPI. ENSO events were not significantly related to the occurrence of HWEs. Latitudinal groupings of our sites revealed a gradual and non-significant northerly shift of HWEs until the late 19th century followed by a significant northward shift during the past 120 years. These results mark the application of dendroanemology as a method for characterizing windstorm regimes for multiple centuries.

  1. Household attitudes toward energy conservation in the Pacific Northwest: overview and comparisons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, J.M.

    1985-06-01

    This report presents an overview of a baseline residential energy conservation study for the Pacific Northwest conducted in November 1983 by RMH Research, Inc. It also compares the study results with available data from other surveys. The primary focus of the RMH study is conservation marketing. As such it assesses the attitudes, perceptions, and past conservation actions of the region's residents and provides market segmentation based upon past conservation actions and the propensity to invest in conservation in the future. Excluding renters, who account for about 24% of the region's households, three prospect groups for marketing conservation investments are identified: First Tier Prospects who are very likely to invest in additional conservation measures requiring larger sums of money (estimated at about 547,000 households, or 18 percent of the region's households); Second Tier Prospects who are somewhat likely to invest in full weatherization (estimated at about 22% of the region's households or 695,700); and Non-Prospects who are unlikely to invest in energy conservation in the near future (estimated to be 1,113,400 or 36% of the regional total). A summary comparison of the most important distinguishing attributes of the three prospect groups is presented. Considering the current surplus status of the region's electricity supply situation and the overall strategy in capability building, implications include (1) using public information programs through utilities and the news media to maintain the conservation interests of the first-tier prospects and (2) exploring ways to move the second-tier prospects into the first tier and to reach the so-called non-prospect and rental housing groups.

  2. Characterizing the occurrence, sources, and variability of radon in pacific northwest homes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turk, B.H.; Prill, R.J.; Grimsrud, D.T.; Moed, B.A.; Sextro, R.G.

    1990-01-01

    A compilation of data from earlier studies of 172 homes in the Pacific Northwest indicated that approximately 65 percent of the 46 homes tested in the Spokane River Valley/Rathdrum Prairie region of eastern Washington/northern Idaho had heating season indoor radon ( 222 Rn) concentrations above the U.S. EPA guideline of 148 Bq m -3 (4 pCi L -1 ). A subset of 35 homes was selected for additional study. The primary source of indoor radon in the Spokane River Valley/Rathdrum Prairie was pressure-driven flow of soil gas containing moderate radon concentrations (geometric mean concentration of 16,000 Bq m -3 ) from the highly permeable soils (geometric mean permeability of 5 x 10 -11 m 2 ) surrounding the house substructures. Estimated soil gas entry rates ranged from 0.4 to 39 m 3 h -1 and 1 percent to 21 percent of total building air infiltration. Radon from other sources, including domestic water supplies and building materials was negligible. In high radon homes, winter indoor levels averaged 13 times higher than summer concentrations, while in low radon homes winter levels averaged only 2.5 times higher. Short-term variations in indoor radon were observed to be dependent upon indoor-outdoor temperature differences, wind speed, and operation of forced-air furnace fans. Forced-air furnace operations, along with leaky return ducts and plenums, and openings between the substructure and upper floors enhanced mixing of radon laden substructure air throughout the rest of the building

  3. Scaling Forest Management Practices in Earth System Models: Case Study of Southeast and Pacific Northwest Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourmokhtarian, A.; Becknell, J. M.; Hall, J.; Desai, A. R.; Boring, L. R.; Duffy, P.; Staudhammer, C. L.; Starr, G.; Dietze, M.

    2014-12-01

    A wide array of human-induced disturbances can alter the structure and function of forests, including climate change, disturbance and management. While there have been numerous studies on climate change impacts on forests, interactions of management with changing climate and natural disturbance are poorly studied. Forecasts of the range of plausible responses of forests to climate change and management are need for informed decision making on new management approaches under changing climate, as well as adaptation strategies for coming decades. Terrestrial biosphere models (TBMs) provide an excellent opportunity to investigate and assess simultaneous responses of terrestrial ecosystems to climatic perturbations and management across multiple spatio-temporal scales, but currently do not represent a wide array of management activities known to impact carbon, water, surface energy fluxes, and biodiversity. The Ecosystem Demography model 2 (ED2) incorporates non-linear impacts of fine-scale (~10-1 km) heterogeneity in ecosystem structure both horizontally and vertically at a plant level. Therefore it is an ideal candidate to incorporate different forest management practices and test various hypotheses under changing climate and across various spatial scales. The management practices that we implemented were: clear-cut, conversion, planting, partial harvest, low intensity fire, restoration, salvage, and herbicide. The results were validated against observed data across 8 different sites in the U.S. Southeast (Duke Forest, Joseph Jones Ecological Research Center, North Carolina Loblolly Pine, and Ordway-Swisher Biological Station) and Pacific Northwest (Metolius Research Natural Area, H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest, Wind River Field Station, and Mount Rainier National Park). These sites differ in regards to climate, vegetation, soil, and historical land disturbance as well as management approaches. Results showed that different management practices could successfully

  4. Spatial patterns of March and September streamflow trends in Pacific Northwest Streams, 1958-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Heejun; Jung, Il-Won; Steele, Madeline; Gannett, Marshall

    2012-01-01

    Summer streamflow is a vital water resource for municipal and domestic water supplies, irrigation, salmonid habitat, recreation, and water-related ecosystem services in the Pacific Northwest (PNW) in the United States. This study detects significant negative trends in September absolute streamflow in a majority of 68 stream-gauging stations located on unregulated streams in the PNW from 1958 to 2008. The proportion of March streamflow to annual streamflow increases in most stations over 1,000 m elevation, with a baseflow index of less than 50, while absolute March streamflow does not increase in most stations. The declining trends of September absolute streamflow are strongly associated with seven-day low flow, January–March maximum temperature trends, and the size of the basin (19–7,260 km2), while the increasing trends of the fraction of March streamflow are associated with elevation, April 1 snow water equivalent, March precipitation, center timing of streamflow, and October–December minimum temperature trends. Compared with ordinary least squares (OLS) estimated regression models, spatial error regression and geographically weighted regression (GWR) models effectively remove spatial autocorrelation in residuals. The GWR model results show spatial gradients of local R 2 values with consistently higher local R 2 values in the northern Cascades. This finding illustrates that different hydrologic landscape factors, such as geology and seasonal distribution of precipitation, also influence streamflow trends in the PNW. In addition, our spatial analysis model results show that considering various geographic factors help clarify the dynamics of streamflow trends over a large geographical area, supporting a spatial analysis approach over aspatial OLS-estimated regression models for predicting streamflow trends. Results indicate that transitional rain–snow surface water-dominated basins are likely to have reduced summer streamflow under warming scenarios

  5. Probable Maximum Precipitation in the U.S. Pacific Northwest in a Changing Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaodong; Hossain, Faisal; Leung, L. Ruby

    2017-11-01

    The safety of large and aging water infrastructures is gaining attention in water management given the accelerated rate of change in landscape, climate, and society. In current engineering practice, such safety is ensured by the design of infrastructure for the Probable Maximum Precipitation (PMP). Recently, several numerical modeling approaches have been proposed to modernize the conventional and ad hoc PMP estimation approach. However, the underlying physics have not been fully investigated and thus differing PMP estimates are sometimes obtained without physics-based interpretations. In this study, we present a hybrid approach that takes advantage of both traditional engineering practice and modern climate science to estimate PMP for current and future climate conditions. The traditional PMP approach is modified and applied to five statistically downscaled CMIP5 model outputs, producing an ensemble of PMP estimates in the Pacific Northwest (PNW) during the historical (1970-2016) and future (2050-2099) time periods. The hybrid approach produced consistent historical PMP estimates as the traditional estimates. PMP in the PNW will increase by 50% ± 30% of the current design PMP by 2099 under the RCP8.5 scenario. Most of the increase is caused by warming, which mainly affects moisture availability through increased sea surface temperature, with minor contributions from changes in storm efficiency in the future. Moist track change tends to reduce the future PMP. Compared with extreme precipitation, PMP exhibits higher internal variability. Thus, long-time records of high-quality data in both precipitation and related meteorological fields (temperature, wind fields) are required to reduce uncertainties in the ensemble PMP estimates.

  6. Satellite telemetry and prey sampling reveal contaminant sources to pacific northwest ospreys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, J.E.; Morrissey, C.A.; Henny, C.J.; Inzunza, E.R.; Shaw, P.

    2007-01-01

    Migratory behavior can be an important factor in determining contaminant exposure in avian populations. Accumulation of organochlorine (OC) pesticides while birds are wintering in tropical regions has been cited often as the reason for high concentrations in migrant populations. To explore this issue, we satellite tracked 16 Ospreys (Pandion haliaetus) over the period 1996-2003 from breeding sites in British Columbia, Canada, and integrated the results into a database on 15 Ospreys that were satellite tracked over the period 1995-1999, from breeding locations in Washington and Oregon, USA. Data on wintering sites of 31 Ospreys in Mexico and Central America were used for spatially targeted sampling of prey fish. Concentrations of the main organochlorine contaminant, p,p???-dichloro-diphenyl-dichloroethylene (DDE), in fish composites from Mexico ranged from 0.005 to 0.115 ??g/g wet mass. Significant differences existed among fish families in p,p???-DDE, total dichloro- diphenyltrichloroethane (??DDT), ??chlordanes, and total polychlorinated biphenyls (??PCBs). Catfish (family Ariidae) generally had significantly higher levels of DDT metabolites and other organochlorine contaminants compared to other fish families collected. Differences in prey contaminant levels were detected among the collection sites around coastal Mexico, with fish from Veracruz State generally having higher levels of DDT metabolites, ??chlordanes, ??PCBs, and hexachlorobenzene. Eggs collected from 16 nests throughout the Pacific Northwest (nine from British Columbia, seven from Oregon and Washington) where Ospreys had been satellite tagged, showed marked variation in levels of DDT metabolites (p,p???-DDE; range 0.02-10.14 ??g/g). Wintering site had no significant effect on contaminant concentrations in sample eggs from those specific Ospreys; rather concentrations of p,p???-DDE, were predicted by breeding sites with highest levels in eggs of Ospreys breeding in the lower Columbia River

  7. Pacific Northwest Smart Grid Demonstration Project Technology Performance Report Volume 1: Technology Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melton, Ron [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-06-01

    The Pacific Northwest Smart Grid Demonstration (PNWSGD), a $179 million project that was co-funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) in late 2009, was one of the largest and most comprehensive demonstrations of electricity grid modernization ever completed. The project was one of 16 regional smart grid demonstrations funded by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act. It was the only demonstration that included multiple states and cooperation from multiple electric utilities, including rural electric co-ops, investor-owned, municipal, and other public utilities. No fewer than 55 unique instantiations of distinct smart grid systems were demonstrated at the projects’ sites. The local objectives for these systems included improved reliability, energy conservation, improved efficiency, and demand responsiveness. The demonstration developed and deployed an innovative transactive system, unique in the world, that coordinated many of the project’s distributed energy resources and demand-responsive components. With the transactive system, additional regional objectives were also addressed, including the mitigation of renewable energy intermittency and the flattening of system load. Using the transactive system, the project coordinated a regional response across the 11 utilities. This region-wide connection from the transmission system down to individual premises equipment was one of the major successes of the project. The project showed that this can be done and assets at the end points can respond dynamically on a wide scale. In principle, a transactive system of this type might eventually help coordinate electricity supply, transmission, distribution, and end uses by distributing mostly automated control responsibilities among the many distributed smart grid domain members and their smart devices.

  8. Temporal and Spatial Variability in ENSO Teleconnections to Daily Weather Donditions in the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAfee, S. A.; Wise, E. K.; Csank, A. Z.

    2014-12-01

    Classic teleconnection analysis has focused on relationships between modes of variability and seasonal average conditions. Growing needs for seasonally specific planning, as well as an expanding body of research showing instability in teleconnections, suggest that there is a need to evaluate teleconnections over narrower seasonal windows and to investigate variables other than average temperature, snowpack, and total precipitation. Here, ENSO teleconnections to snow-fraction, wet-day frequency and temperature, and air-mass type (using Sheridan's synoptic classification), as well as to average temperature and precipitation, were evaluated at weather stations across the Pacific Northwest. The analysis was performed separately for early (October/November), middle (December/January) and late (February/March) portions of the cool-season. The stability of these relationships over time was also evaluated. Currently, ENSO has the strongest and most widespread influence on PNW weather late in the cool season, with some effect in the autumn, but little detectable impact in the mid-winter. Earlier in the 20th century, the autumn peak in ENSO influence was somewhat more pronounced and the spring somewhat less. There were also modest geographic differences in teleconnection patterns, such as a region-wide response in average February-March temperature, but more localized effects on wet-day temperature. Geographic and seasonal distinctions in teleconnections to weather and climate could drive important differences in ecological and hydrological outcomes. This type of daily-level analysis may be useful in meeting the needs of stakeholders interested in using teleconnections for seasonal planning, but who may need more seasonally specific information or non-standard variables. However, this study also demonstrates the need for a thorough understanding of teleconnection spatial patterns, seasonal variability, and temporal flexibility when they are being presented to stakeholders as

  9. Rainforest birds: A land manager's guide to breeding bird habitat in young conifer forests in the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altman, Bob; Hagar, Joan

    2007-01-01

    This document (hereafter Guide) has been prepared to assist land managers interested in conducting conservation and management activities to benefit breeding birds associated with young conifer forests in the Pacific Northwest. Audiences targeted for use of the Guide include land trusts, watershed councils, non-commercial private land owners, forest products companies, land-managing conservation organizations, government agencies, tribes, and First Nations. We hope the Guide will be a useful and valuable tool to support any of the variety of reasons to manage for bird habitat in young conifer forests (for example, regulatory, biodiversity, bird conservation, and forest certification standards).

  10. On the role of convective systems over the northwest Pacific and monsoon activity over the Indian subcontinent

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    RameshKumar, M.R.; Babu, A.K.; Reason, C.

    more than 8 days, 16 cases were associated with a moderate or strong El Ni˜no. Further, it was found that, of the 13 strong El Ni˜nos during the same period, nine were associated with moderate to large delays in MOK. Copyright  2009 Royal... to the north during the pre-monsoon season (March–May). It is known that there is large inter-annual variability in the formation of convective systems and in the case of the Northwest Pacific (NWP), this variability is related to the El Ni˜no Southern...

  11. New Whole-House Solutions Case Study: Northwest Energy Efficient Manufactured Housing Program High-Performance Test Homes - Pacific Northwest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-05-01

    This project represents the third phase of a multi-year effort to develop and bring to market a High Performance Manufactured Home (HPMH). In this project, the Northwest Energy Efficient Manufactured Housing Program worked with Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction and Bonneville Power Administration to help four factory homebuilders build prototype zero energy ready manufactured homes, resulting in what is expected to be a 30% savings relative to the Building America Benchmark. (The actual % savings varies depending on choice of heating equipment and climate zone). Previous phases of this project created a HPMH specification and prototyped individual measures from the package to obtain engineering approvals and develop preliminary factory construction processes. This case study describes the project team's work during 2014 to build prototype homes to the HPMH specifications and to monitor the homes for energy performance and durability. Monitoring is expected to continue into 2016.

  12. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity, oxygen and other variables collected from time series observations using Battelle Seaology pCO2 monitoring system (MApCO2) from MOORING Maria_Island_42S_148E deployment in the Tasman Sea, Pacific Ocean from 2012-04-17 to 2012-10-18 (NCEI Accession 0165305)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Measurements in the data set are made with a Battelle Seaology pCO2 monitoring system (MApCO2), a Seabird SBE16plusV2 CTD, mounted on a surface buoy similar to the...

  13. Phytoplankton growth response to Asian dust addition in the northwest Pacific Ocean versus the Yellow Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chao; Gao, Huiwang; Yao, Xiaohong; Shi, Zongbo; Shi, Jinhui; Yu, Yang; Meng, Ling; Guo, Xinyu

    2018-02-01

    In this study, five on-board microcosm experiments were performed in the subtropical gyre, the Kuroshio Extension region of the northwest Pacific Ocean (NWPO), and the Yellow Sea (YS) in order to investigate phytoplankton growth following the addition of artificially modified mineral dust (AM dust) and various nutrients (nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), iron (Fe), N + P, and N + P + Fe). The two experiments carried out with AM-dust addition in the subtropical gyre showed a maximum chlorophyll a (Chl a) concentration increase of 1.7- and 2.8-fold, while the cell abundance of large-sized phytoplankton ( > 5 µm) showed a 1.8- and 3.9-fold increase, respectively, relative to the controls. However, in the Kuroshio Extension region and the YS, the increases in maximum Chl a and cell abundance of large-sized phytoplankton following AM-dust addition were at most 1.3-fold and 1.7-fold larger than those in the controls, respectively. A net conversion efficiency index (NCEI) newly proposed in this study, size-fractionated Chl a, and the abundance of large-sized phytoplankton were analysed to determine which nutrients contribute to supporting phytoplankton growth. Our results demonstrate that a combination of nutrients, N-P or N + P + Fe, is responsible for phytoplankton growth in the subtropical gyre following AM-dust addition. Single nutrient addition, i.e., N in the Kuroshio Extension region and P or N in the YS, controls the phytoplankton growth following AM-dust addition. In the AM-dust-addition experiments, in which the increased N-P or P was identified to determine phytoplankton growth, the dissolved inorganic P from AM dust (8.6 nmol L-1) was much lower than the theoretically estimated minimum P demand (˜ 20 nmol L-1) for phytoplankton growth. These observations suggest that additional supply augments the bioavailable P stock in incubated seawater with AM-dust addition, most likely due to an enhanced solubility of P from AM dust or the remineralization of the dissolved

  14. The Pacific Northwest Hydrological Observatory (PNW HO): Hypothesis and model testing power through diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonnell, J. J.; Grant, G.; Hulse, D.

    2004-12-01

    The Pacific Northwest Hydrological Observatory (PNW HO) is a proposed national facility for the examination of the linkages between hydrologic and biogeochemical cycles, sustainability of water resources in the face of increasing human demands and climate change, hydrologic and ecosystem interactions, and hydrologic extremes. The PNW HO infrastructure will support research that examines forcings, feedbacks and couplings across hydro-eco-climatic interfaces, process scaling, and development of new predictive schemes and methods to reduce predictive uncertainty. Much of the data collection infrastructure is already in place, in the form of USGS gauging, local and State data recording. The PNW HO includes a novel experimental design that twins two neighboring watersheds-the humid Willamette and arid Deschutes River Basins-that represent a full range of landscape gradients and societal problems relating to water quantity and quality. Workers at the PNW HO will be able to build upon existing synthesis documents in the form of the Willamette River Basin Planning Atlas and recent AGU Monograph on the Deschutes River Basin. The PNW HO design builds upon the HJ Andrews LTER site in the headwaters and recent listing of the Willamette River Basin as a UNESCO HELP international observatory. The PNW HO has access to one of the richest SNOTEL datasets in North America along the divide between the Willamette and Deschutes Basins. The Willamette is a USGS NAWQA basin and the Deschutes has been the focus of a major USGS groundwater investigation, and is one of five sites nationally in the Fire Learning Network. Finally, and perhaps most importantly for technology transfer of HO science to policy and practice, the PNW HO enjoys a rather unique combination of Oregon's state-based land use planning and doctrine of prior appropriations water law (land use planning and water rights). While there are certainly areas in the West where human populations are growing as fast or faster, none

  15. Projected Dryland Cropping System Shifts in the Pacific Northwest in Response to Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio O. Stöckle

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture in the dryland region of the Inland Pacific Northwest (IPNW, including northern Idaho, eastern Washington and northern Oregon is typically characterized based on annual rainfall and associated distribution of cropping systems that have evolved in response to biophysical and socio-economic factors. Three agro-ecological classes (AEC have been proposed for the region: (a crop/fallow (CF, (b annual crop/fallow transition (CCF, and (c continuous cropping (CC. AECs attempt to associate land use into relatively homogeneous areas that result in common production systems. Although there is an interest in sustainable intensification of cropping systems (e.g., reduction of fallow, the question remains whether climate change will preclude intensification or shift the borders of existing AECs toward greater fallow utilization. A simulation study was conducted to address this question, with the aim of classifying 4 × 4 km pixels throughout the region into one of the three AECs for baseline (1979–2010 and future periods (2030s, 2015–2045; 2050s, 2035–2065; 2070s, 2055–2085. Baseline data were derived from traditional rotations and historical climate records. Data for future projections were derived from atmospheric CO2 concentration considering daily weather downloaded from 12 global circulation models and 2 representative concentration pathways (RCP 4.5 and 8.5. Due to the direct effect of atmospheric CO2 on photosynthesis and stomatal conductance, the transpiration use efficiency of crops (TUE; g above-ground biomass kg water−1 showed an increasing trend, with winter wheat TUE changing from 4.76 in the historical period to 6.17 and 7.08 g kg−1 in 2070s, depending on AEC. Compared to the baseline, total grain yield by the 2070s in the region was projected to increase in the range of 18–48% (RCP 4.5 and 30–65% (RCP 8.5, depending on AEC. As a consequence of these changes, compared to the historical baseline period, the future

  16. Hydrologic Impact of Harvesting and Road Construction in Mountainous Regime of Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, E.; Hubbart, J.; Gravelle, J.; Link, T.

    2006-12-01

    The impact of forest management practices on hydrologic flow regimes have been debated for years. Vegetation removal and forest road construction are two anthropogenic disturbances that may affect watershed hydrology. The Mica Creek Experimental Watershed (MCEW), ID was initiated by Potlatch Corporation in 1990 to evaluate how contemporary forest harvest practices may impact water flows, quality and aquatic health. The study was recently expanded to identify the specific mechanisms producing the observed flow responses. The extensive and long term monitoring program in MCEW enables the validation of simulated internal watershed processes, thereby increasing our confidence in the ability of models to simulate the hydrologic effects of land cover change. The spatially-distributed, physically-based Distributed Hydrology Soil Vegetation Model (DHSVM), will be used to deconvolve the effects of canopy change, forest road construction, and climate variability in MCEW. First, the model performance will be assessed for pre-harvest, post-road, and post-harvest experimental periods. The model will then be used to explore how the flow regime would be expected to differ under historical, alternative management and future scenarios. A retrospective study of fully-harvested and increased forest road density (as opposed to current road density of 3 to 5 percent by surface area) will be compared with contemporary management practices. The impact of harvest patterns on sub-catchment flows will be assessed to understand the degree to which flow synchronization or desynchronization on confluent streams might affect cumulative downstream flow regime. Future scenarios will assess the potential impact of climatic variability that is expected to raise the transient snow zone and increase the wintertime rain to snow ratios in the Pacific Northwest. Variables such as harvest patterns and climate variation will be manipulated to project whether the hydrologic effects of land cover and

  17. Climate Change and Dryland Wheat Systems in the US Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockle, C.; Karimi, T.; Huggins, D. R.; Nelson, R.

    2015-12-01

    A regional assessment of historical and future yields, and components of the water, nitrogen, and carbon soil balance of dryland wheat-based cropping systems in the US Pacific Northwest is being conducted (Regional Approaches to Climate Change project funded by USDA-NIFA). All these elements intertwines and are important to understand the future of these systems in the region. A computer simulation methodology was used based on the CropSyst model and historic and projected daily weather data downscaled to a 4x4 km grid including 14 general circulation models (GCMs) and two representative concentration pathways of future atmospheric CO2 (RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5). The study region was divided in 3 agro-ecological zones (AEZ) based on precipitation amount: low (460 mm/year), with a change from crop-fallow, to transition fallow (crop-crop-fallow) to annual cropping, respectively. Typical wheat-based rotations included winter wheat (WW)-Summer fallow (SF) for the low AEZ, WW-spring wheat (SW)-SF for the intermediate AEZ, and WW-SW-spring peas for the high AEZ, all under conventional and no tillage management. Alternative systems incorporating canola were also evaluated. Results suggest that, in most cases, these dryland systems may fare well in the future (31-year periods centered around 2030, 2050, and 2070), with potential gains in productivity. Also, a trend towards increased fallow in the intermediate AEZ appears possible for higher productivity, and the inclusion of less water demanding crops may help sustain cropping intensity. Uncertainties in these projections arise from large discrepancies among climate models regarding the warming rate, compounded by different possible future CO2 emission scenarios, the degree of change in frequency and severity of extreme events and associated potential damages to crop canopies due to cold weather and grain set reduction due to extreme heat events. Furthermore, there is little understanding of the impact of climate change on

  18. Climate Effects on Plant Range Distributions and Community Structure of Pacific Northwest Prairies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bridgham, Scott D. [Univ. of Oregon, Eugene, OR (United States); Johnson, Bart [Univ. of Oregon, Eugene, OR (United States)

    2013-09-26

    Pacific Northwest (PNW) prairies are an imperiled ecosystem that contain a large number of plant species with high fidelity to this habitat. The few remaining high-quality PNW prairies harbor a number of sensitive, rare, and endangered plant species that may be further at-risk with climate change. Thus, PNW prairies are an excellent model system to examine how climate change will affect the distribution of native plant species in grassland sites. Our experimental objectives were to determine: (i) how climate change will affect the range distribution of native plant species; (ii) what life history stages are most sensitive to climate change in a group of key indicator native species; (iii) the robustness of current restoration techniques and suites of species to changing climate, and in particular, the relative competitiveness of native species versus exotic invasive species; and (iv) the effects of climate change on carbon and nutrient cycling and soil-microbial-plant feedbacks. We addressed these objectives by experimentally increasing temperature 2.5 to 3.0 ºC above ambient with overhead infrared lamps and increasing wet-season precipitation by 20% above ambient in three upland prairie sites in central-western Washington, central-western Oregon, and southwestern Oregon from fall 2010 through 2012. Additional precipitation was applied within 2 weeks of when it fell so precipitation intensity was increased, particularly during the winter rainy season but with minimal additions during the summer dry season. These three sites also represent a 520-km natural climate gradient of increasing degree of severity of Mediterranean climate from north to south. After removing the extant vegetation, we planted a diverse suite of 12 native species that have their northern range limit someplace within the PNW in each experimental plot. An additional 20 more wide-spread native species were also planted into each plot. We found that recruitment of plant species within their ranges

  19. A systematic surveillance programme for infectious salmon anaemia virus supports its absence in the Pacific Northwest of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafson, Lori L.; Creekmore, Lynn H.; Snekvik, Kevin R.; Ferguson, Jayde A.; Warg, Janet V.; Blair, Marilyn; Meyers, Theodore R.; Stewart, Bruce; Warheit, Kenneth I.; Kerwin, John; Goodwin, Andrew E.; Rhodes, Linda D.; Whaley, Janet E.; Purcell, Maureen K.; Bentz, Collette; Shasa, Desiree; Bader, Joel; Winton, James R.

    2018-01-01

    In response to reported findings of infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV) in British Columbia (BC), Canada, in 2011, U.S. national, state and tribal fisheries managers and fish health specialists developed and implemented a collaborative ISAV surveillance plan for the Pacific Northwest region of the United States. Accordingly, over a 3-1/2-year period, 4,962 salmonids were sampled and successfully tested by real-time reverse-transcription PCR. The sample set included multiple tissues from free-ranging Pacific salmonids from coastal regions of Alaska and Washington and farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) from Washington, all representing fish exposed to marine environments. The survey design targeted physiologically compromised or moribund animals more vulnerable to infection as well as species considered susceptible to ISAV. Samples were handled with a documented chain of custody and testing protocols, and criteria for interpretation of test results were defined in advance. All 4,962 completed tests were negative for ISAV RNA. Results of this surveillance effort provide sound evidence to support the absence of ISAV in represented populations of free-ranging and marine-farmed salmonids on the northwest coast of the United States.

  20. Widespread generalist clones are associated with range and niche expansion in allopolyploids of Pacific Northwest Hawthorns (Crataegus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlan, J M; Han, S; Stefanović, S; Dickinson, T A

    2017-10-01

    Range and niche expansion are commonly associated with transitions to asexuality, polyploidy and hybridity (allopolyploidy) in plants. The ability of asexual polyploids to colonize novel habitats may be due to widespread generalist clones, multiple ecologically specialized clones, or may be a neutral by-product of multiple, independent origins of asexual polyploids throughout the range. We have quantified niche size and divergence for hawthorns of the Pacific Northwest using data from herbarium vouchers with known cytotypes. We find that all polyploid niches diverge from that of the diploid range, and allopolyploids have the broadest niches. Allotetraploids have the largest niche and the widest geographic distribution. We then assessed the genetic mechanism of range expansion by surveying the ecological and geographic distribution of genotypes within each cytotype from sites in which fine-scale habitat assessments were completed. We find no isolation by either geographic or ecological distance in allopolyploids, suggesting high dispersal and colonization ability. In contrast, autotriploids and diploids show patterns of isolation by geographic distance. We also compared the geographic and ecological distributions of clonal genotypes with those of randomly drawn sites of the most widespread cytotype. We found that most clones are geographically widespread and occur in a variety of habitats. We interpret these findings to suggest that patterns of range and niche expansion in Pacific Northwest Hawthorns may stem from these widespread, ecologically generalist clones of hybrid origin. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. A systematic surveillance programme for infectious salmon anaemia virus supports its absence in the Pacific Northwest of the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafson, L L; Creekmore, L H; Snekvik, K R; Ferguson, J A; Warg, J V; Blair, M; Meyers, T R; Stewart, B; Warheit, K I; Kerwin, J; Goodwin, A E; Rhodes, L D; Whaley, J E; Purcell, M K; Bentz, C; Shasa, D; Bader, J; Winton, J R

    2018-02-01

    In response to reported findings of infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV) in British Columbia (BC), Canada, in 2011, U.S. national, state and tribal fisheries managers and fish health specialists developed and implemented a collaborative ISAV surveillance plan for the Pacific Northwest region of the United States. Accordingly, over a 3-1/2-year period, 4,962 salmonids were sampled and successfully tested by real-time reverse-transcription PCR. The sample set included multiple tissues from free-ranging Pacific salmonids from coastal regions of Alaska and Washington and farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) from Washington, all representing fish exposed to marine environments. The survey design targeted physiologically compromised or moribund animals more vulnerable to infection as well as species considered susceptible to ISAV. Samples were handled with a documented chain of custody and testing protocols, and criteria for interpretation of test results were defined in advance. All 4,962 completed tests were negative for ISAV RNA. Results of this surveillance effort provide sound evidence to support the absence of ISAV in represented populations of free-ranging and marine-farmed salmonids on the northwest coast of the United States. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Spent fuel storage cask testing and operational experience at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eslinger, L.E.; Schmitt, R.C.

    1989-01-01

    Spent-fuel storage cask research, development, and demonstration activities are being performed for the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) as a part of the storage cask testing program. The cask testing program at federal sites and other locations supports the Nuclear Waste Policy Act (NWPA) and DOE objectives for cooperative demonstrations with the cask vendors and utilities for development of at-reactor dry cask storage capabilities for spent nuclear fuel assemblies. One research and development program for the storage cask performance testing of metal storage cask was initiated through a cooperative agreement between Virginia Power and DOE in 1984. The performance testing was conducted for the DOE and the Electric Power Research Institute by the Pacific Northwest laboratory, operated for DOE by Battelle Memorial Institute, and the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), operated for DOE by EG ampersand G Idaho, Inc. In 1988 a cooperative agreement was entered into by DOE with Pacific Sierra Nuclear Associates (PSN) for performance testing of the PSN concrete Ventilated Storage Cask. Another closely related activity involving INEL is a transportable storage cask project identified as the Nuclear Fuel Services Spent-Fuel Shipping/Storage Cask Demonstration Project. The purpose of this project is to demonstrate the feasibility of packing, transporting, and storing commercial spent fuel in dual-purpose transport/storage casks

  3. Radionuclides in plankton from the South Pacific Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsh, K.V.; Buddemeier, R.W.

    1984-01-01

    An investigation has been initiated of the utility of marine plankton as bioconcentrating samplers of low-level marine radioactivity in the southern hemisphere. A literature review has shown that both freshwater and marine plankton have trace element and radionuclide concentration factors (relative to water) of up to 10 4 . In 1956 and 1958 considerable work was done on the accumulation and distribution of a variety of fission and activation products produced by nuclear tests in the Marshall Islands. Since then, studies, have largely been confined to a few radionuclides, and most of the work in the last twenty years has been done in the northern hemisphere. The authors participated in Operations Deepfreeze 1981 and 1982, collecting a total of 48 plankton samples from the USCGC Glacier on its Antarctic cruises. Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratories sampled air, water, rain, and fallout. The authors were able to measure concentrations in plankton of the naturally-occurring radionuclides 7 Be, 40 K, and the U and Th series, and they believe that they have detected low levels of 144 Ce and 95 Nb in seven samples ranging as far south as 68 0 . Biological identification of the plankton suggests a possible correlation between radionuclide concentration and the protozoa content of the samples. 7 references, 5 figures, 1 table

  4. Anthropogenic Factors Affecting the Status of Salmon Stocks in Pacific Northwest Watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    The Center for the Study of the Environment. Santa Barbara , California. Bradford, M. J. 1995. Comparative review of Pacific salmon survival...Pacific salmon life histories. UBC Press, Vancouver, Canada. Hassemer, P. F., S. W. Kiefer , and C. E. Petrosky. 1995. Idaho’s salmon: can we

  5. Abyssal Solenogastres (Mollusca, Aplacophora from the Northwest Pacific: Scratching the Surface of Deep-Sea Diversity Using Integrative Taxonomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franziska S. Bergmeier

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Solenogastres (Aplacophora is a small clade of marine, shell-less worm-molluscs with close to 300 valid species. Their distribution ranges across all oceans, and whereas the vast majority of species has been collected and described from the continental shelf and slope, only few species are known from depths below 4,000 m. Following traditional taxonomy, identification of specimens to species level is complex and time-consuming and requires detailed investigations of morphology and anatomy—often resulting in the exclusion of the clade in biodiversity or biogeographic studies. During the KuramBio expedition (Kuril-Kamchatka Biodiversity Studies to the abyssal plain of the Northwest Pacific and the Kuril-Kamchatka Trench, 33 solenogaster specimens were sampled from 4,830 m to 5,397 m. Within this study we present an efficient workflow to address solenogaster diversity, even when confronted with a high degree of singletons and minute body sizes, hampering the use of single individuals for multiple morphological and molecular approaches. We combine analyses of external characters and scleritome with molecular barcoding based on a self-designed solenogaster specific set of mitochondrial primers. Overall we were able to delineate at least 19 solenogaster lineages and identify 15 species to family level and beyond. Based on our approach we identified three key lineages from the two regionally most species-rich families (Acanthomeniidae and Pruvotinidae for deeper taxonomic investigations and describe the novel abyssal species Amboherpia abyssokurilensis sp. nov. (Cavibelonia, Acanthomeniidae using microanatomical 3D-reconstructions. Our study more than doubles the previous records of solenogaster species from the Northwest Pacific and its marginal seas. Almost all lineages are reported for the first time from the region of the (Northwest Pacific, vastly expanding distribution ranges of the respective clades. Moreover it doubles the number of

  6. MAPPING INTERTIDAL EELGRASS (ZOSTERA MARINA L.) IN THREE COASTAL ESTUARIES OF THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST USA USING FALSE-COLOUR NEAR-INFRARED AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHY

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study describes a hybrid technique of digitally classifying aerial photography used for mapping the intertidal habitat of eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) in Pacific Northwest USA estuaries. The large tidal range (2-3 m) in this region exposes most of this seagrass community at ...

  7. WestPro: a computer program for simulating uneven-aged Douglas-fir stand growth and yield in the Pacific Northwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebecca Ralston; Joseph Buongiorno; Benedict Schulte; Jeremy. Fried

    2003-01-01

    WestPro is an add-in program designed to work with Microsoft Excel to simulate the growth of uneven-aged Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) stands in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States. Given the initial stand state, defined as the number of softwood and hardwood trees per acre by diameter class, WestPro predicts the...

  8. Monitoring the expanding distribution of non-indigenous dwarf eelgrass Zostera japonica in a Pacific Northwest USA estuary using high-resolution digital aerialphotomaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    The proliferation of non-indigenous species is a world-wide issue. Environmental managers need improved methods of detecting and monitoring the distribution of such invaders over large areas. In recent decades, numerous estuaries of the Pacific Northwest USA have experienced th...

  9. Recent switch by the Great Blue Heron (Ardea herodias fannini) in the Pacific northwest to associative nesting with Bald Eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) to gain predator protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jones, I.M.; Butler, R.W.; Ydenberg, R.C.

    2013-01-01

    The Great Blue Heron (Ardea herodias fannini Chapman, 1901) in the Pacific northwest appears to have modified nesting behaviour in response to the strong recent recovery of the Bald Eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus (L., 1766)) population. Previously undescribed, herons now often nest in close

  10. Soil and Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) foliar nitrogen responses to variable logging-debris retention and competing vegetation control in the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert A. Slesak; Timothy B. Harrington; Stephen H. Schoenholtz

    2010-01-01

    Experimental treatments of logging-debris retention (0%, 40%, or 80% surface coverage) and competing vegetation control (initial or annual applications) were installed at two sites in the Pacific Northwest following clearcutting Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco var. menziesii) stands to assess short term...

  11. "The Only Thing that Isn't Sustainable... Is the Farmer": Social Sustainability and the Politics of Class among Pacific Northwest Farmers Engaged in Sustainable Farming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilgeram, Ryanne

    2011-01-01

    Using interviews and participant observation at Pacific Northwest sustainable farming operations, this article analyzes the complex ways that class privileges and labor practices impact the social sustainability of sustainable agriculture. While the farmers in this study were highly aware of and reflexive about the class politics of sustainable…

  12. Sensitivity of Rhizoctonia isolates from the Inland Pacific Northwest of the United States to phenazine-1-carboxylic acid and biological control by phenazine-producing Pseudomonas spp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhizoctonia solani AG-8, AG-2-1, and R. oryzae, causal agents of Rhizoctonia root rot and bare patch, are ubiquitous in cereal-based cropping systems of the Columbia Plateau of the Inland Pacific Northwest, yet the severity of this disease differs throughout the region. R. solani AG-8 is most common...

  13. Cradle-to-gate life-cycle assessment of laminated veneer lumber (LVL) produced in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard D. Bergman; Sevda Alanya-Rosenbaum

    2017-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to develop life-cycle impact assessment (LCIA) data associated with laminated veneer lumber (LVL) production in the Pacific Northwest (PNW) region of the United States from cradle-to-gate mill output. The authors collected primary (survey) mill data from LVL production facilities per Consortium on Research for Renewable Industrial...

  14. Cradle-to-gate life-cycle assessment of composite I-joists produced in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard D. Bergman; Sevda Alanya-Rosenbaum

    2017-01-01

    The goal of this study was to update life-cycle assessment (LCA) data associated with I-joist production in the Pacific Northwest (PNW) region of the United States from cradle-to-gate mill output. The authors collected primary mill data from I-joist production facilities per Consortium on Research for Renewable Industrial Materials (CORRIM) research guidelines....

  15. Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory Annual Report: Fiscal Year 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foster, Nancy S.; Showalter, Mary Ann

    2007-03-23

    This report describes the activities and research performed at the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, a Department of Energy national scientific user facility at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, during Fiscal Year 2006.

  16. Archive of Geosample Data and Information from the NOAA Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory (PMEL).

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The U.S. Department of Commerce, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory (PMEL) contributed information...

  17. Long-Term Seafloor Electromagnetic Observation in the Northwest Pacific May Detect the Vector Geomagnetic Secular Variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Toh

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Sea Floor ElectroMagnetic Stations (SFEMSs are now operating at two deep seafloor sites called the 'WPB' and the 'NWP' in the West Philippine Basin and the Northwest Pacific Basin, respectively. One of the main objectives of the SFEMSs is to detect the geomagnetic secular variations on the deep seafloor where long-term geomagnetic observations have not so far been achieved. SFEMSs can measure the absolute geomagnetic total force as well as the geomagnetic vector field with precise attitude monitoring systems. The vector geomagnetic time-series that was observed for more than 5 years revealed that the westward drift of the equatorial dipole dominates in the geomagnetic secular variation at the NWP.

  18. Comparison of noble fir progeny from US Pacific Northwest collection regions and Denmark for Christmas tree traits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landgren, Chal; Nielsen, Ulrik Braüner; Chastagner, Gary

    2017-01-01

    Noble fir is the leading Christmas tree produced in the US Pacific Northwest (PNW). This study is based on evaluations of 24,721 trees collected from five native collection regions in Oregon and Washington plus imported seed from Denmark. The major collection areas were further subdivided...... into provenances utilizing 16 in the PNW and 6 from Denmark. A total of 22 test sites were evaluated from progeny trials planted between 1996 and 2007. Traits important for commercial Christmas tree production were evaluated and include commercial height, tree grade, value and colour. Tree height and quality were...... positively correlated while colour showed little correlation with either trait. Provenances from the Oregon Coast and Willapa Hills, Washington provided the highest potential gain for Christmas tree market value. Provenances from Denmark exhibited superior colour and slow growth. For breeding purposes...

  19. Field Demonstration of Automated Demand Response for Both Winter and Summer Events in Large Buildings in the Pacific Northwest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piette, Mary Ann; Kiliccote, Sila; Dudley, Junqiao H.

    2011-11-11

    There are growing strains on the electric grid as cooling peaks grow and equipment ages. Increased penetration of renewables on the grid is also straining electricity supply systems and the need for flexible demand is growing. This paper summarizes results of a series of field test of automated demand response systems in large buildings in the Pacific Northwest. The objective of the research was two fold. One objective was to evaluate the use demand response automation technologies. A second objective was to evaluate control strategies that could change the electric load shape in both winter and summer conditions. Winter conditions focused on cold winter mornings, a time when the electric grid is often stressed. The summer test evaluated DR strategies in the afternoon. We found that we could automate both winter and summer control strategies with the open automated demand response communication standard. The buildings were able to provide significant demand response in both winter and summer events.

  20. Photovoice and Youth Empowerment in Environmental Justice Research: A Pilot Study Examining Woodsmoke Pollution in a Pacific Northwest Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brickle, Mattie B; Evans-Agnew, Robin

    2017-01-01

    Woodsmoke pollution is an environmental justice issue for youth living in certain Pacific Northwest cities. Participatory methods such as Citizen Science and Photovoice are effective ways to involve youth in environmental justice research. Little is understood about how youth may be empowered to address woodsmoke issues in their communities. We examined youth empowerment in a citizen science study on woodsmoke, using Photovoice methodology. Ten diverse youth collected and analyzed indoor air samples and photos, then presented their findings to the community and policy makers. Entrance and exit surveys revealed an increased sense of empowerment to take action on woodsmoke pollution. Youth also expressed increased optimism and a resolve to become scientists to combat environmental injustices.

  1. James Dwight Dana and John Strong Newberry in the US Pacific Northwest: The roots of American fluvialism

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Jim E.

    2018-01-01

    Recognition of the power of rivers to carve landscapes transformed geology and geomorphology in the late nineteenth century. Wide acceptance of this concept—then known as “fluvialism”—owes to many factors and people, several associated with exploration of western North America. Especially famous are the federal geographic and geologic surveys of the US Southwest with John Wesley Powell and Grove Karl Gilbert, which produced key insights regarding river processes. Yet earlier and less-known surveys also engaged young geologists embarking on tremendously influential careers, particularly the 1838–1842 US Exploring Expedition with James Dwight Dana and the 1853–1855 railroad surveys including John Strong Newberry. Informed but little constrained by European and British perspectives on landscape formation, Dana and Newberry built compelling cases for the erosive power of rivers, largely from observations in the US Pacific Northwest. They seeded the insights of the later southwestern surveys, Dana by his writings and station at Yale and his hugely influential Manual of Geology, published in 1863, and Newberry by becoming the first geologist to explore the dramatic river-carved canyons of the Southwest and then a forceful proponent of the federal surveys spotlighting the erosional landscapes. Newberry also gave Gilbert his start as a geologist. Although Dana and Newberry are renowned early American geologists, their geomorphic contributions were overshadowed by the works of Powell, Gilbert, and William Morris Davis. Yet Dana and Newberry were the first ardent American proponents of fluvialism, providing strong roots that in just a few decades transformed western geology, roots nourished in large measure by the geologically fertile landscapes of the US Pacific Northwest.

  2. Aerosol direct radiative effects over the northwest Atlantic, northwest Pacific, and North Indian Oceans: estimates based on in-situ chemical and optical measurements and chemical transport modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. S. Bates

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The largest uncertainty in the radiative forcing of climate change over the industrial era is that due to aerosols, a substantial fraction of which is the uncertainty associated with scattering and absorption of shortwave (solar radiation by anthropogenic aerosols in cloud-free conditions (IPCC, 2001. Quantifying and reducing the uncertainty in aerosol influences on climate is critical to understanding climate change over the industrial period and to improving predictions of future climate change for assumed emission scenarios. Measurements of aerosol properties during major field campaigns in several regions of the globe during the past decade are contributing to an enhanced understanding of atmospheric aerosols and their effects on light scattering and climate. The present study, which focuses on three regions downwind of major urban/population centers (North Indian Ocean (NIO during INDOEX, the Northwest Pacific Ocean (NWP during ACE-Asia, and the Northwest Atlantic Ocean (NWA during ICARTT, incorporates understanding gained from field observations of aerosol distributions and properties into calculations of perturbations in radiative fluxes due to these aerosols. This study evaluates the current state of observations and of two chemical transport models (STEM and MOZART. Measurements of burdens, extinction optical depth (AOD, and direct radiative effect of aerosols (DRE – change in radiative flux due to total aerosols are used as measurement-model check points to assess uncertainties. In-situ measured and remotely sensed aerosol properties for each region (mixing state, mass scattering efficiency, single scattering albedo, and angular scattering properties and their dependences on relative humidity are used as input parameters to two radiative transfer models (GFDL and University of Michigan to constrain estimates of aerosol radiative effects, with uncertainties in each step propagated through the analysis. Constraining the radiative

  3. Annual and Perennial Alleyway Cover Crops Vary in Their Effects on Pratylenchus penetrans in Pacific Northwest Red Raspberry (Rubus idaeus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolph, Rachel E; Zasada, Inga A; DeVetter, Lisa W

    2017-12-01

    Cover crops can provide many benefits to agroecosystems, such as lessening soil erosion and increasing water infiltration. However, cover crop use is not common in established red raspberry ( Rubus idaeus ) fields in the Pacific Northwest. Raspberry growers are concerned about resource competition between the cover crop and raspberry crop, as well as increasing population densities of the plant-parasitic nematode Pratylenchus penetrans , which has a wide host range and has been shown to reduce raspberry plant vigor and yield. A 2-yr study was conducted in an established 'Meeker' raspberry field in northwest Washington to evaluate the effects of nine alleyway cover crops, mowed weed cover, and the industry standard of bare cultivated soil on P. penetrans population dynamics, raspberry yield, and fruit quality. The host status for P. penetrans of cover crops included in the field experiment, as well as Brassica juncea 'Pacific Gold' and Sinapis alba 'Ida Gold', was also evaluated in greenhouse experiments. In the field experiment, P. penetrans population densities did not increase in alleyway cover crop roots over time or in alleyway soil surrounding cover crop roots (means range from 0 to 116 P. penetrans /100 g of soil) compared with the bare cultivated control (means range from 2 to 55 P. penetrans /100 g of soil). Pratylenchus penetrans populations did not increase over time in raspberry grown adjacent to alleyways with cover crops (means range from 1,081 to 6,120 P. penetrans /g of root) compared with those grown adjacent to bare cultivated soil alleyways (means range from 2,391 to 5,536 P. penetrans /g of root). Raspberry grown adjacent to bare cultivated soil did not have significantly higher yield or fruit quality than raspberry grown adjacent to cover crops in either year of the experiment. In the greenhouse assays, 'Norwest 553' wheat and a perennial ryegrass mix were poor hosts for P. penetrans , whereas 'Nora' and 'TAM 606' oat and 'Pacific Gold' and 'Ida

  4. Inter-specific variation in salinity effects on germination in Pacific Northwest tidal wetland plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental stressors such as salinity may affect plant germination and early growth, eventually impacting the distribution and abundance of more mature individuals. In a lab study we evaluated germination sensitivity to salinity in 13 tidal wetland species found in the Pacific...

  5. National assessment of shoreline change: historical shoreline change along the Pacific Northwest coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggerio, Peter; Kratzmann, Meredith G.; Himmelstoss, Emily A.; Reid, David; Allan, Jonathan; Kaminsky, George

    2013-01-01

    Beach erosion is a chronic problem along most open ocean shores of the United States. As coastal populations continue to increase and infrastructure is threatened by erosion, there is increased demand for accurate information regarding past and present trends and rates of shoreline movement. There is also a need for a comprehensive analysis of shoreline movement that is consistent from one coastal region to another. To meet these national needs, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is conducting an analysis of historical shoreline changes along the open-ocean sandy shores of the conterminous United States and parts of Hawaii, Alaska, and the Great Lakes. One purpose of this work is to develop standard, repeatable methods for mapping and analyzing shoreline movement so that periodic, systematic, and internally consistent updates regarding coastal erosion and land loss can be made nationally. In the case of the analysis of shoreline change in the Pacific Northwest (PNW), the shoreline is the interpreted boundary between the ocean water surface and the sandy beach. This report on the PNW coasts of Oregon and Washington is the seventh in a series of regionally focused reports on historical shoreline change. Previous investigations include analyses and descriptive reports of the U.S. Gulf of Mexico (Morton and others, 2004), the southeastern Atlantic (Morton and Miller, 2005), the sandy shorelines (Hapke and others, 2006) and coastal cliffs (Hapke and Reid, 2007) of California, the New England and mid-Atlantic coasts (Hapke and others, 2011), and parts of the Hawaii coast (Fletcher and others, 2012). Like the earlier reports in this series, this report summarizes the methods of analysis, interprets the results of the analysis, provides explanations regarding long- and short-term trends and rates of shoreline change, and describes how different coastal communities are responding to coastal erosion. This report differs from the early USGS reports in the series in that those

  6. The TERRA-PNW Dataset: A New Source for Standardized Plant Trait, Forest Carbon Cycling, and Soil Properties Measurements from the Pacific Northwest US, 2000-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berner, L. T.; Law, B. E.

    2015-12-01

    Plant traits include physiological, morphological, and biogeochemical characteristics that in combination determine a species sensitivity to environmental conditions. Standardized, co-located, and geo-referenced species- and plot-level measurements are needed to address variation in species sensitivity to climate change impacts and for ecosystem process model development, parameterization and testing. We present a new database of plant trait, forest carbon cycling, and soil property measurements derived from multiple TERRA-PNW projects in the Pacific Northwest US, spanning 2000-2014. The database includes measurements from over 200 forest plots across Oregon and northern California, where the data were explicitly collected for scaling and modeling regional terrestrial carbon processes with models such as Biome-BGC and the Community Land Model. Some of the data are co-located at AmeriFlux sites in the region. The database currently contains leaf trait measurements (specific leaf area, leaf longevity, leaf carbon and nitrogen) from over 1,200 branch samples and 30 species, as well as plot-level biomass and productivity components, and soil carbon and nitrogen. Standardized protocols were used across projects, as summarized in an FAO protocols document. The database continues to expand and will include agricultural crops. The database will be hosted by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORLN) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC). We hope that other regional databases will become publicly available to help enable Earth System Modeling to simulate species-level sensitivity to climate at regional to global scales.

  7. Glacial vicariance in the Pacific Northwest: evidence from a lodgepole pine mitochondrial DNA minisatellite for multiple genetically distinct and widely separated refugia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godbout, Julie; Fazekas, Aron; Newton, Craig H; Yeh, Francis C; Bousquet, Jean

    2008-05-01

    The Canadian side of the Pacific Northwest was almost entirely covered by ice during the last glacial maximum, which has induced vicariance and genetic population structure for several plant and animal taxa. Lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. ex. Loud.) has a wide latitudinal and longitudinal distribution in the Pacific Northwest. Our main objective was to identify relictual signatures of glacial vicariance in the population structure of the species and search for evidence of distinct glacial refugia in the Pacific Northwest. A maternally inherited mitochondrial DNA minisatellite-like marker was used to decipher haplotype diversity in 91 populations of lodgepole pine located across the natural range. Overall population differentiation was sizeable (G(ST) = 0.365 and R(ST) = 0.568). Four relatively homogeneous groups of populations, possibly representative of as many genetically distinct glacial populations, were identified for the two main subspecies, ssp. latifolia and ssp. contorta. For ssp. contorta, one glacial lineage is suggested to have been located at high latitudes and possibly off the coast of mainland British Columbia (BC), while the other is considered to have been located south of the ice sheet along the Pacific coast. For ssp. latifolia, two genetically distinct glacial populations probably occurred south of the ice sheet: in the area bounded by the Cascades and Rocky Mountains ranges, and on the eastern side of the Rockies. A possible fifth refugium located in the Yukon may have also been present for ssp. latifolia. Zones of contact between these ancestral lineages were also apparent in interior and northern BC. These results indicate the role of the Queen Charlotte Islands and the Alexander Archipelago as a refugial zone for some Pacific Northwest species and the vicariant role played by the Cascades and the American Rocky Mountains during glaciation.

  8. PURPA Resource Development in the Pacific Northwest : Case Studies of Ten Electricity Generating Powerplants.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington State Energy Office.

    1990-07-01

    The case studies in this document describe the Public Utilities, Regulatory Policies Act (PURPA) development process for a variety of generating technologies. Developer interactions with regulatory agencies and power purchasers are described in some detail. Equipment, installation, and maintenance costs are identified; power marketing considerations are taken into account; and potential environmental impacts, with corresponding mitigation approaches and practices are summarized. The project development case studies were prepared by the energy agencies of the four Northwest states, under contract to the Bonneville Power Administration.

  9. Current meter data from moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Northwest and Southwest Pacific Ocean from 01 October 1992 to 15 March 1993 (NODC Accession 9400088)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter data were collected using moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Northwest and Southwest Pacific Ocean from October 1, 1992 to March...

  10. Dissolved oxygen, nutrients, pH, salinity, and temperature collected by several instruments from CHOFU MARU in the Northwest Pacific Ocean from 16 January 1993 to 11 June 1995 (NODC Accession 0000040)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile, nutrients, and other data were collected using bottle, CTD, and XBT casts from the CHOFU MARU in the Northwest Pacific Ocean. Data were...

  11. A socioeconomic assessment of climate change-enhanced coastal storm hazards in the U.S. Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, H. M.; Ruggiero, P.; Harris, E.

    2010-12-01

    Every winter, coastal communities in the U.S. Pacific Northwest are at risk to coastal change hazards caused by extreme storm events. These storms have the potential to erode large portions of the primary foredune that may be a community’s only barrier from the ocean. Furthermore, the frequency and magnitude of significant erosion events appears to be increasing, likely due to climate-related processes such as sea level rise and increases in storm wave heights. To reduce risks posed by winter storms, it is not only important to determine the impending physical impacts but it is also necessary to explore the vulnerability of the social-ecological system in the context of these hazards. Here we assess the exposure to both annually occurring and extreme storm events at various planning timelines using a methodology that incorporates the effect of a variable and changing climate on future total water levels. To do this, we have developed a suite of climate change scenarios involving a range of projections for the wave climate, global sea level rise, and the occurrence of El Niño events through 2100. Simple geometric models are then used to conservatively determine the extent of erosion that may occur for a given combination of these climatic factors. We integrate the physical hazards with socioeconomic data using a geographic information system (GIS) in order to quantify societal vulnerability, characterized by the exposure and sensitivity of a community, which is based on the distribution of people, property, and resources. Here we focus on a 14 km stretch of dune-backed coast in northwest Oregon, from Cascade Head to Cape Kiwanda—the location of two communities that, historically, have experienced problematic storm-induced coastal change, Pacific City and Neskowin. Although both of these communities have similar exposure to coastal change hazards at the present, Neskowin is more than twice as sensitive to erosion because almost all of its residents and community

  12. Pacific Northwest GridWise™ Testbed Demonstration Projects; Part I. Olympic Peninsula Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammerstrom, Donald J.; Ambrosio, Ron; Carlon, Teresa A.; DeSteese, John G.; Horst, Gale R.; Kajfasz, Robert; Kiesling, Laura L.; Michie, Preston; Pratt, Robert G.; Yao, Mark; Brous, Jerry; Chassin, David P.; Guttromson, Ross T.; Jarvegren, Olof M.; Katipamula, Srinivas; Le, N. T.; Oliver, Terry V.; Thompson, Sandra E.

    2008-01-09

    This report describes the implementation and results of a field demonstration wherein residential electric water heaters and thermostats, commercial building space conditioning, municipal water pump loads, and several distributed generators were coordinated to manage constrained feeder electrical distribution through the two-way communication of load status and electric price signals. The field demonstration took place in Washington and Oregon and was paid for by the U.S. Department of Energy and several northwest utilities. Price is found to be an effective control signal for managing transmission or distribution congestion. Real-time signals at 5-minute intervals are shown to shift controlled load in time. The behaviors of customers and their responses under fixed, time-of-use, and real-time price contracts are compared. Peak loads are effectively reduced on the experimental feeder. A novel application of portfolio theory is applied to the selection of an optimal mix of customer contract types.

  13. Audit of laboratory mycology services for the management of patients with fungal infections in the northwest of England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, I A; Critten, P; Isalska, B; Denning, D W

    2006-07-01

    Fungal infection is increasingly recognised as an important cause of morbidity and mortality, especially in immunocompromised patients. Little information exists on laboratory services available and the methods used by general microbiology laboratories to diagnose these important infections. To investigate the services microbiology laboratories in northwest England provide towards the diagnosis and management of superficial and deep fungal infections. A questionnaire was sent to laboratories to get a holistic view of the support given to clinicians looking after patients with fungal infections. The aim was not to investigate details of each laboratory's standard operating procedures. The completed questionnaires, which formed the basis of this report, were returned by all 21 laboratories which were recruited. This study was conducted between March 2004 and September 2004. Services were provided to District General Hospitals and to six tertiary centres, including eight teaching hospitals by 16 laboratories. Their bed capacity was 250-1300 beds. Total specimens (including bacterial and viral) processed annually were 42 000-500,000 whereas fungal ones were 560-5400. In most microbiology laboratories of northwest England, clinicians were aware of the potential of fungal pathogens to cause infections especially in immunocompromised patients. Additional measures such as prolonged incubation of samples were introduced to improve fungal yield from patients at high risk. It is necessary to train and educate laboratory and medical staff about the role of serology and molecular methods in diagnosis and management of patients with fungal infection.

  14. Isotope hydrology and baseflow geochemistry in natural and human-altered watersheds in the Inland Pacific Northwest, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Murillo, Ricardo; Brooks, Erin S; Elliot, William J; Boll, Jan

    2015-01-01

    This study presents a stable isotope hydrology and geochemical analysis in the inland Pacific Northwest (PNW) of the USA. Isotope ratios were used to estimate mean transit times (MTTs) in natural and human-altered watersheds using the FLOWPC program. Isotope ratios in precipitation resulted in a regional meteoric water line of δ(2)H = 7.42·δ(18)O + 0.88 (n = 316; r(2) = 0.97). Isotope compositions exhibited a strong temperature-dependent seasonality. Despite this seasonal variation, the stream δ(18)O variation was small. A significant regression (τ = 0.11D(-1.09); r(2) = 0.83) between baseflow MTTs and the damping ratio was found. Baseflow MTTs ranged from 0.4 to 0.6 years (human-altered), 0.7 to 1.7 years (mining-altered), and 0.7 to 3.2 years (forested). Greater MTTs were represented by more homogenous aqueous chemistry whereas smaller MTTs resulted in more dynamic compositions. The isotope and geochemical data presented provide a baseline for future hydrological modelling in the inland PNW.

  15. Quantifying the intra-annual uncertainties in climate change assessment over 10 sub-basins across the Pacific Northwest US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadalipour, Ali; Moradkhani, Hamid; Rana, Arun

    2017-04-01

    Uncertainty is an inevitable feature of climate change impact assessments. Understanding and quantifying different sources of uncertainty is of high importance, which can help modeling agencies improve the current models and scenarios. In this study, we have assessed the future changes in three climate variables (i.e. precipitation, maximum temperature, and minimum temperature) over 10 sub-basins across the Pacific Northwest US. To conduct the study, 10 statistically downscaled CMIP5 GCMs from two downscaling methods (i.e. BCSD and MACA) were utilized at 1/16 degree spatial resolution for the historical period of 1970-2000 and future period of 2010-2099. For the future projections, two future scenarios of RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 were used. Furthermore, Bayesian Model Averaging (BMA) was employed to develop a probabilistic future projection for each climate variable. Results indicate superiority of BMA simulations compared to individual models. Increasing temperature and precipitation are projected at annual timescale. However, the changes are not uniform among different seasons. Model uncertainty shows to be the major source of uncertainty, while downscaling uncertainty significantly contributes to the total uncertainty, especially in summer.

  16. Saprolegniaceae identified on amphibian eggs throughout the Pacific Northwest, USA, by internal transcribed spacer sequences and phylogenetic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrisko, Jill E; Pearl, Christopher A; Pilliod, David S; Sheridan, Peter P; Williams, Charles F; Peterson, Charles R; Bury, R Bruce

    2008-01-01

    We assessed the diversity and phylogeny of Saprolegniaceae on amphibian eggs from the Pacific Northwest, with particular focus on Saprolegnia ferax, a species implicated in high egg mortality. We identified isolates from eggs of six amphibians with the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and 5.8S gene regions and BLAST of the GenBank database. We identified 68 sequences as Saprolegniaceae and 43 sequences as true fungi from at least nine genera. Our phylogenetic analysis of the Saprolegniaceae included isolates within the genera Saprolegnia, Achlya and Leptolegnia. Our phylogeny grouped S. semihypogyna with Achlya rather than with the Saprolegnia reference sequences. We found only one isolate that grouped closely with S. ferax, and this came from a hatchery-raised salmon (Idaho) that we sampled opportunistically. We had representatives of 7-12 species and three genera of Saprolegniaceae on our amphibian eggs. Further work on the ecological roles of different species of Saprolegniaceae is needed to clarify their potential importance in amphibian egg mortality and potential links to population declines.

  17. Monitoring of styrene oligomers as indicators of polystyrene plastic pollution in the North-West Pacific Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Bum Gun; Amamiya, Keiji; Sato, Hideto; Chung, Seon-Yong; Kodera, Yoichi; Kim, Seung-Kyu; Lee, Eung Jae; Saido, Katsuhiko

    2017-08-01

    Styrene oligomers (SOs) as global contaminants are an environmental concern. However, little is known on the distribution of SOs in the ocean. Here, we show the distribution of anthropogenic SOs generated from discarded polystyrene (PS) plastic monitored from the coastal ocean surface waters (horizontal distribution) and deep seawaters (vertical distribution) in the North-West Pacific Ocean. SOs concentrations in surface seawater and deep seawater ranged from 0.17 to 4.26 μg L -1 (total mean: 1.48 ± 1.23 μg L -1 ) and from 0.31 to 4.31 μg L -1 (total mean: 1.32 ± 0.87 μg L -1 ), respectively. Since there is no significant difference in the mean concentrations, SOs seems to be spread across marine environment selected in this study. Nevertheless, regional SOs appears to persist to varying degrees with their broad horizontal and vertical distribution in the ocean. Each horizontal and vertical distribution of SOs differs by approximately 1.95-2.57 times, probably depending on the events of weather and global ocean circulation. These results provide the distribution pattern of SOs for assessing environmental pollution arising from PS plastic. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of Climatic Conditions and Management Practices on Agricultural Carbon and Water Budgets in the Inland Pacific Northwest USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Jinshu; Waldo, Sarah; Pressley, Shelley N.; Russell, Eric S.; O'Keeffe, Patrick T.; Pan, William L.; Huggins, David R.; Stöckle, Claudio O.; Brooks, Erin S.; Lamb, Brian K.

    2017-12-01

    Cropland is an important land cover influencing global carbon and water cycles. Variability of agricultural carbon and water fluxes depends on crop species, management practices, soil characteristics, and climatic conditions. In the context of climate change, it is critical to quantify the long-term effects of these environmental drivers and farming activities on carbon and water dynamics. Twenty site-years of carbon and water fluxes covering a large precipitation gradient and a variety of crop species and management practices were measured in the inland Pacific Northwest using the eddy covariance method. The rain-fed fields were net carbon sinks, while the irrigated site was close to carbon neutral during the winter wheat crop years. Sites growing spring crops were either carbon sinks, sources, or neutral, varying with crops, rainfall zones, and tillage practices. Fluxes were more sensitive to variability in precipitation than temperature: annual carbon and water fluxes increased with the increasing precipitation while only respiration increased with temperature in the high-rainfall area. Compared to a nearby rain-fed site, irrigation improved winter wheat production but resulted in large losses of carbon and water to the atmosphere. Compared to conventional tillage, no-till had significantly lower respiration but resulted in slightly lower yields and water use efficiency over 4 years. Under future climate change, it is expected that more carbon fixation by crops and evapotranspiration would occur in a warmer and wetter environment.

  19. Antiphospholipid syndrome in northwest Italy (APS Piedmont Cohort): demographic features, risk factors, clinical and laboratory profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertero, M T; Bazzan, M; Carignola, R; Montaruli, B; Silvestro, E; Sciascia, S; Vaccarino, A; Baldovino, S; Roccatello, D

    2012-06-01

    We report the experience from the Antiphospholipid Antibodies (aPL) Regional Consortium in northwest Italy, meant to support clinical research and foster collaboration among health professionals regarding the diagnosis and management of antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) patients. This cohort-study (APS Piedmont Cohort) was designed to register the clinical characteristics at inception and associated immunological manifestations at diagnosis (if any) of patients who strictly fulfilled the current criteria for APS, all recruited at the Piedmont and Valle d'Aosta regions. Clinical and laboratory data from 217 APS patients (171 with vascular events, 33 with pregnancy morbidity and 13 with both), from 16 centres within the geographical area were collected. Venous thrombosis was recorded in 45.6% of patients, arterial thrombosis in 35%, small-vessel thrombosis in 1.12% and mixed arterial and venous thrombosis in the remaining 19.4% of the cases. Pregnancy morbidity included 19 patients with unexplained fetal death beyond the 10th week of pregnancy, 17 with premature birth before the 34th week and 10 with three or more unexplained spontaneous abortions before the 10th week of gestation. This consortium represents an instrument by which to audit clinical practice, to provide counselling to local centres and to sustain future basic and clinical APS research.

  20. Emissions from prescribed burning of agricultural fields in the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holder, A. L.; Gullett, B. K.; Urbanski, S. P.; Elleman, R.; O'Neill, S.; Tabor, D.; Mitchell, W.; Baker, K. R.

    2017-10-01

    Prescribed burns of winter wheat stubble and Kentucky bluegrass fields in northern Idaho and eastern Washington states (U.S.A.) were sampled using ground-, aerostat-, airplane-, and laboratory-based measurement platforms to determine emission factors, compare methods, and provide a current and comprehensive set of emissions data for air quality models, climate models, and emission inventories. Batch measurements of PM2.5, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and polychlorinated dibenzodioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDDs/PCDFs), and continuous measurements of black carbon (BC), particle mass by size, CO, CO2, CH4, and aerosol characteristics were taken at ground level, on an aerostat-lofted instrument package, and from an airplane. Biomass samples gathered from the field were burned in a laboratory combustion facility for comparison with these ground and aerial field measurements. Emission factors for PM2.5, organic carbon (OC), CH4, and CO measured in the field study platforms were typically higher than those measured in the laboratory combustion facility. Field data for Kentucky bluegrass suggest that biomass residue loading is directly proportional to the PM2.5 emission factor; no such relationship was found with the limited wheat data. CO2 and BC emissions were higher in laboratory burn tests than in the field, reflecting greater carbon oxidation and flaming combustion conditions. These distinctions between field and laboratory results can be explained by measurements of the modified combustion efficiency (MCE). Higher MCEs were recorded in the laboratory burns than from the airplane platform. These MCE/emission factor trends are supported by 1-2 min grab samples from the ground and aerostat platforms. Emission factors measured here are similar to other studies measuring comparable fuels, pollutants, and combustion conditions. The size distribution of refractory BC (rBC) was single modal with a log-normal shape, which was

  1. Effect of weathering on accuracy of fuel-moisture-indicator sticks in the Pacific Northwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    William G. Morris

    1959-01-01

    How much does weathering affect accuracy of fuel-moisture indicator stick readings in different sections of Oregon and Washington? If unpainted lumber is exposed to weather for a few years, its color changes and the grain shows as much erosion as if it were sandblasted. According to the Forest Products Laboratory, chemical as well as physical changes produce these...

  2. Occurrence of the amphibian pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearl, C.A.; Bull, E.L.; Green, D.E.; Bowerman, J.; Adams, M.J.; Hyatt, A.; Wente, W.H.

    2007-01-01

    Chytridiomycosis (infection by the fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis) has been associated with amphibian declines in at least four continents. We report results of disease screens from 210 pond-breeding amphibians from 37 field sites in Oregon and Washington. We detected B. dendrobatidis on 28% of sampled amphibians, and we found ??? 1 detection of B. dendrobatidis from 43% of sites. Four of seven species tested positive for B. dendrobatidis, including the Northern Red-Legged Frog (Rana aurora), Columbia Spotted Frog (Rana luteiventris), and Oregon Spotted Frog (Rana pretiosa). We also detected B. dendrobatidis in nonnative American Bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana) from six sites in western and central Oregon. Our study and other recently published findings suggest that B. dendrobatidis has few geographic and host taxa limitations among North American anurans. Further research on virulence, transmissibility, persistence, and interactions with other stressors is needed to assess the potential impact of B. dendrobatidis on Pacific Northwestern amphibians. Copyright 2007 Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles.

  3. Photic zone changes in the north-west Pacific Ocean from MIS 4–5e

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. E. A. Swann

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In comparison to other sectors of the marine system, the palaeoceanography of the subarctic North Pacific Ocean is poorly constrained. New diatom isotope records of δ13C, δ18O, δ30Si (δ13Cdiatom, δ18Odiatom, and δ30Sidiatom are presented alongside existing geochemical and isotope records to document changes in photic zone conditions, including nutrient supply and the efficiency of the soft-tissue biological pump, between Marine Isotope Stage (MIS 4 and MIS 5e. Peaks in opal productivity in MIS 5b/c and MIS 5e are both associated with the breakdown of the regional halocline stratification and increased nutrient supply to the photic zone. Whereas the MIS 5e peak is associated with low rates of nutrient utilisation, the MIS 5b/c peak is associated with significantly higher rates of nutrient utilisation. Both peaks, together with other smaller increases in productivity in MIS 4 and 5a, culminate with a significant increase in freshwater input which strengthens/re-establishes the halocline and limits further upwelling of sub-surface waters to the photic zone. Whilst δ30Sidiatom and previously published records of diatom δ15N (δ15Ndiatom (Brunelle et al., 2007, 2010 show similar trends until the latter half of MIS 5a, the records become anti-correlated after this juncture and into MIS 4, suggesting a possible change in photic zone state such as may occur with a shift to iron or silicon limitation.

  4. Assessing societal vulnerability of U.S. Pacific Northwest communities to storm-induced coastal change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Heather M.; Wood, Nathan J.; Ruggerio, Peter; Allan, Jonathan; Corcoran, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    Progressive increases in storm intensities and extreme wave heights have been documented along the U.S. West Coast. Paired with global sea level rise and the potential for an increase in El Niño occurrences, these trends have substantial implications for the vulnerability of coastal communities to natural coastal hazards. Community vulnerability to hazards is characterized by the exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity of human-environmental systems that influence potential impacts. To demonstrate how societal vulnerability to coastal hazards varies with both physical and social factors, we compared community exposure and sensitivity to storm-induced coastal change scenarios in Tillamook (Oregon) and Pacific (Washington) Counties. While both are backed by low-lying coastal dunes, communities in these two counties have experienced different shoreline change histories and have chosen to use the adjacent land in different ways. Therefore, community vulnerability varies significantly between the two counties. Identifying the reasons for this variability can help land-use managers make decisions to increase community resilience and reduce vulnerability in spite of a changing climate.

  5. Chapter K: Progress in the Evaluation of Alkali-Aggregate Reaction in Concrete Construction in the Pacific Northwest, United States and Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrimer, Fred H.

    2005-01-01

    The supply of aggregates suitable for use in construction and maintenance of infrastructure in western North America is a continuing concern to the engineering and resources-management community. Steady population growth throughout the region has fueled demand for high-quality aggregates, in the face of rapid depletion of existing aggregate resources and slow and difficult permitting of new sources of traditional aggregate types. In addition to these challenges, the requirement for aggregates to meet various engineering standards continues to increase. In addition to their physical-mechanical properties, other performance characteristics of construction aggregates specifically depend on their mineralogy and texture. These properties can result in deleterious chemical reactions when aggregate is used in concrete mixes. When this chemical reaction-termed 'alkali-aggregate reaction' (AAR)-occurs, it can pose a major problem for concrete structures, reducing their service life and requiring expensive repair or even replacement of the concrete. AAR is thus to be avoided in order to promote the longevity of concrete structures and to ensure that public moneys invested in infrastructure are well spent. Because the AAR phenomenon is directly related to the mineral composition, texture, and petrogenesis of the rock particles that make up aggregates, an understanding of the relation between the geology and the performance of aggregates in concrete is important. In the Pacific Northwest, some aggregates have a moderate to high AAR potential, but many others have no or only a low AAR potential. Overall, AAR is not as widespread or serious a problem in the Pacific Northwest as in other regions of North America. The identification of reactive aggregates in the Pacific Northwest and the accurate prediction of their behavior in concrete continue to present challenges for the assessment and management of geologic resources to the owners and operators of pits and quarries and to the

  6. Influences of two types of El Niño event on the Northwest Pacific and tropical Indian Ocean SST anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Haibo; Wu, Qigang; Wu, Zepeng

    2018-01-01

    Based on the HadISST1 and NCEP datasets, we investigated the influences of the central Pacific El Niño event (CP-EL) and eastern Pacific El Niño event (EP-EL) on the Sea Surface Temperature (SST) anomalies of the Tropical Indian Ocean. Considering the remote effect of Indian Ocean warming, we also discussed the anticyclone anomalies over the Northwest Pacific, which is very important for the South China precipitation and East Asian climate. Results show that during the El Niño developing year of EP-EL, cold SST anomalies appear and intensify in the east of tropical Indian Ocean. At the end of that autumn, all the cold SST anomaly events lead to the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) events. Basin uniform warm SST anomalies exist in the Indian Ocean in the whole summer of EL decaying year for both CP-and EP-ELs. However, considering the statistical significance, more significant warm SST anomalies only appear in the North Indian Ocean among the June and August of EP-EL decaying year. For further research, EP-EL accompany with Indian Ocean Basin Warming (EPI-EL) and CP El Niño accompany with Indian Ocean Basin Warming (CPI-EL) events are classified. With the remote effects of Indian Ocean SST anomalies, the EPI-and CPI-ELs contribute quite differently to the Northwest Pacific. For the EPI-EL developing year, large-scale warm SST anomalies arise in the North Indian Ocean in May, and persist to the autumn of the El Niño decaying year. However, for the CPI-EL, weak warm SST anomalies in the North Indian Ocean maintain to the El Niño decaying spring. Because of these different SST anomalies in the North Indian Ocean, distinct zonal SST gradient, atmospheric anticyclone and precipitation anomalies emerge over the Northwest Pacific in the El Niño decaying years. Specifically, the large-scale North Indian Ocean warm SST anomalies during the EPI-EL decaying years, can persist to summer and force anomalous updrafts and rainfall over the North Indian Ocean. The atmospheric

  7. North Pacific Acoustic Laboratory: Deep Water Acoustic Propagation in the Philippine Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-21

    Acoustic Laboratory: Deep Water Acoustic Propagation in the Philippine Sea 5b. GRANT NUMBER NOOO 14-12-1 -0226 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...based on data from the 2009-20 I I NPAL Philippine Sea experiments funded by ONR Grant NOOO 14-08-1-0840 , Fourteen of these publi cations appeared in...North Pacific Acoustic Laboratory: Deep Water Acoustic Propagation in the Philippine Sea ONR Grant NOOO 14-12-1-0226 Period of Performance: 01

  8. Detecting Forest Disturbance in the Pacific Northwest From MODIS Time Series Using Temporal Segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulla-Menashe, D. J.; Yang, Z.; Braaten, J.; Krankina, O. N.; Kennedy, R. E.; Friedl, M. A.

    2011-12-01

    Changes to the land surface of the Earth are occurring at unprecedented rates with significant implications for surface energy balance and regional to global scale cycles of carbon and water. Data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aboard the Aqua and Terra satellite platforms provide over 11 years of consistent, synoptic observations of the biosphere. New methods have recently emerged to analyze time series of remote sensing images, thereby providing ecologically important information about disturbance and succession over large regions. In particular, the Landtrendr algorithm was developed to characterize long-term trends, including punctual and gradual disturbance events and subsequent vegetation regrowth, in dense time series of Landsat imagery. While this approach has shown to be useful and robust in a wide range of ecosystems, its application is limited to areas with sufficient Landsat archive depth and relatively cloud-free periods. Additionally, the approach requires significant effort in atmospheric correction and normalization steps, increasing the cost for large-area application. Here we present an adaptation of the Landtrendr algorithm to an 11-year time series of MODIS Normalized BRDF-Adjusted Reflectance (NBAR) data to detect forest disturbance in the Northwest Forest Plan (NWFP) area of Washington, Oregon, and California. The NWFP area represents a dynamic zone of forest management with an active disturbance regime that includes insect defoliation, wildfires, and logging. This work aims to explore how the size and severity of disturbance events influence detection and characterization of such events using MODIS data. We sampled disturbance events across gradients of size and severity that occurred during the MODIS era (2000-present) using a high-quality database of forest disturbance information derived from Landsat. One-third of these disturbance records were used to calibrate the model using MODIS NBAR time series, and

  9. Loktanella agnita sp. nov. and Loktanella rosea sp. nov., from the north-west Pacific Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, Elena P; Zhukova, Natalia V; Lysenko, Anatoly M; Gorshkova, Nataliya M; Sergeev, Alexander F; Mikhailov, Valery V; Bowman, John P

    2005-09-01

    One whitish and four pinkish strains of Gram-negative, non-motile, aerobic bacteria were isolated from sea-water and sediment samples collected in Chazhma Bay (Sea of Japan, Pacific Ocean). Analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that these strains belonged to the 'Alphaproteobacteria', having highest sequence similarity of about 94-97% with species of the genus Loktanella. None of the strains degraded gelatin, casein, chitin, agar, DNA or starch and they had limited ability to utilize carbon sources. The four pinkish strains, Fg36(T), Fg1, Fg116 and Fg117, degraded Tween 80. Sea-water strain R10SW5(T) grew at 3-6% NaCl and a temperature range of 8-35 degrees C, whilst strains Fg36(T), Fg1, Fg116 and Fg117 grew at NaCl concentrations of 1-12% and a temperature range of 4-35 degrees C. Phosphatidylglycerol (58/79%), diphosphatidylglycerol (11/6%) and phosphatidylcholine (28/22%) were the major phospholipids. The predominant fatty acids were 16:0 (12.2/8.6%) and 18:1omega7 (76.6/68.4%). The DNA G+C content of strain R10SW5(T) was 59.1 mol% and those of the four pinkish strains ranged from 60.5 to 61.8 mol%. Based on the results of phenotypic, genotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic investigation, two novel species, Loktanella agnita sp. nov. and Loktanella rosea sp. nov., are proposed. The type strains are R10SW5(T) (=KMM 3788(T)=CIP 107883(T)) and Fg36(T) (=KMM 6003(T)=CIP 107851(T)=LMG 22534(T)), respectively.

  10. Salmon-derived nitrogen in terrestrial invertebrates from coniferous forests of the Pacific Northwest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reimchen Thomas E

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bi-directional flow of nutrients between marine and terrestrial ecosystems can provide essential resources that structure communities in transitional habitats. On the Pacific coast of North America, anadromous salmon (Oncorhynchus spp. constitute a dominant nutrient subsidy to aquatic habitats and riparian vegetation, although the contribution to terrestrial habitats is not well established. We use a dual isotope approach of δ15N and δ13C to test for the contribution of salmon nutrients to multiple trophic levels of litter-based terrestrial invertebrates below and above waterfalls that act as a barrier to salmon migration on two watersheds in coastal British Columbia. Results Invertebrates varied predictably in δ15N with enrichment of 3–8‰ below the falls compared with above the falls in all trophic groups on both watersheds. We observed increasing δ15N levels in our invertebrate groups with increasing consumption of dietary protein. Invertebrates varied in δ13C but did not always vary predictably with trophic level or habitat. From 19.4 to 71.5% of invertebrate total nitrogen was originally derived from salmon depending on taxa, watershed, and degree of fractionation from the source. Conclusions Enrichment of δ15N in the invertebrate community below the falls in conjunction with the absence of δ13C enrichment suggests that enrichment in δ15N occurs primarily through salmon-derived nitrogen subsidies to litter, soil and vegetation N pools rather than from direct consumption of salmon tissue or salmon tissue consumers. Salmon nutrient subsidies to terrestrial habitats may result in shifts in invertebrate community structure, with subsequent implications for higher vertebrate consumers, particularly the passerines.

  11. Fiscal year 1998 Battelle performance evaluation agreement revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DAVIS, T.L.

    1998-10-22

    , as well as enhancing the status of the Laboratory as a valued corporate citizen of the Northwest Region. The Critical Outcome system focuses all of these customer desires into specific objectives and performance indicators, with supporting measures to track and foster continued improvement in meeting the needs (outcomes) of the Laboratory's customers.

  12. Fiscal year 1998 Battelle performance evaluation agreement revision 1; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DAVIS, T.L.

    1998-01-01

    , as well as enhancing the status of the Laboratory as a valued corporate citizen of the Northwest Region. The Critical Outcome system focuses all of these customer desires into specific objectives and performance indicators, with supporting measures to track and foster continued improvement in meeting the needs (outcomes) of the Laboratory's customers

  13. The Sorcerer II Global Ocean Sampling expedition: northwest Atlantic through eastern tropical Pacific.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas B Rusch

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The world's oceans contain a complex mixture of micro-organisms that are for the most part, uncharacterized both genetically and biochemically. We report here a metagenomic study of the marine planktonic microbiota in which surface (mostly marine water samples were analyzed as part of the Sorcerer II Global Ocean Sampling expedition. These samples, collected across a several-thousand km transect from the North Atlantic through the Panama Canal and ending in the South Pacific yielded an extensive dataset consisting of 7.7 million sequencing reads (6.3 billion bp. Though a few major microbial clades dominate the planktonic marine niche, the dataset contains great diversity with 85% of the assembled sequence and 57% of the unassembled data being unique at a 98% sequence identity cutoff. Using the metadata associated with each sample and sequencing library, we developed new comparative genomic and assembly methods. One comparative genomic method, termed "fragment recruitment," addressed questions of genome structure, evolution, and taxonomic or phylogenetic diversity, as well as the biochemical diversity of genes and gene families. A second method, termed "extreme assembly," made possible the assembly and reconstruction of large segments of abundant but clearly nonclonal organisms. Within all abundant populations analyzed, we found extensive intra-ribotype diversity in several forms: (1 extensive sequence variation within orthologous regions throughout a given genome; despite coverage of individual ribotypes approaching 500-fold, most individual sequencing reads are unique; (2 numerous changes in gene content some with direct adaptive implications; and (3 hypervariable genomic islands that are too variable to assemble. The intra-ribotype diversity is organized into genetically isolated populations that have overlapping but independent distributions, implying distinct environmental preference. We present novel methods for measuring the genomic

  14. Soil respiration response to climate change in Pacific Northwest prairies is mediated by a regional Mediterranean climate gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Lorien L; Johnson, Bart R; Pfeifer-Meister, Laurel; Bridgham, Scott D

    2015-01-01

    Soil respiration is expected to increase with rising global temperatures but the degree of response may depend on soil moisture and other local factors. Experimental climate change studies from single sites cannot discern whether an observed response is site-dependent or generalizable. To deconvolve site-specific vs. regional climatic controls, we examined soil respiration for 18 months along a 520 km climate gradient in three Pacific Northwest, USA prairies that represents increasingly severe Mediterranean conditions from north to south. At each site we implemented a fully factorial combination of 2.5-3 °C warming and 20% added precipitation intensity. The response of soil respiration to warming was driven primarily by the latitudinal climate gradient and not site-specific factors. Warming increased respiration at all sites during months when soil moisture was not limiting. However, these gains were offset by reductions in respiration during seasonal transitions and summer drought due to lengthened periods of soil moisture limitation. The degree of this offset varied along the north-south climate gradient such that in 2011 warming increased cumulative annual soil respiration 28.6% in the northern site, 13.5% in the central site, and not at all in the southern site. Precipitation also stimulated soil respiration more frequently in the south, consistent with an increased duration of moisture limitation. The best predictors of soil respiration in nonlinear models were the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), antecedent soil moisture, and temperature but these models provided biased results at high and low soil respiration. NDVI was an effective integrator of climate and site differences in plant productivity in terms of their combined effects on soil respiration. Our results suggest that soil moisture limitation can offset the effect of warming on soil respiration, and that greater growing-season moisture limitation would constrain cumulative annual

  15. The safety of high-hazard water infrastructures in the U.S. Pacific Northwest in a changing climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, X.; Hossain, F.; Leung, L. R.

    2017-12-01

    The safety of large and aging water infrastructures is gaining attention in water management given the accelerated rate of change in landscape, climate and society. In current engineering practice, such safety is ensured by the design of infrastructure for the Probable Maximum Precipitation (PMP). Recently, several numerical modeling approaches have been proposed to modernize the conventional and ad hoc PMP estimation approach. However, the underlying physics have not been investigated and thus differing PMP estimates are obtained without clarity on their interpretation. In this study, we present a hybrid approach that takes advantage of both traditional engineering practice and modern climate science to estimate PMP for current and future climate conditions. The traditional PMP approach is improved and applied to five statistically downscaled CMIP5 model outputs, producing an ensemble of PMP estimates in the Pacific Northwest (PNW) during the historical (1970-2016) and future (2050-2099) time periods. The new historical PMP estimates are verified against the traditional estimates. PMP in the PNW will increase by 50%±30% of the current level by 2099 under the RCP8.5 scenario. Most of the increase is caused by warming, which mainly affects moisture availability through increased sea surface temperature, with minor contributions from changes in storm efficiency in the future. Moist track change tends to reduce the future PMP. Compared with extreme precipitation, PMP exhibits higher internal variability. Thus long-time records of high-quality data in both precipitation and related meteorological fields (temperature, wind fields) are required to reduce uncertainties in the ensemble PMP estimates.

  16. Elevated Annual Runoff Ratios in Pacific Northwest Catchments Impacted by Epidemic Foliage Disease of Douglas-fir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bladon, K. D.; Bywater-Reyes, S.; LeBoldus, J. M.; Segura, C.; Ritokova, G.; Shaw, D. C.

    2017-12-01

    Catchments in the Western United States are undergoing unprecedented levels of tree die-off and/or reduced vigor due to increased severity of wildfire, drought, insect outbreaks, and disease. In the U.S. Pacific Northwest, Swiss needle cast (SNC) is the most damaging foliar disease of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii), physically obstructing stomata and preventing CO2 uptake and transpiration. A recent analysis in coastal Oregon indicated a substantial increase in area affected by the disease, from 530.5 km2 in 1996 to 2,387.1 km2 in 2015. Deforestation or reduced tree vigor can have profound impacts on catchment hydrology, in theory, producing increased streamflow due to reduced interception and transpiration. However, these increases have not always been detectable as impacts also depend on factors such as climate and vegetation composition. Moreover, press disturbances, such as insect outbreaks or disease, often do not result in complete removal of understorey or canopy vegetation. We analyzed trends in annual runoff ratios (quotient of discharge divided by precipitation) from 1990-2015 in 12 catchments (183-1,744 km2) in western Oregon. In general, runoff ratios increased by 10-27% in catchments with a total area of SNC >10%, with the most substantial runoff increases in catchments with SNC impacting >25% of the area. Interestingly, the most severely impacted catchment ( 90.5% SNC) showed a decrease in runoff. This is consistent with a potential compensatory response from understory western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla) trees, a phenomenon observed in the most severely impacted sites. Findings from this study are important for assessing the impacts of biotic forest disturbances on water supply and aquatic ecosystem health.

  17. Impacts of 2009 Typhoons on Seawater Properties and Top Layer Ocean's Structure in the Northwest Pacific Ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dayang Siti Maryam Mohd Hanan; Aung, T.; Ejria Saleh

    2015-01-01

    Passing over the ocean surface, typhoon absorbs heat from the sea water as it needs the heat as its fuel. The process is via evaporation of water. Subsequently, the sea surface temperature (SST) in that area will significantly decrease. Due to strong typhoon wind water is evaporated from the surface layer of the ocean, the amount of water mass in that area is lost, but the same amount of salt will remain, causing sea surface salinity (SSS) to increase. Strong winds induced by typhoons will also cause turbulence in the water, causing entrainment, where cold deeper water is brought up to the surface layer of the ocean, which will consequently increase its SSS and change the isothermal layer and mixed layer depth (MLD). Here, isothermal layer means the ocean layer where temperature is almost constant and MLD is the depth where salinity is almost constant. This paper focuses on the effect of typhoons on SST, SSS, isothermal layer and MLD by taking 15 typhoons in the Northwest Pacific throughout 2009 typhoon season (typhoons Lupit and Ketsana are used as examples in results) into consideration. Temperature and salinity data from selected Array of Regional Geostrophic Oceanography (ARGO) floats close to the individual typhoon's track are used in this study. The results showed that SST decreased up to 2.97 degree Celsius; SSS increased up to 0.44 pss and majority of the typhoons showed deepening of isothermal layer (between 39.8 m and 4.6 m) and MLD (between 69.6 and 4.6 m) after the passage of typhoons. Passing of each individual typhoon also removed significant amount of heat energy from the affected area. The highest amount of heat of 841 MJ m -2 to the lowest of 30 MJ m -2 was calculated during the study period. For comparison purpose, an equivalent amount of electrical energy in kWh is also calculated using the amount of heat removed by the typhoons. (author)

  18. Agro-Ecological Class Stability Decreases in Response to Climate Change Projections for the Pacific Northwest, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harsimran Kaur

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Climate change will impact bioclimatic drivers that regulate the geospatial distribution of dryland agro-ecological classes (AECs. Characterizing the geospatial relationship between present AECs and their bioclimatic controls will provide insights into potential future shifts in AECs as climate changes. The major objectives of this study are to quantify empirical relationships between bioclimatic variables and the current geospatial distribution of six dryland AECs of the inland Pacific Northwest (iPNW of the United States; and apply bioclimatic projections from downscaled climate models to assess geospatial shifts of AECs under current production practices. Two Random Forest variable selection algorithms, VarSelRF and Boruta, were used to identify relevant bioclimatic variables. Three bioclimatic variables were identified by VarSelRF as useful for predictive Random Forest modeling of six AECs: (1 Holdridge evapotranspiration index; (2 spring precipitation (March, April, and May; and (3 precipitation of the warmest 4-month season (June, July, August, and September. Super-imposing future climate scenarios onto current agricultural production systems resulted in significant geospatial shifts in AECs. The Random Forest model projected a 58 and 63% increase in area under dynamic annual crop-fallow-transition (AC-T and dynamic grain-fallow (GF AECs, respectively. By contrast, a 46% decrease in area was projected for stable AC-T and dynamic annual crop (AC AECs across all future time periods for Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP 8.5. For the same scenarios, the stable AC and GF AECs showed the least declines in area (8 and 13%, respectively, compared to other AECs. Future spatial shifts from stable to dynamic AECs, particularly to dynamic AC-T and dynamic GF AECs would result in more use of fallow, a greater hazard for soil erosion, greater cropping system uncertainty, and potentially less cropping system flexibility. These projections are

  19. Fire catalyzed rapid ecological change in lowland coniferous forests of the Pacific Northwest over the past 14,000 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crausbay, Shelley D; Higuera, Philip E; Sprugel, Douglas G; Brubaker, Linda B

    2017-09-01

    Disturbance can catalyze rapid ecological change by causing widespread mortality and initiating successional pathways, and during times of climate change, disturbance may contribute to ecosystem state changes by initiating a new successional pathway. In the Pacific Northwest of North America (PNW), disturbance by wildfires strongly shapes the composition and structure of lowland forests, but understanding the role of fire over periods of climate change is challenging, because fire-return intervals are long (e.g., millennia) and the coniferous trees dominating these forests can live for many centuries. We developed stand-scale paleorecords of vegetation and fire that span nearly the past 14,000 yr to study how fire was associated with state changes and rapid dynamics in forest vegetation at the stand scale (1-3 ha). We studied forest history with sediment cores from small hollow sites in the Marckworth State Forest, located ~1 km apart in the Tsuga heterophylla Zone in the Puget Lowland ecoregion of western Washington, USA. The median rate of change in pollen/spore assemblages was similar between sites (0.12 and 0.14% per year), but at both sites, rates of change increased significantly following fire events (ranging up to 1% per year, with a median of 0.28 and 0.38%, P climate velocity, forest composition was resilient to fires, which initiated successional pathways leading back to the dominant vegetation type. In contrast, during times of high climate variability and velocity (e.g., the early Holocene) forests were not resilient to fires, which triggered large-scale state changes. These records provide clear evidence that disturbance, in the form of an individual fire event, can be an important catalyst for rapid state changes, accelerating vegetation shifts in response to large-scale climate change. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  20. Evaluating Amphibian Declines with Site Revisits and Occupancy Models: Status of Montane Anurans in the Pacific Northwest USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brome McCreary

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Amphibian declines have been reported in mountainous areas around the western USA. Few data quantify the extent of population losses in the Pacific Northwest, a region in which amphibian declines have received much attention. From 2001–2004, we resurveyed historical breeding sites of two species of conservation concern, the Western Toad (Bufo [=Anaxyrus] boreas and Cascades Frog (Rana cascadae. We detected B. boreas breeding at 75.9% and R. cascadae breeding at 66.6% of historical sites. When we analyzed the data using occupancy models that accounted for detection probability, we estimated the current use of historically occupied sites in our study area was 84.9% (SE = 4.9 for B. boreas and 72.4% (SE = 6.6 for R. cascadae. Our ability to detect B. boreas at sites where they were present was lower in the first year of surveys (a low snowpack year and higher at sites with introduced fish. Our ability to detect R. cascadae was lower at sites with fish. The probability that B. boreas still uses a historical site for breeding was related to the easting of the site (+ and the age of record (-. None of the variables we analyzed was strongly related to R. cascadae occupancy. Both species had increased odds of occupancy with higher latitude, but model support for this variable was modest. Our analysis suggests that while local losses are possible, these two amphibians have not experienced recent, broad population losses in the Oregon Cascades. Historical site revisitation studies such as ours cannot distinguish between population losses and site switching, and do not account for colonization of new habitats, so our analysis may overestimate declines in occupancy within our study area.

  1. Archaeological Evidence for Resilience of Pacific Northwest Salmon Populations and the Socioecological System over the last ~7,500 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah K. Campbell

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Archaeological data on the long history of interaction between indigenous people and salmon have rarely been applied to conservation management. When joined with ethnohistoric records, archaeology provides an alternative conceptual view of the potential for sustainable harvests and can suggest possible social mechanisms for managing human behavior. Review of the ~7,500-year-long fish bone record from two subregions of the Pacific Northwest shows remarkable stability in salmon use. As major changes in the ecological and social system occurred over this lengthy period, persistence in the fishery is not due simply to a lack of perturbation, but rather indicates resilience in the ecological-human system. Of several factors possibly contributing to resilience, low human population size and harvesting pressure, habitat enhancement, and suppression of competing predators do not appear to be of major importance. Flexible resource use, including human use of a range of local resources, many of which are linked in a food web with salmon, likely contributed to resilience. Most important were the beliefs and social institutions (including ownership, regulation, rituals, and monitoring that placed restraints on salmon use as a common pool resource. In contrast, only a small fraction of our modern society relies economically on or has direct interaction with the fish, which limits our concern and willingness to fundamentally change behaviors that contribute to habitat degradation and loss, the main challenges facing salmon populations today. Salmon recovery efforts may benefit substantially from investing more resources into establishing links between community groups and actual fish populations, which would create a sense of proprietorship, one of the keys to resilience in the indigenous salmon fishery.

  2. Direct and indirect drivers of instream wood in the interior Pacific Northwest, USA: decoupling climate, vegetation, disturbance, and geomorphic setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hough-Snee Nate

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Instream wood is a driver of geomorphic change in low-order streams, frequently altering morphodynamic processes. Instream wood is a frequently measured component of streams, yet it is a complex metric, responding to ecological and geomorphic forcings at a variety of scales. Here we seek to disentangle the relative importance of physical and biological processes that drive wood growth and delivery to streams across broad spatial extents. In so doing, we ask two primary questions: (1 is riparian vegetation a composite variable that captures the indirect effects of climate and disturbance on instream wood dynamics? (2 What are the direct and indirect relationships between geomorphic setting, vegetation, climate, disturbance, and instream wood dynamics? We measured riparian vegetation composition and wood frequency and volume at 720 headwater reaches within the American interior Pacific Northwest. We used ordination to identify relationships between vegetation and environmental attributes, and subsequently built a structural equation model to identify how climate and disturbance directly affect vegetation composition and how vegetation and geomorphic setting directly affect instream wood volume and frequency. We found that large wood volume and frequency are directly driven by vegetation composition and positively correlated to wildfire, elevation, stream gradient, and channel bankfull width. Indicator species at reaches with high volumes of wood were generally long-lived, conifer trees that persist for extended durations once delivered to stream habitats. Wood dynamics were also indirectly mediated by factors that shape vegetation: wildfire, precipitation, elevation, and temperature. We conclude that wood volume and frequency are driven by multiple interrelated climatic, geomorphic, and ecological variables. Vegetation composition and geomorphic setting directly mediate indirect relationships between landscape environmental processes and instream

  3. Irradiation of Northwest agricultural products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eakin, D.E.; Tingey, G.L.; Anderson, D.B.; Hungate, F.P.

    1985-01-01

    Irradiation of food for disinfestation and preservation is increasing in importance because of increasing resrictions on various chemical treatments. Irradiation treatment is of particular interest in the Northwest because of a growing supply of agricultural products and the need to develop new export markets. Several products have, or could potentially have, significant export markets if stringent insect control procedures are developed and followed. Due to the recognized potential benefits of irradiation, Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is conducting this program to evaluate the benefits of using irradiation on Northwest agricultural products under the US Department of Energy (DOE) Defense Byproducts Production and Utilization Program. Commodities currently included in the program are cherries, apples, asparagus, spices, hay, and hides

  4. Irradiation of Northwest agricultural products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eakin, D.E.; Tingey, G.L.

    1985-02-01

    Irradiation of food for disinfestation and preservation is increasing in importance because of increasing restrictions on various chemical treatments. Irradiation treatment is of particular interest in the Northwest because of a growing supply of agricultural products and the need to develop new export markets. Several products have, or could potentially have, significant export markets if stringent insect control procedures are developed and followed. Due to the recognized potential benefits of irradiation, Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is conducting this program to evaluate the benefits of using irradiation on Northwest agricultural products under the US Department of Energy (DOE) Defense Byproducts Production and Utilization Program. Commodities currently included in the program are cherries, apples, asparagus, spices, hay, and hides

  5. 75 FR 23823 - Sixth Northwest Electric Power and Conservation Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-04

    ... POWER AND CONSERVATION PLANNING COUNCIL Sixth Northwest Electric Power and Conservation Plan AGENCY: Pacific Northwest Electric Power and Conservation Planning Council (Northwest Power and Conservation Council; the Council). ACTION: Notice of adoption of the Sixth Northwest Electric Power and Conservation...

  6. Collaboratory=Collaborate+Laboratory: The Mid-Columbia STEM Education Collaboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willcuts, Meredith H.; Kennedy, Cathleen A.

    2017-06-15

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory created a network focused on collaboration in STEM education to design and deliver projects, resources, and professional learning opportunities in a testbed environment. How do you uncover and fill gaps in equitable access to high-quality science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) education offerings in your local region? Where might you deploy strategies to improve STEM workforce preparation and increase public understanding of STEM-oriented issues? And how can you help to ensure that students, educators, parents, and the community are aware of these programs and know how to access them in schools, colleges, and community venues? If you are the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), you take on the huge goal of designing and implementing an innovative STEM education collaboration project that impacts all levels of local education, both inside and outside of school settings. PNNL is one of the 17 national laboratories funded by the U.S. Department of Energy. Operated by Battelle, PNNL has a vested interest in preparing the next generation of scientists and engineers for their future careers, thus building a STEM-capable workforce and creating a STEM-literate community. One of Battelle’s core principles is a commitment to STEM education and its role in business competitiveness and quality of life. PNNL has been active in STEM education for decades, providing internships for future scientists, giving educators in-house lab experiences, and engaging its researchers in STEM outreach activities in classrooms and the community. The Collaboratory is a relatively recent outcome of Battelle’s longstanding efforts in STEM education. The original Collaboratory planning documents, developed by PNNL’s Office of STEM Education (OSE), state the objective to “design, implement, and mature a local STEM education collaboration zone that highlights the power of PNNL and Battelle to impact the educational ecosystem and serve

  7. A common new species of Inocybe in the Pacific Northwest with a diagnostic PDAB reaction

    KAUST Repository

    Matheny, P. B.

    2012-09-06

    A species of Inocybe common in Washington, Oregon and British Columbia is documented and described as new. The species, I. chondroderma, is characterized by these features: pileus with a fulvous disk and ochraceous to chamois margin, presence of a cortina, densely mycelioid stipe base, smooth spores and fall phenology. The most reliable and distinctive feature of the species is a blue-green or turquoise reaction in response to application of a solution of p-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde (PDAB), indicating the presence of what is most likely an indole alkaloid. PDAB use provides a quick and diagnostic character easily implemented in a laboratory setting. ITS sequences from recent collections of I. chondroderma and from materials collected in the 1940s in Washington and Oregon fully match numerous mislabeled sequences from specimens in British Columbia and Oregon. The species is most closely related to an unclarified taxon from Colorado and Japan (I. cf. chondroderma) and a rare European species, I. subnudipes. Nine different species names in Inocybe and one in Hebeloma attributed to I. chondroderma based on GenBank BLASTN searches of the ITS locus match with 99–100% similarity, reinforcing concerns about taxonomic inaccuracies in public DNA sequence databases. A complete morphological description, illustrations and phylogenetic assessment are provided.

  8. Assessing environmental risk of the retired filter bed area, Battelle West Jefferson

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, S.F.; Thompson, M.D.; Glennon, M.A.

    1997-04-01

    Initial investigations conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy, Chicago Operations Office, and by Argonne National Laboratory used seismic refraction profiling, electrical resistivity depth sounding, conductivity profiling, magnetic gradiometry, and ground-penetrating radar to study environmental geophysics in the area of the Battelle West Jefferson site's radiologically contaminated retired filter beds. The investigators used a combination of nonintrusive technologies and innovative drilling techniques to assess environmental risk at the filter beds and to improve understanding of the geology of the Big Darby Creek floodplain. The geophysical investigation, which showed that the preferred groundwater pathway is associated with a laterally extensive deposit of silty sand to sand that is less than 12 ft deep in the floodplain area, also guided the location of cone penetrometer test sites and piezometer installation. Cone penetrometer testing was useful for comparing continuous logging data with surface geophysical data in establishing correlations among unconsolidated materials

  9. Assessing environmental risk of the retired filter bed area, Battelle West Jefferson

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, S.F.; Thompson, M.D.; Glennon, M.A. [and others

    1997-04-01

    Initial investigations conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy, Chicago Operations Office, and by Argonne National Laboratory used seismic refraction profiling, electrical resistivity depth sounding, conductivity profiling, magnetic gradiometry, and ground-penetrating radar to study environmental geophysics in the area of the Battelle West Jefferson site`s radiologically contaminated retired filter beds. The investigators used a combination of nonintrusive technologies and innovative drilling techniques to assess environmental risk at the filter beds and to improve understanding of the geology of the Big Darby Creek floodplain. The geophysical investigation, which showed that the preferred groundwater pathway is associated with a laterally extensive deposit of silty sand to sand that is less than 12 ft deep in the floodplain area, also guided the location of cone penetrometer test sites and piezometer installation. Cone penetrometer testing was useful for comparing continuous logging data with surface geophysical data in establishing correlations among unconsolidated materials.

  10. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1992 to the DOE Office of Energy Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toburen, L.H.

    1993-04-01

    This report is divided into the following sections, with technical sections in parentheses: dosimetry research (Chernobyl database, radon alpha irradiation of mammalian cells, cell growth rates in individual colonies), measurement science (ultrahigh resolution studies of molecular structure and dynamics, circular dichroism in hyperfine state resolved photoelectron angular distributions, Sr isotope shifts, capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry for DNA adduct research, rapid DNA sequencing techniques), and radiological and chemical physics (hit size effectiveness in radiation protection, track ends, cross sections for partially stripped ion impact, scaling of differential ionization cross sections, ionization by neutral projectiles, secondary electron emission from thin foils, stochastic model of ion track structure, stochastics of positive ion penumbra, plasmid structure and spontaneous strand separation, isolation and radiation sensitivity of DNA-synthesis-deficient CHO double mutants, semiempirical model of differential ionization cross sections for multishell atoms and molecules, ionization of DNA in solution, perturbations of DNA conformation by thymine glycol and dihydrothymine). 32 figs, 3 tabs

  11. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1990 to the DOE Office of Energy Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toburen, L.H.; Stults, B.R.; Mahaffey, J.A.

    1991-02-01

    Part four of the PNL Annual Report for 1990 includes research in physical sciences. Individual reports are processed separately for the data bases in the following areas: Dosimetry Research; Measurement Science; Radiological and Chemical Physics; Radiation Dosimetry; Radiation Biophysics; and Modelling Cellular Response to Genetic Damage. (FL)

  12. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1991 to the DOE Office of Energy Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, J.F.

    1992-09-01

    This report summarizes progress in OHER biological research and general life sciences research programs conducted conducted at PNL in FLY 1991. The research develops the knowledge and scientific principles necessary to identify, understand, and anticipate the long- term health consequences of energy-related radiation and chemicals. Our continuing emphasis is to decrease the uncertainty of health risk estimates from existing and newly developed energy-related technologies through an increased understanding of the ways in which radiation and chemicals cause biological damage.

  13. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1991 to the DOE Office of Energy Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J.F.

    1992-09-01

    This report summarizes progress in OHER biological research and general life sciences research programs conducted conducted at PNL in FLY 1991. The research develops the knowledge and scientific principles necessary to identify, understand, and anticipate the long- term health consequences of energy-related radiation and chemicals. Our continuing emphasis is to decrease the uncertainty of health risk estimates from existing and newly developed energy-related technologies through an increased understanding of the ways in which radiation and chemicals cause biological damage

  14. Pacific Northwest Laboratory Annual Report for 1992 to the DOE Office of Energy Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreml, S.A. (ed.); Park, J.F.

    1993-06-01

    This report summarizes progress in OHER biological research and general life sciences research programs conducted at PNL in FY 1992. The research develops the knowledge and fundamental principles necessary to identify, understand, and anticipate the long-term health consequences of energy-related radiation and chemicals. Our continuing emphasis is to decrease the uncertainty of health risk estimates from energy-related technologies through an increase understanding of the ways in which radiation and chemicals cause biological damage. Descriptors of individual research projects as detailed in this report one separately abstracted and indexed for the database.

  15. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Campus Radionuclide Air Emissions Report for Calendar Year 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snyder, Sandra F. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Barnett, J. Matthew [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bisping, Lynn E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-06-01

    This report documents radionuclide air emissions that result in the 2015 highest effective dose equivalent (EDE) to an offsite member of the public, referred to as the maximally exposed individual (MEI). The report has been prepared in compliance with the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Title 40, Protection of the Environment, Part 61, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP), Subpart H, “National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities” and Washington Administrative Code (WAC) Chapter 246-247, “Radiation Protection–Air Emissions.” The dose to the PNNL Campus MEI from routine major and minor point source emissions in 2015 from PNNL Campus sources is 2.6E-4 mrem (2.6E-6 mSv) EDE. The dose from all fugitive sources is 1.8E-6 mrem (1.8E-8 mSv) EDE. The dose from radon emissions is 4.4E-8 mrem (4.4E-10 mSv) EDE. No nonroutine emissions occurred in 2015. The total radiological dose to the MEI from all PNNL Campus radionuclide emissions, including fugitive emissions and radon, is 2.6E-4 mrem (2.6E-6 mSv) EDE, or more than 10,000 times less than the federal and state standard of 10 mrem/yr, with which the PNNL Campus is in compliance.

  16. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Campus Radionuclide Air Emissions Report for Calendar Year 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snyder, Sandra F. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Barnett, J. Matthew [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bisping, Lynn E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-06-01

    This report documents radionuclide air emissions that result in the 2014 highest effective dose equivalent (EDE) to an offsite member of the public, referred to as the maximally exposed individual (MEI). The report has been prepared in compliance with the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Title 40, Protection of the Environment, Part 61, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP), Subpart H, “National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities” and Washington Administrative Code (WAC) Chapter 246-247, “Radiation Protection–Air Emissions.” The dose to the PNNL Campus MEI due to routine major and minor point source emissions in 2014 from PNNL Campus sources is 2E 05 mrem (2E-07 mSv) EDE. The dose from all fugitive sources is 3E-6 mrem (3E-8 mSv) EDE. The dose from radon emissions is 1E-6 mrem (1E-8 mSv) EDE. No nonroutine emissions occurred in 2014. The total radiological dose for 2014 to the MEI from all PNNL Campus radionuclide emissions, including fugitive emissions and radon, is 3E-5 mrem (3E-7 mSv) EDE, or more than 100,000 times smaller than the federal and state standard of 10 mrem/yr, to which the PNNL Campus is in compliance.

  17. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Site Radionuclide Air Emissions Report for Calendar Year 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snyder, Sandra F.; Barnett, J. Matthew; Bisping, Lynn E.

    2012-06-12

    This report documents radionuclide air emissions that result in the highest effective dose equivalent (EDE) to a member of the public, referred to as the maximally exposed individual (MEI). The report has been prepared in compliance with the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Title 40, Protection of the Environment, Part 61, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP), Subpart H, National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities and Washington Administrative Code (WAC) Chapter 246-247, Radiation ProtectionAir Emissions. The EDE to the PNNL Site MEI due to routine emissions in 2011 from PNNL Site sources was 1.7E 05 mrem (1.7E-7 mSv) EDE. No nonroutine emissions occurred in 2011. The total radiological dose for 2011 to the MEI from all PNNL Site radionuclide emissions was more than 10,000 times smaller than the federal and state standard of 10 mrem/yr, to which the PNNL Site is in compliance.

  18. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Annual Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duncan, Joanne P.; Sackschewsky, Michael R.; Tilden, Harold T.; Su-Coker, Jennifer; Mendez, Jennifer L.; Ballinger, Marcel Y.; Fritz, Brad G.; Stoetzel, Gregory A.; Barnett, J. Matthew; Lowry, Kami L.; Moon, Thomas W.; Becker, James M.; Chamness, Michele A.

    2015-09-28

    This report provides a synopsis of ongoing environmental management performance and compliance activities conducted during 2014, meeting the requirements of DOE Order 231.1B, Environmental, safety and health reporting.

  19. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Campus Radionuclide Air Emissions Report for Calendar Year 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snyder, Sandra F.; Barnett, J. Matthew; Bisping, Lynn E.

    2014-06-01

    This report documents radionuclide air emissions that result in the highest effective dose equivalent (EDE) to a member of the public, referred to as the maximally exposed individual (MEI). The report has been prepared in compliance with the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Title 40, Protection of the Environment, Part 61, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP), Subpart H, National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities and Washington Administrative Code (WAC) Chapter 246-247, Radiation Protection Air Emissions. The dose to the PNNL Site MEI due to routine major and minor point source emissions in 2013 from PNNL Site sources is 2E-05 mrem (2E-07 mSv) EDE. The dose from fugitive emissions (i.e., unmonitored sources) is 2E-6 mrem (2E-8 mSv) EDE. The dose from radon emissions is 1E-11 mrem (1E-13 mSv) EDE. No nonroutine emissions occurred in 2013. The total radiological dose for 2013 to the MEI from all PNNL Site radionuclide emissions, including fugitive emissions and radon, is 2E-5 mrem (2E-7 mSv) EDE, or 100,000 times smaller than the federal and state standard of 10 mrem/yr, to which the PNNL Site is in compliance

  20. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Site Radionuclide Air Emissions Report for Calendar Year 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snyder, Sandra F.; Barnett, J. Matthew; Bisping, Lynn E.

    2013-06-06

    This report documents radionuclide air emissions that result in the highest effective dose equivalent (EDE) to a member of the public, referred to as the maximally exposed individual (MEI). The report has been prepared in compliance with the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Title 40, Protection of the Environment, Part 61, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP), Subpart H, National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities and Washington Administrative Code (WAC) Chapter 246-247, Radiation Protection Air Emissions. The dose to the PNNL Site MEI due to routine major and minor point source emissions in 2012 from PNNL Site sources is 9E-06 mrem (9E-08 mSv) EDE. The dose from fugitive emissions (i.e., unmonitored sources) is 1E-7 mrem (1E-9 mSv) EDE. The dose from radon emissions is 2E-6 mrem (2E-08 mSv) EDE. No nonroutine emissions occurred in 2012. The total radiological dose for 2012 to the MEI from all PNNL Site radionuclide emissions, including fugitive emissions and radon, is 1E-5 mrem (1E-7 mSv) EDE, or 100,000 times smaller than the federal and state standard of 10 mrem/yr, to which the PNNL Site is in compliance.

  1. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1990 to the DOE Office of Energy Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owczarski, E.L. (ed.)

    1991-04-01

    At the start of FY 1990, the atmospheric sciences and carbon dioxide research programs within the Office of Health and Environmental Research (OHER) were gathered into the new Atmospheric and Climate Research Division (ACRD). One of the central missions of this new division is to provide the Department of Energy with scientifically defensible information on the local, regional, and global distributions of energy-related pollutants and their effects on climate. This information is vital to the definition and implementation of a sound national energy strategy. Because much of the work done at PNL during FY 1990 falls under the umbrella of the new ACRD, we are including in this volume the progress and status reports for all OHER atmospheric and climate research projects at PNL. The description of ongoing atmospheric and climate research at PNL is organized along two broad research areas; atmospheric research and climate research. This report describes the progress in FY 1990 in each of these areas. A divider page summarizes the goals of each area and lists projects that support research activities.

  2. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duncan, Joanne P.; Fritz, Brad G.; Tilden, Harold T.; Stoetzel, Gregory A.; Stegen, Amanda; Barnett, J. Matthew; Su-Coker, Jennifer; Moon, Thomas W.; Ballinger, Marcel Y.; Dirkes, Roger L.; Opitz, Brian E.

    2012-09-01

    The PNNL Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year 2011 was prepared pursuant to the requirements of Department of Energy (DOE) Order 231.1B, "Environment, Safety and Health Reporting" to provide a synopsis of calendar year 2011 information related to environmental management performance and compliance efforts. It summarizes site compliance with federal, state, and local environmental laws, regulations, policies, directives, permits, and orders and environmental management performance.

  3. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Annual Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duncan, Joanne P.; Ballinger, Marcel Y.; Fritz, Brad G.; Tilden, Harold T.; Stoetzel, Gregory A.; Barnett, J. Matthew; Su-Coker, Jennifer; Stegen, Amanda; Moon, Thomas W.; Becker, James M.; Raney, Elizabeth A.; Chamness, Michele A.; Mendez, Keith M.

    2013-09-01

    The PNNL Annual Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year 2012 was prepared pursuant to the requirements of Department of Energy (DOE) Order 231.1B, "Environment, Safety and Health Reporting" to provide a synopsis of calendar year 2012 information related to environmental management performance and compliance efforts. It summarizes site compliance with federal, state, and local environmental laws, regulations, policies, directives, permits, and orders and environmental management performance.

  4. Pacific Northwest Laboratory Monthly Activities Report March 1966 On AEC Division of Reactor Development and Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. L. Fawcett

    1966-04-01

    This report has the following sections: Summary of Activities; Civilian Power Reactors; Applied and Reactor Physics; Reactor Fuels and Materials; Engineering Development; Plutonium Recycle Program; Advanced Systems; and Nuclear Safety.

  5. Comparison of Greenhouse Gas Offset Quantification Protocols for Nitrogen Management in Dryland Wheat Cropping Systems of the Pacific Northwest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tabitha T. Brown

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In the carbon market, greenhouse gas (GHG offset protocols need to ensure that emission reductions are of high quality, quantifiable, and real. Lack of consistency across protocols for quantifying emission reductions compromise the credibility of offsets generated. Thus, protocol quantification methodologies need to be periodically reviewed to ensure emission offsets are credited accurately and updated to support practical climate policy solutions. Current GHG emission offset credits generated by agricultural nitrogen (N management activities are based on reducing the annual N fertilizer application rate for a given crop without reducing yield. We performed a “road test” of agricultural N management protocols to evaluate differences among protocol components and quantify nitrous oxide (N2O emission reductions under sample projects relevant to N management in dryland, wheat-based cropping systems of the inland Pacific Northwest (iPNW. We evaluated five agricultural N management offset protocols applicable to North America: two methodologies of American Carbon Registry (ACR1 and ACR2, Verified Carbon Standard (VCS, Climate Action Reserve (CAR, and Alberta Offset Credit System (Alberta. We found that only two protocols, ACR2 and VCS, were suitable for this study, in which four sample projects were developed representing feasible N fertilizer rate reduction activities. The ACR2 and VCS protocols had identical baseline and project emission quantification methodologies resulting in identical emission reduction values. Reducing N fertilizer application rate by switching to variable rate N (sample projects 1–3 or split N application (sample project 4 management resulted in a N2O emission reduction ranging from 0.07 to 0.16, and 0.26 Mg CO2e ha−1, respectively. Across the range of C prices considered ($5, $10, and $50 per metric ton of CO2 equivalent, we concluded that the N2O emission offset payment alone ($0.35–$13.0 ha−1 was unlikely to

  6. Assessment of Climate Change and Atmospheric CO2 Impact on Winter Wheat in the Pacific Northwest Using a Multimodel Ensemble

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukhtar Ahmed

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Simulations of crop yields under climate change are subject to uncertainties whose quantification is important for effective use of projected results for adaptation and mitigation strategies. In the US Pacific Northwest (PNW, studies based on single crop models and weather projections downscaled from a few general circulation models (GCM have indicated mostly beneficial effects of climate change on winter wheat production for most of the twenty-first century. In this study we evaluated the uncertainty in the projection of winter wheat yields at seven sites in the PNW using five crop growth simulation models (CropSyst, APSIM, DSSAT, STICS, and EPIC and daily weather data downscaled from 14 GCMs for 2 representative concentration pathways (RCP of atmospheric CO2 (RCP4.5 and 8.5. All crop models were calibrated for high, medium, and low precipitation dryland sites and one irrigated site using 1979–2010 as the baseline period. All five models were run from years 2000 to 2100 to evaluate the effect of future conditions (precipitation, temperature and atmospheric CO2 on winter wheat grain yield. Simulations of future climatic conditions and impacts were organized into three 31-year periods centered around the years 2030, 2050, and 2070. All models predicted a decrease of the growing season length and crop transpiration, and increase in transpiration-use efficiency, biomass production, and yields, but with substantial variation that increased from the 2030s to 2070s. Most of the uncertainty (up to 85% associated with predictions of yield was due to variation among the crop models. Maximum uncertainty due to GCMs was 15% which was less than the maximum uncertainty associated with the interaction between the crop model effect and GCM effect (25%. Large uncertainty associated with the interaction between crop models and GCMs indicated that the effect of GCM on yield varied among the five models. The mean of the ensemble of all crop models and GCMs

  7. An Offshore Geophysical Network in the Pacific Northwest for Earthquake and Tsunami Early Warning and Hazard Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcock, W. S. D.; Schmidt, D. A.; Vidale, J. E.; Harrington, M.; Bodin, P.; Cram, G.; Delaney, J. R.; Gonzalez, F. I.; Kelley, D. S.; LeVeque, R. J.; Manalang, D.; McGuire, C.; Roland, E. C.; Tilley, J.; Vogl, C. J.; Stoermer, M.

    2016-12-01

    The Cascadia subduction zone hosts catastrophic earthquakes every few hundred years. On land, there are extensive geophysical networks available to monitor the subduction zone, but since the locked portion of the plate boundary lies mostly offshore, these networks are ideally complemented by seafloor observations. Such considerations helped motivate the development of scientific cabled observatories that cross the subduction zone at two sites off Vancouver Island and one off central Oregon, but these have a limited spatial footprint along the strike of the subduction zone. The Pacific Northwest Seismic Network is leading a collaborative effort to implement an earthquake early warning system in the Washington and Oregon using data streams from land networks as well as the few existing offshore instruments. For subduction zone earthquakes that initiate offshore, this system will provide a warning. However, the availability of real time offshore instrumentation along the entire subduction zone would improve its reliability and accuracy, add up to 15 s to the warning time, and ensure an early warning for coastal communities near the epicenter. Furthermore, real-time networks of seafloor pressure sensors above the subduction zone would enable monitoring and contribute to accurate predictions of the incoming tsunami. There is also strong scientific motivation for offshore monitoring. We lack a complete knowledge of the plate convergence rate and direction. Measurements of steady deformation and observations of transient processes such as fluid pulsing, microseismic cycles, tremor and slow-slip are necessary for assessing the dimensions of the locked zone and its along-strike segmentation. Long-term monitoring will also provide baseline observations that can be used to detect and evaluate changes in the subduction environment. There are significant engineering challenges to be solved to ensure the system is sufficiently reliable and maintainable. It must provide

  8. Place-classification analysis of community vulnerability to near-field tsunami threats in the U.S. Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, N. J.; Spielman, S.

    2012-12-01

    Near-field tsunami hazards are credible threats to many coastal communities throughout the world. Along the U.S. Pacific Northwest coast, low-lying areas could be inundated by a series of catastrophic tsunamis that begin to arrive in a matter of minutes following a major Cascadia subduction zone (CSZ) earthquake. Previous research has documented the residents, employees, tourists at public venues, customers at local businesses, and vulnerable populations at dependent-care facilities that are in CSZ-related tsunami-prone areas of northern California, Oregon, and the open-ocean coast of Washington. Community inventories of demographic attributes and other characteristics of the at-risk population have helped emergency managers to develop preparedness and outreach efforts. Although useful for distinct risk-reduction issues, these data can be difficult to fully appreciate holistically given the large number of community attributes. This presentation summarizes analytical efforts to classify communities with similar characteristics of community exposure to tsunami hazards. This work builds on past State-focused inventories of community exposure to CSZ-related tsunami hazards in northern California, Oregon, and Washington. Attributes used in the classification, or cluster analysis, fall into several categories, including demography of residents, spatial extent of the developed footprint based on mid-resolution land cover data, distribution of the local workforce, and the number and type of public venues, dependent-care facilities, and community-support businesses. As we were unsure of the number of different types of communities, we used an unsupervised-model-based clustering algorithm and a v-fold, cross-validation procedure (v=50) to identify the appropriate number of community types. Ultimately we selected class solutions that provided the appropriate balance between parsimony and model fit. The goal of the exposure classification is to provide emergency managers with

  9. Strawberry Rhyolites, Oregon: Northwestern extent of mid-Miocene flood basalt related rhyolites of the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, A. R.; Streck, M. J.

    2011-12-01

    Rhyolitic volcanism associated with the Columbia River-Steens flood basalts of the Pacific Northwest has traditionally been viewed to be centered at McDermitt caldera near the Oregon-Nevada border starting at ~16.5 Ma. In recent years, more rhyolitic centers along this latitude with ages between 16.5-15.5 Ma have been identified and associated with the inception of the Yellowstone hotspot. However the footprint of plume-head related rhyolites becomes much larger when silicic centers of mid-Miocene age in eastern Oregon are included extending the distribution of such rhyolites to areas near the towns of Baker City and John Day ~250 km north of McDermitt. This study addresses one of these rhyolitic centers that was virtually unknown and that constitutes the northwestern extent of mid-Miocene rhyolites. Rhyolites are centered ~40 km SSW of John Day and are considered part of the Strawberry Volcanic Field (SVF), which consists of a diverse group of volcanic rocks ranging from basalt to rhyolite with abundant intermediate compositions. One existing age date of 17.3 Ma ± 0.36 (Robyn, 1977) - if confirmed by our ongoing study - places these rhyolites at the very onset of plume-head related rhyolites. Strawberry rhyolitic lavas are most voluminous in the southwestern portion of the SVF covering approximately 500 km2 between Bear and Logan Valley. The rhyolitic lavas tend to be phenocryst-poor (Strawberry Rhyolites show minor variability except in, Sr (10 - 200 ppm), Zr (65 - 450 ppm), Ti (300 - 3500 ppm), and Ba (350 - 1600 ppm). When normalized to upper crustal values, Strawberry Rhyolites plot around 1 with significant troughs at Sr, P, Ti, and minor troughs in Ba, Nb, and Zr. REE patterns indicate slight LREE enrichment with LaN/YbN values ranging from 2.5 to 8.3 and higher values correlate positively with other differentiation indices (e.g. Ba, Sr, Eu/Eu*). Furthermore, major elements (e.g. SiO2 and FeO*) and trace elements (e.g. Ba, Sr, La, Zr/Hf) display common

  10. GIS database and discussion for the distribution, composition, and age of Cenozoic volcanic rocks of the Pacific Northwest Volcanic Aquifer System study area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrod, David R.; Keith, Mackenzie K.

    2018-03-30

    A substantial part of the U.S. Pacific Northwest is underlain by Cenozoic volcanic and continental sedimentary rocks and, where widespread, these strata form important aquifers. The legacy geologic mapping presented with this report contains new thematic categorization added to state digital compilations published by the U.S. Geological Survey for Oregon, California, Idaho, Nevada, Utah, and Washington (Ludington and others, 2005). Our additional coding is designed to allow rapid characterization, mainly for hydrogeologic purposes, of similar rocks and deposits within a boundary expanded slightly beyond that of the Pacific Northwest Volcanic Aquifer System study area. To be useful for hydrogeologic analysis and to be more statistically manageable, statewide compilations from Ludington and others (2005) were mosaicked into a regional map and then reinterpreted into four main categories on the basis of (1) age, (2) composition, (3) hydrogeologic grouping, and (4) lithologic pattern. The coding scheme emphasizes Cenozoic volcanic or volcanic-related rocks and deposits, and of primary interest are the codings for composition and age.

  11. Assessing the Influence of Western Boundary Ozone Inflow for the Pacific Northwest Using the AIRPACT-4 Air-Quality Forecast System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, J. K.; Chung, S. H.; Herron-Thorpe, F. L.; Lamb, B. K.; Zhang, R.; Mount, G. H.; Emmons, L. K.

    2013-12-01

    The AIRPACT project has provided state, local and tribal air quality managers in the Pacific and Inland Northwest with state-of-the-art near-real time air quality forecasts, beginning in 2001 (Vaughan et al., 2004). Air-quality modeling is also an important tool for evaluating strategies for complying with the NAAQS, especially as the ozone standard is likely to be tightened from 75 ppb to 60 - 70 ppb. For the Pacific Northwest a perennial issue is the significance of trans-boundary transport effects on air quality. Under the EPA Exceptional Events Policy, for example, a nominal exceedance can be excluded from design value calculation if it can be credibly ascribed to long-range transport (LRT); air-quality modeling is an accepted tool for making a case that LRT contributes to an exceedance, and thus qualifies as an Exceptional Event. Also, evidence is accumulating that local air pollution should sometimes be viewed in the context of baseline pollution levels, and that these baseline levels are influenced by LRT (Wigder et al., 2013). AIRPACT4, a WRF-SMOKE-CMAQ air quality modeling system, uses chemical boundary conditions from global MOZART4 model runs that assimilate MOPITT/TERRA satellite CO (Herron-Thorpe et al., 2012). Here we use a non-reactive tracer species version of CMAQv4.7.1 to develop a chemical climatology describing trans-boundary ozone contributions (across the western boundary only) to the ozone background of the Pacific Northwest, including ozone input to the domain from trans-Pacific transport originating in Asia. Discrete tracers are assigned to the boundary condition ozone from each of the 21 model layers. The modeling results are analyzed for ozone-season months to determine: 1) monthly statistics on the ratio of trans-boundary tracer ozone to standard AIRPACT4 ground level ozone, and 2) the contribution of trans-boundary tracer ozone to episodes of high ozone concentration. Preliminary results will be presented along with discussion of

  12. Diagnostic laboratories in Asia Pacific region: Investigation on quality characteristics and time of reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badrick, Tony C; Gutscher, Anton; Sakamoto, Nakako; Chin, Daniel

    2017-07-01

    This is the result of a Survey of various aspects of quality, cost and speed in a large sample of diagnostic laboratories in the Asia Pacific region. It is the first of its type to be published and represents a snapshot of the current performance in a large number of diagnostic laboratories in a broad range of countries in the Asia Pacific region. This demonstrates that there are common issues facing all the laboratories surveyed but also common solutions using a Quality Systems approach which involves Accreditation, Customer responsiveness, greater use of IT, automation and Lean principles. The Survey provides data on some quality characteristics such as Turnaround Time (TAT) and quality improvement activities. It has been the case that some of the KPIs have improved over the course of the Surveys for example a reduction in the average TAT, and it might be that this occurred as a result of participation. Most laboratories have a target of 46-60min for STAT (Short Turnaround Time) on Clinical Chemistry and Immunoassay samples. Copyright © 2017 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Plutonium and tracer particle resuspension: an overview of selected Battelle-Northwest experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sehmel, G.A.

    1977-01-01

    Plutonium resuspension at Rocky Flats was determined in July 1973, by measuring airborne plutonium as a function of sampling height and of wind speed. The maximum airborne plutonium-239 concentration was 3700 aCi/m 3 . The maximum plutonium-239 activity per gram of collected airborne soil was 50 pCi/g. Airborne plutonium concentrations were shown to increase as the sixth power of wind speed, but the data were very imprecise. In measurement of fallout resuspension caused by burning vegetation, the 137 Cs concentration in a forest fire smoke plume was 22 times the concentration in ambient air. Resuspension rates for a man walking across a tracer area on an asphalt surface ranged from 1 x 10 -5 to 7 x 10 -4 fraction of tracer resuspended/pass. For vehicular traffic driven on a tracer lane, resuspension rates from the asphalt surface ranged from 10 -4 to 10 -2 fraction resuspended/pass. When the vehicle was driven on the lane adjacent to the tracer lane, resuspension rates were smaller, ranging from 10 -5 to 10 -3 fraction resuspended/pass. Resuspension rates decreased when the tracer had been on the ground for several days. In comparison to the asphalt surface, vehicle-caused tracer resuspension rates from a cheat grass area were lower, ranging from 10 -5 to 10 -4 fraction resuspended/pass. Wind caused tracer resuspension rates were on the order of 10 -11 fraction resuspended/sec for nonrespirable particles. Resuspension rates for respirable particles increased as the 4.8th power of wind speed, ranging from 10 -11 to 10 -7 fraction resuspended/sec. In another study, airborne respirable soil concentrations measured as a function of wind speed increased as the 0.6 to 3.2 power of wind speed

  14. Soil Chemistry as a measure of the distinctiveness of American Viticultural Areas of the Pacific Northwest, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogue, K. R.; Pitcavage, E.

    2012-12-01

    The Columbia Basin of Washington State is the second largest wine grape growing region in the United States and presently contains 10 American Viticultural Areas (AVAs). Eight of the Columbia Basin's AVAs are smaller subdivisions (sub-AVAs) of the 46,100 km2 Columbia Valley AVA. Although legally distinct, the Columbia Basin AVAs are generally similar with regard to climate, landscape, and soils, the principle components of physical terroir. To test whether the AVAs of the Columbia Basin are distinguishable based on the chemical properties of their soils, 53 samples were collected from vineyards considered to be representative within their respective AVAs. Vineyard soils from the other major viticultural regions of the Pacific Northwest, the Willamette Valley and Snake River Valley, were also sampled for comparison. Soils were sampled from a depth of 50-75 cm and analyzed for bulk chemistry and plant-available nutrients. Based on the analyzed components, only the Columbia Gorge, Walla Walla Valley, and Lake Chelan AVAs were distinctive. The chemical differences that that account for the distinctiveness are attributed to variations in climate and parent material. Columbia Gorge AVA soils are the most distinctive, with significantly higher iron, manganese, and titanium, and significantly lower calcium, soluble salts, and pH. These characteristics can be attributed a greater influence of basaltic bedrock on soil composition, and an average annual precipitation of 76 cm, which is three times that received by most of the Columbia Basin. Another wetter-than-normal part of the Columbia Basin is the Walla Walla Valley where orographic lifting by the Blue Mountains increases the average annual precipitation in the eastern part of the AVA to near 50 cm. Vineyard soils of the Walla Walla Valley, like those of the Columbia Gorge, have higher iron, and lower calcium and soluble salts. The uniqueness of Lake Chelan AVA soils is reflected in decreased concentrations of iron

  15. Assessing water resources adaptive capacity to climate change impacts in the Pacific Northwest Region of North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. F. Hamlet

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Climate change impacts in Pacific Northwest Region of North America (PNW are projected to include increasing temperatures and changes in the seasonality of precipitation (increasing precipitation in winter, decreasing precipitation in summer. Changes in precipitation are also spatially varying, with the northwestern parts of the region generally experiencing greater increases in cool season precipitation than the southeastern parts. These changes in climate are projected to cause loss of snowpack and associated streamflow timing shifts which will increase cool season (October–March flows and decrease warm season (April–September flows and water availability. Hydrologic extremes such as the 100 yr flood and extreme low flows are also expected to change, although these impacts are not spatially homogeneous and vary with mid-winter temperatures and other factors. These changes have important implications for natural ecosystems affected by water, and for human systems.

    The PNW is endowed with extensive water resources infrastructure and well-established and well-funded management agencies responsible for ensuring that water resources objectives (such as water supply, water quality, flood control, hydropower production, environmental services, etc. are met. Likewise, access to observed hydrological, meteorological, and climatic data and forecasts is in general exceptionally good in the United States and Canada, and is often supported by federally funded programs that ensure that these resources are freely available to water resources practitioners, policy makers, and the general public.

    Access to these extensive resources support the argument that at a technical level the PNW has high capacity to deal with the potential impacts of natural climate variability on water resources. To the extent that climate change will manifest itself as moderate changes in variability or extremes, we argue that existing water resources

  16. Assessing water resources adaptive capacity to climate change impacts in the Pacific Northwest Region of North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlet, A. F.

    2011-05-01

    Climate change impacts in Pacific Northwest Region of North America (PNW) are projected to include increasing temperatures and changes in the seasonality of precipitation (increasing precipitation in winter, decreasing precipitation in summer). Changes in precipitation are also spatially varying, with the northwestern parts of the region generally experiencing greater increases in cool season precipitation than the southeastern parts. These changes in climate are projected to cause loss of snowpack and associated streamflow timing shifts which will increase cool season (October-March) flows and decrease warm season (April-September) flows and water availability. Hydrologic extremes such as the 100 yr flood and extreme low flows are also expected to change, although these impacts are not spatially homogeneous and vary with mid-winter temperatures and other factors. These changes have important implications for natural ecosystems affected by water, and for human systems. The PNW is endowed with extensive water resources infrastructure and well-established and well-funded management agencies responsible for ensuring that water resources objectives (such as water supply, water quality, flood control, hydropower production, environmental services, etc.) are met. Likewise, access to observed hydrological, meteorological, and climatic data and forecasts is in general exceptionally good in the United States and Canada, and is often supported by federally funded programs that ensure that these resources are freely available to water resources practitioners, policy makers, and the general public. Access to these extensive resources support the argument that at a technical level the PNW has high capacity to deal with the potential impacts of natural climate variability on water resources. To the extent that climate change will manifest itself as moderate changes in variability or extremes, we argue that existing water resources infrastructure and institutional arrangements

  17. Development of a Technology Transfer Score for Evaluating Research Proposals: Case Study of Demand Response Technologies in the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estep, Judith

    researcher and recipient relationship, specific to technology transfer. In this research, the evaluation criteria of several research organizations were assessed to understand the extent to which the success attributes that were identified in literature were considered when reviewing research proposals. While some of the organizations included a few of the success attributes, none of the organizations considered all of the attributes. In addition, none of the organizations quantified the value of the success attributes. The effectiveness of the model relies extensively on expert judgments to complete the model validation and quantification. Subject matter experts ranging from senior executives with extensive experience in technology transfer to principal research investigators from national labs, universities, utilities, and non-profit research organizations were used to ensure a comprehensive and cross-functional validation and quantification of the decision model. The quantified model was validated using a case study involving demand response (DR) technology proposals in the Pacific Northwest. The DR technologies were selected based on their potential to solve some of the region's most prevalent issues. In addition, several sensitivity scenarios were developed to test the model's response to extreme case scenarios, impact of perturbations in expert responses, and if it can be applied to other than demand response technologies. In other words, is the model technology agnostic? In addition, the flexibility of the model to be used as a tool for communicating which success attributes in a research proposal are deficient and need strengthening and how improvements would increase the overall technology transfer score were assessed. The low scoring success attributes in the case study proposals (e.g. project meetings, etc.) were clearly identified as the areas to be improved for increasing the technology transfer score. As a communication tool, the model could help a research

  18. Analysis of the impacts of Wave Energy Converter arrays on the nearshore wave climate in the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dea, A.; Haller, M. C.

    2013-12-01

    As concerns over the use of fossil fuels increase, more and more effort is being put into the search for renewable and reliable sources of energy. Developments in ocean technologies have made the extraction of wave energy a promising alternative. Commercial exploitation of wave energy would require the deployment of arrays of Wave Energy Converters (WECs) that include several to hundreds of individual devices. Interactions between WECs and ocean waves result in both near-field and far-field changes in the incident wave field, including a significant decrease in wave height and a redirection of waves in the lee of the array, referred to as the wave shadow. Nearshore wave height and direction are directly related to the wave radiation stresses that drive longshore currents, rip currents and nearshore sediment transport, which suggests that significant far-field changes in the wave field due to WEC arrays could have an impact on littoral processes. The goal of this study is to investigate the changes in nearshore wave conditions and radiation stress forcing as a result of an offshore array of point-absorber type WECs using a nested SWAN model, and to determine how array size, configuration, spacing and distance from shore influence these changes. The two sites of interest are the Northwest National Marine Renewable Energy Center (NNMREC) test sites off the coast of Newport Oregon, the North Energy Test Site (NETS) and the South Energy Test Site (SETS). NETS and SETS are permitted wave energy test sites located approximately 4 km and 10 km offshore, respectively. Twenty array configurations are simulated, including 5, 10, 25, 50 and 100 devices in two and three staggered rows in both closely spaced (three times the WEC diameter) and widely spaced (ten times the WEC diameter) arrays. Daily offshore wave spectra are obtained from a regional WAVEWATCH III hindcast for 2011, which are then propagated across the continental shelf using SWAN. Arrays are represented in SWAN

  19. In-stand scenic beauty of variable retention harvests and mature forests in the U.S. Pacific Northwest: the effects of basal area, density, retention pattern and down wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.G. Ribe

    2009-01-01

    Tensions between amenity- and timber-based economies in the U.S. and Canadian Pacific Northwest motivated a study of scenic beauty inside mature forests and timber harvests. A diverse sample of regional forests, measures of forest structure, and large, representative samples of photographs and public judges were employed to measure scenic beauty inside unharvested...

  20. Technology assessment of solar energy systems: Availability and impacts of woody biomass utilization in the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopp, W. J.; Chockie, A. D.; Allwine, K. J.

    1981-09-01

    The biomass resource base in the Northwest were estimated. Scenarios and a preliminary analysis in the collection and use of forest residues as an energy resource are presented. Four issues that may serve to constrain the total amount of wood residues available for use as fuel are reviewed.

  1. Technology assessment of solar energy systems: availability and impacts of woody biomass utilization in the Pacific Northwest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopp, W.J.; Chockie, A.D.; Allwine, K.J.

    1981-09-01

    The estimates of the biomass resource base in the Northwest are reviewed for comparison with scenarios used and a preliminary analysis of the issues involved in the collection and use of forest residues as an energy resource is presented. Four issues are reviewed that may serve to constrain the total amount of wood residues available for use as fuel. (MHR)

  2. Assessment of rainfall thresholds for landslide triggering in the Pacific Northwest: extreme short-term rainfall and long-term trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, T.; Kirschbaum, D.; Sobieszczyk, S.; Jasinski, M. F.; Borak, J.; Yatheendradas, S.

    2017-12-01

    Landslides occur every year in the U.S. Pacific Northwest due to extreme rainfall, snow cover, and rugged topography. Data for 15,000 landslide events in Washington and Oregon were assembled from State Surveys, Departments of Transportation, a Global Landslide Catalog compiled by NASA, and other sources. This new inventory was evaluated against rainfall data from the National Climate Assessment (NCA) Land Data Assimilation System to characterize the regional rainfall conditions that trigger landslides. Analysis of these data sets indicates clear differences in triggering thresholds between extreme weather systems such as a Pineapple Express and the more typical peak seasonal rainfall between November and February. The study also leverages over 30 years of precipitation and land surface information to inform variability of landslide triggering over multiple decades and landslide trends within the region.

  3. Regional air-quality forecasting for the Pacific Northwest using MOPITT/TERRA assimilated carbon monoxide MOZART-4 forecasts as a near real-time boundary condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. L. Herron-Thorpe

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Results from a regional air quality forecast model, AIRPACT-3, were compared to AIRS carbon monoxide column densities for the spring of 2010 over the Pacific Northwest. AIRPACT-3 column densities showed high correlation (R > 0.9 but were significantly biased (~25% with consistent under-predictions for spring months when there is significant transport from Asia. The AIRPACT-3 CO bias relative to AIRS was eliminated by incorporating dynamic boundary conditions derived from NCAR's MOZART forecasts with assimilated MOPITT carbon monoxide. Changes in ozone-related boundary conditions derived from MOZART forecasts are also discussed and found to affect background levels by ± 10 ppb but not found to significantly affect peak ozone surface concentrations.

  4. Strong Links Between Teleconnections and Ecosystem Exchange Found at a Pacific Northwest Old-Growth Forest from Flux Tower and MODIS EVI Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wharton, S; Chasmer, L; Falk, M; Paw U, K T

    2009-03-12

    CO{sub 2} uptake variability in Pacific Northwest conifer forests.

  5. Integrating Measurement Based New Knowledge on Wildland Fire Emissions and Chemistry into the AIRPACT Air Quality Forecasting for the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nergui, T.; Lee, Y.; Chung, S. H.; Lamb, B. K.; Yokelson, R. J.; Barsanti, K.

    2017-12-01

    A number of chamber and field measurements have shown that atmospheric organic aerosols and their precursors produced from wildfires are significantly underestimated in the emission inventories used for air quality models for various applications such as regulatory strategy development, impact assessments of air pollutants, and air quality forecasting for public health. The AIRPACT real-time air quality forecasting system consistently underestimates surface level fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations in the summer at both urban and rural locations in the Pacific Northwest, primarily result of errors in organic particulate matter. In this work, we implement updated chemical speciation and emission factors based on FLAME-IV (Fourth Fire Lab at Missoula Experiment) and other measurements in the Blue-Sky fire emission model and the SMOKE emission preprocessor; and modified parameters for the secondary organic aerosol (SOA) module in CMAQ chemical transport model of the AIRPACT modeling system. Simulation results from CMAQ version 5.2 which has a better treatment for anthropogenic SOA formation (as a base case) and modified parameterization used for fire emissions and chemistry in the model (fire-soa case) are evaluated against airborne measurements downwind of the Big Windy Complex Fire and the Colockum Tarps Fire, both of which occurred in the Pacific Northwest in summer 2013. Using the observed aerosol chemical composition and mass loadings for organics, nitrate, sulfate, ammonium, and chloride from aircraft measurements during the Studies of Emissions and Atmospheric Composition, Clouds, and Climate Coupling by Regional Surveys (SEAC4RS) and the Biomass Burning Observation Project (BBOP), we assess how new knowledge gained from wildfire measurements improve model predictions for SOA and its contribution to the total mass of PM2.5 concentrations.

  6. Climatic response variability and machine learning: development of a modular technology framework for predicting bio-climatic change in pacific northwest ecosystems"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seamon, E.; Gessler, P. E.; Flathers, E.

    2015-12-01

    The creation and use of large amounts of data in scientific investigations has become common practice. Data collection and analysis for large scientific computing efforts are not only increasing in volume as well as number, the methods and analysis procedures are evolving toward greater complexity (Bell, 2009, Clarke, 2009, Maimon, 2010). In addition, the growth of diverse data-intensive scientific computing efforts (Soni, 2011, Turner, 2014, Wu, 2008) has demonstrated the value of supporting scientific data integration. Efforts to bridge this gap between the above perspectives have been attempted, in varying degrees, with modular scientific computing analysis regimes implemented with a modest amount of success (Perez, 2009). This constellation of effects - 1) an increasing growth in the volume and amount of data, 2) a growing data-intensive science base that has challenging needs, and 3) disparate data organization and integration efforts - has created a critical gap. Namely, systems of scientific data organization and management typically do not effectively enable integrated data collaboration or data-intensive science-based communications. Our research efforts attempt to address this gap by developing a modular technology framework for data science integration efforts - with climate variation as the focus. The intention is that this model, if successful, could be generalized to other application areas. Our research aim focused on the design and implementation of a modular, deployable technology architecture for data integration. Developed using aspects of R, interactive python, SciDB, THREDDS, Javascript, and varied data mining and machine learning techniques, the Modular Data Response Framework (MDRF) was implemented to explore case scenarios for bio-climatic variation as they relate to pacific northwest ecosystem regions. Our preliminary results, using historical NETCDF climate data for calibration purposes across the inland pacific northwest region

  7. Uncertainty and extreme events in future climate and hydrologic projections for the Pacific Northwest: providing a basis for vulnerability and core/corridor assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littell, Jeremy S.; Mauger, Guillaume S.; Salathe, Eric P.; Hamlet, Alan F.; Lee, Se-Yeun; Stumbaugh, Matt R.; Elsner, Marketa; Norheim, Robert; Lutz, Eric R.; Mantua, Nathan J.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to (1) provide an internally-consistent set of downscaled projections across the Western U.S., (2) include information about projection uncertainty, and (3) assess projected changes of hydrologic extremes. These objectives were designed to address decision support needs for climate adaptation and resource management actions. Specifically, understanding of uncertainty in climate projections – in particular for extreme events – is currently a key scientific and management barrier to adaptation planning and vulnerability assessment. The new dataset fills in the Northwest domain to cover a key gap in the previous dataset, adds additional projections (both from other global climate models and a comparison with dynamical downscaling) and includes an assessment of changes to flow and soil moisture extremes. This new information can be used to assess variations in impacts across the landscape, uncertainty in projections, and how these differ as a function of region, variable, and time period. In this project, existing University of Washington Climate Impacts Group (UW CIG) products were extended to develop a comprehensive data archive that accounts (in a reigorous and physically based way) for climate model uncertainty in future climate and hydrologic scenarios. These products can be used to determine likely impacts on vegetation and aquatic habitat in the Pacific Northwest (PNW) region, including WA, OR, ID, northwest MT to the continental divide, northern CA, NV, UT, and the Columbia Basin portion of western WY New data series and summaries produced for this project include: 1) extreme statistics for surface hydrology (e.g. frequency of soil moisture and summer water deficit) and streamflow (e.g. the 100-year flood, extreme 7-day low flows with a 10-year recurrence interval); 2) snowpack vulnerability as indicated by the ratio of April 1 snow water to cool-season precipitation; and, 3) uncertainty analyses for multiple climate

  8. Where the rubber meets the road: long-term in-stream data collection to inform regional land management monitoring in the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, C.

    2017-12-01

    The initiation of the Northwest Forest Plan (NWFP) in 1994 brought a sea change to federal land management agencies of the Pacific Northwest. The NWFP was developed in response to the listing of the Northern Spotted Owl and concern about declining populations of Pacific Salmon. The Aquatic and Riparian Effectiveness Monitoring Program (AREMP) was developed to track changes that occurred as a result of active and passive management on the landscape. A significant management change affecting riparian areas was the creation of buffers around fish bearing and non-fish bearing streams. Two monitoring arms of the AREMP program focus on upslope and in-stream conditions in order to capture watershed-scale effects of land management changes. Field data to support the in-stream monitoring mission of AREMP began in 2002 with a study design based on an 8-year re-survey rotation. The sampling design was intended to capture watershed-scale variability across the broad and diverse study area in western Washington, western Oregon, and northwest California. 2017 marks repeat visits of every site and opens the door to more detailed assessments of changes that have occurred at local and regional extents over this time period. Results so far show improving trends in characteristics such as water temperature and macroinvertebrate community diversity. Maintaining an ongoing and relevant monitoring program over time has required a strong commitment to quality control in terms of data collection and analysis, and an openness to how AREMP can provide management relevant information as new challenges occur. AREMP's mandated role as the aquatic monitoring arm of the NWFP provides the overarching framework within which the program operates. However, new emerging topics of relevance to aquatic managers such as climate change and aquatic invasive species have been rolled into the mission over time. By being responsive to new challenges, and providing consistent feedback, AREMP has been able to

  9. Climate-driven Shifting in Distribution Patterns of Calanus sinicus Brodsky in the Continental Shelf Waters of the Northwest Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Q.; Liu, H.; Yan, Q. L.; Fan, J. F.

    2016-02-01

    Large-scale variations in zooplankton dynamics, including the poleward movements and earlier timing of life cycle events, have been widely observed over recent decades. The biogeographical shifts are often related to the increasing sea surface temperature or the long-term climatological change, such as the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), the El Niño Southern Oscillation (NESO) and the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO). The Copepod Calanus sinicus Brodsky plays an important trophic role in the continental shelf waters of the Northwest Pacific Ocean as a grazer of phytoplankton and main food source for many ecologically and commercially important fish, such as sardine and anchovy. Because of its importance in marine ecosystem dynamics, C. sinicus was selected as one of the "keystone species" in the China-GLOBEC program. In this study, we examined the shifts in spatial patterns of the species within its distribution domain - the Yellow Sea and the northern East China Sea in the 1950s, 1980s and 2010s. We used contour mapping and a mathematical model to locate the geographical distribution center of the species. We found a significant relationship (r=0.594, P<0.05) between the monthly PDO index and the latitudes of the distribution center of C. sinicus, and a lag of two months for copepods to respond the PDO index. Our findings imply a northward shifting in the distribution center, and the northern Yellow Sea is becoming a new distribution center as another possible over-summering site of C. sinicus.

  10. How do the methodological choices of your climate change study affect your results? A hydrologic case study across the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chegwidden, O.; Nijssen, B.; Rupp, D. E.; Kao, S. C.; Clark, M. P.

    2017-12-01

    We describe results from a large hydrologic climate change dataset developed across the Pacific Northwestern United States and discuss how the analysis of those results can be seen as a framework for other large hydrologic ensemble investigations. This investigation will better inform future modeling efforts and large ensemble analyses across domains within and beyond the Pacific Northwest. Using outputs from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5), we provide projections of hydrologic change for the domain through the end of the 21st century. The dataset is based upon permutations of four methodological choices: (1) ten global climate models (2) two representative concentration pathways (3) three meteorological downscaling methods and (4) four unique hydrologic model set-ups (three of which entail the same hydrologic model using independently calibrated parameter sets). All simulations were conducted across the Columbia River Basin and Pacific coastal drainages at a 1/16th ( 6 km) resolution and at a daily timestep. In total, the 172 distinct simulations offer an updated, comprehensive view of climate change projections through the end of the 21st century. The results consist of routed streamflow at 400 sites throughout the domain as well as distributed spatial fields of relevant hydrologic variables like snow water equivalent and soil moisture. In this presentation, we discuss the level of agreement with previous hydrologic projections for the study area and how these projections differ with specific methodological choices. By controlling for some methodological choices we can show how each choice affects key climatic change metrics. We discuss how the spread in results varies across hydroclimatic regimes. We will use this large dataset as a case study for distilling a wide range of hydroclimatological projections into useful climate change assessments.

  11. Physicians' and nurses' satisfaction with the clinical laboratory service of Gondar University Hospital, northwest Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addis, Zelalem; Birhan, Wubet; Derseh, Dejene; Sahle, Biruktawit; Gizaw, Netsanet

    2013-09-01

    To assess physicians' and nurses' satisfaction with the service provided by the laboratory at Gondar University Hospital. We conducted a cross-sectional study involving 196 nurses and physicians. Overall level of satisfaction was 51.1% for nurses and 51.5% for physicians. Lack of consistency in the quality of laboratory work, absence of a timely report of critical values, test turnaround time, acceptability of results released, and reporting of reference ranges with test results were areas mentioned as sources of dissatisfaction. The study showed wide room for improvement. In addition to taking intervention, root causes of dissatisfaction need to be investigated and means of improving the satisfaction level should be designed and implemented.

  12. Presented by REL Pacific at McREL: A Summary of Cross-Regional Educational Laboratory Studies. Research Digest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regional Educational Laboratory Pacific, 2013

    2013-01-01

    REL Pacific at McREL, 1 of 10 Regional Educational Laboratories (RELs) funded by the Institute of Education Sciences (IES), serves educators in American Samoa, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, the Federated States of Micronesia (Chuuk, Kosrae, Pohnpei, and Yap), Guam, Hawai'i, the Republic of the Marshall Islands, and the Republic…

  13. IAEA Technical Co-operation activities: Asia and the Pacific. Workshop on training nuclear laboratory technicians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roeed, S.S.

    1976-01-01

    The workshop was held to exchange information on existing facilities and programmes in Asia and the Pacific for training nuclear laboratory technicians, to identify future training needs and to assess the need for IAEA's involvement in this field. As the participants outlined the requirements for nuclear laboratory technician training and the facilities available in their respective countries, it became evident that, in addition to the training of radioisotope laboratory technicians, they also wished to review the need for technician training for the operation of nuclear power plants and industrial application of atomic energy. The terms of reference of the workshop were extended accordingly. The opening address by Chang Suk Lee, the Korean Vice Minister of Science and Technology, noted the valuable contribution to quality control and other industrial uses that nuclear techniques have made in his country. He also reviewed the application of nuclear techniques in Korean agriculture and medicine. The participants explored various forms of co-operation that could be established between countries of the region. Exchange programmes, not only for students but also for expert teachers, and the exchange or loan of equipment were suggested. It was felt that some generalized training courses could be organized on a regional basis, and two countries advocated the setting up of a regional training centre. One suggestion was to arrange regional training courses in special fields that would move from one country to another. The need was felt for periodic regional meetings on training methods, course content and other questions relating to training of laboratory technicians. The IAEA was requested to act as a clearinghouse for information on available training facilities in the region and to advise on the curricula for technician training courses. The Agency was also asked to organize short courses for the training of instructors of technicians in the various fields of atomic

  14. Evaluating an Automated Approach for Monitoring Forest Disturbances in the Pacific Northwest from Logging, Fire and Insect Outbreaks with Landsat Time Series Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.Neigh, Christopher S.; Bolton, Douglas K.; Williams, Jennifer J.; Diabate, Mouhamad

    2014-01-01

    Forests are the largest aboveground sink for atmospheric carbon (C), and understanding how they change through time is critical to reduce our C-cycle uncertainties. We investigated a strong decline in Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) from 1982 to 1991 in Pacific Northwest forests, observed with the National Ocean and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) series of Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometers (AVHRRs). To understand the causal factors of this decline, we evaluated an automated classification method developed for Landsat time series stacks (LTSS) to map forest change. This method included: (1) multiple disturbance index thresholds; and (2) a spectral trajectory-based image analysis with multiple confidence thresholds. We produced 48 maps and verified their accuracy with air photos, monitoring trends in burn severity data and insect aerial detection survey data. Area-based accuracy estimates for change in forest cover resulted in producer's and user's accuracies of 0.21 +/- 0.06 to 0.38 +/- 0.05 for insect disturbance, 0.23 +/- 0.07 to 1 +/- 0 for burned area and 0.74 +/- 0.03 to 0.76 +/- 0.03 for logging. We believe that accuracy was low for insect disturbance because air photo reference data were temporally sparse, hence missing some outbreaks, and the annual anniversary time step is not dense enough to track defoliation and progressive stand mortality. Producer's and user's accuracy for burned area was low due to the temporally abrupt nature of fire and harvest with a similar response of spectral indices between the disturbance index and normalized burn ratio. We conclude that the spectral trajectory approach also captures multi-year stress that could be caused by climate, acid deposition, pathogens, partial harvest, thinning, etc. Our study focused on understanding the transferability of previously successful methods to new ecosystems and found that this automated method does not perform with the same accuracy in Pacific Northwest forests

  15. Variability of Suitable Habitat of Western Winter-Spring Cohort for Neon Flying Squid in the Northwest Pacific under Anomalous Environments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Yu

    Full Text Available We developed a habitat suitability index (HSI model to evaluate the variability of suitable habitat for neon flying squid (Ommastrephes bartramii under anomalous environments in the Northwest Pacific Ocean. Commercial fisheries data from the Chinese squid-jigging vessels on the traditional fishing ground bounded by 35°-45°N and 150°-175°E from July to November during 1998-2009 were used for analyses, as well as the environmental variables including sea surface temperature (SST, chlorophyll-a (Chl-a concentration, sea surface height anomaly (SSHA and sea surface salinity (SSS. Two empirical HSI models (arithmetic mean model, AMM; geometric mean model, GMM were established according to the frequency distribution of fishing efforts. The AMM model was found to perform better than the GMM model. The AMM-based HSI model was further validated by the fishery and environmental data in 2010. The predicted HSI values in 1998 (high catch, 2008 (average catch and 2009 (low catch indicated that the squid habitat quality was strongly associated with the ENSO-induced variability in the oceanic conditions on the fishing ground. The La Niña events in 1998 tended to yield warm SST and favorable range of Chl-a concentration and SSHA, resulting in high-quality habitats for O. bartramii. While the fishing ground in the El Niño year of 2009 experienced anomalous cool waters and unfavorable range of Chl-a concentration and SSHA, leading to relatively low-quality squid habitats. Our findings suggest that the La Niña event in 1998 tended to result in more favorable habitats for O. bartramii in the Northwest Pacific with the gravity centers of fishing efforts falling within the defined suitable habitat and yielding high squid catch; whereas the El Niño event in 2009 yielded less favorable habitat areas with the fishing effort distribution mismatching the suitable habitat and a dramatic decline of the catch of O. bartramii. This study might provide some potentially

  16. Variability of Suitable Habitat of Western Winter-Spring Cohort for Neon Flying Squid in the Northwest Pacific under Anomalous Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wei; Chen, Xinjun; Yi, Qian; Chen, Yong; Zhang, Yang

    2015-01-01

    We developed a habitat suitability index (HSI) model to evaluate the variability of suitable habitat for neon flying squid (Ommastrephes bartramii) under anomalous environments in the Northwest Pacific Ocean. Commercial fisheries data from the Chinese squid-jigging vessels on the traditional fishing ground bounded by 35°-45°N and 150°-175°E from July to November during 1998-2009 were used for analyses, as well as the environmental variables including sea surface temperature (SST), chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) concentration, sea surface height anomaly (SSHA) and sea surface salinity (SSS). Two empirical HSI models (arithmetic mean model, AMM; geometric mean model, GMM) were established according to the frequency distribution of fishing efforts. The AMM model was found to perform better than the GMM model. The AMM-based HSI model was further validated by the fishery and environmental data in 2010. The predicted HSI values in 1998 (high catch), 2008 (average catch) and 2009 (low catch) indicated that the squid habitat quality was strongly associated with the ENSO-induced variability in the oceanic conditions on the fishing ground. The La Niña events in 1998 tended to yield warm SST and favorable range of Chl-a concentration and SSHA, resulting in high-quality habitats for O. bartramii. While the fishing ground in the El Niño year of 2009 experienced anomalous cool waters and unfavorable range of Chl-a concentration and SSHA, leading to relatively low-quality squid habitats. Our findings suggest that the La Niña event in 1998 tended to result in more favorable habitats for O. bartramii in the Northwest Pacific with the gravity centers of fishing efforts falling within the defined suitable habitat and yielding high squid catch; whereas the El Niño event in 2009 yielded less favorable habitat areas with the fishing effort distribution mismatching the suitable habitat and a dramatic decline of the catch of O. bartramii. This study might provide some potentially valuable

  17. Carbon and oxygen stable isotopes in large herbivore tooth enamel illustrate a mid-Miocene precipitation increase in the interior Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewicz, A.; Kohn, M. J.

    2017-12-01

    The mid-Miocene Climatic Optimum (MMCO; 13.75-16.9 Ma), represents the warmest period in Earth's history during the last 35 Ma, and is distinguished by low ice volume and high ocean water temperatures. The MMCO has been associated with high atmospheric CO2 (pCO2) similar to levels anticipated in the next century. Thus, understanding MMCO climate may help enlighten predictions of future climate change. Here, using new stable oxygen and carbon isotopes of fossil ungulate tooth enamel from before, during, and after the MMCO, we show that high pCO2 corresponds with warm-wet conditions, whereas low pCO2 corresponds with cool-dry conditions. We specifically show that mean annual precipitation (MAP), as inferred from tooth enamel δ13C values and corrected for atmospheric δ13C values (Δ13C), increased with increasing pCO2. Values of Δ13C > 19.5 ‰ in the lower John Day ( 27 Ma) and Mascall ( 15.3 Ma) localities imply relatively high mean annual precipitation (MAP = 550-850 mm/yr). Values of Δ 13C climate. High MAP values generally correlate with high pCO2 levels, as inferred from marine records, implicating pCO2 as a principal driver of MAP in the Pacific Northwest. A climate oscillation model best explains our δ 13C data, such that warm-wet conditions during high pCO2 events alternated with cool-dry conditions during low pCO2 events on timescales of 100 kyr. The MMCO may have been more dynamic than originally considered, with wet-warm and cool-dry cycles reflecting Milankovitch cycles. High δ18O values in specimens from the John Day (21.8±0.6 ‰ V-SMOW) and Mascall (21.3±0.5 ‰) Formations may reflect lower elevations for the upwind Cascade Range prior to 7 Ma, or its proximity to the coast compared to more inland sites (δ18O = 17.7±0.9 to 19.6±1.1 ‰). Unusually high δ18O values of Dromomeryx sp. from Red Basin (27.4±0.6 ‰) most likely reflect drought tolerance. Climate models predict that as global atmospheric CO2 levels continue to increase, the

  18. Variability of Suitable Habitat of Western Winter-Spring Cohort for Neon Flying Squid in the Northwest Pacific under Anomalous Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wei; Chen, Xinjun; Yi, Qian; Chen, Yong; Zhang, Yang

    2015-01-01

    We developed a habitat suitability index (HSI) model to evaluate the variability of suitable habitat for neon flying squid (Ommastrephes bartramii) under anomalous environments in the Northwest Pacific Ocean. Commercial fisheries data from the Chinese squid-jigging vessels on the traditional fishing ground bounded by 35°-45°N and 150°-175°E from July to November during 1998-2009 were used for analyses, as well as the environmental variables including sea surface temperature (SST), chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) concentration, sea surface height anomaly (SSHA) and sea surface salinity (SSS). Two empirical HSI models (arithmetic mean model, AMM; geometric mean model, GMM) were established according to the frequency distribution of fishing efforts. The AMM model was found to perform better than the GMM model. The AMM-based HSI model was further validated by the fishery and environmental data in 2010. The predicted HSI values in 1998 (high catch), 2008 (average catch) and 2009 (low catch) indicated that the squid habitat quality was strongly associated with the ENSO-induced variability in the oceanic conditions on the fishing ground. The La Niña events in 1998 tended to yield warm SST and favorable range of Chl-a concentration and SSHA, resulting in high-quality habitats for O. bartramii. While the fishing ground in the El Niño year of 2009 experienced anomalous cool waters and unfavorable range of Chl-a concentration and SSHA, leading to relatively low-quality squid habitats. Our findings suggest that the La Niña event in 1998 tended to result in more favorable habitats for O. bartramii in the Northwest Pacific with the gravity centers of fishing efforts falling within the defined suitable habitat and yielding high squid catch; whereas the El Niño event in 2009 yielded less favorable habitat areas with the fishing effort distribution mismatching the suitable habitat and a dramatic decline of the catch of O. bartramii. This study might provide some potentially valuable

  19. Late Quaternary water temperature variations of the Northwest Pacific based on the lipid paleothermometers TEXH86, UK´37 and LDI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonas, A.-S.; Schwark, L.; Bauersachs, T.

    2017-07-01

    The Kuroshio Current (KC) and Oyashio Current (OC) are the two major western boundary currents of the Pacific Ocean and their interplay exerts a major control on the climate evolution of the northwestern Pacific region as well as East Asia. Although millennial scale variations in the strength and flow pattern of the KC are well documented, only little is known on the long-term evolution of this ocean current and its role in affecting regional and global climate over geological time scales. Here, we present surface and thermocline temperature records covering the last two glacial-interglacial cycles of IODP (Integrated Ocean Drilling Program) Site C0011, SE of Japan, using the lipid paleothermometers TEXH86 (tetraether index of tetraethers consisting of 86 carbon atoms), UK´37 (unsaturated ketone index) and LDI (long-chain diol index). Lower average water temperatures (20.1-20.7 °C in TEXH86, 21.6-22.0 °C in UK´37, and 20.7-21.9 °C in LDI) during marine isotope stages (MIS) 2 and 6 are considered to indicate a reduction in warm water mass export from the Western Pacific Warm Pool (WPWP) to northern mid-latitudes via the KC due to decreased subtropical gyre circulation in the North Pacific. A synchronous southward displacement of the KC/OC interfrontal zone resulted in an overall stronger influence of colder and more polar waters at Site C0011. MIS 1, 3 and 5 are characterized by generally higher water temperatures (21.7-22.1 °C in TEXH86, 23.2-24.3 °C in UK´37, and 23.1-24.3 °C in LDI), likely reflecting an increased northward transport of subtropical waters to the study site. Higher Holocene than Eemian water temperatures are attributed to a stronger KC and the formation of its short meander south of Japan, whereas a less strong KC during the Eemian likely favored the formation of the large meander path. Better correlations between the different lipid paleothermometers during cold MIS are considered to indicate more similar production seasons and habitat

  20. The Impacts of Wind Speed Trends and 30-Year Variability in Relation to Hydroelectric Reservoir Inflows on Wind Power in the Pacific Northwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Benjamin D; Kohfeld, Karen E; Bailey, Joseph; Cooper, Andrew B

    2015-01-01

    In hydroelectric dominated systems, the value and benefits of energy are higher during extended dry periods and lower during extended or extreme wet periods. By accounting for regional and temporal differences in the relationship between wind speed and reservoir inflow behavior during wind farm site selection, the benefits of energy diversification can be maximized. The goal of this work was to help maximize the value of wind power by quantifying the long-term (30-year) relationships between wind speed and streamflow behavior, using British Columbia (BC) and the Pacific Northwest (PNW) as a case study. Clean energy and self-sufficiency policies in British BC make the benefits of increased generation during low streamflow periods particularly large. Wind density (WD) estimates from a height of 10m (North American Regional Reanalysis, NARR) were correlated with cumulative usable inflows (CUI) for BC (collected from BC Hydro) for 1979-2010. The strongest WD-CUI correlations were found along the US coast (r ~0.55), whereas generally weaker correlations were found in northern regions, with negative correlations (r ~ -0.25) along BC's North Coast. Furthermore, during the lowest inflow years, WD anomalies increased by up to 40% above average values for the North Coast. Seasonally, high flows during the spring freshet were coincident with widespread negative WD anomalies, with a similar but opposite pattern for low inflow winter months. These poorly or negatively correlated sites could have a moderating influence on climate related variability in provincial electricity supply, by producing greater than average generation in low inflow years and reduced generation in wet years. Wind speed and WD trends were also analyzed for all NARR grid locations, which showed statistically significant positive trends for most of the PNW and the largest increases along the Pacific Coast.